Science.gov

Sample records for 1-piece urostomy bags

  1. Urostomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... the bladder (called neurogenic bladder disease) Birth defects Chronic inflammation of the bladder For the thousands of people who have serious bladder diseases, a urostomy can be the start of a new and healthier life. If you have had a chronic (long-term) problem or a life-threatening disease ...

  2. Urostomy - stoma and skin care

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000477.htm Urostomy - stoma and skin care To use the sharing features on this ... stoma if it is scraped. Caring for the Skin Around Your Stoma After surgery, the skin around ...

  3. Urostomy pouches and supplies

    MedlinePlus

    ... or 2-piece pouch system. A 1-piece system is made up of a pouch that has an adhesive or sticky layer on it. This adhesive layer has a hole that fits over the stoma. It can stay on for 1 to 3 ... A 2-piece pouch system has a skin barrier called a flange. The ...

  4. A convex urostomy pouch with adhesive border: a patient survey.

    PubMed

    McPhail, Jacqueline; Nichols, Thom; Menier, Melissa

    Patients previously using a standard-wear convex skin barrier urostomy pouch were invited by letter from a Dispensing Appliance Contractor to evaluate a similar pouching system, but with the addition of an extended-wear convex barrier and adhesive border. A total of 47 patients agreed to take part. Patients were asked to try three pouches and complete one evaluation form. Study participants found the addition of an extended-wear convex barrier and adhesive border, was easy to use, provided them with security and the potential for longer wear time.

  5. Health-related quality of life in patients with urostomies.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Ascension; Barbera, Susana; Lombraña, Maria; Izquierdo, Laura; Baños, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    To assess health-related quality of life in patients with urothelial (bladder) cancer 6 months following radical cystectomy with construction of a urostomy. The target sample was 54 patients with urothelial cancer who underwent radical cystectomy with Bricker-type incontinent urinary diversion between December 2008 and December 2009; 37 out of 54 (68%) of potential respondents agreed to participate. Seven potential subjects died within the 6-month period and we were unable to locate 10 potential respondents. The Stoma-Quality of Life was developed to be valid for measurement of 20 items that query the impact of the ostomy on the health-related quality of life and its impact on daily life. Scores were categorized as 70% to 100% (indicating good quality of life), 30% to 69% (indicating moderate quality of life), and 0 to 29% (indicating poor quality of life). Subjects responded to the Stoma-Quality of Life questionnaire by telephone 6 months after urostomy surgery. Thirty-five were ranked as having a good quality of life. The remaining 2 subjects had scores indicating moderate quality of life; no respondent was ranked as having a poor quality of life. Health-related quality of life was ranked as good in 95% of a group of patients managed by radical cystectomy and Bricker ileal conduit construction and moderate in 5%. Based on these findings, we conclude that the Bricker-type incontinent urinary diversion remains a viable treatment option for bladder cancer that allows an acceptable health-related quality of life.

  6. Urolithiasis following formation of a continent urostomy: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Sait, K; Stuart, G; Nation, J; Ghatage, P

    2000-05-01

    Formation of urinary stones in a continent urostomy (Indiana pouch) has been described as a late complication. Management of a patient with symptomatic multiple large stones and review of the literature are outlined. A 32-year-old woman presented with recurrent urinary tract infections and pyelonephritis 6 years after a total pelvic exenteration and creation of a continent urostomy for central recurrent carcinoma of the cervix after radical pelvic radiation. Multiple large stones were found to be the underlying etiology. Laparotomy, enterocystotomy, and removal of stones were performed without apparent complication. It is recommended that for single calculi or multiple small stones, electroshock wave lithotripsy or the percutaneous endoscopic approach be considered. For larger stones the use of laparotomy and enterocystostomy may be appropriate. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  7. It's in the Bag!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renfro, Nancy

    1983-01-01

    Thirteen ideas for using paper bags for class art activities are given. Directions for making bag barracudas, bionic bags, bigfoot bags, bag sculptures, bag beads, and body bag superstars are included. (PP)

  8. It's in the Bag!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renfro, Nancy

    1983-01-01

    Thirteen ideas for using paper bags for class art activities are given. Directions for making bag barracudas, bionic bags, bigfoot bags, bag sculptures, bag beads, and body bag superstars are included. (PP)

  9. Cooling profile following prosthetic preparation of 1-piece dental implants.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Omer; Gabay, Eran; Machtei, Eli E

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of water irrigation on heat dissipation kinetics following abutment preparation of 1-piece dental implants. UNO 1-piece dental implants were mounted on Plexiglas apparatus clamping the implant at the collar. T-type thermocouple was attached to the first thread of the implant and recorded thermal changes at 100 millisecond intervals. Implants were prepared using highspeed dental turbine at 400,000 RPM with a coarse diamond bur. Once temperature reached 47 degrees C, abutment preparation was discontinued. Thirty implants were divided into 2 groups. Group A: Passive cooling without water irrigation. Group B: Cooling with turbine's water spray adjacent to the implant (30 mL/min). The following parameters were measured: T47 (time from peak temperature to 47 degrees C), T50%, T75% (time until the temperature amplitude decayed by 50% and 75%, respectively), dTemp50%/dt decay, and dTemp75%/dt decay (cooling rate measured at 50% and 75% of amplitude decay, respectively). Water spray irrigation significantly reduced T47 (1.37+/-0.29 seconds vs 19.97+/-3.06 seconds, P<0.0001), T50% (3.04+/-0.34 seconds vs 27.37+/-2.56 seconds, P<0.0001), and T75% (5.71+/-0.57 seconds vs 57.61+/-5.47 seconds, P<0.0001). Water spray irrigation also increased cooling capacity ninefold: dTemp50%/dt decay (4.14+/-0.61 degrees C/s vs 0.48+/-0.06 degrees C/s, P<0.0001), and dTemp50%/dt decay (1.70+/-0.29 degrees C/s vs 0.19+/-0.03 degrees C/s, P<0.0001). The continuous use of water spray adjacent to the abutment following the cessation of implant preparation might prove beneficial for rapid cooling of the implant.

  10. Complexities of management of a urostomy in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome: a reflective account.

    PubMed

    Oxenham, Julie

    Mary (pseudonym) is a 30-year-old woman who underwent a urinary diversion and formation of an ileal conduit/urostomy (urinary stoma) due to the formation of multiple bladder diverticula, which caused micturition difficulties and recurrent urinary tract infections with associated pain and discomfort. The bladder diverticula were caused by Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS), a hereditary disorder of the connective tissue or, particulary, defective collagen. Surgical intervention in patients with EDS is prone to complications due to poor wound healing, including issues of dehiscence, postoperative bleeding and poor uptake of anaesthesia and analgesia. After an initial presentation of the syndrome of EDS and Mary's history, this article offers a reflective account (informed by Gibbs' Reflective Cycle) and illustrates the complexities of caring for an individual with EDS who undergoes stoma formation. The author, a stoma care nurse, demonstrates how using purposeful reflection resulted in better understanding and awareness of caring for an individual with a rare syndrome and the nursing challenges this presented.

  11. Urine drainage bags

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000142.htm Urine drainage bags To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Urine drainage bags collect urine. Your bag will attach ...

  12. Lunar regolith bagging system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, Reuben; Henninger, Scott; Levandoski, Mark; Perkins, Jim; Pitchon, Jack; Swats, Robin; Wessels, Roger

    1990-01-01

    A design of a lunar regolith bag and bagging system is described. The bags of regolith are to be used for construction applications on the lunar surface. The machine is designed to be used in conjunction with the lunar SKITTER currently under development. The bags for this system are 1 cu ft volume and are made from a fiberglass composite weave. The machinery is constructed mostly from a boron/aluminum composite. The machine can fill 120 bags per hour and work for 8 hours a day. The man hours to machine hours ratio to operate the machine is .5/8.

  13. Heat generation in 1-piece implants during abutment preparations with high-speed cutting instruments.

    PubMed

    Ormianer, Zeev; Lewinstein, Israel; Moses, Ofer

    2013-02-01

    Evaluation of heat generation in 1-piece implants according to 3 variables: preparation time, bur type, and preparation environment. Study implants were 1-piece designs with the same endosseous dimensions and surface microtexture, but with abutment sections that were either conical in shape, which required clinical preparations to shape and establish a restorative finish line (test), or with a pre-machined shape and restorative margin, which required minimal preparations (control) to accommodate a cemented crown. Burs were either carbide (group 1) or diamond (group 2), and the preparation environment was either ambient air or under water spray. An infrared camera was used to measure temperature changes in the exposed endosseous implant threads during grinding procedures. Three endosseous zones of the implant body were defined for heat measurements: crestal bone region (SP01), middle of the threaded region (SPO2), and apical region (SPO3). Grinding was performed in either ambient air or under water spray. The abutment was reduced to a 2.0 mm height, and one side was ground down to a 30 degree angle. Highest heat elevations were concentrated in SP01, followed by SP02 and SP03. Average temperature changes in SP01 showed that preparation time and environment significantly affected heat generation but not bur type. Lowest temperatures were exhibited by control implants prepared under water spray. Bur type (carbide or diamond) did not affect temperature changes. Intraoral implant abutment preparations can transfer heat to the bone capable of impairing osseointegration.

  14. Purple urine bags.

    PubMed

    Dealler, S F; Belfield, P W; Bedford, M; Whitley, A J; Mulley, G P

    1989-09-01

    Purple urine drainage bags were found in 7 of 71 chronically catheterized elderly women. The purple staining of the bags is due to a violet discoloration (indirubin) of the plastic of the catheter bag and fine blue crystals of indigo in the urine. The colors are formed from the substrate indoxyl sulfate (indican) and all 7 patients had bacteria in the urine that would produce blue colonies on agar enriched with the urine (filter sterilized) of the patients involved. Organisms identified were Providencia or Klebsiella species. Indican excretion was higher in patients with purple urinary catheter bags than in controls.

  15. Blast-Absorbing Bag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, Jon B.

    1992-01-01

    Proposed expandable bag contains debris from explosion. Permanently surrounds vessel or devices prone to explosive disintegration or slipped around small bomb. Finned cells shaped like outward-opening cups. Cells built up from overlapped sheets of fabric and stitched together to form expandable polyhedral bag. Cells pentagonal, triangular or square.

  16. Anaerobic bag culture method.

    PubMed Central

    Rosenblatt, J E; Stewart, P R

    1975-01-01

    In a new method of anaerobic culture, a transparent, gas-impermeable bag is used and the anaerobic environment is established with copper sulfate-saturated steel wool. An Alka-Seltzer tablet generates carbon dioxide. The agar plate surface can be inspected through the bag at any time without interrupting the anaerobic atmosphere or disturbing other specimens. Methylene blue indicator strips are completely reduced by 4 h after the bag is set up and have remained reduced for as long as 3 weeks. Growth of 16 different stock culture anaerobes was generally equivalent by the bag and GasPak jar methods. Yield and growth of anaerobic isolates also were equivalent with 7 of 10 clinical specimens; from the other 3 specimens, 13 isolates were recovered, 5 by both the bag and jar methods and the rest by one method or the other. No consistent differences were found between the anaerobic bag and GasPak jar methods in the yield of anaerobes from clinical specimens. Early growth (24 h of incubation) of anaerobes from one specimen was detected with the bag method. Images PMID:1100671

  17. Anaerobic bag culture method.

    PubMed

    Rosenblatt, J E; Stewart, P R

    1975-06-01

    In a new method of anaerobic culture, a transparent, gas-impermeable bag is used and the anaerobic environment is established with copper sulfate-saturated steel wool. An Alka-Seltzer tablet generates carbon dioxide. The agar plate surface can be inspected through the bag at any time without interrupting the anaerobic atmosphere or disturbing other specimens. Methylene blue indicator strips are completely reduced by 4 h after the bag is set up and have remained reduced for as long as 3 weeks. Growth of 16 different stock culture anaerobes was generally equivalent by the bag and GasPak jar methods. Yield and growth of anaerobic isolates also were equivalent with 7 of 10 clinical specimens; from the other 3 specimens, 13 isolates were recovered, 5 by both the bag and jar methods and the rest by one method or the other. No consistent differences were found between the anaerobic bag and GasPak jar methods in the yield of anaerobes from clinical specimens. Early growth (24 h of incubation) of anaerobes from one specimen was detected with the bag method.

  18. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broyan, James; Baccus, Shelley

    2014-01-01

    The Logistics Reduction (LR) project within the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program is tasked with reducing logistical mass and repurposing logistical items. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags (MCTB) have been designed such that they can serve the same purpose as a Cargo Transfer Bag, the suitcase-shaped common logistics carrying bag for Shuttle and the International Space Station. After use as a cargo carrier, a regular CTB becomes trash, whereas the MCTB can be unzipped, unsnapped, and unfolded to be reused. Reuse ideas that have been investigated include partitions, crew quarters, solar radiation storm shelters, acoustic blankets, and forward osmosis water processing.

  19. Air bag restraint device

    DOEpatents

    Marts, Donna J.; Richardson, John G.

    1995-01-01

    A rear-seat air bag restraint device is disclosed that prevents an individual, or individuals, from continuing violent actions while being transported in a patrol vehicle's rear seat without requiring immediate physical contact by the law enforcement officer. The air bag is activated by a control switch in the front seat and inflates to independently restrict the amount of physical activity occurring in the rear seat of the vehicle while allowing the officer to safely stop the vehicle. The air bag can also provide the officer additional time to get backup personnel to aid him if the situation warrants it. The bag is inflated and maintains a constant pressure by an air pump.

  20. Air bag restraint device

    DOEpatents

    Marts, D.J.; Richardson, J.G.

    1995-10-17

    A rear-seat air bag restraint device is disclosed that prevents an individual, or individuals, from continuing violent actions while being transported in a patrol vehicle`s rear seat without requiring immediate physical contact by the law enforcement officer. The air bag is activated by a control switch in the front seat and inflates to independently restrict the amount of physical activity occurring in the rear seat of the vehicle while allowing the officer to safely stop the vehicle. The air bag can also provide the officer additional time to get backup personnel to aid him if the situation warrants it. The bag is inflated and maintains a constant pressure by an air pump. 8 figs.

  1. Bag of Bones.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menger, Richard A.

    1994-01-01

    A teacher describes the procedures used by students to mount skeletons of small animals. Equipped with ziplock bags and papain, students can make the cumbersome task of mounting more time efficient and easy. (ZWH)

  2. Bag of Bones.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menger, Richard A.

    1994-01-01

    A teacher describes the procedures used by students to mount skeletons of small animals. Equipped with ziplock bags and papain, students can make the cumbersome task of mounting more time efficient and easy. (ZWH)

  3. Gravitating lepton bag model

    SciTech Connect

    Burinskii, A.

    2015-08-15

    The Kerr–Newman (KN) black hole (BH) solution exhibits the external gravitational and electromagnetic field corresponding to that of the Dirac electron. For the large spin/mass ratio, a ≫ m, the BH loses horizons and acquires a naked singular ring creating two-sheeted topology. This space is regularized by the Higgs mechanism of symmetry breaking, leading to an extended particle that has a regular spinning core compatible with the external KN solution. We show that this core has much in common with the known MIT and SLAC bag models, but has the important advantage of being in accordance with the external gravitational and electromagnetic fields of the KN solution. A peculiar two-sheeted structure of Kerr’s gravity provides a framework for the implementation of the Higgs mechanism of symmetry breaking in configuration space in accordance with the concept of the electroweak sector of the Standard Model. Similar to other bag models, the KN bag is flexible and pliant to deformations. For parameters of a spinning electron, the bag takes the shape of a thin rotating disk of the Compton radius, with a ring–string structure and a quark-like singular pole formed at the sharp edge of this disk, indicating that the considered lepton bag forms a single bag–string–quark system.

  4. Changing your urostomy pouch

    MedlinePlus

    ... can stand over a toilet or use rolled up gauze or paper towels below your stoma to absorb the urine. When you remove the old pouch, push down on your skin to loosen it. DO NOT pull the pouch off your skin. Before you put ...

  5. Bag filters for TPP

    SciTech Connect

    L.V. Chekalov; Yu.I. Gromov; V.V. Chekalov

    2007-05-15

    Cleaning of TPP flue gases with bag filters capable of pulsed regeneration is examined. A new filtering element with a three-dimensional filtering material formed from a needle-broached cloth in which the filtration area, as compared with a conventional smooth bag, is increased by more than two times, is proposed. The design of a new FRMI type of modular filter is also proposed. A standard series of FRMI filters with a filtration area ranging from 800 to 16,000 m{sup 2} is designed for an output more than 1 million m{sub 3}/h of with respect to cleaned gas. The new bag filter permits dry collection of sulfur oxides from waste gases at TPP operating on high-sulfur coals. The design of the filter makes it possible to replace filter elements without taking the entire unit out of service.

  6. Online Bagging and Boosting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oza, Nikunji C.

    2005-01-01

    Bagging and boosting are two of the most well-known ensemble learning methods due to their theoretical performance guarantees and strong experimental results. However, these algorithms have been used mainly in batch mode, i.e., they require the entire training set to be available at once and, in some cases, require random access to the data. In this paper, we present online versions of bagging and boosting that require only one pass through the training data. We build on previously presented work by presenting some theoretical results. We also compare the online and batch algorithms experimentally in terms of accuracy and running time.

  7. Evaluation of the environmental impact of portion bag for food packaging: a case study of Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruangrit, Chaniporn; Usapein, Parnuwat; Limphitakphong, Nantamol; Chavalparit, Orathai

    2017-05-01

    This study applied life cycle assessment methodology in evaluating environmental impact of portion bag. The objective of this study was to identify the hotspot of environmental impact through life cycle of portion bag. The options were proposed for improving environmental performance of the product. The system boundary was defined as cradle-to-grave which included the ethylene production, LDPE and LLDPE resins production, portion bag production, disposal, and transportation. All materials and emissions were calculated based on 1 piece of portion bag which weighed 2.49 g. IMPACT 2002+ was used for assessing environmental impact on SimaPro V8.2 software. The result found that the most of environmental impact was generated from LDPE and LLDPE resins which was used as raw material for producing portion bag. After normalization, non-renewable energy showed the highest potential to concern. This impact related directly to the natural gas drilling, ethane production, ethylene production, resin productions, and energy in all process. In conclusion, it should be suggested that the selection of bio-material for producing portion bag can play an important role to reduce the environmental impact. The research demonstrates the possible way and benefits in improving cleaner raw material and suitable way of product's end-of-life for producing green portion bag in the future.

  8. It's in the Bag

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betterton, Maribelle H.; Ensworth, Lynne C.

    2006-01-01

    The authors discuss the "thematic literacy bags" project they created to help them integrate language arts across the curriculum, promoting differentiated instruction while taking into account various learning styles and multiple intelligences. This idea became a reality when they were awarded a local grant to develop innovative educational…

  9. Book Bag Buddies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden, Angie; Townsend, J. Scott; Green, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Children love to learn about new topics and share what they have discovered with their teachers, families, and friends. The authors designed the "Book Bag Buddies" project to give their third-grade students a chance to channel their enthusiasm and research from science investigations into writing. In this creative project, students integrated…

  10. Book Bag Buddies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden, Angie; Townsend, J. Scott; Green, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Children love to learn about new topics and share what they have discovered with their teachers, families, and friends. The authors designed the "Book Bag Buddies" project to give their third-grade students a chance to channel their enthusiasm and research from science investigations into writing. In this creative project, students integrated…

  11. Lunar Regolith Bagging System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Sebrina; Lundberg, Kimberly; Mcgarity, Ginger; Silverman, Philip

    1990-01-01

    A regolith container to be used as a fundamental building block in radiation protection of a habitable lunar base was designed. Parameters for the container are its: size, shape, material, and structural design. Also, a machine was designed to fill the regolith container which is capable of grasping and opening an empty container, filling it, closing it when full, and depositing it on the surface of the Moon. The simple design will bag lunar soil in a relatively short amount of time, with a low equipment weight, and with moving parts distanced from the dirt. The bags are made out of Kevlar 149 with a fabric weight of 6 oz. per square yard. All machine parts are composed of aluminum 6061-T6. Assuming that the vehicle runs at 7 km/hr for 8 hours a day, the machine will bag the necessary 450 cu m of soil in about 12 days. The total mass of the bags and the machine to be shipped to the Moon will be 687 kg. The cost of shipping this weight will be $6.23 million.

  12. Purple Urine Bag Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Al Montasir, Ahmed; Al Mustaque, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) is rare disease entity, occurs predominantly in constipated women, chronically catheterized and associated with bacterial urinary infections that produce sulphatase/phosphatase. The etiology is due to indigo (blue) and indirubin (red) or to their mixture that becomes purple. We present a case report of this rare phenomenon occurring in an 86-year-old woman. PMID:24479059

  13. Purple urine bag syndrome.

    PubMed

    Al Montasir, Ahmed; Al Mustaque, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) is rare disease entity, occurs predominantly in constipated women, chronically catheterized and associated with bacterial urinary infections that produce sulphatase/phosphatase. The etiology is due to indigo (blue) and indirubin (red) or to their mixture that becomes purple. We present a case report of this rare phenomenon occurring in an 86-year-old woman.

  14. Storing Peanuts in Grain Bags

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A study was executed to determine the potential of storing farmers stock peanuts and shelled peanuts for crushing in hermetically sealed grain bags. The objectives of the study were to evaluate equipment for loading and unloading the grain bags, the capacity of the grain bags, and the changes in qu...

  15. Posterior capsule opacification in rabbit eyes implanted with 1-piece and 3-piece hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lenses.

    PubMed

    Werner, Liliana; Mamalis, Nick; Izak, Andrea M; Pandey, Suresh K; Davis, Brandon L; Nilson, Chistian D; Weight, Christopher; Apple, David J

    2005-04-01

    To evaluate the outcome of posterior capsule opacification (PCO) after implantation in rabbit eyes of currently available 3-piece and 1-piece hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lenses (IOLs) with square optic edges. John A. Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. The 3-piece designs evaluated were the AR40e (Advanced Medical Optics Inc.) and the MA60AC (Alcon, Inc.); the 1-piece designs were the SA60AT and the SA30AT (Alcon, Inc.). Nine lenses of each type were implanted in a randomized manner by the same surgeon in 18 Dutch Belted pigmented rabbits. After a follow-up of 3 weeks, the rabbits were killed and analyses of the enucleated eyes were performed from the posterior or Miyake-Apple view. The intensity of central PCO, peripheral PCO, and Soemmering's ring formation was scored from 0 to 4. The area of Soemmering's ring formation was also scored from 0 to 4 based on the number of quadrants involved. Other parameters analyzed were capsulorhexis coverage of the IOL anterior surface, IOL centration, fixation, and presence of striae. Results from the posterior view were complemented by histopathologic evaluation of the eyes. No statistically significant difference was found between the 4 groups of IOLs in the parameters analyzed from the posterior view. When cell ingrowth occurred with the 1-piece designs, causing peripheral and central PCO formation, it was more likely to start at the optic-haptic junctions, as observed during the clinical follow-up with slitlamp examination and confirmed by gross and histopathologic analyses of the enucleated eyes. The square, truncated optic edge is the most important IOL design feature for PCO prevention. The optic-haptic junctions of the 1-piece designs appear to be sites where the barrier effect of the truncated optic edge is less effective.

  16. Comparison of Nd: YAG capsulotomy rate between 1-piece and 3-piece acrylic intraocular lenses: A STROBE-compliant article.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun Young; Chung, Young Kwon; Shin, Hye Young; Lee, Mee Yon; Lee, Young-Chun; Kim, Su-Young

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the study is to compare Nd:YAG capsulotomy rate between acrylic 1- and 3-piece intraocular lenses. Among 924 eyes of 762 patients who received cataract surgery, we selected the 303 patients (404 eyes) implanted with an SN60WF 1-piece intraocular lens (Alcon, Fort Worth, TX) or a YA-60BBR 3-piece intraocular lens (Hoya Co., Tokyo, Japan). For intraindividual comparison, we enrolled the 17 patients implanted with an SN60WF in 1 eye and a YA-60BBR in the contralateral eye. We compared Nd:YAG capsulotomy rate between acrylic 1- and 3-piece intraocular lenses 24 months after the operation. Of the 404 eyes in this study, Nd:YAG capsulotomy was performed in 20 of 268 eyes (7.5%) in the SN60WF 1-piece intraocular lens group and 24 of 136 eyes (17.6%) in the YA-60BBR 3-piece intraocular lens group; the difference was statistically significant (P = .002). Among the 17 patients (34 eyes) who were implanted with 2 different inraocular lenses, Nd:YAG capsulotomy was performed in only 2 eyes (12%) in the SN60WF group and 9 eyes (53%) in the YA-60BBR group; the difference was statistically significant (P = .020).The authors found a significantly greater incidence of Nd:YAG capsulotomy in eyes who received 3-piece lenses compared with those who received 1-piece lenses.

  17. Early Periimplant Tissue Healing on 1-Piece Implants With a Concave Transmucosal Design: A Histomorphometric Study in Dogs.

    PubMed

    Bolle, Caroline; Gustin, Marie-Paule; Fau, Didier; Exbrayat, Patrick; Boivin, Georges; Grosgogeat, Brigitte

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of our study was to investigate the early healing phase of marginal bone and soft tissues around unloaded 1-piece implants with a concave transmucosal design, in a dog model. Twenty-four 1-piece implants with a concave transmucosal neck were inserted 1 mm subcrestally in the mandibular ridge of 8 beagle dogs. Four animals were sacrificed after 3 and 12 weeks of healing. Histomorphometric analysis was performed to measure the height of the periimplant tissues. The overall height of the periimplant mucosa was, respectively, 2.67 and 2.52 mm, after 3 and 12 weeks. In the connective tissue, a soft tissue O-ring seal was observed in the healing area provided by the transmucosal concavity, after 12 weeks. The location of the first bone-to-implant contact facing the implant shoulder was 0.00 and +0.18 mm, respectively, after 3 and 12 weeks of healing. Some bone apposition occurred on the implant shoulder during the healing. Within the limits of the present study, a concave transmucosal design in 1-piece implants was associated with a short vertical value of biological width and promoted a mechanical interlocking of the implant body at the connective tissue and marginal bone levels.

  18. Purple Urine Bag Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Abubacker, Naufal Rizwan Taraganar; Jayaraman, Senthil Manikandan Thirumanilayur; Sivanesan, Magesh Kumar; Mathew, Renu

    2015-01-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) is a rare disorder seen in elderly persons, wherein the urinary bag and the tubing turn in to purple colour. It is usually seen in patients who are on urinary catheters for a long time. Purple coloured urine occurs due to the accumulation of indigo and indirubin, which are the end products of tryptophan metabolism due to the action of sulfatases and phosphatases formed by bacteria like Providencia, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Klebsiella etc. We present this interesting phenomenon of purple urine in a young male who was on prolonged urinary catheterization. The urine culture was positive for Providencia and constipation was an added risk factor for the purple urine. The urinary catheter and tubing was changed along with a course of antibiotics which lead to the normalization of the urine colour. PMID:26435987

  19. ASTP - EQUIPMENT (GIFT BAG)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1975-07-01

    S75-27952 (July 1975) --- A close-up view of the special ?gift bag? in which several exchange/gift items will be carried aboard the Apollo Command Module during the joint U.S.-USSR Apollo-Soyuz Test Project mission. Some of these items are seen here alongside the bag. They are the sectionized ASTP Commemorative Plaque, ten 8x12 inch American flags, ten 8.07x16.14 inch (205mm x 410mm) Soviet Union flags, a special box of white spruce tree seeds, and the ASTP Certification to authorize the ASTP docking. The gifts will be presented and the exchange made while the Apollo and Soyuz spacecraft are docked in Earth orbit.

  20. Material bagging device

    DOEpatents

    Wach, Charles G.; Nelson, Robert E.; Brak, Stephen B.

    1984-01-01

    A bagging device for transferring material from one chamber through an opening in a wall to a second chamber includes a cylindrical housing communicating with the opening and defining a passage between the chambers. A cylindrical cartridge is slidably received within the housing. The cartridge has a substantially rigid cylindrical sleeve to which is affixed a pliable tube. The pliable tube is positioned concentrically about the sleeve and has a pleated portion capable of unfolding from the sleeve and a closed end extending over a terminal end of the sleeve. Sealing means are interposed in sealed relationship between the cartridge and the housing. Material from one chamber is inserted into the cartridge secured in the housing and received in the closed end of the tube which unfolds into the other chamber enclosing the material therein. The tube may then be sealed behind the material and then severed to form a bag-like enclosure defined by the tube's closed terminal end and the new seal. The new seal then forms a terminal end for the unsevered portion of the pliable tube into which additional material may be placed and the bagging process repeated.

  1. [Purple urine bag syndrome].

    PubMed

    Fain-Ghironi, Nathalie; Le Gonidec, Patricia; Schaeffer, Mathilde

    2003-06-14

    The report of purple discoloration in a urinary drainage system, known as Purple Urine Bag Syndrome (P.U.B.S.) is rarely described in the literature. In an 85 year-old woman, with permanent indwelling urinary catheter, the appearance of purple coloration in the urine collecting bag, without change in the colour of the urine, was observed four times in one year. During these different episodes, a Gram negative lower urinary infection diagnoses. The germs identified were Providencia stuartii and Citrobacter koseri. Symptoms resolved completely after treatment with ceftriaxone. The clinical and biological symptoms usually described in cases of P.U.B.S. are observed in the medical history of this elderly woman: indwelling catheter with delay before onset of coloration greater than 15 days following catheterization, alkaline urinary pH, Gram negative lower urinary tract infection. However, during one of the episodes of PUBS in our patient, Citrobacter koseri was identified, germ not mentioned, as far as we know, in the literature. Moreover, in the published cases, Proteus species was identified as potentially associated with P.U.B.S., but a Proteus mirabilis urinary infection with was diagnosed in our patient, without any purple coloration of the urine in the collection bag.

  2. Chiral bag with vector mesons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosaka, A.; Toki, H.; Weise, W.

    1990-01-01

    We investigate nucleon structure in a (non-linear) chiral bag model with vector mesons. The model incorporates two different degrees of freedom: mesons outside the bag at long and intermediate ranges, and quarks inside the bag at short distances. The ρ, a 1 and ω mesons outside the bag are included in a chiral effective lagrangian based on the non-linear sigma model. The classical solution is obtained using the hedgehog ansatz, and the cranking method is applied to construct the physical nucleon states. Static properties of the nucleon such as its mass, axial vector coupling constant, magnetic moments and charge radii are studied in detail as functions of the bag radius. Quark and meson contributions to these quantities are calculated separately. In particular, we discuss the extent to which the vector-meson dominance picture holds in the chiral bag.

  3. Acoustic Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baccus, Shelley

    2015-01-01

    The Logistics Reduction (LR) project within the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program is tasked with reducing logistical mass and repurposing logistical items. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags (MCTB) are designed to be the same external volume as a regular cargo transfer bag, the common logistics carrier for the International Space Station. After use as a cargo bag, the MCTB can be unzipped and unfolded to be reused. This Acoustic MCTBs transform into acoustic blankets after the initial logistics carrying objective is complete.

  4. Noise trauma from air bags.

    PubMed

    1999-04-01

    Air bags have contributed substantially to the safety of car occupants in road accidents, but concern exists that they may inflate unnecessarily in low speed crashes. Previous articles have reported eye, face, upper limb, and chest injuries caused by air bag inflation. In this report, researchers describe two cases of hearing loss and persistent tinnitus that may have resulted from air bag inflation in low speed collisions. Neither subject sustained other injuries.

  5. Bag separation algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yildiz, Yesna O.; Abraham, Douglas Q.; Agaian, Sos; Panetta, Karen

    2008-04-01

    Automated Explosive Detection Systems (EDS) utilizing Computed Tomography (CT) performs a series of X-ray scans of the luggage being checked, then various 2D projection images of the luggage are generated from the collected data set and sometimes 3D volumetric images of the luggage are generated in addition. Automatic explosives determination as to the presence of an explosive in the luggage is determined through extensive data manipulation of the 2D and 3D image sets, the results are then forwarded to a human interface for final review. The final determination as to whether the luggage contains an explosive and needs to be searched manually is performed by trained TSA (Transportation Security Administration) screeners following an approved TSA protocol. The TSA protocol has the screeners visually inspect the projection images and the renderings of the automated explosive results from detection to determine if the luggage needs to be suspected and consequently searched. Unlike conventional X-ray systems, the user interface for EDS systems are usually designed to display one bag at a time. However, in airport environments, there is usually more than one bag being processed. Therefore, segmentation is a crucial part of higher quality screening. If the screeners have to manually manipulate (zoom, pan, separate) the image, this increases overall screening time and decreases screener efficiency. This paper presents a novel image segmentation technique that is geared towards, though not exclusive to, automated explosive detection systems. The goal of this algorithm is to correctly separate each bag image to provide a higher quality screening process while reducing the overall screening time and luggage search rates.

  6. Air bags and the skin.

    PubMed

    Corazza, Monica; Trincone, Silvana; Zampino, Maria Rosaria; Virgili, Annarosa

    2004-01-01

    Air bags, fitted in the majority of new automobiles, are safety devices activated when a sudden deceleration causes the ignition of a propellant cartridge containing sodium azide. The bag is inflated by nitrogen liberated during the combustion. Deployment releases various high-temperature gases, including nitrogen and carbon dioxide, and produces sodium hydroxide, a highly irritant alkaline substance. In about 7%-8% of cases, air bags cause dermatologic injuries such as traumatic lesions, irritant dermatitis, and chemical and thermal burns. Nondermatologic lesions, such as ocular damage (alkali keratitis, corneal abrasions), ear lesions, bone fractures, and contusive damage can also be caused by air bag deployment.

  7. Capsular bag opacification with a new accommodating intraocular lens.

    PubMed

    Floyd, Anne M; Werner, Liliana; Liu, Erica; Stallings, Shannon; Ollerton, Andrew; Leishman, Lisa; Bodnar, Zachary; Morris, Caleb; Mamalis, Nick

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate the biocompatibility and capsular bag opacification of an accommodating intraocular lens (IOL) containing large haptic elements that separate the anterior and posterior capsules. John A. Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. Experimental study. Bilateral phacoemulsification with IOL implantation was performed in 6 New Zealand rabbits. Each animal received a study (accommodating) IOL and a control (1-piece hydrophobic acrylic) IOL. Eyes were examined at the slitlamp from 1 day through 6 weeks postoperatively. The globes were then enucleated and evaluated grossly. Capsular bag opacification was scored from the posterior aspect (Miyake-Apple view). The eyes were then processed for complete histopathologic evaluation. At 6 weeks, the mean posterior capsule opacification (PCO) clinical score was 0.5 ± 0.3 (SD) in the study group and 3.0 ± 0.9 in the control group (P=.001, 2-tail paired t test). Anterior capsule opacification was practically absent in the study group and mild in the control group. Miyake-Apple posterior view showed a mean central PCO score of 0 ± 0 in the study group and 3.0 ± 1.1 in the control group (P=.001), peripheral PCO score of 0.7 ± 0.4 and 3.5 ± 0.8 (P=.0006), respectively, and Soemmerring ring score of 2.3 ± 0.8 and 7.0 ± 2.8 (P=.01), respectively. Histopathology showed no signs of toxicity in any eye. The study IOL maintained an expanded capsular bag secondary to the large size of the haptic elements, which appears to prevent capsular bag opacification. Copyright © 2013 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Tight reservoir bag: the bag itself may be the culprit.

    PubMed

    Umesh, Goneppanavar; Jasvinder, Kaur

    2010-06-01

    Numerous possibilities exist which may cause obstruction to ventilation under anesthesia resulting in a tight reservoir bag with low compliance. We report an interesting case where a reservoir bag twisted around its own neck and resulted in a tight bag situation. The neck portion of the reservoir bag would be hidden from the view of anesthesiologists in head and neck surgery and hence it is easier to miss early recognition of the twist. We caution all anesthesiologists using the disposable modified Jackson-Rees breathing system to be aware of such an eventuality. We also urge the manufacturer to consider strengthening the neck of the reservoir bag by improving the quality of the material used for its construction.

  9. Prevention of capsular bag opacification with a modified hydrophilic acrylic disk-shaped intraocular lens.

    PubMed

    Leishman, Lisa; Werner, Liliana; Bodnar, Zachary; Ollerton, Andrew; Michelson, Jennifer; Schmutz, Mason; Mamalis, Nick

    2012-09-01

    To evaluate the stability and capsular bag opacification with a modified disk-shaped 1-piece hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens (IOL) suspended between 2 complete haptic rings connected by a pillar of the haptic material and with a commercially available 1-piece hydrophilic acrylic IOL. John A. Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. Experimental study. Study and control IOLs were implanted into the left eyes and right eyes of 5 New Zealand rabbits. Eyes were examined at the slitlamp from 1 through 4 weeks. At 4 weeks, the globes were enucleated and evaluated under a very-high-frequency ultrasound. Photographs were taken and capsular bag opacification scored from the posterior aspect (Miyake-Apple view), and the eyes were processed for complete histopathology. At 4 weeks, the posterior capsule opacification score was 0.0 in the study group and 1.75 ± 0.5 (SD) in the control group (P=.005, paired t test). Ultrasound examination showed that 2 of the study IOLs had no contact between the posterior optic surface and the posterior capsule. Minimal proliferative cortical material was confined to the peripheral space between anterior and posterior rings of the study IOL haptics in localized areas at the equatorial region of the capsular bag. Anterior capsule opacification was absent in all eyes. The study IOL is a modification of a previous design, incorporating haptic perforations between the peripheral rings. By maintaining an open capsular bag and enhancing endocapsular inflow of aqueous, this modified design appears to prevent capsular bag opacification. Copyright © 2012 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Vapor pressure measured with inflatable plastic bag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Deflated plastic bag in a vacuum chamber measures initial low vapor pressures of materials. The bag captures the test sample vapors and visual observation of the vapor-inflated bag under increasing external pressures yields pertinent data.

  11. Fun and Functional Shopping Bags

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Barbara Downing

    2009-01-01

    In conjunction with her school's interest in becoming more "green," this author designed an art project using inexpensive, sturdy, reusable grocery bags. In this article, she describes the different design concepts and art media used by each grade in decorating these bags. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  12. Fun and Functional Shopping Bags

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Barbara Downing

    2009-01-01

    In conjunction with her school's interest in becoming more "green," this author designed an art project using inexpensive, sturdy, reusable grocery bags. In this article, she describes the different design concepts and art media used by each grade in decorating these bags. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  13. Advanced Air Bag Technology Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phen, R. L.; Dowdy, M. W.; Ebbeler, D. H.; Kim. E.-H.; Moore, N. R.; VanZandt, T. R.

    1998-01-01

    As a result of the concern for the growing number of air-bag-induced injuries and fatalities, the administrators of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) agreed to a cooperative effort that "leverages NHTSA's expertise in motor vehicle safety restraint systems and biomechanics with NASAs position as one of the leaders in advanced technology development... to enable the state of air bag safety technology to advance at a faster pace..." They signed a NASA/NHTSA memorandum of understanding for NASA to "evaluate air bag to assess advanced air bag performance, establish the technological potential for improved technology (smart) air bag systems, and identify key expertise and technology within the agency (i.e., NASA) that can potentially contribute significantly to the improved effectiveness of air bags." NASA is committed to contributing to NHTSAs effort to: (1) understand and define critical parameters affecting air bag performance; (2) systematically assess air bag technology state of the art and its future potential; and (3) identify new concepts for air bag systems. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) was selected by NASA to respond to the memorandum of understanding by conducting an advanced air bag technology assessment. JPL analyzed the nature of the need for occupant restraint, how air bags operate alone and with safety belts to provide restraint, and the potential hazards introduced by the technology. This analysis yielded a set of critical parameters for restraint systems. The researchers examined data on the performance of current air bag technology, and searched for and assessed how new technologies could reduce the hazards introduced by air bags while providing the restraint protection that is their primary purpose. The critical parameters which were derived are: (1) the crash severity; (2) the use of seat belts; (3) the physical characteristics of the occupants; (4) the

  14. Light transmittance of 1-piece hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lenses with surface light scattering removed from cadaver eyes.

    PubMed

    Werner, Liliana; Morris, Caleb; Liu, Erica; Stallings, Shannon; Floyd, Anne; Ollerton, Andrew; Leishman, Lisa; Bodnar, Zachary

    2014-01-01

    To assess the potential effect of surface light scattering on light transmittance of 1-piece hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lenses (IOLs) with or without a blue-light filter. John A. Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. Experimental study. Intraocular lenses were obtained from human cadavers (49 IOLs total; 36 with blue-light filter) and from finished-goods inventory (controls). The IOLs were removed from cadaver eyes and the power and model matched to unused controls. After surface proteins were removed, the IOLs were hydrated for 24 hours at room temperature. Surface light scattering was measured with a Scheimpflug camera (EAS-1000 Anterior Segment Analysis System). Light transmittance was measured with a Lambda 35 UV/Vis spectrophotometer (single-beam configuration; RSA-PE-20 integrating sphere). Hydrated scatter values ranged from 4.8 to 202.5 computer-compatible tape (CCT) units for explanted IOLs with blue-light filter and 1.5 to 11.8 CCT units for controls; values ranged from 6.0 to 137.5 CCT units for explanted IOLs without a blue-light filter and 3.5 to 9.6 CCT units for controls. In both groups, there was a tendency toward increasing scatter values with increasing postoperative time. No differences in light transmittance were observed between explanted IOLs and controls in both groups (IOLs with blue-light filter: P=.407; IOL with no blue-light filter: P=.487; both paired t test). Although surface light scattering of explanted IOLs was significantly higher than that of controls and appeared to increase with time, no effect was observed on light transmittance of 1-piece hydrophobic acrylic IOLs with or without a blue-light filter. Copyright © 2013 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Launching Garbage-Bag Balloons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hy

    1997-01-01

    Presents a modification of a procedure for making and launching hot air balloons made out of garbage bags. Student instructions for balloon construction, launching instructions, and scale diagrams are included. (DDR)

  16. Ammonia diffusion through Nalophan™ bags.

    PubMed

    Sironi, Selena; Eusebio, Lidia; Dentoni, Licinia; Capelli, Laura; Del Rosso, Renato

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the work is to verify the diffusion rate of ammonia through the Nalophan™ film that constitutes the sampling bag, considering storage times ranging from 1 to 26 h. The ammonia decay over time was evaluated using gas-chromatography for the quantification of ammonia concentration inside the bag. The research assesses the roles of both of ammonia and water concentration gradients at the polymeric film interface on the diffusion process. The results show that both the ammonia concentration gradient and, in a less pronounced way, the water concentration gradient are the main 'engines' of ammonia diffusion. Double bags seem to represent a simple solution for preventing ammonia losses during storage. Another interesting result concerns the role of the bag surface on the ammonia diffusion rate: the higher the surface/volume (S/V) ratio, the higher the ammonia diffusion rate through the polymeric film.

  17. 49 CFR 173.166 - Air bag inflators, air bag modules and seat-belt pretensioners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... plastic or metal containers or dedicated handling devices are authorized for shipment of air bag inflators... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air bag inflators, air bag modules and seat-belt... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.166 Air bag inflators, air bag modules and seat-belt pretensioners....

  18. 7 CFR 201.41 - Bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Sampling in the Administration of the Act § 201.41 Bags. (a) For lots of six bags or less, each bag shall be sampled. A total of at least five trierfuls shall be taken. (b) For lots of more than six bags... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bags. 201.41 Section 201.41 Agriculture Regulations of...

  19. Visiting bags: a labile thermal environment.

    PubMed Central

    Rudland, S. V.; Jacobs, A. G.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To define usual colour and site of storage of visiting bags in general practitioners' cars and to investigate effect of these variables on temperature inside bag. DESIGN--Questionnaire to general practitioners; serial temperature measurements from paired black visiting bags at different storage sites and from bags of different colour. SETTING--South Devon coastal town during May and June. SUBJECTS--200 general practitioners, of whom 145 returned legible questionnaires. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Bag colour, duration and site of storage, temperature inside black bags at defined storage sites, and effects of bag colour on internal temperature. RESULTS--111 (77%) of the general practitioners carried a black visiting bag, and 76 kept their bag in their car all day. The bag was coolest in the car boot, but irrespective of storage site, maximum internal temperature of the bag was always over 25 degrees C and reached up to 80 degrees C. Spraying a black bag silver significantly reduced the bag's internal temperature (mean difference 8.37 degrees C (95% confidence interval 6.68 to 9.86 degrees C) df = 59, t = 10.29, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS--General practitioners should use a silver coloured visiting bag; when visiting, they should store it in their car boot; at other times they should remove it to a cooler site. PMID:8173404

  20. The effectiveness of air bags.

    PubMed

    Barry, S; Ginpil, S; O'Neill, T J

    1999-11-01

    Previous research has shown that the installation of air bags in vehicles significantly reduces crash related deaths, but these analyses have used statistical techniques which have not been capable of controlling for other major determinants of crash survival. This study analysed data from the US FARS database of fatal crashes using conditional logistic regression which is simultaneously able to estimate occupant protection effects for a range of variables. Results of the analysis provided a comparative quantification of both the effect of the air bag as well as other well known determinants of occupant crash survival (age, seat belt use, and gender). When potentially confounding variables were controlled, both the driver and passenger side air bag devices were shown to significantly reduce the probability of death in direct frontal collisions, but the effect size calculated was small compared to the effect of the seat belt. The effect size may also be very small in absolute terms depending on the severity of the crash involved. Given the limited benefit of the air bag, efforts to promote air bags seem particularly difficult to justify in countries such as the United States where the vastly superior occupant protection of the seat belt is under-utilised.

  1. [Pastel in the urine bag].

    PubMed

    Cantaloube, Lucie; Lebaudy, Cécile; Hermabessière, Sophie; Rolland, Yves

    2012-03-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome is a relatively unknown phenomenon in which the urine bag and the collector of chronically catheterized patients turn purple or blue. It affects predominantly women, and is mainly reported in elderly patients. The mechanism seems to be related to the appearance in the urine of two compounds that have been identified as indigo (blue) and indirubin (red) which bind to the urine bag and the collector. Several associated factors are usually mentioned such as constipation, alkaline urine, bed rest, institutionalization or cognitive impairment. They are risk factor of this phenomenon. On the other hand, an infection or a urinary bacterial colonization is necessary and high bacterial counts seem to be the critical step in the development of the purple urine bag syndrome. We report on two cases of purple urine bag syndrome observed in two patients being treated in a long-term care unit. Both of whom were diagnosed with indwelling urinary bacterial colonization, with Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa respectively.

  2. Air bag injury and the dermatologist.

    PubMed

    Foley, E; Helm, T N

    2000-10-01

    Most new car models have driver-side air bags and many also have passenger-side and side-impact air bags. Air bags are known to be dangerous to small children and may cause death, fractures, and cerebral spinal injury. However, the cutaneous manifestations of air bag injury are less well known. Additional potential air bag injuries include retinal damage and high-frequency hearing loss. The following case report illustrates significant burns from a low-impact air bag injury and reviews the pertinent literature.

  3. Air bags and ocular injuries.

    PubMed Central

    Stein, J D; Jaeger, E A; Jeffers, J B

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: This investigation retrospectively examined ocular injuries associated with air bag deployment to gain a better appreciation of potential risk factors in motor vehicle accidents. National statistics regarding the efficacy of air bags were reviewed. METHODS: Review of the literature from 1991 to 1998 identified 44 articles describing 97 patients with air-bag-induced ocular injuries. Variables extracted from each case were age, sex, height, position in the car, eye wear, vehicle impact speed, visual acuity, and specific ocular injuries. RESULTS: Corneal abrasions occurred in 49% of occupants, hyphemas in 43%, vitreous or retinal hemorrhages in 25%, and retinal tears or detachments in 15%. The globe was ruptured in 10 patients. Patients involved in higher-speed accidents (over 30 mph) sustained a greater percentage of vitreous or retinal hemorrhages and traumatic cataracts, while those at slower speeds were more prone to retinal tears or detachments. In a subset of 14 patients with serious ocular injuries, the impact speed of 11 patients was recorded at 30 mph or less. Slower speed may be a risk factor for some ocular injuries. Occupant height was not a significant factor. National statistics confirm that air bags reduce fatalities in motor vehicle accidents. However, children sitting in the front seat without a seat belt and infants in passenger-side rear-facing car seats are at risk for fatal injury. CONCLUSION: Air bags combined with seat belts are an effective means of reducing injury and death in adults during motor vehicle accidents. However, this study has documented a wide variety of ocular injuries associated with air bag deployment. It is hoped that researchers can develop modifications that continue to save lives while minimizing additional harm. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2A FIGURE 2B FIGURE 2C FIGURE 2D FIGURE 3A FIGURE 3B FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 PMID:10703118

  4. Air bags and ocular injuries.

    PubMed

    Stein, J D; Jaeger, E A; Jeffers, J B

    1999-01-01

    This investigation retrospectively examined ocular injuries associated with air bag deployment to gain a better appreciation of potential risk factors in motor vehicle accidents. National statistics regarding the efficacy of air bags were reviewed. Review of the literature from 1991 to 1998 identified 44 articles describing 97 patients with air-bag-induced ocular injuries. Variables extracted from each case were age, sex, height, position in the car, eye wear, vehicle impact speed, visual acuity, and specific ocular injuries. Corneal abrasions occurred in 49% of occupants, hyphemas in 43%, vitreous or retinal hemorrhages in 25%, and retinal tears or detachments in 15%. The globe was ruptured in 10 patients. Patients involved in higher-speed accidents (over 30 mph) sustained a greater percentage of vitreous or retinal hemorrhages and traumatic cataracts, while those at slower speeds were more prone to retinal tears or detachments. In a subset of 14 patients with serious ocular injuries, the impact speed of 11 patients was recorded at 30 mph or less. Slower speed may be a risk factor for some ocular injuries. Occupant height was not a significant factor. National statistics confirm that air bags reduce fatalities in motor vehicle accidents. However, children sitting in the front seat without a seat belt and infants in passenger-side rear-facing car seats are at risk for fatal injury. Air bags combined with seat belts are an effective means of reducing injury and death in adults during motor vehicle accidents. However, this study has documented a wide variety of ocular injuries associated with air bag deployment. It is hoped that researchers can develop modifications that continue to save lives while minimizing additional harm.

  5. Quark gluon bags as reggeons

    SciTech Connect

    Bugaev, K. A.; Petrov, V. K.; Zinovjev, G. M.

    2009-05-15

    The influence of the medium-dependent finite width of quark gluon plasma (QGP) bags on their equation of state is analyzed within an exactly solvable model. It is argued that the large width of the QGP bags not only explains the observed deficit in the number of hadronic resonances but also clarifies the reason why the heavy QGP bags cannot be directly observed as metastable states in a hadronic phase. The model allows us to estimate the minimal value of the width of QGP bags being heavier than 2 GeV from a variety of the lattice QCD data and get that the minimal resonance width at zero temperature is about 600 MeV, whereas the minimal resonance width at the Hagedorn temperature is about 2000 MeV. As shown, these estimates are almost insensitive to the number of the elementary degrees of freedom. The recent lattice QCD data are analyzed and it is found that in addition to the {sigma}T{sup 4} term the lattice QCD pressure contains T-linear and T{sup 4}lnT terms in the range of temperatures between 240 and 420 MeV. The presence of the last term in the pressure bears almost no effect on the width estimates. Our analysis shows that at high temperatures the average mass and width of the QGP bags behave in accordance with the upper bound of the Regge trajectory asymptotics (the linear asymptotics), whereas at low temperatures they obey the lower bound of the Regge trajectory asymptotics (the square root one). Since the model explicitly contains the Hagedorn mass spectrum, it allows us to remove an existing contradiction between the finite number of hadronic Regge families and the Hagedorn idea of the exponentially growing mass spectrum of hadronic bags.

  6. Bag-Tanks for Your Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wulfson, Stephen E.

    1981-01-01

    Suggests using plastic bags as aquaria and terraria. Describes techniques for converting plastic sheets into aquaria, how to set them up for classroom use, and other uses for plastic bag aquaria. (DS)

  7. Knife-edge seal for vacuum bagging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rauschl, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    Cam actuated clamps pinch bagging material between long knife edge (mounted to clamps) and high temperature rubber cushion bonded to baseplate. No adhesive, tape, or sealing groove is needed to seal edge of bagging sheet against base plate.

  8. Submicron Aerosol Particle Losses in Metalized Bags.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecinski, Alice

    1980-07-01

    Two new types of conducting bags were tested for aerosol particle storage and sampling, a 3M Company Velostat bag and a bag constructed from 3M Type 2100 Static Shielding Film. The half-lives of unipolar, unit-charged 0.025 m, 0.050 m and 0.090 m sized aerosol particles stored in the Velostat bag and the film bag were 130, 190 and 270 min and 40, 70 and 180 min, respectively. These results depend upon the history of bag filling. The values given here apply to bags which had not previously been filled on the day of experimentation. The lifetimes exhibited by the aerosol particles stored in the Velostat bag are the longest found to data.

  9. Cleaner Vacuum-Bag Curing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clemons, J. M.; Penn, B. G.; Ledbetter, Frank E., III; Daniels, J. G.

    1987-01-01

    Improvement upon recommended procedures saves time and expense. Autoclave molding in vacuum bag cleaner if adhesive-backed covering placed around caul plate as well as on mold plate. Covering easy to remove after curing and leaves caul plate free of resin deposits.

  10. Testing of Replacement Bag Material

    SciTech Connect

    Laurinat, J.E.

    1998-11-03

    Recently, the FB-Line bagout material was changed to simplify the processing of sand, slag, and crucible.The results of the strength tests and the outgassing measurements and calculations demonstrate that the proposed replacement nylon bag materials (HRMP and orange anti-static material) are acceptable substitutes for LDPE and the original nylon with respect to mechanical properties.

  11. Polansky with EMU stowage bag

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-02-07

    STS098-361-016 (7-20 February 2001) --- Astronaut Mark L. Polansky, STS-98 pilot, moves one of the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) space suits in its storage bag onboard the International Space Station (ISS). William M. (Bill) Shepherd, Expedition One mission commander, can be seen as he works in the background.

  12. Drew in his sleeping bag

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-03-04

    ISS026-E-031615 (3 March 2011) --- NASA astronaut Alvin Drew, STS-133 mission specialist, is pictured in his sleeping bag, which is attached in the Columbus laboratory of the International Space Station while space shuttle Discovery remains docked with the station.

  13. Drew in his sleeping bag

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-03-04

    ISS026-E-031616 (3 March 2011) --- NASA astronaut Alvin Drew, STS-133 mission specialist, is pictured in his sleeping bag, which is attached in the Columbus laboratory of the International Space Station while space shuttle Discovery remains docked with the station.

  14. Brown Bag Ideas: The Parfleche.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tejada, Irene

    1985-01-01

    Art objects are often unique reflections of a culture. Procedures are described for having intermediate or secondary level students make a parfleche, a form of carrying case used by the Plains Indians. Materials for making the parfleche include two large grocery bags, pencil, white glue, wax crayons, string, and water. (RM)

  15. 49 CFR 173.166 - Air bag inflators, air bag modules and seat-belt pretensioners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... a supplemental restraint system in a motor vehicle. An air bag module is the air bag inflator plus... used in the operation of a seat-belt restraining system in a motor vehicle. (b) Classification. An air... manufacturer has submitted each design type air bag inflator, air bag module, or seat-belt pretensioner to...

  16. 50 CFR 622.494 - Bag limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands § 622.494 Bag limit. (a) Applicability. Section 622.11(a... fishing license issued by Puerto Rico or the U.S. Virgin Islands. (b) Bag limit. The bag limit for queen...

  17. 50 CFR 622.456 - Bag limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands § 622.456 Bag limits. (a) Applicability. Section 622.11(a... fishing license issued by Puerto Rico or the U.S. Virgin Islands. (b) Bag limit. The bag limit for spiny...

  18. 21 CFR 868.5320 - Reservoir bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reservoir bag. 868.5320 Section 868.5320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5320 Reservoir bag. (a) Identification. A reservoir bag is a...

  19. 21 CFR 868.5320 - Reservoir bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reservoir bag. 868.5320 Section 868.5320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5320 Reservoir bag. (a) Identification. A reservoir bag is a...

  20. 21 CFR 868.5320 - Reservoir bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reservoir bag. 868.5320 Section 868.5320 Food and... ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5320 Reservoir bag. (a) Identification. A reservoir bag is a device, usually made of conductive rubber, intended for use in a breathing circuit as a reservoir...

  1. 21 CFR 868.5320 - Reservoir bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reservoir bag. 868.5320 Section 868.5320 Food and... ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5320 Reservoir bag. (a) Identification. A reservoir bag is a device, usually made of conductive rubber, intended for use in a breathing circuit as a reservoir...

  2. 21 CFR 868.5320 - Reservoir bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reservoir bag. 868.5320 Section 868.5320 Food and... ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5320 Reservoir bag. (a) Identification. A reservoir bag is a device, usually made of conductive rubber, intended for use in a breathing circuit as a reservoir...

  3. Fuzzy Bags and Wilson Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisarski, R. D.

    I start with an elementary observation about the pressurein the deconfined phase of a SU(3) gauge theory without quarks. This suggests a ``fuzzy'' bag model for the analogous pressure in QCD, with dynamical quarks. I then sketch how the deconfined phase might be described using an effective theory of Wilson lines. To leading order in weak coupling, the effective electric field appears in a form familiar from the lattice theory of Banks and Ukawa.

  4. Improved material-bagging device

    DOEpatents

    Wach, C.G.; Nelson, R.E.; Brak, S.B.

    1982-01-19

    A bagging device for transferring material; specifically contaminated material, from one chamber through an opening in a wall to a second chamber includes a cylindrical housing communicating with the opening and defining a passage between the chambers. A cylindrical cartridge is slidably received within the housing. The cartridge has a substantially rigid cylindrical sleeve to which is affixed a pliable tube. The pliable tube is positioned concentrically about the sleeve and has a pleated portion capable of unfolding from the sleeve and a closed end extending over a terminal end of the sleeve. Sealing means are interposed in sealed relationship between the cartridge and the housing. Material from one chamber is inserted into the cartridge secured in the housing and received in the closed end of the tube which unfolds into the other chamber enclosing the material therein. The tube may then be sealed behind the material and then severed to form a bag-like enclosure defined by the tube's closed terminal end and the new seal. The new seal then forms a terminal end for the unsevered portion of the pliable tube into which additional material may be placed and the bagging process repeated.

  5. 21 CFR 880.6050 - Ice bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ice bag. 880.6050 Section 880.6050 Food and Drugs....6050 Ice bag. (a) Identification. An ice bag is a device intended for medical purposes that is in the form of a container intended to be filled with ice that is used to apply dry cold therapy to an area of...

  6. 21 CFR 880.6050 - Ice bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ice bag. 880.6050 Section 880.6050 Food and Drugs....6050 Ice bag. (a) Identification. An ice bag is a device intended for medical purposes that is in the form of a container intended to be filled with ice that is used to apply dry cold therapy to an area of...

  7. 21 CFR 880.6050 - Ice bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ice bag. 880.6050 Section 880.6050 Food and Drugs....6050 Ice bag. (a) Identification. An ice bag is a device intended for medical purposes that is in the form of a container intended to be filled with ice that is used to apply dry cold therapy to an area of...

  8. 21 CFR 880.6050 - Ice bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ice bag. 880.6050 Section 880.6050 Food and Drugs....6050 Ice bag. (a) Identification. An ice bag is a device intended for medical purposes that is in the form of a container intended to be filled with ice that is used to apply dry cold therapy to an area of...

  9. 21 CFR 880.6050 - Ice bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ice bag. 880.6050 Section 880.6050 Food and Drugs....6050 Ice bag. (a) Identification. An ice bag is a device intended for medical purposes that is in the form of a container intended to be filled with ice that is used to apply dry cold therapy to an area of...

  10. [Ear dysfunction due to air bag detonation?].

    PubMed

    Brehmer, D; Geidel, O; Hesse, G; Laubert, A

    2000-10-01

    Air bags are among the latest developments in extensive automobile safety systems. They successfully have saved the lives of car occupants in road accidents. Many additional injuries caused by air bags from minor to severe have been reported. With the help of two acceleration sensors, the electronic tuner amplifier records the vehicle's deceleration. This is the adequate trigger for air bag deployment, which creates an intense noise of up to 170 dB sound pressure level. This noise level can cause cochlear damage. We present two patients with otologic symptoms after spontaneous air bag deployment.

  11. The earliest mention of a black bag

    PubMed Central

    Tsoucalas, Gregory; Kousoulis, Antonis A.; Tsoucalas, Ioannis; Androutsos, George

    2011-01-01

    A black bag, needed especially for home visits, has been used since the time of Hippocrates who, in his treatise “On good manners”, gave the first detailed description of a medical bag with guidelines for the required equipment and structure. Ancient Egyptian and Palestinian references also date back at least two millenniums. PMID:22126217

  12. 21 CFR 878.4100 - Organ bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Organ bag. 878.4100 Section 878.4100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4100 Organ bag. (a) Identification. An...

  13. 21 CFR 878.4100 - Organ bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Organ bag. 878.4100 Section 878.4100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4100 Organ bag. (a) Identification. An...

  14. 21 CFR 878.4100 - Organ bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Organ bag. 878.4100 Section 878.4100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4100 Organ bag. (a) Identification. An...

  15. 21 CFR 878.4100 - Organ bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Organ bag. 878.4100 Section 878.4100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4100 Organ bag. (a) Identification. An...

  16. 21 CFR 878.4100 - Organ bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Organ bag. 878.4100 Section 878.4100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4100 Organ bag. (a) Identification. An...

  17. 50 CFR 622.437 - Bag limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands § 622.437 Bag limits. (a) Applicability. Section 622.11(a... fishing license issued by Puerto Rico or the U.S. Virgin Islands. (b) Bag limits. (1) Groupers, snappers...

  18. A chiral soliton bag model of nucleons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seki, Ryoichi; Ohta, Shigemi

    1984-11-01

    As a possible phenomenological model of nucleons, a model Lagrangian is numerically solved in the semiclassical approximation using the hedgehog ansatz. Soliton solutions with winding numbers Z=0 and 1 are examined as functions of the pion decay constant. The Z=0 solution is similar to the cloudy bag model, but the Z=1 solution is quite different from the little (chiral) bag model.

  19. Cold temperature disinfestation of bagged flour

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We conducted studies using a commercial freezer maintained at -17.8°C to determine the time needed to kill Tribolium castaneum eggs in a pallet of flour. Each bag weighed 22.7 kg, and there were 5 bags in each of 10 layers. The dimensions of the pallet were 109-cm wide by 132-cm long by 123-cm tall,...

  20. Untethered Crewlock Bag Drifts Away from ISS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-11-18

    S126-E-008146 (18 Nov. 2008) --- An extravehicular activity (EVA) tool bag drifts away from the International Space Station during the mission's first scheduled spacewalk for STS-126. About halfway into the spacewalk, one of the grease guns that astronaut Heidemarie Stefanyshyn-Piper (out of frame), mission specialist, was preparing to use on the Solar Alpha Rotary Joint released some Braycote grease into her crew lock bag, which is the tool bag the spacewalkers use during their activities. As she was cleaning the inside of the bag, it drifted away from her and toward the aft and starboard portion of the International Space Station. Inside the bag were two grease guns, a scraper, a scraper debris container, several wipes in a caddy and tethers.

  1. Untethered Crewlock Bag Drifts Away from ISS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-11-18

    S126-E-008155 (18 Nov. 2008) --- An extravehicular activity (EVA) tool bag drifts away from the International Space Station during the mission's first scheduled spacewalk for STS-126. About halfway into the spacewalk, one of the grease guns that astronaut Heidemarie Stefanyshyn-Piper (out of frame), mission specialist, was preparing to use on the Solar Alpha Rotary Joint released some Braycote grease into her crew lock bag, which is the tool bag the spacewalkers use during their activities. As she was cleaning the inside of the bag, it drifted away from her and toward the aft and starboard portion of the International Space Station. Inside the bag were two grease guns, a scraper, a scraper debris container, several wipes in a caddy and tethers.

  2. Untethered Crewlock Bag Drifts Away from ISS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-11-18

    S126-E-008143 (18 Nov. 2008) --- An extravehicular activity (EVA) tool bag drifts away from the International Space Station during the mission's first scheduled spacewalk for STS-126. About halfway into the spacewalk, one of the grease guns that astronaut Heidemarie Stefanyshyn-Piper (out of frame), mission specialist, was preparing to use on the Solar Alpha Rotary Joint released some Braycote grease into her crew lock bag, which is the tool bag the spacewalkers use during their activities. As she was cleaning the inside of the bag, it drifted away from her and toward the aft and starboard portion of the International Space Station. Inside the bag were two grease guns, a scraper, a scraper debris container, several wipes in a caddy and tethers.

  3. Chiral bag model for the nucleon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosaka, Atsushi; Toki, Hiroshi

    1996-12-01

    We review the chiral bag model for the nucleon at low energy. The model is a hybrid model of quark and meson degrees of freedom, interpolating the two limits of the Skyrme model at R → 0 and the MIT bag model at R → ∞, where R is the bag radius. Baryon number one ( B = 1) solutions are obtained in the semiclassical method, where the nucleon is regarded as a slowly rotating hedgehog. We investigate static properties of the nucleon such as masses and magnetic moments as functions of R, first in the original chiral bag model and second in the models with vector mesons. We find a reasonably good description for the nucleon in both cases at an intermediate bag radius R ~ 0.6 fm. Results of the model calculations are then re-derived using a group theoretical method in the large- Nc limit.

  4. Water bag modeling of a multispecies plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Morel, P.; Gravier, E.; Besse, N.; Klein, R.; Ghizzo, A.; Bertrand, P.; Bourdelle, C.; Garbet, X.

    2011-03-15

    We report in the present paper a new modeling method to study multiple species dynamics in magnetized plasmas. Such a method is based on the gyrowater bag modeling, which consists in using a multistep-like distribution function along the velocity direction parallel to the magnetic field. The choice of a water bag representation allows an elegant link between kinetic and fluid descriptions of a plasma. The gyrowater bag model has been recently adapted to the context of strongly magnetized plasmas. We present its extension to the case of multi ion species magnetized plasmas: each ion species being modeled via a multiwater bag distribution function. The water bag modelization will be discussed in details, under the simplification of a cylindrical geometry that is convenient for linear plasma devices. As an illustration, results obtained in the linear framework for ion temperature gradient instabilities are presented, that are shown to agree qualitatively with older works.

  5. [Effect of bagging on greenhouse cucumber].

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhijie; Zhang, Shulian; Liang, Yinli; Zhang, Feng; Xu, Fuli; Quan, Qingzhuan

    2004-07-01

    The study showed that culturing cucumber with film bag increased cucumber yield by 12.3% - 15.1%, reduced abnormal cucumber by 65.3% - 72.8%, and the shape of cucumber was straight and smooth. The keeping-fresh period of the cucumber prolonged to 20 - 25 days, its vitamin C increased 21.9%, and total sugar increased to 5.1%. Paper bagging increased cucumber yield by 7.2% - 10.1%, and reduced abnormal cucumber by 52.2% - 57.7%. Bag body could efficiently prevent the cucumber from the direct pollution of chemicals spray. The survival pesticides in film and paper bags was 0.760 mg x kg(-1) and 1.2208 mg x kg(-1), reduced by 83.3% and 73.2%, respectively, compared to non-bagging.

  6. Bag model and quark star

    SciTech Connect

    Li Hua; Luo Xinlian; Zong Hongshi

    2010-09-15

    In this paper, incorporating the property of the vacuum negative pressure, namely, the bag constant, we present a new model of the equation of state (EOS) of quark matter at finite chemical potential and zero temperature. By comparing our EOS with Fraga et al.'s EOS and SQM1 model, one finds that our EOS is softer than Fraga et al.'s EOS and SQM1 model. The reason for this difference is analyzed. With these results we investigate the structure of a quark star. A comparison between our model of the quark star and other models is made. The obtained mass of the quark star is 1.3{approx}1.66M{sub {center_dot}}and the radius is 9.5{approx}14 Km. One can see that our star's compactness is smaller than that of the other two models.

  7. Burn injury secondary to air bag deployment.

    PubMed

    Hendrickx, Ingrid; Mancini, Luca Livio; Guizzardi, Marco; Monti, Marcello

    2002-02-01

    The efficacy of air bags has been proven in diminishing the rate of fatalities and severity of injury in motor vehicle crashes. Unfortunately, as with any developing technology, new problems have been encountered that are directly attributable to the deployment of the air bag itself. Most air bag-related injuries are minor and, surprisingly, more than 7% are burns typically involving the upper extremity or head or neck. Fortunately, these are superficial burns that usually require only expectant therapy, but a high degree of suspicion in these circumstances is needed to make the proper diagnosis.

  8. Garan in sleeping bag in Columbus module

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-06-09

    S124-E-007980 (9 June 2008) --- Astronaut Ron Garan, STS-124 mission specialist, sleeps in his sleeping bag in the Columbus laboratory of the International Space Station while Space Shuttle Discovery is docked with the station.

  9. Fossum in sleeping bag on middeck

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-06-09

    S124-E-007975 (9 June 2008) --- Astronaut Mike Fossum, STS-124 mission specialist, sleeps in his sleeping bag, which is attached to the lockers on the middeck of the Space Shuttle Discovery, while docked with the International Space Station.

  10. Burbank opens a CWC-I Bag

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-03-06

    ISS030-E-122089 (6 March 2012) --- NASA astronaut Dan Burbank, Expedition 30 commander, opens a Contingency Water Container-Iodinated (CWC-I) bag in the Kibo laboratory of the International Space Station.

  11. An update on purple urine bag syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hadano, Yoshiro; Shimizu, Taro; Takada, Shimon; Inoue, Toshiya; Sorano, Sumire

    2012-01-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome is characterized by the urinary drainage bag turning purple in patients on prolonged urinary catheterization, especially those in the bedridden state. It is associated with bacterial urinary tract infections caused by indigo-producing and indirubin-producing bacteria, usually affects women, and is associated with alkaline urine, constipation, and a high bacterial load in the urine. Almost all patients with purple urine bag syndrome are catheterized due to significant disability, and the urinary pH is 7.0 or more. In general, intensive treatment with antibiotics is not recommended. Purple urine bag syndrome per se almost always appears to be asymptomatic and harmless. However, caution is needed, because some cases have been reported to show progression to severe disease states, so further research into the morbidity and mortality of this infection is warranted.

  12. [Gas embolism and flexible Ecoflac type bag].

    PubMed

    Freys, G; Burgun, G; L'Haridon, V; Otteni, J C; Pottecher, T

    2002-01-01

    Gas embolism at the end of infusion is a well known hazard, that should have disappeared with the use of flexible bags. However, some cases have been reported after pressure infusion. This experimental study evaluates the risk for gas embolism with Ecoflac type flexible bags. These bags are safe under normal pressure infusion conditions with a pneumatic sleeve, because of their texture and pliability; indeed, only minimal air volumes could be expelled, without any risk even in children. However, to be on the safe side, the manufacturer recommends to expel any residual air before pressure administration. This recommendation applies to any bag containing residual air, and since many people are not aware of this, it is rarely put into practice.

  13. Enhancing Mathematical Communication: "Bag of Tricks" Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patahuddin, Sitti Maesuri; Ramful, Ajay; Greenlees, Jane

    2015-01-01

    An engaging activity which prompts students to listen, talk, reason and write about geometrical properties. The "Bag of Tricks" encourages students to clarify their thoughts and communicate precisely using accurate mathematical language.

  14. Enhancing Mathematical Communication: "Bag of Tricks" Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patahuddin, Sitti Maesuri; Ramful, Ajay; Greenlees, Jane

    2015-01-01

    An engaging activity which prompts students to listen, talk, reason and write about geometrical properties. The "Bag of Tricks" encourages students to clarify their thoughts and communicate precisely using accurate mathematical language.

  15. Storage of Maize in Purdue Improved Crop Storage (PICS) Bags.

    PubMed

    Williams, Scott B; Murdock, Larry L; Baributsa, Dieudonne

    2017-01-01

    Interest in using hermetic technologies as a pest management solution for stored grain has risen in recent years. One hermetic approach, Purdue Improved Crop Storage (PICS) bags, has proven successful in controlling the postharvest pests of cowpea. This success encouraged farmers to use of PICS bags for storing other crops including maize. To assess whether maize can be safely stored in PICS bags without loss of quality, we carried out laboratory studies of maize grain infested with Sitophilus zeamais (Motshulsky) and stored in PICS triple bags or in woven polypropylene bags. Over an eight month observation period, temperatures in the bags correlated with ambient temperature for all treatments. Relative humidity inside PICS bags remained constant over this period despite the large changes that occurred in the surrounding environment. Relative humidity in the woven bags followed ambient humidity closely. PICS bags containing S. zeamais-infested grain saw a significant decline in oxygen compared to the other treatments. Grain moisture content declined in woven bags, but remained high in PICS bags. Seed germination was not significantly affected over the first six months in all treatments, but declined after eight months of storage when infested grain was held in woven bags. Relative damage was low across treatments and not significantly different between treatments. Overall, maize showed no signs of deterioration in PICS bags versus the woven bags and PICS bags were superior to woven bags in terms of specific metrics of grain quality.

  16. 42 CFR 84.85 - Breathing bags; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Breathing bags; minimum requirements. 84.85 Section...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.85 Breathing bags; minimum requirements. (a) Breathing bags shall have.... (b) Breathing bags shall be constructed of materials which are flexible and resistant to...

  17. 42 CFR 84.85 - Breathing bags; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Breathing bags; minimum requirements. 84.85 Section...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.85 Breathing bags; minimum requirements. (a) Breathing bags shall have.... (b) Breathing bags shall be constructed of materials which are flexible and resistant to...

  18. 42 CFR 84.85 - Breathing bags; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Breathing bags; minimum requirements. 84.85 Section...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.85 Breathing bags; minimum requirements. (a) Breathing bags shall have.... (b) Breathing bags shall be constructed of materials which are flexible and resistant to...

  19. 42 CFR 84.85 - Breathing bags; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Breathing bags; minimum requirements. 84.85 Section...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.85 Breathing bags; minimum requirements. (a) Breathing bags shall have.... (b) Breathing bags shall be constructed of materials which are flexible and resistant to...

  20. 42 CFR 84.85 - Breathing bags; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing bags; minimum requirements. 84.85 Section...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.85 Breathing bags; minimum requirements. (a) Breathing bags shall have.... (b) Breathing bags shall be constructed of materials which are flexible and resistant to...

  1. 49 CFR 178.519 - Standards for plastic film bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standards for plastic film bags. 178.519 Section...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.519 Standards for plastic film bags. (a) The identification code for a plastic film bag is 5H4. (b) Construction requirements for plastic film bags are...

  2. 49 CFR 178.519 - Standards for plastic film bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standards for plastic film bags. 178.519 Section...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.519 Standards for plastic film bags. (a) The identification code for a plastic film bag is 5H4. (b) Construction requirements for plastic film bags are...

  3. 49 CFR 178.519 - Standards for plastic film bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standards for plastic film bags. 178.519 Section...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.519 Standards for plastic film bags. (a) The identification code for a plastic film bag is 5H4. (b) Construction requirements for plastic film bags are...

  4. 49 CFR 178.519 - Standards for plastic film bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standards for plastic film bags. 178.519 Section...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.519 Standards for plastic film bags. (a) The identification code for a plastic film bag is 5H4. (b) Construction requirements for plastic film bags are...

  5. Storage of Maize in Purdue Improved Crop Storage (PICS) Bags

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Interest in using hermetic technologies as a pest management solution for stored grain has risen in recent years. One hermetic approach, Purdue Improved Crop Storage (PICS) bags, has proven successful in controlling the postharvest pests of cowpea. This success encouraged farmers to use of PICS bags for storing other crops including maize. To assess whether maize can be safely stored in PICS bags without loss of quality, we carried out laboratory studies of maize grain infested with Sitophilus zeamais (Motshulsky) and stored in PICS triple bags or in woven polypropylene bags. Over an eight month observation period, temperatures in the bags correlated with ambient temperature for all treatments. Relative humidity inside PICS bags remained constant over this period despite the large changes that occurred in the surrounding environment. Relative humidity in the woven bags followed ambient humidity closely. PICS bags containing S. zeamais-infested grain saw a significant decline in oxygen compared to the other treatments. Grain moisture content declined in woven bags, but remained high in PICS bags. Seed germination was not significantly affected over the first six months in all treatments, but declined after eight months of storage when infested grain was held in woven bags. Relative damage was low across treatments and not significantly different between treatments. Overall, maize showed no signs of deterioration in PICS bags versus the woven bags and PICS bags were superior to woven bags in terms of specific metrics of grain quality. PMID:28072835

  6. W-Z-top-quark bags

    SciTech Connect

    Crichigno, Marcos P.; Shuryak, Edward; Flambaum, Victor V.; Kuchiev, Michael Yu.

    2010-10-01

    We discuss a new family of multiquanta-bound states in the standard model which exist due to the mutual Higgs-based attraction of the heaviest members of the standard model, namely, gauge quanta W, Z, and (anti)top quarks, t, t. We use a self-consistent mean-field approximation, up to a rather large particle number N. In this paper we do not focus on weakly bound, nonrelativistic bound states, but rather on 'bags' in which the Higgs vacuum expectation value is significantly modified or depleted. The minimal number N above which such states appear strongly depends on the ratio of the Higgs mass to the masses of W, Z, t, t: For a light Higgs mass, m{sub H{approx}}50 GeV, bound states start from N{approx}O(10), but for a ''realistic'' Higgs mass, m{sub H{approx}}100 GeV, one finds metastable/bound W, Z bags only for N{approx}O(1000). We also found that in the latter case pure top bags disappear for all N, although top quarks can still be well bound to the W bags. Anticipating the cosmological applications (discussed in the following Article [Phys. Rev. D 82, 073019]) of these bags as 'doorway states' for baryosynthesis, we also consider here the existence of such metastable bags at finite temperatures, when standard-model parameters such as Higgs, gauge, and top masses are significantly modified.

  7. Bag-out material handling system

    DOEpatents

    Brak, Stephen B.; Milek, Henry F.

    1984-01-01

    A bagging device for transferring material from a first chamber through an pening in a wall to a second chamber includes an outer housing communicating with the opening and having proximal and distal ends relative to the wall. An inner housing having proximal and distal ends corresponding to those of the outer housing is mounted in a concentrically spaced, sealed manner with respect to the distal end of the outer housing. The inner and outer housings and mounting means therebetween define an annular chamber, closed at its distal end and open at its proximal end, in which a pliable tube is slidably positioned in sealed engagement with the housings. The pliable tube includes a sealed end positioned adjacent the proximal end of the inner housing so as to maintain isolation between the first and second chambers. Displacement of the material to be bagged from the first chamber along the inner housing so as to contact the sealed portion of the pliable bag allows the material to be positioned within the pliable bag in the second chamber. The bag is then sealed and severed between where the material is positioned therein and the wall in providing a sealed container for handling the material. The pliable tube when substantially depleted slides onto a narrow portion of the inner housing to allow a new pliable tube to be positioned over the old pliable tube. Remnants of the old pliable tube are then discharged into the new pliable tube with the bagging and removal of additional material.

  8. Bag-out material handling system

    DOEpatents

    Brak, Stephen B.

    1985-01-01

    A bagging device for transferring material from a first chamber through an opening in a wall to a second chamber includes an outer housing communicating with the opening and having proximal and distal ends relative to the wall. An inner housing having proximal and distal ends corresponding to those of the outer housing is mounted in a concentrically spaced, sealed manner with respect to the distal end of the outer housing. The inner and outer housings and mounting means therebetween define an annular chamber, closed at its distal end and open at its proximal end, in which a pliable tube is slidably positioned in sealed engagement with the housings. The pliable tube includes a sealed end positioned adjacent the proximal end of the inner housing so as to maintain isolation between the first and second chambers. Displacement of the material to be bagged from the first chamber along the inner housing so as to contact the sealed portion of the pliable bag allows the material to be positioned within the pliable bag in the second chamber. The bag is then sealed and severed between where the material is positioned therein and the wall in providing a sealed container for handling the material. The pliable tube when substantially depleted slides onto a narrow portion of the inner housing to allow a new pliable tube to be positioned over the old pliable tube. Remnants of the old pliable tube are then discharged into the new pliable tube with the bagging and removal of additional material.

  9. Stability of Fentanyl Citrate in Polyolefin Bags.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Ronald F

    2016-01-01

    Fentanyl is used to manage pain because it is a potent lipophilic opiate agonist. The stability of fentanyl in polyolefin bags when diluted to either 10 µg/mL or 50 µg/mL with sodium chloride 0.9% has not been studied. The chemical stability of fentanyl 50 µg/mL packaged in polyvinyl chloride bags has been studied, however, the stability in polyolefin bags is lacking. Polyolefin bags were aseptically filled with either 10-µg/mL or 50-µg/mL fentanyl solution. Containers were then stored at either 5°C and protected from light or 22°C and exposed to light for 93 days. Fentanyl peaks were monitored using a stability-indicatin high-performance liquid chromatographic method. Changes to color, clarity, and pH were also monitored. There were no signs of chemical degradation of fentanyl packaged in polyolefin bags at either 5°C or 22°C after storage for 93 days. Over the course of the study, all solutions remained colorless and clear. The pH showed a slight decrease during the 93 days of storage. The stability of both undiluted (50-µg/mL) and diluted (10-µg/mL) fentanyl solutions when packaged in polyolefin bags was 93 days when stored at either 5°C or 22°C. Copyright© by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding, Inc.

  10. The Sydney Contained In Bag Morcellation technique.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Joanne B; Kanade, Trupti; Choi, Sarah; Tsai, Brian P; Rosen, David M; Cario, Gregory M; Chou, Danny

    2014-01-01

    To demonstrate a modification of the Shibley single-port technique suitable for morcellation of large myomatous uteri after total laparoscopic hysterectomy in a contained environment within the abdominal cavity [1]. Step-by-step explanation of the technique using descriptive text and an educational video. In light of recent concern about the use of power morcellators and increasing the risk of disseminating occult leiomyosarcomatous myoma fragments throughout the abdominal cavity, we propose this new technique for management of morcellation of large myomatous uteri after total laparoscopic hysterectomy, to contain the morcellation process and minimize the risk. This technique, which we have coined "Sydney Contained in Bag Morcellation" involves introduction of a sterile plastic bag (Dual Drawstring Bag, 460 × 460 mm; Southern Cross Hospital Supplies, Northmead, NSW, Australia) before introducing an optical port and the power morcellator. Before insertion this bag is modified in several ways to facilitate bag opening and specimen retrieval. The dual drawstring is removed and replaced with a 150-cm length of PDS I (polydioxanone) suture material as the new drawstring, with its exit at the mouth of the bag in the 6 o'clock position. Five stay sutures are placed around the bag mouth, corresponding to the 12, 1, 5, 7, and 11 o'clock positions. This assists with opening the mouth of the bag intraabdominally and enables orientation to be maintained. The bag is then inserted in a McCartney tube (Gates Healthcare, Cheshire, UK). Corresponding slits are made in the tip of the tube to enable the end of the stay sutures to be securely held in place during tube insertion. These ends are then retrieved using atraumatic graspers and exteriorized and clipped alongside their corresponding port sites. After hysterectomy the uterus is placed in the bag, and the stay sutures maintain the mouth opening. The bag is closed and its mouth exteriorized onto the abdominal wall at the site

  11. Smart Bag vs. Standard bag in the temporary substitution of the mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Lovat, Robin; Watremez, Christine; Van Dyck, Michel; Van Caenegem, Olivier; Verschuren, Franck; Hantson, Philippe; Jacquet, Luc-Marie

    2008-02-01

    To compare in intubated patients manually ventilated in order to mirror the ventilator, the respiratory and hemodynamic effects induced by a bag device equipped with an inspiratory gas flow-limiting valve (Smart Bag, 0-Two Medical Technologies Inc., Mississauga, ON, Canada) and a Standard bag. Non-randomized crossover study comparing 13 respiratory and eight hemodynamically paired parameters. Eight intubated patients were manually ventilated, each by three different intensive care workers yielding 24 sets of data for comparison. Data were collected during two sessions of manual ventilation, first with the Standard bag and then with the Smart Bag. Between each session, the patient was reconnected to the ventilator until return to the baseline. Patients, included after coronary surgery, were sedated and paralyzed. Intensive Care Unit, university hospital. Compared with Standard bag, the Smart Bag provided a decrease of inspiratory flow (23 +/- 4.7 vs. 47.3 +/- 16.5 l/min) with a decrease of peak pressure (13.3 +/- 2.9 vs. 21.9 +/- 7.3 cmH2O) and tidal volume (9.4 +/- 2.8 vs. 12.4 +/- 2.7 ml/kg). While the expiratory time was similar, the inspiratory time increased (1.83 +/- 0.58 vs. 1.28 +/- 0.46 s) with the Smart Bag, limiting the respiratory rate (14 +/- 5 vs. 17 +/- 6 cycles/min) and the minute volume (8.8 +/- 2.9 vs. 14.4 +/- 4.9 l/min). Finally, it limited the fall of the ETCO2 (27.9 +/- 5.1 vs. 24.3 +/- 5.7 mmHg) and probably the risks of severe respiratory alkalosis. The bags similarly affected hemodynamic states. In intubated patients manually ventilated, the Smart Bag limits the risks of excessive airway pressure and the fall of the ETCO2, with hemodynamic effects similar to those of the Standard bag.

  12. 49 CFR 173.166 - Air bag inflators, air bag modules and seat-belt pretensioners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...). For domestic transport, air bag inflators, air bag modules or seat-belt pretensioners that meet the... for transportation, the shipping paper must contain the EX number or product code for each approved... this subchapter. Product codes must be traceable to the specific EX number assigned to the inflator...

  13. 49 CFR 173.166 - Air bag inflators, air bag modules and seat-belt pretensioners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...). For domestic transport, air bag inflators, air bag modules or seat-belt pretensioners that meet the... for transportation, the shipping paper must contain the EX number or product code for each approved... this subchapter. Product codes must be traceable to the specific EX number assigned to the inflator...

  14. Performance testing of the new AMPAC fire debris bag against three other commercial fire debris bags.

    PubMed

    Grutters, Michiel M P; Dogger, Judith; Hendrikse, Jeanet N

    2012-09-01

    Fire debris evidence is collected and stored in a wide range of containers, including various polymer bags. Four different polymer bags have been investigated, including the NYLON, DUO, ALU, and AMPAC bags. The latter is the successor of the Kapak Fire DebrisPAK™. Microscopy and infrared spectroscopy were used to elucidate the composition of the bags. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to investigate performance parameters such as background volatiles, leak rate, cross-contamination, recovery, and sorption. The NYLON bag was susceptible for leakage and cross-contamination and showed decreased recoveries. The DUO and ALU bags showed some background volatiles, sorption, and poor recoveries. The AMPAC bag performed excellent: low background, no leakage or cross-contamination, good recoveries, and only traces of sorption. Heat sealing proved to be the best method of closure. Preliminary studies on AMPAC bags showed that polyethylene clamps are easy to use on-site and preserve ignitable liquids adequately for a limited period of time.

  15. Vacuum energy in the bag model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candelas, P.

    1986-04-01

    The vacuum energy of the Yang-Mills field is examined for the conditions of the bag model. The dominance of high-frequency effects results in a vacuum energy that decomposes naturally into a volume energy, a surface energy, and higher shape energies. These quantities are identified with the parameters of the bag model. The imposition of confining boundary conditions for all frequencies is shown to be inconsistent since this would result in the bag constant and certain of the shape tensions being infinite. The manner in which the boundary conditions should be relaxed at high frequency is discussed. The most naive procedure for relaxing the boundary conditions, which is to apply confining conditions only on modes of frequency less than some cutoff frequency, results in a negative bag constant and surface tension and would render the vacuum unstable against the spontaneous breaking of Poincaré invariance. Consideration of the manner by which the interacting electromagnetic field avoids a similar instability suggests that a more realistic way to relax the boundary conditions on the bag surface is to endow the vacuum exterior to the bag with a frequency-dependent dielectric constant and magnetic permeability. In this picture the stability of the vacuum is restored, the surface tension is finite and positive, and the bag constant is zero at least to lowest order in the coupling. It is pointed out that the fermion contributions to the bag constant and the surface tension may relate to the spontaneous breaking of chiral invariance. The aim throughout is to examine the bag model, as it relates to vacuum energy, strictly in its own terms with an emphasis on questions of principle. All too often is heard the alibi that since the theory itself is only approximate, the mathematics need be no better. In truth the opposite follows. Granted that the model represents but a part of nature, we are to find what such an ideal picture implies, a result strictly derived serves to test

  16. Contained Morcellation for Laparoscopic Myomectomy Within a Specially Designed Bag.

    PubMed

    Paul, P G; Thomas, Manju; Das, Tanuka; Patil, Saurabh; Garg, Reena

    2016-02-01

    A technique of contained morcellation of uterine myomas within a bag specially designed for 2-port morcellation during laparoscopic myomectomy is described. Ten patients underwent in-bag morcellation of myomas with a tissue isolation bag (MorSafe) between November 2014 and January 2015. The MorSafe tissue isolation bag is a retort-shaped bag made of medical-grade flexible plastic material with the wider opening of 134 mm in diameter and the tail end measuring 4 mm in diameter, allowing easy accomodation of specimens up to 12 cm in diameter. This technique involves placing the myomas into the isolation bag within the abdomen, exteriorizing the tail end of the bag, insufflating the bag within the peritoneal cavity, and morcellating the myomas under vision. Demographic and perioperative characteristics were studied. The mean operative time was 117 minutes (range, 75-195 minutes), the mean time for specimen introduction into the bag was 12.5 minutes (range, 7-22 minutes), and the mean time for morcellation and bag removal was 24.8 minutes (range, 10-50 minutes). There were no complications related to the in-bag morcellation technique, and there was no visual evidence of damage to the isolation bag. In-bag morcellation using this new bag is a feasible technique for morcellating uterine myomas in a contained manner and may provide an option to minimize the risks of open power morcellation while preserving the benefits of minimally invasive surgery.

  17. Object shape extraction from cluttered bags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirakov, Nikolay Metodiev

    2017-05-01

    The passengers flow at the US airports increased in the recent years. The larger number of passengers demands for lower number of false alarms and higher accuracy of threat detection at the time of baggage screening. This paper presents an algorithm to detect and extract possible explosive containers in X-Ray- CT bags images. The algorithm is composed by three main stages. The 1st one makes the threat container excels among the other objects in the bag image. The 2nd approach: Extracts the SURF features from the query and the bag images; Matches the SURF feature vectors from the two images. The bag image points (pixels), at which the best match is found, define regions of interest (RoI). Different RoI in a bag are identified by separate clusters of points. At the 3rd stage of the algorithm an enlarging active contour (AC) extracts the boundary of every RoI. The starting point of every AC is the mass center of the corresponding cluster of SURF points. The theory is validated on a number of X-ray/CT images. A qualitative comparison with contemporary methods outlines the advantages and the contribution of the present algorithm.

  18. Alternative Hospital Gift Bags and Breastfeeding Exclusivity

    PubMed Central

    Wunderlich, Shahla M.; Kashdan, Rickie

    2013-01-01

    The type of gift bags given to new mothers at the time of discharge from the hospital can influence their confidence in breastfeeding. Most hospitals in the US continue to distribute commercial gift bags containing formula samples despite the reported negative influence of commercial bags on the duration of breastfeeding. This study compared breastfeeding outcomes in women receiving three different kinds of gift bags at discharge. A prospective intervention study was conducted during 2009-2010 in New Jersey. Three breastfeeding cohorts were recruited and assigned to three groups: COMMERCIAL received discharge bags containing formula samples, BF-INFO received breastfeeding information and supplies, and PUMP received breastfeeding information/supplies plus a manual breast pump. Follow-up contacts were at 2, 4, and 12 postpartum weeks to determine breastfeeding outcome. The mean durations of exclusive (EBF) and partial breastfeeding were compared between groups using ANOVA. A total of 386 participants completed the study. The mean EBF duration (weeks) in the PUMP (n = 138, 8.28 ± 4.86) and BF-INFO (n = 121, 7.87 ± 4.63) were significantly longer (P < 0.01) than COMMERCIAL (n = 127, 6.12 ± 4.49). The rate of EBF through 12 weeks in PUMP was most consistent. The mean duration of partial breastfeeding showed similar results: significantly longer in PUMP and BF-INFO than COMMERCIAL (P < 0.01). PMID:24959548

  19. Burn injuries caused by air bag deployment.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, D; Noah, E M; Fuchs, P; Pallua, N

    2001-03-01

    Automobile air bags have gained acceptance as an effective measure to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with motor vehicle accidents. As more cars have become equipped with them, new problems have been encountered that are directly attributable to the deployment of the bag itself. An increasing variety of associated injuries has been reported, including minor burns. We present two automobile drivers who were involved in front-impact crashes with air bag inflation. They sustained superficial and partial-thickness burns related to the deployment. The evaluation of these cases shows mechanisms involved in burn injuries caused by the air bag system. Most of the burns are chemical and usually attributed to sodium hydroxide in the aerosol created during deployment. Also direct thermal burns from high-temperature gases or indirect injuries due to the melting of clothing, as well as friction burns from physical contact are possible. However, the inherent risks of air bag-related burns are still outweighed by the benefits of preventing potentially life-threatening injuries.

  20. Alternative hospital gift bags and breastfeeding exclusivity.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yeon; Wunderlich, Shahla M; Kashdan, Rickie

    2013-01-01

    The type of gift bags given to new mothers at the time of discharge from the hospital can influence their confidence in breastfeeding. Most hospitals in the US continue to distribute commercial gift bags containing formula samples despite the reported negative influence of commercial bags on the duration of breastfeeding. This study compared breastfeeding outcomes in women receiving three different kinds of gift bags at discharge. A prospective intervention study was conducted during 2009-2010 in New Jersey. Three breastfeeding cohorts were recruited and assigned to three groups: COMMERCIAL received discharge bags containing formula samples, BF-INFO received breastfeeding information and supplies, and PUMP received breastfeeding information/supplies plus a manual breast pump. Follow-up contacts were at 2, 4, and 12 postpartum weeks to determine breastfeeding outcome. The mean durations of exclusive (EBF) and partial breastfeeding were compared between groups using ANOVA. A total of 386 participants completed the study. The mean EBF duration (weeks) in the PUMP (n = 138, 8.28 ± 4.86) and BF-INFO (n = 121, 7.87 ± 4.63) were significantly longer (P < 0.01) than COMMERCIAL (n = 127, 6.12 ± 4.49). The rate of EBF through 12 weeks in PUMP was most consistent. The mean duration of partial breastfeeding showed similar results: significantly longer in PUMP and BF-INFO than COMMERCIAL (P < 0.01).

  1. Solid and Liquid Waste Drying Bag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litwiller, Eric (Inventor); Hogan, John A. (Inventor); Fisher, John W. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Method and system for processing waste from human activities, including solids, liquids and vapors. A fluid-impermeable bag, lined with a liquid-impermeable but vapor-permeable membrane, defining an inner bag, is provided. A vacuum force is provided to extract vapors so that the waste is moved toward a selected region in the inner bag, extracted vapors, including the waste vapors and vaporized portions of the waste liquids are transported across the membrane, and most or all of the solids remain within the liner. Extracted vapors are filtered, and sanitized components thereof are isolated and optionally stored. The solids remaining within the liner are optionally dried and isolated for ultimate disposal.

  2. Purple Urine Bag Syndrome- An Alarming Situation

    PubMed Central

    Faridi, M S; Mibang, Naloh; Shantajit, N; Somarendra, Khumukchum

    2016-01-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) is an uncommon condition that occurs mainly in chronically catheterized patient and associated with urinary tract infection. It is characterised by purple discolouration of urine bag which leads to significant stress and anxiety to patient, care takers and health workers, so awareness regarding this condition is of utmost importance. In our report, an old gentleman with Benign Prostate Hyperplasia (BPH) on per urethral catheter (PUC) with past history of recurrent urinary tract infection developed burning micturition of urine with purple discoloration of urine bag. After proper antibiotic and catheter changed, discoloration subsided. In India, as life expectancy and geriatric care is improving, more patients are on PUC for various diseases. So, the incidence of PUBS will increase and awareness is required about the condition and its management. PMID:27042522

  3. Power Morcellation Using a Contained Bag System

    PubMed Central

    Cholkeri-Singh, Aarathi; Sasaki, Kirsten; Miller, Charles E.

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The well-known advantages of minimally invasive surgery make the approach well suited for hysterectomy and other gynecological procedures. The removal of specimens excised during surgery has been a challenge that has been answered by the use of power morcellation. With this study we sought to assess the feasibility of power morcellation within a specimen bag. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study including patients from a private practice in suburban Chicago, Illinois, who underwent contained electromechanical power morcellation during a laparoscopic or robot-assisted hysterectomy or myomectomy from May 2014 through December 2015. Contained power morcellation was performed with the Espiner EcoSac 230 (Espiner Medical Ltd., North Somerset, United Kingdom) specimen bag. Descriptive statistics were performed for both categorical and continuous data. Results: Of the 187 procedures performed, 73.8% were myomectomies, and 26.2% were hysterectomies. The patients' mean age was 40 (range, 25–54) years and mean body mass index was 28.7 (range, 17.3–57.6). The average specimen weight was 300 g, with the largest weighing 2134 g. Estimated blood loss averaged 98.4 mL. The postoperative admission rate was 12.3%, most of which were due to nausea and urinary retention. Seventeen patients (9.1%) had postoperative complications, most of which were minor, and 4 (2.1%) were readmitted. There were no bag failures or complications that were due to the use of the specimen bag or to power morcellation. Conclusions: Performing electromechanical power morcellation within the Espiner EcoSac 230 specimen bag was successfully performed in 187 patients with no bag-related complications. This method of contained power morcellation is feasible, reliable, and reproducible, even for a large specimen. PMID:28352146

  4. Waste product profile: Plastic film and bags

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.

    1996-10-01

    Plastic film is recycled by being pelletized following a granulation or densifying process. Manufacturing and converting plants are the major sources of plastic film for recycling because they can supply sufficient amounts of clean raw material of a known resin type. Post-consumer collection programs are more recent. They tend to focus on businesses such as grocery stores that are large generators of plastic bags. In this case, the recycling process is more complex, requiring sorting, washing, and removal of contaminants as a first step. Curbside collection of plastic bags is rare.

  5. Improving Web image search by bag-based reranking.

    PubMed

    Duan, Lixin; Li, Wen; Tsang, Ivor Wai-Hung; Xu, Dong

    2011-11-01

    Given a textual query in traditional text-based image retrieval (TBIR), relevant images are to be reranked using visual features after the initial text-based search. In this paper, we propose a new bag-based reranking framework for large-scale TBIR. Specifically, we first cluster relevant images using both textual and visual features. By treating each cluster as a "bag" and the images in the bag as "instances," we formulate this problem as a multi-instance (MI) learning problem. MI learning methods such as mi-SVM can be readily incorporated into our bag-based reranking framework. Observing that at least a certain portion of a positive bag is of positive instances while a negative bag might also contain positive instances, we further use a more suitable generalized MI (GMI) setting for this application. To address the ambiguities on the instance labels in the positive and negative bags under this GMI setting, we develop a new method referred to as GMI-SVM to enhance retrieval performance by propagating the labels from the bag level to the instance level. To acquire bag annotations for (G)MI learning, we propose a bag ranking method to rank all the bags according to the defined bag ranking score. The top ranked bags are used as pseudopositive training bags, while pseudonegative training bags can be obtained by randomly sampling a few irrelevant images that are not associated with the textual query. Comprehensive experiments on the challenging real-world data set NUS-WIDE demonstrate our framework with automatic bag annotation can achieve the best performances compared with existing image reranking methods. Our experiments also demonstrate that GMI-SVM can achieve better performances when using the manually labeled training bags obtained from relevance feedback.

  6. Compact assembly generates plastic foam, inflates flotation bag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Device for generating plastic foam consists of an elastomeric bag and two containers with liquid resin and a liquid catalyst. When the walls of the containers are ruptured the liquids come into contact producing foam which inflates the elastomeric bag.

  7. 13. BUILDING NO. 445, PHYSICS LAB (FORMERLY GUN BAG LOADING), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. BUILDING NO. 445, PHYSICS LAB (FORMERLY GUN BAG LOADING), VIEW NORTH AT SOUTH END OF BUILDING. - Picatinny Arsenal, 400 Area, Gun Bag Loading District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  8. 27. BUILDING NO. 452, ORDNANCE FACILITY (BAG CHARGE FILLING PLANT), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. BUILDING NO. 452, ORDNANCE FACILITY (BAG CHARGE FILLING PLANT), SOUTHWEST CORNER, DETAIL OF SEWING MACHINE MOTORS AND SWITCHES MOUNTED UNDER EAVES. - Picatinny Arsenal, 400 Area, Gun Bag Loading District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  9. 41. BUILDING NO. 454, ORDNANCE FACILITY (BAG CHARGE FILLING PLANT), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. BUILDING NO. 454, ORDNANCE FACILITY (BAG CHARGE FILLING PLANT), INTERIOR, SECOND FLOOR, SHOWING CONVEYOR SYSTEM WHICH BROUGHT PROPELLANTS FROM STORAGE MAGAZINE - Picatinny Arsenal, 400 Area, Gun Bag Loading District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  10. 42. BUILDING NO. 454, ORDNANCE FACILITY (BAG CHARGE FILLING PLANT), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. BUILDING NO. 454, ORDNANCE FACILITY (BAG CHARGE FILLING PLANT), INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, LOOKING SOUTHWEST SHOWING VARIOUS LOADING STATIONS ON PRODUCTION LINE. - Picatinny Arsenal, 400 Area, Gun Bag Loading District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  11. Hoshide in sleeping bag in JEM module

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-06-09

    S124-E-007983 (9 June 2008) --- Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency astronaut Akihiko Hoshide, STS-124 mission specialist, is pictured in his sleeping bag in Kibo Japanese Pressurized Module of the International Space Station while Space Shuttle Discovery is docked with the station.

  12. Fossum in sleeping bag on middeck

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-06-09

    S124-E-007977 (9 June 2008) --- Astronaut Mike Fossum, STS-124 mission specialist, is pictured in his sleeping bag, which is attached to the lockers on the middeck of the Space Shuttle Discovery, while docked with the International Space Station.

  13. Plant Tissue Culture in a Bag.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Mike

    2000-01-01

    Describes the use of an oven bag as a sterile chamber for culture initiation and tissue transfer. Plant tissue culture is an ideal tool for introducing students to plants, cloning, and experimental design. Includes materials, methods, discussion, and conclusion sections. (SAH)

  14. Bag Test Measures Leakage From Insulated Pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schock, Kent D.; Easter, Barry P.

    1994-01-01

    Test quantifies leakage of gas from pipe even though pipe covered with insulation. Involves use of helium analyzer to measure concentration of helium in impermeable bag around pipe. Test administered after standard soap-solution bubble test indicates presence and general class of leakage.

  15. Lindsey on middeck with bag of refuse

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-10-29

    STS095-E-5026 (10-29-98) --- Astronaut Steven W. Lindsey, pilot, with a bag of refuse on Discovery's mid deck as the STS-95 crew members begin to settle in for a nine-day stay in Earth orbit. The photo was taken with an electronic still camera (ESC) at 11:23:04 GMT, Oct. 29.

  16. Plant Tissue Culture in a Bag.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Mike

    2000-01-01

    Describes the use of an oven bag as a sterile chamber for culture initiation and tissue transfer. Plant tissue culture is an ideal tool for introducing students to plants, cloning, and experimental design. Includes materials, methods, discussion, and conclusion sections. (SAH)

  17. Case report: purple urine bag syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Joaquim Palmeiro; Marcelino, Paulo; Marum, Susan; Fernandes, Ana Paula; Grilo, Ana

    2004-06-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) was first reported in 1978. PUBS is rare, occurs predominantly in constipated women, chronically catheterized and associated with some bacterial urinary infections that produce sulphatase/phosphatase. The etiology is due to indigo (blue) and indirubin (red) or to their mixture that becomes purple. A chain reaction begins in the gastrointestinal tract with tryptophan as described in the article.

  18. Bag Test Measures Leakage From Insulated Pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schock, Kent D.; Easter, Barry P.

    1994-01-01

    Test quantifies leakage of gas from pipe even though pipe covered with insulation. Involves use of helium analyzer to measure concentration of helium in impermeable bag around pipe. Test administered after standard soap-solution bubble test indicates presence and general class of leakage.

  19. Blue collection bag after ileal diversion.

    PubMed

    Hildreth, T A; Cass, A S

    1978-02-01

    Five children with ileal diversions have shown asymptomatic blue staining of the urine collection bags. A tryptophan derivative (indican) in the urine that oxidizes to indigo blue on exposure to air is thought to be the cause of this benign transient phenomenon.

  20. 49 CFR 178.521 - Standards for paper bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standards for paper bags. 178.521 Section 178.521...-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.521 Standards for paper bags. (a) The following are identification codes for paper bags: (1) 5M1 for a multi-wall paper bag; and (2) 5M2 for a multi-wall water-resistant...

  1. 49 CFR 178.521 - Standards for paper bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standards for paper bags. 178.521 Section 178.521...-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.521 Standards for paper bags. (a) The following are identification codes for paper bags: (1) 5M1 for a multi-wall paper bag; and (2) 5M2 for a multi-wall water-resistant...

  2. 29. BUILDING NO. 452, ORDNANCE FACILITY (BAG CHARGE FILLING PLANT), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. BUILDING NO. 452, ORDNANCE FACILITY (BAG CHARGE FILLING PLANT), INTERIOR, ROOM 12. SEWING ROOM WHERE BAGS LOADED WITH POWDER WERE SEWN CLOSED. MOTOR FOR SEWING MACHINE LOCATED OUTSIDE OF BUILDING. CLOSED AND UNCLOSED BAGS WERE PASSED THROUGH BINS IN WALL ON EITHER SIDE. ROOM IS SHEATHED WITH GALVANIZED STEEL PAINTED GRAY. - Picatinny Arsenal, 400 Area, Gun Bag Loading District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  3. 49 CFR 178.521 - Standards for paper bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standards for paper bags. 178.521 Section 178.521...-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.521 Standards for paper bags. (a) The following are identification codes for paper bags: (1) 5M1 for a multi-wall paper bag; and (2) 5M2 for a multi-wall water-resistant...

  4. Seat belt use in cars with air bags.

    PubMed

    Williams, A F; Wells, J K; Lund, A K

    1990-12-01

    Seat belt use was observed in 1,628 cars with air bags and manual belts and 34,223 cars with manual seat belts only. Sixty-six percent of drivers in cars with air bags wore seat belts compared to 63 percent of drivers in cars with manual belts only. The study found no evidence for the speculation that drivers with air bags will reduce their seat belt use because they believe an air bag alone provides sufficient protection.

  5. Seat belt use in cars with air bags.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, A F; Wells, J K; Lund, A K

    1990-01-01

    Seat belt use was observed in 1,628 cars with air bags and manual belts and 34,223 cars with manual seat belts only. Sixty-six percent of drivers in cars with air bags wore seat belts compared to 63 percent of drivers in cars with manual belts only. The study found no evidence for the speculation that drivers with air bags will reduce their seat belt use because they believe an air bag alone provides sufficient protection. PMID:2240346

  6. Optimizing bag-valve-mask ventilation with a new mouth-to-bag resuscitator.

    PubMed

    Wagner-Berger, Horst G; Wenzel, Volker; Stallinger, Angelika; Voelckel, Wolfgang G; Rheinberger, Klaus; Augenstein, Sven; Herff, Holger; Idris, Ahamed H; Dörges, Volker; Lindner, Karl H; Hörmann, Christoph

    2003-02-01

    When ventilating an unintubated patient with a self-inflating bag, high peak inspiratory flow rates may result in high peak airway pressure with subsequent stomach inflation; this may occur frequently when rescuers without daily experience in bag-valve-mask ventilation need to perform advanced airway management. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of a newly developed self-inflating bag (mouth-to-bag resuscitator; Ambu, Glostrup, Denmark) that limits peak inspiratory flow. A bench model simulating a patient with an unintubated airway was used, consisting of a face mask, manikin head, training lung (lung compliance, 100 ml/0.098 kPa (100 ml/cm H(2)O)); airway resistance, 0.39 kPa/l per second (4 cm H(2)O/l/s), oesophagus (LESP, 1.96 kPa (20 cm H(2)O)) and simulated stomach. Twenty nurses were randomised to ventilate the manikin for 1 min (respiratory rate: 12 per minute) with either a standard self-inflating bag or the mouth-to-bag resuscitator, which requires the rescuer to blow up a single-use balloon inside the self-inflating bag, which in turns displaces air towards the patient. When supplemental oxygen is added, ventilation with up to 100% oxygen may be obtained, since expired air is only used as the driving gas. The mouth-to-bag resuscitator therefore allows two instead of one hand sealing the mask on the patient's face. The volunteers were blinded to the experimental design of the model until completion of the experimental protocol. The mouth-to-bag resuscitator versus standard self-inflating bag resulted in significantly (P<0.05) higher mean+/-S.D. mask tidal volumes (1048+/-161 vs. 785+/-174 ml) and lung tidal volumes (911+/-148 vs. 678+/-157 ml), longer inspiratory times (1.7+/-0.4 vs. 1.4+/-0.4 s), but significantly lower peak inspiratory flow rates (50+/-9 vs. 62+/-13 l/min) and mask leakage (10+/-4 vs. 15+/-9%); peak inspiratory pressure (17+/-2 vs. 17+/-2 cm H(2)O) and stomach tidal volumes (16+/-30 vs. 18+/-35 ml) were comparable. In

  7. 16 CFR 501.3 - Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. 501.3... REQUIREMENTS AND PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.3 Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners, packaged and labeled for retail sale are exempt from the requirements of § 500.15a...

  8. 16 CFR 501.3 - Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. 501.3... REQUIREMENTS AND PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.3 Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners, packaged and labeled for retail sale are exempt from the requirements of § 500.15a...

  9. 16 CFR 501.3 - Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. 501.3... REQUIREMENTS AND PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.3 Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners, packaged and labeled for retail sale are exempt from the requirements of § 500.15a...

  10. 16 CFR 501.3 - Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. 501.3... REQUIREMENTS AND PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.3 Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners, packaged and labeled for retail sale are exempt from the requirements of § 500.15a...

  11. 16 CFR 501.3 - Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. 501.3... REQUIREMENTS AND PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.3 Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners, packaged and labeled for retail sale are exempt from the requirements of § 500.15a...

  12. 21 CFR 870.3650 - Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag. 870.3650 Section 870...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3650 Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag. (a) Identification. A pacemaker polymeric mesh bag is an implanted device used to hold...

  13. 21 CFR 870.3650 - Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag. 870.3650 Section 870...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3650 Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag. (a) Identification. A pacemaker polymeric mesh bag is an implanted device used to hold...

  14. 21 CFR 870.3650 - Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag. 870.3650 Section 870...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3650 Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag. (a) Identification. A pacemaker polymeric mesh bag is an implanted device used to hold...

  15. 21 CFR 870.3650 - Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag. 870.3650 Section 870...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3650 Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag. (a) Identification. A pacemaker polymeric mesh bag is an implanted device used to hold...

  16. 21 CFR 870.3650 - Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag. 870.3650 Section 870...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3650 Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag. (a) Identification. A pacemaker polymeric mesh bag is an implanted device used to hold...

  17. 49 CFR 178.520 - Standards for textile bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., plastic film bonded to the inner surface of the bag, or one or more inner liners made of paper or plastic... bag, or one or more inner liners made of plastic material or metalized film or foil. (4) Maximum net... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for textile bags. 178.520 Section...

  18. 42 CFR 84.88 - Breathing bag test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Breathing bag test. 84.88 Section 84.88 Public... RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.88 Breathing bag test. (a) Breathing bags will be tested in an air atmosphere saturated...

  19. 42 CFR 84.88 - Breathing bag test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Breathing bag test. 84.88 Section 84.88 Public... RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.88 Breathing bag test. (a) Breathing bags will be tested in an air atmosphere saturated...

  20. 42 CFR 84.88 - Breathing bag test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Breathing bag test. 84.88 Section 84.88 Public... RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.88 Breathing bag test. (a) Breathing bags will be tested in an air atmosphere saturated...

  1. 49 CFR 178.518 - Standards for woven plastic bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standards for woven plastic bags. 178.518 Section...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.518 Standards for woven plastic bags. (a) The following are identification codes for woven plastic bags: (1) 5H1 for an unlined or non-coated...

  2. 49 CFR 178.519 - Standards for plastic film bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for plastic film bags. 178.519 Section... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.519 Standards for plastic film bags. (a) The identification code for a plastic film bag is 5H4. (b) Construction requirements for plastic...

  3. 49 CFR 178.518 - Standards for woven plastic bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standards for woven plastic bags. 178.518 Section...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.518 Standards for woven plastic bags. (a) The following are identification codes for woven plastic bags: (1) 5H1 for an unlined or non-coated...

  4. 49 CFR 178.518 - Standards for woven plastic bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standards for woven plastic bags. 178.518 Section...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.518 Standards for woven plastic bags. (a) The following are identification codes for woven plastic bags: (1) 5H1 for an unlined or non-coated...

  5. 49 CFR 178.518 - Standards for woven plastic bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for woven plastic bags. 178.518 Section... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.518 Standards for woven plastic bags. (a) The following are identification codes for woven plastic bags: (1) 5H1 for an unlined or...

  6. 49 CFR 178.518 - Standards for woven plastic bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standards for woven plastic bags. 178.518 Section...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.518 Standards for woven plastic bags. (a) The following are identification codes for woven plastic bags: (1) 5H1 for an unlined or non-coated...

  7. 50 CFR 660.721 - Recreational fishing bag limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Recreational fishing bag limits. 660.721... Migratory Fisheries § 660.721 Recreational fishing bag limits. This section applies to recreational fishing... daily bag limit of fishing during one calendar day. Federal recreational HMS regulations are not...

  8. 50 CFR 660.721 - Recreational fishing bag limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Recreational fishing bag limits. 660.721... Migratory Fisheries § 660.721 Recreational fishing bag limits. This section applies to recreational fishing... daily bag limit of fishing during one calendar day. Federal recreational HMS regulations are not...

  9. 50 CFR 660.721 - Recreational fishing bag limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recreational fishing bag limits. 660.721... Migratory Fisheries § 660.721 Recreational fishing bag limits. This section applies to recreational fishing... daily bag limit of fishing during one calendar day. Federal recreational HMS regulations are not...

  10. 50 CFR 660.721 - Recreational fishing bag limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Recreational fishing bag limits. 660.721... Migratory Fisheries § 660.721 Recreational fishing bag limits. This section applies to recreational fishing... daily bag limit of fishing during one calendar day. Federal recreational HMS regulations are not...

  11. 50 CFR 660.721 - Recreational fishing bag limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Recreational fishing bag limits. 660.721... Migratory Fisheries § 660.721 Recreational fishing bag limits. This section applies to recreational fishing... daily bag limit of fishing during one calendar day. Federal recreational HMS regulations are not...

  12. 50 CFR 622.277 - Bag and possession limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ATLANTIC Dolphin and Wahoo Fishery Off the Atlantic States § 622.277 Bag and possession limits. Section 622.11(a) provides the general applicability for bag and possession limits. (a) Atlantic dolphin and wahoo. Bag and possession limits are as follows: (1) Dolphin—10, not to exceed 60 per vessel,...

  13. 50 CFR 622.277 - Bag and possession limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ATLANTIC Dolphin and Wahoo Fishery Off the Atlantic States § 622.277 Bag and possession limits. Section 622.11(a) provides the general applicability for bag and possession limits. (a) Atlantic dolphin and wahoo. Bag and possession limits are as follows: (1) Dolphin—10, not to exceed 60 per vessel,...

  14. Capsular bag opacification after experimental implantation of a new accommodating intraocular lens in rabbit eyes.

    PubMed

    Werner, Liliana; Pandey, Suresh K; Izak, Andrea M; Vargas, Luis G; Trivedi, Rupal H; Apple, David J; Mamalis, Nick

    2004-05-01

    To evaluate the development of capsular bag opacification in rabbit eyes after implantation of an intraocular lens (IOL) designed to minimize contact between the anterior capsule and the IOL and ensure expansion of the capsular bag. David J. Apple, MD Laboratories for Ophthalmic Devices Research, John A. Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. Ten New Zealand white rabbits had a study IOL (new accommodating silicone IOL [Synchrony, Visiogen, Inc.]) implanted in 1 eye and a control IOL (1-piece plate silicone IOL with large fixation holes) implanted in the other eye. Intraocular lens position, anterior capsule opacification (ACO), and posterior capsule opacification (PCO) were qualitatively assessed using slitlamp retroillumination photographs of the dilated eyes. Anterior capsule opacification and PCO were graded on a 0 to 4 scale after the eyes were enucleated (Miyake-Apple posterior and anterior views after excision of the cornea and iris). The eyes were also evaluated histopathologically. The rate of ACO and PCO was significantly higher in the control group. Fibrosis and ACO were almost absent in the study group; the control group exhibited extensive capsulorhexis contraction, including capsulorhexis occlusion. Postoperative IOL dislocation into the anterior chamber and pupillary block syndrome were observed in some eyes in the study group. The special design features associated with the study IOL appeared to help prevent PCO. Complications in the study group were probably caused by the increased posterior vitreous pressure in rabbit eyes compared to human eyes and the relatively large size of the study IOL relative to the anterior segment of rabbit eyes.

  15. Effectiveness of the ZeroFly® storage bag fabric against stored-product insects

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The ZeroFly® Storage Bag is a polypropylene bag (PP) which has deltamethrin incorporated in its fibers, and represents a novel approach to reducing stored-product insect pest-related postharvest losses. Fabric samples from ZeroFly bags, polypropylene (PP) bags, jute bags, malathion-treated PP bags, ...

  16. An Ergonomic Assessment of Hospital Linen Bag Handling.

    PubMed

    Teeple, Erin; Dennerlein, Jack T; Hashimoto, Dean; Soto, Luis A; Losina, Elena; Katz, Jeffrey N

    2017-08-01

    The Joint Commission provides accreditation standards for staging hospital waste, but there are no federal lifting safety standards for linen bags. We evaluated hospital laundry bag lifting using the Revised National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Lifting Equation. We hypothesized that the permitted 32-gallon linen container capacity might allow filling to weights above our calculated Recommended Weight Limit (RWL) for some lifting positions and contents. We found that 30- and 40-gallon bags filled with loose dry linen had predicted weights within estimated RWLs only for lifts close to the body. Thirty- and 40-gallon bags filled more than halfway with dry compact linen had predicted weights above estimated RWLs for all lifting positions. Thirty- and 40-gallon bags filled with wet compact linen exceeded estimated RWLs for all positions when less than one-quarter full. Bag volume and filling controls may be considered to ensure linen bags are not excessively heavy.

  17. miR-BAG: bagging based identification of microRNA precursors.

    PubMed

    Jha, Ashwani; Chauhan, Rohit; Mehra, Mrigaya; Singh, Heikham Russiachand; Shankar, Ravi

    2012-01-01

    Non-coding elements such as miRNAs play key regulatory roles in living systems. These ultra-short, ∼21 bp long, RNA molecules are derived from their hairpin precursors and usually participate in negative gene regulation by binding the target mRNAs. Discovering miRNA candidate regions across the genome has been a challenging problem. Most of the existing tools work reliably only for limited datasets. Here, we have presented a novel reliable approach, miR-BAG, developed to identify miRNA candidate regions in genomes by scanning sequences as well as by using next generation sequencing (NGS) data. miR-BAG utilizes a bootstrap aggregation based machine learning approach, successfully creating an ensemble of complementary learners to attain high accuracy while balancing sensitivity and specificity. miR-BAG was developed for wide range of species and tested extensively for performance over a wide range of experimentally validated data. Consideration of position-specific variation of triplet structural profiles and mature miRNA anchored structural profiles had a positive impact on performance. miR-BAG's performance was found consistent and the accuracy level was observed to be >90% for most of the species considered in the present study. In a detailed comparative analysis, miR-BAG performed better than six existing tools. Using miR-BAG NGS module, we identified a total of 22 novel miRNA candidate regions in cow genome in addition to a total of 42 cow specific miRNA regions. In practice, discovery of miRNA regions in a genome demands high-throughput data analysis, requiring large amount of processing. Considering this, miR-BAG has been developed in multi-threaded parallel architecture as a web server as well as a user friendly GUI standalone version.

  18. Does the 'old bag' make a good 'wind bag'?: Comparison of four fabrics commonly used as exclusion bags in studies of pollination and reproductive biology.

    PubMed

    Neal, Paul R; Anderson, Gregory J

    2004-05-01

    Fabrics used in pollination bags may exclude pollen carried by biotic vectors, but have varying degrees of permeability to wind-borne pollen. The permeability of bags to wind-borne pollen may have important consequences in studies of pollination and reproductive biology. The permeability of four fabrics commonly used in the construction of pollination bags was examined. Deposition of wind-borne pollen on horizontally and vertically oriented microscope slides was assessed on slides enclosed in pollination bags, as well as on control slides. It was found that the permeability of fabrics to wind-borne pollen, as measured by deposition on both horizontally and vertically oriented slides, decreased with pore size. However, deposition on horizontal slides was always greater than on vertical slides for a given fabric; this could manifest itself as differential success of pollination of flowers in bags-dependent on flower orientation. Obviously, bags with mesh size smaller than most pollen grains are impermeable to pollen. However, material for such bags is very expensive. In addition, it was also observed that bags with even moderately small pore size, such as pores (approx. 200 microm) in twisted fibre cotton muslin, offered highly significant barriers to passage of wind-borne pollen. Such bags are sufficiently effective in most large-sample-size reproductive biology studies.

  19. Urine Bag as a Modern Day Matula

    PubMed Central

    Viswanathan, Stalin

    2013-01-01

    Since time immemorial uroscopic analysis has been a staple of diagnostic medicine. It received prominence during the middle ages with the introduction of the matula. Urinary discoloration is generally due to changes in urochrome concentration associated with the presence of other endogenous or exogenous pigments. Observation of urine colors has received less attention due to the advances made in urinalysis. A gamut of urine colors can be seen in urine bags of hospitalized patients that may give clue to presence of infections, medications, poisons, and hemolysis. Although worrisome to the patient, urine discoloration is mostly benign and resolves with removal of the offending agent. Twelve urine bags with discolored urine (and their predisposing causes) have been shown as examples. Urine colors (blue-green, yellow, orange, pink, red, brown, black, white, and purple) and their etiologies have been reviewed following a literature search in these databases: Pubmed, EBSCO, Science Direct, Proquest, Google Scholar, Springer, and Ovid. PMID:24959539

  20. Case report: Purple urine bag syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Joaquim Palmeiro; Marcelino, Paulo; Marum, Susan; Fernandes, Ana Paula; Grilo, Ana

    2004-01-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) was first reported in 1978. PUBS is rare, occurs predominantly in constipated women, chronically catheterized and associated with some bacterial urinary infections that produce sulphatase/phosphatase. The etiology is due to indigo (blue) and indirubin (red) or to their mixture that becomes purple. A chain reaction begins in the gastrointestinal tract with tryptophan as described in the article. PMID:15153241

  1. Theoretical aspects of hybrid chiral bag models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulders, P. J.

    1984-09-01

    In hybrid chiral bag models (HCBM's) the quarks are the source for the pion field outside the bag. If we want to solve this model with a classical external soliton solution and quantized fermions, it is necessary to evaluate the vacuum expectation values (VEV's) of those operators that contain fermion fields and appear in the boundary conditions. When the external solution is the so-called hedgehog solution, π-->(r-->,t)=fπθ(r)r^, the relevant VEV is i16π<0 | d2s[ψ―,(τ-->.r^)γ5exp(iτ-->.r^γ5θ)ψ] | 0>=2θ16πη+C0(θ)R, where η is a cutoff parameter (η-->0). To obtain this result we have used a multiple-reflection expansion of the Green's function, while C0(θ) is evaluated numerically. We discuss the infinite contribution in the above VEV, and show that 4πC0(θ)R is precisely the derivative of the Casimir energy with respect to θ. We also discuss some solutions of the HCBM for bag radii varying from 0 to ∞.

  2. Reducing respirable dust levels during bag conveying and stacking using bag and belt cleaner device. Report of investigations/1995

    SciTech Connect

    Cecala, A.B.; Timko, R.J.; Prokop, A.D.

    1995-12-31

    The purpose of this study was to determine a cost-effective way to lower respirable dust levels in and around the bag-stacking function at mineral processing operations. The intent of the current research is to clean both the bags and the belt before they reach the bag-stacking location. Product removed or cleaned from the bags and belt is collected in a hopper at the bottom of the device and recycled back into the process periodically via a screw conveyor. By removing the product and dust from the exterior of the bags and the conveyor belt, dust liberation is greatly reduced while the bags are transported to the bag-stacking location.

  3. Bagworm bags as portable armour against invertebrate predators

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Some animals have evolved the use of environmental materials as “portable armour” against natural enemies. Portable bags that bagworm larvae (Lepidoptera: Psychidae) construct using their own silk and plant parts are generally believed to play an important role as a physical barrier against natural enemies. However, no experimental studies have tested the importance of bags as portable armour against predators. To clarify the defensive function, I studied the bagworm Eumeta minuscula and a potential predator Calosoma maximoviczi (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Under laboratory conditions, all bagworm larvae were attacked by carabid adults, but successfully defended themselves against the predators’ mandibles using their own bags. The portable bags, which are composed mainly of host plant twigs, may function as a physical barrier against predator mandibles. To test this hypothesis, I removed the twig bags and replaced some with herb leaf bags; all bag-removed larvae were easily caught and predated by carabids, while all bag-replaced larvae could successfully defend themselves against carabid attacks. Therefore, various types of portable bags can protect bagworm larvae from carabid attacks. This is the first study to test the defensive function of bagworm portable bags against invertebrate predators. PMID:26893969

  4. Bagworm bags as portable armour against invertebrate predators.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    Some animals have evolved the use of environmental materials as "portable armour" against natural enemies. Portable bags that bagworm larvae (Lepidoptera: Psychidae) construct using their own silk and plant parts are generally believed to play an important role as a physical barrier against natural enemies. However, no experimental studies have tested the importance of bags as portable armour against predators. To clarify the defensive function, I studied the bagworm Eumeta minuscula and a potential predator Calosoma maximoviczi (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Under laboratory conditions, all bagworm larvae were attacked by carabid adults, but successfully defended themselves against the predators' mandibles using their own bags. The portable bags, which are composed mainly of host plant twigs, may function as a physical barrier against predator mandibles. To test this hypothesis, I removed the twig bags and replaced some with herb leaf bags; all bag-removed larvae were easily caught and predated by carabids, while all bag-replaced larvae could successfully defend themselves against carabid attacks. Therefore, various types of portable bags can protect bagworm larvae from carabid attacks. This is the first study to test the defensive function of bagworm portable bags against invertebrate predators.

  5. miR-BAG: Bagging Based Identification of MicroRNA Precursors

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Heikham Russiachand; Shankar, Ravi

    2012-01-01

    Non-coding elements such as miRNAs play key regulatory roles in living systems. These ultra-short, ∼21 bp long, RNA molecules are derived from their hairpin precursors and usually participate in negative gene regulation by binding the target mRNAs. Discovering miRNA candidate regions across the genome has been a challenging problem. Most of the existing tools work reliably only for limited datasets. Here, we have presented a novel reliable approach, miR-BAG, developed to identify miRNA candidate regions in genomes by scanning sequences as well as by using next generation sequencing (NGS) data. miR-BAG utilizes a bootstrap aggregation based machine learning approach, successfully creating an ensemble of complementary learners to attain high accuracy while balancing sensitivity and specificity. miR-BAG was developed for wide range of species and tested extensively for performance over a wide range of experimentally validated data. Consideration of position-specific variation of triplet structural profiles and mature miRNA anchored structural profiles had a positive impact on performance. miR-BAG’s performance was found consistent and the accuracy level was observed to be >90% for most of the species considered in the present study. In a detailed comparative analysis, miR-BAG performed better than six existing tools. Using miR-BAG NGS module, we identified a total of 22 novel miRNA candidate regions in cow genome in addition to a total of 42 cow specific miRNA regions. In practice, discovery of miRNA regions in a genome demands high-throughput data analysis, requiring large amount of processing. Considering this, miR-BAG has been developed in multi-threaded parallel architecture as a web server as well as a user friendly GUI standalone version. PMID:23049860

  6. Assessment of Sterility in Fluid Bags Maintained for Chronic Use

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Kristin A; Taylor, Douglas K

    2011-01-01

    Fluid therapy is an integral component of standard supportive care in veterinary medicine and is often given subcutaneously for ease of administration. Multiple animals may be treated by using the same bag. These bags often are used repeatedly until they are empty or until a time specified by an IACUC or similar advisory group. This practice introduces the risk of contamination. Here we assessed the sterility of multiple-use fluid bags in the laboratory setting for a maximum of 60 d. Bags were manipulated to mimic infrequent and frequent use. Bacterial cultures of fluid and bag wall and assays for endotoxin and ATP activity were negative at all time points through 30 d. Two fluid samples yielded bacterial growth at 60 d, although all other tests were negative. These results suggest that fluid bags used chronically can be maintained in a sterile condition for a maximum of 30 d. PMID:22330719

  7. Reducing single-use plastic shopping bags in the USA.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Travis P

    2017-09-18

    In the USA, local governments have the primary responsibility to manage MSW. However, local governments lack the authority to explicitly shift costs or responsibility back onto the producer for specific problem wastes. A particularly problematic waste for local governments is the single-use plastic bag. In 2014, in the USA, 103.465 billion single-use plastic shopping bags were consumed. Because of their extremely low recyclability rate, plastic bags remain a significant source of land-based litter and marine debris and impair stormwater management systems. They also reduce the effectiveness of automated recycling systems. In response, local governments increasingly have adopted a variety of measures specifically intended to reduce the store-level consumption of single-use shopping bags in 5 major categories: bans, imposition of fees and taxes, establishing minimum product design of bags, requiring consumer education, and mandating retailer take-back programs. As of September 2017, there were 271 local governments in the USA with plastic bag ordinances covering 9.7% of the nation's population. The majority (95%) of the ordinances is a ban on single-use plastic bags; 56.9% of these bans also include a mandatory fee on paper and/or reusable bags. For the fee-based ordinances, the mode is $0.10 per bag; every tax/fee ordinance allows retailers to retain some or all the collected fee. As local governments continue to increase their actions on plastic bags, 11 states have enacted laws to prohibit local governments from regulating single-use plastic bags. Because of the success with single-use bags, local governments are also enacting similar ordinances on single-use expanded polystyrene consumer products and other single-use plastic products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Drugs for the doctor's bag: 2-children.

    PubMed

    2015-06-01

    In May 2015, DTB published Drugs for the doctor's bag: 1-adults,(1) recognising the fact that there is still a need for some GPs to carry a range of medicines for use in acute situations when on home visits. What to include in the GP's bag is determined by the medical conditions likely to be met; medicines the GP is confident and competent to use; storage requirements and shelf-lives of drugs; ambulance paramedic cover and the proximity of the nearest hospital. Here we suggest medicines that a GP might want to have available for use in an emergency or for the acute treatment of children and adolescents, updating our previous advice(2) and where appropriate we have included the underlying guideline recommendations for their use. The intention is not to imply that every doctor should carry every drug mentioned. Instead, we aim to highlight some of the key treatments and suggest choices in some of the more common clinical scenarios that GPs may have to deal with in everyday practice, which may be prior to referral to secondary care. Each section ends with a list of drug recommendations for the doctor's bag; drugs may be referred to in several sections but are only listed in one section to avoid repetition. The article does not provide recommendations for drugs to be stocked for use in routine clinical practice in the surgery (e.g. for minor surgery) or for drugs to be held by out-of-hours primary care services.(3) Unless otherwise stated, the doses given are from the British National Formulary for children (BNFc).(4). Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. Preparation for Bagging OA-7 CYGNUS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-02-21

    In the Space Station Processing Facility high bay at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, technicians are preparing Orbital ATK's CYGNUS pressurized cargo module for bagging. The Orbital ATK CRS-7 commercial resupply services mission to the International Space Station is scheduled to launch atop a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket from Space Launch Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station on March 19, 2017. CYGNUS will deliver thousands of pounds of supplies, equipment and scientific research materials to the space station.

  10. Experiences of leg bag users and emerging design priorities.

    PubMed

    Moody, Louise; McCarthy, Avril

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore participants' experiences of urinary incontinence and leg bag use in order to identify priorities for product redesign. Twenty-nine leg bag users and 5 carers and healthcare professionals participated in the study. They were recruited through a UK hospital Trust and a UK-wide charity for people with bladder and bowel control problems. The study employed a descriptive design with qualitative and quantitative elements to determine current experiences with urinary drainage leg bags and identify potential ways to improve their design. Data collection occurred during semistructured face-to-face and telephone semistructured interviews. Thematic analysis revealed that leg bag design and performance influenced users' relationships, confidence, and ability to socialize. The most significant issues related to leg bag use were reliable functioning without leakage, secure positioning, and discretion when worn under clothing. All participants reported having experienced significant urine leakage due to usability issues with the leg bags. Respondents identified a number of design issues with current leg bags that need to be addressed to improve the ease of use and overall experience when using leg bags for containing urinary output. The findings have been used to define design requirements for further development of leg bags and their component parts.

  11. Application of bag sampling technique for particle size distribution measurements.

    PubMed

    Mazaheri, M; Johnson, G R; Morawska, L

    2009-11-01

    Bag sampling techniques can be used to temporarily store the aerosol and therefore provide sufficient time to utilize sensitive but slow instrumental techniques for recording detailed particle size distributions. Laboratory based assessment of the method was conducted to examine size dependant deposition loss coefficients for aerosols held in Velostat bags conforming to a horizontal cylindrical geometry. Deposition losses of NaCl particles in the range of 10 nm to 160 nm were analysed in relation to the bag size, storage time, and sampling flow rate. Results of this study suggest that the bag sampling method is most useful for moderately short sampling periods of about 5 minutes.

  12. Automobile air bags: friend or foe? A case of air bag-associated ocular trauma and a related literature review.

    PubMed

    Kenney, Kristin S; Fanciullo, Lisa M

    2005-07-01

    Although air bags are placed in automobiles to act as safety devices, they have been shown to carry a risk of injury themselves. Ocular injury, in particular, can often be a direct consequence of air bag deployment. A case of ocular air bag injury is presented. A discussion and review of the current literature on this issue follows. A 63-year-old man was transferred to our clinic after sustaining injuries related to a motor vehicle accident, during which the automobile's air bag was deployed. Initial examination revealed many signs of blunt ocular trauma of the O.D., including iridodialysis, dislocated lens with traumatic cataract, and traumatic/inflammatory glaucoma. Initial B-scan showed an attached retina O.D. One month later, the patient underwent an attempted pars plana vitrectomy with lensectomy, iris repair, and insertion of an anterior chamber intraocular lens. Complications arose during the procedure, and a total retinal detachment developed. Resultant acuity is no light perception O.D. Although ocular morbidity can be a direct consequence of air bag deployment, most eye injuries are minimal, and seem to be outweighed by the benefits of air bags. Drivers, as well as passengers, can minimize associated injuries by adhering to specific safety guidelines. This, as well as continual modification and improvement in air bag design, will maximize the safety of air bags and decrease the incidence of vision-threatening ocular injury caused by air bag deployment.

  13. Analysis of physical demands during bulk bag closing and sealing.

    PubMed

    Nasarwanji, Mahiyar F; Reardon, Leanna M; Heberger, John R; Dempsey, Patrick G

    2016-05-01

    Several tools are sold and recommended for closing and sealing flexible intermediate bulk containers (bulk bags) which are used to transport product that has been mined and processed. However, there is limited information on the risks, physical demands, or the benefits of using one tool over another. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physical demands involved with two closing methods and several sealing tools in order to provide recommendations for selecting tools to reduce exposure to risk factors for work-related musculoskeletal disorders. In this study, twelve participants completed bag closing and sealing tasks using two different closing methods and eight sealing tools on two types of bulk bags. Physical demands and performance were evaluated using muscle activity, perceived exertion, subjective ratings of use, and time. Results indicate that using the "flowering" method to close bags required on average 32% less muscle activity, 30% less perceived exertion, 42% less time, and was preferred by participants compared to using the "snaking" method. For sealing, there was no single method significantly better across all measures; however, using a pneumatic cable tie gun consistently had the lowest muscle activity and perceived exertion ratings. The pneumatic cable tie gun did require approximately 33% more time to seal the bag compared to methods without a tool, but the amount of time to seal the bag was comparable to using other tools. Further, sealing a spout bulk bag required on average 13% less muscle activity, 18% less perceived exertion, 35% less time, and was preferred by participants compared to sealing a duffle bulk bag. The current results suggest that closing the spout bag using the flowering method and sealing the bag using the pneumatic cable tie gun that is installed with a tool balancer is ergonomically advantageous. Our findings can help organizations select methods and tools that pose the lowest physical demands when closing and

  14. Analysis of physical demands during bulk bag closing and sealing

    PubMed Central

    Nasarwanji, Mahiyar F.; Reardon, Leanna M.; Heberger, John R.; Dempsey, Patrick G.

    2016-01-01

    Several tools are sold and recommended for closing and sealing flexible intermediate bulk containers (bulk bags) which are used to transport product that has been mined and processed. However, there is limited information on the risks, physical demands, or the benefits of using one tool over another. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physical demands involved with two closing methods and several sealing tools in order to provide recommendations for selecting tools to reduce exposure to risk factors for work-related musculoskeletal disorders. In this study, twelve participants completed bag closing and sealing tasks using two different closing methods and eight sealing tools on two types of bulk bags. Physical demands and performance were evaluated using muscle activity, perceived exertion, subjective ratings of use, and time. Results indicate that using the “flowering” method to close bags required on average 32% less muscle activity, 30% less perceived exertion, 42% less time, and was preferred by participants compared to using the “snaking” method. For sealing, there was no single method significantly better across all measures; however, using a pneumatic cable tie gun consistently had the lowest muscle activity and perceived exertion ratings. The pneumatic cable tie gun did require approximately 33% more time to seal the bag compared to methods without a tool, but the amount of time to seal the bag was comparable to using other tools. Further, sealing a spout bulk bag required on average 13% less muscle activity, 18% less perceived exertion, 35% less time, and was preferred by participants compared to sealing a duffle bulk bag. The current results suggest that closing the spout bag using the flowering method and sealing the bag using the pneumatic cable tie gun that is installed with a tool balancer is ergonomically advantageous. Our findings can help organizations select methods and tools that pose the lowest physical demands when closing

  15. Field evaluation of the long-lasting treated storage bag, deltamethrin-incorporated (ZeroFly® Storage Bag) as a barrier to insect pest infestation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The deltamethrin-incorporated polypropylene (PP) bag, ZeroFly® Storage Bag, is a new technology to reduce postharvest losses caused by stored-product insect pests. ZeroFly bags filled with untreated maize were compared to PP bags filled with maize treated with Betallic Super (80 g pirimiphos-methyl ...

  16. Hospital discharge bags and breastfeeding at 6 months: data from the infant feeding practices study II.

    PubMed

    Sadacharan, Radha; Grossman, Xena; Matlak, Stephanie; Merewood, Anne

    2014-02-01

    Distribution of industry-sponsored formula sample packs to new mothers undermines breastfeeding. Using data from the Infant Feeding Practices Study II (IFPS II), we aimed to determine whether receipt of 4 different types of bags was associated with exclusive breastfeeding during the first 6 months of life. We extracted data from IFPS II questionnaires. Type of discharge bag received was categorized as "formula bag," "coupon bag," "breastfeeding supplies bag," or "no bag". We examined exclusive breastfeeding status at 10 weeks (post hoc) and at 6 months using univariate descriptive analyses and multivariate logistic regression models, controlling for sociodemographic and attitudinal variables. Overall, 1868 (81.4%) of women received formula bags, 96 (4.2%) received coupon bags, 46 (2.0%) received breastfeeding supplies bags, and 284 (12.4%) received no bag. By 10 weeks, recipients of breastfeeding supplies bags or no bag were significantly more likely to be exclusively breastfeeding than formula bag recipients. In the adjusted model, compared to formula bag/coupon bag recipients, recipients of breastfeeding supplies bag/no bag were significantly more likely to breastfeed exclusively for 6 months (odds ratio = 1.58; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-2.36). The vast majority of new mothers received formula sample packs at discharge, and this was associated with reduced exclusive breastfeeding at 10 weeks and 6 months. Bags containing breastfeeding supplies or no bag at all were positively associated with exclusive breastfeeding at 10 weeks and 6 months.

  17. 75 FR 38978 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the People's Republic of China, Malaysia, and Thailand...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ... merchandise subject to the antidumping duty orders is PRCBs which may be referred to as t-shirt sacks, merchandise bags, grocery bags, or checkout bags. The subject merchandise is defined as nonsealable sacks and...

  18. 49 CFR 178.521 - Standards for paper bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... identification codes for paper bags: (1) 5M1 for a multi-wall paper bag; and (2) 5M2 for a multi-wall water... more must be made waterproof by the use of either a water-resistant ply as one of the two outermost plies or a water-resistant barrier made of a suitable protective material between the two...

  19. Plastic Bags to Batteries: A Green Chemistry Solution

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-01

    Plastic bags are the scourge of roadsides, parking lots and landfills. But chemistry comes to the rescue! At Argonne National Laboratory, Vilas Pol has found a way to not only recycle plastic bags--but make them into valuable batteries for cell phones and laptops.

  20. Sodium azide-associated laryngospasm after air bag deployment.

    PubMed

    Francis, David; Warren, Samuel A; Warner, Keir J; Harris, William; Copass, Michael K; Bulger, Eileen M

    2010-09-01

    The advent and incorporation of the air bag into motor vehicles has resulted in the mitigation of many head and truncal injuries in motor vehicle collisions. However, air bag deployment is not risk free. We present a case of sodium azide-induced laryngospasm after air bag deployment. An unrestrained male driver was in a moderate-speed motor vehicle collision with air bag deployment. Medics found him awake, gasping for air with stridorous respirations and guarding his neck. The patient had no external signs of trauma and was presumed to have tracheal injury. The patient was greeted by the Anesthesiology service, which intubated him using glidescope-assisted laryngoscopy. The patient was admitted for overnight observation and treatment of alkaline ocular injury and laryngospasm. Although air bags represent an important advance in automobile safety, their use is not without risk. Bruising and tracheal rupture secondary to air bag deployment have been reported in out-of-position occupants. Additionally, alkaline by-products from the combustion of sodium azide in air bags have been implicated in ocular injury and facial burns. Laryngospasm after sodium azide exposure presents another diagnostic challenge for providers. Therefore, it is incumbent to maintain vigilance in the physical examination and diagnosis of occult injuries after air bag deployment.

  1. Temperature dependence of bag pressure from quasiparticle model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, N.; Singh, C. P.

    2001-03-01

    A quasiparticle model with effective thermal gluon and quark masses is used to derive a temperature /T- and baryon chemical potential /μ-dependent bag constant /B(μ,T). Consequences of such a bag constant are obtained on the equation of state (EOS) for a deconfined quark-gluon plasma (QGP).

  2. 26. BUILDING NO. 452, ORDNANCE FACILITY (BAG CHARGE FILLING PLANT), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. BUILDING NO. 452, ORDNANCE FACILITY (BAG CHARGE FILLING PLANT), LOOKING AT SOUTH END OF BUILDING. BUILDING NO. 452-A, INERT STORAGE, VISIBLE ON RIGHT. - Picatinny Arsenal, 400 Area, Gun Bag Loading District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  3. 25. BUILDING NO. 452, ORDNANCE FACILITY (BAG CHARGE FILLING PLANT), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. BUILDING NO. 452, ORDNANCE FACILITY (BAG CHARGE FILLING PLANT), LOOKING AT EAST ELEVATION WITH BUILDING NO. 452-A, INERT STORAGE, VISIBLE ON LEFT. - Picatinny Arsenal, 400 Area, Gun Bag Loading District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  4. Commander Brand stows trash in jettison bag on middeck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Commander Brand disposes of empty food containers and dry trash in jettison bag and stows bag in middeck volume under MA73C control panel. Side hatch is visible behind Brand. Brand is wearing constant wear garment with communications kit assembly headset interface unit (HIU) and note pad strapped to his thighs.

  5. Commander Brand stows trash in jettison bag on middeck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Commander Brand disposes of empty food containers and dry trash in jettison bag and stows bag in middeck volume under MA73C control panel. Side hatch is visible behind Brand. Brand is wearing constant wear garment with communications kit assembly headset interface unit (HIU) and note pad strapped to his thighs.

  6. Plastic Bags to Batteries: A Green Chemistry Solution

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Plastic bags are the scourge of roadsides, parking lots and landfills. But chemistry comes to the rescue! At Argonne National Laboratory, Vilas Pol has found a way to not only recycle plastic bags--but make them into valuable batteries for cell phones and laptops.

  7. 50 CFR 665.212 - Non-commercial bag limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Non-commercial bag limits. 665.212 Section... Non-commercial bag limits. No more than a total of five fish (all species combined) identified as... any individual participating in a non-commercial vessel-based fishing trip in the MHI...

  8. 50 CFR 665.212 - Non-commercial bag limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Non-commercial bag limits. 665.212... Fisheries § 665.212 Non-commercial bag limits. No more than a total of five fish (all species combined... landed by any individual participating in a non-commercial vessel-based fishing trip in the...

  9. 10. BUILDING NO. 445, PHYSICS LAB (FORMERLY GUN BAG LOADING), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. BUILDING NO. 445, PHYSICS LAB (FORMERLY GUN BAG LOADING), LOOKING AT SOUTHEAST CORNER. BUILDING NO. 332, CHANGE HOUSE, IN RIGHT BACKGROUND; BUILDING NO. 445-F, MAGAZINE, IN LEFT BACKGROUND. - Picatinny Arsenal, 400 Area, Gun Bag Loading District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  10. 15. BUILDING NO. 445, PHYSICS LAB (FORMERLY GUN BAG LOADING), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. BUILDING NO. 445, PHYSICS LAB (FORMERLY GUN BAG LOADING), INTERIOR, FOURTH LEVEL. POWDER HOPPER AT TOP OF ELEVATOR SHAFT. POWDER DISTRIBUTED FROM HERE TO LOADING ROOMS BY TUBES. - Picatinny Arsenal, 400 Area, Gun Bag Loading District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  11. 16. BUILDING NO. 445, PHYSICS LAB (FORMERLY GUN BAG LOADING), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. BUILDING NO. 445, PHYSICS LAB (FORMERLY GUN BAG LOADING), INTERIOR, SECOND LEVEL. LOOKING UP AT POWDER AND DISTRIBUTION TUBES. ELEVATOR SHAFT ON LEFT. - Picatinny Arsenal, 400 Area, Gun Bag Loading District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  12. 14. BUILDING NO. 445, PHYSICS LAB (FORMERLY GUN BAG LOADING), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. BUILDING NO. 445, PHYSICS LAB (FORMERLY GUN BAG LOADING), LOOKING EAST AT SOUTHWEST END OF BUILDING. HVAC EQUIPMENT LOCATED OUTDOORS IN FOREGROUND. DUCTS CONDUCT HOT OR COLD AIR INDOORS. ROUND PIPES ARE INSULATED STEAM LINES. BUILDING NO. 448, ORDNANCE FACILITY, IN BACKGROUND. - Picatinny Arsenal, 400 Area, Gun Bag Loading District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  13. Investigating comfort temperatures and heat transfer in sleeping bags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Trevor; Hill, Lara

    2017-07-01

    After many years of confusion, thermal performance of sleeping bags has now been quantified and unified using expensive test techniques. Based on Newton’s law of cooling, we present a simple inexpensive test and model to check manufacturers’ claims on the temperature performance of a range of modern sleeping bags.

  14. 50 CFR 640.23 - Bag/possession limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SPINY LOBSTER FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Management... daily bag or possession limit for spiny lobster in or from the EEZ off the southern Atlantic states... fishing season specified in § 640.20(b)(1), the daily bag or possession limit of spiny lobster in or...

  15. 50 CFR 640.23 - Bag/possession limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SPINY LOBSTER FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Management... daily bag or possession limit for spiny lobster in or from the EEZ off the southern Atlantic states... fishing season specified in § 640.20(b)(1), the daily bag or possession limit of spiny lobster in or...

  16. 50 CFR 640.23 - Bag/possession limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SPINY LOBSTER FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Management... daily bag or possession limit for spiny lobster in or from the EEZ off the southern Atlantic states... fishing season specified in § 640.20(b)(1), the daily bag or possession limit of spiny lobster in or...

  17. The Application of Advanced Technology to Improve Air Bag Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phen, R.; Dowdy, M.; Ebbeler, D.; Kim, E.; Moore, N.; Van Zandt, T.

    1998-01-01

    In December 1996 the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) signed a memorandum of understanding for NASA to assess the capability of advanced technology to reduce air bag inflation-induced injuries and increase air bag effectiveness.

  18. 49 CFR 178.521 - Standards for paper bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... must be sift-proof. (2) Paper bags 5M2: To prevent the entry of moisture, a bag of four plies or more... ply. When there is danger of the lading reacting with moisture, or when it is packed damp,...

  19. 43. BUILDING NO. 454, ORDNANCE FACILITY (BAG CHARGE FILLING PLANT), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. BUILDING NO. 454, ORDNANCE FACILITY (BAG CHARGE FILLING PLANT), DETAIL OF EXPLOSION-PROOF ELECTRICAL SWITCH BOX (SWITCH GEAR INSIDE BOX SUBMERGED IN OIL TO QUENCH SPARKS), SWITCH EQUIPMENT MADE BY GENERAL ELECTRIC. - Picatinny Arsenal, 400 Area, Gun Bag Loading District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  20. 23. BUILDING NO. 452, ORDNANCE FACILITY (BAG CHARGE FILLING PLANT), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. BUILDING NO. 452, ORDNANCE FACILITY (BAG CHARGE FILLING PLANT), INTERIOR, LOOKING SOUTH DOWN CENTRAL CORRIDOR. NOTE BINS IN WALLS ON EITHER SIDE OF CORRIDOR, USED FOR PASSING EXPLOSIVES AND LOADED ITEMS TO SIEVING ROOMS BEYOND WALLS. - Picatinny Arsenal, 400 Area, Gun Bag Loading District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  1. 20. BUILDING NO. 448, ORDNANCE FACILITY (HOWITZER AND ALIQUOT BAG ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. BUILDING NO. 448, ORDNANCE FACILITY (HOWITZER AND ALIQUOT BAG LOADING), LOOKING WEST AT SOUTHEAST CORNER. BUILDING NO. 448-C, GENERAL STOREHOUSE (HIGH EXPLOSIVES MAGAZINE-WEIGHING & MIXING), IN BACKGROUND. - Picatinny Arsenal, 400 Area, Gun Bag Loading District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  2. Investigating Comfort Temperatures and Heat Transfer in Sleeping Bags

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Trevor; Hill, Lara

    2017-01-01

    After many years of confusion, thermal performance of sleeping bags has now been quantified and unified using expensive test techniques. Based on Newton's law of cooling, we present a simple inexpensive test and model to check manufacturers' claims on the temperature performance of a range of modern sleeping bags.

  3. 21. BUILDING NO. 448, ORDNANCE FACILITY (HOWITZER AND ALIQUOT BAG ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. BUILDING NO. 448, ORDNANCE FACILITY (HOWITZER AND ALIQUOT BAG LOADING), WEST SIDE. VISIBLE ARE STEAM LINES, ELEVATOR TOWER, POWDER CHUTES, AND SAFETY CHUTES. BUILDING NO. 448-A, AMMUNITION COMPONENTS MAGAZINE, ON LEFT AND BUILDING NO. 506, ELECTRIC POWER PLANT, IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. - Picatinny Arsenal, 400 Area, Gun Bag Loading District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  4. Tree-breeding technique: some effects of continuous bagging

    Treesearch

    Jonathan W. Wright

    1951-01-01

    In tree-breeding operations, it is standard practice to protect the tree flowers with vegetable parchment or sausage-casing bags during the pollination period so no unwanted pollen can get to them. Since the bags often damage the tree, they are usually removed as soon as the pollination period ends - within 2 or 3 weeks.

  5. Air bag-mediated fatal craniocervical trauma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Büyük, Yalçin; Uzün, Ibrahim; Erkol, Zerrin; Ağritmiş, Hasan; Ustündağ, Kasim T

    2010-07-01

    This case report describes a four-year-old girl (102 cm, 17 kg) who sustained fatal craniocerebral injuries as a result of an inflating automobile air bag. The car struck the lid of the sewer system, which was 15 cm above the ground level, at a low speed, and both the driver and passenger air bags inflated. Despite the fact that air bag usage has lessened both the possibility and severity of occupant injuries in frontal collisions, case reports of serious injuries and even deaths especially in children due to air bag deployment, particularly during low speed impacts, highlight the need for changes in both system design and possibly the threshold speed of air bag deployment.

  6. Absorption of ignitable liquids into polyethylene/polyvinylidine dichloride bags.

    PubMed

    Kocisko, M J

    2001-03-01

    Clear plastic bags are often used for the collection, sampling and storage of ignitable liquid evidence. They are popular because they are easy to store. transport and are inexpensive. Cryovac and Globus brand polyethylene/polyvinylidine dichloride bags were tested for suitability in storing ignitable liquid evidence. Standards of diesel, kerosene and gasoline were placed in the bags and sampled by passive headspace adsorption. The bags were then heated to determine if absorbed components of the standards could be released upon heating. Recovered extracts were analyzed by GC and GCMS. These bags were found to absorb components of diesel, kerosene, and gasoline. and were also found to produce interfering by-products that obstruct the chromatographic results. Evidence containers need to be tested to ensure that low levels of ignitable liquids are not missed.

  7. Expression Profile of Bag 1 in the Postmortem Brain

    PubMed Central

    Curcio, Christine; Asheld, John J.; Chabla, Janet M.; Ayubcha, Diana; Hallas, Brian H.; Horowitz, Judith M.; Torres, German

    2006-01-01

    Bag 1 is a protein intimately involved in signaling pathways that regulate cell survival. Here we examined the expression profile of Bag 1 in the brain to consider issues associated with the sampling of anti-apoptotic proteins in a rat model of the human postmortem process. Following a 4 hr postmortem interval, we analyzed the hippocampus of rats maintained at 24 °C or 4 °C storage temperatures using immunocytochemical and Western blotting techniques. Remarkably, postmortem tissue (up to 4 hr) showed a significant and prominent up-regulation of Bag 1 in CA1 and CA3 subfields of the hippocampal formation. Over-expression of Bag 1, however, could only be traced down to a storage temperature of 24 °C. These data suggest that storage temperatures, but not postmortem intervals, significantly affect the expression profile and cellular stability of Bag 1 proteins. PMID:17046197

  8. Engineering with uncertainty: monitoring air bag performance.

    PubMed

    Wetmore, Jameson M

    2008-06-01

    Modern engineering is complicated by an enormous number of uncertainties. Engineers know a great deal about the material world and how it works. But due to the inherent limits of testing and the complexities of the world outside the lab, engineers will never be able to fully predict how their creations will behave. One way the uncertainties of engineering can be dealt with is by actively monitoring technologies once they have left the development and production stage. This article uses an episode in the history of automobile air bags as an example of engineers who had the foresight and initiative to carefully track the technology on the road to discover problems as early as possible. Not only can monitoring help engineers identify problems that surface in the field, it can also assist them in their efforts to mobilize resources to resolve problem.

  9. Gauge invariance in the cloudy bag model

    SciTech Connect

    Koepf, W.; Henley, E.M.

    1993-10-01

    We investigate the question, whether the conventional analysis of the electromagnetic form factors, calculated in the frame-work of the cloudy bag model (CBM), is gauge invariant. In order to address that point, we first formulate the model in a way that resembles the technique of loop integrals. Evaluating the self energy and the electromagnetic form factors in that manner and comparing with the standard analysis where non-relativistic perturbation theory is used, allows us to show, that our approach is appropriate, and to point out, what approximations are made in the usual derivation of the CBM. From the form of the loop integrals, we then show whether a seagull correction is needed to preserve gauge invariance, and we discuss corresponding corrections for various models.

  10. Bias of Tedlar bags in the measurement of agricultural odorants.

    PubMed

    Trabue, Steven L; Anhalt, Jennifer C; Zahn, James A

    2006-01-01

    Odor regulations typically specify the use of dynamic dilution olfactometery (DDO) as a method to quantify odor emissions, and Tedlar bags are the preferred holding container for grab samples. This study was conducted to determine if Tedlar bags affect the integrity of sampled air from animal operations. Air samples were collected simultaneously in both Tedlar bags and Tenax thermal desorption tubes. Sample sources originated from either a hydrocarbon-free air tank, dynamic headspace chamber (DHC), or swine-production facility, and were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry (GC-MS-O). Several background contaminants were identified from Tedlar bags, which included the odorous compounds N,N-dimethyl acetamide (DMAC), acetic acid, and phenol. Samples from the DHC demonstrated that recovery of malodor compounds was dependent on residence time in the Tedlar bag with longer residence time leading to lower recovery. After 24 h of storage, recovery of C3-C6 volatile fatty acids (VFA) averaged 64%, 4-methylphenol and 4-ethylphenol averaged 10%, and indole and 3-methylindole were below the detection limits of GC-MS-O. The odor activity value (OAV) of grab samples collected in Tedlar bags were 33 to 65% lower following 24 h of storage. These results indicate that significant odorant bias occurs when using Tedlar bags for the sampling of odors from animal production facilities.

  11. Performance tests of three types of air-sampling bags on organic solvent vapor retention.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Yoshinari; Kanemaru, Ai; Nagasawa, Yasuhiro; Kawakami, Takuya; Iwata, Toyoto; Murata, Katsuyuki; Ohashi, Fumiko; Ikeda, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    Performance of two new air sampling bags [the transparent bag (TP bag) and the semi-transparent bag (ST bag)] was examined as possible surrogates for the traditional PVF bag (the Ref bag). Solvent vapor mixture of butyl acetate, chloroform, ethyl acetate, isopropyl alcohol and toluene at administrative control levels were introduced to each bag (n=5 for each of the three types), and the decay in the concentrations (by%) was followed by use of a gas auto-sampler - FID-GC system. A trend of time-dependent decay was noted for all types including the Ref bag. When the performance was compared, the TP bag was equal to or even better than the Ref bag. In contrast, the performance of the ST bag was comparable to that of the other two types of bags with regard to toluene and chloroform when the storage time was short, but poorer than others for the other three solvents throughout the test period. The TP bag may be a bag of choice when the storage time is extended (e.g., up to 48 h) although this bag is physically less robust and requires careful handling. The ST bag may be used when analysis will be completed within 24 h.

  12. C-Bag Consolidation: An Inventory and Safety Stock Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-13

    i.e. pilots, firefighters) was excluded from this research. Any items found in both the A-bag and C-bag (helmet, web belt, canteen , etc.) were also...M8 detector paper booklet, M9 detector paper roll, M258A1 or M291 decontamination kit, M295 decontamination kit, a web belt, canteen , M1 canteen ... canteen and M1 canteen cap are found in the A-1 ditty bag as they have a use in both standard combat as well as a chemical, biological, nuclear

  13. Ocular alkali burn associated with automobile air-bag activation.

    PubMed Central

    White, J E; McClafferty, K; Orton, R B; Tokarewicz, A C; Nowak, E S

    1995-01-01

    Alkali burns of the eye can result in permanent visual impairment and are therefore potentially devastating. Immedicate diagnosis and treatment are essential to a good prognosis. The authors report the case of a 52-year-old woman who suffered alkali keratitis as the result of the activation of an automobile air bag. This type of injury will be seen more frequently as more cars are equipped with air bags and should be suspected in drivers and passengers involved in accidents in which air bags have been activated. PMID:7553495

  14. Attractive Casimir effect in an infrared modified gluon bag model

    SciTech Connect

    Oxman, L.E.; Amaral, R.L.P.G.

    2005-12-15

    In this work, we are motivated by previous attempts to derive the vacuum contribution to the bag energy in terms of familiar Casimir energy calculations for spherical geometries. A simple infrared modified model is introduced which allows studying the effects of the analytic structure as well as the geometry in a clear manner. In this context, we show that if a class of infrared vanishing effective gluon propagators is considered, then the renormalized vacuum energy for a spherical bag is attractive, as required by the bag model to adjust hadron spectroscopy.

  15. Vacuum-bag-only processing of composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Shad

    Ultrasonic imaging in the C-scan mode in conjunction with the amplitude of the reflected signal was used to measure flow rates of an epoxy resin film penetrating through the thickness of single layers of woven carbon fabric. Assemblies, comprised of a single layer of fabric and film, were vacuum-bagged and ultrasonically scanned in a water tank during impregnation at 50°C, 60°C, 70°C, and 80°C. Measured flow rates were plotted versus inverse viscosity to determine the permeability in the thin film, non-saturated system. The results demonstrated that ultrasonic imaging in the C-scan mode is an effective method of measuring z-direction resin flow through a single layer of fabric. The permeability values determined in this work were consistent with permeability values reported in the literature. Capillary flow was not observed at the temperatures and times required for pressurized flow to occur. The flow rate at 65°C was predicted from the linear plot of flow rate versus inverse viscosity. The effects of fabric architecture on through-thickness flow rates during impregnation of an epoxy resin film were measured by ultrasonic imaging. Multilayered laminates comprised of woven carbon fabrics and epoxy films (prepregs) were fabricated by vacuum-bagging. Ultrasonic imaging was performed in a heated water tank (65°C) during impregnation. Impregnation rates showed a strong dependence on fabric architecture, despite similar areal densities. Impregnation rates are directly affected by inter-tow spacing and tow nesting, which depend on fabric architecture, and are indirectly affected by areal densities. A new method of predicting resin infusion rates in prepreg and resin film infusion processes was proposed. The Stokes equation was used to derive an equation to predict the impregnation rate of laminates as a function of fabric architecture. Flow rate data previously measured by ultrasound was analyzed with the new equation and the Kozeny-Carman equation. A fiber

  16. Drugs for the doctor's bag: 1-adults.

    PubMed

    2015-05-01

    In the past, GPs carried a range of medicines for acute or emergency visits, which is now less necessary where paramedics are trained and equipped, and where emergency transfers to hospital are rapid. Indeed, acute services and ambulance trusts in some areas may discourage GPs from attending emergencies as it could delay patient transfers. However, there is still a need for some GPs to carry a range of medicines for use in acute situations when on home visits. What to include in the GP's bag is determined by the medical conditions likely to be met; medicines the GP is confident and competent to use; storage requirements and shelf-lives of drugs; ambulance paramedic cover and the proximity of the nearest hospital. Here we suggest medicines suitable for GPs for emergency or acute treatment of adult patients, updating our previous advice and including the underlying guideline recommendations for their use. A later article will cover treatment for children. The intention is not to imply that every doctor should carry every drug mentioned. Instead, we aim to highlight some of the key treatments and suggest choices in some of the more common clinical scenarios that GPs may have to deal with in everyday practice, which may be prior to referral to secondary care. Each section ends with a list of drug recommendations for the doctor's bag; drugs may be referred to in several sections but are only listed in one section to avoid repetition. The article does not provide recommendations for drugs to be stocked for use in routine clinical practice in the surgery (e.g. for minor surgery) or for drugs to be held by out-of-hours primary care services. Separate guidance and advice is available on drugs suitable for use by those providing out-of-hours primary care services. For example, in England a national out-of-hours core formulary contains the minimum list of drugs that patients should be able to access. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where

  17. BAG: A code for predicting the performance of a gas bag impact attenuation system for the PATHFINDER lander

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, J.K.; Waye, D.E.

    1993-11-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is planning to launch a network of scientific probes to Mars beginning in late 1996. The precursor to this network will be PATHFINDER. Decelerating PATHFINDER from the high speed of its approach to Mars will require the use of several deceleration techniques working in series. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has proposed that gas bags be used to cushion the payload`s ground impact on Mars. This report presents the computer code, BAG, which has been developed to calculate the pneumatic performance of gas bag impact attenuators and the one-dimensional rigid-body dynamic performance of a payload during ground impact.

  18. Color Based Bags-of-Emotions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solli, Martin; Lenz, Reiner

    In this paper we describe how to include high level semantic information, such as aesthetics and emotions, into Content Based Image Retrieval. We present a color-based emotion-related image descriptor that can be used for describing the emotional content of images. The color emotion metric used is derived from psychophysical experiments and based on three variables: activity, weight and heat. It was originally designed for single-colors, but recent research has shown that the same emotion estimates can be applied in the retrieval of multi-colored images. Here we describe a new approach, based on the assumption that perceived color emotions in images are mainly affected by homogenous regions, defined by the emotion metric, and transitions between regions. RGB coordinates are converted to emotion coordinates, and for each emotion channel, statistical measurements of gradient magnitudes within a stack of low-pass filtered images are used for finding interest points corresponding to homogeneous regions and transitions between regions. Emotion characteristics are derived for patches surrounding each interest point, and saved in a bag-of-emotions, that, for instance, can be used for retrieving images based on emotional content.

  19. View of South half of concrete sand bag form concentration ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of South half of concrete sand bag form concentration in the Merry Generator House Southeast corner, ooking east - Arthur Holmes Merry Generator House, Signal Lake North of Range Road, Fort Gordon, Richmond County, GA

  20. View of North half of concrete sand bag form concentration ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of North half of concrete sand bag form concentration in the Merry Generator House southeast corner, looking east - Arthur Holmes Merry Generator House, Signal Lake North of Range Road, Fort Gordon, Richmond County, GA

  1. View of concrete sand bag form concentration in the Merry ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of concrete sand bag form concentration in the Merry Generator House Southeast corner, looking north - Arthur Holmes Merry Generator House, Signal Lake North of Range Road, Fort Gordon, Richmond County, GA

  2. Sellers in sleeping bag on the MDDK during STS-132

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-17

    S132-E-007710 (17 May 2010) --- NASA astronaut Piers Sellers, STS-132 mission specialist, rests in his sleeping bag on the middeck of the space shuttle Atlantis while docked with the International Space Station.

  3. 50 CFR 622.38 - Bag and possession limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF OF MEXICO, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Reef Fish Resources of the Gulf of Mexico § 622.38 Bag and possession limits. (a) Additional applicability provisions...

  4. Wave energy absorption by a floating air bag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurniawan, A.; Chaplin, J. R.; Greaves, D. M.; Hann, M.

    2017-02-01

    A floating air bag, ballasted in water, expands and contracts as it heaves under wave action. Connecting the bag to a secondary volume via a turbine transforms the bag into a device capable of generating useful energy from the waves. Small-scale measurements of the device reveal some interesting properties, which are successfully predicted numerically. Owing to its compressibility, the device can have a heave resonance period longer than that of a rigid device of the same shape and size, without any phase control. Furthermore, varying the amount of air in the bag is found to change its shape and hence its dynamic response, while varying the turbine damping or the air volume ratio changes the dynamic response without changing the shape.

  5. A Book, a Bed, a Bag: Interactive Homework for "10"!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merenda, Rose C.

    1995-01-01

    Describes how kindergarten children interacted and documented their experiences with the "There Were Ten in the Bed" storybook bags in the home setting and how the children explored and expressed their conceptions of 10. Includes letter to the family. (MKR)

  6. 5. Photocopy of a section of the bag house from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photocopy of a section of the bag house from J.L. Bray, The Principles of Metallurgy, Ginn & Co. . New York, 1929. - International Smelting & Refining Company, Tooele Smelter, Blast Furnace Building, State Route 178, Tooele, Tooele County, UT

  7. Is the Capsular Bag Perimeter Round or Elliptical?

    PubMed Central

    Amigó, Alfredo; Bonaque-González, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To report findings that could suggest an elliptical shape of the capsular bag. Methods: Five eyes of three patients with axial length greater than 24 mm underwent phacoemulsification cataract surgery with plate-haptic multifocal toric intraocular lens (IOL) implantation oriented in the vertical meridian. Results: In all cases, correct orientation of the IOLs was verified 30 minutes after surgery. After 24 hours, all eyes demonstrated unwanted rotation of the IOLs ranging from 15 to 45 degrees. The IOLs remained stable in the new position in all cases until adhesion of the capsular bag took place. Conclusion: These observations could suggest that the perimeter of the capsular bag has an elliptical shape. Therefore, the IOL tends to become fixated in a meridian of the capsular bag that best fits the diagonal diameter of the IOL. PMID:27413495

  8. Lab Creates 'Fake Vomit' To Test Space Trash Bag

    NASA Image and Video Library

    After answering the question of how the space potty works, astronaut Mike Massimino now visits a NASA lab where chemists have been working hard to develop a next-generation trash bag for future exp...

  9. Transcriptional upregulation of BAG3 upon proteasome inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Huaqin Liu Haimei; Zhang Haiyan; Guan Yifu; Du Zhenxian

    2008-01-11

    Proteasome inhibitors exhibit antitumoral activity against malignancies of different histology. Emerging evidence indicates that antiapoptotic factors may also accumulate as a consequence of exposure to these drugs, thus it seems plausible that activation of survival signaling cascades might compromise their antitumoral effects. Bcl-2-associated athanogene (BAG) family proteins are characterized by their property of interaction with a variety of partners involved in modulating the proliferation/death balance, including heat shock proteins (HSP), Bcl-2, Raf-1. In this report, we demonstrated that BAG3 is a novel antiapoptotic molecule induced by proteasome inhibitors in various cancer cells at the transcriptional level. Moreover, we demonstrated that BAG3 knockdown by siRNA sensitized cancer cells to MG132-induced apoptosis. Taken together, our results suggest that BAG3 induction might represents as an unwanted molecular consequence of utilizing proteasome inhibitors to combat tumors.

  10. Deformation of the Bag Skirt of ACV in Heave Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senba, Hiromitsu; Matsuo, Hideo; Ishikawa, Hiroyuki; Yoshimoto, Shintarou; Hiroe, Tetsuyuki; Fujiwara, Kazuhito

    A method to predict the change of the cushion pressure and the bag skirt configuration of ACV in heave is proposed. It is a quasistatic analysis based on the analysis of the skirt configuration in static operation that was proposed by the present authors. The cushion pressure depends on the velocity of motion as well as the hoverheight. It is higher in the downward motion than in the upward motion with the same hoverheight. As the model approaches the ground surface, the bag skirt is pushed outwards and also upwards but the hoverheight still decreases. This produces the increase of the cushion pressure that also flattened the configuration of the bag. The outward displacement of the bag produces the additional increase of the cushion base area and increases the restoring force. The stability is then increased.

  11. 76 FR 12700 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-08

    ... as t- shirt sacks, merchandise bags, grocery bags, or checkout bags. The subject merchandise is defined as non-sealable sacks and bags with handles (including drawstrings), without zippers or integral...-market sales by TPBI that failed the cost-of-production test. Final Results of Review As a result of our...

  12. 75 FR 53953 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-02

    ... order is PRCBs, which may be referred to as t-shirt sacks, merchandise bags, grocery bags, or checkout bags. The subject merchandise is defined as non- sealable sacks and bags with handles (including... reported, adjusted as described in the ``Cost of Production'' section above. Results of Cost Test and Cost...

  13. The spin bag mechanism of high temperature superconductivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrieffer, J. R.; Wen, X.-G.; Zhang, S.-C.

    1989-01-01

    In oxide superconductors the local suppression of antiferromagnetic correlations in the vicinity of a hole lowers the energy of the system. This quasi two-dimensional bag of weakened spin order follows the hole in its motion. In addition, holes prefer to share a bag, leading to a strong pairing attraction and a high Tc superconductivity. There are many experimental consequences of this mechanism for both the superconducting and normal phases.

  14. Air bags: reducing the toll of brain trauma.

    PubMed

    Jagger, J; Vernberg, K; Jane, J A

    1987-05-01

    Motor vehicle crashes account for approximately one-half of all hospitalized patients with brain injury. Therefore, measures to reduce the frequency and severity of injuries from motor vehicle crashes have the potential for making a substantial impact on the incidence and severity of brain trauma. Occupant restraints, including seat belts and air bags, have been proven highly effective in preventing injuries, yet the specific benefits for the brain, the face, and the cervical spine provided by air bags have not been widely publicized. Air bags prevent the violent whiplash motion of the head in a frontal crash, resulting in a more controlled deceleration of the brain. Wrenching forces exerted on the cervical spine are attenuated, and the face is protected from contact with hard or lacerating surfaces. Furthermore, compliance is not a problem with air bags. When a car is equipped with air bags, they are in effect 100% of the time, which is important for the protection of high risk groups, such a teenage boys, who tend to wear seat belts less often than other groups. It is estimated from national data and from epidemiological studies that air bags could have prevented or reduced brain injury for 25% of the hospitalized, brain-injured population. If provided as standard equipment on both the driver and the passenger side, air bags could do more to reduce the toll of brain trauma than any other available intervention. Air bags were ready for introduction into the marketplace 15 years ago. Since then, approximately 150,000 preventable deaths and more than 1,500,000 preventable brain injuries have occurred.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Sydney contained in bag morcellation for laparoscopic myomectomy.

    PubMed

    Kanade, Trupti Tanaji; McKenna, Joanne B; Choi, Sarah; Tsai, Brian P; Rosen, David M; Cario, Gregory M; Chou, Danny

    2014-01-01

    To demonstrate a new technique of contained in bag morcellation of a myoma after laparoscopic myomectomy. Step-by-step explanation of the technique in a narrated video. Contained In Bag Morcellation of myoma after laparoscopic myomectomy. Recent controversy regarding the risk of disseminating occult leiomyosarcomatous tissue during morcellation means we need to revise our current approach to tissue extraction at laparoscopic myomectomy and morcellation in general. Herein we present a novel technique, conceived by Dr. Danny Chou, called the Sydney Contained In Bag Morcellation technique for laparoscopic myomectomy. In this technique an EndoCatch bag (EndoCatch II Auto Suture Specimen Retrieval Pouch; Covidien, Mansfield, MA) is introduced in the typical fashion, the myoma is retrieved, and the mouth of the bag is exteriorized onto the abdominal wall. A 12-mm trocar is then introduced within the bag, and pneumoperitoneum is created before introducing an optical balloon tip port (KII Balloon Blunt Tip System; Applied Medical, Rancho Santa Margarita, CA) and the power morcellator device. Morcellation is then performed within the bag, under direct vision. This technique may offer a safer approach to morcellation because the bowel is not within the morcellation field and there is lower risk of disseminating occult leiomyosarcomatous tissue during morcellation. Subsequent to the morcellation process, suctioning of the bag removes any aerosolized particles of myoma, further minimizing the risk of possible dissemination. This technique may enable a minimally invasive approach to myomectomy to continue as a viable option in the era since the warning by the US Food and Drug Administration. Copyright © 2014 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. 24. BUILDING NO. 452, ORDNANCE FACILITY (BAG CHARGE FILLING PLANT), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. BUILDING NO. 452, ORDNANCE FACILITY (BAG CHARGE FILLING PLANT), INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING WEST AT NORTH END OF CENTRAL CORRIDOR (ROOM 3). STAIRWAY WORKBENCH WITH COMPRESSED-AIR POWERED CARTRIDGE LOADER. ARMORED PASS-THROUGH OF TRANSFER BOX FOR PASSING EXPLOSIVES MATERIALS THROUGH TO NEXT ROOM TO THE NORTH. - Picatinny Arsenal, 400 Area, Gun Bag Loading District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  17. [Effects of bagging on the fruit quality in Litchi chinensis fruit and pesticide residues in it].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianwu; Chen, Houbing; Zhou, Qiang; Zhang, Xinming

    2003-05-01

    Different color bags were used to cover Litchi chinensis fruit to study the effects of bagging on its quality and pesticide residues. The results showed that bagging significantly improved the fruit color. Using bagging techniques, the I and II class fruit was accounted for 57.87% to 81.57%, 30% higher than that of control, and the weight per fruit increased significantly. Among the color bags used, white bag was the best. When the end of the bag was opened, it was benefit for decease control, but not good for pest control. When the end of the bag was closed, it was good for pest control, but bad for decease control. Bagging had no effects on the taste of Litchi chinensis fruit, but might increase the residues of fenpropathrin and trichlorphon. More study should to be carried out to select the suitable pesticides accompanied with bagging techniques.

  18. Study of the suitability of DUO plastic bags for the storage of dynamites.

    PubMed

    Sáiz, Jorge; Ferrando, José-Luis; Atoche, Juan-Carlos; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2013-10-10

    A comparative study on the retentiveness of two plastic bags (DUO and Royal Pack) has been carried out by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detection. Two types of dynamites were packed in both plastic bags. The bags were placed into glass jars and headspace analyses were performed over 11 weeks to detect whether the volatile constituents of the dynamites were released from the bags. DUO plastic bags showed much better retentiveness than Royal Pack plastic bags. Ethylene glycol dinitrate (EGDN) was quickly detected in the headspace of the glass jars containing Royal Pack plastic bags after 1 week of storage. On the contrary, only a weak signal of EGDN, which was not detectable in the total ion chromatogram, was detected after 11 weeks of storage. Moreover, DUO plastic bags have shown less background signals than the Royal Pack bags, being the former bags much more suitable for the storage of dynamites.

  19. Driver air bag effectiveness by severity of the crash.

    PubMed Central

    Segui-Gomez, M

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This analysis provided effectiveness estimates of the driver-side air bag while controlling for severity of the crash and other potential confounders. METHODS: Data were from the National Automotive Sampling System (1993-1996). Injury severity was described on the basis of the Abbreviated Injury Scale, Injury Severity Score, Functional Capacity Index, and survival. Ordinal, linear, and logistic multivariate regression methods were used. RESULTS: Air bag deployment in frontal or near-frontal crashes decreases the probability of having severe and fatal injuries (e.g., Abbreviated Injury Scale score of 4-6), including those causing a long-lasting high degree of functional limitation. However, air bag deployment in low-severity crashes increases the probability that a driver (particularly a woman) will sustain injuries of Abbreviated Injury Scale level 1 to 3. Air bag deployment exerts a net injurious effect in low-severity crashes and a net protective effect in high-severity crashes. The level of crash severity at which air bags are protective is higher for female than for male drivers. CONCLUSIONS: Air bag improvement should minimize the injuries induced by their deployment. One possibility is to raise their deployment level so that they deploy only in more severe crashes. PMID:11029991

  20. Vector Interaction Enhanced Bag Model for Astrophysical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klähn, Thomas; Fischer, Tobias

    2015-09-01

    For quark matter studies in astrophysics the thermodynamic bag model (tdBAG) has been widely used. Despite its success it fails to account for various phenomena expected from QCD. We suggest a straightforward extension of tdBAG in order to take the dynamical breaking of chiral symmetry and the influence of vector interactions explicitly into account. As for tdBAG the model mimics confinement in a phenomenological approach. It is based on an analysis of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model at finite density. Furthermore, we demonstrate how NJL and bag models in this regime follow from the more general and QCD-based framework of the Dyson-Schwinger equations in a medium by assuming simple gluon contact interaction. Based on our simple and novel model, we construct quark hadron hybrid equations of state and systematically study chiral and deconfinement phase transitions, the appearance of s-quarks, and the role of vector interaction. We further study these aspects for matter in β-equilibrium at zero temperature, with particular focus on the current ˜2 {M}⊙ maximum mass constraint for neutron stars. Our approach indicates that the currently only theoretical evidence for the hypothesis of stable strange matter is an artifact of tdBAG and results from neglecting the dynamical breaking of chiral symmetry.

  1. Peepoo bag: self-sanitising single use biodegradable toilet.

    PubMed

    Vinnerås, Björn; Hedenkvist, Mikael; Nordin, Annika; Wilhelmson, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Unsafe water, sanitation and hygiene together with deficient nutritional status are major contributors to the global burden of disease. Safe collection, disposal and reuse of human excreta would enable the risk of transmission of diseases to be decreased and household food security to be increased in many regions. However, the majority of the 2.5 billion people lacking improved sanitation comprise poor people in societies with weak infrastructure. This study developed a low cost sanitation option requiring little investment and maintenance--a single use, self-sanitising, biodegradable toilet (Peepoo bag) and tested it for smell, degradability and hygiene aspects. It was found that no smell was detectable from a 25 microm thick bag filled with faeces during 24 h in a 10 m2 room at 30 degrees C. Bags that had been in contact with urea-treated faeces or urine for 2 months in air, compost or water at 24 or 37 degrees C showed little signs of degradation. Furthermore, pathogen inactivation modelling of the 4 g of urea present in the bag indicated that appropriate sanitation of faecal material collected is achieved in the bag within 2-4 weeks, after which the bag can be degraded and reused as fertiliser.

  2. Flow visualization around an apple with and without bagging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, H.; Kubota, Y.; Ohishi, M.; Mochizuki, O.

    2017-04-01

    The typhoon often causes the vast damage to drop the apple before harvest. Many apples fall from trees by the strong wind. These apples are usually bagged to protect them from insects and control sun light for the apples colouring while they are ripening on the tree. We directly measured the drag force acting on an apple with and without bagging experimentally to bare the influence of the bagging on the dropping mechanism. There are two interesting results through the experiment: the drag coefficient of a naked apple is smaller than a sphere, and the bagging is a cause of increasing drag coefficient. To know the reason of these results, we visualized flow around the apple with and without bagging by using the hydrogen bubbles method in an open water channel in this study. We found two facts as follows: the hollow on the top of an apple plays reduction of width of the wake of an apple and reason of increasing the wake width is the flow separation from peripheral edge of the bagging.

  3. Cancellous bone homograft storage with aluminium-polyethylene bags.

    PubMed

    Meana, A; Martinez, R; Cañal, P; Arriaga, M J; Román, F San; Llames, S; Orós, C; Moreno, A; Fernandez, C

    2006-01-01

    In order to transport and cryopreserve human tissues, it is essential to have an easy-to-use recipient where tissues can be kept in sterile conditions. Here we show the results obtained by using Macopharma's tissue freezing bags, an aluminium-polyethylene multilayer bag, in our tissue bank of the Centro Comunitario de Sangre y Tejidos de Asturias. Five hundred and twenty-seven cancellous bone homografts were obtained from hospitals located 120 km around our Bank. The homografts were submitted to bacteriological controls and sent to our bank in these bags. They were stored at -70 degrees C and sent in dry ice to about 50 hospitals, where the tissue was bacteriologically controlled and grafted. Furthermore, the behaviour of these bags at -140 degrees C (vapour nitrogen) or -196 degrees C (liquid nitrogen) was tested. Our results indicate that Macopharma aluminium-polyethylene bags are suitable for the transporting and cryopreserving of cancellous bone homografts. These bags could also be used for keeping tissues in nitrogen containers.

  4. Determination of H{sub 2} Diffusion Rates through Various Closures on TRU Waste Bag-Out Bags

    SciTech Connect

    Phillip D. Noll, Jr.; E. Larry Callis; Kirsten M. Norman

    1999-06-01

    The amount of H{sub 2} diffusion through twist and tape (horse-tail), wire tie, plastic tie, and heat sealed closures on transuranic (TRU) waste bag-out bags has been determined. H{sub 2} diffusion through wire and plastic tie closures on TRU waste bag-out bags has not been previously characterized and, as such, TRU waste drums containing bags with these closures cannot be certified and/or shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Since wire ties have been used at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) from 1980 to 1991 and the plastic ties from 1991 to the present, there are currently thousands of waste drums that cannot be shipped to the WIPP site. Repackaging the waste would be prohibitively expensive. Diffusion experiments performed on the above mentioned closures show that the diffusion rates of plastic tie and horse-tail closures are greater than the accepted value presented in the TRU-PACT 11 Safety Analysis Report (SAR). Diffusion rates for wire tie closures are not statistically different from the SAR value. Thus, drums containing bags with these closures can now potentially be certified which would allow for their consequent shipment to WIPP.

  5. Comparison of a 'two-bag system' versus conventional treatment protocol ('one-bag system') in the management of diabetic ketoacidosis.

    PubMed

    Munir, Iqbal; Fargo, Ramiz; Garrison, Roger; Yang, Almira; Cheng, Andy; Kang, Ilho; Motabar, Ali; Xu, Karen; Loo, Lawrence K; Kim, Daniel I

    2017-01-01

    We compared the conventional 'one-bag protocol' of management of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) with the 'two-bag protocol' which utilizes two bags of fluids, one containing saline and supplemental electrolytes and the other containing the same solution with the addition of 10% dextrose. A retrospective chart review and analysis was done on adult patients admitted for DKA to the Riverside University Health System Medical Center from 2008 to 2015. There were 249 cases of DKA managed by the one-bag system and 134 cases managed by the two-bag system. The baseline patient characteristics were similar in both groups. The anion gap closed in 13.56 hours in the one-bag group versus 10.94 hours in the two-bag group (p value <0.0002). None of the individual factors significantly influenced the anion gap closure time; only the two-bag system favored earlier closure of the anion gap. Plasma glucose levels improved to <250 mg/dL earlier with two-bag protocol (9.14 vs 7.82 hours, p=0.0241). The incidence of hypoglycemic events was significantly less frequent with the two-bag protocol compared with the standard one-bag system (1.49% vs 8.43%, p=0.0064). Neither the time to improve serum HCO3 level >18 mg/dL nor the hospital length of stay differed between the two groups. Our study indicates that the two-bag protocol closes the anion gap earlier than the one-bag protocol in adult patients with DKA. Blood glucose levels improved faster with the two-bag protocol compared with the one-bag protocol with fewer associated episodes of hypoglycemia. Prospective studies are needed to evaluate the clinical significance of these findings.

  6. Monitoring trace metals using moss bags in Sardinia, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellizzaro, Grazia; Canu, Annalisa; Ventura, Andrea; Arca, Angelo; Duce, Pierpaolo

    2010-05-01

    As well known anthropic activities are producing an increase of trace metal concentration in the terrestrial ecosystems. Previous researches have shown that several species of cryptogams can be used as a low-cost bio-accumulator to detect metal deposition. In this study biomonitoring of airborne trace metals was made using moss bags technique. The moss Hypnum cupressiforme was used as a bio-accumulator for the estimation of atmospheric traces metal deposition in three sites characterized by different source of pollution around an industrialized area and two urban areas (north-west of Sardinia, Italy). Moss carpets were collected from trees in a forest of central Sardinia where air pollution is not present. In the laboratory, the moss plant samples were cleaned and moss bags were prepared by weighing out 2 g air-dried weight, and packing it loosely in nylon nets of 12 x 12 cm with mesh of 4 mm2. In each site the moss bags were exposed for six weeks during autumn, winter, spring and summer seasons from November 2007 to July 2008. Two moss bags, used as control, were not exposed. Following exposure the moss samples were analyzed for total concentration of As, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry. Results obtained showed higher values of trace metal load factor for the following elements: Cu, Ni, Zn, and As. The most accumulation values were found in moss bags exposed in the industrial area for all period of experimentation.

  7. Double Vacuum Bag Process for Resin Matrix Composite Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, Tan-Hung (Inventor); Jensen, Brian J. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A double vacuum bag molding assembly with improved void management and laminate net shape control which provides a double vacuum enviromnent for use in fabricating composites from prepregs containing air and/or volatiles such as reactive resin matrix composites or composites from solvent containing prepregs with non-reactive resins matrices. By using two vacuum environments during the curing process, a vacuum can be drawn during a B-stage of a two-step cycle without placing the composite under significant relative pressure. During the final cure stage, a significant pressure can be applied by releasing the vacuum in one of the two environments. Inner and outer bags are useful for creating the two vacuum environments with a perforated tool intermediate the two. The composite is placed intermediate a tool plate and a caul plate in the first environment with the inner bag and tool plate defining the first environment. The second environment is characterized by the outer bag which is placed over the inner bag and the tool plate.

  8. Air bags: a major advance in injury control.

    PubMed

    Jordan, K S

    1999-01-01

    Motor vehicle related injury is the number one cause of injury related to morbidity and mortality, exceeding 5 million injuries per year. There is a growing body of scientific evidence that motor vehicles equipped with air bags make a significant impact in reducing both the severity of injury and the overall fatality rate. Nurses are a key resource in the prevention and mitigation of motor vehicle related injury. Nurses must not only be knowledgeable in the vital role that air bags play in motor vehicle crashes, but actively promote and educate individuals and groups regarding injury prevention programs that focus on air bags. Nurses also play an essential role in this approach to injury through the development of partnerships among businesses, government, health care, community groups, and consumers.

  9. Asphyxial suicide by inhalation of chloroform inside a plastic bag.

    PubMed

    Zorro, Andres Rodriguez

    2014-01-01

    Asphyxia suicide by placing a plastic bag over the head in addition with inhalation of gases or use of sedative substances is an unusual method of committing suicide, but frequently referenced by right to die groups in the Internet. This article reports 2 suicides in which chloroform was used to induce unconsciousness and subsequent asphyxia by placing the head in a plastic bag. Case histories of 2 males, ages 23 and 28, are described with special emphasis on characteristics death related to suffocation using plastic bags and chloroform. The final remarkable point in both cases is that the victims previously searched the WEB for instructions of suicide methods. The importance of the phenomenon of misuse of Internet by young people who commit suicide is stressed.

  10. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags fro Reducing Exploration Mission Logistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baccus, Shelley; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.; Borrego, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    The Logistics Reduction (LR) project within the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) division is tasked with reducing logistical mass and repurposing logistical items. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags (MCTB) have been designed such that they can serve the same purpose as a Cargo Transfer Bag (CTB), the common logistics carrying bag for the International Space Station (ISS). After use as a cargo carrier, a regular CTB becomes trash, whereas the MCTB can be unfolded into a flat panel for reuse. Concepts and potential benefits for various MCTB applications will be discussed including partitions, crew quarters, solar radiation storm shelters, acoustic blankets, and forward osmosis water processing. Acoustic MCTBs are currently in use on ISS to reduce the noise generated by the T2 treadmill, which reaches the hazard limit at high speeds. The development of the AMCTB included identification of keep out zones, acoustic properties, deployment considerations, and structural testing. Features developed for these considerations are applicable to MCTBs for all crew outfitting applications.

  11. Reducing Mission Logistics with Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baccus, Shelley; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.; Borrego, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    The Logistics Reduction (LR) project within Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) is tasked with reducing logistical mass and repurposing logistical items. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags (MCTB) have been designed such that they can serve the same purpose as a Cargo Transfer Bag (CTB), the common logistics carrying bag for the International Space Station (ISS). After use as a cargo carrier, a regular CTB becomes trash, whereas the MCTB can be unfolded into a flat panel for reuse. Concepts and potential benefits for various MCTB applications will be discussed including partitions, crew quarters, solar radiation storm shelters, acoustic blankets, and forward osmosis water processing. Acoustic MCTBs are currently in use on ISS to reduce the noise generated by the T2 treadmill, which reaches the hazard limit at high speeds. The development of the AMCTB included identification of keep-out zones, acoustic properties, deployment considerations, and structural testing. Features developed for these considerations are applicable to MCTBs for all crew outfitting applications.

  12. Nuclear matter in the crystal soliton bag model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achtzehnter, Joachim; Scheid, Werner; Wilets, Lawrence

    1985-11-01

    A model for nuclear matter is introduced as consisting of an infinite number of bags placed on a spatial cubic lattice. Using the soliton bag model of Friedberg and Lee in the self-consistent mean-field approximation we study the properties of the system as a function of the lattice constant. At low densities the hadronic matter is well described by the solutions of isolated nucleons. With decreasing lattice constant the energies of the quarks spread out into bands and the quark wave functions of different bags start to overlap. At a certain critical density an abrupt phase transition to a uniform quark distribution occurs. The model yields a critical density of the order of the normal nuclear density which shows that the model cannot adequately describe the repulsive part of the nucleon-nucleon interaction at small relative distances.

  13. Gyrokinetic modeling: A multi-water-bag approach

    SciTech Connect

    Morel, P.; Gravier, E.; Besse, N.; Klein, R.; Ghizzo, A.; Bertrand, P.; Garbet, X.; Ghendrih, P.; Grandgirard, V.; Sarazin, Y.

    2007-11-15

    Predicting turbulent transport in nearly collisionless fusion plasmas requires one to solve kinetic (or, more precisely, gyrokinetic) equations. In spite of considerable progress, several pending issues remain; although more accurate, the kinetic calculation of turbulent transport is much more demanding in computer resources than fluid simulations. An alternative approach is based on a water-bag representation of the distribution function that is not an approximation but rather a special class of initial conditions, allowing one to reduce the full kinetic Vlasov equation into a set of hydrodynamic equations while keeping its kinetic character. The main result for the water-bag model is a lower cost in the parallel velocity direction since no differential operator associated with some approximate numerical scheme has to be carried out on this variable v{sub parallel}. Indeed, a small bag number is sufficient to correctly describe the ion temperature gradient instability.

  14. Oxygen delivery using neonatal self-inflating bags without reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Takahiro; Urushibata, Rei; Komatsu, Kenji; Shioda, Tsutomu; Ota, Tatsuki; Sato, Megumi; Okubo, Yumiko; Fukuoka, Tetsuya; Hosono, Shigeharu; Tamura, Masanori

    2017-02-01

    Guidelines recommend avoiding excessive oxygen during neonatal resuscitation. Recent studies have suggested that oxygen titration can be achieved using a self-inflating bag, but data on the effectiveness of resuscitators used in neonatal ventilation are scarce, The aim of this study was therefore to determine the amount of oxygen delivered using several brands of neonatal self-inflating resuscitation bags without reservoirs under different conditions with regard to oxygen flow rate, ventilation rate (VR), peak inspiratory pressure (PIP) range, and test lung compliance. Oxygen concentration was measured under a variety of conditions. Combinations of oxygen flow rate (10, 5.0, 3.0 and 1.0 L/min), VR (40, 60 inflations/min), PIP range (20-25 cmH2 O, 35-40 cmH2 O), and test lung compliance (0.6, 1.0, 3.0, and 5.0 mL/cmH2 O) were examined using six kinds of self-inflating bag. Delivered oxygen concentration varied widely (30.1-96.7%) and had a significant positive correlation with gas flow rate in all of the bags. Delivered oxygen concentration was also negatively correlated with PIP in all of the bags and with VR in some of them. Test lung compliance did not affect delivered oxygen concentration. The use of neonatal resuscitation self-inflating bags without reservoirs resulted in different delivered oxygen concentrations depending on gas flow rate, VR, PIP, and manufacturer, but not on lung compliance. This suggests that targeted oxygen concentrations could be delivered, even in lungs with decreased compliance, during resuscitation. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  15. 40. BUILDING NO. 454, ORDNANCE FACILITY (BAG CHANGE FILLING PLANT), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. BUILDING NO. 454, ORDNANCE FACILITY (BAG CHANGE FILLING PLANT), DETAIL SOUTHEAST SIDE OF EXTERIOR ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT ROOM, SHOWING DOOR TO SEWING ROOM NO. 3, VENTILATOR FAN (OVER DOOR), STEAM LINE (PIPE), SEWING MACHINE MOTOR IN OVERHEAD, ALARM BELL, EXPLOSION-PROOF SWITCH BOXES, GROUNDS ON DOORS, PULL ALARM HANDLE (EXTREME RIGHT; PULLEY CABLE CONDUCTED IN CONDUIT TO SWITCH INSIDE BUILDING. PULLEYS INSIDE ALL ELBOW JOINTS.) - Picatinny Arsenal, 400 Area, Gun Bag Loading District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  16. Spin-bag mechanism of high-temperature superconductivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrieffer, J. R.; Wen, X.-G.; Zhang, S.-C.

    1988-01-01

    A new approach to the theory of high-temperature superconductivity is proposed, based on the two-dimensional antiferromagnetic spin correlations observed in these materials over distances large compared to the lattice spacing. The spin ordering produces an electronic pseudogap which is locally suppressed by the addition of a hole. This suppression forms a bag inside which the hole is self-consistently trapped. Two holes are attracted by sharing a common bag. The resulting pairing interaction leads to a superconducting energy gap which is nodeless over the Femri surface.

  17. The transverse momentum dependent distribution functions in the bag model

    SciTech Connect

    Avakian, Harut; Efremov, Anatoly; Schweitzer, Peter; Yuan, Feng

    2010-01-29

    Leading and subleading twist transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions (TMDs) are studied in a quark model framework provided by the bag model. A complete set of relations among different TMDs is derived, and the question is discussed how model-(in)dependent such relations are. A connection of the pretzelosity distribution and quark orbital angular momentum is derived. Numerical results are presented, and applications for phenomenology discussed. In particular, it is shown that in the valence-x region the bag model supports a Gaussian Ansatz for the transverse momentum dependence of TMDs.

  18. Transverse momentum dependent distribution functions in the bag model

    SciTech Connect

    Harut A. Avakian; Efremov, A. V.; Schweitzer, P.; Yuan, F.

    2010-04-01

    Leading and subleading twist transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions (TMDs) are studied in a quark model framework provided by the bag model. A complete set of relations among different TMDs is derived, and the question is discussed how model-(in)dependent such relations are. A connection of the pretzelosity distribution and quark orbital angular momentum is derived. Numerical results are presented, and applications for phenomenology discussed. In particular, it is shown that in the valence-x region the bag model supports a Gaussian Ansatz for the transverse momentum dependence of TMDs.

  19. WW domain of BAG3 is required for the induction of autophagy in glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Merabova, Nana; Sariyer, Ilker Kudret; Saribas, A Sami; Knezevic, Tijana; Gordon, Jennifer; Turco, M Caterina; Rosati, Alessandra; Weaver, Michael; Landry, Jacques; Khalili, Kamel

    2015-04-01

    Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved, selective degradation pathway of cellular components that is important for cell homeostasis under healthy and pathologic conditions. Here we demonstrate that an increase in the level of BAG3 results in stimulation of autophagy in glioblastoma cells. BAG3 is a member of a co-chaperone family of proteins that associates with Hsp70 through a conserved BAG domain positioned near the C-terminus of the protein. Expression of BAG3 is induced by a variety of environmental changes that cause stress to cells. Our results show that BAG3 overexpression induces autophagy in glioma cells. Interestingly, inhibition of the proteasome caused an increase in BAG3 levels and induced autophagy. Further analysis using specific siRNA against BAG3 suggests that autophagic activation due to proteosomal inhibition is mediated by BAG3. Analyses of BAG3 domain mutants suggest that the WW domain of BAG3 is crucial for the induction of autophagy. BAG3 overexpression also increased the interaction between Bcl2 and Beclin-1, instead of disrupting them, suggesting that BAG3 induced autophagy is Beclin-1 independent. These observations reveal a novel role for the WW domain of BAG3 in the regulation of autophagy.

  20. [Effects of fruit bag color on the microenvironment, yield and quality of tomato fruits].

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Gao, Fang-sheng; Xu, Kun; Xu, Ning

    2013-08-01

    In order to clarify the ecological and biological effects of fruit bagging, tomato variety JYK was taken as the test material to study the changes of the microenvironment in different color fruit bags and the effects of these changes on the fruit development, yield and quality, with the treatment without fruit bagging as the control (CK). The results showed that bagging with different color fruit bags had positive effects in decreasing the light intensity of the microenvironment and increasing its temperature and humidity, and thus, increased the single fruit mass and promoted the harvest stage advanced. Black bag had the best effects in increasing microenvironment temperature and fruit mass, with the single fruit mass increased by 27.2% and the harvest period shortened by 10 days, compared with CK. The fruit maturation period in colorless bag, blue bag and red bag was shortened by 8, 3 and 2 days, and the single mass was increased by 11.8%, 6.4% and 4.8%, respectively. Moreover, the coloring and lycopene content of the fruits with different color bags bagging were improved, but the fruit rigidity and fruit soluble solid, soluble protein, and soluble sugar contents were decreased. Therefore, bagging with different color bags could improve the yield of tomato fruits, but decrease the fruit nutritional quality.

  1. Bag-breakup control of surface drag in hurricanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troitskaya, Yuliya; Zilitinkevich, Sergej; Kandaurov, Alexander; Ermakova, Olga; Kozlov, Dmitry; Sergeev, Daniil

    2016-04-01

    Air-sea interaction at extreme winds is of special interest now in connection with the problem of the sea surface drag reduction at the wind speed exceeding 30-35 m/s. This phenomenon predicted by Emanuel (1995) and confirmed by a number of field (e.g., Powell, et al, 2003) and laboratory (Donelan et al, 2004) experiments still waits its physical explanation. Several papers attributed the drag reduction to spume droplets - spray turning off the crests of breaking waves (e.g., Kudryavtsev, Makin, 2011, Bao, et al, 2011). The fluxes associated with the spray are determined by the rate of droplet production at the surface quantified by the sea spray generation function (SSGF), defined as the number of spray particles of radius r produced from the unit area of water surface in unit time. However, the mechanism of spume droplets' formation is unknown and empirical estimates of SSGF varied over six orders of magnitude; therefore, the production rate of large sea spray droplets is not adequately described and there are significant uncertainties in estimations of exchange processes in hurricanes. Herewith, it is unknown what is air-sea interface and how water is fragmented to spray at hurricane wind. Using high-speed video, we observed mechanisms of production of spume droplets at strong winds by high-speed video filming, investigated statistics and compared their efficiency. Experiments showed, that the generation of the spume droplets near the wave crest is caused by the following events: bursting of submerged bubbles, generation and breakup of "projections" and "bag breakup". Statistical analysis of results of these experiments showed that the main mechanism of spray-generation is attributed to "bag-breakup mechanism", namely, inflating and consequent blowing of short-lived, sail-like pieces of the water-surface film. Using high-speed video, we show that at hurricane winds the main mechanism of spray production is attributed to "bag-breakup", namely, inflating and

  2. Heavy metal content in rubbish bags used for separate collection of biowaste.

    PubMed

    Huerta-Pujol, Oscar; Soliva, Montserrat; Giró, Francesc; López, Marga

    2010-01-01

    The heavy metal content of several rubbish bags used to collect the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) is shown in this paper. Nowadays, several public awareness campaigns carried out by municipalities have promoted rubbish bags based mainly on their appearance, without concern for their heavy metal content. A high amount of heavy metals was detected in some polyethylene bags promoted in different campaigns for OFMSW source-sorted collection, while compostable bags presented low quantities of heavy metals. Some other rubbish bags, as well as commercial bags, were also analysed for comparison. These results should be taken into account before promoting the use of one or other type of bag. Moreover, the rubbish bag manufacturers should reduce the heavy metal content in order to avoid heavy metal scattering in the environment, and also to reduce the consumption of raw materials.

  3. Legitimization of regulatory norms: Waterfowl hunter acceptance of changing duck bag limits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroeder, Susan A.; Fulton, David C.; Lawrence, Jeffrey S.; Cordts, Steven D.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have examined response to regulatory change over time, or addressed hunter attitudes about changes in hunting bag limits. This article explores Minnesota waterfowl hunters’ attitudes about duck bag limits, examining attitudes about two state duck bag limits that were initially more restrictive than the maximum set by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), but then increased to match federal limits. Results are from four mail surveys that examined attitudes about bag limits over time. Following two bag limit increases, a greater proportion of hunters rated the new bag limit “too high” and a smaller proportion rated it “too low.” Several years following the first bag limit increase, the proportion of hunters who indicated that the limit was “too high” had declined, suggesting hunter acceptance of the new regulation. Results suggest that waterfowl bag limits may represent legal norms that influence hunter attitudes and gain legitimacy over time.

  4. Comparisons of the effects of a foam pad, mung bean bag, and plastic bead bag on postural stability disturbance in healthy young adults

    PubMed Central

    Siriphorn, Akkradate; Chamonchant, Dannaovarat; Boonyong, Sujitra

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of unstable support surfaces, i.e. foam pad, mung bean bag, and plastic bead bag, on postural stability disturbance. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-two healthy young adults (11 male and 11 female; aged 21.09 ± 1.44 years; BMI 20.40 ± 1.40 kg/m2) participated in the study. The Balance Master™ was used to evaluate the limit of stability and the unilateral stance performance. Each participant was assessed while standing on the following surfaces: 1) a firm surface, 2) a foam pad, 3) a mung bean bag, and 4) a plastic bead bag. The order of surfaces was randomly assigned. [Results] The mung bean bag and plastic bead bag showed greater disturbances in limit of stability and unilateral stance than the foam pad. There was no significant difference in postural stability disturbance between the mung bean bag and plastic bead bag. [Conclusion] These results suggested that both the mung bean bag and plastic bead bag could be used as a low-cost tool for balance assessment instead of a foam pad in healthy young adults. PMID:27065085

  5. Comparisons of the effects of a foam pad, mung bean bag, and plastic bead bag on postural stability disturbance in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Siriphorn, Akkradate; Chamonchant, Dannaovarat; Boonyong, Sujitra

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of unstable support surfaces, i.e. foam pad, mung bean bag, and plastic bead bag, on postural stability disturbance. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-two healthy young adults (11 male and 11 female; aged 21.09 ± 1.44 years; BMI 20.40 ± 1.40 kg/m(2)) participated in the study. The Balance Master™ was used to evaluate the limit of stability and the unilateral stance performance. Each participant was assessed while standing on the following surfaces: 1) a firm surface, 2) a foam pad, 3) a mung bean bag, and 4) a plastic bead bag. The order of surfaces was randomly assigned. [Results] The mung bean bag and plastic bead bag showed greater disturbances in limit of stability and unilateral stance than the foam pad. There was no significant difference in postural stability disturbance between the mung bean bag and plastic bead bag. [Conclusion] These results suggested that both the mung bean bag and plastic bead bag could be used as a low-cost tool for balance assessment instead of a foam pad in healthy young adults.

  6. Enhancing Genome-Enabled Prediction by Bagging Genomic BLUP

    PubMed Central

    Gianola, Daniel; Weigel, Kent A.; Krämer, Nicole; Stella, Alessandra; Schön, Chris-Carolin

    2014-01-01

    We examined whether or not the predictive ability of genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP) could be improved via a resampling method used in machine learning: bootstrap aggregating sampling (“bagging”). In theory, bagging can be useful when the predictor has large variance or when the number of markers is much larger than sample size, preventing effective regularization. After presenting a brief review of GBLUP, bagging was adapted to the context of GBLUP, both at the level of the genetic signal and of marker effects. The performance of bagging was evaluated with four simulated case studies including known or unknown quantitative trait loci, and an application was made to real data on grain yield in wheat planted in four environments. A metric aimed to quantify candidate-specific cross-validation uncertainty was proposed and assessed; as expected, model derived theoretical reliabilities bore no relationship with cross-validation accuracy. It was found that bagging can ameliorate predictive performance of GBLUP and make it more robust against over-fitting. Seemingly, 25–50 bootstrap samples was enough to attain reasonable predictions as well as stable measures of individual predictive mean squared errors. PMID:24722227

  7. Recombinant erythropoietin found in seized blood bags from sportsmen.

    PubMed

    Mallorquí, Joaquim; Segura, Jordi; de Bolòs, Carme; Gutiérrez-Gallego, Ricardo; Pascual, Jose A

    2008-02-01

    During an anti-doping investigation, the Spanish Guardia Civil confiscated blood bags from elite sportsmen. A novel immuno-purification method demonstrated that plasma samples with elevated erythropoietin (EPO) contained recombinant material (rEPO). This shows that rEPO is used before autologous blood transfusions and that rEPO analysis in plasma can be reliably addressed.

  8. Kiondo Bag Boutique: A Serial Case for Introductory Financial Accounting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siriwardane, Harshini P.

    2014-01-01

    Kiondo Bag Boutique is a hypothetical serial case involving a start-up retail business. The case evolves from an ambitious business idea to a successful business. Through the evolving business, the importance of accounting information is highlighted. Different iterations are used to illustrate the role of accounting in serving and managing…

  9. Micro-mesh fabric pollination bags for switchgrass

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pollination bags for making controlled crosses between switchgrass plants were made from a polyester micro-mesh fabric with a mesh size of 41 µm which is smaller than the mean reported 43 µm diameter of switchgrass pollen. When used in paired plant crosses between switchgrass plants, the mean amoun...

  10. Saddle Bag Mountain Research Natural Area: guidebook supplement 34.

    Treesearch

    Reid Schuller; Ronald L. Exeter

    2007-01-01

    This guidebook describes the Saddle Bag Mountain Research Natural Area, a 121-ha (300-ac) tract established to represent an old-growth remnant of Pacific silver fir (Abies amabilis) and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) forest in the Oregon Coast Range. Pacific silver fir and noble fir (Abies procera)...

  11. 14 CFR 223.24 - Transportation of empty mail bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Transportation of empty mail bags. 223.24 Section 223.24 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS FREE AND REDUCED-RATE TRANSPORTATION International Travel §...

  12. 14 CFR 223.24 - Transportation of empty mail bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Transportation of empty mail bags. 223.24 Section 223.24 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS FREE AND REDUCED-RATE TRANSPORTATION International Travel §...

  13. 14 CFR 223.24 - Transportation of empty mail bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Transportation of empty mail bags. 223.24 Section 223.24 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS FREE AND REDUCED-RATE TRANSPORTATION International Travel §...

  14. 14 CFR 223.24 - Transportation of empty mail bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Transportation of empty mail bags. 223.24 Section 223.24 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS FREE AND REDUCED-RATE TRANSPORTATION International Travel §...

  15. It's All in the Bag: A Genetics Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an activity that uses sandwich bags to represent an individual's genome (their genetic make-up), and two variations of various objects representing the alleles of various genes. This activity includes the major components of an introductory genetics unit: from gamete production through probabilities of expected offspring…

  16. Long fluid filled bags suspended by line forces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullins, M. L.; Duncan, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    A previous analysis of fluid filled storage bags is extended to the case of a long fluid filled cylindrical membrane supported by uniform line loads. Cross-sectional shape, stiffness of the support system and stress resultants in the membrane are determined. The application of the numerical results to problems arising in the design of nonrigid airships is discussed.

  17. Military applications of a cockpit integrated electronic flight bag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, Robert P.; Seinfeld, Robert D.

    2004-09-01

    Converting the pilot's flight bag information from paper to electronic media is being performed routinely by commercial airlines for use with an on-board PC. This concept is now being further advanced with a new class of electronic flight bags (EFB) recently put into commercial operation which interface directly with major on-board avionics systems and has its own dedicated panel mounted display. This display combines flight bag information with real time aircraft performance and maintenance data. This concept of an integrated EFB which is now being used by the commercial airlines as a level 1 certified system, needs to be explored for military applications. This paper describes a system which contains all the attributes of an Electronic Flight Bag with the addition of interfaces which are linked to military aircraft missions such as those for tankers, cargo haulers, search and rescue and maritime aircraft as well as GATM requirements. The adaptation of the integrated EFB to meet these military requirements is then discussed.

  18. Fertilizer use by class -- Bag/Bulk/Fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Hargett, N.L.; Berry, J.T.

    1991-01-01

    This report contains annual fertilizer consumption rates in the USA and Puerto Rico for 1988, 1989, and 1990. State by state data for the separate classes of bagged, bulk, dry total, and fluid single and multiple nutrient fertilizers are documented. Only numerical data is included.

  19. Gyro-water-bag approach in nonlinear gyrokinetic turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Besse, Nicolas Bertrand, Pierre

    2009-06-20

    Turbulent transport is a key issue for controlled thermonuclear fusion based on magnetic confinement. The thermal confinement of a magnetized fusion plasma is essentially determined by the turbulent heat conduction across the equilibrium magnetic field. It has long been acknowledged, that the prediction of turbulent transport requires to solve Vlasov-type gyrokinetic equations. Although the kinetic description is more accurate than fluid models (MHD, gyro-fluid), because among other things it takes into account nonlinear resonant wave-particle interaction, kinetic modeling has the drawback of a huge computer resource request. An unifying approach consists in considering water-bag-like weak solutions of kinetic collisionless equations, which allow to reduce the full kinetic Vlasov equation into a set of hydrodynamic equations, while keeping its kinetic behaviour. As a result this exact reduction induces a multi-fluid numerical resolution cost. Therefore finding water-bag-like weak solutions of the gyrokinetic equations leads to the birth of the gyro-water-bag model. This model is suitable for studying linear and nonlinear low-frequency micro-instabilities and the associated anomalous transport in magnetically-confined plasmas. The present paper addresses the derivation of the nonlinear gyro-water-bag model, its quasilinear approximation and their numerical approximations by Runge-Kutta semi-Lagrangian methods and Runge-Kutta discontinuous Galerkin schemes respectively.

  20. It's All in the Bag: A Genetics Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an activity that uses sandwich bags to represent an individual's genome (their genetic make-up), and two variations of various objects representing the alleles of various genes. This activity includes the major components of an introductory genetics unit: from gamete production through probabilities of expected offspring…

  1. Kiondo Bag Boutique: A Serial Case for Introductory Financial Accounting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siriwardane, Harshini P.

    2014-01-01

    Kiondo Bag Boutique is a hypothetical serial case involving a start-up retail business. The case evolves from an ambitious business idea to a successful business. Through the evolving business, the importance of accounting information is highlighted. Different iterations are used to illustrate the role of accounting in serving and managing…

  2. 49 CFR 178.520 - Standards for textile bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standards for textile bags. 178.520 Section 178.520 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging...

  3. 49 CFR 178.520 - Standards for textile bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standards for textile bags. 178.520 Section 178.520 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging...

  4. 49 CFR 178.520 - Standards for textile bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standards for textile bags. 178.520 Section 178.520 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging...

  5. 49 CFR 178.520 - Standards for textile bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standards for textile bags. 178.520 Section 178.520 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging...

  6. An association of purple urine bag syndrome with intussusception.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Rekha Neelakanta; Clavijo, Jorge; Narayanan, Manjith; Zaman, Kashif

    2007-10-01

    We report a case of an elderly lady with a long-term suprapubic catheter who developed purple discoloration of urine around the same time as she developed intussusception. Purple urine bag syndrome is a benign condition known to be associated with intestinal stasis. However, this association with intussusception should be kept in mind before the patient is reassured.

  7. 50 CFR 622.39 - Bag and possession limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... vessel that verifies the length of the trip. (c) King and Spanish mackerel—(1) Bag limits. (i) Atlantic migratory group king mackerel— (A) Mid-Atlantic and South Atlantic, other than off Florida—3. (B) Off... group king mackerel—2. (iii) Atlantic migratory group Spanish mackerel—15. (iv) Gulf migratory...

  8. 50 CFR 622.382 - Bag and possession limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) King and Spanish mackerel—(1) Bag limits. (i) Atlantic migratory group king mackerel— (A) Mid-Atlantic... does not exceed 5. (ii) Gulf migratory group king mackerel—2. (iii) Atlantic migratory group Spanish mackerel—15. (iv) Gulf migratory group Spanish mackerel—15. (v) Coastal migratory pelagic fish...

  9. 50 CFR 622.39 - Bag and possession limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... vessel that verifies the length of the trip. (c) King and Spanish mackerel—(1) Bag limits. (i) Atlantic migratory group king mackerel— (A) Mid-Atlantic and South Atlantic, other than off Florida—3. (B) Off... group king mackerel—2. (iii) Atlantic migratory group Spanish mackerel—15. (iv) Gulf migratory...

  10. 50 CFR 622.382 - Bag and possession limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) King and Spanish mackerel—(1) Bag limits. (i) Atlantic migratory group king mackerel— (A) Mid-Atlantic... does not exceed 5. (ii) Gulf migratory group king mackerel—2. (iii) Atlantic migratory group Spanish mackerel—15. (iv) Gulf migratory group Spanish mackerel—15. (v) Coastal migratory pelagic fish...

  11. 50 CFR 622.39 - Bag and possession limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... vessel that verifies the length of the trip. (c) King and Spanish mackerel—(1) Bag limits. (i) Atlantic migratory group king mackerel— (A) Mid-Atlantic and South Atlantic, other than off Florida—3. (B) Off... group king mackerel—2. (iii) Atlantic migratory group Spanish mackerel—15. (iv) Gulf migratory...

  12. Developing Baby Bag Design by Using Kansei Engineering Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janari, D.; Rakhmawati, A.

    2016-01-01

    Consumer's preferences and market demand are essential factors for product's success. Thus, in achieving its success, a product should have design that could fulfill consumer's expectation. Purpose of this research is accomplishing baby bag product as stipulated by Kansei. The results that represent Kanseiwords are; neat, unique, comfortable, safe, modern, gentle, elegant, antique, attractive, simple, spacious, creative, colorful, durable, stylish, smooth and strong. Identification value on significance of correlation for durable attribute is 0,000 < 0,005, which means significant to baby's bag. While the value of coefficient regression is 0,812 < 0,005, which means that durable attribute insignificant to baby's bag.The result of the baby's bag final design selectionbased on the questionnaire 3 is resulting the combination of all design. Space for clothes, diaper's space, shoulder grip, side grip, bottle's heater pocket and bottle's pocket are derived from design 1. Top grip, space for clothes, shoulder grip, and side grip are derived from design 2.Others design that were taken are, spaces for clothes from design 3, diaper's space and clothes’ space from design 4.

  13. 14 CFR 223.24 - Transportation of empty mail bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transportation of empty mail bags. 223.24 Section 223.24 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS FREE AND REDUCED-RATE TRANSPORTATION International Travel §...

  14. BAG3 affects the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of HSF1 upon heat stress

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Young-Hee; Ahn, Sang-Gun; Kim, Soo-A.

    2015-08-21

    Bcl2-associated athoanogene (BAG) 3 is a member of the co-chaperone BAG family. It is induced by stressful stimuli such as heat shock and heavy metals, and it regulates cellular adaptive responses against stressful conditions. In this study, we identified a novel role for BAG3 in regulating the nuclear shuttling of HSF1 during heat stress. The expression level of BAG3 was induced by heat stress in HeLa cells. Interestingly, BAG3 rapidly translocalized to the nucleus upon heat stress. Immunoprecipitation assay showed that BAG3 interacts with HSF1 under normal and stressed conditions and co-translocalizes to the nucleus upon heat stress. We also demonstrated that BAG3 interacts with HSF1 via its BAG domain. Over-expression of BAG3 down-regulates the level of nuclear HSF1 by exporting it to the cytoplasm during the recovery period. Depletion of BAG3 using siRNA results in reduced nuclear HSF1 and decreased Hsp70 promoter activity. BAG3 in MEF(hsf1{sup −/−}) cells actively translocalizes to the nucleus upon heat stress suggesting that BAG3 plays a key role in the processing of the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of HSF1 upon heat stress. - Highlights: • The expression level of BAG3 is induced by heat stress. • BAG3 translocates to the nucleus upon heat stress. • BAG3 interacts with HSF1 and co-localizes to the nucleus. • BAG3 is a key regulator for HSF1 nuclear shuttling.

  15. In-the-bag scleral suturing of intraocular lens in eyes with severe zonular dehiscence

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, K; Hirata, A; Hayashi, H

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To compare the degree of tilt and decentration of an intraocular lens (IOL), refractive status, and prediction error between eyes that underwent trans-scleral suturing of the IOL within the capsular bag (in-the-bag scleral suturing) and eyes that underwent scleral suturing outside of the bag (out-of-the-bag scleral suturing) because of severe zonular dehiscence. Patients and methods Thirty eyes that underwent in-the-bag scleral suturing of an IOL and 38 eyes that underwent out-of-the-bag scleral suturing were recruited sequentially. The tilt and decentration of the IOL, anterior chamber depth, manifest refractive spherical equivalent (MRSE), prediction error, and incidence of complications were examined. Results The mean tilt angle and the decentration length of the IOL of the in-the-bag suturing group were significantly less than those of the out-of-the-bag suturing group (P=0.0003 in tilt and P=0.0391 in decentration), although the anterior chamber depth was similar. The mean MRSE and prediction error of the in-the-bag suturing group were less than those of the out-of-the-bag suturing group (P=0.0006 in MRSE and P=0.0034 in error). The incidence of vitreous loss was less in the in-the-bag suturing group than in the out-of-the-bag suturing group (20% vs63.2%, P=0.0009). Conclusions The tilt and decentration of the IOL after in-the-bag scleral suturing are significantly less than those after out-of-the-bag scleral suturing, which may lead to less MRSE and less prediction error. As the incidence of vitreous loss is less after in-the-bag scleral suturing, in-the-bag suturing is advantageous for eyes of younger patients and of less complicated cases. PMID:21941359

  16. [Recycle of jute bags; asbestos in agriculture, exposure and pathology ].

    PubMed

    Barbieri, P G; Somigliana, A; Lombardi, S; Girelli, R; Rocco, A; Pezzotti, C; Silvestri, S

    2008-01-01

    During the last four years, a deeper examination of malignant mesothelioma (MM) cases occurred within non asbestos textile industry highlighted asbestos past exposure in several textile industrial divisions. In spite of that, poor information about recycled textile bags previously containing asbestos fibres is available to the National Mesothelioma Registry, although holding a remarkable data bank on more than 3500 work histories and sources of asbestos exposures. Besides the analysis of the exposure circumstances and the registered health effects of the past exposure within the recycling activity, the aim of this research was to relate the possible involvement of the agricultural sector, where the use of recycled jute bags was very diffused. The MM cases were collected from the Mesothelioma Registry of Brescia, asbestosis, pleural plaques and lung cancer cases were collected from the Occupational Diseases Archive of the Local Public Occupational Health Service of the Province of Brescia. During the 1977-2006 period, 8 cases of MM, 4 cases of pulmonary asbestosis, 4 of isolated bilateral pleural plaques and I of lung cancer in pulmonary asbestosis, were observed among workers employed in bags recycling activity in 4 small companies, one of them still operating, employing about 50 workers. Even more, among the 65 MM cases classified by the Registry with "unknown asbestos exposure" (UAE), the most relevant frequency of working histories concerned the agriculture sector. Confirming a past signalling, the investigations underlined the cross linkage between this working activity and the diffusion of recycled bags in the agriculture sector. In the Province of Brescia, the activities of these small jute bags recycling plants were linked, even geographically, to the asbestos cement manufacture plant using a huge number of bags, roughly until mid seventies. Therefore, a large number of these recycled bags, previously containing asbestos, were generally used for harvesting

  17. 75 FR 23673 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags from Thailand: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... Watana Plastics Ind. Co., Ltd., Thai Plastic Bags Industries Co., Ltd., and Thantawan Industry Public Co., Ltd. Id. The Department has determined previously that Thai Plastic Bags Industries Co., Ltd., APEC Film Ltd., and Winner's Pack Co., Ltd., comprise the Thai Plastic Bags Group (TPBG). See Notice...

  18. Method of reusably sealing a silicone rubber vacuum bag to a mold for composite manufacture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinbach, John (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A silicone rubber vacuum bag for use in composite article manufacture is reusably sealed to a mold, without mechanical clamping means. The mold-mating portion of the bag is primed with a silicone rubber adhesive, which is cured thereto, and a layer of semiadhesive sealer is applied between the primed mold-mating portion of the bag and the mold.

  19. Recognizing Activities via Bag of Words for Attribute Dynamics (Open Access)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-03

    procedure produces a rep- resentation of the video as a histogram of BDS codewords, which is denoted the bag-of- words for attribute dynam- ics (BoWAD...denoted the bag- of- words for attribute dynamics (BoWAD). This is an ex- tension of the bag-of-visual words (BoVW), which has achieved great

  20. 78 FR 88 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-02

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the People's Republic of China... rescinding its administrative review of the antidumping duty order on polyethylene retail carrier bags (PRCBs..., through July 31, 2012.\\1\\ On August 31, 2012, the petitioners, the Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bag...

  1. 75 FR 61128 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Malaysia: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-04

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Malaysia: Final Results of Antidumping... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on polyethylene retail carrier bags (PRCBs) from Malaysia... results of review and invited parties to comment. See Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Malaysia...

  2. 76 FR 11203 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-01

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the People's Republic of China... polyethylene retail carrier bags (PRCBs) from the People's Republic of China (PRC) with respect to Dongguan... Order: Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the People's Republic of China, 69 FR 48201 (August 9, 2004...

  3. 77 FR 2959 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-20

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the People's Republic of China... polyethylene retail carrier bags (PRCBs) from the People's Republic of China (PRC) with respect to Dongguan... PRCBs from the PRC. See Antidumping Duty Order: Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the People's...

  4. 76 FR 70965 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Correction to the Amended Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Correction to the Amended... review of the antidumping duty order on polyethylene retail carrier bags from Thailand for the period... review of the antidumping duty order on polyethylene retail carrier bags from Thailand. See Polyethylene...

  5. 75 FR 34699 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags from Thailand: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-18

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags from Thailand: Rescission of Antidumping... order on polyethylene retail carrier bags from Thailand. The period of review is August 1, 2008, through... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on polyethylene retail carrier bags from Thailand. See...

  6. Differential gene expression analysis of 'Chili' (Pyrus bretschneideri) fruit pericarp with two types of bagging treatments.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuling; Zhang, Xinfu; Wang, Ran; Bai, Yingxin; Liu, Chenglian; Yuan, Yongbing; Yang, Yingjie; Yang, Shaolan

    2017-01-01

    Preharvest bagging is a simple, grower-friendly and safe physical protection technique commonly applied to many fruits, and the application of different fruit bags can have various effects. To explore the molecular mechanisms underlying the fruit quality effects of different bagging treatments, digital gene expression (DGE) profiling of bagged and unbagged 'Chili' (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd.) pear pericarp during development was performed. Relative to unbagged fruit, a total of 3022 and 769 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected in the polyethylene (PE)-bagged and non-woven fabric-bagged fruit, respectively. DEGs annotated as photosynthesis-antenna proteins and photosynthesis metabolism pathway were upregulated in non-woven fabric-bagged fruit but downregulated in the PE-bagged fruit. Non-woven fabric bagging inhibited lignin synthesis in 'Chili' pear pericarp by downregulating DEGs involved in phenylpropanoid biosynthesis; consequently, the fruit lenticels in non-woven fabric-bagged fruit were smaller than those in the other treatments. The results indicate that the non-woven fabric bagging method has a positive effect on the appearance of 'Chili' pear fruit but neither of the two bagging treatments is conducive to the accumulation of soluble sugar.

  7. 78 FR 76280 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the People's Republic of China: Affirmative Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the People's Republic of China... polyethylene retail carrier bags (PRCBs) from the People's Republic of China (PRC) are circumventing the... Bags From the People's Republic of China, 69 FR 48201 (August 9, 2004) (Order). DATES: Effective Date...

  8. A biocompatibility study on peritoneal dialysis solution bags for CAPD.

    PubMed

    Carozzi, S; Nasini, M G; Schelotto, C; Caviglia, P M; Santoni, O; Pietrucci, A

    1993-01-01

    Numerous factors related to the composition of peritoneal dialysis solutions (PDS) contribute to the pathogenesis of peritoneal fibrosis during continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). They include high osmolarity, low pH, and the presence of lactate, which may be responsible for stimulating the proliferation of peritoneal fibroblasts (PF) and for the toxicity on the peritoneal mesothelial cells (PMC). Similar effects could be hypothesized for the plasticizers released from the PDS bags, usually made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), such as the acid esters of phthalic acid, particularly bis-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (BEHP). Recently, however, new BEHP-free bags (Clear-Flex, Bieffe, Italy) made of three layers (polyethylene, nylon, and polypropylene) have been introduced. The aim of this work is to evaluate in vitro the effects of samples of PDS contained in PVC bags (Bieffe) and in Clear-Flex bags on the proliferative capacity of peritoneal fibroblasts and peritoneal mesothelial cells, and the release of interferon gamma (IFN gamma), interleukin-1 (IL-1) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) from peritoneal T lymphocytes (PTLs) and macrophages (PM phi s). Results have shown that in the presence of PDS samples contained in PVC bags, the proliferative capacity of peritoneal fibroblasts was higher than in Clear-Flexbags. There was also an increased release of IFN-gamma and IL-1 from PTLs and PM phi s (cytokines that stimulate the collagen synthesis) and a decreased release of PGE2 (cytokines which inhibit the collagen synthesis). An inhibiting action on peritoneal mesothelial cells was also seen.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Evaluation of the Two-Bag System for Fluid Management in Pediatric Patients with Diabetic Ketoacidosis

    PubMed Central

    So, Tsz-Yin; Grunewalder, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES A one-bag and a two-bag system have both been used to manage intravenous fluid administration in pediatric patients with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). The one-bag system, however, has been noted to have limitations, such as slow response time. This study evaluates whether the two-bag system provides any clinical benefit in pediatric DKA patients as compared to the one-bag system. METHODS This was a retrospective, non-blinded chart review. Inclusion criteria were patients ≤ 18 years old and whose admission had the code of DKA as the diagnosis. Baseline clinical and demographic data were collected. Descriptive statistics were used in the data analysis. RESULTS A total of 31 patients were included, 9 (29%) in the one-bag group and 22 (71%) in the two-bag group. Baseline characteristics were similar between the two groups. Mean (SD) rate of complete blood glucose (CBG) correction was 31.04 mg/dL/hr (20.61) in the two-bag group and 21.04 mg/dL/hr (16.26) in the one-bag group (p = 0.297). The rate of bicarbonate correction, however, was faster with the two-bag system than the one-bag system (0.949 ± 0.553 mEq/L/hr and 0.606 ± 0.297 mEq/L/hr, respectively) (p = 0.047). The two-bag system also had a faster time to ketone (p = 0.04), but not pH (p = 0.172), correction. CONCLUSIONS The two-bag system provided a faster rate of bicarbonate and ketone correction compared to the one-bag system. The two-bag system also provided a trend towards a faster rate of blood glucose and pH correction. PMID:23055897

  10. Can "contamination" occur in body bags?-The example of background fibres in body bags used in Australia.

    PubMed

    Schwendener, Giuliana; Moret, Sébastien; Cavanagh-Steer, Karen; Roux, Claude

    2016-09-01

    Impurities that are transferred to a crime scene or a body can have a significant negative impact on the investigation if the existence of the contamination is not known, and the source of the contamination is not identified. Forensic consumables, such as DNA swabs, have been known to have caused contaminations, wrongfully linking crimes throughout Europe. In that context, this study focused on body bags, widely used to transfer a corpse from the crime scene to the morgue. Our preliminary survey showed that several countries and Australian Jurisdictions are conducting the sampling of trace evidence at the morgue after the transportation of the body. Potential impurities present in body bags could thus interfere with pertinent traces. The aim of this work was to qualify and quantify the background contamination of trace evidence in body bags used within Australia. Fifteen body bags from four Australian Jurisdictions or laboratories were searched for micro traces. Impurities such as fibres and unidentified particles were detected in each examined body bag, with an estimated average of 3603 coloured fibres and 1429 unidentified particles. This number of fibres is similar to the amount found on a vinyl cinema seat in other studies. Various other contaminants such as pieces of fabric, hairs, parts of insects or feathers were also observed. It is hypothesised that these impurities are introduced during the manufacturing process. This high number of impurities can lead to incorrect conclusions and misleading investigative leads. This paper presents an overview of the problems these impurities can cause and proposes several strategies to prevent future issues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Measurement of the temporal patterns of school bag carriage using activity monitoring and structured interview.

    PubMed

    Mackie, H W; Legg, S J

    2007-10-01

    The primary objective of the current study was to quantify the temporal patterns of school bag carriage over an actual school day using activity monitoring and structured interviews, in order to better understand the physical demands of school bag carriage. The temporal patterns of 40 students' school bag carriage over a 24-h period were defined by total school bag carrying time, mean event school bag carrying time, the number of school bag carrying events, total carrying time travelling to and from school and the number of students who walked or used transport to travel to and from school. There were significant correlations between activity monitor [mean(SD) 119(48) min] and structured interview [100(39) min] determined total school bag carrying time (r = 0.59), activity monitor [8(4) min] and structured interview [9(4) min] determined mean event school bag carriage time (r = 0.65), and activity monitor [15(4) events] and structured interview [11(2) events] determined number of school bag carrying events (r = 0.52). However, the number of school bag carrying events, and for students who used transport, the total amount of time spent travelling to school was significantly different using the two measures. The durations of school bag carriage and the relationship between activity monitor and structured interview were similar to those reported in previous studies.

  12. Dimerization Products of Chloroprene are Background Contaminants Emitted from ALTEF (Polyvinylidene Difluoride) Gas Sampling Bags.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Jae; Fan, Maomian; Martin, Jennifer A; Ott, Darrin K; Grigsby, Claude C

    2017-01-01

    Gas sampling bags have been used for collecting air samples. Tedlar bags are most commonly used, but bleed background chemicals such as N,N-dimethylacetamide and phenol. It is often necessary to remove the contaminant by flushing the bags with pure nitrogen or air. In this study, we identified four chloroprene dimerization products as background contaminants emitted from ALTEF bags that are made of a proprietary polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF). No monomer chloroprene was detected in the bags analyzed. All of the dimers gradually increased once bags were filled with nitrogen due to diffusion from the bag surface. Flushing the bags with nitrogen reduced their concentrations, but was not effective for removing the contaminants. When the bags that had been flushed with nitrogen 5 times were left for 24 h, they increased again, indicating that the dimers were constantly emitted from the ALTEF bag surface. To our knowledge, these compounds have never been demonstrated in ALTEF or other PVDF bags. Our finding indicates that ALTEF might be incorporated with Neoprene (chloroprene-based polymer) during its manufacturing process.

  13. Ammonia diffusion through Nalophan double bags: effect of concentration gradient reduction.

    PubMed

    Sironi, Selena; Eusebio, Lidia; Capelli, Laura; Boiardi, Emanuela; Del Rosso, Renato

    2014-01-01

    The ammonia loss through Nalophan bags has been studied. The losses observed for storage conditions and times as allowed by the reference standard for dynamic olfactometry (EN 13725:2003) indicate that odour concentration values due to the presence of small molecules may be significantly underestimated if samples are not analysed immediately after sampling. A diffusion model was used in order to study diffusion through the bag. The study discusses the effect of concentration gradient (ΔC) across the polymeric membrane of the analyte. The ΔC was controlled by using a setup bag called "double bags." Experimental data show a reduction of ammonia percentage losses due to the effect of the external multibarrier. The expedient of the double bag loaded with the same gas mixture allows a reduced diffusion of ammonia into the inner bag. Comparing the inner bag losses with those of the single bag stored in the same conditions (T, P, u) and with equal geometrical characteristics (S/V, z), it was observed that the inner bag of the double bag displays a 16% loss while the single bag displays a 37% loss. Acting on the ΔC it is possible to achieve a gross reduction of 57% in the ammonia leakage due to diffusion.

  14. Ammonia Diffusion through Nalophan Double Bags: Effect of Concentration Gradient Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Capelli, Laura; Boiardi, Emanuela; Del Rosso, Renato

    2014-01-01

    The ammonia loss through Nalophan bags has been studied. The losses observed for storage conditions and times as allowed by the reference standard for dynamic olfactometry (EN 13725:2003) indicate that odour concentration values due to the presence of small molecules may be significantly underestimated if samples are not analysed immediately after sampling. A diffusion model was used in order to study diffusion through the bag. The study discusses the effect of concentration gradient (ΔC) across the polymeric membrane of the analyte. The ΔC was controlled by using a setup bag called “double bags.” Experimental data show a reduction of ammonia percentage losses due to the effect of the external multibarrier. The expedient of the double bag loaded with the same gas mixture allows a reduced diffusion of ammonia into the inner bag. Comparing the inner bag losses with those of the single bag stored in the same conditions (T, P, u) and with equal geometrical characteristics (S/V, z), it was observed that the inner bag of the double bag displays a 16% loss while the single bag displays a 37% loss. Acting on the ΔC it is possible to achieve a gross reduction of 57% in the ammonia leakage due to diffusion. PMID:25506608

  15. The Portuguese plastic carrier bag tax: The effects on consumers' behavior.

    PubMed

    Martinho, Graça; Balaia, Natacha; Pires, Ana

    2017-03-01

    Marine litter from lightweight plastic bags is a global problem that must be solved. A plastic bag tax was implemented in February 2015 to reduce the consumption of plastic grocery bags in Portugal and in turn reduce the potential contribution to marine litter. This study analyzes the effect of the plastic bag tax on consumer behavior to learn how it was received and determine the perceived effectiveness of the tax 4months after its implementation. In addition, the study assessed how proximity to coastal areas could influence behaviors and opinions. The results showed a 74% reduction of plastic bag consumption with a simultaneously 61% increase of reusable plastic bags after the tax was implemented. Because plastic bags were then reused for shopping instead of garbage bags, however, the consumption of garbage bags increased by 12%. Although reduction was achieved, the tax had no effect on the perception of marine litter or the impact of plastic bags on environment and health. The majority of respondents agree with the tax but view it as an extra revenue to the State. The distance to the coast had no meaningful influence on consumer behavior or on the perception of the tax. Although the tax was able to promote the reduction of plastics, the role of hypermarkets and supermarkets in providing alternatives through the distribution of reusable plastic bags was determinant to ensuring the reduction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Reduction of plastic carrier bag use: An analysis of alternatives in Israel.

    PubMed

    Ayalon, Ofira; Goldrath, Tal; Rosenthal, Gad; Grossman, Michal

    2009-07-01

    Plastic carrier bags have been drawing the attention of the public and politicians. Different policy measures to reduce the environmental burden of these bags have been implemented and more are planned. The research analyzed the actual environmental aspects of consumption and use of plastic carrier bags and assessed the effectiveness of the proposed regulation in Israel. Since plastic bags are provided free of charge, people have a tendency to use these bags excessively, therefore a rigorous educational program should address this trend. However, the environmental load imposed by the bags is more a politically correct issue than an actual environmental hazard, and therefore the means for reducing their use should not include a high levy or total elimination of these bags.

  17. Design of Control System for Flexible Packaging Bags Palletizing Production Line Based on PLC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Huiping; Chen, Lin; Zhao, Xiaoming; Liu, Zhanyang

    Flexible packaging bags palletizing production line is to put the bags in the required area according to particular order and size, in order to finish handling, storage, loading and unloading, transportation and other logistics work of goods. Flexible packaging bags palletizing line is composed of turning bags mechanism, shaping mechanism, indexing mechanism, marshalling mechanism, pushing bags mechanism, pressing bags mechanism, laminating mechanism, elevator, tray warehouse, tray conveyor and loaded tray conveyor. Whether the whole production line can smoothly run depends on each of the above equipment and precision control among them. In this paper the technological process and the control logic of flexible packaging bags palletizing production line is introduced. Palletizing process of the production line realized automation by means of a control system based on programmable logic controller (PLC). It has the advantages of simple structure, reliable and easy maintenance etc.

  18. Expression of Anti-apoptotic Protein BAG3 in Human Sebaceous Gland Carcinoma of the Eyelid.

    PubMed

    Yunoki, Tatsuya; Tabuchi, Yoshiaki; Hayashi, Atsushi

    2017-04-01

    Bcl-2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3), a co-chaperone of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), has been shown to play a role in anti-apoptosis of various malignant tumors. In this study, the expression of BAG3 was examined in human sebaceous gland carcinoma of the eyelid. The expression of BAG3 was evaluated by immunohistochemistry of surgical samples from 5 patients with sebaceous gland carcinoma in the eyelid. BAG3 was positive diffusely in the cytoplasm in all patients. The average positive rate of BAG3 was 73.0±26.0% in tumor cells of all patients. BAG3 was highly expressed in sebaceous gland carcinoma of the eyelid. BAG3 may play an important role in the pathogenesis and progression of sebaceous gland carcinoma of the eyelid. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  19. Purple urine bag syndrome in an elderly patient from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Mondragón-Cardona, Alvaro; Jiménez-Canizales, Carlos Eduardo; Alzate-Carvajal, Verónica; Bastidas-Rivera, Fabricio; Sepúlveda-Arias, Juan Carlos

    2015-07-30

    A 71-year-old woman in a nursing home, with indwelling urinary catheter, bedridden, presented with a purple urine collector bag. The purple urine bag syndrome is a rare condition associated with the metabolism of tryptophan by overgrowth of intestinal bacteria. The purple color is formed by a combination of indigo and indirubin produced as a result of phosphatase and sulfatase enzymatic activity of bacteria on indoxyl sulfate, under alkaline pH of the urine. We present the second case of this syndrome reported in Colombia detailing the management of this rare syndrome associated with urinary tract infection. Several conditions should be considered in the differential diagnose of diseases that cause discoloration of the urine.

  20. Racial determination of origin of mourning doves in hunters' bags

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aldrich, J.W.; Duvall, A.J.; Geis, A.D.

    1958-01-01

    A method is described for determining the general area of production of mourning doves that are shot during the hunting season. This procedure is based on the identification of racial characteristics that can be ascertained from samples of wings. The application and utility of this method were demonstrated with data gathered from doves shot in two important dove-hunting areas, Georgia and Texas. The Georgia data indicated that the early-season kill consisted largely of the race carolinensis, while later in the season marginella and the intermediate form made up most of the bag. The wing samples from Texas indicated that birds produced outside of southern Texas made up the largest part of the bag in southern Texas during the entire season. Doves produced west of the Appalachians contributed to both the Georgia and Texas kill.

  1. Streamline similarity analysis using bag-of-features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yifei; Wang, Chaoli; Shene, Ching-Kuang

    2013-12-01

    Streamline similarity comparison has become an active research topic recently. We present a novel streamline similarity comparison method inspired by the bag-of-features idea from computer vision. Our approach computes a feature vector, spatially sensitive bag-of-features, for each streamline as its signature. This feature vector not only encodes the statistical distribution of combined features (e.g., curvature and torsion), it also contains the information on the spatial relationship among different features. This allows us to measure the similarity between two streamlines in an efficient and accurate way: the similarity between two streamlines is defined as the weighted Manhattan distance between their feature vectors. Compared with previous distribution based streamline similarity metrics, our method is easier to understand and implement, yet producing even better results. We demonstrate the utility of our approach by considering two common tasks in flow field exploration: streamline similarity query and streamline clustering.

  2. Testing of SRS and RFETS Nylon Bag Material

    SciTech Connect

    Laurinat, J.E.

    1998-11-03

    This report compares the effects of radiation and heating on nylon bagout materials used at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). Recently, to simplify the processing of sand, slag, and crucible (SS and C), FB-Line has replaced the low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) bags normally used to package cans of plutonium-bearing material with nylon bags. LDPE and PVC are not soluble in the nitric acid dissolver solution used in F-Canyon, so cans bagged using these materials had to be repackaged before they were added to the dissolver. Because nylon dissolves in nitric acid, cans bagged in nylon can be charged to the F-Canyon dissolvers without repackaging, thereby reducing handling requirements and personnel exposure. As part of a program to process RFETS SS and C at SRS, RFETS has also begun to use a nylon bagout material. The RFETS bag materials is made from a copolymer of nylon 6 and nylon 6.9, while the SRS material is made from a nylon 6 monomer. In addition, the SRS nylon has an anti-static agent added. The RFETS nylon is slightly softer than the SRS nylon, but does not appear to be as resistant to flex cracks initiated by contact with sharp corners of the inner can containing the SS and C.2 FB-Line Operations has asked for measurement of the effects of radiation and heating on these materials. Specifically, they have requested a comparison of the material properties of the plastics before and after irradiation, a measurement of the amount of outgassing when the plastics are heated, and a calculation of the amount of radiolytic gas generation. Testing was performed on samples taken from material that is currently used in FB-Line (color coded orange) and at RFETS. The requested tests are the same tests previously performed on the original and replacement nylon and LDPE bag materials.3,4,5. To evaluate the effect of irradiation on material properties, tensile stresses and elongations to break

  3. Modeling of drop breakup in the bag breakup regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C.; Chang, S.; Wu, H.; Xu, J.

    2014-04-01

    Several analytic models for predicting the drop deformation and breakup have been developed over the last three decades, but modeling drop breakup in the bag-type regime is less reported. In this Letter, a breakup model has been proposed to predict the drop deformation length and breakup time in the bag-type breakup regime in a more accurate manner. In the present model, the drop deformation which is approximately as the displacement of the centre of mass (c. m.) along the axis located at the centre of the drop, and the movement of c. m. is obtained by solving the pressure balance equation. The effects of the drop deformation on the drop external aerodynamic force are considered in this model. Drop breakup occurs when the deformation length reaches the maximum value and the maximum deformation length is a function of Weber number. The performance and applicability of the proposed breakup model are tested against the published experimental data.

  4. Astrophysical bags - A new paradigm for active galactic nuclei?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Thomas L.

    1992-01-01

    Active galaxies are believed to consist of a compact nucleus, the standard model for which is a massive black hole or a cluster of black holes. A different paradigm is considered here, deriving from quark confinement theory in QCD. It is an 'astrophysical bag', modelled after the 'hadron bags' of particle physics which have already been studied in astrophysics as quark stars. Another interpretation of the cosmological constant in general relativity, and possibly a new quasar redshift formula, are introduced. As a highly-energetic object, this model may resolve the baryonic matter problem for fuelling AGN accretion processes which black hole paradigms cannot account for. Here, baryons, cosmic rays, and neutrinos are free.

  5. Improving ensemble decision tree performance using Adaboost and Bagging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, Md. Rajib; Siraj, Fadzilah; Sainin, Mohd Shamrie

    2015-12-01

    Ensemble classifier systems are considered as one of the most promising in medical data classification and the performance of deceision tree classifier can be increased by the ensemble method as it is proven to be better than single classifiers. However, in a ensemble settings the performance depends on the selection of suitable base classifier. This research employed two prominent esemble s namely Adaboost and Bagging with base classifiers such as Random Forest, Random Tree, j48, j48grafts and Logistic Model Regression (LMT) that have been selected independently. The empirical study shows that the performance varries when different base classifiers are selected and even some places overfitting issue also been noted. The evidence shows that ensemble decision tree classfiers using Adaboost and Bagging improves the performance of selected medical data sets.

  6. Catheter valves: a welcome alternative to leg bags.

    PubMed

    Woodward, Sue

    Catheterisation is commonly used to manage long-term bladder drainage. If intermittent catheterisation is not possible an indwelling urethral or suprapubic catheter will be used. There are a choice of drainage systems for use with indwelling urinary catheters including bed bags, link systems and catheter valves. Catheter valves are not suitable for everybody and patient assessment is vital: only patients with the cognitive ability and manual dexterity to operate a valve should be offered this option for bladder drainage. Catheter valves offer a number of advantages over drainage bags including improved privacy and dignity, prevention of bladder-neck trauma, reduced catheter encrustation and maintenance of normal detrusor muscle function. A number of catheter valves are available, including the EZ-Flow valve, and patient choice is important when selecting an appropriate product.

  7. Effective ultraviolet irradiation of platelet concentrates in teflon bags

    SciTech Connect

    Capon, S.M.; Sacher, R.A.; Deeg, H.J. )

    1990-10-01

    Several plastic materials used in blood storage were evaluated for their ability to transmit ultraviolet B (UVB) light. A plastic bag manufactured from sheets of transparent Teflon efficiently (78-86%) transmitted UVB light and was employed in subsequent functional studies of lymphocytes and platelets exposed to UVB light while contained in these bags. In vitro experiments showed a UVB dose-dependent abrogation of lymphocyte responder and stimulator functions, with concurrent preservation of platelet aggregation responses. In a phase I pilot study, UVB-treated platelet concentrates were administered to four bone marrow transplant recipients. Adverse effects attributable to the transfusions were not observed, and patients showed clinically effective transfusion responses. No patient developed lymphocytotoxic HLA or platelet antibodies. These studies suggest that platelets can be effectively irradiated with UVB light in a closed system. However, numerous variables, including container material, volume and composition of contents, steady exposure versus agitation, and exact UV wavelength, must be considered.

  8. Astrophysical bags - A new paradigm for active galactic nuclei?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Thomas L.

    1992-01-01

    Active galaxies are believed to consist of a compact nucleus, the standard model for which is a massive black hole or a cluster of black holes. A different paradigm is considered here, deriving from quark confinement theory in QCD. It is an 'astrophysical bag', modelled after the 'hadron bags' of particle physics which have already been studied in astrophysics as quark stars. Another interpretation of the cosmological constant in general relativity, and possibly a new quasar redshift formula, are introduced. As a highly-energetic object, this model may resolve the baryonic matter problem for fuelling AGN accretion processes which black hole paradigms cannot account for. Here, baryons, cosmic rays, and neutrinos are free.

  9. Transport characteristics across drum filter vents and polymer bags

    SciTech Connect

    Liekhus, K.J.

    1994-08-01

    The rate at which hydrogen (H {sub 2}) or a volatile organic compound (VOC) exits a layer of confinement in a vented waste drum is proportional to the concentration difference across the layer. The proportionality constant is the gas transport characteristic. A series of transport experiments were conducted to determine H{sub 2} and VOC transport characteristics across different drum filter vents and polymer bags. This report reviews the methods and results of past investigators in defining transport characteristics across filter vents and polymer bags, describes the apparatus and procedures used in these experiments, compares the reported and estimated transport characteristics with earlier results, and discusses the impact of changing the transport characteristic values used in model calculations.

  10. Vacuum bag bonding with a high temperature adhesive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Progar, Donald J.; St. Clair, Terry L.

    1991-01-01

    A novel controlled molecular weight form of LARC-TPI polymide that exhibits an exceptionally high degree of melt flow in the 340-360 C temperature range has been developed. This material has been evaluated as a high-temperature adhesive, and because of its flow, cost-effective vacuum bag/oven processing can be used. Comparison of adhesive performance with higher molecular weight forms bonded at higher pressures shows this novel material to be equal in mechanical strength.

  11. Prototype air bag restraint for use in patrol vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Marts, D.J.; Barker, S.G.

    1995-03-01

    An air bag has been designed and laboratory tested for use in existing police vehicles that will restrain a person if he or she becomes violent. The device will prevent self-injury and protect the vehicle and officer. The device does not pose a suffocation hazard and can be quickly and easily inflated or deflated by the officer from the front seat. The device is ready for field testing.

  12. Digital Artery Occlusion Secondary to Plastic Shopping Bag Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Joy, R; Isaacs, JL; McCarthy, RJ

    2007-01-01

    Upper limb digital arterial occlusion is uncommon. We present the case of a 47-year-old man with an ischaemic right middle finger (dominant hand) due to trauma from carrying a heavy plastic shopping bag. Duplex scanning revealed no proximal source of emboli. An angiogram demonstrated occlusions in the medial and lateral digital arteries of the middle digit at the level of the proximal phalanx. Treatment with heparin and warfarin resulted in complete resolution of symptoms. PMID:18201465

  13. [Injuries to car passengers protected by air bags].

    PubMed

    Sefrin, P; Kuhnigk, H; Koburg, R

    2004-11-01

    The air bag, like the seatbelt, is a further development of the inside protection of motorcar passengers. However, the airbag has also been made responsible for severe internal injuries. In a retrospective case control study, 394 accidents in which the air bag was released were analysed. At least medium severe injuries (Maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale: MAIS > or = 2) occurred in 69 cases. Three different patterns of injury were distinguished depending on the level of difficulty of diagnosis by the emergency physician. Damage to the vehicles was scored in five intensities or damage grades. Thoracic injury was most frequently diagnosed in the patients (in 61.5 % of cases), followed by injuries to the lower (50.8 %) and upper extremities (47.7 %). Single injuries with a grade of severity of 2 (MAIS) predominated (59.7 %). In most of the cases the injury was easy to diagnose (64.6 %) because of external signs, in 24.6 % internal injuries were assumed and in only 10.8 % were there no sings of damage to body cavities. Most frequent were occult injuries in the thoracic region (100 %) and in the abdomen (74.4 %). However, occult injuries did not always conform to the grade of deformation to the vehicle, since in 66.7 % the grade of damage was 3. This was not true for the remaining types of injury because external injuries increased with the grade of damage to the vehicle. After the release of the air bag, occult injuries of the body cavities have to be expected, even if there are no signs of external injury. Women under 35 years of age are particularly endangered. There exists no minimum velocity for the occurrence of injuries to the body cavities because harm can simply be a result of the release of the air bag.

  14. Quark-meson coupling model with the cloudy bag

    SciTech Connect

    Nagai, S.; Miyatsu, T.; Saito, Kenji; Tsushima, Kazuo

    2008-07-01

    Using the volume coupling version of the cloudy bag model, the quark-meson coupling model is extended to study the role of pion field and the properties of nuclear matter. The extended model includes the effect of gluon exchange as well as the pion-cloud effect, and provides a good description of the nuclear matter properties. The relationship between the extended model and the EFT approach to nuclear matter is also discussed.

  15. Free energy of a four-dimensional chiral bag

    SciTech Connect

    De Francia, M.; Falomir, H.; Santangelo, E.M. )

    1992-03-15

    Through the application of mathematical methods developed in a recent paper, we obtain a closed expression for the chiral correction to the free energy of a bag, due to the presence of the external pionic field in a hedgehog configuration. Low- and high-temperature developments are given and, in particular, the zero-temperature limit is shown to be consistent with previous evaluations of the Casimir energy. The subject of renormalization is also discussed.

  16. NN interaction from bag-model quark interchange

    SciTech Connect

    Bakker, B.L.G.; Bozoian, M.; Maslow, J.N.; Weber, H.J.

    1982-03-01

    A partial-wave helicity-state analysis of elastic nucleon-nucleon scattering is carried out in momentum space. Its basis is a one- and two-boson exchange amplitude from a bag-model quark interchange mechanism. The resulting phase shifts and bound-state parameters of the deuteron are compared with other meson theoretic potentials and data up to laboratory energies of approx.350 MeV.

  17. Simpla Plus leg bag: approval by the National Customer Group.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Linda; McNicoll, Diane

    The choice of the right product for the right patients is fundamental in the adequate care of incontinent patients: therefore, it is important that nurses and healthcare professionals are aware of all the products that are available and that these products meet the required standards. The Simpla Plus leg bag, manufactured by Coloplast, is an example of one such product which has been officially approved by the National Customer Group for inclusion in the NHS purchasing and supply contract.

  18. Reducing workers' dust exposure during bag stacking in enclosed vehicles.

    PubMed

    Cecala, A B; Covelli, A; Thimons, E D

    1989-02-01

    The Bureau of Mines has evaluated cost effective systems to ventilate enclosed vehicles being loaded directly with bagged product material at mineral processing plants. This evaluation included both forms of transportation: railcars and trailer trucks. The goal of this research was to lower the dust exposure of workers stacking bags in these enclosed vehicles; these workers usually have the highest dust exposures in the entire processing plant. The problem occurs because there is no mechanical ventilation inside these vehicles. As the vehicle is being loaded, dust concentrations increase to substantial levels because released dust has no means of exiting the vehicle or of being diluted with fresh air. In cases where the dust is hazardous, as with silica sand, this may present a serious health hazard. This research project was a two-step effort. The first step was a qualitative laboratory evaluation performed in a railcar to compare different types of ventilation systems (blowing, exhaust, and push-pull systems) using a methane (CH4) tracer gas technique. An exhaust system located over the snake conveyor was the most effective system at reducing gas levels in and around the bag stacker's work area. The second step then involved a field evaluation at a silica sand processing plant to determine the system's effectiveness in the actual work environment. Three different versions were evaluated in an attempt to optimize the exhaust ventilation system's effectiveness. The most effective version involved exhausting 54.5 m3/min (2000 ft3/min) through a fiberglass tube located 1.1 m past the end of the slinger at a 2.0-m height so as not to interfere with the bag stacker's job function.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. 75 FR 75454 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Extension of Time Limit for the Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-03

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Extension of Time Limit for... polyethylene retail carrier bags from Thailand. See Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Preliminary... antidumping duty order on polyethylene retail carrier bags from Thailand within the 120- day time limit due to...

  20. Report of the Building 9207 air bag test

    SciTech Connect

    Huff, T.E.; Fricke, K.E.; Jones, W.D.

    1992-12-01

    As part of a major testing program now underway at the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (MMES), a full-scale air bag test was conducted in Building 9207. The test program, supported and managed by the Center for Natural Phenomena Engineering (CNPE), is intended to determine the stiffness and strength of unreinforced hollow clay tile walls (HCTVS) in order to more accurately analyze and predict the response of buildings containing these type of walls, especially when subjected to seismic and high wind loadings. The air bag test was a very large undertaking that started more than a year before the test was actually performed. Preparation for the test included the following activities: (1) preparation of the wall and the adjacent building areas; (2) design and field fabrication of test supporting structures; (3) procurement of equipment and instrumentation; (4) development of supporting test procedures and checklists; (5) installation of over seventy linear variable differential transformers (LVDTs) and strain gages; (6) development of computer programs for use in the data acquisition systems; (7) extensive review into the existing engineering literature; (8) discussions with researchers with prior experience performing air bag tests; (9) coordination with the building operators; (10) plant safety reviews; and (11) dry runs of the test itself.

  1. Robust ANCOVA using a smoother with bootstrap bagging.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Rand R

    2009-05-01

    Many robust analogs of the classic analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) method have been proposed, some of which are based on some type of regression smoother. A method that first appeared in this journal, which is relatively simple and performs well in simulations, is based on a running interval smoother combined with comparing medians or 20% trimmed means. It makes no parametric assumption about the regression lines and does not assume that the regression lines are parallel. A possible way of improving the efficiency of the running interval smoother is to use bootstrap bagging and a minor goal here is to report some results supporting this approach. The major goal is to consider how ANCOVA might be performed when bootstrap bagging is used. Simple extensions of extant approaches that use some type of bootstrap method were found to be unsatisfactory. However, a basic percentile bootstrap method was found to perform well in simulations. And a reanalysis of data dealing with teachers' expectations about the cognitive ability of students illustrates that bootstrap bagging can make a practical difference.

  2. Quark orbital angular momentum in the MIT bag model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courtoy, A.; Miramontes, A. S.

    2017-01-01

    We present the results for the generalized transverse momentum distribution related to quark orbital angular momentum, i.e., F14, in the MIT bag model. This model has been modified to include the Peierls-Yoccoz projection to restore translational invariance. Such a modification allows us to fulfil more satisfactorily basic sum rules that would otherwise be less elegantly carried out with the original version. Using the same model, we have calculated the twist-3 generalized parton distribution (GPD) that corresponds to orbital angular momentum à la Ji, through the Penttinen-Polyakov-Shuvaev-Strikman sum rule. Recently, a new relation between the two definitions of the quark orbital angular momentum at the density level has been proposed, which we illustrate here within the model. The sum rule is fulfilled. Still within the framework of the MIT bag model, we analyze the Wandzura-Wilczek expression for the GPD of interest. The genuine quark-gluon contribution is evaluated directly thanks to the equation of motion of the bag, which allows for a direct control of the kinematical contributions to the twist-3 GPD.

  3. Relaxation of hyperpolarized 129 Xe in a deflating polymer bag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möller, Harald E.; Cleveland, Zackary I.; Driehuys, Bastiaan

    2011-09-01

    In magnetic resonance imaging with hyperpolarized (HP) noble gases, data is often acquired during prolonged gas delivery from a storage reservoir. However, little is known about the extent to which relaxation within the reservoir will limit the useful acquisition time. For quantitative characterization, 129Xe relaxation was studied in a bag made of polyvinyl fluoride (Tedlar). Particular emphasis was on wall relaxation, as this mechanism is expected to dominate. The HP 129Xe magnetization dynamics in the deflating bag were accurately described by a model assuming dissolution of Xe in the polymer matrix and dipolar relaxation with neighboring nuclear spins. In particular, the wall relaxation rate changed linearly with the surface-to-volume ratio and exhibited a relaxivity of κ = 0.392 ± 0.008 cm/h, which is in reasonable agreement with κ = 0.331 ± 0.051 cm/h measured in a static Tedlar bag. Estimates for the bulk gas-phase 129Xe relaxation yielded T1bulk=2.55±0.22 h, which is dominated by intrinsic Xe-Xe relaxation, with small additional contributions from magnetic field inhomogeneities and oxygen-induced relaxation. Calculations based on these findings indicate that relaxation may limit HP 129Xe experiments when slow gas delivery rates are employed as, for example, in mouse imaging or vascular infusion experiments.

  4. Purple urine bag syndrome in a hemodialysis patient.

    PubMed

    Wang, I-Kuan; Ho, Dong-Ru; Chang, Hung-Yu; Lin, Chun-Liang; Chuang, Feng-Rong

    2005-08-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) is an uncommon disorder, in which the plastic disposable urinary catheter bag turns purple or blue following hours or days of urinary catheterization. The purple discoloration results from indirubin dissolved in the plastic mixing with indigo in the urine. Bacteria possessing indoxyl sulfatase degrade indoxyl sulfate into indirubin and indigo. Indoxyl sulfate is derived from the metabolism of tryptophan. PUBS usually occurs in chronic catheterized elderly women who are constipated and poorly ambulant. The clinical course is benign and rarely causes sepsis. This investigation reports a 61-year-old female diabetic patient with end-stage renal disease on maintenance hemodialysis, who had two episodes of blue or purple urine bag discoloration. The urine culture of the first episode yielded Klebsiella pneumoniae, whereas that of the second episode yielded Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, and Proteus vulgaris. Both episodes resolved following oral antibiotics treatment and placement of new foley catheters. To our knowledge, this is the first recorded case of PUBS in a dialysis patient.

  5. Evaluation of Double-Vacuum-Bag Process For Composite Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, T. H.; Jensen, B. J.

    2004-01-01

    A non-autoclave vacuum bag process using atmospheric pressure alone that eliminates the need for external pressure normally supplied by an autoclave or a press is an attractive method for composite fabrication. This type of process does not require large capital expenditures for tooling and processing equipment. In the molding cycle (temperature/pressure profile) for a given composite system, the vacuum application point has to be carefully selected to achieve the final consolidated laminate net shape and resin content without excessive resin squeeze-out. The traditional single-vacuum- bag (SVB) process is best suited for molding epoxy matrix based composites because of their superior flow and the absence of reaction by-products or other volatiles. Other classes of materials, such as polyimides and phenolics, generate water during cure. In addition, these materials are commonly synthesized as oligomers using solvents to facilitate processability. Volatiles (solvents and reaction byproducts) management therefore becomes a critical issue. SVB molding, without additional pressure, normally fails to yield void-free quality composites for these classes of resin systems. A double-vacuum- bag (DVB) process for volatile management was envisioned, designed and built at the NASA Langley Research Center. This experimental DVB process affords superior volatiles management compared to the traditional SVB process. Void-free composites are consistently fabricated as measured by C-scan and optical photomicroscopy for high performance polyimide and phenolic resins.

  6. Characterization of ecofriendly polyethylene fiber from plastic bag waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soekoco, Asril S.; Noerati, Komalasari, Maya; Kurniawan, Hananto, Agus

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents the characterization of fiber morphology, fiber count and tenacity of polyethylene fiber which is made from plastic bag waste. Recycling plastic bag waste into textile fiber has not developed yet. Plastic bag waste was recycled into fiber by melt spinning using laboratory scale melt spinning equipment with single orifice nozzle and plunger system. The basic principle of melt spinning is by melting materials and then extruding it through small orifice of a spinning nozzle to form fibers. Diameter and cross section shape of Recycled polyethylene fiber were obtained by using scanning electron microscope (SEM) instrumentation. Linear density of the recycled fiber were analyzed by calculation using denier and dTex formulation and The mechanical strength of the fibers was measured in accordance with the ASTM D 3379-75 standard. The cross section of recycled fiber is circular taking the shape of orifice. Fiber count of 303.75 denier has 1.84 g/denier tenacity and fiber count of 32.52 has 3.44 g/denier tenacity. This conditions is affected by the growth of polymer chain alignment when take-up axial velocity become faster. Recycled polyethylene fiber has a great potential application in non-apparel textile.

  7. The field performance of frontal air bags: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kent, Richard; Viano, David C; Crandall, Jeff

    2005-03-01

    This article presents a broad review of the literature on frontal air bag field performance, starting with the initial government and industry projections of effectiveness and concluding with the most recent assessments of depowered systems. This review includes as many relevant metrics as practicable, interprets the findings, and provides references so the interested reader can further evaluate the limitations, confounders, and utility of each metric. The evaluations presented here range from the very specific (individual case studies) to the general (statistical analyses of large databases). The metrics used to evaluate air bag performance include fatality reduction or increase; serious, moderate, and minor injury reduction or increase; harm reduction or increase; and cost analyses, including insurance costs and the cost of life years saved for various air bag systems and design philosophies. The review begins with the benefits of air bags. Fatality and injury reductions attributable to the air bag are presented. Next, the negative consequences of air bag deployment are described. Injuries to adults and children and the current trends in air bag injury rates are discussed, as are the few documented instances of inadvertent deployments or non-deployment in severe crashes. In the third section, an attempt is made to quantify the influence of the many confounding factors that affect air bag performance. The negative and positive characteristics of air bags are then put into perspective within the context of societal costs and benefits. Finally, some special topics, including risk homeostasis and the performance of face bags, are discussed.

  8. Efficacy of side air bags in reducing driver deaths in driver-side collisions.

    PubMed

    Braver, Elisa R; Kyrychenko, Sergey Y

    2004-03-15

    Side air bags, a relatively new technology designed to protect the head and/or torso in side-impact collisions, are becoming increasingly common in automobiles. Their efficacy in preventing US driver deaths among cars struck on the near (driver's) side was examined using data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System and the General Estimates System. Risk ratios for driver death per nearside collision during 1999-2001 were computed for head/torso and torso-only side air bags in cars from model years 1997-2002, relative to cars without side air bags. Confounding was addressed by adjusting nearside risk ratios for front- and rear-impact mortality, which is unaffected by side air bags. Risk ratios were 0.55 (95% confidence interval: 0.43, 0.71) for head/torso air bags and 0.89 (95% confidence interval: 0.79, 1.01) for torso-only air bags. Risk was reduced when cars with head/torso air bags were struck by cars/minivans (significant) or pickup trucks/sport utility vehicles (nonsignificant). Risk was reduced in two-vehicle collisions and among male drivers and drivers aged 16-64 years. Protective effects associated with torso-only air bags were observed in single-vehicle crashes and among male and 16- to 64-year-old drivers. Head/torso side air bags appear to be very effective in reducing nearside driver deaths, whereas torso-only air bags appear less protective.

  9. Warming preterm infants in the delivery room: polyethylene bags, exothermic mattresses or both?

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Lisa K; O'Donnell, Colm P F

    2011-12-01

    To compare the admission temperature of infants treated with polyethylene bags alone to infants treated with exothermic mattresses in addition to bags in the delivery room. We prospectively studied infants born at <31 weeks' gestation who were placed in bags at birth. Some infants were also placed on mattresses. Admission axillary temperatures were measured in all infants on admission to the neonatal intensive care. We compared the temperatures of infants treated with bags alone to those treated with mattresses and bags. We studied 43 infants: 15 were treated with bags while 28 were treated with a bag and mattress. Mean admission temperature was similar between the groups. Hypothermia and hyperthermia occurred more frequently in infants treated with a bag and mattress, and more infants treated with a bag had admission temperatures 36.5-37.5°C. The use of exothermic mattresses in addition to polyethylene bags, particularly in younger, smaller newborns, may result in more hypothermia and hyperthermia on admission. A randomised controlled trial is necessary to determine which strategy results in more infants having admission temperatures in the normal range. © 2011 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2011 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  10. BAG1: The Guardian of Anti-Apoptotic Proteins in Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Aveic, Sanja; Pigazzi, Martina; Basso, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    BCL2 associated Athano-Gene 1 (BAG1) is a multifunctional protein that has been described to be involved in different cell processes linked to cell survival. It has been reported as deregulated in diverse cancer types. Here, BAG1 protein was found highly expressed in children with acute myeloid leukemia at diagnosis, and in a cohort of leukemic cell lines. A silencing approach was used for determining BAG1's role in AML, finding that its down-regulation decreased expression of BCL2, BCL-XL, MCL1, and phospho-ERK1/2, all proteins able to sustain leukemia, without affecting the pro-apoptotic protein BAX. BAG1 down-regulation was also found to increase expression of BAG3, whose similar activity was able to compensate the loss of function of BAG1. BAG1/BAG3 co-silencing caused an enhanced cell predisposition to death in cell lines and also in primary AML cultures, affecting the same proteins. Cell death was CASPASE-3 dependent, was accompanied by PARP cleavage and documented by an increased release of pro-apoptotic molecules Smac/DIABLO and Cytochrome c. BAG1 was found to directly maintain BCL2 and to protect MCL1 from proteasomal degradation by controlling USP9X expression, which appeared to be its novel target. Finally, BAG1 was found able to affect leukemia cell fate by influencing the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins crucial for AML maintenance. PMID:22016818

  11. BAG1: the guardian of anti-apoptotic proteins in acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Aveic, Sanja; Pigazzi, Martina; Basso, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    BCL2 associated Athano-Gene 1 (BAG1) is a multifunctional protein that has been described to be involved in different cell processes linked to cell survival. It has been reported as deregulated in diverse cancer types. Here, BAG1 protein was found highly expressed in children with acute myeloid leukemia at diagnosis, and in a cohort of leukemic cell lines. A silencing approach was used for determining BAG1's role in AML, finding that its down-regulation decreased expression of BCL2, BCL-XL, MCL1, and phospho-ERK1/2, all proteins able to sustain leukemia, without affecting the pro-apoptotic protein BAX. BAG1 down-regulation was also found to increase expression of BAG3, whose similar activity was able to compensate the loss of function of BAG1. BAG1/BAG3 co-silencing caused an enhanced cell predisposition to death in cell lines and also in primary AML cultures, affecting the same proteins. Cell death was CASPASE-3 dependent, was accompanied by PARP cleavage and documented by an increased release of pro-apoptotic molecules Smac/DIABLO and Cytochrome c. BAG1 was found to directly maintain BCL2 and to protect MCL1 from proteasomal degradation by controlling USP9X expression, which appeared to be its novel target. Finally, BAG1 was found able to affect leukemia cell fate by influencing the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins crucial for AML maintenance.

  12. Non-Flammable Containment Bag and Enclosure Development for International Space Station Use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Inamdar, Sunil; Cadogan, Dave; Worthy, Erica

    2014-01-01

    Work conducted on the International Space Station (ISS) requires the use of a significant quantity of containment bags to hold specimens, equipment, waste, and other material. The bags are in many shapes and sizes, and are typically manufactured from polyethylene materials. The amount of bags being used on ISS has grown to the point where fire safety has become a concern because of the flammability of polyethylene. Recently, a new re-sealable bag design has been developed that is manufactured from a specialized non-flammable material called Armorflex 301 that was designed specifically for this application. Besides being non-flammable, Armorflex 301 is also FDA compliant, clear, flexible, and damage tolerant. The bags can be made with closure mechanisms that resemble ZipLoc® bags, or can be open top. Sample bags have been laboratory tested by NASA to verify materials properties, and evaluated by astronauts on the ISS in 2012. Flexloc bag manufacturing will commence in 2014 to support a transition away from polyethylene on ISS. In addition to re-sealable bags, other larger containment systems such as flexible gloveboxes, deployable clean rooms, and other devices manufactured from Armorflex 301 are being explored for use on ISS and in similar confined space locations where flammability is an issue. This paper will describe the development of the Armorflex 301 material, the Flexloc bag, and other containment systems being explored for use in confined areas

  13. Comparison of new Ampac bags and FireDebrisPAK® bags as packaging for fire debris analysis.

    PubMed

    Borusiewicz, Rafal

    2012-07-01

    The FireDebrisPAK(®) bags that were produced by Kapak were considered to be one of the best containers for fire debris. Kapak bags were discontinued; however, from July 2010, Ampac is offering a new packaging material. The aim of the presented research was to compare the properties (durability, background interferences, and permeability) of Kapak bags and packaging material offered by Ampac. The analysis was conducted by passive adsorption from the headspace with subsequent thermal desorption and analysis by GC-MS. The results proved that the properties of the compared materials are similar. Their greatest advantage is that they are impermeable for components of flammable liquids, so there is no danger of losing analytes or cross-contamination. Their one significant drawback is that they should not be exposed to temperatures above 80°C. At this temperature, they become soft, their inner layer is compromised (becomes sticky), and they emit some volatile organic compounds. Among them, there are compounds that constitute the components of some of flammable liquids.

  14. A combination of trastuzumab and BAG-1 inhibition synergistically targets HER2 positive breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Papadakis, Emmanouil; Robson, Natalia; Yeomans, Alison; Bailey, Sarah; Laversin, Stephanie; Beers, Stephen; Sayan, A Emre; Ashton-Key, Margaret; Schwaiger, Stefan; Stuppner, Hermann; Troppmair, Jakob; Packham, Graham; Cutress, Ramsey

    2016-04-05

    Treatment of HER2+ breast cancer with trastuzumab is effective and combination anti-HER2 therapies have demonstrated benefit over monotherapy in the neoadjuvant and metastatic settings. This study investigated the therapeutic potential of targeting the BAG-1 protein co-chaperone in trastuzumab-responsive or -resistant cells. In the METABRIC dataset, BAG-1 mRNA was significantly elevated in HER2+ breast tumors and predicted overall survival in a multivariate analysis (HR = 0.81; p = 0.022). In a breast cell line panel, BAG-1 protein was increased in HER2+ cells and was required for optimal growth as shown by siRNA knockdown. Overexpression of BAG-1S in HER2+ SKBR3 cells blocked growth inhibition by trastuzumab, whereas overexpression of a mutant BAG-1S protein (BAG-1S H3AB), defective in binding HSC70, potentiated the effect of trastuzumab. Injection of a Tet-On SKBR3 clone, induced to overexpress myc-BAG-1S into the mammary fat pads of immunocompromised mice, resulted in 2-fold larger tumors compared to uninduced controls. Induction of myc-BAG-1S expression in two Tet-On SKBR3 clones attenuated growth inhibition by trastuzumab in vitro. Targeting endogenous BAG-1 by siRNA enhanced growth inhibition of SKBR3 and BT474 cells by trastuzumab, while BAG-1 protein-protein interaction inhibitor (Thio-S or Thio-2) plus trastuzumab combination treatment synergistically attenuated growth. In BT474 cells this reduced protein synthesis, caused G1/S cell cycle arrest and targeted the ERK and AKT signaling pathways. In a SKBR3 subpopulation with acquired resistance to trastuzumab BAG-1 targeting remained effective and either Thio-2 or BAG-1 siRNA reduced growth more compared to trastuzumab-responsive parental cells. In summary, targeting BAG-1 function in combination with anti-HER2 therapy might prove beneficial.

  15. A combination of trastuzumab and BAG-1 inhibition synergistically targets HER2 positive breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Papadakis, Emmanouil; Robson, Natalia; Yeomans, Alison; Bailey, Sarah; Laversin, Stephanie; Beers, Stephen; Sayan, A. Emre; Ashton-Key, Margaret; Schwaiger, Stefan; Stuppner, Hermann; Troppmair, Jakob; Packham, Graham; Cutress, Ramsey

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of HER2+ breast cancer with trastuzumab is effective and combination anti-HER2 therapies have demonstrated benefit over monotherapy in the neoadjuvant and metastatic settings. This study investigated the therapeutic potential of targeting the BAG-1 protein co-chaperone in trastuzumab-responsive or -resistant cells. In the METABRIC dataset, BAG-1 mRNA was significantly elevated in HER2+ breast tumors and predicted overall survival in a multivariate analysis (HR = 0.81; p = 0.022). In a breast cell line panel, BAG-1 protein was increased in HER2+ cells and was required for optimal growth as shown by siRNA knockdown. Overexpression of BAG-1S in HER2+ SKBR3 cells blocked growth inhibition by trastuzumab, whereas overexpression of a mutant BAG-1S protein (BAG-1S H3AB), defective in binding HSC70, potentiated the effect of trastuzumab. Injection of a Tet-On SKBR3 clone, induced to overexpress myc-BAG-1S into the mammary fat pads of immunocompromised mice, resulted in 2-fold larger tumors compared to uninduced controls. Induction of myc-BAG-1S expression in two Tet-On SKBR3 clones attenuated growth inhibition by trastuzumab in vitro. Targeting endogenous BAG-1 by siRNA enhanced growth inhibition of SKBR3 and BT474 cells by trastuzumab, while BAG-1 protein-protein interaction inhibitor (Thio-S or Thio-2) plus trastuzumab combination treatment synergistically attenuated growth. In BT474 cells this reduced protein synthesis, caused G1/S cell cycle arrest and targeted the ERK and AKT signaling pathways. In a SKBR3 subpopulation with acquired resistance to trastuzumab BAG-1 targeting remained effective and either Thio-2 or BAG-1 siRNA reduced growth more compared to trastuzumab-responsive parental cells. In summary, targeting BAG-1 function in combination with anti-HER2 therapy might prove beneficial. PMID:26958811

  16. Performance comparison of plastic shopping bags in modern and traditional retail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radini, F. A.; Wulandari, R.; Nasiri, S. J. A.; Winarto, D. A.

    2017-07-01

    Followed by implementation of paid plastic bag policy in Indonesia’s modern and traditional retail, community question related to plastic shopping bag performance arise. But, there is limited information about it. Therefore, the assessment of the performance to compare between plastic shopping bags in modern retail and traditional retail should be interesting. The observation performance of plastic shopping bag were weight holding capacity, tear resistant and elongation. This performance were tested using Universal Testing Machine. Physical and physico-chemical properties also identified to determine factor affecting the performance of plastic shopping bag. The physical properties were analysed using visual and thickness gauge to see the colour and measure the thickness. The analysis of physico-chemical properties were carried out using DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetry), TGA (Thermal Gravimetry Analysis), Furnace and FTIR (Fourier Transform Infra Red Spectroscopy) to identify the materials, also its melting and decomposition temperature. The result showed that the performance difference between modern retail plastic bag with traditional retail plastic bag appears only in the performance of elongation. The elongation of modern retail plastic bag is 121 - 413%, while traditional has 170 - 609%. According to physico-chemical test result, modern retail and traditional retail plastic bag contain polyethylene as main material and has melting temperature in the range of High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) melting temperature. However, modern retail plastic bag has 18.31 - 33.87% of inorganic filler percentage, whereas the traditional retail plastic bag has 0.35 - 9.85%. This inorganic filler percentage probably a contributing factor in the elongation performance difference between modern retail plastic bag with traditional retail plastic bag.

  17. Odor concentration decay and stability in gas sampling bags.

    PubMed

    van Harreveld, A Ph

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents results of an experimental study into factors contributing to decay of odor samples during storage, between 4 and 40 hr after sample collection. The odor studied was sampled from a tobacco processing plant as part of collaborative research with a view to establishing a manual outlining methods for odor annoyance management, specifically for the tobacco industry. In August and September 1997, an experimental program was carried out in which two types of tobacco odor were sampled: Burley Toaster and Mix. The dependent variable was odor concentration in the bag, measured by dynamic olfactometry in accordance with the draft Comité Européen de Normalisation (CEN) standard EN13725 "Air Quality-Determination of Odor Concentration by Dynamic Olfactometry." The independent variables were sampling bag material, degree of dilution during sampling, dilution gas used, particle removal during sampling, and age of sample in hours. In the first phase, 94 odor analyses were carried out. In a second test, 32 samples were analyzed for odor concentration. In addition, 16 samples were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Analysis of the results (analysis of variance) led to the unexpected conclusion that Nalophan film bags performed significantly better than metalized Cali-Bond layered film as a bag material. The odor concentration of samples in Nalophan bags remained relatively stable between 4 and 12 hr after sampling. After 30 hr, decay to about half the initial concentration, as measured at 4 hr, was observed. Particle removal during sampling caused the odor concentration in the bags to be reduced by approximately 20%. For practical reasons, particle removal remains useful, to avoid contamination of equipment. Using air or nitrogen as the neutral gas for pre-dilution during sampling or the dilution factor used (between factor 2 and 6) did not appear to have an effect on the decay characteristic of odor samples. The following

  18. BAG3 regulates contractility and Ca(2+) homeostasis in adult mouse ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Arthur M; Gordon, Jennifer; Wang, JuFang; Song, Jianliang; Zhang, Xue-Qian; Myers, Valerie D; Tilley, Douglas G; Gao, Erhe; Hoffman, Nicholas E; Tomar, Dhanendra; Madesh, Muniswamy; Rabinowitz, Joseph; Koch, Walter J; Su, Feifei; Khalili, Kamel; Cheung, Joseph Y

    2016-03-01

    Bcl2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) is a 575 amino acid anti-apoptotic protein that is constitutively expressed in the heart. BAG3 mutations, including mutations leading to loss of protein, are associated with familial cardiomyopathy. Furthermore, BAG3 levels have been found to be reduced in end-stage non-familial failing myocardium. In contrast to neonatal myocytes in which BAG3 is found in the cytoplasm and involved in protein quality control and apoptosis, in adult mouse left ventricular (LV) myocytes BAG3 co-localized with Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and L-type Ca(2+) channels in the sarcolemma and t-tubules. BAG3 co-immunoprecipitated with β1-adrenergic receptor, L-type Ca(2+) channels and phospholemman. To simulate decreased BAG3 protein levels observed in human heart failure, we targeted BAG3 by shRNA (shBAG3) in adult LV myocytes. Reducing BAG3 by 55% resulted in reduced contraction and [Ca(2+)]i transient amplitudes in LV myocytes stimulated with isoproterenol. L-type Ca(2+) current (ICa) and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) content but not Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchange current (INaCa) or SR Ca(2+) uptake were reduced in isoproterenol-treated shBAG3 myocytes. Forskolin or dibutyryl cAMP restored ICa amplitude in shBAG3 myocytes to that observed in WT myocytes, consistent with BAG3 having effects upstream and at the level of the receptor. Resting membrane potential and action potential amplitude were unaffected but APD50 and APD90 were prolonged in shBAG3 myocytes. Protein levels of Ca(2+) entry molecules and other important excitation-contraction proteins were unchanged in myocytes with lower BAG3. Our findings that BAG3 is localized at the sarcolemma and t-tubules while modulating myocyte contraction and action potential duration through specific interaction with the β1-adrenergic receptor and L-type Ca(2+) channel provide novel insight into the role of BAG3 in cardiomyopathies and increased arrhythmia risks in heart failure.

  19. BAG3 regulates contractility and Ca2+ homeostasis in adult mouse ventricular myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Arthur M.; Gordon, Jennifer; Wang, JuFang; Song, Jianliang; Zhang, Xue-Qian; Myers, Valerie D.; Tilley, Douglas G.; Gao, Erhe; Hoffman, Nicholas E.; Tomar, Dhanendra; Madesh, Muniswamy; Rabinowitz, Joseph; Koch, Walter J.; Su, Feifei; Khalili, Kamel; Cheung, Joseph Y.

    2016-01-01

    Bcl2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) is a 575 amino acid anti-apoptotic protein that is constitutively expressed in the heart. BAG3 mutations, including mutations leading to loss of protein, are associated with familial cardiomyopathy. Furthermore, BAG3 levels have been found to be reduced in end-stage non-familial failing myocardium. In contrast to neonatal myocytes in which BAG3 is found in the cytoplasm and involved in protein quality control and apoptosis, in adult mouse left ventricular (LV) myocytes BAG3 co-localized with Na+-K+-ATPase and L-type Ca2+ channels in the sarcolemma and t-tubules. BAG3 co-immunoprecipitated with β1-adrenergic receptor, L-type Ca2+ channels and phospholemman. To simulate decreased BAG3 protein levels observed in human heart failure, we targeted BAG3 by shRNA (shBAG3) in adult LV myocytes. Reducing BAG3 by 55% resulted in reduced contraction and [Ca2+]i transient amplitudes in LV myocytes stimulated with isoproterenol. L-type Ca2+ current (ICa) and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ content but not Na+/Ca2+ exchange current (INaCa) or SR Ca2+ uptake were reduced in isoproterenol-treated shBAG3 myocytes. Forskolin or dibutyrl cAMP restored ICa amplitude in shBAG3 myocytes to that observed in WT myocytes, consistent with BAG3 having effects upstream and at the level of the receptor. Resting membrane potential and action potential amplitude were unaffected but APD50 and APD90 were prolonged in shBAG3 myocytes. Protein levels of Ca2+ entry molecules and other important excitation-contraction proteins were unchanged in myocytes with lower BAG3. Our findings that BAG3 is localized at the sarcolemma and t-tubules while modulating myocyte contraction and action potential duration through specific interaction with the β1-adrenergic receptor and L-type Ca2+ channel provide novel insight into the role of BAG3 in cardiomyopathies and increased arrhythmia risks in heart failure. PMID:26796036

  20. Processing of AtBAG6 triggers autophagy and fungal resistance.

    PubMed

    Li, Yurong; Dickman, Marty

    2016-06-02

    The Bcl-2-associated athanogene (BAG) family is an evolutionarily conserved, multifunctional group of cytoprotective co-chaperones. Using structural bioinformatic approaches we identified 7 homologs of the Arabidopsis BAG family. Evaluating knockouts in Arabidopsis of individual BAG family members, we noted that Arabidopsis BAG6 (AtBAG6) knockout lines exhibited a pronounced enhancement of susceptibility to the necrotrophic fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea. Moreover, we identified a single predicted caspase-1 site that was cleaved by an aspartyl protease (AtAPCB1). Finally, we showed AtBAG6 forms a complex with AtAPCB1 via coupling to a C2 GRAM domain protein (AtBAGP1). This complex and its activation is necessary for triggering pathogen mediated autophagic cell death and host resistance.

  1. Morphological classification of low viscosity drop bag breakup in a continuous air jet stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hui; Liu, Hai-Feng; Li, Wei-Feng; Xu, Jian-Liang

    2010-11-01

    To investigate the effect of Rayleigh-Taylor wave number in the region of maximum cross stream dimension (NRT) on drop breakup morphology, the breakup properties of accelerating low viscosity liquid drops (water and ethanol drops, diameter=1.2-6.6 mm, Weber number=10-80) were investigated using high-speed digital photography. The results of morphological analysis show a good correlation of the observed breakup type with NRT; bag breakup occurred when NRT was 1/√3 -1, bag-stamen breakup at 1-2, and dual-bag breakup at 2-3. The number of nodes in bag breakup, bag-stamen breakup, and dual-bag breakup all increased with Weber number. The experimental results are consistent with the model estimates and in good agreement with those reported in the literature.

  2. BAG3 protein regulates caspase-3 activation in HIV-1-infected human primary microglial cells

    PubMed Central

    Rosati, Alessandra; Khalili, Kamel; Deshmane, Satish L.; Radhakrishnan, Sujatha; Pascale, Maria; Turco, M. Caterina; Marzullo, Liberato

    2015-01-01

    BAG3, a member of the BAG co-chaperones family, is expressed in several cell types subjected to stressful conditions, such as exposure to high temperature, heavy metals, drugs. Furthermore, it is constitutively expressed in some tumors. Among the biological activities of the protein, there is apoptosis downmodulation; this appears to be exerted through BAG3 interaction with the heat shock protein (Hsp) 70, that influences cell apoptosis at several levels. We recently reported that BAG3 protein was detectable in the cytoplasm of reactive astrocytes in HIV-1-associated encephalopathy biopsies. Here we report that downmodulation of BAG3 protein levels allows caspase-3 activation by HIV-1 infection in human primary microglial cells. This is the first reported evidence of a role for BAG3 in the balance of death versus survival during viral infection. PMID:18821563

  3. Novel method to evaluate the net wear volume of bag-filter by fly ash.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yoshimi; Sato, Hisashi; Hirai, Yu; Kim, Ick-Soo; Hinata, Shigeru; Kim, Jooyong

    2009-01-30

    In order to study the wear of bag-filter by ash dust, sintered magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)) compact was used for counter material for sliding wear test. The precise amount of magnetite particles embedded into bag-filter was determined by a vibration sample magnetometer (VSM) measurement. It is found that net amount of wear of the bag-filter could be precisely determined by the magnetic measurement. It is also found that the net amount of sliding wear of the bag-filter increases with increasing the wear distance, sliding speed and applied load. To discuss the validity of proposed method, shot peening test with deoxidized iron particles was also carried out for bag-filter sample. The data obtained by the shot peening test is consistent with that obtained by the sliding wear test. The proposed method is, thus, very useful to evaluate the net amount of wear of bag-filter by the fly ash.

  4. Development of Bag-1L as a therapeutic target in androgen receptor-dependent prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Cato, Laura; Neeb, Antje; Sharp, Adam; Buzón, Victor; Ficarro, Scott B; Yang, Linxiao; Muhle-Goll, Claudia; Kuznik, Nane C; Riisnaes, Ruth; Nava Rodrigues, Daniel; Armant, Olivier; Gourain, Victor; Adelmant, Guillaume; Ntim, Emmanuel A; Westerling, Thomas; Dolling, David; Rescigno, Pasquale; Figueiredo, Ines; Fauser, Friedrich; Wu, Jennifer; Rottenberg, Jaice T; Shatkina, Liubov; Ester, Claudia; Luy, Burkhard; Puchta, Holger; Troppmair, Jakob; Jung, Nicole; Bräse, Stefan; Strähle, Uwe; Marto, Jarrod A; Nienhaus, Gerd Ulrich; Al-Lazikani, Bissan; Salvatella, Xavier; de Bono, Johann S; Cato, Andrew Cb; Brown, Myles

    2017-08-10

    Targeting the activation function-1 (AF-1) domain located in the N-terminus of the androgen receptor (AR) is an attractive therapeutic alternative to the current approaches to inhibit AR action in prostate cancer (PCa). Here we show that the AR AF-1 is bound by the cochaperone Bag-1L. Mutations in the AR interaction domain or loss of Bag-1L abrogate AR signaling and reduce PCa growth. Clinically, Bag-1L protein levels increase with progression to castration-resistant PCa (CRPC) and high levels of Bag-1L in primary PCa associate with a reduced clinical benefit from abiraterone when these tumors progress. Intriguingly, residues in Bag-1L important for its interaction with the AR AF-1 are within a potentially druggable pocket, implicating Bag-1L as a potential therapeutic target in PCa.

  5. Analysis of BAG3 plasma concentrations in patients with acutely decompensated heart failure.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Parul U; Gaggin, Hanna K; Belcher, Arianna M; Harisiades, Jamie E; Basile, Anna; Falco, Antonia; Rosati, Alessandra; Piscione, Federico; Januzzi, James L; Turco, M Caterina

    2015-05-20

    BCL-2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) is a protein implicated in the cardiomyocyte stress response and genesis of cardiomyopathy. Extracellular BAG3 is measurable in patients with heart failure (HF), but the relationship of BAG3 with HF prognosis is unclear. BAG3 plasma concentrations were measured in 39 acutely decompensated HF patients; the primary endpoint was death at 1 year. Baseline characteristics were compared by vital status and median BAG3 concentration. Correlation of BAG3 with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and other biomarkers was performed. Prognostic value was assessed using Cox proportional hazards regression and Kaplan-Meier analysis. At baseline, median BAG3 was significantly higher in decedents (N=11) than survivors (N=28; 1489 ng/mL versus 50 ng/mL; P=0.04); decedents also had worse renal function and higher median natriuretic peptide (NP) and sST2. BAG3 was not significantly correlated with NPs, mid-regional pro-adrenomedullin, sST2, or eGFR, however. Mortality was increased in patients with supra-median BAG3 (>336 ng/mL; 42.1% versus 15.0%, P=0.06). In age and LVEF-adjusted Cox proportional hazards, BAG3 remained a significant mortality predictor (HR=3.20; 95% CI=1.34-7.65; P=0.02); those with supra-median BAG3 had significantly shorter time-to-death (P=0.04). The stress response protein BAG3 is measurable in patients with ADHF and may be prognostic for death. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Air Bag Protection of the Gunner in the U.S. Army Cobra AH-1Q

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-04-01

    4 Si CHAPTER II REFERENCES EVALUATION Present Day Air Bags Much infortnation concerning air bags has been published in recent years. General Motors Corporation...Restraint Systems." Presented in their paper is a discussion of the air bag restraint system developed by General Motors along with problems...service needs. (Klove, E.H. and Oglesby, Robert N., May, 1972) A paper was prepared by Klove for General Motors ’ 1973 Report on 14 Progress in Areas of

  7. Nicotine inhibits potassium currents in Aplysia bag cell neurons.

    PubMed

    White, Sean H; Sturgeon, Raymond M; Magoski, Neil S

    2016-06-01

    Acetylcholine and the archetypal cholinergic agonist, nicotine, are typically associated with the opening of ionotropic receptors. In the bag cell neurons, which govern the reproductive behavior of the marine snail, Aplysia californica, there are two cholinergic responses: a relatively large acetylcholine-induced current and a relatively small nicotine-induced current. Both currents are readily apparent at resting membrane potential and result from the opening of distinct ionotropic receptors. We now report a separate current response elicited by applying nicotine to cultured bag cell neurons under whole cell voltage-clamp. This current was ostensibly inward, best resolved at depolarized voltages, presented a noncooperative dose-response with a half-maximal concentration near 1.5 mM, and associated with a decrease in membrane conductance. The unique nicotine-evoked response was not altered by intracellular perfusion with the G protein blocker GDPβS or exposure to classical nicotinic antagonists but was occluded by replacing intracellular K(+) with Cs(+) Consistent with an underlying mechanism of direct inhibition of one or more K(+) channels, nicotine was found to rapidly reduce the fast-inactivating A-type K(+) current as well as both components of the delayed-rectifier K(+) current. Finally, nicotine increased bag cell neuron excitability, which manifested as reduction in spike threshold, greater action potential height and width, and markedly more spiking to continuous depolarizing current injection. In contrast to conventional transient activation of nicotinic ionotropic receptors, block of K(+) channels could represent a nonstandard means for nicotine to profoundly alter the electrical properties of neurons over prolonged periods of time.

  8. Surface modification of closed plastic bags for adherent cell cultivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachmann, K.; Dohse, A.; Thomas, M.; Pohl, S.; Meyring, W.; Dittmar, K. E. J.; Lindenmeier, W.; Klages, C.-P.

    2011-07-01

    In modern medicine human mesenchymal stem cells are becoming increasingly important. However, a successful cultivation of this type of cells is only possible under very specific conditions. Of great importance, for instance, are the absence of contaminants such as foreign microbiological organisms, i.e., sterility, and the chemical functionalization of the ground on which the cells are grown. As cultivation of these cells makes high demands, a new procedure for cell cultivation has been developed in which closed plastic bags are used. For adherent cell growth chemical functional groups have to be introduced on the inner surface of the plastic bag. This can be achieved by a new, atmospheric-pressure plasma-based method presented in this paper. The method which was developed jointly by the Fraunhofer IST and the Helmholtz HZI can be implemented in automated equipment as is also shown in this contribution. Plasma process gases used include helium or helium-based gas mixtures (He + N2 + H2) and vapors of suitable film-forming agents or precursors such as APTMS, DACH, and TMOS in helium. The effect of plasma treatment is investigated by FTIR-ATR spectroscopy as well as surface tension determination based on contact angle measurements and XPS. Plasma treatment in nominally pure helium increases the surface tension of the polymer foil due to the presence of oxygen traces in the gas and oxygen diffusing through the gas-permeable foil, respectively, reacting with surface radical centers formed during contact with the discharge. Primary amino groups are obtained on the inner surface by treatment in mixtures with nitrogen and hydrogen albeit their amount is comparably small due to diffusion of oxygen through the gas-permeable bag, interfering with the plasma-amination process. Surface modifications introducing amino groups on the inner surface turned out to be most efficient in the promotion of cell growth.

  9. Stability of Diluted Adenosine Solutions in Polyolefin Infusion Bags

    PubMed Central

    Almagambetova, Elise; Hutchinson, David; Blais, Danielle M.; Zhao, Fang

    2013-01-01

    Background: Intravenous or intracoronary adenosine is used in the cardiac catherization lab to achieve maximal coronary blood flow and determine fractional flow reserve. Objective: To determine the stability of adenosine 10 and 50 µg/mL in either 0.9% sodium chloride injection or 5% dextrose injection in polyolefin infusion bags stored at 2 temperatures, refrigeration (2°C-8°C) or controlled room temperature (20°C-25°C). Methods: Adenosine 10 µg/mL and 50 µg/mL solutions were prepared in 50 mL polyolefin infusion bags containing 0.9% sodium chloride injection or 5% dextrose injection and stored at controlled room temperature or under refrigeration. Each combination of concentration, diluent, and storage was prepared in triplicate. Samples were assayed using stability-indicating, reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography immediately at time 0 and at 24 hours, 48 hours, 7 days, and 14 days. Stability was defined as retaining 90% to 110% of the initial adenosine concentration. The samples were also visually inspected against a light background for clarity, color, and the presence of particulate matter. Results: After 14 days, all samples retained 99% to 101% of the initial adenosine concentration. No considerable change in pH or visual appearance was noted. The stability data indicated no significant loss of drug due to chemical degradation or physical interactions during storage. Conclusion: Adenosine solutions of 10 and 50 µg/mL were stable for at least 14 days in 50 mL polyolefin infusion bags of 0.9% sodium chloride injection or 5% dextrose injection stored at controlled room temperature and refrigerated conditions. PMID:24421510

  10. [Rhabdomyolysis after lifting IKEA bags in a man using sertraline].

    PubMed

    Kummen, Ingvild; Jensen, Thomas Giver

    2016-12-12

    We present a case of a 28-year-old male, using sertraline, who experienced progressive oedema in both upper extremities after having lifted two IKEA bags weighing 20 kg each from his car up to the third floor. Blood creatine kinase (CK) level was measured 5,260 U/l, and the patient was admitted for oral rehydration with the diagnosis rhabdomyolysis. The MRI showed swelling in the triceps muscles and latissimus dorsi muscles resulting in compression of the brachial vein. We discuss the pathomechanism behind the increased CK level and the swelling, and the possible effect sertraline may have had on the development of rhabdomyolysis.

  11. Chiral symmetry breaking and vacuum polarization in a bag

    SciTech Connect

    Yasui, S.

    2006-12-01

    We study the effects of a finite quark mass in the hedgehog configuration in the two phase chiral bag model. We discuss the chiral properties, such as the fractional baryon number and the chiral Casimir energy, by using the Debye expansion for the analytical calculation and the Strutinsky's smearing method for the numerical computation. It is shown that the fractional baryon number carried by massive quarks in the vacuum is canceled by that in the meson sector. A finite term of the chiral Casimir energy is obtained with subtraction of the logarithmic divergence term.

  12. Use of Vacuum Bagging for Fabricating Thermoplastic Microfluidic Devices

    PubMed Central

    Cassano, Christopher L.; Simon, Andrew J.; Liu, Wei; Fredrickson, Carl; Fan, Z. Hugh

    2014-01-01

    In this work we present a novel thermal bonding method for thermoplastic microfluidic devices. This simple method employs a modified vacuum bagging technique, a concept borrowed from the aerospace industry, to produce conventional thick substrate microfluidic devices, as well as multi-layer film devices. The bonds produced using this method are superior to those obtained using conventional thermal bonding methods, including thermal lamination, and are capable of sustaining burst pressures in excess of 550 kPa. To illustrate the utility of this method, thick substrate devices were produced, as well as a six-layer film device that incorporated several complex features. PMID:25329244

  13. Stability of Reconstituted Telavancin Drug Product in Frozen Intravenous Bags

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Anissa; Raquinio, Elvira; Nguyen, Alice

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: Intravenous (IV) infusions of telavancin for injection are generally administered in-hospital, but in some circumstances they may be administered in an outpatient environment. In that setting, antibiotics may be premixed and frozen. This study determined the chemical stability of nonpreserved telavancin in various commonly used reconstitution diluents stored in IV bags (polyvinyl chloride [PVC] and PVC-free) at -20°C (-4°F) without light. Methods: Telavancin (750 mg/vial) was reconstituted with 5% dextrose injection USP (D5W) or 0.9% sodium chloride injection USP (NS) to obtain drug solutions at approximately 15 mg/mL. Infusion solutions of telavancin at diluted concentrations of 0.6 mg/mL and 8.0 mg/mL covering the range utilized in clinical practice were prepared in both PVC and PVC-free IV bags using D5W or NS solutions. The infusion solutions were stored under frozen conditions (-20°C ± 5°C [-4°F ± 41°F]) and the chemical stability was evaluated for up to 32 days. Telavancin concentration, purity, and degradant levels were determined using a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. Results: Telavancin IV infusion solutions in D5W or NS at 0.6 mg/mL and 8 mg/mL and stored at -20°C (-4°F) met the chemical stability criteria when tested on days 0, 7, 14, and 32. The assayed telavancin concentration at each time point was within 97% to 103% of the initial mean assay value. The total degradants quantified by the HPLC stability-indicating method did not show any significant change over the 32-day study period. Conclusion: Telavancin IV infusion solutions (in D5W or NS) in both PVC and PVC-free IV bags were stable for at least 32 days when stored at -20°C (-4°F) without light. These results provide prolonged frozen stability data further to that previously established for 7 days under refrigerated conditions (2°C-8°C [36°F -46°F]), and for 12 hours at room temperature when diluted into IV bags

  14. Use of vacuum bagging for fabricating thermoplastic microfluidic devices.

    PubMed

    Cassano, Christopher L; Simon, Andrew J; Liu, Wei; Fredrickson, Carl; Fan, Z Hugh

    2015-01-07

    In this work we present a novel thermal bonding method for thermoplastic microfluidic devices. This simple method employs a modified vacuum bagging technique, a concept borrowed from the aerospace industry, to produce conventional thick substrate microfluidic devices, as well as multi-layer film devices. The bonds produced using this method are superior to those obtained using conventional thermal bonding methods, including thermal lamination, and are capable of sustaining burst pressures in excess of 550 kPa. To illustrate the utility of this method, thick substrate devices were produced, as well as a six-layer film device that incorporated several complex features.

  15. Snap-lock bags with red band: A study of manufacturing characteristics, thermal and chemical properties.

    PubMed

    Sim, Yvonne Hui Ying; Koh, Alaric C W; Lim, Shing Min; Yew, Sok Yee

    2015-10-01

    Drug packaging is commonly submitted to the Forensic Chemistry and Physics Laboratory of the Health Sciences Authority, Singapore, for examination. The drugs seized are often packaged in plastic bags. These bags are examined for linkages to provide law enforcement with useful associations between the traffickers and drug abusers. The plastic bags submitted may include snap-lock bags, some with a red band located above the snap-lock closure and some without. Current techniques for examination involve looking at the physical characteristics (dimensions, thickness and polarising patterns) and manufacturing marks of these bags. In cases where manufacturing marks on the main body of the bags are poor or absent, the manufacturing characteristics present on the red band can be examined. A study involving approximately 1000 bags was conducted to better understand the variations in the manufacturing characteristics of the red band. This understanding is crucial in helping to determine associations/eliminations between bags. Two instrumental techniques, namely differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) were explored to evaluate the effectiveness of examining the chemical composition to discriminate the bags.

  16. A BAG3 chaperone complex maintains cardiomyocyte function during proteotoxic stress

    PubMed Central

    Judge, Luke M.; Perez-Bermejo, Juan A.; Truong, Annie; Ribeiro, Alexandre J.S.; Yoo, Jennie C.; Jensen, Christina L.; Mandegar, Mohammad A.; Huebsch, Nathaniel; Kaake, Robyn M.; So, Po-Lin; Srivastava, Deepak; Krogan, Nevan J.

    2017-01-01

    Molecular chaperones regulate quality control in the human proteome, pathways that have been implicated in many diseases, including heart failure. Mutations in the BAG3 gene, which encodes a co-chaperone protein, have been associated with heart failure due to both inherited and sporadic dilated cardiomyopathy. Familial BAG3 mutations are autosomal dominant and frequently cause truncation of the coding sequence, suggesting a heterozygous loss-of-function mechanism. However, heterozygous knockout of the murine BAG3 gene did not cause a detectable phenotype. To model BAG3 cardiomyopathy in a human system, we generated an isogenic series of human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) with loss-of-function mutations in BAG3. Heterozygous BAG3 mutations reduced protein expression, disrupted myofibril structure, and compromised contractile function in iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes (iPS-CMs). BAG3-deficient iPS-CMs were particularly sensitive to further myofibril disruption and contractile dysfunction upon exposure to proteasome inhibitors known to cause cardiotoxicity. We performed affinity tagging of the endogenous BAG3 protein and mass spectrometry proteomics to further define the cardioprotective chaperone complex that BAG3 coordinates in the human heart. Our results establish a model for evaluating protein quality control pathways in human cardiomyocytes and their potential as therapeutic targets and susceptibility factors for cardiac drug toxicity. PMID:28724793

  17. Comparisons of the gait parameters of young Korean women carrying a single-strap bag.

    PubMed

    An, Duk-Hyun; Yoon, Ji-Yeon; Yoo, Won-Gyu; Kim, Kyeong-Mi

    2010-03-01

    This study compared the gait parameters of young women using various methods to carry a single-strap bag during walking. Twenty-one Korean healthy women walked on a GAITRite-instrumented carpet at a self-paced speed for each of the four following conditions in random order: no bag, carrying a bag over the shoulder, carrying a bag on the forearm, and carrying a bag by the hand on the dominant (right) side. There was a significant reduction in the stride length for the contralateral leg when carrying a bag on the forearm, a significant decrease in the heel-to-heel base of support, and a significant increase in the toe angle on the ipsilateral leg when carrying a bag by hand. The results of our study suggest that, among the asymmetric bag-carrying methods preferred by Korean young women during walking, the "over-the-shoulder" method has the least effect on gait parameters relative to not carrying a bag.

  18. Prediction of air temperature for thermal comfort of people using sleeping bags: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jianhua

    2008-11-01

    Six models for determining air temperatures for thermal comfort of people using sleeping bags were reviewed. These models were based on distinctive metabolic rates and mean skin temperatures. All model predictions of air temperatures are low when the insulation values of the sleeping bag are high. Nevertheless, prediction variations are greatest for the sleeping bags with high insulation values, and there is a high risk of hypothermia if an inappropriate sleeping bag is chosen for the intended conditions of use. There is, therefore, a pressing need to validate the models by wear trial and determine which one best reflects ordinary consumer needs.

  19. Nontopological and topological chiral soliton bags as a model of the nucleon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seki, Ryoichi; Ohta, Shigemi

    1985-05-01

    As a possible phenomenological model of nucleons, we examine a lagrangian which combines the features of the soliton bag model of T.D. Lee et al. and the nonlinear sigma model. The lagrangian is numerically solved in the semiclassical approximation for the hedgehog ansatz without linearization. Soliton solutions with winding numbers Z = 0 and 1 are examined as functions of the pion decay constant. The Z = 0 solution is similar to the cloudy bag model, but the Z = 1 solution, despite a smaller soliton bag radius, is quite different from the little (chiral) bag model. The latter solution is found to have a lower energy for realistic parameter values.

  20. Chiral bag plus skyrmion hybrid model with vector mesons for nucleon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takashita, H.; Yoro, S.; Toki, H.

    1988-08-01

    The chiral bag plus skyrmion hybrid model (CSH) is extended to include the vector mesons (ω and ϱ mesons) following the hidden local symmetry prescription for nucleon. The hedgehog ansatz is taken for π, ω and ϱ meson fields and the coupled differential equations for quarks and mesons are solved numerically. It is found that the magnitude of the rho-meson field drops suddenly at R ≈ 0.2 fm as the bag radius increases. The hedgehog masses and the axial coupling gA are calculated as a function of the bag radius. It is found that gA behaves non-monotonically with the bag radius.

  1. Evaluation of Advanced Air Bag Deployment Algorithm Performance using Event Data Recorders

    PubMed Central

    Gabler, Hampton C.; Hinch, John

    2008-01-01

    This paper characterizes the field performance of occupant restraint systems designed with advanced air bag features including those specified in the US Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 208 for advanced air bags, through the use of Event Data Recorders (EDRs). Although advanced restraint systems have been extensively tested in the laboratory, we are only beginning to understand the performance of these systems in the field. Because EDRs record many of the inputs to the advanced air bag control module, these devices can provide unique insights into the characteristics of field performance of air bags. The study was based on 164 advanced air bag cases extracted from NASS/CDS 2002-2006 with associated EDR data. In this dataset, advanced driver air bags were observed to deploy with a 50% probability at a longitudinal delta-V of 9 mph for the first stage, and at 26 mph for both inflator stages. In general, advanced air bag performance was as expected, however, the study identified cases of air bag deployments at delta-Vs as low as 3-4 mph, non-deployments at delta-Vs over 26 mph, and possible delayed air bag deployments. PMID:19026234

  2. Cost Analysis of Premixed Multichamber Bags Versus Compounded Parenteral Nutrition: Breakeven Point

    PubMed Central

    Bozat, Erkut

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Industrially premixed multichamber bags or hospital-manufactured compounded products can be used for parenteral nutrition. The aim of this study was to compare the cost of these 2 approaches. Materials and Methods: Costs of compounded parenteral nutrition bags in an university hospital were calculated. A total of 600 bags that were administered during 34 days between December 10, 2009 and February 17, 2010 were included in the analysis. For quality control, specific gravity evaluation of the filled bags was performed. Results: It was calculated that the variable cost of a hospital compounded bag was $26.15. If we take the annual fixed costs into consideration, the production cost reaches $36.09 for each unit. It was estimated that the cost for the corresponding multichamber bag was $37.79. Taking the fixed and the variable costs into account, the breakeven point of the hospital compounded and the premixed multichamber bags was seen at 5,404 units per year. In specific gravity evaluation, it was observed that the mean and interval values were inside the upper and lower control margins. Conclusion: In this analysis, usage of hospital-compounded parenteral nutrition bags showed a cost advantage in hospitals that treat more than 15 patients per day. In small volume hospitals, premixed multichamber bags may be more beneficial. PMID:24623870

  3. Testing odorants recovery from a novel metallized fluorinated ethylene propylene gas sampling bag.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wenda; Koziel, Jacek A; Cai, Lingshuang; Wright, Donald; Kuhrt, Fred

    2015-12-01

    Industry-standard Tedlar bags for odor sample collection from confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs) have been challenged by the evidence of volatile organic compound (VOC) losses and background interferences. Novel impermeable aluminum foil with a thin layer of fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) film on the surface that is in contact with a gas sample was developed to address this challenge. In this research, Tedlar and metallized FEP bags were compared for (a) recoveries of four characteristic CAFO odorous VOCs (ethyl mercaptan, butyric acid, isovaleric acid and p-cresol) after 30 min and 24 hr sample storage time and for (b) chemical background interferences. All air sampling and analyses were performed with solid-phase microextraction (SPME) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Mean target gas sample recoveries from metallized FEP bags were 25.9% and 28.0% higher than those in Tedlar bags, for 30 min and 24 hr, respectively. Metallized FEP bags demonstrated the highest p-cresol recoveries after 30-min and 24-hr storage, 96.1±44.5% and 44.8±10.2%, respectively, among different types of sampling bags reported in previous studies. However, a higher variability was observed for p-cresol recovery with metallized FEP bags. A 0% recovery of ethyl mercaptan was observed with Tedlar bags after 24-hr storage, whereas an 85.7±7.4% recovery was achieved with metallized FEP bags. Recoveries of butyric and isovaleric acids were similar for both bag types. Two major impurities in Tedlar bags' background were identified as N,N-dimethylacetamide and phenol, while backgrounds of metallized FEP bags were significantly cleaner. Reusability of metallized FEP bags was tested. Caution is advised when using polymeric materials for storage of livestock-relevant odorous volatile organic compounds. The odorants loss with storage time confirmed that long-term storage in whole-air form is ill advised. A focused short-term odor sample containment should be

  4. Skylab 4 crewmen passing trash bags in to the OWS waste disposal tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Two Skylab 4 crewmen are seen passing trash bags through the trash airlock of the Orbital Workshop (OWS) of the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. The trash airlock leads to the OWS waste disposal tank. Astronaut William R. Pogue, Skylab 4 pilot, holds onto the OWS crew quarters ceiling as he prepares to jump onto the OWS airlock hatch cover to force another trash bag further down into the airlock. Astronaut Gerald P. Carr, Skylab 4 commander, is assisting. Carr is holding onto the trash bags. A third trash bag is floating in the zero-gravity environment near Pogue's right leg. The wardroom can be seen behind Pogue.

  5. Cost analysis of adult parenteral nutrition systems: three-compartment bag versus customized.

    PubMed

    Berlana, David; Sabin, Pilar; Gimeno-Ballester, Vicente; Romero-Jiménez, Rosa; Zapata-Rojas, Amalia; Marquez, Esther; Martínez-Cutillas, Julio; Schoenenberger-Arnaiz, Joan Anton

    2013-11-01

    Background Parenteral nutrition (PN) is a costly technology used widely to provide nutrition to patients who have an inaccessible or non-functioning intestine. Two all-in-one systems currently being used are customized formulations and three-compartment bags. Objective To provide a systematic cost comparison of the two all-in-one PN systems: individualized (made from nutrient solutions) versus commercialized (made from three-compartment bag), both prepared in hospital pharmacies. Setting This study was conducted in three public Spanish hospitals. Method We conducted a cost-minimization study to analyze prospectively the total cost of PN bags, accounting for all of the processes involved in preparing and delivering PN bags (cost of manpower, nutrition solutions, medical supplies and quality controls) in three different healthcare settings. To compare therapeutic alternatives of equivalent nutritional value, the study was performed for the most frequently employed formulation and similar to commercial preparations. A univariate sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate the impact of different rates of use of three-compartment PN bag. Results 157 routine acts of PN bag preparation (65 customized and 92 three-compartment) were observed and timed over 9 days. Total costs of the 157 PN bags were included in the study. Mean costs of customized bags were higher than three-compartment bags, 51.16±5.63€ versus 39.69±3.00€ respectively (p.

  6. Bag technique: preventing and controlling infections in home care and hospice.

    PubMed

    McGoldrick, Mary

    2014-01-01

    The nursing bag has been used by home care visiting staff for decades to carry needed equipment and supplies to provide patient care in the home. The nursing bag is transported from patient home to home and may serve as a vehicle for transmitting microorganisms by virtue of the bag's contact with the staff's hands and contact with the patient's environment. This article establishes guidelines for the management of the nursing bag used by home care and hospice staff and offers strategies to prevent and control the transfer of microorganisms through its use.

  7. Bioactive glass BAG-S53P4 for the adjunctive treatment of chronic osteomyelitis of the long bones: an in vitro and prospective clinical study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study aimed to explore the in vitro antibacterial activity of the bioglass BAG S53P4 against multi-resistant microorganisms commonly involved in osteomyelitis and to evaluate its use in surgical adjunctive treatment of osteomyelitis. Methods In vitro antibacterial activity of BAG-S53P4 against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii isolates was evaluated by means of time kill curves, with colony counts performed after 24, 48 and 72 hours of incubation. In vivo evaluation was performed by prospectively studying a cohort of 27 patients with a clinically and radiologically diagnosed osteomyelitis of the long bones in an observational study. Endpoints were the absence of infection recurrence/persistence at follow-up, no need for further surgery whenever during follow-up and absence of local or systemic side effects connected with the BAG use. Results In vitro tests regarding the antibacterial activity of BAG S53P4 showed a marked bactericidal activity after 24 hrs against all the tested species. This activity continued in the subsequent 24 hrs and no growth was observed for all strains after 72 hrs. Results of the clinical study evidenced no signs of infection in 24 patients (88.9%) at the follow-up, while 2 subjects showed infection recurrence at 6 months from index operation and one more needed further surgical procedures. BAG-S53P4 was generally well tolerated. Conclusions The in vitro and in vivo findings reinforce previous observations on the efficacy of BAG-S53P4 for the treatment of chronic osteomyelitis of the long bones, also in the presence of multi-resistant strains and in immunocompromised hosts, without relevant side effects and without the need for locally adding antibiotics. Trial registration Deutschen Register Klinischer Studien (DRKS) unique identifier: DRKS00005332. PMID:24325278

  8. A One-Piece Lunar Regolith Bag Garage Prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithers, G. A.; Nehls, M. K.; Hovater, M. A.; Evans, S. W.; Miller, J. S.; Broughton, R. M., Jr.; Beale, D.; Kilinc-Balci, F.

    2007-01-01

    Shelter structures on the moon, even in early phases of exploration, should incorporate lunar materials as much as possible. This Technical Memorandum details the design and construction of a prototype for a one-piece regolith bag unpressurized garage concept and a materials testing program to investigate six candidate fabrics to learn how they might perform in the lunar environment. The conceptualization was that a lightweight fabric form be launched from Earth and landed on the lunar surface to be robotically filled with raw lunar regolith. Regolith bag fabric candidates included: Vectran(TM), Nextel(TM), Gore PTFE Fabric(TM), Zylon(TM), Twaron(TM), and Nomex(TM). Tensile (including post radiation exposure), fold, abrasion, and hypervelocity impact testing were performed under ambient conditions, and also performed under cold and elevated temperatures. In some cases, Johnson Space Center lunar simulant (JSC-1) was used in conjunction with testing. A series of preliminary structures was constructed during final prototype design based on the principles of the classic masonry arch. The prototype was constructed of Kevlar(TM) and filled with vermiculite. The structure is free-standing, but has not yet been load tested. Future plans would be to construct higher fidelity prototypes and to conduct appropriate tests of the structure.

  9. Emulsification in novel ultrasonic cavitation intensifying bag reactors.

    PubMed

    van Zwieten, Ralph; Verhaagen, Bram; Schroën, Karin; Fernández Rivas, David

    2017-05-01

    Cavitation Intensifying Bags (CIBs), a novel reactor type for use with ultrasound, have been recently proposed as a scaled-up microreactor with increased energy efficiencies. We now report on the use of the CIBs for the preparation of emulsions out of hexadecane and an SDS aqueous solution. The CIBs have been designed in such a way that cavitation effects created by the ultrasound are increased. It was found that the CIBs were 60 times more effective in breaking up droplets than conventional bags, therewith showing a proof of principle for the CIBs for the preparation of emulsions. Droplets of 0.2μm could easily be obtained. To our knowledge, no other technology results in the same droplet size more easily in terms of energy usage. Without depending on the wettability changes of the membrane, the CIBs score similarly as membrane emulsification, which is the most energy friendly emulsification method known in literature. Out of the frequencies used, 37kHz was found to require the lowest treatment time. The treatment time decreased at higher temperatures. While the energy usage in the current non-optimised experiments was on the order of 10(7)-10(9)J/m(3), which is comparable to that of a high-pressure homogenizer, we expect that the use of CIBs for the preparation of fine emulsions can still be improved considerably. The process presented can be applied for other uses such as water treatment, synthesis of nanomaterials and food processing.

  10. NN-πNN equations and the chiral bag model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afnan, I. R.; Blankleider, B.

    1985-12-01

    The NN-πNN equations that describe, in a unified framework, pion production in nucleon-nucleon scattering, and pion-deuteron and nucleon-nucleon elastic scattering, have been extended to include the N(939) and Δ(1232) on an equal footing. This extension, motivated by the quark models of hadrons, has the bare N and Δ as three quark states with the same spacial wave function, but different spin isospin states. The final equations, referred to as the BB-πBB equations, are consistent with the chiral bag models to the extent that the πNN, πNΔ, and πΔΔ coupling constants and form factors are related, and can be taken from bag models. The resultant equations satisfy two- and three-body unitarity, and are derived by exposing the lowest unitarity cuts in the n-body Green's function. These equations retain important contributions missing from the NN-πNN equations. For pion production and N-N scattering they include the contribution of backward pions in the NN-->NΔ transition potential, which may overcome the problem of small pp-->πd cross section as predicted by the NN-πNN equations. For π-d elastic scattering they include an additional NΔ-->NΔ tensor force that can influence the tensor polarization.

  11. Development of high efficiency ventilation bag actuated dry powder inhalers.

    PubMed

    Behara, Srinivas R B; Longest, P Worth; Farkas, Dale R; Hindle, Michael

    2014-04-25

    New active dry powder inhaler systems were developed and tested to efficiently aerosolize a carrier-free formulation. To assess inhaler performance, a challenging case study of aerosol lung delivery during high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) therapy was selected. The active delivery system consisted of a ventilation bag for actuating the device, the DPI containing a flow control orifice and 3D rod array, and streamlined nasal cannula with separate inlets for the aerosol and HFNC therapy gas. In vitro experiments were conducted to assess deposition in the device, emitted dose (ED) from the nasal cannula, and powder deaggregation. The best performing systems achieved EDs of 70-80% with fine particle fractions <5 μm of 65-85% and mass median aerodynamic diameters of 1.5 μm, which were target conditions for controlled condensational growth aerosol delivery. Decreasing the size of the flow control orifice from 3.6 to 2.3mm reduced the flow rate through the system with manual bag actuations from an average of 35 to 15LPM, while improving ED and aerosolization performance. The new devices can be applied to improve aerosol delivery during mechanical ventilation, nose-to-lung aerosol administration, and to assist patients that cannot reproducibly use passive DPIs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Identification of pollution sources by means of moss bags.

    PubMed

    Fernández, J A; Aboal, J R; Carballeira, A

    2004-09-01

    Moss bags containing Scleropodium purum were exposed for 30 days in an industrial area in which a chlor-alkali plant (CAP) and a concrete factory (CF) are located close to one another (121 m). Following the exposure, the transplanted mosses were analyzed to determine levels of Hg, Zn, Ni, and Cr. The enrichment factors (EFs) of the metals (final concentration/initial concentration) were calculated; the mean values obtained were 26.4 for Hg, 6.6 for Zn, 1.07 for Ni, and 1.0 for Cr. Dispersion of Cr and Ni was closely related, probably because they were dispersed together on the same particle. The spatial structure of the data was examined, and significant fits to the semivariograms were found for Hg, Zn, and Cr, using kriging to interpolate the data. Using this technique, it was possible to estimate where the maximum concentrations of elements occurred, allowing us to distinguish from which focal point they were emitted: Hg from the CAP, and Zn and Cr from the CF. The combined use of moss bags and geostatistical techniques allowed characterization of the emissions and identification of focal points of contamination in the study area. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Inc.

  13. Laplacian forests: semantic image segmentation by guided bagging.

    PubMed

    Lombaert, Herve; Zikic, Darko; Criminisi, Antonio; Ayache, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new, efficient and accurate technique for the semantic segmentation of medical images. The paper builds upon the successful random decision forests model and improves on it by modifying the way in which randomness is injected into the tree training process. The contribution of this paper is two-fold. First, we replace the conventional bagging procedure (the uniform sampling of training images) with a guided bagging approach, which exploits the inherent structure and organization of the training image set. This allows the creation of decision trees that are specialized to a specific sub-type of images in the training set. Second, the segmentation of a previously unseen image happens via selection and application of only the trees that are relevant to the given test image. Tree selection is done automatically, via the learned image embedding, with more precisely a Laplacian eigenmap. We, therefore, call the proposed approach Laplacian Forests. We validate Laplacian Forests on a dataset of 256, manually segmented 3D CT scans of patients showing high variability in scanning protocols, resolution, body shape and anomalies. Compared with conventional decision forests, Laplacian Forests yield both higher training efficiency, due to the local analysis of the training image space, as well as higher segmentation accuracy, due to the specialization of the forest to image sub-types.

  14. Development of Spray on Bag for manufacturing of large composites parts: Diffusivity analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dempah, Maxime Joseph

    Bagging materials are utilized in many composites manufacturing processes. The selection is mainly driven by cost, temperature requirements, chemical compatibility and tear properties of the bag. The air barrier properties of the bag are assumed to be adequate or in many cases are not considered at all. However, the gas barrier property of a bag is the most critical parameter, as it can negatively affect the quality of the final laminate. The barrier property is a function of the bag material, uniformity, thickness and temperature. Improved barrier properties are needed for large parts, high pressure consolidated components and structures where air stays entrapped on the part surface. The air resistance property of the film is defined as permeability and is investigated in this thesis. A model was developed to evaluate the gas transport through the film and an experimental cell was implemented to characterize various commercial films. Understanding and characterizing the transport phenomena through the film allows optimization of the bagging material for various manufacturing processes. Spray-on-Bag is a scalable alternative bagging method compared to standard films. The approach allows in-situ fabrication of the bag on large and complex geometry structures where optimization of the bag properties can be varied on a local level. An experimental setup was developed and implemented using a six axis robot and an automated spraying system. Experiments were performed on a flat surface and specimens were characterized and compared to conventional films. Air barrier properties were within range of standard film approaches showing the potential to fabricate net shape bagging structures in an automated process.

  15. The mouth-to-bag resuscitator during standard anaesthesia induction in apnoeic patients.

    PubMed

    Herff, Holger; Paal, Peter; Mitterlechner, Thomas; von Goedecke, Achim; Stadlbauer, Karl H; Voelckel, Wolfgang G; Zecha-Stallinger, Angelika; Wenzel, Volker

    2009-10-01

    Ventilation of a non-intubated emergency patient by inexperienced rescuers with a standard bag-valve device may result in high inspiratory flow rates and subsequently high airway pressures with stomach inflation. Therefore, a self-inflating bag has been developed that requires lay rescuers to blow up a single-use balloon inside an adult bag-valve device, which, in turn, displaces air within the bag towards the patient. This concept has been compared to standard adult bag-valve devices earlier in bench models but not in patients. An anaesthetist who was blinded to all monitor tracings ventilated the lungs of 40 apnoeic patients during routine anaesthesia induction either with a standard bag-valve device or with the mouth-to-bag resuscitator in a random order. Study endpoints were peak inspiratory flow rates, peak airway pressure, tidal volumes and inspiratory time. Peak inspiratory flow was 40+/-10lmin(-1) for the standard bag-valve device versus 33+/-13lmin(-1) for the mouth-to-bag resuscitator (P<0.0001); peak airway pressure was 17+/-5cmH(2)O versus 14+/-5cmH(2)O (P<0.0001); inspiratory tidal volume was 477+/-133ml versus 644+/-248ml (P<0.001) and inspiratory time was 1.1+/-0.3s versus 1.9+/-0.6s (P<0.0001). Employing the mouth-to-bag resuscitator during simulated ventilation of a non-intubated patient in respiratory arrest significantly decreased peak inspiratory flow and peak airway pressure and increased inspiratory tidal volume and inspiratory times compared to a standard bag-valve device.

  16. Regulation of osteoblast development by Bcl-2-associated athanogene-1 (BAG-1)

    PubMed Central

    Greenhough, Joanna; Papadakis, Emmanouil S.; Cutress, Ramsey I.; Townsend, Paul A.; Oreffo, Richard O. C.; Tare, Rahul S.

    2016-01-01

    BCL-2-associated athanogene-1 (BAG-1) is expressed by osteoblast-lineage cells; early embryonic lethality in Bag-1 null mice, however, has limited the investigation of BAG-1 function in osteoblast development. In the present study, bone morphogenetic protein-2/BMP-2-directed osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) of Bag-1+/− (heterozygous) female mice was decreased significantly. Genes crucial for osteogenic differentiation, bone matrix formation and mineralisation were expressed at significantly lower levels in cultures of Bag-1+/− BMSCs supplemented with BMP-2, while genes with roles in inhibition of BMP-2-directed osteoblastogenesis were significantly upregulated. 17-β-estradiol (E2) enhanced responsiveness of BMSCs of wild-type and Bag-1+/− mice to BMP-2, and promoted robust BMP-2-stimulated osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs. BAG-1 can modulate cellular responses to E2 by regulating the establishment of functional estrogen receptors (ERs), crucially, via its interaction with heat shock proteins (HSC70/HSP70). Inhibition of BAG-1 binding to HSC70 by the small-molecule chemical inhibitor, Thioflavin-S, and a short peptide derived from the C-terminal BAG domain, which mediates binding with the ATPase domain of HSC70, resulted in significant downregulation of E2/ER-facilitated BMP-2-directed osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs. These studies demonstrate for the first time the significance of BAG-1-mediated protein-protein interactions, specifically, BAG-1-regulated activation of ER by HSC70, in modulation of E2-facilitated BMP-2-directed osteoblast development. PMID:27633857

  17. Carrying shopping bags does not alter static postural stability and gait parameters in healthy older females.

    PubMed

    Bampouras, Theodoros M; Dewhurst, Susan

    2016-05-01

    Food shopping is an important aspect of maintaining independence and social interaction in older age. Carriage of shopping bags alters the body's weight distribution which, depending on load distribution, could potentially increase instability during standing and walking. The study examined the effect of carrying UK style shopping bags on static postural stability and gait in healthy older and young females. Nine older (71.0±6.0 years) and 10 young (26.7±5.2 years) females were assessed in five conditions carrying no bags, one 1.5kg bag in each hand, one 3kg bag in each hand, one 1.5kg bag in preferred hand, one 3kg bag in preferred hand. Antero-posterior and medio-lateral displacement, and 95% ellipse area from a 30s quiet standing were used for postural stability assessment. Stride length and its coefficient of variation, total double support time, step asymmetry and gait stability ratio were calculated from 1min treadmill walking at self-selected speed for gait assessment. Carrying shopping bags did not negatively affect postural stability or gait variables, in either group. Further, in older individuals, a decrease in sway velocity was found when holding bags during the postural stability assessment (p<0.05), suggesting that carriage of bags, irrespective of the load distribution, may have a stabilising effect during quiet standing. These results should help to alleviate concerns regarding safety of carrying shopping bags and help encourage shopping, both as a social and as a physical activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Ostomy: Adapting to Life After Colostomy, Ileostomy or Urostomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... time to time. While it can be embarrassing, don't let a fear of what could go wrong keep you from going about your day. No clothing is off-limits if you have an ostomy. However, your individual body contour ... don't let your ostomy keep you from wearing tightfitting clothes ...

  19. Subcellular localisation of BAG-1 and its regulation of vitamin D receptor-mediated transactivation and involucrin expression in oral keratinocytes: Implications for oral carcinogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, San San; Crabb, Simon J.; Janghra, Nari; Carlberg, Carsten; Williams, Ann C.; Cutress, Ramsey I.; Packham, Graham; Hague, Angela

    2007-09-10

    In oral cancers, cytoplasmic BAG-1 overexpression is a marker of poor prognosis. BAG-1 regulates cellular growth, differentiation and survival through interactions with diverse proteins, including the vitamin D receptor (VDR), a key regulator of keratinocyte growth and differentiation. BAG-1 is expressed ubiquitously in human cells as three major isoforms of 50 kDa (BAG-1L), 46 kDa (BAG-1M) and 36 kDa (BAG-1S) from a single mRNA. In oral keratinocytes BAG-1L, but not BAG-1M and BAG-1S, enhanced VDR transactivation in response to 1{alpha},25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3.} BAG-1L was nucleoplasmic and nucleolar, whereas BAG-1S and BAG-1M were cytoplasmic and nucleoplasmic in localisation. Having identified the nucleolar localisation sequence in BAG-1L, we showed that mutation of this sequence did not prevent BAG-1L from potentiating VDR activity. BAG-1L also potentiated transactivation of known vitamin-D-responsive gene promoters, osteocalcin and 24-hydroxylase, and enhanced VDR-dependent transcription and protein expression of the keratinocyte differentiation marker, involucrin. These results demonstrate endogenous gene regulation by BAG-1L by potentiating nuclear hormone receptor function and suggest a role for BAG-1L in 24-hydroxylase regulation of vitamin D metabolism and the cellular response of oral keratinocytes to 1{alpha},25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3}. By contrast to the cytoplasmic BAG-1 isoforms, BAG-1L may act to suppress tumorigenesis.

  20. Postharvest storage quality of grapefruit placed in polyethylene bags with or without micro-perforation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Washed ‘Marsh’ white grapefruit were placed in polyethylene (PE) bags (1 mil) with or without micro-perforation holes (representing 0.002% of the bag surface) and evaluated for juice quality, firmness, and the development of decay and disorders during storage for 30, 60, or 90 days at 50oF. Each tre...

  1. 40 CFR 89.421 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS bag sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Exhaust Emission Test Procedures § 89.421 Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS bag sample. (a) Schematic drawings... for analyzing CVS bag samples from compression- ignition engines. Since various configurations can...

  2. Enhanced algorithm performance for land cover classification from remotely sensed data using bagging and boosting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chan, J.C.-W.; Huang, C.; DeFries, R.

    2001-01-01

    Two ensemble methods, bagging and boosting, were investigated for improving algorithm performance. Our results confirmed the theoretical explanation [1] that bagging improves unstable, but not stable, learning algorithms. While boosting enhanced accuracy of a weak learner, its behavior is subject to the characteristics of each learning algorithm.

  3. Air Bag Interaction with and Injury Potential from Common Steering Control Devices

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Greg; Dalrymple, Gayle; Ragland, Carl

    1998-01-01

    This study explored the injury potential associated with the use of steering control devices in frontal impacts. Steering control devices, an example of which is the spinner knob, are used by people who have difficulty gripping a steering wheel. These devices typically are clamped to the lower quadrant of the wheel rim and have projections that may extend out toward the occupant up to 14 cm and inward towards the air bag module up to 9 cm. A series of investigations were conducted to determine if the devices would: (1) be propelled off the rim by air bag deployment; (2) compromise air bag performance; and/or (3) cause injury to the driver. The investigations included frontal 48 km/h sled tests, quasi-static load tests, static air bag deployments, out-of-position static air bag deployments, and pendulum tests. Test subjects included the Hybrid III 50th percentile male and Hybrid III 5th percentile female anthropomorphic dummies and a male cadaver. The results indicated that there is little chance of the devices being thrown off the rim by air bag deployment and that the presence of the device had little effect on deployment or air bag performance. In addition, the presence of an air bag reduced the frequency and severity of impacts with the devices. The test results provided ample evidence of the potential of one of the devices, the “tri-pin”, to cause severe injury to the chest upon impact.

  4. Identification of control parameters for the sulfur gas storability with bag sampling methods

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Air samples containing sulfur compounds are often collected and stored in sample bags prior to analyses. The storage stability of six gaseous sulfur compounds (H2S, CH3SH, DMS, CS2, DMDS and SO2) was compared between two different bag materials (polyvinyl fluoride (PVF) and polyester aluminum (PEA))...

  5. Effect of texture of platelet bags on bacterial and platelet adhesion.

    PubMed

    Hadjesfandiari, Narges; Schubert, Peter; Fallah Toosi, Salma; Chen, Zhongming; Culibrk, Brankica; Ramirez-Arcos, Sandra; Devine, Dana V; Brooks, Donald E

    2016-11-01

    Missed detection of Staphylococcus epidermidis contamination in platelet (PLT) storage bags by the standard 24-hour-postcollection BacT/ALERT screening test has been documented. A slow growth rate and the strong tendency of this bacterium to adhere to surfaces can contribute to missed detection of the pathogen. Topography of two different PLT storage bag surfaces, textured (rough) and smooth surfaces of Terumo 80440 bags (designated A15), was studied. Adhesion of biofilm-positive and -negative S. epidermidis strains on these surfaces was evaluated under static conditions. Quality of stored PLTs in A15 bags under blood bank conditions was compared for two different bag orientations (rough vs. smooth surface down) on Days 2, 5, and 7 of storage. PLT adhesion on the surfaces was evaluated after 7 days of storage. Bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation were significantly higher on the rough surfaces of A15 bags compared to the smooth surfaces. After 7 days of storage in A15 bags, PLTs showed similar metabolite levels, pH, and response capacity in the bags with different orientation and more PLT adhesion and aggregation was observed on rough surfaces. Higher bacterial adhesion on rough surfaces can contribute to missed detection of bacterial strains that tend to adhere on surfaces. PLT adhesion and aggregation on rough surfaces can affect the quality and safety of PLTs by promoting more bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation on surfaces. © 2016 AABB.

  6. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 595 - Installation of Air Bag On-Off Switches

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Installation of Air Bag On-Off Switches C Appendix C to Part 595 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL... EXEMPTIONS Pt. 595, App. C Appendix C to Part 595—Installation of Air Bag On-Off Switches ER21NO97.012...

  7. 77 FR 33998 - Make Inoperative Exemptions; Retrofit On-Off Switches for Air Bags

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ...; Retrofit On-Off Switches for Air Bags AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA... regulation that permits motor vehicle dealers and repair businesses to install retrofit on-off switches for air bags in vehicles owned by or used by persons whose request for a switch has been approved by...

  8. 77 FR 52619 - Make Inoperative Exemptions; Retrofit On-Off Switches for Air Bags

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ...; Retrofit On-Off Switches for Air Bags AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA... vehicle dealers and repair businesses to install retrofit on-off switches for air bags in vehicles owned by or used by persons whose request for a switch has been approved by the agency. This regulation...

  9. Cordyceps sinensis attenuates renal fibrosis and suppresses BAG3 induction in obstructed rat kidney

    PubMed Central

    Du, Feng; Li, Si; Wang, Tian; Zhang, Hai-Yan; Zong, Zhi-Hong; Du, Zhen-Xian; Li, De-Tian; Wang, Hua-Qin; Liu, Bo; Miao, Jia-Ning; Bian, Xiao-Hui

    2015-01-01

    BAG3 regulates a number of cellular processes, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, adhesion and migration, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, the role of BAG3 in renal tubular EMT and renal interstitial fibrosis remains elusive. This study aimed to examine the dynamic expression of BAG3 during renal fibrosis, and to investigate the efficacy of Cordyceps sinensis (C. sinensis) on renal fibrosis. A rat model of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) was established, and the expression of BAG3 and α-SMA, and the efficacy of C. sinensis on renal fibrosis induced by UUO were examined. The results showed that UUO led to collagen accumulation, which was significantly suppressed by C. sinensis. UUO increased the expression of BAG3 and α-SMA, a mesenchymal marker, while UUO induced BAG3 and α-SMA expression was significantly inhibited by C. sinensis. In addition, immunohistochemical staining demonstrated that BAG3 immunoreactivity was restricted to tubular epithelium. In conclusion, BAG3 is a potential target for the prevention and/or treatment of renal fibrosis, and C. Sinensis is a promising agent for renal fibrosis. PMID:26175854

  10. Home-School Literacy Bags for Twenty-First Century Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Susan Trostle; Marchand, Jessica; Lilly, Elizabeth; Child, Martha

    2014-01-01

    Combining home-school literacy bags with preschool family literature circles provided a strong foundation for family involvement at home and school during this year-long Reading Partners project, and helped parents become essential partners in their children's literacy development. Using home-school literacy bags, children and parents learned…

  11. The microenvironment within and pollen transmission through paper and polyethylene sorghum pollination bags

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bird damage is a problem in sorghum breeding and germplasm maintenance operations. Paper pollination bags are damaged by rain and provide minimal deterrent to birds. Earlier we reported upon bird resistance of spun polyethylene pollination bags. Herein, we report the potential for pollen transmissio...

  12. CaM/BAG5/Hsc70 signaling complex dynamically regulates leaf senescence

    PubMed Central

    Li, Luhua; Xing, Yangfei; Chang, Dong; Fang, Shasha; Cui, Boyang; Li, Qi; Wang, Xuejie; Guo, Shang; Yang, Xue; Men, Shuzhen; Shen, Yuequan

    2016-01-01

    Calcium signaling plays an essential role in plant cell physiology, and chaperone-mediated protein folding directly regulates plant programmed cell death. The Arabidopsis thaliana protein AtBAG5 (Bcl-2-associated athanogene 5) is unique in that it contains both a BAG domain capable of binding Hsc70 (Heat shock cognate protein 70) and a characteristic IQ motif that is specific for Ca2+-free CaM (Calmodulin) binding and hence acts as a hub linking calcium signaling and the chaperone system. Here, we determined crystal structures of AtBAG5 alone and in complex with Ca2+-free CaM. Structural and biochemical studies revealed that Ca2+-free CaM and Hsc70 bind AtBAG5 independently, whereas Ca2+-saturated CaM and Hsc70 bind AtBAG5 with negative cooperativity. Further in vivo studies confirmed that AtBAG5 localizes to mitochondria and that its overexpression leads to leaf senescence symptoms including decreased chlorophyll retention and massive ROS production in dark-induced plants. Mutants interfering the CaM/AtBAG5/Hsc70 complex formation leads to different phenotype of leaf senescence. Collectively, we propose that the CaM/AtBAG5/Hsc70 signaling complex plays an important role in regulating plant senescence. PMID:27539741

  13. 76 FR 68137 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Amended Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-03

    ...] Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Amended Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review... Carrier Bags From Thailand: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 76 FR 59999..., but in the margin program we determined CV profit by applying this ratio to Landblue (Thailand) Co...

  14. 75 FR 36359 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-25

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Extension of Time Limit for... Thailand. See Antidumping Duty Order: Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand, 69 FR 48204 (August 9....P. Packaging Co., Ltd., Giant Pack Co., Ltd., Landblue (Thailand) Co., Ltd., Sahachit Watana...

  15. 75 FR 36679 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From China, Malaysia, and Thailand; Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ... COMMISSION Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From China, Malaysia, and Thailand; Determinations On the basis..., and Thailand would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury to an industry... Publication 4160 (June 2010), entitled Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags from China, Malaysia, and Thailand...

  16. 76 FR 26241 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Extension of Time Limit for... polyethylene retail carrier bags from Thailand for the period August 1, 2009, through July 31, 2010. See...

  17. Comparison of storage stability of odorous VOCs in polyester aluminum and polyvinyl fluoride tedlar bags

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Whole air sampling using containers such as flexible bags or rigid canisters is commonly used to collect samples of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in air. The objective of this study was to compare the stability of polyester aluminum (PEA) and polyvinyl fluoride (PVF, brand name Tedlar®) bags for ...

  18. 75 FR 23667 - Antidumping Duty Orders: Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags from Indonesia, Taiwan, and the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... Carrier Bags from Indonesia, Taiwan, and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam AGENCY: Import Administration... Department is issuing antidumping duty orders on polyethylene retail carrier bags (PRCBs) from Indonesia... antidumping duty orders on PRCBs from Indonesia, Taiwan, and Vietnam. EFFECTIVE DATE: May 4, 2010 FOR FURTHER...

  19. Effectiveness of insecticide-incorporated bags to control stored-product beetles

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Adults of seven stored-product beetle species were exposed on the inside and outside surfaces of polypropylene polymer bags incorporated with the insecticide deltamethrin (approx. concentration of 3,000 ppm; ZeroFly® Storage Bags (3g/kg). Beetles were exposed for 60, 120, and 180 min, and 1, 3 and 5...

  20. Bale Bagging Properties and Rate of Cotton Bale Weight Change during Storage

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A total of 83 specimens of bale bagging material, which had been used previously in studies of whole bale on the effect these bale bagging materials have on bale weight change, were tested for water vapor transmission rate (WVT). These materials included fully coated woven polypropylene with and wi...

  1. BAG3 regulates ECM accumulation in renal proximal tubular cells induced by TGF-β1.

    PubMed

    Du, Feng; Li, Si; Wang, Tian; Zhang, Hai-Yan; Li, De-Tian; Du, Zhen-Xian; Wang, Hua-Qin; Wang, Yan-Qiu

    2015-01-01

    Previously we have demonstrated that Bcl-2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) is increased in renal fibrosis using a rat unilateral ureteral obstruction model. The current study investigated the role of BAG3 in renal fibrosis using transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1-treated human proximal tubular epithelial (HK-2) cells. An upregulation of BAG3 in vitro models was observed, which correlated with the increased synthesis of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and expression of tissue-type plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1. Blockade of BAG3 induction by shorting hairpin RNA suppressed the expression of ECM proteins but had no effect on PAI-1 expression induced by TGF-β1. Forced overexpression of BAG3 selectively increased collagens. TGF-β1-induced BAG3 expression in HK-2 cells was attenuated by ERK1/2 and JNK MAPK inhibitors. In addition, forced BAG3 overexpression blocked attenuation of collagens expression by ERK1/2 and JNK inhibitors. These data suggest that ERK1/2 and JNK signaling events are involved in modulating the expression of BAG3, which would ultimately contribute to renal fibrosis by enhancing the synthesis and deposition of ECM proteins.

  2. BAG3 Protein Is Overexpressed in Human Glioblastoma and Is a Potential Target for Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Festa, Michelina; Del Valle, Luis; Khalili, Kamel; Franco, Renato; Scognamiglio, Giosuè; Graziano, Vincenzo; De Laurenzi, Vincenzo; Turco, Maria Caterina; Rosati, Alessandra

    2011-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme, which represents 80% of malignant gliomas, is characterized by aggressiveness and high recurrence rates. Despite therapeutic advances, patients with glioblastoma multiforme show a poor survival, and identification of novel markers and molecular targets for therapy is needed. A role for BAG3, a member of the BAG family of HSC/HSP70 co-chaperones, in promoting tumor cell growth in vivo has recently been described. We analyzed BAG3 levels by IHC in specimens from patients affected by brain tumors and we found that BAG3, although negative in normal brain tissues, was highly expressed in astrocytic tumors and increasingly expressed in more aggressive types of cancer; it was particularly high in glioblastomas. Down-regulating BAG3 both in vitro and in vivo in a rat glioblastoma model resulted in increased sensitivity to apoptosis, suggesting that BAG3 is a potential target for novel therapies. Finally, we determined that the underlying molecular mechanism requires the formation of a complex of BAG3, HSP70, and BAX that prevents BAX translocation to mitochondria, thus protecting tumor cells from apoptosis. Our data identify BAG3 as a potential marker of glial brain tumor sensitivity to therapy and thus also an attractive candidate for new molecular therapies. PMID:21561597

  3. 46 CFR 59.15-10 - Bagged or blistered shell plates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bagged or blistered shell plates. 59.15-10 Section 59.15... shell plates. (a) When the shell plates of cylindrical boilers which are exposed to the radiant heat of... boiler. (b) Where the shell plate is bagged due to overheating, the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection...

  4. 46 CFR 59.15-10 - Bagged or blistered shell plates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bagged or blistered shell plates. 59.15-10 Section 59.15... shell plates. (a) When the shell plates of cylindrical boilers which are exposed to the radiant heat of... boiler. (b) Where the shell plate is bagged due to overheating, the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection...

  5. 46 CFR 59.15-10 - Bagged or blistered shell plates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bagged or blistered shell plates. 59.15-10 Section 59.15... shell plates. (a) When the shell plates of cylindrical boilers which are exposed to the radiant heat of... boiler. (b) Where the shell plate is bagged due to overheating, the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection...

  6. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 595 - Installation of Air Bag On-Off Switches

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Installation of Air Bag On-Off Switches C Appendix C to Part 595 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL... EXEMPTIONS Pt. 595, App. C Appendix C to Part 595—Installation of Air Bag On-Off Switches ER21NO97.012...

  7. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 595 - Installation of Air Bag On-Off Switches

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Installation of Air Bag On-Off Switches C Appendix C to Part 595 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL... EXEMPTIONS Pt. 595, App. C Appendix C to Part 595—Installation of Air Bag On-Off Switches ER21NO97.012...

  8. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 595 - Installation of Air Bag On-Off Switches

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Installation of Air Bag On-Off Switches C Appendix C to Part 595 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL... EXEMPTIONS Pt. 595, App. C Appendix C to Part 595—Installation of Air Bag On-Off Switches ER21NO97.012...

  9. Odour assessment: determining the optimum temperature and time for Tedlar sampling bag pre-conditioning.

    PubMed

    Bokowa, A H

    2012-01-01

    Odours present in new Tedlar bags can impact the assessment of emissions from sewer collection systems and wastewater treatment plants. Conditioning protocols are needed to minimise the impact of background materials emissions on the sampling and assessment of odourous emissions. Olfactometry analysis has shown that background odour concentrations for new Tedlar bags can be as high as 130 OU(E)/m(3). Experimental studies were undertaken to investigate the impact of different conditioning temperatures in order to determine the optimum temperature for cleaning new Tedlar bags to a level when no detectable odours were present in the sampling bags via dilution olfactometry. For the purpose of this study, new Tedlar bags were cleaned in a temperature-controlled oven that had a constant filtered air flow-rate. From the analysis of odour and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) concentrations found in new Tedlar bags during the cleaning process, it was observed that odour and VOCs concentrations decreased with time. It was also found that the temperature setting plays a significant role in the cleaning of the Tedlar bags as large concentrations of phenols and acetamide, N,N-dimethyl were found in new Tedlar bags and their concentrations decreased following the temperature pre-conditioning.

  10. On the use of Tedlar® bags for breath-gas sampling and analysis.

    PubMed

    Beauchamp, Jonathan; Herbig, Jens; Gutmann, Rene; Hansel, Armin

    2008-12-01

    The storage capability of Tedlar® bags for gaseous compounds was assessed using on-line proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). Sample bags were filled with a mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at known quantities in the ppbv range. The test gas included alcohol, nitrile, aldehyde, ketone, terpene and aromatic compounds. PTR-MS enabled frequent bag-direct measurements of compound abundances over a 70 h storage period. Concentrations of all compounds decreased with bag storage time, with compound-specific decay rates. The most rapid decline in concentration levels was seen for water vapour in the bag, i.e. sample humidity. Such a decrease is particularly relevant for breath-gas samples, where water vapour content is high. Compound losses were attributed to a combination of adsorption to and diffusion through the bag walls. Storage property observations suggest that sample analyses made within 10 h of sampling offer adequate sample authenticity replication. Based on observations, an appropriate bag-cleaning procedure was established and assessed. Results indicated that acceptable bag cleanliness for breath-gas sampling is achievable.

  11. The effect of frontal air bags on eye injury patterns in automobile crashes.

    PubMed

    Duma, Stefan M; Jernigan, M Virginia; Stitzel, Joel D; Herring, Ian P; Crowley, John S; Brozoski, Fred T; Bass, Cameron R

    2002-11-01

    To investigate eye injuries resulting from frontal automobile crashes and to determine the effects of frontal air bags. The National Automotive Sampling System database files from January 1, 1993, through December 31, 1999, were examined in a 3-part study that included an investigation of 22 236 individual crashes that occurred in the United States. A new 4-level eye injury severity scale that quantifies injuries based on recovery time, need for surgery, and possible loss of sight was developed. Of all occupants who were exposed to an air bag deployment, 3% sustained an eye injury. In contrast, 2% of occupants not exposed to an air bag deployment sustained an eye injury. A closer examination of the type of eye injuries showed that there was a statistically significant increase in the risk of corneal abrasions for occupants who were exposed to an air bag compared with those who were not (P =.03). Of occupants exposed to an air bag deployment, 0.5% sustained a corneal abrasion compared with 0.04% of occupants who were not exposed to an air bag. Using the new injury levels, it was shown that although occupants exposed to an air bag deployment had a higher risk of sustaining minor eye injuries, the air bag appears to have provided a beneficial exchange by reducing the number of severe eye injuries.

  12. Casimir bag energy in the stochastic approximation to the pure QCD vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Fosco, C. D.; Oxman, L. E.

    2007-01-15

    We study the Casimir contribution to the bag energy coming from gluon field fluctuations, within the context of the stochastic vacuum model of pure QCD. After formulating the problem in terms of the generating functional of field strength cumulants, we argue that the resulting predictions about the Casimir energy are compatible with the phenomenologically required bag energy term.

  13. BAG3 facilitates the clearance of endogenous tau in primary neurons.

    PubMed

    Lei, Zhinian; Brizzee, Corey; Johnson, Gail V W

    2015-01-01

    Tau is a microtubule associated protein that is found primarily in neurons, and in pathologic conditions, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) it accumulates and contributes to the disease process. Because tau plays a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of AD and other tauopathies, and in AD mouse models reducing tau levels improves outcomes, approaches that facilitate tau clearance are being considered as therapeutic strategies. However, fundamental to the development of such interventions is a clearer understanding of the mechanisms that regulate tau clearance. Here, we report a novel mechanism of tau degradation mediated by the co-chaperone BAG3. BAG3 has been shown to be an essential component of a complex that targets substrates to the autophagy pathway for degradation. In rat primary neurons, activation of autophagy by inhibition of proteasome activity or treatment with trehalose resulted in significant decreases in tau and phospho-tau levels. These treatments also induced an upregulation of BAG3. Proteasome inhibition activated JNK, which was responsible for the upregulation of BAG3 and increased tau clearance. Inhibiting JNK or knocking down BAG3 blocked the proteasome inhibition-induced decreases in tau. Further, BAG3 overexpression alone resulted in significant decreases in tau and phospho-tau levels in neurons. These results indicate that BAG3 plays a critical role in regulating the levels of tau in neurons, and interventions that increase BAG3 levels could provide a therapeutic approach in the treatment of AD.

  14. Home-School Literacy Bags for Twenty-First Century Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Susan Trostle; Marchand, Jessica; Lilly, Elizabeth; Child, Martha

    2014-01-01

    Combining home-school literacy bags with preschool family literature circles provided a strong foundation for family involvement at home and school during this year-long Reading Partners project, and helped parents become essential partners in their children's literacy development. Using home-school literacy bags, children and parents learned…

  15. Bird-resistant pollination bags for sorghum breeding and germplasm maintenance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bird damage is a problem in sorghum breeding and germplasm maintenance operations. Paper pollination bags are damaged by rain and provide minimal deterrent to birds. To overcome these limitations we fabricated pollination bags from spun polyethylene fiber sheeting. Seed loss by bird damage was elimi...

  16. 50 CFR 622.11 - Bag and possession limits-general applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... B through V of this part. (a) Applicability. (1) The bag and possession limits apply for species/species groups in or from the EEZ. Unless specified otherwise, bag limits apply to a person on a daily basis, regardless of the number of trips in a day. Unless specified otherwise, possession limits apply...

  17. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 595 - Installation of Air Bag On-Off Switches

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Installation of Air Bag On-Off Switches C Appendix C to Part 595 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL... EXEMPTIONS Pt. 595, App. C Appendix C to Part 595—Installation of Air Bag On-Off Switches ER21NO97.012 ...

  18. 40 CFR 89.421 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS bag sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS bag... Emission Test Procedures § 89.421 Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS bag sample. (a) Schematic drawings. Figure 4 in appendix A to this subpart is a schematic drawing of the exhaust gas analytical system used...

  19. 40 CFR 89.421 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS bag sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS bag... Emission Test Procedures § 89.421 Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS bag sample. (a) Schematic drawings. Figure 4 in appendix A to this subpart is a schematic drawing of the exhaust gas analytical system used...

  20. 40 CFR 89.421 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS bag sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS bag... Emission Test Procedures § 89.421 Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS bag sample. (a) Schematic drawings. Figure 4 in appendix A to this subpart is a schematic drawing of the exhaust gas analytical system used...

  1. Odour Samples Degradation During Detention in Tedlar(®) Bags.

    PubMed

    Szyłak-Szydłowski, Mirosław

    In indirect olfactometry analysis, to avoid condensation or adsorption processes during or storage of the sample, containers made of suitable materials should be used. Also, reaction between the chemicals during transport from the source of the odour to the research laboratory is an important process which can influence on examinations' results. Study included determination of the odour and compound concentrations of six gas mixtures. Gas samples were collected by silicone hoses into Tedlar(®) bags and tested by Nasal Ranger, SM-100 olfactometers and Photovac Voyager gas chromatograph. Time of keeping gas in bags was 78 h, and concentration of compounds was measured every hour, eight times per day. For benzene, acetone, 1,1-dichloroethylene, c-1,2-dichloroethylene, t-1,2-dichloroethylene, methyl ethyl ketone and vinyl chloride, 100 % decrease of concentration has been noticed within 78 h of holding in the bag. Average rate of loss of most compounds concentration was from 0.01 to 2.50 % for the first 30 h and from 0.35 to 18.50 % during the last 48 h of examination. Decreasing of odour concentration measured by Nasal Ranger (NR) in all series was between 0.00 and 4.98 % till 30 h, between 1.91 and 100 % in the last 48 h of test and between 1.61 and 100 % in 78 h. In case of odour concentration measured by SM, those values were, respectively, 1.26-4.93 %, 1.39-4.93 % and 2.40-3.18 %. Values of average rate of intensity decreasing were, respectively, 0.77-1.75 %, 2.36-4.67 % and 1.18-2.07 %. Statistically significant correlation coefficients for compound concentrations and intensity, odour concentration obtained by SM-100 as well as NR were, respectively, 0.55-0.97, 0.47-0.99 and 0.37-0.98.

  2. Laparoscopic Morcellation and Tissue Spillage Containment Using the LI Endofield™ Bag.

    PubMed

    Kondrup, James Dana; Anderson, Fran; Sylvester, Brenda; Branning, Michelle

    2014-11-01

    There are many times during laparoscopic surgery that a surgeon, whether gynecologist or general surgeon, must work in an environment where spillage of tissue or organ contents should be avoided. In gynecologic surgery, this involves management of ovarian cysts as well as containment of tissue fragments during morcellation of uteri or fibroids. Unfortunately, many laparoscopic containment bags on the market today are not large enough to remain open on their own during the entire procedure. The LI Endofield™ and LI Endofield™ TV bag offer a solution and provide an adjustable and suturable "field bag." Surgeons can work in an adjustable "field," are able to see through the bag, and can remove it at the end of the procedure. With the recent FDA cautions on power morcellation, our team only morcellates fibroids and uteri using one of these bags.

  3. Effect of vehicle type on the performance of second generation air bags for child occupants.

    PubMed

    Arbogast, Kristy B; Durbin, Dennis R; Kallan, Michael J; Winston, Flaura K

    2003-01-01

    Passenger air bags experienced considerable design modification in the late 1990s, principally to mitigate risks to child passengers. This study utilized Data from the Partners for Child Passenger Safety study, a large-scale child-focused crash surveillance system, to examine the effect of vehicle type on the differential performance of first and second generation air bags on injuries to restrained children in frontal impact crashes. Our results show that the benefit of second-generation air bags was seen in passenger cars - those children exposed to second-generation air bags were half as likely to sustain a serious injury - and minivans. However, in SUVs the data suggest no reduction in injury risk with the new designs. This field data provides crucial real-world experience to the automotive industry as they work towards the next generation of air bag designs.

  4. The existing situation and challenges regarding the use of plastic carrier bags in Europe.

    PubMed

    Kasidoni, Maria; Moustakas, Konstantinos; Malamis, Dimitris

    2015-05-01

    Since day one, retailers and consumers have favoured plastic carrier bags. However, owing to the numerous environmental disadvantages, lightweight plastic carrier bags have been drawing the attention of the European Union competent authorities. Therefore, many European Union member states have taken action so as to reduce the use of plastic carrier bags. Based on the existing legislation and voluntary initiatives for the reduction of lightweight plastic carrier bags, the challenges and achieved outcomes from the implemented policy options in the various European Union member states are discussed and commented regarding the forthcoming transposition of the 'Directive 94/62/EC on packaging and packaging waste to reduce the consumption of lightweight plastic carrier bags' into the European Union member states' national law.

  5. Stability of the lepton bag model based on the Kerr–Newman solution

    SciTech Connect

    Burinskii, A.

    2015-11-15

    We show that the lepton bag model considered in our previous paper [10], generating the external gravitational and electromagnetic fields of the Kerr–Newman (KN) solution, is supersymmetric and represents a BPS-saturated soliton interpolating between the internal vacuum state and the external KN solution. We obtain Bogomolnyi equations for this phase transition and show that the Bogomolnyi bound determines all important features of this bag model, including its stable shape. In particular, for the stationary KN solution, the BPS bound provides stability of the ellipsoidal form of the bag and the formation of the ring–string structure at its border, while for the periodic electromagnetic excitations of the KN solution, the BPS bound controls the deformation of the surface of the bag, reproducing the known flexibility of bag models.

  6. Effect of Vehicle type on the Performance of Second Generation Air Bags for Child Occupants

    PubMed Central

    Arbogast, Kristy B.; Durbin, Dennis R.; Kallan, Michael J.; Winston, Flaura K.

    2003-01-01

    Passenger air bags experienced considerable design modification in the late 1990s, principally to mitigate risks to child passengers. This study utilized Data from the Partners for Child Passenger Safety study, a large-scale child-focused crash surveillance system, to examine the effect of vehicle type on the differential performance of first and second generation air bags on injuries to restrained children in frontal impact crashes. Our results show that the benefit of second-generation air bags was seen in passenger cars – those children exposed to second-generation air bags were half as likely to sustain a serious injury – and minivans. However, in SUVs the data suggest no reduction in injury risk with the new designs. This field data provides crucial real-world experience to the automotive industry as they work towards the next generation of air bag designs. PMID:12941218

  7. The prosurvival protein BAG3: a new participant in vascular homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Carrizzo, Albino; Damato, Antonio; Ambrosio, Mariateresa; Falco, Antonia; Rosati, Alessandra; Capunzo, Mario; Madonna, Michele; Turco, Maria C; Januzzi, James L; De Laurenzi, Vincenzo; Vecchione, Carmine

    2016-10-20

    Bcl2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3), is constitutively expressed in a few normal cell types, including myocytes, peripheral nerves and in the brain, and is also expressed in certain tumors. To date, the main studies about the role of BAG3 are focused on its pro-survival effect in tumors through various mechanisms that vary according to cellular type. Recently, elevated concentrations of a soluble form of BAG3 were described in patients affected by advanced stage of heart failure (HF), identifying BAG3 as a potentially useful biomarker in monitoring HF progression. Despite the finding of high levels of BAG3 in the sera of HF patients, there are no data on its possible role on the modulation of vascular tone and blood pressure levels. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible hemodynamic effects of BAG3 performing both in vitro and in vivo experiments. Through vascular reactivity studies, we demonstrate that BAG3 is capable of evoking dose-dependent vasorelaxation. Of note, BAG3 exerts its vasorelaxant effect on resistance vessels, typically involved in the blood pressure regulation. Our data further show that the molecular mechanism through which BAG3 exerts this effect is the activation of the PI3K/Akt signalling pathway leading to nitric oxide release by endothelial cells. Finally, we show that in vivo BAG3 administration is capable of regulating blood pressure and that this is dependent on eNOS regulation since this ability is lost in eNOS KO animals.

  8. Promoting fertilizer use via controlled release of a bacteria-encapsulated film bag.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chin-San

    2010-05-26

    A phosphate-solubilizing bacterium ( Burkholderia cepacia isolate) encapsulated in maleic anhydride (MA) grafted onto poly(butylene succinate adipate) (PBSA) and then combined with starch as film bag material (PBSA-g-MA/starch) incubated in a saline solution required approximately 20 days to deplete the starch in the film bags. Thereafter, the cell concentration in the saline solution increased significantly because of the release of cells from the severely destroyed film bags and also their growth by use of depolymerized PBSA-g-MA fragments as a substrate. The incubation proceeded for 60 days, by which time the PBSA-g-MA/starch composite had suffered a >80% weight loss. For practical application, effectiveness of the above-mentioned film bags was demonstrated because it could improve the absorbability of a fertilizer for plants and promote the growth of plants. As a result, it can avoid the accumulation of the phosphate in excess fertilizer that lead to the phenomenon of poor soils. These results demonstrate that PBSA-g-MA/starch can be used to encapsulate cells of an indigenous phosphate-solubilizing bacterium ( B. cepacia isolate) to form a controlled release of bacteria-encapsulated film bag (BEFB). The B. cepacia isolate was able to degrade the film bags material, causing cell release. Biodegradability of the film bags depended upon the type of material used, because the PBSA film bags were also degraded but to a lesser degree. The addition of starch made the film bags more biodegradable. The decrease in intrinsic viscosity was also higher for the starch composite, suggesting a strong connection between the biodegradability and these characteristics. The results suggest that the release of fertilizer-promoted bacteria might be controllable via a suitable film bag material formulation. In addition, this work adopted live bacteria to promote the absorption of phosphate, which is superior to the phosphate used in the traditional way.

  9. The prosurvival protein BAG3: a new participant in vascular homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Carrizzo, Albino; Damato, Antonio; Ambrosio, Mariateresa; Falco, Antonia; Rosati, Alessandra; Capunzo, Mario; Madonna, Michele; Turco, Maria C; Januzzi, James L; De Laurenzi, Vincenzo; Vecchione, Carmine

    2016-01-01

    Bcl2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3), is constitutively expressed in a few normal cell types, including myocytes, peripheral nerves and in the brain, and is also expressed in certain tumors. To date, the main studies about the role of BAG3 are focused on its pro-survival effect in tumors through various mechanisms that vary according to cellular type. Recently, elevated concentrations of a soluble form of BAG3 were described in patients affected by advanced stage of heart failure (HF), identifying BAG3 as a potentially useful biomarker in monitoring HF progression. Despite the finding of high levels of BAG3 in the sera of HF patients, there are no data on its possible role on the modulation of vascular tone and blood pressure levels. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible hemodynamic effects of BAG3 performing both in vitro and in vivo experiments. Through vascular reactivity studies, we demonstrate that BAG3 is capable of evoking dose-dependent vasorelaxation. Of note, BAG3 exerts its vasorelaxant effect on resistance vessels, typically involved in the blood pressure regulation. Our data further show that the molecular mechanism through which BAG3 exerts this effect is the activation of the PI3K/Akt signalling pathway leading to nitric oxide release by endothelial cells. Finally, we show that in vivo BAG3 administration is capable of regulating blood pressure and that this is dependent on eNOS regulation since this ability is lost in eNOS KO animals. PMID:27763645

  10. Addressing challenges in bar-code scanning of large-volume infusion bags.

    PubMed

    Raman, Kirthana; Heelon, Mark; Kerr, Gary; Higgins, Thomas L

    2011-08-01

    A hospital pharmacy's efforts to identify and address challenges with bedside scanning of bar codes on large-volume parenteral (LVP) infusion bags are described. Bar-code-assisted medication administration (BCMA) has been shown to reduce medication errors and improve patient safety. After the pilot implementation of a BCMA system and point-of-care scanning procedures at a medical center's intensive care unit, it was noted that nurses' attempted bedside scans of certain LVP bags for product identification purposes often were not successful. An investigation and root-cause analysis, including observation of nurses' scanning technique by a multidisciplinary team, determined that the scanning failures stemmed from the placement of two bar-code imprints-one with the product identification code and another, larger imprint with the expiration date and lot number-adjacently on the LVP bags. The nursing staff was educated on a modified scanning technique, which resulted in significantly improved success rates in the scanning of the most commonly used LVP bags. Representatives of the LVP bag manufacturer met with hospital staff to discuss the problem and corrective measures. As part of a subsequent infusion bag redesign, the manufacturer discontinued the use of the bar-code imprint implicated in the scanning failures. Failures in scanning LVP bags were traced to problematic placement of bar-code imprints on the bags. Interdisciplinary collaboration, consultation with the bag manufacturer, and education of the nursing and pharmacy staff resulted in a reduction in scanning failures and the manufacturer's removal of one of the bar codes from its LVP bags.

  11. Results for the Brine Evaporation Bag (BEB) Brine Processing Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delzeit, Lance; Flynn, Michael; Fisher, John; Shaw, Hali; Kawashima, Brian; Beeler, David; Howard, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The recent Brine Processing Test compared the NASA Forward Osmosis Brine Dewatering (FOBD), Paragon Ionomer Water Processor (IWP), UMPQUA Ultrasonic Brine Dewatering System (UBDS), and the NASA Brine Evaporation Bag (BEB). This paper reports the results of the BEB. The BEB was operated at 70 deg C and a base pressure of 12 torr. The BEB was operated in a batch mode, and processed 0.4L of brine per batch. Two different brine feeds were tested, a chromic acid-urine brine and a chromic acid-urine-hygiene mix brine. The chromic acid-urine brine, known as the ISS Alternate Pretreatment Brine, had an average processing rate of 95 mL/hr with a specific power of 5kWhr/L. The complete results of these tests will be reported within this paper.

  12. BagReg: Protein inference through machine learning.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Can; Liu, Dao; Teng, Ben; He, Zengyou

    2015-08-01

    Protein inference from the identified peptides is of primary importance in the shotgun proteomics. The target of protein inference is to identify whether each candidate protein is truly present in the sample. To date, many computational methods have been proposed to solve this problem. However, there is still no method that can fully utilize the information hidden in the input data. In this article, we propose a learning-based method named BagReg for protein inference. The method firstly artificially extracts five features from the input data, and then chooses each feature as the class feature to separately build models to predict the presence probabilities of proteins. Finally, the weak results from five prediction models are aggregated to obtain the final result. We test our method on six public available data sets. The experimental results show that our method is superior to the state-of-the-art protein inference algorithms.

  13. Human actions recognition using bag of optical flow words

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xu; Miao, Zhenjiang; Wan, Lili

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, we present an improved approach to recognize human action based on the BOW model and the pLSA model. We propose an improved feature with optical flow to build our bag of words. This feature is able to reduce the high dimension of the pure optical flow template and also has abundant motion information. Then, we use the topic model of pLSA (probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis) to classify human actions in a special way. We find that the existing methods lead to some mismatching of words due to the k-means clustering approach. To reduce the probability of mismatching, we add the spatial information to each word and improve the training and testing approach. Our approach of recognition is tested on two datasets, the KTH datasets and WEIZMANN datasets. The result shows its good performance.

  14. Unitary theory of pion photoproduction in the chiral bag model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araki, M.; Afnan, I. R.

    1987-07-01

    We present a multichannel unitary theory of single pion photoproduction from a baryon B. Here, B is the nucleon or Δ(1232), with possible extension to include the Roper resonance and strange baryons. We treat the baryon as a three-quark state within the framework of the gauge and chiral Lagrangian, derived from the Lagrangian for the chiral bag model. By first exposing two-body, and then three-body unitarity, taking into consideration the ππB and γπB intermediate states, we derive a set of equations for the amplitudes both on and off the energy shell. The Born term in the expansion of the amplitude has the new feature that the vertices in the pole diagram are undressed, while those in the crossed, contact, and pion pole diagrams are dressed.

  15. Design and Testing of CPAS Main Deployment Bag Energy Modulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mollmann, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    During the developmental testing program for CPAS (Capsule Parachute Assembly System), the parachute system for the NASA Orion Crew Module, simulation revealed that high loads may be experienced by the pilot risers during the most devere deployment conditions. As the role of the pilot parachutes is to deploy the main parachutes, these high loads introduced the possibility of main deployment failure. In order to mitigate these high loads, a set of energy modulators was incorporated between the pilot riser and the main deployment bag. An extensive developmental program was implemented to ensure the adequacy of these energy modulators. After initial design comparisons, the energy modulator design was validated through slow-speed joint tests as well as through high-speed bungee tests. This paper documents the design, development, and results of multiple tests completed on the final design.

  16. Effects of fruit pre-harvest bagging on fruit quality of peach (Prunus persica Batsch cv. Hujingmilu).

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Jia, Hui-Juan; Zhang, Xiao-Meng

    2006-06-01

    Experiments were conducted to test the effects of pre-harvest bagging on fruit ripening and quality of peach (Prunus persica Batsch cv. Hujingmilu). Young fruits, at 50 days after full bloom (DAFB), were covered with bags made of single-, double-, and triple-layers of orange paper bag with 27.0%, 13.9% and 8.2% sunlight transmission, respectively. Ethylene production and respiration rate were measured, and fruit quality was analyzed at 111, 114, 117, 120 (firm-ripe stage) and 124 DAFB (full-ripe stage). Single- and triple-layer bagged fruits had higher ethylene production rates than double-layer bagged and un-bagged fruits. The skin of un-bagged fruit had higher brightness (L-value) but smaller hue angle (h degrees) at the full-ripe stage compared with that of bagged fruit. Flesh firmness of un-bagged fruit was higher than that of bagged fruit until the firm-ripe stage, although triple-layer bagged fruit had higher firmness than un-bagged fruit at the full-ripe stage. Total soluble solids in juice of single-layer bagged fruit were a little higher than those of other treated fruits at the full-ripe stage. Single-layer bagged fruit showed the highest level of gamma-decalactone, a main characteristic aroma of peach and total lactones at the firm-ripe and full-ripe stages. It was concluded that 'Hujingmilu' peach had high quality with abundant aromas when the fruits were bagged with single-layer orange paper bags at 50 DAFB. The biosynthesis of gamma-decalactone and other aromas may be affected by light to some extent.

  17. Ca2+-induced uncoupling of Aplysia bag cell neurons.

    PubMed

    Dargaei, Zahra; Standage, Dominic; Groten, Christopher J; Blohm, Gunnar; Magoski, Neil S

    2015-02-01

    Electrical transmission is a dynamically regulated form of communication and key to synchronizing neuronal activity. The bag cell neurons of Aplysia are a group of electrically coupled neuroendocrine cells that initiate ovulation by secreting egg-laying hormone during a prolonged period of synchronous firing called the afterdischarge. Accompanying the afterdischarge is an increase in intracellular Ca2+ and the activation of protein kinase C (PKC). We used whole cell recording from paired cultured bag cell neurons to demonstrate that electrical coupling is regulated by both Ca2+ and PKC. Elevating Ca2+ with a train of voltage steps, mimicking the onset of the afterdischarge, decreased junctional current for up to 30 min. Inhibition was most effective when Ca2+ entry occurred in both neurons. Depletion of Ca2+ from the mitochondria, but not the endoplasmic reticulum, also attenuated the electrical synapse. Buffering Ca2+ with high intracellular EGTA or inhibiting calmodulin kinase prevented uncoupling. Furthermore, activating PKC produced a small but clear decrease in junctional current, while triggering both Ca2+ influx and PKC inhibited the electrical synapse to a greater extent than Ca2+ alone. Finally, the amplitude and time course of the postsynaptic electrotonic response were attenuated after Ca2+ influx. A mathematical model of electrically connected neurons showed that excessive coupling reduced recruitment of the cells to fire, whereas less coupling led to spiking of essentially all neurons. Thus a decrease in electrical synapses could promote the afterdischarge by ensuring prompt recovery of electrotonic potentials or making the neurons more responsive to current spreading through the network.

  18. A One-Piece Lunar Regolith-Bag Garage Prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithers, Gweneth A.; Nehls, Mary K.; Hovater, Mary A.; Evans, Steven W.; Miller, J. Scott; Broughton, Roy M., Jr.; Beale, David; Killinc-Balci, Fatma

    2006-01-01

    Shelter structures on the moon, even in early phases of exploration, should incorporate lunar materials as much as possible. We designed and constructed a prototype for a one-piece regolith-bag unpressurized garage concept, and, in parallel, we conducted a materials testing program to investigate six candidate fabrics to learn how they might perform in the lunar environment. In our concept, a lightweight fabric form is launched from Earth to be landed on the lunar surface and robotically filled with raw lunar regolith. In the materials testing program, regolith-bag fabric candidates included: VectranTM, NextelTM, Gore PTFE FabricTM, ZylonTM TwaronTM and NomexTM. Tensile (including post radiation exposure), fold, abrasion, and hypervelocity impact testing were performed under ambient conditions, and, within our current means, we also performed these tests under cold and elevated temperatures. In some cases, lunar simulant (JSC-1) was used in conjunction with testing. Our ambition is to continuously refine our testing to reach lunar environmental conditions to the extent possible. A series of preliminary structures were constructed during design of the final prototype. Design is based on the principles of the classic masonry arch. The prototype was constructed of KevlarTM and filled with vermiculite (fairly close to the weight of lunar regolith on the moon). The structure is free-standing, but has not yet been load tested. Our plan for the future would be to construct higher fidelty mockups with each iteration, and to conduct appropriate tests of the structure.

  19. A One-Piece Lunar Regolith-Bag Garage Prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithers, Gweneth A.; Nehls, Mary K.; Hovater, Mary A.; Evans, Steven W.; Miller, J. Scott; Broughton, Roy M.; Beale, David; Killing-Balci, Fatma

    2007-01-01

    Shelter structures on the moon, even in early phases of exploration, should incorporate lunar materials as much as possible. We designed and constructed a prototype for a one-piece regolith-bag unpressurized garage concept, and, in parallel, we conducted a materials testing program to investigate six candidate fabrics to learn how they might perform in the lunar environment. In our concept, a lightweight fabric form is launched from Earth to be landed on the lunar surface and robotically filled with raw lunar regolith. In the materials testing program, regolith-bag fabric candidates included: Vectran(TM), Nextel(TM), Gore PTFE Fabric(TM), Zylon(TM), Twaron(TM), and Nomex(TM). Tensile (including post radiation exposure), fold, abrasion, and hypervelocity impact testing were performed under ambient conditions, and, within our current means, we also performed these tests under cold and elevated temperatures. In some cases, lunar simulant (JSC-1) was used in conjunction with testing. Our ambition is to continuously refine our testing to reach lunar environmental conditions to the extent possible. A series of preliminary structures were constructed during design of the final prototype. Design is based on the principles of the classic masonry arch. The prototype was constructed of Kevlar(TM) and filled with vermiculite (fairly close to the weight of lunar regolith on the moon). The structure is free-standing, but has not yet been load tested. Our plan for the future would be to construct higher fidelity mockups with each iteration, and to conduct appropriate tests of the structure.

  20. 78 FR 72628 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Notice of Court Decision Not in Harmony With...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-03

    ... Thai Plastic Bags Industries Company (TPBI) and Landblue (Thailand) Co., Ltd. (Landblue). \\1\\ See Results of Redetermination Pursuant to Court Remand Thai Plastic Bags Industries Co., Ltd., v. United.... Court No. 11-00408, dated July 10, 2013 (Remand Results). \\2\\ See Thai Plastic Bags Industries Co.,...