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Sample records for 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine popc bilayers

  1. A molecular dynamics study of the lateral free energy profile of a pair of cholesterol molecules as a function of their distance in phospholipid bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andoh, Yoshimichi; Oono, Kimiko; Okazaki, Susumu; Hatta, Ichiro

    2012-04-01

    Free energy profile of a pair of cholesterol molecules in a leaflet of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine (POPC) bilayers in the liquid-crystalline phase has been calculated as a function of their lateral distance using a combination of NPT-constant atomistic molecular dynamics calculations (P = 1 atm and T = 310.15 K) and the thermodynamic integration method. The calculated free energy clearly shows that the two cholesterol molecules form a dimer separated by a distance of 1.0-1.5 nm in POPC bilayers. Well depth of the free energy profile is about 3.5 kJ/mol, which is comparable to the thermal energy kBT at 310.15 K. This indicates that the aggregation of cholesterol molecules in the bilayers depends on the temperature as well as the concentration of the system. The free energy function obtained here may be used as a reference when coarse grained potential model is investigated for this two-component system. Local structure of POPC molecules around two cholesterol molecules has also been investigated.

  2. Lateral diffusion of bilayer lipids measured via (31)P CODEX NMR.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Qasim; Lai, Angel; Morales, Hannah H; Macdonald, Peter M

    2012-10-01

    We have employed (31)P CODEX (centre-band-only-detection-of-exchange) NMR to measure lateral diffusion coefficients of phospholipids in unilamellar lipid bilayer vesicles consisting of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine (POPC), alone or in mixtures with 30 mol% 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-phosphatidylglycerol (POPG) or cholesterol (CHOL). The lateral diffusion coefficients of POPC and POPG were extracted from experimental CODEX signal decays as a function of increasing mixing time, after accounting for the vesicle's size and size distribution, as determined via dynamic light scattering, and the viscosity of the vesicular suspension, as determined via (1)H pulsed field gradient NMR. Lateral diffusion coefficients for POPC and POPG determined in this fashion fell in the range 1.0-3.2 × 10(-12) m(2) s(-1) at 10 °C, depending on the vesicular composition, in good agreement with accepted values. Thus, two advantages of (31)P CODEX NMR for phospholipid lateral diffusion measurements are demonstrated: no labelling of the molecule of interest is necessary, and multiple lateral diffusion coefficients can be measured simultaneously. It is expected that this approach will prove particularly useful in diagnosing heterogeneities in lateral diffusion behaviours, such as might be expected for specific lipid-lipid or lipid-protein interactions, and thermotropic or electrostatically induced phase inhomogeneities.

  3. Molecular Insight into Affinities of Gallated and Nongallated Proanthocyanidins Dimers to Lipid Bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wei; Xiong, Le; Peng, Jinming; Deng, Xiangyi; Gao, Jun; Li, Chun-mei

    2016-01-01

    Experimental studies have proved the beneficial effects of proanthocyanidins (Pas) relating to interaction with the cell membrane. But the detailed mechanisms and structure-function relationship was unclear. In present study, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were used to study the interactions of four PA dimers with a lipid bilayer composed of 1:1 mixed 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl phosphatidylcholine (POPC) and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl phosphatidylethanolamine (POPE). The results showed that the gallated PA dimers had much higher affinities to the bilayer with lower binding free energies compared with nongallated PA dimers. The gallated PA dimers penetrated deeper into the bilayer and formed more hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) with bilayer oxygen atoms, especially the deeper oxygen atoms of the lipids simultaneously, thus inducing stronger lateral expansion of the membrane and lipid tails disorder. The present results provided molecular insights into the interactions between PA dimers and bio-membranes and agreed with our experimental results well. These molecular interactions helped to elucidate the structure-function relationship of the PA dimers and provided a foundation for a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms of the bioactivities of PA oligomers. PMID:27874097

  4. Molecular Insight into Affinities of Gallated and Nongallated Proanthocyanidins Dimers to Lipid Bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Wei; Xiong, Le; Peng, Jinming; Deng, Xiangyi; Gao, Jun; Li, Chun-Mei

    2016-11-01

    Experimental studies have proved the beneficial effects of proanthocyanidins (Pas) relating to interaction with the cell membrane. But the detailed mechanisms and structure-function relationship was unclear. In present study, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were used to study the interactions of four PA dimers with a lipid bilayer composed of 1:1 mixed 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl phosphatidylcholine (POPC) and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl phosphatidylethanolamine (POPE). The results showed that the gallated PA dimers had much higher affinities to the bilayer with lower binding free energies compared with nongallated PA dimers. The gallated PA dimers penetrated deeper into the bilayer and formed more hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) with bilayer oxygen atoms, especially the deeper oxygen atoms of the lipids simultaneously, thus inducing stronger lateral expansion of the membrane and lipid tails disorder. The present results provided molecular insights into the interactions between PA dimers and bio-membranes and agreed with our experimental results well. These molecular interactions helped to elucidate the structure-function relationship of the PA dimers and provided a foundation for a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms of the bioactivities of PA oligomers.

  5. Structure and dynamics of POPC bilayers in water solutions of room temperature ionic liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Benedetto, Antonio; Bingham, Richard J.; Ballone, Pietro

    2015-03-28

    Molecular dynamics simulations in the NPT ensemble have been carried out to investigate the effect of two room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs), on stacks of phospholipid bilayers in water. We consider RTIL compounds consisting of chloride ([bmim][Cl]) and hexafluorophosphate ([bmim][PF{sub 6}]) salts of the 1-buthyl-3-methylimidazolium ([bmim]{sup +}) cation, while the phospholipid bilayer is made of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC). Our investigations focus on structural and dynamical properties of phospholipid and water molecules that could be probed by inelastic and quasi-elastic neutron scattering measurements. The results confirm the fast incorporation of [bmim]{sup +} into the lipid phase already observed in previous simulations, driven by the Coulomb attraction of the cation for the most electronegative oxygens in the POPC head group and by sizeable dispersion forces binding the neutral hydrocarbon tails of [bmim]{sup +} and of POPC. The [bmim]{sup +} absorption into the bilayer favours the penetration of water into POPC, causes a slight but systematic thinning of the bilayer, and further stabilises hydrogen bonds at the lipid/water interface that already in pure samples (no RTIL) display a lifetime much longer than in bulk water. On the other hand, the effect of RTILs on the diffusion constant of POPC (D{sub POPC}) does not reveal a clearly identifiable trend, since D{sub POPC} increases upon addition of [bmim][Cl] and decreases in the [bmim][PF{sub 6}] case. Moreover, because of screening, the electrostatic signature of each bilayer is only moderately affected by the addition of RTIL ions in solution. The analysis of long wavelength fluctuations of the bilayers shows that RTIL sorption causes a general decrease of the lipid/water interfacial tension and bending rigidity, pointing to the destabilizing effect of RTILs on lipid bilayers.

  6. Crystalline domain structure and cholesterol crystal nucleation in single hydrated DPPC:cholesterol:POPC bilayers.

    PubMed

    Ziblat, Roy; Leiserowitz, Leslie; Addadi, Lia

    2010-07-21

    Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction measurements were performed on single hydrated bilayers and monolayers of DPPC:Cholesterol:POPC at varying concentrations. There are substantial differences in the phase and structure behavior of the crystalline domains formed within the bilayers relative to the corresponding monolayers, due to interactions between the opposing leaflets. Depending on the lipid composition, these interactions led to phase separation, changes in molecular tilt angle, or formation of cholesterol crystals. In monolayers, DPPC and cholesterol form a single crystalline phase at all compositions studied. In bilayers, a second crystalline phase appears when cholesterol levels are increased: domains of cholesterol and DPPC form monolayer thick crystals where each of the lipid leaflets diffracts independently, whereas excess cholesterol forms cholesterol bilayer thick crystals at a DPPC:Chol ratio < 46:54 +/- 2 mol %. The nucleation of the cholesterol crystals occurs at concentrations relevant to the actual cell plasma membrane composition.

  7. Molecular Dynamics Studies of Transportan 10 (Tp10) Interacting with a POPC Lipid Bilayer

    PubMed Central

    Dunkin, Christina M.; Pokorny, Antje; Almeida, Paulo F.; Lee, Hee-Seung

    2011-01-01

    We performed a series of molecular dynamics simulations to study the nature of interactions between transportan 10 (tp10) and a zwitterionic POPC bilayer. Tp10 is an amphipathic cell-penetrating peptide with a net positive charge of +5 and is known to adopt an α-helical secondary structure on the surface of POPC membranes. The study showed that tp10 preferentially binds to the membrane surface with its hydrophobic side facing the hydrophobic lipid core. Such orientation allows Lys residues, with positively charged long side chains, to stay in the polar environment during the insertion process. The simulations revealed that the Lys–phosphate salt bridge is a key factor in determining the orientation of the peptide in the interfacial region as well as in stabilizing the peptide-membrane interaction. The electrostatic attraction between Lys and phosphate groups is also believed to be the main bottleneck for the translocation of tp10 across the membrane. PMID:21194203

  8. Molecular characterization of gel and liquid-crystalline structures of fully hydrated POPC and POPE bilayers.

    PubMed

    Leekumjorn, Sukit; Sum, Amadeu K

    2007-05-31

    Molecular dynamics simulations were used for a comprehensive study of the structural properties of monounsaturated POPC and POPE bilayers in the gel and liquid-crystalline state at a number of temperatures, ranging from 250 to 330 K. Though the chemical structures of POPC and POPE are largely similar (choline versus ethanolamine headgroup), their transformation processes from a gel to a liquid-crystalline state are contrasting. In the similarities, the lipid tails for both systems are tilted below the phase transition and become more random above the phase transition temperature. The average area per lipid and bilayer thickness were found less sensitive to phase transition changes as the unsaturated tails are able to buffer reordering of the bilayer structure, as observed from hysteresis loops in annealing simulations. For POPC, changes in the structural properties such as the lipid tail order parameter, hydrocarbon trans-gauche isomerization, lipid tail tilt-angle, and level of interdigitation identified a phase transition at about 270 K. For POPE, three temperature ranges were identified, in which the lower one (270-280 K) was associated with a pre-transition state and the higher (290-300 K) with the post-transition state. In the pre-transition state, there was a significant increase in the number of gauche arrangements formed along the lipid tails. Near the main transition (280-290 K), there was a lowering of the lipid order parameters and a disappearance of the tilted lipid arrangement. In the post-transition state, the carbon atoms along the lipid tails became less hindered as their density profiles showed uniform distributions. This study also demonstrates that atomistic simulations of current lipid force fields are capable of capturing the phase transition behavior of lipid bilayers, providing a rich set of molecular and structural information at and near the main transition state.

  9. Isoflurane does not aggregate inside POPC bilayers at high pressure: Implications for pressure reversal of general anaesthesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieteska, J. R.; Welche, P. R. L.; Tu, K.-M.; ElGamacy, Mohammad; Csanyi, G.; Payne, M. C.; Chau, P.-L.

    2015-10-01

    We placed isoflurane, a general anaesthetic, inside palmitoyloleoylphosphatidylcholine (POPC) bilayers at clinical concentration, and performed molecular dynamics simulations at atmospheric and raised pressures, using two different thermodynamic ensembles. We also performed a simulation of this system with isoflurane at ten times the clinical concentration. We found that isoflurane did not aggregate inside POPC membranes at 20 MPa, nor at 40 MPa. The implications of these findings for pressure reversal is discussed, in light of the high-pressure neurological syndrome.

  10. Lysylated phospholipids stabilize models of bacterial lipid bilayers and protect against antimicrobial peptides.

    PubMed

    Cox, Elizabeth; Michalak, Austen; Pagentine, Sarah; Seaton, Pamela; Pokorny, Antje

    2014-09-01

    Aminoacylated phosphatidylglycerols are common lipids in bacterial cytoplasmic membranes. Their presence in Staphylococcus aureus has been linked to increased resistance to a number of antibacterial agents, including antimicrobial peptides. Most commonly, the phosphatidylglycerol headgroup is esterified to lysine, which converts anionic phosphatidylglycerol into a cationic lipid with a considerably increased headgroup size. In the present work, we investigated the interactions of two well-studied antimicrobial peptides, cecropin A and mastoparan X, with lipid vesicles composed of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine (POPC) and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-phosphatidylglycerol (POPG), containing varying fractions of an aminoacylated phosphatidylethanolamine, a stable analog of the corresponding phosphatidylglycerol-derivative. To differentiate between the effects of headgroup size and charge on peptide-lipid interactions, we synthesized two different derivatives. In one, the headgroup was modified by the addition of lysine, and in the other, by glutamine. The modification by glutamine results in a phospholipid with a headgroup size comparable to that of the lysylated version. However, whereas lysyl-phosphatidylethanolamine (Lys-PE) is cationic, glutaminyl-phosphatidylethanolamine (Gln-PE) is zwitterionic. We found that binding of mastoparan X and cecropin A was not significantly altered if the content of aminoacylated phosphatidylethanolamines did not exceed 20mol.%, which is the concentration found in bacterial membranes. However, a lysyl-phosphatidylethanolamine content of 20mol% significantly inhibits dye release from lipid vesicles, to a degree that depends on the peptide. In the case of mastoparan X, dye release is essentially abolished at 20mol.% lysyl-phosphatidylethanolamine, whereas cecropin A is less sensitive to the presence of lysyl-phosphatidylethanolamine. These observations are understood through the complex interplay between peptide binding and membrane

  11. Computer simulations of the diffusion of Na+ and Cl- ions across POPC lipid bilayer membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salih, Rangeen; Matthai, C. C.

    2017-03-01

    We have carried out molecular dynamics simulations using NAMD to study the diffusivity of Na and Cl ions across a POPC lipid bilayer membrane. We show that an imbalance of positively and negatively charged ions on either side of the membrane leads to the diffusion of ions and water molecules. We considered the cases of both weak and very strong charge imbalance across the membrane. The diffusion coefficients of the ions have been determined from the mean square displacements of the particles as a function of time. We find that for strong electrochemical gradients, both the Na and Cl ions diffuse rapidly through pores in the membrane with diffusion coefficients up to ten times larger than in water. Rather surprisingly, we found that although the Na ions are the first to begin the permeation process due to the lower potential barrier that they experience compared to the Cl ions, the latter complete the permeation across the barrier more quickly due to their faster diffusion rates.

  12. Organization of model helical peptides in lipid bilayers: insight into the behavior of single-span protein transmembrane domains.

    PubMed Central

    Sharpe, Simon; Barber, Kathryn R; Grant, Chris W M; Goodyear, David; Morrow, Michael R

    2002-01-01

    Selectively deuterated transmembrane peptides comprising alternating leucine-alanine subunits were examined in fluid bilayer membranes by solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in an effort to gain insight into the behavior of membrane proteins. Two groups of peptides were studied: 21-mers having a 17-amino-acid hydrophobic domain calculated to be close in length to the hydrophobic thickness of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl phosphatidylcholine and 26-mers having a 22-amino-acid hydrophobic domain calculated to exceed the membrane hydrophobic thickness. (2)H NMR spectral features similar to ones observed for transmembrane peptides from single-span receptors of higher animal cells were identified which apparently correspond to effectively monomeric peptide. Spectral observations suggested significant distortion of the transmembrane alpha-helix, and/or potential for restriction of rotation about the tilted helix long axis for even simple peptides. Quadrupole splittings arising from the 26-mer were consistent with greater peptide "tilt" than were those of the analogous 21-mer. Quadrupole splittings associated with monomeric peptide were relatively insensitive to concentration and temperature over the range studied, indicating stable average conformations, and a well-ordered rotation axis. At high peptide concentration (6 mol% relative to phospholipid) it appeared that the peptide predicted to be longer than the membrane thickness had a particular tendency toward reversible peptide-peptide interactions occurring on a timescale comparable with or faster than approximately 10(-5) s. This interaction may be direct or lipid-mediated and was manifest as line broadening. Peptide rotational diffusion rates within the membrane, calculated from quadrupolar relaxation times, T(2e), were consistent with such interactions. In the case of the peptide predicted to be equal to the membrane thickness, at low peptide concentration spectral lineshape indicated the additional

  13. Early events in photodynamic therapy: chemical and physical changes in a POPC:cholesterol bilayer due to hematoporphyrin IX-mediated photosensitization.

    PubMed

    Santos, António; Rodrigues, António M; Sobral, Abílio J F N; Monsanto, Paula V; Vaz, Winchil L C; Moreno, Maria João

    2009-01-01

    We studied the interaction of hematoporphyrin IX (HpIX) with bilayers of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) containing cholesterol at a molar fraction between 0 and 0.5. The membrane-associated fraction of HpIX decreases significantly over a period of hours, for porphyrin concentrations in the aqueous phase above 50 nM. This was attributed to self-aggregation of HpIX and was well described by a dimerization process. A model was developed to correct for aggregation and obtain the true partition coefficient which is dependent on the molar fraction of cholesterol with a maximum at 20 mol%. The chemical and physical effects on the lipid bilayer upon irradiation of HpIX were studied for lipid bilayers with POPC:Chol 1:1. Exposure of these bilayers to visible light in the presence of HpIX leads to several cholesterol oxidation products that were identified using GC-MS. A dramatic increase in the membrane leakiness was also observed, even for short irradiation times and small light intensities, as evaluated from the rate of pH equilibration and dithionite permeability. The relevance of these results for the mechanism of photodynamic therapy is discussed.

  14. Interaction of human apolipoprotein A-I with model membranes exhibiting lipid domains.

    PubMed

    Arnulphi, Cristina; Sánchez, Susana A; Tricerri, M Alejandra; Gratton, Enrico; Jonas, Ana

    2005-07-01

    Several mechanisms for cell cholesterol efflux have been proposed, including membrane microsolubilization, suggesting that the existence of specific domains could enhance the transfer of lipids to apolipoproteins. In this work isothermal titration calorimetry, circular dichroism spectroscopy, and two-photon microscopy are used to study the interaction of lipid-free apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) with small unilamellar vesicles (SUVs) of 1-palmitoyl, 2-oleoyl phosphatidylcholine (POPC) and sphingomyelin (SM), with and without cholesterol. Below 30 degrees C the calorimetric results show that apoA-I interaction with POPC/SM SUVs produces an exothermic reaction, characterized as nonclassical hydrophobic binding. The heat capacity change (DeltaCp degrees ) is small and positive, whereas it was larger and negative for pure POPC bilayers, in the absence of SM. Inclusion of cholesterol in the membranes induces changes in the observed thermodynamic pattern of binding and counteracts the formation of alpha-helices in the protein. Above 30 degrees C the reactions are endothermic. Giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) of identical composition to the SUVs, and two-photon fluorescence microscopy techniques, were utilized to further characterize the interaction. Fluorescence imaging of the GUVs indicates coexistence of lipid domains under 30 degrees C. Binding experiments and Laurdan generalized-polarization measurements suggest that there is no preferential binding of the labeled apoA-I to any particular domain. Changes in the content of alpha-helix, binding, and fluidity data are discussed in the framework of the thermodynamic parameters.

  15. Molecular binding of black tea theaflavins to biological membranes: relationship to bioactivities.

    PubMed

    Sirk, Timothy W; Friedman, Mendel; Brown, Eugene F

    2011-04-27

    Molecular dynamics simulations were used to study the interactions of three theaflavin compounds with lipid bilayers. Experimental studies have linked theaflavins to beneficial health effects, some of which are related to interactions with the cell membrane. The molecular interaction of theaflavins with membranes was explored by simulating the interactions of three theaflavin molecules (theaflavin, theaflavin-3-gallate, and theaflavin-3,3'-digallate) with a mixed bilayer composed of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl phosphatidylcholine (POPC) and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl phosphatidylethanolamine (POPE). The simulations show that the theaflavins evaluated have an affinity for the lipid bilayer surface via hydrogen bonding. The molecular structure of theaflavins influenced their configuration when binding to the bilayer surface, as well as their ability to form hydrogen bonds with the lipid headgroups. The theaflavin-bilayer interactions studied here help to define structure-function relationships of the theaflavins and provide a better understanding of the role of theaflavins in biological processes. The significance of the results are discussed in the context of black tea composition and bioactivity.

  16. Model-free estimation of the effective correlation time for C-H bond reorientation in amphiphilic bilayers: 1H-13C solid-state NMR and MD simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Tiago Mendes; Ollila, O. H. Samuli; Pigliapochi, Roberta; Dabkowska, Aleksandra P.; Topgaard, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations give atomically detailed information on structure and dynamics in amphiphilic bilayer systems on timescales up to about 1 μs. The reorientational dynamics of the C-H bonds is conventionally verified by measurements of 13C or 2H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) longitudinal relaxation rates R1, which are more sensitive to motional processes with correlation times close to the inverse Larmor frequency, typically around 1-10 ns on standard NMR instrumentation, and are thus less sensitive to the 10-1000 ns timescale motion that can be observed in the MD simulations. We propose an experimental procedure for atomically resolved model-free estimation of the C-H bond effective reorientational correlation time τe, which includes contributions from the entire range of all-atom MD timescales and that can be calculated directly from the MD trajectories. The approach is based on measurements of 13C R1 and R1ρ relaxation rates, as well as 1H-13C dipolar couplings, and is applicable to anisotropic liquid crystalline lipid or surfactant systems using a conventional solid-state NMR spectrometer and samples with natural isotopic composition. The procedure is demonstrated on a fully hydrated lamellar phase of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine, yielding values of τe from 0.1 ns for the methyl groups in the choline moiety and at the end of the acyl chains to 3 ns for the g1 methylene group of the glycerol backbone. MD simulations performed with a widely used united-atom force-field reproduce the τe-profile of the major part of the acyl chains but underestimate the dynamics of the glycerol backbone and adjacent molecular segments. The measurement of experimental τe-profiles can be used to study subtle effects on C-H bond reorientational motions in anisotropic liquid crystals, as well as to validate the C-H bond reorientation dynamics predicted in MD simulations of amphiphilic bilayers such as lipid membranes.

  17. Model-free estimation of the effective correlation time for C–H bond reorientation in amphiphilic bilayers: {sup 1}H–{sup 13}C solid-state NMR and MD simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira, Tiago Mendes; Ollila, O. H. Samuli; Pigliapochi, Roberta; Dabkowska, Aleksandra P.; Topgaard, Daniel

    2015-01-28

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations give atomically detailed information on structure and dynamics in amphiphilic bilayer systems on timescales up to about 1 μs. The reorientational dynamics of the C–H bonds is conventionally verified by measurements of {sup 13}C or {sup 2}H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) longitudinal relaxation rates R{sub 1}, which are more sensitive to motional processes with correlation times close to the inverse Larmor frequency, typically around 1-10 ns on standard NMR instrumentation, and are thus less sensitive to the 10-1000 ns timescale motion that can be observed in the MD simulations. We propose an experimental procedure for atomically resolved model-free estimation of the C–H bond effective reorientational correlation time τ{sub e}, which includes contributions from the entire range of all-atom MD timescales and that can be calculated directly from the MD trajectories. The approach is based on measurements of {sup 13}C R{sub 1} and R{sub 1ρ} relaxation rates, as well as {sup 1}H−{sup 13}C dipolar couplings, and is applicable to anisotropic liquid crystalline lipid or surfactant systems using a conventional solid-state NMR spectrometer and samples with natural isotopic composition. The procedure is demonstrated on a fully hydrated lamellar phase of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine, yielding values of τ{sub e} from 0.1 ns for the methyl groups in the choline moiety and at the end of the acyl chains to 3 ns for the g{sub 1} methylene group of the glycerol backbone. MD simulations performed with a widely used united-atom force-field reproduce the τ{sub e}-profile of the major part of the acyl chains but underestimate the dynamics of the glycerol backbone and adjacent molecular segments. The measurement of experimental τ{sub e}-profiles can be used to study subtle effects on C–H bond reorientational motions in anisotropic liquid crystals, as well as to validate the C–H bond reorientation dynamics predicted in MD

  18. 25-Hydroxycholesterol Increases the Availability of Cholesterol in Phospholipid Membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, Brett N.; Schlesinger, Paul H.; Ory, Daniel S.; Baker, Nathan A.

    2011-02-01

    Side-chain oxysterols are enzymatically generated oxidation products of cholesterol that serve a central role in mediating cholesterol homeostasis. Recent work has shown that side-chain oxysterols, such as 25-hydroxycholesterol (25-HC), alter membrane structure in very different ways from cholesterol, suggesting a possible mechanism for how these oxysterols regulate cholesterol homeostasis. Here we extend our previous work, using molecular dynamics simulations of 25-HC and cholesterol mixtures in 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine (POPC) bilayers to examine interactions between 25-HC and cholesterol in the same bilayer. When added to cholesterol-containing membranes, 25-HC causes larger changes in membrane structure than when added to cholesterol-free membranes, demonstrating interactions between the two sterols. We also find that the presence of 25-HC changes the position, orientation, and solvent accessibility of cholesterol, shifting it into the water interface and therefore its availability to external acceptors. This is consistent with experimental results showing that oxysterols can trigger cholesterol trafficking from the plasma membrane to the endoplasmic reticulum. These interactions provide a potential mechanism for 25-HC-mediated regulation of cholesterol trafficking and homeostasis through direct modulation of cholesterol availability.

  19. Structure, dynamics, and hydration of POPC/POPS bilayers suspended in NaCl, KCl, and CsCl solutions.

    PubMed

    Jurkiewicz, Piotr; Cwiklik, Lukasz; Vojtíšková, Alžběta; Jungwirth, Pavel; Hof, Martin

    2012-03-01

    Effects of alkali metal chlorides on the properties of mixed negatively charged lipid bilayers are experimentally measured and numerically simulated. Addition of 20mol% of negatively charged phosphatidylserine to zwitterionic phosphatidylcholine strengthens adsorption of monovalent cations revealing their specificity, in the following order: Cs(+)bilayer where they pair with oxygen atoms of carbonyl groups (with pairing with sn-2 carbonyl being about twice stronger than pairing with the sn-1 one). Moreover, the cations bridge neighboring lipids forming clusters of up to 4 lipid molecules, which decreases the area per lipid, thickens the membrane, causes rising of lipid headgroups, and hinders lipid dynamics. All these effects follow the same Hofmeister ordering as the cationic adsorption to the bilayer.

  20. Metastability of a Supercompressed Fluid Monolayer

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Ethan C.; Crane, Jonathan M.; Laderas, Ted G.; Hall, Stephen B.

    2003-01-01

    Previous studies showed that monomolecular films of extracted calf surfactant collapse at the equilibrium spreading pressure during quasi-static compressions but become metastable at much higher surface pressures when compressed faster than a threshold rate. To determine the mechanism by which the films become metastable, we studied single-component films of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl phosphatidylcholine (POPC). Initial experiments confirmed similar metastability of POPC if compressed above a threshold rate. Measurements at different surface pressures then showed that rates of collapse, although initially increasing above the equilibrium spreading pressure, reached a sharply defined maximum and then slowed considerably. When heated, rapidly compressed films recovered their ability to collapse with no discontinuous change in area, arguing that the metastability does not reflect transition of the POPC film to a new phase. These observations indicate that in several respects, the supercompression of POPC monolayers resembles the supercooling of three-dimensional liquids toward a glass transition. PMID:14581205

  1. The melting of pulmonary surfactant monolayers.

    PubMed

    Yan, Wenfei; Biswas, Samares C; Laderas, Ted G; Hall, Stephen B

    2007-05-01

    Monomolecular films of phospholipids in the liquid-expanded (LE) phase after supercompression to high surface pressures (pi), well above the equilibrium surface pressure (pi(e)) at which fluid films collapse from the interface to form a three-dimensional bulk phase, and in the tilted-condensed (TC) phase both replicate the resistance to collapse that is characteristic of alveolar films in the lungs. To provide the basis for determining which film is present in the alveolus, we measured the melting characteristics of monolayers containing TC dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC), as well as supercompressed 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl phosphatidylcholine and calf lung surfactant extract (CLSE). Films generated by appropriate manipulations on a captive bubble were heated from < or =27 degrees C to > or =60 degrees C at different constant pi above pi(e). DPPC showed the abrupt expansion expected for the TC-LE phase transition, followed by the contraction produced by collapse. Supercompressed CLSE showed no evidence of the TC-LE expansion, arguing that supercompression did not simply convert the mixed lipid film to TC DPPC. For both DPPC and CLSE, the melting point, taken as the temperature at which collapse began, increased at higher pi, in contrast to 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl phosphatidylcholine, for which higher pi produced collapse at lower temperatures. For pi between 50 and 65 mN/m, DPPC melted at 48-55 degrees C, well above the main transition for bilayers at 41 degrees C. At each pi, CLSE melted at temperatures >10 degrees C lower. The distinct melting points for TC DPPC and supercompressed CLSE provide the basis by which the nature of the alveolar film might be determined from the temperature-dependence of pulmonary mechanics.

  2. The melting of pulmonary surfactant monolayers

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Wenfei; Biswas, Samares C.; Laderas, Ted G.; Hall, Stephen B.

    2012-01-01

    Monomolecular films of phospholipids in the liquid-expanded (LE) phase after supercompression to high surface pressures (π), well above the equilibrium surface pressure (πe) at which fluid films collapse from the interface to form a three-dimensional bulk phase, and in the tilted-condensed (TC) phase both replicate the resistance to collapse that is characteristic of alveolar films in the lungs. To provide the basis for determining which film is present in the alveolus, we measured the melting characteristics of monolayers containing TC dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC), as well as supercompressed 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl phosphatidylcholine and calf lung surfactant extract (CLSE). Films generated by appropriate manipulations on a captive bubble were heated from ≤27°C to ≥60°C at different constant π above πe. DPPC showed the abrupt expansion expected for the TC-LE phase transition, followed by the contraction produced by collapse. Supercompressed CLSE showed no evidence of the TC-LE expansion, arguing that supercompression did not simply convert the mixed lipid film to TC DPPC. For both DPPC and CLSE, the melting point, taken as the temperature at which collapse began, increased at higher π, in contrast to 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl phosphatidylcholine, for which higher π produced collapse at lower temperatures. For π between 50 and 65 mN/m, DPPC melted at 48–55°C, well above the main transition for bilayers at 41°C. At each π, CLSE melted at temperatures >10°C lower. The distinct melting points for TC DPPC and supercompressed CLSE provide the basis by which the nature of the alveolar film might be determined from the temperature-dependence of pulmonary mechanics. PMID:17194731

  3. The effect of cholesterol on the partitioning of 1-octanol into POPC vesicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakariaee Kouchaksaraee, Roja

    Microcalorimetry has become a method of choice for sensitive characterization of biomolecular interactions. In this study, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) was used to measure the partitioning of 1-octanol into lipid bilayers composed of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC), a semi-unsaturated lipid, and cholesterol, a steroid, as a function of cholesterol molar concentration. The ITC instrument measures the heat evolved or absorbed upon titration of a liposome dispersion, at concentrations ranging from 0 to 40% cholesterol, into a suspension of 1-octanol in water. A model function was fit to the data in order to determine the partition coefficient of octanol into POPC bilayers and the enthalpy of interaction. I found that the partition coefficient increases and the heat of interaction becomes less negative with increasing cholesterol content, in contrast to results found by other groups for partitioning of alcohols into lipid-cholesterol bilayers containing saturated lipids. The heat of dilution of vesicles was also measured. Keywords: Partition coefficient; POPC; 1-Octanol; Cholesterol; Isothermal titration calorimetry; Lipid-alcohol interactions. Subject Terms: Calorimetry; Membranes (Biology); Biophysics; Biology -- Technique; Bilayer lipid membranes -- Biotechnology; Lipid membranes -- Biotechnology.

  4. Membrane Pore Formation by Amyloid beta (25-35) Peptide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandel, Nabin; Tatulian, Suren

    Amyloid (A β) peptide contributes to Alzheimer's disease by a yet unidentified mechanism. One of the possible mechanisms of A β toxicity is formation of pores in cellular membranes. We have characterized the formation of pores in phospholipid membranes by the Aβ25 - 35 peptide (GSNKGAIIGLM) using fluorescence, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and circular dichroism (CD) techniques. CD and FTIR identified formation of β-sheet structure upon incubation of the peptide in aqueous buffer for 2 hours. Unilamellar vesicles composed of a zwitterionic lipid, 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine (POPC), and 70 % POPC plus 30 % of an acidic lipid, 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-phosphatidylglycerol (POPG), are made in 30 mM CaCl2. Quin-2, a fluorophore that displays increased fluorescence upon Ca2+ binding, is added to the vesicles externally. Peptide addition results in increased Quin-2 fluorescence, which is interpreted by binding of the peptide to the vesicles, pore formation, and Ca2+ leakage. The positive and negative control measurements involve addition of a detergent, Triton X-100, which causes vesicle rupture and release of total calcium, and blank buffer, respectively.

  5. Hydration and molecular motions in synthetic phytanyl-chained glycolipid vesicle membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Baba, T; Minamikawa, H; Hato, M; Handa, T

    2001-01-01

    Proton permeation rates across membranes of a synthetic branch-chained glycolipid, 1,3-di-O-phytanyl-2-O-(beta-D-maltotriosyl)glycerol (Mal3(Phyt)2) as well as a branch-chained phospholipid, diphytanoylphosphatidylcholine (DPhPC) were lower than those of straight-chained lipids such as egg yolk phosphatidylcholine (EPC) by a factor of approximately 4 at pH 7.0 and 25 degrees C. To examine whether degrees of water penetration and molecular motions in Mal3(Phyt)2 membranes can account for the lower permeability, nanosecond time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy was applied to various membranes of branch-chained lipids (Mal3(Phyt)2, DPhPC, and a tetraether lipid from an extremely thermoacidophilic archaeon Thermoplasma acidophilum), as well as straight-chained lipids (EPC, 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine (POPC), and digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG)) using several fluorescent lipids. Degrees of hydration of glycolipids, Mal3(Phyt)2, and DGDG were lower than those of phospholipids, EPC, POPC, and DPhPC at the membrane-water interfaces. DPhPC showed the highest hydration among the lipids examined. Meanwhile, rotational and lateral diffusive motions of the fluorescent phospholipid in branch-chained lipid membranes were more restricted than those in straight-chained ones. The results suggest that the restricted motion of chain segments rather than the lower hydration accounts for the lower proton permeability of branch-chained lipid membranes. PMID:11721000

  6. Role of phospholipids in drug-LDL bindings as studied by high-performance frontal analysis/capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Yukihiro; Watanabe, Yoshinori; Shibukawa, Akimasa; Nakagawa, Terumichi

    2003-01-15

    The binding study between basic drugs ((S)-verapamil (VER) and (S)-propranolol (PRO)) and phospholipid liposomes was performed by using high-performance frontal analysis/capillary electrophoresis (HPFA/CE) in order to investigate the effect of oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) upon drug-binding affinity from molecule-based viewpoint. 1-Palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine (POPC, 16:0, 18:1), 1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-phosphatidylcholine (PLPC, 16:0, 18:2), dilauloyl-phosphatidylcholine (DLaPC, 12:0, 12:0), 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-phosphatidyl-glycerol (POPG, 16:0, 18:1), and 1-palmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (monoPPC, 16:0) were used to prepare the model liposomes. At physiological pH (pH 7.4), the model liposome prepared from POPG+POPC had negative net charges, while the total net charge of the other model liposomes (POPC liposome, PLPC liposome, DLaPC liposome, and monoPPC+POPC liposome) was zero. The drug and the model liposome mixed solutions were subjected to HPFA/CE, and the total binding affinities (nK) were calculated. The nK values of VER and PRO to POPG+POPC liposome were more than six and 10 times higher than those of other liposomes, respectively. On the other hand, the nK values of the model drugs to POPC liposome, PLPC liposome, DLaPC liposome and monoPPC+POPC liposome showed small differences less than twice. These results indicate that the electrostatic interaction plays an important effect on drug-liposome binding, and suggest that the increase in the negative charge of LDL phospholipids gives more significant effect on the drug-binding affinity of the basic drugs than the acyl-chain structure.

  7. Prediction of binding free energy for adsorption of antimicrobial peptide lactoferricin B on a POPC membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivcharuk, Victor; Tomberli, Bruno; Tolokh, Igor S.; Gray, C. G.

    2008-03-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are used to study the interaction of a zwitterionic palmitoyl-oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine (POPC) bilayer with the cationic antimicrobial peptide bovine lactoferricin (LFCinB) in a 100 mM NaCl solution at 310 K. The interaction of LFCinB with POPC is used as a model system for studying the details of membrane-peptide interactions, with the peptide selected because of its antimicrobial nature. Seventy-two 3 ns MD simulations, with six orientations of LFCinB at 12 different distances from a POPC membrane, are carried out to determine the potential of mean force (PMF) or free energy profile for the peptide as a function of the distance between LFCinB and the membrane surface. To calculate the PMF for this relatively large system a new variant of constrained MD and thermodynamic integration is developed. A simplified method for relating the PMF to the LFCinB-membrane binding free energy is described and used to predict a free energy of adsorption (or binding) of -1.05±0.39kcal/mol , and corresponding maximum binding force of about 20 pN, for LFCinB-POPC. The contributions of the ions-LFCinB and the water-LFCinB interactions to the PMF are discussed. The method developed will be a useful starting point for future work simulating peptides interacting with charged membranes and interactions involved in the penetration of membranes, features necessary to understand in order to rationally design peptides as potential alternatives to traditional antibiotics.

  8. A Molecular Dynamics Study of the Structural and Dynamical Properties of Putative Arsenic Substituted Lipid Bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Hui-Hsu Gavin; Lee, Jian-Bin; Huang, Jian-Ming; Juwita, Ratna

    2013-01-01

    Cell membranes are composed mainly of phospholipids which are in turn, composed of five major chemical elements: carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, and phosphorus. Recent studies have suggested the possibility of sustaining life if the phosphorus is substituted by arsenic. Although this issue is still controversial, it is of interest to investigate the properties of arsenated-lipid bilayers to evaluate this possibility. In this study, we simulated arsenated-lipid, 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-arsenocholine (POAC), lipid bilayers using all-atom molecular dynamics to understand basic structural and dynamical properties, in particular, the differences from analogous 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, (POPC) lipid bilayers. Our simulations showed that POAC lipid bilayers have distinct structural and dynamical properties from those of native POPC lipid bilayers. Relative to POPC lipid bilayers, POAC lipid bilayers have a more compact structure with smaller lateral areas and greater order. The compact structure of POAC lipid bilayers is due to the fact that more inter-lipid salt bridges are formed with arsenate-choline compared to the phosphate-choline of POPC lipid bilayers. These inter-lipid salt bridges bind POAC lipids together and also slow down the head group rotation and lateral diffusion of POAC lipids. Thus, it would be anticipated that POAC and POPC lipid bilayers would have different biological implications. PMID:23571494

  9. Effects of imidazolium-based ionic surfactants on the size and dynamics of phosphatidylcholine bilayers with saturated and unsaturated chains.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hwankyu

    2015-07-01

    Imidazolium-based ionic surfactants of different sizes were simulated with 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC), 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC), and 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) bilayers. Regardless of the phospholipid type, larger surfactants at higher concentrations more significantly insert into the bilayer and increase the bilayer-surface size, in agreement with experiments and previous simulations. Insertion of surfactants only slightly decreases the bilayer thickness, as also observed in experiments. Although the surfactant insertion and its effect on the bilayer size and thickness are similar in different types of bilayers, the volume fractions of surfactants in the bilayer are higher for DMPC bilayers than for POPC and DOPC bilayers. In particular, ionic surfactants with four hydrocarbons yield their volume fractions of 4.6% and 8.7%, respectively, in POPC and DMPC bilayers, in quantitative agreement with experimental values of ∼5% and ∼10%. Also, the inserted surfactants increase the lateral diffusivity of the bilayer, which depends on the bilayer type. These findings indicate that although the surfactant insertion does not depend on the bilayer type, the effects of surfactants on the volume fraction and bilayer dynamics occur more significantly in the DMPC bilayer because of the smaller area per lipid and shorter saturated tails, which helps explain the experimental observations regarding different volume fractions of surfactants in POPC and DMPC bilayers.

  10. Properties of mixtures of cholesterol with phosphatidylcholine or with phosphatidylserine studied by (13)C magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed Central

    Epand, Richard M; Bain, Alex D; Sayer, Brian G; Bach, Diana; Wachtel, Ellen

    2002-01-01

    The behavior of cholesterol is different in mixtures with phosphatidylcholine as compared with phosphatidylserine. In (13)C cross polarization/magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectra, resonance peaks of the vinylic carbons of cholesterol are a doublet in samples containing 0.3 or 0.5 mol fraction cholesterol with 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl phosphatidylserine (POPS) or in cholesterol monohydrate crystals, but a singlet with mixtures of cholesterol and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl phosphatidylcholine (POPC). At these molar fractions of cholesterol with POPS, resonances of the C-18 of cholesterol appear at the same chemical shifts as in pure cholesterol monohydrate crystals. These resonances do not appear in samples of POPS with 0.2 mol fraction cholesterol or with POPC up to 0.5 mol fraction cholesterol. In addition, there is another resonance from the cholesterol C18 that appears in all of the mixtures of phospholipid and cholesterol but not in pure cholesterol monohydrate crystals. Using direct polarization, the fraction of cholesterol present as crystallites in POPS with 0.5 mol fraction cholesterol is found to be 80%, whereas with the same mol fraction of cholesterol and POPC none of the cholesterol is crystalline. After many hours of incubation, cholesterol monohydrate crystals in POPS undergo a change that results in an increase in the intensity of certain resonances of cholesterol monohydrate in (13)C cross polarization/magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance, indicating a rigidification of the C and D rings of cholesterol but not other regions of the molecule. PMID:12324423

  11. Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering of the Cholesterol Incorporation into Human ApoA1-POPC Discoidal Particles

    PubMed Central

    Midtgaard, Søren Roi; Pedersen, Martin Cramer; Arleth, Lise

    2015-01-01

    Structural and functional aspects of high-density lipoproteins have been studied for over half a century. Due to the plasticity of this highly complex system, new aspects continue to be discovered. Here, we present a structural study of the human Apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1) and investigate the role of its N-terminal domain, the so-called globular domain of ApoA1, in discoidal complexes with phospholipids and increasing amounts of cholesterol. Using a combination of solution-based small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) and molecular constrained data modeling, we show that the ApoA1-1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC)-based particles are disk shaped with an elliptical cross section and composed by a central lipid bilayer surrounded by two stabilizing ApoA1 proteins. This structure is very similar to the particles formed in the so-called nanodisc system, which is based on N-terminal truncated ApoA1 protein. Although it is commonly agreed that the nanodisc is plain disk shaped, several more advanced structures have been proposed for the full-length ApoA1 in combination with POPC and cholesterol. This prompted us to make a detailed comparative study of the ApoA1 and nanodisc systems upon cholesterol uptake. Based on the presented SAXS analysis it is found that the N-terminal domains of ApoA1-POPC-cholesterol particles are not globular but instead an integrated part of the protein belt stabilizing the particles. Upon incorporation of increasing amounts of cholesterol, the presence of the N-terminal domain allows the bilayer thickness to increase while maintaining an overall flat bilayer structure. This is contrasted by the energetically more strained and less favorable lens shape required to fit the SAXS data from the N-terminal truncated nanodisc system upon cholesterol incorporation. This suggests that the N-terminal domain of ApoA1 actively participates in the stabilization of the ApoA1-POPC-cholesterol discoidal particle and allows for a more optimal

  12. Comparative computer simulation study of cholesterol in hydrated unary and binary lipid bilayers and in an anhydrous crystal.

    PubMed

    Plesnar, Elzbieta; Subczynski, Witold K; Pasenkiewicz-Gierula, Marta

    2013-07-25

    Models created with molecular dynamics simulations are used to compare the organization and dynamics of cholesterol (Chol) molecules in three different environments: (1) a hydrated pure Chol bilayer that models the Chol bilayer domain, which is a pure Chol domain embedded in the bulk membrane; (2) a 2-palmitoyl-3-oleoyl-d-glycerol-1-phosphorylcholine bilayer saturated with cholesterol (POPC-Chol50) that models the bulk membrane; (3) a Chol crystal. The computer model of the hydrated pure Chol bilayer is stable on the microsecond time scale. Some structural characteristics of Chol molecules in the Chol bilayer are similar to those in the POPC-Chol50 bilayer (e.g., tilt of Chol rings and chains), while others are similar to those in Chol crystals (e.g., surface area per Chol, bilayer thickness). The key result of this study is that the Chol bilayer has, unexpectedly, a dynamic structure, with Chol mobility similar to that in the POPC-Chol50 bilayer though slower. This is the major difference compared to Chol crystals, where Chol molecules are immobile. Also, water accessibility to Chol-OH groups in the Chol bilayer is not limited. On average, each Chol molecule makes 2.3 hydrogen bonds with water in the Chol bilayer, compared with 1.7 hydrogen bonds in the POPC-Col50 bilayer.

  13. Coarse-grained simulations of hemolytic peptide δ-lysin interacting with a POPC bilayer.

    PubMed

    King, Mariah J; Bennett, Ashley L; Almeida, Paulo F; Lee, Hee-Seung

    2016-12-01

    δ-lysin, secreted by a Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus, is a 26-residue membrane active peptide that shares many common features with antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). However, it possesses a few unique features that differentiate itself from typical AMPs. In particular, δ-lysin has zero net charge, even though it has many charged residues, and it preferentially lyses eukaryotic cells over bacterial cells. Here, we present the results of coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations of δ-lysin interacting with a zwitterionic membrane over a wide range of peptide concentrations. When the peptides concentration is low, spontaneous dimerization of peptides is observed on the membrane surface, but deep insertion of peptides or pore formation was not observed. However, the calculated free energy of peptide insertion suggests that a small fraction of peptides is likely to be present inside the membrane at the peptide concentrations typically seen in dye efflux experiments. When the simulations with multiple peptides are carried out with a single pre-inserted transmembrane peptide, spontaneous pore formation occurs with a peptide-to-lipid ratio (P/L) as low as P/L=1:42. Inter-peptide salt bridges among the transmembrane peptides seem to play a role in creating compact pores with very low level of hydration. More importantly, the transmembrane peptides making up the pore are constantly pushed to the opposite side of the membrane when the mass imbalance between the two sides of membrane is significant. Thus, the pore is very dynamic, allowing multiple peptides to translocate across the membrane simultaneously.

  14. Structural implications of a Val-->Glu mutation in transmembrane peptides from the EGF receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Sharpe, S; Grant, C W; Barber, K R; Giusti, J; Morrow, M R

    2001-01-01

    Certain specific point mutations within the transmembrane domains of class I receptor tyrosine kinases are known to induce altered behavior in the host cell. An internally controlled pair of peptides containing the transmembrane portion of the human epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (ErbB-1) was examined in fluid, fully hydrated lipid bilayers by wide-line 2H-NMR for insight into the physical basis of this effect. One member of the pair encompassed the native transmembrane sequence from ErbB-1, while in the other the valine residue at position 627 was replaced by glutamic acid to mimic a substitution that produces a transformed phenotype in cells. Heteronuclear probes having a defined relationship to the peptide backbone were incorporated by deuteration of the methyl side chains of natural alanine residues. 2H-NMR spectra were recorded in the range 35 degrees C to 65 degrees C in membranes composed of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl phosphatidylcholine. Narrowed spectral components arising from species rotating rapidly and symmetrically within the membrane persisted to very high temperature and appeared to represent monomeric peptide. Probes at positions 623 and 629 within the EGF receptor displayed changes in quadrupole splitting when Val(627) was replaced by Glu, while probes downstream at position 637 were relatively unaffected. The results demonstrate a measurable spatial reorientation in the region of the 5-amino acid motif (residues 624-628) often suggested to be involved in side-to-side interactions of the receptor transmembrane domain. Spectral changes induced by the Val-->Glu mutation in ErbB-1 were smaller than those induced by the analogous oncogenic mutation in the homologous human receptor, ErbB-2 (Sharpe, S., K. R. Barber, and C. W. M. Grant. 2000. Biochemistry. 39:6572-6580). Quadrupole splittings at probe sites examined were only modestly sensitive to temperature, suggesting that each transmembrane peptide behaved as a motionally ordered unit possessing

  15. Nanoparticle-lipid bilayer interactions studied with lipid bilayer arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Bin; Smith, Tyler; Schmidt, Jacob J.

    2015-04-01

    can provide insight into the nature of the particle-membrane interaction through variation of membrane and solution properties not possible with cell-based assays. However, the scope of these studies can be limited because of the low throughput characteristic of lipid bilayer platforms. We have recently described an easy to use, parallel lipid bilayer platform which we have used to electrically investigate the activity of 60 nm diameter amine and carboxyl modified polystyrene nanoparticles (NH2-NP and COOH-NP) with over 1000 lipid bilayers while varying lipid composition, bilayer charge, ionic strength, pH, voltage, serum, particle concentration, and particle charge. Our results confirm recent studies finding activity of NH2-NP but not COOH-NP. Detailed analysis shows that NH2-NP formed pores 0.3-2.3 nm in radius, dependent on bilayer and solution composition. These interactions appear to be electrostatic, as they are regulated by NH2-NP surface charge, solution ionic strength, and bilayer charge. The ability to rapidly measure a large number of nanoparticle and membrane parameters indicates strong potential of this bilayer array platform for additional nanoparticle bilayer studies. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Impact of ionic strength on particle-membrane interaction in POPC : POPE : Chol : POPS (3 : 1 : 1 : 1) bilayers; impact of voltage magnitude, bilayer charge, voltage sign and ionic strength on pore size. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr06892k

  16. Structure, Topology and Tilt of Cell-Signaling Peptides Containing Nuclear Localization Sequences in Membrane Bilayers Determined by Solid-State NMR and Molecular Dynamics Simulation Studies

    PubMed Central

    Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy; Kandasamy, Senthil K.; Lee, Dong-Kuk; Kidambi, Srikanth; Larson, Ronald G.

    2008-01-01

    Cell-signaling peptides have been extensively used to transport functional molecules across the plasma membrane into living cells. These peptides consist of a hydrophobic sequence and a cationic nuclear localization sequence (NLS). It has been assumed that the hydrophobic region penetrates through the hydrophobic lipid bilayer and delivers the NLS inside the cell. To better understand the transport mechanism of these peptides, in this study, we investigated the structure, orientation, tilt of the peptide relative to the bilayer normal, and the membraneinteraction of two cell-signaling peptides, SA and SKP. Results from CD and solid-state NMR experiments combined with molecular dynamics simulations suggest that the hydrophobic region is helical and has a transmembrane orientation with the helical axis tilted away from the bilayer normal. The influence of the hydrophobic mismatch, between the hydrophobic length of the peptide and the hydrophobic thickness of the bilayer, on the tilt angle of the peptides was investigated using thicker POPC and thinner DMPC bilayers. NMR experiments showed that the hydrophobic domain of each peptide has a tilt angle of 15±3° in POPC, while in DMPC 25±3° and 30±3° tilts were observed for SA and SKP peptides respectively. These results are in good agreement with molecular dynamics simulations, which predicts a tilt angle of 13.3° (SA in POPC), 16.4° (SKP in POPC), 22.3° (SA in DMPC) and 31.7° (SKP in POPC). These results and simulations on the hydrophobic fragment of SA or SKP suggest that the tilt of helices increases with a decrease in the bilayer thickness without changing the phase, order, and structure of the lipid bilayers. PMID:17240980

  17. Microfluidic hydrodynamic focusing based synthesis of POPC liposomes for model biological systems.

    PubMed

    Mijajlovic, M; Wright, D; Zivkovic, V; Bi, J X; Biggs, M J

    2013-04-01

    Lipid vesicles have received significant attention in areas ranging from pharmaceutical and biomedical engineering to novel materials and nanotechnology. Microfluidic-based synthesis of liposomes offers a number of advantages over the more traditional synthesis methods such as extrusion and sonication. One such microfluidic approach is microfluidic hydrodynamic focusing (MHF), which has been used to synthesize nanoparticles and vesicles of various lipids. We show here that this method can be utilized in synthesis of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) vesicles with controllable size. Since POPC is among the primary constituents of cellular membranes, this work is of direct applicability to modelling of biological systems and development of nano-containers with higher biologic compatibility for pharmaceutical and medical applications.

  18. Cholesterol stimulates and ceramide inhibits Sticholysin II-induced pore formation in complex bilayer membranes.

    PubMed

    Alm, Ida; García-Linares, Sara; Gavilanes, José G; Martínez-Del-Pozo, Álvaro; Slotte, J Peter

    2015-04-01

    The pore forming capacity of Sticholysin II (StnII; isolated from Stichodactyla helianthus) in bilayer membranes containing 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC), palmitoylsphingomyelin (PSM) and either cholesterol or palmitoyl ceramide (PCer) has been examined. The aim of the study was to elucidate how the presence of differently ordered PSM domains affected StnII oligomerization and pore formation. Cholesterol is known to enhance pore formation by StnII, and our results confirmed this and provide kinetic information for the process. The effect of cholesterol on bilayer permeabilization kinetics was concentration-dependent. In the concentration regime used (2.5-10nmol cholesterol in POPC:PSM 80:20 by nmol), cholesterol also increased the acyl chain order in the fluid PSM domain and thus decreased bilayer fluidity, suggesting that fluidity per se was not responsible for cholesterol's effect. Addition of PCer (2.5-10nmol) to the POPC:PSM (80:20 by nmol) bilayers attenuated StnII-induced pore formation, again in a concentration-dependent fashion. This addition also led to the formation of a PCer-rich gel phase. Addition of cholesterol to PCer-containing membranes could partially reduce the inhibitory effect of PCer on StnII pore formation. We conclude that the physical state of PSM (as influenced by either cholesterol or PCer) affected StnII binding and pore formation under the conditions examined.

  19. Ferritin-supported lipid bilayers for triggering the endothelial cell response.

    PubMed

    Satriano, C; Lupo, G; Motta, C; Anfuso, C D; Di Pietro, P; Kasemo, B

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid nanoassemblies of ferritin and silica-supported lipid bilayers (ferritin-SLBs) have been prepared and tested for the adhesion, spreading and proliferation of retinal microvascular endothelial cells (ECs). Lipid membranes with varying surface charge were obtained by mixing cationic 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-ethylphosphocholine (POEPC) with zwitterionic 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) at increasing POPC/POEPC ratios. The supported bilayer formation and their subsequent interaction processes with ferritin were studied at the pH of 7.4 at different protein concentrations, by using the quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring and by atomic force microscopy. Both kinetics and viscoelastic parameters of the protein-lipid membrane interface were scrutinized, as well as surface coverage. Phase-contrast optical microscopy analyses of the ferritin-SLBs substrates after their interaction with endothelial cells evidenced the highest cell adhesion (2-4h of incubation time) and proliferation (from 24h to 5 days) for the membranes of POPC/POEPC (75:25 ratio). Moreover, ferritin increased both cell adhesion and proliferation in comparison to control glass (respectively 1.5- and 1.75-fold) as well as proliferation in comparison to bare POPC/POEPC (95:5 ratio) (2 fold). Results are very promising in the goal of modulating the endothelial cell response through the interplay of viscoelastic/charge properties of the solid-supported membranes and the SLB-conditioned ferritin activity.

  20. Topologies, structures and parameter files for lipid simulations in GROMACS with the OPLS-aa force field: DPPC, POPC, DOPC, PEPC, and cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Kulig, Waldemar; Pasenkiewicz-Gierula, Marta; Róg, Tomasz

    2015-12-01

    In this data article we provide topologies and force field parameters files for molecular dynamics simulations of lipids in the OPLS-aa force field using the GROMACS package. This is the first systematic parameterization of lipid molecules in this force field. Topologies are provided for four phosphatidylcholines: saturated DPPC, mono-cis unsaturated POPC and DOPC, and mono-trans unsaturated PEPC. Parameterization of the phosphatidylcholines was achieved in two steps: first, we supplemented the OPLS force field parameters for DPPC with new parameters for torsion angles and van der Waals parameters for the carbon and hydrogen atoms in the acyl chains, as well as new partial atomic charges and parameters for torsion angles in the phosphatidylcholine and glycerol moieties [1]. Next, we derived parameters for the cis and trans double bonds and the neighboring them single bonds [2]. Additionally, we provide GROMACS input files with parameters describing simulation conditions (md.mdp), which are strongly recommended to be used with these lipids models. The data are associated with the research article "Cis and trans unsaturated phosphatidylcholine bilayers: a molecular dynamics simulation study" [2] and provided as supporting materials.

  1. Topologies, structures and parameter files for lipid simulations in GROMACS with the OPLS-aa force field: DPPC, POPC, DOPC, PEPC, and cholesterol

    PubMed Central

    Kulig, Waldemar; Pasenkiewicz-Gierula, Marta; Róg, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    In this data article we provide topologies and force field parameters files for molecular dynamics simulations of lipids in the OPLS-aa force field using the GROMACS package. This is the first systematic parameterization of lipid molecules in this force field. Topologies are provided for four phosphatidylcholines: saturated DPPC, mono-cis unsaturated POPC and DOPC, and mono-trans unsaturated PEPC. Parameterization of the phosphatidylcholines was achieved in two steps: first, we supplemented the OPLS force field parameters for DPPC with new parameters for torsion angles and van der Waals parameters for the carbon and hydrogen atoms in the acyl chains, as well as new partial atomic charges and parameters for torsion angles in the phosphatidylcholine and glycerol moieties [1]. Next, we derived parameters for the cis and trans double bonds and the neighboring them single bonds [2]. Additionally, we provide GROMACS input files with parameters describing simulation conditions (md.mdp), which are strongly recommended to be used with these lipids models. The data are associated with the research article “Cis and trans unsaturated phosphatidylcholine bilayers: a molecular dynamics simulation study” [2] and provided as supporting materials. PMID:26568975

  2. Covalent attachment of functionalized lipid bilayers to planar waveguides for measuring protein binding to biomimetic membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Heyse, S.; Vogel, H.; Sänger, M.; Sigrist, H.

    1995-01-01

    A new method is presented for measuring sensitively the interactions between ligands and their membrane-bound receptors in situ using integrated optics, thus avoiding the need for additional labels. Phospholipid bilayers were attached covalently to waveguides by a novel protocol, which can in principle be used with any glass-like surface. In a first step, phospholipids carrying head-group thiols were covalently immobilized onto SiO2-TiO2 waveguide surfaces. This was accomplished by acylation of aminated waveguides with the heterobifunctional crosslinker N-succinimidyl-3-maleimidopropionate, followed by the formation of thioethers between the surface-grafted maleimides and the synthetic thiolipids. The surface-attached thiolipids served as hydrophobic templates and anchors for the deposition of a complete lipid bilayer either by fusion of lipid vesicles or by lipid self-assembly from mixed lipid/detergent micelles. The step-by-step lipid bilayer formation on the waveguide surface was monitored in situ by an integrated optics technique, allowing the simultaneous determination of optical thickness and one of the two refractive indices of the adsorbed organic layers. Surface coverages of 50-60% were calculated for thiolipid layers. Subsequent deposition of POPC resulted in an overall lipid layer thickness of 45-50 A, which corresponds to the thickness of a fluid bilayer membrane. Specific recognition reactions occurring at cell membrane surfaces were modeled by the incorporation of lipid-anchored receptor molecules into the supported bilayer membranes. (1) The outer POPC layer was doped with biotinylated phosphatidylethanolamine. Subsequent specific binding of streptavidin was optically monitored. (2) A lipopeptide was incorporated in the outer POPC monolayer. Membrane binding of monoclonal antibodies, which were directed against the peptide moiety of the lipopeptide, was optically detected. The specific antibody binding correlated well with the lipopepitde

  3. Normal vibrational modes of phospholipid bilayers observed by low-frequency Raman scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surovtsev, N. V.; Dmitriev, A. A.; Dzuba, S. A.

    2017-03-01

    Low-frequency Raman spectra of multilamellar vesicles made either of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-s n -glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) or 1,2-dipalmitoyl-s n -glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) have been studied in a wide temperature range. Below 0 ∘C two peaks are found at frequencies around 8-9 and 14 -17 c m -1 and attributed to the normal vibrational modes of the phospholipid bilayer, which are determined by the bilayer thickness and stiffness (elastic modulus). The spectral positions of the peaks depend on the temperature and the bilayer composition. It is suggested that the ratio of the intensities of the first and second peaks can serve as a measure of the interleaflet elastic coupling. The addition of cholesterol to the phospholipid bilayer leads to peak shift and broadening, which may be assigned to the composition heterogeneities commonly attributed to the lipid raft formation.

  4. A Parameterization of Cholesterol for Mixed Lipid Bilayer Simulation within the Amber Lipid14 Force Field.

    PubMed

    Madej, Benjamin D; Gould, Ian R; Walker, Ross C

    2015-09-24

    The Amber Lipid14 force field is expanded to include cholesterol parameters for all-atom cholesterol and lipid bilayer molecular dynamics simulations. The General Amber and Lipid14 force fields are used as a basis for assigning atom types and basic parameters. A new RESP charge derivation for cholesterol is presented, and tail parameters are adapted from Lipid14 alkane tails. 1,2-Dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC), 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC), and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) bilayers are simulated at a range of cholesterol contents. Experimental bilayer structural properties are compared with bilayer simulations and are found to be in good agreement. With this parameterization, another component of complex membranes is available for molecular dynamics with the Amber Lipid14 force field.

  5. Phospholipid bilayer relaxation dynamics as revealed by the pulsed electron-electron double resonance of spin labels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syryamina, V. N.; Dzuba, S. A.

    2012-10-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy in the form of pulsed electron-electron double resonance (ELDOR) was applied to 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) phospholipid bilayers containing lipids that were spin-labeled at different carbon positions along the lipid acyl chain. Pulsed ELDOR detects motionally induced spin flips of nitrogen nuclei in the nitroxide spin labels, which manifests itself as magnetization transfer (MT) in the nitroxide EPR spectrum. The MT effect was observed over a wide temperature range (100-225 K) on a microsecond time scale. In line with a previous study on molecular glasses [N. P. Isaev and S. A. Dzuba, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 094508 (2011), 10.1063/1.3633241], the motions that induce MT effect were suggested to have the same nature as those in dielectric secondary (β) Johari-Goldstein fast relaxation. The results were compared with literature dielectric relaxation data for POPC bilayers, revealing some common features. Molecular motions resulting in MT are faster for deeper spin labels in the membrane interior. The addition of cholesterol to the bilayer suppresses the lipid motions near the steroid nucleus and accelerates the lipid motions beyond the steroid nucleus, in the bilayer interior. This finding was attributed to the lipid acyl chains being more ordered near the steroid nucleus and less ordered in the bilayer interior. The motions are absent in dry lipids, indicating that the motions are determined by intermolecular interactions in the bilayer.

  6. Bilayer Thickness Mismatch Controls Domain Size in Model Membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Heberle, Frederick A; Petruzielo, Robin S; Pan, Jianjun; Drazba, Paul; Kucerka, Norbert; Feigenson, Gerald; Katsaras, John

    2013-01-01

    The observation of lateral phase separation in lipid bilayers has received considerable attention, especially in connection to lipid raft phenomena in cells. It is widely accepted that rafts play a central role in cellular processes, notably signal transduction. While micrometer-sized domains are observed with some model membrane mixtures, rafts much smaller than 100 nm beyond the reach of optical microscopy are now thought to exist, both in vitro and in vivo. We have used small-angle neutron scattering, a probe free technique, to measure the size of nanoscopic membrane domains in unilamellar vesicles with unprecedented accuracy. These experiments were performed using a four-component model system containing fixed proportions of cholesterol and the saturated phospholipid 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DSPC), mixed with varying amounts of the unsaturated phospholipids 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) and 1,2-dioleoylsn- glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC). We find that liquid domain size increases with the extent of acyl chain unsaturation (DOPC:POPC ratio). Furthermore, we find a direct correlation between domain size and the mismatch in bilayer thickness of the coexisting liquid-ordered and liquid-disordered phases, suggesting a dominant role for line tension in controlling domain size. While this result is expected from line tension theories, we provide the first experimental verification in free-floating bilayers. Importantly, we also find that changes in bilayer thickness, which accompany changes in the degree of lipid chain unsaturation, are entirely confined to the disordered phase. Together, these results suggest how the size of functional domains in homeothermic cells may be regulated through changes in lipid composition.

  7. Cation and anion transport through hydrophilic pores in lipid bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandasamy, Senthil K.; Larson, Ronald G.

    2006-08-01

    To understand the origin of transmembrane potentials, formation of transient pores, and the movement of anions and cations across lipid membranes, we have performed systematic atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of palmitoyl-oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine (POPC) lipids. A double bilayer setup was employed and different transmembrane potentials were generated by varying the anion (Cl-) and cation (Na+) concentrations in the two water compartments. A transmembrane potential of ˜350mV was thereby generated per bilayer for a unit charge imbalance. For transmembrane potential differences of up to ˜1.4V, the bilayers were stable, over the time scale of the simulations (10-50ns). At larger imposed potential differences, one of the two bilayers breaks down through formation of a water pore, leading to both anion and cation translocations through the pore. The anions typically have a short residence time inside the pore, while the cations show a wider range of residence times depending on whether they bind to a lipid molecule or not. Over the time scale of the simulations, we do not observe the discharge of the entire potential difference, nor do we observe pore closing, although we observe that the size of the pore decreases as more ions translocate. We also observed a rare lipid flip-flop, in which a lipid molecule translocated from one bilayer leaflet to the opposite leaflet, assisted by the water pore.

  8. Effect of hydrostatic pressure on water penetration and rotational dynamics in phospholipid-cholesterol bilayers.

    PubMed Central

    Bernsdorff, C; Wolf, A; Winter, R; Gratton, E

    1997-01-01

    The effect of high hydrostatic pressure on the lipid bilayer hydration, the mean order parameter, and rotational dynamics of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) cholesterol vesicles has been studied by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy up to 1500 bar. Whereas the degree of hydration in the lipid headgroup and interfacial region was assessed from fluorescence lifetime data using the probe 1-(4-trimethylammonium-phenyl)-6-phenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (TMA-DPH), the corresponding information in the upper acyl chain region was estimated from its effect on the fluorescence lifetime of and 3-(diphenylhexatrienyl)propyl-trimethylammonium (TMAP-DPH). The lifetime data indicate a greater level of interfacial hydration for DPPC bilayers than for POPC bilayers, but there is no marked difference in interchain hydration of the two bilayer systems. The addition of cholesterol at levels from 30 to 50 mol% to DPPC has a greater effect on the increase of hydrophobicity in the interfacial region of the bilayer than the application of hydrostatic pressure of several hundred to 1000 bar. Although the same trend is observed in the corresponding system, POPC/30 mol% cholesterol, the observed effects are markedly less pronounced. Whereas the rotational correlation times of the fluorophores decrease in passing the pressure-induced liquid-crystalline to gel phase transition of DPPC, the wobbling diffusion coefficient remains essentially unchanged. The wobbling diffusion constant of the two fluorophores changes markedly upon incorporation of 30 mol% cholesterol, and increases at higher pressures, also in the case of POPC/30 mol% cholesterol. The observed effects are discussed in terms of changes in the rotational characteristics of the fluorophores and the phase-state of the lipid mixture. The results demonstrate the ability of cholesterol to adjust the structural and dynamic properties of membranes composed of

  9. Formation of pit-spanning phospholipid bilayers on nanostructured silicon dioxide surfaces for studying biological membrane events.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Indriati; Zäch, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Zwitterionic phospholipid vesicles are known to adsorb and ultimately rupture on flat silicon dioxide (SiO2) surfaces to form supported lipid bilayers. Surface topography, however, alters the kinetics and mechanistic details of vesicles adsorption, which under certain conditions may be exploited to form a suspended bilayer. Here we describe the use of nanostructured SiO2 surfaces prepared by the colloidal lithography technique to scrutinize the formation of suspended 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) lipid bilayers from a solution of small unilamellar lipid vesicles (SUVs). Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) were employed to characterize nanostructure fabrication and lipid bilayer assembly on the surface.

  10. Aromatic isophthalamides aggregate in lipid bilayers: evidence for a cooperative transport mechanism.

    PubMed

    Berry, Stuart N; Busschaert, Nathalie; Frankling, Charlotte L; Salter, Dale; Gale, Philip A

    2015-03-14

    The synthesis and anion transport properties of a series of transmembrane anion transporters based on an isophthalamide scaffold with phenyl, naphthyl or anthracenyl central rings are reported. Anion transport studies using POPC vesicles, showed that the compounds have Hill coefficients >1. This is indicative of higher order complex formation, evidence that leads us to suggest that the compounds are not functioning solely as mobile carriers but rather that a cooperative transport mechanism is being observed. Fluorescence spectroscopy was used to show that the compounds aggregate in the phospholipid bilayer, which provides evidence that these compounds function as a self-assembled anion-conducting aggregate.

  11. Acyl chain composition and coexisting fluid phases in lipid bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Yongwen; Bradley, Miranda; Mitchell, Drake

    2011-10-01

    At room temperature phospholipid bilayers enriched in sphingolipids and cholesterol may form a solid phase as well as two coexisting fluid phases. These are the standard fluid phase, or the liquid-disordered phase, ld, and the liquid-ordered phase, lo, which is commonly associated with lipid rafts. Ternary mixtures of palmitoyl-oleoyl-phosphocholine (POPC; 16:0,18:1 PC), sphingomyelin (SPM), and cholesterol (Chol) form coexisting lo, ld and solid phases over a wide range of molar ratios. We are examining the ability of two fluorescent probes to detect these 2 phases: NBD linked to di-16:0 PE which partitions strongly into the lo phase and NBD linked to di-18:1 PE which partitions strongly into the ld phase. We are also examining the effect of the highly polyunsaturated phospholipid stearoyl-docosahexanoyl-phosphocholine (SDPC; 18:0, 22:6 PC) on the ternary phase diagram of POPC/SPM/Chol with particular focus on the functionally important lo/ld coexistence region. We report on the fluorescence lifetime and anisotropy decay dynamics of these two fluorescent probes.

  12. Hydration lubrication and shear-induced self-healing of lipid bilayer boundary lubricants in phosphatidylcholine dispersions.

    PubMed

    Sorkin, Raya; Kampf, Nir; Zhu, Linyi; Klein, Jacob

    2016-03-14

    Measurements of normal and shear (frictional) forces between mica surfaces across small unilamellar vesicle (SUV) dispersions of the phosphatidylcholine (PC) lipids DMPC (14:0), DPPC (16:0) and DSPC (18:0) and POPC (16:0, 18:1), at physiologically high pressures, are reported. We have previously studied the normal and shear forces between two opposing surfaces bearing PC vesicles across pure water and showed that liposome lubrication ability improved with increasing acyl chain length, and correlated strongly with the SUV structural integrity on the substrate surface (DSPC > DPPC > DMPC). In the current study, surprisingly, we discovered that this trend is reversed when the measurements are conducted in SUV dispersions, instead of pure water. In their corresponding SUV dispersion, DMPC SUVs ruptured and formed bilayers, which were able to provide reversible and reproducible lubrication with extremely low friction (μ < 10(-4)) up to pressures of 70-90 atm. Similarly, POPC SUVs also formed bilayers which exhibited low friction (μ < 10(-4)) up to pressures as high as 160 atm. DPPC and DSPC SUVs also provided good lubrication, but with slightly higher friction coefficients (μ = 10(-3)-10(-4)). We believe these differences originate from fast self-healing of the softer surface layers (which are in their liquid disordered phase, POPC, or close to it, DMPC), which renders the robustness of the DPPC or DSPC (both in their solid ordered phase) less important in these conditions. Under these circumstances, the enhanced hydration of the less densely packed POPC and DMPC surface layers is now believed to play an important role, and allows enhanced lubrication via the hydration lubrication mechanism. Our findings may have implications for the understanding of complex biological systems such us biolubrication of synovial joints.

  13. General model of phospholipid bilayers in fluid phase within the single chain mean field theory.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yachong; Pogodin, Sergey; Baulin, Vladimir A

    2014-05-07

    Coarse-grained model for saturated phospholipids: 1,2-didecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DCPC), 1,2-dilauroyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DLPC), 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC), 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC), 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DSPC) and unsaturated phospholipids: 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC), 1,2- dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) is introduced within the single chain mean field theory. A single set of parameters adjusted for DMPC bilayers gives an adequate description of equilibrium and mechanical properties of a range of saturated lipid molecules that differ only in length of their hydrophobic tails and unsaturated (POPC, DOPC) phospholipids which have double bonds in the tails. A double bond is modeled with a fixed angle of 120°, while the rest of the parameters are kept the same as saturated lipids. The thickness of the bilayer and its hydrophobic core, the compressibility, and the equilibrium area per lipid correspond to experimentally measured values for each lipid, changing linearly with the length of the tail. The model for unsaturated phospholipids also fetches main thermodynamical properties of the bilayers. This model is used for an accurate estimation of the free energies of the compressed or stretched bilayers in stacks or multilayers and gives reasonable estimates for free energies. The proposed model may further be used for studies of mixtures of lipids, small molecule inclusions, interactions of bilayers with embedded proteins.

  14. Behavior of Bilayer Leaflets in Asymmetric Model Membranes: Atomistic Simulation Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Jianhui; Nickels, Jonathan; Katsaras, John; Cheng, Xiaolin

    2016-04-27

    Spatial organization within lipid bilayers is an important feature for a range of biological processes. Leaflet compositional asymmetry and lateral lipid organization are just two of the ways in which membrane structure appears to be more complex than initially postulated by the fluid mosaic model. This raises the question of how the phase behavior in one bilayer leaflet may affect the apposing leaflet and how one begins to construct asymmetric model systems to investigate these interleaflet interactions. In this paper, we report on all-atom molecular dynamics simulations (a total of 4.1 μs) of symmetric and asymmetric bilayer systems composed of liquid-ordered (Lo) or liquid-disordered (Ld) leaflets, based on the nanodomain-forming POPC/DSPC/cholesterol system. We begin by analyzing an asymmetric bilayer with leaflets derived from simulations of symmetric Lo and Ld bilayers. In this system, we observe that the properties of the Lo and Ld leaflets are similar to those of the Lo and Ld leaflets in corresponding symmetric systems. However, it is not obvious that mixing the equilibrium structures of their symmetric counterparts is the most appropriate way to construct asymmetric bilayers nor that these structures will manifest interleaflet couplings that lead to domain registry/antiregistry. We therefore constructed and simulated four additional asymmetric bilayer systems by systematically adding or removing lipids in the Ld leaflet to mimic potential density fluctuations. We find that the number of lipids in the Ld leaflet affects its own properties, as well as those of the apposing Lo leaflet. Collectively, the simulations reveal the presence of weak acyl chain interdigitation across bilayer leaflets, suggesting that interdigitation alone does not contribute significantly to the interleaflet coupling in nonphase-separated bilayers of this chemical composition. Finally, however, the properties of both leaflets appear to be sensitive to changes in in-plane lipid

  15. Coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations of cobra cytotoxin A3 interactions with a lipid bilayer: penetration of loops into membranes.

    PubMed

    Su, Zhi-Yuan; Wang, Yeng-Tseng

    2011-02-10

    Cobra cytotoxins, which are small three-looped proteins composed of approximately 60 amino acid residues, primarily act by destroying the bilayer membranes of cells and artificial vesicles. However, the molecular mechanism governing this process is not yet completely understood. We used coarse-grained molecular dynamics (CGMD) simulations to study the mechanism underlying the penetration of cardiotoxin A3 (CTX A3), the major toxic component of Naja atra (Chinese cobra) venom, into a hydrated 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-1-sn-3-phosphatidylcholine (POPC) lipid bilayer. We performed CGMD simulations for three different conformations of the cobra cytotoxin-the tail, lying, and harrow conformations. The results of our simulations indicate that two of these, the tail and lying conformations, did not penetrate the bilayer system. Further, for the harrow conformation, loops 2 and 3 played important roles in penetration of CTX A3 into the bilayer system.

  16. Estimation of activation energy for electroporation and pore growth rate in liquid crystalline and gel phases of lipid bilayers using molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Majhi, Amit Kumar; Kanchi, Subbarao; Venkataraman, V; Ayappa, K G; Maiti, Prabal K

    2015-11-28

    Molecular dynamics simulations of electroporation in POPC and DPPC lipid bilayers have been carried out at different temperatures ranging from 230 K to 350 K for varying electric fields. The dynamics of pore formation, including threshold field, pore initiation time, pore growth rate, and pore closure rate after the field is switched off, was studied in both the gel and liquid crystalline (Lα) phases of the bilayers. Using an Arrhenius model of pore initiation kinetics, the activation energy for pore opening was estimated to be 25.6 kJ mol(-1) and 32.6 kJ mol(-1) in the Lα phase of POPC and DPPC lipids respectively at a field strength of 0.32 V nm(-1). The activation energy decreases to 24.2 kJ mol(-1) and 23.7 kJ mol(-1) respectively at a higher field strength of 1.1 V nm(-1). At temperatures below the melting point, the activation energy in the gel phase of POPC and DPPC increases to 28.8 kJ mol(-1) and 34.4 kJ mol(-1) respectively at the same field of 1.1 V nm(-1). The pore closing time was found to be higher in the gel than in the Lα phase. The pore growth rate increases linearly with temperature and quadratically with field, consistent with viscosity limited growth models.

  17. The modified fluorescence based vesicle fluctuation spectroscopy technique for determination of lipid bilayer bending properties.

    PubMed

    Drabik, Dominik; Przybyło, Magda; Chodaczek, Grzegorz; Iglič, Aleš; Langner, Marek

    2016-02-01

    Lipid bilayer is the main constitutive element of biological membrane, which confines intracellular space. The mechanical properties of biological membranes may be characterized by various parameters including membrane stiffness or membrane bending rigidity, which can be measured using flicker noise spectroscopy. The flicker noise spectroscopy exploits the spontaneous thermal undulations of the membrane. The method is based on the quantitative analysis of a series of microscopic images captured during thermal membrane fluctuations. Thus, measured bending rigidity coefficient depends on the image quality as well as the selection of computational tools for image processing and mathematical model used. In this work scanning and spinning disc confocal microscopies were used to visualize fluctuating membranes of giant unilamellar vesicles. The bending rigidity coefficient was calculated for different acquisition modes, using different fluorescent probes and different image processing methods. It was shown that both imaging approaches gave similar bending coefficient values regardless of acquisition time. Using the developed methodology the effect of fluorescent probe type and aqueous phase composition on the value of the membrane bending rigidity coefficient was measured. Specifically it was found that the bending rigidity coefficient of DOPC bilayer in water is smaller than that determined for POPC membrane. It has been found that the POPC and DOPC bending rigidities coefficient in sucrose solution was lower than that in water. Fluorescence imaging makes possible the quantitative analysis of membrane mechanical properties of inhomogeneous membrane.

  18. Possible Domain Formation In PE/PC Bilayers Containing High Cholesterol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hein, Matthew; Hussain, Fazle; Huang, Juyang

    2015-03-01

    Cholesterol is a significant component of animal cell membranes, and its presence has the effects of not only adding rigidity to the lipid bilayer, but also leading to the formation of lipid domains. Two other lipids of interest are phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), which constitutes about 45 percent of the phospholipids found in human nervous tissues, and phosphatidylcholine (PC), which is found in every cell of the human body. The maximum solubility of cholesterol is the highest mole fraction of cholesterol that the lipid bilayer can retain, at which point cholesterol begins to precipitate out to form cholesterol monohydrate crystals. We have measured the maximum solubility of cholesterol in mixtures of 16:0-18:1PE and 16:0-18:1PC using a new light scattering technique, which utilizes the anisotropic nature of light scattering by cholesterol crystals. This new method is highly accurate and reproducible. Our results show that the maximum solubility of cholesterol increases linearly as a function of the molar ratio POPC/(POPE+POPC), which suggests possible domain formation in mixtures of PE and PC containing maximum amount of cholesterol.

  19. Effect of Sodium and Chloride Binding on a Lecithin Bilayer. A Molecular Dynamics Study

    PubMed Central

    Reif, Maria M.; Kallies, Christopher; Knecht, Volker

    2017-01-01

    The effect of ion binding on the structural, mechanical, dynamic and electrostatic properties of a 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) bilayer in a 0.5 M aqueous NaCl solution is investigated using classical atomistic molecular dynamics simulation with different force-field descriptions for ion-ion and ion-lipid interactions. Most importantly, the repulsive Lennard–Jones parameters for the latter were modified, such that approximately similar binding of cations and anions to the lipid membrane is achieved. This was done to qualitatively improve the apparent ion-lipid binding constants obtained from simulations with the original force field (Berger lipids and GROMOS87 ions in combination with the SPC water model) in comparison to experimental data. Furthermore, various parameters characterizing membrane structure, elasticity, order and dynamics are analyzed. It is found that ion binding as observed in simulations involving the modified in comparison to the original force-field description leads to: (i) a smaller salt-induced change in the area per lipid, which is in closer agreement with the experiment; (ii) a decrease in the area compressibility and bilayer thickness to values comparable to a bilayer in pure water; (iii) lipid deuterium order parameters and lipid diffusion coefficients on nanosecond timescales that are very similar to the values for a membrane in pure water. In general, salt effects on the structural properties of a POPC bilayer in an aqueous sodium-chloride solution appear to be reproduced reasonably well by the new force-field description. An analysis of membrane-membrane disjoining pressure suggests that the smaller salt-induced change in area per lipid induced by the new force-field description is not due to the alteration of membrane-associated net charge, but must rather be understood as a consequence of ion-specific effects on the arrangement of lipid molecules. PMID:28125062

  20. Importance of phospholipid bilayer integrity in the analysis of protein–lipid interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Drücker, Patrick; Gerke, Volker; Galla, Hans-Joachim

    2014-10-10

    Highlights: • We show long-term mechanical stabilization of solid supported bilayers. • Bilayer integrity is essential for the investigation of protein–lipid interactions. • Protein adsorption to a bilayer containing defects causes membrane destruction. - Abstract: The integrity of supported phospholipid bilayer membranes is of crucial importance for the investigation of lipid–protein interactions. Therefore we recorded the formation of supported membranes on SiO{sub 2} and mica by quartz crystal microbalance and controlled the integrity by atomic force microscopy. This study aims to analyze how membrane defects affect protein–lipid interactions. The experiments focused on a lipid mixture of POPC/DOPC/Chol/POPS/PI(4,5)P{sub 2} (37:20:20:20:3) and the binding of the peripheral membrane associated protein annexin A2. We found that formation of a continuous undisturbed bilayer is an indispensable precondition for a reliable determination and quantification of lipid–protein-interactions. If membrane defects were present, protein adsorption causes membrane disruption and lipid detachment on a support thus leading to false determination of binding constants. Our results obtained for PI(4,5)P{sub 2} and cholesterol containing supported membranes yield new knowledge to construct functional surfaces that may cover nanoporous substrates, form free standing membranes or may be used for lab-on-a-chip applications.

  1. On the application of the MARTINI coarse-grained model to immersion of a protein in a phospholipid bilayer

    SciTech Connect

    Mustafa, Ghulam E-mail: rebecca.wade@h-its.org; Nandekar, Prajwal P.; Yu, Xiaofeng; Wade, Rebecca C. E-mail: rebecca.wade@h-its.org

    2015-12-28

    An important step in the simulation of a membrane protein in a phospholipid bilayer is the correct immersion of the protein in the bilayer. Crystal structures are determined without the bilayer. Particularly for proteins with monotopic domains, it can be unclear how deeply and in which orientation the protein is being inserted in the membrane. We have previously developed a procedure combining coarse-grain (CG) with all-atom (AA) molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to insert and simulate a cytochrome P450 (CYP) possessing an N-terminal transmembrane helix connected by a flexible linker region to a globular domain that dips into the membrane. The CG simulations provide a computationally efficient means to explore different orientations and conformations of the CYP in the membrane. Converged configurations obtained in the CG simulations are then refined in AA simulations. Here, we tested different variants of the MARTINI CG model, differing in the water model, the treatment of long-range non-bonded interactions, and the implementation (GROMACS 4.5.5 vs 5.0.4), for this purpose. We examined the behavior of the models for simulating a 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) bilayer in water and for the immersion of CYP3A4 in a POPC bilayer, and compared the CG-MD results with the previously reported experimental and simulation results. We also tested the methodology on a set of four other CYPs. Finally, we propose an optimized protocol for modeling such protein-membrane systems that provides the most plausible configurations and is computationally efficient; this incorporates the standard non-polar water model and the GROMACS 5.0.4 implementation with a reaction field treatment of long-range interactions.

  2. On the application of the MARTINI coarse-grained model to immersion of a protein in a phospholipid bilayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustafa, Ghulam; Nandekar, Prajwal P.; Yu, Xiaofeng; Wade, Rebecca C.

    2015-12-01

    An important step in the simulation of a membrane protein in a phospholipid bilayer is the correct immersion of the protein in the bilayer. Crystal structures are determined without the bilayer. Particularly for proteins with monotopic domains, it can be unclear how deeply and in which orientation the protein is being inserted in the membrane. We have previously developed a procedure combining coarse-grain (CG) with all-atom (AA) molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to insert and simulate a cytochrome P450 (CYP) possessing an N-terminal transmembrane helix connected by a flexible linker region to a globular domain that dips into the membrane. The CG simulations provide a computationally efficient means to explore different orientations and conformations of the CYP in the membrane. Converged configurations obtained in the CG simulations are then refined in AA simulations. Here, we tested different variants of the MARTINI CG model, differing in the water model, the treatment of long-range non-bonded interactions, and the implementation (GROMACS 4.5.5 vs 5.0.4), for this purpose. We examined the behavior of the models for simulating a 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) bilayer in water and for the immersion of CYP3A4 in a POPC bilayer, and compared the CG-MD results with the previously reported experimental and simulation results. We also tested the methodology on a set of four other CYPs. Finally, we propose an optimized protocol for modeling such protein-membrane systems that provides the most plausible configurations and is computationally efficient; this incorporates the standard non-polar water model and the GROMACS 5.0.4 implementation with a reaction field treatment of long-range interactions.

  3. Low-visibility light-intensity laser-triggered release of entrapped calcein from 1,2-bis (tricosa-10,12-diynoyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine liposomes is mediated through a type I photoactivation pathway.

    PubMed

    Yavlovich, Amichai; Viard, Mathias; Gupta, Kshitij; Sine, Jessica; Vu, Mylinh; Blumenthal, Robert; Tata, Darrell B; Puri, Anu

    2013-01-01

    We recently reported on the physical characteristics of photo-triggerable liposomes containing dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), and 1,2-bis (tricosa-10,12-diynoyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DC(8,9)PC) carrying a photo agent as their payload. When exposed to a low-intensity 514 nm wavelength (continuous-wave) laser light, these liposomes were observed to release entrapped calcein green (Cal-G; Ex/Em 490/517 nm) but not calcein blue (Cal-B; Ex/Em 360/460 nm). In this study, we have investigated the mechanism for the 514 nm laser-triggered release of the Cal-G payload using several scavengers that are known specifically to inhibit either type I or type II photoreaction pathways. Liposomes containing DPPC:DC(8,9)PC: distearoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DSPE)-polyethylene glycol (PEG)-2000 (86:10:04 mole ratio) were loaded either with fluorescent (calcein) or nonfluorescent ((3)H-inulin) aqueous markers. In addition, a non-photo-triggerable formulation (1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl phosphatidylcholine [POPC]:DC(8,9)PC:DSPE-PEG2000) was also studied with the same payloads. The 514 nm wavelength laser exposure on photo-triggerable liposomes resulted in the release of Cal-G but not that of Cal-B or (3)H-inulin, suggesting an involvement of a photoactivated state of Cal-G due to the 514 nm laser exposure. Upon 514 nm laser exposures, substantial hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, ≈100 μM) levels were detected from only the Cal-G loaded photo-triggerable liposomes but not from Cal-B-loaded liposomes (≤10 μM H2O2). The Cal-G release from photo-triggerable liposomes was found to be significantly inhibited by ascorbic acid (AA), resulting in a 70%-80% reduction in Cal-G release. The extent of AA-mediated inhibition of Cal-G release from the liposomes also correlated with the consumption of AA. No AA consumption was detected in the 514 nm laser-exposed Cal B-loaded liposomes, thus confirming a role of photoactivation of Cal-G in liposome destabilization. Inclusion of 100 mM K3Fe

  4. Using micropatterned lipid bilayer arrays to measure the effect of membrane composition on merocyanine 540 binding.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kathryn A; Conboy, John C

    2011-06-01

    The lipophilic dye merocyanine 540 (MC540) was used to model small molecule-membrane interactions using micropatterned lipid bilayer arrays (MLBAs) prepared using a 3D Continuous Flow Microspotter (CFM). Fluorescence microscopy was used to monitor MC540 binding to fifteen different bilayer compositions simultaneously. MC540 fluorescence was two times greater for bilayers composed of liquid-crystalline (l.c.) phase lipids (1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC), 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC),1-stearoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (SOPC), and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC)) compared to bilayers in the gel phase (1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) and 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DSPC)). The effect cholesterol (CHO) had on MC540 binding to the membrane was found to be dependent on the lipid component; cholesterol decreased MC540 binding in DMPC, DPPC and DSPC bilayers while having little to no effect on the remaining l.c. phase lipids. MC540 fluorescence was also lowered when 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-L-serine (sodium salt) (DOPS) was incorporated into DOPC bilayers. The increase in the surface charge density appears to decrease the occurrence of highly fluorescent monomers and increase the formation of weakly fluorescent dimers via electrostatic repulsion. This paper demonstrates that MLBAs are a useful tool for preparing high density reproducible bilayer arrays to study small molecule-membrane interactions in a high-throughput manner.

  5. Specific DNA duplex formation at an artificial lipid bilayer: fluorescence microscopy after Sybr Green I staining.

    PubMed

    Werz, Emma; Rosemeyer, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    The article describes the immobilization of different probe oligonucleotides (4, 7, 10) carrying each a racemic mixture of 2,3-bis(hexadecyloxy)propan-1-ol (1a) at the 5'-terminus on a stable artificial lipid bilayer composed of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (POPE) and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC). The bilayer separates two compartments (cis/trans channel) of an optical transparent microfluidic sample carrier with perfusion capabilities. Injection of unlabeled target DNA sequences (6, 8, or 9), differing in sequence and length, leads in the case of complementarity to the formation of stable DNA duplexes at the bilayer surface. This could be verified by Sybr Green I double strand staining, followed by incubation periods and thorough perfusions, and was visualized by single molecule fluorescence spectroscopy and microscopy. The different bilayer-immobilized complexes consisting of various DNA duplexes and the fluorescent dye were studied with respect to the kinetics of their formation as well as to their stability against perfusion.

  6. Improved Coarse-Grained Modeling of Cholesterol-Containing Lipid Bilayers

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Cholesterol trafficking, which is an essential function in mammalian cells, is intimately connected to molecular-scale interactions through cholesterol modulation of membrane structure and dynamics and interaction with membrane receptors. Since these effects of cholesterol occur on micro- to millisecond time scales, it is essential to develop accurate coarse-grained simulation models that can reach these time scales. Cholesterol has been shown experimentally to thicken the membrane and increase phospholipid tail order between 0 and 40% cholesterol, above which these effects plateau or slightly decrease. Here, we showed that the published MARTINI coarse-grained force-field for phospholipid (POPC) and cholesterol fails to capture these effects. Using reference atomistic simulations, we systematically modified POPC and cholesterol bonded parameters in MARTINI to improve its performance. We showed that the corrections to pseudobond angles between glycerol and the lipid tails and around the oleoyl double bond particle (the “angle-corrected model”) slightly improves the agreement of MARTINI with experimentally measured thermal, elastic, and dynamic properties of POPC membranes. The angle-corrected model improves prediction of the thickening and ordering effects up to 40% cholesterol but overestimates these effects at higher cholesterol concentration. In accordance with prior work that showed the cholesterol rough face methyl groups are important for limiting cholesterol self-association, we revised the coarse-grained representation of these methyl groups to better match cholesterol-cholesterol radial distribution functions from atomistic simulations. In addition, by using a finer-grained representation of the branched cholesterol tail than MARTINI, we improved predictions of lipid tail order and bilayer thickness across a wide range of concentrations. Finally, transferability testing shows that a model incorporating our revised parameters into DOPC outperforms other

  7. Effect of Sterol Structure on Chain Ordering of an Unsaturated Phospholipid: A 2H-NMR Study of POPC/Sterol Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaghaghi, Mehran; Thewalt, Jenifer; Zuckermann, Martin

    2012-10-01

    The physical properties of biological membranes are considerably altered by the presence of sterols. In particular, sterols help to maintain the integrity of the cell by adjusting the fluidity of the plasma membrane. Cholesterol is in addition an important component of lipid rafts which are hypothesized to compartmentalize the cell membrane surface thereby making it possible for certain proteins to function. Using 2H-NMR spectroscopy, we studied the effect of a series of different sterols on the chain ordering of POPC, an unsaturated phospholipid present in eukaryotic cell membranes. We were able to assigned specific roles to the structural differences between the sterols by comparing the manner in which they affect the average lipid chain conformation of POPC.

  8. Probing the Huntingtin 1-17 membrane anchor on a phospholipid bilayer by using all-atom simulations.

    PubMed

    Côté, Sébastien; Binette, Vincent; Salnikov, Evgeniy S; Bechinger, Burkhard; Mousseau, Normand

    2015-03-10

    Mislocalization and aggregation of the huntingtin protein are related to Huntington's disease. Its first exon-more specifically the first 17 amino acids (Htt17)-is crucial for the physiological and pathological functions of huntingtin. It regulates huntingtin's activity through posttranslational modifications and serves as an anchor to membrane-containing organelles of the cell. Recently, structure and orientation of the Htt17 membrane anchor were determined using a combined solution and solid-state NMR approach. This prompted us to refine this model by investigating the dynamics and thermodynamics of this membrane anchor on a POPC bilayer using all-atom, explicit solvent molecular dynamics and Hamiltonian replica exchange. Our simulations are combined with various experimental measurements to generate a high-resolution atomistic model for the huntingtin Htt17 membrane anchor on a POPC bilayer. More precisely, we observe that the single α-helix structure is more stable in the phospholipid membrane than the NMR model obtained in the presence of dodecylphosphocholine detergent micelles. The resulting Htt17 monomer has its hydrophobic plane oriented parallel to the bilayer surface. Our results further unveil the key residues interacting with the membrane in terms of hydrogen bonds, salt-bridges, and nonpolar contributions. We also observe that Htt17 equilibrates at a well-defined insertion depth and that it perturbs the physical properties-order parameter, thickness, and area per lipid-of the bilayer in a manner that could favor its dimerization. Overall, our observations reinforce and refine the NMR measurements on the Htt17 membrane anchor segment of huntingtin that is of fundamental importance to its biological functions.

  9. Osmotic control of bilayer fusion.

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, L R; Parker, N S

    1984-01-01

    We have used photography and capacitance measurement to monitor the steps in the interaction and eventual fusion of optically black lipid bilayers (BLMs), hydrostatically bulged to approximately hemispherical shape and pushed together mechanically. A necessary first step is drainage of aqueous solution from between the bilayers to allow close contact of the bilayers. The drainage can be controlled by varying the osmotic difference across the bilayers. If the differences are such as to remove water from between the bilayers, fusion occurs after a time that depends on the net osmotic difference and the area of contact. If there is an osmotic flow of water into the space between the bilayers, fusion never occurs. In the fusion process, a single central bilayer forms from the original apposed pair of bilayers. The central bilayer may later burst to allow mixing of the two volumes originally bounded by the separate bilayer; the topological equivalent of exocytosis. Images FIGURE 2 PMID:6541065

  10. Bilayer Graphene Electromechanical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Champagne, Alexandre; Storms, Matthew; Yigen, Serap; Reulet, Bertrand

    Bilayer graphene is an outstanding electromechanical system, and its electronic and mechanical properties, as well as their coupling, are widely tunable. To the best of our knowledge, simultaneous charge transport and mechanical spectroscopy (via RF mixing) has not been realized in bilayer graphene. We present data showing clear electromechanical resonances in three suspended bilayer devices whose length range from 1 to 2 microns. We first describe the low-temperature current annealing of the devices which is crucial to achieve the transconductance, I -VG , necessary to implement a RF mixing detection method. We describe our RF mixing circuit and data. We measure clear mechanical resonances ranging in frequency from 50 to 140 MHz. We show that we can smoothly tune the resonance frequencies of our bilayer resonators with mechanical strain applied via a backgate voltage. We measure quality factors up to 4000. We briefly discuss the effects of the RF driving power on the dispersion of the mechanical resonance. We aim to use these high quality mechanical resonance as a mechanical sensor of the bilayer quantum Hall phase transitions. We show initial data of a bilayer mechanical resonance as a function of magnetic field and quantum Hall phase transitions.

  11. A modular molecular photovoltaic system based on phospholipid/alkanethiol hybrid bilayers: photocurrent generation and modulation.

    PubMed

    Xie, Hong; Jiang, Kai; Zhan, Wei

    2011-10-21

    Monolayer quantities of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC), incorporated with either fullerenes or ruthenium tris(bipyridyl) (Ru(bpy)(3)(2+)) complexes, were formed on ferrocene-terminated C11-alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) through lipid fusion. Thus formed hybrid structures are characterized by quartz crystal microbalance, UV-vis spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and impedance analysis. In comparison to lipid monolayers deposited on C12-alkanethiol SAMs, photocurrent generation from these ferrocene-based structures is significantly modulated, displaying attenuated anodic photocurrents and enhanced cathodic photocurrents. While a similar trend was observed for the two photoagents studied, the degree of such modulations was always found to be greater in fullerene-incorporated bilayers. These findings are evaluated in the context of the film structure, energetics of the involved photo(electrochemical) species and cross-membrane electron-transfer processes.

  12. Regulation of Sticholysin II-Induced Pore Formation by Lipid Bilayer Composition, Phase State, and Interfacial Properties.

    PubMed

    Palacios-Ortega, Juan; García-Linares, Sara; Åstrand, Mia; Al Sazzad, Md Abdullah; Gavilanes, José G; Martínez-del-Pozo, Álvaro; Slotte, J Peter

    2016-04-12

    Sticholysin II (StnII) is a pore-forming toxin that uses sphingomyelin (SM) as the recognition molecule in targeting membranes. After StnII monomers bind to SM, several toxin monomers act in concert to oligomerize into a functional pore. The regulation of StnII binding to SM, and the subsequent pore-formation process, is not fully understood. In this study, we examined how the biophysical properties of bilayers, originating from variations in the SM structure, from the presence of sterol species, or from the presence of increasingly polyunsaturated glycerophospholipids, affected StnII-induced pore formation. StnII-induced pore formation, as determined from calcein permeabilization, was fastest in the pure unsaturated SM bilayers. In 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC)/saturated SM bilayers (4:1 molar ratio), pore formation became slower as the chain length of the saturated SMs increased from 14 up to 24 carbons. In the POPC/palmitoyl-SM (16:0-SM) 4:1 bilayers, SM could not support pore formation by StnII if dimyristoyl-PC was included at 1:1 stoichiometry with 16:0-SM, suggesting that free clusters of SM were required for toxin binding and/or pore formation. Cholesterol and other sterols facilitated StnII-induced pore formation markedly, but the efficiency did not appear to correlate with the sterol structure. Benzyl alcohol was more efficient than sterols in enhancing the pore-formation process, suggesting that the effect on pore formation originated from alcohol-induced alteration of the hydrogen-bonding network in the SM-containing bilayers. Finally, we observed that pore formation by StnII was enhanced in the PC/16:0-SM 4:1 bilayers, in which the PC was increasingly unsaturated. We conclude that the physical state of bilayer lipids greatly affected pore formation by StnII. Phase boundaries were not required for pore formation, although SM in a gel state attenuated pore formation.

  13. Mean-field calculations of chain packing and conformational statistics in lipid bilayers: comparison with experiments and molecular dynamics studies.

    PubMed Central

    Fattal, D R; Ben-Shaul, A

    1994-01-01

    A molecular, mean-field theory of chain packing statistics in aggregates of amphiphilic molecules is applied to calculate the conformational properties of the lipid chains comprising the hydrophobic cores of dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC), dioleoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DOPC), and palmitoyl-oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine (POPC) bilayers in their fluid state. The central quantity in this theory, the probability distribution of chain conformations, is evaluated by minimizing the free energy of the bilayer assuming only that the segment density within the hydrophobic region is uniform (liquidlike). Using this distribution we calculate chain conformational properties such as bond orientational order parameters and spatial distributions of the various chain segments. The lipid chains, both the saturated palmitoyl (-(CH2)14-CH3) and the unsaturated oleoyl (-(CH2)7-CH = CH-(CH2)7-CH3) chains are modeled using rotational isomeric state schemes. All possible chain conformations are enumerated and their statistical weights are determined by the self-consistency equations expressing the condition of uniform density. The hydrophobic core of the DPPC bilayer is treated as composed of single (palmitoyl) chain amphiphiles, i.e., the interactions between chains originating from the same lipid headgroup are assumed to be the same as those between chains belonging to different molecules. Similarly, the DOPC system is treated as a bilayer of oleoyl chains. The POPC bilayer is modeled as an equimolar mixture of palmitoyl and oleoyl chains. Bond orientational order parameter profiles, and segment spatial distributions are calculated for the three systems above, for several values of the bilayer thickness (or, equivalently, average area/headgroup) chosen, where possible, so as to allow for comparisons with available experimental data and/or molecular dynamics simulations. In most cases the agreement between the mean-field calculations, which are relatively easy to perform, and the

  14. Behavior of Bilayer Leaflets in Asymmetric Model Membranes: Atomistic Simulation Studies

    DOE PAGES

    Tian, Jianhui; Nickels, Jonathan; Katsaras, John; ...

    2016-04-27

    Spatial organization within lipid bilayers is an important feature for a range of biological processes. Leaflet compositional asymmetry and lateral lipid organization are just two of the ways in which membrane structure appears to be more complex than initially postulated by the fluid mosaic model. This raises the question of how the phase behavior in one bilayer leaflet may affect the apposing leaflet and how one begins to construct asymmetric model systems to investigate these interleaflet interactions. In this paper, we report on all-atom molecular dynamics simulations (a total of 4.1 μs) of symmetric and asymmetric bilayer systems composed ofmore » liquid-ordered (Lo) or liquid-disordered (Ld) leaflets, based on the nanodomain-forming POPC/DSPC/cholesterol system. We begin by analyzing an asymmetric bilayer with leaflets derived from simulations of symmetric Lo and Ld bilayers. In this system, we observe that the properties of the Lo and Ld leaflets are similar to those of the Lo and Ld leaflets in corresponding symmetric systems. However, it is not obvious that mixing the equilibrium structures of their symmetric counterparts is the most appropriate way to construct asymmetric bilayers nor that these structures will manifest interleaflet couplings that lead to domain registry/antiregistry. We therefore constructed and simulated four additional asymmetric bilayer systems by systematically adding or removing lipids in the Ld leaflet to mimic potential density fluctuations. We find that the number of lipids in the Ld leaflet affects its own properties, as well as those of the apposing Lo leaflet. Collectively, the simulations reveal the presence of weak acyl chain interdigitation across bilayer leaflets, suggesting that interdigitation alone does not contribute significantly to the interleaflet coupling in nonphase-separated bilayers of this chemical composition. Finally, however, the properties of both leaflets appear to be sensitive to changes in in

  15. Resonance-mode electrochemical impedance measurements of silicon dioxide supported lipid bilayer formation and ion channel mediated charge transport.

    PubMed

    Lundgren, Anders; Hedlund, Julia; Andersson, Olof; Brändén, Magnus; Kunze, Angelika; Elwing, Hans; Höök, Fredrik

    2011-10-15

    A single-chip electrochemical method based on impedance measurements in resonance mode has been employed to study lipid monolayer and bilayer formation on hydrophobic alkanethiolate and SiO(2) substrates, respectively. The processes were monitored by temporally resolving changes in interfacial capacitance and resistance, revealing information about the rate of formation, coverage, and defect density (quality) of the layers at saturation. The resonance-based impedance measurements were shown to reveal significant differences in the layer formation process of bilayers made from (i) positively charged lipid 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-ethylphosphocholine (POEPC), (ii) neutral lipid 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) on SiO(2), and (iii) monolayers made from POEPC on hydrophobic alkanethiolate substrates. The observed responses were represented with an equivalent circuit, suggesting that the differences primarily originate from the presence of a conductive aqueous layer between the lipid bilayers and the SiO(2). In addition, by adding the ion channel gramicidin D to bilayers supported on SiO(2), channel-mediated charge transport could be measured with high sensitivity (resolution around 1 pA).

  16. Immobilized lipid-bilayer materials

    DOEpatents

    Sasaki, Darryl Y.; Loy, Douglas A.; Yamanaka, Stacey A.

    2000-01-01

    A method for preparing encapsulated lipid-bilayer materials in a silica matrix comprising preparing a silica sol, mixing a lipid-bilayer material in the silica sol and allowing the mixture to gel to form the encapsulated lipid-bilayer material. The mild processing conditions allow quantitative entrapment of pre-formed lipid-bilayer materials without modification to the material's spectral characteristics. The method allows for the immobilization of lipid membranes to surfaces. The encapsulated lipid-bilayer materials perform as sensitive optical sensors for the detection of analytes such as heavy metal ions and can be used as drug delivery systems and as separation devices.

  17. Liquid immiscibility in model bilayer lipid membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veatch, Sarah L.

    There is growing evidence that cell plasma membranes are laterally organized into "raft" regions in which particular lipids and proteins are concentrated. These domains have sub-micron dimensions and have been implicated in vital cell functions. Similar liquid domains are observed in model bilayer membrane mixtures that mimick cellular lipid compositions. In model membranes, domains can be large (microns) and can readily form in the absence of proteins. This thesis presents studies of liquid immiscibility in model membrane systems using two experimental methods. By fluorescence microscopy, this thesis documents that miscibility transitions occur in a wide variety of ternary lipid mixtures containing high melting temperature (saturated) lipids, low melting temperature (usually unsaturated) lipids, and cholesterol. I have constructed detailed miscibility phase diagrams for three separate ternary lipid mixtures (DOPC/DPPC/Chol, DOPC/PSM/Chol, and POPC/PSM/Chol). Phase separation is also observed in membranes of lipids extracted from human erythrocytes. NMR experiments probe lipid order and verify the coexistence of a saturated lipid and cholesterol rich liquid ordered (Lo) phase with a more disordered, unsaturated lipid rich liquid crystalline (Lalpha) phase at low temperatures. These experiments also find multiple thermodynamic transitions and lipid organization on different length-scales. This complexity is revealed because fluorescence microscopy and NMR probe lipid order at different length-scales (>1mum vs. ˜100nm). NMR detects small domains (˜80nm) at temperatures just below the miscibility transition, even though micron-scale domains are observed by fluorescent microscopy. NMR does detect large-scale ("100nm) demixing, but at a lower temperature. In addition, it has long been known that >10nm length-scale structure is present in many lipid mixtures containing cholesterol and at least one additional lipid species, though it is shown here that only a subset of

  18. Expression, Functional Characterization, and Solid-State NMR Investigation of the G Protein-Coupled GHS Receptor in Bilayer Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Schrottke, Stefanie; Kaiser, Anette; Vortmeier, Gerrit; Els-Heindl, Sylvia; Worm, Dennis; Bosse, Mathias; Schmidt, Peter; Scheidt, Holger A.; Beck-Sickinger, Annette G.; Huster, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The expression, functional reconstitution and first NMR characterization of the human growth hormone secretagogue (GHS) receptor reconstituted into either DMPC or POPC membranes is described. The receptor was expressed in E. coli. refolded, and reconstituted into bilayer membranes. The molecule was characterized by 15N and 13C solid-state NMR spectroscopy in the absence and in the presence of its natural agonist ghrelin or an inverse agonist. Static 15N NMR spectra of the uniformly labeled receptor are indicative of axially symmetric rotational diffusion of the G protein-coupled receptor in the membrane. In addition, about 25% of the 15N sites undergo large amplitude motions giving rise to very narrow spectral components. For an initial quantitative assessment of the receptor mobility, 1H-13C dipolar coupling values, which are scaled by molecular motions, were determined quantitatively. From these values, average order parameters, reporting the motional amplitudes of the individual receptor segments can be derived. Average backbone order parameters were determined with values between 0.56 and 0.69, corresponding to average motional amplitudes of 40–50° of these segments. Differences between the receptor dynamics in DMPC or POPC membranes were within experimental error. Furthermore, agonist or inverse agonist binding only insignificantly influenced the average molecular dynamics of the receptor. PMID:28387359

  19. Irradiated bilayer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abergel, D. S. L.; Chakraborty, Tapash

    2011-01-01

    We describe the gated bilayer graphene system when it is subjected to intense terahertz frequency electromagnetic radiation. We examine the electron band structure and density of states via exact diagonalization methods within Floquet theory. We find that dynamical states are induced which lead to modification of the band structure. We first examine the situation where there is no external magnetic field. In the unbiased case, dynamical gaps appear in the spectrum which manifest as dips in the density of states. For finite inter-layer bias (where a static gap is present in the band structure of unirradiated bilayer graphene), dynamical states may be induced in the static gap. These states can show a high degree of valley polarization. When the system is placed in a strong magnetic field, the radiation induces coupling between the Landau levels which allows dynamical levels to exist. For strong fields, this means the Landau levels are smeared to form a near-continuum of states.

  20. Solubilization of lipid bilayers by myristyl sucrose ester: effect of cholesterol and phospholipid head group size.

    PubMed

    Toro, C; Sanchez, S A; Zanocco, A; Lemp, E; Gratton, E; Gunther, G

    2009-02-01

    The solubilization of biological membranes by detergents has been used as a major method for the isolation and purification of membrane proteins and other constituents. Considerable interest in this field has resulted from the finding that different components can be solubilized selectively. Certain membrane constituents are incorporated into small micelles, whereas others remain in the so-called detergent-resistant membrane domains that are large enough to be separated by centrifugation. The detergent-resistant fractions contain an elevated percentage of cholesterol, and thus its interaction with specific lipids and proteins may be key for membrane organization and regulation of cellular signaling events. This report focuses on the solubilization process induced by the sucrose monoester of myristic acid, beta-D-fructofuranosyl-6-O-myristyl-alpha-D-glucopyranoside (MMS), a nonionic detergent. We studied the effect of the head group and the cholesterol content on the process. 1-Palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) and dioctadecyl-dimethyl-ammonium chloride (DODAC) vesicles were used, and the solubilization process was followed using Laurdan (6-dodecanoyl-2-dimethylaminonaphthalene) generalized polarization (GP) measurements, carried out in the cuvette and in the 2-photon microscope. Our results indicate that: (i) localization of the MMS moieties in the lipid bilayer depends on the characteristics of the lipid polar head group and influences the solubilization process. (ii) Insertion of cholesterol molecules into the lipid bilayer protects it from solubilizaton and (iii) the microscopic mechanism of solubilization by MMS implies the decrease in size of the individual liposomes.

  1. Solubilization of lipid bilayers by myristyl sucrose ester: effect of cholesterol and phospholipid head group size

    PubMed Central

    Toro, C.; Sanchez, S. A.; Zanocco, A.; Lemp, E.; Gratton, E.

    2010-01-01

    The solubilization of biological membranes by detergents has been used as a major method for the isolation and purification of membrane proteins and other constituents. Considerable interest in this field has resulted from the finding that different components can be solubilized selectively. Certain membrane constituents are incorporated into small micelles, whereas others remain in the so-called detergent-resistant membrane domains that are large enough to be separated by centrifugation. The detergent resistant fractions contain an elevated percentage of cholesterol, and thus its interaction with specific lipids and proteins may be key for membrane organization and regulation of cellular signaling events. This report focuses on the solubilization process induced by the sucrose monoester of myristic acid, β-D-Fructofuranosyl-6-O-myristyl-α-D-glucopyranoside (MMS), a nonionic detergent. We studied the effect of the head group and the cholesterol content on the process. 1-Palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) and Dioctadecyl dimethylammonium chloride (DODAC) vesicles were used, and the solubilization process was followed using Laurdan (6-Dodecanoyl-2-dimethylaminonaphthalene) Generalized Polarization (GP) measurements, carried out in the cuvette and in the 2-photon microscope. Our results indicate that: (i) Localization of the MMS moieties in the lipid bilayer depend on the characteristics of the lipid polar head group and influence the solubilization process. (ii) Insertion of cholesterol molecules into the lipid bilayer protects it from solubilizaton and (iii) the microscopic mechanism of solubilization by MMS implies the decrease in size of the individual liposomes. PMID:19071100

  2. Reaction of discoidal complexes of apolipoprotein A-I and various phosphatidylcholines with lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase. Interfacial effects.

    PubMed

    Jonas, A; Zorich, N L; Kézdy, K E; Trick, W E

    1987-03-25

    Complexes of phospholipids-apolipoprotein A-I-cholesterol, containing various bulk phosphatidylcholines or a matrix of the ether analog of 1-palmitoyl 2-oleoyl phosphatidylcholine including test phosphatidylcholines were used as substrates for human lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase. The enzymatic reaction rates for both series of complexes were determined as a function of temperature, particle concentration, neutral salt concentration, and the type of anion present in solution. The kinetic results support the hypothesis that phospholipids, in discoidal complexes, modulate the reaction rates by molecular effects at the active site, but also by interfacial effects on the interaction of the enzyme with the particles. The relevant interfacial parameters are the lipid packing at the interface and the structure of apolipoprotein A-I.

  3. Bilayer Edges Catalyze Supported Lipid Bilayer Formation

    PubMed Central

    Weirich, Kimberly L.; Israelachvili, Jacob N.; Fygenson, D. Kuchnir

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Supported lipid bilayers (SLB) are important for the study of membrane-based phenomena and as coatings for biosensors. Nevertheless, there is a fundamental lack of understanding of the process by which they form from vesicles in solution. We report insights into the mechanism of SLB formation by vesicle adsorption using temperature-controlled time-resolved fluorescence microscopy at low vesicle concentrations. First, lipid accumulates on the surface at a constant rate up to ∼0.8 of SLB coverage. Then, as patches of SLB nucleate and spread, the rate of accumulation increases. At a coverage of ∼1.5 × SLB, excess vesicles desorb as SLB patches rapidly coalesce into a continuous SLB. Variable surface fluorescence immediately before SLB patch formation argues against the existence of a critical vesicle density necessary for rupture. The accelerating rate of accumulation and the widespread, abrupt loss of vesicles coincide with the emergence and disappearance of patch edges. We conclude that SLB edges enhance vesicle adhesion to the surface and induce vesicle rupture, thus playing a key role in the formation of continuous SLB. PMID:20085721

  4. Observation of the simultaneous transport of Asian mineral dust aerosols with anthropogenic pollutants using a POPC during a long-lasting dust event in late spring 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Xiaole; Uno, Itsushi; Hara, Yukari; Kuribayashi, Masatoshi; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Sugimoto, Nobuo; Yamamoto, Shigekazu; Shimohara, Takaaki; Wang, Zifa

    2015-03-01

    We observed a long-lasting dust event from 25 May to 2 June 2014, using a polarization optical particle counter (POPC). The transport of dust plumes over East Asia was verified on the basis of observations of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, a lidar network, and surface synoptic observation stations. Mixing of dust and anthropogenic pollutants was investigated according to the variation in the depolarization ratio as a function of particle size. The nonsphericity of dust particles varied due to the impact of anthropogenic pollutants on their pathway. In the coarse mode, dust particles always had a clear nonspherical configuration, although large amounts of nitrate were also present. Supermicron particles are occasionally present in a spherical configuration, possibly due to the complex mixing of natural dust and anthropogenic particles. Statistically, ~64% of the total nitrate mass was deemed to be transported from outside of Japan due to a trapping effect in the dust plume.

  5. Effect of membrane structure on the action of polyenes II: nystatin activity along the phase diagram of ergosterol- and cholesterol-containing POPC membranes.

    PubMed

    González-Damián, J; Ortega-Blake, I

    2010-09-01

    Pores formed by the polyene antibiotic nystatin were studied in solvent-free lipid membranes. The membranes were formed by the tip-dip technique using 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) with different mol fractions (0-50%) of cholesterol or ergosterol. The effects of the mol fraction of sterol and of temperature variation (15-35°C) on the activity of the pores, their unitary conductances, lifetimes and time average conductances were studied. The results were used to analyze the behavior of nystatin channels along the phase diagrams previously reported for these lipid mixtures and to propose that membrane structure is the determinant factor for the known ergosterol/cholesterol selectivity.

  6. Tunneling Plasmonics in Bilayer Graphene.

    PubMed

    Fei, Z; Iwinski, E G; Ni, G X; Zhang, L M; Bao, W; Rodin, A S; Lee, Y; Wagner, M; Liu, M K; Dai, S; Goldflam, M D; Thiemens, M; Keilmann, F; Lau, C N; Castro-Neto, A H; Fogler, M M; Basov, D N

    2015-08-12

    We report experimental signatures of plasmonic effects due to electron tunneling between adjacent graphene layers. At subnanometer separation, such layers can form either a strongly coupled bilayer graphene with a Bernal stacking or a weakly coupled double-layer graphene with a random stacking order. Effects due to interlayer tunneling dominate in the former case but are negligible in the latter. We found through infrared nanoimaging that bilayer graphene supports plasmons with a higher degree of confinement compared to single- and double-layer graphene, a direct consequence of interlayer tunneling. Moreover, we were able to shut off plasmons in bilayer graphene through gating within a wide voltage range. Theoretical modeling indicates that such a plasmon-off region is directly linked to a gapped insulating state of bilayer graphene, yet another implication of interlayer tunneling. Our work uncovers essential plasmonic properties in bilayer graphene and suggests a possibility to achieve novel plasmonic functionalities in graphene few-layers.

  7. Tunneling Plasmonics in Bilayer Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Z.; Iwinski, E. G.; Ni, G. X.; Zhang, L. M.; Bao, W.; Rodin, A. S.; Lee, Y.; Wagner, M.; Liu, M. K.; Dai, S.; Goldflam, M. D.; Thiemens, M.; Keilmann, F.; Lau, C. N.; Castro-Neto, A. H.; Fogler, M. M.; Basov, D. N.

    2015-08-01

    We report experimental signatures of plasmonic effects due to electron tunneling between adjacent graphene layers. At sub-nanometer separation, such layers can form either a strongly coupled bilayer graphene with a Bernal stacking or a weakly coupled double-layer graphene with a random stacking order. Effects due to interlayer tunneling dominate in the former case but are negligible in the latter. We found through infrared nano-imaging that bilayer graphene supports plasmons with a higher degree of confinement compared to single- and double-layer graphene, a direct consequence of interlayer tunneling. Moreover, we were able to shut off plasmons in bilayer graphene through gating within a wide voltage range. Theoretical modeling indicates that such a plasmon-off region is directly linked to a gapped insulating state of bilayer graphene: yet another implication of interlayer tunneling. Our work uncovers essential plasmonic properties in bilayer graphene and suggests a possibility to achieve novel plasmonic functionalities in graphene few-layers.

  8. Interaction between the marine sponge cyclic peptide theonellamide A and sterols in lipid bilayers as viewed by surface plasmon resonance and solid-state (2)H nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Espiritu, Rafael Atillo; Matsumori, Nobuaki; Murata, Michio; Nishimura, Shinichi; Kakeya, Hideaki; Matsunaga, Shigeki; Yoshida, Minoru

    2013-04-09

    Theonellamides (TNMs) are members of a distinctive family of antifungal and cytotoxic bicyclic dodecapeptides isolated from the marine sponge Theonella sp. Recently, it has been shown that TNMs recognize 3β-hydroxysterol-containing membranes, induce glucan overproduction, and damage cellular membranes. However, to date, the detailed mode of sterol binding at a molecular level has not been determined. In this study, to gain insight into the mechanism of sterol recognition of TNM in lipid bilayers, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) experiments and solid-state deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance ((2)H NMR) measurements were performed on theonellamide A (TNM-A). SPR results revealed that the incorporation of 10 mol % cholesterol or ergosterol into 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) membranes significantly enhances the affinity of the peptide for the membrane, particularly in the initial binding to the membrane surface. These findings, together with the fact that binding of TNM-A to epicholesterol (3α-cholesterol)-containing liposomes and pure POPC liposomes was comparably weak, confirmed the preference of the peptide for the 3β-hydroxysterol-containing membranes. To further establish the formation of the complex of TNM-A with 3β-hydroxysterols in lipid bilayers, solid-state (2)H NMR measurements were conducted using deuterium-labeled cholesterol, ergosterol, or epicholesterol. The (2)H NMR spectra showed that TNM-A significantly inhibits the fast rotational motion of cholesterol and ergosterol, but not epicholesterol, therefore verifying the direct complexation between TNM-A and 3β-hydroxysterols in lipid bilayers. This study demonstrates that TNM-A directly recognizes the 3β-OH moiety of sterols, which greatly facilitates its binding to bilayer membranes.

  9. Bursting Bubbles and Bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Wrenn, Steven P.; Dicker, Stephen M.; Small, Eleanor F.; Dan, Nily R.; Mleczko, Michał; Schmitz, Georg; Lewin, Peter A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses various interactions between ultrasound, phospholipid monolayer-coated gas bubbles, phospholipid bilayer vesicles, and cells. The paper begins with a review of microbubble physics models, developed to describe microbubble dynamic behavior in the presence of ultrasound, and follows this with a discussion of how such models can be used to predict inertial cavitation profiles. Predicted sensitivities of inertial cavitation to changes in the values of membrane properties, including surface tension, surface dilatational viscosity, and area expansion modulus, indicate that area expansion modulus exerts the greatest relative influence on inertial cavitation. Accordingly, the theoretical dependence of area expansion modulus on chemical composition - in particular, poly (ethylene glyclol) (PEG) - is reviewed, and predictions of inertial cavitation for different PEG molecular weights and compositions are compared with experiment. Noteworthy is the predicted dependence, or lack thereof, of inertial cavitation on PEG molecular weight and mole fraction. Specifically, inertial cavitation is predicted to be independent of PEG molecular weight and mole fraction in the so-called mushroom regime. In the “brush” regime, however, inertial cavitation is predicted to increase with PEG mole fraction but to decrease (to the inverse 3/5 power) with PEG molecular weight. While excellent agreement between experiment and theory can be achieved, it is shown that the calculated inertial cavitation profiles depend strongly on the criterion used to predict inertial cavitation. This is followed by a discussion of nesting microbubbles inside the aqueous core of microcapsules and how this significantly increases the inertial cavitation threshold. Nesting thus offers a means for avoiding unwanted inertial cavitation and cell death during imaging and other applications such as sonoporation. A review of putative sonoporation mechanisms is then presented, including those

  10. Review of bilayer tablet technology.

    PubMed

    Abebe, Admassu; Akseli, Ilgaz; Sprockel, Omar; Kottala, Niranjan; Cuitiño, Alberto M

    2014-01-30

    Therapeutic strategies based on oral delivery of bilayer (and multilayer) tablets are gaining more acceptance among brand and generic products due to a confluence of factors including advanced delivery strategies, patient compliance and combination therapy. Successful manufacturing of these ever more complex systems needs to overcome a series of challenges from formulation design to tablet press monitoring and control. This article provides an overview of the state-of-the-art of bilayer tablet technology, highlighting the main benefits of this type of oral dosage forms while providing a description of current challenges and advances toward improving manufacturing practices and product quality. Several aspects relevant to bilayer tablet manufacturing are addressed including material properties, lubrication, layer ordering, layer thickness, layer weight control, as well as first and final compression forces. A section is also devoted to bilayer tablet characterization that present additional complexities associated with interfaces between layers. The available features of the manufacturing equipment for bilayer tablet production are also described indicating the different strategies for sensing and controls offered by bilayer tablet press manufacturers. Finally, a roadmap for bilayer tablet manufacturing is advanced as a guideline to formulation design and selection of process parameters and equipment.

  11. Minimal Bending Energies of Bilayer Polyhedra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haselwandter, Christoph A.; Phillips, Rob

    2010-11-01

    Motivated by recent experiments on bilayer polyhedra composed of amphiphilic molecules, we study the elastic bending energies of bilayer vesicles forming polyhedral shapes. Allowing for segregation of excess amphiphiles along the ridges of polyhedra, we find that bilayer polyhedra can indeed have lower bending energies than spherical bilayer vesicles. However, our analysis also implies that, contrary to what has been suggested on the basis of experiments, the snub dodecahedron, rather than the icosahedron, generally represents the energetically favorable shape of bilayer polyhedra.

  12. Lipid bilayers on nano-templates

    DOEpatents

    Noy, Aleksandr; Artyukhin, Alexander B.; Bakajin, Olgica; Stoeve, Pieter

    2009-08-04

    A lipid bilayer on a nano-template comprising a nanotube or nanowire and a lipid bilayer around the nanotube or nanowire. One embodiment provides a method of fabricating a lipid bilayer on a nano-template comprising the steps of providing a nanotube or nanowire and forming a lipid bilayer around the polymer cushion. One embodiment provides a protein pore in the lipid bilayer. In one embodiment the protein pore is sensitive to specific agents

  13. Cholesterol's location in lipid bilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Marquardt, Drew; Kučerka, Norbert; Wassall, Stephen R.; Harroun, Thad A.; Katsaras, John

    2016-04-04

    It is well known that cholesterol modifies the physical properties of lipid bilayers. For example, the much studied liquid-ordered Lo phase contains rapidly diffusing lipids with their acyl chains in the all trans configuration, similar to gel phase bilayers. Moreover, the Lo phase is commonly associated with cholesterol-enriched lipid rafts, which are thought to serve as platforms for signaling proteins in the plasma membrane. Cholesterol's location in lipid bilayers has been studied extensively, and it has been shown – at least in some bilayers – to align differently from its canonical upright orientation, where its hydroxyl group is in the vicinity of the lipid–water interface. In this study we review recent works describing cholesterol's location in different model membrane systems with emphasis on results obtained from scattering, spectroscopic and molecular dynamics studies.

  14. Cholesterol's location in lipid bilayers

    DOE PAGES

    Marquardt, Drew; Kučerka, Norbert; Wassall, Stephen R.; ...

    2016-04-04

    It is well known that cholesterol modifies the physical properties of lipid bilayers. For example, the much studied liquid-ordered Lo phase contains rapidly diffusing lipids with their acyl chains in the all trans configuration, similar to gel phase bilayers. Moreover, the Lo phase is commonly associated with cholesterol-enriched lipid rafts, which are thought to serve as platforms for signaling proteins in the plasma membrane. Cholesterol's location in lipid bilayers has been studied extensively, and it has been shown – at least in some bilayers – to align differently from its canonical upright orientation, where its hydroxyl group is in themore » vicinity of the lipid–water interface. In this study we review recent works describing cholesterol's location in different model membrane systems with emphasis on results obtained from scattering, spectroscopic and molecular dynamics studies.« less

  15. Antimicrobial Peptide Simulations and the Influence of Force Field on the Free Energy for Pore Formation in Lipid Bilayers.

    PubMed

    Bennett, W F Drew; Hong, Chun Kit; Wang, Yi; Tieleman, D Peter

    2016-09-13

    Due to antimicrobial resistance, the development of new drugs to combat bacterial and fungal infections is an important area of research. Nature uses short, charged, and amphipathic peptides for antimicrobial defense, many of which disrupt the lipid membrane in addition to other possible targets inside the cell. Computer simulations have revealed atomistic details for the interactions of antimicrobial peptides and cell-penetrating peptides with lipid bilayers. Strong interactions between the polar interface and the charged peptides can induce bilayer deformations - including membrane rupture and peptide stabilization of a hydrophilic pore. Here, we performed microsecond-long simulations of the antimicrobial peptide CM15 in a POPC bilayer expecting to observe pore formation (based on previous molecular dynamics simulations). We show that caution is needed when interpreting results of equilibrium peptide-membrane simulations, given the length of time single trajectories can dwell in local energy minima for 100's of ns to microseconds. While we did record significant membrane perturbations from the CM15 peptide, pores were not observed. We explain this discrepancy by computing the free energy for pore formation with different force fields. Our results show a large difference in the free energy barrier (ca. 40 kJ/mol) against pore formation predicted by the different force fields that would result in orders of magnitude differences in the simulation time required to observe spontaneous pore formation. This explains why previous simulations using the Berger lipid parameters reported pores induced by charged peptides, while with CHARMM based models pores were not observed in our long time-scale simulations. We reconcile some of the differences in the distance dependent free energies by shifting the free energy profiles to account for thickness differences between force fields. The shifted curves show that all the models describe small defects in lipid bilayers in a

  16. Enhancement of apparent substrate selectivity of proteinase K encapsulated in liposomes through a cholate-induced alteration of the bilayer permeability.

    PubMed

    Yoshimoto, Makoto; Wang, Shaoqing; Fukunaga, Kimitoshi; Treyer, Mike; Walde, Peter; Kuboi, Ryoichi; Nakao, Katsumi

    2004-01-20

    Proteinase K-containing liposomes with highly selective membrane permeability properties were prepared. The selectivity obtained was with respect to the two substrate molecules added to the external aqueous phase of the liposomes: acetyl-L-Ala-Ala-Ala-p-nitroanilide (Ac-AAA-pNA) and succinyl-L-Ala-Ala-Ala-p-nitroanilide (Suc-AAA-pNA). The liposome-forming lipid used was POPC (1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) and modulation of the membrane permeability was achieved using the detergent cholate. Proteinase K-containing mixed liposomes (PKCL) were prepared by adding cholate to preformed proteinase K-containing POPC liposomes (PKL) at a defined effective cholate/POPC molar ratio in the liposomal bilayer membrane R(e). Proteinase K was kept inside PKCL with a negligible amount of leakage into the bulk aqueous phase at R(e) < or = 0.30. At higher R(e), leakage of proteinase K was pronounced, even under conditions where POPC/cholate mixed liposomes seemed to be still intact (0.30 < R(e) < or = 0.39). At R(e) < or = 0.30, the reactivity of proteinase K in the PKCL measured with the externally added substrate Ac-AAA-pNA increased with increasing R(e), while the reactivity measured with Suc-AAA-pNA remained low, regardless of the R(e) value. This showed that externally added Ac-AAA-pNA molecules permeated the liposomal membrane more easily than Suc-AAA-pNA by modulating the membrane with cholate. Consequently, Ac-AAA-pNA was hydrolyzed in PKCL with considerably higher apparent substrate selectivity in comparison with the cases of proteinase K in PKL and free proteinase K (without liposomal encapsulation). The results obtained clearly demonstrate that the prepared PKCL can be utilized as a kind of nano-scaled bioreactor system which can take up a particular target substrate with high apparent substrate selectively from the external phase of the liposomes. Inside the liposomes, the target substrate is then converted into the corresponding products.

  17. The topology of lysine-containing amphipathic peptides in bilayers by circular dichroism, solid-state NMR, and molecular modeling.

    PubMed Central

    Vogt, B; Ducarme, P; Schinzel, S; Brasseur, R; Bechinger, B

    2000-01-01

    In order to better understand the driving forces that determine the alignment of amphipathic helical polypeptides with respect to the surface of phospholipid bilayers, lysine-containing peptide sequences were designed, prepared by solid-phase chemical synthesis, and reconstituted into membranes. CD spectroscopy indicates that all peptides exhibit a high degree of helicity in the presence of SDS micelles or POPC small unilamellar vesicles. Proton-decoupled (31)P-NMR solid-state NMR spectroscopy demonstrates that in the presence of peptides liquid crystalline phosphatidylcholine membranes orient well along glass surfaces. The orientational distribution and dynamics of peptides labeled with (15)N at selected sites were investigated by proton-decoupled (15)N solid-state NMR spectroscopy. Polypeptides with a single lysine residue adopt a transmembrane orientation, thereby locating this polar amino acid within the core region of the bilayer. In contrast, peptides with > or = 3 lysines reside along the surface of the membrane. With 2 lysines in the center of an otherwise hydrophobic amino acid sequence the peptides assume a broad orientational distribution. The energy of lysine discharge, hydrophobic, polar, and all other interactions are estimated to quantitatively describe the polypeptide topologies observed. Furthermore, a molecular modeling algorithm based on the hydrophobicities of atoms in a continuous hydrophilic-hydrophobic-hydrophilic potential describes the experimentally observed peptide topologies well. PMID:11053137

  18. Interactions stabilizing the C-terminal helix of human phospholipid scramblase 1 in lipid bilayers: A computational study.

    PubMed

    Venken, Tom; Schillinger, Anne-Sophie; Fuglebakk, Edvin; Reuter, Nathalie

    2017-03-31

    The human phospholipid scramblase 1 (SCR) distributes lipids non-selectively between the cellular membrane leaflets. SCR has long been thought to be mostly localized in the cytoplasm (amino acids 1-287) and anchored to the membrane via the insertion of a 19 amino acid long transmembrane C-terminal helix (CTH, 288-306), which further extends to the exoplasmic side with a 12 amino acid long tail (307-318). Little is known about the structure of this protein, but recent experimental data on two CTH peptides (288-306 and 288-318) show that they insert through phospholipid bilayers and that the presence of cholesterol improves their affinity for lipid vesicles. Yet the sequence of the CTH ((288)KMKAVMIGACFLIDFMFFE(306)) contains an aspartic acid (D301), which is not exactly a prototypical amino acid for single-pass transmembrane helices. In this study, we investigate how the polar aspartate residue is accommodated in lipid bilayers containing POPC with and without cholesterol, using all-atom molecular dynamics simulations. We identify two cholesterol-binding sites: (i) A291, F298 and L299 and (ii) L299, F302 and E306 and suggest that cholesterol plays a role in stabilizing the helix in a transmembrane position. We suggest that the presence of the aspartate could be functionally relevant for the scramblase protein activity.

  19. Phonons in twisted bilayer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cocemasov, Alexandr I.; Nika, Denis L.; Balandin, Alexander A.

    2013-07-01

    We theoretically investigate phonon dispersion in AA-stacked, AB-stacked, and twisted bilayer graphene with various rotation angles. The calculations are performed using the Born-von Karman model for the intralayer atomic interactions and the Lennard-Jones potential for the interlayer interactions. It is found that the stacking order affects the out-of-plane acoustic phonon modes the most. The difference in the phonon densities of states in the twisted bilayer graphene and in AA- or AB-stacked bilayer graphene appears in the phonon frequency range 90-110 cm-1. Twisting bilayer graphene leads to the emergence of different phonon branches—termed hybrid folded phonons—which originate from the mixing of phonon modes from different high-symmetry directions in the Brillouin zone. The frequencies of the hybrid folded phonons depend strongly on the rotation angle and can be used for noncontact identification of the twist angles in graphene samples. The obtained results and the tabulated frequencies of phonons in twisted bilayer graphene are important for the interpretation of experimental Raman data and in determining the thermal conductivity of these material systems.

  20. Exploring the local elastic properties of bilayer membranes using molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Pieffet, Gilles; Botero, Alonso; Peters, Günther H; Forero-Shelton, Manu; Leidy, Chad

    2014-11-13

    Membrane mechanical elastic properties regulate a variety of cellular processes involving local membrane deformation, such as ion channel function and vesicle fusion. In this work, we used molecular dynamics simulations to estimate the local elastic properties of a membrane. For this, we calculated the energy needed to extract a DOPE lipid molecule, modified with a linker chain, from a POPC bilayer membrane using the umbrella sampling technique. Although the extraction energy entails several contributions related not only to elastic deformation but also to solvation, careful analysis of the potential of mean force (PMF) allowed us to dissect the elastic contribution. With this information, we calculated an effective linear spring constant of 44 ± 4 kJ·nm(-2)·mol(-1) for the DOPC membrane, in agreement with experimental estimates. The membrane deformation profile was determined independently during the stretching process in molecular detail, allowing us to fit this profile to a previously proposed continuum elastic model. Through this approach, we calculated an effective membrane spring constant of 42 kJ·nm(-2)·mol(-1), which is in good agreement with the PMF calculation. Furthermore, the solvation energy we derived from the data is shown to match the solvation energy estimated from critical micelle formation constants. This methodology can be used to determine how changes in lipid composition or the presence of membrane modifiers can affect the elastic properties of a membrane at a local level.

  1. Nanopore-spanning lipid bilayers on silicon nitride membranes that seal and selectively transport ions.

    PubMed

    Korman, Christopher E; Megens, Mischa; Ajo-Franklin, Caroline M; Horsley, David A

    2013-04-09

    We report the formation of POPC lipid bilayers that span 130 nm pores in a freestanding silicon nitride film supported on a silicon substrate. These solvent-free lipid membranes self-assemble on organosilane-treated Si3N4 via the fusion of 200 nm unilamellar vesicles. Membrane fluidity is verified by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), and membrane resistance in excess of 1 GΩ is demonstrated using electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). An array of 40,000 membranes maintained high impedance over 72 h, followed by rupture of most of the membranes by 82 h. Membrane incorporation of gramicidin, a model ion channel, resulted in increased membrane conductance. This membrane conductance was diminished when the gramicidin channels were blocked with CaCl2, indicating that the change in membrane conductance results from gramicidin-mediated ion transport. These very stable, biologically functional pore-spanning membranes open many possibilities for silicon-based ion-channel devices for applications such as biosensors and high-throughput drug screening.

  2. Electromechanical oscillations in bilayer graphene.

    PubMed

    Benameur, Muhammed M; Gargiulo, Fernando; Manzeli, Sajedeh; Autès, Gabriel; Tosun, Mahmut; Yazyev, Oleg V; Kis, Andras

    2015-10-20

    Nanoelectromechanical systems constitute a class of devices lying at the interface between fundamental research and technological applications. Realizing nanoelectromechanical devices based on novel materials such as graphene allows studying their mechanical and electromechanical characteristics at the nanoscale and addressing fundamental questions such as electron-phonon interaction and bandgap engineering. In this work, we realize electromechanical devices using single and bilayer graphene and probe the interplay between their mechanical and electrical properties. We show that the deflection of monolayer graphene nanoribbons results in a linear increase in their electrical resistance. Surprisingly, we observe oscillations in the electromechanical response of bilayer graphene. The proposed theoretical model suggests that these oscillations arise from quantum mechanical interference in the transition region induced by sliding of individual graphene layers with respect to each other. Our work shows that bilayer graphene conceals unexpectedly rich and novel physics with promising potential in applications based on nanoelectromechanical systems.

  3. Electromechanical oscillations in bilayer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benameur, Muhammed M.; Gargiulo, Fernando; Manzeli, Sajedeh; Autès, Gabriel; Tosun, Mahmut; Yazyev, Oleg V.; Kis, Andras

    2015-10-01

    Nanoelectromechanical systems constitute a class of devices lying at the interface between fundamental research and technological applications. Realizing nanoelectromechanical devices based on novel materials such as graphene allows studying their mechanical and electromechanical characteristics at the nanoscale and addressing fundamental questions such as electron-phonon interaction and bandgap engineering. In this work, we realize electromechanical devices using single and bilayer graphene and probe the interplay between their mechanical and electrical properties. We show that the deflection of monolayer graphene nanoribbons results in a linear increase in their electrical resistance. Surprisingly, we observe oscillations in the electromechanical response of bilayer graphene. The proposed theoretical model suggests that these oscillations arise from quantum mechanical interference in the transition region induced by sliding of individual graphene layers with respect to each other. Our work shows that bilayer graphene conceals unexpectedly rich and novel physics with promising potential in applications based on nanoelectromechanical systems.

  4. Surfactant transport on viscous bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matar, Omar; Craster, Richard; Warner, Mark

    2001-11-01

    We model the external delivery of surfactant to pulmonary airways, an integral part of Surfactant Replacement Therapy (SRT), a method of treatment of Respiratory Distress Syndrome in neonates. We examine the spreading dynamics of insoluble surfactant by Marangoni stresses along the mucus-perciliary liquid bilayers that line the inside of airways. The bilayer is modelled as a thin highly viscous mucus surface film (mucus) overlying a much less viscous perciliary liquid layer (PCL); this is appropriate for small airways. By exploiting this large viscosity constrast, a variant of standard lubrication theory is adopted wherein terms, which would have otherwise been neglected in the lubrication approximation, are promoted in order to model correctly the presence of the mucus. Inclusion of van der Waals forces in the model permit the study of the effect of this mucus 'skin' on the possibility of bilayer rupture, a potential cause of failure of SRT. We find that increasing the viscosity contrast and initial mucus layer thickness delays the onset of rupture, while increasing the relative significance of Marangoni stresses leads to more marked thinning and rapid bilayer rupture [1]. [1] O. K. Matar, R. V. Craster and M. R. Warner, submitted to J. Fluid Mech. (2001).

  5. Minimal Bending Energies of Bilayer Polyhedra

    PubMed Central

    Haselwandter, Christoph A.; Phillips, Rob

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by recent experiments on bilayer polyhedra composed of amphiphilic molecules, we study the elastic bending energies of bilayer vesicles forming polyhedral shapes. Allowing for segregation of excess amphiphiles along the ridges of polyhedra, we find that bilayer polyhedra can indeed have lower bending energies than spherical bilayer vesicles. However, our analysis also implies that, contrary to what has been suggested on the basis of experiments, the snub dodecahedron, rather than the icosahedron, generally represents the energetically favorable shape of bilayer polyhedra. PMID:21231425

  6. Fundamental Studies of Assembly and Mechanical Properties of Lipid Bilayer Membranes and Unilamellar Vesicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xi

    This dissertation work focuses on: (i) obtaining a phospholipid bilayer membrane (LBM)/conducting electrode system with low defect density and optimized rigidity; (ii) investigating vesicle stability and mechanical properties. LBM is a simplified yet representative cell membrane model. LBMs assembled on conductive surfaces can probe protein-LBM interactions activities electrochemically. Sterically stabilized vesicles could be used as cell models or for drug delivery. The main challenges for LBM assembly on gold are vesicles do not spontaneously rupture to form LBMs on gold and the roughness of the gold substrate has considerable influence on molecular film defect density. In this study, 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) vesicles were functionalized with 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine- N-poly(ethylene glycol)-2000-N-[3-(2-pyridyldithio)propionate] (DSPE-PEG-PDP) to yield stable LBMs on gold without surface modification. A template-stripping method was used to obtain atomically flat and pristine gold surfaces. The critical force to initiate vesicle rupture decreases with increasing DSPE-PEG-PDP concentration, indicating that gold-thiolate bonding between DSPE-PEG-PDP and gold substrates promotes LBM formation. Mechanical properties of LBMs and vesicles were investigated as a function of DSPE-PEG-PDP concentration via Atomic Force Microscopy. The elastic moduli of LBMs were determined with DSPE-PEG-PDP concentration ranging from 0mol% to 24mol% and were found to depend on PEG chain conformation. Incorporating DSPE-PEG-PDP molecules with PEG in mushroom conformation results in a decrease of LBM rigidity, while incorporating PEG in brush conformation leads to LBM stiffening. Contrarily, mechanical properties of functionalized vesicles did not vary significantly by varying DSPE-PEG-PDP concentration. LBM with tunable rigidity by adjusting DSPE-PEG-PDP concentration provides a versatile cell membrane model for studying protein or

  7. Stability and permeability of amphiphile bilayers.

    PubMed

    Exerowa, D; Kashchiev, D; Platikanov, D

    1992-05-30

    In this review the rupture and permeability of bilayers are considered on the basis of a mechanism of the formation of microscopic holes as fluctuations in the bilayers. The hole formation is treated as a nucleation process of a new phase in a two-dimensional system with short-range intermolecular forces. Free rupture and deliberate rupture (by alpha-particles) of foam bilayers (Newtonian black films) are discussed. A comparison is made between the rupture of foam and emulsion bilayers. Experimental methods for obtaining foam and emulsion bilayers from thin liquid films are considered. Methods for investigating the stability and permeability of foam bilayers, which are based on a microscopic model allowing the use of amphiphile solutions with very low concentrations, are described. Experimental dependences of the lifetime of bilayers, the probability of observing the foam bilayer in a foam film, the gas permeability of bilayers, etc. on the concentration of amphiphile molecules in the solution are reported. The influence of temperature and external impact (e.g. alpha-particle irradiation) have also been experimentally studied. A good agreement between theory and experiment is established, allowing determination of several characteristics of foam and emulsion bilayers obtained from ionics or non-ionics: the specific edge energy of bilayer holes, equilibrium surfactant concentration below which the bilayer is thermodynamically metastable, work for the formation of a nucleus hole, number of vacancies in the nucleus hole, coefficient of gas diffusion through the bilayer, etc. On the basis of the effect of temperature on the rupture of foam bilayers the binding energy of a surfactant molecule in the bilayer is determined. The adsorption isotherm of surfactant vacancies in the foam bilayer is obtained which shows a first-order phase transition. Some applications to scientific, technological and medical problems are considered. The foam bilayer is used as a model for

  8. α-Synuclein Oligomers Stabilize Pre-Existing Defects in Supported Bilayers and Propagate Membrane Damage in a Fractal-Like Pattern.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Himanshu; Iyer, Aditya; Subramaniam, Vinod; Claessens, Mireille M A E

    2016-11-15

    Phospholipid vesicles are commonly used to get insights into the mechanism by which oligomers of amyloidogenic proteins damage membranes. Oligomers of the protein α-synuclein (αS) are thought to create pores in phospholipid vesicles containing a high amount of anionic phospholipids but fail to damage vesicle membranes at low surface charge densities. The current understanding of how αS oligomers damage the membranes is thus incomplete. This incomplete understanding may, in part, result from the choice of model membrane systems. The use of free-standing membranes such as vesicles may interfere with the unraveling of some damage mechanisms because the line tension at the edge of a membrane defect or pore ensures defect closure. Here, we have used supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine/1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-l-serine (POPC/POPS) to study the membrane damage caused by αS oligomers. Although αS oligomers were not able to initiate the disruption of POPC/POPS vesicles or intact SLBs, oligomers did stabilize and enlarge pre-existing SLB defects. The increased exposure of lipid acyl chains at the edges of defects very likely facilitates membrane-oligomer interactions, resulting in the growth of fractal domains devoid of lipids. Concomitant with the appearance of the fractal membrane damage patterns, lipids appear in solution, directly implicating αS oligomers in the observed lipid extraction. The growth of the membrane damage patterns is not limited by the binding of lipids to the oligomer. The analysis of the shape and growth of the lipid-free domains suggests the involvement of an oligomer-dependent diffusion-limited extraction mechanism. The observed αS oligomer-induced propagation of membrane defects offers new insights into the mechanisms by which αS oligomers can contribute to the loss in membrane integrity.

  9. Cholesterol perturbs lipid bilayers nonuniversally.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jianjun; Mills, Thalia T; Tristram-Nagle, Stephanie; Nagle, John F

    2008-05-16

    Cholesterol is well known to modulate the physical properties of biomembranes. Using modern x-ray scattering methods, we have studied the effects of cholesterol on the bending modulus K(C), the thickness D(HH), and the orientational order parameter S(xray) of lipid bilayers. We find that the effects are different for at least three classes of phospholipids characterized by different numbers of saturated hydrocarbon chains. Most strikingly, cholesterol strongly increases K(C) when both chains of the phospholipid are fully saturated but not at all when there are two monounsaturated chains.

  10. Cholesterol Perturbs Lipid Bilayers Nonuniversally

    SciTech Connect

    Pan Jianjun; Mills, Thalia T.; Tristram-Nagle, Stephanie; Nagle, John F.

    2008-05-16

    Cholesterol is well known to modulate the physical properties of biomembranes. Using modern x-ray scattering methods, we have studied the effects of cholesterol on the bending modulus K{sub C}, the thickness D{sub HH}, and the orientational order parameter S{sub xray} of lipid bilayers. We find that the effects are different for at least three classes of phospholipids characterized by different numbers of saturated hydrocarbon chains. Most strikingly, cholesterol strongly increases K{sub C} when both chains of the phospholipid are fully saturated but not at all when there are two monounsaturated chains.

  11. Thermal conductivity of twisted bilayer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongyang; Ying, Hao; Chen, Xiangping; Nika, Denis L.; Cocemasov, Alexandr I.; Cai, Weiwei; Balandin, Alexander A.; Chen, Shanshan

    2014-10-01

    We have investigated experimentally the thermal conductivity of suspended twisted bilayer graphene. The measurements were performed using an optothermal Raman technique. It was found that the thermal conductivity of twisted bilayer graphene is lower than that of monolayer graphene and the reference, Bernal stacked bilayer graphene in the entire temperature range examined (~300-700 K). This finding indicates that the heat carriers - phonons - in twisted bilayer graphene do not behave in the same manner as that observed in individual graphene layers. The decrease in the thermal conductivity found in twisted bilayer graphene was explained by the modification of the Brillouin zone due to plane rotation and the emergence of numerous folded phonon branches that enhance the phonon Umklapp and normal scattering. The results obtained are important for understanding thermal transport in two-dimensional systems.

  12. Profile structures of the voltage-sensor domain and the voltage-gated K+-channel vectorially oriented in a single phospholipid bilayer membrane at the solid-vapor and solid-liquid interfaces determined by x-ray interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, S.; Liu, J.; Strzalka, J.; Blasie, J. K.

    2011-09-01

    One subunit of the prokaryotic voltage-gated potassium ion channel from Aeropyrum pernix (KvAP) is comprised of six transmembrane α helices, of which S1-S4 form the voltage-sensor domain (VSD) and S5 and S6 contribute to the pore domain (PD) of the functional homotetramer. However, the mechanism of electromechanical coupling interconverting the closed-to-open (i.e., nonconducting-to-K+-conducting) states remains undetermined. Here, we have vectorially oriented the detergent (OG)-solubilized VSD in single monolayers by two independent approaches, namely “directed-assembly” and “self-assembly,” to achieve a high in-plane density. Both utilize Ni coordination chemistry to tether the protein to an alkylated inorganic surface via its C-terminal His6 tag. Subsequently, the detergent is replaced by phospholipid (POPC) via exchange, intended to reconstitute a phospholipid bilayer environment for the protein. X-ray interferometry, in which interference with a multilayer reference structure is used to both enhance and phase the specular x-ray reflectivity from the tethered single membrane, was used to determine directly the electron density profile structures of the VSD protein solvated by detergent versus phospholipid, and with either a moist He (moderate hydration) or bulk aqueous buffer (high hydration) environment to preserve a native structure conformation. Difference electron density profiles, with respect to the multilayer substrate itself, for the VSD-OG monolayer and VSD-POPC membranes at both the solid-vapor and solid-liquid interfaces, reveal the profile structures of the VSD protein dominating these profiles and further indicate a successful reconstitution of a lipid bilayer environment. The self-assembly approach was similarly extended to the intact full-length KvAP channel for comparison. The spatial extent and asymmetry in the profile structures of both proteins confirm their unidirectional vectorial orientation within the reconstituted membrane and

  13. "Nanocrystal bilayer for tandem catalysis"

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, Yusuke; Tsung, Chia Kuang; Huang, Wenyu; Huo, Ziyang; E.Habas, Susan E; Soejima, Tetsuro; Aliaga, Cesar E; Samorjai, Gabor A; Yang, Peidong

    2011-01-24

    Supported catalysts are widely used in industry and can be optimized by tuning the composition and interface of the metal nanoparticles and oxide supports. Rational design of metal-metal oxide interfaces in nanostructured catalysts is critical to achieve better reaction activities and selectivities. We introduce here a new class of nanocrystal tandem catalysts that have multiple metal-metal oxide interfaces for the catalysis of sequential reactions. We utilized a nanocrystal bilayer structure formed by assembling platinum and cerium oxide nanocube monolayers of less than 10 nm on a silica substrate. The two distinct metal-metal oxide interfaces, CeO2-Pt and Pt-SiO2, can be used to catalyse two distinct sequential reactions. The CeO2-Pt interface catalysed methanol decomposition to produce CO and H2, which were subsequently used for ethylene hydroformylation catalysed by the nearby Pt-SiO2 interface. Consequently, propanal was produced selectively from methanol and ethylene on the nanocrystal bilayer tandem catalyst. This new concept of nanocrystal tandem catalysis represents a powerful approach towards designing high-performance, multifunctional nanostructured catalysts

  14. Antiferromagnetic state in bilayer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharitonov, Maxim

    2012-11-01

    Motivated by the recent experiment of Velasco Jr. [J. Velasco Jr. , Nat. Nanotechnology1748-338710.1038/nnano.2011.251 7, 156 (2012)], we develop a mean-field theory of the interaction-induced antiferromagnetic (AF) state in bilayer graphene at charge neutrality point at arbitrary perpendicular magnetic field B. We demonstrate that the AF state can persist at all B. At higher B, the state continuously crosses over to the AF phase of the ν=0 quantum Hall ferromagnet, recently argued to be realized in the insulating ν=0 state. The mean-field quasiparticle gap is finite at B=0 and grows with increasing B, becoming quasilinear in the quantum Hall regime, in accord with the reported behavior of the transport gap. By adjusting the two free parameters of the model, we obtain a simultaneous quantitative agreement between the experimental and theoretical values of the key parameters of the gap dependence—its zero-field value and slope at higher fields. Our findings suggest that the insulating state observed in bilayer graphene in Ref. is antiferromagnetic (canted, once the Zeeman effect is taken into account) at all magnetic fields.

  15. Elastic energy of polyhedral bilayer vesicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haselwandter, Christoph A.; Phillips, Rob

    2011-06-01

    In recent experiments [M. Dubois, B. Demé, T. Gulik-Krzywicki, J.-C. Dedieu, C. Vautrin, S. Désert, E. Perez, and T. Zemb, Nature (London)NATUAS0028-083610.1038/35079541 411, 672 (2001)] the spontaneous formation of hollow bilayer vesicles with polyhedral symmetry has been observed. On the basis of the experimental phenomenology it was suggested [M. Dubois, V. Lizunov, A. Meister, T. Gulik-Krzywicki, J. M. Verbavatz, E. Perez, J. Zimmerberg, and T. Zemb, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USAPNASA60027-842410.1073/pnas.0400837101 101, 15082 (2004)] that the mechanism for the formation of bilayer polyhedra is minimization of elastic bending energy. Motivated by these experiments, we study the elastic bending energy of polyhedral bilayer vesicles. In agreement with experiments, and provided that excess amphiphiles exhibiting spontaneous curvature are present in sufficient quantity, we find that polyhedral bilayer vesicles can indeed be energetically favorable compared to spherical bilayer vesicles. Consistent with experimental observations we also find that the bending energy associated with the vertices of bilayer polyhedra can be locally reduced through the formation of pores. However, the stabilization of polyhedral bilayer vesicles over spherical bilayer vesicles relies crucially on molecular segregation of excess amphiphiles along the ridges rather than the vertices of bilayer polyhedra. Furthermore, our analysis implies that, contrary to what has been suggested on the basis of experiments, the icosahedron does not minimize elastic bending energy among arbitrary polyhedral shapes and sizes. Instead, we find that, for large polyhedron sizes, the snub dodecahedron and the snub cube both have lower total bending energies than the icosahedron.

  16. Energy transfer in lipid bilayers.

    PubMed Central

    Estep, T N; Thompson, T E

    1979-01-01

    The quenching of fluorescence due to energy transfer between a dilute, random array of donor and acceptor chromophores in lipid bilayer was measured and compared to theoretical expressions developed to predict the decrease in emission intensity under these circumstances. The observed intensity was found to be the same function of quencher concentration in both planar, multilamellar dispersions and small, spherical vesicles. The degree of quenching was accurately predicted by a simple relation derived in this paper, as well as a more complex equation previously developed by Tweet, et al. The results suggest that significant quenching may be observed even when the average donor-acceptor separation exceeds the Förster critical distance by severalfold. Application of these results to problems of current interest in membrane research are discussed. PMID:262415

  17. Interaction of elaiophylin with model bilayer membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genova, J.; Dencheva-Zarkova, M.

    2017-01-01

    Elaiophylin is a new macrodiolide antibiotic, which is produced by the Streptomyces strains [1]. It displays biological activities against Gram-positive bacteria and fungi. The mode of action of this antibiotic has been attributed to an alteration of the membrane permeability. When this antibiotic is inserted into the bilayer membranes destabilization of the membrane and formation of ion-penetrable channels is observed. The macrodiolide antibiotic forms stable cation selective ion channels in synthetic lipid bilayer membranes. The aim of this work was to study the interactions of Elaiophylin with model bilayer membranes and to get information on the mechanical properties of lipid bilayers in presence of this antibiotic. Patch-clamp technique [2] were used in the study

  18. Data including GROMACS input files for atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of mixed, asymmetric bilayers including molecular topologies, equilibrated structures, and force field for lipids compatible with OPLS-AA parameters.

    PubMed

    Róg, Tomasz; Orłowski, Adam; Llorente, Alicia; Skotland, Tore; Sylvänne, Tuulia; Kauhanen, Dimple; Ekroos, Kim; Sandvig, Kirsten; Vattulainen, Ilpo

    2016-06-01

    In this Data in Brief article we provide a data package of GROMACS input files for atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of multicomponent, asymmetric lipid bilayers using the OPLS-AA force field. These data include 14 model bilayers composed of 8 different lipid molecules. The lipids present in these models are: cholesterol (CHOL), 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (POPC), 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylethanolamine (POPE), 1-stearoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidyl-ethanolamine (SOPE), 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylserine (POPS), 1-stearoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylserine (SOPS), N-palmitoyl-D-erythro-sphingosyl-phosphatidylcholine (SM16), and N-lignoceroyl-D-erythro-sphingosyl-phosphatidylcholine (SM24). The bilayers׳ compositions are based on lipidomic studies of PC-3 prostate cancer cells and exosomes discussed in Llorente et al. (2013) [1], showing an increase in the section of long-tail lipid species (SOPS, SOPE, and SM24) in the exosomes. Former knowledge about lipid asymmetry in cell membranes was accounted for in the models, meaning that the model of the inner leaflet is composed of a mixture of PC, PS, PE, and cholesterol, while the extracellular leaflet is composed of SM, PC and cholesterol discussed in Van Meer et al. (2008) [2]. The provided data include lipids׳ topologies, equilibrated structures of asymmetric bilayers, all force field parameters, and input files with parameters describing simulation conditions (md.mdp). The data is associated with the research article "Interdigitation of Long-Chain Sphingomyelin Induces Coupling of Membrane Leaflets in a Cholesterol Dependent Manner" (Róg et al., 2016) [3].

  19. Controlling the Electronic Structure of Bilayer Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohta, Taisuke; Bostwick, Aaron; Seyller, Thomas; Horn, Karsten; Rotenberg, Eli

    2006-08-01

    We describe the synthesis of bilayer graphene thin films deposited on insulating silicon carbide and report the characterization of their electronic band structure using angle-resolved photoemission. By selectively adjusting the carrier concentration in each layer, changes in the Coulomb potential led to control of the gap between valence and conduction bands. This control over the band structure suggests the potential application of bilayer graphene to switching functions in atomic-scale electronic devices.

  20. Engineering plant membranes using droplet interface bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Barlow, N. E.; Smpokou, E.; Macey, R.; Gould, I. R.; Turnbull, C.; Flemming, A. J.; Brooks, N. J.; Ces, O.; Barter, L. M. C.

    2017-01-01

    Droplet interface bilayers (DIBs) have become widely recognised as a robust platform for constructing model membranes and are emerging as a key technology for the bottom-up assembly of synthetic cell-like and tissue-like structures. DIBs are formed when lipid-monolayer coated water droplets are brought together inside a well of oil, which is excluded from the interface as the DIB forms. The unique features of the system, compared to traditional approaches (e.g., supported lipid bilayers, black lipid membranes, and liposomes), is the ability to engineer multi-layered bilayer networks by connecting multiple droplets together in 3D, and the capability to impart bilayer asymmetry freely within these droplet architectures by supplying droplets with different lipids. Yet despite these achievements, one potential limitation of the technology is that DIBs formed from biologically relevant components have not been well studied. This could limit the reach of the platform to biological systems where bilayer composition and asymmetry are understood to play a key role. Herein, we address this issue by reporting the assembly of asymmetric DIBs designed to replicate the plasma membrane compositions of three different plant species; Arabidopsis thaliana, tobacco, and oats, by engineering vesicles with different amounts of plant phospholipids, sterols and cerebrosides for the first time. We show that vesicles made from our plant lipid formulations are stable and can be used to assemble asymmetric plant DIBs. We verify this using a bilayer permeation assay, from which we extract values for absolute effective bilayer permeation and bilayer stability. Our results confirm that stable DIBs can be assembled from our plant membrane mimics and could lead to new approaches for assembling model systems to study membrane translocation and to screen new agrochemicals in plants.

  1. Dynamic Morphologies of Microscale Droplet Interface Bilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Mruetusatorn, Prachya; Boreyko, Jonathan B; Sarles, Stephen A; Venkatesan, Guru; Hayes, Douglas G; Collier, Pat

    2014-01-01

    Droplet interface bilayers (DIBs) are a powerful platform for studying the dynamics of synthetic cellular membranes; however, very little has been done to exploit the unique dynamical features of DIBs. Here, we generate microscale droplet interface bilayers ( DIBs) by bringing together femtoliter-volume water droplets in a microfluidic oil channel, and characterize morphological changes of the DIBs as the droplets shrink due to evaporation. By varying the initial conditions of the system, we identify three distinct classes of dynamic morphology. (1) Buckling and Fission: When forming DIBs using the lipid-out method (lipids in oil phase), lipids in the shrinking monolayers continually pair together and slide into the bilayer to conserve their mass. As the bilayer continues to grow, it becomes confined, buckles, and eventually fissions one or more vesicles. (2) Uniform Shrinking: When using the lipid-in method (lipids in water phase) to form DIBs, lipids uniformly transfer from the monolayers and bilayer into vesicles contained inside the water droplets. (3) Stretching and Unzipping: Finally, when the droplets are pinned to the wall(s) of the microfluidic channel, the droplets become stretched during evaporation, culminating in the unzipping of the bilayer and droplet separation. These findings offer a better understanding of the dynamics of coupled lipid interfaces.

  2. Vesicles with a double bilayer.

    PubMed

    Zawada, Zygmunt H

    2004-01-01

    A modified reverse phase evaporation method was used to prepare intermediate unilamellar vesicles coated with an additional membrane, or large vesicles in which several vesicles were coated with a common membrane. In both kinds of vesicle, the outer and inner membranes are usually of different phospholipid composition. The preparation involves the formation of a double emulsion: vesicles in a buffer are emerged in a low-boiling point organic solution of phospholipids. Then the organic solvent is evaporated during the heating and mixing process. As result large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs), about 100 nm in diameter, were coated with an additional membrane from egg lecithin or dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine and cholesterol. The highest yield of the coating was about 50%. When DPPC was used for coating above the phase transition temperature Tm, the data suggested the formation of vesicles that were slightly larger than the starting LUVs. It might be concluded that many of these had a double bilayer. If the coating was done below Tm, the micrographs suggested the formation of structures resembling multi-vesicular vesicles. They looked like LUV clusters coated with a common membrane.

  3. RKKY interaction in bilayer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, Yawar; Moradian, Rostam

    2015-12-01

    We study the RKKY interaction between two magnetic impurities located on the same layer (intralayer case) or on different layers (interlayer case) in undoped bilayer graphene (BLG) in the four-bands model, by directly calculating the Green functions in the eigenvalues and eigenvectors representation. Our results show that both intra- and interlayer RKKY interactions between two magnetic impurities located on the same (opposite) sublattice are always ferromagnetic (antiferromagnetic). Furthermore we find unusual long-distance decay of the RKKY interaction in BLG. The intralyer RKKY interactions between two magnetic impurities located on the same sublattice, J AnAn(R) and J BnBn(R), decay closely as 1 /R6 and 1 /R2 at large impurity distances respectively, but when they are located on opposite sublattices the RKKY interactions exhibit 1 /R4 decays approximately. In the interlayer case, the RKKY interactions between two magnetic impurities located on the same sublattice show a decay close to 1 /R4 at large impurity distances, but if two magnetic impurities be on opposite sublattices the RKKY interactions, J A1B2(R) and J B1A2(R), decay closely as 1 /R6 and 1 /R2 respectively. Both intra- and interlayer RKKY interactions have anisotropic oscillatory factors which for intralayer case is equal to that for single layer graphene (SLG). Our results at weak and strong interlayer coupling limits reduce to the RKKY interaction of SLG and that of BLG in the two-bands approximation respectively.

  4. Emergent Electromagnetism in Bilayer Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, Roland; Zülicke, Ulrich

    2013-03-01

    Recently atomically flat layers of carbon known as graphene have become the rising star in spintronics as their electrons carry not only the ordinary spin degree of freedom, but they also have a pseudospin degree of freedom tied to the electrons' orbital motion which could enable new routes for spintronics. Here we focus on bilayer graphene (BLG). Using group theory we have established a complete description of how electrons in BLG interact with electric and magnetic fields. We show that electrons in BLG experience an unusual type of matter-field interactions where magnetic and electric fields are virtually equivalent: every coupling of an electron's degrees of freedom to a magnetic field is matched by an analogous coupling of the same degrees of freedom to an electric field. This counter-intuitive duality of matter-field interactions allows novel ways to create and manipulate spin and pseudo-spin polarizations via external fields that are not available in other materials. See arXiv:1206.4761. This work was supported by Marsden Fund contract no. VUW0719, administered by the Royal Society of New Zealand. Work at Argonne was supported by DOE BES under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  5. Lipid bilayers covalently anchored to carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Dayani, Yasaman; Malmstadt, Noah

    2012-05-29

    The unique physical and electrical properties of carbon nanotubes make them an exciting material for applications in various fields such as bioelectronics and biosensing. Due to the poor water solubility of carbon nanotubes, functionalization for such applications has been a challenge. Of particular need are functionalization methods for integrating carbon nanotubes with biomolecules and constructing novel hybrid nanostructures for bionanoelectronic applications. We present a novel method for the fabrication of dispersible, biocompatible carbon nanotube-based materials. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are covalently modified with primary amine-bearing phospholipids in a carbodiimide-activated reaction. These modified carbon nanotubes have good dispersibility in nonpolar solvents. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy shows peaks attributable to the formation of amide bonds between lipids and the nanotube surface. Simple sonication of lipid-modified nanotubes with other lipid molecules leads to the formation of a uniform lipid bilayer coating the nanotubes. These bilayer-coated nanotubes are highly dispersible and stable in aqueous solution. Confocal fluorescence microscopy shows labeled lipids on the surface of bilayer-modified nanotubes. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) shows the morphology of dispersed bilayer-coated MWCNTs. Fluorescence quenching of lipid-coated MWCNTs confirms the bilayer configuration of the lipids on the nanotube surface, and fluorescence anisotropy measurements show that the bilayer is fluid above the gel-to-liquid transition temperature. The membrane protein α-hemolysin spontaneously inserts into the MWCNT-supported bilayer, confirming the biomimetic membrane structure. These biomimetic nanostructures are a promising platform for the integration of carbon nanotube-based materials with biomolecules.

  6. Photon correlation spectroscopy of bilayer lipid membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Crilly, J F; Earnshaw, J C

    1983-01-01

    Light scattering by thermal fluctuations on simple monoglyceride bilayer membranes has been used to investigate the viscoelastic properties of these structures. Spectroscopic analysis of these fluctuations (capillary waves) permits the nonperturbative measurement of the interfacial tension and a shear interfacial viscosity acting normal to the membrane plane. The methods were established by studies of solvent and nonsolvent bilayers of glycerol monooleate (GMO). Changes in the tension of GMO/n-decane membranes induced by altering the composition of the parent solution were detected and quantified. In a test of the reliability of the technique controlled variations of the viscosity of the aqueous bathing solution were accurately monitored. The technique was applied to solvent-free bilayers formed from dispersions of GMO in squalane. The lower tensions observed attested to the comparative absence of solvent in such bilayers. In contrast to the solvent case, the solvent-free membranes exhibited a significant transverse shear viscosity, indicative of the enhanced intermolecular interactions within the bilayer. PMID:6838962

  7. Solid supported membranes doped with PIP2: influence of ionic strength and pH on bilayer formation and membrane organization.

    PubMed

    Braunger, Julia A; Kramer, Corinna; Morick, Daniela; Steinem, Claudia

    2013-11-19

    Phosphoinositides and in particular L-α-phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) are key lipids controlling many cellular events and serve as receptors for a large number of intracellular proteins. To quantitatively analyze protein-PIP2 interactions in vitro in a time-resolved manner, planar membranes on solid substrates are highly desirable. Here, we describe an optimized protocol to form PIP2 containing planar solid supported membranes on silicon surfaces by vesicle spreading. Supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) were obtained by spreading POPC/PIP2 (92:8) small unilamellar vesicles onto hydrophilic silicon substrates at a low pH of 4.8. These membranes were capable of binding ezrin, resulting in large protein coverage as concluded from reflectometric interference spectroscopy and fluorescence microscopy. As deduced from fluorescence microscopy, only under low pH conditions, a homogeneously appearing distribution of fluorescently labeled PIP2 molecules in the membrane was achieved. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching experiments revealed that PIP2 is not mobile in the bottom layer of the SLBs, while PIP2 is fully mobile in the top layer with diffusion coefficients of about 3 μm(2)/s. This diffusion coefficient was considerably reduced by a factor of about 3 if ezrin has been bound to PIP2 in the membrane.

  8. Edge states in twisted bilayer graphene: quantum spin Hall and electron-hole bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Yamagishi, Javier D.; Luo, Jason; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo

    2015-03-01

    Twisted bilayer graphene offers a unique platform for studying 1d edge states in a bilayer 2-dimensional electron gas. Despite being spaced by only 0.34 nm, a large interlayer twist decouples the layers in the bulk, while opening the door for interesting interactions at the edges. To probe this physics, we study the electronic transport through quantum Hall edge modes in twisted bilayer graphene devices. Using dual electrostatic gates, we independently control the filling factor of each layer to form different combinations of bilayer edge states while measuring their conductance. The most dramatic transport effects are observed when the layers are doped to have edge states of opposite chiralities, resulting in coexisting electron- and hole-like states. We will present evidence that, in this regime, the twisted bilayer graphene can form a quantum spin Hall state where edge states in each layer counter-propagate in opposite directions with opposite spin polarizations. This bilayer realization offers a flexible system to study quantum spin Hall edge transport as well as to build more complex 1d circuits. We will also discuss the possibility for fractional generalizations of this edge physics and our measurements of the fractional QHE in twisted bilayer graphene.

  9. Possible mechanism of adhesion in a mica supported phospholipid bilayer

    SciTech Connect

    Pertsin, Alexander; Grunze, Michael

    2014-05-14

    Phospholipid bilayers supported on hydrophilic solids like silica and mica play a substantial role in fundamental studies and technological applications of phospholipid membranes. In both cases the molecular mechanism of adhesion between the bilayer and the support is of primary interest. Since the possibilities of experimental methods in this specific area are rather limited, the methods of computer simulation acquire great importance. In this paper we use the grand canonical Monte Carlo technique and an atomistic force field to simulate the behavior of a mica supported phospholipid bilayer in pure water as a function of the distance between the bilayer and the support. The simulation reveals a possible adhesion mechanism, where the adhesion is due to individual lipid molecules that protrude from the bilayer and form widely spaced links with the support. Simultaneously, the bilayer remains separated from the bilayer by a thin water interlayer which maintains the bilayer fluidity.

  10. Magnetic ratchet effect in bilayer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kheirabadi, Narjes; McCann, Edward; Fal'ko, Vladimir I.

    2016-10-01

    We consider the orbital effect of an in-plane magnetic field on electrons in bilayer graphene, deriving linear-in-field contributions to the low-energy Hamiltonian arising from the presence of either skew interlayer coupling or interlayer potential asymmetry, the latter being tunable by an external metallic gate. To illustrate the relevance of such terms, we consider the ratchet effect in which a dc current results from the application of an alternating electric field in the presence of an in-plane magnetic field and inversion-symmetry breaking. By comparison with recent experimental observations in monolayer graphene [C. Drexler et al., Nat. Nanotechnol. 8, 104 (2013), 10.1038/nnano.2012.231], we estimate that the effect in bilayer graphene can be two orders of magnitude greater than that in monolayer graphene, illustrating that the bilayer is an ideal material for the realization of optoelectronic effects that rely on inversion-symmetry breaking.

  11. Layer resolved capacitive probing of graphene bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zibrov, Alexander; Parmentier, François; Li, Jia; Wang, Lei; Hunt, Benjamin; Dean, Cory; Hone, James; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Young, Andrea

    Compared to single layer graphene, graphene bilayers have an additional ``which-layer'' degree of freedom that can be controlled by an external electric field in a dual-gated device geometry. We describe capacitance measurements capable of directly probing this degree of freedom. By performing top gate, bottom gate, and penetration field capacitance measurements, we directly extract layer polarization of both Bernal and twisted bilayers. We will present measurements of hBN encapsulated bilayers at both zero and high magnetic field, focusing on the physics of the highly degenerate zero-energy Landau level in the high magnetic field limit where spin, valley, and layer degeneracy are all lifted by electronic interactions.

  12. Spin precession modulation in a magnetic bilayer

    SciTech Connect

    Stupakiewicz, A.; Maziewski, A.; Pashkevich, M.; Stognij, A.; Novitskii, N.

    2012-12-24

    We report on modulation of the spin precession in a Co/garnet bilayer by femtosecond laser excitation using time-resolved magneto-optical tools. Damped oscillations in the Faraday rotation transients representing precessional motion of the magnetization vector are observed in both the 2 nm Co layer and 1.8 {mu}m garnet of the bilayer with distinct frequencies differing by about a factor of two. The excitation efficiency of these precessions strongly depends on the out-of-plane magnetic field. The modulation effect with the coupling in a magnetic bilayer can be useful for non-thermally controlling the magnetization of nanomagnets and ultrafast switching in magnetic nanodevices.

  13. Supported lipid bilayer/carbon nanotube hybrids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xinjian; Moran-Mirabal, Jose M.; Craighead, Harold G.; McEuen, Paul L.

    2007-03-01

    Carbon nanotube transistors combine molecular-scale dimensions with excellent electronic properties, offering unique opportunities for chemical and biological sensing. Here, we form supported lipid bilayers over single-walled carbon nanotube transistors. We first study the physical properties of the nanotube/supported lipid bilayer structure using fluorescence techniques. Whereas lipid molecules can diffuse freely across the nanotube, a membrane-bound protein (tetanus toxin) sees the nanotube as a barrier. Moreover, the size of the barrier depends on the diameter of the nanotube-with larger nanotubes presenting bigger obstacles to diffusion. We then demonstrate detection of protein binding (streptavidin) to the supported lipid bilayer using the nanotube transistor as a charge sensor. This system can be used as a platform to examine the interactions of single molecules with carbon nanotubes and has many potential applications for the study of molecular recognition and other biological processes occurring at cell membranes.

  14. Poly-l-lysines and poly-l-arginines induce leakage of negatively charged phospholipid vesicles and translocate through the lipid bilayer upon electrostatic binding to the membrane.

    PubMed

    Reuter, Marcel; Schwieger, Christian; Meister, Annette; Karlsson, Göran; Blume, Alfred

    2009-09-01

    Poly-l-lysines (PLL) and poly-l-arginines (PLA) of different polymer chain lengths interact strongly with negatively charged phospholipid vesicles mainly due to their different electrical charges. 1-Palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol (POPG), 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol (DPPG) and their mixtures (1/1 mol/mol) with the respective phosphatidylcholines of equivalent chain length were chosen as model membrane systems that form at room temperature either the fluid L(alpha) or the gel phase L(beta) lipid bilayer membranes, respectively. Leakage experiments revealed that the fluid POPG membranes are more perturbed compared to the gel phase DPPG membranes upon peptide binding. Furthermore, it was found that pure PG membranes are more prone to release the vesicle contents as a result of pore formation than the lipid mixtures POPG/POPC and DPPG/DPPC. For the longer polymers (>or=44 amino acids) maximal dye-release was observed when the molar ratio of the concentrations of amino acid residues to charged lipid molecules reached a value of R(P)=0.5, i.e. when the outer membrane layer was theoretically entirely covered by the polymer. At ratios lower or higher than 0.5 leakage dropped significantly. Furthermore, PLL and PLA insertions and/or translocations through lipid membranes were analyzed by using FITC-labeled polymers by monitoring their fluorescence intensity upon membrane binding. Short PLL molecules and PLA molecules of all lengths seemed to translocate through both fluid and gel phase lipid bilayers. Comparison of the PLL and PLA fluorescence assay results showed that PLA interacts stronger with phospholipid membranes compared to PLL. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) measurements were performed to give further insight into these mechanisms and to support the findings obtained by fluorescence assays. Cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) was used to visualize changes in the vesicles' morphology after addition of the

  15. Diffusion coefficients in leaflets of bilayer membranes.

    PubMed

    Seki, Kazuhiko; Mogre, Saurabh; Komura, Shigeyuki

    2014-02-01

    We study diffusion coefficients of liquid domains by explicitly taking into account the two-layered structure called leaflets of the bilayer membrane. In general, the velocity fields associated with each leaflet are different and the layers sliding past each other cause frictional coupling. We obtain analytical results of diffusion coefficients for a circular liquid domain in a leaflet, and quantitatively study their dependence on the interleaflet friction. We also show that the diffusion coefficients diverge in the absence of coupling between the bilayer and solvents, even when the interleaflet friction is taken into account. In order to corroborate our theory, the effect of the interleaflet friction on the correlated diffusion is examined.

  16. Temperature effect on plasmons in bilayer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Digish K.; Sharma, A. C.; Ashraf, S. S. Z.; Ambavale, S. K.

    2015-06-01

    We have theoretically investigated the plasmon dispersion and damping rate of doped bilayer graphene (BLG) at finite temperatures within the random phase approximation. Our computed results on plasmon dispersion show that plasmon frequency enhances with increasing temperatures in contrast to single layer graphene where it is suppressed. This can be attributed to the fact that the dynamic response of the electron gas or screening in bilayer graphene is different from that of single layer graphene. Further the temperature effect on damping rate is also discussed.

  17. Finite element modeling of lipid bilayer membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Feng; Klug, William S.

    2006-12-01

    A numerical simulation framework is presented for the study of biological membranes composed of lipid bilayers based on the finite element method. The classic model for these membranes employs a two-dimensional-fluid-like elastic constitutive law which is sensitive to curvature, and subjects vesicles to physically imposed constraints on surface area and volume. This model is implemented numerically via the use of C1-conforming triangular Loop subdivision finite elements. The validity of the framework is tested by computing equilibrium shapes from previously-determined axisymmetric shape-phase diagram of lipid bilayer vesicles with homogeneous material properties. Some of the benefits and challenges of finite element modeling of lipid bilayer systems are discussed, and it is indicated how this framework is natural for future investigation of biologically realistic bilayer structures involving nonaxisymmetric geometries, binding and adhesive interactions, heterogeneous mechanical properties, cytoskeletal interactions, and complex loading arrangements. These biologically relevant features have important consequences for the shape mechanics of nonidealized vesicles and cells, and their study requires not simply advances in theory, but also advances in numerical simulation techniques, such as those presented here.

  18. Simulation Studies of Alamethicin-Bilayer Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Biggin, P. C.; Breed, J.; Son, H. S.; Sansom, M. S. P.

    1997-01-01

    Alamethicin is an α-helical peptide that forms voltage-activated ion channels. Experimental data suggest that channel formation occurs via voltage-dependent insertion of alamethicin helices into lipid bilayers, followed by self-assembly of inserted helices to form a parallel helix bundle. Changes in the kink angle of the alamethicin helix about its central proline residue have also been suggested to play a role in channel gating. Alamethicin helices generated by simulated annealing and restrained molecular dynamics adopt a kink angle similar to that in the x-ray crystal structure, even if such simulations start with an idealized unkinked helix. This suggests that the kinked helix represents a stable conformation of the molecule. Molecular dynamics simulations in the presence of a simple bilayer model and a transbilayer voltage difference are used to explore possible mechanisms of helix insertion. The bilayer is represented by a hydrophobicity potential. An alamethicin helix inserts spontaneously in the absence of a transbilayer voltage. Application of a cis positive voltage decreases the time to insertion. The helix kink angle fluctuates during the simulations. Insertion of the helix is associated with a decrease in the mean kink angle, thus helping the alamethicin molecule to span the bilayer. The simulation results are discussed in terms of models of alamethicin channel gating. ImagesFIGURE 1FIGURE 6 PMID:9017192

  19. electric dipole superconductor in bilayer exciton system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Qing-Feng; Jiang, Qing-Dong; Bao, Zhi-Qiang; Xie, X. C.

    Recently, it was reported that the bilayer exciton systems could exhibit many new phenomena, including the large bilayer counterflow conductivity, the Coulomb drag, etc. These phenomena imply the formation of exciton condensate superfluid state. On the other hand, it is now well known that the superconductor is the condensate superfluid state of the Cooper pairs, which can be viewed as electric monopoles. In other words, the superconductor state is the electric monopole condensate superfluid state. Thus, one may wonder whether there exists electric dipole superfluid state. In this talk, we point out that the exciton in a bilayer system can be considered as a charge neutral electric dipole. And we derive the London-type and Ginzburg-Landau-type equations of electric dipole superconductivity. From these equations, we discover the Meissner-type effect (against spatial variation of magnetic fields), and the dipole current Josephson effect. The frequency in the AC Josephson effect of the dipole current is equal to that in the normal (monopole) superconductor. These results can provide direct evidence for the formation of exciton superfluid state in the bilayer systems and pave new ways to obtain the electric dipole current. We gratefully acknowledge the financial support by NBRP of China (2012CB921303 and 2015CB921102) and NSF-China under Grants Nos. 11274364 and 11574007.

  20. Molecular dynamics simulation of dipalmitoylphosphatidylserine bilayer with Na+ counterions.

    PubMed Central

    Pandit, Sagar A; Berkowitz, Max L

    2002-01-01

    We performed a molecular dynamics simulation of dipalmitoylphosphatidylserine (DPPS) bilayer with Na+ counterions. We found that hydrogen bonding between the NH group and the phosphate group leads to a reduction in the area per headgroup when compared to the area in dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine bilayer. The Na+ ions bind to the oxygen in the carboxyl group of serine, thus giving rise to a dipolar bilayer similar to dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine bilayer. The results of the simulation show that counterions play a crucial role in determining the structural and electrostatic properties of DPPS bilayer. PMID:11916841

  1. Electronic properties of graphene-based bilayer systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozhkov, A. V.; Sboychakov, A. O.; Rakhmanov, A. L.; Nori, Franco

    2016-08-01

    This article reviews the theoretical and experimental work related to the electronic properties of bilayer graphene systems. Three types of bilayer stackings are discussed: the AA, AB, and twisted bilayer graphene. This review covers single-electron properties, effects of static electric and magnetic fields, bilayer-based mesoscopic systems, spin-orbit coupling, dc transport and optical response, as well as spontaneous symmetry violation and other interaction effects. The selection of the material aims to introduce the reader to the most commonly studied topics of theoretical and experimental research in bilayer graphene.

  2. The interaction of polyphenols with bilayers: conditions for increasing bilayer adhesion.

    PubMed Central

    Huh, N W; Porter, N A; McIntosh, T J; Simon, S A

    1996-01-01

    Because proteins and other molecules with a high polyphenol content are commonly involved in adhesion processes, we are investigating the interactions between polyphenols and biological materials. A naturally occurring polyphenol that binds a variety of proteins and lipids is tannic acid (TA), which contains five digallic acid residues covalently linked to a central D-glucose. A previous study has shown that TA increases the adhesion between apposing phosphatidylcholine (PC) bilayers and over a very narrow concentration range collapses the interbilayer fluid space from about 15 A to 5 A. To determine the chemical requirements a polyphenolic molecule must possess to increase bilayer adhesion, we have synthesized several simpler TA analogs that vary in their size, shape, and number of gallic acid and hydroxyl groups. X-ray diffraction, absorbance, binding, and differential scanning calorimetry measurements were used to investigate the interaction of these polyphenolic molecules with egg PC (EPC) and dipalmitoyl PC (DPPC) bilayers. Of these synthetic polyphenols, only penta-O-galloyl-alpha-D-glucose (PGG) was able to completely mimic the effects of TA by collapsing the interbilayer fluid space from 15 A to 5 A, decreasing the dipole potential by about 300 mV, increasing the transition enthalpy of DPPC liposomes, and inducing an interdigitated phase in DPPC. Binding studies indicated that the fluid space was reduced to 5 A at an EPC:PGG mole ratio of 5:1. We conclude that these polyphenols collapse the fluid space of PC bilayers because they 1) are amphipathic and partition into the bilayers interfacial region, 2) are long enough to span the interbilayer space, 3) contain several gallic acids distributed so that they can partition simultaneously into apposing bilayers, and 4) have sufficient gallic acid residues to interact with all lipid headgroups and cover the bilayer surface. Under these conditions we conclude that the polyphenols from interbilayer bridges. We

  3. Expression and recovery of biologically active recombinant Apolipoprotein AI(Milano) from transgenic safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) seeds.

    PubMed

    Nykiforuk, Cory L; Shen, Yin; Murray, Elizabeth W; Boothe, Joseph G; Busseuil, David; Rhéaume, Eric; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Reid, Alexandra; Moloney, Maurice M

    2011-02-01

    Apolipoprotein AI Milano (ApoAI(Milano) ) was expressed as a fusion protein in transgenic safflower seeds. High levels of expression corresponding to 7 g of ApoAI(Milano) per kilogram of seed have been identified in a line selected for commercialization. The ApoAI(Milano) fusion protein was extracted from seed using an oilbody-based process and matured in vitro prior to final purification. This yielded a Des-1,2-ApoAI(Milano) product which was confirmed by biochemical characterization including immunoreactivity against ApoAI antibodies, isoelectric point, N-terminal sequencing and electrospray mass spectrometry. Purified Des-1,2-ApoAI(Milano) readily associated with dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine in clearance assays comparable to Human ApoAI. Its biological activity was assessed by cholesterol efflux assays using Des-1,2-ApoAI(Milano) :1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl phosphatidylcholine complexes in vitro and in vivo. This study has established that high levels of biologically functional ApoAI(Milano) can be produced using a plant-based expression system.

  4. Structural analogs of pulmonary surfactant phosphatidylglycerol inhibit toll-like receptor 2 and 4 signaling.

    PubMed

    Kandasamy, Pitchaimani; Numata, Mari; Berry, Karin Zemski; Fickes, Rachel; Leslie, Christina C; Murphy, Robert C; Voelker, Dennis R

    2016-06-01

    The pulmonary surfactant phospholipid, 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoylphosphatidylglycerol (POPG), potently inhibits toll-like receptor (TLR)2 and TLR4 signaling from the cell surface of macrophages. Analogs of POPG that vary in polar head group length, hydroxylation, and alkyl branching were synthesized using a phospholipase D-catalyzed transphosphatidylation reaction and a 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl phosphatidylcholine substrate. Lipid analogs with C3 and C4 alkyl head group length (POP-propanol and POP-butanol) are less effective than POPG as TLR2 and TLR4 antagonists. However, adding a hydroxyl group at the alkyl chain 3- or 4-position (POP-propanediols or POP-butanediols) greatly increased their inhibitory effects against TLR2 and TLR4. POP-2',2'-dimethylpropanediol is a weak inhibitor of TLR2 and TLR4 activation that results in arachidonic acid release, but an effective inhibitor of TLR4 activation that results in TNF-α production. Addition of an amino group at the alkyl-2 position (POP-2'-aminopropanediol) completely abolished the antagonism of TLRs 2 and 4. Multiple analogs strongly bind to the TLR4 coreceptors, cluster of differentiation 14 (CD14) and myeloid differentiation 2, but competition for di[3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonyl]-lipid A binding to CD14 is the best predictor of biological activity at the cellular level. Collectively, these findings identify new compounds for antagonizing TLR2 and TLR4 activation and define structural properties of POPG analogs for discriminating between two TLR systems.

  5. Phase Behavior and Domain Size in Sphingomyelin-Containing Lipid Bilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Petruzielo, Robin S; Heberle, Frederick A; Drazba, Paul; Katsaras, John; Feigenson, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Membrane raft size measurements are crucial to understanding the stability and functionality of rafts in cells. The challenge of accurately measuring raft size is evidenced by the disparate reports of domain sizes, which range from nanometers to microns for the ternary model membrane system sphingomyelin (SM)/1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC)/cholesterol (Chol). Using F rster resonance energy transfer (FRET) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), we established phase diagrams for porcine brain SM (bSM)/dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC)/Chol and bSM/POPC/Chol at 15 and 25 C. By combining two techniqueswith different spatial sensitivities, namely FRET and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS),we have significantly narrowed the uncertainty in domain size estimates for bSM/POPC/Chol mixtures. Compositional trends in FRET data revealed coexisting domains at 15 and 25 C for bothmixtures, while SANS measurements detected no domain formation for bSM/POPC/Chol. Together these results indicate that liquid domains in bSM/POPC/Chol are between 2 and 7 nmin radius at 25 C: that is, domains must be on the order of the 2 6 nmF rster distance of the FRET probes, but smaller than the ~7 nm minimum cluster size detectable with SANS. However, for palmitoyl SM (PSM)/POPC/Chol at a similar composition, SANS detected coexisting liquid domains. This increase in domain size upon replacing the natural SMcomponent (which consists of amixture of chain lengths) with synthetic PSM, suggests a role for SM chain length in modulating raft size in vivo.

  6. Phase Behavior and Domain Size in Sphingomyelin-Containing Lipid Bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Petruzielo, Robin S.; Heberle, Frederick A.; Drazba, Paul; Katsaras, John; Feigenson, Gerald W.

    2013-01-01

    Membrane raft size measurements are crucial to understanding the stability and functionality of rafts in cells. The challenge of accurately measuring raft size is evidenced by the disparate reports of domain sizes, which range from nanometers to microns for the ternary model membrane system sphingomyelin (SM)/1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC)/cholesterol (Chol). Using Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), we established phase diagrams for porcine brain SM (bSM)/dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC)/Chol and bSM/POPC/Chol at 15 and 25°C. By combining two techniques with different spatial sensitivities, namely FRET and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), we have significantly narrowed the uncertainty in domain size estimates for bSM/POPC/Chol mixtures. Compositional trends in FRET data revealed coexisting domains at 15 and 25°C for both mixtures, while SANS measurements detected no domain formation for bSM/POPC/Chol. Together these results indicate that liquid domains in bSM/POPC/Chol are between 2 and 7 nm in radius at 25°C: that is, domains must be on the order of the 2–6 nm Förster distance of the FRET probes, but smaller than the ~7 nm minimum cluster size detectable with SANS. However, for palmitoyl SM (PSM)/POPC/Chol at a similar composition, SANS detected coexisting liquid domains. This increase in domain size upon replacing the natural SM component (which consists of a mixture of chain lengths) with synthetic PSM, suggests a role for SM chain length in modulating raft size in vivo. PMID:23337475

  7. Enhanced stability of freestanding lipid bilayer and its stability criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Dae-Woong; Jang, Hyunwoo; Choi, Siyoung Q.; Choi, Myung Chul

    2016-12-01

    We present a new strategy to dramatically enhance the stability of freestanding lipid bilayers. We found that an addition of a water in oil emulsion stabilizer, SPAN 80 to a solvent phase guarantees nearly millimeter-scale stable freestanding lipid bilayers. The water permeability, bilayer area, contact angle, and interfacial tension were measured as a function of time and SPAN 80-to-lipid weight ratio (ΦSPAN 80) with several different solvents. Surprisingly, the SPAN 80, instead of remaining in the bilayer, was moved out of the bilayer during the bilayer formation. Also we studied the effect of solvent on freestanding bilayer formation, and found that squalene was the only solvent that was not incorporated into the bilayer. The regime of stable bilayer formation was experimentally determined to be 3/1 < ΦSPAN 80 < 15/1, and we suggest general stability criteria for bilayer formation. This technique and the suggested stability criteria can be potentially helpful to many model membrane-based researches in life sciences, physical sciences and biomedical engineering fields.

  8. Enhanced stability of freestanding lipid bilayer and its stability criteria

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Dae-Woong; Jang, Hyunwoo; Choi, Siyoung Q.; Choi, Myung Chul

    2016-01-01

    We present a new strategy to dramatically enhance the stability of freestanding lipid bilayers. We found that an addition of a water in oil emulsion stabilizer, SPAN 80 to a solvent phase guarantees nearly millimeter-scale stable freestanding lipid bilayers. The water permeability, bilayer area, contact angle, and interfacial tension were measured as a function of time and SPAN 80-to-lipid weight ratio (ΦSPAN 80) with several different solvents. Surprisingly, the SPAN 80, instead of remaining in the bilayer, was moved out of the bilayer during the bilayer formation. Also we studied the effect of solvent on freestanding bilayer formation, and found that squalene was the only solvent that was not incorporated into the bilayer. The regime of stable bilayer formation was experimentally determined to be 3/1 < ΦSPAN 80 < 15/1, and we suggest general stability criteria for bilayer formation. This technique and the suggested stability criteria can be potentially helpful to many model membrane-based researches in life sciences, physical sciences and biomedical engineering fields. PMID:27982049

  9. Resonance Raman spectroscopy in twisted bilayer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Righi, A.; Venezuela, P.; Chacham, H.; Costa, S. D.; Fantini, C.; Ruoff, R. S.; Colombo, L.; Bacsa, W. S.; Pimenta, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    In this work we study the Raman spectra of twisted bilayer graphene samples, with different twisting angles, by changing the incident laser energy between 2.54 and 4.14 eV. The spectra exhibit a number of extra peaks, classified in different families, each one associated with bilayer graphenes with different twisting rotational angles. We theoretically analyze the laser energy dependence of these extra peaks considering a set of discrete wavevectors within the interior of the Brillouin zone of graphene, which activate special double-resonance Raman processes. Our result show a nice qualitative agreement between the experimental and simulated spectra, demonstrating that these extra peaks are indeed ascribed to an umklapp double-resonance process in graphene systems.

  10. Epitaxial oxide bilayer on Pt(001) nanofacts.

    SciTech Connect

    Hennessy, D.; Komanicky, V.; Iddir, H.; Pierce, M. S.; Menzel, A.; Chang, K-C.; Barbour, A.; Zapol, P.; You, H.

    2012-01-01

    We observed an epitaxial, air-stable, partially registered (2 x 1) oxide bilayer on Pt (001) nanofacets [V. Komanicky, A. Menzel, K.-C. Chang, and H. You, J. Phys. Chem. 109, 23543 (2005)]. The bilayer is made of two half Pt layers; the top layer has four oxygen bonds and the second layer two. The positions and oxidation states of the Pt atoms are determined by analyzing crystal truncation rods and resonance scattering data. The positions of oxygen atoms are determined by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Partial registry on the nanofacets and the absence of such registry on the extended Pt (001) surface prepared similarly are explained in DFT calculations by strain relief that can be accommodated only by nanoscale facets.

  11. Electric Octupole Order in Bilayer Rashba System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hitomi, Takanori; Yanase, Youichi

    2016-12-01

    The odd-parity multipole is an emergent degree of freedom, leading to spontaneous inversion symmetry breaking. The odd-parity multipole order may occur by forming staggered even-parity multipoles in a unit cell. We focus on a locally noncentrosymmetric bilayer Rashba system, and study an odd-parity electric octupole order caused by the antiferro stacking of local electric quadrupoles. Analyzing the forward scattering model, we show that the electric octupole order is stabilized by a layer-dependent Rashba spin-orbit coupling. The roles of the spin-orbit coupling are clarified on the basis of the analytic formula of multipole susceptibility. The spin texture allowed in the D2d point group symmetry and its magnetic response are revealed. Furthermore, we show that the parity-breaking quantum critical point appears in the magnetic field. The possible realization of the electric octupole order in bilayer high-Tc cuprate superconductors is discussed.

  12. Impurities and electronic localization in graphene bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojeda Collado, H. P.; Usaj, Gonzalo; Balseiro, C. A.

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the electronic properties of bilayer graphene with Bernal stacking and a low concentration of adatoms. Assuming that the host bilayer lies on top of a substrate, we consider the case where impurities are adsorbed only on the upper layer. We describe nonmagnetic impurities as a single orbital hybridized with carbon's pz states. The effect of impurity doping on the local density of states with and without a gated electric field perpendicular to the layers is analyzed. We look for Anderson localization in the different regimes and estimate the localization length. In the biased system, the field-induced gap is partially filled by strongly localized impurity states. Interestingly, the structure, distribution, and localization length of these states depend on the field polarization.

  13. Phase Behavior of Lipid Bilayers under Tension

    PubMed Central

    Uline, Mark J.; Schick, M.; Szleifer, Igal

    2012-01-01

    Given the proposed importance of membrane tension in regulating cellular functions, we explore the effects of a finite surface tension on phase equilibrium using a molecular theory that captures the quantitative structure of the phase diagram of the tensionless DPPC/DOPC/Cholesterol lipid bilayer. We find that an increase in the surface tension decreases the temperature of the transition from liquid to gel in a pure DPPC system by ∼1.0 K/(mN/m), and decreases the liquid-disordered to liquid-ordered transition at constant chemical potentials by approximately the same amount. Our results quantitatively isolate the role of tension in comparison to other thermodynamic factors, such as pressure, in determining the phase behavior of lipid bilayers. PMID:22325274

  14. Epitaxial oxide bilayer on Pt (001) nanofacets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennessy, Daniel; Komanicky, Vladimir; Iddir, Hakim; Pierce, Michael S.; Menzel, Andreas; Chang, Kee-Chul; Barbour, Andi; Zapol, Peter; You, Hoydoo

    2012-01-01

    We observed an epitaxial, air-stable, partially registered (2 × 1) oxide bilayer on Pt (001) nanofacets [V. Komanicky, A. Menzel, K.-C. Chang, and H. You, J. Phys. Chem. 109, 23543 (2005)]. The bilayer is made of two half Pt layers; the top layer has four oxygen bonds and the second layer two. The positions and oxidation states of the Pt atoms are determined by analyzing crystal truncation rods and resonance scattering data. The positions of oxygen atoms are determined by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Partial registry on the nanofacets and the absence of such registry on the extended Pt (001) surface prepared similarly are explained in DFT calculations by strain relief that can be accommodated only by nanoscale facets.

  15. Random bilayer phases of dilute surfactant solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cates, M. E.; Roux, D.

    1990-12-01

    Surfactant molecules in dilute solution may aggregate reversibly into extended structures. For suitably chosen molecules, the preferred packing involves a locally flat bilayer which tends to wander entropically at large distances. At low temperatures (and/or high concentrations) the system forms a stack of flat sheets with one-dimensional quasi-long range order (a smectic liquid crystal), but at high temperatures or low concentrations, the stack can melt into a random surface structure that resembles a multiply connected labyrinth or 'sponge' of bilayer in a sea of solvent. Recent theoretical and experimental progress in understanding the properties of the sponge is reviewed. The authors argue that the sponge phase may provide a good system for the study of various liquid-state critical phenomena.

  16. How Bilayer Graphene Got a Bandgap

    SciTech Connect

    Feng Wang

    2009-06-02

    Graphene is the two-dimensional crystalline form of carbon, whose extraordinary electron mobility and other unique features hold great promise for nanoscale electronics and photonics. But theres a catch: graphene has no bandgap. Now Feng Wang and his colleagues at Berkeley Lab and UC Berkeley have engineered a bandgap in bilayer graphene that can be precisely controlled from 0 to 250 milli-electron volts, which is the energy of infrared radiation.

  17. How Bilayer Graphene Got a Bandgap

    ScienceCinema

    Wang, Feng

    2016-07-12

    Graphene is the two-dimensional crystalline form of carbon, whose extraordinary electron mobility and other unique features hold great promise for nanoscale electronics and photonics. But theres a catch: graphene has no bandgap. Now Feng Wang and his colleagues at Berkeley Lab and UC Berkeley have engineered a bandgap in bilayer graphene that can be precisely controlled from 0 to 250 milli-electron volts, which is the energy of infrared radiation.

  18. Stability analysis of the pulmonary liquid bilayer.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halpern, David; Grotberg, James

    2010-11-01

    The lung consists of liquid-lined compliant airways that convey air to and from the alveoli where gas exchange takes place. Because the airways are coated with a bilayer consisting of a mucus layer on top of a periciliary fluid layer, a surface tension instability can generate flows within the bilayer and induce the formation of liquid plugs that block the passage of air. This is a problem for example with premature neonates whose lungs do not produce sufficient quantities of surfactant and suffer from respiratory distress syndrome. To study this instability a system of coupled nonlinear evolution equations are derived using lubrication theory for the thicknesses of the two liquid layers which are assumed to be Newtonian. A normal mode analysis is used to investigate the initial growth of the disturbances, and reveals how the grow rate is affected by the ratio of viscosities λ, film thicknesses η and surface tensions δ of the two layers which can change by disease. Numerical solutions of the evolution equations show that there is a critical bilayer thickness ɛc above which closure occurs, and that a more viscous and thicker layer compared to the periciliary layer closes more slowly. However, ɛcis weakly dependent on λ, η and δ. We also examine the potential impact of wall shear stress and normal stress on cell damage. This work is funded by NIH HL85156.

  19. Structure of twisted and buckled bilayer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Sandeep K.; Juričić, Vladimir; Barkema, Gerard T.

    2017-03-01

    We study the atomic structure of twisted bilayer graphene, with very small mismatch angles (θ ∼ {0.28}0), a topic of intense recent interest. We use simulations, in which we combine a recently presented semi-empirical potential for single-layer graphene, with a new term for out-of-plane deformations, (Jain et al 2015 J. Phys. Chem. C 119 9646) and an often-used interlayer potential (Kolmogorov et al 2005 Phys. Rev. B 71 235415). This combination of potentials is computationally cheap but accurate and precise at the same time, allowing us to study very large samples, which is necessary to reach very small mismatch angles in periodic samples. By performing large scale atomistic simulations, we show that the vortices appearing in the Moiré pattern in the twisted bilayer graphene samples converge to a constant size in the thermodynamic limit. Furthermore, the well known sinusoidal behavior of energy no longer persists once the misorientation angle becomes very small (θ \\lt {1}0). We also show that there is a significant buckling after the relaxation in the samples, with the buckling height proportional to the system size. These structural properties have direct consequences on the electronic and optical properties of bilayer graphene.

  20. Bilayer membrane interactions with nanofabricated scaffolds

    DOE PAGES

    Collier, C. Patrick

    2015-07-29

    Membrane function is facilitated by lateral organization within the lipid bilayer, including phase-separation of lipids into more ordered domains (lipid rafts) and anchoring of the membrane to a cytoskeleton. These features have proven difficult to reproduce in model membrane systems such as black lipid membranes, unilamellar vesicles and supported bilayers. However, advances in micro/nanofabrication have resulted in more realistic synthetic models of membrane-cytoskeleton interactions that can help uncover the design rules responsible for biological membrane formation and organization. This review will focus on describing micro-/nanostructured scaffolds that can emulate the connections of a cellular membrane to an underlying “cytoskeleton”. Thismore » includes molecular-based scaffolds anchored to a solid substrate through surface chemistry, solid-state supports modified by material deposition, lithography and etching, the creation of micro/nanoporous arrays, integration with microfluidics, and droplet-based bilayers at interfaces. Lastly, model systems such as these are increasing our understanding of structure and organization in cell membranes, and how they result in the emergence of functionality at the nanoscale.« less

  1. Bilayer membrane interactions with nanofabricated scaffolds

    SciTech Connect

    Collier, C. Patrick

    2015-07-29

    Membrane function is facilitated by lateral organization within the lipid bilayer, including phase-separation of lipids into more ordered domains (lipid rafts) and anchoring of the membrane to a cytoskeleton. These features have proven difficult to reproduce in model membrane systems such as black lipid membranes, unilamellar vesicles and supported bilayers. However, advances in micro/nanofabrication have resulted in more realistic synthetic models of membrane-cytoskeleton interactions that can help uncover the design rules responsible for biological membrane formation and organization. This review will focus on describing micro-/nanostructured scaffolds that can emulate the connections of a cellular membrane to an underlying “cytoskeleton”. This includes molecular-based scaffolds anchored to a solid substrate through surface chemistry, solid-state supports modified by material deposition, lithography and etching, the creation of micro/nanoporous arrays, integration with microfluidics, and droplet-based bilayers at interfaces. Lastly, model systems such as these are increasing our understanding of structure and organization in cell membranes, and how they result in the emergence of functionality at the nanoscale.

  2. Lipid bilayers suspended on microfabricated supports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogier, Simon D.; Bushby, Richard J.; Cheng, Yaling; Cox, Tim I.; Evans, Stephen D.; Knowles, Peter F.; Miles, Robert E.; Pattison, Ian

    2001-03-01

    The plasma membrane, that exists as part of many animal and plant cells, is a regulator for the transport of ions and small molecules across cell boundaries. Two main components involved are the phospholipid bilayer and the transport proteins. This paper details the construction of a micromachined support for bilayers (MSB) as a first step towards the development of highly selective and highly sensitive ion-channel based biosensors. The device consists of a ~100 micrometer hole in a polymeric support above a cavity that can hold ~25 nL of electrolyte. Electrodes attached to the structure allow the resistance of the membranes to be measured using d.c. conductivity. The MSB is made in two halves, using SU8 ultra-thick resist, which are subsequently bonded together to make the final structure. A layer of gold, surrounding the aperture, enables self-assembled monolayers of alkanethiols to be used to make the polymeric structure biocompatible. Lipid membranes have been formed over these holes with resistances comparable with those of natural membranes >10 MOhmcm^2. The ion-channel gramicidin has successfully been incorporated into the bilayer and its activity monitored. It is proposed that this type of device could be used not only for studying membrane transport phenomena but also as part of an ion-channel based biosensor.

  3. Self-folding graphene-polymer bilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Tao; Yoon, ChangKyu; Jin, Qianru; Li, Mingen; Liu, Zewen; Gracias, David H.

    2015-05-18

    In order to incorporate the extraordinary intrinsic thermal, electrical, mechanical, and optical properties of graphene with three dimensional (3D) flexible substrates, we introduce a solvent-driven self-folding approach using graphene-polymer bilayers. A polymer (SU-8) film was spin coated atop chemically vapor deposited graphene films on wafer substrates and graphene-polymer bilayers were patterned with or without metal electrodes using photolithography, thin film deposition, and etching. After patterning, the bilayers were released from the substrates and they self-folded to form fully integrated, curved, and folded structures. In contrast to planar graphene sensors on rigid substrates, we assembled curved and folded sensors that are flexible and they feature smaller form factors due to their 3D geometry and large surface areas due to their multiple rolled architectures. We believe that this approach could be used to assemble a range of high performance 3D electronic and optical devices of relevance to sensing, diagnostics, wearables, and energy harvesting.

  4. Diffusion in Single Supported Lipid Bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, C. L.; Trapp, M.; Rheinstädter, M. C.

    2011-03-01

    Despite their potential relevance for the development of functionalized surfaces and biosensors, the study of single supported membranes using neutron scattering has been limited by the challenge of obtaining relevant dynamic information from a sample with minimal material. Using state of the art neutron instrumentation we have, for the first time, modeled lipid diffusion in single supported lipid bilayers. While we find that the diffusion coefficient for the single bilayer system is comparable to a multi-lamellar lipid system, the molecular mechanism for lipid motion in the single bilayer is a continuous diffusion process with no sign of the flow-like ballistic motion reported in the stacked membrane system. In the future, these membranes will be used to hold and align proteins, mimicking physiological conditions enabling the study of protein structure, function and interactions in relevant and highly topical membrane/protein systems with minimal sample material. C.L. Armstrong, M.D. Kaye, M. Zamponi, E. Mamontov, M. Tyagi, T. Jenkins and M.C. Rheinstädter, Soft Matter Communication, 2010, Advance Article, DOI: 10.1039/C0SM00637H

  5. Molecular dynamics modelling of EGCG clusters on ceramide bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeo, Jingjie; Cheng, Yuan; Li, Weifeng; Zhang, Yong-Wei

    2015-12-01

    A novel method of atomistic modelling and characterization of both pure ceramide and mixed lipid bilayers is being developed, using only the General Amber ForceField. Lipid bilayers modelled as pure ceramides adopt hexagonal packing after equilibration, and the area per lipid and bilayer thickness are consistent with previously reported theoretical results. Mixed lipid bilayers are modelled as a combination of ceramides, cholesterol, and free fatty acids. This model is shown to be stable after equilibration. Green tea extract, also known as epigallocatechin-3-gallate, is introduced as a spherical cluster on the surface of the mixed lipid bilayer. It is demonstrated that the cluster is able to bind to the bilayers as a cluster without diffusing into the surrounding water.

  6. Method of fabricating lipid bilayer membranes on solid supports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cho, Nam-Joon (Inventor); Frank, Curtis W. (Inventor); Glenn, Jeffrey S. (Inventor); Cheong, Kwang Ho (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of producing a planar lipid bilayer on a solid support. With this method, a solution of lipid vesicles is first deposited on the solid support. Next, the lipid vesicles are destabilized by adding an amphipathic peptide solution to the lipid vesicle solution. This destabilization leads to production of a planar lipid bilayer on the solid support. The present invention also provides a supported planar lipid bilayer, where the planar lipid bilayer is made of naturally occurring lipids and the solid support is made of unmodified gold or titanium oxide. Preferably, the supported planar lipid bilayer is continuous. The planar lipid bilayer may be made of any naturally occurring lipid or mixture of lipids, including, but not limited to phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylinsitol, cardiolipin, cholesterol, and sphingomyelin.

  7. Molecular dynamics modelling of EGCG clusters on ceramide bilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Yeo, Jingjie; Cheng, Yuan; Li, Weifeng; Zhang, Yong-Wei

    2015-12-31

    A novel method of atomistic modelling and characterization of both pure ceramide and mixed lipid bilayers is being developed, using only the General Amber ForceField. Lipid bilayers modelled as pure ceramides adopt hexagonal packing after equilibration, and the area per lipid and bilayer thickness are consistent with previously reported theoretical results. Mixed lipid bilayers are modelled as a combination of ceramides, cholesterol, and free fatty acids. This model is shown to be stable after equilibration. Green tea extract, also known as epigallocatechin-3-gallate, is introduced as a spherical cluster on the surface of the mixed lipid bilayer. It is demonstrated that the cluster is able to bind to the bilayers as a cluster without diffusing into the surrounding water.

  8. The immiscible cholesterol bilayer domain exists as an integral part of phospholipid bilayer membranes.

    PubMed

    Raguz, Marija; Mainali, Laxman; Widomska, Justyna; Subczynski, Witold K

    2011-04-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin-labeling methods were used to study the organization of cholesterol and phospholipids in membranes formed from Chol/POPS (cholesterol/1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylserine) mixtures, with mixing ratios from 0 to 3. It was confirmed using the discrimination by oxygen transport and polar relaxation agent accessibility methods that the immiscible cholesterol bilayer domain (CBD) was present in all of the suspensions when the mixing ratio exceeded the cholesterol solubility threshold (CST) in the POPS membrane. The behavior of phospholipid molecules was monitored with phospholipid analogue spin labels (n-PCs), and the behavior of cholesterol was monitored with the cholesterol analogue spin labels CSL and ASL. Results indicated that phospholipid and cholesterol mixtures can form a membrane suspension up to a mixing ratio of ~2. Additionally, EPR spectra for n-PC, ASL, and CSL indicated that both phospholipids and cholesterol exist in these suspensions in the lipid-bilayer-like structures. EPR spectral characteristics of n-PCs (spin labels located in the phospholipid cholesterol bilayer, outside the CBD) change with increase in the cholesterol content up to and beyond the CST. These results present strong evidence that the CBD forms an integral part of the phospholipid bilayer when formed from a Chol/POPS mixture up to a mixing ratio of ~2. Interestingly, CSL in cholesterol alone (without phospholipids) when suspended in buffer does not detect formation of bilayer-like structures. A broad, single-line EPR signal is given, similar to that obtained for the dry film of cholesterol before addition of the buffer. This broad, single-line signal is also observed in suspensions formed for Chol/POPS mixtures (as a background signal) when the Chol/POPS ratio is much greater than 3. It is suggested that the EPR spin-labeling approach can discriminate and characterize the fraction of cholesterol that forms the CBD within the

  9. Intercalation of small hydrophobic molecules in lipid bilayers containing cholesterol

    SciTech Connect

    Worcester, D.L.; Hamacher, K.; Kaiser, H.; Kulasekere, R.; Torbet, J.

    1994-12-31

    Partitioning of small hydrophobic molecules into lipid bilayers containing cholesterol has been studied using the 2XC diffractometer at the University of Missouri Research Reactor. Locations of the compounds were determined by Fourier difference methods with data from both deuterated and undeuterated compounds introduced into the bilayers from the vapor phase. Data fitting procedures were developed for determining how well the compounds were localized. The compounds were found to be localized in a narrow region at the center of the hydrophobic layer, between the two halves of the bilayer. The structures are therefore intercalated structures with the long axis of the molecules in the plane of the bilayer.

  10. Faraday rotation in bilayer graphene-based integrated microcavity.

    PubMed

    Da, Hai-Xia; Yan, Xiao-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Bernal-stacked bilayer graphene has rich ground states with various broken symmetries, allowing the existence of magneto-optical (MO) effects even in the absence of an external magnetic field. Here we report controllable Faraday rotation (FR) of bilayer graphene induced by electrostatic gate voltage, whose value is 10 times smaller than the case of single layer graphene with a magnetic field. A proposed bilayer graphene-based microcavity configuration enables the enhanced FR angle due to the large localized electromagnetic field. Our results offer unique opportunities to apply bilayer graphene for MO devices.

  11. Functional One-Dimensional Lipid Bilayers on Carbon Nanotube Templates

    SciTech Connect

    Artyukhin, A; Shestakov, A; Harper, J; Bakajin, O; Stroeve, P; Noy, A

    2004-07-23

    We present one-dimensional (1-D) lipid bilayer structures that integrate carbon nanotubes with a key biological environment-phospholipid membrane. Our structures consist of lipid bilayers wrapped around carbon nanotubes modified with a hydrophilic polymer cushion layer. Despite high bilayer curvature, the lipid membrane maintains its fluidity and can sustain repeated damage-recovery cycles. We also present the first evidence of spontaneous insertion of pore-forming proteins into 1-D lipid bilayers. These structures could lead to the development of new classes of biosensors and bioelectronic devices.

  12. Bilayer-thickness-mediated interactions between integral membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Kahraman, Osman; Koch, Peter D; Klug, William S; Haselwandter, Christoph A

    2016-04-01

    Hydrophobic thickness mismatch between integral membrane proteins and the surrounding lipid bilayer can produce lipid bilayer thickness deformations. Experiment and theory have shown that protein-induced lipid bilayer thickness deformations can yield energetically favorable bilayer-mediated interactions between integral membrane proteins, and large-scale organization of integral membrane proteins into protein clusters in cell membranes. Within the continuum elasticity theory of membranes, the energy cost of protein-induced bilayer thickness deformations can be captured by considering compression and expansion of the bilayer hydrophobic core, membrane tension, and bilayer bending, resulting in biharmonic equilibrium equations describing the shape of lipid bilayers for a given set of bilayer-protein boundary conditions. Here we develop a combined analytic and numerical methodology for the solution of the equilibrium elastic equations associated with protein-induced lipid bilayer deformations. Our methodology allows accurate prediction of thickness-mediated protein interactions for arbitrary protein symmetries at arbitrary protein separations and relative orientations. We provide exact analytic solutions for cylindrical integral membrane proteins with constant and varying hydrophobic thickness, and develop perturbative analytic solutions for noncylindrical protein shapes. We complement these analytic solutions, and assess their accuracy, by developing both finite element and finite difference numerical solution schemes. We provide error estimates of our numerical solution schemes and systematically assess their convergence properties. Taken together, the work presented here puts into place an analytic and numerical framework which allows calculation of bilayer-mediated elastic interactions between integral membrane proteins for the complicated protein shapes suggested by structural biology and at the small protein separations most relevant for the crowded membrane

  13. Silica-based cationic bilayers as immunoadjuvants

    PubMed Central

    Lincopan, Nilton; Santana, Mariana RA; Faquim-Mauro, Eliana; da Costa, Maria Helena B; Carmona-Ribeiro, Ana M

    2009-01-01

    Background Silica particles cationized by dioctadecyldimethylammonium bromide (DODAB) bilayer were previously described. This work shows the efficiency of these particulates for antigen adsorption and presentation to the immune system and proves the concept that silica-based cationic bilayers exhibit better performance than alum regarding colloid stability and cellular immune responses for vaccine design. Results Firstly, the silica/DODAB assembly was characterized at 1 mM NaCl, pH 6.3 or 5 mM Tris.HCl, pH 7.4 and 0.1 mg/ml silica over a range of DODAB concentrations (0.001–1 mM) by means of dynamic light scattering for particle sizing and zeta-potential analysis. 0.05 mM DODAB is enough to produce cationic bilayer-covered particles with good colloid stability. Secondly, conditions for maximal adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) or a recombinant, heat-shock protein from Mycobacterium leprae (18 kDa-hsp) onto DODAB-covered or onto bare silica were determined. At maximal antigen adsorption, cellular immune responses in vivo from delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions determined by foot-pad swelling tests (DTH) and cytokines analysis evidenced the superior performance of the silica/DODAB adjuvant as compared to alum or antigens alone whereas humoral response from IgG in serum was equal to the one elicited by alum as adjuvant. Conclusion Cationized silica is a biocompatible, inexpensive, easily prepared and possibly general immunoadjuvant for antigen presentation which displays higher colloid stability than alum, better performance regarding cellular immune responses and employs very low, micromolar doses of cationic and toxic synthetic lipid. PMID:19152701

  14. Confinement of 5CB Between Lyotropic Bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolbashian, Cory; Mahmood, Rizwan; Bellini, Tommaso; Clark, Noel

    2013-03-01

    We report phase behavior of mixtures of 5CB (4-Cyano-4'-Pentyl-1, 1'-biphenyl), a calamitic thermotropic liquid crystal, with mixtures of the lyotropic double tailed cationic surfactant DDAB (diodecyldimethylammonium-bromide) and water. These mixtures had a fixed ratio of DDAB to water (75% / 25%) and 5CB concentrations ranging from 10% to 85%. Our preliminary phase diagram suggests transition from isotropic to lamellar phase having higher birefringence at higher DDAB concentration. We have also observed low vale of birefringence at lower DDAB concentration suggesting swelling of bilayers.

  15. Dissipation and tunneling in quantum Hall bilayers.

    PubMed

    Jack, Robert L; Lee, Derek K K; Cooper, Nigel R

    2004-09-17

    We discuss the interplay between transport and intrinsic dissipation in quantum Hall bilayers, within the framework of a simple thought experiment. We compute, for the first time, quantum corrections to the semiclassical dynamics of this system. This allows us to reinterpret tunneling measurements on these systems. We find a strong peak in the zero-temperature tunneling current that arises from the decay of Josephson-like oscillations into incoherent charge fluctuations. In the presence of an in-plane field, resonances in the tunneling current develop an asymmetric line shape.

  16. Electron Diffraction of Wet Phospholipid Bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Hui, S. W.; Parsons, D. F.; Cowden, M.

    1974-01-01

    The structure of fully hydrated dipalmitoyl lecithin single bilayers, and monolayers deposited on Formvar substrates are studied by electron diffraction, using a hydration stage fitted to an electron microscope. Selective area diffraction patterns of these films indicate that there are domains consisting of mosaics of crystallites of hexagonally packed lipid chains. The size of these domains are typically several μm in diameter. The diffraction intensity agrees with that calculated from the electron scattering factor of the hydrocarbon chains of the lipid molecule. Images PMID:4531037

  17. Self-assembled lipid bilayer materials

    DOEpatents

    Sasaki, Darryl Y.; Waggoner, Tina A.; Last, Julie A.

    2005-11-08

    The present invention is a self-assembling material comprised of stacks of lipid bilayers formed in a columnar structure, where the assembly process is mediated and regulated by chemical recognition events. The material, through the chemical recognition interactions, has a self-regulating system that corrects the radial size of the assembly creating a uniform diameter throughout most of the structure. The materials form and are stable in aqueous solution. These materials are useful as structural elements for the architecture of materials and components in nanotechnology, efficient light harvesting systems for optical sensing, chemical processing centers, and drug delivery vehicles.

  18. Bilayer avalanche spin-diode logic

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, Joseph S. Querlioz, Damien; Fadel, Eric R.; Wessels, Bruce W.; Sahakian, Alan V.

    2015-11-15

    A novel spintronic computing paradigm is proposed and analyzed in which InSb p-n bilayer avalanche spin-diodes are cascaded to efficiently perform complex logic operations. This spin-diode logic family uses control wires to generate magnetic fields that modulate the resistance of the spin-diodes, and currents through these devices control the resistance of cascaded devices. Electromagnetic simulations are performed to demonstrate the cascading mechanism, and guidelines are provided for the development of this innovative computing technology. This cascading scheme permits compact logic circuits with switching speeds determined by electromagnetic wave propagation rather than electron motion, enabling high-performance spintronic computing.

  19. Superlubricity in quasicrystalline twisted bilayer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koren, Elad; Duerig, Urs

    2016-05-01

    The unique atomic positions in quasicrystals lead to peculiar self-similarity and fractal-like structural morphology. Accordingly, many of the material properties are supposed to manifest exceptional characteristics. In this Rapid Communication, we explain through numerical simulations the fundamental and peculiar aspects of quasicrystals wearless friction manifested in a 30° twisted bilayer graphene system. In particular, the sliding force exhibits a fractal structure with distinct area correlations due to the natural mixture between both periodic and aperiodic lateral modulations. In addition, zero power scaling of the sliding force with respect to the contact area is demonstrated for a geometric sequence of dodecagonal elements.

  20. Lipid Bilayers: Clusters, Domains and Phases

    PubMed Central

    Ackerman, David G.; Feigenson, Gerald W.

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter we discuss the complex mixing behavior of plasma membrane lipids. To do so, we first introduce the plasma membrane and membrane mixtures often used to model its complexity. We then discuss the nature of lipid phase behavior in bilayers and the distinction between these phases and other manifestations of nonrandom mixing found in one-phase mixtures, such as clusters, micelles, and microemulsions. Finally, we demonstrate the applicability of Gibbs phase diagrams to the study of increasingly complex model membrane systems, with a focus on phase coexistence, morphology and their implications for the cell plasma membrane. PMID:25658342

  1. Giant magnetoresistance in bilayer graphene nanoflakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farghadan, Rouhollah; Farekiyan, Marzieh

    2016-09-01

    Coherent spin transport through bilayer graphene (BLG) nanoflakes sandwiched between two electrodes made of single-layer zigzag graphene nanoribbon was investigated by means of Landauer-Buttiker formalism. Application of a magnetic field only on BLG structure as a channel produces a perfect spin polarization in a large energy region. Moreover, the conductance could be strongly modulated by magnetization of the zigzag edge of AB-stacked BLG, and the junction, entirely made of carbon, produces a giant magnetoresistance (GMR) up to 100%. Intestinally, GMR and spin polarization could be tuned by varying BLG width and length. Generally, MR in a AB-stacked BLG strongly increases (decreases) with length (width).

  2. Supported Lipid Bilayer/Carbon Nanotube Hybrids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xinjian; Moran-Mirabal, Jose; Craighead, Harold; McEuen, Paul

    2007-03-01

    We form supported lipid bilayers on single-walled carbon nanotubes and use this hybrid structure to probe the properties of lipid membranes and their functional constituents. We first demonstrate membrane continuity and lipid diffusion over the nanotube. A membrane-bound tetanus toxin protein, on the other hand, sees the nanotube as a diffusion barrier whose strength depends on the diameter of the nanotube. Finally, we present results on the electrical detection of specific binding of streptavidin to biotinylated lipids with nanotube field effect transistors. Possible techniques to extract dynamic information about the protein binding events will also be discussed.

  3. Landau quantization and Fermi velocity renormalization in twisted graphene bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Long-Jing; Qiao, Jia-Bin; Wang, Wen-Xiao; Zuo, Wei-Jie; Yan, Wei; Xu, Rui; Dou, Rui-Fen; Nie, Jia-Cai; He, Lin

    2015-11-01

    Currently there is a lively discussion concerning Fermi velocity renormalization in twisted bilayers and several contradicted experimental results are reported. Here we study electronic structures of the twisted bilayers by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and spectroscopy (STS). The interlayer coupling strengths between the adjacent bilayers are measured according to energy separations of two pronounced low-energy van Hove singularities (VHSs) in the STS spectra. We demonstrate that there is a large range of values for the interlayer interaction not only in different twisted bilayers, but also in twisted bilayers with the same rotation angle. Below the VHSs, the observed Landau quantization in the twisted bilayers is identical to that of massless Dirac fermions in graphene monolayer, which allows us to measure the Fermi velocity directly. Our result indicates that the Fermi velocity of the twisted bilayers depends remarkably on both the twisted angles and the interlayer coupling strengths. This removes the discrepancy about the Fermi velocity renormalization in the twisted bilayers and provides a consistent interpretation of all current data.

  4. Effects of ion interactions with a cholesterol-rich bilayer.

    PubMed

    Mao, Lingxue; Yang, Linlin; Zhang, Qiansen; Jiang, Hualiang; Yang, Huaiyu

    Previous molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of ion-lipid interactions have focused on pure phospholipid bilayers. Many functional microdomains in membranes have a complex composition of cholesterol and phospholipids. Here, we reveal the distinctiveness of the interactions and the effects of the ions on a cholesterol-rich bilayer by performing MD simulations of a cholesterol-rich bilayer with a Na(+)/K(+) mixture or a Na(+)/K(+)/Ca(2+)/Mg(2+) mixture. The simulations reveal that Ca(2+) maintains its dominant role in the interaction with the cholesterol-rich bilayer, but the binding affinity of Mg(2+) to the cholesterol-rich bilayer is even weaker than the affinities of Na(+) and K(+), whereas its interaction with pure phospholipid bilayers is strong and is only slightly weaker than that of Ca(2+). Additionally, it was found that the presence of additional divalent cations induces the headgroups of phospholipids to be more perpendicular to the membrane surface, reducing the lateral movement of lipids and slightly altering the ordering and packing of the cholesterol-rich bilayer, different from divalent cations, which strongly influence that ordering and packing of pure phospholipid bilayers. Therefore, this study indicates that cholesterol in the membrane could affect the interactions between membrane and cations. The findings could be helpful in understanding the biological processes relevant to regulation of cations in cholesterol-rich regions.

  5. Band structure mapping of bilayer graphene via quasiparticle scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yankowitz, Matthew; Wang, Joel I.-Jan; Li, Suchun; Birdwell, A. Glen; Chen, Yu-An; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Quek, Su Ying; Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo; LeRoy, Brian J.

    2014-09-01

    A perpendicular electric field breaks the layer symmetry of Bernal-stacked bilayer graphene, resulting in the opening of a band gap and a modification of the effective mass of the charge carriers. Using scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy, we examine standing waves in the local density of states of bilayer graphene formed by scattering from a bilayer/trilayer boundary. The quasiparticle interference properties are controlled by the bilayer graphene band structure, allowing a direct local probe of the evolution of the band structure of bilayer graphene as a function of electric field. We extract the Slonczewski-Weiss-McClure model tight binding parameters as γ0 = 3.1 eV, γ1 = 0.39 eV, and γ4 = 0.22 eV.

  6. Asymmetric heat transfer from nanoparticles in lipid bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potdar, Dipti; Sammalkorpi, Maria

    2015-12-01

    Here, we use molecular dynamics simulations to characterize the heat transfer properties of lipid bilayer - gold nanoparticle systems in which the nanoparticle acts as a heat source. The focus is on dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) lipid bilayers and thiolated alcohol and alkyl functionalized nanoparticles as prototype hydrophilic and hydrophobic nanoparticles. We find hydrophilic nanoparticles which are partly in contact with the surrounding water environment are more efficient in transferring heat to the system than hydrophobic ones which reside surrounded by the membrane. This is because of the hydrogen bonding capability of the hydroxy pentanethiol and the more efficient heat conductivity through water than the lipid bilayer. Additionally, we find the heat conductance is strongly asymmetric and has a discontinuity between the bilayer leaflets. In total, the findings provide understanding on heat transport from localized heat sources in lipid bilayers and could bear significance, e.g., in engineering and controlling photoactivated triggering of liposomal systems.

  7. Engineering Lipid Bilayer Membranes for Protein Studies

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Muhammad Shuja; Dosoky, Noura Sayed; Williams, John Dalton

    2013-01-01

    Lipid membranes regulate the flow of nutrients and communication signaling between cells and protect the sub-cellular structures. Recent attempts to fabricate artificial systems using nanostructures that mimic the physiological properties of natural lipid bilayer membranes (LBM) fused with transmembrane proteins have helped demonstrate the importance of temperature, pH, ionic strength, adsorption behavior, conformational reorientation and surface density in cellular membranes which all affect the incorporation of proteins on solid surfaces. Much of this work is performed on artificial templates made of polymer sponges or porous materials based on alumina, mica, and porous silicon (PSi) surfaces. For example, porous silicon materials have high biocompatibility, biodegradability, and photoluminescence, which allow them to be used both as a support structure for lipid bilayers or a template to measure the electrochemical functionality of living cells grown over the surface as in vivo. The variety of these media, coupled with the complex physiological conditions present in living systems, warrant a summary and prospectus detailing which artificial systems provide the most promise for different biological conditions. This study summarizes the use of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) data on artificial biological membranes that are closely matched with previously published biological systems using both black lipid membrane and patch clamp techniques. PMID:24185908

  8. Theory of skyrmions in bilayer systems

    PubMed Central

    Koshibae, Wataru; Nagaosa, Naoto

    2017-01-01

    Skyrmion is an emergent particle consisting of many spins in magnets, and has many nontrivial features such as (i) nano-scale size, (ii) topological stability, (iii) gyrodynamics, and (iv) highly efficient spin transfer torque, which make skyrmions the promising candidate for the magnetic devices. Earlier works were focusing on the bulk or thin film of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) magnets, while recent advances are focusing on the skyrmions induced by the interfaces. Therefore, the superstructures naturally leads to the interacting skyrmions on different interfaces, which has unique dynamics compared with those on the same interface. Here we theoretically study the two skyrmions on bilayer systems employing micromagnetic simulations as well as the analysis based on Thiele equation, revealing the reaction between them such as the collision and bound state formation. The dynamics depends sensitively on the sign of DM interactions, i.e., helicities, and skyrmion numbers of two skyrmions, which can be well described by Thiele equation. Furthermore, we have found the colossal spin-transfer-torque effect of bound skyrmion pair on antiferromagnetically coupled bilayer systems. PMID:28198436

  9. Controlling the Electronic Structure of Bilayer Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohta, Taisuke; Bostwick, Aaron; McChesney, Jessica; Seyller, Thomas; Horn, Karsten; Rotenberg, Eli

    2007-03-01

    Carbon-based materials such as carbon nanotubes, graphite intercalation compounds, fullerenes, and ultrathin graphite films exhibit many exotic phenomena such as superconductivity and an anomalous quantum Hall effect. These findings have caused renewed interest in the electronic structure of ultrathin layers of graphene: a single honeycomb carbon layer that is the building block for these materials. There is a strong motivation to incorporate graphene multilayers into atomic-scale devices, spurred on by rapid progress in their fabrication and manipulation. We have synthesized bilayer graphene thin films deposited on insulating silicon carbide and characterized their electronic band structure using angle-resolved photoemission. By selectively adjusting the carrier concentration in each layer, changes in the Coulomb potential led to control of the gap between valence and conduction bands [1]. This control over the band structure suggests the potential application of bilayer graphene to switching functions in atomic scale electronic devices. [1] T. Ohta, A. Bostwick, T. Seyller, K. Horn, E. Rotenberg, Science, 313, 951 (2006).

  10. Theoretical study on stability of hybrid bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Thiago S.; de Lima Bernardo, Bertúlio; Azevedo, Sèrgio

    2015-04-01

    Motivated by the recent experimental realization of the hybrid nanostructure of graphene and boron nitride (h-BN) sheet, and studies of gap modulation by strain, we use first principles calculations based on density functional theory to investigate the effects of strain in hybrid bilayers composed of two monolayers of graphene with a nanodomain of {{B}3}{{N}3}. The calculations were made with two different approximations for the functional exchange-correlation, GGA and VDW-DF. We investigate the modification in the electronic structure and structural properties of various configurations of the hybrid bilayers. Among the configurations, those with Bernal stacking are found to be more stable when compared to the others. Studies of the compressive strain influence were made only in the structure that has been shown to be the most stable. We have found that the two approximations used in the calculations exhibit the same results for the electronic properties of all structures. The opening of the energy gap due to strain was possible in the calculations by using the GGA approximation, but the same does not happen in the calculations using the VDW-DF approximation. Our analysis shows that the VDW-DF approximation is better suited for studies involving surfaces.

  11. Spontaneous symmetry breaking in bilayer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharitonov, Maxim

    2012-02-01

    Recent experiments [1-4] provided compelling evidence for the correlated electron behavior in undoped bilayer graphene at both zero and finite magnetic field. The key question concerns the nature of the broken-symmetry phases realized experimentally. I will present the phase diagram for the zero-density state in the quantum Hall regime (ν=0 state) obtained within the framerwork of quantum Hall ferromagnetism. Comparing these results with the experimental data of Refs. [1,4], I will argue that the ν=0 insulating state realized in bilayer graphene is the canted antiferromagnetic phase. I will also show that the (canted) antiferromagnetic phase can persist at all magnetic fields down to zero and argue that this is the most likely scenario for the insulating state observed in Ref. [4]. [4pt] [1] R. T. Weitz et al., Science 330, 812 (2010). [0pt] [2] F. Freitag et al., arXiv:1104.3816 (2011). [0pt] [3] A. S. Mayorov, et al., Science 333, 860 (2011). [0pt] [4] J. Velasco Jr. et al., arXiv:1108.1609 (2011). [0pt] [5] M. Kharitonov, arXiv:1103.6285, arXiv:1105.5386, arxiv:1109.1553 (2011).

  12. Theory of skyrmions in bilayer systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koshibae, Wataru; Nagaosa, Naoto

    2017-02-01

    Skyrmion is an emergent particle consisting of many spins in magnets, and has many nontrivial features such as (i) nano-scale size, (ii) topological stability, (iii) gyrodynamics, and (iv) highly efficient spin transfer torque, which make skyrmions the promising candidate for the magnetic devices. Earlier works were focusing on the bulk or thin film of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) magnets, while recent advances are focusing on the skyrmions induced by the interfaces. Therefore, the superstructures naturally leads to the interacting skyrmions on different interfaces, which has unique dynamics compared with those on the same interface. Here we theoretically study the two skyrmions on bilayer systems employing micromagnetic simulations as well as the analysis based on Thiele equation, revealing the reaction between them such as the collision and bound state formation. The dynamics depends sensitively on the sign of DM interactions, i.e., helicities, and skyrmion numbers of two skyrmions, which can be well described by Thiele equation. Furthermore, we have found the colossal spin-transfer-torque effect of bound skyrmion pair on antiferromagnetically coupled bilayer systems.

  13. Controlled synthesis of bilayer graphene on nickel

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    We report a uniform and low-defect synthesis of bilayer graphene on evaporated polycrystalline nickel films. We used atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition with ultra-fast substrate cooling after exposure to methane at 1,000°C. The optimized process parameters, i.e., growth time, annealing profile and flow rates of various gases, are reported. By using Raman spectroscopy mapping, the ratio of 2D to G peak intensities (I2D/IG) is in the range of 0.9 to 1.6 over 96% of the 200 μm × 200 μm area. Moreover, the average ratio of D to G peak intensities (ID/IG) is about 0.1. PMID:22863171

  14. Collective Dynamics of Complex Plasma Bilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Hartmann, P.; Donko, Z.; Kalman, G. J.; Kyrkos, S.; Golden, K. I.; Rosenberg, M.

    2009-12-11

    A classical dusty plasma experiment was performed using two different dust grain sizes to form a strongly coupled asymmetric bilayer (two closely spaced interacting monolayers) of two species of charged dust particles. The observation and analysis of the thermally excited particle oscillations revealed the collective mode structure and dispersion (wave propagation) in this system; in particular, the existence of the theoretically predicted k=0 energy (frequency) gap was verified. Equilibrium molecular-dynamics simulations were performed to emulate the experiment, assuming Yukawa-type interparticle interaction. The simulations and analytic calculations based both on lattice summation and on the quasilocalized charge approximation approach are in good agreement with the experimental findings and help in identifying and characterizing the observed phenomena.

  15. Tuning quantum properties in bilayer ruthenates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Xianglin

    The mutual coupling among spin, charge, lattice and orbital degrees of freedom in transition-metal oxide materials often leads to the competition of various types of energetic states. This makes such materials dramatically susceptible to external parameters, giving rise to novel physical properties and rich phase diagrams. In this talk, I shall use a bilayer ruthenate, Ca3Ru2O7, as an example to discuss the emergent phenomena achieved by systematically tuning materials magnetic and electronic properties via chemical doping, magnetic field, and pressure. I shall show that this system provides a rare opportunity to investigate the interplay between correlated metal and Mott insulator. This work was done in collaboration with M. Zhu, T. Tao, S. D. Mahanti, Z. Q. Mao, J. Peng, T. Hong, W. Tian, H. Cao, C. R. dela Cruz, D. Singh, and K. Prokes.

  16. Interfacial Widths of Conjugated Polymer Bilayers

    SciTech Connect

    NCSU; UC Berkeley; UCSB; Advanced Light Source; Garcia, Andres; Yan, Hongping; Sohn, Karen E.; Hexemer, Alexander; Nguyen, Thuc-Quyen; Bazan, Guillermo C.; Kramer, Edward J.; Ade, Harald

    2009-08-13

    The interfaces of conjugated polyelectrolyte (CPE)/poly[2-methoxy-5-(2{prime}-ethylhexyloxy)-p-phenylene vinylene] (MEH-PPV) bilayers cast from differential solvents are shown by resonant soft X-ray reflectivity (RSoXR) to be very smooth and sharp. The chemical interdiffusion due to casting is limited to less than 0.6 nm, and the interface created is thus nearly 'molecularly' sharp. These results demonstrate for the first time and with high precision that the nonpolar MEH-PPV layer is not much disturbed by casting the CPE layer from a polar solvent. A baseline is established for understanding the role of interfacial structure in determining the performance of CPE-based polymer light-emitting diodes. More broadly, we anticipate further applications of RSoXR as an important tool in achieving a deeper understanding of other multilayer organic optoelectronic devices, including multilayer photovoltaic devices.

  17. Space charge and screening in bilayer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolomeisky, Eugene B.; Straley, Joseph P.; Abrams, Daniel L.

    2016-11-01

    Undoped bilayer graphene is a two-dimensional semimetal with a low-energy excitation spectrum that is parabolic in the momentum. As a result, the screening of an arbitrary external charge Ze is accompanied by a reconstruction of the ground state: valence band electrons (for Z  >  0) are promoted to form a space charge around the charge while the holes leave the physical picture. The outcome is a flat neutral object resembling the regular atom except that for Z\\gg 1 it is described by a strictly linear Thomas-Fermi theory. This theory also predicts that the bilayer’s static dielectric constant is the same as that of a two-dimensional electron gas in the long-wavelength limit.

  18. Topological insulator state in gated bilayer silicene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ming-Ming; Xu, Lei; Zhang, Jun

    2015-11-01

    We investigate the topological insulator state of gated bilayer silicene in the presence of extrinsic Rashba spin-orbit (SO) coupling. The system exhibits a band insulator (BI) phase for small Rashba SO coupling, and then translate to a strong topological insulator (TI) phase with both spin and valley filtered at large Rashba SO coupling. The strong TI phase is robust in the presence of intrinsic SO and intrinsic Rashba SO couplings. When a titled electric field is introduced, the in-plane component of the electric field gives rise to an interlayer Rashba SO coupling, and the system turns to a BI phase no matter how large the Rashab SO coupling and bias voltage are. This will provide potential application in nanoelectronics based on silicene.

  19. Energy levels of bilayer graphene quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Costa, D. R.; Zarenia, M.; Chaves, Andrey; Farias, G. A.; Peeters, F. M.

    2015-09-01

    Within a tight binding approach we investigate the energy levels of hexagonal and triangular bilayer graphene (BLG) quantum dots (QDs) with zigzag and armchair edges. We study AA- and AB- (Bernal) stacked BLG QDs and obtain the energy levels in both the absence and the presence of a perpendicular electric field (i.e., biased BLG QDs). Our results show that the size dependence of the energy levels is different from that of monolayer graphene QDs. The energy spectrum of AB-stacked BLG QDs with zigzag edges exhibits edge states which spread out into the opened energy gap in the presence of a perpendicular electric field. We found that the behavior of these edges states is different for the hexagonal and triangular geometries. In the case of AA-stacked BLG QDs, the electron and hole energy levels cross each other in both cases of armchair and zigzag edges as the dot size or the applied bias increases.

  20. Modeling liquid crystal bilayer structures with minimal surfaces.

    PubMed

    Enlow, J D; Enlow, R L; McGrath, K M; Tate, M W

    2004-01-22

    This paper describes a new convenient and accurate method of calculating x-ray diffraction integrated intensities from detailed cubic bilayer structures. The method is employed to investigate the structure of a particular surfactant system (didodecyldimethylammonium bromide in a solution of oil and heavy water), for which single-crystal experimental data have recently been collected. The diffracted peak intensities correlate well with theoretical structures based on mathematical minimal surfaces. Optimized electron density profiles of the bilayer are presented, providing new insight into key features of the bilayer structure.

  1. Unconventional fractional quantum Hall effect in monolayer and bilayer graphene

    PubMed Central

    Jacak, Janusz; Jacak, Lucjan

    2016-01-01

    The commensurability condition is applied to determine the hierarchy of fractional fillings of Landau levels in monolayer and in bilayer graphene. The filling rates for fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE) in graphene are found in the first three Landau levels in one-to-one agreement with the experimental data. The presence of even denominator filling fractions in the hierarchy for FQHE in bilayer graphene is explained. Experimentally observed hierarchy of FQHE in the first and second Landau levels in monolayer graphene and in the zeroth Landau level in bilayer graphene is beyond the conventional composite fermion interpretation but fits to the presented nonlocal topology commensurability condition. PMID:27877866

  2. Single molecule methods for monitoring changes in bilayer elastic properties.

    PubMed

    Ingolfson, Helgi; Kapoor, Ruchi; Collingwood, Shemille A; Andersen, Olaf Sparre

    2008-11-03

    Membrane protein function is regulated by the cell membrane lipid composition. This regulation is due to a combination of specific lipid-protein interactions and more general lipid bilayer-protein interactions. These interactions are particularly important in pharmacological research, as many current pharmaceuticals on the market can alter the lipid bilayer material properties, which can lead to altered membrane protein function. The formation of gramicidin channels are dependent on conformational changes in gramicidin subunits which are in turn dependent on the properties of the lipid. Hence the gramicidin channel current is a reporter of altered properties of the bilayer due to certain compounds.

  3. A circuit model for defective bilayer graphene transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umoh, Ime J.; Moktadir, Zakaria; Hang, Shuojin; Kazmierski, Tom J.; Mizuta, Hiroshi

    2016-05-01

    This paper investigates the behaviour of a defective single-gate bilayer graphene transistor. Point defects were introduced into pristine graphene crystal structure using a tightly focused helium ion beam. The transfer characteristics of the exposed transistors were measured ex-situ for different defect concentrations. The channel peak resistance increased with increasing defect concentration whilst the on-off ratio showed a decreasing trend for both electrons and holes. To understand the electrical behaviour of the transistors, a circuit model for bilayer graphene is developed which shows a very good agreement when validated against experimental data. The model allowed parameter extraction of bilayer transistor and can be implemented in circuit level simulators.

  4. The use of virtual ground to control transmembrane voltages and measure bilayer currents in serial arrays of droplet interface bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarles, Stephen A.

    2013-09-01

    The droplet interface bilayer (DIB) is a simple technique for constructing a stable lipid bilayer at the interface of two lipid-encased water droplets submerged in oil. Networks of DIBs formed by connecting more than two droplets constitute a new form of modular biomolecular smart material, where the transduction properties of a single lipid bilayer can affect the actions performed at other interface bilayers in the network via diffusion through the aqueous environments of shared droplet connections. The passive electrical properties of a lipid bilayer and the arrangement of droplets that determine the paths for transport in the network require specific electrical control to stimulate and interrogate each bilayer. Here, we explore the use of virtual ground for electrodes inserted into specific droplets in the network and employ a multichannel patch clamp amplifier to characterize bilayer formation and ion-channel activity in a serial DIB array. Analysis of serial connections of DIBs is discussed to understand how assigning electrode connections to the measurement device can be used to measure activity across all lipid membranes within a network. Serial arrays of DIBs are assembled using the regulated attachment method within a multi-compartment flexible substrate, and wire-type electrodes inserted into each droplet compartment of the substrate enable the application of voltage and measurement of current in each droplet in the array.

  5. Direct in situ measurement of specific capacitance, monolayer tension, and bilayer tension in a droplet interface bilayer

    DOE PAGES

    Taylor, Graham J.; Venkatesan, Guru A.; Collier, C. Patrick; ...

    2015-08-05

    In this study, thickness and tension are important physical parameters of model cell membranes. However, traditional methods to measure these quantities require multiple experiments using separate equipment. This work introduces a new multi-step procedure for directly accessing in situ multiple physical properties of droplet interface bilayers (DIB), including specific capacitance (related to thickness), lipid monolayer tension in the Plateau-Gibbs border, and bilayer tension. The procedure employs a combination of mechanical manipulation of bilayer area followed by electrowetting of the capacitive interface to examine the sensitivities of bilayer capacitance to area and contact angle to voltage, respectively. These data allow formore » determining the specific capacitance of the membrane and surface tension of the lipid monolayer, which are then used to compute bilayer thickness and tension, respectively. The use of DIBs affords accurate optical imaging of the connected droplets in addition to electrical measurements of bilayer capacitance, and it allows for reversibly varying bilayer area. After validating the accuracy of the technique with diphytanoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPhPC) DIBs in hexadecane, the method is applied herein to quantify separately the effects on membrane thickness and tension caused by varying the solvent in which the DIB is formed and introducing cholesterol into the bilayer. Because the technique relies only on capacitance measurements and optical images to determine both thickness and tension, this approach is specifically well-suited for studying the effects of peptides, biomolecules, natural and synthetic nanoparticles, and other species that accumulate within membranes without altering bilayer conductance.« less

  6. Analysis of Striped Nanoparticle Complexation with Lipid Bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Lehn, Reid; Alexander-Katz, Alfredo

    2011-03-01

    A recent study has shown that a new class of synthetic ligand-protected gold nanoparticles is able to penetrate the cell membrane without inducing poration or endocytosis. Furthermore, these nanoparticles fuse with pure lipid bilayers while retaining high solubility in biological conditions. This complexation behavior is related to the morphology of the ligand shell, which is composed of alternating ribbon-like domains of linear alkanes with either hydrophobic or charged end-groups. Spontaneous complexation is surprising given the large free energy barrier for moving charges through the hydrophobic bilayer core. In this work, we provide a thermodynamic analysis of bilayer complexation supported by multiscale simulations. We show that the key to bilayer complexation is the rearrangement of ligands by bending to maximize hydrophobic matching and minimize charge exposure. We believe this result will improve our understanding of transmembrane proteins and enable the design of nanoparticles for drug delivery and biosensing applications.

  7. Electronic properties of asymmetrically doped twisted graphene bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trambly de Laissardière, Guy; Namarvar, Omid Faizy; Mayou, Didier; Magaud, Laurence

    2016-06-01

    Rotated graphene bilayers form an exotic class of nanomaterials with fascinating electronic properties governed by the rotation angle θ . For large rotation angles, the electron eigenstates are restricted to one layer and the bilayer behaves like two decoupled graphene layers. At intermediate angles, Dirac cones are preserved but with a lower velocity and van Hove singularities are induced at energies where the two Dirac cones intersect. At very small angles, eigenstates become localized in peculiar moiré zones. We analyze here the effect of an asymmetric doping for a series of commensurate rotated bilayers on the basis of tight-binding calculations of their band dispersions, density of states, participation ratio, and diffusive properties. While a small doping level preserves the θ dependence of the rotated bilayer electronic structure, larger doping induces a further reduction of the band velocity in the same way as a further reduction of the rotation angle.

  8. Visualizing Atomic-Scale Negative Differential Resistance in Bilayer Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Keun Su; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Walter, Andrew L.; Seyller, Thomas; Yeom, Han Woong; Rotenberg, Eli; Bostwick, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the atomic-scale tunneling characteristics of bilayer graphene on silicon carbide using the scanning tunneling microscopy. The high-resolution tunneling spectroscopy reveals an unexpected negative differential resistance (NDR) at the Dirac energy, which spatially varies within the single unit cell of bilayer graphene. The origin of NDR is explained by two near-gap van Hove singularities emerging in the electronic spectrum of bilayer graphene under a transverse electric field, which are strongly localized on two sublattices in different layers. Furthermore, defects near the tunneling contact are found to strongly impact on NDR through the electron interference. Our result provides an atomic-level understanding of quantum tunneling in bilayer graphene, and constitutes a useful step towards graphene-based tunneling devices.

  9. Phosphatidyl-hydroxytyrosol and phosphatidyl-tyrosol bilayer properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol phospholipids were enzymatically synthesized and investigated for their bilayer properties. Dynamic light scattering demonstrated that hand extrusion at 100 nm consistently resulted in liposomes of nearly 85 nm diameter for both phosphatidyl-hydroxytyrosol (DOPHT) and phos...

  10. Observation of Anomalous Resistance Behavior in Bilayer Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yanping; Lew, Wen Siang; Liu, Zongwen

    2017-01-01

    Our measurement results have shown that bilayer graphene exhibits an unexpected sharp transition of the resistance value in the temperature region 200 250 K. We argue that this behavior originates from the interlayer ripple scattering effect between the top and bottom ripple graphene layer. The inter-scattering can mimic the Coulomb scattering but is strongly dependent on temperature. The observed behavior is consistent with the theoretical prediction that charged impurities are the dominant scatters in bilayer graphene. The resistance increase with increasing perpendicular magnetic field strongly supports the postulate that magnetic field induces an excitonic gap in bilayer graphene. Our results reveal that the relative change of resistance induced by magnetic field in the bilayer graphene shows an anomalous thermally activated property.

  11. Sub-wavelength antenna enhanced bilayer graphene tunable photodetector

    DOEpatents

    Beechem, III, Thomas Edwin; Howell, Stephen W.; Peters, David W.; Davids, Paul; Ohta, Taisuke

    2016-03-22

    The integration of bilayer graphene with an absorption enhancing sub-wavelength antenna provides an infrared photodetector capable of real-time spectral tuning without filters at nanosecond timescales.

  12. Broken-Symmetry Quantum Hall States in Twisted Bilayer Graphene

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Youngwook; Park, Jaesung; Song, Intek; Ok, Jong Mok; Jo, Younjung; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniquchi, Takashi; Choi, Hee Cheul; Lee, Dong Su; Jung, Suyong; Kim, Jun Sung

    2016-01-01

    Twisted bilayer graphene offers a unique bilayer two-dimensional-electron system where the layer separation is only in sub-nanometer scale. Unlike Bernal-stacked bilayer, the layer degree of freedom is disentangled from spin and valley, providing eight-fold degeneracy in the low energy states. We have investigated broken-symmetry quantum Hall (QH) states and their transitions due to the interplay of the relative strength of valley, spin and layer polarizations in twisted bilayer graphene. The energy gaps of the broken-symmetry QH states show an electron-hole asymmetric behaviour, and their dependence on the induced displacement field are opposite between even and odd filling factor states. These results strongly suggest that the QH states with broken valley and spin symmetries for individual layer become hybridized via interlayer tunnelling, and the hierarchy of the QH states is sensitive to both magnetic field and displacement field due to charge imbalance between layers. PMID:27905496

  13. Mechanical properties of lipid bilayers from molecular dynamics simulation

    PubMed Central

    Venable, Richard M.; Brown, Frank L.H.; Pastor, Richard W.

    2015-01-01

    Lipid areas (Aℓ), bilayer area compressibilities (KA), bilayer bending constants (KC), and monolayer spontaneous curvatures (c0) from simulations using the CHARMM36 force field are reported for 12 representative homogenous lipid bilayers. Aℓ (or their surrogate, the average deuterium order parameter in the “plateau region” of the chain) agree very well with experiment, as do the KA. Simulated KC are in near quantitative agreement with vesicle flicker experiments, but are somewhat larger than KC from x-ray, pipette aspiration, and neutron spin echo for saturated lipids. Spontaneous curvatures of bilayer leaflets from the simulations are approximately 30% smaller than experimental values of monolayers in the inverse hexagonal phase. PMID:26238099

  14. Energy levels of hybrid monolayer-bilayer graphene quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzakhani, M.; Zarenia, M.; Ketabi, S. A.; da Costa, D. R.; Peeters, F. M.

    2016-04-01

    Often real samples of graphene consist of islands of both monolayer and bilayer graphene. Bound states in such hybrid quantum dots are investigated for (i) a circular single-layer graphene quantum dot surrounded by an infinite bilayer graphene sheet and (ii) a circular bilayer graphene quantum dot surrounded by an infinite single-layer graphene. Using the continuum model and applying zigzag boundary conditions at the single-layer-bilayer graphene interface, we obtain analytical results for the energy levels and the corresponding wave spinors. Their dependence on perpendicular magnetic and electric fields are studied for both types of quantum dots. The energy levels exhibit characteristics of interface states, and we find anticrossings and closing of the energy gap in the presence of a bias potential.

  15. Enhanced electrocaloric effect in composition gradient bilayer thick films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Ying; Yang, Lu; Qian, Xiaoshi; Zhang, Tian; Zhang, Q. M.

    2016-03-01

    We report the enhanced electrocaloric (EC) response over a broad temperature range in composition gradient Ba(ZrTi)O3 based bilayer thick films. A large EC temperature change of -4.9 K under an electric field of 10 MV/m around room temperature, large electrocaloric coefficient ΔT/ΔE = 0.49 × 10-6 K m V-1 were observed in the BaZr0.17Ti0.83O3/BaZr0.20Ti0.80O3 bilayer thick films, which are improved compared with BaZr0.20Ti0.80O3 and BaZr0.17Ti0.83O3 homogeneous bilayer films. The result reveals the potential of the composition gradient bilayer structure in improving the electrocaloric effect, which may provide an effective route to achieve large EC temperature change under a low electric field.

  16. Interfacial exciplex formation in bilayers of conjugated polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobuyasu, R. S.; Araujo, K. A. S.; Cury, L. A.; Jarrosson, T.; Serein-Spirau, F.; Lère-Porte, J.-P.; Dias, F. B.; Monkman, A. P.

    2013-10-01

    The donor-acceptor interactions in sequential bilayer and blend films are investigated. Steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) were measured to characterize the samples at different geometries of photoluminescence collection. At standard excitation, with the laser incidence at 45° of the normal direction of the sample surface, a band related to the aggregate states of donor molecules appears for both blend and bilayer at around 540 nm. For the PL spectra acquired from the edge of the bilayer, with the laser incidence made at normal direction of the sample surface (90° geometry), a new featureless band emission, red-shifted from donor and acceptor emission regions was observed and assigned as the emission from interfacial exciplex states. The conformational complexity coming from donor/acceptor interactions at the heterojunction interface of the bilayer is at the origin of this interfacial exciplex emission.

  17. Broken-Symmetry Quantum Hall States in Twisted Bilayer Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Youngwook; Park, Jaesung; Song, Intek; Ok, Jong Mok; Jo, Younjung; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniquchi, Takashi; Choi, Hee Cheul; Lee, Dong Su; Jung, Suyong; Kim, Jun Sung

    2016-12-01

    Twisted bilayer graphene offers a unique bilayer two-dimensional-electron system where the layer separation is only in sub-nanometer scale. Unlike Bernal-stacked bilayer, the layer degree of freedom is disentangled from spin and valley, providing eight-fold degeneracy in the low energy states. We have investigated broken-symmetry quantum Hall (QH) states and their transitions due to the interplay of the relative strength of valley, spin and layer polarizations in twisted bilayer graphene. The energy gaps of the broken-symmetry QH states show an electron-hole asymmetric behaviour, and their dependence on the induced displacement field are opposite between even and odd filling factor states. These results strongly suggest that the QH states with broken valley and spin symmetries for individual layer become hybridized via interlayer tunnelling, and the hierarchy of the QH states is sensitive to both magnetic field and displacement field due to charge imbalance between layers.

  18. Bilayer properties of hydroxytyrosol- and tyrosol-phosphatidylcholine lipids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol are the phytochemicals abundantly found in olive oil. Transphosphatidylation of tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol with dioleoylphosphocholine resulted in phospholipids with antioxidant properties. The ability of these phyto-phospholipids to form liposomes and supported bilayers w...

  19. Biophysical changes induced by xenon on phospholipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Booker, Ryan D; Sum, Amadeu K

    2013-05-01

    Structural and dynamic changes in cell membrane properties induced by xenon, a volatile anesthetic molecule, may affect the function of membrane-mediated proteins, providing a hypothesis for the mechanism of general anesthetic action. Here, we use molecular dynamics simulation and differential scanning calorimetry to examine the biophysical and thermodynamic effects of xenon on model lipid membranes. Our results indicate that xenon atoms preferentially localize in the hydrophobic core of the lipid bilayer, inducing substantial increases in the area per lipid and bilayer thickness. Xenon depresses the membrane gel-liquid crystalline phase transition temperature, increasing membrane fluidity and lipid head group spacing, while inducing net local ordering effects in a small region of the lipid carbon tails and modulating the bilayer lateral pressure profile. Our results are consistent with a role for nonspecific, lipid bilayer-mediated mechanisms in producing xenon's general anesthetic action.

  20. Light Driven Formation and Rupture of Droplet Bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, Sanhita S.; Kim, Hanyoup; Vasilyev, Arseny; Eid, Aya; Faris, Gregory W.

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate optical manipulation of nanoliter aqueous droplets containing surfactant or lipid molecules and immersed in an organic liquid using near infrared light. The resulting emulsion droplets are manipulated using both the thermocapillary effect and convective fluid motion. Droplet pair-interactions induced in the emulsion upon optical initiation and control provide direct observations of the coalescence steps in intricate detail. Droplet-droplet adhesion (bilayer formation) is observed under several conditions. Selective bilayer rupture is also realized using the same infrared laser. The technique provides a novel approach to study thin film drainage and interface stability in emulsion dynamics. The formation of stable lipid bilayers at the adhesion interface between interacting water droplets can provide an optical platform to build droplet-based lipid bilayer assays. The technique also has relevance for understanding and improving microfluidics applications by devising Petri dish based droplet assays requiring no substrate fabrication. PMID:20361732

  1. Effect of impurity doping in gapped bilayer graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Qi; Yan, Baoming; Jia, Zhenzhao; Niu, Jingjing; Yu, Dapeng; Wu, Xiaosong

    2015-10-19

    Impurity doping plays a pivotal role in semiconductor electronics. We study the doping effect in a two-dimensional semiconductor, gapped bilayer graphene. By employing in situ deposition of calcium on the bilayer graphene, dopants are controllably introduced. Low temperature transport results show a variable range hopping conduction near the charge neutrality point persisting up to 50 K, providing evidence for the impurity levels inside the gap. Our experiment confirms a predicted peculiar effect in the gapped bilayer graphene, i.e., formation of in-gap states even if the bare impurity level lies in the conduction band. The result provides perspective on the effect of doping and impurity levels in semiconducting bilayer graphene.

  2. Molecular Dynamics of a Water-Lipid Bilayer Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Michael A.; Pohorille, Andrew

    1994-01-01

    We present results of molecular dynamics simulations of a glycerol 1-monooleate bilayer in water. The total length of analyzed trajectories is 5ns. The calculated width of the bilayer agrees well with the experimentally measured value. The interior of the membrane is in a highly disordered fluid state. Atomic density profile, orientational and conformational distribution functions, and order parameters indicate that disorder increases toward the center of the bilayer. Analysis of out-of-plane thermal fluctuations of the bilayer surfaces occurring at the time scale of the present calculations reveals that the distribution of modes agrees with predictions of the capillary wave model. Fluctuations of both bilayer surfaces are uncorrelated, yielding Gaussian distribution of instantaneous widths of the membrane. Fluctuations of the width produce transient thinning defects in the bilayer which occasionally span almost half of the membrane. The leading mechanism of these fluctuations is the orientational and conformational motion of head groups rather than vertical motion of the whole molecules. Water considerably penetrates the head group region of the bilayer but not its hydrocarbon core. The total net excess dipole moment of the interfacial water points toward the aqueous phase, but the water polarization profile is non-monotonic. Both water and head groups significantly contribute to the surface potential across the interface. The calculated sign of the surface potential is in agreement with that from experimental measurements, but the value is markedly overestimated. The structural and electrical properties of the water-bilayer system are discussed in relation to membrane functions, in particular transport of ions and nonelectrolytes across membranes.

  3. Spatially indirect exciton condensate phases in double bilayer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Jung-Jung; MacDonald, Allan H.

    2017-01-01

    We present a theory of spatially indirect exciton condensate states in systems composed of a pair of electrically isolated Bernal graphene bilayers. The ground-state phase diagram in a two-dimensional displacement-field/inter-bilayer-bias space includes layer-polarized semiconductors, spin-density-wave states, exciton condensates, and states with mixed excitonic and spin order. We find that two different condensate states, distinguished by a chirality index, are stable under different electrical control conditions.

  4. Chronopotentiometric studies of phosphatidylcholine bilayers modified by ergosterol.

    PubMed

    Naumowicz, Monika; Petelska, Aneta Dorota; Figaszewski, Zbigniew Artur

    2011-01-01

    We have monitored the effect of ergosterol on electrical capacitance and electrical resistance of the phosphatidylcholine bilayer membranes using chronopotentiometry method. The chronopotentiometric characteristic of the bilayers depends on constant-current flow through the membranes. For low current values, no electroporation takes place and the membrane voltage rises exponentially to a constant value described by the Ohm's law. Based on these kinds of chronopotentiometric curves, a method of the membrane capacitance and the membrane resistance calculations is presented.

  5. Analytical Study of Tunable Bilayered-Graphene Dipole Antenna

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-03

    can be opened up in a bilayer graphene ( BLG ) using an external bias [3]. Recently, theoretical models and experiments have shown that bilayer graphene...of a MOSFET transistor, this high impedance layer and ground plane will provide a vertical electric field to create a bandgap in the BLG layer...This study will use bandgap tuning in the BLG to provide theoretical data on tuning a dipole antenna in different sequences along the antenna length

  6. Subterahertz excitations and magnetoelectric effects in hexaferrite-piezoelectric bilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Ustinov, Alexey B.; Srinivasan, G.

    2008-10-06

    A frequency-agile hexaferrite-piezoelectric composite for potential device applications at subterahertz frequencies is studied. The bilayer is composed of aluminum substituted barium hexagonal ferrite (BaAl{sub 2}Fe{sub 10}O{sub 19}) and lead zirconate titanate (PZT). A dc electric field applied to PZT results in mechanical deformation of the ferrite, leading to a frequency shift in ferromagnetic resonance. The bilayer demonstrates magnetoelectric interaction coefficient of about 0.37 Oe cm/kV.

  7. Microporous device for local electric recordings on model lipid bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufeld, Theresa; Steinem, Claudia; Schmidt, Christoph F.

    2015-01-01

    A powerful approach for characterizing lipid membranes and embedded proteins is the reconstitution of model lipid bilayers. The extreme fragility of 5 nm thick bilayers is a challenge for device design and requires a trade off of stability against accessibility. We here present a microporous lab-on-chip device that allows us to form stable, solvent-free lipid bilayers from giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) in a geometry that provides a unique set of access possibilities. The device is constructed around a micro-fabricated silicon chip with clusters of 1 µm-diameter pores and provides optical access to the lipid bilayers for high-NA epifluorescence imaging. At the same time, solvent exchange is possible on both sides of the lipid bilayer. Complete coverage can be achieved with GUVs, so that voltages can be applied across the lipid bilayer and single-channel currents can be measured using external or integrated silver/silver chloride electrodes. We describe the micro-fabrication by standard cleanroom techniques and the characterization of the device by atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and impedance spectroscopy. In proof-of-concept experiments we demonstrate that the device is capable of low-noise, single-ion-channel recordings. Electronic Supplementary Information (ESI) available: See DOI: 10.1039/b000000x/

  8. Mechanism of unassisted ion transport across membrane bilayers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, M. A.; Pohorille, A.

    1996-01-01

    To establish how charged species move from water to the nonpolar membrane interior and to determine the energetic and structural effects accompanying this process, we performed molecular dynamics simulations of the transport of Na+ and Cl- across a lipid bilayer located between two water lamellae. The total length of molecular dynamics trajectories generated for each ion was 10 ns. Our simulations demonstrate that permeation of ions into the membrane is accompanied by the formation of deep, asymmetric thinning defects in the bilayer, whereby polar lipid head groups and water penetrate the nonpolar membrane interior. Once the ion crosses the midplane of the bilayer the deformation "switches sides"; the initial defect slowly relaxes, and a defect forms in the outgoing side of the bilayer. As a result, the ion remains well solvated during the process; the total number of oxygen atoms from water and lipid head groups in the first solvation shell remains constant. A similar membrane deformation is formed when the ion is instantaneously inserted into the interior of the bilayer. The formation of defects considerably lowers the free energy barrier to transfer of the ion across the bilayer and, consequently, increases the permeabilities of the membrane to ions, compared to the rigid, planar structure, by approximately 14 orders of magnitude. Our results have implications for drug delivery using liposomes and peptide insertion into membranes.

  9. Nontrivial anomalous Hall effect in ultrathin Pt/permalloy bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yanqing; Shan, Rong

    2015-03-01

    Anomalous Hall effect of Pt (2.5 nm)/permalloy bilayers with the thickness tPy = 0.6 ~10 nm; Pt/permalloy (2.2 nm) bilayers with the thickness tPt = 1.5 ~10 nm and Pt (2.5 nm)/permalloy (2.2 nm) bilayers with the post-annealing temperature 100 ~500° grown on MgO (001) substrates are investigated. The Pt/permalloy bilayer shows distinguished performance from the single permalloy layer due to the interfacial influence. Effective magnetic anisotropy of the bilayer with tPy <2.2 nm turns to be perpendicular to the film plane and it increases with decreasing measured temperature. More interestingly, the anomalous Hall effect is also greatly enhanced in these Pt/permalloy bilayers, comparing with that in bulk permalloy. The parameters presenting skew scattering, side jump and intrinsic contribution become extremely large, indicating a strong influence of spin orbit coupling coming from Pt/permalloy interface on the anomalous Hall effect.

  10. Asymmetry of diffusion permeability of bi-layer membranes.

    PubMed

    Filippov, Anatoly N; Starov, Victor M; Kononenko, Natalia A; Berezina, Ninel P

    2008-06-22

    To reveal the reason of asymmetry of the diffusion permeability of bi-layer electrodialysis membranes the following problems have been solved using the model of "homogeneous porous membrane": - diffusion of non-electrolyte solutions across a bi-layer membrane; - diffusion of electrolyte solutions across a non-charged bi-layer membrane; - diffusion of electrolyte solutions across a charged single layer membrane; - diffusion of electrolyte solutions across a charged bi-layer membrane. It is shown that the main factor responsible for the asymmetry is the difference between absolute values of densities of fixed charges (or so called "exchange capacities") of different layers of a membrane under investigation. Only in this case the ratio of the thickness of the membrane layers as well as the ratio of ion diffusivities contributes also to the asymmetry of the diffusion permeability. In the present review we survey and generalize our previous investigations and propose a new theory of asymmetry of diffusion permeability of bi-layer membranes. We have deduced explicit algebraic formulas for the degree of asymmetry of diffusion permeability of bi-layer membranes under consideration.

  11. Predicting proton titration in cationic micelle and bilayer environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrow, Brian H.; Eike, David M.; Murch, Bruce P.; Koenig, Peter H.; Shen, Jana K.

    2014-08-01

    Knowledge of the protonation behavior of pH-sensitive molecules in micelles and bilayers has significant implications in consumer product development and biomedical applications. However, the calculation of pKa's in such environments proves challenging using traditional structure-based calculations. Here we apply all-atom constant pH molecular dynamics with explicit ions and titratable water to calculate the pKa of a fatty acid molecule in a micelle of dodecyl trimethylammonium chloride and liquid as well as gel-phase bilayers of diethyl ester dimethylammonium chloride. Interestingly, the pKa of the fatty acid in the gel bilayer is 5.4, 0.4 units lower than that in the analogous liquid bilayer or micelle, despite the fact that the protonated carboxylic group is significantly more desolvated in the gel bilayer. This work illustrates the capability of all-atom constant pH molecular dynamics in capturing the delicate balance in the free energies of desolvation and Coulombic interactions. It also shows the importance of the explicit treatment of ions in sampling the protonation states. The ability to model dynamics of pH-responsive substrates in a bilayer environment is useful for improving fabric care products as well as our understanding of the side effects of anti-inflammatory drugs.

  12. PI3 kinase enzymology on fluid lipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Debjit; Pulsipher, Abigail; Luo, Wei; Yousaf, Muhammad N

    2014-10-21

    We report the use of fluid lipid bilayer membrane as a model platform to study the influence of the bilayer microenvironment and composition on the enzymology in membrane. As a model system we determined the enzyme kinetics on membranes for the transformation of bilayers containing phosphoinositol(4,5)-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) to phosphoinositol(3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PI(3,4,5)P3) by the enzyme phosphoinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) using radiolabeled ATP. The activity of the enzyme was monitored as a function of the radioactivity incorporated within the bilayer. The transformation of PI(4,5)P2 to PI(3,4,5)P3 was determined using a mass strip assay. The fluidity of the bilayer was confirmed by Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching (FRAP) experiments. Kinetic simulations were performed based on Langmuir adsorption and Michaelis-Menton kinetics equations to generate the rate constants for the enzymatic reaction. The effect of cholesterol on the enzyme kinetics was studied by doping the bilayer with 1% cholesterol. This leads to significant reduction in reaction rate due to change in membrane microenvironment. This strategy provides a method to study the enzymology of various kinases and phosphatases occurring at the membrane and also how these reactions are affected by the membrane composition and surface microenvironment.

  13. Predicting proton titration in cationic micelle and bilayer environments

    SciTech Connect

    Morrow, Brian H.; Shen, Jana K.; Eike, David M.; Murch, Bruce P.; Koenig, Peter H.

    2014-08-28

    Knowledge of the protonation behavior of pH-sensitive molecules in micelles and bilayers has significant implications in consumer product development and biomedical applications. However, the calculation of pK{sub a}’s in such environments proves challenging using traditional structure-based calculations. Here we apply all-atom constant pH molecular dynamics with explicit ions and titratable water to calculate the pK{sub a} of a fatty acid molecule in a micelle of dodecyl trimethylammonium chloride and liquid as well as gel-phase bilayers of diethyl ester dimethylammonium chloride. Interestingly, the pK{sub a} of the fatty acid in the gel bilayer is 5.4, 0.4 units lower than that in the analogous liquid bilayer or micelle, despite the fact that the protonated carboxylic group is significantly more desolvated in the gel bilayer. This work illustrates the capability of all-atom constant pH molecular dynamics in capturing the delicate balance in the free energies of desolvation and Coulombic interactions. It also shows the importance of the explicit treatment of ions in sampling the protonation states. The ability to model dynamics of pH-responsive substrates in a bilayer environment is useful for improving fabric care products as well as our understanding of the side effects of anti-inflammatory drugs.

  14. Robustly Engineering Thermal Conductivity of Bilayer Graphene by Interlayer Bonding

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoliang; Gao, Yufei; Chen, Yuli; Hu, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Graphene and its bilayer structure are the two-dimensional crystalline form of carbon, whose extraordinary electron mobility and other unique features hold great promise for nanoscale electronics and photonics. Their realistic applications in emerging nanoelectronics usually call for thermal transport manipulation in a controllable and precise manner. In this paper we systematically studied the effect of interlayer covalent bonding, in particular different interlay bonding arrangement, on the thermal conductivity of bilayer graphene using equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. It is revealed that, the thermal conductivity of randomly bonded bilayer graphene decreases monotonically with the increase of interlayer bonding density, however, for the regularly bonded bilayer graphene structure the thermal conductivity possesses unexpectedly non-monotonic dependence on the interlayer bonding density. The results suggest that the thermal conductivity of bilayer graphene depends not only on the interlayer bonding density, but also on the detailed topological configuration of the interlayer bonding. The underlying mechanism for this abnormal phenomenon is identified by means of phonon spectral energy density, participation ratio and mode weight factor analysis. The large tunability of thermal conductivity of bilayer graphene through rational interlayer bonding arrangement paves the way to achieve other desired properties for potential nanoelectronics applications involving graphene layers. PMID:26911859

  15. Robustly Engineering Thermal Conductivity of Bilayer Graphene by Interlayer Bonding.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoliang; Gao, Yufei; Chen, Yuli; Hu, Ming

    2016-02-25

    Graphene and its bilayer structure are the two-dimensional crystalline form of carbon, whose extraordinary electron mobility and other unique features hold great promise for nanoscale electronics and photonics. Their realistic applications in emerging nanoelectronics usually call for thermal transport manipulation in a controllable and precise manner. In this paper we systematically studied the effect of interlayer covalent bonding, in particular different interlay bonding arrangement, on the thermal conductivity of bilayer graphene using equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. It is revealed that, the thermal conductivity of randomly bonded bilayer graphene decreases monotonically with the increase of interlayer bonding density, however, for the regularly bonded bilayer graphene structure the thermal conductivity possesses unexpectedly non-monotonic dependence on the interlayer bonding density. The results suggest that the thermal conductivity of bilayer graphene depends not only on the interlayer bonding density, but also on the detailed topological configuration of the interlayer bonding. The underlying mechanism for this abnormal phenomenon is identified by means of phonon spectral energy density, participation ratio and mode weight factor analysis. The large tunability of thermal conductivity of bilayer graphene through rational interlayer bonding arrangement paves the way to achieve other desired properties for potential nanoelectronics applications involving graphene layers.

  16. Lipid domains in supported lipid bilayer for atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wan-Chen; Blanchette, Craig D; Ratto, Timothy V; Longo, Marjorie L

    2007-01-01

    Phase-separated supported lipid bilayers have been widely used to study the phase behavior of multicomponent lipid mixtures. One of the primary advantages of using supported lipid bilayers is that the two-dimensional platform of this model membrane system readily allows lipid-phase separation to be characterized by high-resolution imaging techniques such as atomic force microscopy (AFM). In addition, when supported lipid bilayers have been functionalized with a specific ligand, protein-membrane interactions can also be imaged and characterized through AFM. It has been recently demonstrated that when the technique of vesicle fusion is used to prepare supported lipid bilayers, the thermal history of the vesicles before deposition and the supported lipid bilayers after formation will have significant effects on the final phase-separated domain structures. In this chapter, three methods of vesicle preparations as well as three deposition conditions will be presented. Also, the techniques and strategies of using AFM to image multicomponent phase-separated supported lipid bilayers and protein binding will be discussed.

  17. General hydrophobic interaction potential for surfactant/lipid bilayers from direct force measurements between light-modulated bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Donaldson, Stephen H.; Lee, C. Ted; Chmelka, Bradley F.; Israelachvili, Jacob N.

    2011-01-01

    We establish and quantify correlations among the molecular structures, interaction forces, and physical processes associated with light-responsive self-assembled surfactant monolayers or bilayers at interfaces. Using the surface forces apparatus (SFA), the interaction forces between adsorbed monolayers and bilayers of an azobenzene-functionalized surfactant can be drastically and controllably altered by light-induced conversion of trans and cis molecular conformations. These reversible conformation changes affect significantly the shape of the molecules, especially in the hydrophobic region, which induces dramatic transformations of molecular packing in self-assembled structures, causing corresponding modulation of electrostatic double layer, steric hydration, and hydrophobic interactions. For bilayers, the isomerization from trans to cis exposes more hydrophobic groups, making the cis bilayers more hydrophobic, which lowers the activation energy barrier for (hemi)fusion. A quantitative and general model is derived for the interaction potential of charged bilayers that includes the electrostatic double-layer force of the Derjaguin–Landau–Verwey–Overbeek theory, attractive hydrophobic interactions, and repulsive steric-hydration forces. The model quantitatively accounts for the elastic strains, deformations, long-range forces, energy maxima, adhesion minima, as well as the instability (when it exists) as two bilayers breakthrough and (hemi)fuse. These results have several important implications, including quantitative and qualitative understanding of the hydrophobic interaction, which is furthermore shown to be a nonadditive interaction. PMID:21896718

  18. Oxygen permeability of the lipid bilayer membrane made of calf lens lipids

    PubMed Central

    Widomska, Justyna; Raguz, Marija; Subczynski, Witold K.

    2007-01-01

    The oxygen permeability coefficient across the membrane made of the total lipid extract from the plasma membrane of calf lens was estimated from the profile of the oxygen transport parameter (local oxygen diffusion-concentration product) and compared with those estimated for membranes made of an equimolar 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoylphosphatidylcholine/cholesterol (POPC/Chol) mixture and of pure POPC. Profiles of the oxygen transport parameter were obtained by observing the collision of molecular oxygen with nitroxide radical spin labels placed at different depths in the membrane using the saturation-recovery EPR technique and were published by us earlier (J. Widomska, M. Raguz, J. Dillon, E. R. Gaillard, W. K. Subczynski, Biochim. Biophys. Acta. Epub 2007 March 20). At 35°C, the estimated oxygen permeability coefficients were 51.3, 49.7, and 157.4 cm/s for lens lipid, POPC/Chol, and POPC membranes, respectively (compared with 53.3 cm/s for a water layer with the same thickness as a membrane). Membrane permeability significantly decreases at lower temperatures. In the lens lipid membrane, resistance to the oxygen transport is located in and near the polar headgroup region of the membrane to the depth of the ninth carbon, which is approximately where the steroid-ring structure of cholesterol reaches into the membrane. In the central region of the membrane, oxygen transport is enhanced, significantly exceeding that in bulk water. It is concluded that the high level of cholesterol in lens lipids is responsible for these unique membrane properties. PMID:17662231

  19. Thermoelectric power in a bilayer graphene device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yung-Yu, Chien; Hongtao, Yuan; Chang-Ran, Wang; Chun-Hsuan, Lin; Wei-Li, Lee; Geballe LaboratoryAdvanced Materials Collaboration; Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan Team

    2014-03-01

    There have been great interests on band gap engineering in a bilayer graphene (BLG) device, where inversion symmetry breaking by a perpendicular electric field can give rise to a sizable band gap. In our previous works, we have demonstrated a large enhancement in the thermoelectric power (TEP) associated with the band gap opening in a dual-gated BLG device. It is, therefore, an interesting question to ask whether even larger TEP can be achieved with a larger perpendicular electric field applied. We explored such possibility by utilizing the ionic liquid gating technique in BLG devices. By controlling the side gate voltage of ionic liquid and the bottom gate voltage via SiO2/Si substrate, large increase of the sheet resistance at charge neutral point was observed suggesting the opening of a band gap. At T = 120 K, TEP increases by more than 44% with a side gate voltage of ~ 1V. The influence of charge puddles to TEP using ionic liquid gating will be discussed.

  20. Magnetic Irreversibility in VO2/Ni Bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de La Venta, Jose; Lauzier, Josh; Sutton, Logan

    The temperature dependence of the coercivity and magnetization of VO2/Ni bilayers was studied. VO2 exhibits a well-known Structural Phase Transition (SPT) at 330-340 K, from a low temperature monoclinic (M) to a high temperature rutile (R) structure. The SPT of VO2 induces an inverse magnetoelastic effect that strongly modifies the coercivity and magnetization of the Ni films. In addition, the growth conditions allow tuning of the magnetic properties. Ni films deposited on top of VO2 (M) show an irreversible change in the coercivity after the first cycle through the high temperature phase, with a corresponding change in the surface morphology of VO2. On the other hand, the Ni films grown on top of VO2 (R) do not show this irreversibility. These results indicate that properties of magnetic films are strongly affected by the strain induced by materials that undergo SPT and that it is possible to control the magnetic properties by tuning the growth conditions.

  1. "Reversed" alamethicin conductance in lipid bilayers.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, R J; de Levie, R

    1991-01-01

    Alamethicin at a concentration of 2 micrograms/ml on one side of a lipid bilayer, formed at the tip of a patch clamp pipette from diphytanoyl phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol (2:1 mol ratio) in aqueous 0.5 M KCl, 5 mM Hepes, pH 7.0, exhibits an asymmetric current-voltage curve, only yielding alamethicin currents when the side to which the peptide has been added is made positive. Below room temperature, however, single alamethicin channels created in such membranes sometimes survive a sudden reversal of the polarity. These "reversed" channels are distinct from transiently observed states displayed as the channel closes after a polarity reversal. Such "reversed" channels can be monitored for periods up to several minutes, during which time we have observed them to fluctuate through more than 20 discrete conductance states. They are convenient for the study of isolated ion-conducting alamethicin aggregates because, after voltage reversal, no subsequent incorporation of additional ion-conducting aggregates takes place. PMID:1712238

  2. Tuning bilayer twist using chiral counterions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, R.; Huc, I.; Schmutz, M.; Candau, S. J.; Mackintosh, F. C.

    1999-06-01

    From seashells to DNA, chirality is expressed at every level of biological structures. In self-assembled structures it may emerge cooperatively from chirality at the molecular scale. Amphiphilic molecules, for example, can form a variety of aggregates and mesophases that express the chirality of their constituent molecules at a supramolecular scale of micrometres (refs 1-3). Quantitative prediction of the large-scale chirality based on that at themolecular scale remains a largely unsolved problem. Furthermore, experimental control over the expression of chirality at the supramolecular level is difficult to achieve: mixing of different enantiomers usually results in phase separation. Here we present an experimental and theoretical description of a system in which chirality can be varied continuously and controllably (`tuned') in micrometre-scale structures. We observe the formation of twisted ribbons consisting of bilayers of gemini surfactants (two surfactant molecules covalently linked at their charged head groups). We find that the degree of twist and the pitch of the ribbons can be tuned by the introduction of opposite-handed chiral counterions in various proportions. This degree of control might be of practical value; for example, in the use of thehelical structures as templates for helical crystallization of macromolecules,.

  3. Localized plasmons in bilayer graphene nanodisks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weihua; Xiao, Sanshui; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2016-04-01

    We study localized plasmonic excitations in bilayer graphene (BLG) nanodisks, comparing AA-stacked and AB-stacked BLG and contrasting the results to the case of two monolayers without electronic hybridization. The electrodynamic response of the BLG electron gas is described in terms of a spatially homogeneous surface conductivity, and an efficient alternative two-dimensional electrostatic approach is employed to carry out all the numerical calculations of plasmon resonances. Due to unique electronic band structures, the resonance frequency of the traditional dipolar plasmonic mode in the AA-stacked BLG nanodisk is roughly doping independent in the low-doping regime, while the mode is highly damped as the Fermi level approaches the interlayer hopping energy γ associated with tunneling of electrons between the two layers. In addition to the traditional dipolar mode, we find that the AB-stacked BLG nanodisk also hosts a new plasmonic mode with energy larger than γ . This mode can be tuned by either the doping level or structural size, and, furthermore, this mode can dominate the plasmonic response for realistic structural conditions.

  4. Quantum anomalous Hall state in bilayer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandkishore, Rahul; Levitov, Leonid

    2010-09-01

    We present a symmetry-based analysis of competition between different gapped states that have been proposed in bilayer graphene (BLG), which are all degenerate on a mean-field level. We classify the states in terms of a hidden SU(4) symmetry, and distinguish symmetry-protected degeneracies from accidental degeneracies. One of the states, which spontaneously breaks discrete time-reversal symmetry but no continuous symmetry, is identified as a quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) state, which exhibits quantum Hall effect at zero magnetic field. We investigate the lifting of the accidental degeneracies by thermal and zero-point fluctuations, taking account of the modes softened under renormalization group (RG). Working in a “saddle point plus quadratic fluctuations” approximation, we identify two types of RG-soft modes which have competing effects. Zero-point fluctuations, dominated by “transverse” modes which are unique to BLG, favor the QAH state. Thermal fluctuations, dominated by “longitudinal” modes, favor a SU(4) symmetry-breaking multiplet of states. We discuss the phenomenology and experimental signatures of the QAH state in BLG, and also propose a way to induce the QAH state using weak external magnetic fields.

  5. Convergence of Free Energy Profile of Coumarin in Lipid Bilayer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of druglike molecules embedded in lipid bilayers are of considerable interest as models for drug penetration and positioning in biological membranes. Here we analyze partitioning of coumarin in dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) bilayer, based on both multiple, unbiased 3 μs MD simulations (total length) and free energy profiles along the bilayer normal calculated by biased MD simulations (∼7 μs in total). The convergences in time of free energy profiles calculated by both umbrella sampling and z-constraint techniques are thoroughly analyzed. Two sets of starting structures are also considered, one from unbiased MD simulation and the other from “pulling” coumarin along the bilayer normal. The structures obtained by pulling simulation contain water defects on the lipid bilayer surface, while those acquired from unbiased simulation have no membrane defects. The free energy profiles converge more rapidly when starting frames from unbiased simulations are used. In addition, z-constraint simulation leads to more rapid convergence than umbrella sampling, due to quicker relaxation of membrane defects. Furthermore, we show that the choice of RESP, PRODRG, or Mulliken charges considerably affects the resulting free energy profile of our model drug along the bilayer normal. We recommend using z-constraint biased MD simulations based on starting geometries acquired from unbiased MD simulations for efficient calculation of convergent free energy profiles of druglike molecules along bilayer normals. The calculation of free energy profile should start with an unbiased simulation, though the polar molecules might need a slow pulling afterward. Results obtained with the recommended simulation protocol agree well with available experimental data for two coumarin derivatives. PMID:22545027

  6. Chemical potential and tunneling in bilayer graphene using double bilayer graphene heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tutuc, Emanuel

    2015-03-01

    Vertical heterostructures consisting of atomic layers separated by insulators can open a window to explore the role of electron interaction in these materials, otherwise not accessible in single layer devices. We describe here one such heterostructure, consisting of two bilayer graphene flakes separated by a hexagonal boron-nitride dielectric. Using the top layer as a resistively detected Kelvin probe we map the chemical potential of the bottom bilayer graphene as a function of electron density, perpendicular magnetic field, and transverse electric field. At zero magnetic field the chemical potential reveals a strongly non-linear dependence on density, with an electric field induced energy gap at charge neutrality. The data allow a direct measurement of the electric field-induced bandgap at zero magnetic field, the orbital Landau level energies, and the broken symmetry quantum Hall state gaps in high magnetic fields. In samples where the two layers are rotationally aligned the interlayer tunneling current measured as a function of interlayer bias reveals a gate-tunable negative differential resistance thanks to momentum conserving tunneling. Remarkably, the resonance width has a weak temperature dependence in the range 1.5 K to 300 K. Work done in collaboration with K. Lee, B. Fallahazad, S. Kang, J. Xue, D. C. Dillen, K. Kim, L. F. Register, S. K. Banerjee, T. Taniguchi, and K. Watanabe. This work supported by the Office of Naval Research, the Nanoelectronics Research Initiative SWAN center, and Intel Corp.

  7. Anomalous conductivity noise in gapped bilayer graphene heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aamir, Mohammed Ali; Karnatak, Paritosh; Sai, T. Phanindra; Ghosh, Arindam

    Bilayer graphene has unique electronic properties - it has a tunable band gap and also, valley symmetry and pseudospin degree of freedom like its single layer counterpart. In this work, we present a study of conductance fluctuations in dual gated bilayer graphene heterostructures by varying the Fermi energy and the band gap independently. At a fixed band gap, we find that the conductance fluctuations obtained by Fermi energy ensemble sampling increase rapidly as the Fermi energy is tuned to charge neutrality point (CNP) whereas the time-dependent conductance fluctuations diminish rapidly. This discrepancy is completely absent at higher number densities, where the transport is expected to be through the 2D bulk of the bilayer system. This observation indicates that near the CNP, electrical transport is highly sensitive to Fermi energy, but becomes progressively immune to time-varying disorder. A possible explanation may involve transport via edge states which becomes the dominant conduction mechanism when the bilayer graphene is gapped and Fermi energy is situated close to the CNP, thereby causing a dimensional crossover from 2D to 1D transport. Our experiment outlines a possible experimental protocol to probe intrinsic topological states in gapped bilayer graphene.

  8. Biophysical implications of lipid bilayer rheometry for mechanosensitive channels.

    PubMed

    Bavi, Navid; Nakayama, Yoshitaka; Bavi, Omid; Cox, Charles D; Qin, Qing-Hua; Martinac, Boris

    2014-09-23

    The lipid bilayer plays a crucial role in gating of mechanosensitive (MS) channels. Hence it is imperative to elucidate the rheological properties of lipid membranes. Herein we introduce a framework to characterize the mechanical properties of lipid bilayers by combining micropipette aspiration (MA) with theoretical modeling. Our results reveal that excised liposome patch fluorometry is superior to traditional cell-attached MA for measuring the intrinsic mechanical properties of lipid bilayers. The computational results also indicate that unlike the uniform bilayer tension estimated by Laplace's law, bilayer tension is not uniform across the membrane patch area. Instead, the highest tension is seen at the apex of the patch and the lowest tension is encountered near the pipette wall. More importantly, there is only a negligible difference between the stress profiles of the outer and inner monolayers in the cell-attached configuration, whereas a substantial difference (∼30%) is observed in the excised configuration. Our results have far-reaching consequences for the biophysical studies of MS channels and ion channels in general, using the patch-clamp technique, and begin to unravel the difference in activity seen between MS channels in different experimental paradigms.

  9. Hydrogel-stabilized droplet bilayers for high speed solution exchange.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Shiv A; Portman, Alexander; Salazar, Carl S; Schmidt, Jacob J

    2013-11-05

    Many applications utilizing artificial lipid bilayers require the ability to exchange the bilayer's solution environment. However, because of the instability of the bilayer, the rate of solution exchange is limited, which significantly hinders the measurement rate and throughput. We have developed an artificial bilayer system that can withstand high flow speeds, up to 2.1 m/s, by supporting the bilayer with a hydrogel. We demonstrated the ability to measure during flow by measuring the conductance of gramicidin-A channels while switching between solutions of two different compositions, recording a time to measure 90% change in current of approximately 2.7 seconds at a flow rate of 0.1 m/s. We also demonstrated a potential application of this system by measuring the conductance modulation of the rat TRPM8 ion channel by an agonist and antagonist at varying concentrations, obtaining 7-point IC50 and EC50 values in approximately 7 minutes and 4-point values within 4 minutes.

  10. Atomistic mechanisms for bilayer growth of graphene on metal substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei; Cui, Ping; Zhu, Wenguang; Kaxiras, Efthimios; Gao, Yanfei; Zhang, Zhenyu

    2015-01-01

    Epitaxial growth on metal substrates has been shown to be the most powerful approach in producing large-scale high-quality monolayer graphene, yet it remains a major challenge to realize uniform bilayer graphene growth. Here we carry out a comparative study of the atomistic mechanisms for bilayer graphene growth on the (111) surfaces of Cu and Ni, using multiscale approaches combining first-principles calculations and rate-equation analysis. We first show that the relatively weak graphene-Cu interaction enhances the lateral diffusion and effective nucleation of C atoms underneath the graphene island, thereby making it more feasible to grow bilayer graphene on Cu. In contrast, the stronger graphene-Ni interaction suppresses the lateral mobility and dimerization of C atoms underneath the graphene, making it unlikely to achieve controlled growth of bilayer graphene on Ni. We then determine the critical graphene size beyond which nucleation of the second layer will take place. Intriguingly, the critical size exhibits an effective inverse "Ehrlich-Schwoebel barrier" effect, becoming smaller for faster C migration from the Cu surface to the graphene-Cu interface sites across the graphene edge. These findings allow us to propose a novel alternating growth scheme to realize mass production of bilayer graphene.

  11. Electronic structure of bilayer graphene physisorbed on metal substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Emroz; Rahman, Tahmid Sami; Subrina, Samia

    2016-11-01

    Graphene-metal interfaces have recently become popular for graphene growth and for making contacts in numerous thermal and photo-electronic devices. A number of studies have already been made to investigate the interfacial properties when single layer graphene is grown on metal substrates. In this study, we consider the physisorption of bilayer graphene on metals and find a significant bandgap opening which is otherwise absent in the single layer case. This gap arises from the asymmetry in the bilayer due to the charge transfer process at the interface. This charge transfer also causes doping in the bilayer graphene and a corresponding shift in the Fermi level. In this work, we present a thorough investigation into the induced bandgap and Fermi level shift when bilayer graphene is adsorbed on Cu, Al, Ag, Pt, and Au(111) surfaces first by reporting their values from Density Functional Theory (DFT) studies with Local Density Approximation functional used for exchange-correlation energy. Next, to obtain an enhanced picture of the surface physics at play (which is usually obscured by the complexities of DFT), we provide an analytical model to relate the induced bandgap and Fermi level shift to the metal work function and interface separation distance. The values predicted from the model shows a high degree of correlation with the values obtained from the DFT simulation. The results are expected to greatly facilitate the understanding of bilayer graphene adsorption on metals, which in turn may aid the study of graphene electronic devices.

  12. Thermotropic phase transition in soluble nanoscale lipid bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Denisov, Ilia G.; McLean, Mark A.; Shaw, Andrew W.; Grinkova, Yelena V.; Sligar, Stephen G.

    2008-01-01

    The role of lipid domain size and protein-lipid interfaces in the thermotropic phase transition of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine (DMPC) bilayers in Nanodiscs was studied using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and generalized polarization (GP) of the lipophilic probe Laurdan. Nanodiscs are water-soluble, monodisperse self-assembled lipid bilayers encompassed by a helical membrane scaffold protein (MSP). MSPs of different lengths were used to define the diameter of the Nanodisc lipid bilayer from 76 to 108 Å and the number of DPPC molecules from 164 to 335 per discoidal structure. In Nanodiscs of all sizes, the phase transitions were broader and shifted to higher temperatures relative to those observed in vesicle preparations. The size dependences of the transition enthalpies and structural parameters of Nanodiscs reveal the presence of a boundary lipid layer in contact with the scaffold protein encircling the perimeter of the disc. The thickness of this annular layer was estimated to be approximately 15 Å, or two lipid molecules. SAXS was used to measure the lateral thermal expansion of Nanodiscs and a steep decrease of bilayer thickness during the main lipid phase transition was observed. These results provide basis for the quantitative understanding of cooperative phase transitions in membrane bilayers in confined geometries at the nanoscale. PMID:16852976

  13. Atomistic mechanisms for bilayer growth of graphene on metal substrates

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Wei; Cui, Ping; Zhu, Wenguang; ...

    2015-01-08

    Epitaxial growth on metal substrates has been shown to be the most powerful approach in producing large-scale high-quality monolayer graphene, yet it remains a major challenge to realize uniform bilayer graphene growth. Here we carry out a comparative study of the atomistic mechanisms for bilayer graphene growth on the (111) surfaces of Cu and Ni, using multiscale approaches combining first-principles calculations and rate-equation analysis. We first show that the relatively weak graphene-Cu interaction enhances the lateral diffusion and effective nucleation of C atoms underneath the graphene island, thereby making it more feasible to grow bilayer graphene on Cu. In contrast,more » the stronger graphene-Ni interaction suppresses the lateral mobility and dimerization of C atoms underneath the graphene, making it unlikely to achieve controlled growth of bilayer graphene on Ni. We then determine the critical graphene size beyond which nucleation of the second layer will take place. Intriguingly, the critical size exhibits an effective inverse "Ehrlich-Schwoebel barrier" effect, becoming smaller for faster C migration from the Cu surface to the graphene-Cu interface sites across the graphene edge. Lastly, these findings allow us to propose a novel alternating growth scheme to realize mass production of bilayer graphene.« less

  14. Atomistic mechanisms for bilayer growth of graphene on metal substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Wei; Cui, Ping; Zhu, Wenguang; Kaxiras, Efthimios; Gao, Yanfei; Zhang, Zhenyu

    2015-01-08

    Epitaxial growth on metal substrates has been shown to be the most powerful approach in producing large-scale high-quality monolayer graphene, yet it remains a major challenge to realize uniform bilayer graphene growth. Here we carry out a comparative study of the atomistic mechanisms for bilayer graphene growth on the (111) surfaces of Cu and Ni, using multiscale approaches combining first-principles calculations and rate-equation analysis. We first show that the relatively weak graphene-Cu interaction enhances the lateral diffusion and effective nucleation of C atoms underneath the graphene island, thereby making it more feasible to grow bilayer graphene on Cu. In contrast, the stronger graphene-Ni interaction suppresses the lateral mobility and dimerization of C atoms underneath the graphene, making it unlikely to achieve controlled growth of bilayer graphene on Ni. We then determine the critical graphene size beyond which nucleation of the second layer will take place. Intriguingly, the critical size exhibits an effective inverse "Ehrlich-Schwoebel barrier" effect, becoming smaller for faster C migration from the Cu surface to the graphene-Cu interface sites across the graphene edge. Lastly, these findings allow us to propose a novel alternating growth scheme to realize mass production of bilayer graphene.

  15. Pattern Formation in Dewetting Nanoparticle/Polymer Bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esker, Alan; Paul, Rituparna; Karabiyik, Ufuk; Swift, Michael; Hottle, John

    2008-03-01

    Comprised of inorganic cores and flexible organic coronae with 1 -- 2 nm diameter monodisperse sizes, polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS) are ideal model nanofillers. Our discovery that one POSS derivative, trisilanolphenyl-POSS (TPP), can form Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films on hydrophobic substrates, allows us to create thin film bilayers of precisely controlled thickness and architecture. Work with poly(t-butylacrylate) (PtBA)/TPP bilayers reveals a two-step dewetting mechanism in which the upper TPP layer dewets first, followed by the formation of isolated holes with intricate, fractal, nanofiller aggregates. Like the PtBA/TPP bilayers, polystyrene (PS)/TPP bilayers also undergo a two-step dewetting mechanism. However, the upper TPP layer initially forms cracks that may arise from mismatches in thermal expansion coefficients. These cracks then serve as nucleation sites for complete dewetting of the entire bilayer. Understanding the rich diversity of surface patterns that can be formed from relatively simple processes is a key feature of this work.

  16. Assessment of pseudo-bilayer structures in the heterogate germanium electron-hole bilayer tunnel field-effect transistor

    SciTech Connect

    Padilla, J. L. Alper, C.; Ionescu, A. M.; Medina-Bailón, C.; Gámiz, F.

    2015-06-29

    We investigate the effect of pseudo-bilayer configurations at low operating voltages (≤0.5 V) in the heterogate germanium electron-hole bilayer tunnel field-effect transistor (HG-EHBTFET) compared to the traditional bilayer structures of EHBTFETs arising from semiclassical simulations where the inversion layers for electrons and holes featured very symmetric profiles with similar concentration levels at the ON-state. Pseudo-bilayer layouts are attained by inducing a certain asymmetry between the top and the bottom gates so that even though the hole inversion layer is formed at the bottom of the channel, the top gate voltage remains below the required value to trigger the formation of the inversion layer for electrons. Resulting benefits from this setup are improved electrostatic control on the channel, enhanced gate-to-gate efficiency, and higher I{sub ON} levels. Furthermore, pseudo-bilayer configurations alleviate the difficulties derived from confining very high opposite carrier concentrations in very thin structures.

  17. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Lipid Bilayers and Tubules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirst, Linda S.; Yuan, Jing; Pramudya, Yohannes; Nguyen, Lam T.

    2007-03-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are found in a variety of biological membranes and have been implicated with lipid raft formation and possible function, typical molecules include DHA (Docosahexanoic Acid) and AA (Alphalinoleic Acid) which have been the focus of considerable attention in recent years. We are interested in the phase behavior of these molecules in the lipid bilayer. The addition of lipid molecules with polyunsaturated chains has a clear effect on the fluidity and curvature of the membrane and we investigate the effects the addition of polyunsaturated lipids on bilayer structure and tubule formation. Self-assembled cylindrical lipid tubules have attracted considerable attention because of their interesting structures and potential technological applications. Using x-ray diffraction techniques, Atomic Force Microscopy and confocal fluorescence imaging, both symmetric and mixed chain lipids were incorporated into model membranes and the effects on bilayer structure and tubule formation investigated.

  18. Bilayer Deformation, Pores, and Micellation Induced by Oxidized Lipids.

    PubMed

    Boonnoy, Phansiri; Jarerattanachat, Viwan; Karttunen, Mikko; Wong-Ekkabut, Jirasak

    2015-12-17

    The influence of different oxidized lipids on lipid bilayers was investigated with 16 individual 1 μs atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Binary mixtures of lipid bilayers of 1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (PLPC) and its peroxide and aldehyde products were performed at different concentrations. In addition, an asymmetrical short chain lipid, 1-palmitoyl-2-decanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (PDPC), was used to compare the effects of polar/apolar groups in the lipid tail on lipid bilayer. Although water defects occurred with both aldehyde and peroxide lipids, full pore formation was observed only for aldehyde lipids. At medium concentrations the pores were stable. At higher concentrations, however, the pores became unstable and micellation occurred. Data analysis shows that aldehyde lipids' propensity for pore formation is due to their shorter and highly mobile tail. The highly polar peroxide lipids are stabilized by strong hydrogen bonds with interfacial water.

  19. Microwave magnetoelectric effects in bilayer of ferrite and piezoelectric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bichurin, M. I.; Petrov, V. M.; Galkina, T. A.

    2009-03-01

    The present paper focuses on magnetoelectric (ME) interactions under ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) in a bilayer of a ferrite and a piezoelectric. Applying a dc electric field perpendicular to the sample plane induces a uniaxial magnetic anisotropy. The effects of flexural deformation and substrate clamping have been considered in determining the electric field induced FMR line shift. The obtained model is applied to a specific case of yttrium iron garnet/lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate. Our studies indicate that flexural deformation gives rise to a decrease in the strength of ME interaction for a free standing bilayer. The substrate thickness dependence of FMR line shift reveals a maximum for the substrate thickness that is approximately equal to that of the bilayer.

  20. Intermonolayer Friction and Surface Shear Viscosity of Lipid Bilayer Membranes

    PubMed Central

    den Otter, W. K.; Shkulipa, S. A.

    2007-01-01

    The flow behavior of lipid bilayer membranes is characterized by a surface viscosity for in-plane shear deformations, and an intermonolayer friction coefficient for slip between the two leaflets of the bilayer. Both properties have been studied for a variety of coarse-grained double-tailed model lipids, using equilibrium and nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. For lipids with two identical tails, the surface shear viscosity rises rapidly with tail length, while the intermonolayer friction coefficient is less sensitive to the tail length. Interdigitation of lipid tails across the bilayer midsurface, as observed for lipids with two distinct tails, strongly enhances the intermonolayer friction coefficient, but hardly affects the surface shear viscosity. The simulation results are compared against the available experimental data. PMID:17468168

  1. Electrical control of the RKKY interaction in bilayer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klier, N.; Sharma, S.; Pankratov, O.; Shallcross, S.

    2016-11-01

    The Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) interaction between impurity spins is calculated for bilayer graphene in the presence of a layer symmetry-breaking external electric field. We find that for intercalated impurities (i.e., impurity atoms between the two constituent layers of the bilayer) the interaction is extraordinarily sensitive to such a field. In particular, (i) the form of the RKKY interaction may be tuned between oscillatory, ferromagnetic, and antiferromagnetic simply by varying the external field, and (ii) the strength of the RKKY interaction may be increased by an order of magnitude by application of an external field. This sensitivity arises directly from the "Mexican hat" form that the low-energy spectrum takes in an applied field. These finding suggest that heterostructures of intercalated magnetic atoms in bilayer graphene may represent a possible system for electrical control over magnetic structure.

  2. Edge State and Intrinsic Hole Doping in Bilayer Phosphorene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osada, Toshihito

    2015-01-01

    Using a simple LCAO model by Harrison, we have qualitatively studied the edge state of bilayer phosphorene, which is a unit structure of the layered crystal of black phosphorus. This model successfully reproduces the isolated edge state in the bulk gap in monolayer phosphorene. In bilayer phosphorene, however, it shows that edge states are almost buried in the valence band and there is no isolated midgap edge state at the zigzag edge. Since the buried edge state works as acceptor, holes are doped from the edge state into the bulk. This gives a possible explanation for p-type conduction in undoped black phosphorus. Under the vertical electric field, the intrinsic hole doping is reduced because a part of edge states move into the gap. These features of bilayer phosphorene might be better suited for device application.

  3. Neutron diffraction studies of amphipathic helices in phospholipid bilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Bradshaw, J.P.; Gilchrist, P.J.; Duff, K.C.; Saxena, A.M.

    1994-12-31

    The structural feature which is thought to facilitate the interaction of many peptides with phospholipid bilayers is the ability to fold into an amphipathic helix. In most cases the exact location and orientation of this helix with respect to the membrane is not known, and may vary with factors such as pH and phospholipid content of the bilayer. The growing interest in this area is stimulated by indications that similar interactions can contribute to the binding of certain hormones to their cell-surface receptors. We have been using the techniques of neutron diffraction from stacked phospholipid bilayers in an attempt to investigate this phenomenon with a number of membrane-active peptides. Here we report some of our findings with three of these: the bee venom melittin; the hormone calcitonin; and a synthetic peptide representing the ion channel fragment of influenza A M2 protein.

  4. Supported phospholipid bilayers for two-dimensional protein crystallization.

    PubMed

    Uzgiris, E E

    1986-01-29

    Phospholipid bilayers, supported on UV irradiated carbon shadowed nitrocellulose electron microscope grids, have been used to induce two-dimensional crystal growth of IgE and IgG anti-DNP monoclonal antibodies. The UV irradiation renders the grids hydrophilic in a very uniform fashion and allows for the transfer of phospholipid monolayers from an air/water interface in a sequential dipping procedure. The surface coverage achieved was nearly 100% as measured by antibody binding and by the formation of protein arrays on the bilayer covered grids. The supported bilayers appear to be stably held and are appropriate for slow binding conditions and long incubation times with low concentrations of binding protein.

  5. Manipulating interface states in monolayer-bilayer graphene planar junctions.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Fang; Xu, Lei; Zhang, Jun

    2016-05-11

    We report on transport properties of monolayer-bilayer graphene planar junctions in a magnetic field. Due to its unique geometry, the edge and interface states can be independently manipulated by either interlayer potential or Zeeman field, and the conductance exhibits interesting quantized behaviors. In the hybrid graphene junction, the quantum Hall (QH) conductance is no longer antisymmetric with respect to the charge neutrality point. When the Zeeman field is considered, a quantum spin Hall (QSH) phase is found in the monolayer region while the weak-QSH phase stays in the bilayer region. In the presence of both interlayer potential and Zeeman field, the bilayer region hosts a QSH phase, whereas the monolayer region is still in a QH phase, leading to a spin-polarized current in the interface. In particular, the QSH phase remains robust against the disorder.

  6. Manipulating interface states in monolayer-bilayer graphene planar junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Fang; Xu, Lei; Zhang, Jun

    2016-05-01

    We report on transport properties of monolayer-bilayer graphene planar junctions in a magnetic field. Due to its unique geometry, the edge and interface states can be independently manipulated by either interlayer potential or Zeeman field, and the conductance exhibits interesting quantized behaviors. In the hybrid graphene junction, the quantum Hall (QH) conductance is no longer antisymmetric with respect to the charge neutrality point. When the Zeeman field is considered, a quantum spin Hall (QSH) phase is found in the monolayer region while the weak-QSH phase stays in the bilayer region. In the presence of both interlayer potential and Zeeman field, the bilayer region hosts a QSH phase, whereas the monolayer region is still in a QH phase, leading to a spin-polarized current in the interface. In particular, the QSH phase remains robust against the disorder.

  7. Nonlocal transport in dual-gated bilayer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimazaki, Yuya; Yamamoto, Michihisa; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Tarucha, Seigo

    2014-03-01

    We report nonlocal transport measurement of biased bilayer graphene. Dual gated bilayer graphene Hall bars sandwiched between two h-BN insulating layers were prepared using the transfer technique with PMMA thin flims. We measured both local and non-local transport at temperatures between 1.5 K and 200 K. We found enhancement of the nonlocal resistance near the charge neutrality point when we increase the perpendicular electric field. Observed nonlocal resistance at 70K is much larger than what is expected as the Ohmic contribution from van der Pauw formula with measured local resistivity. This observation indicates additional contribution to the nonlocal transport in biased bilayer graphene. We present temperature and displacement field dependence of the nonlocal resistance and discuss its origin in terms of valley Hall effect and transport through disordered edge states.

  8. Thin bilayer resists for 193-nm and future photolithography II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hishiro, Yoshi; Hyatt, Michael

    2007-03-01

    Bilayer, Si-containing resists are a technique of interest and a strong candidate to replace chemical vapor deposition (CVD) hardmask processes for small critical dimensions (CDs). Previously, we proposed a very thin film approach using bilayer resists for future lithography, defined the requirements for the resists, and demonstrated 55nm transferred patterns with high aspect ratios using 2-beam interferometer exposure. In this paper, we have demonstrated smaller-than- 60nm transferred patterns with a high numerical aperture (NA) scanner, as well as 45nm and 40nm transferred patterns with a 2-beam system using a 20% Si-containing thin bilayer resist. Immersion scanner exposure and a 35nm CD with 2- beam system were also studied.

  9. Laurdan fluorescence senses mechanical strain in the lipid bilayer membrane.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan-Liang; Frangos, John A; Chachisvilis, Mirianas

    2006-09-01

    The precise molecular mechanisms by which cells transduce a mechanical stimulus into an intracellular biochemical response have not yet been established. Here, we show for the first time that the fluorescence emission of an environment-sensitive membrane probe Laurdan is modulated by mechanical strain of the lipid bilayer membrane. We have measured fluorescence emission of Laurdan in phospholipid vesicles of 30, 50, and 100 nm diameter to show that osmotically induced membrane tension leads to an increase in polarity (hydration depth) of the phospholipid bilayer interior. Our data indicate that the general polarization of Laurdan emission is linearly dependent on membrane tension. We also show that higher membrane curvature leads to higher hydration levels. We anticipate that the proposed method will facilitate future studies of mechanically induced changes in physical properties of lipid bilayer environment both in vitro and in vivo.

  10. Molecular-dynamics simulation of a ceramide bilayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandit, Sagar A.; Scott, H. Larry

    2006-01-01

    Ceramide is the simplest lipid in the biologically important class of glycosphingolipids. Ceramide is an important signaling molecule and a major component of the strateum corneum layer in the skin. In order to begin to understand the biophysical properties of ceramide, we have carried out a molecular-dynamics simulation of a hydrated 16:0 ceramide lipid bilayer at 368K (5° above the main phase transition). In this paper we describe the simulation and present the resulting properties of the bilayer. We compare the properties of the simulated ceramide bilayer to an earlier simulation of 18:0 sphingomyelin, and we discuss the results as they relate to experimental data for ceramide and other sphingolipids. The most significant differences arise at the lipid/water interface, where the lack of a large ceramide polar group leads to a different electron density and a different electrostatic potential but, surprisingly, not a different overall "dipole potential," when ceramide is compared to sphingomyelin.

  11. Bilayer-induced asymmetric quantum Hall effect in epitaxial graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iagallo, Andrea; Tanabe, Shinichi; Roddaro, Stefano; Takamura, Makoto; Sekine, Yoshiaki; Hibino, Hiroki; Miseikis, Vaidotas; Coletti, Camilla; Piazza, Vincenzo; Beltram, Fabio; Heun, Stefan

    2015-05-01

    The transport properties of epitaxial graphene on SiC(0001) at quantizing magnetic fields are investigated. Devices patterned perpendicularly to SiC terraces clearly exhibit bilayer inclusions distributed along the substrate step edges. We show that the transport properties in the quantum Hall regime are heavily affected by the presence of bilayer inclusions, and observe a significant departure from the conventional quantum Hall characteristics. In particular, we observe anomalous values of the quantized resistance and a peculiar asymmetry with magnetic field which was not observed before for graphene on SiC. A quantitative model involving enhanced inter-channel scattering mediated by the presence of bilayer inclusions is presented that successfully explains the observed symmetry properties.

  12. Hierarchically structured porous cadmium selenide polycrystals using polystyrene bilayer templates.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin Young; Hendricks, Nicholas R; Carter, Kenneth R

    2012-09-18

    In this study, a novel approach is demonstrated to fabricate hierarchically structured cadmium selenide (CdSe) layers with size-tunable nano/microporous morphologies achieved using polystyrene (PS) bilayered templates (top layer: colloidal template) via potentiostatic electrochemical deposition. The PS bilayer template is made in two steps. First, various PS patterns (stripes, ellipsoids, and circles) are prepared as the bottom layers through imprint lithography. In a second step, a top template is deposited that consists of a self-assembled layer of colloidal 2D packed PS particles. Electrochemical growth of CdSe crystals in the voids and selective removal of the PS bilayered templates give rise to hierarchically patterned 2D hexagonal porous CdSe structures. This simple and facile technique provides various unconventional porous CdSe films, arising from the effect of the PS bottom templates.

  13. CO adsorption on a silica bilayer supported on Ru(0001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlexer, Philomena; Pacchioni, Gianfranco; Włodarczyk, Radosław; Sauer, Joachim

    2016-06-01

    Silica bilayers are built up of two layers of corner sharing SiO4-tetrahedra and constitute an inert ultra-thin membrane supported on the Ru(0001) surface. We have investigated the adsorption of CO on that system using DFT with inclusion of dispersion corrections. The molecules adsorb at the interface between the SiO2 film and Ru(0001) surface. The estimated barrier for diffusion of CO through the silica bilayer is around 0.5 eV. The CO bond length, the C-O stretching frequency and the silica-ruthenium distance depend strongly on the CO coverage. The band observed at 2051 cm- 1 in previous experiments can be assigned to a CO coverage of around 0.5 ML on Ru(0001), with the silica bilayer floating above the CO molecules.

  14. Meron-Pair Excitations in Bilayer Quantum Hall System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Kyungsun

    Bilayer two-dimensional electron gas systems can form unusual broken symmetry states with spontaneous inter-layer phase coherence at certain filling factors. At total filling factor νT = 1, the lowest energy charged excitation of the system is theoretically suggested to be a linearly-confined meron-pair, which is topologically identical to a single skyrmion. We will review how this remarkable excitation arises and can help unravel various experimental results demonstrated in bilayer quantum Hall system. In order to detect the linearly-confined meron-pair excitation directly, we propose a gated bilayer Hall bar experiment, where the magnitude and orientation of magnetic field B‖ applied parallel to the 2D plane can be controlled. We demonstrate a strong angle-dependent transport due to the anisotropic nature of linearly-confined meron-pairs and discuss how it would be manifested in experiment.

  15. Anomalous Coulomb drag in bilayer graphene double layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaomeng; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Kim, Philip

    Bilayer graphene double-layer structure consists of two layers of bilayer graphene separated by atomically thin hexagonal boron nitride (hBN). With a perfect Fermi surface nesting and strong electron-electron interaction (ECoulomb > Ekinetic), such systems offer exciting platforms to study interaction driven phenomena, such as Coulomb drag and exciton condensation. We fabricate ultra-clean encapsulated bilayer graphene double layers with dry pick-up method. Room temperature drag measurement on our devices shows the sign of drag agree with the typical Fermi liquid behavior. However, at lower temperatures, the sign of drag reversed, indicating a new drag mechanism emerges and dominates. We measure this with different geometry, temperature, bias and gating to investigate the origin of such effect and discuss the implication of the drag sign changes.

  16. Free energy of adsorption of supported lipid bilayers from molecular dynamics simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneemilch, M.; Quirke, N.

    2016-11-01

    A novel method is presented for the calculation of adhesion energies of lipid bilayers on solid surfaces from molecular dynamics simulation. We illustrate the method with a fully atomistic model comprising a gold surface and an adsorbed lipid bilayer. We use our technique to scale the lipid-surface interactions to reproduce the experimental value for adsorption of DMPC bilayers on gold surfaces. Finally we estimate the entropic contribution to the free energy change on adsorption of the bilayer.

  17. The mechanism of detergent solubilization of lipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Lichtenberg, Dov; Ahyayauch, Hasna; Goñi, Félix M

    2013-07-16

    Multiple data are available on the self-assembly of mixtures of bilayer-forming amphiphiles, particularly phospholipids and micelle-forming amphiphiles, commonly denoted detergents. The structure of such mixed assemblies has been thoroughly investigated, described in phase diagrams, and theoretically rationalized in terms of the balance between the large spontaneous curvature of the curvophilic detergent and the curvophobic phospholipids. In this critical review, we discuss the mechanism of this process and try to explain the actual mechanism involved in solubilization. Interestingly, membrane solubilization by some detergents is relatively slow and the common attribute of these detergents is that their trans-bilayer movement, commonly denoted flip-flop, is very slow. Only detergents that can flip into the inner monolayer cause relatively rapid solubilization of detergent-saturated bilayers. This occurs via the following sequence of events: 1), relatively rapid penetration of detergent monomers into the outer monolayer; 2), trans-membrane equilibration of detergent monomers between the two monolayers; 3), saturation of the bilayer by detergents and consequent permeabilization of the membrane; and 4), transition of the whole bilayer to thread-like mixed micelles. When the detergent cannot flip to the inner monolayer, the outer monolayer becomes unstable due to mass imbalance between the monolayers and inclusion of the curvophilic detergent molecules in a flat surface. Consequently, the outer monolayer forms mixed micellar structures within the outer monolayer. Shedding of these micelles into the aqueous solution results in partial solubilization. The consequent leakage of detergent into the liposome results in trans-membrane equilibration of detergent and subsequent micellization through the rapid bilayer-saturation mechanism.

  18. Experimental and theoretical evidence for bilayer-by-bilayer surface melting of crystalline ice

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, M. Alejandra; Kling, Tanja; Ishiyama, Tatsuya; van Zadel, Marc-Jan; Mezger, Markus; Jochum, Mara N.; Cyran, Jenée D.; Smit, Wilbert J.; Bakker, Huib J.; Shultz, Mary Jane; Morita, Akihiro; Donadio, Davide; Nagata, Yuki; Bonn, Mischa; Backus, Ellen H. G.

    2017-01-01

    On the surface of water ice, a quasi-liquid layer (QLL) has been extensively reported at temperatures below its bulk melting point at 273 K. Approaching the bulk melting temperature from below, the thickness of the QLL is known to increase. To elucidate the precise temperature variation of the QLL, and its nature, we investigate the surface melting of hexagonal ice by combining noncontact, surface-specific vibrational sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy and spectra calculated from molecular dynamics simulations. Using SFG, we probe the outermost water layers of distinct single crystalline ice faces at different temperatures. For the basal face, a stepwise, sudden weakening of the hydrogen-bonded structure of the outermost water layers occurs at 257 K. The spectral calculations from the molecular dynamics simulations reproduce the experimental findings; this allows us to interpret our experimental findings in terms of a stepwise change from one to two molten bilayers at the transition temperature. PMID:27956637

  19. Experimental and theoretical evidence for bilayer-by-bilayer surface melting of crystalline ice.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, M Alejandra; Kling, Tanja; Ishiyama, Tatsuya; van Zadel, Marc-Jan; Bisson, Patrick J; Mezger, Markus; Jochum, Mara N; Cyran, Jenée D; Smit, Wilbert J; Bakker, Huib J; Shultz, Mary Jane; Morita, Akihiro; Donadio, Davide; Nagata, Yuki; Bonn, Mischa; Backus, Ellen H G

    2017-01-10

    On the surface of water ice, a quasi-liquid layer (QLL) has been extensively reported at temperatures below its bulk melting point at 273 K. Approaching the bulk melting temperature from below, the thickness of the QLL is known to increase. To elucidate the precise temperature variation of the QLL, and its nature, we investigate the surface melting of hexagonal ice by combining noncontact, surface-specific vibrational sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy and spectra calculated from molecular dynamics simulations. Using SFG, we probe the outermost water layers of distinct single crystalline ice faces at different temperatures. For the basal face, a stepwise, sudden weakening of the hydrogen-bonded structure of the outermost water layers occurs at 257 K. The spectral calculations from the molecular dynamics simulations reproduce the experimental findings; this allows us to interpret our experimental findings in terms of a stepwise change from one to two molten bilayers at the transition temperature.

  20. Graphene monolayer rotation on Ni(111) facilitates bilayer graphene growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahal, Arjun; Addou, Rafik; Sutter, Peter; Batzill, Matthias

    2012-06-01

    Synthesis of bilayer graphene by chemical vapor deposition is of importance for graphene-based field effect devices. Here, we demonstrate that bilayer graphene preferentially grows by carbon-segregation under graphene sheets that are rotated relative to a Ni(111) substrate. Rotated graphene monolayer films can be synthesized at growth temperatures above 650 °C on a Ni(111) thin-film. The segregated second graphene layer is in registry with the Ni(111) substrate and this suppresses further C-segregation, effectively self-limiting graphene formation to two layers.

  1. Magnetic properties of superconducting Bi/Ni bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hexin; Gong, Xinxin; Jin, Xiaofeng

    2017-01-01

    The magnetic properties of an unexpected superconducting bilayer consisting of non-superconducting Bi and ferromagnetic Ni have been investigated. A large magnetization signal is observed when the sample is cooled below the superconducting transition temperature in zero magnetic field, which has the same direction with the magnetization of the adjacent Ni layer. Interestingly, this Bi/Ni bilayer shows opposite responses to external magnetic field in zero field cooling (ZFC) process and field cooling (FC) process. It behaves diamagnetically in ZFC while paramagnetically in FC. Besides, magnetic hysteresis loops below the superconducting transition temperature show flux pinning and flux jumping effects.

  2. Graphene Monolayer Rotation on Ni(111) Facilities Bilayer Graphene Growth

    SciTech Connect

    Batzill M.; Sutter P.; Dahal, A.; Addou, R.

    2012-06-11

    Synthesis of bilayer graphene by chemical vapor deposition is of importance for graphene-based field effect devices. Here, we demonstrate that bilayer graphene preferentially grows by carbon-segregation under graphene sheets that are rotated relative to a Ni(111) substrate. Rotated graphene monolayer films can be synthesized at growth temperatures above 650 C on a Ni(111) thin-film. The segregated second graphene layer is in registry with the Ni(111) substrate and this suppresses further C-segregation, effectively self-limiting graphene formation to two layers.

  3. Proposed Parametric Cooling of Bilayer Cuprate Superconductors by Terahertz Excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denny, S. J.; Clark, S. R.; Laplace, Y.; Cavalleri, A.; Jaksch, D.

    2015-04-01

    We propose and analyze a scheme for parametrically cooling bilayer cuprates based on the selective driving of a c -axis vibrational mode. The scheme exploits the vibration as a transducer making the Josephson plasma frequencies time dependent. We show how modulation at the difference frequency between the intrabilayer and interbilayer plasmon substantially suppresses interbilayer phase fluctuations, responsible for switching c -axis transport from a superconducting to a resistive state. Our calculations indicate that this may provide a viable mechanism for stabilizing nonequilibrium superconductivity even above Tc, provided a finite pair density survives between the bilayers out of equilibrium.

  4. Fluorescence study on aggregated lysozyme and lipid bilayer interactions.

    PubMed

    Trusova, Valeriya M; Gorbenko, Galyna P

    2012-08-01

    Fluorescent probes 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH), pyrene, 4-dimethylaminochalcone (DMC) and 4-p-(dimethylaminostyryl)-1-dodecylpyridinium (DSP-12) have been utilized to monitor the impact of lysozyme (Lz) oligomers on physicochemical properties of phosphatidylcholine/cardiolipin (PC/CL) membranes. Analysis of spectral responses of the employed probes revealed the reduction of membrane free volume and dehydration of lipid bilayer surface upon incorporation of Lz self-assemblies. Hydrophobic interactions were found to control the binding of Lz oligomers to the lipid bilayer. Comparison of the effects of Lz monomers, oligomers and fibrils showed that soluble oligomeric intermediates exert the most destructive influence on membrane properties.

  5. Bias induced modulation of electrical and thermal conductivity and heat capacity of BN and BN/graphene bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chegel, Raad

    2017-04-01

    By using the tight binding approximation and Green function method, the electronic structure, density of state, electrical conductivity, heat capacity of BN and BN/graphene bilayers are investigated. The AA-, AB1- and AB2- BN/graphene bilayers have small gap unlike to BN bilayers which are wide band gap semiconductors. Unlike to BN bilayer, the energy gap of graphene/BN bilayers increases with external field. The magnitude of the change in the band gap of BN bilayers is much higher than the graphene/BN bilayers. Near absolute zero, the σ(T) is zero for BN bilayers and it increases with temperature until reaches maximum value then decreases. The BN/graphene bilayers have larger electrical conductivity larger than BN bilayers. For both bilayers, the specific heat capacity has a Schottky anomaly.

  6. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of tethered bilayer membranes.

    PubMed

    Valincius, Gintaras; Meškauskas, Tadas; Ivanauskas, Feliksas

    2012-01-10

    The electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) of tethered bilayer membranes (tBLMs) were analyzed, and the analytical solution for the spectral response of membranes containing natural or artificially introduced defects was derived. The analysis carried out in this work shows that the EIS features of an individual membrane defect cannot be modeled by conventional electrical elements. The primary reason for this is the complex nature of impedance of the submembrane ionic reservoir separating the phospholipid layer and the solid support. We demonstrate that its EIS response, in the case of radially symmetric defects, is described by the Hankel functions of a complex variable. Therefore, neither the impedance of the submembrane reservoir nor the total impedance of tBLMs can be modeled using the conventional elements of the equivalent electrical circuits of interfaces. There are, however, some limiting cases in which the complexity of the EIS response of the submembrane space reduces. In the high frequency limit, the EIS response of a submembrane space that surrounds the defect transforms into a response of a constant phase element (CPE) with the exponent (α) value of 0.5. The onset of this transformation is, beside other parameters, dependent on the defect size. Large-sized defects push the frequency limit lower, therefore, the EIS spectra exhibiting CPE behavior with α ≈ 0.5, can serve as a diagnostic criterion for the presence of such defects. In the low frequency limit, the response is dependent on the density of the defects, and it transforms into the capacitive impedance if the area occupied by a defect is finite. The higher the defect density, the higher the frequency edge at which the onset of the capacitive behavior is observed. Consequently, the presented analysis provides practical tools to evaluate the defect density in tBLMs, which could be utilized in tBLM-based biosensor applications. Alternatively, if the parameters of the defects, e.g., ion channels

  7. Magnetoresistance of heavy and light metal/ferromagnet bilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Avci, Can Onur; Garello, Kevin; Mendil, Johannes; Ghosh, Abhijit; Blasakis, Nicolas; Gabureac, Mihai; Trassin, Morgan; Fiebig, Manfred; Gambardella, Pietro

    2015-11-09

    We studied the magnetoresistance of normal metal (NM)/ferromagnet (FM) bilayers in the linear and nonlinear (current-dependent) regimes and compared it with the amplitude of the spin-orbit torques and thermally induced electric fields. Our experiments reveal that the magnetoresistance of the heavy NM/Co bilayers (NM = Ta, W, and Pt) is phenomenologically similar to the spin Hall magnetoresistance (SMR) of YIG/Pt, but has a much larger anisotropy of the order of 0.5%, which increases with the atomic number of the NM. This SMR-like behavior is absent in light NM/Co bilayers (NM = Ti and Cu), which present the standard anisotropic magnetoresistance expected from polycrystalline FM layers. In the Ta, W, and Pt/Co bilayers, we find an additional magnetoresistance directly proportional to the current and to the transverse component of the magnetization. This so-called unidirectional SMR, of the order of 0.005%, is largest in W and correlates with the amplitude of the antidamping spin-orbit torque. The unidirectional SMR is below the accuracy of our measurements in YIG/Pt.

  8. Inducing morphological changes in lipid bilayer membranes with microfabricated substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fangjie; Collins, Liam F.; Ashkar, Rana; Heberle, Frederick A.; Srijanto, Bernadeta R.; Collier, C. Patrick

    2016-11-01

    Lateral organization of lipids and proteins into distinct domains and anchoring to a cytoskeleton are two important strategies employed by biological membranes to carry out many cellular functions. However, these interactions are difficult to emulate with model systems. Here we use the physical architecture of substrates consisting of arrays of micropillars to systematically control the behavior of supported lipid bilayers - an important step in engineering model lipid membrane systems with well-defined functionalities. Competition between attractive interactions of supported lipid bilayers with the underlying substrate versus the energy cost associated with membrane bending at pillar edges can be systematically investigated as functions of pillar height and pitch, chemical functionalization of the microstructured substrate, and the type of unilamellar vesicles used for assembling the supported bilayer. Confocal fluorescent imaging and AFM measurements highlight correlations that exist between topological and mechanical properties of lipid bilayers and lateral lipid mobility in these confined environments. This study provides a baseline for future investigations into lipid domain reorganization on structured solid surfaces and scaffolds for cell growth.

  9. Stable high conductivity ceria/bismuth oxide bilayered electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Wachsman, E.D.; Jayaweera, P.; Jiang, N.; Lowe, D.M.; Pound, B.G.

    1997-01-01

    The authors have developed a high conductivity bilayered ceria/bismuth oxide anolyte/electrolyte that uses the Po{sub 2} gradient to obtain stability at the anolyte-electrolyte interface and reduced electronic conduction due to the electrolyte region. Results in terms of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) performance and stability are presented. These results include a 90 to 160 mV increase in open-circuit potential, depending on temperature, with the bilayered structure as compared to SOFCs fabricated from a single ceria layer. An open-circuit potential of >1.0 V was obtained at 500 C with the bilayered structure. This increase in open-circuit potential is obtained without any measurable increase in cell resistance and is stable for over 1,400 h of testing, under both open-circuit and maximum power conditions. Moreover, SOFCs fabricated from the bilayered structure result in a 33% greater power density as compared to cells with a single ceria electrolyte layer.

  10. Indole Localization in an Explicit Bilayer Revealed via Molecular Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norman, Kristen

    2005-11-01

    It is well known that the amino-acid tryptophan is particularly stable in the interfacial region of biological membranes, and this preference is a property of the tryptophan side-chain. Analogues of this side-chain, such as indole, strongly localize in the interfacial region, especially near the glycerol moiety of the lipids in the bilayer. Using molecular dynamics calculations, we determine the potential of mean force (PMF) for indoles in the bilayer. We compare the calculated PMF for indole with that of benzene to show that exclusion from the center of the lipid bilayer does not occur in all aromatics, but is strong in indoles. We find three minima in the PMF. Indole is most stabilized near the glycerol moiety. A weaker binding location is found near the choline groups of the lipid molecules. An even weaker binding side is found near the center of the lipid hydrocarbon core. Comparisions between uncharged, weakly charged, and highly charged indoles demonstrate that the exclusion is caused by the charge distribution on the indole rather than the ``lipo-phobic'' effect. High temperature simulations are used to determine the relative contribution of enthalpy and entropy to indole localization. The orientation of indole is found to be largely charge independent and is a strong function of depth within the bilayer. We find good agreement between simulated SCD order parameters for indole and experimentally determined order parameters.

  11. Supported lipid bilayers as models for studying membrane domains.

    PubMed

    Kiessling, Volker; Yang, Sung-Tae; Tamm, Lukas K

    2015-01-01

    Supported lipid bilayers have been in use for over 30 years. They have been employed to study the structure, composition, and dynamics of lipid bilayer phases, the binding and distribution of soluble, integral, and lipidated proteins in membranes, membrane fusion, and interactions of membranes with elements of the cytoskeleton. This review focuses on the unique ability of supported lipid bilayers to study liquid-ordered and liquid-disordered domains in membranes. We highlight methods to produce asymmetric lipid bilayers with lipid compositions that mimic those of the extracellular and cytoplasmic leaflets of cell membranes and the functional reconstitution of membrane proteins into such systems. Questions related to interleaflet domain coupling and membrane protein activation have been addressed and answered using advanced reconstitution and imaging procedures in symmetric and asymmetric supported membranes with and without coexisting lipid phase domains. Previously controversial topics regarding anomalous and anisotropic diffusion in membranes have been resolved by using supported membrane approaches showing that the propensity of certain lipid compositions to form "rafts" are important but overlaid with "picket-fence" interactions that are imposed by a subtended cytoskeletal network.

  12. Anthrax toxin-induced rupture of artificial lipid bilayer membranes

    PubMed Central

    Nablo, Brian J.; Panchal, Rekha G.; Bavari, Sina; Nguyen, Tam L.; Gussio, Rick; Ribot, Wil; Friedlander, Art; Chabot, Donald; Reiner, Joseph E.; Robertson, Joseph W. F.; Balijepalli, Arvind; Halverson, Kelly M.; Kasianowicz, John J.

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate experimentally that anthrax toxin complexes rupture artificial lipid bilayer membranes when isolated from the blood of infected animals. When the solution pH is temporally acidified to mimic that process in endosomes, recombinant anthrax toxin forms an irreversibly bound complex, which also destabilizes membranes. The results suggest an alternative mechanism for the translocation of anthrax toxin into the cytoplasm. PMID:23947891

  13. Coupled diffusion in lipid bilayers upon close approach

    SciTech Connect

    Pronk, Sander; Lindahl, Erik; Kasson, Peter M.

    2014-12-23

    Biomembrane interfaces create regions of slowed water dynamics in their vicinity. When two lipid bilayers come together, this effect is further accentuated, and the associated slowdown can affect the dynamics of larger-scale processes such as membrane fusion. We have used molecular dynamics simulations to examine how lipid and water dynamics are affected as two lipid bilayers approach each other. These two interacting fluid systems, lipid and water, both slow and become coupled when the lipid membranes are separated by a thin water layer. We show in particular that the water dynamics become glassy, and diffusion of lipids in the apposed leaflets becomes coupled across the water layer, while the “outer” leaflets remain unaffected. This dynamic coupling between bilayers appears mediated by lipid–water–lipid hydrogen bonding, as it occurs at bilayer separations where water–lipid hydrogen bonds become more common than water–water hydrogen bonds. We further show that such coupling occurs in simulations of vesicle–vesicle fusion prior to the fusion event itself. As a result, such altered dynamics at membrane–membrane interfaces may both stabilize the interfacial contact and slow fusion stalk formation within the interface region.

  14. Coupled diffusion in lipid bilayers upon close approach

    DOE PAGES

    Pronk, Sander; Lindahl, Erik; Kasson, Peter M.

    2014-12-23

    Biomembrane interfaces create regions of slowed water dynamics in their vicinity. When two lipid bilayers come together, this effect is further accentuated, and the associated slowdown can affect the dynamics of larger-scale processes such as membrane fusion. We have used molecular dynamics simulations to examine how lipid and water dynamics are affected as two lipid bilayers approach each other. These two interacting fluid systems, lipid and water, both slow and become coupled when the lipid membranes are separated by a thin water layer. We show in particular that the water dynamics become glassy, and diffusion of lipids in the apposedmore » leaflets becomes coupled across the water layer, while the “outer” leaflets remain unaffected. This dynamic coupling between bilayers appears mediated by lipid–water–lipid hydrogen bonding, as it occurs at bilayer separations where water–lipid hydrogen bonds become more common than water–water hydrogen bonds. We further show that such coupling occurs in simulations of vesicle–vesicle fusion prior to the fusion event itself. As a result, such altered dynamics at membrane–membrane interfaces may both stabilize the interfacial contact and slow fusion stalk formation within the interface region.« less

  15. Anthrax toxin-induced rupture of artificial lipid bilayer membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nablo, Brian J.; Panchal, Rekha G.; Bavari, Sina; Nguyen, Tam L.; Gussio, Rick; Ribot, Wil; Friedlander, Art; Chabot, Donald; Reiner, Joseph E.; Robertson, Joseph W. F.; Balijepalli, Arvind; Halverson, Kelly M.; Kasianowicz, John J.

    2013-08-01

    We demonstrate experimentally that anthrax toxin complexes rupture artificial lipid bilayer membranes when isolated from the blood of infected animals. When the solution pH is temporally acidified to mimic that process in endosomes, recombinant anthrax toxin forms an irreversibly bound complex, which also destabilizes membranes. The results suggest an alternative mechanism for the translocation of anthrax toxin into the cytoplasm.

  16. Current flow in biased bilayer graphene: the role of sublattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paez, Carlos; Bahamon, Dario; Pereira, Ana

    2015-03-01

    We investigate here how the current flows over a bilayer graphene in the presence of an external electric field perpendicularly applied (biased bilayer). Charge density polarization between layers in these systems is known to create a layer pseudospin, which can be manipulated by the electric field. Our results show that current does not necessarily flow over regions of the system with higher charge density. Charge can be predominantly concentrated over one layer, while current flows over the other layer. We find that this phenomenon occurs when the charge density becomes highly concentrated over only one of the sublattices, as the electric field breaks layer and sublattice symmetries for a Bernal-stacked bilayer. For bilayer nanoribbons, the situation is even more complex, with a competition between edge and bulk effects for the definition of the current flow. We show that, in spite of not flowing trough the layer where charge is polarized to, the current in these systems also defines a controllable layer pseudospin.

  17. Current flow in biased bilayer graphene: Role of sublattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Páez, C. J.; Bahamon, D. A.; Pereira, Ana L. C.

    2014-09-01

    We investigate here how the current flows over a bilayer graphene in the presence of an external electric field perpendicularly applied (biased bilayer). Charge density polarization between layers in these systems is known to create a layer pseudospin, which can be manipulated by the electric field. Our results show that current does not necessarily flow over regions of the system with higher charge density. Charge can be predominantly concentrated over one layer, while current flows over the other layer. We find that this phenomenon occurs when the charge density becomes highly concentrated over only one of the sublattices, as the electric field breaks layer and sublattice symmetries for a Bernal-stacked bilayer. For bilayer nanoribbons, the situation is even more complex, with a competition between edge and bulk effects for the definition of the current flow. We show that, in spite of not flowing trough the layer where charge is polarized to, the current in these systems also defines a controllable layer pseudospin.

  18. Super-Sensitive and Robust Biosensors from Supported Polymer Bilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Paxton, Walter F.

    2015-09-01

    Biological organisms are potentially the most sensitive and selective biological detection systems known, yet we are currently severely limited in our ability to exploit biological interactions in sensory devices, due in part to the limited stability of biological systems and derived materials. This proposal addresses an important aspect of integrating biological sensory materials in a solid state device. If successful, such technology could enable entirely new classes of robust biosensors that could be miniaturized and deployed in the field. The critical aims of the proposed work were 1) the calibration of a more versatile approach to measuring pH, 2) the use of this method to monitor pH changes caused by the light-induced pumping of protons across vesicles with bacteriorhodopsin integrated into the membranes (either polymer or lipid); 3) the preparation of bilayer assemblies on platinum surfaces; 4) the enhanced detection of lightinduced pH changes driven by bR-loaded supported bilayers. I have developed a methodology that may enable that at interfaces and developed a methodology to characterize the functionality of bilayer membranes with reconstituted membrane proteins. The integrity of the supported bilayer films however must be optimized prior to the full realization of the work originally envisioned in the original proposal. Nevertheless, the work performed on this project and the encouraging results it has produced has demonstrated that these goals are challenging yet within reach.

  19. Negative terahertz conductivity in disordered graphene bilayers with population inversion

    SciTech Connect

    Svintsov, D.; Otsuji, T.; Ryzhii, V.; Mitin, V.; Shur, M. S.

    2015-03-16

    The gapless energy band spectra make the structures based on graphene and graphene bilayer with the population inversion to be promising media for the interband terahertz (THz) lasing. However, a strong intraband absorption at THz frequencies still poses a challenge for efficient THz lasing. In this paper, we show that in the pumped graphene bilayer, the indirect interband radiative transitions accompanied by scattering of carriers by disorder can provide a substantial negative contribution to the THz conductivity (together with the direct interband transitions). In the graphene bilayer on high-κ substrates with point charged defects, these transitions substantially compensate the losses due to the intraband (Drude) absorption. We also demonstrate that the indirect interband contribution to the THz conductivity in a graphene bilayer with the extended defects (such as the charged impurity clusters) can surpass by several times the fundamental limit associated with the direct interband transitions, and the Drude conductivity as well. These predictions can affect the strategy of the graphene-based THz laser implementation.

  20. Lipid bilayer thickness determines cholesterol's location in model membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Marquardt, Drew; Heberle, Frederick A.; Greathouse, Denise V.; Koeppe, II, Roger E.; Standaert, Robert F.; Van Oosten, Brad J.; Harroun, Thad A.; Kinnun, Jacob J.; Williams, Justin A.; Wassall, Stephen R.; Katsaras, John

    2016-10-11

    Cholesterol is an essential biomolecule of animal cell membranes, and an important precursor for the biosynthesis of certain hormones and vitamins. It is also thought to play a key role in cell signaling processes associated with functional plasma membrane microdomains (domains enriched in cholesterol), commonly referred to as rafts. In all of these diverse biological phenomena, the transverse location of cholesterol in the membrane is almost certainly an important structural feature. Using a combination of neutron scattering and solid-state 2H NMR, we have determined the location and orientation of cholesterol in phosphatidylcholine (PC) model membranes having fatty acids of different lengths and degrees of unsaturation. The data establish that cholesterol reorients rapidly about the bilayer normal in all the membranes studied, but is tilted and forced to span the bilayer midplane in the very thin bilayers. The possibility that cholesterol lies flat in the middle of bilayers, including those made from PC lipids containing polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), is ruled out. Finally, these results support the notion that hydrophobic thickness is the primary determinant of cholesterol's location in membranes.

  1. The Effects of Polyunsaturated Lipid Components on bilayer Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pramudya, Y.; Kiss, A.; Nguyen, Lam T.; Yuan, J.; Hirst, Linda S.

    2007-03-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), such as DHA (Docosahexanoic Acid) and AA (Alphalinoleic Acid) have been the focus of much research attention in recent years, due to their apparent health benefits and effects on cell physiology. They are found in a variety of biological membranes and have been implicated with lipid raft formation and possible function, particularly in the retinal rod cells and the central nervous system. In this work lipid bilayer structure has been investigated in lipid mixtures, incorporating polyunsaturated fatty acid moieties. The structural effects of increasing concentrations of both symmetric and asymmetric PUFA materials on the bilayer structure are investigated via synchrotron x-ray diffraction on solution samples. We observe bilayer spacings to increase with the percentage of unsaturated fatty acid lipid in the membrane, whilst the degree of ordering significantly decreases. In fact above 20% of fatty acid, well defined bilayers are no longer observed to form. Evidence of phase separation can be clearly seen from these x-ray results and in combination with AFM measurements.

  2. Electronic transport of bilayer graphene with asymmetry line defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiao-Ming; Wu, Ya-Jie; Chen, Chan; Liang, Ying; Kou, Su-Peng

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we study the quantum properties of a bilayer graphene with (asymmetry) line defects. The localized states are found around the line defects. Thus, the line defects on one certain layer of the bilayer graphene can lead to an electric transport channel. By adding a bias potential along the direction of the line defects, we calculate the electric conductivity of bilayer graphene with line defects using the Landauer-Büttiker theory, and show that the channel affects the electric conductivity remarkably by comparing the results with those in a perfect bilayer graphene. This one-dimensional line electric channel has the potential to be applied in nanotechnology engineering. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant Nos. 2011CB921803 and 2012CB921704), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11174035, 11474025, 11504285, and 11404090), the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education, China, the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China, the Scientific Research Program Fund of the Shaanxi Provincial Education Department, China (Grant No. 15JK1363), and the Young Talent Fund of University Association for Science and Technology in Shaanxi Province, China.

  3. Lipid bilayer thickness determines cholesterol's location in model membranes

    DOE PAGES

    Marquardt, Drew; Heberle, Frederick A.; Greathouse, Denise V.; ...

    2016-10-11

    Cholesterol is an essential biomolecule of animal cell membranes, and an important precursor for the biosynthesis of certain hormones and vitamins. It is also thought to play a key role in cell signaling processes associated with functional plasma membrane microdomains (domains enriched in cholesterol), commonly referred to as rafts. In all of these diverse biological phenomena, the transverse location of cholesterol in the membrane is almost certainly an important structural feature. Using a combination of neutron scattering and solid-state 2H NMR, we have determined the location and orientation of cholesterol in phosphatidylcholine (PC) model membranes having fatty acids of differentmore » lengths and degrees of unsaturation. The data establish that cholesterol reorients rapidly about the bilayer normal in all the membranes studied, but is tilted and forced to span the bilayer midplane in the very thin bilayers. The possibility that cholesterol lies flat in the middle of bilayers, including those made from PC lipids containing polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), is ruled out. Finally, these results support the notion that hydrophobic thickness is the primary determinant of cholesterol's location in membranes.« less

  4. Properties of a Hydrated Excess Proton Near the Cholesterol-Containing Phospholipid Bilayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Takefumi

    In order to study effects of cholesterol (Chol) on the interaction between the excess proton and the phospholipid bilayer, reactive molecular dynamics simulations are performed with the multistate empirical valence bond model. Although Chol significantly affects the bilayer structure, the proton affinity of the Chol-containing phospholipid bilayer is as high as that of the pure phospholipid bilayer. It is found that the excess proton is strongly trapped by the carbonyl groups and the phosphate groups of the phospholipids. This structure is quite similar to the structure observed in the pure lipid bilayer systems.

  5. Preparation and Properties of Asymmetric Large Unilamellar Vesicles: Interleaflet Coupling in Asymmetric Vesicles Is Dependent on Temperature but Not Curvature

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Hui-Ting; London, Erwin

    2011-01-01

    Asymmetry of inner and outer leaflet lipid composition is an important characteristic of eukaryotic plasma membranes. We previously described a technique in which methyl-β-cyclodextrin-induced lipid exchange is used to prepare biological membrane-like asymmetric small unilamellar vesicles (SUVs). Here, to mimic plasma membranes more closely, we used a lipid-exchange-based method to prepare asymmetric large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs), which have less membrane curvature than SUVs. Asymmetric LUVs in which sphingomyelin (SM) or SM + 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine was exchanged into the outer leaflet of vesicles composed of 1,2-dioleoyl-phosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE) and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-phosphatidylserine (POPS) were prepared with or without cholesterol. Approximately 80–100% replacement of outer leaflet DOPE and POPS was achieved. At room temperature, SM exchange into the outer leaflet increased the inner leaflet lipid order, suggesting significant interleaflet interaction. However, the SM-rich outer leaflet formed an ordered state, melting with a midpoint at ∼37°C. This was about the same value observed in pure SM vesicles, and was significantly higher than that observed in symmetric vesicles with the same SM content, which melted at ∼20°C. In other words, ordered state formation by outer-leaflet SM in asymmetric vesicles was not destabilized by an inner leaflet composed of DOPE and POPS. These properties suggest that the coupling between the physical states of the outer and inner leaflets in these asymmetric LUVs becomes very weak as the temperature approaches 37°C. Overall, the properties of asymmetric LUVs were very similar to those previously observed in asymmetric SUVs, indicating that they do not arise from the high membrane curvature of asymmetric SUVs. PMID:21641312

  6. Persistence of Metastability after Expansion of a Supercompressed Fluid Monolayer

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Ethan C.; Laderas, Ted G.; Crane, Jonathan M.; Hall, Stephen B.

    2012-01-01

    Fluid monolayers of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine collapse from an air/water interface to form a three-dimensional bulk phase at the equilibrium spreading pressure (πe) of ~47 mN/m. This phase transition limits access to higher surface pressures under equilibrium conditions or during slow continuous compressions. We have shown previously that these films avoid collapse and become metastable when compressed on a captive bubble to surface pressures above 60 mN/m and that the metastability persists during expansion at least to πe. Here, we first documented the extent of this persistent metastability. Rates of isobaric collapse during expansion of the metastable films were up to 3 orders of magnitude slower than those during the initial compression to high surface pressures. Recovery of the ability to collapse depended on the surface pressure to which the films were expanded and how long they were held there. Films reverted after brief exposure to 20 mN/m and after 1 h at 35 mN/m. At πe, films remained capable of reaching high surface pressures during slow compressions after 65 h, although an increase in compressibility above 55 mN/m suggested somewhat increased rates of collapse. We also determined if the films remained metastable when they acquired sufficient free area to allow reinsertion of collapsed material. Faster isobaric expansion in the presence of more collapsed material and with further deviation below πe supported the existence of reinsertion. The persistence of metastability to πe shows that films with sufficient free area to allow reinsertion remain resistant to collapse. Observations that suggest heterogeneous reinsertion, however, argue that free area may be distributed heterogeneously and leave open the possibility that metastability persists because significant regions retain a restricted free area. PMID:15984255

  7. Bilayer Approaches for Nanoparticle Phase Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kini, Gautam Chandrakanth

    Nanoparticles (NPs) are often synthesized in organic solvents due to advantages of superior size and shape control obtainable in a non-polar environment. However, many applications featuring NPs require them to be in aqueous media. To transfer NPs from oil to water, surfactants with amphiphilic (hydrophobic and hydrophilic) groups have been widely used. A popular phase-transfer approach involves formation of oil-in-water emulsions upon which the oil storing the NPs is boiled off. In the process, surfactants form bilayers with hydrophobic groups on the NPs rendering them water-dispersible. This transfer route however is limited in that NPs aggregate to form clusters which results in poor colloidal stability and for the specific case of quantum dots (QDs), adversely impacts optical properties. It has ever since remained a challenge to devise approaches that transfer NPs from oil to water as single particles without compromising NP stability and properties. We have discovered that by simple addition of salt to water during the step of emulsion formation, NP transfer efficiency can be greatly enhanced in "salty-micelles" of surfactants. The strength of this approach lies in its simplicity and generic nature in that the transfer scheme is valid for different NP, surfactant and salt types. Using a model system with cadmium selenide (CdSe) QDs as NPs, Aerosol-OT (AOT) as the surfactant and NaCl as the salt in water, we found >90% of CdSe QDs transferred in salty-micelles of AOT which was significantly higher than the 45-55% QDs that transferred in deionized-water (DI-water) micelles of AOT. In the salty-micelle environment, QDs were found to exist predominantly as single NPs with narrow size distribution, as established by light scattering, analytical ultracentrifugation and electron microscopy. The effects of salt were in lowering aqueous solubility of AOT through "salting-out" action and in screening repulsions between like-charged head groups of AOT molecules

  8. Direct in situ measurement of specific capacitance, monolayer tension, and bilayer tension in a droplet interface bilayer

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Graham J.; Venkatesan, Guru A.; Collier, C. Patrick; Sarles, Stephen A.

    2015-08-05

    In this study, thickness and tension are important physical parameters of model cell membranes. However, traditional methods to measure these quantities require multiple experiments using separate equipment. This work introduces a new multi-step procedure for directly accessing in situ multiple physical properties of droplet interface bilayers (DIB), including specific capacitance (related to thickness), lipid monolayer tension in the Plateau-Gibbs border, and bilayer tension. The procedure employs a combination of mechanical manipulation of bilayer area followed by electrowetting of the capacitive interface to examine the sensitivities of bilayer capacitance to area and contact angle to voltage, respectively. These data allow for determining the specific capacitance of the membrane and surface tension of the lipid monolayer, which are then used to compute bilayer thickness and tension, respectively. The use of DIBs affords accurate optical imaging of the connected droplets in addition to electrical measurements of bilayer capacitance, and it allows for reversibly varying bilayer area. After validating the accuracy of the technique with diphytanoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPhPC) DIBs in hexadecane, the method is applied herein to quantify separately the effects on membrane thickness and tension caused by varying the solvent in which the DIB is formed and introducing cholesterol into the bilayer. Because the technique relies only on capacitance measurements and optical images to determine both thickness and tension, this approach is specifically well-suited for studying the effects of peptides, biomolecules, natural and synthetic nanoparticles, and other species that accumulate within membranes without altering bilayer conductance.

  9. Cholesterol enhances surface water diffusion of phospholipid bilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Chi-Yuan; Kausik, Ravinath; Han, Songi; Olijve, Luuk L. C.

    2014-12-14

    Elucidating the physical effect of cholesterol (Chol) on biological membranes is necessary towards rationalizing their structural and functional role in cell membranes. One of the debated questions is the role of hydration water in Chol-embedding lipid membranes, for which only little direct experimental data are available. Here, we study the hydration dynamics in a series of Chol-rich and depleted bilayer systems using an approach termed {sup 1}H Overhauser dynamic nuclear polarization (ODNP) NMR relaxometry that enables the sensitive and selective determination of water diffusion within 5–10 Å of a nitroxide-based spin label, positioned off the surface of the polar headgroups or within the nonpolar core of lipid membranes. The Chol-rich membrane systems were prepared from mixtures of Chol, dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine and/or dioctadecyl phosphatidylcholine lipid that are known to form liquid-ordered, raft-like, domains. Our data reveal that the translational diffusion of local water on the surface and within the hydrocarbon volume of the bilayer is significantly altered, but in opposite directions: accelerated on the membrane surface and dramatically slowed in the bilayer interior with increasing Chol content. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) lineshape analysis shows looser packing of lipid headgroups and concurrently tighter packing in the bilayer core with increasing Chol content, with the effects peaking at lipid compositions reported to form lipid rafts. The complementary capability of ODNP and EPR to site-specifically probe the hydration dynamics and lipid ordering in lipid membrane systems extends the current understanding of how Chol may regulate biological processes. One possible role of Chol is the facilitation of interactions between biological constituents and the lipid membrane through the weakening or disruption of strong hydrogen-bond networks of the surface hydration layers that otherwise exert stronger repulsive forces, as reflected in

  10. Cholesterol enhances surface water diffusion of phospholipid bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Chi-Yuan; Olijve, Luuk L. C.; Kausik, Ravinath; Han, Songi

    2014-12-01

    Elucidating the physical effect of cholesterol (Chol) on biological membranes is necessary towards rationalizing their structural and functional role in cell membranes. One of the debated questions is the role of hydration water in Chol-embedding lipid membranes, for which only little direct experimental data are available. Here, we study the hydration dynamics in a series of Chol-rich and depleted bilayer systems using an approach termed 1H Overhauser dynamic nuclear polarization (ODNP) NMR relaxometry that enables the sensitive and selective determination of water diffusion within 5-10 Å of a nitroxide-based spin label, positioned off the surface of the polar headgroups or within the nonpolar core of lipid membranes. The Chol-rich membrane systems were prepared from mixtures of Chol, dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine and/or dioctadecyl phosphatidylcholine lipid that are known to form liquid-ordered, raft-like, domains. Our data reveal that the translational diffusion of local water on the surface and within the hydrocarbon volume of the bilayer is significantly altered, but in opposite directions: accelerated on the membrane surface and dramatically slowed in the bilayer interior with increasing Chol content. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) lineshape analysis shows looser packing of lipid headgroups and concurrently tighter packing in the bilayer core with increasing Chol content, with the effects peaking at lipid compositions reported to form lipid rafts. The complementary capability of ODNP and EPR to site-specifically probe the hydration dynamics and lipid ordering in lipid membrane systems extends the current understanding of how Chol may regulate biological processes. One possible role of Chol is the facilitation of interactions between biological constituents and the lipid membrane through the weakening or disruption of strong hydrogen-bond networks of the surface hydration layers that otherwise exert stronger repulsive forces, as reflected in faster

  11. Evaporation-Induced Buckling and Fission of Microscale Droplet Interface Bilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Boreyko, Jonathan B; Mruetusatorn, Prachya; Sarles, Stephen A; Retterer, Scott T; Collier, Pat

    2013-01-01

    Droplet interface bilayers (DIBs) are a robust platform for studying synthetic cellular membranes; however, to date no DIBs have been produced at cellular length scales. Here, we create microscale droplet interface bilayers ( DIBs) at the interface between aqueous femtoliter-volume droplets within an oil-filled microfluidic channel. The uniquely large area-to-volume ratio of the droplets results in strong evaporation effects, causing the system to transition through three distinct regimes. First, the two adjacent droplets shrink into the shape of a single spherical droplet, where an augmented lipid bilayer partitions two hemi-spherical volumes. In the second regime, the combined effects of the shrinking monolayers and growing bilayer force the confined bilayer to buckle to conserve its mass. Finally, at a bending moment corresponding to a critical shear stress, the buckling bilayer fissions a vesicle to regulate its shape and stress. The DIBs produced here enable evaporation-induced bilayer dynamics reminiscent of endo- and exocytosis in cells.

  12. Stability analysis of a bilayer contained within a cylindrical tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yuanyuan

    Airways in the lung are coated with a liquid bilayer consisting of a serous layer adjacent to a more viscous mucus layer which is contiguous with the air core. An instability due to surface tension at the interfaces may lead to the formation of a liquid plug that blocks the passage of air. This is known as airway closure. A stability analysis is carried out for the case when a Newtonian and immiscible liquid bilayer coats a compliant tube in the presence of an insoluble surfactant monolayer at the mucus-gas interface. A surface active material such as surfactant lowers the surface tension and also generates a surface stress at the interface, both of which are stabilizing, while the wall compliance may accelerate the formation of the liquid bridge. A system of nonlinear coupled equations for the deflections of the interfaces and the surfactant concentration is derived by using an extended lubrication theory analysis. A linear stability study using normal modes is conducted by linearizing the nonlinear evolution equations. A linear eigenvalue problem for the perturbation amplitudes is obtained. Non-trivial solutions are obtained provided the determinant of a linear system is singular. A fourth order polynomial for the growth rate of the disturbances is derived, whose coefficients depend on the wavenumber of the perturbation, the wall characteristics, the Marangoni number, the thickness of the bilayer, the aspect thickness ratio, the viscosity ratio of two liquid layers, and the surface tension ratio. Both stabilizing and destabilizing effects of various system parameters are investigated. A classical lubrication theory model is also derived for cases where a bilayer coats a rigid tube with insoluble surfactant along the liquid-gas interface, and a bilayer coating in a compliant tube with a clean liquid-gas interface. Results serve as a validation of the extended lubrication theory model. The accuracy of the extended lubrication theory model as the bilayer thickness

  13. Sugar does not affect the bending and tilt moduli of simple lipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Nagle, John F; Jablin, Michael S; Tristram-Nagle, Stephanie

    2016-03-01

    The diffuse X-ray scattering method has been applied to samples composed of SOPC, DOPC, DMPC, and POPC with added sugar, either sucrose, glucose, fructose, maltose, or trehalose. Several sugar concentrations in the range 200-500 mM were investigated for each of the lipid/sugar samples. We observed no systematic change in the bending modulus KC or in the tilt modulus Kθ with increasing sugar concentration. The average values of both these moduli were the same as those of the respective pure lipid controls within statistical uncertainty of 2%. These results are inconsistent with previous reports of sugar concentration dependent values of KC.

  14. Aqueous solutions at the interface with phospholipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Berkowitz, Max L; Vácha, Robert

    2012-01-17

    In a sense, life is defined by membranes, because they delineate the barrier between the living cell and its surroundings. Membranes are also essential for regulating the machinery of life throughout many interfaces within the cell's interior. A large number of experimental, computational, and theoretical studies have demonstrated how the properties of water and ionic aqueous solutions change due to the vicinity of membranes and, in turn, how the properties of membranes depend on the presence of aqueous solutions. Consequently, understanding the character of aqueous solutions at their interface with biological membranes is critical to research progress on many fronts. The importance of incorporating a molecular-level description of water into the study of biomembrane surfaces was demonstrated by an examination of the interaction between phospholipid bilayers that can serve as model biological membranes. The results showed that, in addition to well-known forces, such as van der Waals and screened Coulomb, one has to consider a repulsion force due to the removal of water between surfaces. It was also known that physicochemical properties of biological membranes are strongly influenced by the specific character of the ions in the surrounding aqueous solutions because of the observation that different anions produce different effects on muscle twitch tension. In this Account, we describe the interaction of pure water, and also of aqueous ionic solutions, with model membranes. We show that a symbiosis of experimental and computational work over the past few years has resulted in substantial progress in the field. We now better understand the origin of the hydration force, the structural properties of water at the interface with phospholipid bilayers, and the influence of phospholipid headgroups on the dynamics of water. We also improved our knowledge of the ion-specific effect, which is observed at the interface of the phospholipid bilayer and aqueous solution, and its

  15. High Yield Chemical Vapor Deposition Growth of High Quality Large-Area AB Stacked Bilayer Graphene

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lixin; Zhou, Hailong; Cheng, Rui; Yu, Woo Jong; Liu, Yuan; Chen, Yu; Shaw, Jonathan; Zhong, Xing; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2012-01-01

    Bernal stacked (AB stacked) bilayer graphene is of significant interest for functional electronic and photonic devices due to the feasibility to continuously tune its band gap with a vertical electrical field. Mechanical exfoliation can be used to produce AB stacked bilayer graphene flakes but typically with the sizes limited to a few micrometers. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has been recently explored for the synthesis of bilayer graphene but usually with limited coverage and a mixture of AB and randomly stacked structures. Herein we report a rational approach to produce large-area high quality AB stacked bilayer graphene. We show that the self-limiting effect of graphene growth on Cu foil can be broken by using a high H2/CH4 ratio in a low pressure CVD process to enable the continued growth of bilayer graphene. A high temperature and low pressure nucleation step is found to be critical for the formation of bilayer graphene nuclei with high AB stacking ratio. A rational design of a two-step CVD process is developed for the growth of bilayer graphene with high AB stacking ratio (up to 90 %) and high coverage (up to 99 %). The electrical transport studies demonstrated that devices made of the as-grown bilayer graphene exhibit typical characteristics of AB stacked bilayer graphene with the highest carrier mobility exceeding 4,000 cm2/V·s at room temperature, comparable to that of the exfoliated bilayer graphene. PMID:22906199

  16. Mechanical properties of lipid bilayers and regulation of mechanosensitive function

    PubMed Central

    Balleza, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Material properties of lipid bilayers, including thickness, intrinsic curvature and compressibility regulate the function of mechanosensitive (MS) channels. This regulation is dependent on phospholipid composition, lateral packing and organization within the membrane. Therefore, a more complete framework to understand the functioning of MS channels requires insights into bilayer structure, thermodynamics and phospholipid structure, as well as lipid-protein interactions. Phospholipids and MS channels interact with each other mainly through electrostatic forces and hydrophobic matching, which are also crucial for antimicrobial peptides. They are excellent models for studying the formation and stabilization of membrane pores. Importantly, they perform equivalent responses as MS channels: (1) tilting in response to tension and (2) dissipation of osmotic gradients. Lessons learned from pore forming peptides could enrich our knowledge of mechanisms of action and evolution of these channels. Here, the current state of the art is presented and general principles of membrane regulation of mechanosensitive function are discussed. PMID:22790280

  17. Supported Lipid Bilayer Technology for the Study of Cellular Interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Crites, Travis J.; Maddox, Michael; Padhan, Kartika; Muller, James; Eigsti, Calvin; Varma, Rajat

    2015-01-01

    Glass-supported lipid bilayers presenting freely diffusing proteins have served as a powerful tool for studying cell-cell interfaces, in particular, T cell–antigen presenting cell (APC) interactions, using optical microscopy. Here we expand upon existing protocols and describe the preparation of liposomes by an extrusion method, and describe how this system can be used to study immune synapse formation by Jurkat cells. We also present a method for forming such lipid bilayers on silica beads for the study of signaling responses by population methods, such as western blotting, flow cytometry, and gene-expression analysis. Finally, we describe how to design and prepare transmembrane-anchored protein-laden liposomes, following expression in suspension CHO (CHOs) cells, a mammalian expression system alternative to insect and bacterial cell lines, which do not produce mammalian glycosylation patterns. Such transmembrane-anchored proteins may have many novel applications in cell biology and immunology. PMID:26331983

  18. Chitosan-caseinate bilayer coatings for paper packaging materials.

    PubMed

    Khwaldia, Khaoula; Basta, Altaf H; Aloui, Hajer; El-Saied, Houssni

    2014-01-01

    Papers coated with caseinate and caseinate/chitosan bilayer films were developed. Caseinate, chitosan and caseinate/chitosan films were preliminary characterized by FTIR spectroscopy and thermal stability analyses. The effects of coating weight, caseinate concentration (7%, 10%, and 12%, w/w), and coating application methods (single layer and bilayer) on the physical and mechanical properties of coated papers were studied. Increasing the concentration of caseinate led to a decrease in water vapor permeability (WVP) of the resulting coated paper sheets. Chitosan significantly (p<0.05) increased the elongation at break (%E) of coated paper. However, the application of chitosan as a second layer on wet or dry caseinate films did not significantly affect (p>0.05) the tensile strength (TS) of coated paper. The greatest reduction in paper WVP is achieved by addition of a chitosan layer to the dried preformed caseinate-coated paper.

  19. Formation of droplet interface bilayers in a Teflon tube

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Edmond; Feuerborn, Alexander; Cook, Peter R.

    2016-01-01

    Droplet-interface bilayers (DIBs) have applications in disciplines ranging from biology to computing. We present a method for forming them manually using a Teflon tube attached to a syringe pump; this method is simple enough it should be accessible to those without expertise in microfluidics. It exploits the properties of interfaces between three immiscible liquids, and uses fluid flow through the tube to pack together drops coated with lipid monolayers to create bilayers at points of contact. It is used to create functional nanopores in DIBs composed of phosphocholine using the protein α-hemolysin (αHL), to demonstrate osmotically-driven mass transfer of fluid across surfactant-based DIBs, and to create arrays of DIBs. The approach is scalable, and thousands of DIBs can be prepared using a robot in one hour; therefore, it is feasible to use it for high throughput applications. PMID:27681313

  20. Enhanced Thermoelectric Power in Dual-Gated Bilayer Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chang-Ran; Lu, Wen-Sen; Hao, Lei; Lee, Wei-Li; Lee, Ting-Kuo; Lin, Feng; Cheng, I.-Chun; Chen, Jian-Zhang

    2011-10-01

    The thermoelectric power of a material, typically governed by its band structure and carrier density, can be varied by chemical doping that is often restricted by solubility of the dopant. Materials showing large thermoelectric power are useful for many industrial applications, such as the heat-to-electricity conversion and the thermoelectric cooling device. Here we show a full electric-field tuning of thermoelectric power in a dual-gated bilayer graphene device resulting from the opening of a band gap by applying a perpendicular electric field on bilayer graphene. We uncover a large enhancement in thermoelectric power at a low temperature, which may open up a new possibility in low temperature thermoelectric application using graphene-based device.

  1. Enhanced thermoelectric power in dual-gated bilayer graphene.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chang-Ran; Lu, Wen-Sen; Hao, Lei; Lee, Wei-Li; Lee, Ting-Kuo; Lin, Feng; Cheng, I-Chun; Chen, Jian-Zhang

    2011-10-28

    The thermoelectric power of a material, typically governed by its band structure and carrier density, can be varied by chemical doping that is often restricted by solubility of the dopant. Materials showing large thermoelectric power are useful for many industrial applications, such as the heat-to-electricity conversion and the thermoelectric cooling device. Here we show a full electric-field tuning of thermoelectric power in a dual-gated bilayer graphene device resulting from the opening of a band gap by applying a perpendicular electric field on bilayer graphene. We uncover a large enhancement in thermoelectric power at a low temperature, which may open up a new possibility in low temperature thermoelectric application using graphene-based device.

  2. First-principles modeling hydrogenation of bilayered boron nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Wang; Peng, Zhang; Xiang-Mei, Duan

    2016-05-01

    We have investigated the structural and electronic characteristics of hydrogenated boron-nitride bilayer (H-BNBN-H) using first-principles calculations. The results show that hydrogenation can significantly reduce the energy gap of the BN-BN into the visible-light region. Interestingly, the electric field induced by the interface dipoles helps to promote the formation of well-separated electron-hole pairs, as demonstrated by the charge distribution of the VBM and CBM. Moreover, the applied bias voltage on the vertical direction of the bilayer could modulate the band gap, resulting in transition from semiconductor to metal. We conclude that H-BNBN-H could improve the solar energy conversion efficiency, which may provide a new way for tuning the electronic devices to meet different environments and demands. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11574167).

  3. Dipolar bilayer with antiparallel polarization: A self-bound liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebenstreit, Martin; Rader, Michael; Zillich, Robert E.

    2016-01-01

    Dipolar bilayers with antiparallel polarization, i.e., opposite polarization in the two layers, exhibit liquidlike rather than gaslike behavior. In particular, even without external pressure, a self-bound liquid droplet of constant density will form. We investigate the symmetric case of two identical layers, corresponding to a two-component Bose system with equal partial densities. The zero-temperature equation of state E (ρ )/N , where ρ is the total density, has a minimum, with an equilibrium density that can be adjusted by the distance d between the layers (decreasing with increasing d ). The attraction necessary for a self-bound liquid comes from the interlayer dipole-dipole interaction that leads to a mediated intralayer attraction. We investigate the regime of negative pressure towards the spinodal instability, where the bilayer is unstable against infinitesimal fluctuations of the total density, confirmed by calculations of the speed of sound of total density fluctuations.

  4. Atomic transport in ion mixed Pd/Co bilayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chae, K. H.; Jang, H. G.; Song, J. H.; Woo, J. J.; Choi, B. S.; Jeong, K.; Whang, C. N.

    1993-06-01

    Isotropic and anisotropic atomic transport in an ion beam mixed Pd/Co bilayer have been studied from the shifts of a marker layer in Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy. A thin layer of Au (1 nm) was embedded as a marker at the interface between Pd and Co layers. 80 keV Ar + was used to irradiate the marker sample at 90K. The Pd/Co system shows near isotropic atomic transport ( JPd/ JCo = 0.86) due to the thermal spike effect. We present a simple relationship between the ration of atomic fluxes induced by ion mixing and the activation energies for the normal impurity diffusion of constituents in a bilayer to describe quantitatively the isotropic and anisotropic atomic transport in thermal spike induced ion mixing. Thermal spike induced atomic transport is closely related with the activation energy for normal impurity diffusion.

  5. Piezoelectric enhancement by surface effect in hydrofluorinated graphene bilayer

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hye Jung; Noor-A-Alam, Mohammad; Shin, Young-Han

    2015-04-14

    We investigated the piezoelectricity of dipolar hydrofluorinated graphene (C{sub 2}HF){sub n} multilayers with first-principles calculations. Our results reveal that the dipole moment decreases as the number of layers increases, because electron and hole carriers are induced at the top and bottom layers due to the depolarization field. These carriers make (C{sub 2}HF){sub n} multilayers more stable by decreasing the depolarization field in the material. Through the calculation of the average layer piezoelectric stress constant e{sub 31}/ℓ in ℓ-layer chair (C{sub 2}HF){sub n} multilayers, we confirmed that the piezoelectricity of the bilayer is about three times larger than that of the monolayer and bulk material. Moreover, we found that the electron and hole carriers on the top and bottom layers played a significant role in the piezoelectric enhancement of the bilayer.

  6. Optical properties of single-layer and bilayer arsenene phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kecik, D.; Durgun, E.; Ciraci, S.

    2016-11-01

    An extensive investigation of the optical properties of single-layer buckled and washboard arsenene and their bilayers was performed, starting from layered three-dimensional crystalline phase of arsenic using density functional and many-body perturbation theories combined with random phase approximation. Electron-hole interactions were taken into account by solving the Bethe-Salpeter equation, suggesting first bound exciton energies on the order of 0.7 eV. Thus, many-body effects were found to be crucial for altering the optical properties of arsenene. The light absorption of single-layer and bilayer arsenene structures in general falls within the visible-ultraviolet spectral regime. Moreover, directional anisotropy, varying the number of layers, and applying homogeneous or uniaxial in-plane tensile strain were found to modify the optical properties of two-dimensional arsenene phases, which could be useful for diverse photovoltaic and optoelectronic applications.

  7. Formation of droplet interface bilayers in a Teflon tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Edmond; Feuerborn, Alexander; Cook, Peter R.

    2016-09-01

    Droplet-interface bilayers (DIBs) have applications in disciplines ranging from biology to computing. We present a method for forming them manually using a Teflon tube attached to a syringe pump; this method is simple enough it should be accessible to those without expertise in microfluidics. It exploits the properties of interfaces between three immiscible liquids, and uses fluid flow through the tube to pack together drops coated with lipid monolayers to create bilayers at points of contact. It is used to create functional nanopores in DIBs composed of phosphocholine using the protein α-hemolysin (αHL), to demonstrate osmotically-driven mass transfer of fluid across surfactant-based DIBs, and to create arrays of DIBs. The approach is scalable, and thousands of DIBs can be prepared using a robot in one hour; therefore, it is feasible to use it for high throughput applications.

  8. Ferromagnetic resonance of exchange-coupled perpendicularly magnetized bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devolder, Thibaut

    2016-04-01

    Strong ferromagnetic interlayer exchange couplings J in perpendicularly magnetized systems are becoming increasingly desirable for applications. We study whether ferromagnetic interlayer exchange couplings can be measured by a combination of broadband ferromagnetic resonance methods and magnetometry hysteresis loops. For this, we model the switching and the eigenexcitations in bilayer systems comprising a soft layer coupled to a thicker harder layer that possesses higher perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. For large J > 0, the switching fields are essentially independent of J but the frequency of the optical eigenmode of the bilayer and the linewidth of the acoustical and optical eigenmode are directly sensitive to the coupling. We derive a corpus of compact analytical expressions to analyze these frequencies, their linewidth and discuss the meaning thereof. We illustrate this corpus on a system mimicking the fixed layers of a magnetic tunnel junction meant for spin torque applications.

  9. Polyglutamine expansion in huntingtin increases its insertion into lipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Kegel, Kimberly B; Schewkunow, Vitali; Sapp, Ellen; Masso, Nicholas; Wanker, Erich E; DiFiglia, Marian; Goldmann, Wolfgang H

    2009-09-25

    An expanded polyglutamine (Q) tract (>37Q) in huntingtin (htt) causes Huntington disease. Htt associates with membranes and polyglutamine expansion in htt may alter membrane function in Huntington disease through a mechanism that is not known. Here we used differential scanning calorimetry to examine the effects of polyQ expansion in htt on its insertion into lipid bilayers. We prepared synthetic lipid vesicles composed of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine and tested interactions of htt amino acids 1-89 with 20Q, 32Q or 53Q with the vesicles. GST-htt1-89 with 53Q inserted into synthetic lipid vesicles significantly more than GST-htt1-89 with 20Q or 32Q. We speculate that by inserting more into cell membranes, mutant huntingtin could increase disorder within the lipid bilayer and thereby disturb cellular membrane function.

  10. Trigonal warping in bilayer graphene: Energy versus entanglement spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Predin, Sonja; Wenk, Paul; Schliemann, John

    2016-03-01

    We present a mainly analytical study of the entanglement spectrum of Bernal-stacked graphene bilayers in the presence of trigonal warping in the energy spectrum. Upon tracing out one layer, the entanglement spectrum shows qualitative geometric differences to the energy spectrum of a graphene monolayer. However, topological quantities such as Berry-phase-type contributions to Chern numbers agree. The latter analysis involves not only the eigenvalues of the entanglement Hamiltonian but also its eigenvectors. We also discuss the entanglement spectra resulting from tracing out other sublattices. As a technical basis of our analysis, we provide closed analytical expressions for the full eigensystem of bilayer graphene in the entire Brillouin zone with a trigonally warped spectrum.

  11. Superlattice structures in twisted bilayers of folded graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Hennrik; Rode, Johannes C.; Smirnov, Dmitri; Haug, Rolf J.

    2014-12-01

    The electronic properties of bilayer graphene strongly depend on relative orientation of the two atomic lattices. Whereas Bernal-stacked graphene is most commonly studied, a rotational mismatch between layers opens up a whole new field of rich physics, especially at small interlayer twist. Here we report on magnetotransport measurements on twisted graphene bilayers, prepared by folding of single layers. These reveal a strong dependence on the twist angle, which can be estimated by means of sample geometry. At small rotation, superlattices with a wavelength in the order of 10 nm arise and are observed by friction atomic force microscopy. Magnetotransport measurements in this small-angle regime show the formation of satellite Landau fans. These are attributed to additional Dirac singularities in the band structure and discussed with respect to the wide range of interlayer coupling models.

  12. Formation of droplet interface bilayers in a Teflon tube.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Edmond; Feuerborn, Alexander; Cook, Peter R

    2016-09-29

    Droplet-interface bilayers (DIBs) have applications in disciplines ranging from biology to computing. We present a method for forming them manually using a Teflon tube attached to a syringe pump; this method is simple enough it should be accessible to those without expertise in microfluidics. It exploits the properties of interfaces between three immiscible liquids, and uses fluid flow through the tube to pack together drops coated with lipid monolayers to create bilayers at points of contact. It is used to create functional nanopores in DIBs composed of phosphocholine using the protein α-hemolysin (αHL), to demonstrate osmotically-driven mass transfer of fluid across surfactant-based DIBs, and to create arrays of DIBs. The approach is scalable, and thousands of DIBs can be prepared using a robot in one hour; therefore, it is feasible to use it for high throughput applications.

  13. Anomalous Hall effect in YIG|Pt bilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Sibylle Schlitz, Richard; Geprägs, Stephan; Opel, Matthias; Huebl, Hans; Goennenwein, Sebastian T. B.; Gross, Rudolf

    2015-03-30

    We measure the ordinary and the anomalous Hall effect in a set of yttrium iron garnet|platinum (YIG|Pt) bilayers via magnetization orientation dependent magnetoresistance experiments. Our data show that the presence of the ferrimagnetic insulator YIG leads to an anomalous Hall effect like voltage in Pt, which is sensitive to both Pt thickness and temperature. Interpretation of the experimental findings in terms of the spin Hall anomalous Hall effect indicates that the imaginary part of the spin mixing conductance G{sub i} plays a crucial role in YIG|Pt bilayers. In particular, our data suggest a sign change in G{sub i} between 10 K and 300 K. Additionally, we report a higher order Hall effect contribution, which appears in thin Pt films on YIG at low temperatures.

  14. Electrical oscillation in Pt/VO{sub 2} bilayer strips

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Ying; Qi, Long; Xu, Yanjun; Wu, Yihong; Chai, Jianwei; Wang, Shijie; Yang, Yumeng; Tanaka, Hidekazu

    2015-02-14

    We report on the observation of stable electrical oscillation in Pt/vanadium dioxide (VO{sub 2}) bilayer strips, in which the Pt overlayer serves the dual purposes of heating up the VO{sub 2} and weakening the electric field in the VO{sub 2} layer. Systematic measurements in an ultrahigh vacuum nanoprobe system show that the oscillation frequency increases with the bias current and/or with decreasing device dimension. In contrast to most VO{sub 2}-based oscillators reported to date, which are electrically triggered, current-induced Joule heating in the Pt overlayer is found to play a dominant role in the generation of oscillation in Pt/VO{sub 2} bilayers. A simple model involving thermally triggered transition of VO{sub 2} on a heat sink is able to account for the experimental observations. The results in this work provide an alternative view of the triggering mechanism in VO{sub 2}-based oscillators.

  15. Lipid Bilayer Phase Transition: Density Measurements and Theory

    PubMed Central

    Nagle, J. F.

    1973-01-01

    The overall change of density for dipalmitoyl lecithin bilayers agrees with a general order-disorder theory and yields about seven gauche rotations per molecule for the biologically relevant high-temperature phase. The shape of the curve of density against temperature is similar to the result of an exact calculation on a specific model, which gives a 3/2-order phase transition. PMID:4519637

  16. Electrochemical characterization of bilayer lipid membrane-semiconductor junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Xiao Kang; Baral, S.; Fendler, J.H. )

    1990-03-08

    Three different systems of glyceryl monooleate (GMO), bilayer lipid membrane (BLM) supported semiconductor particles have been prepared and characterized. A single composition of particulate semiconductor deposited only on one side of the BLM constituted system A, two different compositions of particulate semiconductors sequentially deposited on the same side of the BLM represented system B, and two different compositions of particulate semiconductors deposited on the opposite sides of the BLM made up system C.

  17. Optimizing non-Pb radiation shielding materials using bilayers

    SciTech Connect

    McCaffrey, J. P.; Mainegra-Hing, E.; Shen, H.

    2009-12-15

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to demonstrate that the weight of non-Pb radiation shielding materials can be minimized by structuring the material as a bilayer composed of different metal-powder-embedded elastomer layers. Methods: Measurements and Monte Carlo (MC) calculations were performed to study the attenuation properties of several non-Pb metal bilayers over the x-ray energy range 30-150 keV. Metals for the layers were chosen on the basis of low cost, nontoxicity, and complementary photoelectric absorption characteristics. The EGSnrc user code cavity.cpp was used to calculate the resultant x-ray fluence spectra after attenuation by these metal layers. Air kerma attenuation was measured using commercially manufactured metal/elastomer test layers. These layers were irradiated using the primary standard calibration beams at the Institute for National Measurement Standards in Ottawa, Canada utilizing the six x-ray beam qualities recommended in the German Standard DIN 6857. Both the measurements and the calculations were designed to approximate surface irradiation as well as penetrating radiation at 10 mm depth in soft tissue. The MC modeling point and the position of the measurement detector for surface irradiation were both directly against the downstream face of the attenuating material, as recommended in DIN 6857. Results: The low-Z upstream/high-Z downstream ordering of the metal bilayers provided substantially more attenuation than the reverse order. Optimal percentages of each metal in each bilayer were determined for each x-ray radiation beam quality. Conclusions: Depending on the x-ray quality, appropriate choices of two complementary metal-embedded elastomer layers can decrease the weight of radiation shielding garments by up to 25% compared to Pb-based elastomer garments while providing equivalent attenuation.

  18. Penetration of Cell Membranes and Synthetic Lipid Bilayers by Nanoprobes

    PubMed Central

    Angle, Matthew R.; Wang, Andrew; Thomas, Aman; Schaefer, Andreas T.; Melosh, Nicholas A.

    2014-01-01

    Nanoscale devices have been proposed as tools for measuring and controlling intracellular activity by providing electrical and/or chemical access to the cytosol. Unfortunately, nanostructures with diameters of 50–500 nm do not readily penetrate the cell membrane, and rationally optimizing nanoprobes for cell penetration requires real-time characterization methods that are capable of following the process of membrane penetration with nanometer resolution. Although extensive work has examined the rupture of supported synthetic lipid bilayers, little is known about the applicability of these model systems to living cell membranes with complex lipid compositions, cytoskeletal attachment, and membrane proteins. Here, we describe atomic force microscopy (AFM) membrane penetration experiments in two parallel systems: live HEK293 cells and stacks of synthetic lipid bilayers. By using the same probes in both systems, we were able to clearly identify membrane penetration in synthetic bilayers and compare these events with putative membrane penetration events in cells. We examined membrane penetration forces for three tip geometries and 18 chemical modifications of the probe surface, and in all cases the median forces required to penetrate cellular and synthetic lipid bilayers with nanoprobes were greater than 1 nN. The penetration force was sensitive to the probe's sharpness, but not its surface chemistry, and the force did not depend on cell surface or cytoskeletal properties, with cells and lipid stacks yielding similar forces. This systematic assessment of penetration under various mechanical and chemical conditions provides insights into nanoprobe-cell interactions and informs the design of future intracellular nanoprobes. PMID:25418094

  19. Sponge mesoporous silica formation using disordered phospholipid bilayers as template.

    PubMed

    Galarneau, Anne; Sartori, Federica; Cangiotti, Michela; Mineva, Tzonka; Di Renzo, Francesco; Ottaviani, M Francesca

    2010-02-18

    Lecithin/dodecylamine/lactose mixtures in ethanol/aqueous media led to the formation of sponge mesoporous silica (SMS) materials by means of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) as silica source. SMS materials show a "sponge-mesoporous" porosity with a pore diameter of about 5-6 nm, in accordance to the length of a lecithin bilayer. SMS synthesis was developed to create a new class of powerful biocatalysts able to efficiently encapsulate enzymes by adding a porosity control to the classical sol-gel synthesis and by using phospholipids and lactose as protecting agents for the enzymes. In the present study, the formation of SMS was investigated by using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) probes inserted inside phospholipid bilayers. The influence of progressive addition of each component (ethanol, dodecylamine, lactose, TEOS) on phospholipid bilayers was first examined; then, the time evolution of EPR spectra during SMS synthesis was studied. Parameters informative of mobility, structure, order, and polarity around the probes were extracted by computer analysis of the EPR line shape. The results were discussed on the basis of solids characterization by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen isotherm, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The results, together with the well-known ability of ethanol to promote membrane hemifusion, suggested that the templating structure is a bicontinuous phospholipid bilayer phase, shaped as a gyroid, resulting of multiple membrane hemifusions induced by the high alcohol content used in SMS synthesis. SMS synthesis was compared to hexagonal mesoporous silica (HMS) synthesis accomplished by adding TEOS to a dodecylamine/EtOH/water mixture. EPR evidenced the difference between HMS and SMS synthesis; the latter uses an already organized but slowly growing mesophase of phospholipids, never observed before, whereas the former shows a progressive elongation of micelles into wormlike structures. SMS-type materials represent a new

  20. Bilayered dielectric measurement with an open-ended coaxial probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Gangwu; Li, Kang; Ji, Zhong

    1994-06-01

    An equivalent circuit of an open-ended coaxial line used as a probe for bilayered dielectric measurement which consists of three parallel capacitances is presented. The measurements method, based on both the analytical expression of the probe's equivalent circuit and the bilinear transformation relationships between the equivalent admittance of the probe and the reflection coefficient and between the real reflection coefficient and the measured reflection coefficient, is described.

  1. Molecular doping and band-gap opening of bilayer graphene.

    PubMed

    Samuels, Alexander J; Carey, J David

    2013-03-26

    The ability to induce an energy band gap in bilayer graphene is an important development in graphene science and opens up potential applications in electronics and photonics. Here we report the emergence of permanent electronic and optical band gaps in bilayer graphene upon adsorption of π electron containing molecules. Adsorption of n- or p-type dopant molecules on one layer results in an asymmetric charge distribution between the top and bottom layers and in the formation of an energy gap. The resultant band gap scales linearly with induced carrier density though a slight asymmetry is found between n-type dopants, where the band gap varies as 47 meV/10(13) cm(-2), and p-type dopants where it varies as 40 meV/10(13) cm(-2). Decamethylcobaltocene (DMC, n-type) and 3,6-difluoro-2,5,7,7,8,8-hexacyano-quinodimethane (F2-HCNQ, p-type) are found to be the best molecules at inducing the largest electronic band gaps up to 0.15 eV. Optical adsorption transitions in the 2.8-4 μm region of the spectrum can result between states that are not Pauli blocked. Comparison is made between the band gaps calculated from adsorbate-induced electric fields and from average displacement fields found in dual gate bilayer graphene devices. A key advantage of using molecular adsorption with π electron containing molecules is that the high binding energy can induce a permanent band gap and open up possible uses of bilayer graphene in mid-infrared photonic or electronic device applications.

  2. Microwave zero-resistance states in a bilayer electron system.

    PubMed

    Wiedmann, S; Gusev, G M; Raichev, O E; Bakarov, A K; Portal, J C

    2010-07-09

    Magnetotransport measurements on a high-mobility electron bilayer system formed in a wide GaAs quantum well reveal vanishing dissipative resistance under continuous microwave irradiation. Profound zero-resistance states (ZRS) appear even in the presence of additional intersubband scattering of electrons. We study the dependence of photoresistance on frequency, microwave power, and temperature. Experimental results are compared with a theory demonstrating that the conditions for absolute negative resistivity correlate with the appearance of ZRS.

  3. Josephson inplane and tunneling currents in bilayer quantum Hall system

    SciTech Connect

    Ezawa, Z. F.; Tsitsishvili, G.; Sawada, A.

    2013-12-04

    A Bose-Einstein condensation is formed by composite bosons in the quantum Hall state. A composite boson carries the fundamental charge (–e). We investigate Josephson tunneling of such charges in the bilayer quantum Hall system at the total filling ν = 1. We show the existence of the critical current for the tunneling current to be coherent and dissipationless in tunneling experiments with various geometries.

  4. Josephson effect without superconductivity: realization in quantum Hall bilayers.

    PubMed

    Fogler, M M; Wilczek, F

    2001-02-26

    We show that a quantum Hall bilayer with the total filling nu = 1 should exhibit a dynamical regime similar to the flux flow in large Josephson junctions. This analogy may explain a conspicuous peak in the interlayer tunneling conductance [Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5808 (2000)]. The flux flow is likely to be spatiotemporally chaotic at low-bias voltage, which will manifest itself through broadband noise. The peak position can be controlled by an in-plane magnetic field.

  5. Strain solitons and topological defects in bilayer graphene.

    PubMed

    Alden, Jonathan S; Tsen, Adam W; Huang, Pinshane Y; Hovden, Robert; Brown, Lola; Park, Jiwoong; Muller, David A; McEuen, Paul L

    2013-07-09

    Bilayer graphene has been a subject of intense study in recent years. The interlayer registry between the layers can have dramatic effects on the electronic properties: for example, in the presence of a perpendicular electric field, a band gap appears in the electronic spectrum of so-called Bernal-stacked graphene [Oostinga JB, et al. (2007) Nature Materials 7:151-157]. This band gap is intimately tied to a structural spontaneous symmetry breaking in bilayer graphene, where one of the graphene layers shifts by an atomic spacing with respect to the other. This shift can happen in multiple directions, resulting in multiple stacking domains with soliton-like structural boundaries between them. Theorists have recently proposed that novel electronic states exist at these boundaries [Vaezi A, et al. (2013) arXiv:1301.1690; Zhang F, et al. (2013) arXiv:1301.4205], but very little is known about their structural properties. Here we use electron microscopy to measure with nanoscale and atomic resolution the widths, motion, and topological structure of soliton boundaries and related topological defects in bilayer graphene. We find that each soliton consists of an atomic-scale registry shift between the two graphene layers occurring over 6-11 nm. We infer the minimal energy barrier to interlayer translation and observe soliton motion during in situ heating above 1,000 °C. The abundance of these structures across a variety of samples, as well as their unusual properties, suggests that they will have substantial effects on the electronic and mechanical properties of bilayer graphene.

  6. Strain solitons and topological defects in bilayer graphene

    PubMed Central

    Alden, Jonathan S.; Tsen, Adam W.; Huang, Pinshane Y.; Hovden, Robert; Brown, Lola; Park, Jiwoong; Muller, David A.; McEuen, Paul L.

    2013-01-01

    Bilayer graphene has been a subject of intense study in recent years. The interlayer registry between the layers can have dramatic effects on the electronic properties: for example, in the presence of a perpendicular electric field, a band gap appears in the electronic spectrum of so-called Bernal-stacked graphene [Oostinga JB, et al. (2007) Nature Materials 7:151–157]. This band gap is intimately tied to a structural spontaneous symmetry breaking in bilayer graphene, where one of the graphene layers shifts by an atomic spacing with respect to the other. This shift can happen in multiple directions, resulting in multiple stacking domains with soliton-like structural boundaries between them. Theorists have recently proposed that novel electronic states exist at these boundaries [Vaezi A, et al. (2013) arXiv:1301.1690; Zhang F, et al. (2013) arXiv:1301.4205], but very little is known about their structural properties. Here we use electron microscopy to measure with nanoscale and atomic resolution the widths, motion, and topological structure of soliton boundaries and related topological defects in bilayer graphene. We find that each soliton consists of an atomic-scale registry shift between the two graphene layers occurring over 6–11 nm. We infer the minimal energy barrier to interlayer translation and observe soliton motion during in situ heating above 1,000 °C. The abundance of these structures across a variety of samples, as well as their unusual properties, suggests that they will have substantial effects on the electronic and mechanical properties of bilayer graphene. PMID:23798395

  7. Comparative evaluation of single and bilayered lamotrigine floating tablets

    PubMed Central

    Lakshmi, PK; Sridhar, M; Shruthi, B

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to prepare lamotrigine (LM) bilayered and single layered floating tablets and to compare their release profiles. Materials and Methods: LM floating tablets were prepared by direct compression method. Drug, hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose K4M, lactose monohydrate and polyvinylpyrrolidone K30 constitute controlled release layer components and floating layer components includes polymers and sodium bicarbonate. The prepared tablets were evaluated for physicochemical parameters such as hardness, friability, weight variation, thickness, floating lag time (FLT), floating time, in vitro buoyancy study, in vitro release studies. The drug-polymer interaction was studied by fourier transform infrared and differential scanning calorimetry. Results and Discussion: The FLT of all the formulations were within the prescribed limits (<3 min). When ethyl cellulose was used as floating layer component, tablets showed good buoyancy effect but eroded within 6-8 h. Hence it was replaced with hydroxypropyl cellulose -M hydrophilic polymer, which showed good FLT and floating duration for 16 h. Formulation LFC4 was found to be optimized with dissolution profile of zero order kinetics showing fickian diffusion. A comparative study of bilayered and single layered tablets of LM showed a highest similarity factor of 83.03, difference factor of 2.74 and t-test (P < 0.05) indicates that there is no significant difference between them. Conclusion: Though bilayered tablet possess many advantages, single layered tablet would be economical, cost-effective and reproducible for large scale production in the industry. However, the results of present study demonstrated that the in vitro development of bilayered gastro retentive floating tablets with controlled drug release profile for LM is feasible. PMID:24167788

  8. Entanglement spectrum of fermionic bilayer honeycomb lattice: Hofstadter butterfly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moradi, Z.; Abouie, J.

    2016-11-01

    We perform an analytical study of the energy and entanglement spectrum of non-interacting fermionic bilayer honeycomb lattices in the presence of trigonal warping in the energy spectrum, on-site energy difference and uniform magnetic field. Employing single particle correlation functions, we present an explicit form for a layer-layer entanglement Hamiltonian whose spectrum is the entanglement spectrum. We demonstrate that in the absence of trigonal warping, at zero on-site energy difference exact correspondence is established between the entanglement spectrum and energy spectrum of a monolayer which means that the entanglement spectrum perfectly reflects the edge state properties of the bilayer. We also show that trigonal warping breaks down such a perfect correspondence, however, in Γ -K direction in the hexagonal Brillouin zone, their behaviors are remarkably the same for particular relevances of hopping parameters. In the presence of an on-site energy difference the symmetry of the entanglement spectrum is broken with opening an indirect entanglement gap. We also study the effects of a perpendicular magnetic field on both energy and the entanglement spectrum of the bilayer in the presence of trigonal warping and on-site energy difference. We demonstrate that the entanglement spectrum versus magnetic flux has a self similar fractal structure, known as the Hofstadter butterfly. Our results also show that the on-site energy difference causes a transition from the Hofstadter butterfly to a tree-like picture.

  9. Charge inhomogeneity in a single and bilayer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahal, Hari; Wehling, Tim; Bedell, Kevin; Zhu, Jian-Xin; Balatsky, Alexander

    2008-03-01

    We study the possibility of charge ordered state in both single and bilayer graphene using a real space tight binding model. We find that the single layer graphene always remains in a liquid phase; the reason being the higher kinetic energy compared to the potential energy. The bilayer graphene on the other hand can have an inhomogeneous distribution of the charge, namely the charge density wave (CDW) state. The CDW state is commensurate with the lattice. The charge ordered state is stabilized by the Coulomb interaction of the carriers of two layers. We also predicted a kinetic energy driven (KID) inhomogeneous phase. This phase can be stabilized by the inter layer hopping energy. The KID phase and the CDW phase compete with each other below the half filling whereas they cooperate above half filling. For the physical parameter of bilayer graphene CDW phase always wins over the KID phase. Hari P. Dahal, Tim O. Wehling, Kevin S. Bedell, Jian-Xin Zhu, Alexander V. Balatsky

  10. Hybrid bilayer plasmonic metasurface efficiently manipulates visible light

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Fei; Ding, Lu; Zhang, Lei; Monticone, Francesco; Chum, Chan Choy; Deng, Jie; Mei, Shengtao; Li, Ying; Teng, Jinghua; Hong, Minghui; Zhang, Shuang; Alù, Andrea; Qiu, Cheng-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Metasurfaces operating in the cross-polarization scheme have shown an interesting degree of control over the wavefront of transmitted light. Nevertheless, their inherently low efficiency in visible light raises certain concerns for practical applications. Without sacrificing the ultrathin flat design, we propose a bilayer plasmonic metasurface operating at visible frequencies, obtained by coupling a nanoantenna-based metasurface with its complementary Babinet-inverted copy. By breaking the radiation symmetry because of the finite, yet small, thickness of the proposed structure and benefitting from properly tailored intra- and interlayer couplings, such coupled bilayer metasurface experimentally yields a conversion efficiency of 17%, significantly larger than that of earlier single-layer designs, as well as an extinction ratio larger than 0 dB, meaning that anomalous refraction dominates the transmission response. Our finding shows that metallic metasurface can counterintuitively manipulate the visible light as efficiently as dielectric metasurface (~20% in conversion efficiency in Lin et al.’s study), although the metal’s ohmic loss is much higher than dielectrics. Our hybrid bilayer design, still being ultrathin (~λ/6), is found to obey generalized Snell’s law even in the presence of strong couplings. It is capable of efficiently manipulating visible light over a broad bandwidth and can be realized with a facile one-step nanofabrication process. PMID:26767195

  11. Thermoelectric Power in Bilayer Graphene Device with Ionic Liquid Gating.

    PubMed

    Chien, Yung-Yu; Yuan, Hongtao; Wang, Chang-Ran; Lee, Wei-Li

    2016-02-08

    The quest for materials showing large thermoelectric power has long been one of the important subjects in material science and technology. Such materials have great potential for thermoelectric cooling and also high figure of merit ZT thermoelectric applications. We have fabricated bilayer graphene devices with ionic-liquid gating in order to tune its band gap via application of a perpendicular electric field on a bilayer graphene. By keeping the Fermi level at charge neutral point during the cool-down, we found that the charge puddles effect can be greatly reduced and thus largely improve the transport properties at low T in graphene-based devices using ionic liquid gating. At (Vig, Vbg) = (-1 V, +23 V), a band gap of about 36.6 ± 3 meV forms, and a nearly 40% enhancement of thermoelectric power at T = 120 K is clearly observed. Our works demonstrate the feasibility of band gap tuning in a bilayer graphene using ionic liquid gating. We also remark on the significant influence of the charge puddles effect in ionic-liquid-based devices.

  12. Thermoelectric Power in Bilayer Graphene Device with Ionic Liquid Gating

    PubMed Central

    Chien, Yung-Yu; Yuan, Hongtao; Wang, Chang-Ran; Lee, Wei-Li

    2016-01-01

    The quest for materials showing large thermoelectric power has long been one of the important subjects in material science and technology. Such materials have great potential for thermoelectric cooling and also high figure of merit ZT thermoelectric applications. We have fabricated bilayer graphene devices with ionic-liquid gating in order to tune its band gap via application of a perpendicular electric field on a bilayer graphene. By keeping the Fermi level at charge neutral point during the cool-down, we found that the charge puddles effect can be greatly reduced and thus largely improve the transport properties at low T in graphene-based devices using ionic liquid gating. At (Vig, Vbg) = (−1 V, +23 V), a band gap of about 36.6 ± 3 meV forms, and a nearly 40% enhancement of thermoelectric power at T = 120 K is clearly observed. Our works demonstrate the feasibility of band gap tuning in a bilayer graphene using ionic liquid gating. We also remark on the significant influence of the charge puddles effect in ionic-liquid-based devices. PMID:26852799

  13. Thermoelectric Power in Bilayer Graphene Device with Ionic Liquid Gating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chien, Yung-Yu; Yuan, Hongtao; Wang, Chang-Ran; Lee, Wei-Li

    2016-02-01

    The quest for materials showing large thermoelectric power has long been one of the important subjects in material science and technology. Such materials have great potential for thermoelectric cooling and also high figure of merit ZT thermoelectric applications. We have fabricated bilayer graphene devices with ionic-liquid gating in order to tune its band gap via application of a perpendicular electric field on a bilayer graphene. By keeping the Fermi level at charge neutral point during the cool-down, we found that the charge puddles effect can be greatly reduced and thus largely improve the transport properties at low T in graphene-based devices using ionic liquid gating. At (Vig, Vbg) = (‑1 V, +23 V), a band gap of about 36.6 ± 3 meV forms, and a nearly 40% enhancement of thermoelectric power at T = 120 K is clearly observed. Our works demonstrate the feasibility of band gap tuning in a bilayer graphene using ionic liquid gating. We also remark on the significant influence of the charge puddles effect in ionic-liquid-based devices.

  14. Spatial arrangement of selected fluorescence labels in lipid bilayer.

    PubMed

    Zawada, Zygmunt H

    2013-08-05

    The method for the determination the orientation factor κ(2), spatial arrangement and depth position of fluorescence labels located in hydrophilic layers of vesicles bilayer from resonance energy transfer (RET) data is presented. The method is based on the broadened Wolber and Hudson RET model in two dimensions (Biophys J. 1979). The vesicles were labeled with N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)-1,2-dihexadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (NBD-PE) as the donor and N-(Lissamine rhodamine B sulfonyl) 1,2-dihexadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (NRh-PE) as the acceptor. It was found that in basic environment sodium dithionite quenches fluorescence of both labels located in outer leaflet of bilayer. Therefore, RET data prior to and following dithionite treatment were compared and the donor-acceptor cis and trans distances of the closest approach as well as cis and trans Förster radii R0, and orientation factors κ(2) for cis RET equal to 0.61±0.06 and for trans RET equal to 0.17±0.01 were assigned. Knowing the κ(2) data, the spatial arrangement of NBD and NRh labels as dipoles in dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine bilayer were described.

  15. Exciton-polariton condensation in transition metal dichalcogenide bilayer heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ki Hoon; Jeong, Jae-Seung; Min, Hongki; Chung, Suk Bum

    For the bilayer heterostructure system in an optical microcavity, the interplay of the Coulomb interaction and the electron-photon coupling can lead to the emergence of quasiparticles consisting of the spatially indirect exciton and cavity photons known as dipolariton, which can form the Bose-Einstein condensate above a threshold density. Additional physics comes into play when each layer of the bilayer system consists of the transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) monolayer. The TMD monolayer band structure in the low energy spectrum has two valley components with nontrivial Berry phase, which gives rise to a selection rule in the exciton-polariton coupling, e.g. the exciton from one (the other) valley can couple only to the clockwise (counter-clockwise) polarized photon. We investigate possible condensate phases of exciton-polariton in the bilayer TMD microcavity changing relevant parameters such as detuning, excitation density and interlayer distance. This work was supported in part by the Institute for Basic Science of Korea (IBS) under Grant IBS-R009-Y1 and by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) under the Basic Science Research Program Grant No. 2015R1D1A1A01058071.

  16. TARP phosphorylation regulates synaptic AMPA receptors through lipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Sumioka, Akio; Yan, Dan; Tomita, Susumu

    2010-06-10

    Neurons use neurotransmitters to communicate across synapses, constructing neural circuits in the brain. AMPA-type glutamate receptors are the predominant excitatory neurotransmitter receptors mediating fast synaptic transmission. AMPA receptors localize at synapses by forming protein complexes with transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory proteins (TARPs) and PSD-95-like membrane-associated guanylate kinases. Among the three classes of ionotropic glutamate receptors (AMPA, NMDA, and kainate type), AMPA receptor activity is most regulatable by neuronal activity to adjust synaptic strength. Here, we mutated the prototypical TARP, stargazin, and found that TARP phosphorylation regulates synaptic AMPA receptor activity in vivo. We also found that stargazin interacts with negatively charged lipid bilayers in a phosphorylation-dependent manner and that the lipid interaction inhibited stargazin binding to PSD-95. Cationic lipids dissociated stargazin from lipid bilayers and enhanced synaptic AMPA receptor activity in a stargazin phosphorylation-dependent manner. Thus, TARP phosphorylation plays a critical role in regulating AMPA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission via a lipid bilayer interaction.

  17. Magnetoabsorption spectra of bilayer graphene ribbons with Bernal stacking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Y. C.; Chang, C. P.; Lin, M. F.

    2008-09-01

    Magnetoabsorption spectra of bilayer graphene ribbons with Bernal stacking are studied by the Peierls-coupling tight-binding method. When the magnetic confinement prevails over the quantum confinement, low-energy spectra chiefly exhibit many Landau peaks, which are strongly modified by the inter-ribbon interactions and the magnetic-field magnitude (B) . The spectra show denser Landau peaks in bilayer graphene ribbon than in a monolayer ribbon with the same ribbon width. The absorption frequencies of Landau peaks of a wide monolayer ribbon show the B dependence, while those of a bilayer ribbon exhibit a varying B -field dependence. In the spectra region ω≤100meV , the absorption frequencies of Landau peaks are linearly dependent on the magnetic-field magnitude. At ω≥100meV , they evolve from the B dependence to the B dependence with the increase in the field strength. The absorption frequencies of Landau peaks exhibit B dependence at B≥20T . The relationship between the magneto-optical properties and electronic structures (the state energies and wave functions) are explored. The Landau wave functions are illustrated and used to identify the optical selection rule.

  18. Hydrodynamics of bilayer membranes with diffusing transmembrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Callan-Jones, Andrew; Durand, Marc; Fournier, Jean-Baptiste

    2016-02-14

    We consider the hydrodynamics of lipid bilayers containing transmembrane proteins of arbitrary shape. This biologically-motivated problem is relevant to the cell membrane, whose fluctuating dynamics play a key role in phenomena ranging from cell migration, intercellular transport, and cell communication. Using Onsager's variational principle, we derive the equations that govern the relaxation dynamics of the membrane shape, of the mass densities of the bilayer leaflets, and of the diffusing proteins' concentration. With our generic formalism, we obtain several results on membrane dynamics. We find that proteins that span the bilayer increase the intermonolayer friction coefficient. The renormalization, which can be significant, is in inverse proportion to the protein's mobility. Second, we find that asymmetric proteins couple to the membrane curvature and to the difference in monolayer densities. For practically all accessible membrane tensions (σ > 10(-8) N m(-1)) we show that the protein density is the slowest relaxing variable. Furthermore, its relaxation rate decreases at small wavelengths due to the coupling to curvature. We apply our formalism to the large-scale diffusion of a concentrated protein patch. We find that the diffusion profile is not self-similar, owing to the wavevector dependence of the effective diffusion coefficient.

  19. Photon-assisted transport in bilayer graphene flakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zambrano, D.; Rosales, L.; Latgé, A.; Pacheco, M.; Orellana, P. A.

    2017-01-01

    The electronic conductance of graphene-based bilayer flake systems reveals different quantum interference effects, such as Fabry-Pérot resonances and sharp Fano antiresonances on account of competing electronic paths through the device. These properties may be exploited to obtain spin-polarized currents when the same nanostructure is deposited above a ferromagnetic insulator. Here, we study how the spin-dependent conductance is affected when a time-dependent gate potential is applied to the bilayer flake. Following a Tien-Gordon formalism, we explore how to modulate the transport properties of such systems via appropriate choices of the ac-field gate parameters. The presence of an oscillating field opens the possibility of tuning the original antiresonances for a large set of field parameters. We show that interference patterns can be partially or fully removed by the time-dependent gate voltage. The results are reflected in the corresponding weighted spin polarization, which can reach maximum values for a given spin component. We found that differential conductance maps as functions of bias and gate potentials show interference patterns for different ac-field parameter configurations. The proposed bilayer graphene flake systems may be used as a frequency detector in the THz range.

  20. NMR Structures of Membrane Proteins in Phospholipid Bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Radoicic, Jasmina; Lu, George J.; Opella, Stanley J.

    2014-01-01

    Membrane proteins have always presented technical challenges for structural studies because of their requirement for a lipid environment. Multiple approaches exist including X-ray crystallography and electron microscopy that can give significant insights into their structure and function. However, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is unique in that it offers the possibility of determining the structures of unmodified membrane proteins in their native environment of phospholipid bilayers under physiological conditions. Furthermore, NMR enables the characterization of the structure and dynamics of backbone and side chain sites of the proteins alone and in complexes with both small molecules and other biopolymers. The learning curve has been steep for the field as most initial studies were performed under non-native environments using modified proteins until ultimately progress in both techniques and instrumentation led to the possibility of examining unmodified membrane proteins in phospholipid bilayers under physiological conditions. This review aims to provide an overview of the development and application of NMR to membrane proteins. It highlights some of the most significant structural milestones that have been reached by NMR spectroscopy of membrane proteins; especially those accomplished with the proteins in phospholipid bilayer environments where they function. PMID:25032938

  1. TARP phosphorylation regulates synaptic AMPA receptors through lipid bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Sumioka, Akio; Yan, Dan; Tomita, Susumu

    2010-01-01

    Summary Neurons use neurotransmitters to communicate across synapses, constructing neural circuits in the brain. AMPA-type glutamate receptors are the predominant excitatory neurotransmitter receptors mediating fast synaptic transmission. AMPA receptors localize at synapses by forming protein complexes with transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory proteins (TARPs) and PSD-95-like MAGUKs. Among the three classes of ionotropic glutamate receptors (AMPA-, NMDA, kainate-type), AMPA receptor activity is most regulatable by neuronal activity to adjust synaptic strength. Here, we mutated the prototypical TARP, stargazin, and found that TARP phosphorylation regulates synaptic AMPA receptor activity in vivo. We also found that stargazin interacts with negatively-charged lipid bilayers in its phosphorylation dependent manner, and that the lipid interaction inhibited stargazin binding to PSD-95. Cationic lipids dissociated stargazin from lipid bilayers and enhanced synaptic AMPA receptor activity in a stargazin phosphorylation-dependent manner. Thus, TARP phosphorylation plays a critical role in regulating AMPA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission via a lipid bilayer interaction. PMID:20547132

  2. Excitonic instabilities and insulating states in bilayer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Kok Wee; Liang, Yung-Ching; Haas, Stephan

    2012-11-01

    The competing ground states of bilayer graphene are studied by applying renormalization group techniques to a bilayer honeycomb lattice with nearest neighbor hopping. In the absence of interactions, the Fermi surface of this model at half-filling consists of two nodal points with momenta K, K', where the conduction band and valence band touch each other, yielding a semimetal. Since near these two points the energy dispersion is quadratic with perfect particle-hole symmetry, excitonic instabilities are inevitable if interband interactions are present. Using a perturbative renormalization group analysis up to the one-loop level, we find different competing ordered ground states, including ferromagnetism, superconductivity, spin and charge density wave states with ordering vector Q=K-K', and excitonic insulator states. In addition, two states with valley symmetry breaking are found in the excitonic insulating and ferromagnetic phases. This analysis strongly suggests that the ground state of bilayer graphene should be gapped, and with the exception of superconductivity, all other possible ground states are insulating.

  3. Self-consistent perturbation theory for two dimensional twisted bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirodkar, Sharmila N.; Tritsaris, Georgios A.; Kaxiras, Efthimios

    Theoretical modeling and ab-initio simulations of two dimensional heterostructures with arbitrary angles of rotation between layers involve unrealistically large and expensive calculations. To overcome this shortcoming, we develop a methodology for weakly interacting heterostructures that treats the effect of one layer on the other as perturbation, and restricts the calculations to their primitive cells. Thus, avoiding computationally expensive supercells. We start by approximating the interaction potential between the twisted bilayers to that of a hypothetical configuration (viz. ideally stacked untwisted layers), which produces band structures in reasonable agreement with full-scale ab-initio calculations for commensurate and twisted bilayers of graphene (Gr) and Gr/hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) heterostructures. We then self-consistently calculate the charge density and hence, interaction potential of the heterostructures. In this work, we test our model for bilayers of various combinations of Gr, h-BN and transition metal dichalcogenides, and discuss the advantages and shortcomings of the self-consistently calculated interaction potential. Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA.

  4. Optical rectification at visible frequency in biased bilayer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hipolito, F.; Pereira, Vitor M.

    2015-03-01

    The second order response of the electrical current to an electromagnetic field is analyzed within the framework of non-equilibrium many-body perturbation theory for the case of a two-dimensional electronic system such as graphene and its bilayer. The absence of inversion symmetry in a biased graphene bilayer allows a finite DC response in second order to an AC electromagnetic wave. The induced DC current is evaluated for biased bilayer at finite temperature, and its tunability is analyzed as a function of electron density, which can be experimentally varied by means of a global gate voltage applied to the sample. Both intrinsic and photon drag microscopic processes are considered, as they contribute on similar footing to the photocurrent in general. However, the dependencies of these two contributions on the polarization state of the incident light are different, which allows the manipulation of the relative contribution of intrinsic versus photon drag contributions by tuning the experimental parameters. For example, the photocurrent emerging from circularly polarized light stems entirely from photon drag, as the circular photogalvanic effect is forbidden by the C3 rotation symmetry of the honeycomb lattice.

  5. Homogeneous bilayer graphene film based flexible transparent conductor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seunghyun; Lee, Kyunghoon; Liu, Chang-Hua; Zhong, Zhaohui

    2012-01-21

    Graphene is considered as a promising candidate to replace conventional transparent conductors due to its low opacity, high carrier mobility and flexible structure. Multi-layer graphene or stacked single layer graphenes have been investigated in the past but both have their drawbacks. The uniformity of multi-layer graphene is still questionable, and single layer graphene stacks require many transfer processes to achieve sufficiently low sheet resistance. In this work, bilayer graphene film grown with low pressure chemical vapor deposition was used as a transparent conductor for the first time. The technique was demonstrated to be highly efficient in fabricating a conductive and uniform transparent conductor compared to multi-layer or single layer graphene. Four transfers of bilayer graphene yielded a transparent conducting film with a sheet resistance of 180 Ω(□) at a transmittance of 83%. In addition, bilayer graphene films transferred onto the plastic substrate showed remarkable robustness against bending, with sheet resistance change less than 15% at 2.14% strain, a 20-fold improvement over commercial indium oxide films.

  6. Integrated Bi-Layered Scaffold for Osteochondral Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Galperin, Anna; Oldinski, Rachael A.; Florczyk, Stephen J.; Bryers, James D.; Zhang, Miqin

    2013-01-01

    Osteochondral tissue engineering poses the challenge of combining both cartilage and bone tissue engineering fundamentals. In this study, a sphere-templating technique was applied to fabricate an integrated bi-layered scaffold based on degradable poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate) hydrogel. One layer of the integrated scaffold was designed with a single defined, monodispersed pore size of 38 μm and pore surfaces coated with hydroxyapatite particles to promote regrowth of subchondral bone while the second layer had 200 μm pores with surfaces decorated with hyaluronan for articular cartilage regeneration. Mechanical properties of the construct as well as cyto-compatibility of the scaffold and its degradation products were elucidated. To examine the potential of the biphasic scaffold for regeneration of osteochondral tissue the designated cartilage and bone layers of the integrated bi-layered scaffold were seeded with chondrocytes differentiated from human mesenchymal stem cells and primary human mesenchymal stem cells, respectively. Both types of cells were co-cultured within the scaffold in standard medium without soluble growth/differentiation factors over four weeks. The ability of the integrated bi-layered scaffold to support simultaneous matrix deposition and adequate cell growth of two distinct cell lineages in each layer during four weeks of co-culture in vitro in the absence of soluble growth factors was demonstrated. PMID:23225568

  7. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans leukotoxin cytotoxicity occurs through bilayer destabilization

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Angela C.; Boesze-Battaglia, Kathleen; Du, Yurong; Stefano, Frank P.; Kieba, Irene R.; Epand, Raquel F.; Kakalis, Lazaros; Yeagle, Philip L.; Epand, Richard M.; Lally, Edward T.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The Gram-negative bacterium, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, is a common inhabitant of the human upper aerodigestive tract. The organism produces an RTX (Repeats in ToXin) toxin (LtxA) that kills human white blood cells. LtxA is believed to be a membrane-damaging toxin, but details of the cell surface interaction for this and several other RTX toxins have yet to be elucidated. Initial morphological studies suggested that LtxA was bending the target cell membrane. Because the ability of a membrane to bend is a function of its lipid composition, we assessed the proficiency of LtxA to release of a fluorescent dye from a panel of liposomes composed of various lipids. Liposomes composed of lipids that form nonlamellar phases were susceptible to LtxA-induced damage while liposomes composed of lipids that do not form non-bilayer structures were not. Differential scanning calorimetry demonstrated that the toxin decreased the temperature at which the lipid transitions from a bilayer to a nonlamellar phase, while 31P nuclear magnetic resonance studies showed that the LtxA-induced transition from a bilayer to an inverted hexagonal phase occurs through the formation of an isotropic intermediate phase. These results indicate that LtxA cytotoxicity occurs through a process of membrane destabilization. PMID:22309134

  8. Amphotericin B induced interdigitation of apolipoprotein stabilized nanodisk bilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, T; Weers, P M; Sulchek, T; Hoeprich, P D; Ryan, R O

    2006-12-07

    Amphotericin B nanodisks (AMB-ND) are ternary complexes of AMB, phospholipid (PL) and apolipoprotein organized as discrete nanometer scale disk-shaped bilayers. In gel filtration chromatography experiments, empty ND lacking AMB elute as a single population of particles with a molecular weight in the range of 200 kDa. AMB-ND formulated at a 4:1 PL:AMB weight ratio, separated into two peaks. Peak 1 eluted at the position of control ND lacking AMB while the second peak, containing all of the AMB present in the original sample, eluted in the void volume. When ND prepared with increased AMB (1:1 phospholipid:AMB molar ratio) were subjected to gel filtration chromatography, an increased proportion of phospholipid and apolipoprotein were recovered in the void volume with the AMB. Prior to gel filtration the AMB-ND sample could be passed through a 0.22 {micro}m filter without loss of AMB while the voided material was lost. Native gel electrophoresis studies corroborated the gel permeation chromatography data. Far UV circular dichroism analyses revealed that apoA-I associated with AMB-ND denatures at a lower guanidine HCl concentration than apoA-I associated with ND lacking AMB. Atomic force microscopy revealed that AMB induces compression of the ND bilayer thickness consistent with bilayer interdigitation, a phenomenon that is likely related to the ability of AMB to induce pore formation in susceptible membranes.

  9. Twinning and twisting of tri- and bilayer graphene.

    PubMed

    Brown, Lola; Hovden, Robert; Huang, Pinshane; Wojcik, Michal; Muller, David A; Park, Jiwoong

    2012-03-14

    The electronic, optical, and mechanical properties of bilayer and trilayer graphene vary with their structure, including the stacking order and relative twist, providing novel ways to realize useful characteristics not available to single layer graphene. However, developing controlled growth of bilayer and trilayer graphene requires efficient large-scale characterization of multilayer graphene structures. Here, we use dark-field transmission electron microscopy for rapid and accurate determination of key structural parameters (twist angle, stacking order, and interlayer spacing) of few-layer CVD graphene. We image the long-range atomic registry for oriented bilayer and trilayer graphene, find that it conforms exclusively to either Bernal or rhombohedral stacking, and determine their relative abundances. In contrast, our data on twisted multilayers suggest the absence of such long-range atomic registry. The atomic registry and its absence are consistent with the two different strain-induced deformations we observe; by tilting the samples to break mirror symmetry, we find a high density of twinned domains in oriented multilayer graphene, where multiple domains of two different stacking configurations coexist, connected by discrete twin boundaries. In contrast, individual layers in twisted regions continuously stretch and shear independently, forming elaborate Moiré patterns. These results, and the twist angle distribution in our CVD graphene, can be understood in terms of an angle-dependent interlayer potential model.

  10. Performance projection of bilayer graphene nanoribbon FET through quantum mechanical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawat, Brajesh; Paily, Roy

    2016-12-01

    A quantum transport simulator based on a self-consistent solution of the Schrödinger equation within non-equilibrium Green’s function formalism and 2D Poisson equation for a bilayer graphene nanoribbon (bilayer GNR) field-effect transistor (FET) has been developed to examine the ballistic performance of a device. It is found that the lateral confinement employed in bilayer graphene to form the bilayer GNR largely increases the ON/OFF current ({I}{{ON}}/{I}{{OFF}}) ratios of FET without significantly degrading its ON current ({I}{{ON}}). On the other hand, the interlayer coupling considerably decreases the confinement-induced energy gap of the bilayer GNR and largely increases the {I}{{ON}} of the narrow bilayer GNR FET at the cost of lower {I}{{ON}}/{I}{{OFF}} ratios in comparison with the GNR FET.

  11. Numerical simulation of terahertz transmission of bilayer metallic meshes with different thickness of substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Gaohui; Zhao, Guozhong; Zhang, Shengbo

    2012-12-01

    The terahertz transmission characteristics of bilayer metallic meshes are studied based on the finite difference time domain method. The bilayer well-shaped grid, the array of complementary square metallic pill and the cross wire-hole array were investigated. The results show that the bilayer well-shaped grid achieves a high-pass of filter function, while the bilayer array of complementary square metallic pill achieves a low-pass of filter function, the bilayer cross wire-hole array achieves a band-pass of filter function. Between two metallic microstructures, the medium need to be deposited. Obviously, medium thicknesses have an influence on the terahertz transmission characteristics of metallic microstructures. Simulation results show that with increasing the thicknesses of the medium the cut-off frequency of high-pass filter and low-pass filter move to low frequency. But the bilayer cross wire-hole array possesses two transmission peaks which display competition effect.

  12. Excitonic properties of semiconducting monolayer and bilayer MoT e2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robert, C.; Picard, R.; Lagarde, D.; Wang, G.; Echeverry, J. P.; Cadiz, F.; Renucci, P.; Högele, A.; Amand, T.; Marie, X.; Gerber, I. C.; Urbaszek, B.

    2016-10-01

    MoT e2 belongs to the semiconducting transition-metal dichalcogenide family with certain properties differing from the other well-studied members (Mo ,W ) (S,Se ) 2 . The optical band gap is in the near-infrared region, and both monolayers and bilayers may have a direct optical band gap. We first simulate the single-particle band structure of both monolayer and bilayer MoT e2 with density-functional-theory-G W calculations. We find a direct (indirect) electronic band gap for the monolayer (bilayer). By solving in addition the Bethe-Salpeter equation, we find similar energies for the direct exciton transitions in monolayers and bilayers. We then study the optical properties by means of photoluminescence (PL) excitation, reflectivity, time-resolved PL, and power-dependent PL spectroscopy. With differential reflectivity, we find a similar oscillator strength for the optical transition observed in PL in both monolayers and bilayers suggesting a direct transition in both cases. We identify the same energy for the B -exciton state in the monolayer and the bilayer. Following circularly polarized excitation, we do not find any exciton polarization for a large range of excitation energies. At low temperatures (T =10 K ) , we measure similar PL decay times on the order of 4 ps for both monolayer and bilayer excitons with a slightly longer one for the bilayer. Finally, we observe a reduction of the exciton-exciton annihilation contribution to the nonradiative recombination in bilayers.

  13. Scattering Studies of Hydrophobic Monomers in Liposomal Bilayers: An Expanding shell Model of Monomer Distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Richter, Andrew G; Dergunov, Sergey; Ganus, Bill; Thomas, Zachary P; Pingali, Sai Venkatesh; Urban, Volker S; Liu, Yun; Porcar, Lionel; Pinkhassik, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    Hydrophobic monomers partially phase separate from saturated lipids when loaded into lipid bilayers in amounts exceeding a 1:1 monomer/lipid molar ratio. This conclusion is based on the agreement between two independent methods of examining the structure of monomer-loaded bilayers. Complete phase separation of monomers from lipids would result in an increase in bilayer thickness and a slight increase in the diameter of liposomes. A homogeneous distribution of monomers within the bilayer would not change the bilayer thickness and would lead to an increase in the liposome diameter. The increase in bilayer thickness, measured by the combination of small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), was approximately half of what was predicted for complete phase separation. The increase in liposome diameter, measured by dynamic light scattering (DLS), was intermediate between values predicted for a homogeneous distribution and complete phase separation. Combined SANS, SAXS, and DLS data suggest that at a 1.2 monomer/lipid ratio approximately half of the monomers are located in an interstitial layer sandwiched between lipid sheets. These results expand our understanding of using self-assembled bilayers as scaffolds for the directed covalent assembly of organic nanomaterials. In particular, the partial phase separation of monomers from lipids corroborates the successful creation of nanothin polymer materials with uniform imprinted nanopores. Pore-forming templates do not need to span the lipid bilayer to create a pore in the bilayer-templated films.

  14. Permeation of halide anions through phospholipid bilayers occurs by the solubility-diffusion mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paula, S.; Volkov, A. G.; Deamer, D. W.

    1998-01-01

    Two alternative mechanisms are frequently used to describe ionic permeation of lipid bilayers. In the first, ions partition into the hydrophobic phase and then diffuse across (the solubility-diffusion mechanism). The second mechanism assumes that ions traverse the bilayer through transient hydrophilic defects caused by thermal fluctuations (the pore mechanism). The theoretical predictions made by both models were tested for halide anions by measuring the permeability coefficients for chloride, bromide, and iodide as a function of bilayer thickness, ionic radius, and sign of charge. To vary the bilayer thickness systematically, liposomes were prepared from monounsaturated phosphatidylcholines (PC) with chain lengths between 16 and 24 carbon atoms. The fluorescent dye MQAE (N-(ethoxycarbonylmethyl)-6-methoxyquinolinium bromide) served as an indicator for halide concentration inside the liposomes and was used to follow the kinetics of halide flux across the bilayer membranes. The observed permeability coefficients ranged from 10(-9) to 10(-7) cm/s and increased as the bilayer thickness was reduced. Bromide was found to permeate approximately six times faster than chloride through bilayers of identical thickness, and iodide permeated three to four times faster than bromide. The dependence of the halide permeability coefficients on bilayer thickness and on ionic size were consistent with permeation of hydrated ions by a solubility-diffusion mechanism rather than through transient pores. Halide permeation therefore differs from that of a monovalent cation such as potassium, which has been accounted for by a combination of the two mechanisms depending on bilayer thickness.

  15. Scattering Studies of Hydrophobic Monomers in Liposomal Bilayers: An Expanding Shell Model of Monomer Distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Richter, Andrew; Dergunov, Sergey; Ganus, Bill; Thomas, Zachary; Pingali, Sai Venkatesh; Urban, Volker S; Liu, Yun; Porcar, Lionel; Pinkhassik, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    Hydrophobic monomers partially phase separate from saturated lipids when loaded into lipid bilayers in amounts exceeding a 1:1 monomer/lipid molar ratio. This conclusion is based on the agreement between two independent methods of examining the structure of monomer-loaded bilayers. Complete phase separation of monomers from lipids would result in an increase in bilayer thickness and a slight increase in the diameter of liposomes. A homogeneous distribution of monomers within the bilayer would not change the bilayer thickness and would lead to an increase in the liposome diameter. The increase in bilayer thickness, measured by the combination of small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), was approximately half of what was predicted for complete phase separation. The increase in liposome diameter, measured by dynamic light scattering (DLS), was intermediate between values predicted for a homogeneous distribution and complete phase separation. Combined SANS, SAXS, and DLS data suggest that at a 1.2 monomer/lipid ratio approximately half of the monomers are located in an interstitial layer sandwiched between lipid sheets. These results expand our understanding of using self-assembled bilayers as scaffolds for the directed covalent assembly of organic nanomaterials. In particular, the partial phase separation of monomers from lipids corroborates the successful creation of nanothin polymer materials with uniform imprinted nanopores. Pore-forming templates do not need to span the lipid bilayer to create a pore in the bilayer-templated films.

  16. Scattering Studies of Hydrophobic Monomers in Liposomal Bilayers: an Expanding Shell Model of Monomer Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Andrew G.; Dergunov, Sergey A.; Ganus, Bill; Thomas, Zachary; Pingali, Sai Venkatesh; Urban, Volker; Liu, Yun; Porcar, Lionel; Pinkhassik, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    Hydrophobic monomers partially phase-separate from saturated lipids when loaded into lipid bilayers in amounts exceeding 1:1 monomer:lipid molar ratio. This conclusion is based on agreement between two independent methods of examining the structure of monomer-loaded bilayers. Complete phase separation of monomers from lipids would result in increase in bilayer thickness and slight increase in the diameter of liposomes. Homogeneous distribution of monomers within the bilayer would not change the bilayer thickness and would lead to the increase in the liposome diameter. The increase in bilayer thickness, measured by the combination of small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), was approximately one half of what was predicted for complete phase separation. The increase in liposome diameter, measured by dynamic light scattering (DLS), was in the middle between values predicted for homogeneous distribution and complete phase separation. Combined SANS, SAXS, and DLS data suggest that at 1.2 monomer:lipid ratio, approximately one half of monomers are located in an interstitial layer sandwiched between lipid sheets. These results expand our understanding of using self-assembled bilayers as scaffolds for directed covalent assembly of organic nanomaterials. In particular, partial phase separation of monomers from lipids corroborates successful creation of nanometer-thin polymer materials with uniform imprinted nanopores. Pore-forming templates do not need to span the lipid bilayer to create a pore in the bilayer-templated films. PMID:21391646

  17. Kinematics, material symmetry, and energy densities for lipid bilayers with spontaneous curvature

    PubMed Central

    Maleki, Mohsen; Seguin, Brian; Fried, Eliot

    2013-01-01

    Continuum mechanical tools are used to describe the deformation, energy density, and material symmetry of a lipid bilayer with spontaneous curvature. In contrast to conventional approaches in which lipid bilayers are modeled by material surfaces, here we rely on a three-dimensional approach in which a lipid bilayer is modeling by a shell-like body with finite thickness. In this setting, the interface between the leaflets of a lipid bilayer is assumed to coincide with the mid-surface of the corresponding shell-like body. The three-dimensional deformation gradient is found to involve the curvature tensors of the mid-surface in the spontaneous and the deformed states, the deformation gradient of the mid-surface, and the transverse deformation. Attention is also given to the coherency of the leaflets and to the area compatibility of closed lipid bilayers (i.e., vesicles). A hyperelastic constitutive theory for lipid bilayers in the liquid phase is developed. In combination, the requirements of frame-indifference and material symmetry yield a representation for the energy density of a lipid bilayer. This representation shows that three scalar invariants suffice to describe the constitutive response of a lipid bilayer exhibiting in-plane fluidity and transverse isotropy. In addition to exploring the geometrical and physical properties of these invariants, fundamental constitutively-associated kinematical quantities are emphasized. On this basis, the effect on the energy density of assuming that the lipid bilayer is incompressible is considered. Lastly, a dimension reduction argument is used to extract an areal energy density per unit area from the three-dimensional energy density. This step explains the origin of spontaneous curvature in the areal energy density. Importantly, along with a standard contribution associated with the natural curvature of lipid bilayer, our analysis indicates that constitutive asymmetry between the leaflets of the lipid bilayer gives rise to

  18. Assembly of RNA nanostructures on supported lipid bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Dabkowska, Aleksandra P.; Michanek, Agnes; Jaeger, Luc; Rabe, Michael; Chworos, Arkadiusz; Höök, Fredrik; Nylander, Tommy; Sparr, Emma

    2014-01-01

    The assembly of nucleic acid nanostructures with controlled size and shape has large impact in the fields of nanotechnology, nanomedicine and synthetic biology. The directed arrangement of nanostructures at interfaces is important for many applications. In spite of this, the use of laterally mobile lipid bilayers to control RNA three-dimensional nanostructure formation on surfaces remains largely unexplored. Here, we direct the self-assembly of RNA building blocks into three-dimensional structures of RNA on fluid lipid bilayers composed of cationic 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP) or mixtures of zwitterionic 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DOPC) and cationic sphingosine. We demonstrate the stepwise supramolecular assembly of discrete building blocks through specific and selective RNA-RNA interactions, based on results from quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D), ellipsometry, fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRF) experiments. The assembly can be controlled to give a densely packed single layer of RNA polyhedrons at the fluid lipid bilayer surface. We show that assembly of the 3D structure can be modulated by sequence specific interactions, surface charge and changes in the salt composition and concentration. In addition, the tertiary structure of the RNA polyhedron can be controllably switched from an extended structure to one that is dense and compact. The versatile approach to building up three-dimensional structures of RNA does not require modification of the surface or the RNA molecules, and can be used as a bottom-up means of nanofabrication of functionalized bio-mimicking surfaces. PMID:25417592

  19. Study on temperature-dependent carrier transport for bilayer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yali; Li, Weilong; Qi, Mei; Li, Xiaojun; Zhou, Yixuan; Ren, Zhaoyu

    2015-05-01

    In order to investigate the temperature-dependent carrier transport property of the bilayer graphene, graphene films were synthesized on Cu foils by a home-built chemical vapor deposition (CVD) with C2H2. Samples regularity, transmittance (T) and layer number were analyzed by transmission electron microscope (TEM) images, transmittance spectra and Raman spectra. Van Der Pauw method was used for resistivity measurements and Hall measurements at different temperatures. The results indicated that the sheet resistance (Rs), carrier density (n), and mobility (μ) were 1096.20 Ω/sq, 0.75×1012 cm-2, and 7579.66 cm2 V-1 s-1 at room temperature, respectively. When the temperature increased from 0 °C to 240 °C, carrier density (n) increased from 0.66×1012 cm-2 to 1.55×1012 cm-2, sheet resistance (Rs) decreased from 1215.55 Ω/sq to 560.77 Ω/sq, and mobility (μ) oscillated around a constant value 7773.99 cm2 V-1 s-1. The decrease of the sheet resistance (Rs) indicated that the conductive capability of the bilayer graphene film increased with the temperature. The significant cause of the increase of carrier density (n) was the thermal activation of carriers from defects and unconscious doping states. Because the main influence on the carrier mobility (μ) was the lattice defect scattering and a small amount of impurity scattering, the carrier mobility (μ) was temperature-independent for the bilayer graphene.

  20. Band Structure Asymmetry of Bilayer Graphene Revealed by Infrared Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Z.Q.; Henriksen, E.A.; Jiang, Z.; Hao, Zhao; Martin, Michael C.; Kim, P.; Stormer, H.L.; Basov, Dimitri N.

    2008-12-10

    We report on infrared spectroscopy of bilayer graphene integrated in gated structures. We observe a significant asymmetry in the optical conductivity upon electrostatic doping of electrons and holes. We show that this finding arises from a marked asymmetry between the valence and conduction bands, which is mainly due to the inequivalence of the two sublattices within the graphene layer and the next-nearest-neighbor interlayer coupling. From the conductivity data, the energy difference of the two sublattices and the interlayer coupling energy are directly determined.

  1. Phases of dipolar bosons in a bilayer geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cinti, Fabio; Wang, Daw-Wei; Boninsegni, Massimo

    2017-02-01

    We study, by first-principles computer simulations, the low-temperature phase diagram of bosonic dipolar gases in a bilayer geometry as a function of the two control parameters, i.e., the in-plane density and the interlayer distance. We observe four distinct phases, namely, paired and decoupled superfluids, as well as a crystal of dimers and one consisting of two aligned crystalline layers. A direct quantum phase transition from a dimer crystal to two independent superfluids is observed in a relatively wide range of parameters. No supersolid phase is predicted for this system.

  2. Interaction of S-methyl methanethiosulfonate with DPPC bilayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Defonsi Lestard, María E.; Díaz, Sonia B.; Tuttolomondo, María E.; Sánchez Cortez, Santiago; Puiatti, Marcelo; Pierini, Adriana B.; Ben Altabef, Aida

    2012-11-01

    The present study is a first step towards the investigation of S-methyl methanethiosulfonate (MMTS) interaction with membrane model systems like liposomes. In this paper, the interaction of MMTS with dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) bilayers was studied by FTIR and SERS spectroscopy. Lysolipid effect on vesicle stability was studied. The results show that MMTS interacts to different extents with the phosphate and carbonyl groups of membranes in the gel and the liquid crystalline states. To gain a deeper insight into MMTS properties that may be potentially helpful in the design of new drugs with therapeutic effects, we performed theoretical studies that may be the basis for the design of their mode of action.

  3. Cooperative multiscale aging in a ferromagnet/antiferromagnet bilayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urazhdin, S.; Danilenko, U.

    2015-11-01

    Anisotropic magnetoresistance measurements show that the magnetization state in epitaxial Ni80Fe20/Fe50Mn50 bilayers exhibits aging over a wide range of temperatures and magnetic fields. The observed power-law time dependence indicates that aging is characterized by a wide range of activation time scales. Aging characteristics are also inconsistent with a superposition of independent activation barriers expected for Arrhenius-type relaxation. The observed effects indicate a fundamental connection with the critical phenomena in complex condensed matter systems.

  4. Quasi-Flat Plasmonic Bands in Twisted Bilayer Graphene.

    PubMed

    Stauber, Tobias; Kohler, Heinerich

    2016-11-09

    The charge susceptibility of twisted bilayer graphene is investigated in the Dirac cone, respectively, random-phase approximation. For small enough twist angles θ ≲ 2°, we find weakly Landau damped interband plasmons, that is, collective excitonic modes that exist in the undoped material with an almost constant energy dispersion. In this regime, the loss function can be described as a Fano resonance, and we argue that these excitations arise from the interaction of quasi-localized states with the incident light field. These predictions can be tested by nanoinfrared imaging and possible applications include a "perfect" lens without the need of left-handed materials.

  5. Low-energy theory for the graphene twist bilayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weckbecker, D.; Shallcross, S.; Fleischmann, M.; Ray, N.; Sharma, S.; Pankratov, O.

    2016-01-01

    The graphene twist bilayer represents the prototypical system for investigating the stacking degree of freedom in few-layer graphenes. The electronic structure of this system changes qualitatively as a function of angle, from a large-angle limit in which the two layers are essentially decoupled—with the exception of a 28-atom commensuration unit cell for which the layers are coupled on an energy scale of ≈8 meV —to a small-angle strong-coupling limit. Despite sustained investigation, a fully satisfactory theory of the twist bilayer remains elusive. The outstanding problems are (i) to find a theoretically unified description of the large- and small-angle limits, and (ii) to demonstrate agreement between the low-energy effective Hamiltonian and, for instance, ab initio or tight-binding calculations. In this article, we develop a low-energy theory that in the large-angle limit reproduces the symmetry-derived Hamiltonians of Mele [Phys. Rev. B 81, 161405 (2010), 10.1103/PhysRevB.81.161405], and in the small-angle limit shows almost perfect agreement with tight-binding calculations. The small-angle effective Hamiltonian is that of Bistritzer and MacDonald [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (U.S.A.) 108, 12233 (2011), 10.1073/pnas.1108174108], but with the momentum scale Δ K , the difference of the momenta of the unrotated and rotated special points, replaced by a coupling momentum scale g(c )=8/π √{3 }a sinθ/2 . Using this small-angle Hamiltonian, we are able to determine the complete behavior as a function of angle, finding a complex small-angle clustering of van Hove singularities in the density of states (DOS) that after a "zero-mode" peak regime between 0 .90°<θ <0 .15° limits θ <0 .05° to a DOS that is essentially that of a superposition DOS of all bilayer stacking possibilities. In this regime, the Dirac spectrum is entirely destroyed by hybridization for -0.25

  6. Tunable bilayered metasurface for frequency reconfigurable directive emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burokur, S. N.; Daniel, J.-P.; Ratajczak, P.; de Lustrac, A.

    2010-08-01

    The directive emission from a bilayered metamaterial surface is numerically and experimentally reported. The LC-resonant metasurface is composed of both a capacitive and an inductive grid constituted by copper strips printed on both sides of a dielectric board. By the incorporation of varactor diodes in the capacitive grid, resonance frequency and phase characteristics of the metamaterial can be tuned. The tunable phase metasurface is used as a partially reflecting surface in a Fabry-Perot resonance cavity. Far field radiation patterns obtained by direct measurements show the reconfigurability of emission frequency while maintaining an enhanced directivity.

  7. Negative terahertz conductivity in remotely doped graphene bilayer heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Ryzhii, V.; Ryzhii, M.; Mitin, V.; Shur, M. S.; Otsuji, T.

    2015-11-14

    Injection or optical generation of electrons and holes in graphene bilayers (GBLs) can result in the interband population inversion enabling the terahertz (THz) radiation lasing. The intraband radiative processes compete with the interband transitions. We demonstrate that remote doping enhances the indirect interband generation of photons in the proposed GBL heterostructures. Therefore, such remote doping helps to surpass the intraband (Drude) absorption, and results in large absolute values of the negative dynamic THz conductivity in a wide range of frequencies at elevated (including room) temperatures. The remotely doped GBL heterostructure THz lasers are expected to achieve higher THz gain compared with previously proposed GBL-based THz lasers.

  8. Coexistence of ferromagnetism and superconductivity in Ni/Bi bilayers.

    PubMed

    LeClair, P; Moodera, J S; Philip, J; Heiman, D

    2005-01-28

    In spite of a lack of superconductivity in bulk crystalline Bi, thin film Bi deposited on thin Ni underlayers are strong-coupled superconductors below approximately 4 K. We unambiguously demonstrate that by tuning the Ni thickness the competition between ferromagnetism and superconductivity in the Ni/Bi can be tailored. For a narrow range of Ni thicknesses, the coexistence of both a superconducting energy gap and conduction electron spin polarization are visible within the Ni side of the Ni/Bi bilayers, independent of any particular theoretical model. We believe that this represents one of the clearest observations of superconductivity and ferromagnetism coexisting.

  9. Crystalline silicon growth in nickel/a-silicon bilayer

    SciTech Connect

    Mohiddon, Md Ahamad; Naidu, K. Lakshun; Dalba, G.; Rocca, F.; Krishna, M. Ghanashyam

    2013-02-05

    The effect of substrate temperature on amorphous Silicon crystallization, mediated by metal impurity is reported. Bilayers of Ni(200nm)/Si(400nm) are deposited on fused silica substrate by electron beam evaporator at 200 and 500 Degree-Sign C. Raman mapping shows that, 2 to 5 micron size crystalline silicon clusters are distributed over the entire surface of the sample. X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy studies demonstrate silicon crystallizes over the metal silicide seeds and grow with the annealing temperature.

  10. Lipid Bilayer Vesicles with Numbers of Membrane-Linking Pores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ken-ichirou Akashi,; Hidetake Miyata,

    2010-06-01

    We report that phospholipid membranes spontaneously formed in aqueous medium giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) possessing many membranous wormhole-like structures (membrane-linking pores, MLPs). By phase contract microscopy and confocal fluorescence microscopy, the structures of the MLPs, consisting of lipid bilayer, were resolvable, and a variety of vesicular shapes having many MLPs (a high genus topology) were found. These vesicles were stable but easily deformed by micromanipulation with a microneedle. We also observed the size reduction of the MLPs with the increase in membrane tension, which was qualitatively consistent with a prediction from a simple dynamical model.

  11. New Dirac fermions in periodically modulated bilayer graphene.

    PubMed

    Tan, Liang Z; Park, Cheol-Hwan; Louie, Steven G

    2011-07-13

    We investigate the effect of periodic potentials on the electronic structure of bilayer graphene and show that there is a critical value of the external potential below which new Dirac fermions are generated in the low-energy band structure, and above which a band gap is opened in the system. Our results, obtained from a self-consistent tight-binding calculation, can be simply explained by a two-band continuum model as a consequence of the pseudospin physics in graphene. The findings are robust against changes in the form of the potential, as well as bias voltages between the layers.

  12. Emerging activity in bilayered dispersions with wake-mediated interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartnick, Jörg; Kaiser, Andreas; Löwen, Hartmut; Ivlev, Alexei V.

    2016-06-01

    In a bilayered system of particles with wake-mediated interactions, the action-reaction symmetry for the effective forces between particles of different layers is broken. Under quite general conditions we show that, if the interaction nonreciprocity exceeds a certain threshold, this creates an active dispersion of self-propelled clusters of Brownian particles. The emerging activity promotes unusual melting scenarios and an enormous diffusivity in the dense fluid. Our results are obtained by computer simulation and analytical theory and can be verified in experiments with colloidal dispersions and complex plasmas.

  13. Multicritical point in a diluted bilayer Heisenberg quantum antiferromagnet.

    PubMed

    Sandvik, Anders W

    2002-10-21

    The S=1/2 Heisenberg bilayer antiferromagnet with randomly removed interlayer dimers is studied using quantum Monte Carlo simulations. A zero-temperature multicritical point (p(*),g(*)) at the classical percolation density p=p(*) and interlayer coupling g(*) approximately equal 0.16 is demonstrated. The quantum critical exponents of the percolating cluster are determined using finite-size scaling. It is argued that the associated finite-temperature quantum critical regime extends to zero interlayer coupling and could be relevant for antiferromagnetic cuprates doped with nonmagnetic impurities.

  14. Ultraviolet-induced erasable photochromism in bilayer metal oxide films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terakado, Nobuaki; Tanaka, Keiji; Nakazawa, Akira

    2011-09-01

    We demonstrate that the optical transmittance of bilayer samples consisting of pyrolytically coated amorphous Mg-Sn-O and metal oxide films such as In 2O 3 and SnO 2 decreases upon ultraviolet illumination, but can be recovered by annealing in air at ˜300 ∘C. Spectral, structural, and compositional studies suggest that this photochromic phenomenon is induced by photoelectronic excitation in the Mg-Sn-O film, electron injection into the metal oxide, which becomes negatively charged, and subsequent formation of metallic particles, which absorb and/or scatter visible light.

  15. Neutron reflectometry of supported hybrid bilayers with inserted peptide

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Matthew B.; McGillivray, Duncan J.; Genzer, Jan; Lösche, Mathias; Kilpatrick, Peter K.

    2011-01-01

    The insertion of a synthetic amphiphilic, α-helical peptide into a supported hybrid bilayer membrane (HBM) was studied by neutron reflectometry to elucidate the resulting nanostructure. The HBM consisted of a self-assembled monolayer of perdeuterated octadecanethiol on gold and an overlying leaflet of acyl-deuterated phosphatidylcholine (d-DMPC). Using contrast variation, several reflectivity spectra were recorded for each step of film fabrication, and simultaneously modeled. This analysis indicated that peptide insertion into the DMPC lipid leaflet is the likeliest mode of incorporation. PMID:21274414

  16. Inverse Proximity Effect in Superconductor-ferromagnet Bilayer Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, Jing

    2010-04-05

    Measurements of the polar Kerr effect using a zero-area-loop Sagnac magnetometer on Pb/Ni and Al/(Co-Pd) proximity-effect bilayers show unambiguous evidence for the 'inverse proximity effect,' in which the ferromagnet (F) induces a finite magnetization in the superconducting (S) layer. To avoid probing the magnetic effects in the ferromagnet, the superconducting layer was prepared much thicker than the light's optical penetration depth. The sign and size of the effect, as well as its temperature dependence agree with recent predictions by Bergeret et al.[1].

  17. Directional photoelectric current across the bilayer graphene junction.

    PubMed

    Shafranjuk, S E

    2009-01-07

    A directional photon-assisted resonant chiral tunneling through a bilayer graphene barrier is considered. An external electromagnetic field applied to the barrier switches the transparency T in the longitudinal direction from its steady state value T = 0 to the ideal T = 1 at no energy costs. The switch happens because the ac field affects the phase correlation between the electrons and holes inside the graphene barrier, changing the whole angular dependence of the chiral tunneling (directional photoelectric effect). The suggested phenomena can be implemented in relevant experiments and in various sub-millimeter and far-infrared optical electronic devices.

  18. High-Q gold and silicon nitride bilayer nanostrings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, T. S.; Suhel, A.; Hauer, B. D.; Palomino, A.; Beach, K. S. D.; Davis, J. P.

    2012-08-01

    Low-mass, high-Q, silicon nitride nanostrings are at the cutting edge of nanomechanical devices for sensing applications. Here we show that the addition of a chemically functionalizable gold overlayer does not adversely affect the Q of the fundamental out-of-plane mode. Instead the device retains its mechanical responsiveness while gaining sensitivity to molecular bonding. Furthermore, differences in thermal expansion within the bilayer give rise to internal stresses that can be electrically controlled. In particular, an alternating current (AC) excites resonant motion of the nanostring. This AC thermoelastic actuation is simple, robust, and provides an integrated approach to sensor actuation.

  19. Electric field response in bilayer graphene: Ab initio investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Yutaro; Minamitani, Emi; Ando, Yasunobu; Kasamatsu, Shusuke; Watanabe, Satoshi

    2016-11-01

    Stimulated by quantum capacitance measurements, we have investigated the electric properties of bilayer graphene (BLG) with carrier doping under an external electric field using ab initio calculations. We found that the relative permittivity of BLG depends weakly on the applied electric field, and that the BLG can be regarded as a dielectric material rather than a pair of metallic films. We also found that carrier doping affects the band gap of BLG under electric fields, although carrier doping has a much smaller effect on the band gap and density of states than the application of electric fields.

  20. Giant Frictional Drag in Double Bilayer Graphene Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kayoung; Xue, Jiamin; Dillen, David C.; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Tutuc, Emanuel

    2016-07-01

    We study the frictional drag between carriers in two bilayer graphene flakes separated by a 2-5 nm thick hexagonal boron nitride dielectric. At temperatures (T ) lower than ˜10 K , we observe a large anomalous negative drag emerging predominantly near the drag layer charge neutrality. The anomalous drag resistivity increases dramatically with reducing T , and becomes comparable to the layer resistivity at the lowest T =1.5 K . At low T the drag resistivity exhibits a breakdown of layer reciprocity. A comparison of the drag resistivity and the drag layer Peltier coefficient suggests a thermoelectric origin of this anomalous drag.

  1. Quantum Spin Fluctuations and magnons in antiferromagnetically coupled bilayers with tuneable intra-bilayer exchange - the case of Cr2W(Te)O6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumdar, Kingshuk; Mahanti, S. D.

    Recent neutron diffraction studies have shown that in Cr2(W,Te)O6 systems, which consist of bilayers with strong antiferromagnetic inter-bilayer coupling between Cr moments, the intra-bilayer coupling between the Cr moments can be tuned from ferro (for W) to antiferro (for Te). Ab initio density functional calculations provide a microscopic understanding of the magnetic structure but cannot explain the magnitude of the ordered Cr3+ moments. In order to understand the reduction of the ordered moment (ROM) caused by quantum spin fluctuations we have studied the magnon dispersion and ROM using a two parameter quantum Heisenberg spin Hamiltonian with tunable intra-(j) and antiferromagnetic inter- (J) bilayer couplings. The magnon dispersion and sublattice magnetization have been calculated using non-linear spin wave theory up to second-order corrections in spin S. We acknowledge the use of HPC cluster at GVSU, supported by the National Science Foundation Grant No. CNS-1228291.

  2. Explanation of ν=−12 fractional quantum Hall state in bilayer graphene

    PubMed Central

    Jacak, L.

    2016-01-01

    The commensurability condition is applied to determine the hierarchy of fractional filling of Landau levels for fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE) in monolayer and bilayer graphene. Good agreement with experimental data is achieved. The presence of even-denominator filling fractions in the hierarchy of the FQHE in bilayer graphene is explained, including the state at ν=−12. PMID:27118883

  3. The Interaction of Melittin with Dimyristoyl Phosphatidylcholine-Dimyristoyl Phosphatidylserine Lipid Bilayer Membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Rai, Durgesh K.; Qian, Shuo; Heller, William T.

    2016-08-13

    We report that membrane-active peptides (MAPs), which interact directly with the lipid bilayer of a cell and include toxins and host defense peptides, display lipid composition-dependent activity. Phosphatidylserine (PS) lipids are anionic lipids that are found throughout the cellular membranes of most eukaryotic organisms where they serve as both a functional component and as a precursor to phosphatidylethanolamine lipids. The inner leaflet of the plasma membrane contains more PS than the outer one, and the asymmetry is actively maintained. Here, the impact of the MAP melittin on the structure of lipid bilayer vesicles made of a mixture of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylserine was studied. Small-angle neutron scattering of the MAP associated with selectively deuterium-labeled lipid bilayer vesicles revealed how the thickness and lipid composition of phosphatidylserine-containing vesicles change in response to melittin. The peptide thickens the lipid bilayer for concentrations up to P/L = 1/500, but membrane thinning results when P/L = 1/200. The thickness transition is accompanied by a large change in the distribution of DMPS between the leaflets of the bilayer. The change in composition is driven by electrostatic interactions, while the change in bilayer thickness is driven by changes in the interaction of the peptide with the headgroup region of the lipid bilayer. Lastly, the results provide new information about lipid-specific interactions that take place in mixed composition lipid bilayer membranes.

  4. High Resistivity Lipid Bilayers Assembled on Polyelectrolyte Multilayer Cushions: An Impedance Study.

    PubMed

    Diamanti, Eleftheria; Gregurec, Danijela; Rodríguez-Presa, María José; Gervasi, Claudio A; Azzaroni, Omar; Moya, Sergio E

    2016-06-28

    Supported membranes on top of polymer cushions are interesting models of biomembranes as cell membranes are supported on a polymer network of proteins and sugars. In this work lipid vesicles formed by a mixture of 30% 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) and 70% 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-l-serine (DOPS) are assembled on top of a polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) cushion of poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) and poly(styrene sodium sulfonate) (PSS). The assembly results in the formation of a bilayer on top of the PEM as proven by means of the quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation technique (QCM-D) and by cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM). The electrical properties of the bilayer are studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The bilayer supported on the PEMs shows a high resistance, on the order of 10(7) Ω cm(2), which is indicative of a continuous, dense bilayer. Such resistance is comparable with the resistance of black lipid membranes. This is the first time that such values are obtained for lipid bilayers supported on PEMs. The assembly of polyelectrolytes on top of a lipid bilayer decreases the resistance of the bilayer up to 2 orders of magnitude. The assembly of the polyelectrolytes on the lipids induces defects or pores in the bilayer which in turn prompts a decrease in the measured resistance.

  5. Alginate based bilayer hydrocolloid films as potential slow-release modern wound dressing.

    PubMed

    Thu, Hnin-Ei; Zulfakar, Mohd Hanif; Ng, Shiow-Fern

    2012-09-15

    The aims of this research were to develop a novel bilayer hydrocolloid film based on alginate and to investigate its potential as slow-release wound healing vehicle. The bilayer is composed of an upper layer impregnated with model drug (ibuprofen) and a drug-free lower layer, which acted as a rate-controlling membrane. The thickness uniformity, solvent loss, moisture vapour transmission rate (MVTR), hydration rate, morphology, rheology, mechanical properties, in vitro drug release and in vivo wound healing profiles were investigated. A smooth bilayer film with two homogenous distinct layers was produced. The characterisation results showed that bilayer has superior mechanical and rheological properties than the single layer films. The bilayers also showed low MVTR, slower hydration rate and lower drug flux in vitro compared to single layer inferring that bilayer may be useful for treating low suppurating wounds and suitable for slow release application on wound surfaces. The bilayers also provided a significant higher healing rate in vivo, with well-formed epidermis with faster granulation tissue formation when compared to the controls. In conclusions, a novel alginate-based bilayer hydrocolloid film was developed and results suggested that they can be exploited as slow-release wound dressings.

  6. Nanomechanical characterization of phospholipid bilayer islands on flat and porous substrates: a force spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Nussio, Matthew R; Oncins, Gerard; Ridelis, Ingrid; Szili, Endre; Shapter, Joseph G; Sanz, Fausto; Voelcker, Nicolas H

    2009-07-30

    In this study, we compare for the first time the nanomechanical properties of lipid bilayer islands on flat and porous surfaces. 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) bilayers were deposited on flat (silicon and mica) and porous silicon (pSi) substrate surfaces and examined using atomic force spectroscopy and force volume imaging. Force spectroscopy measurements revealed the effects of the underlying substrate and of the lipid phase on the nanomechanical properties of bilayers islands. For mica and silicon, significant differences in breakthrough force between the center and the edges of bilayer islands were observed for both phospolipids. These differences were more pronounced for DMPC than for DPPC, presumably due to melting effects at the edges of DMPC bilayers. In contrast, bilayer islands deposited on pSi yielded similar breakthrough forces in the central region and along the perimeter of the islands, and those values in turn were similar to those measured along the perimeter of bilayer islands deposited on the flat substrates. The study also demonstrates that pSi is suitable solid support for the formation of pore-spanning phospholipid bilayers with potential applications in transmembrane protein studies, drug delivery, and biosensing.

  7. The Interaction of Melittin with Dimyristoyl Phosphatidylcholine-Dimyristoyl Phosphatidylserine Lipid Bilayer Membranes

    DOE PAGES

    Rai, Durgesh K.; Qian, Shuo; Heller, William T.

    2016-08-13

    We report that membrane-active peptides (MAPs), which interact directly with the lipid bilayer of a cell and include toxins and host defense peptides, display lipid composition-dependent activity. Phosphatidylserine (PS) lipids are anionic lipids that are found throughout the cellular membranes of most eukaryotic organisms where they serve as both a functional component and as a precursor to phosphatidylethanolamine lipids. The inner leaflet of the plasma membrane contains more PS than the outer one, and the asymmetry is actively maintained. Here, the impact of the MAP melittin on the structure of lipid bilayer vesicles made of a mixture of phosphatidylcholine andmore » phosphatidylserine was studied. Small-angle neutron scattering of the MAP associated with selectively deuterium-labeled lipid bilayer vesicles revealed how the thickness and lipid composition of phosphatidylserine-containing vesicles change in response to melittin. The peptide thickens the lipid bilayer for concentrations up to P/L = 1/500, but membrane thinning results when P/L = 1/200. The thickness transition is accompanied by a large change in the distribution of DMPS between the leaflets of the bilayer. The change in composition is driven by electrostatic interactions, while the change in bilayer thickness is driven by changes in the interaction of the peptide with the headgroup region of the lipid bilayer. Lastly, the results provide new information about lipid-specific interactions that take place in mixed composition lipid bilayer membranes.« less

  8. Synergistic action of thermoresponsive and hygroresponsive elements elicits rapid and directional response of a bilayer actuator.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lidong; Desta, Israel; Naumov, Panče

    2016-05-01

    A bilayer actuator composed of thermoresponsive and thermo/hygroresponsive elements is developed, which undergoes fast, directional and autonomous curling with a speed of up to 0.7 m s(-1) and recovers its shape by hydration. In situ tensile testing of the thermal response of individual layers provided insights into the mechanism of actuation of thermo/hygromorphic bilayers.

  9. Revealing the preferred interlayer orientations and stackings of two-dimensional bilayer gallium selenide crystals.

    PubMed

    Li, Xufan; Basile, Leonardo; Yoon, Mina; Ma, Cheng; Puretzky, Alexander A; Lee, Jaekwang; Idrobo, Juan C; Chi, Miaofang; Rouleau, Christopher M; Geohegan, David B; Xiao, Kai

    2015-02-23

    Characterizing and controlling the interlayer orientations and stacking orders of two-dimensional (2D) bilayer crystals and van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures is crucial to optimize their electrical and optoelectronic properties. The four polymorphs of layered gallium selenide (GaSe) crystals that result from different layer stackings provide an ideal platform to study the stacking configurations in 2D bilayer crystals. Through a controllable vapor-phase deposition method, bilayer GaSe crystals were selectively grown and their two preferred 0° or 60° interlayer rotations were investigated. The commensurate stacking configurations (AA' and AB stacking) in as-grown bilayer GaSe crystals are clearly observed at the atomic scale, and the Ga-terminated edge structure was identified using scanning transmission electron microscopy. Theoretical analysis reveals that the energies of the interlayer coupling are responsible for the preferred orientations among the bilayer GaSe crystals.

  10. Quantum anomalous Hall and quantum spin-Hall phases in flattened Bi and Sb bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Kyung-Hwan; Jhi, Seung-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Discovery of two-dimensional topological insulator such as Bi bilayer initiates challenges in exploring exotic quantum states in low dimensions. We demonstrate a promising way to realize the Kane-Mele-type quantum spin Hall (QSH) phase and the quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) phase in chemically-modified Bi and Sb bilayers using first-principles calculations. We show that single Bi and Sb bilayers exhibit topological phase transitions from the band-inverted QSH phase or the normal insulator phase to Kane-Mele-type QSH phase upon chemical functionalization. We also predict that the QAH effect can be induced in Bi or Sb bilayers upon nitrogen deposition as checked from calculated Berry curvature and the Chern number. We explicitly demonstrate the spin-chiral edge states to appear in nitrogenated Bi-bilayer nanoribbons. PMID:25672932

  11. The effect of bilayer composition on calcium ion transport facilitated by fluid shear stress.

    PubMed

    Giorgio, T D; Yek, S H

    1995-10-04

    Passive calcium ion permeability across liposome bilayers is increased during exposure to fluid shear forces attainable in the mammalian vasculature. In this study, liposomes prepared from three different lipid mixtures (phosphatidylcholine alone; phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol; a mixture of anionic and cationic phospholipids plus cholesterol) are exposed to uniform shear stress in a rotational viscometer. Liposome permeability to calcium ion is estimated from continuous measurement of free intraliposome calcium ion concentration using a fluorescence technique. Calcium ion permeability in the absence of fluid force and susceptibility to shear-induced permeability modulation are positively correlated with estimated bilayer compressibility. Fluid shear forces are presumed to influence bilayer packing and modulate defect formation in proportion to bilayer compressibility. Bilayer defects produced by fluid forces may increase liposome permeability.

  12. Intrinsic magnetism and spontaneous band gap opening in bilayer silicene and germanene.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinquan; Wu, Zhigang

    2017-01-18

    It has been long sought to create magnetism out of simple non-magnetic materials, such as silicon and germanium. Here we show that intrinsic magnetism exists in bilayer silicene and germanene with no need to cut, etch, or dope. Unlike bilayer graphene, strong covalent interlayer bonding formed in bilayer silicene and germanene breaks the original π-bonding network of each layer, leaving the unbonded electrons unpaired and localized to carry magnetic moments. These magnetic moments then couple ferromagnetically within each layer while antiferromagnetically across two layers, giving rise to an infinite magnetic sheet with structural integrity and magnetic homogeneity. Furthermore, this unique magnetic ordering results in fundamental band gaps of 0.55 eV and 0.32 eV for bilayer silicene and germanene, respectively. The integration of intrinsic magnetism and spontaneous band gap opening makes bilayer silicene and germanene attractive for future nanoelectronics as well as spin-based computation and data storage.

  13. Removal of the mechanoprotective influence of the cytoskeleton reveals PIEZO1 is gated by bilayer tension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Charles D.; Bae, Chilman; Ziegler, Lynn; Hartley, Silas; Nikolova-Krstevski, Vesna; Rohde, Paul R.; Ng, Chai-Ann; Sachs, Frederick; Gottlieb, Philip A.; Martinac, Boris

    2016-01-01

    Mechanosensitive ion channels are force-transducing enzymes that couple mechanical stimuli to ion flux. Understanding the gating mechanism of mechanosensitive channels is challenging because the stimulus seen by the channel reflects forces shared between the membrane, cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix. Here we examine whether the mechanosensitive channel PIEZO1 is activated by force-transmission through the bilayer. To achieve this, we generate HEK293 cell membrane blebs largely free of cytoskeleton. Using the bacterial channel MscL, we calibrate the bilayer tension demonstrating that activation of MscL in blebs is identical to that in reconstituted bilayers. Utilizing a novel PIEZO1-GFP fusion, we then show PIEZO1 is activated by bilayer tension in bleb membranes, gating at lower pressures indicative of removal of the cortical cytoskeleton and the mechanoprotection it provides. Thus, PIEZO1 channels must sense force directly transmitted through the bilayer.

  14. Removal of the mechanoprotective influence of the cytoskeleton reveals PIEZO1 is gated by bilayer tension

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Charles D.; Bae, Chilman; Ziegler, Lynn; Hartley, Silas; Nikolova-Krstevski, Vesna; Rohde, Paul R.; Ng, Chai-Ann; Sachs, Frederick; Gottlieb, Philip A.; Martinac, Boris

    2016-01-01

    Mechanosensitive ion channels are force-transducing enzymes that couple mechanical stimuli to ion flux. Understanding the gating mechanism of mechanosensitive channels is challenging because the stimulus seen by the channel reflects forces shared between the membrane, cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix. Here we examine whether the mechanosensitive channel PIEZO1 is activated by force-transmission through the bilayer. To achieve this, we generate HEK293 cell membrane blebs largely free of cytoskeleton. Using the bacterial channel MscL, we calibrate the bilayer tension demonstrating that activation of MscL in blebs is identical to that in reconstituted bilayers. Utilizing a novel PIEZO1–GFP fusion, we then show PIEZO1 is activated by bilayer tension in bleb membranes, gating at lower pressures indicative of removal of the cortical cytoskeleton and the mechanoprotection it provides. Thus, PIEZO1 channels must sense force directly transmitted through the bilayer. PMID:26785635

  15. Morphogenesis of protrusions from confined lipid bilayers mediated by mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arroyo, Marino; Staykova, Margarita; Rahimi, Mohammad; Stone, Howard A.

    2012-02-01

    Biological membranes adopt a wide range of shapes that structure and give functionality to cells, compartmentalizing the cytosol, forming organelles, or regulating their area. The formation, stabilization, and remodeling of these structures is generally attributed to localized forces or to biochemical processes (insertion of proteins, active compositional regulation). Noting that in the crowded intra and extra-cellular environments membranes are highly constrained, we explore to what extent can mechanics explain the shape of protrusions out of confined membranes. For this purpose, we developed an in-vitro system coupling a lipid bilayer to the strain-controlled deformation of an elastic sheet (Staykova et al, PNAS 108, 2011). We show that upon contracting the elastic support, tubular or spherical protrusions grow out of the adhered membrane, which can be reversibly controlled with strain and osmolarity without resorting to localized forces or chemical alterations of the bilayer. The morphologies produced by our minimal system are ubiquitous in cells, suggesting mechanics may be a simple and generic organizing principle. We can understand most of our observations in terms of a phase diagram accounting for elasticity, adhesion, and the limited amount of area and volume available.

  16. Toward a multi-scale simulation of lipid bilayer systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugii, Taisuke; Takagi, Shu; Matsumoto, Yoichiro

    2006-03-01

    In numerical simulations of lipid bilayer systems, it has become important to treat the membrane molecules (e.g., lipids, proteins, and drug molecules) explicitly for designing medical drugs and for developing drug delivery systems. However, it is difficult to apply straightforwardly a microscopic simulation technique such as the molecular dynamics method to the large-scale bilayer systems, because the length and the time scales of these systems are very large compared to the scales of the molecules. The authors take two approaches for this problem. First, we use the dissipative particle dynamics method and the coarse grained molecular dynamics method in addition to the standard molecular dynamics method. The results are compared with the molecular-dynamics results and experimental data. Secondly we use a molecular dynamics and continuum hybrid simulation method. In this method, the region near the membrane is computed by an atomistic-simulation method and the solvent region is computed by a continuum-simulation method. (In our study, the coarse grained molecular dynamics was used for the atomistic region.) The validity and availability of this later approach will be discussed.

  17. Bilayer manganites: polarons in the midst of a metallic breakdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golden, Mark; Massee, Freek; de Jong, Sanne; Huang, Yingkai; Boothroyd, Andrew; Prabhakaran, D.; Follath, Rolf; Varykhalov, Andrei; Patthey, Luc; Shi, Ming; Goedkoop, Jeroen

    2011-03-01

    The exact nature of the low temperature electronic phase of the manganite materials family, and hence the origin of their colossal magnetoresistive (CMR) transition is still a flagship issue in emergent correlated matter research. By combining new photoemission and tunneling data, we show that in the bilayer (N = 2) manganite La 2-2x Sr 1+2x Mn 2 O7 the lattice/spin/orbital polaronic degrees of freedom win out, all across the CMR region of the phase diagram. This means that the generic ground state is that of a system in which strong interactions result in vanishing coherent quasi--particle spectral weight at the Fermi level for all locations in k --space. The incoherence of the charge carriers offers a unifying explanation for the anomalous charge-carrier dynamics seen in transport, optics and electron spectroscopic data. The stacking number N is the key factor for true metallic behavior, as an intergrowth-driven breakdown of the polaronic domination to give a robust metal possessing a traditional Fermi surface is seen in the bilayer system.

  18. Raman spectroscopy of suspended mono and bilayer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitt, Alexander; Feldman, Benjamin; Remi, Sebastian; Martin, Jens; Swan, Anna; Yacoby, Amir; Goldberg, Bennett

    2010-03-01

    Suspended mono and bilayer graphene flakes have been shown to have higher mobility and lower disorder than their supported counterparts^1. The geometry which decouples the flake from the substrate also causes an as yet uncharacterized backgate specific strain due to an electrostatic attraction between the graphene and the back gated substrate. We study this strain using spatially resolved Raman spectroscopy with a diffraction limited spot size. Upon application of uni-axial strain the unit cell is stretched reducing the symmetry of the system and breaking the double degeneracy of the G band causing a split in the peak. Additionally the Raman modes show a linear softening as a function of strain in the case of supported graphene. Suspended flakes provide an ideal system to study back gate tunable strain while avoiding complications due to substrates including the determination of the Poisson ratio and sample slippage^2. Here we present preliminary results of our observations. 1: B Feldman, J Martin, A Yacoby, ``Broken-symmetry states and divergent resistance in suspended bilayer graphene'', Nature Physics, doi:10.1038/nphys1406 2: C Metzger et al, ``Biaxial strain in graphene adhered to shallow depressions'', Accepted for publication in Nano Letters

  19. The Nernst effect in ferromagnet-superconductor bilayer heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matusiak, M.; Lochmajer, H.; Przysłupski, P.; Rogacki, K.

    2015-11-01

    We report the transport properties of the La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 (LSMO)/YBa2Cu3O7+d (YBCO) heterostructures in the vicinity of the superconducting transition. The bottom deposited manganite was an LSMO ferromagnet with a Curie temperature of 350 K, while the top deposited cuprate was a nearly optimally doped YBCO superconductor with T c ˜ 90 K. The samples used in these studies had fixed a thickness of LSMO layer (90 nm), whereas the thickness of the YBCO layer was varied between 20 and 100 nm. Single YBCO layers with respective thicknesses were also measured for comparison. The mixed state properties of the bilayers and single layers were characterized by means of the Nernst effect and electrical resistance measurements in magnetic fields of up to B = 12.5 T. All investigated samples show a zero-resistance state below T = 60 K in a field of 12.5 T and demonstrate gradual degradation of the superconducting properties with decreasing thickness of the YBCO layer in bilayer structures.

  20. Tunable phonon-induced transparency in bilayer graphene nanoribbons.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hugen; Low, Tony; Guinea, Francisco; Xia, Fengnian; Avouris, Phaedon

    2014-08-13

    In the phenomenon of plasmon-induced transparency, which is a classical analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in atomic gases, the coherent interference between two plasmon modes results in an optical transparency window in a broad absorption spectrum. With the requirement of contrasting lifetimes, typically one of the plasmon modes involved is a dark mode that has limited coupling to the electromagnetic radiation and possesses relatively longer lifetime. Plasmon-induced transparency not only leads to light transmission at otherwise opaque frequency regions but also results in the slowing of light group velocity and enhanced optical nonlinearity. In this article, we report an analogous behavior, denoted as phonon-induced transparency (PIT), in AB-stacked bilayer graphene nanoribbons. Here, light absorption due to the plasmon excitation is suppressed in a narrow window due to the coupling with the infrared active Γ-point optical phonon, whose function here is similar to that of the dark plasmon mode in the plasmon-induced transparency. We further show that PIT in bilayer graphene is actively tunable by electrostatic gating and estimate a maximum slow light factor of around 500 at the phonon frequency of 1580 cm(-1), based on the measured spectra. Our demonstration opens an avenue for the exploration of few-photon nonlinear optics and slow light in this novel two-dimensional material.

  1. One-dimensional Topological Edge States of Bismuth Bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drozdov, Ilya; Alexandradinata, Aris; Jeon, Sangjun; Nadj-Perge, Stevan; Ji, Huiwen; Cava, Robert; Bernevig, B. Andrei; Yazdani, Ali

    2014-03-01

    The hallmark of a time-reversal symmetry protected topologically insulating state of matter in two-dimensions (2D) is the existence of chiral edge modes propagating along the perimeter of the sample. Bilayers of bismuth (Bi), an elemental system theoretically predicted to be a Quantum Spin Hall (QSH) insulator1, has been studied with Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) and the electronic structure of its bulk and edge modes has been experimentally investigated. Spectroscopic mapping with STM reveals the presence of the state bound to the edges of the Bi-bilayer. By visualizing quantum interference of the edge state quasi-particles in confined geometries we characterize their dispersion and demonstrate that their properties are consistent with the absence of backscattering. Hybridization of the edge modes to the underlying substrate will be discussed. [1] Shuichi Murakami, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 236805 (2006). The work at Princeton and the Princeton Nanoscale Microscopy Laboratory was supported by ARO MURI program W911NF-12-1-0461, DARPA-SPWAR Meso program N6601-11-1-4110, NSF-DMR1104612, and NSF-MRSEC programs through the Princeton Center for Complex Materials (DMR-0819860)

  2. Ultrafast Dynamics of Massive Dirac Fermions in Bilayer Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulstrup, Søren; Johannsen, Jens Christian; Cilento, Federico; Miwa, Jill A.; Crepaldi, Alberto; Zacchigna, Michele; Cacho, Cephise; Chapman, Richard; Springate, Emma; Mammadov, Samir; Fromm, Felix; Raidel, Christian; Seyller, Thomas; Parmigiani, Fulvio; Grioni, Marco; King, Phil D. C.; Hofmann, Philip

    2014-06-01

    Bilayer graphene is a highly promising material for electronic and optoelectronic applications since it is supporting massive Dirac fermions with a tunable band gap. However, no consistent picture of the gap's effect on the optical and transport behavior has emerged so far, and it has been proposed that the insulating nature of the gap could be compromised by unavoidable structural defects, by topological in-gap states, or that the electronic structure could be altogether changed by many-body effects. Here, we directly follow the excited carriers in bilayer graphene on a femtosecond time scale, using ultrafast time- and angle-resolved photoemission. We find a behavior consistent with a single-particle band gap. Compared to monolayer graphene, the existence of this band gap leads to an increased carrier lifetime in the minimum of the lowest conduction band. This is in sharp contrast to the second substate of the conduction band, in which the excited electrons decay through fast, phonon-assisted interband transitions.

  3. Tunneling Under Microwave Illumination in Bilayer Two Dimensional Electron Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonetti, J. A.; Pfeiffer, L. N.

    2005-03-01

    The striking Josephson-like effect recently observed [1] in bilayer 2D electron systems at νt=1 raises important questions about the nature of photon-assisted tunneling in this system. For instance, it is unknown whether Shapiro steps will arise, or whether the presence of radiation will lead to photon- assisted sidebands [2]. In order to address these questions, we have examined the effect of microwave radiation on tunneling in bilayer electron systems. Several aspects of coupling radiation into the sample will be presented, including issues of heating and gating. Preliminary results demonstrate a conduction enhancement near gate voltages corresponding to top and bottom layer depletion. The frequency and power dependence of this enhancement will be presented. This work is supported by the NSF and DOE. [1] I.B. Spielman, J.P. Eisenstein, L.N. Pfeiffer, and K.W. West, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5808 (2000). [2]Ady Stern, S. M. Girvin, A. H. MacDonald, and Ning Ma, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1829 (2001)

  4. Unidirectional spin Hall magnetoresistance in ferromagnet/normal metal bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avci, Can Onur; Garello, Kevin; Ghosh, Abhijit; Gabureac, Mihai; Alvarado, Santos F.; Gambardella, Pietro

    2015-07-01

    Magnetoresistive effects are usually invariant on inversion of the magnetization direction. In non-centrosymmetric conductors, however, nonlinear resistive terms can give rise to a current dependence that is quadratic in the applied voltage and linear in the magnetization. Here we demonstrate that such conditions are realized in simple bilayer metal films where the spin-orbit interaction and spin-dependent scattering couple the current-induced spin accumulation to the electrical conductivity. We show that the longitudinal resistance of Ta|Co and Pt|Co bilayers changes when reversing the polarity of the current or the sign of the magnetization. This unidirectional magnetoresistance scales linearly with current density and has opposite sign in Ta and Pt, which we associate with the modification of the interface scattering potential induced by the spin Hall effect in these materials. Our results suggest a route to control the resistance and detect magnetization switching in spintronic devices using a two-terminal geometry, which applies also to heterostructures including topological insulators.

  5. THERMAL RESIDUAL STRESSES IN BILAYERED, TRILAYERED AND GRADED DENTAL CERAMICS

    PubMed Central

    Fabris, Douglas; Souza, Júlio C.M.; Silva, Filipe S.; Fredel, Márcio; Mesquita-Guimarães, Joana; Zhang, Yu; Henriques, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Layered ceramic systems are usually hit by residual thermal stresses created during cooling from high processing temperature. The purpose of this study was to determine the thermal residual stresses at different ceramic multi-layered systems and evaluate their influence on the bending stress distribution. Finite elements method was used to evaluate the residual stresses in zirconia-porcelain and alumina-porcelain multi-layered discs and to simulate the ‘piston-on-ring’ test. Temperature-dependent material properties were used. Three different multi-layered designs were simulated: a conventional bilayered design; a trilayered design, with an intermediate composite layer with constant composition; and a graded design, with an intermediate layer with gradation of properties. Parameters such as the interlayer thickness and composition profiles were varied in the study. Alumina-porcelain discs present smaller residual stress than the zirconia-porcelain discs, regardless of the type of design. The homogeneous interlayer can yield a reduction of ~40% in thermal stress relative to bilayered systems. Thinner interlayers favoured the formation of lower thermal stresses. The graded discs showed the lowest thermal stresses for a gradation profile given by power law function with p=2. The bending stresses were significantly affected by the thermal stresses in the discs. The risk of failure for all-ceramic dental restorative systems can be significantly reduced by using trilayered systems (homogenous or graded interlayer) with the proper design. PMID:28163345

  6. Micropatterning of nanoparticle films by bilayer lift-off

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolstosheeva, E.; Barborini, E.; Meyer, E. M.; Shafi, M.; Vinati, S.; Lang, W.

    2014-01-01

    Nanostructured films are deposited by a new technique that matches supersonic cluster beam deposition with flame spray pyrolysis production of nanoparticles (FlameBeam). These films are structured with micrometric lateral resolution, applying a lift-off method by pre-structuring a photoresist-PMMA bilayer with a suitable ‘mushroom-like’ cross-section, depositing a nanostructured silver film on top and lifting off the bilayer in an aqueous solution. Optical inspection revealed that line-shaped microstructures, having a minimal width of up to 3 µm, can be successfully obtained. The nanostructured films have survived the aqueous treatment, as demonstrated by electron microscopy imaging and electrical characterization through 4-point measurement method (Van-der-Pauw). The latter has been possible through sputtered gold pads that were realized on the substrate prior to the deposition of the photoresist and of the nanostructured film. These results disclose novel possibilities in the fine patterning of FlameBeam-deposited films and their integration into microelectromechanical systems devices in general.

  7. Multiscale modeling of droplet interface bilayer membrane networks

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Eric C.; Farimani, Amir B.; Aluru, Narayana R.; Philen, Michael K.

    2015-01-01

    Droplet interface bilayer (DIB) networks are considered for the development of stimuli-responsive membrane-based materials inspired by cellular mechanics. These DIB networks are often modeled as combinations of electrical circuit analogues, creating complex networks of capacitors and resistors that mimic the biomolecular structures. These empirical models are capable of replicating data from electrophysiology experiments, but these models do not accurately capture the underlying physical phenomena and consequently do not allow for simulations of material functionalities beyond the voltage-clamp or current-clamp conditions. The work presented here provides a more robust description of DIB network behavior through the development of a hierarchical multiscale model, recognizing that the macroscopic network properties are functions of their underlying molecular structure. The result of this research is a modeling methodology based on controlled exchanges across the interfaces of neighboring droplets. This methodology is validated against experimental data, and an extension case is provided to demonstrate possible future applications of droplet interface bilayer networks. PMID:26594262

  8. Boundary potential of lipid bilayers: methods, interpretations and biological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermakov, Yu A.

    2017-01-01

    The electric field distribution at boundaries of cell membranes consists of diffuse part of the electrical double layer and the potential drop over the polar area generally attributed to dipole effects. This report focuses on the molecular nature of dipole components of boundary potential and its relation to bilayer structure as it follows from different experimental approaches and molecular dynamic (MD) simulations. Alterations of the total boundary potential (BP) of planar bilayer lipid membranes (BLM) can be detected by the method of Intramembraneous Field Compensation, developed in our laboratory. When combined with traditional electrokinetic measurements in liposome suspension and Volta potential control at lipid monolayers it reveals alterations of the dipole potential induced by multivalent cations (Be2+, Gd3+) about 100-150 mV. It is related to the lipid phase transition detected by isotherm titration calorimetry (ITC) measurements. IFC method combined with perfusion of the cell show reversible electrostatic effects due to lysine adsorption and irreversible binding of polylysines accompanied by fast positive changes of BP as electrokinetic measurements, and slow negative ones attributed to BP dipole component. According to model proposed it related with changes of lipid hydration state varied by incorporation of ions or organic molecules into the lipid monolayer. Molecular dynamic simulations support this idea and relate dipole effects with H-bonded water molecules and lipid lateral coordination. Both effects are assumed as the principal reason of Gd3+ blocking effect on E.coli mechanosensitive channels.

  9. Electromagnetic coupling of spins and pseudospins in bilayer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, R.; Zülicke, U.

    2015-03-01

    We present a theoretical study of bilayer-graphene's electronic properties in the presence of electric and magnetic fields. In contrast to known materials, including single-layer graphene, any possible coupling of physical quantities to components of the electric field has a counterpart where the analogous component of the magnetic field couples to exactly the same quantities. For example, a purely electric spin splitting appears as the magneto-electric analogue of the magnetic Zeeman spin splitting. The measurable thermodynamic response induced by magnetic and electric fields is thus completely symmetric. The Pauli magnetization induced by a magnetic field takes exactly the same functional form as the polarization induced by an electric field. Although they seem counterintuitive, our findings are consistent with fundamental principles such as time reversal symmetry. For example, only a magnetic field can give rise to a macroscopic spin polarization, whereas only a perpendicular electric field can induce a macroscopic polarization of the sublattice-related pseudospin in bilayer graphene. These rules enforced by symmetry for the matter-field interactions clarify the nature of spins versus pseudospins. We have obtained numerical values of prefactors for relevant terms. NSF Grant DMR-1310199 and Marsden Fund Contract No. VUW0719.

  10. Periodic barrier structure in AA-stacked bilayer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redouani, Ilham; Jellal, Ahmed

    2016-06-01

    We study the charge carriers transport in an AA-stacked bilayer graphene modulated by a lateral one-dimensional multibarrier structure. We investigate the band structures of our system, that is made up of two shifted Dirac cones, for finite and zero gap. We use the boundary conditions to explicitly determine the transmission probability of each individual cone (τ =+/- 1) for single, double and finite periodic barrier structure. We find that the Klein tunneling is only possible when the band structure is gapless and can occur at normal incidence as a result of the Dirac nature of the quasiparticles. We observe that the band structure of the barriers can have more than one Dirac points for finite periodic barrier. The resonance peaks appear in the transmission probability, which correspond to the positions of new cones index like associated with τ =+/- 1. Two conductance channels through different cones (τ =+/- 1) are found where the total conductance has been studied and compared to the cases of single layer and AB-stacked bilayer graphene.

  11. van Hove Singularity Enhanced Photochemical Reactivity of Twisted Bilayer Graphene.

    PubMed

    Liao, Lei; Wang, Huan; Peng, Han; Yin, Jianbo; Koh, Ai Leen; Chen, Yulin; Xie, Qin; Peng, Hailin; Liu, Zhongfan

    2015-08-12

    Twisted bilayer graphene (tBLG) exhibits van Hove singularities (VHSs) in the density of states that can be tuned by changing the twist angle (θ), sparking various novel physical phenomena. Much effort has been devoted to investigate the θ-dependent physical properties of tBLG. Yet, the chemical properties of tBLG with VHSs, especially the chemical reactivity, remain unexplored. Here we report the first systematic study on the chemistry of tBLG through the photochemical reaction between graphene and benzoyl peroxide. Twisted bilayer graphene exhibits θ-dependent reactivity, and remarkably enhanced reactivity is obtained when the energy of incident laser matches with the energy interval of the VHSs of tBLG. This work provides an insight on the chemistry of tBLG, and the successful enhancement of chemical reactivity derived from VHS is highly beneficial for the controllable chemical modification of tBLG as well as the development of tBLG based devices.

  12. Disentangling the spin torques in a ferromagnet/semiconductor bilayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinner, Timothy D.; Olejnik, Kamil; Cunningham, Lucy K.; Kurebayashi, Hidekazu; Campion, Richard P.; Gallagher, Bryan L.; Jungwirth, Tomas; Ferguson, Andrew J.

    2015-03-01

    Current-induced spin torques measured in ferromagnet/paramagnetic metal bilayers can originate from the spin-Hall effect (SHE) and inverse spin galvanic effect (ISGE). Distinguishing the two effects has proved difficult as they can both possess the same symmetries, but it is essential for our basic physical understanding of the spin torques at the ferromagnet/paramagnet interface to experimentally disentangle the SHE and ISGE contributions. In our approach, we look to zinc-blende crystals (such as III-V semiconductors), where the ISGE has a symmetry which depends on the crystal orientation. The field-like and antidamping torques, arising from the ISGE in the magnetic III-V semiconductor (Ga,Mn)As, are well understood because of low-temperature spin-torque ferromagnetic resonance (ST-FMR) measurements. Through new ST-FMR measurements, we show that in a room-temperature ferromagnetic metal/paramagnetic semiconductor bilayer, the SHE and ISGE co-exist and can be unambiguously separated and quantified by their symmetries.

  13. Fibonacci anyons from Abelian bilayer quantum Hall states.

    PubMed

    Vaezi, Abolhassan; Barkeshli, Maissam

    2014-12-05

    The possibility of realizing non-Abelian statistics and utilizing it for topological quantum computation (TQC) has generated widespread interest. However, the non-Abelian statistics that can be realized in most accessible proposals is not powerful enough for universal TQC. In this Letter, we consider a simple bilayer fractional quantum Hall system with the 1/3 Laughlin state in each layer. We show that interlayer tunneling can drive a transition to an exotic non-Abelian state that contains the famous "Fibonacci" anyon, whose non-Abelian statistics is powerful enough for universal TQC. Our analysis rests on startling agreements from a variety of distinct methods, including thin torus limits, effective field theories, and coupled wire constructions. We provide evidence that the transition can be continuous, at which point the charge gap remains open while the neutral gap closes. This raises the question of whether these exotic phases may have already been realized at ν=2/3 in bilayers, as past experiments may not have definitively ruled them out.

  14. Interlayer thermal conductance within a phosphorene and graphene bilayer.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yang; Zhang, Jingchao; Zeng, Xiao Cheng

    2016-11-24

    Monolayer graphene possesses unusual thermal properties, and is often considered as a prototype system for the study of thermal physics of low-dimensional electronic/thermal materials, despite the absence of a direct bandgap. Another two-dimensional (2D) atomic layered material, phosphorene, is a natural p-type semiconductor and it has attracted growing interest in recent years. When a graphene monolayer is overlaid on phosphorene, the hybrid van der Waals (vdW) bilayer becomes a potential candidate for high-performance thermal/electronic applications, owing to the combination of the direct-bandgap properties of phosphorene with the exceptional thermal properties of graphene. In this work, the interlayer thermal conductance at the phosphorene/graphene interface is systematically investigated using classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. The transient pump-probe heating method is employed to compute the interfacial thermal resistance (R) of the bilayer. The predicted R value at the phosphorene/graphene interface is 8.41 × 10(-8) K m(2) W(-1) at room temperature. Different external and internal conditions, i.e., temperature, contact pressure, vacancy defect, and chemical functionalization, can all effectively reduce R at the interface. Numerical results of R reduction as a function of temperature, interfacial coupling strength, defect ratio, or hydrogen coverage are reported with the most R reduction amounting to 56.5%, 70.4%, 34.8% and 84.5%, respectively.

  15. Assembly of RNA nanostructures on supported lipid bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabkowska, Aleksandra P.; Michanek, Agnes; Jaeger, Luc; Rabe, Michael; Chworos, Arkadiusz; Höök, Fredrik; Nylander, Tommy; Sparr, Emma

    2014-12-01

    The assembly of nucleic acid nanostructures with controlled size and shape has large impact in the fields of nanotechnology, nanomedicine and synthetic biology. The directed arrangement of nano-structures at interfaces is important for many applications. In spite of this, the use of laterally mobile lipid bilayers to control RNA three-dimensional nanostructure formation on surfaces remains largely unexplored. Here, we direct the self-assembly of RNA building blocks into three-dimensional structures of RNA on fluid lipid bilayers composed of cationic 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP) or mixtures of zwitterionic 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DOPC) and cationic sphingosine. We demonstrate the stepwise supramolecular assembly of discrete building blocks through specific and selective RNA-RNA interactions, based on results from quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D), ellipsometry, fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRF) experiments. The assembly can be controlled to give a densely packed single layer of RNA polyhedrons at the fluid lipid bilayer surface. We show that assembly of the 3D structure can be modulated by sequence specific interactions, surface charge and changes in the salt composition and concentration. In addition, the tertiary structure of the RNA polyhedron can be controllably switched from an extended structure to one that is dense and compact. The versatile approach to building up three-dimensional structures of RNA does not require modification of the surface or the RNA molecules, and can be used as a bottom-up means of nanofabrication of functionalized bio-mimicking surfaces.The assembly of nucleic acid nanostructures with controlled size and shape has large impact in the fields of nanotechnology, nanomedicine and synthetic biology. The directed arrangement of nano-structures at interfaces is important for many applications. In spite of

  16. Enhanced configurational entropy in high-density nanoconfined bilayer ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corsetti, Fabiano; Zubeltzu, Jon; Artacho, Emilio

    Understanding the structural tendencies of nanoconfined water is of great interest for nanoscience and biology, where nano/micro-sized objects may be separated by very few layers of water. We present a study of water confined to a 2D geometry by a featureless, chemically neutral potential, in order to characterize its intrinsic behaviour. We use molecular dynamics simulations with the TIP4P/2005 potential, combined with density-functional theory calculations with a non-local van der Waals density functional and an ab initio random structure search procedure. We propose a novel kind of crystal order in high-density nanoconfined bilayer ice. A first-order transition is observed between a low-temperature proton-ordered solid and a high-temperature proton-disordered solid. The latter is shown to possess crystalline order for the oxygen positions, arranged on a close-packed triangular lattice with AA stacking. Uniquely amongst the ice phases, the triangular bilayer is characterized by two levels of disorder (for the bonding network and for the protons) which results in a configurational entropy twice that of bulk ice.

  17. Germanium-containing resist for bilayer resist process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujioka, Hirofumi; Nakajima, Hiroyuki H. N.; Kishimura, Shinji; Nagata, Hitoshi

    1990-06-01

    Germanium-containing resist material has been investigated as a new type of removable bilayer resist , since the oxide of germanium is soluble in conventional acids. The polymers derived from trimethylgermyl- styrene ( GeSt) show good resistance to 02 RIE , and their surface has been "determined to be converted into GeO, by XPS measurement before and after 02 RIE. The homopolymer of GeSt has been found to crosslink upon exposure to deep UV or electron beam radiation and to behave as a negative resist. The sensitivity is enhanced several times as high as that of the PGeSt by copolymerizing with 1 0 mol% chloromethyl-styrene ( CMSt) . The copolymer gives fine resist patterns with vertical sidewalls in a bilayer process. The germanium- containing resist pattern after 02 RIE is not completely dissolved in some acids such as H2 SO4 . This is due to the organic components remaining in the film. However, it has been found that it is perfectly dissolved in oxidizing acids such as fuming HNO and H2S04/H202(2/l) without a residue.

  18. Spring constants for channel-induced lipid bilayer deformations. Estimates using gramicidin channels.

    PubMed Central

    Lundbaek, J A; Andersen, O S

    1999-01-01

    Hydrophobic interactions between a bilayer and its embedded membrane proteins couple protein conformational changes to changes in the packing of the surrounding lipids. The energetic cost of a protein conformational change therefore includes a contribution from the associated bilayer deformation energy (DeltaGdef0), which provides a mechanism for how membrane protein function depends on the bilayer material properties. Theoretical studies based on an elastic liquid-crystal model of the bilayer deformation show that DeltaGdef0 should be quantifiable by a phenomenological linear spring model, in which the bilayer mechanical characteristics are lumped into a single spring constant. The spring constant scales with the protein radius, meaning that one can use suitable reporter proteins for in situ measurements of the spring constant and thereby evaluate quantitatively the DeltaGdef0 associated with protein conformational changes. Gramicidin channels can be used as such reporter proteins because the channels form by the transmembrane assembly of two nonconducting monomers. The monomerleft arrow over right arrow dimer reaction thus constitutes a well characterized conformational transition, and it should be possible to determine the phenomenological spring constant describing the channel-induced bilayer deformation by examining how DeltaGdef0 varies as a function of a mismatch between the hydrophobic channel length and the unperturbed bilayer thickness. We show this is possible by analyzing experimental studies on the relation between bilayer thickness and gramicidin channel duration. The spring constant in nominally hydrocarbon-free bilayers agrees well with estimates based on a continuum analysis of inclusion-induced bilayer deformations using independently measured material constants. PMID:9929490

  19. Interaction of β(3) /β(2) -peptides, consisting of Val-Ala-Leu segments, with POPC giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) and white blood cancer cells (U937)--a new type of cell-penetrating peptides, and a surprising chain-length dependence of their vesicle- and cell-lysing activity.

    PubMed

    Kolesinska, Beata; Eyer, Klaus; Robinson, Tom; Dittrich, Petra S; Beck, Albert K; Seebach, Dieter; Walde, Peter

    2015-05-01

    Many years ago, β(2) /β(3) -peptides, consisting of alternatively arranged β(2) - and β(3) h-amino-acid residues, have been found to undergo folding to a unique type of helix, the 10/12-helix, and to exhibit non-polar, lipophilic properties (Helv. Chim. Acta 1997, 80, 2033). We have now synthesized such 'mixed' hexa-, nona-, dodeca-, and octadecapeptides, consisting of Val-Ala-Leu triads, with N-terminal fluorescein (FAM) labels, i.e., 1-4, and studied their interactions with POPC (=1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) and with human white blood cancer cells U937. The methods used were microfluidic technology, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS), a flow-cytometry assay, a membrane-toxicity assay with the dehydrogenase G6PDH as enzymatic reporter, and visual microscopy observations. All β(3) /β(2) -peptide derivatives penetrate the GUVs and/or the cells. As shown with the isomeric β(3) /β(2) -, β(3) -, and β(2) -nonamers, 2, 5, and 6, respectively, the derivatives 5 and 6 consisting exclusively of β(3) - or β(2) -amino-acid residues, respectively, interact neither with the vesicles nor with the cells. Depending on the method of investigation and on the pretreatment of the cells, the β(3) /β(2) -nonamer and/or the β(3) /β(2) -dodecamer derivative, 2 and/or 3, respectively, cause a surprising disintegration or lysis of the GUVs and cells, comparable with the action of tensides, viral fusion peptides, and host-defense antimicrobial peptides. Possible sources of the chain-length-dependent destructive potential of the β(3) /β(2) -nona- and β(3) /β(2) -dodecapeptide derivatives, and a possible relationship with the phosphate-to-phosphate and hydrocarbon thicknesses of GUVs, and eukaryotic cells are discussed. Further investigations with other types of GUVs and of eukaryotic or prokaryotic cells will be necessary to elucidate the mechanism(s) of interaction of 'mixed' β(3) /β(2) -peptides with

  20. Solvent-assisted lipid bilayer formation on silicon dioxide and gold.

    PubMed

    Tabaei, Seyed R; Choi, Jae-Hyeok; Haw Zan, Goh; Zhdanov, Vladimir P; Cho, Nam-Joon

    2014-09-02

    Planar lipid bilayers on solid supports mimic the fundamental structure of biological membranes and can be investigated using a wide range of surface-sensitive techniques. Despite these advantages, planar bilayer fabrication is challenging, and there are no simple universal methods to form such bilayers on diverse material substrates. One of the novel methods recently proposed and proven to form a planar bilayer on silicon dioxide involves lipid deposition in organic solvent and solvent exchange to influence the phase of adsorbed lipids. To scrutinize the specifics of this solvent-assisted lipid bilayer (SALB) formation method and clarify the limits of its applicability, we have developed a simplified, continuous solvent-exchange version to form planar bilayers on silicon dioxide, gold, and alkanethiol-coated gold (in the latter case, a lipid monolayer is formed to yield a hybrid bilayer) and varied the type of organic solvent and rate of solvent exchange. By tracking the SALB formation process with simultaneous quartz crystal microbalance-dissipation (QCM-D) and ellipsometry, it was determined that the acoustic, optical, and hydration masses along with the acoustic and optical thicknesses, measured at the end of the process, are comparable to those observed by employing conventional fabrication methods (e.g., vesicle fusion). As shown by QCM-D measurements, the obtained planar bilayers are highly resistant to protein adsorption, and several, but not all, water-miscible organic solvents could be successfully used in the SALB procedure, with isopropanol yielding particularly high-quality bilayers. In addition, fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) measurements demonstrated that the coefficient of lateral lipid diffusion in the fabricated bilayers corresponds to that measured earlier in the planar bilayers formed by vesicle fusion. With increasing rate of solvent exchange, it was also observed that the bilayer became incomplete and a phenomenological

  1. Role of substrate induced electron-phonon interactions in biased graphitic bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davenport, A. R.; Hague, J. P.

    2016-08-01

    Bilayers of graphitic materials have potential applications in field effect transistors (FETs). A potential difference applied between certain ionic bilayers made from insulating graphitic materials such as BN, ZnO and AlN could reduce gap sizes, turning them into useful semiconductors. On the other hand, opening of a small semiconducting gap occurs in graphene bilayers under applied field. The aim here is to investigate to what extent substrate induced electron-phonon interactions (EPIs) modify this gap change. We examine EPIs in several lattice configurations of graphitic bilayers, using a perturbative approach. The typical effect of EPIs on the ionic bilayers is an undesirable gap widening. The size of this gap change varies considerably with lattice structure and the magnitude of the bias. When bias is larger than the non-interacting gap size, EPIs have the smallest effect on the bandgap, especially in configurations with A{{A}\\prime} and AB structures. Thus careful selection of substrate, lattice configuration and bias strength to minimise the effects of EPIs could be important for optimising the properties of electronic devices. We use parameters related to BN in this article. In practice, the results presented here are broadly applicable to other graphitic bilayers, and are likely to be qualitatively similar in metal dichalcogenide bilayers such as MoS2, which are already of high interest for their use in FETs.

  2. Fast formation of low-defect-density tethered bilayers by fusion of multilamellar vesicles.

    PubMed

    Ragaliauskas, Tadas; Mickevicius, Mindaugas; Rakovska, Bozena; Penkauskas, Tadas; Vanderah, David J; Heinrich, Frank; Valincius, Gintaras

    2017-01-12

    A facile and reproducible preparation of surface-supported lipid bilayers is essential for fundamental membrane research and biotechnological applications. We demonstrate that multilamellar vesicles fuse to molecular-anchor-grafted surfaces yielding low-defect-density, tethered bilayer membranes. Continuous bilayers are formed within 10min, while the electrically insulating bilayers with <0.1μm(-2) defect density can be accomplished within 60min. Surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy indicates that an amount of lipid material transferred from vesicles to a surface is inversely proportional to the density of an anchor, while the total amount of lipid that includes tethered and transferred lipid remains constant within 5% standard error. This attests for the formation of intact bilayers independent of the tethering agent density. Neutron reflectometry (NR) revealed the atomic level structural details of the tethered bilayer showing, among other things, that the total thickness of the hydrophobic slab of the construct was 3.2nm and that the molar fraction of cholesterol in lipid content is essentially the same as the molar fraction of cholesterol in the multilamellar liposomes. NR also indicated the formation of an overlayer with an effective thickness of 1.9nm. These overlayers may be easily removed by a single rinse of the tethered construct with 30% ethanol solution. Fast assembly and low residual defect density achievable within an hour of fusion makes our tethered bilayer methodology an attractive platform for biosensing of membrane damaging agents, such as pore forming toxins.

  3. Interplay between alkyl chain asymmetry and cholesterol addition in the rigid ion pair amphiphile bilayer systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Fong-yin; Chiu, Chi-cheng

    2017-01-01

    Ion pair amphiphile (IPA), a molecular complex composed of a pair of cationic and anionic surfactants, has been proposed as a novel phospholipid substitute. Controlling the physical stability of IPA vesicles is important for its application developments such as cosmetic and drug deliveries. To investigate the effects of IPA alkyl chain combinations and the cholesterol additive on the structural and mechanical properties of IPA vesicular bilayers, we conducted a series of molecular dynamics studies on the hexadecyltrimethylammonium-dodecylsulfate (HTMA-DS) and dodecyltrimethylammonium-hexadecylsulfate (DTMA-HS) IPA bilayers with cholesterol. We found that both IPA bilayers are in the gel phase at 298 K, consistent with experimental observations. Compared with the HTMA-DS system, the DTMA-HS bilayer has more disordered alkyl chains in the hydrophobic region. When adding cholesterol, it induces alkyl chain ordering around its rigid sterol ring. Yet, cholesterol increases the molecular areas for all species and disturbs the molecular packing near the hydrophilic region and the bilayer core. Cholesterol also promotes the alkyl chain mismatch between the IPA moieties, especially for the DTMA-HS bilayer. The combined effects lead to non-monotonically enhancement of the membrane mechanical moduli for both IPA-cholesterol systems. Furthermore, cholesterol can form H-bonds with the alkylsulfate and thus enhance the contribution of alkylsulfate to the overall mechanical moduli. Combined results provide valuable molecular insights into the roles of each IPA component and the cholesterol on modulating the IPA bilayer properties.

  4. Revealing the preferred interlayer orientations and stackings of two-dimensional bilayer gallium selenide crystals

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Xufan; Basile Carrasco, Leonardo A.; Yoon, Mina; ...

    2015-01-21

    Characterizing and controlling the interlayer orientations and stacking order of bilayer two-dimensional (2D) crystals and van der Waals (vdW) heterostructure is crucial to optimize their electrical and optoelectronic properties. The four polymorphs of layered gallium selenide (GaSe) that result from different layer stacking provide an ideal platform to study the stacking configurations in bilayer 2D crystals. Here, through a controllable vapor-phase deposition method we selectively grow bilayer GaSe crystals and investigate their two preferred 0° or 60° interlayer rotations. The commensurate stacking configurations (AA' and AB-stacking) in as-grown 2D bilayer GaSe crystals are clearly observed at the atomic scale andmore » the Ga-terminated edge structure are identified for the first time by using atomic-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Theoretical analysis of the interlayer coupling energetics vs. interlayer rotation angle reveals that the experimentally-observed orientations are energetically preferred among the bilayer GaSe crystal polytypes. Here, the combined experimental and theoretical characterization of the GaSe bilayers afforded by these growth studies provide a pathway to reveal the atomistic relationships in interlayer orientations responsible for the electronic and optical properties of bilayer 2D crystals and vdW heterostructures.« less

  5. Corrugation of Phase-Separated Lipid Bilayers Supported by Nanoporous Silica Xerogel Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Goksu, E I; Nellis, B A; Lin, W; Satcher Jr., J H; Groves, J T; Risbud, S H; Longo, M L

    2008-10-30

    Lipid bilayers supported by substrates with nanometer-scale surface corrugations holds interest in understanding both nanoparticle-membrane interactions and the challenges of constructing models of cell membranes on surfaces with desirable properties, e.g. porosity. Here, we successfully form a two-phase (gel-fluid) lipid bilayer supported by nanoporous silica xerogel. Surface topology, diffusion, and lipid density in comparison to mica-supported lipid bilayers were characterized by AFM, FRAP, FCS, and quantitative fluorescence microscopy, respectively. We found that the two-phase lipid bilayer follows the xerogel surface contours. The corrugation imparted on the lipid bilayer results in a lipid density that is twice that on a flat mica surface. In direct agreement with the doubling of actual bilayer area in a projected area, we find that the lateral diffusion coefficient (D) of lipids on xerogel ({approx}1.7 {micro}m{sup 2}/s) is predictably lower than on mica ({approx}4.1 {micro}m{sup 2}/s) by both FRAP and FCS techniques. Furthermore, the gel-phase domains on xerogel compared to mica were larger and less numerous. Overall, our results suggest the presence of a relatively defect-free continuous two-phase bilayer that penetrates approximately midway into the first layer of {approx}50 nm xerogel beads.

  6. Bilayer Asymmetry Influences Integrin Sequestering in Raft-Mimicking Lipid Mixtures

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Noor F.; Siegel, Amanda P.; Ge, Yifan; Jordan, Rainer; Naumann, Christoph A.

    2013-01-01

    There is growing recognition that lipid heterogeneities in cellular membranes play an important role in the distribution and functionality of membrane proteins. However, the detection and characterization of such heterogeneities at the cellular level remains challenging. Here we report on the poorly understood relationship between lipid bilayer asymmetry and membrane protein sequestering in raft-mimicking model membrane mixtures using a powerful experimental platform comprised of confocal spectroscopy XY-scan and photon-counting histogram analyses. This experimental approach is utilized to probe the domain-specific sequestering and oligomerization state of αvβ3 and α5β1 integrins in bilayers, which contain coexisting liquid-disordered/liquid-ordered (ld/lo) phase regions exclusively in the top leaflet of the bilayer (bottom leaflet contains ld phase). Comparison with previously reported integrin sequestering data in bilayer-spanning lo-ld phase separations demonstrates that bilayer asymmetry has a profound influence on αvβ3 and α5β1 sequestering behavior. For example, both integrins sequester preferentially to the lo phase in asymmetric bilayers, but to the ld phase in their symmetric counterparts. Furthermore, our data show that bilayer asymmetry significantly influences the role of native ligands in integrin sequestering. PMID:23708361

  7. Effect of monoglyceride structure and cholesterol content on water permeability of the droplet bilayer.

    PubMed

    Michalak, Zuzanna; Muzzio, Michelle; Milianta, Peter J; Giacomini, Rosario; Lee, Sunghee

    2013-12-23

    The process of water permeation across lipid membranes has significant implications for cellular physiology and homeostasis, and its study may lead to a greater understanding of the relationship between the structure of lipid bilayer and the role that lipid structure plays in water permeation. In this study, we formed a droplet interface bilayer (DIB) by contacting two aqueous droplets together in an immiscible solvent (squalane) containing bilayer-forming surfactant (monoglycerides). Using the DIB model, we present our results on osmotic water permeabilities and activation energy for water permeation of an associated series of unsaturated monoglycerides as the principal component of droplet bilayers, each having the same chain length but differing in the position and number of double bonds, in the absence and presence of a varying concentration of cholesterol. Our findings suggest that the tailgroup structure in a series of monoglyceride bilayers is seen to affect the permeability and activation energy for the water permeation process. Moreover, we have also established the insertion of cholesterol into the droplet bilayer, and have detected its presence via its effect on water permeability. The effect of cholesterol differs depending on the type of monoglyceride. We demonstrate that the DIB can be employed as a convenient model membrane to rapidly explore subtle structural effects on bilayer water permeability.

  8. Revealing the preferred interlayer orientations and stackings of two-dimensional bilayer gallium selenide crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xufan; Basile Carrasco, Leonardo A.; Yoon, Mina; Ma, Cheng; Puretzky, Alexander A.; Lee, Jaekwang; Idrobo Tapia, Juan Carlos; Chi, Miaofang; Rouleau, Christopher M.; Geohegan, David B.; Xiao, Kai

    2015-01-21

    Characterizing and controlling the interlayer orientations and stacking order of bilayer two-dimensional (2D) crystals and van der Waals (vdW) heterostructure is crucial to optimize their electrical and optoelectronic properties. The four polymorphs of layered gallium selenide (GaSe) that result from different layer stacking provide an ideal platform to study the stacking configurations in bilayer 2D crystals. Here, through a controllable vapor-phase deposition method we selectively grow bilayer GaSe crystals and investigate their two preferred 0° or 60° interlayer rotations. The commensurate stacking configurations (AA' and AB-stacking) in as-grown 2D bilayer GaSe crystals are clearly observed at the atomic scale and the Ga-terminated edge structure are identified for the first time by using atomic-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Theoretical analysis of the interlayer coupling energetics vs. interlayer rotation angle reveals that the experimentally-observed orientations are energetically preferred among the bilayer GaSe crystal polytypes. Here, the combined experimental and theoretical characterization of the GaSe bilayers afforded by these growth studies provide a pathway to reveal the atomistic relationships in interlayer orientations responsible for the electronic and optical properties of bilayer 2D crystals and vdW heterostructures.

  9. Computation of mixed phosphatidylcholine-cholesterol bilayer structures by energy minimization.

    PubMed Central

    Vanderkooi, G

    1994-01-01

    The energetically preferred structures of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC)-cholesterol bilayers were determined at a 1:1 mole ratio. Crystallographic symmetry operations were used to generate planar bilayers of cholesterol and DMPC. Energy minimization was carried out with respect to bond rotations, rigid body motions, and the two-dimensional lattice constants. The lowest energy structures had a hydrogen bond between the cholesterol hydroxyl and the carbonyl oxygen of the sn-2 acyl chain, but the largest contribution to the intermolecular energy was from the nonbonded interactions between the flat alpha surface of cholesterol and the acyl chains of DMPC. Two modes of packing in the bilayer were found; in structure A (the global minimum), unlike molecules are nearest neighbors, whereas in structure B (second lowest energy) like-like intermolecular interactions predominate. Crystallographic close packing of the molecules in the bilayer was achieved, as judged from the molecular areas and the bilayer thickness. These energy-minimized structures are consistent with the available experimental data on mixed bilayers of lecithin and cholesterol, and may be used as starting points for molecular dynamics or other calculations on bilayers. PMID:8061195

  10. Multi-Stacked Supported Lipid Bilayer Micropatterning through Polymer Stencil Lift-Off.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yujie; Negmi, Ahmed; Moran-Mirabal, Jose

    2015-08-28

    Complex multi-lamellar structures play a critical role in biological systems, where they are present as lamellar bodies, and as part of biological assemblies that control energy transduction processes. Multi-lamellar lipid layers not only provide interesting systems for fundamental research on membrane structure and bilayer-associated polypeptides, but can also serve as components in bioinspired materials or devices. Although the ability to pattern stacked lipid bilayers at the micron scale is of importance for these purposes, limited work has been done in developing such patterning techniques. Here, we present a simple and direct approach to pattern stacked supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) using polymer stencil lift-off and the electrostatic interactions between cationic and anionic lipids. Both homogeneous and phase-segregated stacked SLB patterns were produced, demonstrating that the stacked lipid bilayers retain lateral diffusivity. We demonstrate patterned SLB stacks of up to four bilayers, where fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and quenching was used to probe the interactions between lipid bilayers. Furthermore, the study of lipid phase behaviour showed that gel phase domains align between adjacent layers. The proposed stacked SLB pattern platform provides a robust model for studying lipid behaviour with a controlled number of bilayers, and an attractive means towards building functional bioinspired materials or devices.

  11. Cholesterol effect on water permeability through DPPC and PSM lipid bilayers: a molecular dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Saito, Hiroaki; Shinoda, Wataru

    2011-12-29

    Water permeability of two different lipid bilayers of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and palmitoylsphingomyelin (PSM) in the absence and presence of cholesterol (0-50 mol %) have been studied by molecular dynamics simulations to elucidate the molecular mechanism of the reduction in water leakage across the membranes by the addition of cholesterol. An enhanced free energy barrier was observed in these membranes with increased cholesterol concentration, and this was explained by the reduced cavity density around the cholesterol in the hydrophobic membrane core. There was an increase of trans conformers in the hydrophobic lipid chains adjacent to the cholesterol, which reduced the cavity density. The enhanced free energy barrier was found to be the main reason to reduce the water permeability with increased cholesterol concentration. At low cholesterol concentrations the PSM bilayer exhibited a higher free energy barrier than the DPPC bilayer for water permeation, while at greater than 30 mol % of cholesterol the difference became minor. This tendency for the PSM and DPPC bilayers to resemble each other at higher cholesterol concentrations was similar to commonly observed trends in several structural properties, such as order parameters, cross-sectional area per molecule, and cavity density profiles in the hydrophobic regions of bilayer membranes. These results demonstrate that DPPC and PSM bilayers with high cholesterol contents possess similar physical properties, which suggests that the solubility of cholesterol in these lipid bilayers has importance for an understanding of multicomponent lipid membranes with cholesterol.

  12. Assessing smectic liquid-crystal continuum models for elastic bilayer deformations.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyu Ii; Pastor, Richard W; Andersen, Olaf S; Im, Wonpil

    2013-04-01

    For four decades, since W. Helfrich's pioneering study of smectic A liquid crystals in 1973, continuum elastic models (CEMs) have been employed as tools to understand the energetics of protein-induced lipid bilayer deformations. Among the assumptions underlying this use is that all relevant protein-lipid interactions can be included in the continuum representation of the protein-bilayer interactions through the physical parameters determined for protein-free bilayers and the choice of boundary conditions at the protein/bilayer interface. To better understand this assumption, we review the general structure of CEMs, examine how different choices of boundary conditions and physical moduli profiles alter the predicted bilayer thickness profiles around gramicidin A (gA) and mitochondrial voltage-dependent anion channels (VDAC), respectively, and compare these profiles with those obtained from all-atom molecular dynamics simulations. We find that the profiles differ qualitatively in the first lipid shell around the channels, indicating that the CEMs do not capture accurately the consequences of the protein-induced local changes in lipid bilayer dynamics. Therefore, one needs to be careful when interpreting the results of CEM-based analyses of lipid bilayer-membrane protein interactions.

  13. The effect of temperature on supported dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) bilayers: structure and lubrication performance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Min; Zander, Thomas; Liu, Xiaoyan; Liu, Chao; Raj, Akanksha; Wieland, D C Florian; Garamus, Vasil M; Willumeit-Römer, Regine; Claesson, Per Martin; Dėdinaitė, Andra

    2015-05-01

    Phospholipids fulfill an important role in joint lubrication. They, together with hyaluronan and glycoproteins, are the biolubricants that sustain low friction between cartilage surfaces bathed in synovial fluid. In this work we have investigated how the friction force and load bearing capacity of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) bilayers on silica surfaces are affected by temperature, covering the temperature range 25-52°C. Friction forces have been determined utilizing the AFM colloidal probe technique, which showed that DPPC bilayers are able to provide low friction forces over the whole temperature interval. However, the load bearing capacity is improved at higher temperatures. We interpret this finding as being a consequence of lower rigidity and higher self-healing capacity of the DPPC bilayer in the liquid disordered state compared to the gel state. The corresponding structure of solid supported DPPC bilayers at the silica-liquid interface has been followed using X-ray reflectivity measurements, which suggests that the DPPC bilayer is in the gel phase at 25°C and 39°C and in the liquid disordered state at 55°C. Well-defined bilayer structures were observed for both phases. The deposited DPPC bilayers were also imaged using AFM PeakForce Tapping mode, and these measurements indicated a less homogeneous layer at temperatures below 37°C.

  14. The Molecular Structure of a Phosphatidylserine Bilayer Determined by Scattering and Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Jianjun; Cheng, Xiaolin; Monticelli, Luca; Heberle, Frederick A; Kucerka, Norbert; Tieleman, D. Peter; Katsaras, John

    2014-01-01

    Phosphatidylserine (PS) lipids play essential roles in biological processes, including enzyme activation and apoptosis. We report on the molecular structure and atomic scale interactions of a fluid bilayer composed of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylserine (POPS). A scattering density profile model, aided by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, was developed to jointly refine different contrast small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering data, which yielded a lipid area of 62.7 A2 at 25 C. MD simulations with POPS lipid area constrained at different values were also performed using all-atom and aliphatic united-atom models. The optimal simulated bilayer was obtained using a model-free comparison approach. Examination of the simulated bilayer, which agrees best with the experimental scattering data, reveals a preferential interaction between Na+ ions and the terminal serine and phosphate moieties. Long-range inter-lipid interactions were identified, primarily between the positively charged ammonium, and the negatively charged carboxylic and phosphate oxygens. The area compressibility modulus KA of the POPS bilayer was derived by quantifying lipid area as a function of surface tension from area-constrained MD simulations. It was found that POPS bilayers possess a much larger KA than that of neutral phosphatidylcholine lipid bilayers. We propose that the unique molecular features of POPS bilayers may play an important role in certain physiological functions.

  15. Studying the lateral chain packing in a ceramide bilayer with molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadimitriou, N. I.; Karozis, S. N.; Kainourgiakis, M. E.; Charalambopoulou, G. Ch

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we present a novel technique, based on molecular dynamics simulations, that allows the study of the lateral chain packing in a lipid bilayer. It utilizes the radial distribution function of the alkyl chains to determine the arrangement of the chains along the bilayer plane. The positions of the mass centres of the chains are projected onto the bilayer plane and a 2D radial distribution function is calculated for these projections. The proposed technique can be particularly useful for lipid bilayers in the gel (solid) phase where the chains present a limited degree of mobility. As a case study, we have examined a bilayer that consists of ceramide NS 24:0. Ceramide bilayers can be found in the lipid domain of the skin where they have a significant role in its barrier function. The specific bilayer was found (at 300 K) to adopt a strictly hexagonal chain packing with a separation distance between the chains of 0.466 nm, in good agreement with the available experimental data.

  16. Specific electrical capacitance and voltage breakdown as a function of temperature for different planar lipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Velikonja, Aljaž; Kramar, Peter; Miklavčič, Damijan; Maček Lebar, Alenka

    2016-12-01

    The breakdown voltage and specific electrical capacitance of planar lipid bilayers formed from lipids isolated from the membrane of archaeon Aeropyrum pernix K1 as a function of temperature were studied and compared with data obtained previously in MD simulation studies. Temperature dependence of breakdown voltage and specific electrical capacitance was measured also for dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) bilayers and bilayers formed from mixture of diphytanoylphosphocholine (DPhPC) and DPPC in ratio 80:20. The breakdown voltage of archaeal lipids planar lipid bilayers is more or less constant until 50°C, while at higher temperatures a considerable drop is observed, which is in line with the results from MD simulations. The breakdown voltage of DPPC planar lipid bilayer at melting temperature is considerably higher than in the gel phase. Specific electrical capacitance of planar lipid bilayers formed from archaeal lipids is approximately constant for temperatures up to 40°C and then gradually decreases. The difference with MD simulation predictions is discussed. Specific electrical capacitance of DPPC planar lipid bilayers in fluid phase is 1.75 times larger than that of the gel phase and it follows intermediated phases before phase transition. Increase in specific electrical capacitance while approaching melting point of DPPC is visible also for DPhPC:DPPC mixture.

  17. The influence of cholesterol on interactions and dynamics of ibuprofen in a lipid bilayer.

    PubMed

    Khajeh, Aboozar; Modarress, Hamid

    2014-10-01

    In this work, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with atomistic details were performed to examine the influence of the cholesterol on the interactions and the partitioning of the hydrophobic drug ibuprofen in a fully hydrated 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) bilayer. Analysis of MD simulations indicated that ibuprofen molecules prefer to be located in the hydrophobic acyl chain region of DMPC/cholesterol bilayers. This distribution decreases the lateral motion of lipid molecules. The presence of ibuprofen molecules in the bilayers with 0 and 25mol% cholesterol increases the ordering of hydrocarbon tails of lipids whereas for the bilayers with 50mol% cholesterol, ibuprofen molecules perturb the flexible chains of DMPC lipids which leads to the reduction of the acyl chain order parameter. The potential of the mean force (PMF) method was used to calculate the free energy profile for the transferring of an ibuprofen molecule from the bulk water into the DMPC/cholesterol membranes. The PMF studies indicated that the presence of 50mol% cholesterol in the bilayers increases the free energy barrier and slows down the permeation of the ibuprofen drug across the DMPC bilayer. This can be due to the condensing and ordering effects of the cholesterol on the bilayer.

  18. Fluorescence of Supported Phospholipid Bilayers Recorded in a Conventional Horizontal-Beam Spectrofluorometer.

    PubMed

    Kovrigina, Elizaveta A; Kovrigin, Evgenii L

    2016-03-01

    Supported phospholipid bilayers are a convenient model of cellular membranes in studies of membrane biophysics and protein-lipid interactions. Traditionally, supported lipid bilayers are formed on a flat surface of a glass slide to be observed through fluorescence microscopes. This paper describes a method to enable fluorescence detection from the supported lipid bilayers using standard horizontal-beam spectrofluorometers instead of the microscopes. In the proposed approach, the supported lipid bilayers are formed on the inner optical surfaces of the standard fluorescence microcell. To enable observation of the bilayer absorbed on the cell wall, the microcell is placed in a standard fluorometer cell holder and specifically oriented to expose the inner cell walls to both excitation and emission channels with a help of the custom cell adaptor. The signal intensity from supported bilayers doped with 1 % (mol) of rhodamine-labeled lipid in the standard 3-mm optical microcell was equivalent to fluorescence of the 70-80 nM reference solution of rhodamine recorded in a commercial microcell adaptor. Because no modifications to the instruments are required in this method, a variety of steady-state and time-domain fluorescence measurements of the supported phospholipid bilayers may be performed with the spectral resolution using standard horizontal-beam spectrofluorometers.

  19. Multi-Stacked Supported Lipid Bilayer Micropatterning through Polymer Stencil Lift-Off

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yujie; Negmi, Ahmed; Moran-Mirabal, Jose

    2015-01-01

    Complex multi-lamellar structures play a critical role in biological systems, where they are present as lamellar bodies, and as part of biological assemblies that control energy transduction processes. Multi-lamellar lipid layers not only provide interesting systems for fundamental research on membrane structure and bilayer-associated polypeptides, but can also serve as components in bioinspired materials or devices. Although the ability to pattern stacked lipid bilayers at the micron scale is of importance for these purposes, limited work has been done in developing such patterning techniques. Here, we present a simple and direct approach to pattern stacked supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) using polymer stencil lift-off and the electrostatic interactions between cationic and anionic lipids. Both homogeneous and phase-segregated stacked SLB patterns were produced, demonstrating that the stacked lipid bilayers retain lateral diffusivity. We demonstrate patterned SLB stacks of up to four bilayers, where fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and quenching was used to probe the interactions between lipid bilayers. Furthermore, the study of lipid phase behaviour showed that gel phase domains align between adjacent layers. The proposed stacked SLB pattern platform provides a robust model for studying lipid behaviour with a controlled number of bilayers, and an attractive means towards building functional bioinspired materials or devices. PMID:26343733

  20. Interaction of substance P with phospholipid bilayers: A neutron diffraction study.

    PubMed Central

    Bradshaw, J P; Davies, S M; Hauss, T

    1998-01-01

    Neutron diffraction has been used to study the membrane-bound structure of substance P (SP), a member of the tachykinin family of neuropeptides. The depth of penetration of its C-terminus in zwitterionic and anionic phospholipid bilayers was probed by specific deuteration of leucine 10, the penultimate amino acid residue. The results show that the interaction of SP with bilayers, composed of either dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC), or a 50:50 mixture of DOPC and the anionic phospholipid dioleoylphosphatidylglycerol (DOPG), takes place at two locations. One requires insertion of the peptide into the hydrophobic region of the bilayer, the other is much more peripheral. The penetration of the peptide into the hydrophobic region of the bilayer is reflected in a marked difference in the water distribution profiles. SP is seen to insert into DOPC bilayers, but a larger proportion of the peptide is found at the surface when compared to the anionic bilayers. The positions of the two label populations show only minor differences between the two types of bilayer. PMID:9675189

  1. Doping, strain engineering, and interlayer interaction in bilayer hexagonal boron nitride sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Susumu; Fujimoto, Yoshitaka

    We study electronic properties of bilayer hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) sheets with different stacking sequences in the framework of the density-functional theory. The bulk h-BN material usually takes the so-called AA (or AA') stacking, corresponding to the ''non-polar'' bilayer h-BN sheet. On the other hand, the rhombohedral BN takes the ABC stacking, and the corresponding bilayer sheet has ''upper'' and ''lower'' layers which are not equivalent with each other. Interestingly, the energetics of stacking sequences for bilayer h-BN sheets is found to be different from that for bulk h-BN materials. We report that strain engineering for bilayer h-BN sheets can possess much wider possibilities than that for monolayer h-BN due to the modification of the interlayer interaction. We also study the substitutional C doping into bilayer h-BN sheets, and report the energetics and the strain effect for these C-doped sheets. Finally we discuss the similarities and differences between bilayer h-BN sheets and double-wall h-BN nanotubes. This work was partly supported by the MEXT Elements Strategy Initiative to Form Core Research Center, Grant in Aid for Scientific Research, MEXT Japan, ``Science of Atomic Layers'', and JSPS KAKENHI Grant No. 26390062.

  2. In vitro synthesis of a Major Facilitator Transporter for specific active transport across Droplet Interface Bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Findlay, Heather E.; Harris, Nicola J.; Booth, Paula J.

    2016-01-01

    Nature encapsulates reactions within membrane-bound compartments, affording sequential and spatial control over biochemical reactions. Droplet Interface Bilayers are evolving into a valuable platform to mimic this key biological feature in artificial systems. A major issue is manipulating flow across synthetic bilayers. Droplet Interface Bilayers must be functionalised, with seminal work using membrane-inserting toxins, ion channels and pumps illustrating the potential. Specific transport of biomolecules, and notably transport against a concentration gradient, across these bilayers has yet to be demonstrated. Here, we successfully incorporate the archetypal Major Facilitator Superfamily transporter, lactose permease, into Droplet Interface Bilayers and demonstrate both passive and active, uphill transport. This paves the way for controllable transport of sugars, metabolites and other essential biomolecular substrates of this ubiquitous transporter superfamily in DIB networks. Furthermore, cell-free synthesis of lactose permease during DIB formation also results in active transport across the interface bilayer. This adds a specific disaccharide transporter to the small list of integral membrane proteins that can be synthesised via in vitro transcription/translation for applications of DIB-based artificial cell systems. The introduction of a means to promote specific transport of molecules across Droplet Interface Bilayers against a concentration gradient gives a new facet to droplet networks. PMID:27996025

  3. Ultra-high vacuum surface analysis study of rhodopsin incorporation into supported lipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Michel, Roger; Subramaniam, Varuni; McArthur, Sally L; Bondurant, Bruce; D'Ambruoso, Gemma D; Hall, Henry K; Brown, Michael F; Ross, Eric E; Saavedra, S Scott; Castner, David G

    2008-05-06

    Planar supported lipid bilayers that are stable under ambient atmospheric and ultra-high-vacuum conditions were prepared by cross-linking polymerization of bis-sorbylphosphatidylcholine (bis-SorbPC). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) were employed to investigate bilayers that were cross-linked using either redox-initiated radical polymerization or ultraviolet photopolymerization. The redox method yields a more structurally intact bilayer; however, the UV method is more compatible with incorporation of transmembrane proteins. UV polymerization was therefore used to prepare cross-linked bilayers with incorporated bovine rhodopsin, a light-activated, G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). A previous study (Subramaniam, V.; Alves, I. D.; Salgado, G. F. J.; Lau, P. W.; Wysocki, R. J.; Salamon, Z.; Tollin, G.; Hruby, V. J.; Brown, M. F.; Saavedra, S. S. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2005, 127, 5320-5321) showed that rhodopsin retains photoactivity after incorporation into UV-polymerized bis-SorbPC, but did not address how the protein is associated with the bilayer. In this study, we show that rhodopsin is retained in supported bilayers of poly(bis-SorbPC) under ultra-high-vacuum conditions, on the basis of the increase in the XPS nitrogen concentration and the presence of characteristic amino acid peaks in the ToF-SIMS data. Angle-resolved XPS data show that the protein is inserted into the bilayer, rather than adsorbed on the bilayer surface. This is the first study to demonstrate the use of ultra-high-vacuum techniques for structural studies of supported proteolipid bilayers.

  4. Structure, composition, and peptide binding properties of detergent soluble bilayers and detergent resistant rafts.

    PubMed Central

    Gandhavadi, M; Allende, D; Vidal, A; Simon, S A; McIntosh, T J

    2002-01-01

    Lipid bilayers composed of unsaturated phosphatidylcholine (PC), sphingomyelin (SM), and cholesterol are thought to contain microdomains that have similar detergent insolubility characteristics as rafts isolated from cell plasma membranes. We chemically characterized the fractions corresponding to detergent soluble membranes (DSMs) and detergent resistant membranes (DRMs) from 1:1:1 PC:SM:cholesterol, compared the binding properties of selected peptides to bilayers with the compositions of DSMs and DRMs, used differential scanning calorimetry to identify phase transitions, and determined the structure of DRMs with x-ray diffraction. Compared with the equimolar starting material, DRMs were enriched in both SM and cholesterol. Both transmembrane and interfacial peptides bound to a greater extent to DSM bilayers than to DRM bilayers, likely because of differences in the mechanical properties of the two bilayers. Thermograms from 1:1:1 PC:SM:cholesterol from 3 to 70 degrees C showed no evidence for a liquid-ordered to liquid-disordered phase transition. Over a wide range of osmotic stresses, each x-ray pattern from equimolar PC:SM:cholesterol or DRMs contained a broad wide-angle band at 4.5 A, indicating that the bilayers were in a liquid-crystalline phase, and several sharp low-angle reflections that indexed as orders of a single lamellar repeat period. Electron density profiles showed that the total bilayer thickness was 57 A for DRMs, which was approximately 5 A greater than that of 1:1:1 PC:SM:cholesterol and 10 A greater than the thickness of bilayers with the composition of DSMs. These x-ray data provide accurate values for the widths of raft and nonraft bilayers that should be important in understanding mechanisms of protein sorting by rafts. PMID:11867462

  5. The Influence of Hydrogen Bonding on Sphingomyelin/Colipid Interactions in Bilayer Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Yasuda, Tomokazu; Al Sazzad, Md. Abdullah; Jäntti, Niklas Z.; Pentikäinen, Olli T.; Slotte, J. Peter

    2016-01-01

    The phospholipid acyl chain composition and order, the hydrogen bonding, and properties of the phospholipid headgroup all influence cholesterol/phospholipid interactions in hydrated bilayers. In this study, we examined the influence of hydrogen bonding on sphingomyelin (SM) colipid interactions in fluid uni- and multilamellar vesicles. We have compared the properties of oleoyl or palmitoyl SM with comparable dihydro-SMs, because the hydrogen bonding properties of SM and dihydro-SM differ. The association of cholestatrienol, a fluorescent cholesterol analog, with oleoyl sphingomyelin (OSM) was significantly stronger than its association with 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, in bilayers with equal acyl chain order. The association of cholestatrienol with dihydro-OSM, which lacks a trans double bond in the sphingoid base, was even stronger than the association with OSM, suggesting an important role for hydrogen bonding in stabilizing sterol/SM interactions. Furthermore, with saturated SM in the presence of 15 mol % cholesterol, cholesterol association with fluid dihydro-palmitoyl SM bilayers was stronger than seen with palmitoyl SM under similar conditions. The different hydrogen bonding properties in OSM and dihydro-OSM bilayers also influenced the segregation of palmitoyl ceramide and dipalmitoylglycerol into an ordered phase. The ordered, palmitoyl ceramide-rich phase started to form above 2 mol % in the dihydro-OSM bilayers but only above 6 mol % in the OSM bilayers. The lateral segregation of dipalmitoylglycerol was also much more pronounced in dihydro-OSM bilayers than in OSM bilayers. The results show that hydrogen bonding is important for sterol/SM and ceramide/SM interactions, as well as for the lateral segregation of a diglyceride. A possible molecular explanation for the different hydrogen bonding in SM and dihydro-SM bilayers is presented and discussed. PMID:26789766

  6. Irregular bilayer structure in vesicles prepared from Halobacterium cutirubrum lipids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanyi, J. K.

    1974-01-01

    Fluorescent probes were used to study the structure of the cell envelope of Halobacterium cutirubrum, and, in particular, to explore the effect of the heterogeneity of the lipids in this organism on the structure of the bilayers. The fluorescence polarization of perylene was followed in vesicles of unfractionated lipids and polar lipids as a function of temperature in 3.4 M solutions of NaCl, NaNO3, and KSCN, and it was found that vesicles of unfractionated lipids were more perturbed by chaotropic agents than polar lipids. The dependence of the relaxation times of perylene on temperature was studied in cell envelopes and in vesicles prepared from polar lipids, unfractionated lipids, and mixtures of polar and neutral lipids.

  7. Theoretical studies of lipid bilayer electroporation using molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, Zachary Alan

    Computer simulations of physical, chemical, and biological systems have improved tremendously over the past five decades. From simple studies of liquid argon in the 1960s to fully atomistic simulations of entire viruses in the past few years, recent advances in high-performance computing have continuously enabled simulations to bridge the gap between scientific theory and experiment. Molecular dynamics simulations in particular have allowed for the direct observation of spatial and temporal events which are at present inaccessible to experiments. For this dissertation I employ all-atom molecular dynamics simulations to study the transient, electric field-induced poration (or electroporation) of phospholipid bilayers at MV/m electric fields. Phospholipid bilayers are the dominant constituents of cell membranes and act as both a barrier and gatekeeper to the cell interior. This makes their structural integrity and susceptibility to external perturbations an important topic for study, especially as the density of electromagnetic radiation in our environment is increasing steadily. The primary goal of this dissertation is to understand the specific physical and biological mechanisms which facilitate electroporation, and to connect our simulated observations to experiments with live cells and to continuum models which seek to describe the underlying biological processes of electroporation. In Chapter 1 I begin with a brief introduction to phospholipids and phospholipid bilayers, followed by an extensive overview of electroporation and atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. The following chapters will then focus on peer-reviewed and published work we performed, or on existing projects which are currently being prepared for submission. Chapter 2 looks at how external electric fields affect both oxidized and unoxidized lipid bilayers as a function of oxidation concentration and oxidized lipid type. Oxidative damage to cell membranes represents a physiologically relevant

  8. Butterfly micro bilayer thermal energy harvester geometry with improved performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trioux, E.; Monfray, S.; Basrour, S.

    2016-11-01

    This paper reports the recent progress of a new technology to scavenge thermal energy, implying a double-step transduction through thermal buckling of a bilayer aluminum nitride / aluminum bridge and piezoelectric transduction. A completely new scavenger design is presented, improving greatly its final performance. The butterfly shape reduces the overall device mechanical rigidity, which leads to a decrease of buckling temperatures compared to previously studied rectangular plates. In a first time we compared performances of rectangular and butterfly plates with an equal thickness of Al and AlN. In a second time, with a thicker Al layer than AlN layer, we will study only butterfly structure in terms of output power and buckling temperatures, and compare it to the previous stack.

  9. Stacking transition in bilayer graphene caused by thermally activated rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Mengjian; Ghazaryan, Davit; Son, Seok-Kyun; Woods, Colin R.; Misra, Abhishek; He, Lin; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Novoselov, Kostya S.; Cao, Yang; Mishchenko, Artem

    2017-03-01

    Crystallographic alignment between two-dimensional crystals in van der Waals heterostructures brought a number of profound physical phenomena, including observation of Hofstadter butterfly and topological currents, and promising novel applications, such as resonant tunnelling transistors. Here, by probing the electronic density of states in graphene using graphene-hexagonal boron nitride-graphene tunnelling transistors, we demonstrate a structural transition of bilayer graphene from incommensurate twisted stacking state into a commensurate AB stacking due to a macroscopic graphene self-rotation. This structural transition is accompanied by a topological transition in the reciprocal space and by pseudospin texturing. The stacking transition is driven by van der Waals interaction energy of the two graphene layers and is thermally activated by unpinning the microscopic chemical adsorbents which are then removed by the self-cleaning of graphene.

  10. Magnetic bilayer-skyrmions without skyrmion Hall effect.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xichao; Zhou, Yan; Ezawa, Motohiko

    2016-01-19

    Magnetic skyrmions might be used as information carriers in future advanced memories, logic gates and computing devices. However, there exists an obstacle known as the skyrmion Hall effect (SkHE), that is, the skyrmion trajectories bend away from the driving current direction due to the Magnus force. Consequently, the skyrmions in constricted geometries may be destroyed by touching the sample edges. Here we theoretically propose that the SkHE can be suppressed in the antiferromagnetically exchange-coupled bilayer system, since the Magnus forces in the top and bottom layers are exactly cancelled. We show that such a pair of SkHE-free magnetic skyrmions can be nucleated and be driven by the current-induced torque. Our proposal provides a promising means to move magnetic skyrmions in a perfectly straight trajectory in ultra-dense devices with ultra-fast processing speed.

  11. Bilayer metasurface for directional launching of cross-polarization component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Joonsoo; Lee, Yohan; Yun, Hansik; Park, Hyeonsoo; Lee, Byoungho

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we propose a bilayer metasurface which is capable of launching helicity-inverted wave only in the forward direction. In order to obtain directional scattering characteristics of individual cells, we employed two layers of thin metasurfaces that are separated by a dielectric spacer. Multiple scattering analysis is used to derive design conditions for single metasurface reflectances for each polarization and it was shown that such target reflectances are realizable with split-ring aperture. The unit cell structure optimized for forward-only scattering of cross-polarization component is shown to have power extinction ratio as high as 32. The proposed structure can potentially form a supercell with reflective cells so that geometric phases of transmitted light and reflected light can be independently controlled. The proposed scheme is expected to pave a way to new types of metasurfaces with multiplexed optical functions.

  12. Bilayer Protograph Codes for Half-Duplex Relay Channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush; VanNguyen, Thuy; Nosratinia, Aria

    2013-01-01

    Direct to Earth return links are limited by the size and power of lander devices. A standard alternative is provided by a two-hops return link: a proximity link (from lander to orbiter relay) and a deep-space link (from orbiter relay to Earth). Although direct to Earth return links are limited by the size and power of lander devices, using an additional link and a proposed coding for relay channels, one can obtain a more reliable signal. Although significant progress has been made in the relay coding problem, existing codes must be painstakingly optimized to match to a single set of channel conditions, many of them do not offer easy encoding, and most of them do not have structured design. A high-performing LDPC (low-density parity-check) code for the relay channel addresses simultaneously two important issues: a code structure that allows low encoding complexity, and a flexible rate-compatible code that allows matching to various channel conditions. Most of the previous high-performance LDPC codes for the relay channel are tightly optimized for a given channel quality, and are not easily adapted without extensive re-optimization for various channel conditions. This code for the relay channel combines structured design and easy encoding with rate compatibility to allow adaptation to the three links involved in the relay channel, and furthermore offers very good performance. The proposed code is constructed by synthesizing a bilayer structure with a pro to graph. In addition to the contribution to relay encoding, an improved family of protograph codes was produced for the point-to-point AWGN (additive white Gaussian noise) channel whose high-rate members enjoy thresholds that are within 0.07 dB of capacity. These LDPC relay codes address three important issues in an integrative manner: low encoding complexity, modular structure allowing for easy design, and rate compatibility so that the code can be easily matched to a variety of channel conditions without extensive

  13. Theory of activated transport in bilayer quantum Hall systems.

    PubMed

    Roostaei, B; Mullen, K J; Fertig, H A; Simon, S H

    2008-07-25

    We analyze the transport properties of bilayer quantum Hall systems at total filling factor nu=1 in drag geometries as a function of interlayer bias, in the limit where the disorder is sufficiently strong to unbind meron-antimeron pairs, the charged topological defects of the system. We compute the typical energy barrier for these objects to cross incompressible regions within the disordered system using a Hartree-Fock approach, and show how this leads to multiple activation energies when the system is biased. We then demonstrate using a bosonic Chern-Simons theory that in drag geometries current in a single layer directly leads to forces on only two of the four types of merons, inducing dissipation only in the drive layer. Dissipation in the drag layer results from interactions among the merons, resulting in very different temperature dependences for the drag and drive layers, in qualitative agreement with experiment.

  14. Ghost Fano Resonance of Excitons in Twisted Bilayer Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Yufeng

    2014-03-01

    Metallic systems are generally considered to be unable to harbor tightly bound excitons because of the strong screening effect as well as the absence of a finite band gap. Previously, exception has only been found in one-dimensional metallic carbon nanotubes due to the depressed screening effects and the symmetry gap. We explore the exciton spectra of twisted bilayer graphene (tBLG) and predict the existence of even more strongly bound exciton (with binding energy as large as 0.5eV) in this system despite of its higher dimensionality. Based on our results from first-principles simulations and effective model calculations, a mechanism known as the ghost Fano resonance is proposed for the bound exciton formation in metallic systems beyond the dimensonality-related argument. Our results shed light on engineering the e-h excitations in the few-layer van der Waals heterojunction. NSF Grant No. DMR-1207141.

  15. Superior thermal conductivity in suspended bilayer hexagonal boron nitride

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chengru; Guo, Jie; Dong, Lan; Aiyiti, Adili; Xu, Xiangfan; Li, Baowen

    2016-01-01

    We reported the basal-plane thermal conductivity in exfoliated bilayer hexagonal boron nitride h-BN that was measured using suspended prepatterned microstructures. The h-BN sample suitable for thermal measurements was fabricated by dry-transfer method, whose sample quality, due to less polymer residues on surfaces, is believed to be superior to that of PMMA-mediated samples. The measured room temperature thermal conductivity is around 484 Wm−1K−1(+141 Wm−1K−1/ −24 Wm−1K−1) which exceeds that in bulk h-BN, providing experimental observation of the thickness-dependent thermal conductivity in suspended few-layer h-BN. PMID:27142571

  16. Interaction between a rodlike inclusion and a supported bilayer membrane.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiyi; Ma, Yuqiang

    2006-10-28

    The interactions between a rodlike inclusion and a supported copolymer bilayer membrane are investigated by using the self-consistent field theory. For different system parameters, physical observables, such as the interaction free energy, entropy, and translocation energy barrier, are obtained. Particular emphasis is put on the closely energetic and entropic analyses of the interaction. It shows that the interfacial energy provides a qualitative trend and dominates the basic shape of the interaction free energy curve; the combination of chemical potential energy and total entropy contribution is responsible for the translocation energy barrier and the weak attraction in the vicinity of upper monolayer surface. We also specify the nature, height, and shape of the energy barrier to translocation. Particularly, the height is roughly proportional to the rod radius.

  17. Generation of valley-polarized electron beam in bilayer graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Changsoo

    2015-12-28

    We propose a method to produce valley-polarized electron beams using a bilayer graphene npn junction. By analyzing the transmission properties of electrons through the junction with zigzag interface in the presence of trigonal warping, we observe that there exist a range of incident energies and barrier heights in which transmitted electrons are well polarized and collimated. From this observation and by performing numerical simulations, it is demonstrated that valley-dependent electronic currents with nearly perfect polarization can be generated. We also show that the peak-to-peak separation angle between the polarized currents is tunable either by incident energy or by barrier height each of which is controlled by using top and back gate voltages. The results can be used for constructing an electron beam splitter to produce valley-polarized currents.

  18. Spin-Swapping Transport and Torques in Ultrathin Magnetic Bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saidaoui, Hamed Ben Mohamed; Manchon, A.

    2016-07-01

    Planar spin transport in disordered ultrathin magnetic bilayers comprising a ferromagnet and a normal metal (typically used for spin pumping, spin Seebeck and spin-orbit torque experiments) is investigated theoretically. Using a tight-binding model that puts the extrinsic spin Hall effect and spin swapping on equal footing, we show that the nature of spin-orbit coupled transport dramatically depends on the ratio between the layer thickness d and the mean free path λ . While the spin Hall effect dominates in the diffusive limit (d ≫λ ), spin swapping dominates in the Knudsen regime (d ≲λ ). A remarkable consequence is that spin swapping induces a substantial fieldlike torque in the Knudsen regime.

  19. Realization of free-standing silicene using bilayer graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Neek-Amal, M.; Sadeghi, A.; Berdiyorov, G. R.; Peeters, F. M.

    2013-12-23

    The available synthesized silicene-like structures have been only realized on metallic substrates which are very different from the standalone buckled silicene, e.g., the Dirac cone of silicene is destroyed due to lattice distortion and the interaction with the substrate. Using graphene bilayer as a scaffold, a route is proposed to synthesize silicene with electronic properties decoupled from the substrate. The buckled hexagonal arrangement of silicene between the graphene layers is found to be very similar to the theoretically predicted standalone buckled silicene which is only very weakly van der Waals coupled to the graphene layers with a graphite-like interlayer distance of 3.42 Å and without any lattice distortion. We found that these stacked layers are stable well above room temperature.

  20. Formulation of Bilayer Benzydamine HCl Patch Targeted For Gingivitis

    PubMed Central

    Sanghai, Piyush; Poddar, Sushilkumar

    2016-01-01

    In the present study bilayer patch of benzydamine HCl was developed using solvent casting method. Different substrates were attempted like Petri dish, glass-and-ring, and teflon-and-ring for selection of the proper option to formulate patch that should give easily peelable film with adequate mechanical properties. HPMC E15 LV was used in different concentrations for obtaining proper viscosity of solution for pouring on to surface and ring, that it should not leak from ring. The second layer was optimized by using different polymer like eudragit RSPO, eudragit RSPO + EC, and eudragit NE30 D for efficient layer bonding. The minimum release from backing membrane was established by diffusion study as compared to from drug loaded layer. The optimized batches were evaluated for folding endurance, weight variation, thickness, drug content, drug release, tensile strength, layer separation, mucoadhesion, moisture uptake, and layer bonding. The novel gingival patch of benzydamine HCl developed would be beneficial in optimizing the therapy. PMID:28127472

  1. Bilayer of Terbium Double-Decker Single-Molecule Magnets

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We report a low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy study of the structural and electronic properties of a bilayer of terbium double-decker (bis(phthalocyaninato)terbium(III), TbPc2) molecules on Au(111) at 5 K. The TbPc2 molecules are found to adsorb flat on top of a first compact TbPc2 monolayer on Au(111), forming a square-like packing similar to the underlying first layer. Their frontier-orbital electronic structure, measured by tunneling conductance spectroscopy, clearly differs from that of the underlying first monolayer. Our results of second-layer molecules indicate the absence of, both, hybrid molecule–substrate electronic states close to the Fermi level and a zero-bias Kondo resonance. We attribute these findings to a decreased electronic coupling with the Au(111) substrate. PMID:27390613

  2. Adsorption of phospholipid bilayers onto pullulan-modified cellulose surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Heejun; Liu, Zelin; Esker, Alan

    2009-03-01

    1,2-Dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) vesicle adsorption onto regenerated cellulose and pullulan 4-bromocinnamate (P4BC) modified cellulose surfaces was investigated via surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D). P4BC with a degree of substitution (DS) of 0.061 ± 0.002 from UV measurements and 0.058 from ^1H NMR was synthesized from pullulan and 4-bromocinnamic acid to yield P4BC. The deduced thicknesses from SPR for DMPC layers were ˜3.7 nm (bilayer) on regenerated cellulose surfaces and ˜2.1 nm (monolayer) on P4BC modified cellulose surfaces. Qualitative analysis of the QCM-D data also indicated that the DMPC layers on P4BC modified cellulose surfaces were thinner than on regenerated cellulose surfaces.

  3. Structure of exciton condensates in imbalanced electron-hole bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varley, J. R.; Lee, D. K. K.

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the possibility of excitonic superfluidity in electron-hole bilayers. We calculate the phase diagram of the system for the whole range of electron-hole density imbalance and for different degrees of electrostatic screening, using mean-field theory and a Ginzburg-Landau expansion. We are able to resolve differences on previous work in the literature which concentrated on restricted regions of the parameter space. We also give detailed descriptions of the pairing wave function in the Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov paired state. The Ginzburg-Landau treatment allows us to investigate the energy scales involved in the pairing state and discuss the possible spontaneous breaking of two-dimensional translation symmetry in the ground state.

  4. Phosphatidyl-hydroxytyrosol and phosphatidyl-tyrosol bilayer properties.

    PubMed

    Evans, Kervin O; Compton, David L

    2017-01-01

    Hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol phospholipids were enzymatically synthesized and investigated for their bilayer properties. Dynamic light scattering demonstrated that hand extrusion at 100nm consistently resulted in liposomes of nearly 85nm diameter for both phosphatidyl-hydroxytyrosol (DOPHT) and phosphatidyl-tyrosol (DOPT). Transmission electron microscopy showed DOPT and DOPHT liposomes extruded at 100-nm to be spherical and non-distinctive from one another. Zeta potential measurements resulted in surface charges<-25mV, demonstrating both DOPT and DOPHT form highly stable liposomes. Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring measurements demonstrated that liposomal adsorption was dependent on a combination of DOPT (or DOPHT) mole-percent and calcium ions concentration. Fluorescence anisotropy measurements indicated that melting temperatures of DOPT and DOPHT were below 4°C, suggesting that adsorption behavior and liposome formation was limited by electrostatic interactions and not gel-state formation.

  5. Axially Tapered And Bilayer Microchannels For Evaporative Cooling Devices

    DOEpatents

    Nilson, Robert; Griffiths, Stewart

    2005-10-04

    The invention consists of an evaporative cooling device comprising one or more microchannels whose cross section is axially reduced to control the maximum capillary pressure differential between liquid and vapor phases. In one embodiment, the evaporation channels have a rectangular cross section that is reduced in width along a flow path. In another embodiment, channels of fixed width are patterned with an array of microfabricated post-like features such that the feature size and spacing are gradually reduced along the flow path. Other embodiments incorporate bilayer channels consisting of an upper cover plate having a pattern of slots or holes of axially decreasing size and a lower fluid flow layer having channel widths substantially greater than the characteristic microscale dimensions of the patterned cover plate. The small dimensions of the cover plate holes afford large capillary pressure differentials while the larger dimensions of the lower region reduce viscous flow resistance.

  6. Porous Nanoparticle Supported Lipid Bilayers (Protocells) as Delivery Vehicles

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Juewen; Stace-Naughton, Alison; Jiang, Xingmao; Brinker, C. Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Mixing liposomes with hydrophilic particles will induce fusion of the liposome onto the particle surface. Such supported bilayers have been extensively studied as a model for the cell membrane, while its application in drug delivery has not been pursued. In this communication, we report the use of phospholipids to achieve synergistic loading and encapsulating of a fluorescent dye (calcein) in mesoporous silica nanoparticles, and its delivery into mammalian cells. We found that cationic lipid DOTAP provides the highest calcein loading with the concentration inside silica ∼110× higher than that in the solution under experimental conditions. Compared to some other nanoparticle systems, protocells provide a simple construct for loading, sealing, delivering and releasing, and should serve as a useful system in nanomedicine. PMID:19173660

  7. Dual-gated bilayer graphene hot-electron bolometer.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jun; Kim, M-H; Elle, J A; Sushkov, A B; Jenkins, G S; Milchberg, H M; Fuhrer, M S; Drew, H D

    2012-06-03

    Graphene is an attractive material for use in optical detectors because it absorbs light from mid-infrared to ultraviolet wavelengths with nearly equal strength. Graphene is particularly well suited for bolometers-devices that detect temperature-induced changes in electrical conductivity caused by the absorption of light-because its small electron heat capacity and weak electron-phonon coupling lead to large light-induced changes in electron temperature. Here, we demonstrate a hot-electron bolometer made of bilayer graphene that is dual-gated to create a tunable bandgap and electron-temperature-dependent conductivity. The bolometer exhibits a noise-equivalent power (33 fW Hz(-1/2) at 5 K) that is several times lower, and intrinsic speed (>1 GHz at 10 K) three to five orders of magnitude higher than commercial silicon bolometers and superconducting transition-edge sensors at similar temperatures.

  8. Magnetic bilayer-skyrmions without skyrmion Hall effect

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xichao; Zhou, Yan; Ezawa, Motohiko

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic skyrmions might be used as information carriers in future advanced memories, logic gates and computing devices. However, there exists an obstacle known as the skyrmion Hall effect (SkHE), that is, the skyrmion trajectories bend away from the driving current direction due to the Magnus force. Consequently, the skyrmions in constricted geometries may be destroyed by touching the sample edges. Here we theoretically propose that the SkHE can be suppressed in the antiferromagnetically exchange-coupled bilayer system, since the Magnus forces in the top and bottom layers are exactly cancelled. We show that such a pair of SkHE-free magnetic skyrmions can be nucleated and be driven by the current-induced torque. Our proposal provides a promising means to move magnetic skyrmions in a perfectly straight trajectory in ultra-dense devices with ultra-fast processing speed. PMID:26782905

  9. Interfacial Properties of Bilayer and Trilayer Graphene on Metal Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jiaxin; Wang, Yangyang; Wang, Lu; Quhe, Ruge; Ni, Zeyuan; Mei, Wai-Ning; Gao, Zhengxiang; Yu, Dapeng; Shi, Junjie; Lu, Jing

    2013-01-01

    One popular approach to prepare graphene is to grow them on transition metal substrates via chemical vapor deposition. By using the density functional theory with dispersion correction, we systematically investigate for the first time the interfacial properties of bilayer (BLG) and trilayer graphene (TLG) on metal substrates. Three categories of interfacial structures are revealed. The adsorption of B(T)LG on Al, Ag, Cu, Au, and Pt substrates is a weak physisorption, but a band gap can be opened. The adsorption of B(T)LG on Ti, Ni, and Co substrates is a strong chemisorption, and a stacking-insensitive band gap is opened for the two uncontacted layers of TLG. The adsorption of B(T)LG on Pd substrate is a weaker chemisorption, with a band gap opened for the uncontacted layers. This fundamental study also helps for B(T)LG device study due to inevitable graphene/metal contact. PMID:23803738

  10. Band tunneling through double barrier in biased graphene bilayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Hasan M.; El Mouhafid, Abderrahim; Bahlouli, H.; Jellal, Ahmed

    2017-02-01

    We calculate the transport properties of charge carriers in graphene bilayers across symmetric and asymmetric double potential barrier considering energies exceeding the inter-layer coupling where two transport modes exist. Evaluating the transmission and reflection probabilities and corresponding conductances, we show that the transport is sensitive to the distance between the two barriers. Moreover, we explain the characteristic features observed in the numerical calculations, such as resonance tunneling at normal incidence, based on the Febry–Pèrot oscillations and ballistic transmission carried out by the evanescent waves. Finally, we compute the conductance of each mode separately and investigate contributions from inter-mode scattering and show that some geometric potential parameters can be used to control the total conductance of the system.

  11. Charge-reversal instability in mixed bilayer vesicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yi; Nelson, Philip

    2000-08-01

    Bilayer vesicles form readily from mixtures of charged and neutral surfactants. When such a mixed vesicle binds an oppositely charged object, its membrane partially demixes: the adhesion zone recruits more charged surfactants from the rest of the membrane. Given an unlimited supply of adhering objects one might expect the vesicle to remain attractive until it was completely covered. Contrary to this expectation, we show that a vesicle can instead exhibit adhesion saturation, partitioning spontaneously into an attractive zone with definite area fraction, and a repulsive zone. The latter zone rejects additional incoming objects because counterions on the interior of the vesicle migrate there, effectively reversing the membrane's charge. The effect is strongest at high surface charge densities, low ionic strength, and with thin, impermeable membranes. Adhesion saturation in such a situation has recently been observed experimentally [H. Aranda-Espinoza et al., Science 285, 394 (1999)].

  12. Kinetin Increases Water Permeability of Phosphatidylcholine Lipid Bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Stillwell, William; Hester, Paul

    1983-01-01

    Kinetin is shown to increase substantially the water permeability of liposomes composed of several types of phosphatidylcholines including the natural phospholipids egg lecithin and asolectin and the synthetic phospholipids dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine and dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine. Kinetin effects were measured from 16.3 micromolar to 2.4 millimolar at temperatures from 10°C to 50°C and at pH 2.0, 7.0, and 11.0. Temperature studies indicate that kinetin produces a larger increase in water permeability with membranes in the more fluid liquid crystalline state. Kinetin is also shown to enhance [14C]glucose permeability and perhaps promotes membrane aggregation. From these experiments, we conclude that kinetin may produce its initial effect by altering the lipid bilayer portion of membranes. PMID:16662860

  13. Magnetic bilayer-skyrmions without skyrmion Hall effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xichao; Zhou, Yan; Ezawa, Motohiko

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic skyrmions might be used as information carriers in future advanced memories, logic gates and computing devices. However, there exists an obstacle known as the skyrmion Hall effect (SkHE), that is, the skyrmion trajectories bend away from the driving current direction due to the Magnus force. Consequently, the skyrmions in constricted geometries may be destroyed by touching the sample edges. Here we theoretically propose that the SkHE can be suppressed in the antiferromagnetically exchange-coupled bilayer system, since the Magnus forces in the top and bottom layers are exactly cancelled. We show that such a pair of SkHE-free magnetic skyrmions can be nucleated and be driven by the current-induced torque. Our proposal provides a promising means to move magnetic skyrmions in a perfectly straight trajectory in ultra-dense devices with ultra-fast processing speed.

  14. Excitonic gap formation and condensation in the bilayer graphene structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apinyan, V.; Kopeć, T. K.

    2016-09-01

    We have studied the excitonic gap formation in the Bernal Stacked, bilayer graphene (BLG) structures at half-filling. Considering the local Coulomb interaction between the layers, we calculate the excitonic gap parameter and we discuss the role of the interlayer and intralayer Coulomb interactions and the interlayer hopping on the excitonic pair formation in the BLG. Particularly, we predict the origin of excitonic gap formation and condensation, in relation to the furthermost interband optical transition spectrum. The general diagram of excitonic phase transition is given, explaining different interlayer correlation regimes. The temperature dependence of the excitonic gap parameter is shown and the role of the chemical potential, in the BLG, is discussed in details.

  15. Disorder-tuned selection of ordered state in bilayer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Junhua; Nandkishore, Rahul; Rossi, Enrico

    2014-03-01

    The nature of the symmetry-broken state driven by interaction in bilayer graphene (BLG) has attracted a lot of interest. Theoretical studies predict various possible ordered phases as the candidate for the ground state of BLG. To identify what instability is the most favorable in BLG, a number of experiments have been performed by several groups. However, there is no consensus: some experiments show evidence for a fully gapped state while others seem more consistent with a nematic state. By exploring the influence of disorder on a variety of competing ordered states, we find that the pair breaking effect due to disorder varies among the candidate phases, giving rise to different amount of suppression on the mean-field transition temperatures. This suggests a simple and natural scenario to resolve the discrepancy between experimental observations. Work supported by ONR grant number ONR-N00014-13-1-0321.

  16. Spectroscopic signatures of AA' and AB stacking of chemical vapor deposited bilayer MoS2

    DOE PAGES

    Xia, Ming; Li, Bo; Yin, Kuibo; ...

    2015-11-04

    We discuss prominent resonance Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopic differences between AA'and AB stacked bilayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) grown by chemical vapor deposition are reported. Bilayer MoS2 islands consisting of the two stacking orders were obtained under identical growth conditions. Also, resonance Raman and photoluminescence spectra of AA' and AB stacked bilayer MoS2 were obtained on Au nanopyramid surfaces under strong plasmon resonance. Both resonance Raman and photoluminescence spectra show distinct features indicating clear differences in interlayer interaction between these two phases. The implication of these findings on device applications based on spin and valley degrees of freedom.

  17. Bilayer splitting and wave functions symmetry in Sr3Ir2O7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreschini, L.; Moser, S.; Ebrahimi, A.; Dalla Piazza, B.; Kim, K. S.; Boseggia, S.; McMorrow, D. F.; Rønnow, H. M.; Chang, J.; Prabhakaran, D.; Boothroyd, A. T.; Rotenberg, E.; Bostwick, A.; Grioni, M.

    2014-05-01

    The influence of dimensionality on the electronic properties of layered perovskite materials remains an outstanding issue. We address it here for Sr3Ir2O7, the bilayer compound of the iridate Srn+1IrnO3n+1 series. By angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy we show that in this material the interlayer coupling is large and that the intercell coupling is, conversely, negligible. From a detailed mapping of the bilayer splitting, and from the intensity modulation of the bonding and antibonding bands with photon energy, we establish differences and similarities with the prominent case of the bilayer superconducting cuprates.

  18. Molecular dynamics simulation of unsaturated lipid bilayers at low hydration: parameterization and comparison with diffraction studies.

    PubMed

    Feller, S E; Yin, D; Pastor, R W; MacKerell, A D

    1997-11-01

    A potential energy function for unsaturated hydrocarbons is proposed and is shown to agree well with experiment, using molecular dynamics simulations of a water/octene interface and a dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine (DOPC) bilayer. The simulation results verify most of the assumptions used in interpreting the DOPC experiments, but suggest a few that should be reconsidered. Comparisons with recent results of a simulation of a dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) lipid bilayer show that disorder is comparable, even though the temperature, hydration level, and surface area/lipid for DOPC are lower. These observations highlight the dramatic effects of unsaturation on bilayer structure.

  19. Pseudospin canting transition and stripes in bilayer quantum Hall ferromagnets: a self-charging capacitor.

    PubMed

    Radzihovsky, L

    2001-12-03

    We predict that in nu(T) = 1 bilayer quantum Hall (QH) pseudoferromagnets, an in-plane magnetic field can induce a reentrant pseudospin "canting" transition between interlayer charge balanced (planar) to imbalanced (canted) QH states. At T = 0 ( T>0) this quantum (classical) transition is in a new, anisotropic, compressible (2+1)D (2D) Ising universality class. The striking experimental signatures are the universal nonlinear charge-voltage and in-plane field relations, and the divergence of the differential bilayer capacitance at the transition, resulting in a bilayer capacitor that spontaneously charges itself, even in the absence of an applied interlayer voltage.

  20. Passivating overcoat bilayer for multilayer reflective coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    DOEpatents

    Montcalm, Claude; Stearns, Daniel G.; Vernon, Stephen P.

    1999-01-01

    A passivating overcoat bilayer is used for multilayer reflective coatings for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) or soft x-ray applications to prevent oxidation and corrosion of the multilayer coating, thereby improving the EUV optical performance. The overcoat bilayer comprises a layer of silicon or beryllium underneath at least one top layer of an elemental or a compound material that resists oxidation and corrosion. Materials for the top layer include carbon, palladium, carbides, borides, nitrides, and oxides. The thicknesses of the two layers that make up the overcoat bilayer are optimized to produce the highest reflectance at the wavelength range of operation. Protective overcoat systems comprising three or more layers are also possible.