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Sample records for 1-repetition maximum 1rm

  1. Neuromuscular Adaptations After 2 and 4 Weeks of 80% Versus 30% 1 Repetition Maximum Resistance Training to Failure.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Nathaniel D M; Housh, Terry J; Buckner, Samuel L; Bergstrom, Haley C; Cochrane, Kristen C; Hill, Ethan C; Smith, Cory M; Schmidt, Richard J; Johnson, Glen O; Cramer, Joel T

    2016-08-01

    Jenkins, NDM, Housh, TJ, Buckner, SL, Bergstrom, HC, Cochrane, KC, Hill, EC, Smith, CM, Schmidt, RJ, Johnson, GO, and Cramer, JT. Neuromuscular adaptations after 2 and 4 weeks of 80% versus 30% 1 repetition maximum resistance training to failure. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2174-2185, 2016-The purpose of this study was to investigate the hypertrophic, strength, and neuromuscular adaptations to 2 and 4 weeks of resistance training at 80 vs. 30% 1 repetition maximum (1RM) in untrained men. Fifteen untrained men (mean ± SD; age = 21.7 ± 2.4 years; weight = 84.7 ± 23.5 kg) were randomly assigned to either a high-load (n = 7) or low-load (n = 8) resistance training group and completed forearm flexion resistance training to failure 3 times per week for 4 weeks. Forearm flexor muscle thickness (MT) and echo intensity, maximal voluntary isometric (MVIC) and 1RM strength, and the electromyographic, mechanomyographic (MMG), and percent voluntary activation (%VA) responses at 10-100% of MVIC were determined at baseline, 2, and 4 weeks of training. The MT increased from baseline (2.9 ± 0.1 cm) to week 2 (3.0 ± 0.1 cm) and to week 4 (3.1 ± 0.1 cm) for the 80 and 30% 1RM groups. MVIC increased from week 2 (121.5 ± 19.1 Nm) to week 4 (138.6 ± 22.1 Nm) and 1RM increased from baseline (16.7 ± 1.6 kg) to weeks 2 and 4 (19.2 ± 1.9 and 20.5 ± 1.8 kg) in the 80% 1RM group only. The MMG amplitude at 80 and 90% MVIC decreased from baseline to week 4, and %VA increased at 20 and 30% MVIC for both groups. Resistance training to failure at 80 vs. 30% 1RM elicited similar muscle hypertrophy, but only 80% 1RM increased muscle strength. However, these disparate strength adaptations were difficult to explain with neuromuscular adaptations because they were subtle and similar for the 80 and 30% 1RM groups. PMID:26848545

  2. Estimations of One Repetition Maximum and Isometric Peak Torque in Knee Extension Based on the Relationship Between Force and Velocity.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Yoshito; Hatanaka, Yasuhiko; Arai, Tomoaki; Sakurai, Hiroaki; Kanada, Yoshikiyo

    2016-04-01

    Sugiura, Y, Hatanaka, Y, Arai, T, Sakurai, H, and Kanada, Y. Estimations of one repetition maximum and isometric peak torque in knee extension based on the relationship between force and velocity. J Strength Cond Res 30(4): 980-988, 2016-We aimed to investigate whether a linear regression formula based on the relationship between joint torque and angular velocity measured using a high-speed video camera and image measurement software is effective for estimating 1 repetition maximum (1RM) and isometric peak torque in knee extension. Subjects comprised 20 healthy men (mean ± SD; age, 27.4 ± 4.9 years; height, 170.3 ± 4.4 cm; and body weight, 66.1 ± 10.9 kg). The exercise load ranged from 40% to 150% 1RM. Peak angular velocity (PAV) and peak torque were used to estimate 1RM and isometric peak torque. To elucidate the relationship between force and velocity in knee extension, the relationship between the relative proportion of 1RM (% 1RM) and PAV was examined using simple regression analysis. The concordance rate between the estimated value and actual measurement of 1RM and isometric peak torque was examined using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). Reliability of the regression line of PAV and % 1RM was 0.95. The concordance rate between the actual measurement and estimated value of 1RM resulted in an ICC(2,1) of 0.93 and that of isometric peak torque had an ICC(2,1) of 0.87 and 0.86 for 6 and 3 levels of load, respectively. Our method for estimating 1RM was effective for decreasing the measurement time and reducing patients' burden. Additionally, isometric peak torque can be estimated using 3 levels of load, as we obtained the same results as those reported previously. We plan to expand the range of subjects and examine the generalizability of our results. PMID:26382131

  3. Reliability of the one-repetition-maximum power clean test in adolescent athletes.

    PubMed

    Faigenbaum, Avery D; McFarland, James E; Herman, Robert E; Naclerio, Fernando; Ratamess, Nicholas A; Kang, Jie; Myer, Gregory D

    2012-02-01

    Although the power clean test is routinely used to assess strength and power performance in adult athletes, the reliability of this measure in younger populations has not been examined. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of the 1-repetition maximum (1RM) power clean in adolescent athletes. Thirty-six male athletes (age 15.9 ± 1.1 years, body mass 79.1 ± 20.3 kg, height 175.1 ±7.4 cm) who had >1 year of training experience in weightlifting exercises performed a 1RM power clean on 2 nonconsecutive days in the afternoon following standardized procedures. All test procedures were supervised by a senior level weightlifting coach and consisted of a systematic progression in test load until the maximum resistance that could be lifted for 1 repetition using proper exercise technique was determined. Data were analyzed using an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC[2,k]), Pearson correlation coefficient (r), repeated measures analysis of variance, Bland-Altman plot, and typical error analyses. Analysis of the data revealed that the test measures were highly reliable demonstrating a test-retest ICC of 0.98 (95% confidence interval = 0.96-0.99). Testing also demonstrated a strong relationship between 1RM measures in trials 1 and 2 (r = 0.98, p < 0.0001) with no significant difference in power clean performance between trials (70.6 ± 19.8 vs. 69.8 ± 19.8 kg). Bland-Altman plots confirmed no systematic shift in 1RM between trials 1 and 2. The typical error to be expected between 1RM power clean trials is 2.9 kg, and a change of at least 8.0 kg is indicated to determine a real change in lifting performance between tests in young lifters. No injuries occurred during the study period, and the testing protocol was well tolerated by all the subjects. These findings indicate that 1RM power clean testing has a high degree of reproducibility in trained male adolescent athletes when standardized testing procedures are followed and qualified

  4. Influence of Footwear Type on Barbell Back Squat Using 50, 70, and 90% of One Repetition Maximum: A Biomechanical Analysis.

    PubMed

    Whitting, John W; Meir, Rudi A; Crowley-McHattan, Zachary J; Holding, Ryan C

    2016-04-01

    Whitting, JW, Meir, RA, Crowley-McHattan, ZJ, and Holding, RC. Influence of footwear type on barbell back squat using 50, 70, and 90% of one repetition maximum: a biomechanical analysis. J Strength Cond Res 30(4): 1085-1092, 2016-The effect of footwear type was investigated during the barbell back squat using three-dimensional motion analysis and ground reaction force data. Nine male participants (mean age = 26.4 ± 5.4 years, height = 1.79 ± 0.08 m, and mass = 84.7 ± 16.1 kg) completed 2 experimental testing sessions wearing 2 different forms of training footwear: (a) standard sports trainers (running shoes [RS]) and (b) specialized weightlifting shoes (WS). On each test day, participants completed a sequence of 5, 3, and 1 repetitions of a barbell back squat using 50, 70, and 90%, respectively, of their 1 repetition maximum (1RM) load in each of the shoe conditions. Shoe order, which was initially randomly assigned for test day 1, was reversed on test day 2. Significant main effects were found for peak dorsiflexion of both left (p < 0.001) and right (p < 0.001) ankles. Pairwise post hoc comparisons showed that the RS condition exhibited significantly more dorsiflexion compared with the WS condition in both left and right ankles. There was also a significant main effect of load (%1RM) within the left ankle (p < 0.01) with post hoc comparisons showing that there was a significant increase in peak dorsiflexion angle from 50 to 90% (p ≤ 0.05) and 70-90% of 1RM (p ≤ 0.05) but no difference between 50 and 70% of 1RM (p = 1.000). These findings indicate that further investigation is necessary to substantiate claims regarding the benefits of wearing WS during resistance training exercises targeting the squat movement. PMID:26349043

  5. Interrelationships between different loads in resisted sprints, half-squat 1 RM and kinematic variables in trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Valencia, María Asunción; González-Ravé, José M; Santos-García, Daniel Juárez; Alcaraz Ramón, Pedro E; Navarro-Valdivielso, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Resisted sprint running is a common training method for improving sprint-specific strength. It is well-known that an athlete's time to complete a sled-towing sprint increases linearly with increasing sled load. However, to our knowledge, the relationship between the maximum load in sled-towing sprint and the sprint time is unknown, The main purpose of this research was to analyze the relationship between the maximum load in sled-towing sprint, half-squat maximal dynamic strength and the velocity in the acceleration phase in 20-m sprint. A second aim was to compare sprint performance when athletes ran under different conditions: un-resisted and towing sleds. Twenty-one participants (17.86 ± 2.27 years; 1.77 ± 0.06 m and 69.24 ± 7.20 kg) completed a one repetition maximum test (1 RM) from a half-squat position (159.68 ± 22.61 kg) and a series of sled-towing sprints with loads of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30% body mass (Bm) and the maximum resisted sprint load. No significant correlation (P<0.05) was found between half-squat 1 RM and the sprint time in different loaded conditions. Conversely, significant correlations (P<0.05) were found between maximum load in resisted sprint and sprint time (20-m sprint time, r=-0.71; 5% Bm, r=-0.73; 10% Bm, r=-0.53; 15% Bm, r=-0.55; 20% Bm, r=-0.65; 25% Bm, r=-0.44; 30% Bm, r=-0.63; MaxLoad, r= 0.93). The sprinting velocity significantly decreased by 4-22% with all load increases. Stride length (SL) also decreased (17%) significantly across all resisted conditions. In addition, there were significant differences in stride frequency (SF) with loads over 15% Bm. It could be concluded that the knowledge of the individual maximal load in resisted sprint and the effects on the sprinting kinematic with different loads, could be interesting to determinate the optimal load to improve the acceleration phase at sprint running. PMID:24444204

  6. Confinement studies of reversed field pinch plasma on TPE-1RM20

    SciTech Connect

    Yagi, Yasuyuki; Hirano, Yoichi; Maejima, Yoshiki; Shimada, Toshio; Hirota, Isao

    1995-04-01

    Confinement properties of a reversed field pinch (RFP), TPE-1RM20, are intensively presented. Plasma current, I{sub p}, dependencies of confinement properties are particularly shown in comparison with the forerunner machine, TPE-1RM15. The results without any active density controls are presented in this paper. It is shown that both machines have almost the same, relatively high, I/N values (<= 12 x 10{sup -14} Am) and the poloidal beta, {Beta}{sub p} (= 0.1) and they do not change very much with I{sub p}, where N is the column density. The energy confinement time, {tau}{sub E}, linearly increases with I{sub p} and the behavior of the resistive part of the loop voltage has an important role to the I{sub p} dependence of {tau}{sub E}. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  7. One-repetition maximum bench press performance estimated with a new accelerometer method.

    PubMed

    Rontu, Jari-Pekka; Hannula, Manne I; Leskinen, Sami; Linnamo, Vesa; Salmi, Jukka A

    2010-08-01

    The one repetition maximum (1RM) is an important method to measure muscular strength. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a new method to predict 1RM bench press performance from a submaximal lift. The developed method was evaluated by using different load levels (50, 60, 70, 80, and 90% of 1RM). The subjects were active floorball players (n = 22). The new method is based on the assumption that the estimation of 1RM can be calculated from the submaximal weight and the maximum acceleration of the submaximal weight during the lift. The submaximal bench press lift was recorded with a 3-axis accelerometer integrated to a wrist equipment and a data acquisition card. The maximum acceleration was calculated from the measurement data of the sensor and analyzed in personal computer with LabView-based software. The estimated 1RM results were compared with traditionally measured 1RM results of the subjects. An own estimation equation was developed for each load level, that is, 5 different estimation equations have been used based on the measured 1RM values of the subjects. The mean (+/-SD) of measured 1RM result was 69.86 (+/-15.72) kg. The mean of estimated 1RM values were 69.85-69.97 kg. The correlations between measured and estimated 1RM results were high (0.89-0.97; p < 0.001). The differences between the methods were very small (-0.11 to 0.01 kg) and were not significantly different from each other. The results of this study showed promising prediction accuracy for estimating bench press performance by performing just a single submaximal bench press lift. The estimation accuracy is competitive with other known estimation methods, at least with the current study population. PMID:20634755

  8. Carbohydrate and Caffeine Mouth Rinses Do Not Affect Maximum Strength and Muscular Endurance Performance.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Neil D; Kornilios, Evangelos; Richardson, Darren L

    2015-10-01

    Oral carbohydrate (CHO) rinsing has beneficial effects on endurance performance and caffeine (CAF) mouth rinsing either independently or in conjunction with CHO may enhance sprinting performance. However, the effects of CHO and CAF mouth rinses on resistance exercise have not been examined previously. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of CHO and CAF rinsing on maximum strength and muscular endurance performance. Fifteen recreationally resistance-trained males completed an exercise protocol, which involved a 1 repetition maximum (RM) bench press followed by 60% of their 1RM to failure in a double-blind, randomized, counterbalanced crossover design. Before exercise, 25 ml of a 6% (15 g; 0.20 ± 0.02 g·kg(-1)) CHO, 1.2% (300 mg; 3.9 ± 0.3 mg·kg(-1)) CAF, carbohydrate with caffeine (C + C) solutions, or water (placebo; PLA) were rinsed for 10 seconds. During the remaining session, no solution was rinsed (control; CON). All solutions were flavored with (200 mg) sucralose. Felt arousal was recorded pre- and post-rinse, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was recorded immediately after the repetitions to failure. There were no significant differences in 1RM (p = 0.808; ηp(2)= 0.02), the number of repetitions performed (p = 0.682; ηp(2)= 0.03), or the total exercise volume (p = 0.482; ηp(2)= 0.03) between conditions. Rating of perceived exertion was similar for all trials (p = 0.330; ηp(2)= 0.08), whereas Felt arousal increased as a consequence of rinsing (p = 0.001; ηp(2)= 0.58), but was not different between trials (p = 0.335; ηp(2)= 0.08). These results suggest that rinsing with a CHO and CAF solution either independently or combined has no significant effect on maximum strength or muscular endurance performance. PMID:25785703

  9. Efficacy of the National Football League-225 Test to Track Changes in One Repetition Maximum Bench Press After Training in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division IA Football Players.

    PubMed

    Mann, J Bryan; Ivey, Pat A; Stoner, Josh D; Mayhew, Jerry L; Brechue, William F

    2015-11-01

    Numerous investigations have attested to the efficacy of the National Football League (NFL)-225 test to estimate one repetition maximum (1RM) bench press. However, no studies have assessed the efficacy of the test to track changes in strength across a training program. The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of the NFL-225 test for determining the change in 1RM bench press in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division IA college football players after training. Over a 4-year period, players (n = 203) were assessed before and after a 6-week off-season resistance program for 1RM bench press and repetitions completed with 102.3 kg (225 lbs). Test sessions typically occurred within 1 week of each other. Players significantly increased 1RM by 4.2 ± 8.6 kg and NFL-225 repetitions by 0.9 ± 2.3, although the effect size (ES) for each was trivial (ES = 0.03 and 0.07, respectively). National Football League 225 prediction equations had higher correlations with 1RM before training (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] = 0.95) than after training (ICC = 0.75). The correlation between the change in NFL-225 repetitions and change in 1RM was low and negative (r = -0.22, p < 0.02). Short-term heavy resistance training may alter the association between muscular strength and muscular endurance in college football players and render the NFL-225 test less effective in predicting the change in 1RM bench press strength after short-term training. PMID:25574610

  10. Maximum Jailbreak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singleton, B.

    First formulated one hundred and fifty years ago by the heretical scholar Nikolai Federov, the doctrine of cosmism begins with an absolute refusal to treat the most basic factors conditioning life on Earth ­ gravity and death ­ as necessary constraints on action. As manifest through the intoxicated cheers of its early advocates that humans should storm the heavens and conquer death, cosmism's foundational gesture was to conceive of the earth as a trap. Its duty was therefore to understand the duty of philosophy, economics and design to be the creation of means to escape it. This could be regarded as a jailbreak at the maximum possible scale, a heist in which the human species could steal itself from the vault of the Earth. After several decades of relative disinterest new space ventures are inspiring scientific, technological and popular imaginations, this essay explores what kind of cosmism might be constructed today. In this paper cosmism's position as a means of escape is both reviewed and evaluated by reflecting on the potential of technology that actually can help us achieve its aims and also through the lens and state-ofthe-art philosophy of accelerationism, which seeks to outrun modern tropes by intensifying them.

  11. MAXIMUM NUMBER OF REPETITIONS, TOTAL WEIGHT LIFTED AND NEUROMUSCULAR FATIGUE IN INDIVIDUALS WITH DIFFERENT TRAINING BACKGROUNDS

    PubMed Central

    Azevedo, Neto R.M.; Julio, U.F.; Andreato, L.V.; Pinto e Silva, C.M.; Hardt, F.; Franchini, E.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance, as well as neuromuscular activity, in a strength task in subjects with different training backgrounds. Participants (n = 26) were divided into three groups according to their training backgrounds (aerobic, strength or mixed) and submitted to three sessions: (1) determination of the maximum oxygen uptake during the incremental treadmill test to exhaustion and familiarization of the evaluation of maximum strength (1RM) for the half squat; (2) 1RM determination; and (3) strength exercise, four sets at 80% of the 1RM, in which the maximum number of repetitions (MNR), the total weight lifted (TWL), the root mean square (RMS) and median frequency (MF) of the electromyographic (EMG) activity for the second and last repetition were computed. There was an effect of group for MNR, with the aerobic group performing a higher MNR compared to the strength group (P = 0.045), and an effect on MF with a higher value in the second repetition than in the last repetition (P = 0.016). These results demonstrated that individuals with better aerobic fitness were more fatigue resistant than strength trained individuals. The absence of differences in EMG signals indicates that individuals with different training backgrounds have a similar pattern of motor unit recruitment during a resistance exercise performed until failure, and that the greater capacity to perform the MNR probably can be explained by peripheral adaptations. PMID:24744479

  12. The one repetition maximum test and the sit-to-stand test in the assessment of a specific pulmonary rehabilitation program on peripheral muscle strength in COPD patients

    PubMed Central

    Zanini, Andrea; Aiello, Marina; Cherubino, Francesca; Zampogna, Elisabetta; Azzola, Andrea; Chetta, Alfredo; Spanevello, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Background Individuals with COPD may present reduced peripheral muscle strength, leading to impaired mobility. Comprehensive pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) should include strength training, in particular to lower limbs. Furthermore, simple tools for the assessment of peripheral muscle performance are required. Objectives To assess the peripheral muscle performance of COPD patients by the sit-to-stand test (STST), as compared to the one-repetition maximum (1-RM), considered as the gold standard for assessing muscle strength in non-laboratory situations, and to evaluate the responsiveness of STST to a PR program. Methods Sixty moderate-to-severe COPD inpatients were randomly included into either the specific strength training group or into the usual PR program group. Patients were assessed on a 30-second STST and 1-minute STST, 1-RM, and 6-minute walking test (6MWT), before and after PR. Bland–Altman plots were used to evaluate the agreement between 1-RM and STST. Results The two groups were not different at baseline. In all patients, 1-RM was significantly related to the 30-second STST (r=0.48, P<0.001) and to 1-minute STST (r=0.36, P=0.005). The 30-second STST was better tolerated in terms of the perceived fatigue (P=0.002) and less time consuming (P<0.001) test. In the specific strength training group significant improvements were observed in the 30-second STST (P<0.001), 1-minute STST (P=0.005), 1-RM (P<0.001), and in the 6MWT (P=0.001). In the usual PR program group, significant improvement was observed in the 30-second STST (P=0.042) and in the 6MWT (P=0.001). Conclusion Our study shows that in stable moderate-to-severe inpatients with COPD, STST is a valid and reliable tool to assess peripheral muscle performance of lower limbs, and is sensitive to a specific PR program. PMID:26648705

  13. Comparison of muscle force production using the Smith machine and free weights for bench press and squat exercises.

    PubMed

    Cotterman, Michael L; Darby, Lynn A; Skelly, William A

    2005-02-01

    The Smith machine (SM) (vertical motion of bar on fixed path; fixed-form exercise) and free weights (FWs) (free-form path) are commonly used strength training modes. Exercisers may need to alternate between types of equipment, depending on testing, training, rehabilitation, and/or the exercisers' goals. The purposes of this study were to compare muscle force production for SM and FWs using a 1 repetition maximum (1RM) for the parallel back squat and supine bench press exercises and to predict the 1RM for one mode from 1RM on the other mode. Men (n = 16) and women (n = 16) alternately completed 1RM testing for squat and bench press using SM and FWs. Analyses of variance (type of equipment x sex) and linear regression models were calculated. A significant difference was found between bench press and squat 1RMs for each mode of equipment for all participants. The squat 1RM was greater for the SM than the FWs; conversely, the bench 1RM was greater for FWs than the SM. When sex was considered, bench 1RM for FWs was greater than SM for men and women. The squat 1RM was greater for SM than FWs for women only. The 1RM on one mode of equipment was the best predictor of 1RM for the other mode. For both sexes, the equation SM bench 1RM (in kilograms) = -6.76 + 0.95 (FW bench 1RM) can be used. For women only, SM squat 1RM (in kilograms) = 28.3 + 0.73 (FW squat 1RM). These findings provide equations for converting between SM and FW equipment for training. PMID:15705030

  14. Maximum power tracking

    SciTech Connect

    O'Sullivan, G.

    1983-03-01

    By definition, a maximum power tracking device causes the photovoltaic array to operate on the locus of maximum power points within a specified accuracy. There are limitations to the application of maximum power tracking. A prerequisite is that the load be capable of absorbing all of the power availble at all times. Battery chargers, electrical heaters, water pumps, and most significantly, returning power to the utility grid, are prime examples of applications that are adaptable to maximum power tracking. Maximum power tracking is available to either dc or ac loads. An inverter equipped with a means of changing input voltage by controlling its input impedance can deliver maximum power to ac loads. The inverter can be fixed or variable frequency and fixed or variable voltage, but must be compatible with the ac load. The discussion includes applications, techniques, and cost factors.

  15. Maximum thrust mode evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orme, John S.; Nobbs, Steven G.

    1995-01-01

    Measured reductions in acceleration times which resulted from the application of the F-15 performance seeking control (PSC) maximum thrust mode during the dual-engine test phase is presented as a function of power setting and flight condition. Data were collected at altitudes of 30,000 and 45,000 feet at military and maximum afterburning power settings. The time savings for the supersonic acceleration is less than at subsonic Mach numbers because of the increased modeling and control complexity. In addition, the propulsion system was designed to be optimized at the mid supersonic Mach number range. Recall that even though the engine is at maximum afterburner, PSC does not trim the afterburner for the maximum thrust mode. Subsonically at military power, time to accelerate from Mach 0.6 to 0.95 was cut by between 6 and 8 percent with a single engine application of PSC, and over 14 percent when both engines were optimized. At maximum afterburner, the level of thrust increases were similar in magnitude to the military power results, but because of higher thrust levels at maximum afterburner and higher aircraft drag at supersonic Mach numbers the percentage thrust increase and time to accelerate was less than for the supersonic accelerations. Savings in time to accelerate supersonically at maximum afterburner ranged from 4 to 7 percent. In general, the maximum thrust mode has performed well, demonstrating significant thrust increases at military and maximum afterburner power. Increases of up to 15 percent at typical combat-type flight conditions were identified. Thrust increases of this magnitude could be useful in a combat situation.

  16. Maximum mixing method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hjorth, Jens

    The unique feature of MEM is that C(-1)(z) = exp(z) amplifies all scales equally. Narayan & Nityananda (1986) have shown that this leads to Gaussian deconvolved peaks. In MMM different scales are treated differently, depending on the choice of C. This gives different peak shapes, but also allows one to experiment with the degree of peak sharpening as a function of peak height. In fact, despite its strong information-theoretic background, MEM is known to redistribute flux incorrectly during deconvolution, thus making the method problematic if the goal is to get correct intensities out. MMM could remedy this problem by using an alternative to the entropy. In conclusion, some ideas connecting the physics of blurring with a proposed reconstruction scheme, dubbed Maximum Mixing Method, have been presented. It has been shown that this physically motivated, non-information theoretic, non-probabilistic, non-Bayesian approach can be turned into a powerful deconvolution technique, competitive with, and having as a special case, the Maximum Entropy Method. Further work within the proposed framework is required to fully explore the consequences of the theory. A paper including proofs and examples is in preparation.

  17. Maximum bow force revisited.

    PubMed

    Mores, Robert

    2016-08-01

    Schelleng [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 53, 26-41 (1973)], Askenfelt [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 86, 503-516 (1989)], Schumacher [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 96, 1985-1998 (1994)], and Schoonderwaldt, Guettler, and Askenfelt [Acta Acust. Acust. 94, 604-622 (2008)] formulated-in different ways-how the maximum bow force relates to bow velocity, bow-bridge distance, string impedance, and friction coefficients. Issues of uncertainty are how to account for friction or for the rotational admittance of the strings. Related measurements at the respective transitions between regimes of Helmholtz motion and non-Helmholtz motion employ a variety of bowing machines and stringed instruments. The related findings include all necessary parameters except the friction coefficients, leaving the underlying models unconfirmed. Here, a bowing pendulum has been constructed which allows precise measurement of relevant bowing parameters, including the friction coefficients. Two cellos are measured across all strings for three different bow-bridge distances. The empirical data suggest that-taking the diverse elements of existing models as options-Schelleng's model combined with Schumacher's velocity term yields the best fit. Furthermore, the pendulum employs a bow driving mechanism with adaptive impedance which discloses that mentioned regimes are stable and transitions between them sometimes require a hysteresis on related parameters. PMID:27586745

  18. Generalized Maximum Entropy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheeseman, Peter; Stutz, John

    2005-01-01

    A long standing mystery in using Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) is how to deal with constraints whose values are uncertain. This situation arises when constraint values are estimated from data, because of finite sample sizes. One approach to this problem, advocated by E.T. Jaynes [1], is to ignore this uncertainty, and treat the empirically observed values as exact. We refer to this as the classic MaxEnt approach. Classic MaxEnt gives point probabilities (subject to the given constraints), rather than probability densities. We develop an alternative approach that assumes that the uncertain constraint values are represented by a probability density {e.g: a Gaussian), and this uncertainty yields a MaxEnt posterior probability density. That is, the classic MaxEnt point probabilities are regarded as a multidimensional function of the given constraint values, and uncertainty on these values is transmitted through the MaxEnt function to give uncertainty over the MaXEnt probabilities. We illustrate this approach by explicitly calculating the generalized MaxEnt density for a simple but common case, then show how this can be extended numerically to the general case. This paper expands the generalized MaxEnt concept introduced in a previous paper [3].

  19. Muscle power output properties using the stretch-shortening cycle of the upper limb and their relationships with a one-repetition maximum bench press.

    PubMed

    Miyaguchi, Kazuyoshi; Demura, Shinichi

    2006-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the output properties of muscle power by the dominant upper limb using SSC, and the relationships between the power output by SSC and a one-repetition maximum bench press (1 RM BP) used as a strength indicator of the upper body. Sixteen male athletes (21.4+/-0.9 yr) participated in this study. They pulled a load of 40% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) at a stretch by elbow flexion of the dominant upper limb in the following three preliminary conditions: static relaxed muscle state (SR condition), isometric muscle contraction state (ISO condition), and using SSC (SSC condition). The velocity with a wire load via a pulley during elbow flexion was measured accurately using a power instrument with a rotary encoder, and the muscle power curve was drawn from the product of the velocity and load. Significant differences were found among all evaluation parameters of muscle power exerted from the above three conditions and the parameters regarding early power output during concentric contraction were larger in the SSC condition than the SR and ISO conditions. The parameters on initial muscle contraction velocity when only using SSC significantly correlated with 1 RM BP (r=0.60-0.62). The use of SSC before powerful elbow flexion may contribute largely to early explosive power output during concentric contraction. Bench press capacity relates to a development of the above early power output when using SSC. PMID:16763366

  20. Minimizing the probable maximum flood

    SciTech Connect

    Woodbury, M.S.; Pansic, N. ); Eberlein, D.T. )

    1994-06-01

    This article examines Wisconsin Electric Power Company's efforts to determine an economical way to comply with Federal Energy Regulatory Commission requirements at two hydroelectric developments on the Michigamme River. Their efforts included refinement of the area's probable maximum flood model based, in part, on a newly developed probable maximum precipitation estimate.

  1. Arctic Sea Ice Maximum 2011

    NASA Video Gallery

    AMSR-E Arctic Sea Ice: September 2010 to March 2011: Scientists tracking the annual maximum extent of Arctic sea ice said that 2011 was among the lowest ice extents measured since satellites began ...

  2. Convex accelerated maximum entropy reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worley, Bradley

    2016-04-01

    Maximum entropy (MaxEnt) spectral reconstruction methods provide a powerful framework for spectral estimation of nonuniformly sampled datasets. Many methods exist within this framework, usually defined based on the magnitude of a Lagrange multiplier in the MaxEnt objective function. An algorithm is presented here that utilizes accelerated first-order convex optimization techniques to rapidly and reliably reconstruct nonuniformly sampled NMR datasets using the principle of maximum entropy. This algorithm - called CAMERA for Convex Accelerated Maximum Entropy Reconstruction Algorithm - is a new approach to spectral reconstruction that exhibits fast, tunable convergence in both constant-aim and constant-lambda modes. A high-performance, open source NMR data processing tool is described that implements CAMERA, and brief comparisons to existing reconstruction methods are made on several example spectra.

  3. The Maximum Density of Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses a series of experiments performed by Thomas Hope in 1805 which show the temperature at which water has its maximum density. Early data cast into a modern form as well as guidelines and recent data collected from the author provide background for duplicating Hope's experiments in the classroom. (JN)

  4. Maximum cooling and maximum efficiency of thermoacoustic refrigerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tartibu, L. K.

    2016-01-01

    This work provides valid experimental evidence on the difference between design for maximum cooling and maximum efficiency for thermoacoustic refrigerators. In addition, the influence of the geometry of the honeycomb ceramic stack on the performance of thermoacoustic refrigerators is presented as it affects the cooling power. Sixteen cordierite honeycomb ceramic stacks with square cross sections having four different lengths of 26, 48, 70 and 100 mm are considered. Measurements are taken at six different locations of the stack hot ends from the pressure antinode, namely 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 mm respectively. Measurement of temperature difference across the stack ends at steady state for different stack geometries are used to compute the cooling load and the coefficient of performance. The results obtained with atmospheric air showed that there is a distinct optimum depending on the design goal.

  5. Maximum Power Point Regulator System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simola, J.; Savela, K.; Stenberg, J.; Tonicello, F.

    2011-10-01

    The target of the study done under the ESA contract No.17830/04/NL/EC (GSTP4) for Maximum Power Point Regulator System (MPPRS) was to investigate, design and test a modular power system (a core PCU) fulfilling requirement for maximum power transfer even after a single failure in the Power System by utilising a power concept without any potential and credible single point failure. The studied MPPRS concept is of a modular construction, able to track the MPP individually on each SA sections, maintaining its functionality and full power capability after a loss of a complete MPPR module (by utilizingN+1module).Various add-on DCDC converter topology candidates were investigated and redundancy, failure mechanisms and protection aspects were studied

  6. Solar maximum: Solar array degradation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, T.

    1985-01-01

    The 5-year in-orbit power degradation of the silicon solar array aboard the Solar Maximum Satellite was evaluated. This was the first spacecraft to use Teflon R FEP as a coverglass adhesive, thus avoiding the necessity of an ultraviolet filter. The peak power tracking mode of the power regulator unit was employed to ensure consistent maximum power comparisons. Telemetry was normalized to account for the effects of illumination intensity, charged particle irradiation dosage, and solar array temperature. Reference conditions of 1.0 solar constant at air mass zero and 301 K (28 C) were used as a basis for normalization. Beginning-of-life array power was 2230 watts. Currently, the array output is 1830 watts. This corresponds to a 16 percent loss in array performance over 5 years. Comparison of Solar Maximum Telemetry and predicted power levels indicate that array output is 2 percent less than predictions based on an annual 1.0 MeV equivalent election fluence of 2.34 x ten to the 13th power square centimeters space environment.

  7. Alternative Multiview Maximum Entropy Discrimination.

    PubMed

    Chao, Guoqing; Sun, Shiliang

    2016-07-01

    Maximum entropy discrimination (MED) is a general framework for discriminative estimation based on maximum entropy and maximum margin principles, and can produce hard-margin support vector machines under some assumptions. Recently, the multiview version of MED multiview MED (MVMED) was proposed. In this paper, we try to explore a more natural MVMED framework by assuming two separate distributions p1( Θ1) over the first-view classifier parameter Θ1 and p2( Θ2) over the second-view classifier parameter Θ2 . We name the new MVMED framework as alternative MVMED (AMVMED), which enforces the posteriors of two view margins to be equal. The proposed AMVMED is more flexible than the existing MVMED, because compared with MVMED, which optimizes one relative entropy, AMVMED assigns one relative entropy term to each of the two views, thus incorporating a tradeoff between the two views. We give the detailed solving procedure, which can be divided into two steps. The first step is solving our optimization problem without considering the equal margin posteriors from two views, and then, in the second step, we consider the equal posteriors. Experimental results on multiple real-world data sets verify the effectiveness of the AMVMED, and comparisons with MVMED are also reported. PMID:26111403

  8. Economics and Maximum Entropy Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, R. D.

    2003-04-01

    Price differentials, sales volume and profit can be seen as analogues of temperature difference, heat flow and work or entropy production in the climate system. One aspect in which economic systems exhibit more clarity than the climate is that the empirical and/or statistical mechanical tendency for systems to seek a maximum in production is very evident in economics, in that the profit motive is very clear. Noting the common link between 1/f noise, power laws and Self-Organized Criticality with Maximum Entropy Production, the power law fluctuations in security and commodity prices is not inconsistent with the analogy. There is an additional thermodynamic analogy, in that scarcity is valued. A commodity concentrated among a few traders is valued highly by the many who do not have it. The market therefore encourages via prices the spreading of those goods among a wider group, just as heat tends to diffuse, increasing entropy. I explore some empirical price-volume relationships of metals and meteorites in this context.

  9. Maximum entropy and drug absorption.

    PubMed

    Charter, M K; Gull, S F

    1991-10-01

    The application of maximum entropy to the calculation of drug absorption rates was introduced in an earlier paper. Here it is developed further, and the whole procedure is presented as a problem in scientific inference to be solved using Bayes' theorem. Blood samples do not need to be taken at equally spaced intervals, and no smoothing, interpolation, extrapolation, or other preprocessing of the data is necessary. The resulting input rate estimates are smooth and physiologically realistic, even with noisy data, and their accuracy is quantified. Derived quantities such as the proportion of the dose absorbed, and the mean and median absorption times, are also obtained, together with their error estimates. There are no arbitrarily valued parameters in the analysis, and no specific functional form, such as an exponential or polynomial, is assumed for the input rate functions. PMID:1783989

  10. Discrimination networks for maximum selection.

    PubMed

    Jain, Brijnesh J; Wysotzki, Fritz

    2004-01-01

    We construct a novel discrimination network using differentiating units for maximum selection. In contrast to traditional competitive architectures like MAXNET the discrimination network does not only signal the winning unit, but also provides information about its evidence. In particular, we show that a discrimination network converges to a stable state within finite time and derive three characteristics: intensity normalization (P1), contrast enhancement (P2), and evidential response (P3). In order to improve the accuracy of the evidential response we incorporate distributed redundancy into the network. This leads to a system which is not only robust against failure of single units and noisy data, but also enables us to sharpen the focus on the problem given in terms of a more accurate evidential response. The proposed discrimination network can be regarded as a connectionist model for competitive learning by evidence. PMID:14690714

  11. The maximum drag reduction asymptote

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choueiri, George H.; Hof, Bjorn

    2015-11-01

    Addition of long chain polymers is one of the most efficient ways to reduce the drag of turbulent flows. Already very low concentration of polymers can lead to a substantial drag and upon further increase of the concentration the drag reduces until it reaches an empirically found limit, the so called maximum drag reduction (MDR) asymptote, which is independent of the type of polymer used. We here carry out a detailed experimental study of the approach to this asymptote for pipe flow. Particular attention is paid to the recently observed state of elasto-inertial turbulence (EIT) which has been reported to occur in polymer solutions at sufficiently high shear. Our results show that upon the approach to MDR Newtonian turbulence becomes marginalized (hibernation) and eventually completely disappears and is replaced by EIT. In particular, spectra of high Reynolds number MDR flows are compared to flows at high shear rates in small diameter tubes where EIT is found at Re < 100. The research leading to these results has received funding from the People Programme (Marie Curie Actions) of the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under REA grant agreement n° [291734].

  12. Maximum entropy production in daisyworld

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maunu, Haley A.; Knuth, Kevin H.

    2012-05-01

    Daisyworld was first introduced in 1983 by Watson and Lovelock as a model that illustrates how life can influence a planet's climate. These models typically involve modeling a planetary surface on which black and white daisies can grow thus influencing the local surface albedo and therefore also the temperature distribution. Since then, variations of daisyworld have been applied to study problems ranging from ecological systems to global climate. Much of the interest in daisyworld models is due to the fact that they enable one to study self-regulating systems. These models are nonlinear, and as such they exhibit sensitive dependence on initial conditions, and depending on the specifics of the model they can also exhibit feedback loops, oscillations, and chaotic behavior. Many daisyworld models are thermodynamic in nature in that they rely on heat flux and temperature gradients. However, what is not well-known is whether, or even why, a daisyworld model might settle into a maximum entropy production (MEP) state. With the aim to better understand these systems, this paper will discuss what is known about the role of MEP in daisyworld models.

  13. Objects of Maximum Electromagnetic Chirality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez-Corbaton, Ivan; Fruhnert, Martin; Rockstuhl, Carsten

    2016-07-01

    We introduce a definition of the electromagnetic chirality of an object and show that it has an upper bound. Reciprocal objects attain the upper bound if and only if they are transparent for all the fields of one polarization handedness (helicity). Additionally, electromagnetic duality symmetry, i.e., helicity preservation upon interaction, turns out to be a necessary condition for reciprocal objects to attain the upper bound. We use these results to provide requirements for the design of such extremal objects. The requirements can be formulated as constraints on the polarizability tensors for dipolar objects or on the material constitutive relations for continuous media. We also outline two applications for objects of maximum electromagnetic chirality: a twofold resonantly enhanced and background-free circular dichroism measurement setup, and angle-independent helicity filtering glasses. Finally, we use the theoretically obtained requirements to guide the design of a specific structure, which we then analyze numerically and discuss its performance with respect to maximal electromagnetic chirality.

  14. 20 CFR 228.14 - Family maximum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Family maximum. 228.14 Section 228.14... SURVIVOR ANNUITIES The Tier I Annuity Component § 228.14 Family maximum. (a) Family maximum defined. Under... person's earnings record is limited. This limited amount is called the family maximum. The family...

  15. 20 CFR 228.14 - Family maximum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Family maximum. 228.14 Section 228.14... SURVIVOR ANNUITIES The Tier I Annuity Component § 228.14 Family maximum. (a) Family maximum defined. Under... person's earnings record is limited. This limited amount is called the family maximum. The family...

  16. 20 CFR 228.14 - Family maximum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Family maximum. 228.14 Section 228.14... SURVIVOR ANNUITIES The Tier I Annuity Component § 228.14 Family maximum. (a) Family maximum defined. Under... person's earnings record is limited. This limited amount is called the family maximum. The family...

  17. 20 CFR 228.14 - Family maximum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Family maximum. 228.14 Section 228.14... SURVIVOR ANNUITIES The Tier I Annuity Component § 228.14 Family maximum. (a) Family maximum defined. Under... person's earnings record is limited. This limited amount is called the family maximum. The family...

  18. 20 CFR 228.14 - Family maximum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Family maximum. 228.14 Section 228.14... SURVIVOR ANNUITIES The Tier I Annuity Component § 228.14 Family maximum. (a) Family maximum defined. Under... person's earnings record is limited. This limited amount is called the family maximum. The family...

  19. Maximum Entropy Principle for Transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilich, F.; DaSilva, R.

    2008-11-01

    In this work we deal with modeling of the transportation phenomenon for use in the transportation planning process and policy-impact studies. The model developed is based on the dependence concept, i.e., the notion that the probability of a trip starting at origin i is dependent on the probability of a trip ending at destination j given that the factors (such as travel time, cost, etc.) which affect travel between origin i and destination j assume some specific values. The derivation of the solution of the model employs the maximum entropy principle combining a priori multinomial distribution with a trip utility concept. This model is utilized to forecast trip distributions under a variety of policy changes and scenarios. The dependence coefficients are obtained from a regression equation where the functional form is derived based on conditional probability and perception of factors from experimental psychology. The dependence coefficients encode all the information that was previously encoded in the form of constraints. In addition, the dependence coefficients encode information that cannot be expressed in the form of constraints for practical reasons, namely, computational tractability. The equivalence between the standard formulation (i.e., objective function with constraints) and the dependence formulation (i.e., without constraints) is demonstrated. The parameters of the dependence-based trip-distribution model are estimated, and the model is also validated using commercial air travel data in the U.S. In addition, policy impact analyses (such as allowance of supersonic flights inside the U.S. and user surcharge at noise-impacted airports) on air travel are performed.

  20. Maximum entropy principal for transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Bilich, F.; Da Silva, R.

    2008-11-06

    In this work we deal with modeling of the transportation phenomenon for use in the transportation planning process and policy-impact studies. The model developed is based on the dependence concept, i.e., the notion that the probability of a trip starting at origin i is dependent on the probability of a trip ending at destination j given that the factors (such as travel time, cost, etc.) which affect travel between origin i and destination j assume some specific values. The derivation of the solution of the model employs the maximum entropy principle combining a priori multinomial distribution with a trip utility concept. This model is utilized to forecast trip distributions under a variety of policy changes and scenarios. The dependence coefficients are obtained from a regression equation where the functional form is derived based on conditional probability and perception of factors from experimental psychology. The dependence coefficients encode all the information that was previously encoded in the form of constraints. In addition, the dependence coefficients encode information that cannot be expressed in the form of constraints for practical reasons, namely, computational tractability. The equivalence between the standard formulation (i.e., objective function with constraints) and the dependence formulation (i.e., without constraints) is demonstrated. The parameters of the dependence-based trip-distribution model are estimated, and the model is also validated using commercial air travel data in the U.S. In addition, policy impact analyses (such as allowance of supersonic flights inside the U.S. and user surcharge at noise-impacted airports) on air travel are performed.

  1. Optimal load for the peak power and maximal strength of the upper body in Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu athletes.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Bruno Victor C; Simim, Mário A de Moura; Marocolo, Moacir; Franchini, Emerson; da Mota, Gustavo R

    2015-06-01

    We determined the optimal load for the peak power output (PPO) during the bench press throw (BPT) in Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu (BJJ) athletes and compared the PPO and maximal strength between advanced (AD) and nonadvanced (NA) athletes. Twenty-eight BJJ athletes (24.8 ± 5.7 years) performed the BPT at loads of 30, 40, 50, and 60% of their 1 repetition maximum (RM) in a randomized order (5-minute rest between BPTs). The PPO was determined by measuring the barbell displacement by an accelerometer (Myotest). The absolute (F = 7.25; p < 0.001; effect size [ES] = 0.21) and relative intensities were different (F = 7.11; p < 0.001; ES = 0.21) between the AD and NA. There was also a group and intensity interaction effect (F = 2.79; p = 0.046; ES = 0.10), but the differences were centered around the AD group, which achieved higher values using 40% (p = 0.001) and 50% of the 1RM (p < 0.001) than the PPO with 60% of 1RM. The AD athletes presented with higher 1RM than NA (p ≤ 0.05; ES = 1.0), but there was no difference (p > 0.05) in the PPO (30-60% 1RM). A polynomial adjustment indicated that the optimal load was ∼42% of 1RM for all groups and subgroups (R from 0.82 to 0.99). Our results suggest that there can be (1RM) differences between AD and NA BJJ athletes; however, there is no difference in the muscle power between the AD and NA groups. Additionally, ∼42% of 1RM seems to be the optimal load for developing maximal power using the BPT for the BJJ athletes. PMID:25486298

  2. Maximum Likelihood Estimation in Generalized Rasch Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Leeuw, Jan; Verhelst, Norman

    1986-01-01

    Maximum likelihood procedures are presented for a general model to unify the various models and techniques that have been proposed for item analysis. Unconditional maximum likelihood estimation, proposed by Wright and Haberman, and conditional maximum likelihood estimation, proposed by Rasch and Andersen, are shown as important special cases. (JAZ)

  3. 14 CFR 1261.102 - Maximum amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Maximum amount. 1261.102 Section 1261.102 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PROCESSING OF MONETARY CLAIMS (GENERAL) Employees' Personal Property Claims § 1261.102 Maximum amount. From October 1, 1982, to October 30, 1988, the maximum amount that may be...

  4. 14 CFR 1261.102 - Maximum amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum amount. 1261.102 Section 1261.102 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PROCESSING OF MONETARY CLAIMS (GENERAL) Employees' Personal Property Claims § 1261.102 Maximum amount. From October 1, 1982, to October 30, 1988, the maximum amount that may be...

  5. Duality in a maximum generalized entropy model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eguchi, Shinto; Komori, Osamu; Ohara, Atsumi

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses a possible generalization for the maximum entropy principle. A class of generalized entropy is introduced by that of generator functions, in which the maximum generalized distribution model is explicitly derived including q-Gaussian distributions, Wigner semicircle distributions and Pareto distributions. We define a totally geodesic subspace in the total space of all probability density functions in a framework of information geometry. The model of maximum generalized entropy distributions is shown to be totally geodesic. The duality of the model and the estimation in the maximum generalized principle is elucidated to give intrinsic understandings from the point of information geometry.

  6. 33 CFR 401.29 - Maximum draft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maximum draft. 401.29 Section 401.29 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.29 Maximum draft. (a) Notwithstanding any provision herein, the...

  7. 20 CFR 229.48 - Family maximum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... total wages (see 20 CFR 404.203(m)) for the second year before the individual dies or becomes eligible... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Family maximum. 229.48 Section 229.48... OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE Computation of the Overall Minimum Rate § 229.48 Family maximum. (a)...

  8. 20 CFR 229.48 - Family maximum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... total wages (see 20 CFR 404.203(m)) for the second year before the individual dies or becomes eligible... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Family maximum. 229.48 Section 229.48... OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE Computation of the Overall Minimum Rate § 229.48 Family maximum. (a)...

  9. 20 CFR 229.48 - Family maximum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... total wages (see 20 CFR 404.203(m)) for the second year before the individual dies or becomes eligible... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Family maximum. 229.48 Section 229.48... OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE Computation of the Overall Minimum Rate § 229.48 Family maximum. (a)...

  10. 20 CFR 229.48 - Family maximum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... total wages (see 20 CFR 404.203(m)) for the second year before the individual dies or becomes eligible... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Family maximum. 229.48 Section 229.48... OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE Computation of the Overall Minimum Rate § 229.48 Family maximum. (a)...

  11. 20 CFR 229.48 - Family maximum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... total wages (see 20 CFR 404.203(m)) for the second year before the individual dies or becomes eligible... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Family maximum. 229.48 Section 229.48... OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE Computation of the Overall Minimum Rate § 229.48 Family maximum. (a)...

  12. 7 CFR 1778.11 - Maximum grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maximum grants. 1778.11 Section 1778.11 Agriculture... (CONTINUED) EMERGENCY AND IMMINENT COMMUNITY WATER ASSISTANCE GRANTS § 1778.11 Maximum grants. (a) Grants not... the filing of an application. (b) Grants made for repairs, partial replacement, or...

  13. 13 CFR 130.440 - Maximum grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maximum grant. 130.440 Section 130... § 130.440 Maximum grant. No recipient shall receive an SBDC grant exceeding the greater of the minimum statutory amount, or its pro rata share of all SBDC grants as determined by the statutory formula set...

  14. 13 CFR 130.440 - Maximum grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maximum grant. 130.440 Section 130... § 130.440 Maximum grant. No recipient shall receive an SBDC grant exceeding the greater of the minimum statutory amount, or its pro rata share of all SBDC grants as determined by the statutory formula set...

  15. 7 CFR 1778.11 - Maximum grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maximum grants. 1778.11 Section 1778.11 Agriculture... (CONTINUED) EMERGENCY AND IMMINENT COMMUNITY WATER ASSISTANCE GRANTS § 1778.11 Maximum grants. (a) Grants not... the filing of an application. (b) Grants made for repairs, partial replacement, or...

  16. 13 CFR 130.440 - Maximum grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum grant. 130.440 Section 130... § 130.440 Maximum grant. No recipient shall receive an SBDC grant exceeding the greater of the minimum statutory amount, or its pro rata share of all SBDC grants as determined by the statutory formula set...

  17. 14 CFR 1261.102 - Maximum amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maximum amount. 1261.102 Section 1261.102 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PROCESSING OF MONETARY CLAIMS (GENERAL) Employees' Personal Property Claims § 1261.102 Maximum amount. From October 1, 1982, to October 30,...

  18. 14 CFR 1261.102 - Maximum amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maximum amount. 1261.102 Section 1261.102 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PROCESSING OF MONETARY CLAIMS (GENERAL) Employees' Personal Property Claims § 1261.102 Maximum amount. From October 1, 1982, to October 30,...

  19. 13 CFR 130.440 - Maximum grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maximum grant. 130.440 Section 130.440 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT CENTERS § 130.440 Maximum grant. No recipient shall receive an SBDC grant exceeding the greater of the...

  20. 13 CFR 130.440 - Maximum grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maximum grant. 130.440 Section 130.440 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT CENTERS § 130.440 Maximum grant. No recipient shall receive an SBDC grant exceeding the greater of the...

  1. Magnetic field generated resistivity maximum in graphite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wollam, J. A.; Kreps, L. W.; Rojeski, M.; Vold, T.; Devaty, R.

    1976-01-01

    In zero magnetic field, B, the electrical resistivity, rho(O,T) of highly oriented pyrolytic (polycrystalline) graphite drops smoothly with decreasing T, becoming constant below 4 K. However, in a fixed applied magnetic field B, the resistivity rho(B,T) goes through a maximum as a function of T, with larger maximum for larger B. The temperature of the maximum increases with B, but saturates to a constant value near 25 K (exact T depends on sample) at high B. In single crystal graphite a maximum in rho(B,T) as a function of T is also present, but has the effects of Landau level quantization superimposed. Several possible explanations for the rho(B,T) maximum are proposed, but a complete explanation awaits detailed calculations involving the energy band structure of graphite, and the particular scattering mechanisms involved.

  2. Estimating the seasonal maximum light use efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muramatsu, Kanako; Furumi, Shinobu; Soyama, Noriko; Daigo, Motomasa

    2014-11-01

    Light use efficiency (LUE) is a key parameter in estimating gross primary production (GPP) based on global Earth-observation satellite data and model calculations. In current LUE-based GPP estimation models, the maximum LUE is treated as a constant for each biome type. However, the maximum LUE varies seasonally. In this study, seasonal maximum LUE values were estimated from the maximum incident LUE versus the incident photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and the fraction of absorbed PAR. First, an algorithm to estimate maximum incident LUE was developed to estimate GPP capacity using a light response curve. One of the parameters required for the light response curve was estimated from the linear relationship of the chlorophyll index and the GPP capacity at a high PAR level of 2000 (µmolm-2s-1), and was referred to as" the maximum GPP capacity at 2000". The relationship was determined for six plant functional types: needleleaf deciduous trees, broadleaf deciduous trees, needleleaf evergreen trees, broadleaf evergreen trees, C3 grass, and crops. The maximum LUE values estimated in this study displayed seasonal variation, especially those for deciduous broadleaf forest, but also those for evergreen needleleaf forest.

  3. The Maximum Entropy Principle for Generalized Entropies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukada, Makoto

    2008-03-01

    It is well known that Gibbs states and the Gaussian distribution are characterized by the maximum entropy principle. In this paper we discuss probability distributions which maximize generalized entropies including Rényi's and Tsal-lis's.

  4. Maximum forces and deflections from orthodontic appliances.

    PubMed

    Burstone, C J; Goldberg, A J

    1983-08-01

    The maximum bending moment of an orthodontic wire is an important parameter in the design and use of an orthodontic appliance. It is the wire property that determines how much force an appliance can deliver. A bending test which allows direct measurement of the maximum bending moment was developed. Data produced from this test are independent of wire length and configuration. The maximum bending moment, percent recovery, and maximum springback were determined for round and rectangular cross sections of stainless steel, nickel-titanium, and beta-titanium wires. The data suggest the need for more specifically defining maximum moment and maximum springback. Three maximum bending moments are described: Me, My, and Mult. My and Mult are clinically the most significant. Appliances that are required to have no permanent deformation must operate below My. Appliances that exhibit marked permanent deformation may be used in some applications and, if so, higher bending moments can be produced. In order of magnitude, the maximum bending moment at yield is largest in stainless steel, beta-titanium, and nickel-titanium for a given cross section. Nickel-titanium and beta-titanium have significantly larger springback than stainless steel determined at the moment at yield. Nickel-titanium did not follow the theoretical ratio between ultimate bending moment and the bending moment at yield, exhibiting a very large ratio. The study supports the hypothesis that most orthodontic appliances are activated in a range where both plastic and elastic behavior occurs; therefore, the use of yield strengths for calculation of force magnitude can lead to a significant error in predicting the forces delivered. PMID:6576645

  5. Maximum-Likelihood Detection Of Noncoherent CPM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Simon, Marvin K.

    1993-01-01

    Simplified detectors proposed for use in maximum-likelihood-sequence detection of symbols in alphabet of size M transmitted by uncoded, full-response continuous phase modulation over radio channel with additive white Gaussian noise. Structures of receivers derived from particular interpretation of maximum-likelihood metrics. Receivers include front ends, structures of which depends only on M, analogous to those in receivers of coherent CPM. Parts of receivers following front ends have structures, complexity of which would depend on N.

  6. Human muscle power output during upper- and lower-body exercises.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Judith A; Gilders, Roger M; Staron, Robert S; Hagerman, Frederick C

    2002-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of traditional resistance training equipment in the measurement of muscular power. This was accomplished by measuring the velocity of movement through a measured distance during maximal effort lifts using a Smith rack. The reliability of the method was established using 10 male volunteers who performed both bench press and squat exercises in a Smith rack. Maximal power output was determined at 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, and 90% of the subject's 1 repetition maximum (1RM). Test-retest power values were not statistically different. Another 15 male volunteers who had previous muscle biopsy data from the vastus lateralis muscle performed the same maximal power output evaluation. There were no significant relationships between peak power outputs and fiber-type expressions when linear regressions were performed. The power curve produced by graphing power output vs. the percentage of 1RM indicates that peak power output occurs between 50 and 70% of 1RM for the squat and between 40 and 60% of 1RM for the bench press. These data indicate that this method of evaluation of muscle power is reliable, although it is not predictive of muscle fiber-type percentages. PMID:11991767

  7. Electromyographical and Perceptual Responses to Different Resistance Intensities in a Squat Protocol: Does Performing Sets to Failure With Light Loads Produce the Same Activity?

    PubMed

    Looney, David P; Kraemer, William J; Joseph, Michael F; Comstock, Brett A; Denegar, Craig R; Flanagan, Shawn D; Newton, Robert U; Szivak, Tunde K; DuPont, William H; Hooper, David R; Häkkinen, Keijo; Maresh, Carl M

    2016-03-01

    Looney, DP, Kraemer, WJ, Joseph, MF, Comstock, BA, Denegar, CR, Flanagan, SD, Newton, RU, Szivak, TK, DuPont, WH, Hooper, DR, Häkkinen, K, and Maresh, CM. Electromyographical and perceptual responses to different resistance intensities in a squat protocol: does performing sets to failure with light loads produce the same activity? J Strength Cond Res 30(3): 792-799, 2016-This investigation examined peak motor unit activity during sets that differed in resistance (50, 70, or 90% 1 repetition maximum [1RM]). Ten resistance-trained men (age, 23 ± 3 years; height, 187 ± 7 cm; body mass, 91.5 ± 6.9 kg; squat 1RM, 141 ± 28 kg) were assessed by electromyography (EMG) on the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis muscles in a randomized within-subject experiment consisting of 2 test visits: a drop-set day and a single-set day using only the 50% of 1RM intensity performed to failure. At the start of each day, subjects performed 2 submaximal repetition sets (50% 1RM × 10 repetitions and 70% 1RM × 7 repetitions). On the drop-set day, subjects performed 3 consecutive maximal repetition sets at 90%, 70%, and 50% 1RM to failure with no rest periods in between. On the single-set day, subjects performed a maximal repetition set at 50% 1RM to failure. Overall, the maximal repetition sets to failure at 50% and 70% 1RM resulted in higher peak EMG amplitude than during submaximal repetition sets with the same resistance. However, peak EMG amplitude was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) greater in the maximal 90% 1RM set than all other sets performed. When sets were performed to failure, ratings of perceived exertion (CR-10) did not differ over the intensity range of loads and suggests that perception is not capable of accurately detecting the actual amount of motor unit activation. The results of this investigation indicate that using higher external resistance is a more effective means of increasing motor unit activity than increasing the number of repetitions performed with lighter

  8. Novel Resistance Training-Specific Rating of Perceived Exertion Scale Measuring Repetitions in Reserve.

    PubMed

    Zourdos, Michael C; Klemp, Alex; Dolan, Chad; Quiles, Justin M; Schau, Kyle A; Jo, Edward; Helms, Eric; Esgro, Ben; Duncan, Scott; Garcia Merino, Sonia; Blanco, Rocky

    2016-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to compare rating of perceived exertion (RPE) values measuring repetitions in reserve (RIR) at particular intensities of 1 repetition maximum (RM) in experienced (ES) and novice squatters (NS). Furthermore, this investigation compared average velocity between ES and NS at the same intensities. Twenty-nine individuals (24.0 ± 3.4 years) performed a 1RM squat followed by a single repetition with loads corresponding to 60, 75, and 90% of 1RM and an 8-repetition set at 70% 1RM. Average velocity was recorded at 60, 75, and 90% 1RM and on the first and last repetitions of the 8-repetition set. Subjects reported an RPE value that corresponded to an RIR value (RPE-10 = 0-RIR, RPE-9 = 1-RIR, and so forth). Subjects were assigned to one of the 2 groups: (a) ES (n = 15, training age: 5.2 ± 3.5 years) and (b) NS (n = 14, training age: 0.4 ± 0.6 years). The mean of the average velocities for ES was slower (p ≤ 0.05) than NS at 100% and 90% 1RM. However, there were no differences (p > 0.05) between groups at 60, 75%, or for the first and eighth repetitions at 70% 1RM. In addition, ES recorded greater RPE at 1RM than NS (p = 0.023). In ES, there was a strong inverse relationship between average velocity and RPE at all percentages (r = -0.88, p < 0.001), and a strong inverse correlation in NS between average velocity and RPE at all intensities (r = -0.77, p = 0.001). Our findings demonstrate an inverse relationship between average velocity and RPE/RIR. Experienced squatter group exhibited slower average velocity and higher RPE at 1RM than NS, signaling greater efficiency at high intensities. The RIR-based RPE scale is a practical method to regulate daily training load and provide feedback during a 1RM test. PMID:26049792

  9. Acute ingestion of sugar-free red bull energy drink has no effect on upper body strength and muscular endurance in resistance trained men.

    PubMed

    Eckerson, Joan M; Bull, Anthony J; Baechle, Thomas R; Fischer, Chelsea A; O'Brien, Daniel C; Moore, Geri A; Yee, Jennifer C; Pulverenti, Timothy S

    2013-08-01

    Consumption of energy drinks by both recreational and competitive athletes has increased dramatically in recent years. The primary ingredients in many energy drinks include caffeine (CAF) in various forms and taurine. The purpose of this randomized, double-blind, crossover study was to examine the effect of sugar-free (SF) Red Bull (RB) containing CAF and taurine to a CAF only drink and a SF CAF-free placebo (PL) on 1 repetition maximum (1RM) bench press (BP) and the volume load (VL; repetitions × kg at 70% 1RM) during one BP set to failure in experienced lifters. Seventeen college-age men randomly received the following: (A) 500 mL of SF-RB containing CAF (160 mg) and taurine (2000 mg); (B) 500 mL of a SF drink containing CAF only (160 mg); or (C) a SF CAF-free 500 mL PL drink 60 minutes before testing on 3 separate occasions. After a standard warm-up, the 1RM was determined for each subject and, after 5 minutes rest, they completed repetitions to failure at 70% of their 1RM to assess VL. Differences between trials for 1RM BP and the VL were identified using repeated measures analysis of variance (p < 0.05). The results indicated that neither SF-RB nor the CAF drink had any effect on 1RM BP (115.13 ± 16.19 kg and 114.87 ± 16.16 kg, respectively) or VL (1173.08 ± 170.66 kg and 1164.14 ± 147.03 kg, respectively) compared with PL (1RM = 114.07 ± 16.09 kg; VL = 1141.46 ± 193.41 kg). Although the CAF content in the energy drinks used in the present study was low (∼2.0 mg/kg), the finding of no effect of the CAF containing energy drinks for 1RM BP are in agreement with previous studies using intakes up to 6.0 mg/kg. These findings suggest that SF-RB has no effect on upper body 1RM strength or VL in resistance trained men. PMID:23880655

  10. An Improved Forecasting Method of Sunspot Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Z.; Tian, L.; Han, Y.; Wang, B.; Han, Y.

    2015-12-01

    It has been paid more and more attention for forecasting sunspot maximum of future solar cycle in recent decades, and a variety of forecasting methods have been studied. However, to make an accurate prediction is still very difficult due to the complexities of the characteristics of solar activity. Some authors summerized a variety of methods for the maximum predictions of 22nd, 23rd, 24th solar cycles, the incomplete statistics are 63, 54 and 75 cases respectively, results of the methods, which the difference between forecasting and observed values within the range of ±15%, are 27.0%, 25.9% and 24.3% respectively. Using the 13 points smoothed value of monthly sunspot numbers, we studied correlation between sunspot number rising rate of the first 24 months of the solar cycle and the coming cycle maximum, published forecasting result that the maximum value was 139.2 ± 18.8 for 23rd solar cycle (Han et al., 2000), and the observed value is 120.8, the error is about 15.2%. The present paper describes our improved forecasting methods. First, Vondrak smoothing method is used to deal with the monthly sunspot numbers. It is studied that the relationship between the rise rate of earlier months of sunspot numbers of this smoothed sequence and the coming maximum value in each solar cycles. The results show that the first 22, 23, 24 months rise rate of sunspot numbers are highly related with the coming maximum values, and simulated prediction of maximum for 22~24 cycles show that using the 22-month rise rate of three solar cycles, the maximum forecasting error is about 13.2%, using 23-month rise rate, the maximum error is about 11.2%, while using 24-month rise rate, the maximum error is only about 9.3%. The new method not only improves the forecasting accuracy but also can make the forecasting time in advance at least half a year than the common method using 13 points monthly smoothed value.

  11. Changes in Maximal Strength, Velocity, and Power After 8 Weeks of Training With Pneumatic or Free Weight Resistance.

    PubMed

    Frost, David M; Bronson, Stefanie; Cronin, John B; Newton, Robert U

    2016-04-01

    Frost, DM, Bronson, S, Cronin, JB, and Newton, RU. Changes in maximal strength, velocity, and power after 8 weeks of training with pneumatic or free weight resistance. J Strength Cond Res 30(4): 934-944, 2016-Because free weight (FW) and pneumatic (PN) resistance are characterized by different inertial properties, training with either resistance could afford unique strength, velocity, and power adaptations. Eighteen resistance-trained men completed baseline tests to determine their FW and PN bench press 1 repetition maximum (1RM). During the FW session, 4 explosive repetitions were performed at loads of 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90% 1RM to assess force, velocity, and power. Participants were then assigned to a FW or PN training group, which involved three 90-minute sessions per week for 8 weeks. Both intervention groups completed identical periodized programs with the exception of the resistance used to perform all bench press movements. Free weight participants significantly increased their FW and PN 1RM (10.4 and 9.4%), and maximum (any load) force (9.8%), velocity (11.6%), and power (22.5%). Pneumatic-trained participants also exhibited increases in FW and PN 1RM (11.6 and 17.5%), and maximum force (8.4%), velocity (13.6%), and power (33.4%). Both interventions improved peak barbell velocity at loads of 15 and 30% 1RM; however, only the PN-trained individuals displayed improvements in peak force and power at these same loads. Training with PN resistance may offer advantages if attempting to improve power at lighter relative loads by affording an opportunity to consistently achieve higher accelerations and velocities (F = ma), in comparison with FW. Exploiting the inertial properties of the resistance, whether mass, elastic or PN, could afford an opportunity to develop mixed-method training strategies and/or elicit unique neuromuscular adaptations to suit the specific needs of athletes from sports characterized by varying demands. PMID:26418368

  12. Cell Development obeys Maximum Fisher Information

    PubMed Central

    Frieden, B. Roy; Gatenby, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Eukaryotic cell development has been optimized by natural selection to obey maximal intracellular flux of messenger proteins. This, in turn, implies maximum Fisher information on angular position about a target nuclear pore complex (NPR). The cell is simply modeled as spherical, with cell membrane (CM) diameter 10μm and concentric nuclear membrane (NM) diameter 6μm. The NM contains ≈ 3000 nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). Development requires messenger ligands to travel from the CM-NPC-DNA target binding sites. Ligands acquire negative charge by phosphorylation, passing through the cytoplasm over Newtonian trajectories toward positively charged NPCs (utilizing positive nuclear localization sequences). The CM-NPC channel obeys maximized mean protein flux F and Fisher information I at the NPC, with first-order δI = 0 and approximate 2nd-order δ2I ≈ 0 stability to environmental perturbations. Many of its predictions are confirmed, including the dominance of protein pathways of from 1–4 proteins, a 4nm size for the EGFR protein and the flux value F ≈1016 proteins/m2-s. After entering the nucleus, each protein ultimately delivers its ligand information to a DNA target site with maximum probability, i.e. maximum Kullback-Liebler entropy HKL. In a smoothness limit HKL → IDNA/2, so that the total CM-NPC-DNA channel obeys maximum Fisher I. Thus maximum information → non-equilibrium, one condition for life. PMID:23747917

  13. Maximum permissible voltage of YBCO coated conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, J.; Lin, B.; Sheng, J.; Xu, J.; Jin, Z.; Hong, Z.; Wang, D.; Zhou, H.; Shen, X.; Shen, C.

    2014-06-01

    Superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) could reduce short circuit currents in electrical power system. One of the most important thing in developing SFCL is to find out the maximum permissible voltage of each limiting element. The maximum permissible voltage is defined as the maximum voltage per unit length at which the YBCO coated conductors (CC) do not suffer from critical current (Ic) degradation or burnout. In this research, the time of quenching process is changed and voltage is raised until the Ic degradation or burnout happens. YBCO coated conductors test in the experiment are from American superconductor (AMSC) and Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU). Along with the quenching duration increasing, the maximum permissible voltage of CC decreases. When quenching duration is 100 ms, the maximum permissible of SJTU CC, 12 mm AMSC CC and 4 mm AMSC CC are 0.72 V/cm, 0.52 V/cm and 1.2 V/cm respectively. Based on the results of samples, the whole length of CCs used in the design of a SFCL can be determined.

  14. Surface tension maximum of liquid 3He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Koichi; Hasegawa, Syuichi; Suzuki, Masaru; Okuda, Yuichi

    2000-07-01

    The surface tension of liquid 3He was measured using the capillary-rise method. Suzuki et al. have reported that its temperature dependence was almost quenched below 120 mK. Here we have examined it with higher precision and found that it has a small maximum around 100 mK. The amount of the maximum is about 3×10 -4 as a fraction of the surface tension at 0 K. The density of liquid 3He increases with temperature by about 5×10 -4 in Δ ρ/ ρ between 0 and 100 mK. This density change could be one of the reasons of the surface tension maximum around 100 mK.

  15. The Maximum Mass of Rotating Strange Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szkudlarek, M.; Gondek-Rosiń; ska, D.; Villain, L.; Ansorg, M.

    2012-12-01

    Strange quark stars are considered as a possible alternative to neutron stars as compact objects (e.g. Weber 2003). A hot compact star (a proto-neutron star or a strange star) born in a supernova explosion or a remnant of neutron stars binary merger are expected to rotate differentially and be important sources of gravitational waves. We present results of the first relativistic calculations of differentially rotating strange quark stars for broad ranges of degree of differential rotation and maximum densities. Using a highly accurate, relativistic code we show that rotation may cause a significant increase of maximum allowed mass of strange stars, much larger than in the case of neutron stars with the same degree of differential rotation. Depending on the maximum allowed mass a massive neutron star (strange star) can be temporarily stabilized by differential rotation or collapse to a black hole.

  16. Maximum stabilizer dimension for nonproduct states

    SciTech Connect

    Walck, Scott N.; Lyons, David W.

    2007-08-15

    Composite quantum states can be classified by how they behave under local unitary transformations. Each quantum state has a stabilizer subgroup and a corresponding Lie algebra, the structure of which is a local unitary invariant. In this paper, we study the structure of the stabilizer subalgebra for n-qubit pure states, and find its maximum dimension to be n-1 for nonproduct states of three qubits and higher. The n-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state has a stabilizer subalgebra that achieves the maximum possible dimension for pure nonproduct states. The converse, however, is not true: We show examples of pure 4-qubit states that achieve the maximum nonproduct stabilizer dimension, but have stabilizer subalgebra structures different from that of the n-qubit GHZ state.

  17. Maximum predictive power and the superposition principle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summhammer, Johann

    1994-01-01

    In quantum physics the direct observables are probabilities of events. We ask how observed probabilities must be combined to achieve what we call maximum predictive power. According to this concept the accuracy of a prediction must only depend on the number of runs whose data serve as input for the prediction. We transform each probability to an associated variable whose uncertainty interval depends only on the amount of data and strictly decreases with it. We find that for a probability which is a function of two other probabilities maximum predictive power is achieved when linearly summing their associated variables and transforming back to a probability. This recovers the quantum mechanical superposition principle.

  18. Maximum likelihood clustering with dependent feature trees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chittineni, C. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The decomposition of mixture density of the data into its normal component densities is considered. The densities are approximated with first order dependent feature trees using criteria of mutual information and distance measures. Expressions are presented for the criteria when the densities are Gaussian. By defining different typs of nodes in a general dependent feature tree, maximum likelihood equations are developed for the estimation of parameters using fixed point iterations. The field structure of the data is also taken into account in developing maximum likelihood equations. Experimental results from the processing of remotely sensed multispectral scanner imagery data are included.

  19. Maximum rotation frequency of strange stars

    SciTech Connect

    Zdunik, J.L.; Haensel, P. )

    1990-07-15

    Using the MIT bag model of strange-quark matter, we calculate the maximum angular frequency of the uniform rotation of strange stars. After studying a broad range of the MIT bag-model parameters, we obtain an upper bound of 12.3 kHz.

  20. 33 CFR 401.29 - Maximum draft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Maximum draft. 401.29 Section 401.29 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF... 1 The main channels between the Port of Montreal and Lake Erie have a controlling depth of 8.23m....

  1. 33 CFR 401.29 - Maximum draft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maximum draft. 401.29 Section 401.29 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF... 1 The main channels between the Port of Montreal and Lake Erie have a controlling depth of 8.23m....

  2. 33 CFR 401.29 - Maximum draft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum draft. 401.29 Section 401.29 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF... 1 The main channels between the Port of Montreal and Lake Erie have a controlling depth of 8.23m....

  3. 33 CFR 401.29 - Maximum draft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Maximum draft. 401.29 Section 401.29 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF... tendency to list or squat, so as to avoid striking bottom.1 1 The main channels between the Port...

  4. 5 CFR 9701.312 - Maximum rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maximum rates. 9701.312 Section 9701.312 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN...

  5. 7 CFR 1778.11 - Maximum grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... quantity of potable water, or an anticipated acute shortage or significant decline, cannot exceed $150,000... (CONTINUED) EMERGENCY AND IMMINENT COMMUNITY WATER ASSISTANCE GRANTS § 1778.11 Maximum grants. (a) Grants not to exceed $500,000 may be made to alleviate a significant decline in quantity or quality of...

  6. 7 CFR 1778.11 - Maximum grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... quantity of potable water, or an anticipated acute shortage or significant decline, cannot exceed $150,000... (CONTINUED) EMERGENCY AND IMMINENT COMMUNITY WATER ASSISTANCE GRANTS § 1778.11 Maximum grants. (a) Grants not to exceed $500,000 may be made to alleviate a significant decline in quantity or quality of...

  7. 7 CFR 1778.11 - Maximum grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... quantity of potable water, or an anticipated acute shortage or significant decline, cannot exceed $150,000... (CONTINUED) EMERGENCY AND IMMINENT COMMUNITY WATER ASSISTANCE GRANTS § 1778.11 Maximum grants. (a) Grants not to exceed $500,000 may be made to alleviate a significant decline in quantity or quality of...

  8. Maximum hyperchaos in chaotic nonmonotonic neuronal networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuai, J. W.; Chen, Z. X.; Liu, R. T.; Wu, B. X.

    1997-07-01

    Hyperchaos in chaotic nonmonotonic neuronal networks is discussed with computer simulations. Maximum chaos with all Lyapunov exponents positive is found not only in the present dissipative model with weak coupling connections between neurons, but also with some strong-coupling connections. Although the model presented is a noninvertible map, the information dimension of simple chaos still yields a good approximation to the Lyapunov dimension.

  9. 5 CFR 9701.312 - Maximum rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Overview of Pay System § 9701.312 Maximum rates. (a) DHS may...

  10. 5 CFR 9701.312 - Maximum rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Overview of Pay System § 9701.312 Maximum rates. (a) DHS may...

  11. 5 CFR 9701.312 - Maximum rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Overview of Pay System § 9701.312 Maximum rates. (a) DHS may...

  12. Predicting Maximum Lake Depth from Surrounding Topography

    PubMed Central

    Hollister, Jeffrey W.; Milstead, W. Bryan; Urrutia, M. Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Information about lake morphometry (e.g., depth, volume, size, etc.) aids understanding of the physical and ecological dynamics of lakes, yet is often not readily available. The data needed to calculate measures of lake morphometry, particularly lake depth, are usually collected on a lake-by-lake basis and are difficult to obtain across broad regions. To span the gap between studies of individual lakes where detailed data exist and regional studies where access to useful data on lake depth is unavailable, we developed a method to predict maximum lake depth from the slope of the topography surrounding a lake. We use the National Elevation Dataset and the National Hydrography Dataset – Plus to estimate the percent slope of surrounding lakes and use this information to predict maximum lake depth. We also use field measured maximum lake depths from the US EPA's National Lakes Assessment to empirically adjust and cross-validate our predictions. We were able to predict maximum depth for ∼28,000 lakes in the Northeastern United States with an average cross-validated RMSE of 5.95 m and 5.09 m and average correlation of 0.82 and 0.69 for Hydrological Unit Code Regions 01 and 02, respectively. The depth predictions and the scripts are openly available as supplements to this manuscript. PMID:21984945

  13. Maximum Possible Transverse Velocity in Special Relativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medhekar, Sarang

    1991-01-01

    Using a physical picture, an expression for the maximum possible transverse velocity and orientation required for that by a linear emitter in special theory of relativity has been derived. A differential calculus method is also used to derive the expression. (Author/KR)

  14. Weak scale from the maximum entropy principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamada, Yuta; Kawai, Hikaru; Kawana, Kiyoharu

    2015-03-01

    The theory of the multiverse and wormholes suggests that the parameters of the Standard Model (SM) are fixed in such a way that the radiation of the S3 universe at the final stage S_rad becomes maximum, which we call the maximum entropy principle. Although it is difficult to confirm this principle generally, for a few parameters of the SM, we can check whether S_rad actually becomes maximum at the observed values. In this paper, we regard S_rad at the final stage as a function of the weak scale (the Higgs expectation value) vh, and show that it becomes maximum around vh = {{O}} (300 GeV) when the dimensionless couplings in the SM, i.e., the Higgs self-coupling, the gauge couplings, and the Yukawa couplings are fixed. Roughly speaking, we find that the weak scale is given by vh ˜ T_{BBN}2 / (M_{pl}ye5), where ye is the Yukawa coupling of electron, T_BBN is the temperature at which the Big Bang nucleosynthesis starts, and M_pl is the Planck mass.

  15. 5 CFR 9701.312 - Maximum rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum rates. 9701.312 Section 9701.312 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN...

  16. Comparing maximum pressures in internal combustion engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sparrow, Stanwood W; Lee, Stephen M

    1922-01-01

    Thin metal diaphragms form a satisfactory means for comparing maximum pressures in internal combustion engines. The diaphragm is clamped between two metal washers in a spark plug shell and its thickness is chosen such that, when subjected to explosion pressure, the exposed portion will be sheared from the rim in a short time.

  17. 24 CFR 200.15 - Maximum mortgage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Requirements for Application, Commitment, and Endorsement... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Maximum mortgage. 200.15 Section 200.15 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  18. 24 CFR 200.15 - Maximum mortgage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Requirements for Application, Commitment, and Endorsement... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Maximum mortgage. 200.15 Section 200.15 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  19. Menu Plans: Maximum Nutrition for Minimum Cost.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Child Care, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Suggests that menu planning is the key to getting maximum nutrition in day care meals and snacks for minimum cost. Explores United States Department of Agriculture food pyramid guidelines for children and tips for planning menus and grocery shopping. Includes suggested meal patterns and portion sizes. (HTH)

  20. The 2011 Northern Hemisphere Solar Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altrock, Richard C.

    2013-01-01

    Altrock (1997, Solar Phys. 170, 411) discusses a process in which Fe XIV 530.3 nm emission features appear at high latitudes and gradually migrate towards the equator, merging with the sunspot "butterfly diagram". In cycles 21 - 23 solar maximum occurred when the number of Fe XIV emission regions per day > 0.19 (averaged over 365 days and both hemispheres) first reached latitudes 18°, 21° and 21°, for an average of 20° ± 1.7°. Another high-latitude process is the "Rush to the Poles" of polar crown prominences and their associated coronal emission, including Fe XIV. The Rush is a harbinger of solar maximum (cf. Altrock, 2003, Solar Phys. 216, 343). Solar maximum in cycles 21 - 23 occurred when the center line of the Rush reached a critical latitude. These latitudes were 76°, 74° and 78°, respectively, for an average of 76° ± 2°. Cycle 24 displays an intermittent Rush that is only well-defined in the northern hemisphere. In 2009 an initial slope of 4.6°/yr was found in the north, compared to an average of 9.4 ± 1.7 °/yr in the previous three cycles. However, in 2010 the slope increased to 7.5°/yr. Extending that rate to 76° ± 2° indicates that the solar maximum smoothed sunspot number in the northern hemisphere already occurred at 2011.6 ± 0.3. In the southern hemisphere the Rush is very poorly defined. A linear fit to several maxima would reach 76° in the south at 2014.2. In 1999, persistent Fe XIV coronal emission connected with the ESC appeared near 70° in the north and began migrating towards the equator at a rate 40% slower than the previous two solar cycles. A fit to the early ESC would not reach 20° until 2019.8. However, in 2009 and 2010 an acceleration occurred. Currently the greatest number of emission regions is at 21° in the north and 24°in the south. This indicates that solar maximum is occurring now in the north but not yet in the south. The latest global smoothed sunspot numbers show an inflection point in late 2011, which

  1. 75 FR 43840 - Inflation Adjustment of the Ordinary Maximum and Aggravated Maximum Civil Monetary Penalties for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ... civil monetary penalties per the Inflation Act. See 74 FR 68701 (December 29, 2009). FRA's maximum and... materials violation was $275. 69 FR 30590, May 28, 2004. To implement these SAFETEA-LU amendments to the maximum and minimum penalties, FRA issued a final rule that was published on December 26, 2006, 71...

  2. Theoretical Analysis of Maximum Flow Declination Rate versus Maximum Area Declination Rate in Phonation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Titze, Ingo R.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Maximum flow declination rate (MFDR) in the glottis is known to correlate strongly with vocal intensity in voicing. This declination, or negative slope on the glottal airflow waveform, is in part attributable to the maximum area declination rate (MADR) and in part to the overall inertia of the air column of the vocal tract (lungs to…

  3. 76 FR 1504 - Pipeline Safety: Establishing Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure or Maximum Operating Pressure...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-10

    ...PHMSA is issuing an Advisory Bulletin to remind operators of gas and hazardous liquid pipeline facilities of their responsibilities, under Federal integrity management (IM) regulations, to perform detailed threat and risk analyses that integrate accurate data and information from their entire pipeline system, especially when calculating Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure (MAOP) or Maximum......

  4. Pareto versus lognormal: A maximum entropy test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bee, Marco; Riccaboni, Massimo; Schiavo, Stefano

    2011-08-01

    It is commonly found that distributions that seem to be lognormal over a broad range change to a power-law (Pareto) distribution for the last few percentiles. The distributions of many physical, natural, and social events (earthquake size, species abundance, income and wealth, as well as file, city, and firm sizes) display this structure. We present a test for the occurrence of power-law tails in statistical distributions based on maximum entropy. This methodology allows one to identify the true data-generating processes even in the case when it is neither lognormal nor Pareto. The maximum entropy approach is then compared with other widely used methods and applied to different levels of aggregation of complex systems. Our results provide support for the theory that distributions with lognormal body and Pareto tail can be generated as mixtures of lognormally distributed units.

  5. Model Fit after Pairwise Maximum Likelihood

    PubMed Central

    Barendse, M. T.; Ligtvoet, R.; Timmerman, M. E.; Oort, F. J.

    2016-01-01

    Maximum likelihood factor analysis of discrete data within the structural equation modeling framework rests on the assumption that the observed discrete responses are manifestations of underlying continuous scores that are normally distributed. As maximizing the likelihood of multivariate response patterns is computationally very intensive, the sum of the log–likelihoods of the bivariate response patterns is maximized instead. Little is yet known about how to assess model fit when the analysis is based on such a pairwise maximum likelihood (PML) of two–way contingency tables. We propose new fit criteria for the PML method and conduct a simulation study to evaluate their performance in model selection. With large sample sizes (500 or more), PML performs as well the robust weighted least squares analysis of polychoric correlations. PMID:27148136

  6. Maximum-entropy description of animal movement.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Chris H; Subaşı, Yiğit; Calabrese, Justin M

    2015-03-01

    We introduce a class of maximum-entropy states that naturally includes within it all of the major continuous-time stochastic processes that have been applied to animal movement, including Brownian motion, Ornstein-Uhlenbeck motion, integrated Ornstein-Uhlenbeck motion, a recently discovered hybrid of the previous models, and a new model that describes central-place foraging. We are also able to predict a further hierarchy of new models that will emerge as data quality improves to better resolve the underlying continuity of animal movement. Finally, we also show that Langevin equations must obey a fluctuation-dissipation theorem to generate processes that fall from this class of maximum-entropy distributions when the constraints are purely kinematic. PMID:25871054

  7. Maximum-entropy description of animal movement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleming, Chris H.; Subaşı, Yiǧit; Calabrese, Justin M.

    2015-03-01

    We introduce a class of maximum-entropy states that naturally includes within it all of the major continuous-time stochastic processes that have been applied to animal movement, including Brownian motion, Ornstein-Uhlenbeck motion, integrated Ornstein-Uhlenbeck motion, a recently discovered hybrid of the previous models, and a new model that describes central-place foraging. We are also able to predict a further hierarchy of new models that will emerge as data quality improves to better resolve the underlying continuity of animal movement. Finally, we also show that Langevin equations must obey a fluctuation-dissipation theorem to generate processes that fall from this class of maximum-entropy distributions when the constraints are purely kinematic.

  8. Zipf's law, power laws and maximum entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visser, Matt

    2013-04-01

    Zipf's law, and power laws in general, have attracted and continue to attract considerable attention in a wide variety of disciplines—from astronomy to demographics to software structure to economics to linguistics to zoology, and even warfare. A recent model of random group formation (RGF) attempts a general explanation of such phenomena based on Jaynes' notion of maximum entropy applied to a particular choice of cost function. In the present paper I argue that the specific cost function used in the RGF model is in fact unnecessarily complicated, and that power laws can be obtained in a much simpler way by applying maximum entropy ideas directly to the Shannon entropy subject only to a single constraint: that the average of the logarithm of the observable quantity is specified.

  9. A Maximum Radius for Habitable Planets.

    PubMed

    Alibert, Yann

    2015-09-01

    We compute the maximum radius a planet can have in order to fulfill two constraints that are likely necessary conditions for habitability: 1- surface temperature and pressure compatible with the existence of liquid water, and 2- no ice layer at the bottom of a putative global ocean, that would prevent the operation of the geologic carbon cycle to operate. We demonstrate that, above a given radius, these two constraints cannot be met: in the Super-Earth mass range (1-12 Mearth), the overall maximum that a planet can have varies between 1.8 and 2.3 Rearth. This radius is reduced when considering planets with higher Fe/Si ratios, and taking into account irradiation effects on the structure of the gas envelope. PMID:26159097

  10. Evaluation of the Maximum Allowable Cost Program

    PubMed Central

    Lee, A. James; Hefner, Dennis; Dobson, Allen; Hardy, Ralph

    1983-01-01

    This article summarizes an evaluation of the Maximum Allowable Cost (MAC)-Estimated Acquisition Cost (EAC) program, the Federal Government's cost-containment program for prescription drugs.1 The MAC-EAC regulations which became effective on August 26, 1976, have four major components: (1) Maximum Allowable Cost reimbursement limits for selected multisource or generically available drugs; (2) Estimated Acquisition Cost reimbursement limits for all drugs; (3) “usual and customary” reimbursement limits for all drugs; and (4) a directive that professional fee studies be performed by each State. The study examines the benefits and costs of the MAC reimbursement limits for 15 dosage forms of five multisource drugs and EAC reimbursement limits for all drugs for five selected States as of 1979. PMID:10309857

  11. Maximum independent set on diluted triangular lattices.

    PubMed

    Fay, C W; Liu, J W; Duxbury, P M

    2006-05-01

    Core percolation and maximum independent set on random graphs have recently been characterized using the methods of statistical physics. Here we present a statistical physics study of these problems on bond diluted triangular lattices. Core percolation critical behavior is found to be consistent with the standard percolation values, though there are strong finite size effects. A transfer matrix method is developed and applied to find accurate values of the density and degeneracy of the maximum independent set on lattices of limited width but large length. An extrapolation of these results to the infinite lattice limit yields high precision results, which are tabulated. These results are compared to results found using both vertex based and edge based local probability recursion algorithms, which have proven useful in the analysis of hard computational problems, such as the satisfiability problem. PMID:16803003

  12. Model Fit after Pairwise Maximum Likelihood.

    PubMed

    Barendse, M T; Ligtvoet, R; Timmerman, M E; Oort, F J

    2016-01-01

    Maximum likelihood factor analysis of discrete data within the structural equation modeling framework rests on the assumption that the observed discrete responses are manifestations of underlying continuous scores that are normally distributed. As maximizing the likelihood of multivariate response patterns is computationally very intensive, the sum of the log-likelihoods of the bivariate response patterns is maximized instead. Little is yet known about how to assess model fit when the analysis is based on such a pairwise maximum likelihood (PML) of two-way contingency tables. We propose new fit criteria for the PML method and conduct a simulation study to evaluate their performance in model selection. With large sample sizes (500 or more), PML performs as well the robust weighted least squares analysis of polychoric correlations. PMID:27148136

  13. Tissue Radiation Response with Maximum Tsallis Entropy

    SciTech Connect

    Sotolongo-Grau, O.; Rodriguez-Perez, D.; Antoranz, J. C.; Sotolongo-Costa, Oscar

    2010-10-08

    The expression of survival factors for radiation damaged cells is currently based on probabilistic assumptions and experimentally fitted for each tumor, radiation, and conditions. Here, we show how the simplest of these radiobiological models can be derived from the maximum entropy principle of the classical Boltzmann-Gibbs expression. We extend this derivation using the Tsallis entropy and a cutoff hypothesis, motivated by clinical observations. The obtained expression shows a remarkable agreement with the experimental data found in the literature.

  14. Maximum entropy production - Full steam ahead

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Ralph D.

    2012-05-01

    The application of a principle of Maximum Entropy Production (MEP, or less ambiguously MaxEP) to planetary climate is discussed. This idea suggests that if sufficiently free of dynamical constraints, the atmospheric and oceanic heat flows across a planet may conspire to maximize the generation of mechanical work, or entropy. Thermodynamic and information-theoretic aspects of this idea are discussed. These issues are also discussed in the context of dust devils, convective vortices found in strongly-heated desert areas.

  15. Maximum entropy and Bayesian methods. Proceedings.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandy, W. T., Jr.; Schick, L. H.

    This volume contains a selection of papers presented at the Tenth Annual Workshop on Maximum Entropy and Bayesian Methods. The thirty-six papers included cover a wide range of applications in areas such as economics and econometrics, astronomy and astrophysics, general physics, complex systems, image reconstruction, and probability and mathematics. Together they give an excellent state-of-the-art overview of fundamental methods of data analysis.

  16. Sensor registration using airlanes: maximum likelihood solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ong, Hwa-Tung

    2004-01-01

    In this contribution, the maximum likelihood estimation of sensor registration parameters, such as range, azimuth and elevation biases in radar measurements, using airlane information is proposed and studied. The motivation for using airlane information for sensor registration is that it is freely available as a source of reference and it provides an alternative to conventional techniques that rely on synchronised and correctly associated measurements from two or more sensors. In the paper, the problem is first formulated in terms of a measurement model that is a nonlinear function of the unknown target state and sensor parameters, plus sensor noise. A probabilistic model of the target state is developed based on airlane information. The maximum likelihood and also maximum a posteriori solutions are given. The Cramer-Rao lower bound is derived and simulation results are presented for the case of estimating the biases in radar range, azimuth and elevation measurements. The accuracy of the proposed method is compared against the Cramer-Rao lower bound and that of an existing two-sensor alignment method. It is concluded that sensor registration using airlane information is a feasible alternative to existing techniques.

  17. Sensor registration using airlanes: maximum likelihood solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ong, Hwa-Tung

    2003-12-01

    In this contribution, the maximum likelihood estimation of sensor registration parameters, such as range, azimuth and elevation biases in radar measurements, using airlane information is proposed and studied. The motivation for using airlane information for sensor registration is that it is freely available as a source of reference and it provides an alternative to conventional techniques that rely on synchronised and correctly associated measurements from two or more sensors. In the paper, the problem is first formulated in terms of a measurement model that is a nonlinear function of the unknown target state and sensor parameters, plus sensor noise. A probabilistic model of the target state is developed based on airlane information. The maximum likelihood and also maximum a posteriori solutions are given. The Cramer-Rao lower bound is derived and simulation results are presented for the case of estimating the biases in radar range, azimuth and elevation measurements. The accuracy of the proposed method is compared against the Cramer-Rao lower bound and that of an existing two-sensor alignment method. It is concluded that sensor registration using airlane information is a feasible alternative to existing techniques.

  18. The maximum rate of mammal evolution.

    PubMed

    Evans, Alistair R; Jones, David; Boyer, Alison G; Brown, James H; Costa, Daniel P; Ernest, S K Morgan; Fitzgerald, Erich M G; Fortelius, Mikael; Gittleman, John L; Hamilton, Marcus J; Harding, Larisa E; Lintulaakso, Kari; Lyons, S Kathleen; Okie, Jordan G; Saarinen, Juha J; Sibly, Richard M; Smith, Felisa A; Stephens, Patrick R; Theodor, Jessica M; Uhen, Mark D

    2012-03-13

    How fast can a mammal evolve from the size of a mouse to the size of an elephant? Achieving such a large transformation calls for major biological reorganization. Thus, the speed at which this occurs has important implications for extensive faunal changes, including adaptive radiations and recovery from mass extinctions. To quantify the pace of large-scale evolution we developed a metric, clade maximum rate, which represents the maximum evolutionary rate of a trait within a clade. We applied this metric to body mass evolution in mammals over the last 70 million years, during which multiple large evolutionary transitions occurred in oceans and on continents and islands. Our computations suggest that it took a minimum of 1.6, 5.1, and 10 million generations for terrestrial mammal mass to increase 100-, and 1,000-, and 5,000-fold, respectively. Values for whales were down to half the length (i.e., 1.1, 3, and 5 million generations), perhaps due to the reduced mechanical constraints of living in an aquatic environment. When differences in generation time are considered, we find an exponential increase in maximum mammal body mass during the 35 million years following the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) extinction event. Our results also indicate a basic asymmetry in macroevolution: very large decreases (such as extreme insular dwarfism) can happen at more than 10 times the rate of increases. Our findings allow more rigorous comparisons of microevolutionary and macroevolutionary patterns and processes. PMID:22308461

  19. The maximum rate of mammal evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Alistair R.; Jones, David; Boyer, Alison G.; Brown, James H.; Costa, Daniel P.; Ernest, S. K. Morgan; Fitzgerald, Erich M. G.; Fortelius, Mikael; Gittleman, John L.; Hamilton, Marcus J.; Harding, Larisa E.; Lintulaakso, Kari; Lyons, S. Kathleen; Okie, Jordan G.; Saarinen, Juha J.; Sibly, Richard M.; Smith, Felisa A.; Stephens, Patrick R.; Theodor, Jessica M.; Uhen, Mark D.

    2012-03-01

    How fast can a mammal evolve from the size of a mouse to the size of an elephant? Achieving such a large transformation calls for major biological reorganization. Thus, the speed at which this occurs has important implications for extensive faunal changes, including adaptive radiations and recovery from mass extinctions. To quantify the pace of large-scale evolution we developed a metric, clade maximum rate, which represents the maximum evolutionary rate of a trait within a clade. We applied this metric to body mass evolution in mammals over the last 70 million years, during which multiple large evolutionary transitions occurred in oceans and on continents and islands. Our computations suggest that it took a minimum of 1.6, 5.1, and 10 million generations for terrestrial mammal mass to increase 100-, and 1,000-, and 5,000-fold, respectively. Values for whales were down to half the length (i.e., 1.1, 3, and 5 million generations), perhaps due to the reduced mechanical constraints of living in an aquatic environment. When differences in generation time are considered, we find an exponential increase in maximum mammal body mass during the 35 million years following the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) extinction event. Our results also indicate a basic asymmetry in macroevolution: very large decreases (such as extreme insular dwarfism) can happen at more than 10 times the rate of increases. Our findings allow more rigorous comparisons of microevolutionary and macroevolutionary patterns and processes.

  20. Maximum-biomass prediction of homofermentative Lactobacillus.

    PubMed

    Cui, Shumao; Zhao, Jianxin; Liu, Xiaoming; Chen, Yong Q; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei

    2016-07-01

    Fed-batch and pH-controlled cultures have been widely used for industrial production of probiotics. The aim of this study was to systematically investigate the relationship between the maximum biomass of different homofermentative Lactobacillus and lactate accumulation, and to develop a prediction equation for the maximum biomass concentration in such cultures. The accumulation of the end products and the depletion of nutrients by various strains were evaluated. In addition, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of acid anions for various strains at pH 7.0 were examined. The lactate concentration at the point of complete inhibition was not significantly different from the MIC of lactate for all of the strains, although the inhibition mechanism of lactate and acetate on Lactobacillus rhamnosus was different from the other strains which were inhibited by the osmotic pressure caused by acid anions at pH 7.0. When the lactate concentration accumulated to the MIC, the strains stopped growing. The maximum biomass was closely related to the biomass yield per unit of lactate produced (YX/P) and the MIC (C) of lactate for different homofermentative Lactobacillus. Based on the experimental data obtained using different homofermentative Lactobacillus, a prediction equation was established as follows: Xmax - X0 = (0.59 ± 0.02)·YX/P·C. PMID:26896862

  1. "SPURS" in the North Atlantic Salinity Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Raymond

    2014-05-01

    The North Atlantic Salinity Maximum is the world's saltiest open ocean salinity maximum and was the focus of the recent Salinity Processes Upper-ocean Regional Study (SPURS) program. SPURS was a joint venture between US, French, Irish, and Spanish investigators. Three US and two EU cruises were involved from August, 1012 - October, 2013 as well as surface moorings, glider, drifter and float deployments. Shipboard operations included underway meteorological and oceanic data, hydrographic surveys and turbulence profiling. The goal is to improve our understanding of how the salinity maximum is maintained and how it may be changing. It is formed by an excess of evaporation over precipitation and the wind-driven convergence of the subtropical gyre. Such salty areas are getting saltier with global warming (a record high SSS was observed in SPURS) and it is imperative to determine the relative roles of surface water fluxes and oceanic processes in such trends. The combination of accurate surface flux estimates with new assessments of vertical and horizontal mixing in the ocean will help elucidate the utility of ocean salinity in quantifying the changing global water cycle.

  2. Maximum entropy analysis of cosmic ray composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nosek, Dalibor; Ebr, Jan; Vícha, Jakub; Trávníček, Petr; Nosková, Jana

    2016-03-01

    We focus on the primary composition of cosmic rays with the highest energies that cause extensive air showers in the Earth's atmosphere. A way of examining the two lowest order moments of the sample distribution of the depth of shower maximum is presented. The aim is to show that useful information about the composition of the primary beam can be inferred with limited knowledge we have about processes underlying these observations. In order to describe how the moments of the depth of shower maximum depend on the type of primary particles and their energies, we utilize a superposition model. Using the principle of maximum entropy, we are able to determine what trends in the primary composition are consistent with the input data, while relying on a limited amount of information from shower physics. Some capabilities and limitations of the proposed method are discussed. In order to achieve a realistic description of the primary mass composition, we pay special attention to the choice of the parameters of the superposition model. We present two examples that demonstrate what consequences can be drawn for energy dependent changes in the primary composition.

  3. Kettlebell swing training improves maximal and explosive strength.

    PubMed

    Lake, Jason P; Lauder, Mike A

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the effect that kettlebell swing (KB) training had on measures of maximum (half squat-HS-1 repetition maximum [1RM]) and explosive (vertical jump height-VJH) strength. To put these effects into context, they were compared with the effects of jump squat power training (JS-known to improve 1RM and VJH). Twenty-one healthy men (age = 18-27 years, body mass = 72.58 ± 12.87 kg) who could perform a proficient HS were tested for their HS 1RM and VJH pre- and post-training. Subjects were randomly assigned to either a KB or JS training group after HS 1RM testing and trained twice a week. The KB group performed 12-minute bouts of KB exercise (12 rounds of 30-second exercise, 30-second rest with 12 kg if <70 kg or 16 kg if >70 kg). The JS group performed at least 4 sets of 3 JS with the load that maximized peak power-Training volume was altered to accommodate different training loads and ranged from 4 sets of 3 with the heaviest load (60% 1RM) to 8 sets of 6 with the lightest load (0% 1RM). Maximum strength improved by 9.8% (HS 1RM: 165-181% body mass, p < 0.001) after the training intervention, and post hoc analysis revealed that there was no significant difference between the effect of KB and JS training (p = 0.56). Explosive strength improved by 19.8% (VJH: 20.6-24.3 cm) after the training intervention, and post hoc analysis revealed that the type of training did not significantly affect this either (p = 0.38). The results of this study clearly demonstrate that 6 weeks of biweekly KB training provides a stimulus that is sufficient to increase both maximum and explosive strength offering a useful alternative to strength and conditioning professionals seeking variety for their athletes. PMID:22580981

  4. Collaborative double robust targeted maximum likelihood estimation.

    PubMed

    van der Laan, Mark J; Gruber, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Collaborative double robust targeted maximum likelihood estimators represent a fundamental further advance over standard targeted maximum likelihood estimators of a pathwise differentiable parameter of a data generating distribution in a semiparametric model, introduced in van der Laan, Rubin (2006). The targeted maximum likelihood approach involves fluctuating an initial estimate of a relevant factor (Q) of the density of the observed data, in order to make a bias/variance tradeoff targeted towards the parameter of interest. The fluctuation involves estimation of a nuisance parameter portion of the likelihood, g. TMLE has been shown to be consistent and asymptotically normally distributed (CAN) under regularity conditions, when either one of these two factors of the likelihood of the data is correctly specified, and it is semiparametric efficient if both are correctly specified. In this article we provide a template for applying collaborative targeted maximum likelihood estimation (C-TMLE) to the estimation of pathwise differentiable parameters in semi-parametric models. The procedure creates a sequence of candidate targeted maximum likelihood estimators based on an initial estimate for Q coupled with a succession of increasingly non-parametric estimates for g. In a departure from current state of the art nuisance parameter estimation, C-TMLE estimates of g are constructed based on a loss function for the targeted maximum likelihood estimator of the relevant factor Q that uses the nuisance parameter to carry out the fluctuation, instead of a loss function for the nuisance parameter itself. Likelihood-based cross-validation is used to select the best estimator among all candidate TMLE estimators of Q(0) in this sequence. A penalized-likelihood loss function for Q is suggested when the parameter of interest is borderline-identifiable. We present theoretical results for "collaborative double robustness," demonstrating that the collaborative targeted maximum

  5. Collaborative Double Robust Targeted Maximum Likelihood Estimation*

    PubMed Central

    van der Laan, Mark J.; Gruber, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Collaborative double robust targeted maximum likelihood estimators represent a fundamental further advance over standard targeted maximum likelihood estimators of a pathwise differentiable parameter of a data generating distribution in a semiparametric model, introduced in van der Laan, Rubin (2006). The targeted maximum likelihood approach involves fluctuating an initial estimate of a relevant factor (Q) of the density of the observed data, in order to make a bias/variance tradeoff targeted towards the parameter of interest. The fluctuation involves estimation of a nuisance parameter portion of the likelihood, g. TMLE has been shown to be consistent and asymptotically normally distributed (CAN) under regularity conditions, when either one of these two factors of the likelihood of the data is correctly specified, and it is semiparametric efficient if both are correctly specified. In this article we provide a template for applying collaborative targeted maximum likelihood estimation (C-TMLE) to the estimation of pathwise differentiable parameters in semi-parametric models. The procedure creates a sequence of candidate targeted maximum likelihood estimators based on an initial estimate for Q coupled with a succession of increasingly non-parametric estimates for g. In a departure from current state of the art nuisance parameter estimation, C-TMLE estimates of g are constructed based on a loss function for the targeted maximum likelihood estimator of the relevant factor Q that uses the nuisance parameter to carry out the fluctuation, instead of a loss function for the nuisance parameter itself. Likelihood-based cross-validation is used to select the best estimator among all candidate TMLE estimators of Q0 in this sequence. A penalized-likelihood loss function for Q is suggested when the parameter of interest is borderline-identifiable. We present theoretical results for “collaborative double robustness,” demonstrating that the collaborative targeted maximum

  6. Middle Holocene thermal maximum in eastern Beringia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, D. S.; Bartlein, P. J.

    2015-12-01

    A new systematic review of diverse Holocene paleoenvironmental records (Kaufman et al., Quat. Sci. Rev., in revision) has clarified the primary multi-centennial- to millennial-scale trends across eastern Beringia (Alaska, westernmost Canada and adjacent seas). Composite time series from midges, pollen, and biogeochemical indicators are compared with new summaries of mountain-glacier and lake-level fluctuations, terrestrial water-isotope records, sea-ice and sea-surface-temperature analyses, and peatland and thaw-lake initiation frequencies. The paleo observations are also compared with recently published simulations (Bartlein et al., Clim. Past Discuss., 2015) that used a regional climate model to simulate the effects of global and regional-scale forcings at 11 and 6 ka. During the early Holocene (11.5-8 ka), rather than a prominent thermal maximum as suggested previously, the newly compiled paleo evidence (mostly sensitive to summer conditions) indicates that temperatures were highly variable, at times both higher and lower than present, although the overall lowest average temperatures occurred during the earliest Holocene. During the middle Holocene (8-4 ka), glaciers retreated as the regional average temperature increased to a maximum between 7 and 5 ka, as reflected in most proxy types. The paleo evidence for low and variable temperatures during the early Holocene contrasts with more uniformly high temperatures during the middle Holocene and agrees with the climate simulations, which show that temperature in eastern Beringia was on average lower at 11 ka and higher at 6 ka than at present (pre-industrial). Low temperatures during the early Holocene can be attributed in part to the summer chilling caused by flooding the continental shelves, whereas the mid-Holocene thermal maximum was likely driven by the loss of the Laurentide ice sheet, rise in greenhouse gases, higher-than-present summer insolation, and expansion of forest over tundra.

  7. Maximum caliber inference of nonequilibrium processes.

    PubMed

    Otten, Moritz; Stock, Gerhard

    2010-07-21

    Thirty years ago, Jaynes suggested a general theoretical approach to nonequilibrium statistical mechanics, called maximum caliber (MaxCal) [Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 31, 579 (1980)]. MaxCal is a variational principle for dynamics in the same spirit that maximum entropy is a variational principle for equilibrium statistical mechanics. Motivated by the success of maximum entropy inference methods for equilibrium problems, in this work the MaxCal formulation is applied to the inference of nonequilibrium processes. That is, given some time-dependent observables of a dynamical process, one constructs a model that reproduces these input data and moreover, predicts the underlying dynamics of the system. For example, the observables could be some time-resolved measurements of the folding of a protein, which are described by a few-state model of the free energy landscape of the system. MaxCal then calculates the probabilities of an ensemble of trajectories such that on average the data are reproduced. From this probability distribution, any dynamical quantity of the system can be calculated, including population probabilities, fluxes, or waiting time distributions. After briefly reviewing the formalism, the practical numerical implementation of MaxCal in the case of an inference problem is discussed. Adopting various few-state models of increasing complexity, it is demonstrated that the MaxCal principle indeed works as a practical method of inference: The scheme is fairly robust and yields correct results as long as the input data are sufficient. As the method is unbiased and general, it can deal with any kind of time dependency such as oscillatory transients and multitime decays. PMID:20649320

  8. Maximum aposteriori joint source/channel coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sayood, Khalid; Gibson, Jerry D.

    1991-01-01

    A maximum aposteriori probability (MAP) approach to joint source/channel coder design is presented in this paper. This method attempts to explore a technique for designing joint source/channel codes, rather than ways of distributing bits between source coders and channel coders. For a nonideal source coder, MAP arguments are used to design a decoder which takes advantage of redundancy in the source coder output to perform error correction. Once the decoder is obtained, it is analyzed with the purpose of obtaining 'desirable properties' of the channel input sequence for improving overall system performance. Finally, an encoder design which incorporates these properties is proposed.

  9. Design of toroidal transformers for maximum efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dayton, J. A., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    The design of the most efficient toroidal transformer that can be built given the frequency, volt-ampere rating, magnetic flux density, window fill factor, and materials is described. With the above all held constant and only the dimensions of the magnetic core varied, the most efficient design occurs when the copper losses equal 60 percent of the iron losses. When this criterion is followed, efficiency is only slightly dependent on design frequency and fill factor. The ratios of inside diameter to outside diameter and height to build of the magnetic core that result in transformers of maximum efficiency are computed.

  10. Multiperiod Maximum Loss is time unit invariant.

    PubMed

    Kovacevic, Raimund M; Breuer, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Time unit invariance is introduced as an additional requirement for multiperiod risk measures: for a constant portfolio under an i.i.d. risk factor process, the multiperiod risk should equal the one period risk of the aggregated loss, for an appropriate choice of parameters and independent of the portfolio and its distribution. Multiperiod Maximum Loss over a sequence of Kullback-Leibler balls is time unit invariant. This is also the case for the entropic risk measure. On the other hand, multiperiod Value at Risk and multiperiod Expected Shortfall are not time unit invariant. PMID:27563531

  11. Dynamical maximum entropy approach to flocking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavagna, Andrea; Giardina, Irene; Ginelli, Francesco; Mora, Thierry; Piovani, Duccio; Tavarone, Raffaele; Walczak, Aleksandra M.

    2014-04-01

    We derive a new method to infer from data the out-of-equilibrium alignment dynamics of collectively moving animal groups, by considering the maximum entropy model distribution consistent with temporal and spatial correlations of flight direction. When bird neighborhoods evolve rapidly, this dynamical inference correctly learns the parameters of the model, while a static one relying only on the spatial correlations fails. When neighbors change slowly and the detailed balance is satisfied, we recover the static procedure. We demonstrate the validity of the method on simulated data. The approach is applicable to other systems of active matter.

  12. Maximum a posteriori decoder for digital communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altes, Richard A. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A system and method for decoding by identification of the most likely phase coded signal corresponding to received data. The present invention has particular application to communication with signals that experience spurious random phase perturbations. The generalized estimator-correlator uses a maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimator to generate phase estimates for correlation with incoming data samples and for correlation with mean phases indicative of unique hypothesized signals. The result is a MAP likelihood statistic for each hypothesized transmission, wherein the highest value statistic identifies the transmitted signal.

  13. Conductivity maximum in a charged colloidal suspension

    SciTech Connect

    Bastea, S

    2009-01-27

    Molecular dynamics simulations of a charged colloidal suspension in the salt-free regime show that the system exhibits an electrical conductivity maximum as a function of colloid charge. We attribute this behavior to two main competing effects: colloid effective charge saturation due to counterion 'condensation' and diffusion slowdown due to the relaxation effect. In agreement with previous observations, we also find that the effective transported charge is larger than the one determined by the Stern layer and suggest that it corresponds to the boundary fluid layer at the surface of the colloidal particles.

  14. Efficient maximum entropy algorithms for electronic structure

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, R.N.; Roeder, H.; Voter, A.F.; Kress, J.D.

    1996-04-01

    Two Chebyshev recursion methods are presented for calculations with very large sparse Hamiltonians, the kernel polynomial method (KPM) and the maximum entropy method (MEM). If limited statistical accuracy and energy resolution are acceptable, they provide linear scaling methods for the calculation of physical properties involving large numbers of eigenstates such as densities of states, spectral functions, thermodynamics, total energies for Monte Carlo simulations and forces for molecular dynamics. KPM provides a uniform approximation to a DOS, with resolution inversely proportional to the number of Chebyshev moments, while MEM can achieve significantly higher, but non-uniform, resolution at the risk of possible artifacts. This paper emphasizes efficient algorithms.

  15. An Improved Maximum Neural Network with Stochastic Dynamics Characteristic for Maximum Clique Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Gang; Tang, Zheng; Dai, Hongwei

    Through analyzing the dynamics characteristic of maximum neural network with an added vertex, we find that the solution quality is mainly determined by the added vertex weights. In order to increase maximum neural network ability, a stochastic nonlinear self-feedback and flexible annealing strategy are embedded in maximum neural network, which makes the network more powerful to escape local minima and be independent of the initial values. Simultaneously, we present that solving ability of maximum neural network is dependence on problem. We introduce a new parameter into our network to improve the solving ability. The simulation in k random graph and some DIMACS clique instances in the second DIMACS challenge shows that our improved network is superior to other algorithms in light of the solution quality and CPU time.

  16. Maximum likelihood decoding of Reed Solomon Codes

    SciTech Connect

    Sudan, M.

    1996-12-31

    We present a randomized algorithm which takes as input n distinct points ((x{sub i}, y{sub i})){sup n}{sub i=1} from F x F (where F is a field) and integer parameters t and d and returns a list of all univariate polynomials f over F in the variable x of degree at most d which agree with the given set of points in at least t places (i.e., y{sub i} = f (x{sub i}) for at least t values of i), provided t = {Omega}({radical}nd). The running time is bounded by a polynomial in n. This immediately provides a maximum likelihood decoding algorithm for Reed Solomon Codes, which works in a setting with a larger number of errors than any previously known algorithm. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first efficient (i.e., polynomial time bounded) algorithm which provides some maximum likelihood decoding for any efficient (i.e., constant or even polynomial rate) code.

  17. States of Maximum Thermodynamic Efficiency In Daisyworld

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujol, T.

    Daisyworld is the simplest example used to illustrate the implications of the Gaia hypothesis. The interaction between the environment and the biota follows from the assumption of using daisies with different colours (i.e., albedos) than that of the bare earth. Then, the amount of daisies may modify the energy absorbed by the planet. In the classical version of Daisyworld, turbulent fluxes adopt a diffusive approximation, which clearly constraints the range of values for the solar insolation from which biota may grow in the planet. Here we apply the maximum entropy principle (MEP) to Daisyworld. We conclude that the MEP sets the maximum range of values for the solar insolation with a non-zero amount of daisies. Outside this range, daisies cannot grow in the planet for any physically realistic heat flux. Inside this range, the distribution of daisies is set to agree with the MEP. The range of values for the solar insolation from which biota stabilises the climate is substantially enlarged in comparison with the classical version of Daisyworld.

  18. 14 CFR 23.1524 - Maximum passenger seating configuration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maximum passenger seating configuration. 23... Operating Limitations and Information § 23.1524 Maximum passenger seating configuration. The maximum passenger seating configuration must be established....

  19. 14 CFR 23.1524 - Maximum passenger seating configuration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maximum passenger seating configuration. 23... Operating Limitations and Information § 23.1524 Maximum passenger seating configuration. The maximum passenger seating configuration must be established....

  20. 14 CFR 23.1524 - Maximum passenger seating configuration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maximum passenger seating configuration. 23... Operating Limitations and Information § 23.1524 Maximum passenger seating configuration. The maximum passenger seating configuration must be established....

  1. 14 CFR 23.1524 - Maximum passenger seating configuration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum passenger seating configuration. 23... Operating Limitations and Information § 23.1524 Maximum passenger seating configuration. The maximum passenger seating configuration must be established....

  2. 14 CFR 23.1524 - Maximum passenger seating configuration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maximum passenger seating configuration. 23... Operating Limitations and Information § 23.1524 Maximum passenger seating configuration. The maximum passenger seating configuration must be established....

  3. Hydraulic Limits on Maximum Plant Transpiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzoni, S.; Vico, G.; Katul, G. G.; Palmroth, S.; Jackson, R. B.; Porporato, A. M.

    2011-12-01

    Photosynthesis occurs at the expense of water losses through transpiration. As a consequence of this basic carbon-water interaction at the leaf level, plant growth and ecosystem carbon exchanges are tightly coupled to transpiration. In this contribution, the hydraulic constraints that limit transpiration rates under well-watered conditions are examined across plant functional types and climates. The potential water flow through plants is proportional to both xylem hydraulic conductivity (which depends on plant carbon economy) and the difference in water potential between the soil and the atmosphere (the driving force that pulls water from the soil). Differently from previous works, we study how this potential flux changes with the amplitude of the driving force (i.e., we focus on xylem properties and not on stomatal regulation). Xylem hydraulic conductivity decreases as the driving force increases due to cavitation of the tissues. As a result of this negative feedback, more negative leaf (and xylem) water potentials would provide a stronger driving force for water transport, while at the same time limiting xylem hydraulic conductivity due to cavitation. Here, the leaf water potential value that allows an optimum balance between driving force and xylem conductivity is quantified, thus defining the maximum transpiration rate that can be sustained by the soil-to-leaf hydraulic system. To apply the proposed framework at the global scale, a novel database of xylem conductivity and cavitation vulnerability across plant types and biomes is developed. Conductivity and water potential at 50% cavitation are shown to be complementary (in particular between angiosperms and conifers), suggesting a tradeoff between transport efficiency and hydraulic safety. Plants from warmer and drier biomes tend to achieve larger maximum transpiration than plants growing in environments with lower atmospheric water demand. The predicted maximum transpiration and the corresponding leaf water

  4. Unilateral vs. Bilateral Squat Training for Strength, Sprints, and Agility in Academy Rugby Players.

    PubMed

    Speirs, Derrick E; Bennett, Mark A; Finn, Charlotte V; Turner, Anthony P

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a 5-week lower-limb unilateral or bilateral strength program on measures of strength, sprinting, and change of direction speed. Eighteen academy rugby players (18.1 ± 0.5 years, 97.4 ± 11.3 kg, 183.7 ± 11.3 cm) were randomly assigned to either a unilateral (UNI) or bilateral (BI) group. The UNI group squatted exclusively with the rear elevated split squat (RESS), whereas the BI group trained only with the bilateral back squat (BS). Both groups trained at a relative percentage of the respective 1 repetition maximum (1RM) twice weekly over a 5-week period. Subjects were assessed at baseline and postintervention for 1RM BS, 1RM RESS, 10-m sprint, 40-m sprint, and pro-agility. There was a significant main effect of time for 1RM BS (F1,16 = 86.5, p < 0.001), ES (0.84 < Cohen d < 0.92), 1RM RESS (F1,16 = 133.0, p < 0.001), ES (0.89 < Cohen d < 0.94), 40-m sprint (F1,16 = 14.4, p = 0.002), ES (0.47 < Cohen d < 0.67) and pro-agility (F1,16 = 55.9, p < 0.001), ES (0.77 < Cohen d < 0.89), but not 10-m sprints (F1,16 = 2.69, p = 0.121), ES (0.14 < Cohen d < 0.38). No significant interactions between group and time were observed for any of the dependent variables. This is the first study to suggest that BI and UNI training interventions may be equally efficacious in improving measures of lower-body strength, 40-m speed, and change of direction in academy level rugby players. PMID:26200193

  5. Baseline strength can influence the ability of salivary free testosterone to predict squat and sprinting performance.

    PubMed

    Crewther, Blair T; Cook, Christian J; Gaviglio, Chris M; Kilduff, Liam P; Drawer, Scott

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if salivary free testosterone can predict an athlete's performance during back squats and sprints over time and the influence baseline strength on this relationship. Ten weight-trained male athletes were divided into 2 groups based on their 1 repetition maximum (1RM) squats, good squatters (1RM > 2.0 × body weight, n = 5) and average squatters (1RM < 1.9 × body weight, n = 5). The good squatters were stronger than the average squatters (p < 0.05). Each subject was assessed for squat 1RM and 10-m sprint times on 10 separate occasions over a 40-day period. A saliva sample was collected before testing and assayed for free testosterone and cortisol. The pooled testosterone correlations were strong and significant in the good squatters (r = 0.92 for squats, r = -0.87 for sprints, p < 0.01), but not significant for the average squatters (r = 0.35 for squats, r = -0.18 for sprints). Cortisol showed no significant correlations with 1RM squat and 10-m sprint performance, and no differences were identified between the 2 squatting groups. In summary, these results suggest that free testosterone is a strong individual predictor of squat and sprinting performance in individuals with relatively high strength levels but a poor predictor in less strong individuals. This information can assist coaches, trainers, and performance scientists working with stronger weight-trained athletes, for example, the preworkout measurement of free testosterone could indicate likely training outcomes or a readiness to train at a certain intensity level, especially if real-time measurements are made. Our results also highlight the need to separate group and individual hormonal data during the repeated testing of athletes with variable strength levels. PMID:22201698

  6. Acute Effects of Elastic Bands on Kinetic Characteristics During the Deadlift at Moderate and Heavy Loads.

    PubMed

    Galpin, Andrew J; Malyszek, Kylie K; Davis, Kyle A; Record, Shaina M; Brown, Lee E; Coburn, Jared W; Harmon, RoQue A; Steele, Jeff M; Manolovitz, Adam D

    2015-12-01

    Loading a barbell with variable resistance positively alters kinetic characteristics during the back squat and bench press but has never been studied during the deadlift. The purpose of this project was to examine the acute effects of combining elastic bands and free weights during the deadlift at moderate and heavy loads. Twelve trained men (age: 24.08 ± 2.35 years, height: 175.94 ± 5.38 cm, mass: 85.58 ± 12.49 kg, deadlift 1 repetition maximum (RM): 188.64 ± 16.13 kg) completed 2 variable resistance (B1 and B2) and 1 traditional free-weight (NB) condition at both 60 and 85% 1RM on a force plate. B1 had 15% resistance from bands, with the remaining 85% from free weights. B2 had 35% bands and 65% free weights. NB used free weights only. Average resistance was equated for all conditions. Power and velocity generally increased, whereas force decreased with the addition of bands. The amount of band tension (B1 or B2) had little impact on power when lifting at 60% 1RM. However, greater resistance from bands resulted in greater peak and relative power when lifting at 85% 1RM. Adding elastic bands decreased time to peak force (PF), time between PF and peak power (PP), and time between PF and peak velocity (PV) when compared with NB at 60% 1RM (NB > B1 > B2). These differences only reached significance for NB > B2 when lifting at 85% 1RM. These same differences existed for time between PP and PV. Thus, the amount of tension from bands has less impact on interpeak variables at heavier absolute loads. Practitioners should consider using heavy bands when prescribing the deadlift for speed or power, but not maximal force. PMID:26079737

  7. Elastic Bands as a Component of Periodized Resistance Training.

    PubMed

    Joy, Jordan M; Lowery, Ryan P; Oliveira de Souza, Eduardo; Wilson, Jacob M

    2016-08-01

    Joy, JM, Lowery, RP, Oliveira de Souza, E, and Wilson, JM. Elastic bands as a component of periodized resistance training. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2100-2106, 2016-Variable resistance training (VRT) has recently become a component of strength and conditioning programs. Prior research has demonstrated increases in power and/or strength using low loads of variable resistance. However, no study has examined using high loads of variable resistance as a part of a periodized training protocol to examine VRT within the context of a periodized training program and to examine a greater load of variable resistance than has been examined in prior research. Fourteen National Collegiate Athletic Association division II male basketball players were recruited for this study. Athletes were divided equally into either a variable resistance or control group. The variable resistance group added 30% of their 1 repetition maximum (1RM) as band tension to their prescribed weight 1 session per week. Rate of power development (RPD), peak power, strength, body composition, and vertical jump height were measured pretreatment and posttreatment. No baseline differences were observed between groups for any measurement of strength, power, or body composition. A significant group by time interaction was observed for RPD, in which RPD was greater in VRT posttraining than in the control group. Significant time effects were observed for all other variables including squat 1RM, bench press 1RM, deadlift 1RM, clean 3RM, vertical jump, and lean mass. Although there were no significant group ×-time interactions, the VRT group's percent changes and effect sizes indicate a larger treatment effect in the squat and bench press 1RM values and the vertical jump performed on the force plate and vertec. These results suggest that when using variable resistance as a component of a periodized training program, power and strength can be enhanced. Therefore, athletes who add variable resistance to 1 training

  8. Maximal strength on different resistance training rowing exercises predicts start phase performance in elite kayakers.

    PubMed

    Ualí, Ismael; Herrero, Azael J; Garatachea, Nuria; Marín, Pedro J; Alvear-Ordenes, Ildefonso; García-López, David

    2012-04-01

    This study aimed to examine the relationship existing between maximum strength values in 2 common resistance training row exercises (bilateral bench pull [BBP] and one-arm cable row [OACR]) and short sprint performance in elite kayakers. Ten junior kayakers (5 women and 5 men) were tested on different days for 1 repetition maximum (1RM) and maximal voluntary isometric contraction in both exercises. Moreover, a 12-m sprint kayak was performed in a dew pond to record split times (2, 5, and 10 m), peak velocity, distance completed considering the first 8 strokes, and mean acceleration induced by right blade and left blade strokes. No differences (p > 0.05) were observed when right and left arms were compared in sprint testing or strength testing variables. Maximal strength values in BBP and OACR were significantly correlated with short sprint performance variables, showing the bilateral exercise with slightly stronger correlation coefficients than the unilateral seated row. Moreover, the relationship between strength testing and sprint testing variables is stronger when maximal force is measured through a dynamic approach (1RM) in comparison with an isometric approach. In conclusion, maximal strength in BBP and OACR is a good predictor of the start phase performance in elite sprint kayakers, mainly the 1RM value in BBP. PMID:22446667

  9. Approximate maximum likelihood decoding of block codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberger, H. J.

    1979-01-01

    Approximate maximum likelihood decoding algorithms, based upon selecting a small set of candidate code words with the aid of the estimated probability of error of each received symbol, can give performance close to optimum with a reasonable amount of computation. By combining the best features of various algorithms and taking care to perform each step as efficiently as possible, a decoding scheme was developed which can decode codes which have better performance than those presently in use and yet not require an unreasonable amount of computation. The discussion of the details and tradeoffs of presently known efficient optimum and near optimum decoding algorithms leads, naturally, to the one which embodies the best features of all of them.

  10. Lead in soil: Recommended maximum permissible levels

    SciTech Connect

    Madhavan, S.; Rosenman, K.D.; Shehata, T.

    1989-06-01

    Lead in soil has been recognized as a public health problem, particularly among children. In recent years, attention has been directed to cumulative adverse effects of lead at low levels of intake. Lead-contaminated soil and dust have been identified as important contributors to blood lead levels. Based on available data on blood lead and lead in soil, an approach has been developed to suggest a permissible level of lead in soil, below which there will be reasonable certainty that adverse health effects will not occur. An acceptable level of 600 ppm of lead in soil suggested as a ''safe'' level would contribute no more than 5 micrograms/dl to total blood lead of children under 12 years of age. Maximum permissible levels of lead in soil have been recommended based on the dose-response relationship of lead in soil and blood lead in children.

  11. Experimental shock metamorphism of maximum microcline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, P. B.

    1975-01-01

    A series of recovery experiments are conducted to study the behavior of single-crystal perthitic maximum microcline shock-loaded to a peak pressure of 417 kbar. Microcline is found to deform in a manner similar to quartz and other alkali feldspars. It is observed that shock-induced cleavages occur initially at or slightly below the Hugoniot elastic limit (60-85 kbar), that shock-induced rather than thermal disordering begins above the Hugoniot elastic limit, and that all types of planar elements form parallel to crystallographic planes of low Miller indices. When increasing pressure, it is found that bulk density, refractive indices, and birefringence of the recovered material decrease and approach diaplectic glass values, whereas disappearance and weakening of reflections in Debye-Sherrer patterns are due to disordering of the feldspar lattice.

  12. The 1988 Solar Maximum Mission event list

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, B. R.; Licata, J. P.; Tolbert, A. K.

    1992-01-01

    Information on solar burst and transient activity observed by the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) during 1988 pointed observations is presented. Data from the following SMM experiments are included: (1) gamma ray spectrometer; (2) hard x ray burst spectrometer; (3) flat crystal spectrometers; (4) bent crystal spectrometer; (5) ultraviolet spectrometer polarimeter; and (6) coronagraph/polarimeter. Correlative optical, radio, and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) x ray data are also presented. Where possible, bursts, or transients observed in the various wavelengths were grouped into discrete flare events identified by unique event numbers. Each event carries a qualifier denoting the quality or completeness of the observation. Spacecraft pointing coordinates and flare site angular displacement values from sun center are also included.

  13. Quantum optimization and maximum clique problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatsenko, Vitaliy A.; Pardalos, Panos M.; Chiarini, Bruno H.

    2004-08-01

    This paper describes a new approach to global optimization and control uses geometric methods and modern quantum mathematics. Polynomial extremal problems (PEP) are considered. PEP constitute one of the most important subclasses of nonlinear programming models. Their distinctive feature is that an objective function and constraints can be expressed by polynomial functions in one or several variables. A general approach to optimization based on quantum holonomic computing algorithms and instanton mechanism. An optimization method based on geometric Lie - algebraic structures on Grassmann manifolds and related with Lax type flows is proposed. Making use of the differential geometric techniques it is shown that associated holonomy groups properly realizing quantum computation can be effectively found concerning polynomial problems. Two examples demonstrating calculation aspects of holonomic quantum computer and maximum clique problems in very large graphs, are considered in detail.

  14. The 1980 solar maximum mission event listing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Speich, D. M.; Nelson, J. J.; Licata, J. P.; Tolbert, A. K.

    1991-01-01

    Information is contained on solar burst and transient activity observed by the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) during 1980 pointed observations. Data from the following SMM experiments are included: (1) Gamma Ray Spectrometer, (2) Hard X-Ray Burst Spectrometer, (3) Hard X-Ray Imaging Spectrometer, (4) Flat Crystal Spectrometer, (5) Bent Crystal Spectrometer, (6) Ultraviolet Spectrometer and Polarimeter, and (7) Coronagraph/Polarimeter. Correlative optical, radio, and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) x ray data are also presented. Where possible, bursts or transients observed in the various wavelengths were grouped into discrete flare events identified by unique event numbers. Each event carries a qualifier denoting the quality or completeness of the observations. Spacecraft pointing coordinates and flare site angular displacement values from Sun center are also included.

  15. Diffusivity Maximum in a Reentrant Nematic Phase

    PubMed Central

    Stieger, Tillmann; Mazza, Marco G.; Schoen, Martin

    2012-01-01

    We report molecular dynamics simulations of confined liquid crystals using the Gay–Berne–Kihara model. Upon isobaric cooling, the standard sequence of isotropic–nematic–smectic A phase transitions is found. Upon further cooling a reentrant nematic phase occurs. We investigate the temperature dependence of the self-diffusion coefficient of the fluid in the nematic, smectic and reentrant nematic phases. We find a maximum in diffusivity upon isobaric cooling. Diffusion increases dramatically in the reentrant phase due to the high orientational molecular order. As the temperature is lowered, the diffusion coefficient follows an Arrhenius behavior. The activation energy of the reentrant phase is found in reasonable agreement with the reported experimental data. We discuss how repulsive interactions may be the underlying mechanism that could explain the occurrence of reentrant nematic behavior for polar and non-polar molecules. PMID:22837730

  16. Diffusivity maximum in a reentrant nematic phase.

    PubMed

    Stieger, Tillmann; Mazza, Marco G; Schoen, Martin

    2012-01-01

    We report molecular dynamics simulations of confined liquid crystals using the Gay-Berne-Kihara model. Upon isobaric cooling, the standard sequence of isotropic-nematic-smectic A phase transitions is found. Upon further cooling a reentrant nematic phase occurs. We investigate the temperature dependence of the self-diffusion coefficient of the fluid in the nematic, smectic and reentrant nematic phases. We find a maximum in diffusivity upon isobaric cooling. Diffusion increases dramatically in the reentrant phase due to the high orientational molecular order. As the temperature is lowered, the diffusion coefficient follows an Arrhenius behavior. The activation energy of the reentrant phase is found in reasonable agreement with the reported experimental data. We discuss how repulsive interactions may be the underlying mechanism that could explain the occurrence of reentrant nematic behavior for polar and non-polar molecules. PMID:22837730

  17. Characterizing Local Optima for Maximum Parsimony.

    PubMed

    Urheim, Ellen; Ford, Eric; St John, Katherine

    2016-05-01

    Finding the best phylogenetic tree under the maximum parsimony optimality criterion is computationally difficult. We quantify the occurrence of such optima for well-behaved sets of data. When nearest neighbor interchange operations are used, multiple local optima can occur even for "perfect" sequence data, which results in hill-climbing searches that never reach a global optimum. In contrast, we show that when neighbors are defined via the subtree prune and regraft metric, there is a single local optimum for perfect sequence data, and thus, every such search finds a global optimum quickly. We further characterize conditions for which sequences simulated under the Cavender-Farris-Neyman and Jukes-Cantor models of evolution yield well-behaved search spaces. PMID:27234257

  18. The 1989 Solar Maximum Mission event list

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, B. R.; Licata, J. P.; Tolbert, A. K.

    1992-01-01

    This document contains information on solar burst and transient activity observed by the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) during 1989 pointed observations. Data from the following SMM experiments are included: (1) Gamma Ray Spectrometer, (2) Hard X-Ray Burst Spectrometer, (3) Flat Crystal Spectrometer, (4) Bent Crystal Spectrometer, (5) Ultraviolet Spectrometer Polarimeter, and (6) Coronagraph/Polarimeter. Correlative optical, radio, and Geostationary Operational Satellite (GOES) X-ray data are also presented. Where possible, bursts or transients observed in the various wavelengths were grouped into discrete flare events identified by unique event numbers. Each event carries a qualifier denoting the quality or completeness of the observations. Spacecraft pointing coordinates and flare site angular displacement values from sun center are also included.

  19. Maximum entropy model for business cycle synchronization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Ning; Muneepeerakul, Rachata; Azaele, Sandro; Wang, Yougui

    2014-11-01

    The global economy is a complex dynamical system, whose cyclical fluctuations can mainly be characterized by simultaneous recessions or expansions of major economies. Thus, the researches on the synchronization phenomenon are key to understanding and controlling the dynamics of the global economy. Based on a pairwise maximum entropy model, we analyze the business cycle synchronization of the G7 economic system. We obtain a pairwise-interaction network, which exhibits certain clustering structure and accounts for 45% of the entire structure of the interactions within the G7 system. We also find that the pairwise interactions become increasingly inadequate in capturing the synchronization as the size of economic system grows. Thus, higher-order interactions must be taken into account when investigating behaviors of large economic systems.

  20. Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Airborne Contaminants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2008-01-01

    The enclosed table lists official spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMACs), which are guideline values set by the NASA/JSC Toxicology Group in cooperation with the National Research Council Committee on Toxicology (NRCCOT). These values should not be used for situations other than human space flight without careful consideration of the criteria used to set each value. The SMACs take into account a number of unique factors such as the effect of space-flight stress on human physiology, the uniform good health of the astronauts, and the absence of pregnant or very young individuals. Documentation of the values is given in a 5 volume series of books entitled "Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants" published by the National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. These books can be viewed electronically at http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=9786&page=3. Short-term (1 and 24 hour) SMACs are set to manage accidental releases aboard a spacecraft and permit risk of minor, reversible effects such as mild mucosal irritation. In contrast, the long-term SMACs are set to fully protect healthy crewmembers from adverse effects resulting from continuous exposure to specific air pollutants for up to 1000 days. Crewmembers with allergies or unusual sensitivity to trace pollutants may not be afforded complete protection, even when long-term SMACs are not exceeded. Crewmember exposures involve a mixture of contaminants, each at a specific concentration (C(sub n)). These contaminants could interact to elicit symptoms of toxicity even though individual contaminants do not exceed their respective SMACs. The air quality is considered acceptable when the toxicity index (T(sub grp)) for each toxicological group of compounds is less than 1, where T(sub grp), is calculated as follows: T(sub grp) = C(sub 1)/SMAC(sub 1) + C(sub 2/SMAC(sub 2) + ...+C(sub n)/SMAC(sub n).

  1. Maximum magnitude in the Lower Rhine Graben

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanneste, Kris; Merino, Miguel; Stein, Seth; Vleminckx, Bart; Brooks, Eddie; Camelbeeck, Thierry

    2014-05-01

    Estimating Mmax, the assumed magnitude of the largest future earthquakes expected on a fault or in an area, involves large uncertainties. No theoretical basis exists to infer Mmax because even where we know the long-term rate of motion across a plate boundary fault, or the deformation rate across an intraplate zone, neither predict how strain will be released. As a result, quite different estimates can be made based on the assumptions used. All one can say with certainty is that Mmax is at least as large as the largest earthquake in the available record. However, because catalogs are often short relative to the average recurrence time of large earthquakes, larger earthquakes than anticipated often occur. Estimating Mmax is especially challenging within plates, where deformation rates are poorly constrained, large earthquakes are rarer and variable in space and time, and often occur on previously unrecognized faults. We explore this issue for the Lower Rhine Graben seismic zone where the largest known earthquake, the 1756 Düren earthquake, has magnitude 5.7 and should occur on average about every 400 years. However, paleoseismic studies suggest that earthquakes with magnitudes up to 6.7 occurred during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene. What to assume for Mmax is crucial for critical facilities like nuclear power plants that should be designed to withstand the maximum shaking in 10,000 years. Using the observed earthquake frequency-magnitude data, we generate synthetic earthquake histories, and sample them over shorter intervals corresponding to the real catalog's completeness. The maximum magnitudes appearing most often in the simulations tend to be those of earthquakes with mean recurrence time equal to the catalog length. Because catalogs are often short relative to the average recurrence time of large earthquakes, we expect larger earthquakes than observed to date to occur. In a next step, we will compute hazard maps for different return periods based on the

  2. Maximum life spiral bevel reduction design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, M.; Prasanna, M. G.; Coe, H. H.

    1992-01-01

    Optimization is applied to the design of a spiral bevel gear reduction for maximum life at a given size. A modified feasible directions search algorithm permits a wide variety of inequality constraints and exact design requirements to be met with low sensitivity to initial values. Gear tooth bending strength and minimum contact ratio under load are included in the active constraints. The optimal design of the spiral bevel gear reduction includes the selection of bearing and shaft proportions in addition to gear mesh parameters. System life is maximized subject to a fixed back-cone distance of the spiral bevel gear set for a specified speed ratio, shaft angle, input torque, and power. Significant parameters in the design are: the spiral angle, the pressure angle, the numbers of teeth on the pinion and gear, and the location and size of the four support bearings. Interpolated polynomials expand the discrete bearing properties and proportions into continuous variables for gradient optimization. After finding the continuous optimum, a designer can analyze near optimal designs for comparison and selection. Design examples show the influence of the bearing lives on the gear parameters in the optimal configurations. For a fixed back-cone distance, optimal designs with larger shaft angles have larger service lives.

  3. Portable measurement of maximum mouth pressures.

    PubMed

    Hamnegård, C H; Wragg, S; Kyroussis, D; Aquilina, R; Moxham, J; Green, M

    1994-02-01

    We have compared a small portable mouth pressure meter (MPM) to our laboratory standard (LS) pressure recording equipment in order to evaluate this new device. The mouth pressure meter measures and displays as a digital read-out peak pressure for inspiratory and expiratory efforts. It samples the signal at 16 Hz, and an integral microprocessor is programmed to determine and display the maximum pressure averaged over one second both during inspiratory and expiratory manoeuvres (PImax and PEmax, respectively). A fine bore catheter connecting the mouthpiece of the mouth pressure meter to a Validyne pressure transducer enabled simultaneous measurement of pressure, which was analysed by LabVIEW, running on a Macintosh Quadra 700 computer. We studied 13 normal subjects and 11 patients with respiratory disease. Each subject performed inspiratory and five expiratory efforts. The values displayed from the mouth pressure meter were manually recorded. The mouth pressure meter reliably and accurately measured peak pressure and maximal pressure both for inspiratory and expiratory efforts in normals and patients. The mean +/- SD difference when compared with the Validyne method was 0.19 +/- 0.12 and -0.04 +/- 0.12 kPa, for PImax and PEmax, respectively. This portable device should be useful to measure mouth pressures, not only in the routine lung function laboratory but also at the bedside and in the clinic. PMID:8162993

  4. Preparing for the Upcoming Solar Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tretkoff, Ernie

    2009-07-01

    As the next solar maximum approaches, society is increasingly reliant on satellite communications and navigation technologies, which are vulnerable to solar storms. To prepare for the upcoming peak in solar activity, expected in 2013, the U.S. National Space Weather Program Council organized the 2009 Space Weather Enterprise Forum, held 19-20 May in Washington, D. C. The conference, themed "Space Weather and Our Technological Society—Are We Ready for Solar Max?," attracted more than 225 participants, representing government agencies, industry, and academia. Presentations and panel discussion throughout the conference addressed issues including opportunities for coordinated collaboration among various agencies and with industry; the need for more effective outreach to stakeholders, policy makers, and the public; and ways to improve communication between scientists and space weather forecasters. Participants also agreed that it is important to plan for follow-up projects that will replace aging space weather satellites, such as the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE), which provides continuous solar wind monitoring.

  5. Theoretical Estimate of Maximum Possible Nuclear Explosion

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Bethe, H. A.

    1950-01-31

    The maximum nuclear accident which could occur in a Na-cooled, Be moderated, Pu and power producing reactor is estimated theoretically. (T.R.H.) 2O82 Results of nuclear calculations for a variety of compositions of fast, heterogeneous, sodium-cooled, U-235-fueled, plutonium- and power-producing reactors are reported. Core compositions typical of plate-, pin-, or wire-type fuel elements and with uranium as metal, alloy, and oxide were considered. These compositions included atom ratios in the following range: U-23B to U-235 from 2 to 8; sodium to U-235 from 1.5 to 12; iron to U-235 from 5 to 18; and vanadium to U-235 from 11 to 33. Calculations were performed to determine the effect of lead and iron reflectors between the core and blanket. Both natural and depleted uranium were evaluated as the blanket fertile material. Reactors were compared on a basis of conversion ratio, specific power, and the product of both. The calculated results are in general agreement with the experimental results from fast reactor assemblies. An analysis of the effect of new cross-section values as they became available is included. (auth)

  6. Targeted maximum likelihood estimation in safety analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lendle, Samuel D.; Fireman, Bruce; van der Laan, Mark J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To compare the performance of a targeted maximum likelihood estimator (TMLE) and a collaborative TMLE (CTMLE) to other estimators in a drug safety analysis, including a regression-based estimator, propensity score (PS)–based estimators, and an alternate doubly robust (DR) estimator in a real example and simulations. Study Design and Setting The real data set is a subset of observational data from Kaiser Permanente Northern California formatted for use in active drug safety surveillance. Both the real and simulated data sets include potential confounders, a treatment variable indicating use of one of two antidiabetic treatments and an outcome variable indicating occurrence of an acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Results In the real data example, there is no difference in AMI rates between treatments. In simulations, the double robustness property is demonstrated: DR estimators are consistent if either the initial outcome regression or PS estimator is consistent, whereas other estimators are inconsistent if the initial estimator is not consistent. In simulations with near-positivity violations, CTMLE performs well relative to other estimators by adaptively estimating the PS. Conclusion Each of the DR estimators was consistent, and TMLE and CTMLE had the smallest mean squared error in simulations. PMID:23849159

  7. Maximum windmill efficiency in finite time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huleihil, Mahmoud

    2009-05-01

    The fraction of the kinetic energy of the wind impinging on the rotor-swept area that a wind turbine can convert to useful power has been shown by Betz in an idealized laminar-flow model to have an upper limit of 16/27 or 59% approximately [I. H. Shames, Mechanics of Fluids, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1982), pp. A26-A31]. This figure is known as Betz number. Other studies [A. Rauh and W. Seelret, Appl. Energy 17, 15 (1984)] suggested that this figure should be considered as a guideline. In this paper, a new model is introduced and its efficiency at maximum power output is derived. The derived value is shown to be a function of the Betz number B and given by the formula ηmp=1-√1-B . This value is 36.2%, which agrees well with those of actually operating wind turbines. As a guideline, the wind turbine efficiency can be considered to be within the range of the two numbers of merit, the Betz number and ηmp.

  8. Finding maximum JPEG image block code size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakhani, Gopal

    2012-07-01

    We present a study of JPEG baseline coding. It aims to determine the minimum storage needed to buffer the JPEG Huffman code bits of 8-bit image blocks. Since DC is coded separately, and the encoder represents each AC coefficient by a pair of run-length/AC coefficient level, the net problem is to perform an efficient search for the optimal run-level pair sequence. We formulate it as a two-dimensional, nonlinear, integer programming problem and solve it using a branch-and-bound based search method. We derive two types of constraints to prune the search space. The first one is given as an upper-bound for the sum of squares of AC coefficients of a block, and it is used to discard sequences that cannot represent valid DCT blocks. The second type constraints are based on some interesting properties of the Huffman code table, and these are used to prune sequences that cannot be part of optimal solutions. Our main result is that if the default JPEG compression setting is used, space of minimum of 346 bits and maximum of 433 bits is sufficient to buffer the AC code bits of 8-bit image blocks. Our implementation also pruned the search space extremely well; the first constraint reduced the initial search space of 4 nodes down to less than 2 nodes, and the second set of constraints reduced it further by 97.8%.

  9. Maximum likelihood continuity mapping for fraud detection

    SciTech Connect

    Hogden, J.

    1997-05-01

    The author describes a novel time-series analysis technique called maximum likelihood continuity mapping (MALCOM), and focuses on one application of MALCOM: detecting fraud in medical insurance claims. Given a training data set composed of typical sequences, MALCOM creates a stochastic model of sequence generation, called a continuity map (CM). A CM maximizes the probability of sequences in the training set given the model constraints, CMs can be used to estimate the likelihood of sequences not found in the training set, enabling anomaly detection and sequence prediction--important aspects of data mining. Since MALCOM can be used on sequences of categorical data (e.g., sequences of words) as well as real valued data, MALCOM is also a potential replacement for database search tools such as N-gram analysis. In a recent experiment, MALCOM was used to evaluate the likelihood of patient medical histories, where ``medical history`` is used to mean the sequence of medical procedures performed on a patient. Physicians whose patients had anomalous medical histories (according to MALCOM) were evaluated for fraud by an independent agency. Of the small sample (12 physicians) that has been evaluated, 92% have been determined fraudulent or abusive. Despite the small sample, these results are encouraging.

  10. TRENDS IN ESTIMATED MIXING DEPTH DAILY MAXIMUMS

    SciTech Connect

    Buckley, R; Amy DuPont, A; Robert Kurzeja, R; Matt Parker, M

    2007-11-12

    Mixing depth is an important quantity in the determination of air pollution concentrations. Fireweather forecasts depend strongly on estimates of the mixing depth as a means of determining the altitude and dilution (ventilation rates) of smoke plumes. The Savannah River United States Forest Service (USFS) routinely conducts prescribed fires at the Savannah River Site (SRS), a heavily wooded Department of Energy (DOE) facility located in southwest South Carolina. For many years, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has provided forecasts of weather conditions in support of the fire program, including an estimated mixing depth using potential temperature and turbulence change with height at a given location. This paper examines trends in the average estimated mixing depth daily maximum at the SRS over an extended period of time (4.75 years) derived from numerical atmospheric simulations using two versions of the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). This allows for differences to be seen between the model versions, as well as trends on a multi-year time frame. In addition, comparisons of predicted mixing depth for individual days in which special balloon soundings were released are also discussed.

  11. CORA: Emission Line Fitting with Maximum Likelihood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ness, Jan-Uwe; Wichmann, Rainer

    2011-12-01

    The advent of pipeline-processed data both from space- and ground-based observatories often disposes of the need of full-fledged data reduction software with its associated steep learning curve. In many cases, a simple tool doing just one task, and doing it right, is all one wishes. In this spirit we introduce CORA, a line fitting tool based on the maximum likelihood technique, which has been developed for the analysis of emission line spectra with low count numbers and has successfully been used in several publications. CORA uses a rigorous application of Poisson statistics. From the assumption of Poissonian noise we derive the probability for a model of the emission line spectrum to represent the measured spectrum. The likelihood function is used as a criterion for optimizing the parameters of the theoretical spectrum and a fixed point equation is derived allowing an efficient way to obtain line fluxes. As an example we demonstrate the functionality of the program with an X-ray spectrum of Capella obtained with the Low Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (LETGS) on board the Chandra observatory and choose the analysis of the Ne IX triplet around 13.5 Å.

  12. CORA - emission line fitting with Maximum Likelihood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ness, J.-U.; Wichmann, R.

    2002-07-01

    The advent of pipeline-processed data both from space- and ground-based observatories often disposes of the need of full-fledged data reduction software with its associated steep learning curve. In many cases, a simple tool doing just one task, and doing it right, is all one wishes. In this spirit we introduce CORA, a line fitting tool based on the maximum likelihood technique, which has been developed for the analysis of emission line spectra with low count numbers and has successfully been used in several publications. CORA uses a rigorous application of Poisson statistics. From the assumption of Poissonian noise we derive the probability for a model of the emission line spectrum to represent the measured spectrum. The likelihood function is used as a criterion for optimizing the parameters of the theoretical spectrum and a fixed point equation is derived allowing an efficient way to obtain line fluxes. As an example we demonstrate the functionality of the program with an X-ray spectrum of Capella obtained with the Low Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (LETGS) on board the Chandra observatory and choose the analysis of the Ne IX triplet around 13.5 Å.

  13. Approach trajectory planning system for maximum concealment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, David N., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A computer-simulation study was undertaken to investigate a maximum concealment guidance technique (pop-up maneuver), which military aircraft may use to capture a glide path from masked, low-altitude flight typical of terrain following/terrain avoidance flight enroute. The guidance system applied to this problem is the Fuel Conservative Guidance System. Previous studies using this system have concentrated on the saving of fuel in basically conventional land and ship-based operations. Because this system is based on energy-management concepts, it also has direct application to the pop-up approach which exploits aircraft performance. Although the algorithm was initially designed to reduce fuel consumption, the commanded deceleration is at its upper limit during the pop-up and, therefore, is a good approximation of a minimum-time solution. Using the model of a powered-lift aircraft, the results of the study demonstrated that guidance commands generated by the system are well within the capability of an automatic flight-control system. Results for several initial approach conditions are presented.

  14. Laser Transmission Holograms Maximum Permissible Exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Paula; Wilksch, P. A.

    2010-05-01

    The laser illumination of holograms for public display is governed by international standard IEC 60825-3, to which the Australian Standard AS/NZS 2211.3 conforms. These standards do not accommodate vital mitigating factors of hologram replay that impinge on the level of laser power i.e. angle of the replay reference beam, the divergence of the beam, the distance of the viewer from the holographic plate and the diffraction efficiency of the hologram plate itself. Such factors indicate that a more meaningful calculation of the radiation level would be obtained from direct measurement at the position of the viewer of the hologram. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the importance of these factors in realistically determining the maximum permissible exposure (MPE) for viewers of large format holograms. Materials and Methods: A comparison is made between measurements based on the power or energy that can pass through a fully open pupil for Class 3B and Class 4 lasers (1. medical copper bromide laser, 2. diode laser, and 3. argon continuous wave laser), and the actual power levels when the measurement is taken from the beholder's point of view. Discussion and conclusion: these results indicate a need to review current standards.

  15. 46 CFR 154.556 - Cargo hose: Maximum working pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo hose: Maximum working pressure. 154.556 Section... Equipment Cargo Hose § 154.556 Cargo hose: Maximum working pressure. A cargo hose must have a maximum working pressure not less than the maximum pressure to which it may be subjected and at least 1034...

  16. 46 CFR 154.556 - Cargo hose: Maximum working pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cargo hose: Maximum working pressure. 154.556 Section... Equipment Cargo Hose § 154.556 Cargo hose: Maximum working pressure. A cargo hose must have a maximum working pressure not less than the maximum pressure to which it may be subjected and at least 1034...

  17. 49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24... Allowable Stress § 230.24 Maximum allowable stress. (a) Maximum allowable stress value. The maximum allowable stress value on any component of a steam locomotive boiler shall not exceed 1/4 of the...

  18. 49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24... Allowable Stress § 230.24 Maximum allowable stress. (a) Maximum allowable stress value. The maximum allowable stress value on any component of a steam locomotive boiler shall not exceed 1/4 of the...

  19. 49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24... Allowable Stress § 230.24 Maximum allowable stress. (a) Maximum allowable stress value. The maximum allowable stress value on any component of a steam locomotive boiler shall not exceed 1/4 of the...

  20. 49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24... Allowable Stress § 230.24 Maximum allowable stress. (a) Maximum allowable stress value. The maximum allowable stress value on any component of a steam locomotive boiler shall not exceed 1/4 of the...

  1. 49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24... Allowable Stress § 230.24 Maximum allowable stress. (a) Maximum allowable stress value. The maximum allowable stress value on any component of a steam locomotive boiler shall not exceed 1/4 of the...

  2. Maximum Mouth Opening in Saudi Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Al-Dlaigan, Yousef H; Asiry, Moshabab A

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the maximum mouth opening (MMO) in a representative sample of the Saudi adolescents. Materials and Methods: A total of 1825 Saudi adolescents (1007 males and 818 females) aged 12-16 years were randomly selected. The subjects were asked to open their mouth maximally till no further opening was possible and then the distance from the incisal edge of the maxillary incisors to incisal edge of the mandibular incisors was recorded. All data were analyzed using SPSS program and simple descriptive statistics of MMO with regard to gender and age groups were reported. The Student’s t-test and one-way analysis of variance were used to examine differences in mouth opening relative to gender and age groups. Results: The mean maximal mouth opening for males was 43.5 ± 4.23 mm (range 29-59 mm). The mean maximal mouth opening for females was 35.5 ± 4.4 mm (range 20-45 mm). There was a significant difference between the mouth opening of males and females in all the age group (P = 0.000). The mouth opening, regardless of gender, increases significantly with age from the age of 12 years to the age of 14 years (P = 0.000), then remained unchanged till the age of 16 years. Conclusion: The mouth opening of males is significantly higher than that of females in all the age group. There was a significant increase in MMO with age up to the age of 14 years regardless of gender. PMID:25628483

  3. A maximum likelihood framework for protein design

    PubMed Central

    Kleinman, Claudia L; Rodrigue, Nicolas; Bonnard, Cécile; Philippe, Hervé; Lartillot, Nicolas

    2006-01-01

    Background The aim of protein design is to predict amino-acid sequences compatible with a given target structure. Traditionally envisioned as a purely thermodynamic question, this problem can also be understood in a wider context, where additional constraints are captured by learning the sequence patterns displayed by natural proteins of known conformation. In this latter perspective, however, we still need a theoretical formalization of the question, leading to general and efficient learning methods, and allowing for the selection of fast and accurate objective functions quantifying sequence/structure compatibility. Results We propose a formulation of the protein design problem in terms of model-based statistical inference. Our framework uses the maximum likelihood principle to optimize the unknown parameters of a statistical potential, which we call an inverse potential to contrast with classical potentials used for structure prediction. We propose an implementation based on Markov chain Monte Carlo, in which the likelihood is maximized by gradient descent and is numerically estimated by thermodynamic integration. The fit of the models is evaluated by cross-validation. We apply this to a simple pairwise contact potential, supplemented with a solvent-accessibility term, and show that the resulting models have a better predictive power than currently available pairwise potentials. Furthermore, the model comparison method presented here allows one to measure the relative contribution of each component of the potential, and to choose the optimal number of accessibility classes, which turns out to be much higher than classically considered. Conclusion Altogether, this reformulation makes it possible to test a wide diversity of models, using different forms of potentials, or accounting for other factors than just the constraint of thermodynamic stability. Ultimately, such model-based statistical analyses may help to understand the forces shaping protein sequences, and

  4. A preliminary investigation of the biomechanical and perceptual influence of chain resistance on the performance of the snatch.

    PubMed

    Coker, Cheryl A; Berning, Joseph M; Briggs, Doug L

    2006-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the addition of chains to a barbell during the performance of the snatch would invoke differences in execution compared with lifting a conventional barbell without chains. Additionally, subjects were asked whether they perceived that the addition of chains had effects on their performance, and, if so, what those effects were. Four male and 3 female competitive weightlifters who regularly used chains as part of their training programs participated in the study. They were compared lifting 80% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM) using conventional barbells with 80% of 1RM, 5% of which was accounted for by chains. The same procedure was used with 85% of 1RM. Variables examined included maximum vertical displacement of the bar, maximum bar velocity, rate of force production of the bar, and vertical ground reaction forces for the first pull, unweighting, and second pull phases of the lift. Results indicated that there were no statistically significant differences between the chain vs. no-chain conditions at either 80% or 85% of 1RM. In contrast, 100% of the subjects stated that they perceived that the addition of chains made them work harder during the snatch. They suggested that the chains forced them to pull harder throughout the lift and that oscillation of the chains required their shoulders, abdominals, and back to work harder to stabilize the bar in the catch phase. Although statistical results indicate that chains have no influence on the snatch technique, chains may have a psychological impact and possibly invoke a physiological training response by increasing strength of muscles required to stabilize the bar during the catch phase if used over time. PMID:17194230

  5. Gauging the Nearness and Size of Cycle Maximum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert M.; Hathaway, David H.

    2003-01-01

    A simple method for monitoring the nearness and size of conventional cycle maximum for an ongoing sunspot cycle is examined. The method uses the observed maximum daily value and the maximum monthly mean value of international sunspot number and the maximum value of the 2-mo moving average of monthly mean sunspot number to effect the estimation. For cycle 23, a maximum daily value of 246, a maximum monthly mean of 170.1, and a maximum 2-mo moving average of 148.9 were each observed in July 2000. Taken together, these values strongly suggest that conventional maximum amplitude for cycle 23 would be approx. 124.5, occurring near July 2002 +/-5 mo, very close to the now well-established conventional maximum amplitude and occurrence date for cycle 23-120.8 in April 2000.

  6. The effect of ephedra and caffeine on maximal strength and power in resistance-trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Williams, Andrew D; Cribb, Paul J; Cooke, Matthew B; Hayes, Alan

    2008-03-01

    Caffeine and ephedrine-related alkaloids recently have been removed from International Olympic Committee banned substances lists, whereas ephedrine itself is now permissible at urinary concentrations less than 10 mug.mL. The changes to the list may contribute to an increased use of caffeine and ephedra as ergogenic aids by athletes. Consequently, we sought to investigate the effects of ingesting caffeine (C) or a combination of ephedra and caffeine (C + E) on muscular strength and anaerobic power using a double-blind, crossover design. Forty-five minutes after ingesting a glucose placebo (P: 300 mg), C (300 mg) or C + E (300 mg + 60 mg), 9 resistance-trained male participants were tested for maximal strength by bench press [BP; 1 repetition maximum (1RM)] and latissimus dorsi pull down (LP; 1RM). Subjects also performed repeated repetitions at 80% of 1RM on both BP and LP until exhaustion. After this test, subjects underwent a 30-second Wingate test to determine peak anaerobic cycling power, mean power, and fatigue index. Although subjects reported increased alertness and enhanced mood after supplementation with caffeine and ephedra, there were no significant differences between any of the treatments in muscle strength, muscle endurance, or peak anaerobic power. Our results do not support the contention that supplementation with ephedra or caffeine will enhance either muscle strength or anaerobic exercise performance. PMID:18550961

  7. Exercise Bouts at Three Different Intensities Fail to Potentiate Concentric Power

    PubMed Central

    CABRERA, CHAD A.; MORALES, JACOBO; GREER, FELICIA; PETTITT, ROBERT W.

    2009-01-01

    Postactivation potentiation (PAP) has been hypothesized previously to occur during voluntary, concentric actions. We tested the hypothesis that one of at least three different intensities of conditioning exercises would evoke potentiation of power during the concentric, bench press throw (BPT). Twelve men (age = 22.9 ± 2.7 years, bench press 1 repetition maximum (1RM) = 1.20 ± 0.12 kg·kg−1 body weight) completed five isotonic conditioning presses at ~55, 70, and 86% 1RM, in counterbalanced order, and on separate days. Average and peak power of the BPT using a load of 55% 1RM along with surface electromyography (EMG) of the triceps brachii were collected prior to and 4-minutes following each conditioning bout. Both average and peak power and EMG values (mean ± SD), respectively, were evaluated using two-way analyses of variance with repeated measures. Significant main effect decreases (p < 0.05) in average (−18.6 ± 4.9 W) and peak power (−37.4 ± 9.9 W) occurred across the three different intensities evaluated. No main effects or interactions were observed with the EMG data. Contrary to the previously reported hypothesis, we were unable to demonstrate that conditioning exercise, with three different intensities, can evoke potentiation of power using a load equating to that which is optimum for power production. PMID:27182310

  8. Optimal loading range for the development of peak power output in the hexagonal barbell jump squat.

    PubMed

    Turner, Thomas S; Tobin, Daniel P; Delahunt, Eamonn

    2015-06-01

    Recent studies indicate that the utilization of the hexagonal barbell jump squat (HBJS) compared with the traditional barbell jump squat may offer a superior method of developing peak power. The notion that a single optimal load may be prescribed in training programs aiming to develop peak power is subject to debate. The purpose of this study was to identify the optimal load corresponding with peak power output during the HBJS in professional rugby union players. Seventeen professional rugby union players participated in this study. Participants performed 3 unloaded countermovement jumps on a force plate and 3 HBJS at each of the following randomized loads: 10, 20, 30, and 40% of box squat 1 repetition maximum (1RM). Peak power output was the dependent variable of interest. A one-way repeated measures analysis of variance was conducted to compare peak power output across each load. Peak power output was the dependent variable of interest. A significant main effect for load was observed (Wilk's Lambda = 0.11, F(4,13) = 18.07, p < 0.01, partial η2 = 0.88). Results of the Bonferroni-adjusted pairwise comparisons indicated that peak power output in the HBJS is optimized at a load range between 10 and 20% of box squat 1RM. The results of this study indicate that the use of the HBJS with a training load between 10 and 20% of box squat 1RM optimizes peak power output in professional rugby union players. PMID:25486301

  9. NOTE FROM THE EDITOR: Bayesian and Maximum Entropy Methods Bayesian and Maximum Entropy Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrzynski, L.

    2008-10-01

    The Bayesian and Maximum Entropy Methods are now standard routines in various data analyses, irrespective of ones own preference to the more conventional approach based on so-called frequentists understanding of the notion of the probability. It is not the purpose of the Editor to show all achievements of these methods in various branches of science, technology and medicine. In the case of condensed matter physics most of the oldest examples of Bayesian analysis can be found in the excellent tutorial textbooks by Sivia and Skilling [1], and Bretthorst [2], while the application of the Maximum Entropy Methods were described in `Maximum Entropy in Action' [3]. On the list of questions addressed one finds such problems as deconvolution and reconstruction of the complicated spectra, e.g. counting the number of lines hidden within the spectrum observed with always finite resolution, reconstruction of charge, spin and momentum density distribution from an incomplete sets of data, etc. On the theoretical side one might find problems like estimation of interatomic potentials [4], application of the MEM to quantum Monte Carlo data [5], Bayesian approach to inverse quantum statistics [6], very general to statistical mechanics [7] etc. Obviously, in spite of the power of the Bayesian and Maximum Entropy Methods, it is not possible for everything to be solved in a unique way by application of these particular methods of analysis, and one of the problems which is often raised is connected not only with a uniqueness of a reconstruction of a given distribution (map) but also with its accuracy (error maps). In this `Comments' section we present a few papers showing more recent advances and views, and highlighting some of the aforementioned problems. References [1] Sivia D S and Skilling J 2006 Data Analysis: A Bayesian Tutorial 2nd edn (Oxford: Oxford University Press) [2] Bretthorst G L 1988 Bayesian Spectruim Analysis and Parameter Estimation (Berlin: Springer) [3] Buck B and

  10. Pattern formation, logistics, and maximum path probability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkaldy, J. S.

    1985-05-01

    The concept of pattern formation, which to current researchers is a synonym for self-organization, carries the connotation of deductive logic together with the process of spontaneous inference. Defining a pattern as an equivalence relation on a set of thermodynamic objects, we establish that a large class of irreversible pattern-forming systems, evolving along idealized quasisteady paths, approaches the stable steady state as a mapping upon the formal deductive imperatives of a propositional function calculus. In the preamble the classical reversible thermodynamics of composite systems is analyzed as an externally manipulated system of space partitioning and classification based on ideal enclosures and diaphragms. The diaphragms have discrete classification capabilities which are designated in relation to conserved quantities by descriptors such as impervious, diathermal, and adiabatic. Differentiability in the continuum thermodynamic calculus is invoked as equivalent to analyticity and consistency in the underlying class or sentential calculus. The seat of inference, however, rests with the thermodynamicist. In the transition to an irreversible pattern-forming system the defined nature of the composite reservoirs remains, but a given diaphragm is replaced by a pattern-forming system which by its nature is a spontaneously evolving volume partitioner and classifier of invariants. The seat of volition or inference for the classification system is thus transferred from the experimenter or theoretician to the diaphragm, and with it the full deductive facility. The equivalence relations or partitions associated with the emerging patterns may thus be associated with theorems of the natural pattern-forming calculus. The entropy function, together with its derivatives, is the vehicle which relates the logistics of reservoirs and diaphragms to the analog logistics of the continuum. Maximum path probability or second-order differentiability of the entropy in isolation are

  11. Effects of 4-Week Training Intervention with Unknown Loads on Power Output Performance and Throwing Velocity in Junior Team Handball Players

    PubMed Central

    Sabido, Rafael; Hernández-Davó, Jose Luis; Botella, Javier; Moya, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To compare the effect of 4-week unknown vs known loads strength training intervention on power output performance and throwing velocity in junior team handball players. Methods Twenty-eight junior team-handball players (17.2 ± 0.6 years, 1.79 ± 0.07 m, 75.6 ± 9.4 kg)were divided into two groups (unknown loads: UL; known loads: KL). Both groups performed two sessions weekly consisting of four sets of six repetitions of the bench press throw exercise, using the 30%, 50% and 70% of subjects’ individual 1 repetition maximum (1RM). In each set, two repetitions with each load were performed, but the order of the loads was randomised. In the KL group, researchers told the subjects the load to mobilise prior each repetition, while in the UL group, researchers did not provide any information. Maximal dynamic strength (1RM bench press), power output (with 30, 50 and 70% of 1RM) and throwing velocity (7 m standing throw and 9 m jumping throw) were assessed pre- and post-training intervention. Results Both UL and KL group improved similarly their 1RM bench press as well as mean and peak power with all loads. There were significant improvements in power developed in all the early time intervals measured (150 ms) with the three loads (30, 50, 70% 1RM) in the UL group, while KL only improved with 30% 1RM (all the time intervals) and with 70% 1RM (at certain time intervals). Only the UL group improved throwing velocity in both standing (4.7%) and jumping (5.3%) throw (p > 0.05). Conclusions The use of unknown loads has led to greater gains in power output in the early time intervals as well as to increases in throwing velocity compared with known loads. Therefore unknown loads are of significant practical use to increase both strength and in-field performance in a short period of training. PMID:27310598

  12. Solving maximum cut problems in the Adleman-Lipton model.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Dongmei; Li, Wenxia; Zhang, Zhizhou; He, Lin

    2005-12-01

    In this paper, we consider a procedure for solving maximum cut problems in the Adleman-Lipton model. The procedure works in O(n2) steps for maximum cut problems of an undirected graph with n vertices. PMID:16236426

  13. 33 CFR 183.35 - Maximum weight capacity: Outboard boats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... difference between its maximum displacement and boat weight. (b) For the purposes of paragraph (a) of this section: (1) “Maximum displacement” is the weight of the volume of water displaced by the boat at...

  14. 31 CFR 149.3 - Maximum obligation limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Maximum obligation limitation. 149.3 Section 149.3 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance MONETARY OFFICES, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CALCULATION OF MAXIMUM OBLIGATION LIMITATION § 149.3 Maximum obligation...

  15. 30 CFR 56.19062 - Maximum acceleration and deceleration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Maximum acceleration and deceleration. 56.19062... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 56.19062 Maximum acceleration and deceleration. Maximum normal operating acceleration and deceleration shall not exceed 6 feet per second per second. During emergency braking,...

  16. 30 CFR 57.19062 - Maximum acceleration and deceleration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum acceleration and deceleration. 57.19062... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 57.19062 Maximum acceleration and deceleration. Maximum normal operating acceleration and deceleration shall not exceed 6 feet per second per second. During emergency braking,...

  17. 30 CFR 57.19062 - Maximum acceleration and deceleration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Maximum acceleration and deceleration. 57.19062... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 57.19062 Maximum acceleration and deceleration. Maximum normal operating acceleration and deceleration shall not exceed 6 feet per second per second. During emergency braking,...

  18. 30 CFR 56.19062 - Maximum acceleration and deceleration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maximum acceleration and deceleration. 56.19062... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 56.19062 Maximum acceleration and deceleration. Maximum normal operating acceleration and deceleration shall not exceed 6 feet per second per second. During emergency braking,...

  19. 30 CFR 57.19062 - Maximum acceleration and deceleration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maximum acceleration and deceleration. 57.19062... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 57.19062 Maximum acceleration and deceleration. Maximum normal operating acceleration and deceleration shall not exceed 6 feet per second per second. During emergency braking,...

  20. 30 CFR 57.19062 - Maximum acceleration and deceleration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maximum acceleration and deceleration. 57.19062... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 57.19062 Maximum acceleration and deceleration. Maximum normal operating acceleration and deceleration shall not exceed 6 feet per second per second. During emergency braking,...

  1. 30 CFR 56.19062 - Maximum acceleration and deceleration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum acceleration and deceleration. 56.19062... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 56.19062 Maximum acceleration and deceleration. Maximum normal operating acceleration and deceleration shall not exceed 6 feet per second per second. During emergency braking,...

  2. 30 CFR 56.19062 - Maximum acceleration and deceleration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Maximum acceleration and deceleration. 56.19062... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 56.19062 Maximum acceleration and deceleration. Maximum normal operating acceleration and deceleration shall not exceed 6 feet per second per second. During emergency braking,...

  3. 30 CFR 56.19062 - Maximum acceleration and deceleration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maximum acceleration and deceleration. 56.19062... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 56.19062 Maximum acceleration and deceleration. Maximum normal operating acceleration and deceleration shall not exceed 6 feet per second per second. During emergency braking,...

  4. 30 CFR 57.19062 - Maximum acceleration and deceleration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Maximum acceleration and deceleration. 57.19062... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 57.19062 Maximum acceleration and deceleration. Maximum normal operating acceleration and deceleration shall not exceed 6 feet per second per second. During emergency braking,...

  5. 14 CFR 25.1505 - Maximum operating limit speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maximum operating limit speed. 25.1505... Operating Limitations § 25.1505 Maximum operating limit speed. The maximum operating limit speed (V MO/M MO airspeed or Mach Number, whichever is critical at a particular altitude) is a speed that may not...

  6. 14 CFR 25.1505 - Maximum operating limit speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maximum operating limit speed. 25.1505... Operating Limitations § 25.1505 Maximum operating limit speed. The maximum operating limit speed (V MO/M MO airspeed or Mach Number, whichever is critical at a particular altitude) is a speed that may not...

  7. 14 CFR 25.1505 - Maximum operating limit speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maximum operating limit speed. 25.1505... Operating Limitations § 25.1505 Maximum operating limit speed. The maximum operating limit speed (V MO/M MO airspeed or Mach Number, whichever is critical at a particular altitude) is a speed that may not...

  8. 49 CFR 230.27 - Maximum shearing strength of rivets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Maximum shearing strength of rivets. 230.27 Section 230.27 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... Appurtenances Strength of Materials § 230.27 Maximum shearing strength of rivets. The maximum shearing...

  9. 14 CFR 375.23 - Maximum allowable weights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum allowable weights. 375.23 Section... Applicable § 375.23 Maximum allowable weights. Foreign civil aircraft that are permitted to navigate in the... maximum certificated weights prescribed or authorized for the particular variation of the aircraft...

  10. 33 CFR 183.35 - Maximum weight capacity: Outboard boats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maximum weight capacity: Outboard... SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Safe Loading § 183.35 Maximum weight capacity: Outboard boats. (a) The maximum weight capacity marked on a boat that is designed or intended...

  11. 14 CFR 375.23 - Maximum allowable weights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maximum allowable weights. 375.23 Section... Applicable § 375.23 Maximum allowable weights. Foreign civil aircraft that are permitted to navigate in the... maximum certificated weights prescribed or authorized for the particular variation of the aircraft...

  12. 33 CFR 183.35 - Maximum weight capacity: Outboard boats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum weight capacity: Outboard... SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Safe Loading § 183.35 Maximum weight capacity: Outboard boats. (a) The maximum weight capacity marked on a boat that is designed or intended...

  13. 49 CFR 236.55 - Dead section; maximum length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dead section; maximum length. 236.55 Section 236... Instructions: All Systems Track Circuits § 236.55 Dead section; maximum length. Where dead section exceeds 35... over such dead section is less than 35 feet, the maximum length of the dead section shall not...

  14. 49 CFR 236.55 - Dead section; maximum length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dead section; maximum length. 236.55 Section 236... Instructions: All Systems Track Circuits § 236.55 Dead section; maximum length. Where dead section exceeds 35... over such dead section is less than 35 feet, the maximum length of the dead section shall not...

  15. 49 CFR 236.55 - Dead section; maximum length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dead section; maximum length. 236.55 Section 236... Instructions: All Systems Track Circuits § 236.55 Dead section; maximum length. Where dead section exceeds 35... over such dead section is less than 35 feet, the maximum length of the dead section shall not...

  16. 49 CFR 236.55 - Dead section; maximum length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dead section; maximum length. 236.55 Section 236... Instructions: All Systems Track Circuits § 236.55 Dead section; maximum length. Where dead section exceeds 35... over such dead section is less than 35 feet, the maximum length of the dead section shall not...

  17. 49 CFR 236.55 - Dead section; maximum length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dead section; maximum length. 236.55 Section 236... Instructions: All Systems Track Circuits § 236.55 Dead section; maximum length. Where dead section exceeds 35... over such dead section is less than 35 feet, the maximum length of the dead section shall not...

  18. 49 CFR 230.27 - Maximum shearing strength of rivets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Strength of Materials § 230.27 Maximum shearing strength of rivets. The maximum shearing strength... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Maximum shearing strength of rivets....

  19. 49 CFR 230.27 - Maximum shearing strength of rivets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Strength of Materials § 230.27 Maximum shearing strength of rivets. The maximum shearing strength... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Maximum shearing strength of rivets....

  20. 49 CFR 230.27 - Maximum shearing strength of rivets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Strength of Materials § 230.27 Maximum shearing strength of rivets. The maximum shearing strength... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Maximum shearing strength of rivets....

  1. Maximum Power Training and Plyometrics for Cross-Country Running.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebben, William P.

    2001-01-01

    Provides a rationale for maximum power training and plyometrics as conditioning strategies for cross-country runners, examining: an evaluation of training methods (strength training and maximum power training and plyometrics); biomechanic and velocity specificity (role in preventing injury); and practical application of maximum power training and…

  2. 49 CFR 230.27 - Maximum shearing strength of rivets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Strength of Materials § 230.27 Maximum shearing strength of rivets. The maximum shearing strength... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maximum shearing strength of rivets....

  3. 40 CFR 141.13 - Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity. 141.13 Section 141.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Maximum Contaminant Levels § 141.13 Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity....

  4. 40 CFR 141.13 - Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity. 141.13 Section 141.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Maximum Contaminant Levels § 141.13 Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity....

  5. 40 CFR 143.3 - Secondary maximum contaminant levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Secondary maximum contaminant levels. 143.3 Section 143.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL SECONDARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS § 143.3 Secondary maximum contaminant levels. The secondary maximum contaminant...

  6. 43 CFR 3594.1 - Ultimate maximum recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ultimate maximum recovery. 3594.1 Section...) EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS Mining Methods § 3594.1 Ultimate maximum recovery. (a) Mining operations shall be conducted in a manner to yield the ultimate maximum recovery of the mineral...

  7. 43 CFR 3594.1 - Ultimate maximum recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ultimate maximum recovery. 3594.1 Section...) EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS Mining Methods § 3594.1 Ultimate maximum recovery. (a) Mining operations shall be conducted in a manner to yield the ultimate maximum recovery of the mineral...

  8. 43 CFR 3594.1 - Ultimate maximum recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ultimate maximum recovery. 3594.1 Section...) EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS Mining Methods § 3594.1 Ultimate maximum recovery. (a) Mining operations shall be conducted in a manner to yield the ultimate maximum recovery of the mineral...

  9. 43 CFR 3594.1 - Ultimate maximum recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ultimate maximum recovery. 3594.1 Section...) EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS Mining Methods § 3594.1 Ultimate maximum recovery. (a) Mining operations shall be conducted in a manner to yield the ultimate maximum recovery of the mineral...

  10. 31 CFR 149.3 - Maximum obligation limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maximum obligation limitation. 149.3 Section 149.3 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance MONETARY OFFICES, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CALCULATION OF MAXIMUM OBLIGATION LIMITATION § 149.3 Maximum obligation...

  11. 5 CFR 550.106 - Annual maximum earnings limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Annual maximum earnings limitation. 550.106 Section 550.106 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Maximum Earnings Limitations § 550.106 Annual maximum earnings limitation. (a)(1) For any pay period...

  12. 5 CFR 550.105 - Biweekly maximum earnings limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Biweekly maximum earnings limitation. 550.105 Section 550.105 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Maximum Earnings Limitations § 550.105 Biweekly maximum earnings limitation. (a) Except as provided...

  13. 7 CFR 4290.840 - Maximum term of Financing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Financing of Enterprises by RBICs Structuring Rbic Financing of Eligible Enterprises-Types of Financings § 4290.840 Maximum term of Financing. The maximum term of any Debt Security must be no longer than 20... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum term of Financing. 4290.840 Section...

  14. 14 CFR 25.1505 - Maximum operating limit speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maximum operating limit speed. 25.1505... Operating Limitations § 25.1505 Maximum operating limit speed. The maximum operating limit speed (V MO/M MO airspeed or Mach Number, whichever is critical at a particular altitude) is a speed that may not...

  15. 14 CFR 25.1505 - Maximum operating limit speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum operating limit speed. 25.1505... Operating Limitations § 25.1505 Maximum operating limit speed. The maximum operating limit speed (V MO/M MO airspeed or Mach Number, whichever is critical at a particular altitude) is a speed that may not...

  16. 40 CFR 94.107 - Determination of maximum test speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... specified in 40 CFR 1065.510. These data points form the lug curve. It is not necessary to generate the... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Determination of maximum test speed... Determination of maximum test speed. (a) Overview. This section specifies how to determine maximum test...

  17. 40 CFR 94.107 - Determination of maximum test speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... specified in 40 CFR 1065.510. These data points form the lug curve. It is not necessary to generate the... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Determination of maximum test speed... Determination of maximum test speed. (a) Overview. This section specifies how to determine maximum test...

  18. Maximum Performance Tests in Children with Developmental Spastic Dysarthria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wit, J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Three Maximum Performance Tasks (Maximum Sound Prolongation, Fundamental Frequency Range, and Maximum Repetition Rate) were administered to 11 children (ages 6-11) with spastic dysarthria resulting from cerebral palsy and 11 controls. Despite intrasubject and intersubject variability in normal and pathological speakers, the tasks were found to be…

  19. Relationship Between Selected Strength and Power Assessments to Peak and Average Velocity of the Drive Block in Offensive Line Play.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Bert H; Conchola, Eric C; Smith, Doug B; Akehi, Kazuma; Glass, Rob G

    2016-08-01

    Jacobson, BH, Conchola, EC, Smith, DB, Akehi, K, and Glass, RG. Relationship between selected strength and power assessments to peak and average velocity of the drive block in offensive line play. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2202-2205, 2016-Typical strength training for football includes the squat and power clean (PC) and routinely measured variables include 1 repetition maximum (1RM) squat and 1RM PC along with the vertical jump (VJ) for power. However, little research exists regarding the association between the strength exercises and velocity of an actual on-the-field performance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of peak velocity (PV) and average velocity (AV) of the offensive line drive block to 1RM squat, 1RM PC, the VJ, body mass (BM), and body composition. One repetition maximum assessments for the squat and PC were recorded along with VJ height, BM, and percent body fat. These data were correlated with PV and AV while performing the drive block. Peal velocity and AV were assessed using a Tendo Power and Speed Analyzer as the linemen fired, from a 3-point stance into a stationary blocking dummy. Pearson product analysis yielded significant (p ≤ 0.05) correlations between PV and AV and the VJ, the squat, and the PC. A significant inverse association was found for both PV and AV and body fat. These data help to confirm that the typical exercises recommended for American football linemen is positively associated with both PV and AV needed for the drive block effectiveness. It is recommended that these exercises remain the focus of a weight room protocol and that ancillary exercises be built around these exercises. Additionally, efforts to reduce body fat are recommended. PMID:24910958

  20. Maximum range three-dimensional lifting planetary entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickmanns, E. D.

    1972-01-01

    Variational equations for maximum range three-dimensional quasisteady glide are given. Nonlinear oscillatory maximum range trajectories obtained with a refined gradient program are approximated by a superposition of quasisteady glide and linearized perturbation equation results. A basic control law is found which is closely followed for maximum cross-range trajectories. The effect of a reradiative heating constraint involving velocity, altitude and angle of attack on a maximum cross-range trajectory for a space shuttle orbiter-type vehicle reentering the earth's atmosphere is investigated numerically.

  1. 40 CFR 35.585 - Maximum federal share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Water Pollution Control (sections 106... water pollution control program. (b) The Regional Administrator may increase the maximum federal...

  2. 40 CFR 35.585 - Maximum federal share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Water Pollution Control (sections 106... water pollution control program. (b) The Regional Administrator may increase the maximum federal...

  3. 40 CFR 35.585 - Maximum federal share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Water Pollution Control (sections 106... water pollution control program. (b) The Regional Administrator may increase the maximum federal...

  4. 40 CFR 35.585 - Maximum federal share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Water Pollution Control (sections 106... water pollution control program. (b) The Regional Administrator may increase the maximum federal...

  5. The effects of short-cycle sprints on power, strength, and salivary hormones in elite rugby players.

    PubMed

    Crewther, Blair T; Cook, Christian J; Lowe, Tim E; Weatherby, Robert P; Gill, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effects of short-cycle sprints on power, strength, and salivary hormones in elite rugby players. Thirty male rugby players performed an upper-body power and lower-body strength (UPLS) and/or a lower-body power and upper-body strength (LPUS) workout using a crossover design (sprint vs. control). A 40-second upper-body or lower-body cycle sprint was performed before the UPLS and LPUS workouts, respectively, with the control sessions performed without the sprints. Bench throw (BT) power and box squat (BS) 1 repetition maximum (1RM) strength were assessed in the UPLS workout, and squat jump (SJ) power and bench press (BP) 1RM strength were assessed in the LPUS workout. Saliva was collected across each workout and assayed for testosterone (Sal-T) and cortisol (Sal-C). The cycle sprints improved BS (2.6 ± 1.2%) and BP (2.8 ± 1.0%) 1RM but did not affect BT and SJ power. The lower-body cycle sprint produced a favorable environment for the BS by elevating Sal-T concentrations. The upper-body cycle sprint had no hormonal effect, but the workout differences (%) in Sal-T (r = -0.59) and Sal-C (r = 0.42) concentrations correlated to the BP, along with the Sal-T/C ratio (r = -0.49 to -0.66). In conclusion, the cycle sprints improved the BP and BS 1RM strength of elite rugby players but not power output in the current format. The improvements noted may be explained, in part, by the changes in absolute or relative hormone concentrations. These findings have practical implications for prescribing warm-up and training exercises. PMID:20093968

  6. Cardiac autonomic recovery after a single session of resistance exercise with and without vascular occlusion.

    PubMed

    Okuno, Nilo M; Pedro, Rafael E; Leicht, Anthony S; de Paula Ramos, Solange; Nakamura, Fábio Y

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the heart rate variability (HRV) after resistance training with and without vascular occlusion. It was hypothesized that low intensity (LI) with vascular occlusion (LIO) would elicit comparable postexercise HRV responses with that of high intensity (HI) without vascular occlusion. Nine subjects undertook 4 experimental sessions of leg press exercise on different days: (a) 1 repetition maximum (1RM) test, (b) 4 sets of 8 repetitions + 1 set until exhaustion at 80% of 1RM without vascular occlusion (HI), (c) 4 sets of 16 repetitions + 1 set until exhaustion at 40% of 1RM with vascular occlusion (LIO), and (d) 4 sets of 16 repetitions + 1 set with the number of repetitions equal to the last set of LIO but at 40% of 1RM without vascular occlusion (LI). Heart rate variability was analyzed 10 minutes, 20 minutes, 30 minutes, 1 hour, 5 hours, and 24 hours after the HI, LIO, and LI sessions. The HI session increased the heart rate (HR) and reduced the root mean square of the successive difference of R-R intervals (RMSSD) and log-transformed high-frequency (lnHF) power during prolonged recovery (HR = 5 hours; RMSSD = 30 minutes; lnHF = 1 hour) at a greater magnitude when compared with LIO and LI. Despite the same intensity of exercise for LIO and LI, the occlusion delayed the recovery of HR and HRV variables. Postexercise blood lactate concentration was moderate to strongly correlated with peak HR (r = 0.87), RMSSD (r = -0.64), and lnHF (r = -0.68). This study has demonstrated that LIO was able to reduce cardiac autonomic stress when compared with HI. PMID:24077384

  7. 42 CFR 447.54 - Maximum allowable and nominal charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Deductible, Coinsurance, Co-Payment Or Similar Cost-Sharing Charge § 447.54 Maximum allowable and nominal..., any co-payments it imposes under a fee-for-service delivery system do not exceed the amounts shown in the following table: State payment for the service Maximum copayment $10 or less $0.60 $10.01 to $25...

  8. 42 CFR 447.54 - Maximum allowable and nominal charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Deductible, Coinsurance, Co-Payment Or Similar Cost-Sharing Charge § 447.54 Maximum allowable and nominal..., any co-payments it imposes under a fee-for-service delivery system do not exceed the amounts shown in the following table: State payment for the service Maximum copayment $10 or less $0.60 $10.01 to $25...

  9. 42 CFR 447.54 - Maximum allowable and nominal charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Deductible, Coinsurance, Co-Payment Or Similar Cost-Sharing Charge § 447.54 Maximum allowable and nominal..., any co-payments it imposes under a fee-for-service delivery system do not exceed the amounts shown in the following table: State payment for the service Maximum copayment $10 or less $0.60 $10.01 to $25...

  10. 10 CFR 429.120 - Maximum civil penalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maximum civil penalty. 429.120 Section 429.120 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION CERTIFICATION, COMPLIANCE, AND ENFORCEMENT FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS AND COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Enforcement § 429.120 Maximum civil penalty. Any person who...

  11. 10 CFR 429.120 - Maximum civil penalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maximum civil penalty. 429.120 Section 429.120 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION CERTIFICATION, COMPLIANCE, AND ENFORCEMENT FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS AND COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Enforcement § 429.120 Maximum civil penalty. Any person who...

  12. 10 CFR 429.120 - Maximum civil penalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maximum civil penalty. 429.120 Section 429.120 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION CERTIFICATION, COMPLIANCE, AND ENFORCEMENT FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS AND COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Enforcement § 429.120 Maximum civil penalty. Any person who...

  13. 33 CFR 401.3 - Maximum vessel dimensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maximum vessel dimensions. 401.3... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Condition of Vessels § 401.3 Maximum vessel dimensions..., and having dimensions that do not exceed the limits set out in the block diagram in appendix I of...

  14. 33 CFR 401.3 - Maximum vessel dimensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum vessel dimensions. 401.3... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Condition of Vessels § 401.3 Maximum vessel dimensions..., and having dimensions that do not exceed the limits set out in the block diagram in appendix I of...

  15. 46 CFR 151.45-6 - Maximum amount of cargo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Maximum amount of cargo. 151.45-6 Section 151.45-6 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES BARGES CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Operations § 151.45-6 Maximum amount of cargo. (a) Tanks carrying liquids or liquefied gases at...

  16. 46 CFR 151.45-6 - Maximum amount of cargo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Maximum amount of cargo. 151.45-6 Section 151.45-6 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES BARGES CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Operations § 151.45-6 Maximum amount of cargo. (a) Tanks carrying liquids or liquefied gases at...

  17. 40 CFR 143.3 - Secondary maximum contaminant levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... 143.3 Section 143.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL SECONDARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS § 143.3 Secondary maximum contaminant levels. The secondary maximum contaminant levels for public water systems are as follows:...

  18. 40 CFR 143.3 - Secondary maximum contaminant levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... 143.3 Section 143.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL SECONDARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS § 143.3 Secondary maximum contaminant levels. The secondary maximum contaminant levels for public water systems are as follows:...

  19. 40 CFR 143.3 - Secondary maximum contaminant levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... 143.3 Section 143.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL SECONDARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS § 143.3 Secondary maximum contaminant levels. The secondary maximum contaminant levels for public water systems are as follows:...

  20. 40 CFR 143.3 - Secondary maximum contaminant levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... 143.3 Section 143.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL SECONDARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS § 143.3 Secondary maximum contaminant levels. The secondary maximum contaminant levels for public water systems are as follows:...

  1. A Maximum Likelihood Approach to Correlational Outlier Identification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacon, Donald R.

    1995-01-01

    A maximum likelihood approach to correlational outlier identification is introduced and compared to the Mahalanobis D squared and Comrey D statistics through Monte Carlo simulation. Identification performance depends on the nature of correlational outliers and the measure used, but the maximum likelihood approach is the most robust performance…

  2. 22 CFR 201.63 - Maximum prices for commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maximum prices for commodities. 201.63 Section... COMMODITY TRANSACTIONS FINANCED BY USAID Price Provisions § 201.63 Maximum prices for commodities. (a) U.S. prevailing market price—U.S. source. The purchase price for a commodity, the source of which is the...

  3. 29 CFR 4022.23 - Computation of maximum guaranteeable benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... in any manner other than as a monthly benefit payable for life commencing at age 65, the maximum... of a step-down life annuity, the maximum guaranteeable monthly amount of such benefit shall be... 120 month period. (d) Factor for benefit payable in a form other than as a life annuity. When...

  4. 46 CFR 151.03-37 - Maximum allowable working pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Maximum allowable working pressure. 151.03-37 Section... working pressure. The maximum allowable working pressure shall be as defined in section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code....

  5. 49 CFR 195.406 - Maximum operating pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maximum operating pressure. 195.406 Section 195... HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Operation and Maintenance § 195.406 Maximum operating pressure. (a) Except for surge pressures and other variations from normal operations, no operator may operate a pipeline at...

  6. 46 CFR 151.03-37 - Maximum allowable working pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Maximum allowable working pressure. 151.03-37 Section... working pressure. The maximum allowable working pressure shall be as defined in section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code....

  7. 49 CFR 195.406 - Maximum operating pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Maximum operating pressure. 195.406 Section 195... HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Operation and Maintenance § 195.406 Maximum operating pressure. (a) Except for surge pressures and other variations from normal operations, no operator may operate a pipeline at...

  8. 46 CFR 151.03-37 - Maximum allowable working pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Maximum allowable working pressure. 151.03-37 Section... working pressure. The maximum allowable working pressure shall be as defined in section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code....

  9. 49 CFR 195.406 - Maximum operating pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Maximum operating pressure. 195.406 Section 195... HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Operation and Maintenance § 195.406 Maximum operating pressure. (a) Except for surge pressures and other variations from normal operations, no operator may operate a pipeline at...

  10. 46 CFR 151.03-37 - Maximum allowable working pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maximum allowable working pressure. 151.03-37 Section... working pressure. The maximum allowable working pressure shall be as defined in section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code....

  11. Relevance Data for Language Models Using Maximum Likelihood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodoff, David; Wu, Bin; Wong, K. Y. Michael

    2003-01-01

    Presents a preliminary empirical test of a maximum likelihood approach to using relevance data for training information retrieval parameters. Discusses similarities to language models; the unification of document-oriented and query-oriented views; tests on data sets; algorithms and scalability; and the effectiveness of maximum likelihood…

  12. 30 CFR 57.5039 - Maximum permissible concentration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Maximum permissible concentration. 57.5039... Maximum permissible concentration. Except as provided by standard § 57.5005, persons shall not be exposed to air containing concentrations of radon daughters exceeding 1.0 WL in active workings....

  13. 30 CFR 57.5039 - Maximum permissible concentration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maximum permissible concentration. 57.5039... Maximum permissible concentration. Except as provided by standard § 57.5005, persons shall not be exposed to air containing concentrations of radon daughters exceeding 1.0 WL in active workings....

  14. 30 CFR 57.5039 - Maximum permissible concentration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Maximum permissible concentration. 57.5039... Maximum permissible concentration. Except as provided by standard § 57.5005, persons shall not be exposed to air containing concentrations of radon daughters exceeding 1.0 WL in active workings....

  15. 30 CFR 56.19061 - Maximum hoisting speeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Maximum hoisting speeds. 56.19061 Section 56... Hoisting Procedures § 56.19061 Maximum hoisting speeds. The safe speed for hoisting persons shall be determined for each shaft, and this speed shall not be exceeded. Persons should not be hoisted at a...

  16. 30 CFR 57.19061 - Maximum hoisting speeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Maximum hoisting speeds. 57.19061 Section 57... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 57.19061 Maximum hoisting speeds. The safe speed for hoisting persons shall be determined for each shaft, and this speed shall not be exceeded. Persons shall not be hoisted at...

  17. 30 CFR 57.19061 - Maximum hoisting speeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Maximum hoisting speeds. 57.19061 Section 57... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 57.19061 Maximum hoisting speeds. The safe speed for hoisting persons shall be determined for each shaft, and this speed shall not be exceeded. Persons shall not be hoisted at...

  18. 30 CFR 56.19061 - Maximum hoisting speeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maximum hoisting speeds. 56.19061 Section 56... Hoisting Procedures § 56.19061 Maximum hoisting speeds. The safe speed for hoisting persons shall be determined for each shaft, and this speed shall not be exceeded. Persons should not be hoisted at a...

  19. 49 CFR 174.86 - Maximum allowable operating speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Maximum allowable operating speed. 174.86 Section... operating speed. (a) For molten metals and molten glass shipped in packagings other than those prescribed in § 173.247 of this subchapter, the maximum allowable operating speed may not exceed 24 km/hour (15...

  20. 30 CFR 57.19061 - Maximum hoisting speeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maximum hoisting speeds. 57.19061 Section 57... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 57.19061 Maximum hoisting speeds. The safe speed for hoisting persons shall be determined for each shaft, and this speed shall not be exceeded. Persons shall not be hoisted at...

  1. 49 CFR 174.86 - Maximum allowable operating speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Maximum allowable operating speed. 174.86 Section... operating speed. (a) For molten metals and molten glass shipped in packagings other than those prescribed in § 173.247 of this subchapter, the maximum allowable operating speed may not exceed 24 km/hour (15...

  2. 30 CFR 56.19061 - Maximum hoisting speeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Maximum hoisting speeds. 56.19061 Section 56... Hoisting Procedures § 56.19061 Maximum hoisting speeds. The safe speed for hoisting persons shall be determined for each shaft, and this speed shall not be exceeded. Persons should not be hoisted at a...

  3. 49 CFR 174.86 - Maximum allowable operating speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Maximum allowable operating speed. 174.86 Section... operating speed. (a) For molten metals and molten glass shipped in packagings other than those prescribed in § 173.247 of this subchapter, the maximum allowable operating speed may not exceed 24 km/hour (15...

  4. 40 CFR 35.635 - Maximum federal share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (sections 319(h) and 518(f)) § 35.635 Maximum federal share. (a) The Regional Administrator may provide up... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum federal share. 35.635 Section 35.635 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL...

  5. 40 CFR 35.635 - Maximum federal share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (sections 319(h) and 518(f)) § 35.635 Maximum federal share. (a) The Regional Administrator may provide up... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Maximum federal share. 35.635 Section 35.635 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL...

  6. 40 CFR 35.635 - Maximum federal share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (sections 319(h) and 518(f)) § 35.635 Maximum federal share. (a) The Regional Administrator may provide up... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maximum federal share. 35.635 Section 35.635 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL...

  7. 40 CFR 35.635 - Maximum federal share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (sections 319(h) and 518(f)) § 35.635 Maximum federal share. (a) The Regional Administrator may provide up... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Maximum federal share. 35.635 Section 35.635 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL...

  8. Walking after Stroke: Comfortable versus Maximum Safe Speed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohannon, Richard W.

    1992-01-01

    This study attempted to (1) determine whether stroke patients (n=20) can safely increase their walking speed above that of comfortable walking; (2) describe the relationship between comfortable and maximum safe walking speed; and (3) examine correlations between maximum and comfortable speeds and a functional walking score. Subjects were able to…

  9. 33 CFR 401.4 - Maximum length and weight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maximum length and weight. 401.4... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Condition of Vessels § 401.4 Maximum length and weight. No vessel of less than 6 m in overall length or 900 kg in weight shall transit through Seaway Locks....

  10. 33 CFR 401.4 - Maximum length and weight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum length and weight. 401.4... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Condition of Vessels § 401.4 Maximum length and weight. No vessel of less than 6 m in overall length or 900 kg in weight shall transit through Seaway Locks....

  11. 30 CFR 57.5039 - Maximum permissible concentration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum permissible concentration. 57.5039... Maximum permissible concentration. Except as provided by standard § 57.5005, persons shall not be exposed to air containing concentrations of radon daughters exceeding 1.0 WL in active workings....

  12. 30 CFR 57.5039 - Maximum permissible concentration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maximum permissible concentration. 57.5039... Maximum permissible concentration. Except as provided by standard § 57.5005, persons shall not be exposed to air containing concentrations of radon daughters exceeding 1.0 WL in active workings....

  13. 36 CFR 20.3 - Maximum number of permittees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Maximum number of permittees. 20.3 Section 20.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ISLE ROYALE NATIONAL PARK; COMMERCIAL FISHING § 20.3 Maximum number of permittees....

  14. 36 CFR 20.3 - Maximum number of permittees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maximum number of permittees. 20.3 Section 20.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ISLE ROYALE NATIONAL PARK; COMMERCIAL FISHING § 20.3 Maximum number of permittees....

  15. 10 CFR 600.20 - Maximum DOE obligation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum DOE obligation. 600.20 Section 600.20 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE RULES General § 600.20 Maximum... shall not be obligated to make any additional, supplemental, continuation, renewal, or other award...

  16. 12 CFR 380.10 - Maximum obligation limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maximum obligation limitation. 380.10 Section 380.10 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY ORDERLY LIQUIDATION AUTHORITY General and Miscellaneous Provisions § 380.10 Maximum obligation limitation. (a) General rule. The FDIC shall...

  17. Renewing Solar Science. The Solar Maximum Repair Mission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Valerie

    This publication describes the Solar Maximum Repair Mission for restoring the operational capability of the solar observatory in space by using the Space Shuttle. Major sections include: (1) "The Solar Maximum Mission" (describing the duties of the mission); (2) "Studying Solar Flares" (summarizing the major scientific accomplishments of the…

  18. 5 CFR 591.103 - Governmentwide maximum uniform allowance rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Governmentwide maximum uniform allowance rate. 591.103 Section 591.103 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE... rate. Unless a higher initial maximum uniform allowance rate is payable under § 591.104 to an...

  19. 5 CFR 591.103 - Governmentwide maximum uniform allowance rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Governmentwide maximum uniform allowance rate. 591.103 Section 591.103 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE... rate. Unless a higher initial maximum uniform allowance rate is payable under § 591.104 to an...

  20. 5 CFR 591.103 - Governmentwide maximum uniform allowance rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Governmentwide maximum uniform allowance rate. 591.103 Section 591.103 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE... rate. Unless a higher initial maximum uniform allowance rate is payable under § 591.104 to an...

  1. 5 CFR 591.103 - Governmentwide maximum uniform allowance rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Governmentwide maximum uniform allowance rate. 591.103 Section 591.103 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE... rate. Unless a higher initial maximum uniform allowance rate is payable under § 591.104 to an...

  2. 5 CFR 591.103 - Governmentwide maximum uniform allowance rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Governmentwide maximum uniform allowance rate. 591.103 Section 591.103 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE... rate. Unless a higher initial maximum uniform allowance rate is payable under § 591.104 to an...

  3. 14 CFR § 1261.102 - Maximum amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maximum amount. § 1261.102 Section § 1261.102 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PROCESSING OF MONETARY CLAIMS (GENERAL) Employees' Personal Property Claims § 1261.102 Maximum amount. From October 1, 1982, to...

  4. 10 CFR 600.20 - Maximum DOE obligation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maximum DOE obligation. 600.20 Section 600.20 Energy... DOE obligation. (a) The maximum DOE obligation to the recipient is— (1) For monetary awards, the amount shown in the award as the amount of DOE funds obligated, and (2) Any designated property. (b)...

  5. 10 CFR 600.20 - Maximum DOE obligation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maximum DOE obligation. 600.20 Section 600.20 Energy... DOE obligation. (a) The maximum DOE obligation to the recipient is— (1) For monetary awards, the amount shown in the award as the amount of DOE funds obligated, and (2) Any designated property. (b)...

  6. 10 CFR 600.20 - Maximum DOE obligation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maximum DOE obligation. 600.20 Section 600.20 Energy... DOE obligation. (a) The maximum DOE obligation to the recipient is— (1) For monetary awards, the amount shown in the award as the amount of DOE funds obligated, and (2) Any designated property. (b)...

  7. 10 CFR 600.20 - Maximum DOE obligation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maximum DOE obligation. 600.20 Section 600.20 Energy... DOE obligation. (a) The maximum DOE obligation to the recipient is— (1) For monetary awards, the amount shown in the award as the amount of DOE funds obligated, and (2) Any designated property. (b)...

  8. 40 CFR 35.2205 - Maximum allowable project cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum allowable project cost. 35.2205 Section 35.2205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2205 Maximum allowable project cost. (a) Grants awarded on...

  9. 47 CFR 95.639 - Maximum transmitter power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maximum transmitter power. 95.639 Section 95.639 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Technical Regulations Technical Standards § 95.639 Maximum transmitter power. (a) No GMRS transmitter, under any condition...

  10. 47 CFR 95.639 - Maximum transmitter power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Maximum transmitter power. 95.639 Section 95.639 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Technical Regulations Technical Standards § 95.639 Maximum transmitter power. (a) No GMRS transmitter, under any condition...

  11. 47 CFR 95.639 - Maximum transmitter power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Maximum transmitter power. 95.639 Section 95.639 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Technical Regulations Technical Standards § 95.639 Maximum transmitter power. (a) No GMRS transmitter, under any condition...

  12. 22 CFR 192.44 - Maximum limitation on benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Maximum limitation on benefits. 192.44 Section 192.44 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE HOSTAGE RELIEF VICTIMS OF TERRORISM COMPENSATION Educational Benefits for Captive Situations § 192.44 Maximum limitation on benefits. (a) In no event...

  13. 22 CFR 192.44 - Maximum limitation on benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Maximum limitation on benefits. 192.44 Section 192.44 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE HOSTAGE RELIEF VICTIMS OF TERRORISM COMPENSATION Educational Benefits for Captive Situations § 192.44 Maximum limitation on benefits. (a) In no event...

  14. 22 CFR 192.44 - Maximum limitation on benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Maximum limitation on benefits. 192.44 Section 192.44 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE HOSTAGE RELIEF VICTIMS OF TERRORISM COMPENSATION Educational Benefits for Captive Situations § 192.44 Maximum limitation on benefits. (a) In no event...

  15. 22 CFR 192.44 - Maximum limitation on benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Maximum limitation on benefits. 192.44 Section 192.44 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE HOSTAGE RELIEF VICTIMS OF TERRORISM COMPENSATION Educational Benefits for Captive Situations § 192.44 Maximum limitation on benefits. (a) In no event...

  16. 22 CFR 192.44 - Maximum limitation on benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maximum limitation on benefits. 192.44 Section 192.44 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE HOSTAGE RELIEF VICTIMS OF TERRORISM COMPENSATION Educational Benefits for Captive Situations § 192.44 Maximum limitation on benefits. (a) In no event...

  17. 40 CFR 141.65 - Maximum residual disinfectant levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum residual disinfectant levels. 141.65 Section 141.65 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Maximum Contaminant Levels and...

  18. 40 CFR 141.65 - Maximum residual disinfectant levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maximum residual disinfectant levels. 141.65 Section 141.65 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Maximum Contaminant Levels and...

  19. 20 CFR 615.7 - Extended Benefits; maximum amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Extended Benefits; maximum amount. 615.7 Section 615.7 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EXTENDED BENEFITS IN THE FEDERAL-STATE UNEMPLOYMENT COMPENSATION PROGRAM § 615.7 Extended Benefits; maximum...

  20. 32 CFR 842.35 - Depreciation and maximum allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Depreciation and maximum allowances. 842.35... LITIGATION ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS Personnel Claims (31 U.S.C. 3701, 3721) § 842.35 Depreciation and maximum allowances. The military services have jointly established the “Allowance List-Depreciation Guide”...

  1. 76 FR 72645 - Calculation of Maximum Obligation Limitation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-25

    ... 149 RIN 1505-AC36 Calculation of Maximum Obligation Limitation AGENCY: Federal Deposit Insurance... the Dodd-Frank Act, the proposed rules govern the calculation of the maximum obligation limitation... Council (``FSOC''), to jointly prescribe regulations governing the calculation of the MOL. In...

  2. 14 CFR 375.23 - Maximum allowable weights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS NAVIGATION OF FOREIGN CIVIL AIRCRAFT WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Rules Generally Applicable § 375.23 Maximum allowable weights. Foreign civil aircraft that are permitted to navigate in the... maximum certificated weights prescribed or authorized for the particular variation of the aircraft...

  3. 14 CFR 375.23 - Maximum allowable weights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS NAVIGATION OF FOREIGN CIVIL AIRCRAFT WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Rules Generally Applicable § 375.23 Maximum allowable weights. Foreign civil aircraft that are permitted to navigate in the... maximum certificated weights prescribed or authorized for the particular variation of the aircraft...

  4. 14 CFR 375.23 - Maximum allowable weights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS NAVIGATION OF FOREIGN CIVIL AIRCRAFT WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Rules Generally Applicable § 375.23 Maximum allowable weights. Foreign civil aircraft that are permitted to navigate in the... maximum certificated weights prescribed or authorized for the particular variation of the aircraft...

  5. Maximum Duration of Sustained /s/ and /z/ in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tait, Nancy Adkins; And Others

    1980-01-01

    In light of the proposal that a ratio of the maximum duration of sustained /s/ to /z/ sounds may be useful in determining the possible contributions of the respiratory and vocal mechanisms to a disordered voice, a study of /s/ and /z/ maximum phoneme duration in normal five-, seven-, and nine-year-olds was conducted. (Author/DLS)

  6. 40 CFR 35.195 - Maximum federal share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum federal share. 35.195 Section 35.195 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Underground Water Source Protection (section 1443(b)) § 35.195 Maximum federal share....

  7. 40 CFR 35.685 - Maximum federal share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum federal share. 35.685 Section 35.685 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Underground Water Source Protection (section 1443(b)) § 35.685 Maximum...

  8. 40 CFR 35.585 - Maximum federal share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maximum federal share. 35.585 Section 35.585 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Water Pollution Control (sections 106 and 518) § 35.585 Maximum federal share....

  9. 49 CFR 174.86 - Maximum allowable operating speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maximum allowable operating speed. 174.86 Section... operating speed. (a) For molten metals and molten glass shipped in packagings other than those prescribed in § 173.247 of this subchapter, the maximum allowable operating speed may not exceed 24 km/hour (15...

  10. 30 CFR 57.19061 - Maximum hoisting speeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maximum hoisting speeds. 57.19061 Section 57... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 57.19061 Maximum hoisting speeds. The safe speed for hoisting persons shall be determined for each shaft, and this speed shall not be exceeded. Persons shall not be hoisted at...

  11. 30 CFR 56.19061 - Maximum hoisting speeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum hoisting speeds. 56.19061 Section 56... Hoisting Procedures § 56.19061 Maximum hoisting speeds. The safe speed for hoisting persons shall be determined for each shaft, and this speed shall not be exceeded. Persons should not be hoisted at a...

  12. 30 CFR 56.19061 - Maximum hoisting speeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maximum hoisting speeds. 56.19061 Section 56... Hoisting Procedures § 56.19061 Maximum hoisting speeds. The safe speed for hoisting persons shall be determined for each shaft, and this speed shall not be exceeded. Persons should not be hoisted at a...

  13. 30 CFR 57.19061 - Maximum hoisting speeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum hoisting speeds. 57.19061 Section 57... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 57.19061 Maximum hoisting speeds. The safe speed for hoisting persons shall be determined for each shaft, and this speed shall not be exceeded. Persons shall not be hoisted at...

  14. 49 CFR 174.86 - Maximum allowable operating speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Maximum allowable operating speed. 174.86 Section... operating speed. (a) For molten metals and molten glass shipped in packagings other than those prescribed in § 173.247 of this subchapter, the maximum allowable operating speed may not exceed 24 km/hour (15...

  15. 40 CFR 1042.140 - Maximum engine power, displacement, power density, and maximum in-use engine speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... procedures of 40 CFR part 1065, based on the manufacturer's design and production specifications for the... as specified in 40 CFR 1065.610. This is the maximum in-use engine speed used for calculating the NOX..., power density, and maximum in-use engine speed. 1042.140 Section 1042.140 Protection of...

  16. 40 CFR 1042.140 - Maximum engine power, displacement, power density, and maximum in-use engine speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... procedures of 40 CFR part 1065, based on the manufacturer's design and production specifications for the... as specified in 40 CFR 1065.610. This is the maximum in-use engine speed used for calculating the NOX..., power density, and maximum in-use engine speed. 1042.140 Section 1042.140 Protection of...

  17. 40 CFR 1042.140 - Maximum engine power, displacement, power density, and maximum in-use engine speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... procedures of 40 CFR part 1065, based on the manufacturer's design and production specifications for the... as specified in 40 CFR 1065.610. This is the maximum in-use engine speed used for calculating the NOX..., power density, and maximum in-use engine speed. 1042.140 Section 1042.140 Protection of...

  18. 40 CFR 1042.140 - Maximum engine power, displacement, power density, and maximum in-use engine speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... procedures of 40 CFR part 1065, based on the manufacturer's design and production specifications for the... as specified in 40 CFR 1065.610. This is the maximum in-use engine speed used for calculating the NOX..., power density, and maximum in-use engine speed. 1042.140 Section 1042.140 Protection of...

  19. 40 CFR 1042.140 - Maximum engine power, displacement, power density, and maximum in-use engine speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... procedures of 40 CFR part 1065, based on the manufacturer's design and production specifications for the... as specified in 40 CFR 1065.610. This is the maximum in-use engine speed used for calculating the NOX..., power density, and maximum in-use engine speed. 1042.140 Section 1042.140 Protection of...

  20. Strength and power determinants of grinding performance in America's Cup sailors.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Simon N; Hume, Patria A; Cronin, John B; Slyfield, David

    2009-09-01

    The purpose grinding is a physically demanding component of America's Cup sailing that is important to overall team performance, but little research is available on the determinants of grinding performance. We examined the relationship between various measures of muscular performance and the performance of upper-body grinding. Eleven elite male America's Cup sailors (33.9 +/- 5.5 yr, 97.8 +/- 12.5 kg, 186.0 +/- 7.1 cm) who performed grinding as part of their on-board role with extensive strength training experience participated in this study. Muscular performance testing examined the force, velocity, and power capabilities of the upper-body musculature, with upper-body push (bench press) and pull (bench pull) movements performed across loads of 10-100% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM). Functional grinding performance was examined for both forward and backward grinding and at 2 different resistances (moderate = 48 N x m, heavy = 68 N x m) using a land-based ergometer. Bench press 1RM and maximum force capability were the measures demonstrating the strongest correlation with forward grinding performance (r = 0.88-0.99 and 0.87-0.99, respectively), with the relationship increasing with grinding load. For backward grinding, there was a very strong relationship with bench pull maximum power (r = 0.85-0.98) in addition to 1RM (r = 0.90-0.95) and maximum force (r = 0.87-0.95). It appears that although maximal strength is a crucial muscular performance characteristic for grinding performance in all conditions, for backward grinding, there is the additional need to focus on the development of speed strength/power to maximize performance gains. This information was used by the Emirates Team New Zealand physical conditioner to develop a conditioning intervention to help improve grinding performance. PMID:19675468

  1. Watershed Regressions for Pesticides (WARP) for Predicting Annual Maximum and Annual Maximum Moving-Average Concentrations of Atrazine in Streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, Wesley W.; Gilliom, Robert J.; Crawford, Charles G.

    2008-01-01

    Regression models were developed for predicting annual maximum and selected annual maximum moving-average concentrations of atrazine in streams using the Watershed Regressions for Pesticides (WARP) methodology developed by the National Water-Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The current effort builds on the original WARP models, which were based on the annual mean and selected percentiles of the annual frequency distribution of atrazine concentrations. Estimates of annual maximum and annual maximum moving-average concentrations for selected durations are needed to characterize the levels of atrazine and other pesticides for comparison to specific water-quality benchmarks for evaluation of potential concerns regarding human health or aquatic life. Separate regression models were derived for the annual maximum and annual maximum 21-day, 60-day, and 90-day moving-average concentrations. Development of the regression models used the same explanatory variables, transformations, model development data, model validation data, and regression methods as those used in the original development of WARP. The models accounted for 72 to 75 percent of the variability in the concentration statistics among the 112 sampling sites used for model development. Predicted concentration statistics from the four models were within a factor of 10 of the observed concentration statistics for most of the model development and validation sites. Overall, performance of the models for the development and validation sites supports the application of the WARP models for predicting annual maximum and selected annual maximum moving-average atrazine concentration in streams and provides a framework to interpret the predictions in terms of uncertainty. For streams with inadequate direct measurements of atrazine concentrations, the WARP model predictions for the annual maximum and the annual maximum moving-average atrazine concentrations can be used to characterize

  2. Lower extremity muscle function after strength or power training in older adults.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Anthony P; Miller, Michael E; Rejeski, W Jack; Hutton, Stacy L; Kritchevsky, Stephen B

    2009-10-01

    It is unclear whether strength training (ST) or power training (PT) is the more effective intervention at improving muscle strength and power and physical function in older adults. The authors compared the effects of lower extremity PT with those of ST on muscle strength and power in 45 older adults (74.8 +/- 5.7 yr) with self-reported difficulty in common daily activities. Participants were randomized to 1 of 3 treatment groups: PT, ST, or wait-list control. PT and ST trained 3 times/wk for 12 wk using knee-extension (KE) and leg-press (LP) machines at approximately 70% of 1-repetition maximum (1RM). For PT, the concentric phase of the KE and LP was completed "as fast as possible," whereas for ST the concentric phase was 2-3 s. Both PT and ST paused briefly at the midpoint of the movement and completed the eccentric phase of the movement in 2-3 s. PT and ST groups showed significant improvements in KE and LP 1RM compared with the control group. Maximum KE and LP power increased approximately twofold in PT compared with ST. At 12 wk, compared with control, maximum KE and LP power were significantly increased for the PT group but not for the ST group. In older adults with compromised function, PT leads to similar increases in strength and larger increases in power than ST. PMID:19940322

  3. Postflight evaluation of the solar maximum spacecraft magnetometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunham, W. D.

    1985-01-01

    The Solar Maximum Mission spacecraft was launched February 14, 1980 from Cape Kennedy. Attached to one side of the spacecraft was the Modular Attitude Control System (MACS). Two Schonstedt magnetometers were located within the MACS module. Although primarily used as a backup attitude determination system during the Solar Maximum Repair Mission, the magnetometers were instrumental in stabilizing the spacecraft. In October of 1984 the Solar Maximum magnetometers were returned to Schonstedt Instrument Company for postflight analysis, where they were subjected to the same electrical performance tests performed prior to use. In both instances the magnetometer performance was exceptional. Postflight test data nearly duplicated preflight test data.

  4. Approximation algorithms for maximum two-dimensional pattern matching

    SciTech Connect

    Arikati, S.R.; Dessmark, A.; Lingas, A.; Marathe, M.

    1996-07-01

    We introduce the following optimization version of the classical pattern matching problem (referred to as the maximum pattern matching problem). Given a two-dimensional rectangular text and a 2- dimensional rectangular pattern find the maximum number of non- overlapping occurrences of the pattern in the text. Unlike the classical 2-dimensional pattern matching problem, the maximum pattern matching problem is NP - complete. We devise polynomial time approximation algorithms and approximation schemes for this problem. We also briefly discuss how the approximation algorithms can be extended to include a number of other variants of the problem.

  5. Determining Maximum Glycolytic Capacity Using Extracellular Flux Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Mookerjee, Shona A.; Nicholls, David G.; Brand, Martin D.

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of glycolytic rate and maximum glycolytic capacity using extracellular flux analysis can give crucial information about cell status and phenotype during normal operation, development of pathology, differentiation, and malignant transformation. They are also of great use when assessing the effects of chemical or drug treatments. Here, we experimentally define maximum glycolytic capacity, demonstrate how it differs from glycolytic rate, and provide a protocol for determining the basal glycolytic rate and maximum glycolytic capacity in cells using extracellular flux measurements. The results illustrate the power of extracellular flux analysis to describe the energetics of adherent cells in culture in a fully quantitative way. PMID:27031845

  6. 7 CFR 3550.63 - Maximum loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE DIRECT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Section 502 Origination § 3550.63 Maximum loan... most appropriately reflects the value of modest housing for the area: (i) The cost of the structure...

  7. 7 CFR 3550.63 - Maximum loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE DIRECT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Section 502 Origination § 3550.63 Maximum loan... most appropriately reflects the value of modest housing for the area: (i) The cost of the structure...

  8. 24 CFR 232.903 - Maximum mortgage limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... AUTHORITIES MORTGAGE INSURANCE FOR NURSING HOMES, INTERMEDIATE CARE FACILITIES, BOARD AND CARE HOMES, AND... limitations. Notwithstanding the maximum mortgage limitations set forth in 24 CFR 200.15, a mortgage...

  9. 24 CFR 232.903 - Maximum mortgage limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... AUTHORITIES MORTGAGE INSURANCE FOR NURSING HOMES, INTERMEDIATE CARE FACILITIES, BOARD AND CARE HOMES, AND... limitations. Notwithstanding the maximum mortgage limitations set forth in 24 CFR 200.15, a mortgage...

  10. A stochastic model for the analysis of maximum daily temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirangelo, B.; Caloiero, T.; Coscarelli, R.; Ferrari, E.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, a stochastic model for the analysis of the daily maximum temperature is proposed. First, a deseasonalization procedure based on the truncated Fourier expansion is adopted. Then, the Johnson transformation functions were applied for the data normalization. Finally, the fractionally autoregressive integrated moving average model was used to reproduce both short- and long-memory behavior of the temperature series. The model was applied to the data of the Cosenza gauge (Calabria region) and verified on other four gauges of southern Italy. Through a Monte Carlo simulation procedure based on the proposed model, 105 years of daily maximum temperature have been generated. Among the possible applications of the model, the occurrence probabilities of the annual maximum values have been evaluated. Moreover, the procedure was applied for the estimation of the return periods of long sequences of days with maximum temperature above prefixed thresholds.

  11. Prediction of Maximum Aerobic Power in Untrained Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolgener, Forrest A.

    1978-01-01

    The author presents an equation for predicting maximum aerobic power in untrained females from values of percent body fat, weight, and submaximal values of heart rate, respiratory quotient, and expired gas. (MJB)

  12. Low-complexity approximations to maximum likelihood MPSK modulation classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamkins, Jon

    2004-01-01

    We present a new approximation to the maximum likelihood classifier to discriminate between M-ary and M'-ary phase-shift-keying transmitted on an additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel and received noncoherentl, partially coherently, or coherently.

  13. TOTAL MAXIMUM DAILY LOAD (TMDL) PROJECTS: JUNE 2004 - SEPT. 2005

    EPA Science Inventory

    Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) activities include a field investigation and a subsequent field investigation report with data generated from the field study. The data is used to establish pollutant discharge limits for various categories of pollutants (nutrients, toxics, sedime...

  14. Maximum likelihood estimation of finite mixture model for economic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phoong, Seuk-Yen; Ismail, Mohd Tahir

    2014-06-01

    Finite mixture model is a mixture model with finite-dimension. This models are provides a natural representation of heterogeneity in a finite number of latent classes. In addition, finite mixture models also known as latent class models or unsupervised learning models. Recently, maximum likelihood estimation fitted finite mixture models has greatly drawn statistician's attention. The main reason is because maximum likelihood estimation is a powerful statistical method which provides consistent findings as the sample sizes increases to infinity. Thus, the application of maximum likelihood estimation is used to fit finite mixture model in the present paper in order to explore the relationship between nonlinear economic data. In this paper, a two-component normal mixture model is fitted by maximum likelihood estimation in order to investigate the relationship among stock market price and rubber price for sampled countries. Results described that there is a negative effect among rubber price and stock market price for Malaysia, Thailand, Philippines and Indonesia.

  15. 50 CFR 648.20 - Maximum optimum yield (OYs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Measures for the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries § 648.20 Maximum optimum yield (OYs...) Mackerel—that quantity of mackerel that is less than or equal to the allowable biological catch (ABC) in...

  16. 40 CFR 35.9060 - Maximum Federal share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9060 Maximum... development of a comprehensive conservation and management plan for the estuary as specified in the...

  17. 40 CFR 35.9060 - Maximum Federal share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9060 Maximum... development of a comprehensive conservation and management plan for the estuary as specified in the...

  18. 40 CFR 35.9060 - Maximum Federal share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9060 Maximum... development of a comprehensive conservation and management plan for the estuary as specified in the...

  19. 40 CFR 35.9060 - Maximum Federal share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9060 Maximum... development of a comprehensive conservation and management plan for the estuary as specified in the...

  20. 40 CFR 35.9060 - Maximum Federal share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9060 Maximum... development of a comprehensive conservation and management plan for the estuary as specified in the...

  1. 16 CFR 1505.8 - Maximum acceptable material temperatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Association, 155 East 44th Street, New York, NY 10017. Material Degrees C. Degrees F. Capacitors (1) (1) Class... capacitor has no marked temperature limit, the maximum acceptable temperature will be assumed to be 65...

  2. 16 CFR 1505.8 - Maximum acceptable material temperatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Association, 155 East 44th Street, New York, NY 10017. Material Degrees C. Degrees F. Capacitors (1) (1) Class... capacitor has no marked temperature limit, the maximum acceptable temperature will be assumed to be 65...

  3. 16 CFR 1505.8 - Maximum acceptable material temperatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Association, 155 East 44th Street, New York, NY 10017. Material Degrees C. Degrees F. Capacitors (1) (1) Class... capacitor has no marked temperature limit, the maximum acceptable temperature will be assumed to be 65...

  4. 16 CFR 1505.8 - Maximum acceptable material temperatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Association, 155 East 44th Street, New York, NY 10017. Material Degrees C. Degrees F. Capacitors (1) (1) Class... capacitor has no marked temperature limit, the maximum acceptable temperature will be assumed to be 65...

  5. 16 CFR 1505.8 - Maximum acceptable material temperatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Association, 155 East 44th Street, New York, NY 10017. Material Degrees C. Degrees F. Capacitors (1) (1) Class... capacitor has no marked temperature limit, the maximum acceptable temperature will be assumed to be 65...

  6. Maximum Photovoltaic Penetration Levels on Typical Distribution Feeders: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Hoke, A.; Butler, R.; Hambrick, J.; Kroposki, B.

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents simulation results for a taxonomy of typical distribution feeders with various levels of photovoltaic (PV) penetration. For each of the 16 feeders simulated, the maximum PV penetration that did not result in steady-state voltage or current violation is presented for several PV location scenarios: clustered near the feeder source, clustered near the midpoint of the feeder, clustered near the end of the feeder, randomly located, and evenly distributed. In addition, the maximum level of PV is presented for single, large PV systems at each location. Maximum PV penetration was determined by requiring that feeder voltages stay within ANSI Range A and that feeder currents stay within the ranges determined by overcurrent protection devices. Simulations were run in GridLAB-D using hourly time steps over a year with randomized load profiles based on utility data and typical meteorological year weather data. For 86% of the cases simulated, maximum PV penetration was at least 30% of peak load.

  7. Maximum organic carbon limits at different melter feed rates (U)

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, A.S.

    1995-12-31

    This report documents the results of a study to assess the impact of varying melter feed rates on the maximum total organic carbon (TOC) limits allowable in the DWPF melter feed. Topics discussed include: carbon content; feed rate; feed composition; melter vapor space temperature; combustion and dilution air; off-gas surges; earlier work on maximum TOC; overview of models; and the results of the work completed.

  8. Kirchhoff's loop law and the maximum entropy production principle.

    PubMed

    Zupanović, Pasko; Juretić, Davor; Botrić, Srećko

    2004-11-01

    In contrast to the standard derivation of Kirchhoff's loop law, which invokes electric potential, we show, for the linear planar electric network in a stationary state at the fixed temperature, that loop law can be derived from the maximum entropy production principle. This means that the currents in network branches are distributed in such a way as to achieve the state of maximum entropy production. PMID:15600693

  9. The maximum entropy production principle: two basic questions

    PubMed Central

    Martyushev, Leonid M.

    2010-01-01

    The overwhelming majority of maximum entropy production applications to ecological and environmental systems are based on thermodynamics and statistical physics. Here, we discuss briefly maximum entropy production principle and raises two questions: (i) can this principle be used as the basis for non-equilibrium thermodynamics and statistical mechanics and (ii) is it possible to ‘prove’ the principle? We adduce one more proof which is most concise today. PMID:20368251

  10. Timing and significance of maximum and minimum equatorial insolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashkenazy, Yosef; Gildor, Hezi

    2008-01-01

    Variations in summer insolation at high northern latitudes on a timescale of 100 ka are very small. Thus a common belief is that the pronounced ~100 ka glacial cycles are not directly linked to the very weak 100 ka insolation periodicity. Here we show, analytically and numerically, that the annual maximum (and minimum) of daily equatorial insolation has pronounced eccentricity periodicities, with timescales of ~400 ka and ~100 ka, as well as a pronounced half-precession periodicity with timescale of ~11 ka. The timing of the maximum (and minimum) annual equatorial insolation may change around the equinoxes (solstices), alternating between the vernal and autumnal equinoxes (summer and winter solstices) where the time of the maximum (minimum) equatorial insolation may occur up to more than 1 month from the equinoxes (solstices). We also show that when considering the mean insolation of periods larger than 1 d, the ~11 ka periodicity becomes less dominant, and it vanishes when the averaging period is half a year; for the later case the maximum (minimum) may occur for any day in the annual cycle. The maximum equatorial insolation may alter the timing and amplitude of the maximum surface temperature of the summer hemisphere and in this way may drastically affect the Hadley circulation. Changes in Hadley circulation affect the heat and moisture transport from low to high latitudes, affecting the buildup of the high-latitude Northern Hemisphere ice sheets.

  11. Maximum spectral demands in the near-fault region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huang, Yin-Nan; Whittaker, Andrew S.; Luco, Nicolas

    2008-01-01

    The Next Generation Attenuation (NGA) relationships for shallow crustal earthquakes in the western United States predict a rotated geometric mean of horizontal spectral demand, termed GMRotI50, and not maximum spectral demand. Differences between strike-normal, strike-parallel, geometric-mean, and maximum spectral demands in the near-fault region are investigated using 147 pairs of records selected from the NGA strong motion database. The selected records are for earthquakes with moment magnitude greater than 6.5 and for closest site-to-fault distance less than 15 km. Ratios of maximum spectral demand to NGA-predicted GMRotI50 for each pair of ground motions are presented. The ratio shows a clear dependence on period and the Somerville directivity parameters. Maximum demands can substantially exceed NGA-predicted GMRotI50 demands in the near-fault region, which has significant implications for seismic design, seismic performance assessment, and the next-generation seismic design maps. Strike-normal spectral demands are a significantly unconservative surrogate for maximum spectral demands for closest distance greater than 3 to 5 km. Scale factors that transform NGA-predicted GMRotI50 to a maximum spectral demand in the near-fault region are proposed.

  12. Maximum spectral demands in the near-fault region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huang, Y.-N.; Whittaker, A.S.; Luco, N.

    2008-01-01

    The Next Generation Attenuation (NGA) relationships for shallow crustal earthquakes in the western United States predict a rotated geometric mean of horizontal spectral demand, termed GMRotI50, and not maximum spectral demand. Differences between strike-normal, strike-parallel, geometric-mean, and maximum spectral demands in the near-fault region are investigated using 147 pairs of records selected from the NGA strong motion database. The selected records are for earthquakes with moment magnitude greater than 6.5 and for closest site-to-fault distance less than 15 km. Ratios of maximum spectral demand to NGA-predicted GMRotI50 for each pair of ground motions are presented. The ratio shows a clear dependence on period and the Somerville directivity parameters. Maximum demands can substantially exceed NGA-predicted GMRotI50 demands in the near-fault region, which has significant implications for seismic design, seismic performance assessment, and the next-generation seismic design maps. Strike-normal spectral demands are a significantly unconservative surrogate for maximum spectral demands for closest distance greater than 3 to 5 km. Scale factors that transform NGA-predicted GMRotI50 to a maximum spectral demand in the near-fault region are proposed. ?? 2008, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  13. Determination Of The Maximum Explosion Pressure And The Maximum Rate Of Pressure Rise During Explosion Of Wood Dust Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuracina, Richard; Szabová, Zuzana; Čekan, Pavol

    2015-06-01

    The article deals with the measurement of maximum explosion pressure and the maximum rate of exposure pressure rise of wood dust cloud. The measurements were carried out according to STN EN 14034-1+A1:2011 Determination of explosion characteristics of dust clouds. Part 1: Determination of the maximum explosion pressure pmax of dust clouds and the maximum rate of explosion pressure rise according to STN EN 14034-2+A1:2012 Determination of explosion characteristics of dust clouds - Part 2: Determination of the maximum rate of explosion pressure rise (dp/dt)max of dust clouds. The wood dust cloud in the chamber is achieved mechanically. The testing of explosions of wood dust clouds showed that the maximum value of the pressure was reached at the concentrations of 450 g / m3 and its value is 7.95 bar. The fastest increase of pressure was observed at the concentrations of 450 g / m3 and its value was 68 bar / s.

  14. Precision of maximum likelihood estimation in adaptive designs.

    PubMed

    Graf, Alexandra Christine; Gutjahr, Georg; Brannath, Werner

    2016-03-15

    There has been increasing interest in trials that allow for design adaptations like sample size reassessment or treatment selection at an interim analysis. Ignoring the adaptive and multiplicity issues in such designs leads to an inflation of the type 1 error rate, and treatment effect estimates based on the maximum likelihood principle become biased. Whereas the methodological issues concerning hypothesis testing are well understood, it is not clear how to deal with parameter estimation in designs were adaptation rules are not fixed in advanced so that, in practice, the maximum likelihood estimate (MLE) is used. It is therefore important to understand the behavior of the MLE in such designs. The investigation of Bias and mean squared error (MSE) is complicated by the fact that the adaptation rules need not be fully specified in advance and, hence, are usually unknown. To investigate Bias and MSE under such circumstances, we search for the sample size reassessment and selection rules that lead to the maximum Bias or maximum MSE. Generally, this leads to an overestimation of Bias and MSE, which can be reduced by imposing realistic constraints on the rules like, for example, a maximum sample size. We consider designs that start with k treatment groups and a common control and where selection of a single treatment and control is performed at the interim analysis with the possibility to reassess each of the sample sizes. We consider the case of unlimited sample size reassessments as well as several realistically restricted sample size reassessment rules. PMID:26459506

  15. DMSP Auroral Charging at Solar Cycle 24 Maximum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandler, Michael; Parker, Linda Neergaard; Minow, Joseph I.

    2013-01-01

    It has been well established that polar orbiting satellites can experience mild to severe auroral charging levels (on the order of a few hundred volts to few kilovolts negative frame potentials) during solar minimum conditions (Frooninckx and Sojka, 1992; Anderson and Koons, 1996; Anderson, 2012). These same studies have shown a strong reduction in charging during the rising and declining phases of the past few solar cycles with a nearly complete suppression of auroral charging at solar maximum. Recently, we have observed examples of high level charging during the recent approach to Solar Cycle 24 solar maximum conditions not unlike those reported by Frooninckx and Sojka (1992). These observations demonstrate that spacecraft operations during solar maximum cannot be considered safe from auroral charging when solar activity is low. We present a survey of auroral charging events experienced by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) F16 satellite during Solar Cycle 24 maximum conditions. We summarize the auroral energetic particle environment and the conditions necessary for charging to occur in this environment, we describe how the lower than normal solar activity levels for Solar Cycle 24 maximum conditions are conducive to charging in polar orbits, and we show examples of the more extreme charging events, sometimes exceeding 1 kV, during this time period.

  16. DMSP Auroral Charging at Solar Cycle 24 Maximum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandler, M.; Parker, L. Neergaard; Minow, J. I.

    2013-01-01

    It has been well established that polar orbiting satellites can experience mild to severe auroral charging levels (on the order of a few hundred volts to few kilovolts negative frame potentials) during solar minimum conditions. These same studies have shown a strong reduction in charging during the rising and declining phases of the past few solar cycles with a nearly complete suppression of auroral charging at solar maximum. Recently, we have observed examples of high level charging during the recent approach to Solar Cycle 24 solar maximum conditions not unlike those reported by Frooninckx and Sojka. These observations demonstrate that spacecraft operations during solar maximum cannot be considered safe from auroral charging when solar activity is low. We present a survey of auroral charging events experienced by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) F16 satellite during Solar Cycle 24 maximum conditions. We summarize the auroral energetic particle environment and the conditions necessary for charging to occur in this environment, we describe how the lower than normal solar activity levels for Solar Cycle 24 maximum conditions are conducive to charging in polar orbits, and we show examples of the more extreme charging events, sometimes exceeding 1 kV, during this time period.

  17. Maximum vehicle cabin temperatures under different meteorological conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grundstein, Andrew; Meentemeyer, Vernon; Dowd, John

    2009-05-01

    A variety of studies have documented the dangerously high temperatures that may occur within the passenger compartment (cabin) of cars under clear sky conditions, even at relatively low ambient air temperatures. Our study, however, is the first to examine cabin temperatures under variable weather conditions. It uses a unique maximum vehicle cabin temperature dataset in conjunction with directly comparable ambient air temperature, solar radiation, and cloud cover data collected from April through August 2007 in Athens, GA. Maximum cabin temperatures, ranging from 41-76°C, varied considerably depending on the weather conditions and the time of year. Clear days had the highest cabin temperatures, with average values of 68°C in the summer and 61°C in the spring. Cloudy days in both the spring and summer were on average approximately 10°C cooler. Our findings indicate that even on cloudy days with lower ambient air temperatures, vehicle cabin temperatures may reach deadly levels. Additionally, two predictive models of maximum daily vehicle cabin temperatures were developed using commonly available meteorological data. One model uses maximum ambient air temperature and average daily solar radiation while the other uses cloud cover percentage as a surrogate for solar radiation. From these models, two maximum vehicle cabin temperature indices were developed to assess the level of danger. The models and indices may be useful for forecasting hazardous conditions, promoting public awareness, and to estimate past cabin temperatures for use in forensic analyses.

  18. Maximum vehicle cabin temperatures under different meteorological conditions.

    PubMed

    Grundstein, Andrew; Meentemeyer, Vernon; Dowd, John

    2009-05-01

    A variety of studies have documented the dangerously high temperatures that may occur within the passenger compartment (cabin) of cars under clear sky conditions, even at relatively low ambient air temperatures. Our study, however, is the first to examine cabin temperatures under variable weather conditions. It uses a unique maximum vehicle cabin temperature dataset in conjunction with directly comparable ambient air temperature, solar radiation, and cloud cover data collected from April through August 2007 in Athens, GA. Maximum cabin temperatures, ranging from 41-76 degrees C, varied considerably depending on the weather conditions and the time of year. Clear days had the highest cabin temperatures, with average values of 68 degrees C in the summer and 61 degrees C in the spring. Cloudy days in both the spring and summer were on average approximately 10 degrees C cooler. Our findings indicate that even on cloudy days with lower ambient air temperatures, vehicle cabin temperatures may reach deadly levels. Additionally, two predictive models of maximum daily vehicle cabin temperatures were developed using commonly available meteorological data. One model uses maximum ambient air temperature and average daily solar radiation while the other uses cloud cover percentage as a surrogate for solar radiation. From these models, two maximum vehicle cabin temperature indices were developed to assess the level of danger. The models and indices may be useful for forecasting hazardous conditions, promoting public awareness, and to estimate past cabin temperatures for use in forensic analyses. PMID:19234721

  19. Predicting species' maximum dispersal distances from simple plant traits.

    PubMed

    Tamme, Riin; Götzenberger, Lars; Zobel, Martin; Bullock, James M; Hooftman, Danny A P; Kaasik, Ants; Pärtel, Meelis

    2014-02-01

    Many studies have shown plant species' dispersal distances to be strongly related to life-history traits, but how well different traits can predict dispersal distances is not yet known. We used cross-validation techniques and a global data set (576 plant species) to measure the predictive power of simple plant traits to estimate species' maximum dispersal distances. Including dispersal syndrome (wind, animal, ant, ballistic, and no special syndrome), growth form (tree, shrub, herb), seed mass, seed release height, and terminal velocity in different combinations as explanatory variables we constructed models to explain variation in measured maximum dispersal distances and evaluated their power to predict maximum dispersal distances. Predictions are more accurate, but also limited to a particular set of species, if data on more specific traits, such as terminal velocity, are available. The best model (R2 = 0.60) included dispersal syndrome, growth form, and terminal velocity as fixed effects. Reasonable predictions of maximum dispersal distance (R2 = 0.53) are also possible when using only the simplest and most commonly measured traits; dispersal syndrome and growth form together with species taxonomy data. We provide a function (dispeRsal) to be run in the software package R. This enables researchers to estimate maximum dispersal distances with confidence intervals for plant species using measured traits as predictors. Easily obtainable trait data, such as dispersal syndrome (inferred from seed morphology) and growth form, enable predictions to be made for a large number of species. PMID:24669743

  20. Balinese dance exercises improve the maximum aerobic capacity.

    PubMed

    Adiputra, N; Alex, P; Sutjana, D P; Tirtayasa, K; Manuaba, A

    1996-06-01

    The maximum aerobic capacity can be used to predict the maximum working capacity. The maximum working capacity plays an important role in achieving the best performance. Therefore, physical fitness program for maintaining maximum working capacity is a must. A study on the application of Balinese dance exercise was carried out. Sixty young male Balinese, aged from 17 to 19 years were used as subjects. They were divided into two groups: Experimental group (EG) and control group (CG) based on their VO2max. The EG participated in a program of Balinese dance exercise 3 x 50 min per week for 8 weeks. Pretest-posttest control group design was applied. The maximum aerobic capacity was measured, based on the Modified Harvard Step-up Test and nomogram of Astrand. The results are as follows: there is a very significant improvement of VO2max from 2.7 +/- 0.5 l/min or 51.1 +/- 9.1 ml/kg/min into 3.1 +/- 0.5 l/min or 58.9 +/- 9.8 ml/kg/min. Other parameters such as resting heart rate, blood pressure and percent body fat were decreased significantly. The study concludes that Balinese dance exercise could be used as a program for physical fitness maintenance. PMID:9551128

  1. Prediction of three dimensional maximum isometric neck strength.

    PubMed

    Fice, Jason B; Siegmund, Gunter P; Blouin, Jean-Sébastien

    2014-09-01

    We measured maximum isometric neck strength under combinations of flexion/extension, lateral bending and axial rotation to determine whether neck strength in three dimensions (3D) can be predicted from principal axes strength. This would allow biomechanical modelers to validate their neck models across many directions using only principal axis strength data. Maximum isometric neck moments were measured in 9 male volunteers (29±9 years) for 17 directions. The 3D moments were normalized by the principal axis moments, and compared to unity for all directions tested. Finally, each subject's maximum principal axis moments were used to predict their resultant moment in the off-axis directions. Maximum moments were 30±6 N m in flexion, 32±9 N m in lateral bending, 51±11 N m in extension, and 13±5 N m in axial rotation. The normalized 3D moments were not significantly different from unity (95% confidence interval contained one), except for three directions that combined ipsilateral axial rotation and lateral bending; in these directions the normalized moments exceeded one. Predicted resultant moments compared well to the actual measured values (r2=0.88). Despite exceeding unity, the normalized moments were consistent across subjects to allow prediction of maximum 3D neck strength using principal axes neck strength. PMID:24893597

  2. Face recognition using multiple maximum scatter difference discrimination dictionary learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yanyong; Dong, Jiwen; Li, Hengjian

    2015-10-01

    Based on multiple maximum scatter difference discrimination Dictionary learning, a novel face recognition algorithm is proposed. Dictionary used for sparse coding plays a key role in sparse representation classification. In this paper, a multiple maximum scatter difference discriminated criterion is used for dictionary learning. During the process of dictionary learning, the multiple maximum scatter difference computes its discriminated vectors from both the range of the between class scatter matrix and the null space of the within-class scatter matrix. The proposed algorithm is theoretically elegant and easy to calculate. Extensive experimental studies conducted on the AR database and Extended Yale Database B in comparison with existing basic sparse representation and other classification methods, it shows that the performance is a little better than the original sparse representation methods with lower complexity.

  3. Prompt merger collapse and the maximum mass of neutron stars.

    PubMed

    Bauswein, A; Baumgarte, T W; Janka, H-T

    2013-09-27

    We perform hydrodynamical simulations of neutron-star mergers for a large sample of temperature-dependent nuclear equations of state and determine the threshold mass above which the merger remnant promptly collapses to form a black hole. We find that, depending on the equation of state, the threshold mass is larger than the maximum mass of a nonrotating star in isolation by between 30 and 70 percent. Our simulations also show that the ratio between the threshold mass and maximum mass is tightly correlated with the compactness of the nonrotating maximum-mass configuration. We speculate on how this relation can be used to derive constraints on neutron-star properties from future observations. PMID:24116763

  4. Quality, precision and accuracy of the maximum No. 40 anemometer

    SciTech Connect

    Obermeir, J.; Blittersdorf, D.

    1996-12-31

    This paper synthesizes available calibration data for the Maximum No. 40 anemometer. Despite its long history in the wind industry, controversy surrounds the choice of transfer function for this anemometer. Many users are unaware that recent changes in default transfer functions in data loggers are producing output wind speed differences as large as 7.6%. Comparison of two calibration methods used for large samples of Maximum No. 40 anemometers shows a consistent difference of 4.6% in output speeds. This difference is significantly larger than estimated uncertainty levels. Testing, initially performed to investigate related issues, reveals that Gill and Maximum cup anemometers change their calibration transfer functions significantly when calibrated in the open atmosphere compared with calibration in a laminar wind tunnel. This indicates that atmospheric turbulence changes the calibration transfer function of cup anemometers. These results call into question the suitability of standard wind tunnel calibration testing for cup anemometers. 6 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Approach to forecasting daily maximum ozone levels in St. Louis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prior, E. J.; Schiess, J. R.; Mcdougal, D. S.

    1981-01-01

    Measurements taken in 1976 from the St. Louis Regional Air Pollution Study (RAPS) data base, conducted by EPA, were analyzed to determine an optimum set of air-quality and meteorological variables for predicting maximum ozone levels for each day in 1976. A 'leaps and bounds' regression analysis was used to identify the best subset of variables. Three particular variables, the 9 a.m. ozone level, the forecasted maximum temperature, and the 6-9 a.m. averaged wind speed, have useful forecasting utility. The trajectory history of air masses entering St. Louis was studied, and it was concluded that transport-related variables contribute to the appearance of very high ozone levels. The final empirical forecast model predicts the daily maximum ozone over 341 days with a standard deviation of 11 ppb, which approaches the estimated error.

  6. Propane spectral resolution enhancement by the maximum entropy method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonavito, N. L.; Stewart, K. P.; Hurley, E. J.; Yeh, K. C.; Inguva, R.

    1990-01-01

    The Burg algorithm for maximum entropy power spectral density estimation is applied to a time series of data obtained from a Michelson interferometer and compared with a standard FFT estimate for resolution capability. The propane transmittance spectrum was estimated by use of the FFT with a 2 to the 18th data sample interferogram, giving a maximum unapodized resolution of 0.06/cm. This estimate was then interpolated by zero filling an additional 2 to the 18th points, and the final resolution was taken to be 0.06/cm. Comparison of the maximum entropy method (MEM) estimate with the FFT was made over a 45/cm region of the spectrum for several increasing record lengths of interferogram data beginning at 2 to the 10th. It is found that over this region the MEM estimate with 2 to the 16th data samples is in close agreement with the FFT estimate using 2 to the 18th samples.

  7. Nonparametric identification and maximum likelihood estimation for hidden Markov models

    PubMed Central

    Alexandrovich, G.; Holzmann, H.; Leister, A.

    2016-01-01

    Nonparametric identification and maximum likelihood estimation for finite-state hidden Markov models are investigated. We obtain identification of the parameters as well as the order of the Markov chain if the transition probability matrices have full-rank and are ergodic, and if the state-dependent distributions are all distinct, but not necessarily linearly independent. Based on this identification result, we develop a nonparametric maximum likelihood estimation theory. First, we show that the asymptotic contrast, the Kullback–Leibler divergence of the hidden Markov model, also identifies the true parameter vector nonparametrically. Second, for classes of state-dependent densities which are arbitrary mixtures of a parametric family, we establish the consistency of the nonparametric maximum likelihood estimator. Here, identification of the mixing distributions need not be assumed. Numerical properties of the estimates and of nonparametric goodness of fit tests are investigated in a simulation study.

  8. Multiple element airfoils optimized for maximum lift coefficient.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ormsbee, A. I.; Chen, A. W.

    1972-01-01

    Optimum airfoils in the sense of maximum lift coefficient are obtained for incompressible fluid flow at large Reynolds number. The maximum lift coefficient is achieved by requiring that the turbulent skin friction be zero in the pressure rise region on the airfoil upper surface. Under this constraint, the pressure distribution is optimized. The optimum pressure distribution is a function of Reynolds number and the trailing edge velocity. Geometries of those airfoils which will generate these optimum pressure distributions are obtained using a direct-iterative method which is developed in this study. This method can be used to design airfoils consisting of any number of elements. Numerical examples of one- and two-element airfoils are given. The maximum lift coefficients obtained range from 2 to 2.5.

  9. The optimal polarizations for achieving maximum contrast in radar images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swartz, A. A.; Yueh, H. A.; Kong, J. A.; Novak, L. M.; Shin, R. T.

    1988-01-01

    There is considerable interest in determining the optimal polarizations that maximize contrast between two scattering classes in polarimetric radar images. A systematic approach is presented for obtaining the optimal polarimetric matched filter, i.e., that filter which produces maximum contrast between two scattering classes. The maximization procedure involves solving an eigenvalue problem where the eigenvector corresponding to the maximum contrast ratio is an optimal polarimetric matched filter. To exhibit the physical significance of this filter, it is transformed into its associated transmitting and receiving polarization states, written in terms of horizontal and vertical vector components. For the special case where the transmitting polarization is fixed, the receiving polarization which maximizes the contrast ratio is also obtained. Polarimetric filtering is then applies to synthetic aperture radar images obtained from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. It is shown, both numerically and through the use of radar imagery, that maximum image contrast can be realized when data is processed with the optimal polarimeter matched filter.

  10. Upper Extremity Muscle Volumes and Functional Strength After Resistance Training in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Daly, Melissa; Vidt, Meghan E.; Eggebeen, Joel D.; Simpson, W. Greg; Miller, Michael E.; Marsh, Anthony P.; Saul, Katherine R.

    2014-01-01

    Aging leads to a decline in strength and an associated loss of independence. The authors examined changes in muscle volume, maximum isometric joint moment, functional strength, and 1-repetition maximum (1RM) after resistance training (RT) in the upper extremity of older adults. They evaluated isometric joint moment and muscle volume as predictors of functional strength. Sixteen healthy older adults (average age 75 ± 4.3 yr) were randomized to a 6-wk upper extremity RT program or control group. The RT group increased 1RM significantly (p < .01 for all exercises). Compared with controls, randomization to RT led to greater functional pulling strength (p = .003), isometric shoulder-adduction moment (p = .041), elbow-flexor volume (p = .017), and shoulder-adductor volume (p = .009). Shoulder-muscle volumes and isometric moments were good predictors of functional strength. The authors conclude that shoulder strength is an important factor for performing functional reaching and pulling tasks and a key target for upper extremity RT interventions. PMID:22952203

  11. Adaptive Maximum Marginal Relevance Based Multi-email Summarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Baoxun; Liu, Bingquan; Sun, Chengjie; Wang, Xiaolong; Li, Bo

    By analyzing the inherent relationship between the maximum marginal relevance (MMR) model and the content cohesion of emails with the same subject, this paper presents an adaptive maximum marginal relevance based multi-email summarization method. Due to the adoption of approximate computing of email content cohesion, the adaptive MMR is able to automatically adjust the parameters according to the changing of the email sets. The experimental results have shown that the email summarizing system based on this technique can increase the precision while reducing the redundancy of the automatic summary results, consequently improve the average quality of email summaries.

  12. Estimating maximum depth distribution of seagrass using underwater videography

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, J.G.; Wyllie-Echeverria, S.

    1997-06-01

    The maximum depth distribution of eelgrass (Zostera marina) beds in Willapa Bay, Washington appears to be limited by light penetration which is likely related to water turbidity. Using underwater videographic techniques we estimated that the maximum depth penetration in the less turbid outer bay was -5.85 ft (MILW) and in the more turbid inner bay was only -1.59 ft (MLLW). Eelgrass beds had well defined deepwater edges and no eelgrass was observed in the deep channels of the bay. The results from this study suggest that aerial photographs taken during low tide periods are capable of recording the majority of eelgrass beds in Willapa Bay.

  13. Modified maximum likelihood registration based on information fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Yongqing; Jing, Zhongliang; Hu, Shiqiang

    2007-11-01

    The bias estimation of passive sensors is considered based on information fusion in multi-platform multi-sensor tracking system. The unobservable problem of bearing-only tracking in blind spot is analyzed. A modified maximum likelihood method, which uses the redundant information of multi-sensor system to calculate the target position, is investigated to estimate the biases. Monte Carlo simulation results show that the modified method eliminates the effect of unobservable problem in the blind spot and can estimate the biases more rapidly and accurately than maximum likelihood method. It is statistically efficient since the standard deviation of bias estimation errors meets the theoretical lower bounds.

  14. On the maximum grain size entrained by photoevaporative winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchison, Mark A.; Laibe, Guillaume; Maddison, Sarah T.

    2016-09-01

    We model the behaviour of dust grains entrained by photoevaporation-driven winds from protoplanetary discs assuming a non-rotating, plane-parallel disc. We obtain an analytic expression for the maximum entrainable grain size in extreme-UV radiation-driven winds, which we demonstrate to be proportional to the mass loss rate of the disc. When compared with our hydrodynamic simulations, the model reproduces almost all of the wind properties for the gas and dust. In typical turbulent discs, the entrained grain sizes in the wind are smaller than the theoretical maximum everywhere but the inner disc due to dust settling.

  15. Thermoelectric cooler concepts and the limit for maximum cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seifert, W.; Pluschke, V.; Hinsche, N. F.

    2014-06-01

    The conventional analysis of a Peltier cooler approximates the material properties as independent of temperature using a constant properties model (CPM). Alternative concepts have been published by Bian and Shakouri (2006 Appl. Phys. Lett. 89 212101), Bian (et al 2007 Phys. Rev. B 75 245208) and Snyder et al (2012 Phys. Rev. B 86 045202). While Snyder's Thomson cooler concept results from a consideration of compatibility, the method of Bian et al focuses on the redistribution of heat. Thus, both approaches are based on different principles. In this paper we compare the new concepts to CPM and we reconsider the limit for maximum cooling. The results provide a new perspective on maximum cooling.

  16. Maximum-likelihood block detection of noncoherent continuous phase modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Marvin K.; Divsalar, Dariush

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines maximum-likelihood block detection of uncoded full response CPM over an additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel. Both the maximum-likelihood metrics and the bit error probability performances of the associated detection algorithms are considered. The special and popular case of minimum-shift-keying (MSK) corresponding to h = 0.5 and constant amplitude frequency pulse is treated separately. The many new receiver structures that result from this investigation can be compared to the traditional ones that have been used in the past both from the standpoint of simplicity of implementation and optimality of performance.

  17. Consecutive polarizers arrangement producing maximum polarized light intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirjawan, Johannes V. D.

    2016-03-01

    Polarizer mainly functions as a specific filter that blocks or transmits lights of certain polarization. Malus' law predicts the average intensity of polarized light passing a polarizer that transmits certain polarization direction will be proportional to the squared cosine of angle between the two polarization directions. Arranging several polarizers consecutively with various transmission directions will produce various final intensity as well as final polarized direction. Specific arrangement of an arbitrary number (N > 3) of polarizers producing maximum intensity of polarized light will be discussed in this paper. In addition, interesting pattern of maximum values of some trigonometric functions that are difficult to be solved analytically can be obtained from this discussion.

  18. 42 CFR 447.54 - Maximum allowable and nominal charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Maximum allowable and nominal charges. 447.54 Section 447.54 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS PAYMENTS FOR SERVICES Payments: General Provisions Deductible, Coinsurance, Co-Payment Or...

  19. 24 CFR 241.630 - Maximum insurance against loss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Maximum insurance against loss. 241.630 Section 241.630 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND...

  20. Maximum Daily Discharge Prediction using Multi Layer Perceptron Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaeian Zadeh, M.; Abghari, H.; van de Giesen, N.; Nikian, A.; Niknia, N.

    2009-04-01

    Prediction of maximum daily flow is essential for planning of water resources systems. This study presents the use of an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to maximum daily flow prediction in the Khosrow Shirin watershed, in north-west Fars province in Iran. Precipitation from four meteorological stations was used to develop a Multi Layer Perceptron (MLP) optimized with the Levenberg-Marquardt (MLP_LM) training algorithm and using a tangent sigmoid activation function. Different methods to construct the input vectors were considered during models development. In the first method the precipitation signal is imported separately as input vectors for training. In the second method area-weighted precipitation and related Hydrographs were used in MLP development. In addition to precipitation, in the last model three inputs were used that were base on antecedent flows with one and two days time lag. The performance of each of these models was investigated with the root mean square errors (RMSE) and correlation coefficient (R2). The results show that the second method with weighted precipitation has higher prediction efficiency. R2 and RMSE of training and validation phase for third the model with weighted precipitation were 0.98 and 0.96, respectively Addition of antecedent flow as input vector and use of weighted precipitation provide better results in maximum daily flow prediction. Keywords: Multi Layer Perceptron, Maximum Daily Flow Prediction, Weighted Precipitation, Antecedent flow, Levenberg-Marquardt Algorithm.

  1. Renewing solar science: The solar maximum repair mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neal, V.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of the Solar Maximum Repair Mission is to restore the operational capacity of the satellite by replacing the attitude control system module and servicing two of the scientific instruments on board. The mission will demonstrate the satellite servicing capacity of the Space Shuttle for the first time.

  2. 22 CFR 201.67 - Maximum freight charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Maximum freight charges. 201.67 Section 201.67 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES AND PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO COMMODITY... despatch earned: (A) At the port of unloading on c.i.f. or c. & f. shipments, or (B) At the port of...

  3. 22 CFR 201.67 - Maximum freight charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maximum freight charges. 201.67 Section 201.67 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES AND PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO COMMODITY... despatch earned: (A) At the port of unloading on c.i.f. or c. & f. shipments, or (B) At the port of...

  4. 22 CFR 201.67 - Maximum freight charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Maximum freight charges. 201.67 Section 201.67 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES AND PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO COMMODITY... despatch earned: (A) At the port of unloading on c.i.f. or c. & f. shipments, or (B) At the port of...

  5. 22 CFR 201.67 - Maximum freight charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Maximum freight charges. 201.67 Section 201.67 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES AND PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO COMMODITY... despatch earned: (A) At the port of unloading on c.i.f. or c. & f. shipments, or (B) At the port of...

  6. 22 CFR 201.67 - Maximum freight charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Maximum freight charges. 201.67 Section 201.67 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES AND PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO COMMODITY... despatch earned: (A) At the port of unloading on c.i.f. or c. & f. shipments, or (B) At the port of...

  7. 25 CFR 273.4 - Policy of maximum Indian participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Policy of maximum Indian participation. 273.4 Section 273.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT PROGRAM EDUCATION CONTRACTS UNDER JOHNSON-O'MALLEY ACT General Provisions §...

  8. 25 CFR 273.4 - Policy of maximum Indian participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Policy of maximum Indian participation. 273.4 Section 273.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND... achievement and satisfaction which education can and should provide. Consistent with this concept,...

  9. 25 CFR 273.4 - Policy of maximum Indian participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Policy of maximum Indian participation. 273.4 Section 273.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND... achievement and satisfaction which education can and should provide. Consistent with this concept,...

  10. 25 CFR 273.4 - Policy of maximum Indian participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Policy of maximum Indian participation. 273.4 Section 273.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND... achievement and satisfaction which education can and should provide. Consistent with this concept,...

  11. Maximum Feasible Misunderstanding; Community Action in the War on Poverty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moynihan, Daniel P.

    In reviewing the attempts to conduct Federal antipoverty programs with "maximum feasible participation" by residents of the communities involved, Daniel Moynihan describes the origin of this provision in sociological theory, then discusses the nature and the internal contradictions of the great national effort at social change conceived under the…

  12. 40 CFR 35.364 - Maximum federal share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maximum federal share. 35.364 Section 35.364 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Water Quality Cooperative Agreements...

  13. 40 CFR 35.364 - Maximum federal share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maximum federal share. 35.364 Section 35.364 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Water Quality Cooperative Agreements...

  14. 40 CFR 35.604 - Maximum federal share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maximum federal share. 35.604 Section 35.604 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Water Quality Cooperative...

  15. 40 CFR 35.415 - Maximum federal share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maximum federal share. 35.415 Section 35.415 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Water Quality Management Planning...

  16. 40 CFR 35.364 - Maximum federal share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Maximum federal share. 35.364 Section 35.364 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Water Quality Cooperative Agreements...

  17. 40 CFR 35.415 - Maximum federal share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Maximum federal share. 35.415 Section 35.415 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Water Quality Management Planning...

  18. 40 CFR 35.415 - Maximum federal share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Maximum federal share. 35.415 Section 35.415 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Water Quality Management Planning...

  19. 40 CFR 35.604 - Maximum federal share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Maximum federal share. 35.604 Section 35.604 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Water Quality Cooperative...

  20. 40 CFR 35.364 - Maximum federal share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Maximum federal share. 35.364 Section 35.364 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Water Quality Cooperative Agreements...

  1. 40 CFR 35.604 - Maximum federal share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Maximum federal share. 35.604 Section 35.604 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Water Quality Cooperative...

  2. 40 CFR 35.604 - Maximum federal share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maximum federal share. 35.604 Section 35.604 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Water Quality Cooperative...

  3. 40 CFR 35.415 - Maximum federal share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maximum federal share. 35.415 Section 35.415 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Water Quality Management Planning...

  4. From Maximum Entropy Models to Non-Stationarity and Irreversibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cofre, Rodrigo; Cessac, Bruno; Maldonado, Cesar

    The maximum entropy distribution can be obtained from a variational principle. This is important as a matter of principle and for the purpose of finding approximate solutions. One can exploit this fact to obtain relevant information about the underlying stochastic process. We report here in recent progress in three aspects to this approach.1- Biological systems are expected to show some degree of irreversibility in time. Based on the transfer matrix technique to find the spatio-temporal maximum entropy distribution, we build a framework to quantify the degree of irreversibility of any maximum entropy distribution.2- The maximum entropy solution is characterized by a functional called Gibbs free energy (solution of the variational principle). The Legendre transformation of this functional is the rate function, which controls the speed of convergence of empirical averages to their ergodic mean. We show how the correct description of this functional is determinant for a more rigorous characterization of first and higher order phase transitions.3- We assess the impact of a weak time-dependent external stimulus on the collective statistics of spiking neuronal networks. We show how to evaluate this impact on any higher order spatio-temporal correlation. RC supported by ERC advanced Grant ``Bridges'', BC: KEOPS ANR-CONICYT, Renvision and CM: CONICYT-FONDECYT No. 3140572.

  5. 13 CFR 107.840 - Maximum term of Financing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum term of Financing. 107.840 Section 107.840 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES Financing of Small Businesses by Licensees Structuring Licensee's Financing of An Eligible...

  6. 13 CFR 107.840 - Maximum term of Financing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maximum term of Financing. 107.840 Section 107.840 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES Financing of Small Businesses by Licensees Structuring Licensee's Financing of An Eligible...

  7. 13 CFR 107.840 - Maximum term of Financing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maximum term of Financing. 107.840 Section 107.840 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES Financing of Small Businesses by Licensees Structuring Licensee's Financing of An Eligible...

  8. 13 CFR 107.840 - Maximum term of Financing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maximum term of Financing. 107.840 Section 107.840 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES Financing of Small Businesses by Licensees Structuring Licensee's Financing of An Eligible...

  9. 13 CFR 107.840 - Maximum term of Financing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maximum term of Financing. 107.840 Section 107.840 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES Financing of Small Businesses by Licensees Structuring Licensee's Financing of An Eligible...

  10. 24 CFR 886.108 - Maximum annual contract commitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Maximum annual contract commitment. 886.108 Section 886.108 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER,...

  11. 24 CFR 886.108 - Maximum annual contract commitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maximum annual contract commitment. 886.108 Section 886.108 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER,...

  12. 24 CFR 886.108 - Maximum annual contract commitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Maximum annual contract commitment. 886.108 Section 886.108 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER,...

  13. 24 CFR 886.108 - Maximum annual contract commitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Maximum annual contract commitment. 886.108 Section 886.108 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER,...

  14. Minimum uncertainty products from the principle of maximum entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajagopal, A. K.; Teitler, S.

    1989-07-01

    The maximum-entropy method is here generalized to obtain many possible extrema of the uncertainty product corresponding to the generalized minimum uncertainty products recently discussed by Lahiri and Menon (LM) [Phys. Rev. A 38, 5412 (1988)]. Unlike the LM work, the present work applies to mixed states and leads to a new annealing algorithm for obtaining the extrema of the entropy functional.

  15. 24 CFR 241.630 - Maximum insurance against loss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Maximum insurance against loss. 241.630 Section 241.630 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND...

  16. Isosceles detector provides maximum resolution in expanded range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watterson, R. F.

    1971-01-01

    Dynamic range expansion system for radio frequency /RF/ signal detection equipment consists of RF amplifiers, RF amplitude modulated detectors, and operational amplifier. The analog output gives maximum resolution over fixed voltage range, without switching. Two minor drawbacks of this circuit are cited.

  17. Estimates of the maximum time required to originate life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oberbeck, Verne R.; Fogleman, Guy

    1989-01-01

    Fossils of the oldest microorganisms exist in 3.5 billion year old rocks and there is indirect evidence that life may have existed 3.8 billion years ago (3.8 Ga). Impacts able to destroy life or interrupt prebiotic chemistry may have occurred after 3.5 Ga. If large impactors vaporized the oceans, sterilized the planets, and interfered with the origination of life, life must have originated in the time interval between these impacts which increased with geologic time. Therefore, the maximum time required for the origination of life is the time that occurred between sterilizing impacts just before 3.8 Ga or 3.5 Ga, depending upon when life first appeared on earth. If life first originated 3.5 Ga, and impacts with kinetic energies between 2 x 10 the the 34th and 2 x 10 to the 35th were able to vaporize the oceans, using the most probable impact flux, it is found that the maximum time required to originate life would have been 67 to 133 million years (My). If life originated 3.8 Ga, the maximum time to originate life was 2.5 to 11 My. Using a more conservative estimate for the flux of impacting objects before 3.8 Ga, a maximum time of 25 My was found for the same range of impactor kinetic energies. The impact model suggests that it is possible that life may have originated more than once.

  18. 5 CFR 847.704 - Maximum survivor annuity election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum survivor annuity election. 847... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) ELECTIONS OF RETIREMENT COVERAGE BY CURRENT AND FORMER EMPLOYEES OF NONAPPROPRIATED... survivor annuity election. The amount of the employee's benefit after reduction for any deficiency...

  19. 5 CFR 847.704 - Maximum survivor annuity election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maximum survivor annuity election. 847... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) ELECTIONS OF RETIREMENT COVERAGE BY CURRENT AND FORMER EMPLOYEES OF NONAPPROPRIATED... survivor annuity election. The amount of the employee's benefit after reduction for any deficiency...

  20. A maximum entropy method for MEG source imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Khosla, D. |; Singh, M.

    1996-12-31

    The estimation of three-dimensional dipole current sources on the cortical surface from the measured magnetoencephalogram (MEG) is a highly under determined inverse problem as there are many {open_quotes}feasible{close_quotes} images which are consistent with the MEG data. Previous approaches to this problem have concentrated on the use of weighted minimum norm inverse methods. While these methods ensure a unique solution, they often produce overly smoothed solutions and exhibit severe sensitivity to noise. In this paper we explore the maximum entropy approach to obtain better solutions to the problem. This estimation technique selects that image from the possible set of feasible images which has the maximum entropy permitted by the information available to us. In order to account for the presence of noise in the data, we have also incorporated a noise rejection or likelihood term into our maximum entropy method. This makes our approach mirror a Bayesian maximum a posteriori (MAP) formulation. Additional information from other functional techniques like functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can be incorporated in the proposed method in the form of a prior bias function to improve solutions. We demonstrate the method with experimental phantom data from a clinical 122 channel MEG system.

  1. 5 CFR 582.402 - Maximum garnishment limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum garnishment limitations. 582.402 Section 582.402 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS COMMERCIAL GARNISHMENT OF FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' PAY Consumer Credit Protection Act Restrictions §...

  2. 5 CFR 582.402 - Maximum garnishment limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maximum garnishment limitations. 582.402 Section 582.402 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS COMMERCIAL GARNISHMENT OF FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' PAY Consumer Credit Protection Act Restrictions §...

  3. 5 CFR 581.402 - Maximum garnishment limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maximum garnishment limitations. 581.402 Section 581.402 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PROCESSING GARNISHMENT ORDERS FOR CHILD SUPPORT AND/OR ALIMONY Consumer Credit Protection Act...

  4. 5 CFR 581.402 - Maximum garnishment limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum garnishment limitations. 581.402 Section 581.402 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PROCESSING GARNISHMENT ORDERS FOR CHILD SUPPORT AND/OR ALIMONY Consumer Credit Protection Act...

  5. 48 CFR 32.503-12 - Maximum unliquidated amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maximum unliquidated amount. 32.503-12 Section 32.503-12 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... is promptly corrected through one or more of the following actions: (1) Increasing the...

  6. 7 CFR 1703.133 - Maximum and minimum amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maximum and minimum amounts. 1703.133 Section 1703.133 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL DEVELOPMENT Distance Learning and Telemedicine Combination Loan and...

  7. 7 CFR 1703.143 - Maximum and minimum amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maximum and minimum amounts. 1703.143 Section 1703.143 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL DEVELOPMENT Distance Learning and Telemedicine Loan Program §...

  8. 7 CFR 1703.124 - Maximum and minimum grant amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maximum and minimum grant amounts. 1703.124 Section 1703.124 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL DEVELOPMENT Distance Learning and Telemedicine Grant Program §...

  9. 7 CFR 1703.143 - Maximum and minimum amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maximum and minimum amounts. 1703.143 Section 1703.143 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL DEVELOPMENT Distance Learning and Telemedicine Loan Program §...

  10. 7 CFR 1703.133 - Maximum and minimum amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maximum and minimum amounts. 1703.133 Section 1703.133 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL DEVELOPMENT Distance Learning and Telemedicine Combination Loan and...

  11. 7 CFR 1703.143 - Maximum and minimum amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maximum and minimum amounts. 1703.143 Section 1703.143 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL DEVELOPMENT Distance Learning and Telemedicine Loan Program §...

  12. 7 CFR 1703.133 - Maximum and minimum amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maximum and minimum amounts. 1703.133 Section 1703.133 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL DEVELOPMENT Distance Learning and Telemedicine Combination Loan and...

  13. 7 CFR 1703.124 - Maximum and minimum grant amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maximum and minimum grant amounts. 1703.124 Section 1703.124 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL DEVELOPMENT Distance Learning and Telemedicine Grant Program §...

  14. 7 CFR 1703.124 - Maximum and minimum grant amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maximum and minimum grant amounts. 1703.124 Section 1703.124 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL DEVELOPMENT Distance Learning and Telemedicine Grant Program §...

  15. 24 CFR 203.18 - Maximum mortgage amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...: For Federal Register citations affecting § 203.18, see the List of CFR Sections Affected in the... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maximum mortgage amounts. 203.18 Section 203.18 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...

  16. 7 CFR 1703.133 - Maximum and minimum amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum and minimum amounts. 1703.133 Section 1703.133 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL DEVELOPMENT Distance Learning and Telemedicine Combination Loan and...

  17. 7 CFR 1703.143 - Maximum and minimum amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum and minimum amounts. 1703.143 Section 1703.143 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL DEVELOPMENT Distance Learning and Telemedicine Loan Program §...

  18. 7 CFR 1703.124 - Maximum and minimum grant amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum and minimum grant amounts. 1703.124 Section 1703.124 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL DEVELOPMENT Distance Learning and Telemedicine Grant Program §...

  19. Maximum-Entropy Inference with a Programmable Annealer

    PubMed Central

    Chancellor, Nicholas; Szoke, Szilard; Vinci, Walter; Aeppli, Gabriel; Warburton, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Optimisation problems typically involve finding the ground state (i.e. the minimum energy configuration) of a cost function with respect to many variables. If the variables are corrupted by noise then this maximises the likelihood that the solution is correct. The maximum entropy solution on the other hand takes the form of a Boltzmann distribution over the ground and excited states of the cost function to correct for noise. Here we use a programmable annealer for the information decoding problem which we simulate as a random Ising model in a field. We show experimentally that finite temperature maximum entropy decoding can give slightly better bit-error-rates than the maximum likelihood approach, confirming that useful information can be extracted from the excited states of the annealer. Furthermore we introduce a bit-by-bit analytical method which is agnostic to the specific application and use it to show that the annealer samples from a highly Boltzmann-like distribution. Machines of this kind are therefore candidates for use in a variety of machine learning applications which exploit maximum entropy inference, including language processing and image recognition. PMID:26936311

  20. Maximum/Minimum Problems Solved Using an Algebraic Way

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modica, Erasmo

    2010-01-01

    This article describes some problems of the maximum/minimum type, which are generally solved using calculus at secondary school, but which here are solved algebraically. We prove six algebraic properties and then apply them to this kind of problem. This didactic approach allows pupils to solve these problems even at the beginning of secondary…

  1. 47 CFR 95.135 - Maximum authorized transmitting power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maximum authorized transmitting power. 95.135... transmitting power. (a) No station may transmit with more than 50 watts output power. (b) (c) A small control station at a point north of Line A or east of Line C must transmit with no more than 5 watts ERP. (d)...

  2. 40 CFR 35.635 - Maximum federal share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maximum federal share. 35.635 Section 35.635 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Nonpoint Source Management Grants (sections 319(h) and 518(f)) § 35.635...

  3. THREE MILE CREEK TOTAL MAXIMUM DAILY LOAD STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The pupose of this project is to establish the allowable loading of pollutants, or other quantifiable parameters for Threemile Creek. These funds will assist ADEM in the preparation of Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDL) for the reduction and elimination of pollution in Threemile C...

  4. Maximum Likelihood Estimation of Nonlinear Structural Equation Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sik-Yum; Zhu, Hong-Tu

    2002-01-01

    Developed an EM type algorithm for maximum likelihood estimation of a general nonlinear structural equation model in which the E-step is completed by a Metropolis-Hastings algorithm. Illustrated the methodology with results from a simulation study and two real examples using data from previous studies. (SLD)

  5. 25 CFR 273.4 - Policy of maximum Indian participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Policy of maximum Indian participation. 273.4 Section 273.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT PROGRAM EDUCATION CONTRACTS UNDER JOHNSON-O'MALLEY ACT General Provisions §...

  6. Control circuit ensures solar cell operation at maximum power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paulkovich, J.

    1967-01-01

    Control circuit enables a solar cell power supply to deliver maximum electrical power to a load. It senses the magnitude of the slope of the voltage-current characteristic curve and compares it to a reference voltage which represents the slope corresponding to the desired operating limits.

  7. Maximum Aerodynamic Force on an Ascending Space Vehicle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Backman, Philip

    2012-01-01

    The March 2010 issue of "The Physics Teacher" includes a great article by Metz and Stinner on the kinematics and dynamics of a space shuttle launch. Within those pages is a brief mention of an event known in the language of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) as "maximum dynamic pressure" (called simply "Max.AirPressure" in…

  8. Spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations for selected airborne contaminants, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    As part of its efforts to promote safe conditions aboard spacecraft, NASA requested the National Research Council (NRC) to develop guidelines for establishing spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMAC's) for contaminants, and to review SMAC's for various spacecraft contaminants to determine whether NASA's recommended exposure limits are consistent with the guidelines recommended by the subcommittee. In response to NASA's request, the NRC organized the Subcommittee on Guidelines for Developing Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Space Station Contaminants within the Committee on Toxicology (COT). In the first phase of its work, the subcommittee developed the criteria and methods for preparing SMAC's for spacecraft contaminants. The subcommittee's report, entitled Guidelines for Developing Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Space Station Contaminants, was published in 1992. The executive summary of that report is reprinted as Appendix A of this volume. In the second phase of the study, the Subcommittee on Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations reviewed reports prepared by NASA scientists and contractors recommending SMAC's for 35 spacecraft contaminants. The subcommittee sought to determine whether the SMAC reports were consistent with the 1992 guidelines. Appendix B of this volume contains the first 11 SMAC reports that have been reviewed for their application of the guidelines developed in the first phase of this activity and approved by the subcommittee.

  9. The horsepower of aircraft engines and their maximum frontal area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Precoul, Michel

    1936-01-01

    This adaptation of a Russian report reveals the effect of maximum cross section of an engine as well as the interest attaching to a choice not solely based on horsepower. The tabulation gives a comparison between different engines restored at 5,000 meters. Radial versus inverted in-line engines are also compared.

  10. 24 CFR 220.820 - Maximum claim period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... MORTGAGE INSURANCE AND INSURED IMPROVEMENT LOANS FOR URBAN RENEWAL AND CONCENTRATED DEVELOPMENT AREAS... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maximum claim period. 220.820 Section 220.820 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...

  11. 24 CFR 220.820 - Maximum claim period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... MORTGAGE INSURANCE AND INSURED IMPROVEMENT LOANS FOR URBAN RENEWAL AND CONCENTRATED DEVELOPMENT AREAS... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Maximum claim period. 220.820 Section 220.820 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...

  12. 24 CFR 220.820 - Maximum claim period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... MORTGAGE INSURANCE AND INSURED IMPROVEMENT LOANS FOR URBAN RENEWAL AND CONCENTRATED DEVELOPMENT AREAS... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Maximum claim period. 220.820 Section 220.820 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...

  13. 24 CFR 220.820 - Maximum claim period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... MORTGAGE INSURANCE AND INSURED IMPROVEMENT LOANS FOR URBAN RENEWAL AND CONCENTRATED DEVELOPMENT AREAS... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Maximum claim period. 220.820 Section 220.820 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...

  14. 24 CFR 220.820 - Maximum claim period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... MORTGAGE INSURANCE AND INSURED IMPROVEMENT LOANS FOR URBAN RENEWAL AND CONCENTRATED DEVELOPMENT AREAS... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Maximum claim period. 220.820 Section 220.820 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...

  15. 36 CFR 20.3 - Maximum number of permittees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... 20.3 Section 20.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ISLE ROYALE NATIONAL PARK; COMMERCIAL FISHING § 20.3 Maximum number of permittees. Commercial... the period from April 1, 1937 to December 31, 1939, inclusive....

  16. 36 CFR 20.3 - Maximum number of permittees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... 20.3 Section 20.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ISLE ROYALE NATIONAL PARK; COMMERCIAL FISHING § 20.3 Maximum number of permittees. Commercial... the period from April 1, 1937 to December 31, 1939, inclusive....

  17. Maximum Oxygen Uptake Determination in Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fremion, Amy S.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    A study of 10 children with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus performing a maximum-effort cycling test indicated blood glucose levels did not change appreciably during test, while maximal oxygen uptake was substandard for their age groups. Findings suggest patients in fair to poor metabolic control can tolerate stress testing without…

  18. Prediction of Maximum Oxygen Consumption from Walking, Jogging, or Running.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Gary E.; George, James D.; Alexander, Jeffrey L.; Fellingham, Gilbert W.; Aldana, Steve G.; Parcell, Allen C.

    2002-01-01

    Developed a cardiorespiratory endurance test that retained the inherent advantages of submaximal testing while eliminating reliance on heart rate measurement in predicting maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max). College students completed three exercise tests. The 1.5-mile endurance test predicted VO2max from submaximal exercise without requiring heart…

  19. 40 CFR 35.335 - Maximum federal share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Maximum federal share. 35.335 Section 35.335 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants State Underground Storage Tanks (section...

  20. 40 CFR 35.335 - Maximum federal share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Maximum federal share. 35.335 Section 35.335 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants State Underground Storage Tanks (section...

  1. 40 CFR 35.735 - Maximum federal share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Maximum federal share. 35.735 Section 35.735 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Underground Storage Tanks...

  2. 40 CFR 35.735 - Maximum federal share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum federal share. 35.735 Section 35.735 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Underground Storage Tanks...

  3. 40 CFR 35.735 - Maximum federal share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Maximum federal share. 35.735 Section 35.735 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Underground Storage Tanks...

  4. 40 CFR 35.735 - Maximum federal share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maximum federal share. 35.735 Section 35.735 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Underground Storage Tanks...

  5. 40 CFR 35.335 - Maximum federal share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maximum federal share. 35.335 Section 35.335 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants State Underground Storage Tanks (section...

  6. 40 CFR 35.335 - Maximum federal share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum federal share. 35.335 Section 35.335 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants State Underground Storage Tanks (section...

  7. 40 CFR 35.735 - Maximum federal share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maximum federal share. 35.735 Section 35.735 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Underground Storage Tanks...

  8. 40 CFR 35.335 - Maximum federal share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maximum federal share. 35.335 Section 35.335 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants State Underground Storage Tanks (section...

  9. Limitations to maximum running speed on flat curves.

    PubMed

    Chang, Young-Hui; Kram, Rodger

    2007-03-01

    Why is maximal running speed reduced on curved paths? The leading explanation proposes that an increase in lateral ground reaction force necessitates a decrease in peak vertical ground reaction force, assuming that maximum leg extension force is the limiting factor. Yet, no studies have directly measured these forces or tested this critical assumption. We measured maximum sprint velocities and ground reaction forces for five male humans sprinting along a straight track and compared them to sprints along circular tracks of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 m radii. Circular track sprint trials were performed either with or without a tether that applied centripetal force to the center of mass. Sprinters generated significantly smaller peak resultant ground reaction forces during normal curve sprinting compared to straight sprinting. This provides direct evidence against the idea that maximum leg extension force is always achieved and is the limiting factor. Use of the tether increased sprint speed, but not to expected values. During curve sprinting, the inside leg consistently generated smaller peak forces compared to the outside leg. Several competing biomechanical constraints placed on the stance leg during curve sprinting likely make the inside leg particularly ineffective at generating the ground reaction forces necessary to attain maximum velocities comparable to straight path sprinting. The ability of quadrupeds to redistribute function across multiple stance legs and decouple these multiple constraints may provide a distinct advantage for turning performance. PMID:17337710

  10. 40 CFR 35.604 - Maximum federal share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum federal share. 35.604 Section 35.604 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Water Quality Cooperative...

  11. 40 CFR 35.415 - Maximum federal share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum federal share. 35.415 Section 35.415 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Water Quality Management Planning...

  12. 40 CFR 35.364 - Maximum federal share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum federal share. 35.364 Section 35.364 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Water Quality Cooperative Agreements...

  13. 24 CFR 232.565 - Maximum loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Maximum loan amount. 232.565 Section 232.565 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER...

  14. Modeling maximum daily temperature using a varying coefficient regression model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Han; Deng, Xinwei; Kim, Dong-Yun; Smith, Eric P.

    2014-04-01

    Relationships between stream water and air temperatures are often modeled using linear or nonlinear regression methods. Despite a strong relationship between water and air temperatures and a variety of models that are effective for data summarized on a weekly basis, such models did not yield consistently good predictions for summaries such as daily maximum temperature. A good predictive model for daily maximum temperature is required because daily maximum temperature is an important measure for predicting survival of temperature sensitive fish. To appropriately model the strong relationship between water and air temperatures at a daily time step, it is important to incorporate information related to the time of the year into the modeling. In this work, a time-varying coefficient model is used to study the relationship between air temperature and water temperature. The time-varying coefficient model enables dynamic modeling of the relationship, and can be used to understand how the air-water temperature relationship varies over time. The proposed model is applied to 10 streams in Maryland, West Virginia, Virginia, North Carolina, and Georgia using daily maximum temperatures. It provides a better fit and better predictions than those produced by a simple linear regression model or a nonlinear logistic model.

  15. 40 CFR 35.145 - Maximum federal share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Air Pollution Control (section 105) § 35.145 Maximum federal share. (a) The Regional Administrator may provide air pollution control agencies, as... programs for the prevention and control of air pollution or implementing national primary and...

  16. 24 CFR 241.630 - Maximum insurance against loss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Maximum insurance against loss. 241.630 Section 241.630 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND...

  17. Maximum-entropy probability distributions under Lp-norm constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolinar, S.

    1991-01-01

    Continuous probability density functions and discrete probability mass functions are tabulated which maximize the differential entropy or absolute entropy, respectively, among all probability distributions with a given L sub p norm (i.e., a given pth absolute moment when p is a finite integer) and unconstrained or constrained value set. Expressions for the maximum entropy are evaluated as functions of the L sub p norm. The most interesting results are obtained and plotted for unconstrained (real valued) continuous random variables and for integer valued discrete random variables. The maximum entropy expressions are obtained in closed form for unconstrained continuous random variables, and in this case there is a simple straight line relationship between the maximum differential entropy and the logarithm of the L sub p norm. Corresponding expressions for arbitrary discrete and constrained continuous random variables are given parametrically; closed form expressions are available only for special cases. However, simpler alternative bounds on the maximum entropy of integer valued discrete random variables are obtained by applying the differential entropy results to continuous random variables which approximate the integer valued random variables in a natural manner. All the results are presented in an integrated framework that includes continuous and discrete random variables, constraints on the permissible value set, and all possible values of p. Understanding such as this is useful in evaluating the performance of data compression schemes.

  18. 78 FR 67465 - Loan Guaranty: Maximum Allowable Attorney Fees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ...This notice provides information to participants in the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Home Loan Guaranty program concerning the maximum attorney fees allowable in calculating the indebtedness used to determine the guaranty claim payable upon loan termination. The table in this notice contains the amounts the Secretary has determined to be reasonable and customary for all States,......

  19. 10 CFR 800.200 - Maximum loan; allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... cost principles of the Federal Procurement Regulation (41 CFR Ch. 1, 1-15.205-3) and DOE Procurement Regulation (41 CFR Ch. 9, 9-15.205-3); and; (2) Be necessary, reasonable and customary for the bid or... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maximum loan; allowable costs. 800.200 Section...

  20. 10 CFR 800.200 - Maximum loan; allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... cost principles of the Federal Procurement Regulation (41 CFR Ch. 1, 1-15.205-3) and DOE Procurement Regulation (41 CFR Ch. 9, 9-15.205-3); and; (2) Be necessary, reasonable and customary for the bid or... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum loan; allowable costs. 800.200 Section...