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Sample records for 1-piece urostomy bags

  1. Deficiency or dementia? Exploring B12 deficiency after urostomy.

    PubMed

    Boucher, Michelle; Bryan, Sandra; Dukes, Suzie

    Vitamin B12 deficiency can be misdiagnosed as a variety of other illnesses, and if left untreated can lead to irreversible damage to the brain and nervous system. This article discusses the case of a 70-year-old female with a urostomy, well known to the stoma care department, who shortly after a routine parastomal hernia repair developed severe confusion, immobility and was unable to communicate. Subsequent investigations ruled out a cerebrovascular accident (CVA) and a diagnosis of rapidly progressing vascular dementia was made. An incidental finding of a low vitamin B12 level was identified and treatment commenced. She was transferred to a community hospital and her family were told to 'prepare for the worst'. It was, in fact, the vitamin B12 deficiency that was causing her symptoms of vascular dementia, and once treatment was established she underwent a 'miraculous' improvement, returning to normal life. This article discusses vitamin B12 deficiency and why patients with a urostomy are at risk of developing it; highlights the key role of the stoma care nurse and his or her knowledge of the patient; explores the importance of testing vitamin B12 levels in this group of patients; and discusses key learning and recommendations for practice.

  2. It's in the Bag!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renfro, Nancy

    1983-01-01

    Thirteen ideas for using paper bags for class art activities are given. Directions for making bag barracudas, bionic bags, bigfoot bags, bag sculptures, bag beads, and body bag superstars are included. (PP)

  3. Complexities of management of a urostomy in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome: a reflective account.

    PubMed

    Oxenham, Julie

    Mary (pseudonym) is a 30-year-old woman who underwent a urinary diversion and formation of an ileal conduit/urostomy (urinary stoma) due to the formation of multiple bladder diverticula, which caused micturition difficulties and recurrent urinary tract infections with associated pain and discomfort. The bladder diverticula were caused by Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS), a hereditary disorder of the connective tissue or, particulary, defective collagen. Surgical intervention in patients with EDS is prone to complications due to poor wound healing, including issues of dehiscence, postoperative bleeding and poor uptake of anaesthesia and analgesia. After an initial presentation of the syndrome of EDS and Mary's history, this article offers a reflective account (informed by Gibbs' Reflective Cycle) and illustrates the complexities of caring for an individual with EDS who undergoes stoma formation. The author, a stoma care nurse, demonstrates how using purposeful reflection resulted in better understanding and awareness of caring for an individual with a rare syndrome and the nursing challenges this presented.

  4. Complexities of management of a urostomy in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome: a reflective account.

    PubMed

    Oxenham, Julie

    Mary (pseudonym) is a 30-year-old woman who underwent a urinary diversion and formation of an ileal conduit/urostomy (urinary stoma) due to the formation of multiple bladder diverticula, which caused micturition difficulties and recurrent urinary tract infections with associated pain and discomfort. The bladder diverticula were caused by Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS), a hereditary disorder of the connective tissue or, particulary, defective collagen. Surgical intervention in patients with EDS is prone to complications due to poor wound healing, including issues of dehiscence, postoperative bleeding and poor uptake of anaesthesia and analgesia. After an initial presentation of the syndrome of EDS and Mary's history, this article offers a reflective account (informed by Gibbs' Reflective Cycle) and illustrates the complexities of caring for an individual with EDS who undergoes stoma formation. The author, a stoma care nurse, demonstrates how using purposeful reflection resulted in better understanding and awareness of caring for an individual with a rare syndrome and the nursing challenges this presented. PMID:26973007

  5. Bag pressure monitor

    DOEpatents

    Vaughn, Mark Roy; Miller, Alva Keith

    2000-01-01

    An inexpensive mechanical indicator for measuring low pressure in an inflating bag includes a pair of sides connected to each other at one edge and pivotally connected at spaced parallel locations on the bag. A spring biases the sides towards each other in opposition to tension in the inflating bag. The distance between the sides is indicative of the pressure in the bag. The device is accurate at pressures below 0.05 psi.

  6. Lunar regolith bagging system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, Reuben; Henninger, Scott; Levandoski, Mark; Perkins, Jim; Pitchon, Jack; Swats, Robin; Wessels, Roger

    1990-01-01

    A design of a lunar regolith bag and bagging system is described. The bags of regolith are to be used for construction applications on the lunar surface. The machine is designed to be used in conjunction with the lunar SKITTER currently under development. The bags for this system are 1 cu ft volume and are made from a fiberglass composite weave. The machinery is constructed mostly from a boron/aluminum composite. The machine can fill 120 bags per hour and work for 8 hours a day. The man hours to machine hours ratio to operate the machine is .5/8.

  7. Blast-Absorbing Bag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, Jon B.

    1992-01-01

    Proposed expandable bag contains debris from explosion. Permanently surrounds vessel or devices prone to explosive disintegration or slipped around small bomb. Finned cells shaped like outward-opening cups. Cells built up from overlapped sheets of fabric and stitched together to form expandable polyhedral bag. Cells pentagonal, triangular or square.

  8. Anaerobic bag culture method.

    PubMed

    Rosenblatt, J E; Stewart, P R

    1975-06-01

    In a new method of anaerobic culture, a transparent, gas-impermeable bag is used and the anaerobic environment is established with copper sulfate-saturated steel wool. An Alka-Seltzer tablet generates carbon dioxide. The agar plate surface can be inspected through the bag at any time without interrupting the anaerobic atmosphere or disturbing other specimens. Methylene blue indicator strips are completely reduced by 4 h after the bag is set up and have remained reduced for as long as 3 weeks. Growth of 16 different stock culture anaerobes was generally equivalent by the bag and GasPak jar methods. Yield and growth of anaerobic isolates also were equivalent with 7 of 10 clinical specimens; from the other 3 specimens, 13 isolates were recovered, 5 by both the bag and jar methods and the rest by one method or the other. No consistent differences were found between the anaerobic bag and GasPak jar methods in the yield of anaerobes from clinical specimens. Early growth (24 h of incubation) of anaerobes from one specimen was detected with the bag method. PMID:1100671

  9. Anaerobic bag culture method.

    PubMed Central

    Rosenblatt, J E; Stewart, P R

    1975-01-01

    In a new method of anaerobic culture, a transparent, gas-impermeable bag is used and the anaerobic environment is established with copper sulfate-saturated steel wool. An Alka-Seltzer tablet generates carbon dioxide. The agar plate surface can be inspected through the bag at any time without interrupting the anaerobic atmosphere or disturbing other specimens. Methylene blue indicator strips are completely reduced by 4 h after the bag is set up and have remained reduced for as long as 3 weeks. Growth of 16 different stock culture anaerobes was generally equivalent by the bag and GasPak jar methods. Yield and growth of anaerobic isolates also were equivalent with 7 of 10 clinical specimens; from the other 3 specimens, 13 isolates were recovered, 5 by both the bag and jar methods and the rest by one method or the other. No consistent differences were found between the anaerobic bag and GasPak jar methods in the yield of anaerobes from clinical specimens. Early growth (24 h of incubation) of anaerobes from one specimen was detected with the bag method. Images PMID:1100671

  10. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broyan, James; Baccus, Shelley

    2014-01-01

    The Logistics Reduction (LR) project within the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program is tasked with reducing logistical mass and repurposing logistical items. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags (MCTB) have been designed such that they can serve the same purpose as a Cargo Transfer Bag, the suitcase-shaped common logistics carrying bag for Shuttle and the International Space Station. After use as a cargo carrier, a regular CTB becomes trash, whereas the MCTB can be unzipped, unsnapped, and unfolded to be reused. Reuse ideas that have been investigated include partitions, crew quarters, solar radiation storm shelters, acoustic blankets, and forward osmosis water processing.

  11. Bag of Bones.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menger, Richard A.

    1994-01-01

    A teacher describes the procedures used by students to mount skeletons of small animals. Equipped with ziplock bags and papain, students can make the cumbersome task of mounting more time efficient and easy. (ZWH)

  12. Air bag restraint device

    DOEpatents

    Marts, Donna J.; Richardson, John G.

    1995-01-01

    A rear-seat air bag restraint device is disclosed that prevents an individual, or individuals, from continuing violent actions while being transported in a patrol vehicle's rear seat without requiring immediate physical contact by the law enforcement officer. The air bag is activated by a control switch in the front seat and inflates to independently restrict the amount of physical activity occurring in the rear seat of the vehicle while allowing the officer to safely stop the vehicle. The air bag can also provide the officer additional time to get backup personnel to aid him if the situation warrants it. The bag is inflated and maintains a constant pressure by an air pump.

  13. Air bag restraint device

    DOEpatents

    Marts, D.J.; Richardson, J.G.

    1995-10-17

    A rear-seat air bag restraint device is disclosed that prevents an individual, or individuals, from continuing violent actions while being transported in a patrol vehicle`s rear seat without requiring immediate physical contact by the law enforcement officer. The air bag is activated by a control switch in the front seat and inflates to independently restrict the amount of physical activity occurring in the rear seat of the vehicle while allowing the officer to safely stop the vehicle. The air bag can also provide the officer additional time to get backup personnel to aid him if the situation warrants it. The bag is inflated and maintains a constant pressure by an air pump. 8 figs.

  14. Urine drainage bags

    MedlinePlus

    ... catheter and urine drainage bag because you have urinary incontinence (leakage), urinary retention (not being able to urinate), ... wall repair Inflatable artificial sphincter Radical prostatectomy Stress urinary incontinence Urge incontinence Urinary incontinence Urinary incontinence - injectable implant ...

  15. Gravitating lepton bag model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burinskii, A.

    2015-08-01

    The Kerr-Newman (KN) black hole (BH) solution exhibits the external gravitational and electromagnetic field corresponding to that of the Dirac electron. For the large spin/mass ratio, a ≫ m, the BH loses horizons and acquires a naked singular ring creating two-sheeted topology. This space is regularized by the Higgs mechanism of symmetry breaking, leading to an extended particle that has a regular spinning core compatible with the external KN solution. We show that this core has much in common with the known MIT and SLAC bag models, but has the important advantage of being in accordance with the external gravitational and electromagnetic fields of the KN solution. A peculiar two-sheeted structure of Kerr's gravity provides a framework for the implementation of the Higgs mechanism of symmetry breaking in configuration space in accordance with the concept of the electroweak sector of the Standard Model. Similar to other bag models, the KN bag is flexible and pliant to deformations. For parameters of a spinning electron, the bag takes the shape of a thin rotating disk of the Compton radius, with a ring-string structure and a quark-like singular pole formed at the sharp edge of this disk, indicating that the considered lepton bag forms a single bag-string-quark system.

  16. BAG4/SODD Protein Contains a Short BAG Domain

    SciTech Connect

    Briknarova, Klara; Takayama, Shinichi; Homma, Sachiko; Baker, Kelly; Cabezas, Edelmira; Hoyt, David W.; Li, Zhen; Satterthwait, Arnold C.; Ely, Kathryn R.

    2002-08-23

    BAG proteins are molecular chaperone regulators that affect diverse cellular pathways. All members share a conserved motif, called the ''BAG domain'' (BD), which binds to Hsp70/Hsc70 family proteins and modulates their activity. We have determined the solution structure of BD from BAG4/SODD (Bcl-2 ? Associated Athanogene / Silencer of Death Domains) by multidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance methods and compared it to the corresponding domain in BAG1 (Briknarova et al., Nature Struct. Biol. 8:349-352). The difference between BDs from these two BAG proteins is striking and the structural comparison defines two subfamilies of mammalian BD-containing proteins. One subfamily includes the closely related BAG3, BAG4 and BAG5 proteins, and the other is represented by BAG1 which contains a structurally and evolutionarily distinct BD. BDs from both BAG1 and BAG4 are three-helix bundles; however, in BAG4, each helix in this bundle is three to four turns shorter than its counterpart in BAG1, which reduces the length of the domain by one-third. BAG4 BD thus represents a prototype of the minimal functional fragment that is capable of binding to Hsc70 and modulating its chaperone activity.

  17. Gravitating lepton bag model

    SciTech Connect

    Burinskii, A.

    2015-08-15

    The Kerr–Newman (KN) black hole (BH) solution exhibits the external gravitational and electromagnetic field corresponding to that of the Dirac electron. For the large spin/mass ratio, a ≫ m, the BH loses horizons and acquires a naked singular ring creating two-sheeted topology. This space is regularized by the Higgs mechanism of symmetry breaking, leading to an extended particle that has a regular spinning core compatible with the external KN solution. We show that this core has much in common with the known MIT and SLAC bag models, but has the important advantage of being in accordance with the external gravitational and electromagnetic fields of the KN solution. A peculiar two-sheeted structure of Kerr’s gravity provides a framework for the implementation of the Higgs mechanism of symmetry breaking in configuration space in accordance with the concept of the electroweak sector of the Standard Model. Similar to other bag models, the KN bag is flexible and pliant to deformations. For parameters of a spinning electron, the bag takes the shape of a thin rotating disk of the Compton radius, with a ring–string structure and a quark-like singular pole formed at the sharp edge of this disk, indicating that the considered lepton bag forms a single bag–string–quark system.

  18. Bag filters for TPP

    SciTech Connect

    L.V. Chekalov; Yu.I. Gromov; V.V. Chekalov

    2007-05-15

    Cleaning of TPP flue gases with bag filters capable of pulsed regeneration is examined. A new filtering element with a three-dimensional filtering material formed from a needle-broached cloth in which the filtration area, as compared with a conventional smooth bag, is increased by more than two times, is proposed. The design of a new FRMI type of modular filter is also proposed. A standard series of FRMI filters with a filtration area ranging from 800 to 16,000 m{sup 2} is designed for an output more than 1 million m{sub 3}/h of with respect to cleaned gas. The new bag filter permits dry collection of sulfur oxides from waste gases at TPP operating on high-sulfur coals. The design of the filter makes it possible to replace filter elements without taking the entire unit out of service.

  19. Online Bagging and Boosting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oza, Nikunji C.

    2005-01-01

    Bagging and boosting are two of the most well-known ensemble learning methods due to their theoretical performance guarantees and strong experimental results. However, these algorithms have been used mainly in batch mode, i.e., they require the entire training set to be available at once and, in some cases, require random access to the data. In this paper, we present online versions of bagging and boosting that require only one pass through the training data. We build on previously presented work by presenting some theoretical results. We also compare the online and batch algorithms experimentally in terms of accuracy and running time.

  20. Changing your urostomy pouch

    MedlinePlus

    ... how your skin and stoma look. Clean and care for your stoma and the skin around it . Put the used ... ring that adheres to the skin around the stoma, and a separate pouch ... the separate parts can be changed at different intervals.

  1. Lunar Regolith Bagging System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Sebrina; Lundberg, Kimberly; Mcgarity, Ginger; Silverman, Philip

    1990-01-01

    A regolith container to be used as a fundamental building block in radiation protection of a habitable lunar base was designed. Parameters for the container are its: size, shape, material, and structural design. Also, a machine was designed to fill the regolith container which is capable of grasping and opening an empty container, filling it, closing it when full, and depositing it on the surface of the Moon. The simple design will bag lunar soil in a relatively short amount of time, with a low equipment weight, and with moving parts distanced from the dirt. The bags are made out of Kevlar 149 with a fabric weight of 6 oz. per square yard. All machine parts are composed of aluminum 6061-T6. Assuming that the vehicle runs at 7 km/hr for 8 hours a day, the machine will bag the necessary 450 cu m of soil in about 12 days. The total mass of the bags and the machine to be shipped to the Moon will be 687 kg. The cost of shipping this weight will be $6.23 million.

  2. Book Bag Buddies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden, Angie; Townsend, J. Scott; Green, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Children love to learn about new topics and share what they have discovered with their teachers, families, and friends. The authors designed the "Book Bag Buddies" project to give their third-grade students a chance to channel their enthusiasm and research from science investigations into writing. In this creative project, students integrated…

  3. Gluons in the chiral bag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahana, D. E.; Milana, J.

    1987-07-01

    A perturbative QCD calculation of gluon exchange corrections to the cranking moment of inertia of the chiral bag model is done using the full time-dependent cavity propagators. Cranking is used to construct the nucleon and delta states and a value of the effective strong coupling constant is extracted by fitting the empirical Δ N mass splitting. The MIT bag limit (large bag radius) of the chiral bag model is also examined.

  4. Storing Peanuts in Grain Bags

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was executed to determine the potential of storing farmers stock peanuts and shelled peanuts for crushing in hermetically sealed grain bags. The objectives of the study were to evaluate equipment for loading and unloading the grain bags, the capacity of the grain bags, and the changes in qu...

  5. Material bagging device

    DOEpatents

    Wach, Charles G.; Nelson, Robert E.; Brak, Stephen B.

    1984-01-01

    A bagging device for transferring material from one chamber through an opening in a wall to a second chamber includes a cylindrical housing communicating with the opening and defining a passage between the chambers. A cylindrical cartridge is slidably received within the housing. The cartridge has a substantially rigid cylindrical sleeve to which is affixed a pliable tube. The pliable tube is positioned concentrically about the sleeve and has a pleated portion capable of unfolding from the sleeve and a closed end extending over a terminal end of the sleeve. Sealing means are interposed in sealed relationship between the cartridge and the housing. Material from one chamber is inserted into the cartridge secured in the housing and received in the closed end of the tube which unfolds into the other chamber enclosing the material therein. The tube may then be sealed behind the material and then severed to form a bag-like enclosure defined by the tube's closed terminal end and the new seal. The new seal then forms a terminal end for the unsevered portion of the pliable tube into which additional material may be placed and the bagging process repeated.

  6. The black bag.

    PubMed

    Snow, Helen

    2012-11-01

    In the early- to mid-twentieth century, stories about nursing practice submitted by nurses frequently appeared in Public Health Nursing. The article reprinted here is an example of this genre of publications. Originally published in April 1936, this article tells the story of a day in the work of one public health nurse as she moves about the city making home visits. In this article, Snow (1936) used personification of the iconic black bag to tell her story. Using this technique she brings to life the nuances of her day, the personalities of her patients, and the importance of the black bag to the work of public health nurses. What did nurses learn from stories such as this one? Themes embedded in this story reflect the role of the Public Health Nurse (PHN), as well as the environment in which she worked. For instance, in this story we learn that not only was the PHN a welcomed visitor in the homes of families struggling with health problems, but that she brought order out of chaos, as illustrated in "The New Arrival". "The Black Bag" also highlights the humor nurses experienced in their encounters with families, as well as the pathos in other situations. Stories served as a vehicle for nurses to share and learn about both the common elements of their work, as well as the unique features related to location and environment, such as rural and urban locales. PMID:23078428

  7. Magnetic bags in hyperbolic space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolognesi, Stefano; Harland, Derek; Sutcliffe, Paul

    2015-07-01

    A magnetic bag is an Abelian approximation to a large number of coincident S U (2 ) Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield monopoles. In this paper we consider magnetic bags in hyperbolic space and derive their Nahm transform from the large-charge limit of the discrete Nahm equation for hyperbolic monopoles. An advantage of studying magnetic bags in hyperbolic space, rather than Euclidean space, is that a range of exact charge N hyperbolic monopoles can be constructed, for arbitrarily large values of N , and compared with the magnetic bag approximation. We show that a particular magnetic bag (the magnetic disc) provides a good description of the axially symmetric N -monopole. However, an Abelian magnetic bag is not a good approximation to a roughly spherical N -monopole that has more than N zeros of the Higgs field. We introduce an extension of the magnetic bag that does provide a good approximation to such monopoles and involves a spherical non-Abelian interior for the bag, in addition to the conventional Abelian exterior.

  8. Fun and Functional Shopping Bags

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Barbara Downing

    2009-01-01

    In conjunction with her school's interest in becoming more "green," this author designed an art project using inexpensive, sturdy, reusable grocery bags. In this article, she describes the different design concepts and art media used by each grade in decorating these bags. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  9. Vapor pressure measured with inflatable plastic bag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Deflated plastic bag in a vacuum chamber measures initial low vapor pressures of materials. The bag captures the test sample vapors and visual observation of the vapor-inflated bag under increasing external pressures yields pertinent data.

  10. Advanced Air Bag Technology Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phen, R. L.; Dowdy, M. W.; Ebbeler, D. H.; Kim. E.-H.; Moore, N. R.; VanZandt, T. R.

    1998-01-01

    As a result of the concern for the growing number of air-bag-induced injuries and fatalities, the administrators of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) agreed to a cooperative effort that "leverages NHTSA's expertise in motor vehicle safety restraint systems and biomechanics with NASAs position as one of the leaders in advanced technology development... to enable the state of air bag safety technology to advance at a faster pace..." They signed a NASA/NHTSA memorandum of understanding for NASA to "evaluate air bag to assess advanced air bag performance, establish the technological potential for improved technology (smart) air bag systems, and identify key expertise and technology within the agency (i.e., NASA) that can potentially contribute significantly to the improved effectiveness of air bags." NASA is committed to contributing to NHTSAs effort to: (1) understand and define critical parameters affecting air bag performance; (2) systematically assess air bag technology state of the art and its future potential; and (3) identify new concepts for air bag systems. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) was selected by NASA to respond to the memorandum of understanding by conducting an advanced air bag technology assessment. JPL analyzed the nature of the need for occupant restraint, how air bags operate alone and with safety belts to provide restraint, and the potential hazards introduced by the technology. This analysis yielded a set of critical parameters for restraint systems. The researchers examined data on the performance of current air bag technology, and searched for and assessed how new technologies could reduce the hazards introduced by air bags while providing the restraint protection that is their primary purpose. The critical parameters which were derived are: (1) the crash severity; (2) the use of seat belts; (3) the physical characteristics of the occupants; (4) the

  11. Ammonia diffusion through Nalophan™ bags.

    PubMed

    Sironi, Selena; Eusebio, Lidia; Dentoni, Licinia; Capelli, Laura; Del Rosso, Renato

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the work is to verify the diffusion rate of ammonia through the Nalophan™ film that constitutes the sampling bag, considering storage times ranging from 1 to 26 h. The ammonia decay over time was evaluated using gas-chromatography for the quantification of ammonia concentration inside the bag. The research assesses the roles of both of ammonia and water concentration gradients at the polymeric film interface on the diffusion process. The results show that both the ammonia concentration gradient and, in a less pronounced way, the water concentration gradient are the main 'engines' of ammonia diffusion. Double bags seem to represent a simple solution for preventing ammonia losses during storage. Another interesting result concerns the role of the bag surface on the ammonia diffusion rate: the higher the surface/volume (S/V) ratio, the higher the ammonia diffusion rate through the polymeric film.

  12. Launching Garbage-Bag Balloons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hy

    1997-01-01

    Presents a modification of a procedure for making and launching hot air balloons made out of garbage bags. Student instructions for balloon construction, launching instructions, and scale diagrams are included. (DDR)

  13. Rotation of the chiral bag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahana, David E.; Jackson, A. D.; Ripka, G.

    1986-11-01

    Cranking of the chiral bag model is carried out in order to generate the correct quantum numbers for SU(2) baryons. The moment of inertia of the system is found to be divided between the meson and quark sectors. A numerical evaluation of the contributions to the moment of inertia from valence quarks and from mesons is presented. Finally, a discussion is given of the nucleon-delta mass splitting predicted in the chiral bag model.

  14. 49 CFR 173.166 - Air bag inflators, air bag modules and seat-belt pretensioners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... plastic or metal containers or dedicated handling devices are authorized for shipment of air bag inflators... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Air bag inflators, air bag modules and seat-belt... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.166 Air bag inflators, air bag modules and seat-belt pretensioners....

  15. 49 CFR 173.166 - Air bag inflators, air bag modules and seat-belt pretensioners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... plastic or metal containers or dedicated handling devices are authorized for shipment of air bag inflators... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air bag inflators, air bag modules and seat-belt... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.166 Air bag inflators, air bag modules and seat-belt pretensioners....

  16. 49 CFR 173.166 - Air bag inflators, air bag modules and seat-belt pretensioners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-specification rugged reusable plastic outer packaging and inner static-resistant plastic bags or trays. If not... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Air bag inflators, air bag modules and seat-belt... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.166 Air bag inflators, air bag modules and seat-belt pretensioners....

  17. 49 CFR 173.166 - Air bag inflators, air bag modules and seat-belt pretensioners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-specification rugged reusable plastic outer packaging and inner static-resistant plastic bags or trays. If not... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Air bag inflators, air bag modules and seat-belt... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.166 Air bag inflators, air bag modules and seat-belt pretensioners....

  18. 49 CFR 173.166 - Air bag inflators, air bag modules and seat-belt pretensioners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... plastic or metal containers or dedicated handling devices are authorized for shipment of air bag inflators... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Air bag inflators, air bag modules and seat-belt... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.166 Air bag inflators, air bag modules and seat-belt pretensioners....

  19. [Pastel in the urine bag].

    PubMed

    Cantaloube, Lucie; Lebaudy, Cécile; Hermabessière, Sophie; Rolland, Yves

    2012-03-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome is a relatively unknown phenomenon in which the urine bag and the collector of chronically catheterized patients turn purple or blue. It affects predominantly women, and is mainly reported in elderly patients. The mechanism seems to be related to the appearance in the urine of two compounds that have been identified as indigo (blue) and indirubin (red) which bind to the urine bag and the collector. Several associated factors are usually mentioned such as constipation, alkaline urine, bed rest, institutionalization or cognitive impairment. They are risk factor of this phenomenon. On the other hand, an infection or a urinary bacterial colonization is necessary and high bacterial counts seem to be the critical step in the development of the purple urine bag syndrome. We report on two cases of purple urine bag syndrome observed in two patients being treated in a long-term care unit. Both of whom were diagnosed with indwelling urinary bacterial colonization, with Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa respectively.

  20. Blood bag temperature monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Aalaei, Shokoufeh; Amini, Shahram; Keramati, Mohammad Reza; Shahraki, Hadi; Abu-Hanna, Ameen; Eslami, Saeed

    2014-01-01

    Storage and transportation of red blood cells (RBCs) outside the standard temperature range as defined by guidelines can lead to hemolysis. One of the main factors believed to cause hemolysis is temperature.Infusion of the corrupted RBCs leads to haemolytic reactions which are severe and life-threatening. We developed a temperature monitoring system to monitor temperature changes of each blood bag during storage and transportation. The main objective of the present study was evaluating the accuracy of the temperature monitoring system and studying its feasibility. Validating the system relied on accurate digital thermometers that latch on a blood bag. To evaluate the feasibility, a case study was performed on 20 RBC bags transported from hospital blood bank to the cardiac surgery intensive care unit and the heart operating room. The results indicated that 12% of 25605 recorded temperatures (per minute) were outside the standard range. Minimum and maximum temperatures were 0.5 °C and 16 °C that were below and above the standard, respectively. The system was shown to be easily handled by users. The system is capable to alarm when a blood bag's temperature is outside the standard temperature and prevents blood corruption. This system can be used as a decision support system in blood transfusion services to improve storage and transportation conditions of the blood bags.

  1. A gravitating electroweak bag model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burinskii, Alexander

    2016-02-01

    Gravitational and electromagnetic (EM) field of electron is described by the Kerr-Newman (KN) black hole solution with a topological defect. Regularization of this defect by the Higgs field leads to the smooth source which shares much in common with the known MIT- and SLAC- bag models, but has the advantage, of matching gravitational and electromagnetic fields of the electron. This model is flexible, and the rotating KN bag takes the shape of a thin disk with a circular string positioned on the sharp border of the disk. We consider the lowest excitations of the KN solution and the corresponding deformations of the bag surface, setting a preliminary correspondence with electroweak sector of the SM.

  2. Quark gluon bags as reggeons

    SciTech Connect

    Bugaev, K. A.; Petrov, V. K.; Zinovjev, G. M.

    2009-05-15

    The influence of the medium-dependent finite width of quark gluon plasma (QGP) bags on their equation of state is analyzed within an exactly solvable model. It is argued that the large width of the QGP bags not only explains the observed deficit in the number of hadronic resonances but also clarifies the reason why the heavy QGP bags cannot be directly observed as metastable states in a hadronic phase. The model allows us to estimate the minimal value of the width of QGP bags being heavier than 2 GeV from a variety of the lattice QCD data and get that the minimal resonance width at zero temperature is about 600 MeV, whereas the minimal resonance width at the Hagedorn temperature is about 2000 MeV. As shown, these estimates are almost insensitive to the number of the elementary degrees of freedom. The recent lattice QCD data are analyzed and it is found that in addition to the {sigma}T{sup 4} term the lattice QCD pressure contains T-linear and T{sup 4}lnT terms in the range of temperatures between 240 and 420 MeV. The presence of the last term in the pressure bears almost no effect on the width estimates. Our analysis shows that at high temperatures the average mass and width of the QGP bags behave in accordance with the upper bound of the Regge trajectory asymptotics (the linear asymptotics), whereas at low temperatures they obey the lower bound of the Regge trajectory asymptotics (the square root one). Since the model explicitly contains the Hagedorn mass spectrum, it allows us to remove an existing contradiction between the finite number of hadronic Regge families and the Hagedorn idea of the exponentially growing mass spectrum of hadronic bags.

  3. Air bags and ocular injuries.

    PubMed Central

    Stein, J D; Jaeger, E A; Jeffers, J B

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: This investigation retrospectively examined ocular injuries associated with air bag deployment to gain a better appreciation of potential risk factors in motor vehicle accidents. National statistics regarding the efficacy of air bags were reviewed. METHODS: Review of the literature from 1991 to 1998 identified 44 articles describing 97 patients with air-bag-induced ocular injuries. Variables extracted from each case were age, sex, height, position in the car, eye wear, vehicle impact speed, visual acuity, and specific ocular injuries. RESULTS: Corneal abrasions occurred in 49% of occupants, hyphemas in 43%, vitreous or retinal hemorrhages in 25%, and retinal tears or detachments in 15%. The globe was ruptured in 10 patients. Patients involved in higher-speed accidents (over 30 mph) sustained a greater percentage of vitreous or retinal hemorrhages and traumatic cataracts, while those at slower speeds were more prone to retinal tears or detachments. In a subset of 14 patients with serious ocular injuries, the impact speed of 11 patients was recorded at 30 mph or less. Slower speed may be a risk factor for some ocular injuries. Occupant height was not a significant factor. National statistics confirm that air bags reduce fatalities in motor vehicle accidents. However, children sitting in the front seat without a seat belt and infants in passenger-side rear-facing car seats are at risk for fatal injury. CONCLUSION: Air bags combined with seat belts are an effective means of reducing injury and death in adults during motor vehicle accidents. However, this study has documented a wide variety of ocular injuries associated with air bag deployment. It is hoped that researchers can develop modifications that continue to save lives while minimizing additional harm. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2A FIGURE 2B FIGURE 2C FIGURE 2D FIGURE 3A FIGURE 3B FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 PMID:10703118

  4. Bag-Tanks for Your Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wulfson, Stephen E.

    1981-01-01

    Suggests using plastic bags as aquaria and terraria. Describes techniques for converting plastic sheets into aquaria, how to set them up for classroom use, and other uses for plastic bag aquaria. (DS)

  5. Urine-drainage leg bags: an overview.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Mary

    This article looks at leg bags from the perspective of the clinical guidance available, published research, review papers, the diverse nature of products available, and their use with catheters, sheaths or urinals. The part that leg bags play in catheter-associated urinary tract infection control is addressed. Other aspects of catheter safety are discussed, including the avoidance of catheter traction. Variations in leg-bag structure including bag size, inlet tubing, tap, connector and backing, along with the reasons for selecting a particular leg bag are considered, along with the choice of either leg-bag straps or sleeves. The article concludes that, as a result of the variation of leg bags available, patients may require assistance and support from health professionals in finding the right leg bag for them.

  6. Cleaner Vacuum-Bag Curing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clemons, J. M.; Penn, B. G.; Ledbetter, Frank E., III; Daniels, J. G.

    1987-01-01

    Improvement upon recommended procedures saves time and expense. Autoclave molding in vacuum bag cleaner if adhesive-backed covering placed around caul plate as well as on mold plate. Covering easy to remove after curing and leaves caul plate free of resin deposits.

  7. Brown Bag Ideas: The Parfleche.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tejada, Irene

    1985-01-01

    Art objects are often unique reflections of a culture. Procedures are described for having intermediate or secondary level students make a parfleche, a form of carrying case used by the Plains Indians. Materials for making the parfleche include two large grocery bags, pencil, white glue, wax crayons, string, and water. (RM)

  8. Testing of Replacement Bag Material

    SciTech Connect

    Laurinat, J.E.

    1998-11-03

    Recently, the FB-Line bagout material was changed to simplify the processing of sand, slag, and crucible.The results of the strength tests and the outgassing measurements and calculations demonstrate that the proposed replacement nylon bag materials (HRMP and orange anti-static material) are acceptable substitutes for LDPE and the original nylon with respect to mechanical properties.

  9. 7 CFR 201.41 - Bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Sampling in the Administration of the Act § 201.41 Bags. (a) For lots of six bags or fewer, each bag shall be sampled. A total of at least five trierfuls shall be taken. (b) For lots of more than six...

  10. 21 CFR 868.5320 - Reservoir bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reservoir bag. 868.5320 Section 868.5320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5320 Reservoir bag. (a) Identification. A reservoir bag is...

  11. 21 CFR 868.5320 - Reservoir bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reservoir bag. 868.5320 Section 868.5320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5320 Reservoir bag. (a) Identification. A reservoir bag is...

  12. 21 CFR 868.5320 - Reservoir bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reservoir bag. 868.5320 Section 868.5320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5320 Reservoir bag. (a) Identification. A reservoir bag is...

  13. 21 CFR 868.5320 - Reservoir bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reservoir bag. 868.5320 Section 868.5320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5320 Reservoir bag. (a) Identification. A reservoir bag is...

  14. 21 CFR 868.5320 - Reservoir bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reservoir bag. 868.5320 Section 868.5320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5320 Reservoir bag. (a) Identification. A reservoir bag is...

  15. 21 CFR 880.6050 - Ice bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ice bag. 880.6050 Section 880.6050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES....6050 Ice bag. (a) Identification. An ice bag is a device intended for medical purposes that is in...

  16. 21 CFR 880.6050 - Ice bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ice bag. 880.6050 Section 880.6050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES....6050 Ice bag. (a) Identification. An ice bag is a device intended for medical purposes that is in...

  17. 21 CFR 880.6050 - Ice bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ice bag. 880.6050 Section 880.6050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES....6050 Ice bag. (a) Identification. An ice bag is a device intended for medical purposes that is in...

  18. 21 CFR 880.6050 - Ice bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ice bag. 880.6050 Section 880.6050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES....6050 Ice bag. (a) Identification. An ice bag is a device intended for medical purposes that is in...

  19. 21 CFR 880.6050 - Ice bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ice bag. 880.6050 Section 880.6050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES....6050 Ice bag. (a) Identification. An ice bag is a device intended for medical purposes that is in...

  20. Urostomy - stoma and skin care

    MedlinePlus

    DeCastro GJ, McKiernan JM, Benson MC. Cutaneous continent urinary diversion. In: Wein AJ, Kavoussi LR, Partin AW, Peters CA, eds. Campbell-Walsh Urology . 11th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 98. ...

  1. Improved material-bagging device

    DOEpatents

    Wach, C.G.; Nelson, R.E.; Brak, S.B.

    1982-01-19

    A bagging device for transferring material; specifically contaminated material, from one chamber through an opening in a wall to a second chamber includes a cylindrical housing communicating with the opening and defining a passage between the chambers. A cylindrical cartridge is slidably received within the housing. The cartridge has a substantially rigid cylindrical sleeve to which is affixed a pliable tube. The pliable tube is positioned concentrically about the sleeve and has a pleated portion capable of unfolding from the sleeve and a closed end extending over a terminal end of the sleeve. Sealing means are interposed in sealed relationship between the cartridge and the housing. Material from one chamber is inserted into the cartridge secured in the housing and received in the closed end of the tube which unfolds into the other chamber enclosing the material therein. The tube may then be sealed behind the material and then severed to form a bag-like enclosure defined by the tube's closed terminal end and the new seal. The new seal then forms a terminal end for the unsevered portion of the pliable tube into which additional material may be placed and the bagging process repeated.

  2. 49 CFR 178.520 - Standards for textile bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... are identification codes for textile bags: (1) 5L1 for an unlined or non-coated textile bag; (2) 5L2 for a sift-proof textile bag; and (3) 5L3 for a water-resistant textile bag. (b) Construction... use of paper bonded to the inner surface of the bag by a water-resistant adhesive such as...

  3. 49 CFR 178.520 - Standards for textile bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... are identification codes for textile bags: (1) 5L1 for an unlined or non-coated textile bag; (2) 5L2 for a sift-proof textile bag; and (3) 5L3 for a water-resistant textile bag. (b) Construction... use of paper bonded to the inner surface of the bag by a water-resistant adhesive such as...

  4. 49 CFR 178.520 - Standards for textile bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... are identification codes for textile bags: (1) 5L1 for an unlined or non-coated textile bag; (2) 5L2 for a sift-proof textile bag; and (3) 5L3 for a water-resistant textile bag. (b) Construction... use of paper bonded to the inner surface of the bag by a water-resistant adhesive such as...

  5. 49 CFR 178.520 - Standards for textile bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... are identification codes for textile bags: (1) 5L1 for an unlined or non-coated textile bag; (2) 5L2 for a sift-proof textile bag; and (3) 5L3 for a water-resistant textile bag. (b) Construction... use of paper bonded to the inner surface of the bag by a water-resistant adhesive such as...

  6. Cold temperature disinfestation of bagged flour

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We conducted studies using a commercial freezer maintained at -17.8°C to determine the time needed to kill Tribolium castaneum eggs in a pallet of flour. Each bag weighed 22.7 kg, and there were 5 bags in each of 10 layers. The dimensions of the pallet were 109-cm wide by 132-cm long by 123-cm tall,...

  7. 21 CFR 878.4100 - Organ bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Organ bag. 878.4100 Section 878.4100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4100 Organ bag. (a) Identification. An...

  8. 21 CFR 878.4100 - Organ bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Organ bag. 878.4100 Section 878.4100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4100 Organ bag. (a) Identification. An...

  9. 21 CFR 878.4100 - Organ bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Organ bag. 878.4100 Section 878.4100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4100 Organ bag. (a) Identification. An...

  10. 21 CFR 878.4100 - Organ bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Organ bag. 878.4100 Section 878.4100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4100 Organ bag. (a) Identification. An...

  11. 21 CFR 878.4100 - Organ bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Organ bag. 878.4100 Section 878.4100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4100 Organ bag. (a) Identification. An...

  12. Water bag modeling of a multispecies plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Morel, P.; Gravier, E.; Besse, N.; Klein, R.; Ghizzo, A.; Bertrand, P.; Bourdelle, C.; Garbet, X.

    2011-03-15

    We report in the present paper a new modeling method to study multiple species dynamics in magnetized plasmas. Such a method is based on the gyrowater bag modeling, which consists in using a multistep-like distribution function along the velocity direction parallel to the magnetic field. The choice of a water bag representation allows an elegant link between kinetic and fluid descriptions of a plasma. The gyrowater bag model has been recently adapted to the context of strongly magnetized plasmas. We present its extension to the case of multi ion species magnetized plasmas: each ion species being modeled via a multiwater bag distribution function. The water bag modelization will be discussed in details, under the simplification of a cylindrical geometry that is convenient for linear plasma devices. As an illustration, results obtained in the linear framework for ion temperature gradient instabilities are presented, that are shown to agree qualitatively with older works.

  13. Fermion bag approach to lattice field theories

    SciTech Connect

    Chandrasekharan, Shailesh

    2010-07-15

    We propose a new approach to the fermion sign problem in systems where there is a coupling U such that when it is infinite the fermions are paired into bosons, and there is no fermion permutation sign to worry about. We argue that as U becomes finite, fermions are liberated but are naturally confined to regions which we refer to as fermion bags. The fermion sign problem is then confined to these bags and may be solved using the determinantal trick. In the parameter regime where the fermion bags are small and their typical size does not grow with the system size, construction of Monte Carlo methods that are far more efficient than conventional algorithms should be possible. In the region where the fermion bags grow with system size, the fermion bag approach continues to provide an alternative approach to the problem but may lose its main advantage in terms of efficiency. The fermion bag approach also provides new insights and solutions to sign problems. A natural solution to the ''silver blaze problem'' also emerges. Using the three-dimensional massless lattice Thirring model as an example, we introduce the fermion bag approach and demonstrate some of these features. We compute the critical exponents at the quantum phase transition and find {nu}=0.87(2) and {eta}=0.62(2).

  14. Enhancing Mathematical Communication: "Bag of Tricks" Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patahuddin, Sitti Maesuri; Ramful, Ajay; Greenlees, Jane

    2015-01-01

    An engaging activity which prompts students to listen, talk, reason and write about geometrical properties. The "Bag of Tricks" encourages students to clarify their thoughts and communicate precisely using accurate mathematical language.

  15. 49 CFR 178.519 - Standards for plastic film bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standards for plastic film bags. 178.519 Section...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.519 Standards for plastic film bags. (a) The identification code for a plastic film bag is 5H4. (b) Construction requirements for plastic film bags are...

  16. 49 CFR 178.519 - Standards for plastic film bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standards for plastic film bags. 178.519 Section...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.519 Standards for plastic film bags. (a) The identification code for a plastic film bag is 5H4. (b) Construction requirements for plastic film bags are...

  17. 49 CFR 178.519 - Standards for plastic film bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standards for plastic film bags. 178.519 Section...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.519 Standards for plastic film bags. (a) The identification code for a plastic film bag is 5H4. (b) Construction requirements for plastic film bags are...

  18. Polyethylene bags and solar ultraviolet radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Holm-Hansen, O.; Helbling, E.W. )

    1993-01-22

    This technical comment questions the use of polyethylene bags to collect and store samples in a previously reported study on the effects of solar ultraviolet radiation on natural phytoplankton assemblages in Antarctic waters. A significant difference in the photosynthetic rates was noted for samples in glassware as opposed to bags, although the overall conclusions remained similar. A response by the original authors is included. 1 tab.

  19. Bag-out material handling system

    DOEpatents

    Brak, Stephen B.; Milek, Henry F.

    1984-01-01

    A bagging device for transferring material from a first chamber through an pening in a wall to a second chamber includes an outer housing communicating with the opening and having proximal and distal ends relative to the wall. An inner housing having proximal and distal ends corresponding to those of the outer housing is mounted in a concentrically spaced, sealed manner with respect to the distal end of the outer housing. The inner and outer housings and mounting means therebetween define an annular chamber, closed at its distal end and open at its proximal end, in which a pliable tube is slidably positioned in sealed engagement with the housings. The pliable tube includes a sealed end positioned adjacent the proximal end of the inner housing so as to maintain isolation between the first and second chambers. Displacement of the material to be bagged from the first chamber along the inner housing so as to contact the sealed portion of the pliable bag allows the material to be positioned within the pliable bag in the second chamber. The bag is then sealed and severed between where the material is positioned therein and the wall in providing a sealed container for handling the material. The pliable tube when substantially depleted slides onto a narrow portion of the inner housing to allow a new pliable tube to be positioned over the old pliable tube. Remnants of the old pliable tube are then discharged into the new pliable tube with the bagging and removal of additional material.

  20. Bag-out material handling system

    DOEpatents

    Brak, Stephen B.

    1985-01-01

    A bagging device for transferring material from a first chamber through an opening in a wall to a second chamber includes an outer housing communicating with the opening and having proximal and distal ends relative to the wall. An inner housing having proximal and distal ends corresponding to those of the outer housing is mounted in a concentrically spaced, sealed manner with respect to the distal end of the outer housing. The inner and outer housings and mounting means therebetween define an annular chamber, closed at its distal end and open at its proximal end, in which a pliable tube is slidably positioned in sealed engagement with the housings. The pliable tube includes a sealed end positioned adjacent the proximal end of the inner housing so as to maintain isolation between the first and second chambers. Displacement of the material to be bagged from the first chamber along the inner housing so as to contact the sealed portion of the pliable bag allows the material to be positioned within the pliable bag in the second chamber. The bag is then sealed and severed between where the material is positioned therein and the wall in providing a sealed container for handling the material. The pliable tube when substantially depleted slides onto a narrow portion of the inner housing to allow a new pliable tube to be positioned over the old pliable tube. Remnants of the old pliable tube are then discharged into the new pliable tube with the bagging and removal of additional material.

  1. Vacuum energy in the bag model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candelas, P.

    1986-04-01

    The vacuum energy of the Yang-Mills field is examined for the conditions of the bag model. The dominance of high-frequency effects results in a vacuum energy that decomposes naturally into a volume energy, a surface energy, and higher shape energies. These quantities are identified with the parameters of the bag model. The imposition of confining boundary conditions for all frequencies is shown to be inconsistent since this would result in the bag constant and certain of the shape tensions being infinite. The manner in which the boundary conditions should be relaxed at high frequency is discussed. The most naive procedure for relaxing the boundary conditions, which is to apply confining conditions only on modes of frequency less than some cutoff frequency, results in a negative bag constant and surface tension and would render the vacuum unstable against the spontaneous breaking of Poincaré invariance. Consideration of the manner by which the interacting electromagnetic field avoids a similar instability suggests that a more realistic way to relax the boundary conditions on the bag surface is to endow the vacuum exterior to the bag with a frequency-dependent dielectric constant and magnetic permeability. In this picture the stability of the vacuum is restored, the surface tension is finite and positive, and the bag constant is zero at least to lowest order in the coupling. It is pointed out that the fermion contributions to the bag constant and the surface tension may relate to the spontaneous breaking of chiral invariance. The aim throughout is to examine the bag model, as it relates to vacuum energy, strictly in its own terms with an emphasis on questions of principle. All too often is heard the alibi that since the theory itself is only approximate, the mathematics need be no better. In truth the opposite follows. Granted that the model represents but a part of nature, we are to find what such an ideal picture implies, a result strictly derived serves to test

  2. Burn injuries caused by air bag deployment.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, D; Noah, E M; Fuchs, P; Pallua, N

    2001-03-01

    Automobile air bags have gained acceptance as an effective measure to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with motor vehicle accidents. As more cars have become equipped with them, new problems have been encountered that are directly attributable to the deployment of the bag itself. An increasing variety of associated injuries has been reported, including minor burns. We present two automobile drivers who were involved in front-impact crashes with air bag inflation. They sustained superficial and partial-thickness burns related to the deployment. The evaluation of these cases shows mechanisms involved in burn injuries caused by the air bag system. Most of the burns are chemical and usually attributed to sodium hydroxide in the aerosol created during deployment. Also direct thermal burns from high-temperature gases or indirect injuries due to the melting of clothing, as well as friction burns from physical contact are possible. However, the inherent risks of air bag-related burns are still outweighed by the benefits of preventing potentially life-threatening injuries. PMID:11226663

  3. Solid and Liquid Waste Drying Bag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litwiller, Eric (Inventor); Hogan, John A. (Inventor); Fisher, John W. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Method and system for processing waste from human activities, including solids, liquids and vapors. A fluid-impermeable bag, lined with a liquid-impermeable but vapor-permeable membrane, defining an inner bag, is provided. A vacuum force is provided to extract vapors so that the waste is moved toward a selected region in the inner bag, extracted vapors, including the waste vapors and vaporized portions of the waste liquids are transported across the membrane, and most or all of the solids remain within the liner. Extracted vapors are filtered, and sanitized components thereof are isolated and optionally stored. The solids remaining within the liner are optionally dried and isolated for ultimate disposal.

  4. Waste product profile: Plastic film and bags

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.

    1996-10-01

    Plastic film is recycled by being pelletized following a granulation or densifying process. Manufacturing and converting plants are the major sources of plastic film for recycling because they can supply sufficient amounts of clean raw material of a known resin type. Post-consumer collection programs are more recent. They tend to focus on businesses such as grocery stores that are large generators of plastic bags. In this case, the recycling process is more complex, requiring sorting, washing, and removal of contaminants as a first step. Curbside collection of plastic bags is rare.

  5. Cooling properties of Cloudy Bag strange stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, C. Y.; Cheng, K. S.; Chu, M. C.

    2003-04-01

    As the chiral symmetry is widely recognized as an important driver of the strong interaction dynamics, current strange stars models based on MIT bag models do not obey such symmetry. We investigate properties of bare strange stars using the Cloudy Bag model, in which a pion cloud coupled to the quark-confining bag is introduced such that chiral symmetry is conserved. The parameters in the model, namely the bag constant and strange quark mass are determined self-consistently by fitting the mass spectrum of baryons. Then the equation of state is obtained by evaluating the energy-momentum tensor of the system. We find that the stellar properties of the Cloudy Bag strange stars are similar to those of MIT Bag models. However, the decay of pions is a very efficient cooling way. In fact it can carry out most the thermal energy in a few milliseconds and directly convert them into 100 MeV photons via pion decay. This may be a very efficient γ-ray burst mechanism. Numerical results indicate that temperature of a Cloudy Bag strange star is sufficiently lower than a MIT one for the small gap energy of color superconductivity (/Δ=1 MeV). On the other hand, large gap energy (/Δ=100 MeV) can suppress the pion emissivity and hence the cooling curves of Cloudy model and MIT model are almost identical. The long term cooling behaviors of both MIT model and Cloudy model are determined by the color-flavor locked phase. The surface luminosity of a bare strange star is higher than that of a neutron star until 106 and 108 s for (/Δ=100 MeV) and (/Δ=1 MeV) respectively. After this period, the surface luminosity of a bare strange star becomes lower than that of a neutron star even rapidly cooling mechanisms, e.g. direct URCA process or pion condensation, exist in the neutron stars. Hence, the cooling behavior may provide a possible way to distinguish a compact object between a neutron star, MIT strange star and Cloudy Bag strange star in observations.

  6. Compact assembly generates plastic foam, inflates flotation bag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Device for generating plastic foam consists of an elastomeric bag and two containers with liquid resin and a liquid catalyst. When the walls of the containers are ruptured the liquids come into contact producing foam which inflates the elastomeric bag.

  7. 13. BUILDING NO. 445, PHYSICS LAB (FORMERLY GUN BAG LOADING), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. BUILDING NO. 445, PHYSICS LAB (FORMERLY GUN BAG LOADING), VIEW NORTH AT SOUTH END OF BUILDING. - Picatinny Arsenal, 400 Area, Gun Bag Loading District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  8. BAG3 Deficiency Results in Fulminant Myopathy and Early Lethality

    PubMed Central

    Homma, Sachiko; Iwasaki, Masahiro; Shelton, G. Diane; Engvall, Eva; Reed, John C.; Takayama, Shinichi

    2006-01-01

    Bcl-2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) is a member of a conserved family of cyto-protective proteins that bind to and regulate Hsp70 family molecular chaperones. Here, we show that BAG3 is prominently expressed in striated muscle and colocalizes with Z-disks. Mice with homozygous disruption of the bag3 gene developed normally but deteriorated postnatally with stunted growth evident by 1 to 2 weeks of age and death by 4 weeks. BAG3-deficient animals developed a fulminant myopathy characterized by noninflammatory myofibrillar degeneration with apoptotic features. Knockdown of bag3 expression in cultured C2C12 myoblasts increased apoptosis on induction of differentiation, suggesting a need for bag3 for maintenance of myotube survival and confirming a cell autonomous role for bag3 in muscle. We conclude that although BAG3 is not required for muscle development, this co-chaperone appears to be critically important for maintenance of mature skeletal muscle. PMID:16936253

  9. Plant Tissue Culture in a Bag.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Mike

    2000-01-01

    Describes the use of an oven bag as a sterile chamber for culture initiation and tissue transfer. Plant tissue culture is an ideal tool for introducing students to plants, cloning, and experimental design. Includes materials, methods, discussion, and conclusion sections. (SAH)

  10. Bag Test Measures Leakage From Insulated Pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schock, Kent D.; Easter, Barry P.

    1994-01-01

    Test quantifies leakage of gas from pipe even though pipe covered with insulation. Involves use of helium analyzer to measure concentration of helium in impermeable bag around pipe. Test administered after standard soap-solution bubble test indicates presence and general class of leakage.

  11. 50 CFR 622.277 - Bag and possession limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ATLANTIC Dolphin and Wahoo Fishery Off the Atlantic States § 622.277 Bag and possession limits. Section 622.11(a) provides the general applicability for bag and possession limits. (a) Atlantic dolphin and wahoo. Bag and possession limits are as follows: (1) Dolphin—10, not to exceed 60 per vessel,...

  12. 50 CFR 622.277 - Bag and possession limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ATLANTIC Dolphin and Wahoo Fishery Off the Atlantic States § 622.277 Bag and possession limits. Section 622.11(a) provides the general applicability for bag and possession limits. (a) Atlantic dolphin and wahoo. Bag and possession limits are as follows: (1) Dolphin—10, not to exceed 60 per vessel,...

  13. 16 CFR 501.3 - Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. 501.3... REQUIREMENTS AND PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.3 Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners, packaged and labeled for retail sale are exempt from the requirements of § 500.15a...

  14. 16 CFR 501.3 - Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. 501.3... REQUIREMENTS AND PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.3 Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners, packaged and labeled for retail sale are exempt from the requirements of § 500.15a...

  15. 16 CFR 501.3 - Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. 501.3... REQUIREMENTS AND PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.3 Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners, packaged and labeled for retail sale are exempt from the requirements of § 500.15a...

  16. 16 CFR 501.3 - Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. 501.3... REQUIREMENTS AND PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.3 Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners, packaged and labeled for retail sale are exempt from the requirements of § 500.15a...

  17. 16 CFR 501.3 - Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. 501.3... REQUIREMENTS AND PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.3 Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners, packaged and labeled for retail sale are exempt from the requirements of § 500.15a...

  18. 50 CFR 660.721 - Recreational fishing bag limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Recreational fishing bag limits. 660.721... Migratory Fisheries § 660.721 Recreational fishing bag limits. This section applies to recreational fishing... daily bag limit of fishing during one calendar day. Federal recreational HMS regulations are...

  19. 50 CFR 660.721 - Recreational fishing bag limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Recreational fishing bag limits. 660.721... Migratory Fisheries § 660.721 Recreational fishing bag limits. This section applies to recreational fishing... daily bag limit of fishing during one calendar day. Federal recreational HMS regulations are...

  20. 50 CFR 660.721 - Recreational fishing bag limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Recreational fishing bag limits. 660.721... Migratory Fisheries § 660.721 Recreational fishing bag limits. This section applies to recreational fishing... daily bag limit of fishing during one calendar day. Federal recreational HMS regulations are...

  1. 21 CFR 870.3650 - Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag. 870.3650 Section 870...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3650 Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag. (a) Identification. A pacemaker polymeric mesh bag is an implanted device used to hold...

  2. 21 CFR 870.3650 - Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag. 870.3650 Section 870...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3650 Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag. (a) Identification. A pacemaker polymeric mesh bag is an implanted device used to hold...

  3. 21 CFR 870.3650 - Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag. 870.3650 Section 870...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3650 Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag. (a) Identification. A pacemaker polymeric mesh bag is an implanted device used to hold...

  4. 49 CFR 178.520 - Standards for textile bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR... requirements for textile bags are as follows: (1) The textiles used must be of good quality. The strength of... material. (3) Bags, water-resistant, 5L3: To prevent entry of moisture, the bag must be made waterproof...

  5. 49 CFR 178.519 - Standards for plastic film bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... follows: (1) Bags must be made of a suitable plastic material. The strength of the material used and the construction of the bag must be appropriate to the capacity and the intended use of the bag. Joints and... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS...

  6. 49 CFR 178.519 - Standards for plastic film bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for plastic film bags. 178.519 Section... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.519 Standards for plastic film bags. (a) The identification code for a plastic film bag is 5H4. (b) Construction requirements for plastic...

  7. miR-BAG: bagging based identification of microRNA precursors.

    PubMed

    Jha, Ashwani; Chauhan, Rohit; Mehra, Mrigaya; Singh, Heikham Russiachand; Shankar, Ravi

    2012-01-01

    Non-coding elements such as miRNAs play key regulatory roles in living systems. These ultra-short, ∼21 bp long, RNA molecules are derived from their hairpin precursors and usually participate in negative gene regulation by binding the target mRNAs. Discovering miRNA candidate regions across the genome has been a challenging problem. Most of the existing tools work reliably only for limited datasets. Here, we have presented a novel reliable approach, miR-BAG, developed to identify miRNA candidate regions in genomes by scanning sequences as well as by using next generation sequencing (NGS) data. miR-BAG utilizes a bootstrap aggregation based machine learning approach, successfully creating an ensemble of complementary learners to attain high accuracy while balancing sensitivity and specificity. miR-BAG was developed for wide range of species and tested extensively for performance over a wide range of experimentally validated data. Consideration of position-specific variation of triplet structural profiles and mature miRNA anchored structural profiles had a positive impact on performance. miR-BAG's performance was found consistent and the accuracy level was observed to be >90% for most of the species considered in the present study. In a detailed comparative analysis, miR-BAG performed better than six existing tools. Using miR-BAG NGS module, we identified a total of 22 novel miRNA candidate regions in cow genome in addition to a total of 42 cow specific miRNA regions. In practice, discovery of miRNA regions in a genome demands high-throughput data analysis, requiring large amount of processing. Considering this, miR-BAG has been developed in multi-threaded parallel architecture as a web server as well as a user friendly GUI standalone version.

  8. Urine bag as a modern day matula.

    PubMed

    Viswanathan, Stalin

    2013-01-01

    Since time immemorial uroscopic analysis has been a staple of diagnostic medicine. It received prominence during the middle ages with the introduction of the matula. Urinary discoloration is generally due to changes in urochrome concentration associated with the presence of other endogenous or exogenous pigments. Observation of urine colors has received less attention due to the advances made in urinalysis. A gamut of urine colors can be seen in urine bags of hospitalized patients that may give clue to presence of infections, medications, poisons, and hemolysis. Although worrisome to the patient, urine discoloration is mostly benign and resolves with removal of the offending agent. Twelve urine bags with discolored urine (and their predisposing causes) have been shown as examples. Urine colors (blue-green, yellow, orange, pink, red, brown, black, white, and purple) and their etiologies have been reviewed following a literature search in these databases: Pubmed, EBSCO, Science Direct, Proquest, Google Scholar, Springer, and Ovid.

  9. Bagging, boosting, and C4.5

    SciTech Connect

    Quinlan, J.R.

    1996-12-31

    Breiman`s bagging and Freund and Schapire`s boosting are recent methods for improving the predictive power of classifier learning systems. Both form a set of classifiers that are combined by voting, bagging by generating replicated bootstrap samples of the data, and boosting by adjusting the weights of training instances. This paper reports results of applying both techniques to a system that learns decision trees and testing on a representative collection of datasets. While both approaches substantially improve predictive accuracy, boosting shows the greater benefit. On the other hand, boosting also produces severe degradation on some datasets. A small change to the way that boosting combines the votes of learned classifiers reduces this downside and also leads to slightly better results on most of the datasets considered.

  10. Urine Bag as a Modern Day Matula

    PubMed Central

    Viswanathan, Stalin

    2013-01-01

    Since time immemorial uroscopic analysis has been a staple of diagnostic medicine. It received prominence during the middle ages with the introduction of the matula. Urinary discoloration is generally due to changes in urochrome concentration associated with the presence of other endogenous or exogenous pigments. Observation of urine colors has received less attention due to the advances made in urinalysis. A gamut of urine colors can be seen in urine bags of hospitalized patients that may give clue to presence of infections, medications, poisons, and hemolysis. Although worrisome to the patient, urine discoloration is mostly benign and resolves with removal of the offending agent. Twelve urine bags with discolored urine (and their predisposing causes) have been shown as examples. Urine colors (blue-green, yellow, orange, pink, red, brown, black, white, and purple) and their etiologies have been reviewed following a literature search in these databases: Pubmed, EBSCO, Science Direct, Proquest, Google Scholar, Springer, and Ovid. PMID:24959539

  11. Fertilizer use by class: Bag, bulk, fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Hargett, N.L.; Berry, J.T.; McKinney, S.L.

    1989-01-01

    US fertilizer consumption (excluding natural organic, secondary, and micronutrient materials) increased slightly from 42.7 million tons in 1987--1988 to 42.8 million tons in 1988--1989-a gain of less than one percent. In 1988--1989, dry bulk materials represented 52.1 percent of total consumption, fluid fertilizers accounted for 38.9 percent, and bagged materials the remaining 9.0 percent. Both dry and fluid fertilizers increased in tonnage over last year but market shares of each remained essentially the same. Bagged fertilizer continued to drop in tonnage as well as in market share. Fluid fertilizer use (including anhydrous ammonia) exceeded 16.6 million tons. Solid materials accounted for 26.2 million tons. TVA estimates that total dry bulk fertilizer distribution was 22.3 million tons, representing 85 percent of all solid materials. Estimated fertilizer sales of bagged products was 3.9 million tons compared to 4.1 million tons in 1987--1988. Multiple-nutrient fertilizer consumption was 17.5 million tons in 1988--1989. Class distribution of these materials was 60.1 percent dry bulk form, 22.4 percent fluid, and 17.5 percent bagged. Fluid multiple-nutrient materials consumption remained about the same as for 1987--1988 but increased in total market share from 9.1 percent to 9.2 percent. This report is compiled annually from individual State fertilizer tonnage reports. Forty States provided complete breakdown by class in 1988-1989. Only numerical data is included.

  12. BAG (Continuous Round Robin Packet Capture)

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, C. Philip

    2006-03-10

    Bag is a miniature pcap filter which takes pcap input (or input off the wire) using a bpf filter, if specified, and then writes the output to stdout or a file (in pcap format). It depends for some aspects of its functionality on a libpcap library which uses a shared memory packet capture ring bugger. There are two build in modules: chcksum and session. the build in chcksum modules is used to anonymize the ip addresses and repair any checksums in the stream. % bag -r /tmp/*.pcap -Cchucksum, 128.1 65: 10.10 The session module generates sessions which are defined as a series of packets that have two things in common. the first is a unique five-tuple composed oi an IP protocol, IP source address, IP source port, IP destination address, and IP destination port. The second is that if the originating packet is associated with a bi-directional service such as ftpltcp, characteristics and data will be kept for both flows involved with the service. The only protocols evaluated beyond the IP header are ICMP, TCP and UDP. A session can last for as long as bag is running. However, under normal conditions, sessions are generated every time they appear to have closed down. There is a man page included with the distribution which goes into more detail.

  13. BAG (Continuous Round Robin Packet Capture)

    2006-03-10

    Bag is a miniature pcap filter which takes pcap input (or input off the wire) using a bpf filter, if specified, and then writes the output to stdout or a file (in pcap format). It depends for some aspects of its functionality on a libpcap library which uses a shared memory packet capture ring bugger. There are two build in modules: chcksum and session. the build in chcksum modules is used to anonymize the ipmore » addresses and repair any checksums in the stream. % bag -r /tmp/*.pcap -Cchucksum, 128.1 65: 10.10 The session module generates sessions which are defined as a series of packets that have two things in common. the first is a unique five-tuple composed oi an IP protocol, IP source address, IP source port, IP destination address, and IP destination port. The second is that if the originating packet is associated with a bi-directional service such as ftpltcp, characteristics and data will be kept for both flows involved with the service. The only protocols evaluated beyond the IP header are ICMP, TCP and UDP. A session can last for as long as bag is running. However, under normal conditions, sessions are generated every time they appear to have closed down. There is a man page included with the distribution which goes into more detail.« less

  14. Reducing respirable dust levels during bag conveying and stacking using bag and belt cleaner device. Report of investigations/1995

    SciTech Connect

    Cecala, A.B.; Timko, R.J.; Prokop, A.D.

    1995-12-31

    The purpose of this study was to determine a cost-effective way to lower respirable dust levels in and around the bag-stacking function at mineral processing operations. The intent of the current research is to clean both the bags and the belt before they reach the bag-stacking location. Product removed or cleaned from the bags and belt is collected in a hopper at the bottom of the device and recycled back into the process periodically via a screw conveyor. By removing the product and dust from the exterior of the bags and the conveyor belt, dust liberation is greatly reduced while the bags are transported to the bag-stacking location.

  15. Bagworm bags as portable armour against invertebrate predators

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Some animals have evolved the use of environmental materials as “portable armour” against natural enemies. Portable bags that bagworm larvae (Lepidoptera: Psychidae) construct using their own silk and plant parts are generally believed to play an important role as a physical barrier against natural enemies. However, no experimental studies have tested the importance of bags as portable armour against predators. To clarify the defensive function, I studied the bagworm Eumeta minuscula and a potential predator Calosoma maximoviczi (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Under laboratory conditions, all bagworm larvae were attacked by carabid adults, but successfully defended themselves against the predators’ mandibles using their own bags. The portable bags, which are composed mainly of host plant twigs, may function as a physical barrier against predator mandibles. To test this hypothesis, I removed the twig bags and replaced some with herb leaf bags; all bag-removed larvae were easily caught and predated by carabids, while all bag-replaced larvae could successfully defend themselves against carabid attacks. Therefore, various types of portable bags can protect bagworm larvae from carabid attacks. This is the first study to test the defensive function of bagworm portable bags against invertebrate predators. PMID:26893969

  16. 49 CFR 178.518 - Standards for woven plastic bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... of water-resistant paper (e.g., waxed kraft paper, double-tarred kraft paper or plastic-coated kraft... following are identification codes for woven plastic bags: (1) 5H1 for an unlined or non-coated woven plastic bag; (2) 5H2 for a sift-proof woven plastic bag; and (3) 5H3 for a water-resistant woven...

  17. 49 CFR 178.518 - Standards for woven plastic bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of water-resistant paper (e.g., waxed kraft paper, double-tarred kraft paper or plastic-coated kraft... following are identification codes for woven plastic bags: (1) 5H1 for an unlined or non-coated woven plastic bag; (2) 5H2 for a sift-proof woven plastic bag; and (3) 5H3 for a water-resistant woven...

  18. 49 CFR 178.518 - Standards for woven plastic bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of water-resistant paper (e.g., waxed kraft paper, double-tarred kraft paper or plastic-coated kraft... following are identification codes for woven plastic bags: (1) 5H1 for an unlined or non-coated woven plastic bag; (2) 5H2 for a sift-proof woven plastic bag; and (3) 5H3 for a water-resistant woven...

  19. 49 CFR 178.518 - Standards for woven plastic bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... of water-resistant paper (e.g., waxed kraft paper, double-tarred kraft paper or plastic-coated kraft... following are identification codes for woven plastic bags: (1) 5H1 for an unlined or non-coated woven plastic bag; (2) 5H2 for a sift-proof woven plastic bag; and (3) 5H3 for a water-resistant woven...

  20. Two cases of death due to plastic bag suffocation.

    PubMed

    Nadesan, K; Beng, O B

    2001-01-01

    Deaths due to plastic bag suffocation or plastic bag asphyxia are not reported in Malaysia. In the West many suicides by plastic bag asphyxia, particularly in the elderly and those who are chronically and terminally ill, have been reported. Accidental deaths too are not uncommon in the West, both among small children who play with shopping bags and adolescents who are solvent abusers. Another well-known but not so common form of accidental death from plastic bag asphyxia is sexual asphyxia, which is mostly seen among adult males. Homicide by plastic bag asphyxia too is reported in the West and the victims are invariably infants or adults who are frail or terminally ill and who cannot struggle. Two deaths due to plastic bag asphyxia are presented. Both the autopsies were performed at the University Hospital Mortuary, Kuala Lumpur. Both victims were 50-year old married Chinese males. One death was diagnosed as suicide and the other as sexual asphyxia. Sexual asphyxia is generally believed to be a problem associated exclusively with the West. Specific autopsy findings are often absent in deaths due to plastic bag asphyxia and therefore such deaths could be missed when some interested parties have altered the scene and most importantly have removed the plastic bag. A visit to the scene of death is invariably useful.

  1. 50 CFR 660.721 - Recreational fishing bag limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HMS. The bag limits include fish taken in both state and Federal waters. (a) Albacore Tuna Daily Bag... recreational fisherman may take or retain no more than: (1) Ten albacore tuna if any part of the fishing trip..., Santa Barbara County) to the U.S.-Mexico border. (2) Twenty-five albacore tuna if any part of...

  2. 43. BUILDING NO. 454, ORDNANCE FACILITY (BAG CHARGE FILLING PLANT), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. BUILDING NO. 454, ORDNANCE FACILITY (BAG CHARGE FILLING PLANT), DETAIL OF EXPLOSION-PROOF ELECTRICAL SWITCH BOX (SWITCH GEAR INSIDE BOX SUBMERGED IN OIL TO QUENCH SPARKS), SWITCH EQUIPMENT MADE BY GENERAL ELECTRIC. - Picatinny Arsenal, 400 Area, Gun Bag Loading District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  3. 23. BUILDING NO. 452, ORDNANCE FACILITY (BAG CHARGE FILLING PLANT), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. BUILDING NO. 452, ORDNANCE FACILITY (BAG CHARGE FILLING PLANT), INTERIOR, LOOKING SOUTH DOWN CENTRAL CORRIDOR. NOTE BINS IN WALLS ON EITHER SIDE OF CORRIDOR, USED FOR PASSING EXPLOSIVES AND LOADED ITEMS TO SIEVING ROOMS BEYOND WALLS. - Picatinny Arsenal, 400 Area, Gun Bag Loading District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  4. 20. BUILDING NO. 448, ORDNANCE FACILITY (HOWITZER AND ALIQUOT BAG ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. BUILDING NO. 448, ORDNANCE FACILITY (HOWITZER AND ALIQUOT BAG LOADING), LOOKING WEST AT SOUTHEAST CORNER. BUILDING NO. 448-C, GENERAL STOREHOUSE (HIGH EXPLOSIVES MAGAZINE-WEIGHING & MIXING), IN BACKGROUND. - Picatinny Arsenal, 400 Area, Gun Bag Loading District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  5. Plastic Bags to Batteries: A Green Chemistry Solution

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-01

    Plastic bags are the scourge of roadsides, parking lots and landfills. But chemistry comes to the rescue! At Argonne National Laboratory, Vilas Pol has found a way to not only recycle plastic bags--but make them into valuable batteries for cell phones and laptops.

  6. 16. BUILDING NO. 445, PHYSICS LAB (FORMERLY GUN BAG LOADING), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. BUILDING NO. 445, PHYSICS LAB (FORMERLY GUN BAG LOADING), INTERIOR, SECOND LEVEL. LOOKING UP AT POWDER AND DISTRIBUTION TUBES. ELEVATOR SHAFT ON LEFT. - Picatinny Arsenal, 400 Area, Gun Bag Loading District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  7. 14. BUILDING NO. 445, PHYSICS LAB (FORMERLY GUN BAG LOADING), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. BUILDING NO. 445, PHYSICS LAB (FORMERLY GUN BAG LOADING), LOOKING EAST AT SOUTHWEST END OF BUILDING. HVAC EQUIPMENT LOCATED OUTDOORS IN FOREGROUND. DUCTS CONDUCT HOT OR COLD AIR INDOORS. ROUND PIPES ARE INSULATED STEAM LINES. BUILDING NO. 448, ORDNANCE FACILITY, IN BACKGROUND. - Picatinny Arsenal, 400 Area, Gun Bag Loading District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  8. 15. BUILDING NO. 445, PHYSICS LAB (FORMERLY GUN BAG LOADING), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. BUILDING NO. 445, PHYSICS LAB (FORMERLY GUN BAG LOADING), INTERIOR, FOURTH LEVEL. POWDER HOPPER AT TOP OF ELEVATOR SHAFT. POWDER DISTRIBUTED FROM HERE TO LOADING ROOMS BY TUBES. - Picatinny Arsenal, 400 Area, Gun Bag Loading District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  9. 10. BUILDING NO. 445, PHYSICS LAB (FORMERLY GUN BAG LOADING), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. BUILDING NO. 445, PHYSICS LAB (FORMERLY GUN BAG LOADING), LOOKING AT SOUTHEAST CORNER. BUILDING NO. 332, CHANGE HOUSE, IN RIGHT BACKGROUND; BUILDING NO. 445-F, MAGAZINE, IN LEFT BACKGROUND. - Picatinny Arsenal, 400 Area, Gun Bag Loading District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  10. Commander Brand stows trash in jettison bag on middeck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Commander Brand disposes of empty food containers and dry trash in jettison bag and stows bag in middeck volume under MA73C control panel. Side hatch is visible behind Brand. Brand is wearing constant wear garment with communications kit assembly headset interface unit (HIU) and note pad strapped to his thighs.

  11. Trainable Mentally Retarded Individual Behavioral Assessment Guide (BAG).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern County Superintendent of Schools, Bakersfield, CA.

    Presented is the individual Behavior Assessment Guide (BAG) for trainable mentally handicapped children. It is explained that the BAG, developed by teachers and staff members, is designed to serve as the basis for individualized programs. Following is a list of curriculum areas with examples of sub skills in parentheses: communication…

  12. 50 CFR 622.382 - Bag and possession limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bag and possession limits. 622.382 Section 622.382 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... and South Atlantic, other than off Florida—3. (B) Off Florida—2, which is the daily bag...

  13. 50 CFR 640.23 - Bag/possession limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SPINY LOBSTER FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Management... daily bag or possession limit for spiny lobster in or from the EEZ off the southern Atlantic states... fishing season specified in § 640.20(b)(1), the daily bag or possession limit of spiny lobster in or...

  14. 50 CFR 640.23 - Bag/possession limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SPINY LOBSTER FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Management... daily bag or possession limit for spiny lobster in or from the EEZ off the southern Atlantic states... fishing season specified in § 640.20(b)(1), the daily bag or possession limit of spiny lobster in or...

  15. 50 CFR 640.23 - Bag/possession limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SPINY LOBSTER FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Management... daily bag or possession limit for spiny lobster in or from the EEZ off the southern Atlantic states... fishing season specified in § 640.20(b)(1), the daily bag or possession limit of spiny lobster in or...

  16. 50 CFR 622.39 - Bag and possession limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Management Measures... bag limits may not be transferred at sea, regardless of where such transfer takes place, and such fish... bag limit for such captain and crew is zero. (vi) Red porgy—3. (vii) Black sea bass—5. (viii)...

  17. 50 CFR 622.39 - Bag and possession limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Management Measures... bag limits may not be transferred at sea, regardless of where such transfer takes place, and such fish... headboat. The bag limit for such captain and crew is zero. (vi) Red porgy—3. (vii) Black sea bass—15....

  18. 50 CFR 622.39 - Bag and possession limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Management Measures... section taken in the EEZ by a person subject to the bag limits may not be transferred at sea, regardless... bag limit for such captain and crew is zero. (vi) Red porgy—3. (vii) Black sea bass—5. (viii)...

  19. 49 CFR 178.521 - Standards for paper bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... identification codes for paper bags: (1) 5M1 for a multi-wall paper bag; and (2) 5M2 for a multi-wall water... more must be made waterproof by the use of either a water-resistant ply as one of the two outermost plies or a water-resistant barrier made of a suitable protective material between the two...

  20. Plastic Bags to Batteries: A Green Chemistry Solution

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Plastic bags are the scourge of roadsides, parking lots and landfills. But chemistry comes to the rescue! At Argonne National Laboratory, Vilas Pol has found a way to not only recycle plastic bags--but make them into valuable batteries for cell phones and laptops.

  1. 50 CFR 622.38 - Bag and possession limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... charter vessel or headboat. The bag limit for such captain and crew is zero. (3) Red snapper—2. However, no red snapper may be retained by the captain or crew of a vessel operating as a charter vessel or headboat. The bag limit for such captain and crew is zero. (4) Snappers, combined, excluding red, lane,...

  2. Skew estimation of document images using bagging.

    PubMed

    Meng, Gaofeng; Pan, Chunhong; Zheng, Nanning; Sun, Chen

    2010-07-01

    This paper proposes a general-purpose method for estimating the skew angles of document images. Rather than to derive a skew angle merely from text lines, the proposed method exploits various types of visual cues of image skew available in local image regions. The visual cues are extracted by Radon transform and then outliers of them are iteratively rejected through a floating cascade. A bagging (bootstrap aggregating) estimator is finally employed to combine the estimations on the local image blocks. Our experimental results show significant improvements against the state-of-the-art methods, in terms of execution speed and estimation accuracy, as well as the robustness to short and sparse text lines, multiple different skews and the presence of nontextual objects of various types and quantities.

  3. Attractive Casimir effect in an infrared modified gluon bag model

    SciTech Connect

    Oxman, L.E.; Amaral, R.L.P.G.

    2005-12-15

    In this work, we are motivated by previous attempts to derive the vacuum contribution to the bag energy in terms of familiar Casimir energy calculations for spherical geometries. A simple infrared modified model is introduced which allows studying the effects of the analytic structure as well as the geometry in a clear manner. In this context, we show that if a class of infrared vanishing effective gluon propagators is considered, then the renormalized vacuum energy for a spherical bag is attractive, as required by the bag model to adjust hadron spectroscopy.

  4. BAG: A code for predicting the performance of a gas bag impact attenuation system for the PATHFINDER lander

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, J.K.; Waye, D.E.

    1993-11-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is planning to launch a network of scientific probes to Mars beginning in late 1996. The precursor to this network will be PATHFINDER. Decelerating PATHFINDER from the high speed of its approach to Mars will require the use of several deceleration techniques working in series. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has proposed that gas bags be used to cushion the payload`s ground impact on Mars. This report presents the computer code, BAG, which has been developed to calculate the pneumatic performance of gas bag impact attenuators and the one-dimensional rigid-body dynamic performance of a payload during ground impact.

  5. Color Based Bags-of-Emotions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solli, Martin; Lenz, Reiner

    In this paper we describe how to include high level semantic information, such as aesthetics and emotions, into Content Based Image Retrieval. We present a color-based emotion-related image descriptor that can be used for describing the emotional content of images. The color emotion metric used is derived from psychophysical experiments and based on three variables: activity, weight and heat. It was originally designed for single-colors, but recent research has shown that the same emotion estimates can be applied in the retrieval of multi-colored images. Here we describe a new approach, based on the assumption that perceived color emotions in images are mainly affected by homogenous regions, defined by the emotion metric, and transitions between regions. RGB coordinates are converted to emotion coordinates, and for each emotion channel, statistical measurements of gradient magnitudes within a stack of low-pass filtered images are used for finding interest points corresponding to homogeneous regions and transitions between regions. Emotion characteristics are derived for patches surrounding each interest point, and saved in a bag-of-emotions, that, for instance, can be used for retrieving images based on emotional content.

  6. Transcriptional upregulation of BAG3 upon proteasome inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Huaqin Liu Haimei; Zhang Haiyan; Guan Yifu; Du Zhenxian

    2008-01-11

    Proteasome inhibitors exhibit antitumoral activity against malignancies of different histology. Emerging evidence indicates that antiapoptotic factors may also accumulate as a consequence of exposure to these drugs, thus it seems plausible that activation of survival signaling cascades might compromise their antitumoral effects. Bcl-2-associated athanogene (BAG) family proteins are characterized by their property of interaction with a variety of partners involved in modulating the proliferation/death balance, including heat shock proteins (HSP), Bcl-2, Raf-1. In this report, we demonstrated that BAG3 is a novel antiapoptotic molecule induced by proteasome inhibitors in various cancer cells at the transcriptional level. Moreover, we demonstrated that BAG3 knockdown by siRNA sensitized cancer cells to MG132-induced apoptosis. Taken together, our results suggest that BAG3 induction might represents as an unwanted molecular consequence of utilizing proteasome inhibitors to combat tumors.

  7. Director von Braun Presents General Medaris With Golf Bag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1959-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center Director Wernher von Braun presents General J.B. Medaris with a new golf bag. General Medaris, (left) was a Commander of the Army Ballistic Missile Agency (ABMA) in Redstone Arsenal, Alabama during 1955 to 1958.

  8. View of concrete sand bag form concentration in the Merry ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of concrete sand bag form concentration in the Merry Generator House Southeast corner, looking north - Arthur Holmes Merry Generator House, Signal Lake North of Range Road, Fort Gordon, Richmond County, GA

  9. View of North half of concrete sand bag form concentration ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of North half of concrete sand bag form concentration in the Merry Generator House southeast corner, looking east - Arthur Holmes Merry Generator House, Signal Lake North of Range Road, Fort Gordon, Richmond County, GA

  10. View of South half of concrete sand bag form concentration ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of South half of concrete sand bag form concentration in the Merry Generator House Southeast corner, ooking east - Arthur Holmes Merry Generator House, Signal Lake North of Range Road, Fort Gordon, Richmond County, GA

  11. 5. Photocopy of a section of the bag house from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photocopy of a section of the bag house from J.L. Bray, The Principles of Metallurgy, Ginn & Co. . New York, 1929. - International Smelting & Refining Company, Tooele Smelter, Blast Furnace Building, State Route 178, Tooele, Tooele County, UT

  12. 50 CFR 622.382 - Bag and possession limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) King and Spanish mackerel—(1) Bag limits. (i) Atlantic migratory group king mackerel— (A) Mid-Atlantic... does not exceed 5. (ii) Gulf migratory group king mackerel—2. (iii) Atlantic migratory group...

  13. Cranking the Chiral Soliton Bag Model:. Gluonic Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Jacqueline; Bourenane, Mohamed; Clément, Gérard

    The nucleon-delta mass difference is computed in the chiral soliton bag model with soft confinement of gluons by the cranking method. The resulting value of the effective strong fine structure constant is αs≃0.7.

  14. Is the Capsular Bag Perimeter Round or Elliptical?

    PubMed Central

    Amigó, Alfredo; Bonaque-González, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To report findings that could suggest an elliptical shape of the capsular bag. Methods: Five eyes of three patients with axial length greater than 24 mm underwent phacoemulsification cataract surgery with plate-haptic multifocal toric intraocular lens (IOL) implantation oriented in the vertical meridian. Results: In all cases, correct orientation of the IOLs was verified 30 minutes after surgery. After 24 hours, all eyes demonstrated unwanted rotation of the IOLs ranging from 15 to 45 degrees. The IOLs remained stable in the new position in all cases until adhesion of the capsular bag took place. Conclusion: These observations could suggest that the perimeter of the capsular bag has an elliptical shape. Therefore, the IOL tends to become fixated in a meridian of the capsular bag that best fits the diagonal diameter of the IOL. PMID:27413495

  15. Lab Creates 'Fake Vomit' To Test Space Trash Bag

    NASA Video Gallery

    After answering the question of how the space potty works, astronaut Mike Massimino now visits a NASA lab where chemists have been working hard to develop a next-generation trash bag for future exp...

  16. Deformation of the Bag Skirt of ACV in Heave Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senba, Hiromitsu; Matsuo, Hideo; Ishikawa, Hiroyuki; Yoshimoto, Shintarou; Hiroe, Tetsuyuki; Fujiwara, Kazuhito

    A method to predict the change of the cushion pressure and the bag skirt configuration of ACV in heave is proposed. It is a quasistatic analysis based on the analysis of the skirt configuration in static operation that was proposed by the present authors. The cushion pressure depends on the velocity of motion as well as the hoverheight. It is higher in the downward motion than in the upward motion with the same hoverheight. As the model approaches the ground surface, the bag skirt is pushed outwards and also upwards but the hoverheight still decreases. This produces the increase of the cushion pressure that also flattened the configuration of the bag. The outward displacement of the bag produces the additional increase of the cushion base area and increases the restoring force. The stability is then increased.

  17. 76 FR 59999 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ... Corporation (collectively, the petitioners), and the respondents, Thai Plastic Bags Industries Co., Ltd. (TPBI... ``Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags from Thailand-- Thai Plastic Bags Industries Co., Ltd. (TPBI), Final Results... Adjustments for the Final Results--Thai Plastic Bags Industries Co. (TPBI), Ltd.'' dated September 21,...

  18. 24. BUILDING NO. 452, ORDNANCE FACILITY (BAG CHARGE FILLING PLANT), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. BUILDING NO. 452, ORDNANCE FACILITY (BAG CHARGE FILLING PLANT), INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING WEST AT NORTH END OF CENTRAL CORRIDOR (ROOM 3). STAIRWAY WORKBENCH WITH COMPRESSED-AIR POWERED CARTRIDGE LOADER. ARMORED PASS-THROUGH OF TRANSFER BOX FOR PASSING EXPLOSIVES MATERIALS THROUGH TO NEXT ROOM TO THE NORTH. - Picatinny Arsenal, 400 Area, Gun Bag Loading District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  19. The use of filtered bags to increase waste payload capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Dustin, D.F.; Thorp, D.T.; Rivera, M.A.

    1998-03-03

    For the past few years, the Department of Energy has favored the direct disposal of low plutonium content residue materials from Rocky Flats rather than engage in expensive and time consuming plutonium recovery operations. One impediment to direct disposal has been the wattage limit imposed by the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant on hydrogenous materials such as combustibles and sludges. The issue of concern is the radiolytic generation and accumulation of hydrogen and other explosive gases in waste containers. The wattage limits that existed through 1996 restricted the amount of plutonium bearing hydrogenous materials that could be packaged in a WIPP bound waste drum to only a fraction of the capacity of a drum. Typically, only about one kilogram of combustible residue could be packaged in a waste drum before the wattage limit was exceeded resulting in an excessively large number of drums to be procured, stored, shipped, and interred. The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site has initiated the use of filtered plastic bags (called bag-out bags) used to remove transuranic waste materials from glove box lines. The bags contain small, disk like HEPA filters which are effective in containing radioactively contaminated particulate material but allow for the diffusion of hydrogen gas. Used in conjunction with filtered 55 gallon drums, filtered bag-out bags were pursued as a means to increase the allowable wattage limits for selected residue materials. In February 1997, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission approved the use of filtered bag-out bags for transuranic waste materials destined for WIPP. The concomitant increase in wattage limits now allows for approximately four times the payload per waste drum for wattage limited materials.

  20. The spin bag mechanism of high temperature superconductivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrieffer, J. R.; Wen, X.-G.; Zhang, S.-C.

    1989-01-01

    In oxide superconductors the local suppression of antiferromagnetic correlations in the vicinity of a hole lowers the energy of the system. This quasi two-dimensional bag of weakened spin order follows the hole in its motion. In addition, holes prefer to share a bag, leading to a strong pairing attraction and a high Tc superconductivity. There are many experimental consequences of this mechanism for both the superconducting and normal phases.

  1. 49 CFR 178.521 - Standards for paper bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... for paper bags: (1) 5M1 for a multi-wall paper bag; and (2) 5M2 for a multi-wall water-resistant paper... must be made waterproof by the use of either a water-resistant ply as one of the two outermost plies or a water-resistant barrier made of a suitable protective material between the two outermost plies....

  2. 49 CFR 178.521 - Standards for paper bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... for paper bags: (1) 5M1 for a multi-wall paper bag; and (2) 5M2 for a multi-wall water-resistant paper... must be made waterproof by the use of either a water-resistant ply as one of the two outermost plies or a water-resistant barrier made of a suitable protective material between the two outermost plies....

  3. 49 CFR 178.521 - Standards for paper bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... for paper bags: (1) 5M1 for a multi-wall paper bag; and (2) 5M2 for a multi-wall water-resistant paper... must be made waterproof by the use of either a water-resistant ply as one of the two outermost plies or a water-resistant barrier made of a suitable protective material between the two outermost plies....

  4. 49 CFR 178.521 - Standards for paper bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... for paper bags: (1) 5M1 for a multi-wall paper bag; and (2) 5M2 for a multi-wall water-resistant paper... must be made waterproof by the use of either a water-resistant ply as one of the two outermost plies or a water-resistant barrier made of a suitable protective material between the two outermost plies....

  5. PPS fibers allow gas bag filters to replace scrubbers

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    Wisconsin Electric Power Co. (WEPCO) met the latest federal clean air standards by installing a new pollution control system using fabric filter bags to trap superheated ash and other contaminants at its coal-fired Valley Power Plant. The 6-inch diameter, 20-foot-long filter bags are made form fibers produced by Amoco Fabrics and Fibers (Greenville, South Carolina) using Ryton{reg_sign} polyphenylene sulfide (PPS), an engineering thermoplastic produced by Phillips Chemical Co. (Bartlesville, Oklahoma). The Valley Power Plant produces steam-generated electricity and steam heat for customers in downtown Milwaukee. The plant`s pollution control system is fitted with four bag-house units, each serving one of the four coal-fired boilers. The system contains 18,000 filter bags (560 bags per module, with eight modules in each baghouse). Each house has 4,480 bags to handle a flue stream of up to 400,000 cubic feet per minute at temperatures between 280 F and 320 F.

  6. Cancellous bone homograft storage with aluminium-polyethylene bags.

    PubMed

    Meana, A; Martinez, R; Cañal, P; Arriaga, M J; Román, F San; Llames, S; Orós, C; Moreno, A; Fernandez, C

    2006-01-01

    In order to transport and cryopreserve human tissues, it is essential to have an easy-to-use recipient where tissues can be kept in sterile conditions. Here we show the results obtained by using Macopharma's tissue freezing bags, an aluminium-polyethylene multilayer bag, in our tissue bank of the Centro Comunitario de Sangre y Tejidos de Asturias. Five hundred and twenty-seven cancellous bone homografts were obtained from hospitals located 120 km around our Bank. The homografts were submitted to bacteriological controls and sent to our bank in these bags. They were stored at -70 degrees C and sent in dry ice to about 50 hospitals, where the tissue was bacteriologically controlled and grafted. Furthermore, the behaviour of these bags at -140 degrees C (vapour nitrogen) or -196 degrees C (liquid nitrogen) was tested. Our results indicate that Macopharma aluminium-polyethylene bags are suitable for the transporting and cryopreserving of cancellous bone homografts. These bags could also be used for keeping tissues in nitrogen containers.

  7. Study of the suitability of DUO plastic bags for the storage of dynamites.

    PubMed

    Sáiz, Jorge; Ferrando, José-Luis; Atoche, Juan-Carlos; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2013-10-10

    A comparative study on the retentiveness of two plastic bags (DUO and Royal Pack) has been carried out by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detection. Two types of dynamites were packed in both plastic bags. The bags were placed into glass jars and headspace analyses were performed over 11 weeks to detect whether the volatile constituents of the dynamites were released from the bags. DUO plastic bags showed much better retentiveness than Royal Pack plastic bags. Ethylene glycol dinitrate (EGDN) was quickly detected in the headspace of the glass jars containing Royal Pack plastic bags after 1 week of storage. On the contrary, only a weak signal of EGDN, which was not detectable in the total ion chromatogram, was detected after 11 weeks of storage. Moreover, DUO plastic bags have shown less background signals than the Royal Pack bags, being the former bags much more suitable for the storage of dynamites.

  8. Study of the suitability of DUO plastic bags for the storage of dynamites.

    PubMed

    Sáiz, Jorge; Ferrando, José-Luis; Atoche, Juan-Carlos; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2013-10-10

    A comparative study on the retentiveness of two plastic bags (DUO and Royal Pack) has been carried out by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detection. Two types of dynamites were packed in both plastic bags. The bags were placed into glass jars and headspace analyses were performed over 11 weeks to detect whether the volatile constituents of the dynamites were released from the bags. DUO plastic bags showed much better retentiveness than Royal Pack plastic bags. Ethylene glycol dinitrate (EGDN) was quickly detected in the headspace of the glass jars containing Royal Pack plastic bags after 1 week of storage. On the contrary, only a weak signal of EGDN, which was not detectable in the total ion chromatogram, was detected after 11 weeks of storage. Moreover, DUO plastic bags have shown less background signals than the Royal Pack bags, being the former bags much more suitable for the storage of dynamites. PMID:24004963

  9. Determination of H{sub 2} Diffusion Rates through Various Closures on TRU Waste Bag-Out Bags

    SciTech Connect

    Phillip D. Noll, Jr.; E. Larry Callis; Kirsten M. Norman

    1999-06-01

    The amount of H{sub 2} diffusion through twist and tape (horse-tail), wire tie, plastic tie, and heat sealed closures on transuranic (TRU) waste bag-out bags has been determined. H{sub 2} diffusion through wire and plastic tie closures on TRU waste bag-out bags has not been previously characterized and, as such, TRU waste drums containing bags with these closures cannot be certified and/or shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Since wire ties have been used at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) from 1980 to 1991 and the plastic ties from 1991 to the present, there are currently thousands of waste drums that cannot be shipped to the WIPP site. Repackaging the waste would be prohibitively expensive. Diffusion experiments performed on the above mentioned closures show that the diffusion rates of plastic tie and horse-tail closures are greater than the accepted value presented in the TRU-PACT 11 Safety Analysis Report (SAR). Diffusion rates for wire tie closures are not statistically different from the SAR value. Thus, drums containing bags with these closures can now potentially be certified which would allow for their consequent shipment to WIPP.

  10. Mutation in BAG3 Causes Severe Dominant Childhood Muscular Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Selcen, Duygu; Muntoni, Francesco; Burton, Barbara K.; MD, Elena Pegoraro; Sewry, Caroline; Bite, Anna V.; Engel, Andrew G.

    2008-01-01

    Objective Myofibrillar myopathies (MFM) are morphologically distinct but genetically heterogeneous muscular dystrophies in which disintegration of Z disks and then of myofibrils is followed by ectopic accumulation of multiple proteins. Cardiomyopathy, neuropathy, and dominant inheritance are frequent associated features. Mutations in αB-crystallin, desmin, myotilin, Zasp, or filamin-C can cause MFM, and were detected in 32/85 patients of the Mayo MFM cohort. Bag3, another Z-disk associated protein, has antiapoptotic properties and its targeted deletion in mice causes fulminant myopathy with early lethality. We therefore searched for mutations in BAG3 in 53 unrelated MFM patients. Methods We searched for mutations in BAG3 by direct sequencing and excluded polymorphism using allele-specific PCR in relatives and 200 control subjects. We analyzed structural changes in muscle by histochemistry, immunocytochemistry and electron microscopy, examined mobility of the mutant Bag3 by nondenaturing electrophoresis, and searched for abnormal aggregation of the mutant protein in COS-7 cells. Results We identified a heterozygous p.Pro209Leu mutation in three patients. All presented in childhood, had progressive limb and axial muscle weakness, and developed cardiomyopathy and severe respiratory insufficiency in their teens; two had rigid spines and one a peripheral neuropathy. Electron microscopy showed disintegration of Z disks, extensive accumulation of granular debris and larger inclusions, and apoptosis of 8% of the nuclei. On nondenaturing electrophoresis of muscle extracts, the Bag3 complex migrated faster in patient than control extracts, and expression of FLAG-labeled mutant and wild-type Bag3 in COS cells revealed abnormal aggregation of the mutant protein. Interpretation We conclude mutation in Bag3 defines a novel severe autosomal dominant childhood muscular dystrophy. PMID:19085932

  11. In vitro evaluation of current disinfectants for leg bags.

    PubMed

    Giroux, J; Perkash, I

    1985-01-01

    An in vitro study was performed investigating the bactericidal ability of five common cleaning agents for leg bags against organisms frequently causing urinary tract infection in spinal cord injured (SCI) patients. Individual disposable Uridrain leg bags were inoculated with urine containing greater than 10(5) colonies/ml of the selected organism. The organisms used were: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Providencia stuartii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens, Herellea, and Enterococcus. Each pair of inoculated bags (one bag for immediate or 0 hour culture and one bag for 24 hour culture) was filled with 30 ml of the test solution, cleaned, drained, and then cultured. The tested solutions included: plain tap water, 1/4% acetic acid, 3% hydrogen peroxide, Sporicidin 1:16 dilution, and 0.06% sodium hypochlorite. The results demonstrated that plain tap water had no effect on reducing the bacterial counts and that 1/4% acetic acid and 3% hydrogen peroxide had only a marginal effect across the spectrum of organisms. Sporicidin and 0.06% sodium hypochlorite exhibited complete bactericidal ability. In the final analysis, 0.06% sodium hypochlorite is the most cost efficient and readily accessible to patients. In practical application, disinfecting daily with 0.06% sodium hypochlorite can decrease external contamination of urinary drainage appliances in SCI patients.

  12. Double Vacuum Bag Process for Resin Matrix Composite Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, Tan-Hung (Inventor); Jensen, Brian J. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A double vacuum bag molding assembly with improved void management and laminate net shape control which provides a double vacuum enviromnent for use in fabricating composites from prepregs containing air and/or volatiles such as reactive resin matrix composites or composites from solvent containing prepregs with non-reactive resins matrices. By using two vacuum environments during the curing process, a vacuum can be drawn during a B-stage of a two-step cycle without placing the composite under significant relative pressure. During the final cure stage, a significant pressure can be applied by releasing the vacuum in one of the two environments. Inner and outer bags are useful for creating the two vacuum environments with a perforated tool intermediate the two. The composite is placed intermediate a tool plate and a caul plate in the first environment with the inner bag and tool plate defining the first environment. The second environment is characterized by the outer bag which is placed over the inner bag and the tool plate.

  13. Asphyxial suicide by inhalation of chloroform inside a plastic bag.

    PubMed

    Zorro, Andres Rodriguez

    2014-01-01

    Asphyxia suicide by placing a plastic bag over the head in addition with inhalation of gases or use of sedative substances is an unusual method of committing suicide, but frequently referenced by right to die groups in the Internet. This article reports 2 suicides in which chloroform was used to induce unconsciousness and subsequent asphyxia by placing the head in a plastic bag. Case histories of 2 males, ages 23 and 28, are described with special emphasis on characteristics death related to suffocation using plastic bags and chloroform. The final remarkable point in both cases is that the victims previously searched the WEB for instructions of suicide methods. The importance of the phenomenon of misuse of Internet by young people who commit suicide is stressed.

  14. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags fro Reducing Exploration Mission Logistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baccus, Shelley; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.; Borrego, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    The Logistics Reduction (LR) project within the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) division is tasked with reducing logistical mass and repurposing logistical items. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags (MCTB) have been designed such that they can serve the same purpose as a Cargo Transfer Bag (CTB), the common logistics carrying bag for the International Space Station (ISS). After use as a cargo carrier, a regular CTB becomes trash, whereas the MCTB can be unfolded into a flat panel for reuse. Concepts and potential benefits for various MCTB applications will be discussed including partitions, crew quarters, solar radiation storm shelters, acoustic blankets, and forward osmosis water processing. Acoustic MCTBs are currently in use on ISS to reduce the noise generated by the T2 treadmill, which reaches the hazard limit at high speeds. The development of the AMCTB included identification of keep out zones, acoustic properties, deployment considerations, and structural testing. Features developed for these considerations are applicable to MCTBs for all crew outfitting applications.

  15. Reducing Mission Logistics with Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baccus, Shelley; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.; Borrego, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    The Logistics Reduction (LR) project within Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) is tasked with reducing logistical mass and repurposing logistical items. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags (MCTB) have been designed such that they can serve the same purpose as a Cargo Transfer Bag (CTB), the common logistics carrying bag for the International Space Station (ISS). After use as a cargo carrier, a regular CTB becomes trash, whereas the MCTB can be unfolded into a flat panel for reuse. Concepts and potential benefits for various MCTB applications will be discussed including partitions, crew quarters, solar radiation storm shelters, acoustic blankets, and forward osmosis water processing. Acoustic MCTBs are currently in use on ISS to reduce the noise generated by the T2 treadmill, which reaches the hazard limit at high speeds. The development of the AMCTB included identification of keep-out zones, acoustic properties, deployment considerations, and structural testing. Features developed for these considerations are applicable to MCTBs for all crew outfitting applications.

  16. Gyrokinetic modeling: A multi-water-bag approach

    SciTech Connect

    Morel, P.; Gravier, E.; Besse, N.; Klein, R.; Ghizzo, A.; Bertrand, P.; Garbet, X.; Ghendrih, P.; Grandgirard, V.; Sarazin, Y.

    2007-11-15

    Predicting turbulent transport in nearly collisionless fusion plasmas requires one to solve kinetic (or, more precisely, gyrokinetic) equations. In spite of considerable progress, several pending issues remain; although more accurate, the kinetic calculation of turbulent transport is much more demanding in computer resources than fluid simulations. An alternative approach is based on a water-bag representation of the distribution function that is not an approximation but rather a special class of initial conditions, allowing one to reduce the full kinetic Vlasov equation into a set of hydrodynamic equations while keeping its kinetic character. The main result for the water-bag model is a lower cost in the parallel velocity direction since no differential operator associated with some approximate numerical scheme has to be carried out on this variable v{sub parallel}. Indeed, a small bag number is sufficient to correctly describe the ion temperature gradient instability.

  17. Spin-bag mechanism of high-temperature superconductivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrieffer, J. R.; Wen, X.-G.; Zhang, S.-C.

    1988-01-01

    A new approach to the theory of high-temperature superconductivity is proposed, based on the two-dimensional antiferromagnetic spin correlations observed in these materials over distances large compared to the lattice spacing. The spin ordering produces an electronic pseudogap which is locally suppressed by the addition of a hole. This suppression forms a bag inside which the hole is self-consistently trapped. Two holes are attracted by sharing a common bag. The resulting pairing interaction leads to a superconducting energy gap which is nodeless over the Femri surface.

  18. 40. BUILDING NO. 454, ORDNANCE FACILITY (BAG CHANGE FILLING PLANT), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. BUILDING NO. 454, ORDNANCE FACILITY (BAG CHANGE FILLING PLANT), DETAIL SOUTHEAST SIDE OF EXTERIOR ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT ROOM, SHOWING DOOR TO SEWING ROOM NO. 3, VENTILATOR FAN (OVER DOOR), STEAM LINE (PIPE), SEWING MACHINE MOTOR IN OVERHEAD, ALARM BELL, EXPLOSION-PROOF SWITCH BOXES, GROUNDS ON DOORS, PULL ALARM HANDLE (EXTREME RIGHT; PULLEY CABLE CONDUCTED IN CONDUIT TO SWITCH INSIDE BUILDING. PULLEYS INSIDE ALL ELBOW JOINTS.) - Picatinny Arsenal, 400 Area, Gun Bag Loading District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  19. [Effects of fruit bag color on the microenvironment, yield and quality of tomato fruits].

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Gao, Fang-sheng; Xu, Kun; Xu, Ning

    2013-08-01

    In order to clarify the ecological and biological effects of fruit bagging, tomato variety JYK was taken as the test material to study the changes of the microenvironment in different color fruit bags and the effects of these changes on the fruit development, yield and quality, with the treatment without fruit bagging as the control (CK). The results showed that bagging with different color fruit bags had positive effects in decreasing the light intensity of the microenvironment and increasing its temperature and humidity, and thus, increased the single fruit mass and promoted the harvest stage advanced. Black bag had the best effects in increasing microenvironment temperature and fruit mass, with the single fruit mass increased by 27.2% and the harvest period shortened by 10 days, compared with CK. The fruit maturation period in colorless bag, blue bag and red bag was shortened by 8, 3 and 2 days, and the single mass was increased by 11.8%, 6.4% and 4.8%, respectively. Moreover, the coloring and lycopene content of the fruits with different color bags bagging were improved, but the fruit rigidity and fruit soluble solid, soluble protein, and soluble sugar contents were decreased. Therefore, bagging with different color bags could improve the yield of tomato fruits, but decrease the fruit nutritional quality.

  20. Bag-breakup control of surface drag in hurricanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troitskaya, Yuliya; Zilitinkevich, Sergej; Kandaurov, Alexander; Ermakova, Olga; Kozlov, Dmitry; Sergeev, Daniil

    2016-04-01

    Air-sea interaction at extreme winds is of special interest now in connection with the problem of the sea surface drag reduction at the wind speed exceeding 30-35 m/s. This phenomenon predicted by Emanuel (1995) and confirmed by a number of field (e.g., Powell, et al, 2003) and laboratory (Donelan et al, 2004) experiments still waits its physical explanation. Several papers attributed the drag reduction to spume droplets - spray turning off the crests of breaking waves (e.g., Kudryavtsev, Makin, 2011, Bao, et al, 2011). The fluxes associated with the spray are determined by the rate of droplet production at the surface quantified by the sea spray generation function (SSGF), defined as the number of spray particles of radius r produced from the unit area of water surface in unit time. However, the mechanism of spume droplets' formation is unknown and empirical estimates of SSGF varied over six orders of magnitude; therefore, the production rate of large sea spray droplets is not adequately described and there are significant uncertainties in estimations of exchange processes in hurricanes. Herewith, it is unknown what is air-sea interface and how water is fragmented to spray at hurricane wind. Using high-speed video, we observed mechanisms of production of spume droplets at strong winds by high-speed video filming, investigated statistics and compared their efficiency. Experiments showed, that the generation of the spume droplets near the wave crest is caused by the following events: bursting of submerged bubbles, generation and breakup of "projections" and "bag breakup". Statistical analysis of results of these experiments showed that the main mechanism of spray-generation is attributed to "bag-breakup mechanism", namely, inflating and consequent blowing of short-lived, sail-like pieces of the water-surface film. Using high-speed video, we show that at hurricane winds the main mechanism of spray production is attributed to "bag-breakup", namely, inflating and

  1. Heavy metal content in rubbish bags used for separate collection of biowaste.

    PubMed

    Huerta-Pujol, Oscar; Soliva, Montserrat; Giró, Francesc; López, Marga

    2010-01-01

    The heavy metal content of several rubbish bags used to collect the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) is shown in this paper. Nowadays, several public awareness campaigns carried out by municipalities have promoted rubbish bags based mainly on their appearance, without concern for their heavy metal content. A high amount of heavy metals was detected in some polyethylene bags promoted in different campaigns for OFMSW source-sorted collection, while compostable bags presented low quantities of heavy metals. Some other rubbish bags, as well as commercial bags, were also analysed for comparison. These results should be taken into account before promoting the use of one or other type of bag. Moreover, the rubbish bag manufacturers should reduce the heavy metal content in order to avoid heavy metal scattering in the environment, and also to reduce the consumption of raw materials.

  2. 75 FR 16428 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Affirmative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... merchandise. See Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Indonesia, Taiwan, and Vietnam; Determinations, 74 FR... Alignment of Final Countervailing Duty Determination with ] Final Antidumping Duty Determination, 74 FR... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags from the Socialist Republic of...

  3. Legitimization of regulatory norms: Waterfowl hunter acceptance of changing duck bag limits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroeder, Susan A.; Fulton, David C.; Lawrence, Jeffrey S.; Cordts, Steven D.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have examined response to regulatory change over time, or addressed hunter attitudes about changes in hunting bag limits. This article explores Minnesota waterfowl hunters’ attitudes about duck bag limits, examining attitudes about two state duck bag limits that were initially more restrictive than the maximum set by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), but then increased to match federal limits. Results are from four mail surveys that examined attitudes about bag limits over time. Following two bag limit increases, a greater proportion of hunters rated the new bag limit “too high” and a smaller proportion rated it “too low.” Several years following the first bag limit increase, the proportion of hunters who indicated that the limit was “too high” had declined, suggesting hunter acceptance of the new regulation. Results suggest that waterfowl bag limits may represent legal norms that influence hunter attitudes and gain legitimacy over time.

  4. Comparisons of the effects of a foam pad, mung bean bag, and plastic bead bag on postural stability disturbance in healthy young adults

    PubMed Central

    Siriphorn, Akkradate; Chamonchant, Dannaovarat; Boonyong, Sujitra

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of unstable support surfaces, i.e. foam pad, mung bean bag, and plastic bead bag, on postural stability disturbance. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-two healthy young adults (11 male and 11 female; aged 21.09 ± 1.44 years; BMI 20.40 ± 1.40 kg/m2) participated in the study. The Balance Master™ was used to evaluate the limit of stability and the unilateral stance performance. Each participant was assessed while standing on the following surfaces: 1) a firm surface, 2) a foam pad, 3) a mung bean bag, and 4) a plastic bead bag. The order of surfaces was randomly assigned. [Results] The mung bean bag and plastic bead bag showed greater disturbances in limit of stability and unilateral stance than the foam pad. There was no significant difference in postural stability disturbance between the mung bean bag and plastic bead bag. [Conclusion] These results suggested that both the mung bean bag and plastic bead bag could be used as a low-cost tool for balance assessment instead of a foam pad in healthy young adults. PMID:27065085

  5. 42 CFR 84.85 - Breathing bags; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing bags; minimum requirements. 84.85 Section 84.85 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES...

  6. 42 CFR 84.88 - Breathing bag test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing bag test. 84.88 Section 84.88 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained...

  7. 42 CFR 84.88 - Breathing bag test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Breathing bag test. 84.88 Section 84.88 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained...

  8. 42 CFR 84.85 - Breathing bags; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Breathing bags; minimum requirements. 84.85 Section 84.85 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES...

  9. Long fluid filled bags suspended by line forces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullins, M. L.; Duncan, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    A previous analysis of fluid filled storage bags is extended to the case of a long fluid filled cylindrical membrane supported by uniform line loads. Cross-sectional shape, stiffness of the support system and stress resultants in the membrane are determined. The application of the numerical results to problems arising in the design of nonrigid airships is discussed.

  10. 50 CFR 660.721 - Recreational fishing bag limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... recreational fisherman may take or retain no more than: (1) Ten albacore tuna if any part of the fishing trip... permit for albacore or bluefin tuna harvested by a recreational fishing vessel and landed in California... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Recreational fishing bag limits....

  11. Developing Baby Bag Design by Using Kansei Engineering Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janari, D.; Rakhmawati, A.

    2016-01-01

    Consumer's preferences and market demand are essential factors for product's success. Thus, in achieving its success, a product should have design that could fulfill consumer's expectation. Purpose of this research is accomplishing baby bag product as stipulated by Kansei. The results that represent Kanseiwords are; neat, unique, comfortable, safe, modern, gentle, elegant, antique, attractive, simple, spacious, creative, colorful, durable, stylish, smooth and strong. Identification value on significance of correlation for durable attribute is 0,000 < 0,005, which means significant to baby's bag. While the value of coefficient regression is 0,812 < 0,005, which means that durable attribute insignificant to baby's bag.The result of the baby's bag final design selectionbased on the questionnaire 3 is resulting the combination of all design. Space for clothes, diaper's space, shoulder grip, side grip, bottle's heater pocket and bottle's pocket are derived from design 1. Top grip, space for clothes, shoulder grip, and side grip are derived from design 2.Others design that were taken are, spaces for clothes from design 3, diaper's space and clothes’ space from design 4.

  12. It's All in the Bag: A Genetics Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an activity that uses sandwich bags to represent an individual's genome (their genetic make-up), and two variations of various objects representing the alleles of various genes. This activity includes the major components of an introductory genetics unit: from gamete production through probabilities of expected offspring…

  13. 14 CFR 223.24 - Transportation of empty mail bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transportation of empty mail bags. 223.24 Section 223.24 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS FREE AND REDUCED-RATE TRANSPORTATION International Travel §...

  14. 21 CFR 870.3650 - Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag. 870.3650 Section 870.3650 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3650 Pacemaker...

  15. 21 CFR 870.3650 - Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag. 870.3650 Section 870.3650 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3650 Pacemaker...

  16. Enhancing Genome-Enabled Prediction by Bagging Genomic BLUP

    PubMed Central

    Gianola, Daniel; Weigel, Kent A.; Krämer, Nicole; Stella, Alessandra; Schön, Chris-Carolin

    2014-01-01

    We examined whether or not the predictive ability of genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP) could be improved via a resampling method used in machine learning: bootstrap aggregating sampling (“bagging”). In theory, bagging can be useful when the predictor has large variance or when the number of markers is much larger than sample size, preventing effective regularization. After presenting a brief review of GBLUP, bagging was adapted to the context of GBLUP, both at the level of the genetic signal and of marker effects. The performance of bagging was evaluated with four simulated case studies including known or unknown quantitative trait loci, and an application was made to real data on grain yield in wheat planted in four environments. A metric aimed to quantify candidate-specific cross-validation uncertainty was proposed and assessed; as expected, model derived theoretical reliabilities bore no relationship with cross-validation accuracy. It was found that bagging can ameliorate predictive performance of GBLUP and make it more robust against over-fitting. Seemingly, 25–50 bootstrap samples was enough to attain reasonable predictions as well as stable measures of individual predictive mean squared errors. PMID:24722227

  17. Gyro-water-bag approach in nonlinear gyrokinetic turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Besse, Nicolas Bertrand, Pierre

    2009-06-20

    Turbulent transport is a key issue for controlled thermonuclear fusion based on magnetic confinement. The thermal confinement of a magnetized fusion plasma is essentially determined by the turbulent heat conduction across the equilibrium magnetic field. It has long been acknowledged, that the prediction of turbulent transport requires to solve Vlasov-type gyrokinetic equations. Although the kinetic description is more accurate than fluid models (MHD, gyro-fluid), because among other things it takes into account nonlinear resonant wave-particle interaction, kinetic modeling has the drawback of a huge computer resource request. An unifying approach consists in considering water-bag-like weak solutions of kinetic collisionless equations, which allow to reduce the full kinetic Vlasov equation into a set of hydrodynamic equations, while keeping its kinetic behaviour. As a result this exact reduction induces a multi-fluid numerical resolution cost. Therefore finding water-bag-like weak solutions of the gyrokinetic equations leads to the birth of the gyro-water-bag model. This model is suitable for studying linear and nonlinear low-frequency micro-instabilities and the associated anomalous transport in magnetically-confined plasmas. The present paper addresses the derivation of the nonlinear gyro-water-bag model, its quasilinear approximation and their numerical approximations by Runge-Kutta semi-Lagrangian methods and Runge-Kutta discontinuous Galerkin schemes respectively.

  18. 49 CFR 178.518 - Standards for woven plastic bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... made from stretched tapes or monofilaments of a suitable plastic material. The strength of the material... SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR... separate inner liners made of paper or plastic material. (4) Bags, water-resistant, 5H3: To prevent...

  19. 14 CFR 223.24 - Transportation of empty mail bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Transportation of empty mail bags. 223.24 Section 223.24 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS FREE AND REDUCED-RATE TRANSPORTATION International Travel §...

  20. 14 CFR 223.24 - Transportation of empty mail bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Transportation of empty mail bags. 223.24 Section 223.24 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS FREE AND REDUCED-RATE TRANSPORTATION International Travel §...

  1. 14 CFR 223.24 - Transportation of empty mail bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Transportation of empty mail bags. 223.24 Section 223.24 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS FREE AND REDUCED-RATE TRANSPORTATION International Travel §...

  2. 14 CFR 223.24 - Transportation of empty mail bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Transportation of empty mail bags. 223.24 Section 223.24 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS FREE AND REDUCED-RATE TRANSPORTATION International Travel §...

  3. Military applications of a cockpit integrated electronic flight bag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, Robert P.; Seinfeld, Robert D.

    2004-09-01

    Converting the pilot's flight bag information from paper to electronic media is being performed routinely by commercial airlines for use with an on-board PC. This concept is now being further advanced with a new class of electronic flight bags (EFB) recently put into commercial operation which interface directly with major on-board avionics systems and has its own dedicated panel mounted display. This display combines flight bag information with real time aircraft performance and maintenance data. This concept of an integrated EFB which is now being used by the commercial airlines as a level 1 certified system, needs to be explored for military applications. This paper describes a system which contains all the attributes of an Electronic Flight Bag with the addition of interfaces which are linked to military aircraft missions such as those for tankers, cargo haulers, search and rescue and maritime aircraft as well as GATM requirements. The adaptation of the integrated EFB to meet these military requirements is then discussed.

  4. Kiondo Bag Boutique: A Serial Case for Introductory Financial Accounting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siriwardane, Harshini P.

    2014-01-01

    Kiondo Bag Boutique is a hypothetical serial case involving a start-up retail business. The case evolves from an ambitious business idea to a successful business. Through the evolving business, the importance of accounting information is highlighted. Different iterations are used to illustrate the role of accounting in serving and managing…

  5. [Recycle of jute bags; asbestos in agriculture, exposure and pathology ].

    PubMed

    Barbieri, P G; Somigliana, A; Lombardi, S; Girelli, R; Rocco, A; Pezzotti, C; Silvestri, S

    2008-01-01

    During the last four years, a deeper examination of malignant mesothelioma (MM) cases occurred within non asbestos textile industry highlighted asbestos past exposure in several textile industrial divisions. In spite of that, poor information about recycled textile bags previously containing asbestos fibres is available to the National Mesothelioma Registry, although holding a remarkable data bank on more than 3500 work histories and sources of asbestos exposures. Besides the analysis of the exposure circumstances and the registered health effects of the past exposure within the recycling activity, the aim of this research was to relate the possible involvement of the agricultural sector, where the use of recycled jute bags was very diffused. The MM cases were collected from the Mesothelioma Registry of Brescia, asbestosis, pleural plaques and lung cancer cases were collected from the Occupational Diseases Archive of the Local Public Occupational Health Service of the Province of Brescia. During the 1977-2006 period, 8 cases of MM, 4 cases of pulmonary asbestosis, 4 of isolated bilateral pleural plaques and I of lung cancer in pulmonary asbestosis, were observed among workers employed in bags recycling activity in 4 small companies, one of them still operating, employing about 50 workers. Even more, among the 65 MM cases classified by the Registry with "unknown asbestos exposure" (UAE), the most relevant frequency of working histories concerned the agriculture sector. Confirming a past signalling, the investigations underlined the cross linkage between this working activity and the diffusion of recycled bags in the agriculture sector. In the Province of Brescia, the activities of these small jute bags recycling plants were linked, even geographically, to the asbestos cement manufacture plant using a huge number of bags, roughly until mid seventies. Therefore, a large number of these recycled bags, previously containing asbestos, were generally used for harvesting

  6. 21 CFR 880.5420 - Pressure infusor for an I.V. bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Therapeutic Devices § 880.5420 Pressure infusor for an I.V. bag. (a) Identification. A pressure infusor for an I.V. bag is a device consisting of an inflatable cuff which is placed around an I.V. bag. When the... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pressure infusor for an I.V. bag. 880.5420...

  7. BAG3 affects the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of HSF1 upon heat stress

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Young-Hee; Ahn, Sang-Gun; Kim, Soo-A.

    2015-08-21

    Bcl2-associated athoanogene (BAG) 3 is a member of the co-chaperone BAG family. It is induced by stressful stimuli such as heat shock and heavy metals, and it regulates cellular adaptive responses against stressful conditions. In this study, we identified a novel role for BAG3 in regulating the nuclear shuttling of HSF1 during heat stress. The expression level of BAG3 was induced by heat stress in HeLa cells. Interestingly, BAG3 rapidly translocalized to the nucleus upon heat stress. Immunoprecipitation assay showed that BAG3 interacts with HSF1 under normal and stressed conditions and co-translocalizes to the nucleus upon heat stress. We also demonstrated that BAG3 interacts with HSF1 via its BAG domain. Over-expression of BAG3 down-regulates the level of nuclear HSF1 by exporting it to the cytoplasm during the recovery period. Depletion of BAG3 using siRNA results in reduced nuclear HSF1 and decreased Hsp70 promoter activity. BAG3 in MEF(hsf1{sup −/−}) cells actively translocalizes to the nucleus upon heat stress suggesting that BAG3 plays a key role in the processing of the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of HSF1 upon heat stress. - Highlights: • The expression level of BAG3 is induced by heat stress. • BAG3 translocates to the nucleus upon heat stress. • BAG3 interacts with HSF1 and co-localizes to the nucleus. • BAG3 is a key regulator for HSF1 nuclear shuttling.

  8. 75 FR 36359 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-25

    ... Thailand. See Antidumping Duty Order: Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand, 69 FR 48204 (August 9... Plastics Ind. Co., Ltd., Thai Plastic Bags Industries Co., Ltd., and Thantawan Industry Public Co., Ltd. Id. The Department has determined previously that Thai Plastic Bags Industries Co., Ltd., APEC Film...

  9. 75 FR 34699 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags from Thailand: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-18

    ... individual members, Hilex Poly Co., LLC, and Superbag Corporation (the petitioners) and by Thai Plastic Bags... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags from Thailand: Rescission of Antidumping... order on polyethylene retail carrier bags from Thailand. The period of review is August 1, 2008,...

  10. 75 FR 53953 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-02

    ... Antidumping Duty Order: Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand, 69 FR 48204 (August 9, 2004). On... Review, 75 FR 23673 (May 4, 2010), and Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Extension of Time... Bags Industries Co., Ltd. (TPBI), and Thantawan Industry Public Co., Ltd. Id., 74 FR at 48226....

  11. Method of reusably sealing a silicone rubber vacuum bag to a mold for composite manufacture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinbach, John (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A silicone rubber vacuum bag for use in composite article manufacture is reusably sealed to a mold, without mechanical clamping means. The mold-mating portion of the bag is primed with a silicone rubber adhesive, which is cured thereto, and a layer of semiadhesive sealer is applied between the primed mold-mating portion of the bag and the mold.

  12. 76 FR 68137 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Amended Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-03

    ... Thai Plastic Bags Industries Co., Ltd. Amended Final Results of the Review As a result of our... the Antidumping Duty Order on Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand, 75 FR 48940 (August 12... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Amended Final Results...

  13. 75 FR 23673 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags from Thailand: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand, 69 FR 48204 (August 9, 2004). On September 22, 2009, we published a... Watana Plastics Ind. Co., Ltd., Thai Plastic Bags Industries Co., Ltd., and Thantawan Industry Public Co., Ltd. Id. The Department has determined previously that Thai Plastic Bags Industries Co., Ltd.,...

  14. 76 FR 12700 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-08

    .... (Giant), Sahachit Watana Plastics Ind. Co., Ltd. (Sahachit Watana), Thai Plastic Bags Industries Co., Ltd... that TPBI, Apec Film Ltd., and Winner's Pack Co., Ltd., comprise the Thai Plastic Bags Group. See...--Thai Plastic Bags Industries Co., Ltd., Final Results Analysis Memorandum'' dated concurrently...

  15. 78 FR 50376 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ... at Less Than Fair Value: Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand, 69 FR 34122- 34124 (June 18... Review, 72 FR 1982, 1983 (January 17, 2007), Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags from Thailand: Final... Administrative Review, 72 FR 64580 (November 16, 2007), Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags from Thailand:...

  16. Can "contamination" occur in body bags?-The example of background fibres in body bags used in Australia.

    PubMed

    Schwendener, Giuliana; Moret, Sébastien; Cavanagh-Steer, Karen; Roux, Claude

    2016-09-01

    Impurities that are transferred to a crime scene or a body can have a significant negative impact on the investigation if the existence of the contamination is not known, and the source of the contamination is not identified. Forensic consumables, such as DNA swabs, have been known to have caused contaminations, wrongfully linking crimes throughout Europe. In that context, this study focused on body bags, widely used to transfer a corpse from the crime scene to the morgue. Our preliminary survey showed that several countries and Australian Jurisdictions are conducting the sampling of trace evidence at the morgue after the transportation of the body. Potential impurities present in body bags could thus interfere with pertinent traces. The aim of this work was to qualify and quantify the background contamination of trace evidence in body bags used within Australia. Fifteen body bags from four Australian Jurisdictions or laboratories were searched for micro traces. Impurities such as fibres and unidentified particles were detected in each examined body bag, with an estimated average of 3603 coloured fibres and 1429 unidentified particles. This number of fibres is similar to the amount found on a vinyl cinema seat in other studies. Various other contaminants such as pieces of fabric, hairs, parts of insects or feathers were also observed. It is hypothesised that these impurities are introduced during the manufacturing process. This high number of impurities can lead to incorrect conclusions and misleading investigative leads. This paper presents an overview of the problems these impurities can cause and proposes several strategies to prevent future issues.

  17. Can "contamination" occur in body bags?-The example of background fibres in body bags used in Australia.

    PubMed

    Schwendener, Giuliana; Moret, Sébastien; Cavanagh-Steer, Karen; Roux, Claude

    2016-09-01

    Impurities that are transferred to a crime scene or a body can have a significant negative impact on the investigation if the existence of the contamination is not known, and the source of the contamination is not identified. Forensic consumables, such as DNA swabs, have been known to have caused contaminations, wrongfully linking crimes throughout Europe. In that context, this study focused on body bags, widely used to transfer a corpse from the crime scene to the morgue. Our preliminary survey showed that several countries and Australian Jurisdictions are conducting the sampling of trace evidence at the morgue after the transportation of the body. Potential impurities present in body bags could thus interfere with pertinent traces. The aim of this work was to qualify and quantify the background contamination of trace evidence in body bags used within Australia. Fifteen body bags from four Australian Jurisdictions or laboratories were searched for micro traces. Impurities such as fibres and unidentified particles were detected in each examined body bag, with an estimated average of 3603 coloured fibres and 1429 unidentified particles. This number of fibres is similar to the amount found on a vinyl cinema seat in other studies. Various other contaminants such as pieces of fabric, hairs, parts of insects or feathers were also observed. It is hypothesised that these impurities are introduced during the manufacturing process. This high number of impurities can lead to incorrect conclusions and misleading investigative leads. This paper presents an overview of the problems these impurities can cause and proposes several strategies to prevent future issues. PMID:27484248

  18. Individual differences in multiple-bag spindles of cat superficial lumbrical muscles.

    PubMed Central

    Decorte, L; Emonet-Dénand, F; Harker, D W; Laporte, Y

    1990-01-01

    A total of 791 spindle poles was analysed with regard to intrafusal fibre composition in the first and second superficial lumbrical muscles from the right and left hindfeet of 9 male and 5 female adult cats. Bag and chain muscle fibres were identified by their myofibrillar ATPase staining profile in the B region, after either acid or alkaline preincubation. A high proportion of the spindle pole population (43.2%) was observed to contain three or more (up to 5) bag fibres; those poles were classified as multiple-bag spindle poles. In the 334 muscle spindles in which both poles were studied, 42 bag fibres (12.6%) were found to be of the 'mixed' type, that is a fibre in which the two poles differ in their ATPase staining profile (either bag1/bag2 or bag/chain). The variability of the intrafusal fibre content observed in spindles of these muscles has been studied in relation to individual characteristics such as sex, weight and side of the animal. In general, multiple-bag spindles are more frequent in male than in female cats and in right as compared to left side muscles. Nearly all 'mixed' bag intrafusal fibres (38 out of 42) were observed in spindles containing 3 or more bag fibres. In 3-bag spindles the proportion of 'mixed' bag spindles is approximately the same in male and female cats. The ratio of 'dynamic' (mean polar bag1 content) to 'static' (mean polar bag2 plus chain fibre content) intrafusal effectors per muscle tends to increase in spindles of right side muscles and to decrease in the heaviest animals. The quantitative and qualitative differences in fibre content of spindles observed in first lumbrical muscles of different animals suggest that the spindle fibre composition, especially that of the 'dynamic' bag1 fibre, may be related to individual predetermined and/or acquired factors. Images Fig. 5 PMID:2143502

  19. Ammonia Diffusion through Nalophan Double Bags: Effect of Concentration Gradient Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Capelli, Laura; Boiardi, Emanuela; Del Rosso, Renato

    2014-01-01

    The ammonia loss through Nalophan bags has been studied. The losses observed for storage conditions and times as allowed by the reference standard for dynamic olfactometry (EN 13725:2003) indicate that odour concentration values due to the presence of small molecules may be significantly underestimated if samples are not analysed immediately after sampling. A diffusion model was used in order to study diffusion through the bag. The study discusses the effect of concentration gradient (ΔC) across the polymeric membrane of the analyte. The ΔC was controlled by using a setup bag called “double bags.” Experimental data show a reduction of ammonia percentage losses due to the effect of the external multibarrier. The expedient of the double bag loaded with the same gas mixture allows a reduced diffusion of ammonia into the inner bag. Comparing the inner bag losses with those of the single bag stored in the same conditions (T, P, u) and with equal geometrical characteristics (S/V, z), it was observed that the inner bag of the double bag displays a 16% loss while the single bag displays a 37% loss. Acting on the ΔC it is possible to achieve a gross reduction of 57% in the ammonia leakage due to diffusion. PMID:25506608

  20. Reduction of plastic carrier bag use: An analysis of alternatives in Israel.

    PubMed

    Ayalon, Ofira; Goldrath, Tal; Rosenthal, Gad; Grossman, Michal

    2009-07-01

    Plastic carrier bags have been drawing the attention of the public and politicians. Different policy measures to reduce the environmental burden of these bags have been implemented and more are planned. The research analyzed the actual environmental aspects of consumption and use of plastic carrier bags and assessed the effectiveness of the proposed regulation in Israel. Since plastic bags are provided free of charge, people have a tendency to use these bags excessively, therefore a rigorous educational program should address this trend. However, the environmental load imposed by the bags is more a politically correct issue than an actual environmental hazard, and therefore the means for reducing their use should not include a high levy or total elimination of these bags.

  1. Design of Control System for Flexible Packaging Bags Palletizing Production Line Based on PLC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Huiping; Chen, Lin; Zhao, Xiaoming; Liu, Zhanyang

    Flexible packaging bags palletizing production line is to put the bags in the required area according to particular order and size, in order to finish handling, storage, loading and unloading, transportation and other logistics work of goods. Flexible packaging bags palletizing line is composed of turning bags mechanism, shaping mechanism, indexing mechanism, marshalling mechanism, pushing bags mechanism, pressing bags mechanism, laminating mechanism, elevator, tray warehouse, tray conveyor and loaded tray conveyor. Whether the whole production line can smoothly run depends on each of the above equipment and precision control among them. In this paper the technological process and the control logic of flexible packaging bags palletizing production line is introduced. Palletizing process of the production line realized automation by means of a control system based on programmable logic controller (PLC). It has the advantages of simple structure, reliable and easy maintenance etc.

  2. Astrophysical bags - A new paradigm for active galactic nuclei?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Thomas L.

    1992-01-01

    Active galaxies are believed to consist of a compact nucleus, the standard model for which is a massive black hole or a cluster of black holes. A different paradigm is considered here, deriving from quark confinement theory in QCD. It is an 'astrophysical bag', modelled after the 'hadron bags' of particle physics which have already been studied in astrophysics as quark stars. Another interpretation of the cosmological constant in general relativity, and possibly a new quasar redshift formula, are introduced. As a highly-energetic object, this model may resolve the baryonic matter problem for fuelling AGN accretion processes which black hole paradigms cannot account for. Here, baryons, cosmic rays, and neutrinos are free.

  3. Purple urine bag syndrome in an elderly patient from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Mondragón-Cardona, Alvaro; Jiménez-Canizales, Carlos Eduardo; Alzate-Carvajal, Verónica; Bastidas-Rivera, Fabricio; Sepúlveda-Arias, Juan Carlos

    2015-07-01

    A 71-year-old woman in a nursing home, with indwelling urinary catheter, bedridden, presented with a purple urine collector bag. The purple urine bag syndrome is a rare condition associated with the metabolism of tryptophan by overgrowth of intestinal bacteria. The purple color is formed by a combination of indigo and indirubin produced as a result of phosphatase and sulfatase enzymatic activity of bacteria on indoxyl sulfate, under alkaline pH of the urine. We present the second case of this syndrome reported in Colombia detailing the management of this rare syndrome associated with urinary tract infection. Several conditions should be considered in the differential diagnose of diseases that cause discoloration of the urine. PMID:26230133

  4. Racial determination of origin of mourning doves in hunters' bags

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aldrich, J.W.; Duvall, A.J.; Geis, A.D.

    1958-01-01

    A method is described for determining the general area of production of mourning doves that are shot during the hunting season. This procedure is based on the identification of racial characteristics that can be ascertained from samples of wings. The application and utility of this method were demonstrated with data gathered from doves shot in two important dove-hunting areas, Georgia and Texas. The Georgia data indicated that the early-season kill consisted largely of the race carolinensis, while later in the season marginella and the intermediate form made up most of the bag. The wing samples from Texas indicated that birds produced outside of southern Texas made up the largest part of the bag in southern Texas during the entire season. Doves produced west of the Appalachians contributed to both the Georgia and Texas kill.

  5. Modeling of drop breakup in the bag breakup regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C.; Chang, S.; Wu, H.; Xu, J.

    2014-04-01

    Several analytic models for predicting the drop deformation and breakup have been developed over the last three decades, but modeling drop breakup in the bag-type regime is less reported. In this Letter, a breakup model has been proposed to predict the drop deformation length and breakup time in the bag-type breakup regime in a more accurate manner. In the present model, the drop deformation which is approximately as the displacement of the centre of mass (c. m.) along the axis located at the centre of the drop, and the movement of c. m. is obtained by solving the pressure balance equation. The effects of the drop deformation on the drop external aerodynamic force are considered in this model. Drop breakup occurs when the deformation length reaches the maximum value and the maximum deformation length is a function of Weber number. The performance and applicability of the proposed breakup model are tested against the published experimental data.

  6. Improving ensemble decision tree performance using Adaboost and Bagging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, Md. Rajib; Siraj, Fadzilah; Sainin, Mohd Shamrie

    2015-12-01

    Ensemble classifier systems are considered as one of the most promising in medical data classification and the performance of deceision tree classifier can be increased by the ensemble method as it is proven to be better than single classifiers. However, in a ensemble settings the performance depends on the selection of suitable base classifier. This research employed two prominent esemble s namely Adaboost and Bagging with base classifiers such as Random Forest, Random Tree, j48, j48grafts and Logistic Model Regression (LMT) that have been selected independently. The empirical study shows that the performance varries when different base classifiers are selected and even some places overfitting issue also been noted. The evidence shows that ensemble decision tree classfiers using Adaboost and Bagging improves the performance of selected medical data sets.

  7. Testing of SRS and RFETS Nylon Bag Material

    SciTech Connect

    Laurinat, J.E.

    1998-11-03

    This report compares the effects of radiation and heating on nylon bagout materials used at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). Recently, to simplify the processing of sand, slag, and crucible (SS and C), FB-Line has replaced the low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) bags normally used to package cans of plutonium-bearing material with nylon bags. LDPE and PVC are not soluble in the nitric acid dissolver solution used in F-Canyon, so cans bagged using these materials had to be repackaged before they were added to the dissolver. Because nylon dissolves in nitric acid, cans bagged in nylon can be charged to the F-Canyon dissolvers without repackaging, thereby reducing handling requirements and personnel exposure. As part of a program to process RFETS SS and C at SRS, RFETS has also begun to use a nylon bagout material. The RFETS bag materials is made from a copolymer of nylon 6 and nylon 6.9, while the SRS material is made from a nylon 6 monomer. In addition, the SRS nylon has an anti-static agent added. The RFETS nylon is slightly softer than the SRS nylon, but does not appear to be as resistant to flex cracks initiated by contact with sharp corners of the inner can containing the SS and C.2 FB-Line Operations has asked for measurement of the effects of radiation and heating on these materials. Specifically, they have requested a comparison of the material properties of the plastics before and after irradiation, a measurement of the amount of outgassing when the plastics are heated, and a calculation of the amount of radiolytic gas generation. Testing was performed on samples taken from material that is currently used in FB-Line (color coded orange) and at RFETS. The requested tests are the same tests previously performed on the original and replacement nylon and LDPE bag materials.3,4,5. To evaluate the effect of irradiation on material properties, tensile stresses and elongations to break

  8. NN interaction from bag-model quark interchange

    SciTech Connect

    Bakker, B.L.G.; Bozoian, M.; Maslow, J.N.; Weber, H.J.

    1982-03-01

    A partial-wave helicity-state analysis of elastic nucleon-nucleon scattering is carried out in momentum space. Its basis is a one- and two-boson exchange amplitude from a bag-model quark interchange mechanism. The resulting phase shifts and bound-state parameters of the deuteron are compared with other meson theoretic potentials and data up to laboratory energies of approx.350 MeV.

  9. Electro membrane extraction using sorbent filled porous membrane bag.

    PubMed

    Naing, Nyi Nyi; Li, Sam Fong Yau; Lee, Hian Kee

    2015-12-01

    Electro membrane extraction-solid-liquid phase microextraction (EME-SLPME) was developed for the first time to determine phenolic contaminants in water. The extraction system consisted of a solid/liquid interface that permitted a three-phase microextraction approach involving an aqueous sample (donor phase): an organic solvent-sorbent within a membrane bag, and an organic solvent (extractant phase), operated in a direct immersion sampling system. The sorbent, reduced graphene oxide/polyvinyl alcohol, synthesized using graphene oxide and polyvinyl alcohol by dispersing the graphene oxide in polyvinyl alcohol and chemically reducing it in aqueous solution. The prepared sorbent was dispersed in 1-octanol and the solution was immobilized by sonication in the membrane bag wall pores which was in contact with the aqueous donor solution and organic extractant solvent (1-octanol) in the main bag itself. The analytes were transported by application of an electrical potential difference of 100V across the sorbent/solvent phase from the aqueous sample into the organic extractant phase in the membrane bag. After extraction and derivatization, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to determine the derivatized analytes. This proposed EME-LSPME procedure provided high extraction efficiency with relative recoveries up to 99.6%. A linearity range of between 0.05 and 100μgL(-1) with corresponding coefficients of determination (r(2)) of between 0.987 and 0.996 were obtained. The limits of detection were in the range of between 0.003 and 0.053μgL(-1). This proposed method was successfully applied to the extraction of phenolic contaminants from water sample. PMID:26530143

  10. Prototype air bag restraint for use in patrol vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Marts, D.J.; Barker, S.G.

    1995-03-01

    An air bag has been designed and laboratory tested for use in existing police vehicles that will restrain a person if he or she becomes violent. The device will prevent self-injury and protect the vehicle and officer. The device does not pose a suffocation hazard and can be quickly and easily inflated or deflated by the officer from the front seat. The device is ready for field testing.

  11. 19. VIEW OF A DRYLAID ROCK AND CONCRETE BAG WALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. VIEW OF A DRY-LAID ROCK AND CONCRETE BAG WALL (TY-3177-17) ON THE UPSLOPE SIDE OF KINGS CANYON ROAD AT CLEAR CREEK. LOCATED AT MILEPOST 2.5 (ACCORDING TO THE REVISED SITE RECORD FOR SITE TY-3177). PHOTO TAKEN FROM THE WEST END OF THE FEATURE, FACING SOUTH 6 EAST (174ø). - Kings Canyon Road, Carson City, Carson City, NV

  12. Volatile organic compounds in polyethylene bags-A forensic perspective.

    PubMed

    Borusiewicz, Rafał; Kowalski, Rafał

    2016-09-01

    Polyethylene bags, though not recommended, are sometimes used in some countries as improvised packaging for items sent to be analysed for the presence of volatile organic compounds, namely ignitable liquids residues. Sometimes items made of polyethylene constitute the samples themselves. It is well known what kind of volatile organic compounds are produced as a result of polyethylene thermal decomposition, but there is a lack of information relating to if some volatile compounds are present in unheated/unburned items made of polyethylene in detectable amounts and, if so, what those compounds are. The aim of this presented research was to answer these questions. 28 different bags made of polyethylene, representing 9 brands, were purchased in local shops and analysed according to the procedure routinely used for fire debris. The results proved that in almost all bags a distinctive mixture of compounds is present, comprising of n-alkanes and n-alkenes with an even number of carbon atoms in their molecules. Some other compounds (e.g., limonene, 2,2,4,6,6-pentamethylheptane) are also often present, but the presence of even n-alkanes and n-alkenes constitutes the most characteristic feature. PMID:27458996

  13. Purple urine bag syndrome in a hemodialysis patient.

    PubMed

    Wang, I-Kuan; Ho, Dong-Ru; Chang, Hung-Yu; Lin, Chun-Liang; Chuang, Feng-Rong

    2005-08-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) is an uncommon disorder, in which the plastic disposable urinary catheter bag turns purple or blue following hours or days of urinary catheterization. The purple discoloration results from indirubin dissolved in the plastic mixing with indigo in the urine. Bacteria possessing indoxyl sulfatase degrade indoxyl sulfate into indirubin and indigo. Indoxyl sulfate is derived from the metabolism of tryptophan. PUBS usually occurs in chronic catheterized elderly women who are constipated and poorly ambulant. The clinical course is benign and rarely causes sepsis. This investigation reports a 61-year-old female diabetic patient with end-stage renal disease on maintenance hemodialysis, who had two episodes of blue or purple urine bag discoloration. The urine culture of the first episode yielded Klebsiella pneumoniae, whereas that of the second episode yielded Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, and Proteus vulgaris. Both episodes resolved following oral antibiotics treatment and placement of new foley catheters. To our knowledge, this is the first recorded case of PUBS in a dialysis patient.

  14. Evaluation of Double-Vacuum-Bag Process For Composite Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, T. H.; Jensen, B. J.

    2004-01-01

    A non-autoclave vacuum bag process using atmospheric pressure alone that eliminates the need for external pressure normally supplied by an autoclave or a press is an attractive method for composite fabrication. This type of process does not require large capital expenditures for tooling and processing equipment. In the molding cycle (temperature/pressure profile) for a given composite system, the vacuum application point has to be carefully selected to achieve the final consolidated laminate net shape and resin content without excessive resin squeeze-out. The traditional single-vacuum- bag (SVB) process is best suited for molding epoxy matrix based composites because of their superior flow and the absence of reaction by-products or other volatiles. Other classes of materials, such as polyimides and phenolics, generate water during cure. In addition, these materials are commonly synthesized as oligomers using solvents to facilitate processability. Volatiles (solvents and reaction byproducts) management therefore becomes a critical issue. SVB molding, without additional pressure, normally fails to yield void-free quality composites for these classes of resin systems. A double-vacuum- bag (DVB) process for volatile management was envisioned, designed and built at the NASA Langley Research Center. This experimental DVB process affords superior volatiles management compared to the traditional SVB process. Void-free composites are consistently fabricated as measured by C-scan and optical photomicroscopy for high performance polyimide and phenolic resins.

  15. Robust ANCOVA using a smoother with bootstrap bagging.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Rand R

    2009-05-01

    Many robust analogs of the classic analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) method have been proposed, some of which are based on some type of regression smoother. A method that first appeared in this journal, which is relatively simple and performs well in simulations, is based on a running interval smoother combined with comparing medians or 20% trimmed means. It makes no parametric assumption about the regression lines and does not assume that the regression lines are parallel. A possible way of improving the efficiency of the running interval smoother is to use bootstrap bagging and a minor goal here is to report some results supporting this approach. The major goal is to consider how ANCOVA might be performed when bootstrap bagging is used. Simple extensions of extant approaches that use some type of bootstrap method were found to be unsatisfactory. However, a basic percentile bootstrap method was found to perform well in simulations. And a reanalysis of data dealing with teachers' expectations about the cognitive ability of students illustrates that bootstrap bagging can make a practical difference.

  16. Report of the Building 9207 air bag test

    SciTech Connect

    Huff, T.E.; Fricke, K.E.; Jones, W.D.

    1992-12-01

    As part of a major testing program now underway at the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (MMES), a full-scale air bag test was conducted in Building 9207. The test program, supported and managed by the Center for Natural Phenomena Engineering (CNPE), is intended to determine the stiffness and strength of unreinforced hollow clay tile walls (HCTVS) in order to more accurately analyze and predict the response of buildings containing these type of walls, especially when subjected to seismic and high wind loadings. The air bag test was a very large undertaking that started more than a year before the test was actually performed. Preparation for the test included the following activities: (1) preparation of the wall and the adjacent building areas; (2) design and field fabrication of test supporting structures; (3) procurement of equipment and instrumentation; (4) development of supporting test procedures and checklists; (5) installation of over seventy linear variable differential transformers (LVDTs) and strain gages; (6) development of computer programs for use in the data acquisition systems; (7) extensive review into the existing engineering literature; (8) discussions with researchers with prior experience performing air bag tests; (9) coordination with the building operators; (10) plant safety reviews; and (11) dry runs of the test itself.

  17. Volatile organic compounds in polyethylene bags-A forensic perspective.

    PubMed

    Borusiewicz, Rafał; Kowalski, Rafał

    2016-09-01

    Polyethylene bags, though not recommended, are sometimes used in some countries as improvised packaging for items sent to be analysed for the presence of volatile organic compounds, namely ignitable liquids residues. Sometimes items made of polyethylene constitute the samples themselves. It is well known what kind of volatile organic compounds are produced as a result of polyethylene thermal decomposition, but there is a lack of information relating to if some volatile compounds are present in unheated/unburned items made of polyethylene in detectable amounts and, if so, what those compounds are. The aim of this presented research was to answer these questions. 28 different bags made of polyethylene, representing 9 brands, were purchased in local shops and analysed according to the procedure routinely used for fire debris. The results proved that in almost all bags a distinctive mixture of compounds is present, comprising of n-alkanes and n-alkenes with an even number of carbon atoms in their molecules. Some other compounds (e.g., limonene, 2,2,4,6,6-pentamethylheptane) are also often present, but the presence of even n-alkanes and n-alkenes constitutes the most characteristic feature.

  18. Primary structure and neuronal effects of α-bag cell peptide, a second candidate neurotransmitter encoded by a single gene in bag cell neurons of Aplysia

    PubMed Central

    Rothman, Barry S.; Mayeri, Earl; Brown, Richard O.; Yuan, Pau-Miau; Shively, John E.

    1983-01-01

    A discharge of impulse activity in a group of neuroendocrine cells, the bag cells, produces several types of prolonged responses in various identified neurons of the abdominal ganglion of Aplysia. Two excitatory responses are almost certainly mediated by egg-laying hormone, but this peptide cannot account for other responses, such as inhibition of left upper quadrant neurons. We report here the isolation from bag cell clusters of three structurally similar peptides, seven, eight, and nine residues long, that are candidate transmitters for mediating bag cell-induced inhibition. They may also serve as autoexcitatory transmitters since the seven-residue peptide produces a slow depolarization of the bag cells similar to that which occurs during bag cell discharge. The amino acid sequence of the largest peptide, termed α-bag cell peptide[1-9], is H-Ala-Pro-Arg-Leu-Arg-Phe-Tyr-Ser-Leu-OH. The other two peptides are identical to α-BCP[1-9] except that they lack the COOH-terminal Ser-Leu or leucine residues. The three peptides inhibit left upper quadrant neurons at relative potencies of 10:30:1 (seven-, eight-, and nine-residue peptides, respectively). Recent molecular genetic analysis shows that both α-BCP[1-9] and egg-laying hormone are encoded by the same bag cell-specific gene. The multiple neuronal effects of bag cells are therefore likely to be mediated by at least two transmitters that are cleaved from a common precursor molecule. PMID:16593372

  19. What can litter bags tell us about fauna effect on decomposition?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frouz, J.

    2009-04-01

    Litter bags with various mesh sizes are common method to investigate role of individual size classes of soil organisms on litter decomposition in particular in investigation of fauna effect. These experiments showed that fauna in generally increased litter loss from the bags, which is interpreted as positive effect of fauna on decomposition. If the litter is presented in fine bags, all loss from the bags is likely to occur as CO2 or leaching however, in fauna accessible bags substantial amount of organic matter may loss bags as fauna excitements either because fauna migration out of the bag or just because excrement may mechanically fall out of the bag. Fauna have low assimilation efficiency so these excrements contain large amount of organic matter which is in fact not decomposed but just moved in soil profile. In order to detect this specialized microcosms techniques was applied, using two layer microcosms with litter and mineral layer, this techniques allow to measure not only amount of c that was lost from the litter bag nut also amount of c that accumulate below the bag. Thirteen experiments using these techniques in various parts of the world are revived here, these experiments showed no positive effect of fauna on C loss from the system but positive effect of fauna in litter removal from soil surface and its accumulation in mineral soil.

  20. Non-Flammable Containment Bag and Enclosure Development for International Space Station Use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Inamdar, Sunil; Cadogan, Dave; Worthy, Erica

    2014-01-01

    Work conducted on the International Space Station (ISS) requires the use of a significant quantity of containment bags to hold specimens, equipment, waste, and other material. The bags are in many shapes and sizes, and are typically manufactured from polyethylene materials. The amount of bags being used on ISS has grown to the point where fire safety has become a concern because of the flammability of polyethylene. Recently, a new re-sealable bag design has been developed that is manufactured from a specialized non-flammable material called Armorflex 301 that was designed specifically for this application. Besides being non-flammable, Armorflex 301 is also FDA compliant, clear, flexible, and damage tolerant. The bags can be made with closure mechanisms that resemble ZipLoc® bags, or can be open top. Sample bags have been laboratory tested by NASA to verify materials properties, and evaluated by astronauts on the ISS in 2012. Flexloc bag manufacturing will commence in 2014 to support a transition away from polyethylene on ISS. In addition to re-sealable bags, other larger containment systems such as flexible gloveboxes, deployable clean rooms, and other devices manufactured from Armorflex 301 are being explored for use on ISS and in similar confined space locations where flammability is an issue. This paper will describe the development of the Armorflex 301 material, the Flexloc bag, and other containment systems being explored for use in confined areas

  1. BAG1: The Guardian of Anti-Apoptotic Proteins in Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Aveic, Sanja; Pigazzi, Martina; Basso, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    BCL2 associated Athano-Gene 1 (BAG1) is a multifunctional protein that has been described to be involved in different cell processes linked to cell survival. It has been reported as deregulated in diverse cancer types. Here, BAG1 protein was found highly expressed in children with acute myeloid leukemia at diagnosis, and in a cohort of leukemic cell lines. A silencing approach was used for determining BAG1's role in AML, finding that its down-regulation decreased expression of BCL2, BCL-XL, MCL1, and phospho-ERK1/2, all proteins able to sustain leukemia, without affecting the pro-apoptotic protein BAX. BAG1 down-regulation was also found to increase expression of BAG3, whose similar activity was able to compensate the loss of function of BAG1. BAG1/BAG3 co-silencing caused an enhanced cell predisposition to death in cell lines and also in primary AML cultures, affecting the same proteins. Cell death was CASPASE-3 dependent, was accompanied by PARP cleavage and documented by an increased release of pro-apoptotic molecules Smac/DIABLO and Cytochrome c. BAG1 was found to directly maintain BCL2 and to protect MCL1 from proteasomal degradation by controlling USP9X expression, which appeared to be its novel target. Finally, BAG1 was found able to affect leukemia cell fate by influencing the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins crucial for AML maintenance. PMID:22016818

  2. BAG1: the guardian of anti-apoptotic proteins in acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Aveic, Sanja; Pigazzi, Martina; Basso, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    BCL2 associated Athano-Gene 1 (BAG1) is a multifunctional protein that has been described to be involved in different cell processes linked to cell survival. It has been reported as deregulated in diverse cancer types. Here, BAG1 protein was found highly expressed in children with acute myeloid leukemia at diagnosis, and in a cohort of leukemic cell lines. A silencing approach was used for determining BAG1's role in AML, finding that its down-regulation decreased expression of BCL2, BCL-XL, MCL1, and phospho-ERK1/2, all proteins able to sustain leukemia, without affecting the pro-apoptotic protein BAX. BAG1 down-regulation was also found to increase expression of BAG3, whose similar activity was able to compensate the loss of function of BAG1. BAG1/BAG3 co-silencing caused an enhanced cell predisposition to death in cell lines and also in primary AML cultures, affecting the same proteins. Cell death was CASPASE-3 dependent, was accompanied by PARP cleavage and documented by an increased release of pro-apoptotic molecules Smac/DIABLO and Cytochrome c. BAG1 was found to directly maintain BCL2 and to protect MCL1 from proteasomal degradation by controlling USP9X expression, which appeared to be its novel target. Finally, BAG1 was found able to affect leukemia cell fate by influencing the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins crucial for AML maintenance.

  3. A combination of trastuzumab and BAG-1 inhibition synergistically targets HER2 positive breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Papadakis, Emmanouil; Robson, Natalia; Yeomans, Alison; Bailey, Sarah; Laversin, Stephanie; Beers, Stephen; Sayan, A. Emre; Ashton-Key, Margaret; Schwaiger, Stefan; Stuppner, Hermann; Troppmair, Jakob; Packham, Graham; Cutress, Ramsey

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of HER2+ breast cancer with trastuzumab is effective and combination anti-HER2 therapies have demonstrated benefit over monotherapy in the neoadjuvant and metastatic settings. This study investigated the therapeutic potential of targeting the BAG-1 protein co-chaperone in trastuzumab-responsive or -resistant cells. In the METABRIC dataset, BAG-1 mRNA was significantly elevated in HER2+ breast tumors and predicted overall survival in a multivariate analysis (HR = 0.81; p = 0.022). In a breast cell line panel, BAG-1 protein was increased in HER2+ cells and was required for optimal growth as shown by siRNA knockdown. Overexpression of BAG-1S in HER2+ SKBR3 cells blocked growth inhibition by trastuzumab, whereas overexpression of a mutant BAG-1S protein (BAG-1S H3AB), defective in binding HSC70, potentiated the effect of trastuzumab. Injection of a Tet-On SKBR3 clone, induced to overexpress myc-BAG-1S into the mammary fat pads of immunocompromised mice, resulted in 2-fold larger tumors compared to uninduced controls. Induction of myc-BAG-1S expression in two Tet-On SKBR3 clones attenuated growth inhibition by trastuzumab in vitro. Targeting endogenous BAG-1 by siRNA enhanced growth inhibition of SKBR3 and BT474 cells by trastuzumab, while BAG-1 protein-protein interaction inhibitor (Thio-S or Thio-2) plus trastuzumab combination treatment synergistically attenuated growth. In BT474 cells this reduced protein synthesis, caused G1/S cell cycle arrest and targeted the ERK and AKT signaling pathways. In a SKBR3 subpopulation with acquired resistance to trastuzumab BAG-1 targeting remained effective and either Thio-2 or BAG-1 siRNA reduced growth more compared to trastuzumab-responsive parental cells. In summary, targeting BAG-1 function in combination with anti-HER2 therapy might prove beneficial. PMID:26958811

  4. Morphological classification of low viscosity drop bag breakup in a continuous air jet stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hui; Liu, Hai-Feng; Li, Wei-Feng; Xu, Jian-Liang

    2010-11-01

    To investigate the effect of Rayleigh-Taylor wave number in the region of maximum cross stream dimension (NRT) on drop breakup morphology, the breakup properties of accelerating low viscosity liquid drops (water and ethanol drops, diameter=1.2-6.6 mm, Weber number=10-80) were investigated using high-speed digital photography. The results of morphological analysis show a good correlation of the observed breakup type with NRT; bag breakup occurred when NRT was 1/√3 -1, bag-stamen breakup at 1-2, and dual-bag breakup at 2-3. The number of nodes in bag breakup, bag-stamen breakup, and dual-bag breakup all increased with Weber number. The experimental results are consistent with the model estimates and in good agreement with those reported in the literature.

  5. Surface modification of closed plastic bags for adherent cell cultivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachmann, K.; Dohse, A.; Thomas, M.; Pohl, S.; Meyring, W.; Dittmar, K. E. J.; Lindenmeier, W.; Klages, C.-P.

    2011-07-01

    In modern medicine human mesenchymal stem cells are becoming increasingly important. However, a successful cultivation of this type of cells is only possible under very specific conditions. Of great importance, for instance, are the absence of contaminants such as foreign microbiological organisms, i.e., sterility, and the chemical functionalization of the ground on which the cells are grown. As cultivation of these cells makes high demands, a new procedure for cell cultivation has been developed in which closed plastic bags are used. For adherent cell growth chemical functional groups have to be introduced on the inner surface of the plastic bag. This can be achieved by a new, atmospheric-pressure plasma-based method presented in this paper. The method which was developed jointly by the Fraunhofer IST and the Helmholtz HZI can be implemented in automated equipment as is also shown in this contribution. Plasma process gases used include helium or helium-based gas mixtures (He + N2 + H2) and vapors of suitable film-forming agents or precursors such as APTMS, DACH, and TMOS in helium. The effect of plasma treatment is investigated by FTIR-ATR spectroscopy as well as surface tension determination based on contact angle measurements and XPS. Plasma treatment in nominally pure helium increases the surface tension of the polymer foil due to the presence of oxygen traces in the gas and oxygen diffusing through the gas-permeable foil, respectively, reacting with surface radical centers formed during contact with the discharge. Primary amino groups are obtained on the inner surface by treatment in mixtures with nitrogen and hydrogen albeit their amount is comparably small due to diffusion of oxygen through the gas-permeable bag, interfering with the plasma-amination process. Surface modifications introducing amino groups on the inner surface turned out to be most efficient in the promotion of cell growth.

  6. Use of vacuum bagging for fabricating thermoplastic microfluidic devices.

    PubMed

    Cassano, Christopher L; Simon, Andrew J; Liu, Wei; Fredrickson, Carl; Fan, Z Hugh

    2015-01-01

    In this work we present a novel thermal bonding method for thermoplastic microfluidic devices. This simple method employs a modified vacuum bagging technique, a concept borrowed from the aerospace industry, to produce conventional thick substrate microfluidic devices, as well as multi-layer film devices. The bonds produced using this method are superior to those obtained using conventional thermal bonding methods, including thermal lamination, and are capable of sustaining burst pressures in excess of 550 kPa. To illustrate the utility of this method, thick substrate devices were produced, as well as a six-layer film device that incorporated several complex features.

  7. Urinary Retention: Catheter Drainage Bag or Catheter Valve?

    PubMed Central

    Virdi, Gurnam; Hendry, David

    2016-01-01

    The management of patients with intractable urinary incontinence presents as a challenging priority in the ageing population. To preserve the antibacterial mechanisms of the bladder, a urine collection that enables the bladder to fill and empty regularly and completely, should be used. This mimics the action of the healthy bladder. We compared the success rates of two widely used urinary-collection systems (catheter with drainage bag or a catheter valve) at our institution for those patients undergoing a trial of void. PMID:26989368

  8. Use of Vacuum Bagging for Fabricating Thermoplastic Microfluidic Devices

    PubMed Central

    Cassano, Christopher L.; Simon, Andrew J.; Liu, Wei; Fredrickson, Carl; Fan, Z. Hugh

    2014-01-01

    In this work we present a novel thermal bonding method for thermoplastic microfluidic devices. This simple method employs a modified vacuum bagging technique, a concept borrowed from the aerospace industry, to produce conventional thick substrate microfluidic devices, as well as multi-layer film devices. The bonds produced using this method are superior to those obtained using conventional thermal bonding methods, including thermal lamination, and are capable of sustaining burst pressures in excess of 550 kPa. To illustrate the utility of this method, thick substrate devices were produced, as well as a six-layer film device that incorporated several complex features. PMID:25329244

  9. Bogota Bag Use in Planned Re-Laparotomies

    PubMed Central

    Karakose, Oktay; Benzin, Mehmet Fatih; Pülat, Huseyin; Sabuncuoglu, Mehmet Zafer; Eken, Huseyin; Zihni, Ismail; Barut, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Background Planned re-laparotomies are a series of surgical interventions that are rarely used and have a high mortality rate. The aim of this study was to investigate the factors affecting mortality and the effectiveness of the use of the Bogota bag for temporary closure of the abdomen in patients for whom re-laparotomy was planned. Material/Methods A retrospective examination was made of data of patients in whom a Bogota bag was used in planned re-laparotomies for various reasons in the General Surgery Department of Suleyman Demirel University Medical Faculty between June 2008 and April 2014. Results Bogota bags were used in a total of 38 patients, comprising 23 (60.5%) males and 15 (39.5%) females, with a mean age of 58.94±17.89 years. The mean period of hospitalization was 14.5 days (range, 1–143 days) and the mean number of operations during that time was 3 (range, 1–11). The mean duration of intensive care unit stay was 6 days (range, 1–143 days). Malignancy was determined in 8 patients (21.1%). Indications were intra-abdominal sepsis in 23 patients (60.5%), mesenteric vascular disease in 10 patients (26.3%), and packing was required in 5 patients (13.2%). Mortality developed in 25 patients (65.8%). A significant relationship was determined between mortality and a diagnosis of mesenteric artery ischemia (p: 0.035). The mortality rate was 56% (n: 13) in patients diagnosed with intra-abdominal sepsis. A relationship was determined between mortality and age (p: 0.015), duration of hospital stay (p: 0.007), need for cardiac inotrope (p: 0.01), and need for mechanical ventilation (p: 0.01). The mean Apache II score was 26.4±5 for patients who died and 15.8±5.2 for surviving patients (p<0.001). In 5 (38.4%) of the 13 surviving patients, primary repair was applied to the abdomen, and in the remaining 8 patients abdominal wall repair was performed using dual mesh. Conclusions In patients in whom a Bogota bag was used, which is a cheap and easy method for

  10. Tea-bag-like polymer nanoreactors filled with gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Mitschang, Fabian; Schmalz, Holger; Agarwal, Seema; Greiner, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Gold-containing polymer nanotubes, which showed both catalytic activity and resistance to leaching, were prepared by the "tubes by fiber templates" (TUFT) process. For this purpose, electrospun polymer nonwovens with incorporated poly(L-lactide)-stabilized gold nanoparticles were coated with poly(p-xylylene) by the chemical vapor deposition process, and then the inner fiber templates were removed. The resulting polymer tubes carried encapsulated gold nanoparticles which were shown to be immobilized and featured pronounced catalytic activity towards the hydrolytic oxidation of dimethylphenylsilane and the alcoholysis of dimethylphenylsilane with n-butanol. The macroscopic nonwovens could be used as tea-bag-like catalyst systems and showed excellent reusability.

  11. Prediction of air temperature for thermal comfort of people using sleeping bags: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jianhua

    2008-11-01

    Six models for determining air temperatures for thermal comfort of people using sleeping bags were reviewed. These models were based on distinctive metabolic rates and mean skin temperatures. All model predictions of air temperatures are low when the insulation values of the sleeping bag are high. Nevertheless, prediction variations are greatest for the sleeping bags with high insulation values, and there is a high risk of hypothermia if an inappropriate sleeping bag is chosen for the intended conditions of use. There is, therefore, a pressing need to validate the models by wear trial and determine which one best reflects ordinary consumer needs.

  12. Cost Analysis of Premixed Multichamber Bags Versus Compounded Parenteral Nutrition: Breakeven Point

    PubMed Central

    Bozat, Erkut

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Industrially premixed multichamber bags or hospital-manufactured compounded products can be used for parenteral nutrition. The aim of this study was to compare the cost of these 2 approaches. Materials and Methods: Costs of compounded parenteral nutrition bags in an university hospital were calculated. A total of 600 bags that were administered during 34 days between December 10, 2009 and February 17, 2010 were included in the analysis. For quality control, specific gravity evaluation of the filled bags was performed. Results: It was calculated that the variable cost of a hospital compounded bag was $26.15. If we take the annual fixed costs into consideration, the production cost reaches $36.09 for each unit. It was estimated that the cost for the corresponding multichamber bag was $37.79. Taking the fixed and the variable costs into account, the breakeven point of the hospital compounded and the premixed multichamber bags was seen at 5,404 units per year. In specific gravity evaluation, it was observed that the mean and interval values were inside the upper and lower control margins. Conclusion: In this analysis, usage of hospital-compounded parenteral nutrition bags showed a cost advantage in hospitals that treat more than 15 patients per day. In small volume hospitals, premixed multichamber bags may be more beneficial. PMID:24623870

  13. Cost analysis of adult parenteral nutrition systems: three-compartment bag versus customized.

    PubMed

    Berlana, David; Sabin, Pilar; Gimeno-Ballester, Vicente; Romero-Jiménez, Rosa; Zapata-Rojas, Amalia; Marquez, Esther; Martínez-Cutillas, Julio; Schoenenberger-Arnaiz, Joan Anton

    2013-11-01

    Background Parenteral nutrition (PN) is a costly technology used widely to provide nutrition to patients who have an inaccessible or non-functioning intestine. Two all-in-one systems currently being used are customized formulations and three-compartment bags. Objective To provide a systematic cost comparison of the two all-in-one PN systems: individualized (made from nutrient solutions) versus commercialized (made from three-compartment bag), both prepared in hospital pharmacies. Setting This study was conducted in three public Spanish hospitals. Method We conducted a cost-minimization study to analyze prospectively the total cost of PN bags, accounting for all of the processes involved in preparing and delivering PN bags (cost of manpower, nutrition solutions, medical supplies and quality controls) in three different healthcare settings. To compare therapeutic alternatives of equivalent nutritional value, the study was performed for the most frequently employed formulation and similar to commercial preparations. A univariate sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate the impact of different rates of use of three-compartment PN bag. Results 157 routine acts of PN bag preparation (65 customized and 92 three-compartment) were observed and timed over 9 days. Total costs of the 157 PN bags were included in the study. Mean costs of customized bags were higher than three-compartment bags, 51.16±5.63€ versus 39.69±3.00€ respectively (p.

  14. Snap-lock bags with red band: A study of manufacturing characteristics, thermal and chemical properties.

    PubMed

    Sim, Yvonne Hui Ying; Koh, Alaric C W; Lim, Shing Min; Yew, Sok Yee

    2015-10-01

    Drug packaging is commonly submitted to the Forensic Chemistry and Physics Laboratory of the Health Sciences Authority, Singapore, for examination. The drugs seized are often packaged in plastic bags. These bags are examined for linkages to provide law enforcement with useful associations between the traffickers and drug abusers. The plastic bags submitted may include snap-lock bags, some with a red band located above the snap-lock closure and some without. Current techniques for examination involve looking at the physical characteristics (dimensions, thickness and polarising patterns) and manufacturing marks of these bags. In cases where manufacturing marks on the main body of the bags are poor or absent, the manufacturing characteristics present on the red band can be examined. A study involving approximately 1000 bags was conducted to better understand the variations in the manufacturing characteristics of the red band. This understanding is crucial in helping to determine associations/eliminations between bags. Two instrumental techniques, namely differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) were explored to evaluate the effectiveness of examining the chemical composition to discriminate the bags.

  15. Influence of design and operation parameters on bag-cleaning performance of pulse-jet baghouse

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, H.C.; Tsai, C.J.

    1999-06-01

    In this study, a filter test system with clean new fabric bags was used to measure the pulse pressure and acceleration of the filter bag. Fabric acceleration and pulse pressure were used as an index of bag-cleaning intensity. The jet pump curves, which relate the flow rate through the venturi to the average developed pressure by the venturi, were determined by the similar system. The intersection of the jet pump curve and the bag operating line, which relates the pressure drop to flow rate across the bag during pulse-jet cleaning, is the system operating point that was used to predict the average pulse pressure can be achieved without the venturi at the top of the bag for bag materials with low resistance coefficient. For bags with higher resistance coefficients, higher pulse pressure is obtained with a venturi installed at the top of the bag. The predicted pressure values are in good agreement with experimental data. Dimensional analysis for jet pump performance was developed to reduce the experimental data. The results show that the jet pump curves obtained under different operating conditions can be reduced to the same nondimensional curve, which can be used to facilitate the design and operation of a pulse-jet cleaning system.

  16. Snap-lock bags with red band: A study of manufacturing characteristics, thermal and chemical properties.

    PubMed

    Sim, Yvonne Hui Ying; Koh, Alaric C W; Lim, Shing Min; Yew, Sok Yee

    2015-10-01

    Drug packaging is commonly submitted to the Forensic Chemistry and Physics Laboratory of the Health Sciences Authority, Singapore, for examination. The drugs seized are often packaged in plastic bags. These bags are examined for linkages to provide law enforcement with useful associations between the traffickers and drug abusers. The plastic bags submitted may include snap-lock bags, some with a red band located above the snap-lock closure and some without. Current techniques for examination involve looking at the physical characteristics (dimensions, thickness and polarising patterns) and manufacturing marks of these bags. In cases where manufacturing marks on the main body of the bags are poor or absent, the manufacturing characteristics present on the red band can be examined. A study involving approximately 1000 bags was conducted to better understand the variations in the manufacturing characteristics of the red band. This understanding is crucial in helping to determine associations/eliminations between bags. Two instrumental techniques, namely differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) were explored to evaluate the effectiveness of examining the chemical composition to discriminate the bags. PMID:26362303

  17. Skylab 4 crewmen passing trash bags in to the OWS waste disposal tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Two Skylab 4 crewmen are seen passing trash bags through the trash airlock of the Orbital Workshop (OWS) of the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. The trash airlock leads to the OWS waste disposal tank. Astronaut William R. Pogue, Skylab 4 pilot, holds onto the OWS crew quarters ceiling as he prepares to jump onto the OWS airlock hatch cover to force another trash bag further down into the airlock. Astronaut Gerald P. Carr, Skylab 4 commander, is assisting. Carr is holding onto the trash bags. A third trash bag is floating in the zero-gravity environment near Pogue's right leg. The wardroom can be seen behind Pogue.

  18. Development of High Efficiency Ventilation Bag Actuated Dry Powder Inhalers

    PubMed Central

    Behara, Srinivas R.B.; Longest, P. Worth; Farkas, Dale R.; Hindle, Michael

    2014-01-01

    New active dry powder inhaler systems were developed and tested to efficiently aerosolize a carrier-free formulation. To assess inhaler performance, a challenging case study of aerosol lung delivery during high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) therapy was selected. The active delivery system consisted of a ventilation bag for actuating the device, the DPI containing a flow control orifice and 3D rod array, and streamlined nasal cannula with separate inlets for the aerosol and HFNC therapy gas. In vitro experiments were conducted to assess deposition in the device, emitted dose (ED) from the nasal cannula, and powder deaggregation. The best performing systems achieved EDs of 70–80% with fine particle fractions <5 μm of 65–85% and mass median aerodynamic diameters of 1.5 μm, which were target conditions for controlled condensational growth aerosol delivery. Decreasing the size of the flow control orifice from 3.6 to 2.3 mm reduced the flow rate through the system with manual bag actuations from an average of 35 to 15 LPM, while improving ED and aerosolization performance. The new devices can be applied to improve aerosol delivery during mechanical ventilation, nose-to-lung aerosol administration, and to assist patients that cannot reproducibly use passive DPIs. PMID:24508552

  19. Development of high efficiency ventilation bag actuated dry powder inhalers.

    PubMed

    Behara, Srinivas R B; Longest, P Worth; Farkas, Dale R; Hindle, Michael

    2014-04-25

    New active dry powder inhaler systems were developed and tested to efficiently aerosolize a carrier-free formulation. To assess inhaler performance, a challenging case study of aerosol lung delivery during high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) therapy was selected. The active delivery system consisted of a ventilation bag for actuating the device, the DPI containing a flow control orifice and 3D rod array, and streamlined nasal cannula with separate inlets for the aerosol and HFNC therapy gas. In vitro experiments were conducted to assess deposition in the device, emitted dose (ED) from the nasal cannula, and powder deaggregation. The best performing systems achieved EDs of 70-80% with fine particle fractions <5 μm of 65-85% and mass median aerodynamic diameters of 1.5 μm, which were target conditions for controlled condensational growth aerosol delivery. Decreasing the size of the flow control orifice from 3.6 to 2.3mm reduced the flow rate through the system with manual bag actuations from an average of 35 to 15LPM, while improving ED and aerosolization performance. The new devices can be applied to improve aerosol delivery during mechanical ventilation, nose-to-lung aerosol administration, and to assist patients that cannot reproducibly use passive DPIs.

  20. Contamination control using portable glove bags and containments

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, C. )

    1994-04-01

    Portable gloveboxes and containments have been used in the Navy Nuclear Power programs for many years. Their primary application has been to allow maintenance access to radioactive piping systems while limiting the spread of contamination to the immediate environment. The applications have spread to other areas of the nuclear industry and to other industries with similar contamination control problems. The general application is to keep the contaminants in, but other uses keep the contamination out. The devices can best be classified by material types and construction. They range from the relatively inexpensive polyethylene glove bags for asbestos removal to the semi-permanent aluminum and lexan hard-sided containment structures. There are free-standing [open quotes]tent[close quotes] structures, support ring devices and tube or bag designs. Only the cost seems to limit the size of these items. The key to the effective use of these devices lies in the planning and control of their application. Proper training of maintenance personnel will greatly facilitate their use, since the main objection seems to be in the exposure received during the rigging of these containments. When all of these considerations are accounted for, a program of contamination control can be quite successful. A brief description of the set-up and use of a specific application is described.

  1. A bag-of-features framework to classify time series.

    PubMed

    Baydogan, Mustafa Gokce; Runger, George; Tuv, Eugene

    2013-11-01

    Time series classification is an important task with many challenging applications. A nearest neighbor (NN) classifier with dynamic time warping (DTW) distance is a strong solution in this context. On the other hand, feature-based approaches have been proposed as both classifiers and to provide insight into the series, but these approaches have problems handling translations and dilations in local patterns. Considering these shortcomings, we present a framework to classify time series based on a bag-of-features representation (TSBF). Multiple subsequences selected from random locations and of random lengths are partitioned into shorter intervals to capture the local information. Consequently, features computed from these subsequences measure properties at different locations and dilations when viewed from the original series. This provides a feature-based approach that can handle warping (although differently from DTW). Moreover, a supervised learner (that handles mixed data types, different units, etc.) integrates location information into a compact codebook through class probability estimates. Additionally, relevant global features can easily supplement the codebook. TSBF is compared to NN classifiers and other alternatives (bag-of-words strategies, sparse spatial sample kernels, shapelets). Our experimental results show that TSBF provides better results than competitive methods on benchmark datasets from the UCR time series database.

  2. A One-Piece Lunar Regolith Bag Garage Prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithers, G. A.; Nehls, M. K.; Hovater, M. A.; Evans, S. W.; Miller, J. S.; Broughton, R. M., Jr.; Beale, D.; Kilinc-Balci, F.

    2007-01-01

    Shelter structures on the moon, even in early phases of exploration, should incorporate lunar materials as much as possible. This Technical Memorandum details the design and construction of a prototype for a one-piece regolith bag unpressurized garage concept and a materials testing program to investigate six candidate fabrics to learn how they might perform in the lunar environment. The conceptualization was that a lightweight fabric form be launched from Earth and landed on the lunar surface to be robotically filled with raw lunar regolith. Regolith bag fabric candidates included: Vectran(TM), Nextel(TM), Gore PTFE Fabric(TM), Zylon(TM), Twaron(TM), and Nomex(TM). Tensile (including post radiation exposure), fold, abrasion, and hypervelocity impact testing were performed under ambient conditions, and also performed under cold and elevated temperatures. In some cases, Johnson Space Center lunar simulant (JSC-1) was used in conjunction with testing. A series of preliminary structures was constructed during final prototype design based on the principles of the classic masonry arch. The prototype was constructed of Kevlar(TM) and filled with vermiculite. The structure is free-standing, but has not yet been load tested. Future plans would be to construct higher fidelity prototypes and to conduct appropriate tests of the structure.

  3. Use of poly(ethylene terephtalate) film bag to sample and remove humidity from atmosphere containing volatile organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Beghi, Sandra; Guillot, Jean-Michel

    2008-03-01

    Nalophan bags made from poly(ethylene terephtalate) film are often used to collect odorous gases. In this paper, the sample water removal method, based on humidity diffusion through the sample bag film, was applied using Nalophan bags and Tedlar bags to sample volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at low concentration (10 microg/m(3)). The removal of water with Nalophan bags enabled a reduction in relative humidity (RH) in a 10-L air sample from 80% to 20% in 2h at 20 degrees C. The use of Nalophan bags for the removal of water did not involve significant VOC loss among the 11 compounds studied. PMID:18243220

  4. Regulation of osteoblast development by Bcl-2-associated athanogene-1 (BAG-1)

    PubMed Central

    Greenhough, Joanna; Papadakis, Emmanouil S.; Cutress, Ramsey I.; Townsend, Paul A.; Oreffo, Richard O. C.; Tare, Rahul S.

    2016-01-01

    BCL-2-associated athanogene-1 (BAG-1) is expressed by osteoblast-lineage cells; early embryonic lethality in Bag-1 null mice, however, has limited the investigation of BAG-1 function in osteoblast development. In the present study, bone morphogenetic protein-2/BMP-2-directed osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) of Bag-1+/− (heterozygous) female mice was decreased significantly. Genes crucial for osteogenic differentiation, bone matrix formation and mineralisation were expressed at significantly lower levels in cultures of Bag-1+/− BMSCs supplemented with BMP-2, while genes with roles in inhibition of BMP-2-directed osteoblastogenesis were significantly upregulated. 17-β-estradiol (E2) enhanced responsiveness of BMSCs of wild-type and Bag-1+/− mice to BMP-2, and promoted robust BMP-2-stimulated osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs. BAG-1 can modulate cellular responses to E2 by regulating the establishment of functional estrogen receptors (ERs), crucially, via its interaction with heat shock proteins (HSC70/HSP70). Inhibition of BAG-1 binding to HSC70 by the small-molecule chemical inhibitor, Thioflavin-S, and a short peptide derived from the C-terminal BAG domain, which mediates binding with the ATPase domain of HSC70, resulted in significant downregulation of E2/ER-facilitated BMP-2-directed osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs. These studies demonstrate for the first time the significance of BAG-1-mediated protein-protein interactions, specifically, BAG-1-regulated activation of ER by HSC70, in modulation of E2-facilitated BMP-2-directed osteoblast development. PMID:27633857

  5. Development of Spray on Bag for manufacturing of large composites parts: Diffusivity analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dempah, Maxime Joseph

    Bagging materials are utilized in many composites manufacturing processes. The selection is mainly driven by cost, temperature requirements, chemical compatibility and tear properties of the bag. The air barrier properties of the bag are assumed to be adequate or in many cases are not considered at all. However, the gas barrier property of a bag is the most critical parameter, as it can negatively affect the quality of the final laminate. The barrier property is a function of the bag material, uniformity, thickness and temperature. Improved barrier properties are needed for large parts, high pressure consolidated components and structures where air stays entrapped on the part surface. The air resistance property of the film is defined as permeability and is investigated in this thesis. A model was developed to evaluate the gas transport through the film and an experimental cell was implemented to characterize various commercial films. Understanding and characterizing the transport phenomena through the film allows optimization of the bagging material for various manufacturing processes. Spray-on-Bag is a scalable alternative bagging method compared to standard films. The approach allows in-situ fabrication of the bag on large and complex geometry structures where optimization of the bag properties can be varied on a local level. An experimental setup was developed and implemented using a six axis robot and an automated spraying system. Experiments were performed on a flat surface and specimens were characterized and compared to conventional films. Air barrier properties were within range of standard film approaches showing the potential to fabricate net shape bagging structures in an automated process.

  6. Regulation of osteoblast development by Bcl-2-associated athanogene-1 (BAG-1).

    PubMed

    Greenhough, Joanna; Papadakis, Emmanouil S; Cutress, Ramsey I; Townsend, Paul A; Oreffo, Richard O C; Tare, Rahul S

    2016-01-01

    BCL-2-associated athanogene-1 (BAG-1) is expressed by osteoblast-lineage cells; early embryonic lethality in Bag-1 null mice, however, has limited the investigation of BAG-1 function in osteoblast development. In the present study, bone morphogenetic protein-2/BMP-2-directed osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) of Bag-1(+/-) (heterozygous) female mice was decreased significantly. Genes crucial for osteogenic differentiation, bone matrix formation and mineralisation were expressed at significantly lower levels in cultures of Bag-1(+/-) BMSCs supplemented with BMP-2, while genes with roles in inhibition of BMP-2-directed osteoblastogenesis were significantly upregulated. 17-β-estradiol (E2) enhanced responsiveness of BMSCs of wild-type and Bag-1(+/-) mice to BMP-2, and promoted robust BMP-2-stimulated osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs. BAG-1 can modulate cellular responses to E2 by regulating the establishment of functional estrogen receptors (ERs), crucially, via its interaction with heat shock proteins (HSC70/HSP70). Inhibition of BAG-1 binding to HSC70 by the small-molecule chemical inhibitor, Thioflavin-S, and a short peptide derived from the C-terminal BAG domain, which mediates binding with the ATPase domain of HSC70, resulted in significant downregulation of E2/ER-facilitated BMP-2-directed osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs. These studies demonstrate for the first time the significance of BAG-1-mediated protein-protein interactions, specifically, BAG-1-regulated activation of ER by HSC70, in modulation of E2-facilitated BMP-2-directed osteoblast development. PMID:27633857

  7. Subcellular localisation of BAG-1 and its regulation of vitamin D receptor-mediated transactivation and involucrin expression in oral keratinocytes: Implications for oral carcinogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, San San; Crabb, Simon J.; Janghra, Nari; Carlberg, Carsten; Williams, Ann C.; Cutress, Ramsey I.; Packham, Graham; Hague, Angela

    2007-09-10

    In oral cancers, cytoplasmic BAG-1 overexpression is a marker of poor prognosis. BAG-1 regulates cellular growth, differentiation and survival through interactions with diverse proteins, including the vitamin D receptor (VDR), a key regulator of keratinocyte growth and differentiation. BAG-1 is expressed ubiquitously in human cells as three major isoforms of 50 kDa (BAG-1L), 46 kDa (BAG-1M) and 36 kDa (BAG-1S) from a single mRNA. In oral keratinocytes BAG-1L, but not BAG-1M and BAG-1S, enhanced VDR transactivation in response to 1{alpha},25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3.} BAG-1L was nucleoplasmic and nucleolar, whereas BAG-1S and BAG-1M were cytoplasmic and nucleoplasmic in localisation. Having identified the nucleolar localisation sequence in BAG-1L, we showed that mutation of this sequence did not prevent BAG-1L from potentiating VDR activity. BAG-1L also potentiated transactivation of known vitamin-D-responsive gene promoters, osteocalcin and 24-hydroxylase, and enhanced VDR-dependent transcription and protein expression of the keratinocyte differentiation marker, involucrin. These results demonstrate endogenous gene regulation by BAG-1L by potentiating nuclear hormone receptor function and suggest a role for BAG-1L in 24-hydroxylase regulation of vitamin D metabolism and the cellular response of oral keratinocytes to 1{alpha},25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3}. By contrast to the cytoplasmic BAG-1 isoforms, BAG-1L may act to suppress tumorigenesis.

  8. Enhanced algorithm performance for land cover classification from remotely sensed data using bagging and boosting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chan, J.C.-W.; Huang, C.; DeFries, R.

    2001-01-01

    Two ensemble methods, bagging and boosting, were investigated for improving algorithm performance. Our results confirmed the theoretical explanation [1] that bagging improves unstable, but not stable, learning algorithms. While boosting enhanced accuracy of a weak learner, its behavior is subject to the characteristics of each learning algorithm.

  9. CaM/BAG5/Hsc70 signaling complex dynamically regulates leaf senescence

    PubMed Central

    Li, Luhua; Xing, Yangfei; Chang, Dong; Fang, Shasha; Cui, Boyang; Li, Qi; Wang, Xuejie; Guo, Shang; Yang, Xue; Men, Shuzhen; Shen, Yuequan

    2016-01-01

    Calcium signaling plays an essential role in plant cell physiology, and chaperone-mediated protein folding directly regulates plant programmed cell death. The Arabidopsis thaliana protein AtBAG5 (Bcl-2-associated athanogene 5) is unique in that it contains both a BAG domain capable of binding Hsc70 (Heat shock cognate protein 70) and a characteristic IQ motif that is specific for Ca2+-free CaM (Calmodulin) binding and hence acts as a hub linking calcium signaling and the chaperone system. Here, we determined crystal structures of AtBAG5 alone and in complex with Ca2+-free CaM. Structural and biochemical studies revealed that Ca2+-free CaM and Hsc70 bind AtBAG5 independently, whereas Ca2+-saturated CaM and Hsc70 bind AtBAG5 with negative cooperativity. Further in vivo studies confirmed that AtBAG5 localizes to mitochondria and that its overexpression leads to leaf senescence symptoms including decreased chlorophyll retention and massive ROS production in dark-induced plants. Mutants interfering the CaM/AtBAG5/Hsc70 complex formation leads to different phenotype of leaf senescence. Collectively, we propose that the CaM/AtBAG5/Hsc70 signaling complex plays an important role in regulating plant senescence. PMID:27539741

  10. Casimir bag energy in the stochastic approximation to the pure QCD vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Fosco, C. D.; Oxman, L. E.

    2007-01-15

    We study the Casimir contribution to the bag energy coming from gluon field fluctuations, within the context of the stochastic vacuum model of pure QCD. After formulating the problem in terms of the generating functional of field strength cumulants, we argue that the resulting predictions about the Casimir energy are compatible with the phenomenologically required bag energy term.

  11. Identification of control parameters for the sulfur gas storability with bag sampling methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Air samples containing sulfur compounds are often collected and stored in sample bags prior to analyses. The storage stability of six gaseous sulfur compounds (H2S, CH3SH, DMS, CS2, DMDS and SO2) was compared between two different bag materials (polyvinyl fluoride (PVF) and polyester aluminum (PEA))...

  12. 78 FR 28194 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... Retail Carrier Bags From the People's Republic of China, 69 FR 48201 (August 9, 2004) (PRCB Order). FOR..., to their customers to package and carry their purchased products. The scope of the order excludes (1..., citing Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags from China, Malaysia, and Thailand, Inv. Nos....

  13. 46 CFR 59.15-10 - Bagged or blistered shell plates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bagged or blistered shell plates. 59.15-10 Section 59.15... shell plates. (a) When the shell plates of cylindrical boilers which are exposed to the radiant heat of... boiler. (b) Where the shell plate is bagged due to overheating, the Officer in Charge, Marine...

  14. 75 FR 23670 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Countervailing Duty Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... Bags from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Affirmative Countervailing Duty Determination, 75 FR..., 74 FR 45811 (September 4, 2009) (Preliminary Determination). Therefore, the Department will direct... International Trade Administration (C-552-805) Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags from the Socialist Republic...

  15. 78 FR 28192 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... Carrier Bags From Thailand, 75 FR 48940 (August 12, 2010) (Section 129 Determination). Preliminary Results... Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Proceedings: Assessment of Antidumping Duties, 68 FR 23954 (May 6, 2003... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Preliminary Results...

  16. 76 FR 26241 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ..., 75 FR 60076 (September 29, 2010). The preliminary results of this administrative review are currently... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Extension of Time Limit for... polyethylene retail carrier bags from Thailand for the period August 1, 2009, through July 31, 2010....

  17. Comparison of storage stability of odorous VOCs in polyester aluminum and polyvinyl fluoride tedlar bags

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whole air sampling using containers such as flexible bags or rigid canisters is commonly used to collect samples of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in air. The objective of this study was to compare the stability of polyester aluminum (PEA) and polyvinyl fluoride (PVF, brand name Tedlar®) bags for ...

  18. 76 FR 70965 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Correction to the Amended Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ... Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Amended Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 76 FR... Bags From Thailand, 75 FR 48940 (August 12, 2010). These deposit requirements, when imposed, shall... August 1, 2009, through July 31, 2010. The notice did not include the names and margins of two...

  19. BAG3 elevation inhibits cell proliferation via direct interaction with G6PD in hepatocellular carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Kong, De-Hui; Li, Si; Du, Zhen-Xian; Liu, Chuan; Liu, Bao-Qin; Li, Chao; Zong, Zhi-Hong; Wang, Hua-Qin

    2016-01-01

    Bcl-2 associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) contains multiple protein-binding motifs to mediate potential interactions with chaperons and/or other proteins, which is possibly ascribed to the multifaceted functions assigned to BAG3. The current study demonstrated that BAG3 directly interacted with glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), the rate-limiting enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). BAG3 suppressed the PPP flux, de novo DNA synthesis and cell growth in hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). The growth defect of HCCs with forced BAG3 expression can be rescued by enforced G6PD expression. However, BAG3 elevation did not cause a reduction in cellular NADPH concentrations, another main product of G6PD. In addition, supplement of nucleosides alone was sufficient to recover the growth defect mediated by BAG3 elevation. Collectively, the current study established a tumor suppressor-like function of BAG3 via direct interaction with G6PD in HCCs at the cellular level. PMID:26621836

  20. 75 FR 38978 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the People's Republic of China, Malaysia, and Thailand...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ... amended (the Act). See Initiation of Five-year (``Sunset'') Review, 74 FR 31412 (July 1, 2009); see also Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From China, Malaysia, and Thailand, 74 FR 31750 (July 2, 2009). \\1\\ On August... Duty Order: Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Malaysia, 69 FR 48203 (August 9, 2004);...

  1. Home-School Literacy Bags for Twenty-First Century Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Susan Trostle; Marchand, Jessica; Lilly, Elizabeth; Child, Martha

    2014-01-01

    Combining home-school literacy bags with preschool family literature circles provided a strong foundation for family involvement at home and school during this year-long Reading Partners project, and helped parents become essential partners in their children's literacy development. Using home-school literacy bags, children and parents learned…

  2. 78 FR 65426 - Technical Report: Evaluation of the Certified-Advanced Air Bags

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... (65 FR 19477) or you may visit http://www.regulations.gov . Please send two paper copies of your... SAFETY ADMINISTRATION Technical Report: Evaluation of the Certified-Advanced Air Bags AGENCY: National... reviewing and evaluating certified-advanced air bags. The report's title is: Evaluation of the...

  3. The microenvironment within and pollen transmission through paper and polyethylene sorghum pollination bags

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bird damage is a problem in sorghum breeding and germplasm maintenance operations. Paper pollination bags are damaged by rain and provide minimal deterrent to birds. Earlier we reported upon bird resistance of spun polyethylene pollination bags. Herein, we report the potential for pollen transmissio...

  4. 75 FR 57549 - Fisker Automotive; Grant of Application for Temporary Exemption From Advanced Air Bag...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ..., especially in low- speed crashes. \\1\\ See 65 FR 30680 (May 12, 2000). The advanced air bag requirements were... developing advanced air bag systems. \\2\\ See, e.g., grant of petition to Panoz, 72 FR 28759 (May 22, 2007), or grant of petition to Koenigsegg, 72 FR 17608 (April 9, 2007). The agency has carefully...

  5. CaM/BAG5/Hsc70 signaling complex dynamically regulates leaf senescence.

    PubMed

    Li, Luhua; Xing, Yangfei; Chang, Dong; Fang, Shasha; Cui, Boyang; Li, Qi; Wang, Xuejie; Guo, Shang; Yang, Xue; Men, Shuzhen; Shen, Yuequan

    2016-01-01

    Calcium signaling plays an essential role in plant cell physiology, and chaperone-mediated protein folding directly regulates plant programmed cell death. The Arabidopsis thaliana protein AtBAG5 (Bcl-2-associated athanogene 5) is unique in that it contains both a BAG domain capable of binding Hsc70 (Heat shock cognate protein 70) and a characteristic IQ motif that is specific for Ca(2+)-free CaM (Calmodulin) binding and hence acts as a hub linking calcium signaling and the chaperone system. Here, we determined crystal structures of AtBAG5 alone and in complex with Ca(2+)-free CaM. Structural and biochemical studies revealed that Ca(2+)-free CaM and Hsc70 bind AtBAG5 independently, whereas Ca(2+)-saturated CaM and Hsc70 bind AtBAG5 with negative cooperativity. Further in vivo studies confirmed that AtBAG5 localizes to mitochondria and that its overexpression leads to leaf senescence symptoms including decreased chlorophyll retention and massive ROS production in dark-induced plants. Mutants interfering the CaM/AtBAG5/Hsc70 complex formation leads to different phenotype of leaf senescence. Collectively, we propose that the CaM/AtBAG5/Hsc70 signaling complex plays an important role in regulating plant senescence. PMID:27539741

  6. Air Bag Interaction with and Injury Potential from Common Steering Control Devices

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Greg; Dalrymple, Gayle; Ragland, Carl

    1998-01-01

    This study explored the injury potential associated with the use of steering control devices in frontal impacts. Steering control devices, an example of which is the spinner knob, are used by people who have difficulty gripping a steering wheel. These devices typically are clamped to the lower quadrant of the wheel rim and have projections that may extend out toward the occupant up to 14 cm and inward towards the air bag module up to 9 cm. A series of investigations were conducted to determine if the devices would: (1) be propelled off the rim by air bag deployment; (2) compromise air bag performance; and/or (3) cause injury to the driver. The investigations included frontal 48 km/h sled tests, quasi-static load tests, static air bag deployments, out-of-position static air bag deployments, and pendulum tests. Test subjects included the Hybrid III 50th percentile male and Hybrid III 5th percentile female anthropomorphic dummies and a male cadaver. The results indicated that there is little chance of the devices being thrown off the rim by air bag deployment and that the presence of the device had little effect on deployment or air bag performance. In addition, the presence of an air bag reduced the frequency and severity of impacts with the devices. The test results provided ample evidence of the potential of one of the devices, the “tri-pin”, to cause severe injury to the chest upon impact.

  7. Effect of Vehicle type on the Performance of Second Generation Air Bags for Child Occupants

    PubMed Central

    Arbogast, Kristy B.; Durbin, Dennis R.; Kallan, Michael J.; Winston, Flaura K.

    2003-01-01

    Passenger air bags experienced considerable design modification in the late 1990s, principally to mitigate risks to child passengers. This study utilized Data from the Partners for Child Passenger Safety study, a large-scale child-focused crash surveillance system, to examine the effect of vehicle type on the differential performance of first and second generation air bags on injuries to restrained children in frontal impact crashes. Our results show that the benefit of second-generation air bags was seen in passenger cars – those children exposed to second-generation air bags were half as likely to sustain a serious injury – and minivans. However, in SUVs the data suggest no reduction in injury risk with the new designs. This field data provides crucial real-world experience to the automotive industry as they work towards the next generation of air bag designs. PMID:12941218

  8. The existing situation and challenges regarding the use of plastic carrier bags in Europe.

    PubMed

    Kasidoni, Maria; Moustakas, Konstantinos; Malamis, Dimitris

    2015-05-01

    Since day one, retailers and consumers have favoured plastic carrier bags. However, owing to the numerous environmental disadvantages, lightweight plastic carrier bags have been drawing the attention of the European Union competent authorities. Therefore, many European Union member states have taken action so as to reduce the use of plastic carrier bags. Based on the existing legislation and voluntary initiatives for the reduction of lightweight plastic carrier bags, the challenges and achieved outcomes from the implemented policy options in the various European Union member states are discussed and commented regarding the forthcoming transposition of the 'Directive 94/62/EC on packaging and packaging waste to reduce the consumption of lightweight plastic carrier bags' into the European Union member states' national law.

  9. Effect of vehicle type on the performance of second generation air bags for child occupants.

    PubMed

    Arbogast, Kristy B; Durbin, Dennis R; Kallan, Michael J; Winston, Flaura K

    2003-01-01

    Passenger air bags experienced considerable design modification in the late 1990s, principally to mitigate risks to child passengers. This study utilized Data from the Partners for Child Passenger Safety study, a large-scale child-focused crash surveillance system, to examine the effect of vehicle type on the differential performance of first and second generation air bags on injuries to restrained children in frontal impact crashes. Our results show that the benefit of second-generation air bags was seen in passenger cars - those children exposed to second-generation air bags were half as likely to sustain a serious injury - and minivans. However, in SUVs the data suggest no reduction in injury risk with the new designs. This field data provides crucial real-world experience to the automotive industry as they work towards the next generation of air bag designs. PMID:12941218

  10. The existing situation and challenges regarding the use of plastic carrier bags in Europe.

    PubMed

    Kasidoni, Maria; Moustakas, Konstantinos; Malamis, Dimitris

    2015-05-01

    Since day one, retailers and consumers have favoured plastic carrier bags. However, owing to the numerous environmental disadvantages, lightweight plastic carrier bags have been drawing the attention of the European Union competent authorities. Therefore, many European Union member states have taken action so as to reduce the use of plastic carrier bags. Based on the existing legislation and voluntary initiatives for the reduction of lightweight plastic carrier bags, the challenges and achieved outcomes from the implemented policy options in the various European Union member states are discussed and commented regarding the forthcoming transposition of the 'Directive 94/62/EC on packaging and packaging waste to reduce the consumption of lightweight plastic carrier bags' into the European Union member states' national law. PMID:25827845

  11. Laparoscopic Morcellation and Tissue Spillage Containment Using the LI Endofield™ Bag.

    PubMed

    Kondrup, James Dana; Anderson, Fran; Sylvester, Brenda; Branning, Michelle

    2014-11-01

    There are many times during laparoscopic surgery that a surgeon, whether gynecologist or general surgeon, must work in an environment where spillage of tissue or organ contents should be avoided. In gynecologic surgery, this involves management of ovarian cysts as well as containment of tissue fragments during morcellation of uteri or fibroids. Unfortunately, many laparoscopic containment bags on the market today are not large enough to remain open on their own during the entire procedure. The LI Endofield™ and LI Endofield™ TV bag offer a solution and provide an adjustable and suturable "field bag." Surgeons can work in an adjustable "field," are able to see through the bag, and can remove it at the end of the procedure. With the recent FDA cautions on power morcellation, our team only morcellates fibroids and uteri using one of these bags. PMID:25419952

  12. Stability of the lepton bag model based on the Kerr–Newman solution

    SciTech Connect

    Burinskii, A.

    2015-11-15

    We show that the lepton bag model considered in our previous paper [10], generating the external gravitational and electromagnetic fields of the Kerr–Newman (KN) solution, is supersymmetric and represents a BPS-saturated soliton interpolating between the internal vacuum state and the external KN solution. We obtain Bogomolnyi equations for this phase transition and show that the Bogomolnyi bound determines all important features of this bag model, including its stable shape. In particular, for the stationary KN solution, the BPS bound provides stability of the ellipsoidal form of the bag and the formation of the ring–string structure at its border, while for the periodic electromagnetic excitations of the KN solution, the BPS bound controls the deformation of the surface of the bag, reproducing the known flexibility of bag models.

  13. Visual Pattern Analysis in Histopathology Images Using Bag of Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz-Roa, Angel; Caicedo, Juan C.; González, Fabio A.

    This paper presents a framework to analyse visual patterns in a collection of medical images in a two stage procedure. First, a set of representative visual patterns from the image collection is obtained by constructing a visual-word dictionary under a bag-of-features approach. Second, an analysis of the relationships between visual patterns and semantic concepts in the image collection is performed. The most important visual patterns for each semantic concept are identified using correlation analysis. A matrix visualization of the structure and organization of the image collection is generated using a cluster analysis. The experimental evaluation was conducted on a histopathology image collection and results showed clear relationships between visual patterns and semantic concepts, that in addition, are of easy interpretation and understanding.

  14. Effective face recognition using bag of features with additive kernels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shicai; Bebis, George; Chu, Yongjie; Zhao, Lindu

    2016-01-01

    In past decades, many techniques have been used to improve face recognition performance. The most common and well-studied ways are to use the whole face image to build a subspace based on the reduction of dimensionality. Differing from methods above, we consider face recognition as an image classification problem. The face images of the same person are considered to fall into the same category. Each category and each face image could be both represented by a simple pyramid histogram. Spatial dense scale-invariant feature transform features and bag of features method are used to build categories and face representations. In an effort to make the method more efficient, a linear support vector machine solver, Pegasos, is used for the classification in the kernel space with additive kernels instead of nonlinear SVMs. Our experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can achieve very high recognition accuracy on the ORL, YALE, and FERET databases.

  15. Results for the Brine Evaporation Bag (BEB) Brine Processing Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delzeit, Lance; Flynn, Michael; Fisher, John; Shaw, Hali; Kawashima, Brian; Beeler, David; Howard, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The recent Brine Processing Test compared the NASA Forward Osmosis Brine Dewatering (FOBD), Paragon Ionomer Water Processor (IWP), UMPQUA Ultrasonic Brine Dewatering System (UBDS), and the NASA Brine Evaporation Bag (BEB). This paper reports the results of the BEB. The BEB was operated at 70 deg C and a base pressure of 12 torr. The BEB was operated in a batch mode, and processed 0.4L of brine per batch. Two different brine feeds were tested, a chromic acid-urine brine and a chromic acid-urine-hygiene mix brine. The chromic acid-urine brine, known as the ISS Alternate Pretreatment Brine, had an average processing rate of 95 mL/hr with a specific power of 5kWhr/L. The complete results of these tests will be reported within this paper.

  16. Promoting fertilizer use via controlled release of a bacteria-encapsulated film bag.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chin-San

    2010-05-26

    A phosphate-solubilizing bacterium ( Burkholderia cepacia isolate) encapsulated in maleic anhydride (MA) grafted onto poly(butylene succinate adipate) (PBSA) and then combined with starch as film bag material (PBSA-g-MA/starch) incubated in a saline solution required approximately 20 days to deplete the starch in the film bags. Thereafter, the cell concentration in the saline solution increased significantly because of the release of cells from the severely destroyed film bags and also their growth by use of depolymerized PBSA-g-MA fragments as a substrate. The incubation proceeded for 60 days, by which time the PBSA-g-MA/starch composite had suffered a >80% weight loss. For practical application, effectiveness of the above-mentioned film bags was demonstrated because it could improve the absorbability of a fertilizer for plants and promote the growth of plants. As a result, it can avoid the accumulation of the phosphate in excess fertilizer that lead to the phenomenon of poor soils. These results demonstrate that PBSA-g-MA/starch can be used to encapsulate cells of an indigenous phosphate-solubilizing bacterium ( B. cepacia isolate) to form a controlled release of bacteria-encapsulated film bag (BEFB). The B. cepacia isolate was able to degrade the film bags material, causing cell release. Biodegradability of the film bags depended upon the type of material used, because the PBSA film bags were also degraded but to a lesser degree. The addition of starch made the film bags more biodegradable. The decrease in intrinsic viscosity was also higher for the starch composite, suggesting a strong connection between the biodegradability and these characteristics. The results suggest that the release of fertilizer-promoted bacteria might be controllable via a suitable film bag material formulation. In addition, this work adopted live bacteria to promote the absorption of phosphate, which is superior to the phosphate used in the traditional way. PMID:20420423

  17. Promoting fertilizer use via controlled release of a bacteria-encapsulated film bag.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chin-San

    2010-05-26

    A phosphate-solubilizing bacterium ( Burkholderia cepacia isolate) encapsulated in maleic anhydride (MA) grafted onto poly(butylene succinate adipate) (PBSA) and then combined with starch as film bag material (PBSA-g-MA/starch) incubated in a saline solution required approximately 20 days to deplete the starch in the film bags. Thereafter, the cell concentration in the saline solution increased significantly because of the release of cells from the severely destroyed film bags and also their growth by use of depolymerized PBSA-g-MA fragments as a substrate. The incubation proceeded for 60 days, by which time the PBSA-g-MA/starch composite had suffered a >80% weight loss. For practical application, effectiveness of the above-mentioned film bags was demonstrated because it could improve the absorbability of a fertilizer for plants and promote the growth of plants. As a result, it can avoid the accumulation of the phosphate in excess fertilizer that lead to the phenomenon of poor soils. These results demonstrate that PBSA-g-MA/starch can be used to encapsulate cells of an indigenous phosphate-solubilizing bacterium ( B. cepacia isolate) to form a controlled release of bacteria-encapsulated film bag (BEFB). The B. cepacia isolate was able to degrade the film bags material, causing cell release. Biodegradability of the film bags depended upon the type of material used, because the PBSA film bags were also degraded but to a lesser degree. The addition of starch made the film bags more biodegradable. The decrease in intrinsic viscosity was also higher for the starch composite, suggesting a strong connection between the biodegradability and these characteristics. The results suggest that the release of fertilizer-promoted bacteria might be controllable via a suitable film bag material formulation. In addition, this work adopted live bacteria to promote the absorption of phosphate, which is superior to the phosphate used in the traditional way.

  18. Categorizing dynamic textures using a bag of dynamical systems.

    PubMed

    Ravichandran, Avinash; Chaudhry, Rizwan; Vidal, René

    2013-02-01

    We consider the problem of categorizing video sequences of dynamic textures, i.e., nonrigid dynamical objects such as fire, water, steam, flags, etc. This problem is extremely challenging because the shape and appearance of a dynamic texture continuously change as a function of time. State-of-the-art dynamic texture categorization methods have been successful at classifying videos taken from the same viewpoint and scale by using a Linear Dynamical System (LDS) to model each video, and using distances or kernels in the space of LDSs to classify the videos. However, these methods perform poorly when the video sequences are taken under a different viewpoint or scale. In this paper, we propose a novel dynamic texture categorization framework that can handle such changes. We model each video sequence with a collection of LDSs, each one describing a small spatiotemporal patch extracted from the video. This Bag-of-Systems (BoS) representation is analogous to the Bag-of-Features (BoF) representation for object recognition, except that we use LDSs as feature descriptors. This choice poses several technical challenges in adopting the traditional BoF approach. Most notably, the space of LDSs is not euclidean; hence, novel methods for clustering LDSs and computing codewords of LDSs need to be developed. We propose a framework that makes use of nonlinear dimensionality reduction and clustering techniques combined with the Martin distance for LDSs to tackle these issues. Our experiments compare the proposed BoS approach to existing dynamic texture categorization methods and show that it can be used for recognizing dynamic textures in challenging scenarios which could not be handled by existing methods. PMID:23257470

  19. A One-Piece Lunar Regolith-Bag Garage Prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithers, Gweneth A.; Nehls, Mary K.; Hovater, Mary A.; Evans, Steven W.; Miller, J. Scott; Broughton, Roy M.; Beale, David; Killing-Balci, Fatma

    2007-01-01

    Shelter structures on the moon, even in early phases of exploration, should incorporate lunar materials as much as possible. We designed and constructed a prototype for a one-piece regolith-bag unpressurized garage concept, and, in parallel, we conducted a materials testing program to investigate six candidate fabrics to learn how they might perform in the lunar environment. In our concept, a lightweight fabric form is launched from Earth to be landed on the lunar surface and robotically filled with raw lunar regolith. In the materials testing program, regolith-bag fabric candidates included: Vectran(TM), Nextel(TM), Gore PTFE Fabric(TM), Zylon(TM), Twaron(TM), and Nomex(TM). Tensile (including post radiation exposure), fold, abrasion, and hypervelocity impact testing were performed under ambient conditions, and, within our current means, we also performed these tests under cold and elevated temperatures. In some cases, lunar simulant (JSC-1) was used in conjunction with testing. Our ambition is to continuously refine our testing to reach lunar environmental conditions to the extent possible. A series of preliminary structures were constructed during design of the final prototype. Design is based on the principles of the classic masonry arch. The prototype was constructed of Kevlar(TM) and filled with vermiculite (fairly close to the weight of lunar regolith on the moon). The structure is free-standing, but has not yet been load tested. Our plan for the future would be to construct higher fidelity mockups with each iteration, and to conduct appropriate tests of the structure.

  20. A One-Piece Lunar Regolith-Bag Garage Prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithers, Gweneth A.; Nehls, Mary K.; Hovater, Mary A.; Evans, Steven W.; Miller, J. Scott; Broughton, Roy M., Jr.; Beale, David; Killinc-Balci, Fatma

    2006-01-01

    Shelter structures on the moon, even in early phases of exploration, should incorporate lunar materials as much as possible. We designed and constructed a prototype for a one-piece regolith-bag unpressurized garage concept, and, in parallel, we conducted a materials testing program to investigate six candidate fabrics to learn how they might perform in the lunar environment. In our concept, a lightweight fabric form is launched from Earth to be landed on the lunar surface and robotically filled with raw lunar regolith. In the materials testing program, regolith-bag fabric candidates included: VectranTM, NextelTM, Gore PTFE FabricTM, ZylonTM TwaronTM and NomexTM. Tensile (including post radiation exposure), fold, abrasion, and hypervelocity impact testing were performed under ambient conditions, and, within our current means, we also performed these tests under cold and elevated temperatures. In some cases, lunar simulant (JSC-1) was used in conjunction with testing. Our ambition is to continuously refine our testing to reach lunar environmental conditions to the extent possible. A series of preliminary structures were constructed during design of the final prototype. Design is based on the principles of the classic masonry arch. The prototype was constructed of KevlarTM and filled with vermiculite (fairly close to the weight of lunar regolith on the moon). The structure is free-standing, but has not yet been load tested. Our plan for the future would be to construct higher fidelty mockups with each iteration, and to conduct appropriate tests of the structure.

  1. Effects of fruit pre-harvest bagging on fruit quality of peach (Prunus persica Batsch cv. Hujingmilu).

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Jia, Hui-Juan; Zhang, Xiao-Meng

    2006-06-01

    Experiments were conducted to test the effects of pre-harvest bagging on fruit ripening and quality of peach (Prunus persica Batsch cv. Hujingmilu). Young fruits, at 50 days after full bloom (DAFB), were covered with bags made of single-, double-, and triple-layers of orange paper bag with 27.0%, 13.9% and 8.2% sunlight transmission, respectively. Ethylene production and respiration rate were measured, and fruit quality was analyzed at 111, 114, 117, 120 (firm-ripe stage) and 124 DAFB (full-ripe stage). Single- and triple-layer bagged fruits had higher ethylene production rates than double-layer bagged and un-bagged fruits. The skin of un-bagged fruit had higher brightness (L-value) but smaller hue angle (h degrees) at the full-ripe stage compared with that of bagged fruit. Flesh firmness of un-bagged fruit was higher than that of bagged fruit until the firm-ripe stage, although triple-layer bagged fruit had higher firmness than un-bagged fruit at the full-ripe stage. Total soluble solids in juice of single-layer bagged fruit were a little higher than those of other treated fruits at the full-ripe stage. Single-layer bagged fruit showed the highest level of gamma-decalactone, a main characteristic aroma of peach and total lactones at the firm-ripe and full-ripe stages. It was concluded that 'Hujingmilu' peach had high quality with abundant aromas when the fruits were bagged with single-layer orange paper bags at 50 DAFB. The biosynthesis of gamma-decalactone and other aromas may be affected by light to some extent.

  2. 78 FR 72628 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Notice of Court Decision Not in Harmony With...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-03

    ... Thai Plastic Bags Industries Company (TPBI) and Landblue (Thailand) Co., Ltd. (Landblue). \\1\\ See Results of Redetermination Pursuant to Court Remand Thai Plastic Bags Industries Co., Ltd., v. United.... Court No. 11-00408, dated July 10, 2013 (Remand Results). \\2\\ See Thai Plastic Bags Industries Co.,...

  3. 75 FR 75454 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Extension of Time Limit for the Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-03

    ... polyethylene retail carrier bags from Thailand. See Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 75 FR 53953 (September 2, 2010). The administrative... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Extension of Time Limit...

  4. Correlations between Muscle Activities and Strap Length and Types of School Bag during Walking

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jung-Gyu

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine correlations between muscle activities and strap length and type of the school bag during walking. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were 20 healthy students. An 8-channel electromyograph (8-EMG) (Pocket EMG, BTS, Italy) was used to measure the muscle activities of the right upper trapezius, left upper trapezius, right erector spinae and left erector spinae during walking with the bag. The collected data were analyzed using Kendall’s coefficient of concordance. [Results] The muscle activities of the right upper trapezius, left upper trapezius, right erector spinae and left erector spinae were significantly higher when walking with a shoulder bag than when walking with a backpack. No significant correlations were found between muscle activities and strap lengths of the bag. [Conclusion] While carrying a bag, the activities of the trunk muscles were influenced more by the type of the bag than by the strap length. These results indicate that a backpack is a better method of carrying a load than a shoulder bag. PMID:25540502

  5. Structural basis of nucleotide exchange and client binding by the novel Hsp70-cochaperone Bag2

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhen; Page, Richard C; Gomes, Michelle M; Kohli, Ekta; Nix, Jay C; Herr, Andrew B; Patterson, Cam; Misra, Saurav

    2009-01-01

    Cochaperones are essential for Hsp70/Hsc70-mediated folding of proteins and include nucleotide exchange factors (NEF) that assist protein folding by accelerating ADP/ATP exchange on Hsp70. The cochaperone Bag2 binds misfolded Hsp70 clients and also acts as a NEF, but the molecular basis of its functions is unclear. We show that, rather than being a member of the Bag domain family, Bag2 contains a new type of Hsp70 NEF domain, which we call the “Brand New Bag” (BNB) domain. Free and Hsc70-bound crystal structures of Bag2-BNB show its dimeric structure in which a flanking linker helix and loop bind to Hsc70 to promote nucleotide exchange. NMR analysis demonstrates that the client-binding sites and Hsc70 interaction sites of Bag2-BNB overlap, and that Hsc70 can displace clients from Bag2-BNB, indicating a distinct mechanism for the regulation of Hsp-70-mediated protein folding by Bag2. PMID:19029896

  6. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 87-080-1856, Duro Bag Manufacturing Company, Richwood, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Laubli, T.; Mathias, C.G.T.; Almaguer, D.

    1988-01-01

    In response to a request from the Duro Bag manufacturing Company, Richwood, Kentucky, an investigation was made of the occurrence of skin rashes and hair loss at the facility. Products included shopping bags, grocery bags, millinery and notion bags, and wrapping paper in the Paper Division. A questionnaire was completed by 215 of 245 hourly production workers. Sixty one of those responding indicated a skin rash in the period since January 1, 1986. Hair loss had been noticed by 12 employees. Significantly elevated relative risks were noted among bag catchers of the plastic division for skin rashes on arms and hands. Increases in skin rashes of the head and neck area occurred among bag catchers, collator tenders, and adjuster supervisors in grocery-bag production areas. Dust levels were below current standards. The authors conclude that the cause of the skin rashes probably is exposure to chemicals used to clean machine parts. The authors recommend specific changes to reduce the occurrence of contact dermatitis, including use of personal protective equipment, good personal hygiene, ventilation systems, dust control, proper humidity for work areas, regular use of skin moisturizers, and proper use of respirators.

  7. Vented spikes improve delivery from intravenous bags with no air headspace.

    PubMed

    Galush, William J; Horst, Travis A

    2015-07-01

    Flexible plastic bags are the container of choice for most intravenous (i.v.) infusions. Under certain circumstances, however, the air-liquid interface present in these i.v. bags can lead to physical instability of protein biopharmaceuticals, resulting in product aggregation. In principle, the air headspace present in the bags can be removed to increase drug stability, but experiments described here show that this can result in incomplete draining of solution from the bag using gravity delivery, or generation of negative pressure in the bag when an infusion pump is used. It is expected that these issues could lead to incomplete delivery of medication to patients or pump-related problems, respectively. However, here it is shown that contrary to the standard pharmacy practice of using nonvented spikes with i.v. bags, the use of vented spikes with i.v. bags that lack air headspace allows complete delivery of the dose solution without impacting the physical stability of a protein-based drug.

  8. Correlations between Muscle Activities and Strap Length and Types of School Bag during Walking.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jung-Gyu

    2014-12-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine correlations between muscle activities and strap length and type of the school bag during walking. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were 20 healthy students. An 8-channel electromyograph (8-EMG) (Pocket EMG, BTS, Italy) was used to measure the muscle activities of the right upper trapezius, left upper trapezius, right erector spinae and left erector spinae during walking with the bag. The collected data were analyzed using Kendall's coefficient of concordance. [Results] The muscle activities of the right upper trapezius, left upper trapezius, right erector spinae and left erector spinae were significantly higher when walking with a shoulder bag than when walking with a backpack. No significant correlations were found between muscle activities and strap lengths of the bag. [Conclusion] While carrying a bag, the activities of the trunk muscles were influenced more by the type of the bag than by the strap length. These results indicate that a backpack is a better method of carrying a load than a shoulder bag. PMID:25540502

  9. Vented spikes improve delivery from intravenous bags with no air headspace.

    PubMed

    Galush, William J; Horst, Travis A

    2015-07-01

    Flexible plastic bags are the container of choice for most intravenous (i.v.) infusions. Under certain circumstances, however, the air-liquid interface present in these i.v. bags can lead to physical instability of protein biopharmaceuticals, resulting in product aggregation. In principle, the air headspace present in the bags can be removed to increase drug stability, but experiments described here show that this can result in incomplete draining of solution from the bag using gravity delivery, or generation of negative pressure in the bag when an infusion pump is used. It is expected that these issues could lead to incomplete delivery of medication to patients or pump-related problems, respectively. However, here it is shown that contrary to the standard pharmacy practice of using nonvented spikes with i.v. bags, the use of vented spikes with i.v. bags that lack air headspace allows complete delivery of the dose solution without impacting the physical stability of a protein-based drug. PMID:25953689

  10. Effect of cooking bag and netting packaging on the quality of pork ham during water cooking.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Qiaofen; Sun, Da-Wen

    2007-02-01

    As a preliminary test for combining water cooking with vacuum cooling in soup of pork ham, three package treatments were designed to study the effect of cooking bag and netting on the quality of water cooked ham, i.e. ham cooked with a cooking bag and without a cooking bag (single netting and double netting). For treatments without a cooking bag, the results indicated that there was no significant superiority of ham cooked with double netting compared with ham cooked with single netting on the processing efficiency and quality characteristics. Although the hams cooked with a bag performed better in some chemical retentions and pigment, the water contents were significantly lower than those hams cooked in single netting (P<0.05), and there was a higher shrinkage tendency compared with the hams cooked without a bag. For the processing characteristics and texture properties of pork ham, there were no significant differences observed among the treatments with and without a cooking bag in terms of the combined effect of cooking and cooling (P>0.05). By considering the safety, convenience, cost, and the recovery effect on the quality changes of ham during vacuum cooling in soup, cooking with single netting is a better choice for future research.

  11. Thioflavin S (NSC71948) interferes with Bcl-2-associated athanogene (BAG-1)-mediated protein-protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Adam; Crabb, Simon J; Johnson, Peter W M; Hague, Angela; Cutress, Ramsey; Townsend, Paul A; Ganesan, A; Packham, Graham

    2009-11-01

    The C-terminal BAG domain is thought to play a key role in BAG-1-induced survival and proliferation by mediating protein-protein interactions, for example, with heat shock proteins HSC70 and HSP70, and with RAF-1 kinase. Here, we have identified thioflavin S (NSC71948) as a potential small-molecule chemical inhibitor of these interactions. NSC71948 inhibited the interaction of BAG-1 and HSC70 in vitro and decreased BAG-1:HSC70 and BAG-1:HSP70 binding in intact cells. NSC71948 also reduced binding between BAG-1 and RAF-1, but had no effect on the interaction between two unrelated proteins, BIM and MCL-1. NSC71948 functionally reversed the ability of BAG-1 to promote vitamin D3 receptor-mediated transactivation, an activity of BAG-1 that depends on HSC70/HSP70 binding, and reduced phosphorylation of p44/42 mitogen-activate protein kinase. NSC71948 can be used to stain amyloid fibrils; however, structurally related compounds, thioflavin T and BTA-1, had no effect on BAG-1:HSC70 binding, suggesting that structural features important for amyloid fibril binding and inhibition of BAG-1:HSC70 binding may be separable. We demonstrated that NSC71948 inhibited the growth of BAG-1 expressing human ZR-75-1 breast cancer cells and wild-type, but not BAG-1-deficient, mouse embryo fibroblasts. Taken together, these data suggest that NSC71948 may be a useful molecule to investigate the functional significance of BAG-1 C-terminal protein interactions. However, it is important to recognize that NSC71948 may exert additional "off-target" effects. Inhibition of BAG-1 function may be an attractive strategy to inhibit the growth of BAG-1-overexpressing cancers, and further screens of additional compound collections may be warranted.

  12. Effects of Aeration of Sawdust Cultivation Bags on Hyphal Growth of Lentinula edodes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hwa-Yong; Ham, Eun-Ju; Yoo, Young-Jin; Kim, Eui-Sung; Shim, Kyu-Kwang; Kim, Myung-Kon; Koo, Chang-Duck

    2012-09-01

    The effects of aeration through lid filters on the hyphal growth of Lentinula edodes (oak mushroom) in sawdust cultivation bags were investigated. The aeration treatment levels were traditional 27 mm hole cotton plugs, cotton balls and combinations of seven hole sizes × two hole positions (up and under) in the lids covering plastic bags containing 1.4 kg sawdust medium at 63% moisture that had been autoclaved for one hour and inoculated with sawdust spawn of L. edodes strain 921. Aeration treatment effects were measured based on the CO(2) concentration at the 15th wk, as well as the hyphal growth rate and degree of weight loss of bags every 14 days for 15 wk. In bags with traditional cotton plugs, the CO(2) concentration was 3.8 ± 1.3%, daily mean hyphal growth was 2.3 ± 0.6 mm and daily mean weight loss was 0.84 ± 0.26 g. In the bags with 15 mm diameter holes, the CO(2) concentration was 6.0 ± 1.6%, daily hyphal growth was 2.8 ± 0.2 mm and daily weight loss was 0.86 ± 0.4 g. The bags with 15 mm holes had a higher CO(2) concentration and lower water loss than bags with other hole sizes, but the hyphal growth was not significantly different from that of other bags. The weight loss of bags increased proportionally relative to the lid hole sizes. Taken together, these results indicate that traditional cotton plugs are economically efficient, but 15 mm hole lids are the most efficient at maintaining hyphal growth and controlling water loss while allowing CO(2) emissions.

  13. Novel characterization of the HSPA2-stabilizing protein BAG6 in human spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Bromfield, Elizabeth; Aitken, R John; Nixon, Brett

    2015-10-01

    While a large cohort of sperm surface receptors underpin sperm-oocyte adhesion processes, our recent work has revealed that the molecular chaperone Heat Shock Protein A2 (HSPA2) is a key regulator of zona pellucida-receptor complex assembly in our own species. Indeed, in the infertile population, spermatozoa that fail to interact with the zona pellucida of the oocyte consistently lack HSPA2 protein expression. While the mechanisms behind this protein deficiency are under consideration, BCL2-associated athanogene 6 (BAG6) has been identified as a key regulator of HSPA2 stability in mouse germ cells. However, in the human, the presence of BAG family proteins remains completely uncharacterized. Consequently, this study aimed to determine the presence of BAG6 in human sperm cells and to characterize its putative interaction with HSPA2 throughout sperm cell development. BAG6 was shown to co-localize with HSPA2 in human testicular germ cells and epididymal spermatozoa. Similarly, BAG6 was identified in the equatorial region of non-capacitated spermatozoa but underwent a marked relocation to the anterior region of the head upon the induction of capacitation in these cells. Protein-protein interaction assays revealed the stable interaction of BAG6 and HSPA2 proteins in mature spermatozoa. Furthermore, examination of the spermatozoa of infertile men with zona pellucida binding defects, related to a lack of HSPA2, revealed a concomitant deficiency in BAG6 protein expression. In view of the findings described in this study, we propose that BAG6 is likely a key regulator of HSPA2 stability/function in human germ cells. Moreover, its under-representation in spermatozoa with zona pellucida binding deficiency suggests that BAG6 may be an important candidate to study for a further understanding of male idiopathic infertility.

  14. Ergonomic analysis in the bagging of gran equipment: unsuitability of the work stations.

    PubMed

    Mariño, Suzi; Lemos, Leandro

    2012-01-01

    This analysis was performed in the industry for bagging grain (granular urea) nitrogen fertilizer factory in order to raise the causes of accidents on the operators. Data collection through direct observation and interviews done with the managers and operators have identified the causes of accidents. The results show an evident fact: the working conditions of bagging grain cause embarrassment to the employee, as well as the emergence of pathophysiology due to overload, then the problems of work organization involving mainly equipment, tools and accessories inadequate. At the end of this work are related suggestions, which has as its goal the reduction or even elimination of accidents involving operators bagging grain. PMID:22317548

  15. Ergonomic analysis in the bagging of gran equipment: unsuitability of the work stations.

    PubMed

    Mariño, Suzi; Lemos, Leandro

    2012-01-01

    This analysis was performed in the industry for bagging grain (granular urea) nitrogen fertilizer factory in order to raise the causes of accidents on the operators. Data collection through direct observation and interviews done with the managers and operators have identified the causes of accidents. The results show an evident fact: the working conditions of bagging grain cause embarrassment to the employee, as well as the emergence of pathophysiology due to overload, then the problems of work organization involving mainly equipment, tools and accessories inadequate. At the end of this work are related suggestions, which has as its goal the reduction or even elimination of accidents involving operators bagging grain.

  16. Odor Control Test Report of the Urine Containment Bag (UCB) for Orion Utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casper, Stephanie; Williams, Nichole M. M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the conclusions for the odor control test of the Urine Containment Bag (UCB), P/N SDD46107234-306 in an environment simulating a space craft capsule. JSC 65891, Odor Control Test Plan of the Urine Containment Bag (UCB) for Orion Utilization, documents the test plan. The details of the test set-up and data reduction are detailed in the WSTF test report for this test WSTF #10-44500, Odor Control Test Plan of the Urine Containment Bag (UCB) for Orion Utilization,. This document outlines the project conclusions and forward plans with regard to trash containment for Constellation.

  17. The effect of obstruction of bag surface on platelet concentrate pH.

    PubMed

    Simon, T L

    1983-01-01

    Platelet concentrates stored in bags (made of a plastic film incorporating a new plasticizer) on flat-bed agitators for up to 5 days were found to have accelerated pH decline when the surface of the bag was obstructed with added labels and an invoice on the non-labeled side. Without the over-labeling and invoice, only one of 20 concentrates had a pH below 6.0, even at very high concentrations of platelets. Blood banks experiencing problems with pH decline in the platelet concentrates being stored up to 5 days should consider eliminating surface obstruction on the bag. PMID:6679386

  18. Effectiveness of oxygen barrier oven bags in low temperature cooking on reduction of warmed-over flavor in beef roasts.

    PubMed

    Lepper-Blilie, A N; Berg, E P; Buchanan, D S; Keller, W L; Maddock-Carlin, K R; Berg, P T

    2014-03-01

    A 3×3×2 factorial was utilized to determine if roast size (small, medium, large), cooking method (open-pan, oven bag, vacuum bag), and heating process (fresh, reheated) prevented warmed-over flavor (WOF) in beef clod roasts. Fresh vacuum bag and reheated open-pan roasts had higher cardboardy flavor scores compared with fresh open-pan roast scores. Reheated roasts in oven and vacuum bags did not differ from fresh roasts for cardboardy flavor. Brothy and fat intensity were increased in reheated roasts in oven and vacuum bags compared with fresh roasts in oven and vacuum bags. Differences in TBARS were found in the interaction of heating process and roast size with the fresh and reheated large, and reheated medium roasts having the lowest values. Based on TBARS data, to prevent WOF in reheated beef roasts, a larger size roast in a cooking bag is the most effective method.

  19. Modeling of solute sorption by polyvinyl chloride plastic infusion bags.

    PubMed

    Jenke, D R

    1993-11-01

    Methods for estimating the equilibrium and time-dependent sorption of solutes by polymeric containers have been developed. The methods are specifically applied to the sorption of solutes by polyvinyl chloride (PVC) infusion bags. The methods correlate the partition coefficients and dissociation constant (when appropriate) of the solute, the physical dimensions of the container, and solution pH with single parameters that dictate the shape of the sorption profile. To determine the equilibrium sorption level for PVC containers, the fractional binding of a solute is correlated with its hexane-water and octanol-water partition coefficients. Calculations based on single partition coefficients are less effective in terms of mimicking the behavior of the PVC. To determine the sorption profile (fractional binding versus time), the partition coefficients are related to the fraction binding at a particular time through a single parameter referred to as the sorption number. Equilibrium fractional binding and sorption profiles for various drugs stored in PVC containers are generated with the models and agree well with reported behavior. The effect of pH on the sorption process is also examined.

  20. Lung texture classification using bag of visual words

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asherov, Marina; Diamant, Idit; Greenspan, Hayit

    2014-03-01

    Interstitial lung diseases (ILD) refer to a group of more than 150 parenchymal lung disorders. High-Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) is the most essential imaging modality of ILD diagnosis. Nonetheless, classification of various lung tissue patterns caused by ILD is still regarded as a challenging task. The current study focuses on the classification of five most common categories of lung tissues of ILD in HRCT images: normal, emphysema, ground glass, fibrosis and micronodules. The objective of the research is to classify an expert-given annotated region of interest (AROI) using a bag of visual words (BoVW) framework. The images are divided into small patches and a collection of representative patches are defined as visual words. This procedure, termed dictionary construction, is performed for each individual lung texture category. The assumption is that different lung textures are represented by a different visual word distribution. The classification is performed using an SVM classifier with histogram intersection kernel. In the experiments, we use a dataset of 1018 AROIs from 95 patients. Classification using a leave-one-patient-out cross validation (LOPO CV) is used. Current classification accuracy obtained is close to 80%.

  1. Bag-of-visual-ngrams for histopathology image classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Monroy, A. Pastor; Montes-y-Gómez, Manuel; Escalante, Hugo Jair; Cruz-Roa, Angel; González, Fabio A.

    2013-11-01

    This paper describes an extension of the Bag-of-Visual-Words (BoVW) representation for image categorization (IC) of histophatology images. This representation is one of the most used approaches in several high-level computer vision tasks. However, the BoVW representation has an important limitation: the disregarding of spatial information among visual words. This information may be useful to capture discriminative visual-patterns in specific computer vision tasks. In order to overcome this problem we propose the use of visual n-grams. N-grams based-representations are very popular in the field of natural language processing (NLP), in particular within text mining and information retrieval. We propose building a codebook of n-grams and then representing images by histograms of visual n-grams. We evaluate our proposal in the challenging task of classifying histopathology images. The novelty of our proposal lies in the fact that we use n-grams as attributes for a classification model (together with visual-words, i.e., 1-grams). This is common practice within NLP, although, to the best of our knowledge, this idea has not been explored yet within computer vision. We report experimental results in a database of histopathology images where our proposed method outperforms the traditional BoVWs formulation.

  2. Effect of cardboard under a sleeping bag on sleep stages during daytime nap.

    PubMed

    Okamoto-Mizuno, Kazue; Mizuno, Koh; Tanabe, Motoko; Niwano, Katsuko

    2016-05-01

    Fourteen healthy male subjects slept from 13:30 to 15:30 under ambient temperature and relative humidity maintained at 15 °C and 60%, respectively. They slept under two conditions: in a sleeping bag on wooden flooring (Wood) and in a sleeping bag with corrugated cardboard between the bag and the flooring (CC). Polysomnography, skin temperature (Tsk), microclimate, bed climate, and subjective sensations were obtained. The number of awakenings in the CC had significantly decreased compared to that in the Wood. The mean, back, and thigh Tsk, and bed climate temperature were significantly higher in the CC than that in the Wood. Subjective thermal sensations were warmer in the CC than in the Wood. These results suggest that using corrugated cardboard under a sleeping bag may reduce cold stress, thereby decreasing the number of awakenings and increasing subjective warmth; the mean, back, and thigh Tsk; and bed climate temperature.

  3. Commander Lousma stows trash bags in middeck CO2 Absorber Stowage volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Commander Lousma uses his body as a zero gravity garbage compactor to stow plastic bags full of empty containers and trash in the Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Absorber Stowage volume in front of the airlock hatch.

  4. Effect of cardboard under a sleeping bag on sleep stages during daytime nap.

    PubMed

    Okamoto-Mizuno, Kazue; Mizuno, Koh; Tanabe, Motoko; Niwano, Katsuko

    2016-05-01

    Fourteen healthy male subjects slept from 13:30 to 15:30 under ambient temperature and relative humidity maintained at 15 °C and 60%, respectively. They slept under two conditions: in a sleeping bag on wooden flooring (Wood) and in a sleeping bag with corrugated cardboard between the bag and the flooring (CC). Polysomnography, skin temperature (Tsk), microclimate, bed climate, and subjective sensations were obtained. The number of awakenings in the CC had significantly decreased compared to that in the Wood. The mean, back, and thigh Tsk, and bed climate temperature were significantly higher in the CC than that in the Wood. Subjective thermal sensations were warmer in the CC than in the Wood. These results suggest that using corrugated cardboard under a sleeping bag may reduce cold stress, thereby decreasing the number of awakenings and increasing subjective warmth; the mean, back, and thigh Tsk; and bed climate temperature. PMID:26851461

  5. A unilateral purple urine bag syndrome in a patient with bilateral nephrostomy tubes.

    PubMed

    Karim, Adil; Abed, Firas; Bachuwa, Ghassan

    2015-01-01

    A change in the colour of urine is always of clinical significance, and a source of concern for the patient and his physician. Among the different urine colours observed, purple is the least common. Although purple discolouration of a catheter and a urine bag is an uncommon finding, it was reported in the literature as early as 1978, by Barlow and Dickson. We present a unique case of purple urine bag syndrome in a patient with bilateral nephrostomy tubes (NT) and associated urine bags (UB) with only the left nephrostomy tube and urine bag exhibiting the purple colour, which resolved with a course of appropriate antibiotics eradicating the causative bacterial pathogen, and change of NT and UB. PMID:26701992

  6. Seasonal comparison of moss bag technique against vertical snow samples for monitoring atmospheric pollution.

    PubMed

    Salo, Hanna; Berisha, Anna-Kaisa; Mäkinen, Joni

    2016-03-01

    This is the first study seasonally applying Sphagnum papillosum moss bags and vertical snow samples for monitoring atmospheric pollution. Moss bags, exposed in January, were collected together with snow samples by early March 2012 near the Harjavalta Industrial Park in southwest Finland. Magnetic, chemical, scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX), K-means clustering, and Tomlinson pollution load index (PLI) data showed parallel spatial trends of pollution dispersal for both materials. Results strengthen previous findings that concentrate and slag handling activities were important (dust) emission sources while the impact from Cu-Ni smelter's pipe remained secondary at closer distances. Statistically significant correlations existed between the variables of snow and moss bags. As a summary, both methods work well for sampling and are efficient pollutant accumulators. Moss bags can be used also in winter conditions and they provide more homogeneous and better controlled sampling method than snow samples. PMID:26969058

  7. In-depth survey report: control technology for bag-filling operations at Company X

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, T.C.

    1984-01-01

    Due to the use of several exemplary controls at the Company-X operation for packaging chrysotile asbestos fibers, a study was conducted at the facility to determine the effectiveness of the operation. Controls evaluated were: enclosures for the bag-filling and bag-flattening operations; exhaust ventilation from these enclosures; use of both shrink wrapping and stretch wrapping; automated palletizing; and isolation of the bagger rooms. There were approximately 60 employees at the milling and packaging site. The two packaging stations are isolated from each other and from other operations within the building. Packaging operations include bag filling, conveying, shrink wrapping of paper bags and palletizing. Effectiveness of the control methods for airborne fibers was evaluated quantitatively by taking airborne samples and ventilation measurements.

  8. Linear analysis of the heave dynamics of a bag and finger air cushion vehicle skirt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, T.; Sullivan, P. A.

    1986-09-01

    A linear analysis of the heave dynamics of an air-cushion vehicle bag and finger skirt is presented. A simplified geometry is considered; this is a two-dimensional section of the skirt without interior compartmentation. The bag is modeled as a membrane having distributed mass and viscoelasticity, and the fingers are modeled as rigid bodies having both mass and moment of inertia. A finite-element technique is used to discretize the equations of motion of the bag, but otherwise standard linear analysis techniques are used to obtain predictions of frequency response and stability characteristics. The stability results confirm the experimental observation that the dominant factor controlling the onset of skirt bounce is the bag-to-cushion pressure ratio.

  9. BAG3 promotes pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma growth by activating stromal macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Rosati, Alessandra; Basile, Anna; D'Auria, Raffaella; d'Avenia, Morena; De Marco, Margot; Falco, Antonia; Festa, Michelina; Guerriero, Luana; Iorio, Vittoria; Parente, Roberto; Pascale, Maria; Marzullo, Liberato; Franco, Renato; Arra, Claudio; Barbieri, Antonio; Rea, Domenica; Menichini, Giulio; Hahne, Michael; Bijlsma, Maarten; Barcaroli, Daniela; Sala, Gianluca; di Mola, Fabio Francesco; di Sebastiano, Pierluigi; Todoric, Jelena; Antonucci, Laura; Corvest, Vincent; Jawhari, Anass; Firpo, Matthew A; Tuveson, David A; Capunzo, Mario; Karin, Michael; De Laurenzi, Vincenzo; Turco, Maria Caterina

    2015-01-01

    The incidence and death rate of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) have increased in recent years, therefore the identification of novel targets for treatment is extremely important. Interactions between cancer and stromal cells are critically involved in tumour formation and development of metastasis. Here we report that PDAC cells secrete BAG3, which binds and activates macrophages, inducing their activation and the secretion of PDAC supporting factors. We also identify IFITM-2 as a BAG3 receptor and show that it signals through PI3K and the p38 MAPK pathways. Finally, we show that the use of an anti-BAG3 antibody results in reduced tumour growth and prevents metastasis formation in three different mouse models. In conclusion, we identify a paracrine loop involved in PDAC growth and metastatic spreading, and show that an anti-BAG3 antibody has therapeutic potential. PMID:26522614

  10. Favorite Demonstrations: A "Rainstorm" in a Bag--A Demonstration of States of Matter and Changes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, Don B.; Kelley, Judith A.

    1988-01-01

    Explains procedures, observations, and directions for demonstrating properties of butane using reclosable plastic storage bags. States that the demonstration provides for discussion of topics such as the liquefaction of gases, heat of vaporization and refrigeration techniques, and thermodynamics. (RT)

  11. 50 CFR 622.11 - Bag and possession limits-general applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF OF MEXICO... of this part taken in the EEZ by a person subject to the bag limits may not be transferred at...

  12. 50 CFR 622.11 - Bag and possession limits-general applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF OF MEXICO... taken in the EEZ by a person subject to the bag limits may not be transferred at sea, regardless...

  13. 40 CFR 63.1184 - What do I need to know about the design specifications, installation, and operation of a bag leak...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... design specifications, installation, and operation of a bag leak detection system? 63.1184 Section 63... bag leak detection system? A bag leak detection system must meet the following requirements: (a) The bag leak detection system must be certified by the manufacturer to be capable of detecting...

  14. 40 CFR 63.1184 - What do I need to know about the design specifications, installation, and operation of a bag leak...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... design specifications, installation, and operation of a bag leak detection system? 63.1184 Section 63... bag leak detection system? A bag leak detection system must meet the following requirements: (a) The bag leak detection system must be certified by the manufacturer to be capable of detecting...

  15. BAG-1 enhances cell-cell adhesion, reduces proliferation and induces chaperone-independent suppression of hepatocyte growth factor-induced epidermal keratinocyte migration

    SciTech Connect

    Hinitt, C.A.M.; Wood, J.; Lee, S.S.; Williams, A.C.; Howarth, J.L.; Glover, C.P.; Uney, J.B.; Hague, A.

    2010-08-01

    Cell motility is important in maintaining tissue homeostasis, facilitating epithelial wound repair and in tumour formation and progression. The aim of this study was to determine whether BAG-1 isoforms regulate epidermal cell migration in in vitro models of wound healing. In the human epidermal cell line HaCaT, endogenous BAG-1 is primarily nuclear and increases with confluence. Both transient and stable p36-Bag-1 overexpression resulted in increased cellular cohesion. Stable transfection of either of the three human BAG-1 isoforms p36-Bag-1 (BAG-1S), p46-Bag-1 (BAG-1M) and p50-Bag-1 (BAG-1L) inhibited growth and wound closure in serum-containing medium. However, in response to hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) in serum-free medium, BAG-1S/M reduced communal motility and colony scattering, but BAG-1L did not. In the presence of HGF, p36-Bag-1 transfectants retained proliferative response to HGF with no change in ERK1/2 activation. However, the cells retained E-cadherin localisation at cell-cell junctions and exhibited pronounced cortical actin. Point mutations in the BAG domain showed that BAG-1 inhibition of motility is independent of its function as a chaperone regulator. These findings are the first to suggest that BAG-1 plays a role in regulating cell-cell adhesion and suggest an important function in epidermal cohesion.

  16. Effect of nylon bag and protozoa on in vitro corn starch disappearance.

    PubMed

    van Zwieten, J T; van Vuuren, A M; Dijkstra, J

    2008-03-01

    An in vitro experiment was carried out to study whether the presence of protozoa in nylon bags can explain the underestimation of the in situ degradation of slowly degradable starch. Corn of a high (flint) and a low (dent) vitreousness variety was ground over a 3-mm screen, weighed in nylon bags with a pore size of 37 microm, and washed in cold water. Samples of washed cornstarch were incubated in 40-mL tubes with faunated and defaunated ruminal fluid. An additional amount of washed corn, in nylon bags, was inserted in each incubation tube. Incubations were carried out for 0, 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 h, and starch residue in tube and nylon bag was determined. In general, starch disappearance from the nylon bag was less than from the tube, and was less with faunated than defaunated rumen fluid, but corn variety did not affect starch disappearance. When no protozoa were present, the disappearance of starch from the bags was higher after 6 and 12 h incubation compared with presence of protozoa. However, in the tubes, there was no difference in starch disappearance due to presence or absence of protozoa. Estimated lag time was higher in presence (4.6 h) then absence (3.6 h) of protozoa. It was concluded that the effect of presence or absence of protozoa on starch disappearance differs within or outside nylon bags. The reduced disappearance rate of starch inside the nylon bags in the presence of protozoa helps to explain the underestimation of starch degradation based on the in sacco procedure when compared with in vivo data upon incubation of slowly degradable starch sources. PMID:18292269

  17. Dynamic vs. fixed bag filling: impact on cardiac output rebreathing protocol.

    PubMed

    Zavorsky, Gerald S; Beck, Kenneth C; Cass, Lauren M; Artal, Raul; Wagner, Peter D

    2010-04-15

    The purpose of this study was to compare the repeatability (2.77 multiplied by the within-subject SD)between two different rebreathing protocols on cardiac output ( ˙Q ), pulmonary diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) and nitric oxide (DLNO), and pulmonary capillary blood volume (Vc). This study compared two bag volume protocols [Fixed Bag Volume (FBV) = bag volume fixed at 60% of forced vital capacity; Dynamic Bag Volume (DBV) = bag volume matched to tidal volume at each stage of exercise].Ten females (age = 27±8 yrs; ˙VO2, (peak)=2.5±0.6 L/min had measurements at rest (12%), 52%, 88%, and 100% of ˙VO2, (peak) on two study days. Neither the slope nor intercept of ˙Q vs. ˙VO2 were different between either bag volume protocols. The slope of DLCO vs. ˙Q was the same but the intercept was higher for the FBV protocol. The bag volume affected the slope and the intercept between DLNO vs. ˙Q (p < 0.05).The mean repeatability was similar between both protocols for ˙Q (2.0 vs. 2.3 L/min) and DLCO (3.8 vs.5.9 mL/min/mmHg), regardless of exercise intensity. Increasing exercise intensity made the measurement error worse for Vc and DLNO (p ≤ 0.06). Measurement error was lower for Vc when using the FBV protocol (p = 0.02). Also, the pattern of bag volume used during rebreathing maneuvers affected the relation between DLNO vs. ˙Q more than it affected DLCO vs. ˙Q , or Vc vs. ˙Q. Additionally, the FBV protocol provided less measurement error for Vc compared to the DBV protocol [corrected].

  18. Retrograde labelling of serotonergic projections onto the neuroendocrine bag cells of Aplysia.

    PubMed

    McPherson, D R; Blankenship, J E

    1991-02-25

    Injection of rhodamine-conjugated latex microspheres into the right bag cell cluster of Aplysia brasiliana yielded retrograde labelling of a small number of cells in the cerebral and abdominal ganglia. Subsequent staining for serotonin immunoreactivity demonstrated consistent double-labelling in specific cerebral and abdominal ganglion serotonergic cells. The double-labelled populations were also stained in vivo by prior treatment with 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine. These retrogradely labelled serotonergic neurons may represent sources of inhibitory input to the neuroendocrine bag cells.

  19. [Plastic bag suffocation in material collected by Department of Forensic Medicine in Krakow].

    PubMed

    Konopka, Tomasz; Strona, Marcin; Ksiezniak-Baran, Dorota; Wojton, Dominika

    2013-01-01

    Cases of death resulting from placing a plastic bag on the victim's head are very rare. In the last 20 years, in the Department of Forensic Medicine in Krakow, there were fourteen such cases examined. Their number is, however, noticeably growing, amounting to as many as few cases per year. Death resulting from this mechanism is difficult from the diagnostic point of view and often the only indicative evidence is a presence of a plastic bag on the head.

  20. Implementation of a bag medication reconciliation initiative to decrease posthospitalization medication discrepancies.

    PubMed

    Becker, Dawn

    2015-01-01

    Medication discrepancies occur in 70% of hospital patients, especially during discharge. In community settings, bag medication reconciliation events have demonstrated effectiveness in evaluating current medication use and identifying medication discrepancies. A bag medication reconciliation process was implemented in the hospital setting to decrease medication discrepancies by encouraging evaluation of medication adherence, side effects, and monitoring at posthospitalization follow-up. After implementation, a 7% decrease in reportable errors was noted.

  1. Crystallographic analysis of the Arabidopsis thaliana BAG5-calmodulin protein complex.

    PubMed

    Cui, Boyang; Fang, Shasha; Xing, Yangfei; Shen, Yuequan; Yang, Xue

    2015-07-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana BAG5 (AtBAG5) belongs to the plant BAG (Bcl-2-associated athanogene) family that performs diverse functions ranging from growth and development to abiotic stress and senescence. BAG family members can act as nucleotide-exchange factors for heat-shock protein 70 (Hsp70) through binding of their evolutionarily conserved BAG domains to the Hsp70 ATPase domain, and thus may be involved in the regulation of chaperone-mediated protein folding in plants. AtBAG5 is distinguished from other family members by the presence of a unique IQ motif adjacent to the BAG domain; this motif is specific for calmodulin (CaM) binding, indicating a potential role in the plant calcium signalling pathway. To provide a better understanding of the IQ motif-mediated interaction between AtBAG5 and CaM, the two proteins were expressed and purified separately and then co-crystallized together. Diffraction-quality crystals of the complex were grown using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion technique from a condition consisting of 0.1 M Tris-HCl pH 8.5, 2.5 M ammonium sulfate. The crystals belonged to space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 64.56, b = 74.89, c = 117.09 Å. X-ray diffraction data were recorded to a resolution of 2.5 Å from a single crystal using synchrotron radiation. Assuming the presence of two molecules in the asymmetric unit, a Matthews coefficient of 2.44 Å(3) Da(-1) was calculated, corresponding to a solvent content of approximately 50%. PMID:26144232

  2. Boer-Mulders function of the pion in the MIT bag model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zhun; Ma, Bo-Qiang; Zhu, Jiacai

    2012-11-01

    We apply the MIT bag model to study the Boer-Mulders function of the pion, a T-odd function that describes the transverse polarization distribution of the quark inside the pion. We simulate the effect of the gauge link through the “one-gluon-exchange” approximation. We consider both the quark helicity nonflip and double-flip contributions. The result in the MIT bag model is compared with those in the spectator models.

  3. Some insights into analytical bias involved in the application of grab sampling for volatile organic compounds: a case study against used Tedlar bags.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Samik; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Sohn, Jong Ryeul

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we have examined the patterns of VOCs released from used Tedlar bags that were once used for the collection under strong source activities. In this way, we attempted to account for the possible bias associated with the repetitive use of Tedlar bags. To this end, we selected the bags that were never heated. All of these target bags were used in ambient temperature (typically at or below 30°C). These bags were also dealt carefully to avoid any mechanical abrasion. This study will provide the essential information regarding the interaction between VOCs and Tedlar bag materials as a potential source of bias in bag sampling approaches.

  4. Some Insights into Analytical Bias Involved in the Application of Grab Sampling for Volatile Organic Compounds: A Case Study against Used Tedlar Bags

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Samik; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Sohn, Jong Ryeul

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we have examined the patterns of VOCs released from used Tedlar bags that were once used for the collection under strong source activities. In this way, we attempted to account for the possible bias associated with the repetitive use of Tedlar bags. To this end, we selected the bags that were never heated. All of these target bags were used in ambient temperature (typically at or below 30°C). These bags were also dealt carefully to avoid any mechanical abrasion. This study will provide the essential information regarding the interaction between VOCs and Tedlar bag materials as a potential source of bias in bag sampling approaches. PMID:22235175

  5. Hsp70-Bag3 interactions regulate cancer-related signaling networks.

    PubMed

    Colvin, Teresa A; Gabai, Vladimir L; Gong, Jianlin; Calderwood, Stuart K; Li, Hu; Gummuluru, Suryaram; Matchuk, Olga N; Smirnova, Svetlana G; Orlova, Nina V; Zamulaeva, Irina A; Garcia-Marcos, Mikel; Li, Xiaokai; Young, Z T; Rauch, Jennifer N; Gestwicki, Jason E; Takayama, Shinichi; Sherman, Michael Y

    2014-09-01

    Bag3, a nucleotide exchange factor of the heat shock protein Hsp70, has been implicated in cell signaling. Here, we report that Bag3 interacts with the SH3 domain of Src, thereby mediating the effects of Hsp70 on Src signaling. Using several complementary approaches, we established that the Hsp70-Bag3 module is a broad-acting regulator of cancer cell signaling by modulating the activity of the transcription factors NF-κB, FoxM1, Hif1α, the translation regulator HuR, and the cell-cycle regulators p21 and survivin. We also identified a small-molecule inhibitor, YM-1, that disrupts the Hsp70-Bag3 interaction. YM-1 mirrored the effects of Hsp70 depletion on these signaling pathways, and in vivo administration of this drug was sufficient to suppress tumor growth in mice. Overall, our results defined Bag3 as a critical factor in Hsp70-modulated signaling and offered a preclinical proof-of-concept that the Hsp70-Bag3 complex may offer an appealing anticancer target.

  6. Measuring the thermal insulation and evaporative resistance of sleeping bags using a supine sweating fabric manikin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y. S.; Fan, Jintu

    2009-09-01

    For testing the thermal insulation of sleeping bags, standard test methods and procedures using heated manikins are provided in ASTM F1720-06 and EN 13537:2002. However, with regard to the evaporative resistance of sleeping bags, no instrument or test method has so far been established to give a direct measurement. In this paper, we report on a novel supine sweating fabric manikin system for directly measuring the evaporative resistance of sleeping bags. Eleven sleeping bags were tested using the manikin under the isothermal condition, namely, both the mean skin temperature of the manikin and that of the environment were controlled to be the same at 35 °C, with the wind speed and ambient relative humidity at 0.3 m s-1 and 50%, respectively. The results showed that the novel supine sweating fabric manikin is reproducible and accurate in directly measuring the evaporative resistance of sleeping bags, and the measured evaporative resistance can be combined with thermal insulation to calculate the moisture permeability index of sleeping bags.

  7. Leaf litter bags as an index to populations of northern two-lined salamanders (Eurycea bislineata)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chalmers, R.J.; Droege, S.

    2002-01-01

    Concern about recent amphibian declines has led to research on amphibian populations, but few statistically tested, standardized methods of counting amphibians exist. We tested whether counts of northern two-lined salamander larvae (Eurycea bislineata) sheltered in leaf litter bags--a relatively new, easily replicable survey technique--had a linear correlation to total number of larvae. Using experimental enclosures placed in streams, we compared number of salamanders found in artificial habitat (leaf litter bags) with total number of salamanders in each enclosure. Low numbers of the animals were found in leaf litter bags, and the relative amount of variation in the index (number of animals in leaf litter bags compared to total number of animals in stream enclosures) was high. The index of salamanders in leaf litter bags was not significantly related to total number of salamanders in enclosures for two-thirds of the replicates or with pooled replicates (P= 0.066). Consequently, we cannot recommend using leaf litter bags to index populations of northern two-lined salamanders.

  8. Prediction of particulate loading in exhaust from fabric filter baghouses with one or more failed bags

    SciTech Connect

    Wenjun Qin; Manuel Dekermenjian; Richard J. Martin

    2006-08-15

    Loss of filtration efficiency in a fabric filter baghouse is typically caused by bag failure, in one form or another. The degree of such failure can be as minor as a pinhole leak or as major as a fully involved baghouse fire. In some cases, local air pollution regulations or federal hazardous waste laws may require estimation of the total quantity of particulate matter released to the environment as a result of such failures. In this paper, a technique is presented for computing the dust loading in the baghouse exhaust when one or more bags have failed. The algorithm developed is shown to be an improvement over a previously published result, which requires empirical knowledge of the variation in baghouse pressure differential with bag failures. An example calculation is presented for a baghouse equipped with 200 bags. The prediction shows that a small percentage of failed bags can cause a relatively large proportion of the gas flow to bypass the active bags, which, in turn, leads to high outlet dust loading and low overall collection efficiency from the baghouse. 10 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Deterioration of bioplastic carrier bags in the environment and assessment of a new recycling alternative.

    PubMed

    Accinelli, Cesare; Saccà, Maria Ludovica; Mencarelli, Mariangela; Vicari, Alberto

    2012-09-01

    Increasing environmental concerns and the introduction of technologies based on renewable resources have stimulated the replacement of persistent petroleum-derived plastics with biodegradable plastics from biopolymers. As a consequence, a variety of products are currently manufactured from bioplastic, including carrier bags. This series of studies investigated the deterioration of carrier bags made with Mater-Bi (MB), a starch-based bioplastic, in soil, compost and two aquatic ecosystems, a littoral marsh and seawater. Results from the laboratory study indicated that bioplastic carrier bags were rapidly deteriorated in soil and compost. After three months of incubation, weight loss of specimens was of 37% and 43% in soil and compost, respectively. Conversely, little deterioration was observed in specimens buried in soil under field conditions or exposed to water of a littoral marsh and of the Adriatic Sea. These findings were consistent with the greater number of bacteria and especially fungi capable of degrading MB that were recovered from soil and compost with respect to the two aquatic ecosystems. Considering that a variety of microbial isolates are capable of using MB as a source of carbon, a new alternative to recycle these MB-based carrier bags was explored. More specifically, starchy residues from bags were fermented by the fungus Rhizopus oryzae to produce up to 35 mg of lactic acid per g of bag residues.

  10. The Bag-Sampler: A Simple Device for Collecting Zooplankton in Shallow Vegetated Ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frisch, Dagmar; Wohltmann, Andreas

    2005-12-01

    Zooplankton in temporary ponds is often collected with gear originally designed for lakes, and mostly unsuitable for sampling shallow habitats. We describe a new simple and inexpensive device for sampling zooplankton in very shallow, vegetated temporary ponds. We tested the sampling efficiency by comparing species composition and density of cyclopoid copepods, an important component of the zooplankton, by sampling with both the new bag sampler and a plastic beaker frequently employed for collections of zooplankton in small waterbodies. With the bag sampler we collected a larger number of species and higher densities of copepods due to its higher efficiency in vegetated areas and near the sediment. The beaker appeared to sample almost only the water surface. The samples collected with the bag sampler revealed a distinct distribution of copepod life cycle stages in a shallow pond, which differed between depths and microhabitats. Additional advantages of the bag sampler are its small size and weight, and the possibility of fast exchange of sample bags between sample locations, thus preventing accidental faunal exchange between sample locations. We conclude that the bag sampler is a device especially useful for sampling zooplankton of shallow ponds and wetlands rich in vegetation, for diversity studies as well as for quantitative sampling.

  11. Comparison of sampling bags for the analysis of volatile organic compounds in breath.

    PubMed

    Ghimenti, S; Lomonaco, T; Bellagambi, F G; Tabucchi, S; Onor, M; Trivella, M G; Ceccarini, A; Fuoco, R; Di Francesco, F

    2015-12-01

    Nalophan, Tedlar and Cali-5-Bond polymeric bags were compared to determine the most suitable type for breath sampling and storage when volatile organic compounds are to be determined. Analyses were performed by thermal desorption gas chromatography mass spectrometry. For each bag, the release of contaminants and the chemical stability of a gaseous standard mixture containing eighteen organic compounds, as well as the CO2 partial pressure were assessed. The selected compounds were representative of breath constituents and belonged to different chemical classes (i.e. hydrocarbons, ketones, aldehydes, aromatics, sulfurs and esters). In the case of Nalophan, the influence of the surface-to-volume ratio, related to the bag's filling degree, on the chemical stability was also evaluated. Nalophan bags were found to be the most suitable in terms of contaminants released during storage (only 2-methyl-1,3-dioxalane), good sample stability (up to 24 h for both dry and humid samples), and very limited costs (about 1 € for a 20 liter bag). The (film) surface-to-(sample) volume ratio was found to be an important factor affecting the stability of selected compounds, and therefore we recommended to fill the bag completely. PMID:26654981

  12. Deterioration of bioplastic carrier bags in the environment and assessment of a new recycling alternative.

    PubMed

    Accinelli, Cesare; Saccà, Maria Ludovica; Mencarelli, Mariangela; Vicari, Alberto

    2012-09-01

    Increasing environmental concerns and the introduction of technologies based on renewable resources have stimulated the replacement of persistent petroleum-derived plastics with biodegradable plastics from biopolymers. As a consequence, a variety of products are currently manufactured from bioplastic, including carrier bags. This series of studies investigated the deterioration of carrier bags made with Mater-Bi (MB), a starch-based bioplastic, in soil, compost and two aquatic ecosystems, a littoral marsh and seawater. Results from the laboratory study indicated that bioplastic carrier bags were rapidly deteriorated in soil and compost. After three months of incubation, weight loss of specimens was of 37% and 43% in soil and compost, respectively. Conversely, little deterioration was observed in specimens buried in soil under field conditions or exposed to water of a littoral marsh and of the Adriatic Sea. These findings were consistent with the greater number of bacteria and especially fungi capable of degrading MB that were recovered from soil and compost with respect to the two aquatic ecosystems. Considering that a variety of microbial isolates are capable of using MB as a source of carbon, a new alternative to recycle these MB-based carrier bags was explored. More specifically, starchy residues from bags were fermented by the fungus Rhizopus oryzae to produce up to 35 mg of lactic acid per g of bag residues. PMID:22717162

  13. Source of Kerr-Newman solution as supersymmetric bag model: 50 years of the problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burinskii, A.

    The ultra extreme Kerr-Newman (KN) solution(a = J/m >> m) produces the gravitational and EM fields of the electron. It has a naked singular ring - a topological defect which may be regularized by a solitonic source forming the pseudo-vacuum bubble filled by Higgs condensate in a supersymmetric superconducting state. Structure and stability of this source is determined by Bogomolnyi equations as a BPS-saturated soliton. The Principal Null Congruences of the KN solution determine consistent embedding of the Dirac equation, which acquires the mass from the Higgs condensate inside the soliton, indicating that this soliton forms a bag model. Shape of this bag is unambiguously determined by BPS-bound. The bag turns out to be flexible and takes the form of a very thin disk, which is completed by a ring-string along its sharp boundary. The ring-string traveling waves generate extra deformations of the bag creating a circulating singular pole. Bag model of the KN source integrates the dressed and pointlike electron in a bag-string-quark system, which removes the conflict between gravity and the point-like electron of the Dirac theory.

  14. The proteasome factor Bag101 binds to Rad22 and suppresses homologous recombination

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Yuichiro; Takeda, Jun; Okada, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Junya; Kato, Akihiro; Hirota, Kouji; Taoka, Masato; Matsumoto, Tomohiro; Komatsu, Kenshi; Isobe, Toshiaki

    2013-01-01

    Although RAD52 plays a critical role in the initiation of homologous recombination (HR) by facilitating the replacement of RPA with RAD51, the mechanism controlling RAD52 remains elusive. Here, we show that Bag101, a factor implicated in proteasome functioning, regulates RAD52 protein levels and subsequent HR. LC-MS/MS analysis identified Bag101 which binds to Rad22, the fission yeast homologue of RAD52. Bag101 reduced HR frequency through its overexpression and conversely, HR frequencies were enhanced when it was deleted. Consistent with this observation, Rad22 protein levels was reduced in cells where bag101 was overexpressed even when Rad22 transcription was up-regulated, suggesting the operation of proteasome-mediated Rad22 degradation. Indeed, Rad22 protein levels were stabilized in proteasome mutants. Rad22 physically interacted with the BAG domain of Bag101, and a lack of this domain enhanced HR frequency. Similarly, radiation exposure triggered the dissociation of these proteins so that Rad22 was stabilized and able to enhance HR. PMID:23779158

  15. Comparison of sampling bags for the analysis of volatile organic compounds in breath.

    PubMed

    Ghimenti, S; Lomonaco, T; Bellagambi, F G; Tabucchi, S; Onor, M; Trivella, M G; Ceccarini, A; Fuoco, R; Di Francesco, F

    2015-12-14

    Nalophan, Tedlar and Cali-5-Bond polymeric bags were compared to determine the most suitable type for breath sampling and storage when volatile organic compounds are to be determined. Analyses were performed by thermal desorption gas chromatography mass spectrometry. For each bag, the release of contaminants and the chemical stability of a gaseous standard mixture containing eighteen organic compounds, as well as the CO2 partial pressure were assessed. The selected compounds were representative of breath constituents and belonged to different chemical classes (i.e. hydrocarbons, ketones, aldehydes, aromatics, sulfurs and esters). In the case of Nalophan, the influence of the surface-to-volume ratio, related to the bag's filling degree, on the chemical stability was also evaluated. Nalophan bags were found to be the most suitable in terms of contaminants released during storage (only 2-methyl-1,3-dioxalane), good sample stability (up to 24 h for both dry and humid samples), and very limited costs (about 1 € for a 20 liter bag). The (film) surface-to-(sample) volume ratio was found to be an important factor affecting the stability of selected compounds, and therefore we recommended to fill the bag completely.

  16. ADHD classification using bag of words approach on network features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solmaz, Berkan; Dey, Soumyabrata; Rao, A. Ravishankar; Shah, Mubarak

    2012-02-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is receiving lots of attention nowadays mainly because it is one of the common brain disorders among children and not much information is known about the cause of this disorder. In this study, we propose to use a novel approach for automatic classification of ADHD conditioned subjects and control subjects using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) data of resting state brains. For this purpose, we compute the correlation between every possible voxel pairs within a subject and over the time frame of the experimental protocol. A network of voxels is constructed by representing a high correlation value between any two voxels as an edge. A Bag-of-Words (BoW) approach is used to represent each subject as a histogram of network features; such as the number of degrees per voxel. The classification is done using a Support Vector Machine (SVM). We also investigate the use of raw intensity values in the time series for each voxel. Here, every subject is represented as a combined histogram of network and raw intensity features. Experimental results verified that the classification accuracy improves when the combined histogram is used. We tested our approach on a highly challenging dataset released by NITRC for ADHD-200 competition and obtained promising results. The dataset not only has a large size but also includes subjects from different demography and edge groups. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper to propose BoW approach in any functional brain disorder classification and we believe that this approach will be useful in analysis of many brain related conditions.

  17. Damping performance of bean bag dampers in zero gravity environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chao; Chen, Tianning; Wang, Xiaopeng

    2016-06-01

    Bean bag dampers (BBDs), developed from impact damping technology, have been widely applied in engineering field to attenuate the vibration of a structural system. The damping effect of a BBD on vibration control in ground gravity environments is good, but its performance in zero gravity environments is not clear, and there are few studies on it. Therefore, the damping effect of BBDs in zero gravity environments was investigated based on the discrete element method (DEM) in this paper. Firstly, a three-dimensional DEM model of a BBD was established, and the damping effects of the single degree of freedom (SDOF) systems with BBDs and non-obstructive particle dampers (NOPDs) in zero gravity environments were compared. Moreover, the influences of the diameter of the inner ball, the tightness of BBD, the vibration frequency of SDOF system and the gap between BBD and cavity on the vibration reduction effect of BBD in zero gravity environments were also studied, and the results were compared with the system with BBD in ground gravity environments. There are optimum ranges of the diameter of the inner ball, tightness and gap for BBD, and the effects of these parameters on the damping performances of BBD in gravity and zero gravity environments are similar in evolving trends, and the values are without big differences in the optimum ranges. Thereby the parameter selection in BBD design in zero gravity environments is similar to that in gravity environments. However, the diameter of BBD should be a slightly larger than the size of the cavity when the structures with BBD work in zero gravity environments. The BBD is supposed to be picked tightly when the vibration frequency is high, and the BBD has better to be picked more tightly in zero gravity environments. These results can be used as a guide in the design of BBDs in zero gravity environments.

  18. Comparison of glass vessels and plastic bags for enclosing living plant parts for headspace analysis.

    PubMed

    Stewart-Jones, Alex; Poppy, Guy M

    2006-04-01

    Plants release volatile chemicals into their surrounding air space that can affect the physiology of neighboring plants and influence the behavior of insects. In studying these interactions, it is desirable to collect volatiles from plants that have not been excised and are growing under as natural conditions as possible. We compared a vessel of borosilicate glass and Nylon-6 or polyester [poly(ethyleneterephthalate) or PET] cooking bags for enclosing plants during collection of volatiles. A push-pull airflow system was used, and volatiles were trapped on Tenax TA and analyzed by gas chromatography after thermal desorption. Low levels of impurities were found for the glass vessel and polyester bags. Nylon bags contained higher levels and more impurities. Recoveries of standards of 10 plant volatiles were measured in static and dynamic systems. In a static air system, there was good recovery only from the glass vessel. In a dynamic system, there was generally good recovery from both the glass vessel and polyester bags. Recoveries of alpha-pinene and (Z)-jasmone were poor throughout. The former was shown to have a very low breakthrough volume on the Tenax TA adsorbent, and the latter may be strongly adsorbed on glass. All three materials were essentially transparent in the IR and visible (photosynthetic) range but with significantly different absorptions in the UV range. In a simulated dynamic entrainment in full sunlight, internal vessel temperatures were higher than ambient by up to 9.5 degrees C in the glass vessel and 7.5 degrees C in the polyester bag. Lower increases in temperature relative to ambient (<1 degrees C) were recorded when entrainments were conducted in the shade. In a field trial, the profiles of volatiles collected from an apple tree infested with rosy apple aphid using a glass vessel and a polyester bag were similar. Polyester bags are recommended as more convenient than glass vessels for the enclosure of plants during the collection of volatiles.

  19. Simple systems for treating pumped, turbid water with flocculants and a geotextile dewatering bag.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jihoon; McLaughlin, Richard A

    2016-11-01

    Pumping sediment-laden water from excavations is often necessary on construction sites. This water is often treated by pumping it through geotextile dewatering bags. The bags are not designed to filter the fine sediments that create high turbidity, but dosing with a flocculant prior to the bag could result in greater turbidity control. This study compared two systems for introducing flocculant: passive dosing of commercial solid biopolymer (chitosan) and injection of dissolved polyacrylamide (PAM) in a length of corrugated pipe connected to the bag. The biopolymer system consisted of sequential porous socks containing a "charging agent" followed by chitosan in the corrugated pipe with two levels of dosing. The dissolved PAM was injected into turbid water at a flow-weighted concentration at 1 mg L(-1). For each treatment, sediment-laden turbid water in the range of 2000 to 3500 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU) was pumped into the upstream of corrugated pipe and samples were taken from pipe entrance, pipe exit, and dewatering bag exit. Without flocculant treatment, the dewatering bag reduced turbidity by 70% but the addition of flocculant increased the turbidity reduction up to 97% relative to influent. At the pipe exit, the low-dose biopolymer was less effective in reducing turbidity (37%) but it was equally effective as the high-dose biopolymer or PAM injection after the bag. Our results suggest that a relatively simple treatment with flocculants, either passively or actively, can be very effective in reducing turbidity for pumped water on construction sites. PMID:27479237

  20. Microbial colonization and degradation of polyethylene and biodegradable plastic bags in temperate fine-grained organic-rich marine sediments.

    PubMed

    Nauendorf, Alice; Krause, Stefan; Bigalke, Nikolaus K; Gorb, Elena V; Gorb, Stanislav N; Haeckel, Matthias; Wahl, Martin; Treude, Tina

    2016-02-15

    To date, the longevity of plastic litter at the sea floor is poorly constrained. The present study compares colonization and biodegradation of plastic bags by aerobic and anaerobic benthic microbes in temperate fine-grained organic-rich marine sediments. Samples of polyethylene and biodegradable plastic carrier bags were incubated in natural oxic and anoxic sediments from Eckernförde Bay (Western Baltic Sea) for 98 days. Analyses included (1) microbial colonization rates on the bags, (2) examination of the surface structure, wettability, and chemistry, and (3) mass loss of the samples during incubation. On average, biodegradable plastic bags were colonized five times higher by aerobic and eight times higher by anaerobic microbes than polyethylene bags. Both types of bags showed no sign of biodegradation during this study. Therefore, marine sediment in temperate coastal zones may represent a long-term sink for plastic litter and also supposedly compostable material. PMID:26790603

  1. Microbial colonization and degradation of polyethylene and biodegradable plastic bags in temperate fine-grained organic-rich marine sediments.

    PubMed

    Nauendorf, Alice; Krause, Stefan; Bigalke, Nikolaus K; Gorb, Elena V; Gorb, Stanislav N; Haeckel, Matthias; Wahl, Martin; Treude, Tina

    2016-02-15

    To date, the longevity of plastic litter at the sea floor is poorly constrained. The present study compares colonization and biodegradation of plastic bags by aerobic and anaerobic benthic microbes in temperate fine-grained organic-rich marine sediments. Samples of polyethylene and biodegradable plastic carrier bags were incubated in natural oxic and anoxic sediments from Eckernförde Bay (Western Baltic Sea) for 98 days. Analyses included (1) microbial colonization rates on the bags, (2) examination of the surface structure, wettability, and chemistry, and (3) mass loss of the samples during incubation. On average, biodegradable plastic bags were colonized five times higher by aerobic and eight times higher by anaerobic microbes than polyethylene bags. Both types of bags showed no sign of biodegradation during this study. Therefore, marine sediment in temperate coastal zones may represent a long-term sink for plastic litter and also supposedly compostable material.

  2. Stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry and physical comparison for the forensic examination of grip-seal plastic bags.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Erica; Carter, James F; Hill, Jenny C; Morton, Carolyn; Daeid, Niamh Nic; Sleeman, Richard

    2008-05-20

    Plastic bags are frequently used to package drugs, explosives and other contraband. There exists, therefore, a requirement in forensic casework to compare bags found at different locations. This is currently achieved almost exclusively by the use of physical comparisons such as birefringence patterns. This paper discusses some of the advantages and shortcomings of this approach, and presents stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) as a supplementary tool for effecting comparisons of this nature. Carbon and hydrogen isotopic data are presented for sixteen grip-seal plastic bags from a wide range of sources, in order to demonstrate the range of values which is likely to be encountered. Both isotopic and physical comparison (specifically birefringence) techniques are then applied to the analysis of rolls of bags from different manufacturing lots from a leading manufacturer. Both approaches are able to associate bags from a common production batch. IRMS can be applied to small fragments which are not amenable to physical comparisons, and is able to discriminate bags which could be confused using birefringence patterns alone. Similarly, in certain cases birefringence patterns discriminate bags with similar isotopic compositions. The two approaches are therefore complementary. When more than one isotopically distinct region exists within a bag (e.g. the grip-seal is distinct from the body) the ability to discriminate and associate bags is greatly increased.

  3. Aspartyl Protease-Mediated Cleavage of BAG6 Is Necessary for Autophagy and Fungal Resistance in Plants[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yurong; Kabbage, Mehdi; Liu, Wende; Dickman, Martin B.

    2016-01-01

    The Bcl-2-associated athanogene (BAG) family is an evolutionarily conserved group of cochaperones that modulate numerous cellular processes. Previously we found that Arabidopsis thaliana BAG6 is required for basal immunity against the fungal phytopathogen Botrytis cinerea. However, the mechanisms by which BAG6 controls immunity are obscure. Here, we address this important question by determining the molecular mechanisms responsible for BAG6-mediated basal resistance. We show that Arabidopsis BAG6 is cleaved in vivo in a caspase-1-like-dependent manner and via a combination of pull-downs, mass spectrometry, yeast two-hybrid assays, and chemical genomics, we demonstrate that BAG6 interacts with a C2 GRAM domain protein (BAGP1) and an aspartyl protease (APCB1), both of which are required for BAG6 processing. Furthermore, fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy established that BAG6 cleavage triggers autophagy in the host that coincides with disease resistance. Targeted inactivation of BAGP1 or APCB1 results in the blocking of BAG6 processing and loss of resistance. Mutation of the cleavage site blocks cleavage and inhibits autophagy in plants; disease resistance is also compromised. Taken together, these results identify a mechanism that couples an aspartyl protease with a molecular cochaperone to trigger autophagy and plant defense, providing a key link between fungal recognition and the induction of cell death and resistance. PMID:26739014

  4. Can laptops be left inside passenger bags if motion imaging is used in X-ray security screening?

    PubMed Central

    Mendes, Marcia; Schwaninger, Adrian; Michel, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a study where a new X-ray machine for security screening featuring motion imaging (i.e., 5 views of a bag are shown as an image sequence) was evaluated and compared to single view imaging available on conventional X-ray screening systems. More specifically, it was investigated whether with this new technology X-ray screening of passenger bags could be enhanced to such an extent that laptops could be left inside passenger bags, without causing a significant impairment in threat detection performance. An X-ray image interpretation test was created in four different versions, manipulating the factors packing condition (laptop and bag separate vs. laptop in bag) and display condition (single vs. motion imaging). There was a highly significant and large main effect of packing condition. When laptops and bags were screened separately, threat item detection was substantially higher. For display condition, a medium effect was observed. Detection could be slightly enhanced through the application of motion imaging. There was no interaction between display and packing condition, implying that the high negative effect of leaving laptops in passenger bags could not be fully compensated by motion imaging. Additional analyses were carried out to examine effects depending on different threat categories (guns, improvised explosive devices, knives, others), the placement of the threat items (in bag vs. in laptop) and viewpoint (easy vs. difficult view). In summary, although motion imaging provides an enhancement, it is not strong enough to allow leaving laptops in bags for security screening. PMID:24151457

  5. Compounds from multilayer plastic bags cause reproductive failures in artificial insemination.

    PubMed

    Nerin, C; Ubeda, J L; Alfaro, P; Dahmani, Y; Aznar, M; Canellas, E; Ausejo, R

    2014-05-09

    High levels of reproductive failure were detected in some Spanish sow farms in the Spring of 2010. Regular returns to estrus and variable reductions in litter size were observed. The problem started suddenly and did not appear to be related to the quality of the ejaculates, disease, alterations of body condition or any other apparent reasons. Subsequent studies determined that the problem was the origin of the plastic bags used for semen storage. Chemical analysis of the suspicious bags identified unexpected compounds such as BADGE, a cyclic lactone and an unknown phthalate that leached into the semen at concentrations of 0.2 to 2.5 mg/L. Spermatozoa preserved in these bags passed all of the routine quality control tests, and no differences were observed between storage in the control and suspicious bags (p > 0.05). In vitro fecundation tests and endocrine profiler panel analysis (EPP) did not show any alterations, whereas the in vivo tests confirmed the described failure. This is the first described relationship between reproductive failure and toxic compounds released from plastic bags.

  6. Compounds from multilayer plastic bags cause reproductive failures in artificial insemination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nerin, C.; Ubeda, J. L.; Alfaro, P.; Dahmani, Y.; Aznar, M.; Canellas, E.; Ausejo, R.

    2014-05-01

    High levels of reproductive failure were detected in some Spanish sow farms in the Spring of 2010. Regular returns to estrus and variable reductions in litter size were observed. The problem started suddenly and did not appear to be related to the quality of the ejaculates, disease, alterations of body condition or any other apparent reasons. Subsequent studies determined that the problem was the origin of the plastic bags used for semen storage. Chemical analysis of the suspicious bags identified unexpected compounds such as BADGE, a cyclic lactone and an unknown phthalate that leached into the semen at concentrations of 0.2 to 2.5 mg/L. Spermatozoa preserved in these bags passed all of the routine quality control tests, and no differences were observed between storage in the control and suspicious bags (p > 0.05). In vitro fecundation tests and endocrine profiler panel analysis (EPP) did not show any alterations, whereas the in vivo tests confirmed the described failure. This is the first described relationship between reproductive failure and toxic compounds released from plastic bags.

  7. Waste-minimization assessment for a manufacturer of printed plastic bags. Research brief

    SciTech Connect

    Kirsch, F.W.; Looby, G.P.

    1990-12-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected universities and procedures were adapted from the EPA Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual (EPA/625/7-88/003, July 1988). The WMAC team at the University of Tennessee performed an assessment at a plant manufacturing printed plastic bags for snack foods - approximately 1.8 million lb/yr. Plastic stock is ink printed and oven cured. To make single-layer bags, a heat seal process is used, and the bags are then packaged and shipped. For certain products, a plastic or metalized film is laminated to the printed plastic film, the rolls are slit to obtain individual bags, and the bags are packaged and shipped. The team's report, detailing findings and recommendations, indicated the most waste was generated in the lamination process and that the greatest savings could be obtained by installing an automatic adhesive/solvent mixing system to reduce (75%) the waste from the unused metalized film adhesive/solvent mixture.

  8. Workplace Exposure to Titanium Dioxide Nanopowder Released from a Bag Filter System.

    PubMed

    Ji, Jun Ho; Kim, Jong Bum; Lee, Gwangjae; Noh, Jung-Hun; Yook, Se-Jin; Cho, So-Hye; Bae, Gwi-Nam

    2015-01-01

    Many researchers who use laboratory-scale synthesis systems to manufacture nanomaterials could be easily exposed to airborne nanomaterials during the research and development stage. This study used various real-time aerosol detectors to investigate the presence of nanoaerosols in a laboratory used to manufacture titanium dioxide (TiO2). The TiO2 nanopowders were produced via flame synthesis and collected by a bag filter system for subsequent harvesting. Highly concentrated nanopowders were released from the outlet of the bag filter system into the laboratory. The fractional particle collection efficiency of the bag filter system was only 20% at particle diameter of 100 nm, which is much lower than the performance of a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter. Furthermore, the laboratory hood system was inadequate to fully exhaust the air discharged from the bag filter system. Unbalanced air flow rates between bag filter and laboratory hood systems could result in high exposure to nanopowder in laboratory settings. Finally, we simulated behavior of nanopowders released in the laboratory using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). PMID:26125024

  9. Compounds from multilayer plastic bags cause reproductive failures in artificial insemination.

    PubMed

    Nerin, C; Ubeda, J L; Alfaro, P; Dahmani, Y; Aznar, M; Canellas, E; Ausejo, R

    2014-01-01

    High levels of reproductive failure were detected in some Spanish sow farms in the Spring of 2010. Regular returns to estrus and variable reductions in litter size were observed. The problem started suddenly and did not appear to be related to the quality of the ejaculates, disease, alterations of body condition or any other apparent reasons. Subsequent studies determined that the problem was the origin of the plastic bags used for semen storage. Chemical analysis of the suspicious bags identified unexpected compounds such as BADGE, a cyclic lactone and an unknown phthalate that leached into the semen at concentrations of 0.2 to 2.5 mg/L. Spermatozoa preserved in these bags passed all of the routine quality control tests, and no differences were observed between storage in the control and suspicious bags (p > 0.05). In vitro fecundation tests and endocrine profiler panel analysis (EPP) did not show any alterations, whereas the in vivo tests confirmed the described failure. This is the first described relationship between reproductive failure and toxic compounds released from plastic bags. PMID:24810330

  10. Influence of cloth structure on operational characteristics of pulse-jet cleaned filter bags

    SciTech Connect

    Hindy, K.T.; Sievert, J.; Loeffler, F.

    1987-01-01

    An investigation on the effect of the surface properties and the cloth structure of a filter medium on the operation of a filter bag was conducted using a pilot-scale testing device. The collection properties and the increase in the residual drop, as well as the mass of the residual dust embedded within the filter medium, were measured. Three filter media were investigated: a singed filter medium, a calendered filter medium, and one with a membrane-laminated surface. The experimental results obtained show that the operational characteristics of a filter bag is greatly influenced by the surface properties and the cloth structure of the filter medium. The calendered filter bag has an unfavorable operational quality concerning both the collection properties and the residual pressure drop. The hard thickening of the filter medium drives to the rapid clogging of the filter bag. In contrast, the other two filter media have favorable characteristics concerning the above two criteria. At the same time, it was found that after tests conducted for about 70 h each, the singed filter bag, compared with the membrane-laminated one, exhibits a lower residual pressure drop, although more particles are deposited inside. The lowest filtration cycle duration was recorded by the calendered medium, whereas the cleaning frequency by the other two media was nearly in the same range.

  11. Bag Bioreactor Based on Wave-Induced Motion: Characteristics and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eibl, Regine; Werner, Sören; Eibl, Dieter

    Today wave-mixed bag bioreactors are common devices in modern biotechnological processes where simple, safe and flexible production has top priority. Numerous studies that have been published on ex vivo generation of cells, viruses and therapeutic agents during the last 10 years have confirmed their suitability and even superiority to stirred bioreactors made from glass or stainless steel for animal as well as plant cell cultivations. In these studies the wave-mixed bag bioreactors enabled middle to high cell density and adequate productivity in laboratory and pilot scale. This mainly results from low-shear conditions and highly efficient oxygen transfer for cell cultures, as demonstrated for the widely used BioWave®.Starting with an overview of wave-mixed bag bioreactors and their common operation strategies, this chapter delineates engineering aspects of BioWave®, which like Wave Reactor™ and BIOSTAT®CultiBag RM originates from the prototype of a wave-mixed bag bioreactor introduced in 1998. Subsequently, the second part of the chapter focuses on reported BioWave® applications. Conditions and results from cultivations with animal cells, plant cells, microbial cells and nematodes are presented and discussed.

  12. Compounds from multilayer plastic bags cause reproductive failures in artificial insemination

    PubMed Central

    Nerin, C.; Ubeda, J. L.; Alfaro, P.; Dahmani, Y.; Aznar, M.; Canellas, E.; Ausejo, R.

    2014-01-01

    High levels of reproductive failure were detected in some Spanish sow farms in the Spring of 2010. Regular returns to estrus and variable reductions in litter size were observed. The problem started suddenly and did not appear to be related to the quality of the ejaculates, disease, alterations of body condition or any other apparent reasons. Subsequent studies determined that the problem was the origin of the plastic bags used for semen storage. Chemical analysis of the suspicious bags identified unexpected compounds such as BADGE, a cyclic lactone and an unknown phthalate that leached into the semen at concentrations of 0.2 to 2.5 mg/L. Spermatozoa preserved in these bags passed all of the routine quality control tests, and no differences were observed between storage in the control and suspicious bags (p > 0.05). In vitro fecundation tests and endocrine profiler panel analysis (EPP) did not show any alterations, whereas the in vivo tests confirmed the described failure. This is the first described relationship between reproductive failure and toxic compounds released from plastic bags. PMID:24810330

  13. The storage stability of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) in polyester aluminum bags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Jeong-Hyeon; Deep, Akash; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2016-09-01

    In this study, the sorptive loss properties of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) in polyester aluminum bags were investigated as a function of storage duration. To this end, the relative recovery of gas phase standards of BVOCs, obtained via vaporization of liquid phase standards, was computed by calibrating their standards (response factors: RF) represnting each phase. Accordingly, the results indicated either slight loss (-5.59% (isoprene), -2.39% (camphene), -1.69% ((R)-(+)-limonene), -0.88% (p-cymene)) or gain (1.47% (γ-terpinene), 2.27% (α-terpinene), 2.63% (α-phellandrene), 2.73% ((+)-3-carene), 3.93% ((+)-β-pinene), and 5.98% ((+)-α-pinene)). Through comparison of the calibration results across storage time, the temporal stability of BVOCs was assessed. Longer BVOC storage time in polyester aluminum (PEA) bags lowered the relative recovery of BVOCs. The relative loss of BVOCs, if calculated in terms of mean bag standard RF ratios (relative to liquid standard) across elapsed time, decreased systematically: 0.99 ± 0.05 (0 h), 0.88 ± 0.06 (24 h), 0.66 ± 0.11 (72 h), and 0.62 ± 0.14 (120 h). It is thus recommended to complete the analysis of BVOC in PEA bags within 24 h of sample acquisition. As such, it is important to apply appropriate sampling approaches with a proper storage plan when measuring ambient BVOCs collected by bag sampling methods.

  14. Workplace Exposure to Titanium Dioxide Nanopowder Released from a Bag Filter System

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Jun Ho; Kim, Jong Bum; Lee, Gwangjae; Noh, Jung-Hun; Yook, Se-Jin; Cho, So-Hye; Bae, Gwi-Nam

    2015-01-01

    Many researchers who use laboratory-scale synthesis systems to manufacture nanomaterials could be easily exposed to airborne nanomaterials during the research and development stage. This study used various real-time aerosol detectors to investigate the presence of nanoaerosols in a laboratory used to manufacture titanium dioxide (TiO2). The TiO2 nanopowders were produced via flame synthesis and collected by a bag filter system for subsequent harvesting. Highly concentrated nanopowders were released from the outlet of the bag filter system into the laboratory. The fractional particle collection efficiency of the bag filter system was only 20% at particle diameter of 100 nm, which is much lower than the performance of a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter. Furthermore, the laboratory hood system was inadequate to fully exhaust the air discharged from the bag filter system. Unbalanced air flow rates between bag filter and laboratory hood systems could result in high exposure to nanopowder in laboratory settings. Finally, we simulated behavior of nanopowders released in the laboratory using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). PMID:26125024

  15. Performance of distributed bagged stone dust barrier in combating coal-dust explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Plessis, J.J.L. du; Vassard, P.S.

    1999-07-01

    The Kloppersbos Research Facility of the CSIR's Division of Mining Technology has developed a new method of building stone dust barriers. The new barrier makes use of a previous concept of containing stone dust in a bag, but incorporates a new method of rupturing the bag. This was achieved by adapting the closing mechanism and by balancing the stone dust content with the void in the bag. The bagged barrier was extensively tested in the 200-m test gallery. During these tests, it became evident that these bags could be made to rupture and spread stone dust when subjected to smaller forces than those required for the most commonly used passive barrier, the Polish light barrier. To validate this, as well as to gain international acceptance of this new barrier, tests were conducted in the German experimental mine, DMT Tremonia, Dortmund. The barrier was evaluated against numerous methane-initiated coal-dust explosions. The paper describes the successful inhibition of coal-dust explosions at Kloppersbos and DMT tremonia. The barrier has been proven successfully for static pressures of 44 to 82 kpa, dynamic pressures of 12 to 36 kpa and for flame speeds as low as 23 m/s. This barrier is now accepted by the South African government and has been implemented in numerous South African collieries.

  16. [Awareness of the risk of air bag-associated injuries essential].

    PubMed

    Björnstig, Ulf; Haraldsson, Per-Olle; Polland, Werner; Sandström, Thomas

    2002-07-11

    Restraint systems, such as air bags and seat belts with pretensioners, reduce effectively the risk of serious injuries of car occupants. However, this equipment may have some adverse effects. In a frontal air bag deployment the cushion expands with a speed of about 200 km/h towards the driver. A person within the expansion zone, i.e. within 20 centimetres from the steering wheel hub, may experience a considerable injury risk. Short people, pregnant women and people "out of normal position" are especially at risk, as well as paramedics exposed for accidentally deployed air bags during rescue work. The gas generator in the air bag produces nitrogen in a chemical process. However, small amounts of NaOH (caustic soda) may leak out of the gas generator and may contaminate eyes and wounds and cause injuries and delay healing. The air bag gases may provoke an asthmatic attack in sensible individuals and a few will experience a hearing loss, often in the range of 4,000-6,000 Hz, from the sound impulse that may reach a level of 170 dB. Correct handling, based on a familiarity of the effects and side effects of modern restraint systems, would minimise the risk of adverse effects of this safety equipment. PMID:12170512

  17. Multi-water-bag models of ion temperature gradient instability in cylindrical geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Coulette, David; Besse, Nicolas

    2013-05-15

    Ion temperature gradient instabilities play a major role in the understanding of anomalous transport in core fusion plasmas. In the considered cylindrical geometry, ion dynamics is described using a drift-kinetic multi-water-bag model for the parallel velocity dependency of the ion distribution function. In a first stage, global linear stability analysis is performed. From the obtained normal modes, parametric dependencies of the main spectral characteristics of the instability are then examined. Comparison of the multi-water-bag results with a reference continuous Maxwellian case allows us to evaluate the effects of discrete parallel velocity sampling induced by the Multi-Water-Bag model. Differences between the global model and local models considered in previous works are discussed. Using results from linear, quasilinear, and nonlinear numerical simulations, an analysis of the first stage saturation dynamics of the instability is proposed, where the divergence between the three models is examined.

  18. Leaching of diethylhexyl phthalate from polyvinyl chloride bags into intravenous cyclosporine solution

    SciTech Connect

    Venkataramanan, R.; Burckart, G.J.; Ptachcinski, R.J.; Blaha, R.; Logue, L.W.; Bahnson, A.; Giam, C.S.; Brady, J.E.

    1986-11-01

    The release of diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) from flexible polyvinyl chloride containers into intravenous cyclosporine solutions was studied. Intravenous cyclosporine solution or solutions containing the vehicle Cremophor EL and alcohol in dextrose were prepared in an all-glass system and stored in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) bags. Four samples were obtained at different time intervals, and DEHP content was analyzed by gas chromatography. The amount of DEHP that was leached into solutions stored in the PVC bags increased as storage time increased. By 48 hours, nearly 33 mg of DEHP had leached into the solution. Intravenous cyclosporine solutions should be prepared in glass containers to minimize patient exposure to DEHP. If plastic bags are used for preparing cyclosporine injections, the injections must be used immediately after preparation.

  19. Safety and efficacy of vinyl bags in prevention of hypothermia of preterm neonates at birth.

    PubMed

    Gathwala, Geeta; Singh, Gurmeet; Agrawal, Nitika

    2010-01-01

    The present study was planned to evaluate the safety and efficacy of vinyl bags in prevention of hypothermia during resuscitation at birth in very low birth weight neonates. Sixty neonates of gestational age ≤32 weeks and birth weight ≤ 1500gm were randomised to either study group, or control group. Study group neonates were put in vinyl bags up to neck and the head was covered with a cap after drying immediately following delivery and resuscitated under radiant warmer. Control group neonates were resuscitated by conventional drying under radiant warmer. Mean axillary and rectal temperature recorded immediately after admission to NICU were significantly higher in the study group compared to control group. Temperature recorded after 1 hour of admission to NICU were however comparable between the two groups. As temperature maintenance in these VLBW neonates is of tremendous importance, it would make sense to recommend the use of vinyl bags during their resuscitation.

  20. Petri nets modeling and analysis using extended bag-theoretic relational algebra.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y C; Kim, T G

    1996-01-01

    Petri nets are a powerful modeling tool for studying reactive, concurrent systems. Analysis of the nets can reveal important information concerning the behavior of a modeled system. While various means for the analysis of the nets has been developed, a major limitation in the analysis, is explosion of large states space in simulation. An efficient method to manage large states space would overcome such a limitation. This paper proposes a framework for the modeling and analysis of Petri nets using relational database technologies. Formalism of the framework is based on a bag-theoretic relational algebra extended from the conventional, Within the framework, Petri nets are formalized by bag relations, and analysis algorithms are developed based on such formal relations. Properties associated with the nets are formalized by queries described in terms of the bag-theoretic relational algebra. The framework has been realized in a commercial relational database system using a standard SQL.

  1. Inheritance patterns and phenotypic features of myofibrillar myopathy associated with a BAG3 mutation

    PubMed Central

    Odgerel, Zagaa; Sarkozy, Anna; Lee, Hee-Suk; McKenna, Caoimhe; Rankin, Julia; Straub, Volker; Lochmüller, Hanns; Paola, Francalanci; D’Amico, Adele; Bertini, Enrico; Bushby, Kate; Goldfarb, Lev G

    2010-01-01

    Myofibrillar myopathies (MFMs) are a heterogeneous group of neuromuscular disorders characterized by disintegration of myofibrils. The inheritance pattern in MFMs is commonly autosomal dominant, but there has been a striking absence of secondary cases noted in a BAG3-associated subtype. We studied three families with BAG3 p.Pro209Leu mutation showing a severe phenotype of myofibrillar myopathy and axonal neuropathy with giant axons. In one family, transmission to a pair of siblings has occurred from their asymptomatic father who showed somatic mosaicism. In two other families, neither of the parents was affected or showed detectable level of somatic mosaicism. These observations suggest that the BAG3 variant of MFM may result from a spontaneous mutation at an early point of embryonic development and that transmission from a mosaic parent may occur more than once. The study underlines the importance of parental evaluation as it may have implications for genetic counseling. PMID:20605452

  2. Calculation of the static forces acting on ACV bag-finger skirts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Y. N.; Hua, Y.

    A mathematical model of the geometry formation of an ACV bag-finger skirt is developed to determine skirt shape and its deflection for varying cushion pressures, and calculations for the reactions of supports of the rigid structure on the skirt at the inner and outer attachment points are obtained. The model assumption that the finger triangle of the two-dimensional bag-finger skirt turns around the inner attachment point with changing ratio of cushion pressure to bag pressure is confirmed by experiments using skirt rigs. Good agreement is found between theoretical and experimental results, and it is shown that when the cushion pressure is changing, the pressure ratio is the essential dimensionless parameter for the skirt geometry formation and its deflection, and for the forces acting on it.

  3. Recovery of agricultural odors and odorous compounds from polyvinyl fluoride film bags.

    PubMed

    Parker, David B; Perschbacher-Buser, Zena L; Cole, N Andy; Koziel, Jacek A

    2010-01-01

    Accurate sampling methods are necessary when quantifying odor and volatile organic compound emissions at agricultural facilities. The commonly accepted methodology in the U.S. has been to collect odor samples in polyvinyl fluoride bags (PVF, brand name Tedlar®) and, subsequently, analyze with human panelists using dynamic triangular forced-choice olfactometry. The purpose of this research was to simultaneously quantify and compare recoveries of odor and odorous compounds from both commercial and homemade PVF sampling bags. A standard gas mixture consisting of p-cresol (40 μg m(-3)) and seven volatile fatty acids: acetic (2,311 μg m(-3)), propionic (15,800 μg m(-3)), isobutyric (1,686 μg m(-3)), butyric (1,049 μg m(-3)), isovaleric (1,236 μg m(-3)), valeric (643 μg m(-3)), and hexanoic (2,158 μg m(-3)) was placed in the PVF bags at times of 1 h, 1 d, 2 d, 3 d, and 7 d prior to compound and odor concentration analyses. Compound concentrations were quantified using sorbent tubes and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Odor concentration, intensity, and hedonic tone were measured using a panel of trained human subjects. Compound recoveries ranged from 2 to 40% after 1 h and 0 to 14% after 7 d. Between 1 h and 7 d, odor concentrations increased by 45% in commercial bags, and decreased by 39% in homemade bags. Minimal changes were observed in intensity and hedonic tone over the same time period. These results suggest that PVF bags can bias individual compound concentrations and odor as measured by dynamic triangular forced-choice olfactometry.

  4. A Comparison of Energy Expenditure During "Wii Boxing" Versus Heavy Bag Boxing in Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Perusek, Kristen; Sparks, Kenneth; Little, Kathleen; Motley, Mary; Patterson, Sheila; Wieand, Jennifer

    2014-02-01

    Traditional computer videogames are sedentary, whereas new computer videogames, such as the Nintendo(®) (Redmond, WA) "Wii™ Sports" games, allow users to physically interact while playing the sport. Energy expenditure (EE), heart rate (HR), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) during heavy bag boxing versus the Nintendo "Wii Boxing" game were compared. Fifteen males and 14 females (mean age, 25.6 years; height, 171.3 cm; weight, 71.8 kg) randomly selected (by a coin toss) heavy bag boxing or "Wii Boxing" for their first test session and completed the other protocol at their second session at least 2 days later. Each session lasted for a total duration of 30 minutes and consisted of 10 3-minute exercise bouts with measurements of HR, RPE, and EE obtained from indirect calorimetry. A paired-samples t test was used to analyze the results. Significant differences were found for HR (bag, 156 beats per minute; Wii, 138 beats per minute; P=0.001) and RPE (bag, 13.8; Wii, 11.4; P=0.0001) but not for EE (bag, 8.0 kcal/minute; Wii, 7.1 kcal/minute; bag, 241 total kcal; Wii, 213 total kcal; P=0.078). The results suggest that computer active videogames, such as the Nintendo Wii, have the potential to provide similar EE as their traditional forms of exercise and may be a sufficient replacement for traditional target HR zone activities, especially in less fit individuals. Further research is needed to compare EE for different "Wii Sports" games with those for their traditional forms of exercise.

  5. Mortality reduction with air bag and seat belt use in head-on passenger car collisions.

    PubMed

    Crandall, C S; Olson, L M; Sklar, D P

    2001-02-01

    To assess the efficacy of occupant protection systems, the authors measured the mortality reduction associated with air bag deployment and seat belt use for drivers involved in head-on passenger car collisions in the United States. They used a matched case-control design of all head-on collisions involving two passenger cars reported to the Fatality Analysis Reporting System in 1992-1997, and driver mortality differences between the paired crash vehicles for air bag deployment and seat belt use were measured with matched-pair odds ratios. Conditional logistic regression was used to adjust for multiple effects. There were 9,859 head-on collisions involving 19,718 passenger cars and drivers. Air bag deployment reduced mortality 63% (crude odds ratio (OR) = 0.37, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.32, 0.42), while lap-shoulder belt use reduced mortality 72% (OR = 0.28, 95% CI: 0.25, 0.31). In a conditional logistic model that adjusted for vehicle (rollover, weight, age) and driver (age, sex) factors, air bags (OR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.58, 0.87) and any combination of seat belts (OR = 0.25, 95% CI: 0.22, 0.29) were both associated with reduced mortality. Combined air bag and seat belt use reduced mortality by more than 80% (OR = 0.18, 95% CI: 0.13, 0.25). Thus, this study confirms the independent effect of air bags and seat belts in reducing mortality.

  6. Recovery of Agricultural Odors and Odorous Compounds from Polyvinyl Fluoride Film Bags

    PubMed Central

    Parker, David B.; Perschbacher-Buser, Zena L.; Cole, N. Andy; Koziel, Jacek A.

    2010-01-01

    Accurate sampling methods are necessary when quantifying odor and volatile organic compound emissions at agricultural facilities. The commonly accepted methodology in the U.S. has been to collect odor samples in polyvinyl fluoride bags (PVF, brand name Tedlar®) and, subsequently, analyze with human panelists using dynamic triangular forced-choice olfactometry. The purpose of this research was to simultaneously quantify and compare recoveries of odor and odorous compounds from both commercial and homemade PVF sampling bags. A standard gas mixture consisting of p-cresol (40 μg m−3) and seven volatile fatty acids: acetic (2,311 μg m−3), propionic (15,800 μg m−3), isobutyric (1,686 μg m−3), butyric (1,049 μg m−3), isovaleric (1,236 μg m−3), valeric (643 μg m−3), and hexanoic (2,158 μg m−3) was placed in the PVF bags at times of 1 h, 1 d, 2 d, 3 d, and 7 d prior to compound and odor concentration analyses. Compound concentrations were quantified using sorbent tubes and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Odor concentration, intensity, and hedonic tone were measured using a panel of trained human subjects. Compound recoveries ranged from 2 to 40% after 1 h and 0 to 14% after 7 d. Between 1 h and 7 d, odor concentrations increased by 45% in commercial bags, and decreased by 39% in homemade bags. Minimal changes were observed in intensity and hedonic tone over the same time period. These results suggest that PVF bags can bias individual compound concentrations and odor as measured by dynamic triangular forced-choice olfactometry. PMID:22163671

  7. Range bagging: a new method for ecological niche modelling from presence-only data

    PubMed Central

    Drake, John M.

    2015-01-01

    The ecological niche is the set of environments in which a population of a species can persist without introduction of individuals from other locations. A good mathematical or computational representation of the niche is a prerequisite to addressing many questions in ecology, biogeography, evolutionary biology and conservation. A particularly challenging question for ecological niche modelling is the problem of presence-only modelling. That is, can an ecological niche be identified from records drawn only from the set of niche environments without records from non-niche environments for comparison? Here, I introduce a new method for ecological niche modelling from presence-only data called range bagging. Range bagging draws on the concept of a species' environmental range, but was inspired by the empirical performance of ensemble learning algorithms in other areas of ecological research. This paper extends the concept of environmental range to multiple dimensions and shows that range bagging is computationally feasible even when the number of environmental dimensions is large. The target of the range bagging base learner is an environmental tolerance of the species in a projection of its niche and is therefore an ecologically interpretable property of a species' biological requirements. The computational complexity of range bagging is linear in the number of examples, which compares favourably with the main alternative, Qhull. In conclusion, range bagging appears to be a reasonable choice for niche modelling in applications in which a presence-only method is desired and may provide a solution to problems in other disciplines where one-class classification is required, such as outlier detection and concept learning. PMID:25948612

  8. Comparison of storage stability of odorous VOCs in polyester aluminum and polyvinyl fluoride Tedlar® bags.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Hyun; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Jo, Sang-Hee; Jeon, Eui-Chan; Sohn, Jong Ryeul; Parker, David B

    2012-01-27

    Whole air sampling using containers such as flexible bags or rigid canisters is commonly used to collect samples of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in air. The objective of this study was to compare the stability of polyester aluminum (PEA) and polyvinyl fluoride (PVF, brand name Tedlar(®)) bags for gaseous VOC sampling. Eight VOC standards (benzene, toluene, p-xylene, styrene, methyl ethyl ketone, methyl isobutyl ketone, butyl acetate, and isobutyl alcohol) were placed into each bag at storage times of 0, 2, and 3 days prior to analyses by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). From each bag representing each storage day, samples of 3 different mass loadings were withdrawn and analyzed to derive response factors (RF) of each chemical between the slope of the GC response (y-axis) vs. loaded mass (x-axis). The relative recoveries (RR) of VOC, if derived by dividing RF value of a given storage day by that of 0 day, varied by time, bag type, and VOC type. If the RR values after three days are compared, those of methyl isobutyl ketone were the highest with 96 (PVF) and 99% (PEA); however, the results of isobutyl alcohol were highly contrasting between the two bags with 31 and 94%, respectively. Differences in RR values between the two bag types increased with storage time, such that RR of PEA bags (88±10%) were superior to those of PVF bags (73±22%) after three days, demonstrating that VOC in PEA bags were more stable than in PVF bags.

  9. High level expression of differentially localized BAG-1 isoforms in some oestrogen receptor-positive human breast cancers

    PubMed Central

    Brimmell, M; Burns, J S; Munson, P; McDonald, L; O’Hare, M J; Lakhani, S R; Packham, G

    1999-01-01

    Sensitivity to oestrogens and apoptosis are critical determinants of the development and progression of breast cancer and reflect closely linked pathways in breast epithelial cells. For example, induction of BCL-2 oncoprotein expression by oestrogen contributes to suppression of apoptosis and BCL-2 and oestrogen receptor (ER) are frequently co-expressed in tumours. BAG-1/HAP is a multifunctional protein which complexes with BCL-2 and steroid hormone receptors (including the ER), and can suppress apoptosis and influence steroid hormone-dependent transcription. Therefore, analysis of expression of BAG-1 in human breast cancer is of considerable interest. BAG-1 was readily detected by immunostaining in normal breast epithelial cells and most ER-positive tumours, but was undetectable or weakly expressed in ER-negative tumours. BAG-1 positive cells showed a predominantly cytoplasmic or cytoplasmic plus nuclear distribution of staining. A correlation between ER and BAG-1 was also evident in breast cancer derived cell lines, as all lines examined with functional ER expression also expressed high levels of BAG-1. In addition to the prototypical 36 kDa BAG-1 isoform, breast cancer cells expressed higher molecular weight isoforms and, in contrast to BCL-2, BAG-1 expression was independent of oestrogens. BAG-1 isoforms were differentially localized to the nucleus or cytoplasm and this was also independent of oestrogens. These results demonstrate a close association between BAG-1 and functional ER expression and suggest BAG-1 may be useful as a therapeutic target or prognostic marker in breast cancer. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10576663

  10. Strategy for selecting disposable bags for cell culture media applications based on a root-cause investigation.

    PubMed

    Wood, Joseph; Mahajan, Ekta; Shiratori, Masaru

    2013-01-01

    The use of disposable bags for cell culture media storage has grown significantly in the past decade. Some of the key advantages of using disposable bags relative to non-disposable containers include increased product throughput, decreased cleaning validation costs, reduced risk of cross contamination and lower facility costs. As the scope of use of disposable bags for cell culture applications increases, problematic bags and scenarios should be identified and addressed to continue improving disposables technologies and meet the biotech industry's needs. In this article, we examine a cell culture application wherein media stored in disposable bags is warmed at 37°C before use for cell culture operations. A problematic bag film was identified through a prospective and retrospective cell culture investigation. The investigation provided information on the scope and variation of the issue with respect to different Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines, cell culture media, and application-specific parameters. It also led to the development of application-specific test methods and enabled a strategy for disposable bag film testing. The strategy was implemented for qualifying an alternative bag film for use in our processes. In this test strategy, multiple lots of 13 bag film types, encompassing eight vendors were evaluated using a three round, cell culture-based test strategy. The test strategy resulted in the determination of four viable bag film options based on the technical data. The results of this evaluation were used to conclude that a volatile or air-quenched compound, likely generated by gamma irradiation of the problematic bag film, negatively impacted cell culture performance.

  11. Gas diffusion liquid storage bag and method of use for storing blood

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bank, H.; Cleland, E. L. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    The shelf life of stored whole blood may be doubled by adding a buffer which maintains a desired pH level. However, this buffer causes the generation of CO2 which, if not removed at a controlled rate, causes the pH value of the blood to decrease, which shortens the useful life of the blood. A blood storage bag is described which permits the CO2 to be diffused out at a controlled rate into the atmosphere, thereby maintaining the desired pH value and providing a bag strong enough to permit handling.

  12. Unusual basal skull fracture in a vehicle equipped with an air bag.

    PubMed

    Bandstra, R A; Carbone, L S

    2001-09-01

    A woman who was the lap/shoulder belt-restrained driver of a car equipped with a full-size air bag was involved in an oblique frontal collision with a tractor-trailer combination. She was extremely out of position, i.e., witnessed to be slumped over the steering wheel before impact. This preimpact positioning led to fatal injuries resulting from the inflating air bag. Postmortem examination showed an unusual partial ring fracture of the base of the skull, which to the authors' knowledge has not previously been reported.

  13. Carbon footprint of shopping (grocery) bags in China, Hong Kong and India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthu, Subramanian Senthilkannan; Li, Y.; Hu, J. Y.; Mok, P. Y.

    2011-01-01

    Carbon footprint has become a term often used by the media in recent days. The human carbon footprint is professed to be a very serious global threat and every nation is looking at the possible options to reduce it since its consequences are alarming. A carbon footprint is a measure of the impact of human activities on earth and in particular on the environment; more specifically it relates to climate change and to the total amount of greenhouse gases produced, measured in units of carbon dioxide emitted. Effort of individuals in minimizing the carbon footprint is vital to save our planet. This article reports a study of the carbon footprint of various types of shopping bags (plastic, paper, non-woven and woven) using life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) technique in two stages. The first stage (baseline study), comprised the study of the impact of different types of shopping bags in the manufacturing phase, without considering their usage and disposal phases (cradle to gate stage). The LCIA was accomplished by the IPCC 2007 method, developed by the Inter Panel on Climate Change in SIMAPRO 7.2. The GWP (Global Warming Potential) values calculated by the IPCC 2007 method for 100 years were considered as a directive to compare the carbon footprint made by the different types of shopping bags under consideration. The next stage was the study of the carbon footprint of these bags including their usage and disposal phases (cradle to grave stage) and the results derived were compared with the results derived from the baseline study, which is the major focus of this research work. The values for usage and end-of-life phases were obtained from the survey questionnaire performed amongst different user groups of shopping bags in China, Hong Kong and India. The results show that the impact of different types of shopping bags in terms of their carbon footprint potential is very high if no usage and disposal options were provided. When the carbon footprint values from different

  14. Mobile bag starch prececal disappearance and postprandial glycemic response of four forms of barley in horses.

    PubMed

    Philippeau, C; Varloud, M; Julliand, V

    2014-05-01

    To determine prececal starch digestibili-ty and estimate glucose uptake from the digestion of 4 forms of barley in the small intestine, 4 mature cecally fistulated geldings (449 ± 41 kg BW) fed a 62:38 (wt/wt) meadow hay:concentrate diet at 1.7 kg DM/100 kg BW were included in a 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment. During each period, horses received 80% DM of their concentrate as 1 of the 4 forms of a same batch of barley, whole grain, 2.5 mm ground, steam flaked, and pelleted. Hay was offered in 2 equal meals and concentrate in 2 unequal meals. The starch supply in the morning meal amounted 2.7 g starch/kg BW. At each period, mobile bag DM and starch disappearance was determined. Except for ground barley, each form of barley was 4 mm ground before being introduced in the bag. Nylon bags containing each substrate were intubated in the horse receiving the pelleted barley. Bags were collected in the cecum for 10 h postintubation. At each period, postprandial glycemia was measured on blood samples collected on the 4 horses via an indwelling jugular catheter just before the concentrate morning meal and for 8 h. No hay in the morning meal was given the day of the measurements. Whole blood glucose was analyzed with a portable blood glucose meter. Mobile bag prececal DM disappearance and starch disappearance depended (P < 0.01) on barley form. Prececal starch disappearance of whole barley was the lowest but no difference (P > 0.05) was detected among the 3 processed grains. No significant effect of barley form was found whatever the glycemic parameters. No significant correlation was reported between glycemic parameters and the amount of prececal mobile bag disappeared starch calculated as the starch intake in the morning meal by the mobile bag starch disappearance. To conclude, the whole form of barley exhibited the lowest prececal mobile bag starch disappearance whereas, in relationship with large individual variations, no significant variation has been shown in

  15. Unusual basal skull fracture in a vehicle equipped with an air bag.

    PubMed

    Bandstra, R A; Carbone, L S

    2001-09-01

    A woman who was the lap/shoulder belt-restrained driver of a car equipped with a full-size air bag was involved in an oblique frontal collision with a tractor-trailer combination. She was extremely out of position, i.e., witnessed to be slumped over the steering wheel before impact. This preimpact positioning led to fatal injuries resulting from the inflating air bag. Postmortem examination showed an unusual partial ring fracture of the base of the skull, which to the authors' knowledge has not previously been reported. PMID:11563734

  16. Masquerading as self? Endoparasitic Strepsiptera (Insecta) enclose themselves in host-derived epidermal bag.

    PubMed

    Kathirithamby, Jeyaraney; Ross, Larry D; Johnston, J Spencer

    2003-06-24

    We report here the case of a metazoan parasite, a strepsipteran, that manipulates host epidermal tissue and wraps itself within it; which probably camouflages the endoparasite and is recognized as "self" by the host. This mechanism is one of immune avoidance among parasitoid insects. The host-derived epidermal "bag" might have enabled Strepsiptera to radiate to disparate hosts compared with the relatively few taxa (596 species) described so far. They have been recorded as parasitizing 34 families belonging to seven orders of Insecta. We also report a mechanism of insect ecdysis between the first- and second-instar larva, while enclosed in the bag. PMID:12788973

  17. Application of Disposable Bag Bioreactors in Tissue Engineering and for the Production of Therapeutic Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eibl, R.; Eibl, D.

    In order to increase process efficiency, many pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies have introduced disposable bag technology over the last 10 years. Because this technology also greatly reduces the risk of cross-contamination, disposable bags are preferred in applications in which an absolute or improved process safety is a necessity, namely the production of functional tissue for implantation (tissue engineering), the production of human cells for the treatment of cancer and immune system diseases (cellular therapy), the production of viruses for gene therapies, the production of therapeutic proteins, and veterinary as well as human vaccines.

  18. Bagging system, soil stabilization mat, and tent frame for a lunar base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Georgia Tech's School of Textile and Fiber Engineering and School of Mechanical Engineering participated in four cooperative design efforts this year. Each of two interdisciplinary teams designed a system consisting of a lunar regolith bag and an apparatus for filling this bag. The third group designed a mat for stabilization of lunar soil during takeoff and landing, and a method for packaging and deploying this mat. Finally, the fourth group designed a sunlight diffusing tent to be used as a lunar worksite. Summaries of these projects are given.

  19. The effects of operator position, pallet orientation, and palletizing condition on low back loads in manual bag palletizing operations

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Sean; Heberger, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Many mining commodities are packaged and shipped using bags. Small bags are typically loaded onto pallets for transport and require a significant amount of manual handling by workers. This specific task of manual bag handling has been associated with the development of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), especially low back disorders. This study evaluates the biomechanical demands of different work layouts when performing manual palletizing of small bags, and evaluates the biomechanical stresses associated with different stacking techniques. Results indicate that peak forward bending moments as well as spinal compression and shear forces are higher when the pallet is situated at the side of the conveyor as opposed to the end of the conveyor. At low levels of the pallet, controlled bag placement results in higher peak forward bending moments than stacking at higher levels and when dropping the bag to lower levels. The results of this study will be used to inform the development of an audit tool for bagging operations in the mining industry. Relevance to industry In many cases for workers loading small bags, compression forces exceed the NIOSH criterion of 3400 N. Orientation of the pallet has a significant impact on spinal compression, and positioning the pallet at the end of the conveyor reduces the estimated compressive loading on the lumbar spine by approximately 800 N. PMID:26190879

  20. 77 FR 14600 - Pricing for 2012 Kennedy Half-Dollar Bags and Rolls, Bronze Medals, the First Spouse Bronze Medal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-12

    ... United States Mint Pricing for 2012 Kennedy Half-Dollar Bags and Rolls, Bronze Medals, the First Spouse Bronze Medal Set and the Birth Set AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing 2012 pricing for Kennedy Half-Dollar bags and rolls,...

  1. 76 FR 7898 - Wheego Electric Cars, Inc.; Grant of Application for Temporary Exemption From Advanced Air Bag...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    .... \\1\\ See 65 FR 30680 (May 12, 2000). The advanced air bag requirements were a culmination of a... developing advanced air bag systems. \\2\\ See, e.g., grant of petition to Panoz, 72 FR 28759 (May 22, 2007), or grant of petition to Koenigsegg, 72 FR 17608 (April 9, 2007). The agency has carefully...

  2. Blood Bag Plasticizers Influence Red Blood Cell Vesiculation Rate without Altering the Lipid Composition of the Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Bicalho, Beatriz; Serrano, Katherine; dos Santos Pereira, Alberto; Devine, Dana V.; Acker, Jason P.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plasticized with di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is commonly used for blood collection and storage. DEHP has protective effects on RBC membranes, but is also a toxin. Methods A paired study was conducted to investigate the influence of DEHP and two alternative plasticizers, 1,2-cyclohexane-dicarboxylic acid diisononyl ester (DINCH) and n-butyryl-tri-n-hexyl citrate (BTHC), on the preservation of RBCs stored for 42 days in PVC pediatric bags. The RBC membrane was evaluated for supernatant hemoglobin (Hb), release of extracellular microvesicles (EVs), osmotic fragility, deformability, and lipid composition. Results In BTHC-plasticized bags, the supernatant Hb increase during storage was 2 times greater than in DINCH- and DEHP-plasticized bags. By day 21, EV concentrations had doubled from day-5 levels in DINCH- and DEHP-, and trebled in BTHC-plasticized bags. RBC mean cell volumes were greater in BTHC- than in DINCH- or DEHP-plasticized bags (p < 0.001). Osmotic fragility differed significantly among plasticizers (p < 0.01). After day 21, RBC deformability decreased in all, but to a greater extent in the bags with BTHC. Phospholipid composition of RBCs and EVs was not different among plasticizers. Conclusion Membrane stabilization capacity differed among the plasticizers. RBC in BTHC bags stored more poorly, while DEHP and DINCH bags offered better protection against vesiculation, osmotic stress, and Hb loss. PMID:27022319

  3. Spontaneous dislocation of lens bag with acrylic lens after uneventful cataract surgery – unusual complication of cataract surgery

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Mehul A.; Shah, Shreya M.; Mehta, Ruchir; Shah, Prerna

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Spontaneous dislocation of intraocular lens with bag is rare. Methods: We report a case of a 56-year-old male who presented with spontaneous anterior dislocation of an in-the-bag intraocular lens 3 years after manual small incision cataract surgery. He had undergone manual small incision cataract surgery with foldable acrylic intraocular lens implantation, and 18 months after cataract surgery ND: YAG capsulotomy with uneventful post capsulotomy follow-up. 17 months after capsulotomy, the patient presented with sudden decrease of vision. On anterior segment examination, the intraocular lens with bag was dislocated into the anterior chamber. Result: It was managed with intraocular lens explantation with bag, anterior vitrectomy and sclera fixated intraocular lens. Conclusion: Spontaneous intraocular lens dislocation with bag is possible after 1.5 years of uneventful surgery which may be managed using different techniques. PMID:27625955

  4. Triple-Layer Plastic Bags Protect Dry Common Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) Against Damage by Acanthoscelides obtectus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) During Storage.

    PubMed

    Mutungi, C; Affognon, H D; Njoroge, A W; Manono, J; Baributsa, D; Murdock, L L

    2015-10-01

    Fumigated dry common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) that were artificially infested with Acanthoscelides obtectus Say, and others that were not artificially infested, were stored in hermetic triple-layer PICS (Lela Agro, Kano, Nigeria) or woven polypropylene (PP) bags for 6 mo at ambient laboratory temperature conditions of 22.6 ± 1.9°C and 60.1 ± 4.3% relative humidity. In an additional trial, beans contained in PP bags were treated with Actellic Super dust before introducing A. obtectus. Moisture content, number of live adult A. obtectus, seed damage, weight loss, and seed germination were determined at monthly intervals. At 6 mo, beans stored in PICS bags retained higher moisture than those stored in PP bags, but in all treatments the moisture level remained below that recommended for safe storage of beans. In the PICS bags, proliferation of A. obtectus did not proceed and at 6 mo, beans stored in these bags did not have insect-inflicted seed damage or weight loss. In contrast, seed damage and weight loss in PP bags exceeded economic threshold after 1 mo in the absence of Actellic Super dust (Syngenta Crop protection AG, Basle, Switzerland), and after 2 mo in the presence of it. Germination of beans stored in PP bags decreased greatly whereas the beans stored in PICS bags did not show reduced germination. Chemical free storage of common beans in PICS bags protects them against damage by A. obtectus.

  5. Fungal deterioration of melon seeds stored in jute sacks and polyethylene bags in Ago-Iwoye, southwestern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Bankole, S A; Ikotun, B; Ekpo, E J

    1999-01-01

    Laboratory studies were carried out in the Department of Biological Sciences, Ogun State University, Ago-Iwoye, southwestern Nigeria, to determine the extent of fungal deterioration of melon seeds stored in two types of storage bags viz; jute and polyethylene bags. Melon seeds of varieties Tc139 and V2 were stored in jute and polyethylene bags under ambient conditions using the 2 x 2 factorial design (variety vs type of bag) for 12 months. The moisture content (mc), incidence of visible mouldiness (ivm) and germinability of the stored seeds were determined monthly. The mc of Tc139 ranged from 6.1 to 6.7% in jute and 6.2 to 6.5% in polyethylene bags. The ivm which was initially 2.1% increased to 10.7% and 5.5% in jute and polyethylene bags respectively, after 12 months in storage. The germination percentage decreased from 96.3% to 28.7% and 45.3% in jute and polyethylene bags, respectively. The mc of V2 stored in jute and polyethylene bags varied from 5.9 to 6.4%, and 5.8 to 6.2%, respectively. The ivm increased from 1.8% before storage to 8.9% and 4.8% in jute and polyethylene bags, respectively, after 12 months. The percentage seed germination declined from 98.0% to 37.3% in jute and 48.7% in polyethylene bags after 12 months. Decreased incidence of field fungi namely: Alternaria,Botryodiplodia theobromae, Cladosporium, Fusarium and Macrophomina phaseolina was accompanied by simultaneous increase in storage fungi viz: Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Rhizopus with prolonged storage.

  6. Association of first- and second-generation air bags with front occupant death in car crashes: a matched cohort study.

    PubMed

    Olson, Carin M; Cummings, Peter; Rivara, Frederick P

    2006-07-15

    First-generation air bags entail a decreased risk of death for most front seat occupants in car crashes but an increased risk for children. Second-generation air bags were developed to reduce the risks for children, despite the possibility of decreasing protection for others. Using a matched cohort design, the authors estimated risk ratios for death for use of each generation of air bag versus no air bag, adjusted for seat position, restraint use, sex, age, and all vehicle and crash characteristics, among 128,208 automobile occupants involved in fatal crashes on US roadways during 1990-2002. The authors then compared adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) between the two generations of air bags. Among front seat occupants, the aRR for death with a first-generation air bag was 0.90 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.86, 0.94); the aRR with a second-generation air bag was 0.89 (95% CI: 0.79, 1.00) (p = 0.83 for comparison of aRRs). Among children under age 6 years, the aRR with a first-generation air bag was 1.66 (95% CI: 1.20, 2.30), while the aRR with a second-generation air bag was 1.10 (95% CI: 0.63, 1.93) (p = 0.20 for comparison of aRRs). The differences in aRRs between first- and second-generation air bags among other subgroups were small and not statistically significant. PMID:16775043

  7. Polylactide-based renewable composites from natural products residues by encapsulated film bag: characterization and biodegradability.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chin-San

    2012-09-01

    In the present study, the biodegradability, morphology, and mechanical properties of composite materials consisting of acrylic acid-grafted polylactide (PLA-g-AA) and natural products residues (corn starch, CS) were evaluated. Composites containing acrylic acid-grafted PLA (PLA-g-AA/CS) exhibited noticeably superior mechanical properties due to their greater compatibility with CS compared with PLA/CS. The feasibility of using PLA-g-AA/CS as a film bag material to facilitate the controlled release of an encapsulated phosphate-solubilizing bacterium (PSB) Burkholderia cepacia as a fertilizer use promoter was then evaluated. For purposes of comparison and accurate characterization, a PLA film bag was also assessed. The results showed that the bacterium completely degraded both the PLA and the PLA-g-AA/CS composite film bags, resulting in cell release. The PLA-g-AA/CS (20 wt%) film bags were more biodegradable than those made of PLA, and displayed a higher loss of molecular weight and intrinsic viscosity, indicating a strong connection between these characteristics and biodegradability. PMID:24751080

  8. 76 FR 11203 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-01

    ... Order: Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the People's Republic of China, 69 FR 48201 (August 9, 2004... Order, Finding, or Suspended Investigation; Opportunity to Request Administrative Review, 75 FR 45094... and Requests for Revocation in Part, 75 FR 60076 (September 29, 2010). Rescission of Review...

  9. Non-invasive spectroscopy of transfusable red blood cells stored inside sealed plastic blood-bags.

    PubMed

    Buckley, K; Atkins, C G; Chen, D; Schulze, H G; Devine, D V; Blades, M W; Turner, R F B

    2016-03-01

    After being separated from (donated) whole blood, red blood cells are suspended in specially formulated additive solutions and stored (at 4 °C) in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) blood-bags until they are needed for transfusion. With time, the prepared red cell concentrate (RCC) is known to undergo biochemical changes that lower effectiveness of the transfusion, and thus regulations are in place that limit the storage period to 42 days. At present, RCC is not subjected to analytical testing prior to transfusion. In this study, we use Spatially Offset Raman Spectroscopy (SORS) to probe, non-invasively, the biochemistry of RCC inside sealed blood-bags. The retrieved spectra compare well with conventional Raman spectra (of sampled aliquots) and are dominated by features associated with hemoglobin. In addition to the analytical demonstration that SORS can be used to retrieve RCC spectra from standard clinical blood-bags without breaking the sterility of the system, the data reveal interesting detail about the oxygenation-state of the stored cells themselves, namely that some blood-bags unexpectedly contain measurable amounts of deoxygenated hemoglobin after weeks of storage. The demonstration that chemical information can be obtained non-invasively using spectroscopy will enable new studies of RCC degeneration, and points the way to a Raman-based instrument for quality-control in a blood-bank or hospital setting.

  10. Parachute/flotation bag recovery system for a large RV nose cone

    SciTech Connect

    Pepper, W.M.

    1980-03-01

    This report describes the design and development of a single-stage recovery system consisting of a 6-ft dia guide surface parachute with a 3.5 ft/sup 3/ ram-air-filled flotation bag for ocean recovery of a 120-lb nose cone. Recovery procedures start with jettisoning a portion of the initial reentry mass before deploying the parachute.

  11. 75 FR 25207 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Malaysia: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-07

    ... Administrative Reviews and Request for Revocation in Part, 74 FR 48224 (September 22, 2009). As explained in the... International Trade Administration A-557-813 Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Malaysia: Extension of Time.... ] Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results Section 751(a)(3)(A) of the Tariff Act of 1930, as...

  12. 78 FR 88 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-02

    ... Duty Order, Finding, or Suspended Investigation; Opportunity To Request Administrative Review, 77 FR... Revocation in Part, 77 FR 59168 (September 26, 2012). On November 21, 2012, the petitioners withdrew their... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the People's Republic of...

  13. 77 FR 25684 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-01

    ... Reviews and Requests for Revocations in Part, 76 FR 61076 (October 3, 2011). Based on a request for review... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Rescission of Antidumping... Commerce (the Department) initiated an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on...

  14. Recovery of agricultural odors and odorous compounds from polyvinyl fluoride film bags

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate sampling methods are necessary when quantifying odor and volatile organic compound emissions at agricultural facilities. The commonly accepted methodology in the U.S. has been to collect odor samples in polyvinyl fluoride bags (PVF, brand name Tedlar®) and, subsequently, analyze with human ...

  15. 76 FR 30102 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ... From Thailand, 69 FR 48204 (August 9, 2004). On September 29, 2010, we published a notice of initiation... Administrative Reviews and Requests for Revocation in Part, 75 FR 60076 (September 29, 2010).\\1\\ Since initiation... Plastic Bags Industries Co., Ltd., Trinity Pac Co. Ltd., U. Yong Industry Co., Ltd. Id., 75 FR at...

  16. Production, characterization and fuel properties of alternative diesel fuel from pyrolysis of waste plastic grocery bags

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pyrolysis of HDPE waste grocery bags followed by distillation resulted in a liquid hydrocarbon mixture that consisted of saturated aliphatic paraffins (96.8%), aliphatic olefins (2.6%), and aromatics (0.6%) that corresponded to the boiling range of conventional petroleum diesel fuel (#1 diesel 182–2...

  17. 77 FR 33998 - Make Inoperative Exemptions; Retrofit On-Off Switches for Air Bags

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ..., 2000 (65 FR 19477-78). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For non-legal issues: Ms. Carla Rush, Office of...\\ See preamble to agency final rule on advanced air bags, 65 FR 30680, 30682-83, May 12, 2000. To... published in the Federal Register (62 FR 62406) a final rule permitting motor vehicle dealers and...

  18. STS-56 Commander Cameron with camera stowage bag on OV-103's flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-56 Commander Kenneth Cameron, with a penlight flashlight velcroed to his headband, prepares to open a camera stowage bag on the forward flight deck of Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103. Behind him are the forward flight deck windows, forward control panels, and the commanders and pilots seatbacks.

  19. 75 FR 16434 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Determination of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... Combination Rates in Antidumping Investigations involving Non-Market Economy Countries, 70 FR 17233 (April 5... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'') are being, or are likely to be, sold in the United States...

  20. Purple Urine Bag Syndrome in Two Elderly Men with Urinary Tract Infection.

    PubMed

    Van Keer, Jan; Detroyer, Daan; Bammens, Bert

    2015-01-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome is a rare condition in which purple discoloration of urine inside its collection bag occurs. We describe two illustrative cases. The first patient is an 81-year-old man who was hospitalized for a newly diagnosed lymphoma with acute obstructive renal failure for which a nephrostomy procedure was performed. During the hospitalization, a sudden purple discoloration of the suprapubic catheter urine was noted, while the nephrostomy urine had a normal color. Urine culture from the suprapubic catheter was positive for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus faecalis; urine from the nephrostomy was sterile. The second case is an 80-year-old man who was admitted for heart failure with cardiorenal dilemma and who was started on intermittent hemodialysis. There was a sudden purple discoloration of the urine in the collection bag from his indwelling catheter. He was diagnosed with an E. coli urinary infection and treated with amoxicillin and removal of the indwelling catheter. These two cases illustrate the typical characteristics of purple urine bag syndrome. PMID:26351597

  1. 75 FR 36679 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From China, Malaysia, and Thailand; Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ... instituted these reviews on July 1, 2009 (74 FR 31750, July 2, 2009) and determined on October 5, 2009 that it would conduct full reviews (74 FR 54069, October 21, 2009). Notice of the scheduling of the... COMMISSION Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From China, Malaysia, and Thailand; Determinations On the...

  2. 75 FR 33772 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Malaysia: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ... Malaysia, 69 FR 48203 (August 9, 2004). On August 3, 2009, we published in the Federal Register a notice of... from Malaysia, 69 FR 3557 (January 26, 2004). See also Notice of Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value: Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Malaysia, 69 FR 34128 (June 18, 2004)...

  3. Epidemiology, Etiology, and Prevention of Late IOL-Capsular Bag Complex Dislocation: Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Ascaso, Francisco J.; Huerva, Valentín; Grzybowski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Posterior chamber intraocular lens (PC-IOL) subluxation is uncommon but represents one of the most serious complications following phacoemulsification. Late spontaneous IOL-capsular bag complex dislocation is defined as occurring three months or later following cataract surgery. Unlike early IOL dislocation, late spontaneous IOL dislocation is due to a progressive zonular dehiscence and contraction of the capsular bag many years what seemed to be uneventful surgery. In recent years, late in-the-bag IOL subluxation or dislocation has been reported with increasing frequency, having a cumulative risk of IOL dislocation following cataract extraction of 0.1% after 10 years and 1.7% after 25 years. A predisposition to zonular insufficiency and capsular contraction is identified in 90% of reviewed cases. Multiple conditions likely play a role in contributing to this zonular weakness and capsular contraction. Pseudoexfoliation is the most common risk factor, accounting for more than 50% of cases. Other associated conditions predisposing to zonular dehiscence are aging, high myopia, uveitis, trauma, previous vitreoretinal surgery, retinitis pigmentosa, diabetes mellitus, atopic dermatitis, previous acute angle-closure glaucoma attack, and connective tissue disorders. The recognition of these predisposing factors suggests a modified approach in cases at risk. We review certain measures to prevent IOL-bag complex luxation that have been proposed. PMID:26798506

  4. 75 FR 23667 - Antidumping Duty Orders: Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags from Indonesia, Taiwan, and the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... Retail Carrier Bags From Indonesia: Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value, 75 FR 16431... from Taiwan: Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value, 75 FR 14569 (March 26, 2010). On... Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value, 75 FR 16434 (April 1, 2010). On April 26, 2010, the ITC...

  5. 75 FR 22842 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Indonesia, Taiwan, and Vietnam

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ... publishing the notice in the Federal Register of December 3, 2009 (74 FR 63410). The hearing was held in... COMMISSION Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Indonesia, Taiwan, and Vietnam Determinations On the basis... threatened with material injury by reason of imports from Indonesia, Taiwan, and Vietnam of PRCBs that...

  6. Polylactide-based renewable composites from natural products residues by encapsulated film bag: characterization and biodegradability.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chin-San

    2012-09-01

    In the present study, the biodegradability, morphology, and mechanical properties of composite materials consisting of acrylic acid-grafted polylactide (PLA-g-AA) and natural products residues (corn starch, CS) were evaluated. Composites containing acrylic acid-grafted PLA (PLA-g-AA/CS) exhibited noticeably superior mechanical properties due to their greater compatibility with CS compared with PLA/CS. The feasibility of using PLA-g-AA/CS as a film bag material to facilitate the controlled release of an encapsulated phosphate-solubilizing bacterium (PSB) Burkholderia cepacia as a fertilizer use promoter was then evaluated. For purposes of comparison and accurate characterization, a PLA film bag was also assessed. The results showed that the bacterium completely degraded both the PLA and the PLA-g-AA/CS composite film bags, resulting in cell release. The PLA-g-AA/CS (20 wt%) film bags were more biodegradable than those made of PLA, and displayed a higher loss of molecular weight and intrinsic viscosity, indicating a strong connection between these characteristics and biodegradability.

  7. Fate of microconstituents in biosolids composted in an aerated silage bag

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of silage bags for composting was evaluated as a means to produce Class A Biosolids while minimizing vector attraction and odor emissions. While most composting studies report pathogen concentrations, little is known about the fate of Endocrine Disruptor Chemicals (EDCs) during composting. ...

  8. 77 FR 52619 - Make Inoperative Exemptions; Retrofit On-Off Switches for Air Bags

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ... June 8, 2012 Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (77 FR 33998). To prevent or mitigate the risk of injuries... 21, 1997, NHTSA published in the Federal Register (62 FR 62406) a final rule permitting motor vehicle... FMVSS.\\3\\ \\2\\ See preamble to agency final rule on advanced air bags, 65 FR 30680, 30682-83, May...

  9. An Evaluation of Family Literacy Bags as a Vehicle for Parent Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dever, Martha T.; Burts, Diane C.

    2002-01-01

    The Family Literacy Bags (FLB) project is a parent involvement and education innovation designed to engage children and their families in reading books in Spanish or English at home. Findings from inquiry at four primarily rural, middle-class school districts suggest that the FLB project encouraged home book reading. Parents learned effective ways…

  10. Three-dimensional electronic unpacking of packed bags using 3-D CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Samuel M.; Crawford, Carl R.; Boyd, Douglas P.

    2009-02-01

    We present a 3-D electronic unpacking technique for airport security images based on volume rendering techniques developed for medical applications. Two electronic unpacking techniques are presented: (1) object-based unpacking and (2) unpacking by bag-slicing. Both techniques provide photo-realistic 3-D views of contents inside a packed bag with clearly marked threats. For the object-based unpacking, the 3-D objects within packed bags are unpacked (or isolated) though object selection tools that cut away undesired regions to isolates the 3-D object from the background clutter. With this selection tool, the operator is able to electronically unpack various 3-D objects and manipulate (rotate and zoom) the 3-D photo-realistic views for the immediate classification of the suspect object. The unpacking by bag-slicing technique places arbitrary cut planes to show the content beyond the cut plane that can be stepped forward or backward electronically. The methods may be used to reduce the need for manual unpacking of suitcases.

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT: PAINT OVERSPRAY ARRESTOR, COLUMBUS INDUSTRIES, INC., SL-90B 8 POCKET BAG

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of March 23-24, 1999, tests of Columbus Industries Inc's SL-90B 8 Pocket Bag paint overspray arrestor (POA) as part of an evaluation of POAs by EPA's Air Pollution Control Technology (APCT) Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program. The basic pe...

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION PROGRAM REPORT: PAINT OVERSPRAY ARRESTOR, ATI A-3000 5P BAG

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of March 24-25, 1999, tests of ATI's A-3000 5P Bag paint overspray arrestor (POA) as part of an evaluation of POAs by EPA's Air Pollution Control Technology (APCT) Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program. The basic performance factor being ver...

  13. 78 FR 46319 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Taiwan: Initiation of Anti-Circumvention Inquiry on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-31

    ... Republic of Vietnam, 75 FR 23667 (May 4, 2010) (PRCB Orders). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Hermes... purchased products. The scope of the order excludes (1) polyethylene bags that are not printed with logos or... cuts out an oval handle.\\17\\ According to the advertisement provided by the petitioners, the...

  14. An emergency medical bag set for long-range aeromedical transportation.

    PubMed

    Barillo, David J; Renz, Evan; Broger, Kristine; Moak, Brandon; Wright, Gabriel; Holcomb, John B

    2008-01-01

    The global war on terror has created the need for urgent long-range aeromedical transport of severely wounded service members over distances of several thousand miles from Afghanistan or Iraq to the United States. This need is met by specialized medical transport teams such as US Air Force Critical Care Air Transport Teams (CCATT) or by the US Army Burn Flight Team (BFT). Both teams travel with multiple bags or cases of emergency equipment, which are comprehensive but cumbersome. To avoid the need to search multiple bags for equipment or drugs when an in-flight emergency occurs, many CCATT and BFT physicians also carry a personal bag of emergency supplies for rapid access. Over the last year, we have evolved and standardized an emergency equipment bag designed to provide the supplies necessary for initial management of emergencies that occur during flight and ground transport. This or a similar emergency kit would be useful for inter or intrahospital transport of critically ill or injured civilian patients, or for physicians who respond to civil emergencies, such as members of Disaster Medical Assistance Teams. PMID:18522249

  15. Modeling and Simulation of the Second-Generation Orion Crew Module Air Bag Landing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timmers, Richard B.; Welch, Joseph V.; Hardy, Robin C.

    2009-01-01

    Air bags were evaluated as the landing attenuation system for earth landing of the Orion Crew Module (CM). An important element of the air bag system design process is proper modeling of the proposed configuration to determine if the resulting performance meets requirements. Analysis conducted to date shows that airbags are capable of providing a graceful landing of the CM in nominal and off-nominal conditions such as parachute failure, high horizontal winds, and unfavorable vehicle/ground angle combinations. The efforts presented here surround a second generation of the airbag design developed by ILC Dover, and is based on previous design, analysis, and testing efforts. In order to fully evaluate the second generation air bag design and correlate the dynamic simulations, a series of drop tests were carried out at NASA Langley's Landing and Impact Research (LandIR) facility. The tests consisted of a full-scale set of air bags attached to a full-scale test article representing the Orion Crew Module. The techniques used to collect experimental data, construct the simulations, and make comparisons to experimental data are discussed.

  16. Linear Heave Dynamics of an Air-Cushion Vehicle Bag-and-Finger Skirt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Joon; Sullivan, Phillip A.

    Results from a linear analysis of the heave dynamics of an air-cushion vehicle equipped with a bag-and-finger skirt are described. A two-dimensional section of the cushion is subject to pure heave or long-wave surface motion inputs. The skirt mass is lumped in the fingers, with the bag being modelled as a combination of massless inelastic membranes and links. The airflows from bag to cushion and from cushion to atmosphere are assumed quasisteady, and the bag and cushion volumes are modelled as lumped pneumatic capacitances. For a configuration representative of a 37t vehicle, frequency response characteristics show the effect of skirt geometry and mass changes, and cushion capacitance. The results suggest that changes in skirt geometry cannot be used to radically modify an undesirable heave response, but reducing the skirt mass may be effective. The air compressibility also affects heave response at high frequencies, with the effect becoming more prominent at the low cushion-flow rates now used in practice.

  17. Inadvertent venous air embolism during cesarean section: collapsible intravenous fluid bags without self-sealing outlet have risks. Case report.

    PubMed

    Bakan, Mefkur; Topuz, Ufuk; Esen, Asim; Basaranoglu, Gokcen; Ozturk, Erdogan

    2013-01-01

    The anesthesiologist must be aware of the causes, diagnosis and treatment of venous air embolism and adopt the practice patterns to prevent its occurrence. Although venous air embolism is a known complication of cesarean section, we describe an unusual inattention that causes iatrogenic near fatal venous air embolism during a cesarean section under spinal anesthesia. One of the reasons for using self-collapsible intravenous (IV) infusion bags instead of conventional glass or plastic bottles is to take precaution against air embolism. We also demonstrated the risk of air embolism for two kinds of plastic collapsible intravenous fluid bags: polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polypropylene-based. Fluid bags without self-sealing outlets pose a risk for air embolism if the closed system is broken down, while the flexibility of the bag limits the amount of air entry. PVC-based bags, which have more flexibility, have significantly less risk of air entry when IV administration set is disconnected from the outlet. Using a pressure bag for rapid infusion can be dangerous without checking and emptying all air from the IV bag.

  18. Inadvertent venous air embolism during cesarean section: Collapsible intravenous fluid bags without self-sealing outlet have risks. Case report.

    PubMed

    Bakan, Mefkur; Topuz, Ufuk; Esen, Asim; Basaranoglu, Gokcen; Ozturk, Erdogan

    2013-01-01

    The anesthesiologist must be aware of the causes, diagnosis and treatment of venous air embolism and adopt the practice patterns to prevent its occurrence. Although venous air embolism is a known complication of cesarean section, we describe an unusual inattention that causes iatrogenic near fatal venous air embolism during a cesarean section under spinal anesthesia. One of the reasons for using self-collapsible intravenous (IV) infusion bags instead of conventional glass or plastic bottles is to take precaution against air embolism. We also demonstrated the risk of air embolism for two kinds of plastic collapsible intravenous fluid bags: polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polypropylene-based. Fluid bags without self-sealing outlets pose a risk for air embolism if the closed system is broken down, while the flexibility of the bag limits the amount of air entry. PVC-based bags, which have more flexibility, have significantly less risk of air entry when IV administration set is disconnected from the outlet. Using a pressure bag for rapid infusion can be dangerous without checking and emptying all air from the IV bag.

  19. ATP hydrolysis is essential for Bag-1M-mediated inhibition of the DNA binding by the glucocorticoid receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Wei; Chen, Linfeng; Liu, Yunde; Gao, Weizhen

    2009-12-04

    The 70-kDa heat shock protein (Hsp70) is involved in providing the appropriate conformation of various nuclear hormone receptors, including the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). The Bcl-2 associated athanogene 1M (Bag-1M) is known to downregulate the DNA binding by the GR. Also, Bag-1M interacts with the ATPase domain of Hsp70 to modulate the release of the substrate from Hsp70. In this study, we demonstrate that ATP hydrolysis enhances Bag-1M-mediated inhibition of the DNA binding by the GR. However, the inhibitory effect of Bag-1M was abolished when the intracellular ATP was depleted. In addition, a Bag-1M mutant lacking the interaction with Hsp70 did not influence the GR to bind DNA, suggesting the interaction of Bag-1M with Hsp70 in needed for its negative effect. These results indicate that ATP hydrolysis is essential for Bag-1M-mediated inhibition of the DNA binding by the GR and Hsp70 is a mediator for this process.

  20. Potential of Hymenopteran larval and egg parasitoids to control stored-product beetle and moth infestation in jute bags.

    PubMed

    Adarkwah, C; Ulrichs, C; Schaarschmidt, S; Badii, B K; Addai, I K; Obeng-Ofori, D; Schöller, M

    2014-08-01

    The control of stored-product moths in bagged commodities is difficult because the developmental stages of the moths are protected by the bagging material from control measures such as the application of contact insecticides. Studies were carried out to assess the ability of Hymenopteran parasitoids to locate their hosts inside jute bags in the laboratory. The ability of different parasitoids to penetrate jute bags containing rice was investigated in a controlled climate chamber. Few Habrobracon hebetor (Say) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) passed through the jute material while a high percentage of Lariophagus distinguendus (Förster), Anisopteromalus calandrae (Howard) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), Theocolax elegans (Westwood) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) and Trichogramma evanescens Westwood (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) were able to enter the Petri-dishes. Significantly more L. distinguendus and T. elegans entered compared to H. hebetor. There was significant difference in the mean percentage parasitoids invading depending on species. Head capsules and/or thorax widths were measured in order to determine whether the opening in the jute material would be large enough for entry of the parasitoids. These morphometric data differed depending on parasitoid species and sex. The parasitoid Venturia canescens (Gravenhorst) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) did not enter the bags, but located host larvae inside the jute bags and parasitized rice moths Corcyra cephalonica larvae by stinging through the jute material. Venturia canescens significantly reduced the number of C. cephalonica adults emerging from the bagged rice; therefore, it could be released in storage rooms containing bagged rice for biological control of C. cephalonica. The use of parasitoids to suppress stored-product insect pests in bagged commodities could become a valuable supplement to the use of synthetic pesticides.

  1. Potential of Hymenopteran larval and egg parasitoids to control stored-product beetle and moth infestation in jute bags.

    PubMed

    Adarkwah, C; Ulrichs, C; Schaarschmidt, S; Badii, B K; Addai, I K; Obeng-Ofori, D; Schöller, M

    2014-08-01

    The control of stored-product moths in bagged commodities is difficult because the developmental stages of the moths are protected by the bagging material from control measures such as the application of contact insecticides. Studies were carried out to assess the ability of Hymenopteran parasitoids to locate their hosts inside jute bags in the laboratory. The ability of different parasitoids to penetrate jute bags containing rice was investigated in a controlled climate chamber. Few Habrobracon hebetor (Say) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) passed through the jute material while a high percentage of Lariophagus distinguendus (Förster), Anisopteromalus calandrae (Howard) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), Theocolax elegans (Westwood) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) and Trichogramma evanescens Westwood (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) were able to enter the Petri-dishes. Significantly more L. distinguendus and T. elegans entered compared to H. hebetor. There was significant difference in the mean percentage parasitoids invading depending on species. Head capsules and/or thorax widths were measured in order to determine whether the opening in the jute material would be large enough for entry of the parasitoids. These morphometric data differed depending on parasitoid species and sex. The parasitoid Venturia canescens (Gravenhorst) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) did not enter the bags, but located host larvae inside the jute bags and parasitized rice moths Corcyra cephalonica larvae by stinging through the jute material. Venturia canescens significantly reduced the number of C. cephalonica adults emerging from the bagged rice; therefore, it could be released in storage rooms containing bagged rice for biological control of C. cephalonica. The use of parasitoids to suppress stored-product insect pests in bagged commodities could become a valuable supplement to the use of synthetic pesticides. PMID:24846572

  2. "Equator ring" for maintenance of the completely circular contour of the capsular bag equator after cataract removal.

    PubMed

    Hara, T; Hara, T; Yamada, Y

    1991-06-01

    We designed an "equator ring," a flexible silicone rod with a groove on its inner surface, to maintain the circular contour of the capsular bag equator after cataract removal. After cataract extraction, the ring is inserted in the bag through a 5.0-mm circular capsulorhexis or 4.5-mm linear "dumbbell" opening. Then a conventional posterior chamber intraocular lens (PC-IOL) is inserted, with the IOL loops in the groove. The ring not only allows complete maintenance of the circular contour of the capsular bag equator for most conventional PC-IOLs, but also may prevent invasion of metamorphosed lens epithelial cells into the posterior capsule.

  3. The role of expression and polymorphism of the BAG-1 gene in response to platinum-based chemotherapeutics in NSCLC

    PubMed Central

    WANG, YA-DI; HA, MIN-WEN; CHENG, JIAN; ZHANG, WEN-LU; CONG, XUE; TONG, CHUN-YAN; SUN, JING

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the correlation between BAG-1 expression and sensitivity to platinum-based chemotherapeutics in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). mRNA and protein expression of BAG-1 in lung tissue of NSCLC postoperative patients (I–IIIA stage) or healthy subjects were detected using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Cox regression analysis was used to quantify the association of prognostic factors with survival in NSCLC patients. Venous blood samples from patients newly diagnosed with advanced NSCLC (IIIB–IV stage) were collected before chemotherapy to analyze allelic frequency and gene polymorphisms. Compared to healthy controls (11.67%, 14 cases), levels of mRNA and protein of BAG-1 in lung tissues was significantly higher in NSCLC patients (61.67%, 74 cases) (χ2=5.601, P<0.05). Moreover, BAG-1 expression was identified as an independent prognostic factor for survival in NSCLC patients. As time to progression and survival rate was dramatically increased, patients with a positive expression of BAG-1 exhibited a prolonged survival period (TTP, 49.3 months; 5-year survival rat, 16.21%) compared with those without BAG-1 expression (χ2=7.243, P<0.05). Two BAG-1 digestion patterns (CC and CT) were identified and confirmed. Patients (77.46%) had a C/C genotype at BAG-1 codon 324, while 22.54% had the C/T genotype. The T/T genotype was not present in these patients. The progression risk of patients carrying the C/C genotype at Bag-1 codon 324 was 1.87 times higher than that of patients carrying the C/T genotype (P<0.001). Follow-up examination showed that the chemotherapeutic sensitivity of patients carrying the C/C genotype was 2.852 times higher than that of patients carrying the C/T genotype (95% CI, 1.133–7.182; P=0.026). Significant differences were found in the median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) of these two cohorts of patients. Compared to patients

  4. The leaf-bag and the sediment sample: Two sides of the same ecological quality story?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintino, Victor; Sangiorgio, Franca; Mamede, Renato; Ricardo, Fernando; Sampaio, Leandro; Martins, Roberto; Freitas, Rosa; Rodrigues, Ana Maria; Basset, Alberto

    2011-12-01

    A growing number of studies suggest that ecological quality status assessment in transitional waters should rely upon functional indicators rather than structural indices. The experimental study of decomposition rates using leaf-bags are among the former. A recent example was conducted in Ria de Aveiro, Western Portugal, and the decomposition rates of Phragmites australis obtained through the registration of the biomass decrease in leaf samples left in the estuary for fixed periods of time (7, 15, 30 and 60 days). The leaf-bags were recollected from the field and the accompanying fauna retained, for comparison to that obtained in sediment samples taken with a hand-held corer. The study was conducted in five areas covering the full salinity gradient, in three sites per area and four replicates per site. A total of 89 taxa were registered, 70 in the leaf-bags and 50 in the sediment samples. 39 taxa were sampled only in the leaf-bags, 19 only in the corers and 31 were common. From marine to freshwater areas, average abundance increased in both types of samples, and species richness and diversity diminished, except in freshwater and in the leaf-bags. Both samplers portrayed the succession from the marine to the freshwater areas, and the benthic community was found significantly different between all areas except between the two located closer to the estuarine entrance, equally by both samplers. Despite these similarities, the benthic communities sampled by the two methods were significantly different, either dominated by annelids (corers), or by arthropods (leaf-bags), amphipods in the estuary and insects in freshwater. These differences were not significant neither in the freshwater, due to paucity of the endofauna in freshwater, nor in the fully marine area, possibly due to the high variability of samples within the area. These results indicate that the estuarine benthic invertebrates upon which the taxonomic indices are calculated and those which contribute to the

  5. Impact of grain storage into silo bags on soil penetration resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, Juan Pablo; Alé, Daniel; Sabattini, Rafael; Díaz, Eduardo; Lado, Marcos; González, Antonio Paz

    2015-04-01

    Big silo sacks or bags ("silo bolsas", in Spanish) are nowadays widely used in Argentina as an innovative technology for grain storage and conservation on the farm. Following the last harvest campaigns, 40.000.000 Toms of grains were stored in silo sacks. A standard silo sack, or silo bag, has a length of about 75 m and is 2.7 m in diameter; when laden with cereal grains, a pressure of 9.8 MPa is applied on the soil surface. Silo sacks are currently installed within agricultural fields, and, after the storage period has finished, the plot they occupied most commonly again is cultivated. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of silo sacks on soil penetration resistance (PR). Two field experiments were performed in sites located at the departments of Paraná and Nogoyá, Entre Ríos province, Argentina. The soils in both sites were classified as Vertisols and contained expansible smectite minerals, mainly montmorillonite. Soil PR was continuously recorded until 80 cm depth. The first experiment, conducted in Paraná department, involved three different treatments with five RP replicated measurements per treatment: a) a plot under a silo bag with regular machinery transit for grain uploading and downloading, and previously used as pasture for livestock, b) a plot under grassland used for mowing and without livestock transit, and c) a plot under woody native vegetation, locally called "Espinal". The second experiment, conducted at Nogoyá department consisted of two treatments, each with for PR replications: a) a plot under silo sack with machinery transit, and b) a control plot located in the neighbouring field. n the first site a significant increase in soil PR (P<0,05) under silo bag was recorded at the 0-20cm depth. In the second site soil PR was not significantly different between treatments at the 0-5 cm depth, while significant differences in PR were recorded at the 5-10 cm depth (P<0.05). We concluded that soil PR measurements under silo bag provide

  6. Heavy - metal biomonitoring by using moss bags in Florence urban area, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellizzaro, Grazia; Canu, Annalisa; Arca, Angelo; Duce, Pierpaolo

    2013-04-01

    In the last century, pollution has become one of the most important risks for environment. In particular, heavy metal presence in air, water and soil induces toxic effects on ecosystems and human health. Monitoring airborne trace element over large areas is a task not easy to reach since the concentrations of pollutants are variable in space and time. Data from automatic devices are site-specific and very limited in number to describe spatial-temporal trends of pollutants. In addition, especially in Italy, trace elements concentrations are not often recorded by most of the automated monitoring stations. In the last decades, development of alternative and complementary methods as bio-monitoring techniques, allowed to map deposition patterns not only near single pollution sources, but also over relatively large areas at municipal or even regional scale. Bio-monitoring includes a wide array of methodologies finalised to study relationships between pollution and living organisms. Mosses and lichens have been widely used as bio-accumulators for assessing the atmospheric deposition of heavy metals in natural ecosystems and urban areas. In this study bio-monitoring of airborne trace metals was made using moss bags technique. The moss Hypnum cupressiforme was used as bio-indicator for estimating atmospheric traces metal deposition in the urban area of Florence. Moss carpets were collected in a forested area of central Sardinia (municipality of Bolotana - Nuoro), which is characterised by absence of air pollution. Moss bags were located in the urban area of Florence close to three monitoring air quality stations managed by ARPAT (Agenzia Regionale Protezione Ambiente Toscana). Two stations were located in high-traffic roads whereas the other one was located in a road with less traffic density. In each site moss bags were exposed during three campaigns of measurement conducted during the periods March-April, May-July, and August-October 2010. Two moss bags, used as control

  7. Theoretical investigation of heave dynamics of an air cushion vehicle bag and finger skirt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Joon

    This thesis describes a theoretical investigation of the nonlinear and linear heave dynamics of an air cushion vehicle (ACV) equipped with a bag and finger skirt system with the purpose of understanding the skirt's effect on the vehicle heave dynamics. Throughout the course of this work, the pure heave motion of a two dimensional section of the skirt is investigated using several mathematical models. Both the nonlinear and linearized analyses include a detailed model of the skirt geometry, which is modelled as a combination of inelastic membranes and links. Air flow processes from the bag to the cushion and from the cushion to the atmosphere are assumed to be quasisteady, and the bag and cushion volumes are modelled as lumped pneumatic capacitances. The modulation of the escaping cushion air by skirt-ground contact is also included. The nonlinear simulations reveal that characteristically nonlinear dynamical phenomena such as period doubling and chaos can be expected to occur during the normal operation of ACVs. Furthermore, a configuration representative of a 37 tonne vehicle shows a resonance at frequencies in the range for which humans are most sensitive. Although these results thus show that some aspects of the bag and finger skirt heave dynamics can be highly nonlinear, they indicate that under certain circumstances, standard linear techniques can yield useful insights. Results from the linear analysis suggest that changes in skirt geometry cannot be used to radically modify the undesirable heave response of the bag and finger skirt, but reducing the skirt mass is quite effective. The pneumatic capacitance of the bag and cushion volume proves to be an important factor in the heave response. In particular, it contributes to heave instability. The air compressibility also affects heave response at high frequencies, with the effect becoming more prominent as the flow rate is reduced. The importance of unsteady fan effects on ACV dynamics is investigated by the

  8. IGFBP3 and BAG1 enhance radiation-induced apoptosis in squamous esophageal cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshino, Kei; Motoyama, Satoru; Koyota, Souichi; Shibuya, Kaori; Usami, Shuetsu; Maruyama, Kiyotomi; Saito, Hajime; Minamiya, Yoshihiro; Sugiyama, Toshihiro; Ogawa, Jun-ichi

    2011-01-28

    Research highlights: {yields} TE-12 cell had greater radiosensitivity and higher levels of caspase 3/7 activity for radiotherapy than TE-5 or TE-9 cells. {yields} The expression of IGFBP3 and BAG1 was five or more times higher in TE-12 cell in DNA microarrays analysis. {yields} Knocking down IGFBP3 and/or BAG1 expression using targeted siRNA diminished their susceptibility to radiation. -- Abstract: Identification of reliable markers of radiosensitivity and the key molecules that enhance the susceptibility of esophageal cancer cells to anticancer treatments would be highly desirable. To identify molecules that confer radiosensitivity to esophageal squamous carcinoma cells, we assessed the radiosensitivities of the TE-5, TE-9 and TE-12 cloneA1 cell lines. TE-12 cloneA1 cells showed significantly greater susceptibility to radiotherapy at 5 and 10 Gy than either TE-5 or TE-9 cells. Consistent with that finding, 24 h after irradiation (5 Gy), TE-12 cloneA1 cells showed higher levels of caspase 3/7 activity than TE-5 or TE-9 cells. When we used DNA microarrays to compare the gene expression profiles of TE-5 and TE-12 cloneA1 cells, we found that the mRNA and protein expression of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP3) and Bcl-2-associated athanogene 1 (BAG1) was five or more times higher in TE-12 cloneA1 cells than TE-5 cells. Conversely, knocking down expression of IGFBP3 and BAG1 mRNA in TE-12 cloneA1 cells using small interfering RNA (siRNA) significantly reduced radiosensitivity. These data suggest that IGFBP3 and BAG1 may be key markers of radiosensitivity that enhance the susceptibility of squamous cell esophageal cancer to radiotherapy. IGFBP3 and BAG1 may thus be useful targets for improved and more individualized treatments for patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

  9. Dry Bag Isostatic Pressing for Improved Green Strength of Nuclear Fuel Pellets

    SciTech Connect

    G. W. Egeland; L. D. Zuck; W. R. Cannon; P. A. Lessing; P. G. Medvedev

    2010-11-01

    Dry bag isostatic pressing is proposed for mass production of nuclear fuel pellets. Dry bag isostatically pressed rods of a fuel surrogate (95% CeO2-5% HfO2) 200 mm long by 8 mm diameter were cut into pellets using a wire saw. Four different binder and two different CeO2 powder sources were investigated. The strength of the isostatically pressed pellets for all binder systems measured by diametral compression was about 50% higher than pellets produced by uniaxial dry pressing at the same pressure. It was proposed that the less uniform density of uniaxially pressed pellets accounted for the lower strength. The strength of pellets containing CeO2 powder with significantly higher moisture content was five times higher than pellets containing CeO2 powder with a low moisture content. Capillary pressure of the moisture was thought to supply the added binding strength.

  10. A Case of Purple Urine Bag Syndrome in a Spastic Partial Quadriplegic Male

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Salman; Dave, Atman; Morrison, Amelia Jane A; Jain, Swapna; Hermanns, David

    2016-01-01

    Purple bag urine syndrome (PUBS) is a benign and unique phenomenon of the urine turning a deep violet color within the urinary catheter tubing and bag. This phenomenon is commonly encountered in patients indicated with long-term catheter placement or, in certain conditions like chronic constipation, alkaline urine, limited ambulation, and, in terms of gender distribution, the female sex, predominates. PUBS gets its name from a unique phenomenon that takes places inside the gut where tryptophan (an amino acid) is metabolized, producing blue and red hues which together emanate a deep violet color. Here, the case of a middle-aged male patient with a suprapubic catheter in situ, following trauma causing spastic partial quadriplegia, is being presented with PUBS due to UTI secondary to Proteus vulgaris. The risk factors, in this case, include chronic constipation and recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs).​ PMID:27182466

  11. Soft tissue decomposition of submerged, dismembered pig limbs enclosed in plastic bags.

    PubMed

    Pakosh, Caitlin M; Rogers, Tracy L

    2009-11-01

    This study examines underwater soft tissue decomposition of dismembered pig limbs deposited in polyethylene plastic bags. The research evaluates the level of influence that disposal method has on underwater decomposition processes and details observations specific to this scenario. To our knowledge, no other study has yet investigated decomposing, dismembered, and enclosed remains in water environments. The total sample size consisted of 120 dismembered pig limbs, divided into a subsample of 30 pig limbs per recovery period (34 and 71 days) for each treatment. The two treatments simulated non-enclosed and plastic enclosed disposal methods in a water context. The remains were completely submerged in Lake Ontario for 34 and 71 days. In both recovery periods, the non-enclosed samples lost soft tissue to a significantly greater extent than their plastic enclosed counterparts. Disposal of remains in plastic bags therefore results in preservation, most likely caused by bacterial inhibition and reduced oxygen levels.

  12. Measurement of VOC permeability of polymer bags and VOC solubility in polyethylene drum liner

    SciTech Connect

    Liekhus, K.J.; Peterson, E.S.

    1995-03-01

    A test program conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) investigated the use of a transport model to estimate the volatile organic compound (VOC) concentration in the void volume of a waste drum. Unsteady-state VOC transport model equations account for VOC permeation of polymer bags, VOC diffusion across openings in layers of confinement, and VOC solubility in a polyethylene drum liner. In support of this program, the VOC permeability of polymer bags and VOC equilibrium concentration in a polyethylene drum liner were measured for nine VOCs. The VOCs used in experiments were dichloromethane, carbon tetrachloride, cyclohexane, toluene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, methanol, 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane (Freon-113), trichloroethylene, and p-xylene. The experimental results of these measurements as well as a method of estimating both parameters in the absence of experimental data are described in this report.

  13. Bilateral spontaneous anterior dislocation of intraocular lens with the capsular bag in a patient with pseudoexfoliation

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharjee, Harsha; Saxena, Rushil Kumar; Medhi, Jnanankar

    2015-01-01

    We report a rare case of bilateral spontaneous anterior partial in-the-bag intraocular lens (IOL) dislocation in a 75-year-old man with pseudoexfoliation (PXF). He underwent uneventful phacoemulsification in both eyes with in-the-bag IOL implantation 9 years back. In the right eye, single piece poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) IOL (+19 D) and in the left eye, single piece acrylic foldable IOL (+19 D) were implanted. An attempt at pharmacological IOL repositioning was unsuccessful. The dislocated IOLs were explanted and exchanged with scleral suture fixated PMMA IOLs. Vision improved to 20/30 in both eyes following surgery, without any associated ocular morbidity. We believe that zonular weakness secondary to PXF, capsular contraction, and myopia together were the predisposing factors for partial anterior dislocation of IOLs and IOL exchange with scleral suture fixation of IOL is a safe and effective treatment option. PMID:26655008

  14. Biomonitoring of atmospheric pollution by moss bags: Discriminating urban-rural structure in a fragmented landscape.

    PubMed

    Capozzi, F; Giordano, S; Di Palma, A; Spagnuolo, V; De Nicola, F; Adamo, P

    2016-04-01

    In this paper we investigated the possibility to use moss bags to detect pollution inputs - metals, metalloids and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) - in sites chosen for their different land use (agricultural, urban/residential scenarios) and proximity to roads (sub-scenarios), in a fragmented conurbation of Campania (southern Italy). We focused on thirty-nine elements including rare earths. For most of them, moss uptake was higher in agricultural than in urban scenarios and in front road sites. Twenty PAHs were analyzed in a subset of agricultural sites; 4- and 5-ringed PAHs were the most abundant, particularly chrysene, fluoranthene and pyrene. Overall results indicated that investigated pollutants have a similar spatial distribution pattern over the entire study area, with road traffic and agricultural practices as the major diffuse pollution sources. Moss bags proved a very sensitive tool, able to discriminate between different land use scenarios and proximity to roads in a mixed rural-urban landscape.

  15. Gyrokinetic-water-bag modeling of low-frequency instabilities in a laboratory magnetized plasma column

    SciTech Connect

    Gravier, E.; Klein, R.; Morel, P.; Besse, N.; Bertrand, P.

    2008-12-15

    A new model is presented, named collisional-gyro-water-bag (CGWB), which describes the collisional drift waves and ion-temperature-gradient (ITG) instabilities in a plasma column. This model is based on the kinetic gyro-water-bag approach recently developed [P. Morel et al., Phys. Plasmas 14, 112109 (2007)] to investigate ion-temperature-gradient modes. In CGWB electron-neutral collisions have been introduced and are now taken into account. The model has been validated by comparing CGWB linear analysis with other models previously proposed and experimental results as well. Kinetic effects on collisional drift waves are investigated, resulting in a less effective growth rate, and the transition from collisional drift waves to ITG instability depending on the ion temperature gradient is studied.

  16. Evaluation of anaerobic degradation, biogas and digestate production of cereal silages using nylon-bags.

    PubMed

    Negri, Marco; Bacenetti, Jacopo; Fiala, Marco; Bocchi, Stefano

    2016-06-01

    In this study, the degradation efficiency and the biogas and digestate production during anaerobic digestion were evaluated for the cereal silages most used to feed biogas plants. To this purpose, silages of: maize from the whole plant, maize from the ear, triticale and wheat were digested, inside of nylon bags, in laboratory scale digesters, for 75days. Overall, the test involved 288 nylon bags. After 75days of digestion, the maize ear silage shows the highest degradation efficiency (about 98%) while wheat silage the lowest (about 83%). The biogas production ranges from 438 to 852Nm(3)/t of dry matter for wheat and ear maize silage, respectively. For all the cereal silages, the degradation as well as the biogas production are faster at the beginning of the digestion time. Digestate mass, expressed as percentage of the fresh matter, ranges from 38% to 84% for wheat and maize ear silage, respectively. PMID:26946439

  17. A Case of Purple Urine Bag Syndrome in a Spastic Partial Quadriplegic Male.

    PubMed

    Tul Llah, Sibghat; Khan, Salman; Dave, Atman; Morrison, Amelia Jane A; Jain, Swapna; Hermanns, David

    2016-01-01

    Purple bag urine syndrome (PUBS) is a benign and unique phenomenon of the urine turning a deep violet color within the urinary catheter tubing and bag. This phenomenon is commonly encountered in patients indicated with long-term catheter placement or, in certain conditions like chronic constipation, alkaline urine, limited ambulation, and, in terms of gender distribution, the female sex, predominates. PUBS gets its name from a unique phenomenon that takes places inside the gut where tryptophan (an amino acid) is metabolized, producing blue and red hues which together emanate a deep violet color. Here, the case of a middle-aged male patient with a suprapubic catheter in situ, following trauma causing spastic partial quadriplegia, is being presented with PUBS due to UTI secondary to Proteus vulgaris. The risk factors, in this case, include chronic constipation and recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs).​. PMID:27182466

  18. Biomonitoring of atmospheric pollution by moss bags: Discriminating urban-rural structure in a fragmented landscape.

    PubMed

    Capozzi, F; Giordano, S; Di Palma, A; Spagnuolo, V; De Nicola, F; Adamo, P

    2016-04-01

    In this paper we investigated the possibility to use moss bags to detect pollution inputs - metals, metalloids and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) - in sites chosen for their different land use (agricultural, urban/residential scenarios) and proximity to roads (sub-scenarios), in a fragmented conurbation of Campania (southern Italy). We focused on thirty-nine elements including rare earths. For most of them, moss uptake was higher in agricultural than in urban scenarios and in front road sites. Twenty PAHs were analyzed in a subset of agricultural sites; 4- and 5-ringed PAHs were the most abundant, particularly chrysene, fluoranthene and pyrene. Overall results indicated that investigated pollutants have a similar spatial distribution pattern over the entire study area, with road traffic and agricultural practices as the major diffuse pollution sources. Moss bags proved a very sensitive tool, able to discriminate between different land use scenarios and proximity to roads in a mixed rural-urban landscape. PMID:26855226

  19. View of special 'gift bag' of exchange items to be carried during ASTP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A close-up view of the special 'gift bag' in which several exchange/gift items will be carried aboard the Apollo Command Module during the joint U.S.-U.S.S.R. Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) mission. Some of these items are seen here alongside the bag. They are the sectionized ASTP Commemorative Plaque, ten 8X12 inch American flags, 8.07X16.14 inch (205mm x 410mm) Soviet Union flag, a special box of white spruce tree seeds, and the ASTP Certification to authorize the ASTP docking. The gifts will be presented and the exchange made while the Apollo and Soyuz spacecraft are docked in Earth orbit.

  20. Rapid identification of phthalates in blood bags and food packaging using ToF-SIMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ching Yuan; Ghule, Anil Vithal; Chen, Wen Yin; Wang, Chiung Chi; Chiang, Yi Shin; Ling, Yong Chien

    2004-06-01

    ToF-SIMS with Ga + ion as primary source is used to analyze plasticizers like bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) from the inner surface of the blood bags and their migration into the blood. Food packing materials were also analyzed for the presence of DEHP. The simplicity of using ToF-SIMS with high mass resolution as an aid in the identification and analysis are discussed. The ToF-SIMS results, the fragmentation pattern, and the ratio of ions were comparable to those obtained from traditional GC-MS analysis. This indicates that ToF-SIMS could be a promising technique for direct detection of DEHP (and phthalates in general) in blood bags and food packaging polymeric materials.

  1. Mechanisms for in-the-bag uveitis-glaucoma-hyphema syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Linda; Hood, Christopher T; Vrabec, Joshua P; Cullen, Alexis L; Parrish, Elizabeth A; Moroi, Sayoko E

    2014-03-01

    We propose 2 mechanisms of uveitis-glaucoma-hyphema (UGH) syndrome in 2 patients with intracapsular or in-the-bag single-piece acrylic intraocular lenses (IOLs). In the first case, pseudophacodonesis secondary to zonular laxity from pseudoexfoliation syndrome caused chafing of the posterior iris by the square-edged haptic. In the second case, focal capsular fibrosis around the square-edged haptics combined with anteriorly rotated ciliary processes in plateau iris configuration caused points of chafing. Extensive capsular fibrosis of the haptic in both cases precluded IOL exchange. In the first case, a capsular tension ring redistributed zonular tension and reduced symptoms. In the second case, endoscopic cyclophotocoagulation relieved areas of chafing and resolved symptoms. In-the-bag square-edged haptics of single-piece acrylic IOLs are a potential source of iridociliary chafing in certain situations. The mechanisms observed here should be considered to promptly diagnose and treat UGH. PMID:24417893

  2. Abiotic and Biotic Degradation of Oxo-Biodegradable Plastic Bags by Pleurotus ostreatus

    PubMed Central

    da Luz, José Maria Rodrigues; Paes, Sirlaine Albino; Bazzolli, Denise Mara Soares; Tótola, Marcos Rogério; Demuner, Antônio Jacinto; Kasuya, Maria Catarina Megumi

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the growth of Pleurotus ostreatus PLO6 using oxo-biodegradable plastics as a carbon and energy source. Oxo-biodegradable polymers contain pro-oxidants that accelerate their physical and biological degradation. These polymers were developed to decrease the accumulation of plastic waste in landfills. To study the degradation of the plastic polymers, oxo-biodegradable plastic bags were exposed to sunlight for up to 120 days, and fragments of these bags were used as substrates for P. ostreatus. We observed that physical treatment alone was not sufficient to initiate degradation. Instead, mechanical modifications and reduced titanium oxide (TiO2) concentrations caused by sunlight exposure triggered microbial degradation. The low specificity of lignocellulolytic enzymes and presence of endomycotic nitrogen-fixing microorganisms were also contributing factors in this process. PMID:25419675

  3. Abiotic and biotic degradation of oxo-biodegradable plastic bags by Pleurotus ostreatus.

    PubMed

    da Luz, José Maria Rodrigues; Paes, Sirlaine Albino; Bazzolli, Denise Mara Soares; Tótola, Marcos Rogério; Demuner, Antônio Jacinto; Kasuya, Maria Catarina Megumi

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the growth of Pleurotus ostreatus PLO6 using oxo-biodegradable plastics as a carbon and energy source. Oxo-biodegradable polymers contain pro-oxidants that accelerate their physical and biological degradation. These polymers were developed to decrease the accumulation of plastic waste in landfills. To study the degradation of the plastic polymers, oxo-biodegradable plastic bags were exposed to sunlight for up to 120 days, and fragments of these bags were used as substrates for P. ostreatus. We observed that physical treatment alone was not sufficient to initiate degradation. Instead, mechanical modifications and reduced titanium oxide (TiO2) concentrations caused by sunlight exposure triggered microbial degradation. The low specificity of lignocellulolytic enzymes and presence of endomycotic nitrogen-fixing microorganisms were also contributing factors in this process.

  4. Influence of colorant and film thickness on thermal aging characteristics of oxo-biodegradable plastic bags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leuterio, Giselle Lou D.; Pajarito, Bryan B.; Domingo, Carla Marie C.; Lim, Anna Patricia G.

    2016-05-01

    Functional, lightweight, strong and cheap plastic bags incorporated with pro-oxidants undergo accelerated degradation under exposure to heat and oxygen. This work investigated the effect of colorant and film thickness on thermal aging characteristics of commercial oxo-biodegradable plastic bag films at 70 °C. Degradation is monitored through changes in infrared absorption, weight, and tensile properties of thermally aged films. The presence of carbonyl band in infrared spectrum after 672 h of thermal aging supports the degradation behavior of exposed films. Results show that incorporation of colorant and increasing thickness exhibit low maximum weight uptake. Titanium dioxide as white colorant in films lowers the susceptibility of films to oxygen uptake but enhances physical degradation. Higher amount of pro-oxidant loading also contributes to faster degradation. Opaque films are characterized by low tensile strength and high elastic modulus. Decreasing the thickness contributes to lower tensile strength of films. Thermally aged films with colorant and low thickness promote enhanced degradation.

  5. The triple procedure: in the bag placement versus ciliary sulcus placement of the intraocular lens

    PubMed Central

    Borderie, V.; Touzeau, O.; Bourcier, T.; Carvajal-Gonzalez, S.; Laroche, L.

    1999-01-01

    AIMS—To evaluate the influence of intraocular lens (IOL) placement on triple procedure clinical results and to investigate whether it is appropriate to use phacoemulsification in patients with large lens nucleus.
METHODS—40 consecutive penetrating keratoplasties combined with cataract extraction performed in a single institution were studied. Whenever possible a capsulorhexis was performed and the IOL was placed into the capsular bag. Phacoemulsification was used when the nucleus was too large to pass through the capsulorhexis.
RESULTS—Out of 25 patients with an intact capsulorhexis phacoemulsification was used in 13 (52.0%) whereas the entire nucleus passed through the capsulorhexis in the remaining 12 patients (48%). The average 12 month visual acuity was 0.46 (SD 0.21) in patients with in the bag IOL (n = 23) and 0.29 (0.08) in patients with ciliary sulcus IOL (n = 13) (p = 0.04). Elevated intraocular pressure occurred in 26.1% (6/23) of patients with in the bag IOL and 61.5% (8/13) of patients with ciliary sulcus IOL (p = 0.08). The average postoperative graft thickness at 18 months was 552 (27) µm in the former group and 650 (29) µm in the latter group (p = 0.04). No significant difference in graft survival, postoperative endothelial cell density, astigmatism, and videokeratoscopic measurements was found between both groups.
CONCLUSION—In the bag placement of the intraocular lens during the triple procedure results in better outcome of transplantation than ciliary sulcus placement of the IOL. Phacoemulsification allows removal of large nuclei through a 5 mm capsulorhexis without performing relaxing incisions out towards the periphery of the capsule.

 Keywords: corneal transplantation; graft survival; intraocular lens; triple procedure; visual acuity PMID:10434870

  6. Musculoskeletal pain and school bag use: a cross-sectional study among Ugandan pupils

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Though seen as a convenient method of carrying books and other scholastic materials including food items, schoolbags are believed to contribute to back and other musculoskeletal problems in school going children. This study set out to determine the prevalence of low back and other musculoskeletal pains and describe their relationship with schoolbag use in pupils. Results This was a cross-sectional descriptive study involving 532 pupils from six primary schools with a mean age of 13.6 years. Analyses included the chi- square test, independent t tests, regression analysis and test for trend across ordered groups. Backpacks were the most common type of schoolbag and younger children carried disproportionately heavier bags. Urban pupils were younger, carried significantly heavier bags, and less likely to complain about schoolbag weight than the rural pupils, About 30.8% of the pupils carried schoolbags which were more than 10% of their body weight. About 88.2% of pupils reported having body pain especially in the neck, shoulders and upper back. About 35.4% of the children reported that carrying the schoolbag was the cause of their musculoskeletal pain. The prevalence of lower back pain was 37.8%. There was significant association between low back pain and; method of bag carriage (p < 0.0001), long duration of walking (odds ratio 2.67, 95% CI 1.38- 5.16) and the time spent sitting after school (p = 0.02). Only 19% had lockers at school. Conclusion Urban pupils were younger, carried significantly heavier bags, and less likely to complain about schoolbag weight than the rural pupils. The majority of pupils complained of musculoskeletal pain of which 35.4% was attributed to the schoolbags. The prevalence of lower back pain was 37.8%. Schools need to provide lockers and functional libraries in order to avoid excessive loading and repetitive strain injuries. PMID:24713177

  7. Biomedical literature classification using encyclopedic knowledge: a Wikipedia-based bag-of-concepts approach

    PubMed Central

    Pérez Rodríguez, Roberto; Anido Rifón, Luis E.

    2015-01-01

    Automatic classification of text documents into a set of categories has a lot of applications. Among those applications, the automatic classification of biomedical literature stands out as an important application for automatic document classification strategies. Biomedical staff and researchers have to deal with a lot of literature in their daily activities, so it would be useful a system that allows for accessing to documents of interest in a simple and effective way; thus, it is necessary that these documents are sorted based on some criteria—that is to say, they have to be classified. Documents to classify are usually represented following the bag-of-words (BoW) paradigm. Features are words in the text—thus suffering from synonymy and polysemy—and their weights are just based on their frequency of occurrence. This paper presents an empirical study of the efficiency of a classifier that leverages encyclopedic background knowledge—concretely Wikipedia—in order to create bag-of-concepts (BoC) representations of documents, understanding concept as “unit of meaning”, and thus tackling synonymy and polysemy. Besides, the weighting of concepts is based on their semantic relevance in the text. For the evaluation of the proposal, empirical experiments have been conducted with one of the commonly used corpora for evaluating classification and retrieval of biomedical information, OHSUMED, and also with a purpose-built corpus of MEDLINE biomedical abstracts, UVigoMED. Results obtained show that the Wikipedia-based bag-of-concepts representation outperforms the classical bag-of-words representation up to 157% in the single-label classification problem and up to 100% in the multi-label problem for OHSUMED corpus, and up to 122% in the single-label classification problem and up to 155% in the multi-label problem for UVigoMED corpus. PMID:26468436

  8. Hamiltonian fluid reductions of drift-kinetic equations and the link with water-bags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perin, M.; Chandre, C.; Tassi, E.

    2016-07-01

    Hamiltonian models for the first three moments of the drift-kinetic distribution function, namely the density, the fluid velocity and the parallel pressure, are derived from the Hamiltonian structure of the drift-kinetic equations. The link with the water-bag closure is established, showing that, unlike the one-dimensional Vlasov equations, these solutions are the only Hamiltonian fluid reductions for the drift-kinetic equation. These models are discussed through their equations of motion and their Casimir invariants.

  9. Fertilizer use by class: Bag, bulk, fluid. US fertilizer consumption by class

    SciTech Connect

    Hargett, N.L.; Berry, J.T.; McKinney, S.L.

    1989-12-31

    US fertilizer consumption (excluding natural organic, secondary, and micronutrient materials) increased slightly from 42.7 million tons in 1987--1988 to 42.8 million tons in 1988--1989-a gain of less than one percent. In 1988--1989, dry bulk materials represented 52.1 percent of total consumption, fluid fertilizers accounted for 38.9 percent, and bagged materials the remaining 9.0 percent. Both dry and fluid fertilizers increased in tonnage over last year but market shares of each remained essentially the same. Bagged fertilizer continued to drop in tonnage as well as in market share. Fluid fertilizer use (including anhydrous ammonia) exceeded 16.6 million tons. Solid materials accounted for 26.2 million tons. TVA estimates that total dry bulk fertilizer distribution was 22.3 million tons, representing 85 percent of all solid materials. Estimated fertilizer sales of bagged products was 3.9 million tons compared to 4.1 million tons in 1987--1988. Multiple-nutrient fertilizer consumption was 17.5 million tons in 1988--1989. Class distribution of these materials was 60.1 percent dry bulk form, 22.4 percent fluid, and 17.5 percent bagged. Fluid multiple-nutrient materials consumption remained about the same as for 1987--1988 but increased in total market share from 9.1 percent to 9.2 percent. This report is compiled annually from individual State fertilizer tonnage reports. Forty States provided complete breakdown by class in 1988-1989. Only numerical data is included.

  10. Bag6/Bat3/Scythe: a novel chaperone activity with diverse regulatory functions in protein biogenesis and degradation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin-Gu; Ye, Yihong

    2013-04-01

    Upon emerging from the ribosome exiting tunnel, polypeptide folding occurs immediately with the assistance of both ribosome-associated and free chaperones. While many chaperones known to date are dedicated folding catalysts, recent studies have revealed a novel chaperoning system that functions at the interface of protein biogenesis and quality control by using a special "holdase" activity in order to sort and channel client proteins to distinct destinations. The key component, Bag6/Bat3/Scythe, can effectively shield long hydrophobic segments exposed on the surface of a polypeptide, preventing aggregation or inappropriate interactions before a triaging decision is made. The biological consequences of Bag6-mediated chaperoning are divergent for different substrates, ranging from membrane integration to proteasome targeting and destruction. Accordingly, Bag6 can act in various cellular contexts in order to execute many essential cellular functions, while dysfunctions in the Bag6 system can cause severe cellular abnormalities that may be associated with some pathological conditions. PMID:23417671

  11. Hamiltonian fluid closures of the Vlasov-Ampère equations: From water-bags to N moment models

    SciTech Connect

    Perin, M.; Chandre, C.; Tassi, E.; Morrison, P. J.

    2015-09-15

    Moment closures of the Vlasov-Ampère system, whereby higher moments are represented as functions of lower moments with the constraint that the resulting fluid system remains Hamiltonian, are investigated by using water-bag theory. The link between the water-bag formalism and fluid models that involve density, fluid velocity, pressure and higher moments is established by introducing suitable thermodynamic variables. The cases of one, two, and three water-bags are treated and their Hamiltonian structures are provided. In each case, we give the associated fluid closures and we discuss their Casimir invariants. We show how the method can be extended to an arbitrary number of fields, i.e., an arbitrary number of water-bags and associated moments. The thermodynamic interpretation of the resulting models is discussed. Finally, a general procedure to derive Hamiltonian N-field fluid models is proposed.

  12. Suitability of Tedlar gas sampling bags for siloxane quantification in landfill gas.

    PubMed

    Ajhar, M; Wens, B; Stollenwerk, K H; Spalding, G; Yüce, S; Melin, T

    2010-06-30

    Landfill or digester gas can contain man-made volatile methylsiloxanes (VMS), usually in the range of a few milligrams per normal cubic metre (Nm(3)). Until now, no standard method for siloxane quantification exists and there is controversy with respect to which sampling procedure is most suitable. This paper presents an analytical and a sampling procedure for the quantification of common VMS in biogas via GC-MS and polyvinyl fluoride (Tedlar) bags. Two commercially available Tedlar bag models are studied. One is equipped with a polypropylene valve with integrated septum, the other with a dual port fitting made from stainless steel. Siloxane recovery in landfill gas samples is investigated as a function of storage time, temperature, surface-to-volume ratio and background gas. Recovery was found to depend on the type of fitting employed. The siloxanes sampled in the bag with the polypropylene valve show high and stable recovery, even after more than 30 days. Sufficiently low detection limits below 10 microg Nm(-3) and good reproducibility can be achieved. The method is therefore well applicable to biogas, greatly facilitating sampling in comparison with other common techniques involving siloxane enrichment using sorption media.

  13. How the design of a sleeping bag can support counter-measuring fatigue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imhof, Barbara; Hoheneder, Waltraut; Vogel, Kaspar; Drudi, Laura

    2013-10-01

    The paper discusses six case studies of sleeping bag design, one used by astronauts onboard the Space Shuttle and another currently being used on the ISS, which was developed by a Russian company. Two inflatable designs, one by Wubbo Ockels for ESA and one by the University of Technology in Munich in cooperation with NASA are chosen as case studies as well. Two recent designs set a new paradigm and option of sleeping in zero-g. The cut of the sleeping bag of these two design case studies allows the person to relax and sleep in the neutral body position. They were developed by Toshiroh Ikegami from Kyoto City University of Arts and astronaut Chiaki Mukai for JAXA, and by the Vienna based team LIQUIFER Systems Group in cooperation with ESA-astronaut Gerhard Thiele. Currently there is an increased interest in astronauts' and cosmonauts' sleep quality and related comfort because analysis of their sleep quality showed that sleep during long exposure to microgravity does not always ensure good recovery of cognitive and functional capabilities. Present research in the area of sleep and performance preservation include studies by the Institute of Biomedical Problems (IBMP) in Moscow and the NASA-JSC study from the Behavioral Health and Performance Element Human Research Program about improving sleep quality on ISS. In the context of the paper the operational medical challenges of sleep quality will be described in order to establish the relevance of effective sleeping bag designs to support spaceflight crewmembers' well-being.

  14. Comparison of filter bag, cyclonic, and wet dust collection methods in vacuum cleaners.

    PubMed

    Trakumas, S; Willeke, K; Reponen, T; Grinshpun, S A; Friedman, W

    2001-01-01

    In this study, methods were developed for comparative evaluation of three primary dust collection methods employed in vacuum cleaners: filter bag, cyclonic, and wet primary dust collection. The dry collectors were evaluated with KCl test aerosols that are commonly used in filter testing. However, these aerosols cannot be used for evaluating wet collectors due to their hygroscopicity. Therefore, the wet collectors were evaluated with nonhygroscopic test particles. Both types of test aerosol indicated similar collection efficiencies in tests with dry collectors. The data show that high initial collection efficiency can be achieved by any one of the three dust collection methods: up to 50% for 0.35 microm particles, and close to 100% for 1.0 microm and larger particles. The degree of dependence of the initial collection efficiency on airflow rate was strongly related to the type and manufacturing of the primary dust collector. Collection efficiency decreased most with decreasing flow rate for the tested wet collectors. The tested cyclonic and wet collectors showed high reentrainment of already collected dust particles. After the filter bag collectors had been loaded with test dust, they also reemitted particles. The degree of reentrainment from filter bags depends on the particulate load and the type of filter material used. Thus, the overall particle emissions performance of a vacuum cleaner depends not only on the dust collection efficiency of the primary collector and other filtration elements employed, but also on the degree of reentrainment of already collected particles.

  15. Design of the Brine Evaporation Bag for Increased Water Recovery in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayden, Anna L.; Delzeit, Lance D.

    2015-01-01

    The existing water recovery system on the International Space Station (ISS) is limited to 75% reclamation; consequently, long duration space missions are currently unfeasible due to the large quantity of water necessary to sustain the crew. The Brine Evaporation Bag (BEB) is a proposed system to supplement the existing water recovery system aboard the ISS that can to increase water recovery to 99%. The largest barrier to high water recovery is mineral scaling inside the water recovery equipment, which leads to equipment failure; therefore, some water must remain to keep the minerals dissolved. This waste stream is liquid brine containing salts, acids, organics, and water. The BEB is designed to recover this remaining water while protecting the equipment from scale. The BEB consists of a sealed bag containing a hydrophobic membrane that allows water vapor and gas to pass through. It is operated under vacuum, heated, and continuously filled with brine to boil away the water. The water vapor is recovered and the solids are contained inside the bag for disposal. The BEB can dry the brine to a solid block. Ongoing work includes improving the design of the BEB and the evaporator to prevent leaks, maximize the rate of water removal, and minimize energy use and weight. Additional testing will determine whether designs are heat- or mass-transfer limited and the optimal water recovery rate.

  16. Implementation of a capsular bag model to enable sufficient lens stabilization within a mechanical eye model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayer, Natascha; Rank, Elisabet; Traxler, Lukas; Beckert, Erik; Drauschke, Andreas

    2015-03-01

    Cataract still remains the leading cause of blindness affecting 20 million people worldwide. To restore the patients vision the natural lens is removed and replaced by an intraocular lens (IOL). In modern cataract surgery the posterior capsular bag is maintained to prevent inflammation and to enable stabilization of the implant. Refractive changes following cataract surgery are attributable to lens misalignments occurring due to postoperative shifts and tilts of the artificial lens. Mechanical eye models allow a preoperative investigation of the impact of such misalignments and are crucial to improve the quality of the patients' sense of sight. Furthermore, the success of sophisticated IOLs that correct high order aberrations is depending on a critical evaluation of the lens position. A new type of an IOL holder is designed and implemented into a preexisting mechanical eye model. A physiological representation of the capsular bag is realized with an integrated film element to guarantee lens stabilization and centering. The positioning sensitivity of the IOL is evaluated by performing shifts and tilts in reference to the optical axis. The modulation transfer function is used to measure the optical quality at each position. Lens stability tests within the holder itself are performed by determining the modulation transfer function before and after measurement sequence. Mechanical stability and reproducible measurement results are guaranteed with the novel capsular bag model that allows a precise interpretation of postoperative lens misalignments. The integrated film element offers additional stabilization during measurement routine without damaging the haptics or deteriorating the optical performance.

  17. Impacts of discarded plastic bags on marine assemblages and ecosystem functioning.

    PubMed

    Green, Dannielle Senga; Boots, Bas; Blockley, David James; Rocha, Carlos; Thompson, Richard

    2015-05-01

    The accumulation of plastic debris is a global environmental problem due to its durability, persistence, and abundance. Although effects of plastic debris on individual marine organisms, particularly mammals and birds, have been extensively documented (e.g., entanglement and choking), very little is known about effects on assemblages and consequences for ecosystem functioning. In Europe, around 40% of the plastic items produced are utilized as single-use packaging, which rapidly accumulate in waste management facilities and as litter in the environment. A range of biodegradable plastics have been developed with the aspiration of reducing the persistence of litter; however, their impacts on marine assemblages or ecosystem functioning have never been evaluated. A field experiment was conducted to assess the impact of conventional and biodegradable plastic carrier bags as litter on benthic macro- and meio-faunal assemblages and biogeochemical processes (primary productivity, redox condition, organic matter content, and pore-water nutrients) on an intertidal shore near Dublin, Ireland. After 9 weeks, the presence of either type of bag created anoxic conditions within the sediment along with reduced primary productivity and organic matter and significantly lower abundances of infaunal invertebrates. This indicates that both conventional and biodegradable bags can rapidly alter marine assemblages and the ecosystem services they provide. PMID:25822754

  18. Synchrony in hunting bags: reaction on climatic and human induced changes?

    PubMed

    Hagen, Robert; Heurich, Marco; Kröschel, Max; Herdtfelder, Micha

    2014-01-15

    Human induced land use changes negatively impact the viability of many wildlife species through habitat modifications and mortality, while some species seem to benefit from it. Roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), a wide spread ungulate increased both its abundance and range throughout Europe. This pattern is also reflected in the increasing hunting bags over the last 40 years. Such a development raises questions about the relationship between human hunting and population dynamics and, in particular, about the potential of human hunting to control related populations. We analysed and reconstructed annual hunting bags of roe deer for three federal states of northern Germany, Brandenburg, Lower Saxony and Mecklenburg West Pomerania for the years 1972 to 2011. Since 1992 the hunting bags from these three states are significantly higher than those reported for the years 1972-1991. Our reconstruction takes into consideration effects of climate variability, expressed by inter-annual changes in the North Atlantic Oscillation and impacts from rapeseed and wheat cultivation. We found that severe winters, which are indicated by negative values of the North Atlantic Oscillation during the months December-March, directly, or with a time lag of two years affect the number of deer shot. In contrast, an increase in the area used for rapeseed cultivation coincides with higher numbers of roe deer shot, with respect to the overall mean value. Consequently, we recommend that wildlife management addresses changes in large scale processes including land use pattern and climate variability. PMID:24008076

  19. Modeling and Simulation of the Second-Generation Orion Crew Module Air Bag Landing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timmers, Richard B.; Hardy, Robin C.; Willey, Cliff E.; Welch, Joseph V.

    2009-01-01

    Air bags were evaluated as the landing attenuation system for earth landing of the Orion Crew Module (CM). Analysis conducted to date shows that airbags are capable of providing a graceful landing of the CM in nominal and off-nominal conditions such as parachute failure, high horizontal winds, and unfavorable vehicle/ground angle combinations, while meeting crew and vehicle safety requirements. The analyses and associated testing presented here surround a second generation of the airbag design developed by ILC Dover, building off of relevant first-generation design, analysis, and testing efforts. In order to fully evaluate the second generation air bag design and correlate the dynamic simulations, a series of drop tests were carried out at NASA Langley s Landing and Impact Research (LandIR) facility in Hampton, Virginia. The tests consisted of a full-scale set of air bags attached to a full-scale test article representing the Orion Crew Module. The techniques used to collect experimental data, develop the simulations, and make comparisons to experimental data are discussed.

  20. Impacts of discarded plastic bags on marine assemblages and ecosystem functioning.

    PubMed

    Green, Dannielle Senga; Boots, Bas; Blockley, David James; Rocha, Carlos; Thompson, Richard

    2015-05-01

    The accumulation of plastic debris is a global environmental problem due to its durability, persistence, and abundance. Although effects of plastic debris on individual marine organisms, particularly mammals and birds, have been extensively documented (e.g., entanglement and choking), very little is known about effects on assemblages and consequences for ecosystem functioning. In Europe, around 40% of the plastic items produced are utilized as single-use packaging, which rapidly accumulate in waste management facilities and as litter in the environment. A range of biodegradable plastics have been developed with the aspiration of reducing the persistence of litter; however, their impacts on marine assemblages or ecosystem functioning have never been evaluated. A field experiment was conducted to assess the impact of conventional and biodegradable plastic carrier bags as litter on benthic macro- and meio-faunal assemblages and biogeochemical processes (primary productivity, redox condition, organic matter content, and pore-water nutrients) on an intertidal shore near Dublin, Ireland. After 9 weeks, the presence of either type of bag created anoxic conditions within the sediment along with reduced primary productivity and organic matter and significantly lower abundances of infaunal invertebrates. This indicates that both conventional and biodegradable bags can rapidly alter marine assemblages and the ecosystem services they provide.

  1. Moss bag biomonitoring of airborne toxic element decrease on a small scale: A street study in Belgrade, Serbia.

    PubMed

    Vuković, Gordana; Aničić Urošević, Mira; Škrivanj, Sandra; Milićević, Tijana; Dimitrijević, Dragoljub; Tomašević, Milica; Popović, Aleksandar

    2016-01-15

    A database of potentially hazardous substances, necessary for estimating the exposure of humans to air pollutants, may be deficient because of a limited number of regulatory monitoring stations. This study was inspired by undeniably harmful effects of human long-term exposure to intense traffic emissions in urban area. Moss bag biomonitors were used to characterize spatial variation of airborne toxic elements near crossroads and two- and one-lane streets. The Sphagnum girgensohnii and Hypnum cupressiforme moss bags were exposed for 10 weeks to 48 sampling sites across Belgrade (Serbia) during the summer of 2014. In addition, oven-drying pretreatment of the moss bags was tested. During the experimental period, traffic flows were estimated at each site by counting the number of vehicles during the rush hours. The concentrations of 39 elements were determined in the moss samples. There was no significant difference between the results obtained for nontreated and oven-dried moss bags. For the majority of elements, the moss bags identified a common pattern of decrease in the concentration from crossroads to two- and one-lane streets. The exposed moss bags were enriched with Sb, Cu and Cr. The correlation coefficients (r=0.65-0.70) between the moss concentrations of Cr, Cu, Fe and Sb and the site-counted traffic flows also confirmed a dependence of the airborne element content on traffic emissions. A strong correlation with traffic flows makes Sb, Cu and Cr reliable traffic tracers. PMID:26520264

  2. An investigation of suitable bag materials for the collection and storage of breath samples containing hydrogen cyanide.

    PubMed

    Gilchrist, Francis J; Razavi, Cyrus; Webb, A Kevin; Jones, Andrew M; Spaněl, Patrik; Smith, David; Lenney, Warren

    2012-09-01

    The SPACE study will assess exhaled breath hydrogen cyanide (HCN) concentrations as a marker of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) infection in 240 children with cystic fibrosis (CF). It will use off-line selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS) analysis and so we needed to investigate which breath sampling bag material to use, the maximum storage time before analysis and the benefit of warming the bag samples. We studied 15 children with CF, 8 had chronic PA infection and 7 did not. Each exhaled directly into the instrument (on-line) and also into two 25 µm thick Nalophan (25N), two 70 µm Nalophan (70N) and two Tedlar® bags. Bags were stored at 20 or 37 °C. HCN concentrations were analysed at 1, 6, 24 and 48 h (off-line). Acetone and water vapour concentrations were also measured in parallel. Correlation between on-line and off-line concentrations measured by SIFT-MS was better for all compounds and bag types at 37 °C. The median (IQR) on-line HCN concentration was 8.9(4.4-13.7) parts per billion by volume, ppbv. Both on-line and off-line HCN concentrations were significantly higher in patients with PA infection than those without. At 37 °C the correlation between on-line and off-line HCN concentrations was good up to 6 h in the 25N bag (R(2) = 0.79) and up to 24 h for the 70N and Tedlar bags (R(2) = 0.82 and 0.86). The correlation between on- and off-line acetone concentrations at 37 °C was good up to 24 h in 25N, 70N and Tedlar bags (R(2) = 0.89, 0.93 and 0.97). In all three types of bag the water vapour concentration fell quickly and by 24 h was equivalent to that of lab air. Samples stored in Tedlar or 70N bags, warmed to 37 °C and analysed within 24 h, give HCN and acetone concentrations which correlate well with on-line measurements.

  3. NIK is required for NF-κB-mediated induction of BAG3 upon inhibition of constitutive protein degradation pathways.

    PubMed

    Rapino, F; Abhari, B A; Jung, M; Fulda, S

    2015-01-01

    Recently, we reported that induction of the co-chaperone Bcl-2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) is critical for recovery of rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) cells after proteotoxic stress upon inhibition of the two constitutive protein degradation pathways, that is, the ubiquitin-proteasome system by Bortezomib and the aggresome-autophagy system by histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) inhibitor ST80. In the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms mediating BAG3 induction under these conditions. Here, we identify nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB)-inducing kinase (NIK) as a key mediator of ST80/Bortezomib-stimulated NF-κB activation and transcriptional upregulation of BAG3. ST80/Bortezomib cotreatment upregulates mRNA and protein expression of NIK, which is accompanied by an initial increase in histone H3 acetylation. Importantly, NIK silencing by siRNA abolishes NF-κB activation and BAG3 induction by ST80/Bortezomib. Furthermore, ST80/Bortezomib cotreatment stimulates NF-κB transcriptional activity and upregulates NF-κB target genes. Genetic inhibition of NF-κB by overexpression of dominant-negative IκBα superrepressor (IκBα-SR) or by knockdown of p65 blocks the ST80/Bortezomib-stimulated upregulation of BAG3 mRNA and protein expression. Interestingly, inhibition of lysosomal activity by Bafilomycin A1 inhibits ST80/Bortezomib-stimulated IκBα degradation, NF-κB activation and BAG3 upregulation, indicating that IκBα is degraded via the lysosome in the presence of Bortezomib. Thus, by demonstrating a critical role of NIK in mediating NF-κB activation and BAG3 induction upon ST80/Bortezomib cotreatment, our study provides novel insights into mechanisms of resistance to proteotoxic stress in RMS. PMID:25766331

  4. Grab Bag

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article presents brief items of interest to counselors and students. It presents a preview of internships and how to build careers for veterans. It also features the Public Service Loan Forgiveness program which helps an individual to repay federal student loans with public service. Lastly, it presents data from the most recent survey for the…

  5. Grab Bag

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article presents brief items of interest to counselors and students. It introduces the National Student Exchange program that enables students in nearly 200 participating schools to attend classes on another campus in the United States for a semester or a year. It also describes the launching of social network jobs partnership by the U.S.…

  6. [Analysis of phthalates in plastic food-packaging bags by thin layer chromatography].

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui; Wang, Yuan; Zhu, Ruohua

    2006-01-01

    The method for simultaneous determination of four phthalates, namely dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in plastic food-packaging bags by thin layer chromatography (TLC) was developed. The plastic food-packaging bags were extracted with ethanol by ultrasonication, then the mixture was filtrated through membrane (0.45 microm). The mixture of ethyl acetate-anhydrous ether-isooctane (1 : 4 : 15, v/v) was used as developing agent on the TLC silica gel plate for development. The filtered liquid was spotted on the TLC plate dealt by acetone, and detected with scanning wavelength of 275 nm and reference wavelength of 340 nm. The qualitative analysis of the phthalates was performed using the R(f) values of the chromatogram. The quantitative analysis was performed with external standard method. Good linearities were obtained for DMP, DEP, DBP and DEHP. The detection limits were 2.1 ng for DMP, 2.4 ng for DEP, 3.4 ng for DBP and 4.0 ng for DEHP. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of the four phthalates were 2.8% - 3.5%. The recoveries of the four phthalate standards in real sample were 78.58% - 111.04%. The method presented has the advantages of high precision, high sensitivity, small sample size, and simple pretreatment . The method was used to detect the four phthalates in the food-packaging bags. The contents in real samples were close to the results by gas chromatography.

  7. Stability of Glutamate-Aspartate Cardioplegia Additive Solution in Polyolefin IV Bags

    PubMed Central

    Rush, Steven D.; Kim, Stephanie E.; Hughes, Susan E.; Gilbert, Justine M.; Ciancaglini, Peter P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Glutamate-aspartate cardioplegia additive solution (GACAS) is used to enhance myocardial preservation and left ventricular function during some cardiac surgeries. This study was designed to evaluate the stability of compounded GACAS stored in sterile polyolefin intravenous (IV) bags. The goal is to extend the default USP beyond-use date (BUD) and reduce unnecessary inventory waste. Methods: GACAS was compounded and packaged in sterile polyolefin 250 mL IV bags. The concentration was 232 mM for each amino acid. The samples were stored under refrigeration (2°C-8°C) and analyzed at 0, 1, and 2 months. At each time point, the samples were evaluated by pH measurement and visual inspection for color, clarity, and particulates. The samples were also analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for potency and degradation products. Due to the lack of ultraviolet (UV) chromophores of glutamate and aspartate, the samples were derivatized by ortho-phthalaldehyde prior to HPLC analysis. Results: The time zero samples of GACAS passed the physical, chemical, and microbiological tests. Over 2 months of storage, there was no significant change in pH or visual appearance for any of the stability samples. The HPLC results also indicated that the samples retained 101% to 103% of the label claim strengths for both amino acids. Conclusion: The physical and chemical stability of extemporaneously prepared GACAS has been confirmed for up to 2 months in polyolefin IV bags stored under refrigeration. With proper sterile compounding practice and microbiology testing, the BUD of this product can be extended to 2 months. PMID:26405344

  8. Double-Vacuum-Bag Process for Making Resin-Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradford, Larry J.

    2007-01-01

    A double-vacuum-bag process has been devised as a superior alternative to a single-vacuum-bag process used heretofore in making laminated fiber-reinforced resin-matrix composite-material structural components. This process is applicable to broad classes of high-performance matrix resins including polyimides and phenolics that emit volatile compounds (solvents and volatile by-products of resin-curing chemical reactions) during processing. The superiority of the double-vacuum-bag process lies in enhanced management of the volatile compounds. Proper management of volatiles is necessary for making composite-material components of high quality: if not removed and otherwise properly managed, volatiles can accumulate in interior pockets as resins cure, thereby forming undesired voids in the finished products. The curing cycle for manufacturing a composite laminate containing a reactive resin matrix usually consists of a two-step ramp-and-hold temperature profile and an associated single-step pressure profile as shown in Figure 1. The lower-temperature ramp-and-hold step is known in the art as the B stage. During the B stage, prepregs are heated and volatiles are generated. Because pressure is not applied at this stage, volatiles are free to escape. Pressure is applied during the higher-temperature ramp-and-hold step to consolidate the laminate and impart desired physical properties to the resin matrix. The residual volatile content and fluidity of the resin at the beginning of application of consolidation pressure are determined by the temperature and time parameters of the B stage. Once the consolidation pressure is applied, residual volatiles are locked in. In order to produce a void-free, high-quality laminate, it is necessary to design the curing cycle to obtain the required residual fluidity and the required temperature at the time of application of the consolidation pressure.

  9. Evaluation of Microwave Steam Bags for the Decontamination of Filtering Facepiece Respirators

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Edward M.; Williams, Jessica L.; Shaffer, Ronald E.

    2011-01-01

    Reusing filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) has been suggested as a strategy to conserve available supplies for home and healthcare environments during an influenza pandemic. For reuse to be possible, used FFRs must be decontaminated before redonning to reduce the risk of virus transmission; however, there are no approved methods for FFR decontamination. An effective method must reduce the microbial threat, maintain the function of the FFR, and present no residual chemical hazard. The method should be readily available, inexpensive and easily implemented by healthcare workers and the general public. Many of the general decontamination protocols used in healthcare and home settings are unable to address all of the desired qualities of an efficient FFR decontamination protocol. The goal of this study is to evaluate the use of two commercially available steam bags, marketed to the public for disinfecting infant feeding equipment, for FFR decontamination. The FFRs were decontaminated with microwave generated steam following the manufacturers' instructions then evaluated for water absorption and filtration efficiency for up to three steam exposures. Water absorption of the FFR was found to be model specific as FFRs constructed with hydrophilic materials absorbed more water. The steam had little effect on FFR performance as filtration efficiency of the treated FFRs remained above 95%. The decontamination efficacy of the steam bag was assessed using bacteriophage MS2 as a surrogate for a pathogenic virus. The tested steam bags were found to be 99.9% effective for inactivating MS2 on FFRs; however, more research is required to determine the effectiveness against respiratory pathogens. PMID:21525995

  10. Evaluation of microwave steam bags for the decontamination of filtering facepiece respirators.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Edward M; Williams, Jessica L; Shaffer, Ronald E

    2011-04-15

    Reusing filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) has been suggested as a strategy to conserve available supplies for home and healthcare environments during an influenza pandemic. For reuse to be possible, used FFRs must be decontaminated before redonning to reduce the risk of virus transmission; however, there are no approved methods for FFR decontamination. An effective method must reduce the microbial threat, maintain the function of the FFR, and present no residual chemical hazard. The method should be readily available, inexpensive and easily implemented by healthcare workers and the general public. Many of the general decontamination protocols used in healthcare and home settings are unable to address all of the desired qualities of an efficient FFR decontamination protocol. The goal of this study is to evaluate the use of two commercially available steam bags, marketed to the public for disinfecting infant feeding equipment, for FFR decontamination. The FFRs were decontaminated with microwave generated steam following the manufacturers' instructions then evaluated for water absorption and filtration efficiency for up to three steam exposures. Water absorption of the FFR was found to be model specific as FFRs constructed with hydrophilic materials absorbed more water. The steam had little effect on FFR performance as filtration efficiency of the treated FFRs remained above 95%. The decontamination efficacy of the steam bag was assessed using bacteriophage MS2 as a surrogate for a pathogenic virus. The tested steam bags were found to be 99.9% effective for inactivating MS2 on FFRs; however, more research is required to determine the effectiveness against respiratory pathogens.

  11. Inactivation and injury assessment of Escherichia coli during solar and photocatalytic disinfection in LDPE bags.

    PubMed

    Dunlop, P S M; Ciavola, M; Rizzo, L; Byrne, J A

    2011-11-01

    Solar disinfection (SODIS) of Escherichia coli suspensions in low-density polyethylene bag reactors was investigated as a low-cost disinfection method suitable for application in developing countries. The efficiency of a range of SODIS reactor configurations was examined (single skin (SS), double skin, black-backed single skin, silver-backed single skin (SBSS) and composite-backed single skin) using E. coli suspended in model and real surface water. Titanium dioxide was added to the reactors to improve the efficiency of the SODIS process. The effect of turbidity was also assessed. In addition to viable counts, E. coli injury was characterised through spread-plate analysis using selective and non-selective media. The optimal reactor configuration was determined to be the SBSS bag (t(50)=9.0min) demonstrating the importance of UVA photons, as opposed to infrared in the SODIS disinfection mechanism. Complete inactivation (6.5-log) was achieved in the presence of turbidity (50NTU) using the SBSS bag within 180min simulated solar exposure. The addition of titanium dioxide (0.025gL(-1)) significantly enhanced E. coli inactivation in the SS reactor, with 6-log inactivation observed within 90min simulated solar exposure. During the early stages of both SODIS and photocatalytic disinfection, injured E. coli were detected; however, irreversible injury was caused and re-growth was not observed. Experiments under solar conditions were undertaken with total inactivation (6.5-log) observed in the SS reactor within 240min, incomplete inactivation (4-log) was observed in SODIS bottles exposed to the same solar conditions.

  12. Evaluation of microwave steam bags for the decontamination of filtering facepiece respirators.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Edward M; Williams, Jessica L; Shaffer, Ronald E

    2011-01-01

    Reusing filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) has been suggested as a strategy to conserve available supplies for home and healthcare environments during an influenza pandemic. For reuse to be possible, used FFRs must be decontaminated before redonning to reduce the risk of virus transmission; however, there are no approved methods for FFR decontamination. An effective method must reduce the microbial threat, maintain the function of the FFR, and present no residual chemical hazard. The method should be readily available, inexpensive and easily implemented by healthcare workers and the general public. Many of the general decontamination protocols used in healthcare and home settings are unable to address all of the desired qualities of an efficient FFR decontamination protocol. The goal of this study is to evaluate the use of two commercially available steam bags, marketed to the public for disinfecting infant feeding equipment, for FFR decontamination. The FFRs were decontaminated with microwave generated steam following the manufacturers' instructions then evaluated for water absorption and filtration efficiency for up to three steam exposures. Water absorption of the FFR was found to be model specific as FFRs constructed with hydrophilic materials absorbed more water. The steam had little effect on FFR performance as filtration efficiency of the treated FFRs remained above 95%. The decontamination efficacy of the steam bag was assessed using bacteriophage MS2 as a surrogate for a pathogenic virus. The tested steam bags were found to be 99.9% effective for inactivating MS2 on FFRs; however, more research is required to determine the effectiveness against respiratory pathogens. PMID:21525995

  13. Calcium content and its correlated distribution with skin browning spot in bagged Huangguan pear.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yu; Guan, Jun-Feng; Ma, Shi-Jin; Liu, Ling-Ling; Feng, Yun-Xiao; Cheng, Yu-Dou

    2015-01-01

    Skin browning spot (SBS) is an important physiology disorder that often occurs in bagged fruit at the mature stage in the Huangguan (Pyrus bretschneideri × Pyrus pyrifolia) pear. Using atomic absorption spectrometry, X-ray microanalysis, and the potassium-pyroantimonate precipitation method, the water-soluble and total Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and K(+) contents, their microdistribution, and the Ca(2+) localization were investigated in bagged Huangguan pear fruit in the presence and absence of SBS. Our results show that the water-soluble and total Ca(2+) contents in both the skin and flesh tissue and the total Ca(2+) content only in the skin tissue of the fruits with SBS were significantly lower compared to those of the fruits without SBS. However, a higher K(+) content in the skin tissue was found in the fruits with SBS. There were no significant differences in the water-soluble and total Mg(2+) contents in the skin and flesh tissue between the fruits with and without SBS. In addition, the results of the X-ray microanalysis were consistent with changes in the total Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and K(+) contents in the skin and flesh tissue of the pear fruit that were affected by SBS. Compared to the skin tissue of pear fruit without SBS and the healthy part near the lesion zone of SBS, the lesion zone of SBS exhibited a high accumulation of Ca(2+) grains in the cell membrane of the epidermis cells, while fewer Ca(2+) grains were found in the vacuoles and cell walls. Altogether, these results indicate that Ca(2+) deficiency and the cellular Ca(2+) distribution in skin tissue contributed to the occurrence of SBS in bagged Huangguan pear fruit.

  14. A Comparison of Three Voting Methods for Bagging with the MLEM2 Algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Clinton Cohagan; Jerzy W. Grzymala-Busse; Zdzislaw S. Hippe

    2010-03-17

    This paper presents results of experiments on some data sets using bagging on the MLEM2 rule induction algorithm. Three different methods of ensemble voting, based on support (a non-democratic voting in which ensembles vote with their strengths), strength only (an ensemble with the largest strength decides to which concept a case belongs) and democratic voting (each ensemble has at most one vote) were used. Our conclusions are that though in most cases democratic voting was the best, it is not significantly better than voting based on support. The strength voting was the worst voting method.

  15. Chemical Structure of Copper in Incineration Dry Scrubber and Bag Filter Ashes

    SciTech Connect

    Hsiao, M. C.; Wang, H. Paul; Peng, C. Y.; Huang, C. H.; Wei Yuling

    2007-02-02

    Speciation of copper in waste incineration fly ashes (dry scrubber (DS) and bag filter (BF)) has been studied by X-ray absorption near edge structural (XANES) spectroscopy in the present work. Copper species such as metallic Cu, CuO, Cu(OH)2, and a small amount of CuCO3 in the fly ashes could be distinguished by semi-quantitative analysis of the edge spectra. Interestingly, nano CuO (37%) were found in the BF fly ash, that might account for its relatively high leachability of copper.

  16. Landing Characteristics of a Reentry Capsule with a Torus-Shaped Air Bag for Load Alleviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGehee, John R.; Hathaway, Melvin E.

    1960-01-01

    An experimental investigation has been made to determine the landing characteristics of a conical-shaped reentry capsule by using torus-shaped air bags for impact-load alleviation. An impact bag was attached below the large end of the capsule to absorb initial impact loads and a second bag was attached around the canister to absorb loads resulting from impact on the canister when the capsule overturned. A 1/6-scale dynamic model of the configuration was tested for nominal flight paths of 60 deg. and 90 deg. (vertical), a range of contact attitudes from -25 deg. to 30 deg., and a vertical contact velocity of 12.25 feet per second. Accelerations were measured along the X-axis (roll) and Z-axis (yaw) by accelerometers rigidly installed at the center of gravity of the model. Actual flight path, contact attitudes, and motions were determined from high-speed motion pictures. Landings were made on concrete and on water. The peak accelerations along the X-axis for landings on concrete were in the order of 3Og for a 0 deg. contact attitude. A horizontal velocity of 7 feet per second, corresponding to a flight path of 60 deg., had very little effect upon the peak accelerations obtained for landings on concrete. For contact attitudes of -25 deg. and 30 deg. the peak accelerations along the Z-axis were about +/- l5g, respectively. The peak accelerations measured for the water landings were about one-third lower than the peak accelerations measured for the landings on concrete. Assuming a rigid body, computations were made by using Newton's second law of motion and the force-stroke characteristics of the air bag to determine accelerations for a flight path of 90 deg. (vertical) and a contact attitude of 0 deg. The computed and experimental peak accelerations and strokes at peak acceleration were in good agreement for the model. The special scaling appears to be applicable for predicting full-scale time and stroke at peak acceleration for a landing on concrete from a 90 deg

  17. Commercially Available Gas-Permeable Cell Culture Bags May Not Prevent Anoxia in Cultured or Shipped Islets

    PubMed Central

    Avgoustiniatos, E.S.; Hering, B.J.; Rozak, P.R.; Wilson, J.R.; Tempelman, L.A.; Balamurugan, A.N.; Welch, D.P.; Weegman, B.P.; Suszynski, T.M.; Papas, K.K.

    2009-01-01

    Prolonged anoxia has deleterious effects on islets. Gas-permeable cell culture devices can be used to minimize anoxia during islet culture and especially during shipment when elimination of gas-liquid interfaces is required to prevent the formation of damaging gas bubbles. Gas-permeable bags may have several drawbacks, such as propensity for puncture and contamination, difficult islet retrieval, and significantly lower oxygen permeability than silicone rubber membranes (SRM). We hypothesized that oxygen permeability of bags may be insufficient for islet oxygenation. We measured oxygen transmission rates through the membrane walls of three different types of commercially available bags and through SRM currently used for islet shipment. We found that the bag membranes have oxygen transmission rates per unit area about 100-fold lower than SRM. We solved the oxygen diffusion-reaction equation for 150-μm diameter islets seeded at 3000 islet equivalents per cm2, a density adequate to culture and ship an entire human or porcine islet preparation in a single gas-permeable device, predicting that about 40% of the islet volume would be anoxic at 22°C and about 70% would be anoxic at 37°C. Islets of larger size or islets accumulated during shipment would be even more anoxic. The model predicted no anoxia in islets similarly seeded in devices with SRM bottoms. We concluded that commercially available bags may not prevent anoxia during islet culture or shipment; devices with SRM bottoms are more suitable alternatives. PMID:18374080

  18. Value of large scale expansion of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes in a compartmentalised gas-permeable bag: interests for adoptive immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Adoptive cell therapy (ACT) has emerged as an effective treatment for patients with metastatic melanoma. However, there are several logistical and safety concerns associated with large-scale ex vivo expansion of tumour-specific T lymphocytes for widespread availability of ACT for cancer patients. To address these problems we developed a specific compartmentalised bag allowing efficient expansion of tumour-specific T lymphocytes in an easy handling, closed system. Methods Starting from lymph nodes from eight melanoma patients, we performed a side-by-side comparison of Tumour-Infiltrating Lymphocytes (TIL) produced after expansion in the compartmentalised bag versus TIL produced using the standard process in plates. Proliferation yield, viability, phenotype and IFNγ secretion were comparatively studied. Results We found no differences in proliferation yield and cell viability between both TIL production systems. Moreover, each of the cell products complied with our defined release criteria before being administered to the patient. The phenotype analysis indicated that the compartmentalised bag favours the expansion of CD8+ cells. Finally, we found that TIL stimulated in bags were enriched in reactive CD8+ T cells when co-cultured with the autologous melanoma cell line. Conclusions The stimulation of TIL with feeder cells in the specifically designed compartmentalised bag can advantageously replace the conventional protocol using plates. In particular, the higher expansion rate of reactive CD8+ T cells could have a significant impact for ACT. PMID:21575188

  19. Identifying protein interaction subnetworks by a bagging Markov random field-based method.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li; Xuan, Jianhua; Riggins, Rebecca B; Wang, Yue; Clarke, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Identification of differentially expressed subnetworks from protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks has become increasingly important to our global understanding of the molecular mechanisms that drive cancer. Several methods have been proposed for PPI subnetwork identification, but the dependency among network member genes is not explicitly considered, leaving many important hub genes largely unidentified. We present a new method, based on a bagging Markov random field (BMRF) framework, to improve subnetwork identification for mechanistic studies of breast cancer. The method follows a maximum a posteriori principle to form a novel network score that explicitly considers pairwise gene interactions in PPI networks, and it searches for subnetworks with maximal network scores. To improve their robustness across data sets, a bagging scheme based on bootstrapping samples is implemented to statistically select high confidence subnetworks. We first compared the BMRF-based method with existing methods on simulation data to demonstrate its improved performance. We then applied our method to breast cancer data to identify PPI subnetworks associated with breast cancer progression and/or tamoxifen resistance. The experimental results show that not only an improved prediction performance can be achieved by the BMRF approach when tested on independent data sets, but biologically meaningful subnetworks can also be revealed that are relevant to breast cancer and tamoxifen resistance.

  20. Magnetic biomonitoring by moss bags for industry-derived air pollution in SW Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salo, Hanna; Mäkinen, Joni

    2014-11-01

    We provide the first detailed case study using Sphagnum papillosum moss bags for active magnetic monitoring of airborne industrial pollution in order to evaluate the actual role of various emission sources and the competence of current environmental protection actions relative to the air quality. The origin and spatial spreading of particulate matter (PM) based on magnetic, chemical, and SEM-EDX analyses was studied around the Industrial Park in Harjavalta, SW Finland. The data was collected during two 6-month sampling periods along 8 km transects in 2010-2011. The results support our hypothesis that the main emission source of PM is not the Cu-Ni smelter's pipe as presumed in previous chemical monitorings. We argue that the hot spot area within the severe impact pollution zone is related to slag processing and/or other unidentified industrial activity. At short distances various dust-providing sources outweigh the fly-ash load from the Cu-Ni smelter's pipe. Active magnetic monitoring by moss bags will help in planning environmental actions as well as in improvement of health conditions for industrial staff and town residents living next to the Industrial Park.