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Sample records for 1-repetition maximum 1rm

  1. Local muscular endurance and prediction of 1 repetition maximum for bench in 4 athletic populations.

    PubMed

    Desgorces, François D; Berthelot, Geoffroy; Dietrich, Gilles; Testa, Marc S A

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine a predictive equation of 1 repetition maximum (1RM) from local muscular endurance. Different athletic male populations were assessed: racket/ball games players (n = 31), power lifters (n = 22), swimmers (n = 28), and rowers (n = 29). After the 1RM assessment for the bench press, the maximum number of repetitions (MNR) relative to the 1RM (85%, 75%, 60%, 40%, and 20%) was tested. No significant differences in strength evolution from 20% to 100% of the 1RM was found between power lifters and racket/ball games players and between swimmers and rowers. However, differences in the strength evolution appeared between these 2 mixed groups (p < 0.01), with differences appearing from 75% of 1RM to lesser relative strength (p < 0.05). Nonlinear equations fitted best with the actual data for the capacity to repeat lifts. The evolution of strength from 100% to 20% of 1RM was better described when the groups' specific equations were used as demonstrated by r, and residuals range between the predicted minus the measured 1RM. The strength endurance competences for high loads (100%-75%) were adequately modelled by the equation based on the total population. The accuracy of the 1RM prediction was better when a reduced number of lifts was performed. For untrained or novice subjects, the use of group-specific equations for the all evolutionary profile of strength allows a good estimate of 1RM and provides adequate numbers of lifts for all levels of strength, thus optimizing the training programs.

  2. Anthropometry increases 1 repetition maximum predictive ability of NFL-225 test for Division IA college football players.

    PubMed

    Hetzler, Ronald K; Schroeder, Brian L; Wages, Jennifer J; Stickley, Christopher D; Kimura, Iris F

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare existing 1 repetition maximum (1RM) bench press prediction equations in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division IA college football players and determine if the error associated with the prediction of 1RM bench press from the National Football League (NFL)-225 test could be reduced through the addition of anthropometric measurements. Anthropometric measures, 1RM bench press, NFL-225 test repetitions to fatigue, and body composition data were collected on 87 Division IA football players (mean+/-SD age 19.9+/-1.3 years; height 182.3+/-7.3 cm; body mass 102.3+/-21.1 kg; % fat 13.9+/-6.7; 1RM bench press 140.5+/-2 6.6 kg; and NFL-225 reps to fatigue 14.1+/-8.0). Hierarchical regression revealed an R=0.87 when predicting 1RM from the NFL-225 test alone, which improved to R=0.90 with the addition of the anthropometric variables: arm circumference and arm length. The following equation was the best performing model to predict 1RM bench press: 1RM (lb)=299.08+2.47 arm circumference (cm)--4.60 arm length (cm)+5.84 reps @ 225; SEE=18.3 lb). This equation predicted 43.7% of subjects' within +/-10 lb of their actual 1RM bench press. Using a crossvalidation group, the equation resulted in estimates of 1RM which were not significantly different than the actual 1RM. Because of the variability that has been shown to be associated with 1RM prediction equations, the use of actual 1RM testing is recommended when this is a critical variable. However, coaches, scouts, and athletes, who choose to estimate 1RM bench press using repetitions to failure from the NFL-225 test, may benefit from the use of the equations developed in this study to estimate 1RM bench press with the inclusion of simple anthropometric measurements.

  3. Reliability of 1-Repetition Maximum Estimation for Upper and Lower Body Muscular Strength Measurement in Untrained Middle Aged Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Abdul-Hameed, Unaise; Rangra, Prateek; Shareef, Mohd. Yakub; Hussain, Mohd. Ejaz

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The 1-repetition maximum (1-RM) test is the gold standard test for evaluating maximal dynamic strength of groups of muscles. However, safety of actual 1-RM testing is questionable in clinical situations such as type 2 diabetes (T2D), where an estimated 1-RM test is preferred. It is unclear if acceptable test retest reliability exists for the estimated 1-RM test in middle aged T2D patients. This study examined the reliability of the estimated 1-RM strength test in untrained middle aged T2D subjects. Methods Twenty five untrained diabetic males (n=19) and females (n=6) aged 40.7+0.4 years participated in the study. Participants undertook the first estimated 1-RM test for five exercises namely supine bench press, leg press, lateral pull, leg extension and seated biceps curls. A familiarisation session was provided three to five days before the first test. 1-RM was estimated for all participants by Brzycki 1-RM prediction equation. Another identical 1-RM estimation procedure occurred one week after first test. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), paired t-test, standard error of measurement (SEM), Bland-Altman plots, and estimation of 95% CI were used to assess reliability. Results Test-retest reliability was excellent (ICC2,1=0.98-0.99) for all measurements with the highest for leg extension (ICC2,1=0.99). The SEM was lowest for lateral pull and leg extension exercises. Paired t-tests showed non-significant differences between the means of 2 sessions across three of five exercises. Conclusions The study findings suggest that estimation of 1-RM is reliable for upper and lower body muscular strength measurement in untrained middle aged T2D patients. PMID:23342225

  4. Orientation and Familiarization to 1RM Strength Testing in Old and Young Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.; Giamis, E. L.

    2001-01-01

    Compared the number of testing sessions required to achieve consistent 1 repetition maximum (1RM) strength measurements in untrained old and young women. Participants were repeatedly strength-tested for bilateral concentric knee extension 1RM strength. Older women required significantly more testing sessions to achieve the same absolute…

  5. Reliability of 1RM Split-Squat Performance and the Efficacy of Assessing Both Bilateral Squat and Split-Squat 1RM in a Single Session for Non-Resistance-Trained Recreationally Active Men.

    PubMed

    Urquhart, Brian G; Moir, Gavin L; Graham, Scott M; Connaboy, Chris

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of 1 repetition maximum (1RM) split squat (SS) and establish the efficacy of collecting 1RM-SS and 1RM bilateral squat (BLS) data in the same session, for a non-resistance-trained recreationally active population. Fourteen males performed a submaximal familiarization session and 5 testing sessions. After familiarization, the 1RM-SS was tested in the following 3 sessions. In session 4, subjects were tested in both 1RM-SS and 1RM-BLS, with half performing SS then BLS and the remainder BLS then SS. In session 5, the testing order was reversed. Reliability statistics calculated included the following: changes in mean across sessions, coefficient of variation calculated from the typical error (TE) scores (%CV(TE)), and test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC]) of 1RM-SS. Statistically significant differences between the mean 1RM-SS in sessions 1 and 2 (2.14 kg, p = 0.001), and sessions 1 and 3 (2.86 kg, p < 0.003) were found, indicating the requirement for an additional familiarization session before 1RM-SS data collection. The %CV(TE) was 2.53% and the ICC was 0.97 for the 1RM-SS protocol. Performing SS before BLS tended to increase the mean 1RM-BLS (+2.1%), although the difference was not significant (p = 0.055). A reliable measure of 1RM-SS can be determined after 1 submaximal and 1 maximal familiarization session in non-resistance-trained recreationally active men. Analysis of the current data suggests that it is appropriate to perform both 1RM-SS and 1RM-BLS tests within the same testing session if 1RM-SS is performed before 1RM-BLS. However, further testing is warranted to firmly establish the effects of 1RM-SS on subsequent 1RM-BLS.

  6. NFL-225 test to predict 1RM bench press in NCAA Division I football players.

    PubMed

    Mann, J Bryan; Stoner, Josh D; Mayhew, Jerry L

    2012-10-01

    The National Football League (NFL)-225 test has gained popularity for assessing muscular performance among college football programs. Although the test is a measure of absolute muscular endurance, it was reputed to be highly correlated with maximum muscular strength. The purposes of this study were to assess the predictive potential of the NFL-225 test for estimating 1 repetition maximum (1RM) bench press performance in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I college football players and to evaluate the accuracy of previous NFL-225 prediction equations. Players (n = 289) in a successful Division I program were assessed over a period of 5 years for 1RM bench press and repetitions completed with 102.3 kg (225 lb). Test sessions occurred within 1 week of each other during the off-season training period. In a validation group (n = 202), repetitions were significantly correlated with 1RM (r = 0.95), producing a prediction equation (1RM [kg] = 103.5 + 3.08 Reps) with a standard error of estimate = 6.4 kg (coefficient of variation = 4.3%). In a randomly selected cross-validation group (n = 87), the new equation nonsignificantly underpredicted by 0.9 ± 7.2 kg produced a high correlation with actual 1RM (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] = 0.967), had a limit of agreement of -15.0 to 13.2 kg, and predicted 69% of the group within ±4.5 kg of their actual 1RM. The best previous equation was that of Slovak et al., which was nonsignificantly underpredicted by -0.5 ± 6.7 kg, produced a high correlation with actual 1RM (ICC = 0.975), and predicted 68% of the group within ±4.5 kg of their actual 1RM. The new NFL-225 test seems to be a reasonable predictor of 1RM bench press in Division I players but should be further assessed on players from other high-level programs.

  7. Comparing one repetition maximum and three repetition maximum between conventional and eccentrically loaded deadlifts.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Alan; DeBeliso, Mark; Sevene, Trish G; Adams, Kent J

    2014-07-01

    This study determined if an eccentrically loaded deadlift yields a higher 1 repetition maximum (1RM) and 3RM than a conventional deadlift and if the 1RM conventional and eccentrically loaded deadlift can be accurately estimated from the 3RM (3RM = 93% of 1RM). Division 1 football players (n = 15; 20.3 ± 1.9 years; 95.8 ± 18.2 kg; 184.4 ± 6.6 cm) participated. Deadlift 1RM and 3RM were measured in the conventional and eccentrically loaded deadlift. Dependent t-tests showed no significant difference between the 3RM and 1RM conventional deadlift and the 3RM and 1RM eccentrically loaded deadlift (p = 0.30 and p = 0.20, respectively). Pearson correlation between the 1RM conventional deadlift estimate and 1RM conventional deadlift actual was r = 0.91 (p ≤ 0.01); a dependent t-test indicated the 1RM conventional deadlift estimate was significantly less than the 1RM conventional deadlift actual (p = 0.007). Pearson correlation between the 1RM eccentrically loaded deadlift estimate and 1RM eccentrically loaded deadlift actual was r = 0.84 (p ≤ 0.01); a dependent t-test indicated the 1RM eccentrically loaded deadlift estimate was nearly significantly less than the 1RM eccentrically loaded deadlift actual (p = 0.061). Results suggest that conventional and eccentrically loaded deadlifts may be interchangeable within a training program; this may elicit the benefits of using a broader variety of ground-based multijoint compound movements in an athlete's strength and power training. Additionally, because of differences between predicted and actual 1RM scores in the deadlift, strength coaches should prioritize actual 1RM testing of their athletes to optimize deadlift training loads across the RM continuum. PMID:24276311

  8. The validity and reliability of the 1RM bench press using chain-loaded resistance.

    PubMed

    McCurdy, Kevin; Langford, George; Jenkerson, David; Doscher, Michael

    2008-05-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine the validity and test-retest reliability of the 1 repetition maximum (1RM) chain-loaded, free-weight bench press (CBP) and to examine possible learning effects that may occur between the test-retest measurements. Nine resistance-trained men (20.58 +/- 1.31 years, 188.24 +/- 9.29 cm, 92.07 +/- 16.94 kg) and seven resistance-trained women (20.42 +/- 0.98 years, 175.61 +/- 9.32 cm, 73.61 +/- 10.80 kg) participating in Division II college basketball completed this study. Two familiarization sessions took place using light to moderate loads to learn proper technique. The subjects completed a 1RM test on the traditional plate-loaded bench press 4 days before completion of the CBP 1RM, which was followed by 4 days of rest before completing the retest. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and the percent coefficients of variation (CV) were used to determine relative and absolute test-retest reliability. Concurrent validity was determined from the Pearson correlation coefficients between the CBP and the plate-loaded bench press. Test-retest differences were analyzed with the paired t-test. ICC and CV for the men (r = 0.99, 1.4%) and women (r = 0.93, 3.5%), respectively indicate that highly reproducible 1RM scores can be found with the CBP. High validity was also found with high correlations between the CBP and plate-loaded bench press for the men (r = 0.95) and women (r = 0.80). A statistically significant (p = 0.04) but clinically small (2.57 kg) shift in the mean occurred between the CBP test and retest for the men, whereas no change occurred for the women. The data indicate that valid and reliable 1RM scores can be found after two familiarization sessions in men and women athletes who have previous resistance training experience.

  9. Maximal power at different percentages of one repetition maximum: influence of resistance and gender.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Gwendolyn A; Kraemer, William J; Spiering, Barry A; Volek, Jeff S; Anderson, Jeffrey M; Maresh, Carl M

    2007-05-01

    National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I athletes were tested to determine the load at which maximal mechanical output is achieved. Athletes performed power testing at 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70% of individual 1 repetition maximum (1RM) in the squat jump, bench press, and hang pull exercises. Additionally, hang pull power testing was performed using free-form (i.e., barbell) and fixed-form (i.e., Smith machine) techniques. There were differences between genders in optimal power output during the squat jump (30-40% of 1RM for men; 30-50% of 1RM for women) and bench throw (30% of 1RM for men; 30-50% of 1RM for women) exercises. There were no gender or form interactions during the hang pull exercise; maximal power output during the hang pull occurred at 30-60% of 1RM. In conclusion, these results indicate that (a) gender differences exist in the load at which maximal power output occurs during the squat jump and bench throw; and (b) although no gender or form interactions occurred during the hang pull exercise, greater power could be generated during fixed-form exercise. In general, 30% of 1RM will elicit peak power outputs for both genders and all exercises used in this study, allowing this standard percentage to be used as a starting point in order to train maximal mechanical power output capabilities in these lifts in strength trained athletes.

  10. Inter-Investigator Reliability of Anthropometric Prediction of 1RM Bench Press in College Football Players

    PubMed Central

    SCHUMACHER, RICHARD M.; ARABAS, JANA L.; MAYHEW, JERRY L.; BRECHUE, WILLIAM F.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of inter-investigator differences in anthropometric assessments on the prediction of one-repetition maximum (1RM) bench press in college football players. Division-II players (n = 34, age = 20.4 ± 1.2 y, 182.3 ± 6.6 cm, 99.1 ± 18.4 kg) were measured for selected anthropometric variables and 1RM bench press at the conclusion of a heavy resistance training program. Triceps, subscapular, and abdominal skinfolds were measured in triplicate by three investigators and used to estimate %fat. Arm circumference was measured around a flexed biceps muscle and was corrected for triceps skinfold to estimate muscle cross-sectional area (CSA). Chest circumference was measured at mid-expiration. Significant differences among the testers were evident in six of the nine anthropometric variables, with the least experienced tester being significantly different from the other testers on seven variables, although average differences among investigators ranged from 1–2% for circumferences to 4–9% for skinfolds. The two more experienced testers were significantly different on only one variable. Overall agreement among testers was high (ICC>0.895) for each variable, with low coefficients of variation (CV<10.7%). Predicted 1RMs for testers (126.9 ± 20.6, 123.4 ± 22.0, and 132.1 ± 28.4 kg, respectively) were not significantly different from actual 1RM (129.2 ± 20.6 kg). Individuals with varying levels of experience appear to have an acceptable level of ability to estimate 1RM bench press using a non-performance anthropometric equation. Minimal experience in anthropometry may not impede strength and conditioning specialists from accurately estimating 1RM bench press. PMID:27766130

  11. Power production among different sports with similar maximum strength.

    PubMed

    Aşçi, Alper; Açikada, Caner

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare 1 repetition maximum (1RM) strength, maximum power (MP), linear momentum (Mp), and the loads of 1RM responsible for maximum power (MP%) and for linear momentum (Mp%) generated in explosive concentric bench press (CBP) motion among athletes from different sports. A total of 56 athletes (13 sprinters, 16 basketball players, 16 handball players, 5 volleyball players, and 6 bodybuilders) performed CBP in the loads of 40, 50, 60, 70, and 80% of 1RM with 1-minute rest intervals. MP and Mp were assessed during CBP by customized apparatus with 3 separate displacement transducers. There were no significant differences in MP, Mp, MP%, and Mp% among the athletes. The only significant positive correlation was found between overall 1RM and Mp for athletes (r = 0.37). In conclusion, long-term sport-specific training adaptations do not play a major role on speed-strength parameters in athletes with similar strength from different sports backgrounds.

  12. Estimations of One Repetition Maximum and Isometric Peak Torque in Knee Extension Based on the Relationship Between Force and Velocity.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Yoshito; Hatanaka, Yasuhiko; Arai, Tomoaki; Sakurai, Hiroaki; Kanada, Yoshikiyo

    2016-04-01

    We aimed to investigate whether a linear regression formula based on the relationship between joint torque and angular velocity measured using a high-speed video camera and image measurement software is effective for estimating 1 repetition maximum (1RM) and isometric peak torque in knee extension. Subjects comprised 20 healthy men (mean ± SD; age, 27.4 ± 4.9 years; height, 170.3 ± 4.4 cm; and body weight, 66.1 ± 10.9 kg). The exercise load ranged from 40% to 150% 1RM. Peak angular velocity (PAV) and peak torque were used to estimate 1RM and isometric peak torque. To elucidate the relationship between force and velocity in knee extension, the relationship between the relative proportion of 1RM (% 1RM) and PAV was examined using simple regression analysis. The concordance rate between the estimated value and actual measurement of 1RM and isometric peak torque was examined using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). Reliability of the regression line of PAV and % 1RM was 0.95. The concordance rate between the actual measurement and estimated value of 1RM resulted in an ICC(2,1) of 0.93 and that of isometric peak torque had an ICC(2,1) of 0.87 and 0.86 for 6 and 3 levels of load, respectively. Our method for estimating 1RM was effective for decreasing the measurement time and reducing patients' burden. Additionally, isometric peak torque can be estimated using 3 levels of load, as we obtained the same results as those reported previously. We plan to expand the range of subjects and examine the generalizability of our results.

  13. Estimations of One Repetition Maximum and Isometric Peak Torque in Knee Extension Based on the Relationship Between Force and Velocity.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Yoshito; Hatanaka, Yasuhiko; Arai, Tomoaki; Sakurai, Hiroaki; Kanada, Yoshikiyo

    2016-04-01

    We aimed to investigate whether a linear regression formula based on the relationship between joint torque and angular velocity measured using a high-speed video camera and image measurement software is effective for estimating 1 repetition maximum (1RM) and isometric peak torque in knee extension. Subjects comprised 20 healthy men (mean ± SD; age, 27.4 ± 4.9 years; height, 170.3 ± 4.4 cm; and body weight, 66.1 ± 10.9 kg). The exercise load ranged from 40% to 150% 1RM. Peak angular velocity (PAV) and peak torque were used to estimate 1RM and isometric peak torque. To elucidate the relationship between force and velocity in knee extension, the relationship between the relative proportion of 1RM (% 1RM) and PAV was examined using simple regression analysis. The concordance rate between the estimated value and actual measurement of 1RM and isometric peak torque was examined using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). Reliability of the regression line of PAV and % 1RM was 0.95. The concordance rate between the actual measurement and estimated value of 1RM resulted in an ICC(2,1) of 0.93 and that of isometric peak torque had an ICC(2,1) of 0.87 and 0.86 for 6 and 3 levels of load, respectively. Our method for estimating 1RM was effective for decreasing the measurement time and reducing patients' burden. Additionally, isometric peak torque can be estimated using 3 levels of load, as we obtained the same results as those reported previously. We plan to expand the range of subjects and examine the generalizability of our results. PMID:26382131

  14. The effects of creatine monohydrate loading on anaerobic performance and one-repetition maximum strength.

    PubMed

    Zuniga, Jorge M; Housh, Terry J; Camic, Clayton L; Hendrix, C Russell; Mielke, Michelle; Johnson, Glen O; Housh, Dona J; Schmidt, Richard J

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 7 days of supplementation with 20 g·d⁻¹ of creatine monohydrate (CM) on mean power (MP) and peak power (PP) from the Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT), body weight (BW), 1-repetition maximum (1RM) bilateral leg extension (LE) strength, and 1RM bench press (BP) strength. This study used a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design. Twenty-two men (mean ± SD: age = 22.1 ± 2.0 years; height = 178.0 ± 5.8 cm; body weight [BW] = 77.6 ± 7.6 kg) were randomly assigned to either a supplement (SUPP; n = 10) or placebo (PLAC; n = 12) group. The SUPP group ingested 20 g·d⁻¹ of CM powder for 7 days, whereas the PLAC ingested 20 g·d⁻¹ of maltodextrin powder. Measurements for the PLAC and SUPP groups included BW, PP, and MP from two 30-second WAnTs (separated by 7 minutes), and 1RM strength for LE and BP. Testing was conducted before (PRE) and after (POST) 7 days of ingesting either the supplement or placebo. The results of this study indicated that there was a significant (p ≤ 0.05) increase from PRE to POST testing in MP for the SUPP group (5.4%) but not for the PLAC group (-0.3%). There were no between-group differences, however, for 1RM LE and 1RM BP strength. Furthermore, there were no changes in PP or BW for either group. The findings of this study indicated that loading with 20 g·d⁻¹ of CM for 7 days increased MP (5.4% increase) from the WAnT, but it had no effect on strength (1RM LE and 1RM BP), PP, or BW.

  15. Reliability of the one-repetition-maximum power clean test in adolescent athletes.

    PubMed

    Faigenbaum, Avery D; McFarland, James E; Herman, Robert E; Naclerio, Fernando; Ratamess, Nicholas A; Kang, Jie; Myer, Gregory D

    2012-02-01

    Although the power clean test is routinely used to assess strength and power performance in adult athletes, the reliability of this measure in younger populations has not been examined. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of the 1-repetition maximum (1RM) power clean in adolescent athletes. Thirty-six male athletes (age 15.9 ± 1.1 years, body mass 79.1 ± 20.3 kg, height 175.1 ±7.4 cm) who had >1 year of training experience in weightlifting exercises performed a 1RM power clean on 2 nonconsecutive days in the afternoon following standardized procedures. All test procedures were supervised by a senior level weightlifting coach and consisted of a systematic progression in test load until the maximum resistance that could be lifted for 1 repetition using proper exercise technique was determined. Data were analyzed using an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC[2,k]), Pearson correlation coefficient (r), repeated measures analysis of variance, Bland-Altman plot, and typical error analyses. Analysis of the data revealed that the test measures were highly reliable demonstrating a test-retest ICC of 0.98 (95% confidence interval = 0.96-0.99). Testing also demonstrated a strong relationship between 1RM measures in trials 1 and 2 (r = 0.98, p < 0.0001) with no significant difference in power clean performance between trials (70.6 ± 19.8 vs. 69.8 ± 19.8 kg). Bland-Altman plots confirmed no systematic shift in 1RM between trials 1 and 2. The typical error to be expected between 1RM power clean trials is 2.9 kg, and a change of at least 8.0 kg is indicated to determine a real change in lifting performance between tests in young lifters. No injuries occurred during the study period, and the testing protocol was well tolerated by all the subjects. These findings indicate that 1RM power clean testing has a high degree of reproducibility in trained male adolescent athletes when standardized testing procedures are followed and qualified

  16. Acute effect of two aerobic exercise modes on maximum strength and strength endurance.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Eduardo Oliveira; Tricoli, Valmor; Franchini, Emerson; Paulo, Anderson Caetano; Regazzini, Marcelo; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos

    2007-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of 2 modes of aerobic exercise (continuous or intermittent) on maximum strength (1 repetition maximum, 1RM) and strength endurance (maximum repetitions at 80% of 1RM) for lower- and upper-body exercises to test the acute hypothesis in concurrent training (CT) interference. Eight physically active men (age: 26.9 +/- 4.2 years; body mass: 82.1 +/- 7.5 kg; height: 178.9 +/- 6.0 cm) were submitted to: (a) a graded exercise test to determine V(.-)O2max (39.26 +/- 6.95 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) and anaerobic threshold velocity (3.5 mmol x L(-1)) (9.3 +/- 1.27 km x h(-1)); (b) strength tests in a rested state (control); and (c) 4 experimental sessions, at least 7 days apart. The experimental sessions consisted of a 5-kilometer run on a treadmill continuously (90% of the anaerobic threshold velocity) or intermittently (1:1 minute at V(.-)O2max). Ten minutes after the aerobic exercise, either a maximum strength or a strength endurance test was performed (leg press and bench press exercises). The order of aerobic and strength exercises followed a William's square distribution to avoid carryover effects. Results showed that only the intermittent aerobic exercise produced an acute interference effect on leg strength endurance, decreasing significantly (p < 0.05) the number of repetitions from 10.8 +/- 2.5 to 8.1 +/- 2.2. Maximum strength was not affected by the aerobic exercise mode. In conclusion, the acute interference hypothesis in concurrent training seems to occur when both aerobic and strength exercises produce significant peripheral fatigue in the same muscle group.

  17. Carbohydrate and Caffeine Mouth Rinses Do Not Affect Maximum Strength and Muscular Endurance Performance.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Neil D; Kornilios, Evangelos; Richardson, Darren L

    2015-10-01

    Oral carbohydrate (CHO) rinsing has beneficial effects on endurance performance and caffeine (CAF) mouth rinsing either independently or in conjunction with CHO may enhance sprinting performance. However, the effects of CHO and CAF mouth rinses on resistance exercise have not been examined previously. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of CHO and CAF rinsing on maximum strength and muscular endurance performance. Fifteen recreationally resistance-trained males completed an exercise protocol, which involved a 1 repetition maximum (RM) bench press followed by 60% of their 1RM to failure in a double-blind, randomized, counterbalanced crossover design. Before exercise, 25 ml of a 6% (15 g; 0.20 ± 0.02 g·kg(-1)) CHO, 1.2% (300 mg; 3.9 ± 0.3 mg·kg(-1)) CAF, carbohydrate with caffeine (C + C) solutions, or water (placebo; PLA) were rinsed for 10 seconds. During the remaining session, no solution was rinsed (control; CON). All solutions were flavored with (200 mg) sucralose. Felt arousal was recorded pre- and post-rinse, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was recorded immediately after the repetitions to failure. There were no significant differences in 1RM (p = 0.808; ηp(2)= 0.02), the number of repetitions performed (p = 0.682; ηp(2)= 0.03), or the total exercise volume (p = 0.482; ηp(2)= 0.03) between conditions. Rating of perceived exertion was similar for all trials (p = 0.330; ηp(2)= 0.08), whereas Felt arousal increased as a consequence of rinsing (p = 0.001; ηp(2)= 0.58), but was not different between trials (p = 0.335; ηp(2)= 0.08). These results suggest that rinsing with a CHO and CAF solution either independently or combined has no significant effect on maximum strength or muscular endurance performance.

  18. Maximal Strength Testing in Healthy Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Milliken, Laurie A.; Westcott, Wayne L.

    2003-01-01

    Evaluated the safety and efficacy of 1 repetition maximum (1RM) strength testing in healthy children age 6-12 years. Data were collected on 96 children who performed a 1RM test on one upper body and one lower body exercise using child-sized weight machines. Findings indicated that children could safely perform 1RM strength tests provided…

  19. Effects of lifting tempo on one repetition maximum and hormonal responses to a bench press protocol.

    PubMed

    Headley, Samuel A; Henry, Kelley; Nindl, Bradley C; Thompson, Brian A; Kraemer, William J; Jones, Margaret T

    2011-02-01

    This study was carried out in 2 parts: part 1 was designed to measure the 1 repetition maximum (1RM) bench press with 2 different moderate-velocity tempos (2/0/2) vs. (2/0/4) in male lifters while part 2 compared the hormonal responses at the same tempos as described in part 1. In both parts 1 and 2, the 1RMs (lbs) were higher on the 2/0/2 tempo than on the 2/0/4 tempo. The change in plasma volume (PV) was greater after the 2/0/4 tempo (-5.7 ± 1.7% vs. 0.96 ± 1.2%, p < 0.05). All blood parameters were significantly (p < 0.05) higher post-exercise compared with baseline. With PV corrected, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) (ng·mL⁻¹) was higher with the 2/0/2 tempo only (pre-exercise: 277.4 ± 21.8, post-exercise: 308.1 ± 22.9; 2/0/4 tempo pre-exercise: 277.2 ± 17.6, post-exercise: 284.8 ± 21.2). In conclusion, heavier loads can be lifted and more total work can be performed using a (2/0/2) tempo compared with a slower (2/0/4) tempo, but with the exception of IGF-1, the hormonal responses are similar. Individuals may get the same metabolic responses to training by using different tempos, but they will need to use less weight at a slower tempo.

  20. Maximum likelihood.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shuying; De Angelis, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    The maximum likelihood method is a popular statistical inferential procedure widely used in many areas to obtain the estimates of the unknown parameters of a population of interest. This chapter gives a brief description of the important concepts underlying the maximum likelihood method, the definition of the key components, the basic theory of the method, and the properties of the resulting estimates. Confidence interval and likelihood ratio test are also introduced. Finally, a few examples of applications are given to illustrate how to derive maximum likelihood estimates in practice. A list of references to relevant papers and software for a further understanding of the method and its implementation is provided.

  1. Efficacy of the National Football League-225 Test to Track Changes in One Repetition Maximum Bench Press After Training in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division IA Football Players.

    PubMed

    Mann, J Bryan; Ivey, Pat A; Stoner, Josh D; Mayhew, Jerry L; Brechue, William F

    2015-11-01

    Numerous investigations have attested to the efficacy of the National Football League (NFL)-225 test to estimate one repetition maximum (1RM) bench press. However, no studies have assessed the efficacy of the test to track changes in strength across a training program. The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of the NFL-225 test for determining the change in 1RM bench press in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division IA college football players after training. Over a 4-year period, players (n = 203) were assessed before and after a 6-week off-season resistance program for 1RM bench press and repetitions completed with 102.3 kg (225 lbs). Test sessions typically occurred within 1 week of each other. Players significantly increased 1RM by 4.2 ± 8.6 kg and NFL-225 repetitions by 0.9 ± 2.3, although the effect size (ES) for each was trivial (ES = 0.03 and 0.07, respectively). National Football League 225 prediction equations had higher correlations with 1RM before training (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] = 0.95) than after training (ICC = 0.75). The correlation between the change in NFL-225 repetitions and change in 1RM was low and negative (r = -0.22, p < 0.02). Short-term heavy resistance training may alter the association between muscular strength and muscular endurance in college football players and render the NFL-225 test less effective in predicting the change in 1RM bench press strength after short-term training.

  2. Maximum Jailbreak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singleton, B.

    First formulated one hundred and fifty years ago by the heretical scholar Nikolai Federov, the doctrine of cosmism begins with an absolute refusal to treat the most basic factors conditioning life on Earth ­ gravity and death ­ as necessary constraints on action. As manifest through the intoxicated cheers of its early advocates that humans should storm the heavens and conquer death, cosmism's foundational gesture was to conceive of the earth as a trap. Its duty was therefore to understand the duty of philosophy, economics and design to be the creation of means to escape it. This could be regarded as a jailbreak at the maximum possible scale, a heist in which the human species could steal itself from the vault of the Earth. After several decades of relative disinterest new space ventures are inspiring scientific, technological and popular imaginations, this essay explores what kind of cosmism might be constructed today. In this paper cosmism's position as a means of escape is both reviewed and evaluated by reflecting on the potential of technology that actually can help us achieve its aims and also through the lens and state-ofthe-art philosophy of accelerationism, which seeks to outrun modern tropes by intensifying them.

  3. MAXIMUM NUMBER OF REPETITIONS, TOTAL WEIGHT LIFTED AND NEUROMUSCULAR FATIGUE IN INDIVIDUALS WITH DIFFERENT TRAINING BACKGROUNDS

    PubMed Central

    Azevedo, Neto R.M.; Julio, U.F.; Andreato, L.V.; Pinto e Silva, C.M.; Hardt, F.; Franchini, E.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance, as well as neuromuscular activity, in a strength task in subjects with different training backgrounds. Participants (n = 26) were divided into three groups according to their training backgrounds (aerobic, strength or mixed) and submitted to three sessions: (1) determination of the maximum oxygen uptake during the incremental treadmill test to exhaustion and familiarization of the evaluation of maximum strength (1RM) for the half squat; (2) 1RM determination; and (3) strength exercise, four sets at 80% of the 1RM, in which the maximum number of repetitions (MNR), the total weight lifted (TWL), the root mean square (RMS) and median frequency (MF) of the electromyographic (EMG) activity for the second and last repetition were computed. There was an effect of group for MNR, with the aerobic group performing a higher MNR compared to the strength group (P = 0.045), and an effect on MF with a higher value in the second repetition than in the last repetition (P = 0.016). These results demonstrated that individuals with better aerobic fitness were more fatigue resistant than strength trained individuals. The absence of differences in EMG signals indicates that individuals with different training backgrounds have a similar pattern of motor unit recruitment during a resistance exercise performed until failure, and that the greater capacity to perform the MNR probably can be explained by peripheral adaptations. PMID:24744479

  4. The one repetition maximum test and the sit-to-stand test in the assessment of a specific pulmonary rehabilitation program on peripheral muscle strength in COPD patients

    PubMed Central

    Zanini, Andrea; Aiello, Marina; Cherubino, Francesca; Zampogna, Elisabetta; Azzola, Andrea; Chetta, Alfredo; Spanevello, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Background Individuals with COPD may present reduced peripheral muscle strength, leading to impaired mobility. Comprehensive pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) should include strength training, in particular to lower limbs. Furthermore, simple tools for the assessment of peripheral muscle performance are required. Objectives To assess the peripheral muscle performance of COPD patients by the sit-to-stand test (STST), as compared to the one-repetition maximum (1-RM), considered as the gold standard for assessing muscle strength in non-laboratory situations, and to evaluate the responsiveness of STST to a PR program. Methods Sixty moderate-to-severe COPD inpatients were randomly included into either the specific strength training group or into the usual PR program group. Patients were assessed on a 30-second STST and 1-minute STST, 1-RM, and 6-minute walking test (6MWT), before and after PR. Bland–Altman plots were used to evaluate the agreement between 1-RM and STST. Results The two groups were not different at baseline. In all patients, 1-RM was significantly related to the 30-second STST (r=0.48, P<0.001) and to 1-minute STST (r=0.36, P=0.005). The 30-second STST was better tolerated in terms of the perceived fatigue (P=0.002) and less time consuming (P<0.001) test. In the specific strength training group significant improvements were observed in the 30-second STST (P<0.001), 1-minute STST (P=0.005), 1-RM (P<0.001), and in the 6MWT (P=0.001). In the usual PR program group, significant improvement was observed in the 30-second STST (P=0.042) and in the 6MWT (P=0.001). Conclusion Our study shows that in stable moderate-to-severe inpatients with COPD, STST is a valid and reliable tool to assess peripheral muscle performance of lower limbs, and is sensitive to a specific PR program. PMID:26648705

  5. Comparison of muscle force production using the Smith machine and free weights for bench press and squat exercises.

    PubMed

    Cotterman, Michael L; Darby, Lynn A; Skelly, William A

    2005-02-01

    The Smith machine (SM) (vertical motion of bar on fixed path; fixed-form exercise) and free weights (FWs) (free-form path) are commonly used strength training modes. Exercisers may need to alternate between types of equipment, depending on testing, training, rehabilitation, and/or the exercisers' goals. The purposes of this study were to compare muscle force production for SM and FWs using a 1 repetition maximum (1RM) for the parallel back squat and supine bench press exercises and to predict the 1RM for one mode from 1RM on the other mode. Men (n = 16) and women (n = 16) alternately completed 1RM testing for squat and bench press using SM and FWs. Analyses of variance (type of equipment x sex) and linear regression models were calculated. A significant difference was found between bench press and squat 1RMs for each mode of equipment for all participants. The squat 1RM was greater for the SM than the FWs; conversely, the bench 1RM was greater for FWs than the SM. When sex was considered, bench 1RM for FWs was greater than SM for men and women. The squat 1RM was greater for SM than FWs for women only. The 1RM on one mode of equipment was the best predictor of 1RM for the other mode. For both sexes, the equation SM bench 1RM (in kilograms) = -6.76 + 0.95 (FW bench 1RM) can be used. For women only, SM squat 1RM (in kilograms) = 28.3 + 0.73 (FW squat 1RM). These findings provide equations for converting between SM and FW equipment for training. PMID:15705030

  6. Comparison of muscle force production using the Smith machine and free weights for bench press and squat exercises.

    PubMed

    Cotterman, Michael L; Darby, Lynn A; Skelly, William A

    2005-02-01

    The Smith machine (SM) (vertical motion of bar on fixed path; fixed-form exercise) and free weights (FWs) (free-form path) are commonly used strength training modes. Exercisers may need to alternate between types of equipment, depending on testing, training, rehabilitation, and/or the exercisers' goals. The purposes of this study were to compare muscle force production for SM and FWs using a 1 repetition maximum (1RM) for the parallel back squat and supine bench press exercises and to predict the 1RM for one mode from 1RM on the other mode. Men (n = 16) and women (n = 16) alternately completed 1RM testing for squat and bench press using SM and FWs. Analyses of variance (type of equipment x sex) and linear regression models were calculated. A significant difference was found between bench press and squat 1RMs for each mode of equipment for all participants. The squat 1RM was greater for the SM than the FWs; conversely, the bench 1RM was greater for FWs than the SM. When sex was considered, bench 1RM for FWs was greater than SM for men and women. The squat 1RM was greater for SM than FWs for women only. The 1RM on one mode of equipment was the best predictor of 1RM for the other mode. For both sexes, the equation SM bench 1RM (in kilograms) = -6.76 + 0.95 (FW bench 1RM) can be used. For women only, SM squat 1RM (in kilograms) = 28.3 + 0.73 (FW squat 1RM). These findings provide equations for converting between SM and FW equipment for training.

  7. Selective effects of weight and inertia on maximum lifting.

    PubMed

    Leontijevic, B; Pazin, N; Kukolj, M; Ugarkovic, D; Jaric, S

    2013-03-01

    A novel loading method (loading ranged from 20% to 80% of 1RM) was applied to explore the selective effects of externally added simulated weight (exerted by stretched rubber bands pulling downward), weight+inertia (external weights added), and inertia (covariation of the weights and the rubber bands pulling upward) on maximum bench press throws. 14 skilled participants revealed a load associated decrease in peak velocity that was the least associated with an increase in weight (42%) and the most associated with weight+inertia (66%). However, the peak lifting force increased markedly with an increase in both weight (151%) and weight+inertia (160%), but not with inertia (13%). As a consequence, the peak power output increased most with weight (59%), weight+inertia revealed a maximum at intermediate loads (23%), while inertia was associated with a gradual decrease in the peak power output (42%). The obtained findings could be of importance for our understanding of mechanical properties of human muscular system when acting against different types of external resistance. Regarding the possible application in standard athletic training and rehabilitation procedures, the results speak in favor of applying extended elastic bands which provide higher movement velocity and muscle power output than the usually applied weights.

  8. Maximum thrust mode evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orme, John S.; Nobbs, Steven G.

    1995-01-01

    Measured reductions in acceleration times which resulted from the application of the F-15 performance seeking control (PSC) maximum thrust mode during the dual-engine test phase is presented as a function of power setting and flight condition. Data were collected at altitudes of 30,000 and 45,000 feet at military and maximum afterburning power settings. The time savings for the supersonic acceleration is less than at subsonic Mach numbers because of the increased modeling and control complexity. In addition, the propulsion system was designed to be optimized at the mid supersonic Mach number range. Recall that even though the engine is at maximum afterburner, PSC does not trim the afterburner for the maximum thrust mode. Subsonically at military power, time to accelerate from Mach 0.6 to 0.95 was cut by between 6 and 8 percent with a single engine application of PSC, and over 14 percent when both engines were optimized. At maximum afterburner, the level of thrust increases were similar in magnitude to the military power results, but because of higher thrust levels at maximum afterburner and higher aircraft drag at supersonic Mach numbers the percentage thrust increase and time to accelerate was less than for the supersonic accelerations. Savings in time to accelerate supersonically at maximum afterburner ranged from 4 to 7 percent. In general, the maximum thrust mode has performed well, demonstrating significant thrust increases at military and maximum afterburner power. Increases of up to 15 percent at typical combat-type flight conditions were identified. Thrust increases of this magnitude could be useful in a combat situation.

  9. Influence of exercise order on maximum strength in untrained young men.

    PubMed

    Dias, Ingrid; de Salles, Belmiro Freitas; Novaes, Jefferson; Costa, Pablo Brando; Simão, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    It is generally recommended that exercises involving large muscle groups be placed at the beginning of a training session. However, methodological training studies manipulating exercise order and the investigation of its influence on strength have not been conducted. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the influence of exercise order on strength in untrained young men after 8 weeks of training. Prior to the training program, participants were randomly assigned to three groups. One group began with large and progressed toward small muscle group exercises (G1) while another performed the opposite order (G2). The third group did not exercise and served as a control (CG). Training frequency was three sessions per week with at least 48h of rest between sessions for a total of 24 sessions in the 8-week period. One repetition maximum (1RM) was assessed for all exercises at baseline and after 8 weeks of training. Both G1 and G2 resulted in significant increases of 16.3-77.8% in 1RM compared to baseline (p<0.05). However, only the small muscle group exercises revealed significant differences between groups (p<0.05). The results demonstrated exercise order of small muscle group exercises might be particularly important during the initial stages of strength training in untrained young men.

  10. Kinematic and sEMG Analysis of the Back Squat at Different Intensities With and Without Knee Wraps.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Willy A; Brown, Lee E; Soares, Enrico G; da Silva, Josinaldo J; de O Silva, Fernando H D; Serpa, Érica P; Corrêa, Daniel A; Vilela Junior, Guanis de B; Lopes, Charles R; Marchetti, Paulo H

    2015-09-01

    The purposes of this study were to measure the acute effects of knee wraps (KWs) on knee and hip joint kinematics, dynamic muscle activation from the vastus lateralis (VL) and gluteus maximus (GM), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) during the back squat exercise at 2 different intensities. Fourteen resistance-trained men (age: 24 ± 4 years, height: 176 ± 6 cm, body mass: 81 ± 11 kg, back squat 1 repetition maximum [1RM]: 107 ± 30 kg, 3 ± 1 year of back squat experience) performed 1 set of 3 repetitions under 4 different conditions, to a depth of approximately 90 degrees of knee joint flexion, and in random order: KWs at 60% 1RM (KW60), KWs at 90% 1RM (KW90), without knee wraps (NWs) at 60% 1RM (NW60), and NWs at 90% 1RM (NW90). The dependent variables obtained were vertical and horizontal bar displacement, peak joint angle in the sagittal plane (hip and knee joints), concentric and eccentric muscle activation (by integrated electromyography) from the VL and GM, and RPE. For muscle activity, there were significant decreases in the VL NWs at 60% 1RM (p = 0.013) and a significant increase NWs at 90% 1RM (p = 0.037). There was a significant increase in VL muscle activity at 90% 1RM, when compared with 60% 1RM (KW: p = 0.001, effect size (ES) = 1.51 and NW: p < 00.001, ES = 1.67). There was a decrease in GM muscle activity NWs only at 60% 1RM (p = 0.014). There was a significant increase in GM muscle activity at 90% 1RM, when compared with 60% 1RM (KW: p < 0.001 and NW: p < 0.001). For peak hip joint flexion angle, there was significant decreases between intensities (90% 1RM < 60% 1RM) only to NWs condition (p = 0.009), and there was greater knee flexion NWs for both intensities: 60% 1RM (p < 0.001) and 90% 1RM (p = 0.018). For normalized vertical barbell displacement, there were significant differences between intensities when using KWs (p = 0.022). There were significant differences in RPE between 60 and 90% 1RM for each condition: KWs (p < 0.001) and NWs (p

  11. The last glacial maximum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, P.U.; Dyke, A.S.; Shakun, J.D.; Carlson, A.E.; Clark, J.; Wohlfarth, B.; Mitrovica, J.X.; Hostetler, S.W.; McCabe, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    We used 5704 14C, 10Be, and 3He ages that span the interval from 10,000 to 50,000 years ago (10 to 50 ka) to constrain the timing of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in terms of global ice-sheet and mountain-glacier extent. Growth of the ice sheets to their maximum positions occurred between 33.0 and 26.5 ka in response to climate forcing from decreases in northern summer insolation, tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures, and atmospheric CO2. Nearly all ice sheets were at their LGM positions from 26.5 ka to 19 to 20 ka, corresponding to minima in these forcings. The onset of Northern Hemisphere deglaciation 19 to 20 ka was induced by an increase in northern summer insolation, providing the source for an abrupt rise in sea level. The onset of deglaciation of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet occurred between 14 and 15 ka, consistent with evidence that this was the primary source for an abrupt rise in sea level ???14.5 ka.

  12. The Last Glacial Maximum.

    PubMed

    Clark, Peter U; Dyke, Arthur S; Shakun, Jeremy D; Carlson, Anders E; Clark, Jorie; Wohlfarth, Barbara; Mitrovica, Jerry X; Hostetler, Steven W; McCabe, A Marshall

    2009-08-01

    We used 5704 14C, 10Be, and 3He ages that span the interval from 10,000 to 50,000 years ago (10 to 50 ka) to constrain the timing of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in terms of global ice-sheet and mountain-glacier extent. Growth of the ice sheets to their maximum positions occurred between 33.0 and 26.5 ka in response to climate forcing from decreases in northern summer insolation, tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures, and atmospheric CO2. Nearly all ice sheets were at their LGM positions from 26.5 ka to 19 to 20 ka, corresponding to minima in these forcings. The onset of Northern Hemisphere deglaciation 19 to 20 ka was induced by an increase in northern summer insolation, providing the source for an abrupt rise in sea level. The onset of deglaciation of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet occurred between 14 and 15 ka, consistent with evidence that this was the primary source for an abrupt rise in sea level approximately 14.5 ka.

  13. Maximum Entropy Fundamentals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harremoeës, P.; Topsøe, F.

    2001-09-01

    In its modern formulation, the Maximum Entropy Principle was promoted by E.T. Jaynes, starting in the mid-fifties. The principle dictates that one should look for a distribution, consistent with available information, which maximizes the entropy. However, this principle focuses only on distributions and it appears advantageous to bring information theoretical thinking more prominently into play by also focusing on the "observer" and on coding. This view was brought forward by the second named author in the late seventies and is the view we will follow-up on here. It leads to the consideration of a certain game, the Code Length Game and, via standard game theoretical thinking, to a principle of Game Theoretical Equilibrium. This principle is more basic than the Maximum Entropy Principle in the sense that the search for one type of optimal strategies in the Code Length Game translates directly into the search for distributions with maximum entropy. In the present paper we offer a self-contained and comprehensive treatment of fundamentals of both principles mentioned, based on a study of the Code Length Game. Though new concepts and results are presented, the reading should be instructional and accessible to a rather wide audience, at least if certain mathematical details are left aside at a rst reading. The most frequently studied instance of entropy maximization pertains to the Mean Energy Model which involves a moment constraint related to a given function, here taken to represent "energy". This type of application is very well known from the literature with hundreds of applications pertaining to several different elds and will also here serve as important illustration of the theory. But our approach reaches further, especially regarding the study of continuity properties of the entropy function, and this leads to new results which allow a discussion of models with so-called entropy loss. These results have tempted us to speculate over the development of natural

  14. The Solar Maximum observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rust, D. M.

    1984-01-01

    The successful retrieval and repair of the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) satellite by Shuttle astronauts in April 1984 permitted continuance of solar flare observations that began in 1980. The SMM carries a soft X ray polychromator, gamma ray, UV and hard X ray imaging spectrometers, a coronagraph/polarimeter and particle counters. The data gathered thus far indicated that electrical potentials of 25 MeV develop in flares within 2 sec of onset. X ray data show that flares are composed of compressed magnetic loops that have come too close together. Other data have been taken on mass ejection, impacts of electron beams and conduction fronts with the chromosphere and changes in the solar radiant flux due to sunspots.

  15. Generalized Maximum Entropy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheeseman, Peter; Stutz, John

    2005-01-01

    A long standing mystery in using Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) is how to deal with constraints whose values are uncertain. This situation arises when constraint values are estimated from data, because of finite sample sizes. One approach to this problem, advocated by E.T. Jaynes [1], is to ignore this uncertainty, and treat the empirically observed values as exact. We refer to this as the classic MaxEnt approach. Classic MaxEnt gives point probabilities (subject to the given constraints), rather than probability densities. We develop an alternative approach that assumes that the uncertain constraint values are represented by a probability density {e.g: a Gaussian), and this uncertainty yields a MaxEnt posterior probability density. That is, the classic MaxEnt point probabilities are regarded as a multidimensional function of the given constraint values, and uncertainty on these values is transmitted through the MaxEnt function to give uncertainty over the MaXEnt probabilities. We illustrate this approach by explicitly calculating the generalized MaxEnt density for a simple but common case, then show how this can be extended numerically to the general case. This paper expands the generalized MaxEnt concept introduced in a previous paper [3].

  16. Maximum bow force revisited.

    PubMed

    Mores, Robert

    2016-08-01

    Schelleng [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 53, 26-41 (1973)], Askenfelt [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 86, 503-516 (1989)], Schumacher [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 96, 1985-1998 (1994)], and Schoonderwaldt, Guettler, and Askenfelt [Acta Acust. Acust. 94, 604-622 (2008)] formulated-in different ways-how the maximum bow force relates to bow velocity, bow-bridge distance, string impedance, and friction coefficients. Issues of uncertainty are how to account for friction or for the rotational admittance of the strings. Related measurements at the respective transitions between regimes of Helmholtz motion and non-Helmholtz motion employ a variety of bowing machines and stringed instruments. The related findings include all necessary parameters except the friction coefficients, leaving the underlying models unconfirmed. Here, a bowing pendulum has been constructed which allows precise measurement of relevant bowing parameters, including the friction coefficients. Two cellos are measured across all strings for three different bow-bridge distances. The empirical data suggest that-taking the diverse elements of existing models as options-Schelleng's model combined with Schumacher's velocity term yields the best fit. Furthermore, the pendulum employs a bow driving mechanism with adaptive impedance which discloses that mentioned regimes are stable and transitions between them sometimes require a hysteresis on related parameters. PMID:27586745

  17. Muscle power output properties using the stretch-shortening cycle of the upper limb and their relationships with a one-repetition maximum bench press.

    PubMed

    Miyaguchi, Kazuyoshi; Demura, Shinichi

    2006-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the output properties of muscle power by the dominant upper limb using SSC, and the relationships between the power output by SSC and a one-repetition maximum bench press (1 RM BP) used as a strength indicator of the upper body. Sixteen male athletes (21.4+/-0.9 yr) participated in this study. They pulled a load of 40% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) at a stretch by elbow flexion of the dominant upper limb in the following three preliminary conditions: static relaxed muscle state (SR condition), isometric muscle contraction state (ISO condition), and using SSC (SSC condition). The velocity with a wire load via a pulley during elbow flexion was measured accurately using a power instrument with a rotary encoder, and the muscle power curve was drawn from the product of the velocity and load. Significant differences were found among all evaluation parameters of muscle power exerted from the above three conditions and the parameters regarding early power output during concentric contraction were larger in the SSC condition than the SR and ISO conditions. The parameters on initial muscle contraction velocity when only using SSC significantly correlated with 1 RM BP (r=0.60-0.62). The use of SSC before powerful elbow flexion may contribute largely to early explosive power output during concentric contraction. Bench press capacity relates to a development of the above early power output when using SSC. PMID:16763366

  18. Predicting Maximal Dynamic Strength From the Load-Velocity Relationship in Squat Exercise.

    PubMed

    Bazuelo-Ruiz, Bruno; Padial, Paulino; García-Ramos, Amador; Morales-Artacho, Antonio J; Miranda, María T; Feriche, Belén

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a rapid indirect method to determine an individual's maximal strength or 1 repetition maximum (RM) in untrained subjects during half-squat exercise. One hundred and five physically active young subjects (87 men and 18 women) performed a submaximal and a maximal load test during half-squat exercises on a Smith machine. In the submaximal test, subjects completed 3 repetitions with a load equivalent to body weight. The velocity and power of barbell displacement were recorded during the upward movement from 90° of knee flexion. All repetitions were performed at maximum velocity. In a subsequent 1-2RM test, the 1RM for the exercise was calculated. The variables' load and mean velocity (V(mean)) were used to construct an adjusted 1RM prediction model, which was capable of estimating the 1RM with an accuracy of 58% (F(exp) = 72.82; 2; 102 df; p ≤ 0.001). Our results indicate a good correlation between the mean displacement velocity of a load equivalent to body weight and 1RM. This relationship enables a safe and fast estimation of 1RM values in half-squat exercise (1RM = -61.93 + [121.92·V(mean)] + [1.74·load]) and provides valuable information to untrained subjects who are starting resistance training programs.

  19. Minimizing the probable maximum flood

    SciTech Connect

    Woodbury, M.S.; Pansic, N. ); Eberlein, D.T. )

    1994-06-01

    This article examines Wisconsin Electric Power Company's efforts to determine an economical way to comply with Federal Energy Regulatory Commission requirements at two hydroelectric developments on the Michigamme River. Their efforts included refinement of the area's probable maximum flood model based, in part, on a newly developed probable maximum precipitation estimate.

  20. Arctic Sea Ice Maximum 2011

    NASA Video Gallery

    AMSR-E Arctic Sea Ice: September 2010 to March 2011: Scientists tracking the annual maximum extent of Arctic sea ice said that 2011 was among the lowest ice extents measured since satellites began ...

  1. Principles of maximum entropy and maximum caliber in statistical physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pressé, Steve; Ghosh, Kingshuk; Lee, Julian; Dill, Ken A.

    2013-07-01

    The variational principles called maximum entropy (MaxEnt) and maximum caliber (MaxCal) are reviewed. MaxEnt originated in the statistical physics of Boltzmann and Gibbs, as a theoretical tool for predicting the equilibrium states of thermal systems. Later, entropy maximization was also applied to matters of information, signal transmission, and image reconstruction. Recently, since the work of Shore and Johnson, MaxEnt has been regarded as a principle that is broader than either physics or information alone. MaxEnt is a procedure that ensures that inferences drawn from stochastic data satisfy basic self-consistency requirements. The different historical justifications for the entropy S=-∑ipilog⁡pi and its corresponding variational principles are reviewed. As an illustration of the broadening purview of maximum entropy principles, maximum caliber, which is path entropy maximization applied to the trajectories of dynamical systems, is also reviewed. Examples are given in which maximum caliber is used to interpret dynamical fluctuations in biology and on the nanoscale, in single-molecule and few-particle systems such as molecular motors, chemical reactions, biological feedback circuits, and diffusion in microfluidics devices.

  2. Convex accelerated maximum entropy reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worley, Bradley

    2016-04-01

    Maximum entropy (MaxEnt) spectral reconstruction methods provide a powerful framework for spectral estimation of nonuniformly sampled datasets. Many methods exist within this framework, usually defined based on the magnitude of a Lagrange multiplier in the MaxEnt objective function. An algorithm is presented here that utilizes accelerated first-order convex optimization techniques to rapidly and reliably reconstruct nonuniformly sampled NMR datasets using the principle of maximum entropy. This algorithm - called CAMERA for Convex Accelerated Maximum Entropy Reconstruction Algorithm - is a new approach to spectral reconstruction that exhibits fast, tunable convergence in both constant-aim and constant-lambda modes. A high-performance, open source NMR data processing tool is described that implements CAMERA, and brief comparisons to existing reconstruction methods are made on several example spectra.

  3. The Development of a Repetition-Load Scheme for the Eccentric-Only Bench Press Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Moir, Gavin L.; Erny, Kyle F.; Davis, Shala E.; Guers, John J.; Witmer, Chad A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to develop a repetition-load scheme for the eccentric-only bench press exercise. Nine resistance trained men (age: 21.6 ± 1.0 years; 1-repetition maximum [RM] bench press: 137.7 ± 30.4 kg) attended four testing sessions during a four week period. During the first session each subject’s 1-RM bench press load utilizing the stretch-shortening cycle was determined. During the remaining sessions they performed eccentric-only repetitions to failure using supra-maximal loads equivalent to 110%, 120% and 130% of their 1-RM value with a constant cadence (30 reps·min−1). Force plates and a three dimensional motion analysis system were used during these final three sessions in order to evaluate kinematic and kinetic variables. More repetitions were completed during the 110% 1-RM condition compared to the 130% 1-RM condition (p=0.01). Mean total work (p=0.046) as well as vertical force (p=0.049), vertical work (p=0.017), and vertical power output (p=0.05) were significantly greater during the 130% 1-RM condition compared to the 110% 1-RM condition. A linear function was fitted to the number of repetitions completed under each load condition that allowed the determination of the maximum number of repetitions that could be completed under other supra-maximal loads. This linear function predicted an eccentric-only 1-RM in the bench press with a load equivalent to 164.8% 1-RM, producing a load of 227.0 ± 50.0 kg. The repetition-load scheme presented here should provide a starting point for researchers to investigate the kinematic, kinetic and metabolic responses to eccentric-only bench press workouts. PMID:24235981

  4. The Maximum Density of Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses a series of experiments performed by Thomas Hope in 1805 which show the temperature at which water has its maximum density. Early data cast into a modern form as well as guidelines and recent data collected from the author provide background for duplicating Hope's experiments in the classroom. (JN)

  5. Abolishing the maximum tension principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dąbrowski, Mariusz P.; Gohar, H.

    2015-09-01

    We find the series of example theories for which the relativistic limit of maximum tension Fmax =c4 / 4 G represented by the entropic force can be abolished. Among them the varying constants theories, some generalized entropy models applied both for cosmological and black hole horizons as well as some generalized uncertainty principle models.

  6. Maximum entropy beam diagnostic tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Mottershead, C.T.

    1985-01-01

    This paper reviews the formalism of maximum entropy beam diagnostic tomography as applied to the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) prototype accelerator. The same formalism has also been used with streak camera data to produce an ultrahigh speed movie of the beam profile of the Experimental Test Accelerator (ETA) at Livermore. 11 refs., 4 figs.

  7. Maximum cooling and maximum efficiency of thermoacoustic refrigerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tartibu, L. K.

    2016-01-01

    This work provides valid experimental evidence on the difference between design for maximum cooling and maximum efficiency for thermoacoustic refrigerators. In addition, the influence of the geometry of the honeycomb ceramic stack on the performance of thermoacoustic refrigerators is presented as it affects the cooling power. Sixteen cordierite honeycomb ceramic stacks with square cross sections having four different lengths of 26, 48, 70 and 100 mm are considered. Measurements are taken at six different locations of the stack hot ends from the pressure antinode, namely 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 mm respectively. Measurement of temperature difference across the stack ends at steady state for different stack geometries are used to compute the cooling load and the coefficient of performance. The results obtained with atmospheric air showed that there is a distinct optimum depending on the design goal.

  8. The Testability of Maximum Magnitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clements, R.; Schorlemmer, D.; Gonzalez, A.; Zoeller, G.; Schneider, M.

    2012-12-01

    Recent disasters caused by earthquakes of unexpectedly large magnitude (such as Tohoku) illustrate the need for reliable assessments of the seismic hazard. Estimates of the maximum possible magnitude M at a given fault or in a particular zone are essential parameters in probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA), but their accuracy remains untested. In this study, we discuss the testability of long-term and short-term M estimates and the limitations that arise from testing such rare events. Of considerable importance is whether or not those limitations imply a lack of testability of a useful maximum magnitude estimate, and whether this should have any influence on current PSHA methodology. We use a simple extreme value theory approach to derive a probability distribution for the expected maximum magnitude in a future time interval, and we perform a sensitivity analysis on this distribution to determine if there is a reasonable avenue available for testing M estimates as they are commonly reported today: devoid of an appropriate probability distribution of their own and estimated only for infinite time (or relatively large untestable periods). Our results imply that any attempt at testing such estimates is futile, and that the distribution is highly sensitive to M estimates only under certain optimal conditions that are rarely observed in practice. In the future we suggest that PSHA modelers be brutally honest about the uncertainty of M estimates, or must find a way to decrease its influence on the estimated hazard.

  9. Reliability and validity of two isometric squat tests.

    PubMed

    Blazevich, Anthony J; Gill, Nicholas; Newton, Robert U

    2002-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was first to examine the reliability of isometric squat (IS) and isometric forward hack squat (IFHS) tests to determine if repeated measures on the same subjects yielded reliable results. The second purpose was to examine the relation between isometric and dynamic measures of strength to assess validity. Fourteen male subjects performed maximal IS and IFHS tests on 2 occasions and 1 repetition maximum (1-RM) free-weight squat and forward hack squat (FHS) tests on 1 occasion. The 2 tests were found to be highly reliable (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC](IS) = 0.97 and ICC(IFHS) = 1.00). There was a strong relation between average IS and 1-RM squat performance, and between IFHS and 1-RM FHS performance (r(squat) = 0.77, r(FHS) = 0.76; p < 0.01), but a weak relation between squat and FHS test performances (r < 0.55). There was also no difference between observed 1-RM values and those predicted by our regression equations. Errors in predicting 1-RM performance were in the order of 8.5% (standard error of the estimate [SEE] = 13.8 kg) and 7.3% (SEE = 19.4 kg) for IS and IFHS respectively. Correlations between isometric and 1-RM tests were not of sufficient size to indicate high validity of the isometric tests. Together the results suggest that IS and IFHS tests could detect small differences in multijoint isometric strength between subjects, or performance changes over time, and that the scores in the isometric tests are well related to 1-RM performance. However, there was a small error when predicting 1-RM performance from isometric performance, and these tests have not been shown to discriminate between small changes in dynamic strength. The weak relation between squat and FHS test performance can be attributed to differences in the movement patterns of the tests

  10. Maximum life spur gear design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, M.; Mackulin, B. J.; Coe, H. H.; Coy, J. J.

    1991-01-01

    Optimization procedures allow one to design a spur gear reduction for maximum life and other end use criteria. A modified feasible directions search algorithm permits a wide variety of inequality constraints and exact design requirements to be met with low sensitivity to initial guess values. The optimization algorithm is described, and the models for gear life and performance are presented. The algorithm is compact and has been programmed for execution on a desk top computer. Two examples are presented to illustrate the method and its application.

  11. Discrimination networks for maximum selection.

    PubMed

    Jain, Brijnesh J; Wysotzki, Fritz

    2004-01-01

    We construct a novel discrimination network using differentiating units for maximum selection. In contrast to traditional competitive architectures like MAXNET the discrimination network does not only signal the winning unit, but also provides information about its evidence. In particular, we show that a discrimination network converges to a stable state within finite time and derive three characteristics: intensity normalization (P1), contrast enhancement (P2), and evidential response (P3). In order to improve the accuracy of the evidential response we incorporate distributed redundancy into the network. This leads to a system which is not only robust against failure of single units and noisy data, but also enables us to sharpen the focus on the problem given in terms of a more accurate evidential response. The proposed discrimination network can be regarded as a connectionist model for competitive learning by evidence.

  12. Multiple Early Eocene Thermal Maximums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roehl, U.; Zachos, J. C.; Thomas, E.; Kelly, D. C.; Donner, B.; Westerhold, T.

    2004-12-01

    Periodic dissolution horizons signifying abrupt shoaling of the lysocline and CCD are characteristic features of deep-sea sections and often attributed to Milankovitch forcing via their diagnostic frequencies. Prominent dissolution horizons also correspond to abrupt climate events, such as the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM), as a result of input of significant CH4 - CO2 into the ocean-atmosphere system. The question arises whether other significant dissolution horizons identified in sediments of late Paleocene and early Eocene age similar to the recently identified ELMO (Lourens et al., 2004) were formed as a result of greenhouse gas input, or whether they were related to cumulative effects of periodic changes in ocean chemistry and circulation. Here we report the discovery of a 3rd thermal maximum in early Eocene (about 52 Ma) sediments recovered from the South Atlantic during ODP Leg 208. The prominent clay layer was named the "X" event and was identified within planktonic foraminifer zone P7 and calcareous nannofossil zone CP10 at four Walvis Ridge Transect sites with a water depth range of 2000 m (Sites 1262 to 1267). Benthics assemblages are composed of small individuals, have low diversity and high dominance. Dominant taxa are Nuttallides truempyi and various abyssaminids, resembling the post PETM extinction assemblages. High-resolution bulk carbonate \\delta13C measurements of one of the more shallow Sites 1265 reveal a rapid about 0.6 per mill drop in \\delta13C and \\delta18O followed by an exponential recovery to pre-excursion \\delta13C values well known for the PETM and also observed for the ELMO. The planktonic foraminiferal \\delta13C records of Morozovella subbotina and Acaranina soldadoensis in the deepest Site 1262 show a 0.8 to 0.9 per mill drop, whereas the \\delta13C drop of benthic foraminifera Nuttallides truempyi is slightly larger (about 1 per mill). We are evaluating mechanisms for the widespread change in deep-water chemistry, its

  13. The maximum drag reduction asymptote

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choueiri, George H.; Hof, Bjorn

    2015-11-01

    Addition of long chain polymers is one of the most efficient ways to reduce the drag of turbulent flows. Already very low concentration of polymers can lead to a substantial drag and upon further increase of the concentration the drag reduces until it reaches an empirically found limit, the so called maximum drag reduction (MDR) asymptote, which is independent of the type of polymer used. We here carry out a detailed experimental study of the approach to this asymptote for pipe flow. Particular attention is paid to the recently observed state of elasto-inertial turbulence (EIT) which has been reported to occur in polymer solutions at sufficiently high shear. Our results show that upon the approach to MDR Newtonian turbulence becomes marginalized (hibernation) and eventually completely disappears and is replaced by EIT. In particular, spectra of high Reynolds number MDR flows are compared to flows at high shear rates in small diameter tubes where EIT is found at Re < 100. The research leading to these results has received funding from the People Programme (Marie Curie Actions) of the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under REA grant agreement n° [291734].

  14. Objects of Maximum Electromagnetic Chirality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez-Corbaton, Ivan; Fruhnert, Martin; Rockstuhl, Carsten

    2016-07-01

    We introduce a definition of the electromagnetic chirality of an object and show that it has an upper bound. Reciprocal objects attain the upper bound if and only if they are transparent for all the fields of one polarization handedness (helicity). Additionally, electromagnetic duality symmetry, i.e., helicity preservation upon interaction, turns out to be a necessary condition for reciprocal objects to attain the upper bound. We use these results to provide requirements for the design of such extremal objects. The requirements can be formulated as constraints on the polarizability tensors for dipolar objects or on the material constitutive relations for continuous media. We also outline two applications for objects of maximum electromagnetic chirality: a twofold resonantly enhanced and background-free circular dichroism measurement setup, and angle-independent helicity filtering glasses. Finally, we use the theoretically obtained requirements to guide the design of a specific structure, which we then analyze numerically and discuss its performance with respect to maximal electromagnetic chirality.

  15. Maximum entropy production in daisyworld

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maunu, Haley A.; Knuth, Kevin H.

    2012-05-01

    Daisyworld was first introduced in 1983 by Watson and Lovelock as a model that illustrates how life can influence a planet's climate. These models typically involve modeling a planetary surface on which black and white daisies can grow thus influencing the local surface albedo and therefore also the temperature distribution. Since then, variations of daisyworld have been applied to study problems ranging from ecological systems to global climate. Much of the interest in daisyworld models is due to the fact that they enable one to study self-regulating systems. These models are nonlinear, and as such they exhibit sensitive dependence on initial conditions, and depending on the specifics of the model they can also exhibit feedback loops, oscillations, and chaotic behavior. Many daisyworld models are thermodynamic in nature in that they rely on heat flux and temperature gradients. However, what is not well-known is whether, or even why, a daisyworld model might settle into a maximum entropy production (MEP) state. With the aim to better understand these systems, this paper will discuss what is known about the role of MEP in daisyworld models.

  16. 20 CFR 228.14 - Family maximum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Family maximum. 228.14 Section 228.14... SURVIVOR ANNUITIES The Tier I Annuity Component § 228.14 Family maximum. (a) Family maximum defined. Under... person's earnings record is limited. This limited amount is called the family maximum. The family...

  17. 20 CFR 228.14 - Family maximum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Family maximum. 228.14 Section 228.14... SURVIVOR ANNUITIES The Tier I Annuity Component § 228.14 Family maximum. (a) Family maximum defined. Under... person's earnings record is limited. This limited amount is called the family maximum. The family...

  18. 20 CFR 228.14 - Family maximum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Family maximum. 228.14 Section 228.14... SURVIVOR ANNUITIES The Tier I Annuity Component § 228.14 Family maximum. (a) Family maximum defined. Under... person's earnings record is limited. This limited amount is called the family maximum. The family...

  19. 20 CFR 228.14 - Family maximum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Family maximum. 228.14 Section 228.14... SURVIVOR ANNUITIES The Tier I Annuity Component § 228.14 Family maximum. (a) Family maximum defined. Under... person's earnings record is limited. This limited amount is called the family maximum. The family...

  20. 76 FR 1504 - Pipeline Safety: Establishing Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure or Maximum Operating Pressure...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-10

    ...: Establishing Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure or Maximum Operating Pressure Using Record Evidence, and... system, especially when calculating Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure (MAOP) or Maximum Operating Pressure (MOP), and to utilize these risk analyses in the identification of appropriate assessment...

  1. Maximum entropy principal for transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Bilich, F.; Da Silva, R.

    2008-11-06

    In this work we deal with modeling of the transportation phenomenon for use in the transportation planning process and policy-impact studies. The model developed is based on the dependence concept, i.e., the notion that the probability of a trip starting at origin i is dependent on the probability of a trip ending at destination j given that the factors (such as travel time, cost, etc.) which affect travel between origin i and destination j assume some specific values. The derivation of the solution of the model employs the maximum entropy principle combining a priori multinomial distribution with a trip utility concept. This model is utilized to forecast trip distributions under a variety of policy changes and scenarios. The dependence coefficients are obtained from a regression equation where the functional form is derived based on conditional probability and perception of factors from experimental psychology. The dependence coefficients encode all the information that was previously encoded in the form of constraints. In addition, the dependence coefficients encode information that cannot be expressed in the form of constraints for practical reasons, namely, computational tractability. The equivalence between the standard formulation (i.e., objective function with constraints) and the dependence formulation (i.e., without constraints) is demonstrated. The parameters of the dependence-based trip-distribution model are estimated, and the model is also validated using commercial air travel data in the U.S. In addition, policy impact analyses (such as allowance of supersonic flights inside the U.S. and user surcharge at noise-impacted airports) on air travel are performed.

  2. Maximum Parsimony on Phylogenetic networks

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Phylogenetic networks are generalizations of phylogenetic trees, that are used to model evolutionary events in various contexts. Several different methods and criteria have been introduced for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Maximum Parsimony is a character-based approach that infers a phylogenetic tree by minimizing the total number of evolutionary steps required to explain a given set of data assigned on the leaves. Exact solutions for optimizing parsimony scores on phylogenetic trees have been introduced in the past. Results In this paper, we define the parsimony score on networks as the sum of the substitution costs along all the edges of the network; and show that certain well-known algorithms that calculate the optimum parsimony score on trees, such as Sankoff and Fitch algorithms extend naturally for networks, barring conflicting assignments at the reticulate vertices. We provide heuristics for finding the optimum parsimony scores on networks. Our algorithms can be applied for any cost matrix that may contain unequal substitution costs of transforming between different characters along different edges of the network. We analyzed this for experimental data on 10 leaves or fewer with at most 2 reticulations and found that for almost all networks, the bounds returned by the heuristics matched with the exhaustively determined optimum parsimony scores. Conclusion The parsimony score we define here does not directly reflect the cost of the best tree in the network that displays the evolution of the character. However, when searching for the most parsimonious network that describes a collection of characters, it becomes necessary to add additional cost considerations to prefer simpler structures, such as trees over networks. The parsimony score on a network that we describe here takes into account the substitution costs along the additional edges incident on each reticulate vertex, in addition to the substitution costs along the other edges which are

  3. Optimal load for the peak power and maximal strength of the upper body in Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu athletes.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Bruno Victor C; Simim, Mário A de Moura; Marocolo, Moacir; Franchini, Emerson; da Mota, Gustavo R

    2015-06-01

    We determined the optimal load for the peak power output (PPO) during the bench press throw (BPT) in Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu (BJJ) athletes and compared the PPO and maximal strength between advanced (AD) and nonadvanced (NA) athletes. Twenty-eight BJJ athletes (24.8 ± 5.7 years) performed the BPT at loads of 30, 40, 50, and 60% of their 1 repetition maximum (RM) in a randomized order (5-minute rest between BPTs). The PPO was determined by measuring the barbell displacement by an accelerometer (Myotest). The absolute (F = 7.25; p < 0.001; effect size [ES] = 0.21) and relative intensities were different (F = 7.11; p < 0.001; ES = 0.21) between the AD and NA. There was also a group and intensity interaction effect (F = 2.79; p = 0.046; ES = 0.10), but the differences were centered around the AD group, which achieved higher values using 40% (p = 0.001) and 50% of the 1RM (p < 0.001) than the PPO with 60% of 1RM. The AD athletes presented with higher 1RM than NA (p ≤ 0.05; ES = 1.0), but there was no difference (p > 0.05) in the PPO (30-60% 1RM). A polynomial adjustment indicated that the optimal load was ∼42% of 1RM for all groups and subgroups (R from 0.82 to 0.99). Our results suggest that there can be (1RM) differences between AD and NA BJJ athletes; however, there is no difference in the muscle power between the AD and NA groups. Additionally, ∼42% of 1RM seems to be the optimal load for developing maximal power using the BPT for the BJJ athletes.

  4. 14 CFR 1261.102 - Maximum amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Maximum amount. 1261.102 Section 1261.102...) Employees' Personal Property Claims § 1261.102 Maximum amount. From October 1, 1982, to October 30, 1988, the maximum amount that may be paid under the Military Personnel and Civilian Employees' Claim Act...

  5. 14 CFR 1261.102 - Maximum amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum amount. 1261.102 Section 1261.102...) Employees' Personal Property Claims § 1261.102 Maximum amount. From October 1, 1982, to October 30, 1988, the maximum amount that may be paid under the Military Personnel and Civilian Employees' Claim Act...

  6. 49 CFR 107.329 - Maximum penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... maximum civil penalty is $110,000 if the violation results in death, serious illness or severe injury to... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maximum penalties. 107.329 Section 107.329... PROGRAM PROCEDURES Enforcement Compliance Orders and Civil Penalties § 107.329 Maximum penalties. (a)...

  7. 49 CFR 107.329 - Maximum penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... maximum civil penalty is $110,000 if the violation results in death, serious illness or severe injury to... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Maximum penalties. 107.329 Section 107.329... PROGRAM PROCEDURES Enforcement Compliance Orders and Civil Penalties § 107.329 Maximum penalties. (a)...

  8. 20 CFR 228.14 - Family maximum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... person's earnings record is limited. This limited amount is called the family maximum. The family maximum... the persons entitled to benefits on the insured individual's compensation would, except for the.... The maximum is computed as follows: (i) 150 percent of the first $230 of the individual's...

  9. 49 CFR 107.329 - Maximum penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... maximum civil penalty is $110,000 if the violation results in death, serious illness or severe injury to... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Maximum penalties. 107.329 Section 107.329... PROGRAM PROCEDURES Enforcement Compliance Orders and Civil Penalties § 107.329 Maximum penalties. (a)...

  10. 50 CFR 259.34 - Minimum and maximum deposits; maximum time to deposit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Minimum and maximum deposits; maximum time... Capital Construction Fund Agreement § 259.34 Minimum and maximum deposits; maximum time to deposit. (a... than prescribed herein: Provided, The party demonstrates to the Secretary's satisfaction...

  11. 5 CFR 1600.22 - Maximum contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum contributions. 1600.22 Section 1600.22 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD EMPLOYEE CONTRIBUTION ELECTIONS AND CONTRIBUTION ALLOCATIONS Program of Contributions § 1600.22 Maximum contributions. (a)...

  12. 20 CFR 229.48 - Family maximum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... total wages (see 20 CFR 404.203(m)) for the second year before the individual dies or becomes eligible... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Family maximum. 229.48 Section 229.48... OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE Computation of the Overall Minimum Rate § 229.48 Family maximum. (a)...

  13. 20 CFR 229.48 - Family maximum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... total wages (see 20 CFR 404.203(m)) for the second year before the individual dies or becomes eligible... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Family maximum. 229.48 Section 229.48... OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE Computation of the Overall Minimum Rate § 229.48 Family maximum. (a)...

  14. 20 CFR 229.48 - Family maximum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... total wages (see 20 CFR 404.203(m)) for the second year before the individual dies or becomes eligible... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Family maximum. 229.48 Section 229.48... OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE Computation of the Overall Minimum Rate § 229.48 Family maximum. (a)...

  15. Maximum entropy image reconstruction from projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bara, N.; Murata, K.

    1981-07-01

    The maximum entropy method is applied to image reconstruction from projections, of which angular view is restricted. The relaxation parameters are introduced to the maximum entropy reconstruction and after iteration the median filtering is implemented. These procedures improve the quality of the reconstructed image from noisy projections

  16. 20 CFR 229.48 - Family maximum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... total wages (see 20 CFR 404.203(m)) for the second year before the individual dies or becomes eligible... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Family maximum. 229.48 Section 229.48... OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE Computation of the Overall Minimum Rate § 229.48 Family maximum. (a)...

  17. 7 CFR 1778.11 - Maximum grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maximum grants. 1778.11 Section 1778.11 Agriculture... (CONTINUED) EMERGENCY AND IMMINENT COMMUNITY WATER ASSISTANCE GRANTS § 1778.11 Maximum grants. (a) Grants not... the filing of an application. (b) Grants made for repairs, partial replacement, or...

  18. 7 CFR 1778.11 - Maximum grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maximum grants. 1778.11 Section 1778.11 Agriculture... (CONTINUED) EMERGENCY AND IMMINENT COMMUNITY WATER ASSISTANCE GRANTS § 1778.11 Maximum grants. (a) Grants not... the filing of an application. (b) Grants made for repairs, partial replacement, or...

  19. 13 CFR 130.440 - Maximum grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maximum grant. 130.440 Section 130... § 130.440 Maximum grant. No recipient shall receive an SBDC grant exceeding the greater of the minimum statutory amount, or its pro rata share of all SBDC grants as determined by the statutory formula set...

  20. 13 CFR 130.440 - Maximum grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum grant. 130.440 Section 130... § 130.440 Maximum grant. No recipient shall receive an SBDC grant exceeding the greater of the minimum statutory amount, or its pro rata share of all SBDC grants as determined by the statutory formula set...

  1. 13 CFR 130.440 - Maximum grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maximum grant. 130.440 Section 130... § 130.440 Maximum grant. No recipient shall receive an SBDC grant exceeding the greater of the minimum statutory amount, or its pro rata share of all SBDC grants as determined by the statutory formula set...

  2. 20 CFR 229.48 - Family maximum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... month on one person's earnings record is limited. This limited amount is called the family maximum. The family maximum used to adjust the social security overall minimum rate is based on the employee's Overall..., when any of the persons entitled to benefits on the insured individual's compensation would, except...

  3. 13 CFR 130.440 - Maximum grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maximum grant. 130.440 Section 130.440 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT CENTERS § 130.440 Maximum grant. No recipient shall receive an SBDC grant exceeding the greater of the...

  4. 49 CFR 107.329 - Maximum penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... violation, except the maximum civil penalty is $175,000 if the violation results in death, serious illness... civil penalty is $175,000 if the violation results in death, serious illness or severe injury to any... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Maximum penalties. 107.329 Section...

  5. 49 CFR 107.329 - Maximum penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... violation, except the maximum civil penalty is $175,000 if the violation results in death, serious illness... civil penalty is $175,000 if the violation results in death, serious illness or severe injury to any... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Maximum penalties. 107.329 Section...

  6. Teaching for maximum learning: The Philippine experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutaria, Minda C.

    1990-06-01

    The author tells about how the achievement level of Filipono grade school children is being improved through teaching for maximum learning. To promote teaching for maximum learning, it was imperative to identify minimum learning competencies in the new curriculum for each grade level, retrain teachers for teaching for maximum learning, develop appropriate instructional materials, improve the quality of supervision of instruction, install a multi-level (national to school) testing system and redress inequities in the distribution of human and material resources. This systematic approach to solving the problem of low quality of educational outcomes has resulted in a modest but steady improvement in the achievement levels of school children.

  7. On the efficiency at maximum cooling power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apertet, Y.; Ouerdane, H.; Michot, A.; Goupil, C.; Lecoeur, Ph.

    2013-08-01

    The efficiency at maximum power (EMP) of heat engines operating as generators is one corner stone of finite-time thermodynamics, the Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency \\eta_CA being considered as a universal upper bound. Yet, no valid counterpart to \\eta_CA has been derived for the efficiency at maximum cooling power (EMCP) for heat engines operating as refrigerators. In this letter we analyse the reasons of the failure to obtain such a bound and we demonstrate that, despite the introduction of several optimisation criteria, the maximum cooling power condition should be considered as the genuine equivalent of maximum power condition in the finite-time thermodynamics frame. We then propose and discuss an analytic expression for the EMCP in the specific case of exoreversible refrigerators.

  8. 14 CFR 65.47 - Maximum hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Air Traffic Control Tower Operators § 65.47 Maximum hours. Except in an emergency, a certificated air traffic control tower operator must be relieved of all...

  9. 14 CFR 65.47 - Maximum hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Air Traffic Control Tower Operators § 65.47 Maximum hours. Except in an emergency, a certificated air traffic control tower operator must be relieved of all...

  10. 14 CFR 65.47 - Maximum hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Air Traffic Control Tower Operators § 65.47 Maximum hours. Except in an emergency, a certificated air traffic control tower operator must be relieved of all...

  11. Maximum-Likelihood Detection Of Noncoherent CPM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Simon, Marvin K.

    1993-01-01

    Simplified detectors proposed for use in maximum-likelihood-sequence detection of symbols in alphabet of size M transmitted by uncoded, full-response continuous phase modulation over radio channel with additive white Gaussian noise. Structures of receivers derived from particular interpretation of maximum-likelihood metrics. Receivers include front ends, structures of which depends only on M, analogous to those in receivers of coherent CPM. Parts of receivers following front ends have structures, complexity of which would depend on N.

  12. Maximum forces and deflections from orthodontic appliances.

    PubMed

    Burstone, C J; Goldberg, A J

    1983-08-01

    The maximum bending moment of an orthodontic wire is an important parameter in the design and use of an orthodontic appliance. It is the wire property that determines how much force an appliance can deliver. A bending test which allows direct measurement of the maximum bending moment was developed. Data produced from this test are independent of wire length and configuration. The maximum bending moment, percent recovery, and maximum springback were determined for round and rectangular cross sections of stainless steel, nickel-titanium, and beta-titanium wires. The data suggest the need for more specifically defining maximum moment and maximum springback. Three maximum bending moments are described: Me, My, and Mult. My and Mult are clinically the most significant. Appliances that are required to have no permanent deformation must operate below My. Appliances that exhibit marked permanent deformation may be used in some applications and, if so, higher bending moments can be produced. In order of magnitude, the maximum bending moment at yield is largest in stainless steel, beta-titanium, and nickel-titanium for a given cross section. Nickel-titanium and beta-titanium have significantly larger springback than stainless steel determined at the moment at yield. Nickel-titanium did not follow the theoretical ratio between ultimate bending moment and the bending moment at yield, exhibiting a very large ratio. The study supports the hypothesis that most orthodontic appliances are activated in a range where both plastic and elastic behavior occurs; therefore, the use of yield strengths for calculation of force magnitude can lead to a significant error in predicting the forces delivered. PMID:6576645

  13. Maximum efficiency of an autophase TWT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondarenko, B. N.; Dimashko, Iu. A.; Kryzhanovskii, V. G.

    1985-10-01

    Formulas are presented for the maximum efficiency of an autophase TWT. It is shown that the maximum efficiency is determined by the ohmic-loss coefficient and is achieved through a successive application of the isoadiabatic-amplification mode and the isoacceptance mode. The efficiency can reach a value of 75-80 percent; further increases may be achieved through an improvement of the capture quality.

  14. Bench press training program with attached chains for female volleyball and basketball athletes.

    PubMed

    Burnham, Timothy R; Ruud, Jason D; McGowan, Robert

    2010-02-01

    Attaching chains to barbells to increase strength and power has become popular for athletes; however, little scientific evidence supports this practice. The present purpose was to compare chain training to traditional training for the bench press. Women collegiate athletes in volleyball and basketball (N = 19) participated in a 16-session bench press program. They were matched into either a Traditional or a Chain training group by 1-repetition maximum (1RM). The Traditional group performed the bench press with conventional equipment, while the Chain group trained with attached chains (5% of weight). Analysis showed a significant increase in 1RM for both groups over 16 sessions, Traditional +11.8% and Chain +17.4%. The difference between the groups was not statistically significant, but suggests the women who trained with attached chains improved their bench press more than the Traditional group.

  15. The effects of varying resistance-training loads on intermediate- and high-velocity-specific adaptations.

    PubMed

    Jones, K; Bishop, P; Hunter, G; Fleisig, G

    2001-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare changes in velocity-specific adaptations in moderately resistance-trained athletes who trained with either low or high resistances. The study used tests of sport-specific skills across an intermediate- to high-velocity spectrum. Thirty NCAA Division I baseball players were randomly assigned to either a low-resistance (40-60% 1 repetition maximum [1RM]) training group or a high-resistance (70-90% 1RM) training group. Both of the training groups intended to maximallv accelerate each repetition during the concentric phase (IMCA). The 10 weeks of training consisted of 4 training sessions a week using basic core exercises. Peak force, velocity, and power were evaluated during set angle and depth jumps as well as weighted jumps using 30 and 50% 1RM. Squat 1RMs were also tested. Although no interactions for any of the jump tests were found, trends supported the hypothesis of velocity-specific training. Percentage gains suggest that the combined use of heavier training loads (70-90% 1RM) and IMCA tend to increase peak force in the lower-body leg and hip extensors. Trends also show that the combined use of lighter training loads (40-60% 1RM) and IMCA tend to increase peak power and peak velocity in the lower-body leg and hip extensors. The high-resistance group improved squats more than the low-resistance group (p < 0.05; +22.7 vs. + 16.1 kg). The results of this study support the use of a combination of heavier training loads and IMCA to increase 1RM strength in the lower bodies of resistance-trained athletes.

  16. Human muscle power output during upper- and lower-body exercises.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Judith A; Gilders, Roger M; Staron, Robert S; Hagerman, Frederick C

    2002-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of traditional resistance training equipment in the measurement of muscular power. This was accomplished by measuring the velocity of movement through a measured distance during maximal effort lifts using a Smith rack. The reliability of the method was established using 10 male volunteers who performed both bench press and squat exercises in a Smith rack. Maximal power output was determined at 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, and 90% of the subject's 1 repetition maximum (1RM). Test-retest power values were not statistically different. Another 15 male volunteers who had previous muscle biopsy data from the vastus lateralis muscle performed the same maximal power output evaluation. There were no significant relationships between peak power outputs and fiber-type expressions when linear regressions were performed. The power curve produced by graphing power output vs. the percentage of 1RM indicates that peak power output occurs between 50 and 70% of 1RM for the squat and between 40 and 60% of 1RM for the bench press. These data indicate that this method of evaluation of muscle power is reliable, although it is not predictive of muscle fiber-type percentages. PMID:11991767

  17. Effects of 12-week medicine ball training on muscle strength and power in young female handball players.

    PubMed

    Ignjatovic, Aleksandar M; Markovic, Zivorad M; Radovanovic, Dragan S

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of medicine ball training on the strength and power in young female handball athletes. Twenty-one young female handball players (age, 16.9 ± 1.2 years) were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. Experimental group (n = 11) participated in a 12-week medicine ball training program incorporated into the regular training session, whereas controls (n = 10) participated only in the regular training. Performance in the medicine ball throws in standing and sitting positions, 1 repetition maximum (1RM) bench and shoulder press, and power test at 2 different loads (30 and 50% of 1RM) on bench and shoulder press were assessed at pre- and posttraining testing. The athletes participating in the medicine ball training program made significantly greater gains in all medicine ball throw tests compared with the controls (p < 0.01). Also, the experimental group made significantly greater gains in bench and shoulder press power than control group (p < 0.05). Both training groups (E) and (C) significantly (p < 0.05) increased 1RM bench and shoulder strength, with no differences observed between the groups. Additionally, medicine ball throw tests showed stronger correlation with power tests, than with 1RM tests. These data suggest that 12-week medicine ball training, when incorporated into a regular training session, can provide greater sport-specific training improvements in the upper body for young female handball players. PMID:22027860

  18. Effects of combined linear and nonlinear periodic training on physical fitness and competition times in finswimmers

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Kyung-Hun; Suk, Min-Hwa; Kang, Shin-Woo; Shin, Yun-A

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of combined linear and nonlinear periodic training on physical fitness and competition times in finswimmers. The linear resistance training model (6 days/week) and nonlinear underwater training (4 days/week) were applied to 12 finswimmers (age, 16.08± 1.44 yr; career, 3.78± 1.90 yr) for 12 weeks. Body composition measures included weight, body mass index (BMI), percent fat, and fat-free mass. Physical fitness measures included trunk flexion forward, trunk extension backward, sargent jump, 1-repetition-maximum (1 RM) squat, 1 RM dead lift, knee extension, knee flexion, trunk extension, trunk flexion, and competition times. Body composition and physical fitness were improved after the 12-week periodic training program. Weight, BMI, and percent fat were significantly decreased, and trunk flexion forward, trunk extension backward, sargent jump, 1 RM squat, 1 RM dead lift, and knee extension (right) were significantly increased. The 50- and 100-m times significantly decreased in all 12 athletes. After 12 weeks of training, all finswimmers who participated in this study improved their times in a public competition. These data indicate that combined linear and nonlinear periodic training enhanced the physical fitness and competition times in finswimmers. PMID:25426469

  19. Lower limb maximal dynamic strength and agility determinants in elite basketball players.

    PubMed

    Chaouachi, Anis; Brughelli, Matt; Chamari, Karim; Levin, Greg T; Ben Abdelkrim, Nidhal; Laurencelle, Louis; Castagna, Carlo

    2009-08-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the relationship between squat 1 repetition maximum (1RM) and basketball-relevant tests and the variables that influence agility (T-test) in elite male professional basketball players (n = 14, age 23.3 +/- 2.7 years, height 195.6 +/- 8.3 cm, body mass 94.2 +/- 10.2 kg). T-test performance was significantly related to body mass (r = 0.58, p = 0.03) and to percentage of body fat (r = 0.80, p < 0.001). A significant negative correlation was observed between t-test and 5-jump test performance (r = -0.61, p = 0.02). Squat 1RM was significantly related to 5-, 10-, and 30-m sprint times. Stepwise correlation analysis showed percentage of body fat was the best single predictor factor (p < 0.05) of agility. Squat 1RM performance was the best single predictor of 5-m and 10-m sprint times (p < 0.05). In light of the present study's findings, agility should be regarded as a per se physiological ability for elite basketball players. Consequently, basketball-specific agility drills should be stressed in elite basketball training. Given the association between squat 1RM performance and short sprint times, squat exercises should be a major component of basketball conditioning.

  20. Maximum permissible voltage of YBCO coated conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, J.; Lin, B.; Sheng, J.; Xu, J.; Jin, Z.; Hong, Z.; Wang, D.; Zhou, H.; Shen, X.; Shen, C.

    2014-06-01

    Superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) could reduce short circuit currents in electrical power system. One of the most important thing in developing SFCL is to find out the maximum permissible voltage of each limiting element. The maximum permissible voltage is defined as the maximum voltage per unit length at which the YBCO coated conductors (CC) do not suffer from critical current (Ic) degradation or burnout. In this research, the time of quenching process is changed and voltage is raised until the Ic degradation or burnout happens. YBCO coated conductors test in the experiment are from American superconductor (AMSC) and Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU). Along with the quenching duration increasing, the maximum permissible voltage of CC decreases. When quenching duration is 100 ms, the maximum permissible of SJTU CC, 12 mm AMSC CC and 4 mm AMSC CC are 0.72 V/cm, 0.52 V/cm and 1.2 V/cm respectively. Based on the results of samples, the whole length of CCs used in the design of a SFCL can be determined.

  1. Cell Development obeys Maximum Fisher Information

    PubMed Central

    Frieden, B. Roy; Gatenby, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Eukaryotic cell development has been optimized by natural selection to obey maximal intracellular flux of messenger proteins. This, in turn, implies maximum Fisher information on angular position about a target nuclear pore complex (NPR). The cell is simply modeled as spherical, with cell membrane (CM) diameter 10μm and concentric nuclear membrane (NM) diameter 6μm. The NM contains ≈ 3000 nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). Development requires messenger ligands to travel from the CM-NPC-DNA target binding sites. Ligands acquire negative charge by phosphorylation, passing through the cytoplasm over Newtonian trajectories toward positively charged NPCs (utilizing positive nuclear localization sequences). The CM-NPC channel obeys maximized mean protein flux F and Fisher information I at the NPC, with first-order δI = 0 and approximate 2nd-order δ2I ≈ 0 stability to environmental perturbations. Many of its predictions are confirmed, including the dominance of protein pathways of from 1–4 proteins, a 4nm size for the EGFR protein and the flux value F ≈1016 proteins/m2-s. After entering the nucleus, each protein ultimately delivers its ligand information to a DNA target site with maximum probability, i.e. maximum Kullback-Liebler entropy HKL. In a smoothness limit HKL → IDNA/2, so that the total CM-NPC-DNA channel obeys maximum Fisher I. Thus maximum information → non-equilibrium, one condition for life. PMID:23747917

  2. Maximum magnitude earthquakes induced by fluid injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGarr, A.

    2014-02-01

    Analysis of numerous case histories of earthquake sequences induced by fluid injection at depth reveals that the maximum magnitude appears to be limited according to the total volume of fluid injected. Similarly, the maximum seismic moment seems to have an upper bound proportional to the total volume of injected fluid. Activities involving fluid injection include (1) hydraulic fracturing of shale formations or coal seams to extract gas and oil, (2) disposal of wastewater from these gas and oil activities by injection into deep aquifers, and (3) the development of enhanced geothermal systems by injecting water into hot, low-permeability rock. Of these three operations, wastewater disposal is observed to be associated with the largest earthquakes, with maximum magnitudes sometimes exceeding 5. To estimate the maximum earthquake that could be induced by a given fluid injection project, the rock mass is assumed to be fully saturated, brittle, to respond to injection with a sequence of earthquakes localized to the region weakened by the pore pressure increase of the injection operation and to have a Gutenberg-Richter magnitude distribution with a b value of 1. If these assumptions correctly describe the circumstances of the largest earthquake, then the maximum seismic moment is limited to the volume of injected liquid times the modulus of rigidity. Observations from the available case histories of earthquakes induced by fluid injection are consistent with this bound on seismic moment. In view of the uncertainties in this analysis, however, this should not be regarded as an absolute physical limit.

  3. Is the self-selected resistance exercise intensity by older women consistent with the American College of Sports Medicine guidelines to improve muscular fitness?

    PubMed

    Elsangedy, Hassan M; Krause, Maressa P; Krinski, Kleverton; Alves, Ragami C; Hsin Nery Chao, Cheng; da Silva, Sergio G

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to verify the self-selected intensity during resistance training (RT) in older women. Twenty healthy women (mean age, 65.6 years) underwent a 2-week familiarization period followed by 3 experimental sessions. During the first session, anthropometric measurements were taken. The second session involved completion of a 1 repetition maximum (1RM) test for the following exercises: chest press, leg press, lat pull-down, leg extension, lateral shoulder raise, leg curl, biceps curl, and triceps pushdown. Last, a single RT session was performed at a self-selected intensity. During the RT session, participants were instructed to self-select a load for performing 3 sets of 10-15 repetitions. Data were analyzed by mean (SD) and analysis of variance with repeated measures (p < 0.05). Global mean of the 3 sets was bench press 41.0% 1RM (11.9), leg press 43.0% 1RM (17.2), lat pull-down 47.2% 1RM (11.1), leg extension 33.0% 1RM (8.1), lateral shoulder raise 51.1% 1RM (12.1), leg curl 43.5% 1RM (8.8), biceps curl 48.0% 1RM (15.5), and triceps pushdown 51.7% 1RM (13.3); there were no significant differences between the sets (p > 0.05). These results indicate that inactive older women self-selected an intensity exercise during RT below the recommendation for improvements on muscle fitness in apparently healthy older adults. However, this intensity is recommended for very deconditioned individuals. Nevertheless, the use of self-selection strategy during an exercise program can have greater advantages because of its easy applicability, its positive relation with exercise adherence, and for promoting initial muscle conditioning in older adults. Furthermore, it is crucial to gradually increase the RT load to guarantee better and sustainable effects on muscle fitness. Finally, future studies are needed to establish the chronic effects of RT at self-selected intensity on muscle fitness and the functional health of older adults.

  4. Acute ingestion of sugar-free red bull energy drink has no effect on upper body strength and muscular endurance in resistance trained men.

    PubMed

    Eckerson, Joan M; Bull, Anthony J; Baechle, Thomas R; Fischer, Chelsea A; O'Brien, Daniel C; Moore, Geri A; Yee, Jennifer C; Pulverenti, Timothy S

    2013-08-01

    Consumption of energy drinks by both recreational and competitive athletes has increased dramatically in recent years. The primary ingredients in many energy drinks include caffeine (CAF) in various forms and taurine. The purpose of this randomized, double-blind, crossover study was to examine the effect of sugar-free (SF) Red Bull (RB) containing CAF and taurine to a CAF only drink and a SF CAF-free placebo (PL) on 1 repetition maximum (1RM) bench press (BP) and the volume load (VL; repetitions × kg at 70% 1RM) during one BP set to failure in experienced lifters. Seventeen college-age men randomly received the following: (A) 500 mL of SF-RB containing CAF (160 mg) and taurine (2000 mg); (B) 500 mL of a SF drink containing CAF only (160 mg); or (C) a SF CAF-free 500 mL PL drink 60 minutes before testing on 3 separate occasions. After a standard warm-up, the 1RM was determined for each subject and, after 5 minutes rest, they completed repetitions to failure at 70% of their 1RM to assess VL. Differences between trials for 1RM BP and the VL were identified using repeated measures analysis of variance (p < 0.05). The results indicated that neither SF-RB nor the CAF drink had any effect on 1RM BP (115.13 ± 16.19 kg and 114.87 ± 16.16 kg, respectively) or VL (1173.08 ± 170.66 kg and 1164.14 ± 147.03 kg, respectively) compared with PL (1RM = 114.07 ± 16.09 kg; VL = 1141.46 ± 193.41 kg). Although the CAF content in the energy drinks used in the present study was low (∼2.0 mg/kg), the finding of no effect of the CAF containing energy drinks for 1RM BP are in agreement with previous studies using intakes up to 6.0 mg/kg. These findings suggest that SF-RB has no effect on upper body 1RM strength or VL in resistance trained men. PMID:23880655

  5. The Maximum Mass of Rotating Strange Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szkudlarek, M.; Gondek-Rosiń; ska, D.; Villain, L.; Ansorg, M.

    2012-12-01

    Strange quark stars are considered as a possible alternative to neutron stars as compact objects (e.g. Weber 2003). A hot compact star (a proto-neutron star or a strange star) born in a supernova explosion or a remnant of neutron stars binary merger are expected to rotate differentially and be important sources of gravitational waves. We present results of the first relativistic calculations of differentially rotating strange quark stars for broad ranges of degree of differential rotation and maximum densities. Using a highly accurate, relativistic code we show that rotation may cause a significant increase of maximum allowed mass of strange stars, much larger than in the case of neutron stars with the same degree of differential rotation. Depending on the maximum allowed mass a massive neutron star (strange star) can be temporarily stabilized by differential rotation or collapse to a black hole.

  6. Surface tension maximum of liquid 3He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Koichi; Hasegawa, Syuichi; Suzuki, Masaru; Okuda, Yuichi

    2000-07-01

    The surface tension of liquid 3He was measured using the capillary-rise method. Suzuki et al. have reported that its temperature dependence was almost quenched below 120 mK. Here we have examined it with higher precision and found that it has a small maximum around 100 mK. The amount of the maximum is about 3×10 -4 as a fraction of the surface tension at 0 K. The density of liquid 3He increases with temperature by about 5×10 -4 in Δ ρ/ ρ between 0 and 100 mK. This density change could be one of the reasons of the surface tension maximum around 100 mK.

  7. Effects of different resistance training volumes on strength and power in team sport athletes.

    PubMed

    Naclerio, Fernando; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Larumbe-Zabala, Eneko; Perez-Bibao, Txomin; Kang, Jie; Ratamess, Nicholas A; Triplett, N T

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 3 different volume of resistance training (RT) on maximum strength and average power in college team sport athletes with no previous RT experience. Thirty-two subjects (20 men and 12 women, age = 23.1 ± 1.57 years) were randomly divided into 4 groups: low volume (LV; n = 8), 1 set per exercise and 3 sets per muscle group; moderate volume (MV; n = 8), 2 sets per exercise and 6 sets per muscle group; high volume (HV; n = 8), 3 sets per exercise and 9 sets per muscle group; and a non-RT control group (n = 8). The 3 intervention groups were trained for 6 weeks thrice weekly after a nonperiodized RT program differentiated only by the volume. Before (T1) and after training (T2), 1 repetition maximum (1RM) and maximal average power (AP) produced on the bench press (BP), upright row (UR), and squat (SQ) were assessed by progressive resistance tests. One repetition maximum-BP and 1RM-UR increased significantly in the 3 interventions groups (p < 0.05), whereas only the HV group significantly improved 1RM-SQ (p < 0.01). The MV and HV groups increased AP-BP (p < 0.05), whereas only the LV group improved AP-SQ (p < 0.01). Moderate effect sizes (ES; >0.20 < 0.60) were observed for the 1RM-BP and 1RM-UR in the 3 training groups. High-volume group showed the larger ES for 1RM-BP (0.45), 1RM-UR (0.60), and 1RM-SQ (0.47), whereas the LV produced the higher ES for SQ-AP (0.53). During the initial adaptation period, a HV RT program seems to be a better strategy for improving strength, whereas during the season, an LV RT could be a reasonable option for maintaining strength and enhancing lower-body AP in team sport athletes. PMID:23044934

  8. Maximum predictive power and the superposition principle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summhammer, Johann

    1994-01-01

    In quantum physics the direct observables are probabilities of events. We ask how observed probabilities must be combined to achieve what we call maximum predictive power. According to this concept the accuracy of a prediction must only depend on the number of runs whose data serve as input for the prediction. We transform each probability to an associated variable whose uncertainty interval depends only on the amount of data and strictly decreases with it. We find that for a probability which is a function of two other probabilities maximum predictive power is achieved when linearly summing their associated variables and transforming back to a probability. This recovers the quantum mechanical superposition principle.

  9. Maximum likelihood clustering with dependent feature trees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chittineni, C. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The decomposition of mixture density of the data into its normal component densities is considered. The densities are approximated with first order dependent feature trees using criteria of mutual information and distance measures. Expressions are presented for the criteria when the densities are Gaussian. By defining different typs of nodes in a general dependent feature tree, maximum likelihood equations are developed for the estimation of parameters using fixed point iterations. The field structure of the data is also taken into account in developing maximum likelihood equations. Experimental results from the processing of remotely sensed multispectral scanner imagery data are included.

  10. Changes in Maximal Strength, Velocity, and Power After 8 Weeks of Training With Pneumatic or Free Weight Resistance.

    PubMed

    Frost, David M; Bronson, Stefanie; Cronin, John B; Newton, Robert U

    2016-04-01

    Because free weight (FW) and pneumatic (PN) resistance are characterized by different inertial properties, training with either resistance could afford unique strength, velocity, and power adaptations. Eighteen resistance-trained men completed baseline tests to determine their FW and PN bench press 1 repetition maximum (1RM). During the FW session, 4 explosive repetitions were performed at loads of 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90% 1RM to assess force, velocity, and power. Participants were then assigned to a FW or PN training group, which involved three 90-minute sessions per week for 8 weeks. Both intervention groups completed identical periodized programs with the exception of the resistance used to perform all bench press movements. Free weight participants significantly increased their FW and PN 1RM (10.4 and 9.4%), and maximum (any load) force (9.8%), velocity (11.6%), and power (22.5%). Pneumatic-trained participants also exhibited increases in FW and PN 1RM (11.6 and 17.5%), and maximum force (8.4%), velocity (13.6%), and power (33.4%). Both interventions improved peak barbell velocity at loads of 15 and 30% 1RM; however, only the PN-trained individuals displayed improvements in peak force and power at these same loads. Training with PN resistance may offer advantages if attempting to improve power at lighter relative loads by affording an opportunity to consistently achieve higher accelerations and velocities (F = ma), in comparison with FW. Exploiting the inertial properties of the resistance, whether mass, elastic or PN, could afford an opportunity to develop mixed-method training strategies and/or elicit unique neuromuscular adaptations to suit the specific needs of athletes from sports characterized by varying demands.

  11. 5 CFR 9701.312 - Maximum rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum rates. 9701.312 Section 9701.312 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN...

  12. Universality of efficiency at maximum power.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Massimiliano; Lindenberg, Katja; Van den Broeck, Christian

    2009-04-01

    We investigate the efficiency of power generation by thermochemical engines. For strong coupling between the particle and heat flows and in the presence of a left-right symmetry in the system, we demonstrate that the efficiency at maximum power displays universality up to quadratic order in the deviation from equilibrium. A maser model is presented to illustrate our argument.

  13. Teaching Media Studies in Maximum Security Prisons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcoran, Farrel

    Some of the difficulties involved in teaching inside maximum security prisons, and ways a media studies teacher met these challenges, are described in this paper. The first section of the paper deals with the prison security system and the stresses it can cause for both teacher and student, while the second section discusses the influence of the…

  14. Maximum phonation time: variability and reliability.

    PubMed

    Speyer, Renée; Bogaardt, Hans C A; Passos, Valéria Lima; Roodenburg, Nel P H D; Zumach, Anne; Heijnen, Mariëlle A M; Baijens, Laura W J; Fleskens, Stijn J H M; Brunings, Jan W

    2010-05-01

    The objective of the study was to determine maximum phonation time reliability as a function of the number of trials, days, and raters in dysphonic and control subjects. Two groups of adult subjects participated in this reliability study: a group of outpatients with functional or organic dysphonia versus a group of healthy control subjects matched by age and gender. Over a period of maximally 6 weeks, three video recordings were made of five subjects' maximum phonation time trials. A panel of five experts were responsible for all measurements, including a repeated measurement of the subjects' first recordings. Patients showed significantly shorter maximum phonation times compared with healthy controls (on average, 6.6 seconds shorter). The averaged interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) over all raters per trial for the first day was 0.998. The averaged reliability coefficient per rater and per trial for repeated measurements of the first day's data was 0.997, indicating high intrarater reliability. The mean reliability coefficient per day for one trial was 0.939. When using five trials, the reliability increased to 0.987. The reliability over five trials for a single day was 0.836; for 2 days, 0.911; and for 3 days, 0.935. To conclude, the maximum phonation time has proven to be a highly reliable measure in voice assessment. A single rater is sufficient to provide highly reliable measurements.

  15. 5 CFR 9701.312 - Maximum rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maximum rates. 9701.312 Section 9701.312 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN...

  16. 5 CFR 9701.312 - Maximum rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maximum rates. 9701.312 Section 9701.312 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN...

  17. Weak scale from the maximum entropy principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamada, Yuta; Kawai, Hikaru; Kawana, Kiyoharu

    2015-03-01

    The theory of the multiverse and wormholes suggests that the parameters of the Standard Model (SM) are fixed in such a way that the radiation of the S3 universe at the final stage S_rad becomes maximum, which we call the maximum entropy principle. Although it is difficult to confirm this principle generally, for a few parameters of the SM, we can check whether S_rad actually becomes maximum at the observed values. In this paper, we regard S_rad at the final stage as a function of the weak scale (the Higgs expectation value) vh, and show that it becomes maximum around vh = {{O}} (300 GeV) when the dimensionless couplings in the SM, i.e., the Higgs self-coupling, the gauge couplings, and the Yukawa couplings are fixed. Roughly speaking, we find that the weak scale is given by vh ˜ T_{BBN}2 / (M_{pl}ye5), where ye is the Yukawa coupling of electron, T_BBN is the temperature at which the Big Bang nucleosynthesis starts, and M_pl is the Planck mass.

  18. Maximum entropy analysis of hydraulic pipe networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldrip, Steven H.; Niven, Robert K.; Abel, Markus; Schlegel, Michael

    2014-12-01

    A Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) method is developed to infer mean external and internal flow rates and mean pressure gradients (potential differences) in hydraulic pipe networks, without or with sufficient constraints to render the system deterministic. The proposed method substantially extends existing methods for the analysis of flow networks (e.g. Hardy-Cross), applicable only to deterministic networks.

  19. 5 CFR 9701.312 - Maximum rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Overview of Pay System § 9701.312 Maximum rates. (a) DHS may...

  20. Comparing maximum pressures in internal combustion engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sparrow, Stanwood W; Lee, Stephen M

    1922-01-01

    Thin metal diaphragms form a satisfactory means for comparing maximum pressures in internal combustion engines. The diaphragm is clamped between two metal washers in a spark plug shell and its thickness is chosen such that, when subjected to explosion pressure, the exposed portion will be sheared from the rim in a short time.

  1. Minimal length, Friedmann equations and maximum density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awad, Adel; Ali, Ahmed Farag

    2014-06-01

    Inspired by Jacobson's thermodynamic approach [4], Cai et al. [5, 6] have shown the emergence of Friedmann equations from the first law of thermodynamics. We extend Akbar-Cai derivation [6] of Friedmann equations to accommodate a general entrop-yarea law. Studying the resulted Friedmann equations using a specific entropy-area law, which is motivated by the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP), reveals the existence of a maximum energy density closed to Planck density. Allowing for a general continuous pressure p( ρ, a) leads to bounded curvature invariants and a general nonsingular evolution. In this case, the maximum energy density is reached in a finite time and there is no cosmological evolution beyond this point which leaves the big bang singularity inaccessible from a spacetime prospective. The existence of maximum energy density and a general nonsingular evolution is independent of the equation of state and the spacial curvature k. As an example we study the evolution of the equation of state p = ωρ through its phase-space diagram to show the existence of a maximum energy which is reachable in a finite time.

  2. 7 CFR 1778.11 - Maximum grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... quantity of potable water, or an anticipated acute shortage or significant decline, cannot exceed $150,000... (CONTINUED) EMERGENCY AND IMMINENT COMMUNITY WATER ASSISTANCE GRANTS § 1778.11 Maximum grants. (a) Grants not to exceed $500,000 may be made to alleviate a significant decline in quantity or quality of...

  3. 7 CFR 1778.11 - Maximum grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... quantity of potable water, or an anticipated acute shortage or significant decline, cannot exceed $150,000... (CONTINUED) EMERGENCY AND IMMINENT COMMUNITY WATER ASSISTANCE GRANTS § 1778.11 Maximum grants. (a) Grants not to exceed $500,000 may be made to alleviate a significant decline in quantity or quality of...

  4. 7 CFR 1778.11 - Maximum grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... quantity of potable water, or an anticipated acute shortage or significant decline, cannot exceed $150,000... (CONTINUED) EMERGENCY AND IMMINENT COMMUNITY WATER ASSISTANCE GRANTS § 1778.11 Maximum grants. (a) Grants not to exceed $500,000 may be made to alleviate a significant decline in quantity or quality of...

  5. Maximum Possible Transverse Velocity in Special Relativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medhekar, Sarang

    1991-01-01

    Using a physical picture, an expression for the maximum possible transverse velocity and orientation required for that by a linear emitter in special theory of relativity has been derived. A differential calculus method is also used to derive the expression. (Author/KR)

  6. 24 CFR 200.15 - Maximum mortgage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maximum mortgage. 200.15 Section 200.15 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND...

  7. Maximum rotation frequency of strange stars

    SciTech Connect

    Zdunik, J.L.; Haensel, P. )

    1990-07-15

    Using the MIT bag model of strange-quark matter, we calculate the maximum angular frequency of the uniform rotation of strange stars. After studying a broad range of the MIT bag-model parameters, we obtain an upper bound of 12.3 kHz.

  8. Theoretical Analysis of Maximum Flow Declination Rate versus Maximum Area Declination Rate in Phonation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Titze, Ingo R.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Maximum flow declination rate (MFDR) in the glottis is known to correlate strongly with vocal intensity in voicing. This declination, or negative slope on the glottal airflow waveform, is in part attributable to the maximum area declination rate (MADR) and in part to the overall inertia of the air column of the vocal tract (lungs to…

  9. 50 CFR 259.34 - Minimum and maximum deposits; maximum time to deposit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Minimum and maximum deposits; maximum time to deposit. 259.34 Section 259.34 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AID TO FISHERIES...

  10. Maximum independent set on diluted triangular lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fay, C. W., IV; Liu, J. W.; Duxbury, P. M.

    2006-05-01

    Core percolation and maximum independent set on random graphs have recently been characterized using the methods of statistical physics. Here we present a statistical physics study of these problems on bond diluted triangular lattices. Core percolation critical behavior is found to be consistent with the standard percolation values, though there are strong finite size effects. A transfer matrix method is developed and applied to find accurate values of the density and degeneracy of the maximum independent set on lattices of limited width but large length. An extrapolation of these results to the infinite lattice limit yields high precision results, which are tabulated. These results are compared to results found using both vertex based and edge based local probability recursion algorithms, which have proven useful in the analysis of hard computational problems, such as the satisfiability problem.

  11. Maximum-entropy description of animal movement.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Chris H; Subaşı, Yiğit; Calabrese, Justin M

    2015-03-01

    We introduce a class of maximum-entropy states that naturally includes within it all of the major continuous-time stochastic processes that have been applied to animal movement, including Brownian motion, Ornstein-Uhlenbeck motion, integrated Ornstein-Uhlenbeck motion, a recently discovered hybrid of the previous models, and a new model that describes central-place foraging. We are also able to predict a further hierarchy of new models that will emerge as data quality improves to better resolve the underlying continuity of animal movement. Finally, we also show that Langevin equations must obey a fluctuation-dissipation theorem to generate processes that fall from this class of maximum-entropy distributions when the constraints are purely kinematic.

  12. Maximum constrained sparse coding for image representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Danpei; Jiang, Zhiguo

    2015-12-01

    Sparse coding exhibits good performance in many computer vision applications by finding bases which capture highlevel semantics of the data and learning sparse coefficients in terms of the bases. However, due to the fact that bases are non-orthogonal, sparse coding can hardly preserve the samples' similarity, which is important for discrimination. In this paper, a new image representing method called maximum constrained sparse coding (MCSC) is proposed. Sparse representation with more active coefficients means more similarity information, and the infinite norm is added to the solution for this purpose. We solve the optimizer by constraining the codes' maximum and releasing the residual to other dictionary atoms. Experimental results on image clustering show that our method can preserve the similarity of adjacent samples and maintain the sparsity of code simultaneously.

  13. Zipf's law, power laws and maximum entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visser, Matt

    2013-04-01

    Zipf's law, and power laws in general, have attracted and continue to attract considerable attention in a wide variety of disciplines—from astronomy to demographics to software structure to economics to linguistics to zoology, and even warfare. A recent model of random group formation (RGF) attempts a general explanation of such phenomena based on Jaynes' notion of maximum entropy applied to a particular choice of cost function. In the present paper I argue that the specific cost function used in the RGF model is in fact unnecessarily complicated, and that power laws can be obtained in a much simpler way by applying maximum entropy ideas directly to the Shannon entropy subject only to a single constraint: that the average of the logarithm of the observable quantity is specified.

  14. Model Fit after Pairwise Maximum Likelihood

    PubMed Central

    Barendse, M. T.; Ligtvoet, R.; Timmerman, M. E.; Oort, F. J.

    2016-01-01

    Maximum likelihood factor analysis of discrete data within the structural equation modeling framework rests on the assumption that the observed discrete responses are manifestations of underlying continuous scores that are normally distributed. As maximizing the likelihood of multivariate response patterns is computationally very intensive, the sum of the log–likelihoods of the bivariate response patterns is maximized instead. Little is yet known about how to assess model fit when the analysis is based on such a pairwise maximum likelihood (PML) of two–way contingency tables. We propose new fit criteria for the PML method and conduct a simulation study to evaluate their performance in model selection. With large sample sizes (500 or more), PML performs as well the robust weighted least squares analysis of polychoric correlations. PMID:27148136

  15. Pareto versus lognormal: A maximum entropy test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bee, Marco; Riccaboni, Massimo; Schiavo, Stefano

    2011-08-01

    It is commonly found that distributions that seem to be lognormal over a broad range change to a power-law (Pareto) distribution for the last few percentiles. The distributions of many physical, natural, and social events (earthquake size, species abundance, income and wealth, as well as file, city, and firm sizes) display this structure. We present a test for the occurrence of power-law tails in statistical distributions based on maximum entropy. This methodology allows one to identify the true data-generating processes even in the case when it is neither lognormal nor Pareto. The maximum entropy approach is then compared with other widely used methods and applied to different levels of aggregation of complex systems. Our results provide support for the theory that distributions with lognormal body and Pareto tail can be generated as mixtures of lognormally distributed units.

  16. Finding maximum colorful subtrees in practice.

    PubMed

    Rauf, Imran; Rasche, Florian; Nicolas, François; Böcker, Sebastian

    2013-04-01

    In metabolomics and other fields dealing with small compounds, mass spectrometry is applied as a sensitive high-throughput technique. Recently, fragmentation trees have been proposed to automatically analyze the fragmentation mass spectra recorded by such instruments. Computationally, this leads to the problem of finding a maximum weight subtree in an edge-weighted and vertex-colored graph, such that every color appears, at most once in the solution. We introduce new heuristics and an exact algorithm for this Maximum Colorful Subtree problem and evaluate them against existing algorithms on real-world and artificial datasets. Our tree completion heuristic consistently scores better than other heuristics, while the integer programming-based algorithm produces optimal trees with modest running times. Our fast and accurate heuristic can help determine molecular formulas based on fragmentation trees. On the other hand, optimal trees from the integer linear program are useful if structure is relevant, for example for tree alignments.

  17. A Maximum Radius for Habitable Planets.

    PubMed

    Alibert, Yann

    2015-09-01

    We compute the maximum radius a planet can have in order to fulfill two constraints that are likely necessary conditions for habitability: 1- surface temperature and pressure compatible with the existence of liquid water, and 2- no ice layer at the bottom of a putative global ocean, that would prevent the operation of the geologic carbon cycle to operate. We demonstrate that, above a given radius, these two constraints cannot be met: in the Super-Earth mass range (1-12 Mearth), the overall maximum that a planet can have varies between 1.8 and 2.3 Rearth. This radius is reduced when considering planets with higher Fe/Si ratios, and taking into account irradiation effects on the structure of the gas envelope. PMID:26159097

  18. Evaluation of the Maximum Allowable Cost Program

    PubMed Central

    Lee, A. James; Hefner, Dennis; Dobson, Allen; Hardy, Ralph

    1983-01-01

    This article summarizes an evaluation of the Maximum Allowable Cost (MAC)-Estimated Acquisition Cost (EAC) program, the Federal Government's cost-containment program for prescription drugs.1 The MAC-EAC regulations which became effective on August 26, 1976, have four major components: (1) Maximum Allowable Cost reimbursement limits for selected multisource or generically available drugs; (2) Estimated Acquisition Cost reimbursement limits for all drugs; (3) “usual and customary” reimbursement limits for all drugs; and (4) a directive that professional fee studies be performed by each State. The study examines the benefits and costs of the MAC reimbursement limits for 15 dosage forms of five multisource drugs and EAC reimbursement limits for all drugs for five selected States as of 1979. PMID:10309857

  19. Pareto versus lognormal: a maximum entropy test.

    PubMed

    Bee, Marco; Riccaboni, Massimo; Schiavo, Stefano

    2011-08-01

    It is commonly found that distributions that seem to be lognormal over a broad range change to a power-law (Pareto) distribution for the last few percentiles. The distributions of many physical, natural, and social events (earthquake size, species abundance, income and wealth, as well as file, city, and firm sizes) display this structure. We present a test for the occurrence of power-law tails in statistical distributions based on maximum entropy. This methodology allows one to identify the true data-generating processes even in the case when it is neither lognormal nor Pareto. The maximum entropy approach is then compared with other widely used methods and applied to different levels of aggregation of complex systems. Our results provide support for the theory that distributions with lognormal body and Pareto tail can be generated as mixtures of lognormally distributed units.

  20. Maximum hydrocarbon window determination in South Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Leach, W.G. )

    1993-03-29

    This is the third and final part of a three part article about the distribution of hydrocarbons in the Tertiary sands of South Louisiana. Based on many individual plots, it was found that hydrocarbon distribution will vary according to the depth of abnormal pressure and lithology. The relation of maximum hydrocarbon distribution to formation fracture strength or depth opens the door to the use of a maximum hydrocarbon window (MHW) technique. This MHW technique can be used as a decision making tool on how deep to drill a well, particularly how deep to drill a well below the top of abnormal pressure. The paper describes the benefits of the MHW technique and its future potential for exploration and development operations.

  1. A Maximum Radius for Habitable Planets.

    PubMed

    Alibert, Yann

    2015-09-01

    We compute the maximum radius a planet can have in order to fulfill two constraints that are likely necessary conditions for habitability: 1- surface temperature and pressure compatible with the existence of liquid water, and 2- no ice layer at the bottom of a putative global ocean, that would prevent the operation of the geologic carbon cycle to operate. We demonstrate that, above a given radius, these two constraints cannot be met: in the Super-Earth mass range (1-12 Mearth), the overall maximum that a planet can have varies between 1.8 and 2.3 Rearth. This radius is reduced when considering planets with higher Fe/Si ratios, and taking into account irradiation effects on the structure of the gas envelope.

  2. MAXIMUM LIKELIHOOD ESTIMATION FOR SOCIAL NETWORK DYNAMICS

    PubMed Central

    Snijders, Tom A.B.; Koskinen, Johan; Schweinberger, Michael

    2014-01-01

    A model for network panel data is discussed, based on the assumption that the observed data are discrete observations of a continuous-time Markov process on the space of all directed graphs on a given node set, in which changes in tie variables are independent conditional on the current graph. The model for tie changes is parametric and designed for applications to social network analysis, where the network dynamics can be interpreted as being generated by choices made by the social actors represented by the nodes of the graph. An algorithm for calculating the Maximum Likelihood estimator is presented, based on data augmentation and stochastic approximation. An application to an evolving friendship network is given and a small simulation study is presented which suggests that for small data sets the Maximum Likelihood estimator is more efficient than the earlier proposed Method of Moments estimator. PMID:25419259

  3. 5 CFR 534.203 - Maximum stipends.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... training program Maximums by grade and step 1 L-A Below high school graduation GS-1-1 (minus 3 steps). L-1... year postgraduate predoctoral GS-7-1 (minus 3 steps). L-6 Third year medical school GS-7-1 (minus 3 steps). L-7 Third year postgraduate predoctoral GS-9-1 (minus 3 steps). L-7 Fourth year medical...

  4. 5 CFR 534.203 - Maximum stipends.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... training program Maximums by grade and step 1 L-A Below high school graduation GS-1-1 (minus 3 steps). L-1... year postgraduate predoctoral GS-7-1 (minus 3 steps). L-6 Third year medical school GS-7-1 (minus 3 steps). L-7 Third year postgraduate predoctoral GS-9-1 (minus 3 steps). L-7 Fourth year medical...

  5. 5 CFR 534.203 - Maximum stipends.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... training program Maximums by grade and step 1 L-A Below high school graduation GS-1-1 (minus 3 steps). L-1... year postgraduate predoctoral GS-7-1 (minus 3 steps). L-6 Third year medical school GS-7-1 (minus 3 steps). L-7 Third year postgraduate predoctoral GS-9-1 (minus 3 steps). L-7 Fourth year medical...

  6. 5 CFR 534.203 - Maximum stipends.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... training program Maximums by grade and step 1 L-A Below high school graduation GS-1-1 (minus 3 steps). L-1... year postgraduate predoctoral GS-7-1 (minus 3 steps). L-6 Third year medical school GS-7-1 (minus 3 steps). L-7 Third year postgraduate predoctoral GS-9-1 (minus 3 steps). L-7 Fourth year medical...

  7. Tissue radiation response with maximum Tsallis entropy.

    PubMed

    Sotolongo-Grau, O; Rodríguez-Pérez, D; Antoranz, J C; Sotolongo-Costa, Oscar

    2010-10-01

    The expression of survival factors for radiation damaged cells is currently based on probabilistic assumptions and experimentally fitted for each tumor, radiation, and conditions. Here, we show how the simplest of these radiobiological models can be derived from the maximum entropy principle of the classical Boltzmann-Gibbs expression. We extend this derivation using the Tsallis entropy and a cutoff hypothesis, motivated by clinical observations. The obtained expression shows a remarkable agreement with the experimental data found in the literature. PMID:21230944

  8. Maximum privacy without coherence, zero-error

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Debbie; Yu, Nengkun

    2016-09-01

    We study the possible difference between the quantum and the private capacities of a quantum channel in the zero-error setting. For a family of channels introduced by Leung et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 030512 (2014)], we demonstrate an extreme difference: the zero-error quantum capacity is zero, whereas the zero-error private capacity is maximum given the quantum output dimension.

  9. Tissue Radiation Response with Maximum Tsallis Entropy

    SciTech Connect

    Sotolongo-Grau, O.; Rodriguez-Perez, D.; Antoranz, J. C.; Sotolongo-Costa, Oscar

    2010-10-08

    The expression of survival factors for radiation damaged cells is currently based on probabilistic assumptions and experimentally fitted for each tumor, radiation, and conditions. Here, we show how the simplest of these radiobiological models can be derived from the maximum entropy principle of the classical Boltzmann-Gibbs expression. We extend this derivation using the Tsallis entropy and a cutoff hypothesis, motivated by clinical observations. The obtained expression shows a remarkable agreement with the experimental data found in the literature.

  10. Maximum entropy and Bayesian methods. Proceedings.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandy, W. T., Jr.; Schick, L. H.

    This volume contains a selection of papers presented at the Tenth Annual Workshop on Maximum Entropy and Bayesian Methods. The thirty-six papers included cover a wide range of applications in areas such as economics and econometrics, astronomy and astrophysics, general physics, complex systems, image reconstruction, and probability and mathematics. Together they give an excellent state-of-the-art overview of fundamental methods of data analysis.

  11. Tissue radiation response with maximum Tsallis entropy.

    PubMed

    Sotolongo-Grau, O; Rodríguez-Pérez, D; Antoranz, J C; Sotolongo-Costa, Oscar

    2010-10-01

    The expression of survival factors for radiation damaged cells is currently based on probabilistic assumptions and experimentally fitted for each tumor, radiation, and conditions. Here, we show how the simplest of these radiobiological models can be derived from the maximum entropy principle of the classical Boltzmann-Gibbs expression. We extend this derivation using the Tsallis entropy and a cutoff hypothesis, motivated by clinical observations. The obtained expression shows a remarkable agreement with the experimental data found in the literature.

  12. The maximum rate of mammal evolution.

    PubMed

    Evans, Alistair R; Jones, David; Boyer, Alison G; Brown, James H; Costa, Daniel P; Ernest, S K Morgan; Fitzgerald, Erich M G; Fortelius, Mikael; Gittleman, John L; Hamilton, Marcus J; Harding, Larisa E; Lintulaakso, Kari; Lyons, S Kathleen; Okie, Jordan G; Saarinen, Juha J; Sibly, Richard M; Smith, Felisa A; Stephens, Patrick R; Theodor, Jessica M; Uhen, Mark D

    2012-03-13

    How fast can a mammal evolve from the size of a mouse to the size of an elephant? Achieving such a large transformation calls for major biological reorganization. Thus, the speed at which this occurs has important implications for extensive faunal changes, including adaptive radiations and recovery from mass extinctions. To quantify the pace of large-scale evolution we developed a metric, clade maximum rate, which represents the maximum evolutionary rate of a trait within a clade. We applied this metric to body mass evolution in mammals over the last 70 million years, during which multiple large evolutionary transitions occurred in oceans and on continents and islands. Our computations suggest that it took a minimum of 1.6, 5.1, and 10 million generations for terrestrial mammal mass to increase 100-, and 1,000-, and 5,000-fold, respectively. Values for whales were down to half the length (i.e., 1.1, 3, and 5 million generations), perhaps due to the reduced mechanical constraints of living in an aquatic environment. When differences in generation time are considered, we find an exponential increase in maximum mammal body mass during the 35 million years following the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) extinction event. Our results also indicate a basic asymmetry in macroevolution: very large decreases (such as extreme insular dwarfism) can happen at more than 10 times the rate of increases. Our findings allow more rigorous comparisons of microevolutionary and macroevolutionary patterns and processes.

  13. Maximum-biomass prediction of homofermentative Lactobacillus.

    PubMed

    Cui, Shumao; Zhao, Jianxin; Liu, Xiaoming; Chen, Yong Q; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei

    2016-07-01

    Fed-batch and pH-controlled cultures have been widely used for industrial production of probiotics. The aim of this study was to systematically investigate the relationship between the maximum biomass of different homofermentative Lactobacillus and lactate accumulation, and to develop a prediction equation for the maximum biomass concentration in such cultures. The accumulation of the end products and the depletion of nutrients by various strains were evaluated. In addition, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of acid anions for various strains at pH 7.0 were examined. The lactate concentration at the point of complete inhibition was not significantly different from the MIC of lactate for all of the strains, although the inhibition mechanism of lactate and acetate on Lactobacillus rhamnosus was different from the other strains which were inhibited by the osmotic pressure caused by acid anions at pH 7.0. When the lactate concentration accumulated to the MIC, the strains stopped growing. The maximum biomass was closely related to the biomass yield per unit of lactate produced (YX/P) and the MIC (C) of lactate for different homofermentative Lactobacillus. Based on the experimental data obtained using different homofermentative Lactobacillus, a prediction equation was established as follows: Xmax - X0 = (0.59 ± 0.02)·YX/P·C. PMID:26896862

  14. The maximum rate of mammal evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Alistair R.; Jones, David; Boyer, Alison G.; Brown, James H.; Costa, Daniel P.; Ernest, S. K. Morgan; Fitzgerald, Erich M. G.; Fortelius, Mikael; Gittleman, John L.; Hamilton, Marcus J.; Harding, Larisa E.; Lintulaakso, Kari; Lyons, S. Kathleen; Okie, Jordan G.; Saarinen, Juha J.; Sibly, Richard M.; Smith, Felisa A.; Stephens, Patrick R.; Theodor, Jessica M.; Uhen, Mark D.

    2012-03-01

    How fast can a mammal evolve from the size of a mouse to the size of an elephant? Achieving such a large transformation calls for major biological reorganization. Thus, the speed at which this occurs has important implications for extensive faunal changes, including adaptive radiations and recovery from mass extinctions. To quantify the pace of large-scale evolution we developed a metric, clade maximum rate, which represents the maximum evolutionary rate of a trait within a clade. We applied this metric to body mass evolution in mammals over the last 70 million years, during which multiple large evolutionary transitions occurred in oceans and on continents and islands. Our computations suggest that it took a minimum of 1.6, 5.1, and 10 million generations for terrestrial mammal mass to increase 100-, and 1,000-, and 5,000-fold, respectively. Values for whales were down to half the length (i.e., 1.1, 3, and 5 million generations), perhaps due to the reduced mechanical constraints of living in an aquatic environment. When differences in generation time are considered, we find an exponential increase in maximum mammal body mass during the 35 million years following the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) extinction event. Our results also indicate a basic asymmetry in macroevolution: very large decreases (such as extreme insular dwarfism) can happen at more than 10 times the rate of increases. Our findings allow more rigorous comparisons of microevolutionary and macroevolutionary patterns and processes.

  15. The maximum rate of mammal evolution.

    PubMed

    Evans, Alistair R; Jones, David; Boyer, Alison G; Brown, James H; Costa, Daniel P; Ernest, S K Morgan; Fitzgerald, Erich M G; Fortelius, Mikael; Gittleman, John L; Hamilton, Marcus J; Harding, Larisa E; Lintulaakso, Kari; Lyons, S Kathleen; Okie, Jordan G; Saarinen, Juha J; Sibly, Richard M; Smith, Felisa A; Stephens, Patrick R; Theodor, Jessica M; Uhen, Mark D

    2012-03-13

    How fast can a mammal evolve from the size of a mouse to the size of an elephant? Achieving such a large transformation calls for major biological reorganization. Thus, the speed at which this occurs has important implications for extensive faunal changes, including adaptive radiations and recovery from mass extinctions. To quantify the pace of large-scale evolution we developed a metric, clade maximum rate, which represents the maximum evolutionary rate of a trait within a clade. We applied this metric to body mass evolution in mammals over the last 70 million years, during which multiple large evolutionary transitions occurred in oceans and on continents and islands. Our computations suggest that it took a minimum of 1.6, 5.1, and 10 million generations for terrestrial mammal mass to increase 100-, and 1,000-, and 5,000-fold, respectively. Values for whales were down to half the length (i.e., 1.1, 3, and 5 million generations), perhaps due to the reduced mechanical constraints of living in an aquatic environment. When differences in generation time are considered, we find an exponential increase in maximum mammal body mass during the 35 million years following the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) extinction event. Our results also indicate a basic asymmetry in macroevolution: very large decreases (such as extreme insular dwarfism) can happen at more than 10 times the rate of increases. Our findings allow more rigorous comparisons of microevolutionary and macroevolutionary patterns and processes. PMID:22308461

  16. The maximum rate of mammal evolution

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Alistair R.; Jones, David; Boyer, Alison G.; Brown, James H.; Costa, Daniel P.; Ernest, S. K. Morgan; Fitzgerald, Erich M. G.; Fortelius, Mikael; Gittleman, John L.; Hamilton, Marcus J.; Harding, Larisa E.; Lintulaakso, Kari; Lyons, S. Kathleen; Okie, Jordan G.; Saarinen, Juha J.; Sibly, Richard M.; Smith, Felisa A.; Stephens, Patrick R.; Theodor, Jessica M.; Uhen, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    How fast can a mammal evolve from the size of a mouse to the size of an elephant? Achieving such a large transformation calls for major biological reorganization. Thus, the speed at which this occurs has important implications for extensive faunal changes, including adaptive radiations and recovery from mass extinctions. To quantify the pace of large-scale evolution we developed a metric, clade maximum rate, which represents the maximum evolutionary rate of a trait within a clade. We applied this metric to body mass evolution in mammals over the last 70 million years, during which multiple large evolutionary transitions occurred in oceans and on continents and islands. Our computations suggest that it took a minimum of 1.6, 5.1, and 10 million generations for terrestrial mammal mass to increase 100-, and 1,000-, and 5,000-fold, respectively. Values for whales were down to half the length (i.e., 1.1, 3, and 5 million generations), perhaps due to the reduced mechanical constraints of living in an aquatic environment. When differences in generation time are considered, we find an exponential increase in maximum mammal body mass during the 35 million years following the Cretaceous–Paleogene (K–Pg) extinction event. Our results also indicate a basic asymmetry in macroevolution: very large decreases (such as extreme insular dwarfism) can happen at more than 10 times the rate of increases. Our findings allow more rigorous comparisons of microevolutionary and macroevolutionary patterns and processes. PMID:22308461

  17. Maximum saliency bias in binocular fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yuhao; Stafford, Tom; Fox, Charles

    2016-07-01

    Subjective experience at any instant consists of a single ("unitary"), coherent interpretation of sense data rather than a "Bayesian blur" of alternatives. However, computation of Bayes-optimal actions has no role for unitary perception, instead being required to integrate over every possible action-percept pair to maximise expected utility. So what is the role of unitary coherent percepts, and how are they computed? Recent work provided objective evidence for non-Bayes-optimal, unitary coherent, perception and action in humans; and further suggested that the percept selected is not the maximum a posteriori percept but is instead affected by utility. The present study uses a binocular fusion task first to reproduce the same effect in a new domain, and second, to test multiple hypotheses about exactly how utility may affect the percept. After accounting for high experimental noise, it finds that both Bayes optimality (maximise expected utility) and the previously proposed maximum-utility hypothesis are outperformed in fitting the data by a modified maximum-salience hypothesis, using unsigned utility magnitudes in place of signed utilities in the bias function.

  18. "SPURS" in the North Atlantic Salinity Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Raymond

    2014-05-01

    The North Atlantic Salinity Maximum is the world's saltiest open ocean salinity maximum and was the focus of the recent Salinity Processes Upper-ocean Regional Study (SPURS) program. SPURS was a joint venture between US, French, Irish, and Spanish investigators. Three US and two EU cruises were involved from August, 1012 - October, 2013 as well as surface moorings, glider, drifter and float deployments. Shipboard operations included underway meteorological and oceanic data, hydrographic surveys and turbulence profiling. The goal is to improve our understanding of how the salinity maximum is maintained and how it may be changing. It is formed by an excess of evaporation over precipitation and the wind-driven convergence of the subtropical gyre. Such salty areas are getting saltier with global warming (a record high SSS was observed in SPURS) and it is imperative to determine the relative roles of surface water fluxes and oceanic processes in such trends. The combination of accurate surface flux estimates with new assessments of vertical and horizontal mixing in the ocean will help elucidate the utility of ocean salinity in quantifying the changing global water cycle.

  19. Kettlebell swing training improves maximal and explosive strength.

    PubMed

    Lake, Jason P; Lauder, Mike A

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the effect that kettlebell swing (KB) training had on measures of maximum (half squat-HS-1 repetition maximum [1RM]) and explosive (vertical jump height-VJH) strength. To put these effects into context, they were compared with the effects of jump squat power training (JS-known to improve 1RM and VJH). Twenty-one healthy men (age = 18-27 years, body mass = 72.58 ± 12.87 kg) who could perform a proficient HS were tested for their HS 1RM and VJH pre- and post-training. Subjects were randomly assigned to either a KB or JS training group after HS 1RM testing and trained twice a week. The KB group performed 12-minute bouts of KB exercise (12 rounds of 30-second exercise, 30-second rest with 12 kg if <70 kg or 16 kg if >70 kg). The JS group performed at least 4 sets of 3 JS with the load that maximized peak power-Training volume was altered to accommodate different training loads and ranged from 4 sets of 3 with the heaviest load (60% 1RM) to 8 sets of 6 with the lightest load (0% 1RM). Maximum strength improved by 9.8% (HS 1RM: 165-181% body mass, p < 0.001) after the training intervention, and post hoc analysis revealed that there was no significant difference between the effect of KB and JS training (p = 0.56). Explosive strength improved by 19.8% (VJH: 20.6-24.3 cm) after the training intervention, and post hoc analysis revealed that the type of training did not significantly affect this either (p = 0.38). The results of this study clearly demonstrate that 6 weeks of biweekly KB training provides a stimulus that is sufficient to increase both maximum and explosive strength offering a useful alternative to strength and conditioning professionals seeking variety for their athletes.

  20. Middle Holocene thermal maximum in eastern Beringia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, D. S.; Bartlein, P. J.

    2015-12-01

    A new systematic review of diverse Holocene paleoenvironmental records (Kaufman et al., Quat. Sci. Rev., in revision) has clarified the primary multi-centennial- to millennial-scale trends across eastern Beringia (Alaska, westernmost Canada and adjacent seas). Composite time series from midges, pollen, and biogeochemical indicators are compared with new summaries of mountain-glacier and lake-level fluctuations, terrestrial water-isotope records, sea-ice and sea-surface-temperature analyses, and peatland and thaw-lake initiation frequencies. The paleo observations are also compared with recently published simulations (Bartlein et al., Clim. Past Discuss., 2015) that used a regional climate model to simulate the effects of global and regional-scale forcings at 11 and 6 ka. During the early Holocene (11.5-8 ka), rather than a prominent thermal maximum as suggested previously, the newly compiled paleo evidence (mostly sensitive to summer conditions) indicates that temperatures were highly variable, at times both higher and lower than present, although the overall lowest average temperatures occurred during the earliest Holocene. During the middle Holocene (8-4 ka), glaciers retreated as the regional average temperature increased to a maximum between 7 and 5 ka, as reflected in most proxy types. The paleo evidence for low and variable temperatures during the early Holocene contrasts with more uniformly high temperatures during the middle Holocene and agrees with the climate simulations, which show that temperature in eastern Beringia was on average lower at 11 ka and higher at 6 ka than at present (pre-industrial). Low temperatures during the early Holocene can be attributed in part to the summer chilling caused by flooding the continental shelves, whereas the mid-Holocene thermal maximum was likely driven by the loss of the Laurentide ice sheet, rise in greenhouse gases, higher-than-present summer insolation, and expansion of forest over tundra.

  1. Maximum aposteriori joint source/channel coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sayood, Khalid; Gibson, Jerry D.

    1991-01-01

    A maximum aposteriori probability (MAP) approach to joint source/channel coder design is presented in this paper. This method attempts to explore a technique for designing joint source/channel codes, rather than ways of distributing bits between source coders and channel coders. For a nonideal source coder, MAP arguments are used to design a decoder which takes advantage of redundancy in the source coder output to perform error correction. Once the decoder is obtained, it is analyzed with the purpose of obtaining 'desirable properties' of the channel input sequence for improving overall system performance. Finally, an encoder design which incorporates these properties is proposed.

  2. Dynamical maximum entropy approach to flocking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavagna, Andrea; Giardina, Irene; Ginelli, Francesco; Mora, Thierry; Piovani, Duccio; Tavarone, Raffaele; Walczak, Aleksandra M.

    2014-04-01

    We derive a new method to infer from data the out-of-equilibrium alignment dynamics of collectively moving animal groups, by considering the maximum entropy model distribution consistent with temporal and spatial correlations of flight direction. When bird neighborhoods evolve rapidly, this dynamical inference correctly learns the parameters of the model, while a static one relying only on the spatial correlations fails. When neighbors change slowly and the detailed balance is satisfied, we recover the static procedure. We demonstrate the validity of the method on simulated data. The approach is applicable to other systems of active matter.

  3. Multiperiod Maximum Loss is time unit invariant.

    PubMed

    Kovacevic, Raimund M; Breuer, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Time unit invariance is introduced as an additional requirement for multiperiod risk measures: for a constant portfolio under an i.i.d. risk factor process, the multiperiod risk should equal the one period risk of the aggregated loss, for an appropriate choice of parameters and independent of the portfolio and its distribution. Multiperiod Maximum Loss over a sequence of Kullback-Leibler balls is time unit invariant. This is also the case for the entropic risk measure. On the other hand, multiperiod Value at Risk and multiperiod Expected Shortfall are not time unit invariant. PMID:27563531

  4. Maximum profit performance of an absorption refrigerator

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, L.; Sun, F.; Wu, C.

    1996-12-01

    The operation of an absorption refrigerator is viewed as a production process with exergy as its output. The relations between the optimal profit and COP (coefficient of performance), and the COP bound at the maximum profit of the refrigerator are derived based on a general heat transfer law. The results provide a theoretical basis for developing and utilizing a variety of absorption refrigerators. The focus of this paper is to search the compromise optimization between economics (profit) and the utilization factor (COP) for finite-time endoreversible thermodynamic cycles.

  5. Maximum Temperature Detection System for Integrated Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankiewicz, Maciej; Kos, Andrzej

    2015-03-01

    The paper describes structure and measurement results of the system detecting present maximum temperature on the surface of an integrated circuit. The system consists of the set of proportional to absolute temperature sensors, temperature processing path and a digital part designed in VHDL. Analogue parts of the circuit where designed with full-custom technique. The system is a part of temperature-controlled oscillator circuit - a power management system based on dynamic frequency scaling method. The oscillator cooperates with microprocessor dedicated for thermal experiments. The whole system is implemented in UMC CMOS 0.18 μm (1.8 V) technology.

  6. Maximum a posteriori decoder for digital communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altes, Richard A. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A system and method for decoding by identification of the most likely phase coded signal corresponding to received data. The present invention has particular application to communication with signals that experience spurious random phase perturbations. The generalized estimator-correlator uses a maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimator to generate phase estimates for correlation with incoming data samples and for correlation with mean phases indicative of unique hypothesized signals. The result is a MAP likelihood statistic for each hypothesized transmission, wherein the highest value statistic identifies the transmitted signal.

  7. Maximum neighborhood margin criterion in face recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Pang Ying; Teoh, Andrew Beng Jin

    2009-04-01

    Feature extraction is a data analysis technique devoted to removing redundancy and extracting the most discriminative information. In face recognition, feature extractors are normally plagued with small sample size problems, in which the total number of training images is much smaller than the image dimensionality. Recently, an optimized facial feature extractor, maximum marginal criterion (MMC), was proposed. MMC computes an optimized projection by solving the generalized eigenvalue problem in a standard form that is free from inverse matrix operation, and thus it does not suffer from the small sample size problem. However, MMC is essentially a linear projection technique that relies on facial image pixel intensity to compute within- and between-class scatters. The nonlinear nature of faces restricts the discrimination of MMC. Hence, we propose an improved MMC, namely maximum neighborhood margin criterion (MNMC). Unlike MMC, which preserves global geometric structures that do not perfectly describe the underlying face manifold, MNMC seeks a projection that preserves local geometric structures via neighborhood preservation. This objective function leads to the enhancement of classification capability, and this is testified by experimental results. MNMC shows its performance superiority compared to MMC, especially in pose, illumination, and expression (PIE) and face recognition grand challenge (FRGC) databases.

  8. Maximum Likelihood Analysis in the PEN Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehman, Martin

    2013-10-01

    The experimental determination of the π+ -->e+ ν (γ) decay branching ratio currently provides the most accurate test of lepton universality. The PEN experiment at PSI, Switzerland, aims to improve the present world average experimental precision of 3 . 3 ×10-3 to 5 ×10-4 using a stopped beam approach. During runs in 2008-10, PEN has acquired over 2 ×107 πe 2 events. The experiment includes active beam detectors (degrader, mini TPC, target), central MWPC tracking with plastic scintillator hodoscopes, and a spherical pure CsI electromagnetic shower calorimeter. The final branching ratio will be calculated using a maximum likelihood analysis. This analysis assigns each event a probability for 5 processes (π+ -->e+ ν , π+ -->μ+ ν , decay-in-flight, pile-up, and hadronic events) using Monte Carlo verified probability distribution functions of our observables (energies, times, etc). A progress report on the PEN maximum likelihood analysis will be presented. Work supported by NSF grant PHY-0970013.

  9. Physically constrained maximum likelihood mode filtering.

    PubMed

    Papp, Joseph C; Preisig, James C; Morozov, Andrey K

    2010-04-01

    Mode filtering is most commonly implemented using the sampled mode shapes or pseudoinverse algorithms. Buck et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 103, 1813-1824 (1998)] placed these techniques in the context of a broader maximum a posteriori (MAP) framework. However, the MAP algorithm requires that the signal and noise statistics be known a priori. Adaptive array processing algorithms are candidates for improving performance without the need for a priori signal and noise statistics. A variant of the physically constrained, maximum likelihood (PCML) algorithm [A. L. Kraay and A. B. Baggeroer, IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 55, 4048-4063 (2007)] is developed for mode filtering that achieves the same performance as the MAP mode filter yet does not need a priori knowledge of the signal and noise statistics. The central innovation of this adaptive mode filter is that the received signal's sample covariance matrix, as estimated by the algorithm, is constrained to be that which can be physically realized given a modal propagation model and an appropriate noise model. Shallow water simulation results are presented showing the benefit of using the PCML method in adaptive mode filtering.

  10. Probably maximum flood of the Sava River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brilly, Mitja; Vidmar, Andrej; Raj, Mojca Å.

    2010-05-01

    The Nuclear Power Plant Krško (NEK) situated on the left bank of the Save River close to the border of Croatia. Probably Maximum Flood, on the location of the NEK could result in combination of probably maximum precipitation, sequential storm before PMP or snowmelt on the Sava River watershed. Mediterranean climate characterises very high precipitation and temporary high snow pack. The HBV-96 model as Integrated Hydrological Modelling System (IHMS) used for modelling. Model was calibrated and verification for daily time step at first for time period 1190-2006. Calibration and verification for hourly time step was done for period 1998-1999. The stream routing parameters were calibrated for flood event in years 1998 and 2007 and than verification for flood event in 1990. Discharge routing data analysis shown that possible inundation of Ljubljana and Savinja valley was not properly estimated. The flood areas are protected with levees and water does not spread over flooded areas in events used for calibration. Inundated areas in Ljubljana valley and Savinja valley are protected by levees and model could not simulate properly inundation of PMF. We recalibrate parameters controlled inundation on those areas for the worst scenario. Calculated PMF values drop down tramendosly after recalibration.

  11. Maximum Correntropy Criterion for Robust Face Recognition.

    PubMed

    He, Ran; Zheng, Wei-Shi; Hu, Bao-Gang

    2011-08-01

    In this paper, we present a sparse correntropy framework for computing robust sparse representations of face images for recognition. Compared with the state-of-the-art l(1)norm-based sparse representation classifier (SRC), which assumes that noise also has a sparse representation, our sparse algorithm is developed based on the maximum correntropy criterion, which is much more insensitive to outliers. In order to develop a more tractable and practical approach, we in particular impose nonnegativity constraint on the variables in the maximum correntropy criterion and develop a half-quadratic optimization technique to approximately maximize the objective function in an alternating way so that the complex optimization problem is reduced to learning a sparse representation through a weighted linear least squares problem with nonnegativity constraint at each iteration. Our extensive experiments demonstrate that the proposed method is more robust and efficient in dealing with the occlusion and corruption problems in face recognition as compared to the related state-of-the-art methods. In particular, it shows that the proposed method can improve both recognition accuracy and receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves, while the computational cost is much lower than the SRC algorithms.

  12. 14 CFR 23.1524 - Maximum passenger seating configuration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maximum passenger seating configuration. 23... Operating Limitations and Information § 23.1524 Maximum passenger seating configuration. The maximum passenger seating configuration must be established....

  13. 14 CFR 23.1524 - Maximum passenger seating configuration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maximum passenger seating configuration. 23... Operating Limitations and Information § 23.1524 Maximum passenger seating configuration. The maximum passenger seating configuration must be established....

  14. 14 CFR 23.1524 - Maximum passenger seating configuration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maximum passenger seating configuration. 23... Operating Limitations and Information § 23.1524 Maximum passenger seating configuration. The maximum passenger seating configuration must be established....

  15. 14 CFR 23.1524 - Maximum passenger seating configuration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum passenger seating configuration. 23... Operating Limitations and Information § 23.1524 Maximum passenger seating configuration. The maximum passenger seating configuration must be established....

  16. 14 CFR 23.1524 - Maximum passenger seating configuration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maximum passenger seating configuration. 23... Operating Limitations and Information § 23.1524 Maximum passenger seating configuration. The maximum passenger seating configuration must be established....

  17. Hydraulic Limits on Maximum Plant Transpiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzoni, S.; Vico, G.; Katul, G. G.; Palmroth, S.; Jackson, R. B.; Porporato, A. M.

    2011-12-01

    Photosynthesis occurs at the expense of water losses through transpiration. As a consequence of this basic carbon-water interaction at the leaf level, plant growth and ecosystem carbon exchanges are tightly coupled to transpiration. In this contribution, the hydraulic constraints that limit transpiration rates under well-watered conditions are examined across plant functional types and climates. The potential water flow through plants is proportional to both xylem hydraulic conductivity (which depends on plant carbon economy) and the difference in water potential between the soil and the atmosphere (the driving force that pulls water from the soil). Differently from previous works, we study how this potential flux changes with the amplitude of the driving force (i.e., we focus on xylem properties and not on stomatal regulation). Xylem hydraulic conductivity decreases as the driving force increases due to cavitation of the tissues. As a result of this negative feedback, more negative leaf (and xylem) water potentials would provide a stronger driving force for water transport, while at the same time limiting xylem hydraulic conductivity due to cavitation. Here, the leaf water potential value that allows an optimum balance between driving force and xylem conductivity is quantified, thus defining the maximum transpiration rate that can be sustained by the soil-to-leaf hydraulic system. To apply the proposed framework at the global scale, a novel database of xylem conductivity and cavitation vulnerability across plant types and biomes is developed. Conductivity and water potential at 50% cavitation are shown to be complementary (in particular between angiosperms and conifers), suggesting a tradeoff between transport efficiency and hydraulic safety. Plants from warmer and drier biomes tend to achieve larger maximum transpiration than plants growing in environments with lower atmospheric water demand. The predicted maximum transpiration and the corresponding leaf water

  18. Characterizing Local Optima for Maximum Parsimony.

    PubMed

    Urheim, Ellen; Ford, Eric; St John, Katherine

    2016-05-01

    Finding the best phylogenetic tree under the maximum parsimony optimality criterion is computationally difficult. We quantify the occurrence of such optima for well-behaved sets of data. When nearest neighbor interchange operations are used, multiple local optima can occur even for "perfect" sequence data, which results in hill-climbing searches that never reach a global optimum. In contrast, we show that when neighbors are defined via the subtree prune and regraft metric, there is a single local optimum for perfect sequence data, and thus, every such search finds a global optimum quickly. We further characterize conditions for which sequences simulated under the Cavender-Farris-Neyman and Jukes-Cantor models of evolution yield well-behaved search spaces. PMID:27234257

  19. The 1989 Solar Maximum Mission event list

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, B. R.; Licata, J. P.; Tolbert, A. K.

    1992-01-01

    This document contains information on solar burst and transient activity observed by the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) during 1989 pointed observations. Data from the following SMM experiments are included: (1) Gamma Ray Spectrometer, (2) Hard X-Ray Burst Spectrometer, (3) Flat Crystal Spectrometer, (4) Bent Crystal Spectrometer, (5) Ultraviolet Spectrometer Polarimeter, and (6) Coronagraph/Polarimeter. Correlative optical, radio, and Geostationary Operational Satellite (GOES) X-ray data are also presented. Where possible, bursts or transients observed in the various wavelengths were grouped into discrete flare events identified by unique event numbers. Each event carries a qualifier denoting the quality or completeness of the observations. Spacecraft pointing coordinates and flare site angular displacement values from sun center are also included.

  20. Maximum life spiral bevel reduction design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, M.; Prasanna, M. G.; Coe, H. H.

    1992-01-01

    Optimization is applied to the design of a spiral bevel gear reduction for maximum life at a given size. A modified feasible directions search algorithm permits a wide variety of inequality constraints and exact design requirements to be met with low sensitivity to initial values. Gear tooth bending strength and minimum contact ratio under load are included in the active constraints. The optimal design of the spiral bevel gear reduction includes the selection of bearing and shaft proportions in addition to gear mesh parameters. System life is maximized subject to a fixed backcone distance of the spiral bevel gear set for a specified speed reduction, shaft angle, input torque, and power. Design examples show the influence of the bearing lives on the gear parameters in the optimal configurations. For a fixed back-cone distance, optimal designs with larger shaft angles have larger service lives.

  1. The 1980 solar maximum mission event listing

    SciTech Connect

    Speich, D.M.; Nelson, J.J.; Licata, J.P.; Tolbert, A.K.

    1991-06-01

    Information is contained on solar burst and transient activity observed by the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) during 1980 pointed observations. Data from the following SMM experiments are included: (1) Gamma Ray Spectrometer, (2) Hard X-Ray Burst Spectrometer, (3) Hard X-Ray Imaging Spectrometer, (4) Flat Crystal Spectrometer, (5) Bent Crystal Spectrometer, (6) Ultraviolet Spectrometer and Polarimeter, and (7) Coronagraph/Polarimeter. Correlative optical, radio, and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) x-ray data are also presented. Where possible, bursts or transients observed in the various wavelengths were grouped into discrete flare events identified by unique event numbers. Each event carries a qualifier denoting the quality or completeness of the observations. Spacecraft pointing coordinates and flare site angular displacement values from Sun center are also included.

  2. Maximum terminal velocity turns at constant altitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisler, G. Richard; Hull, David G.

    An optimal control problem is formulated for a maneuvering reentry vehicle to execute a maximum terminal velocity turn at constant altitude to a fixed final position. A control solution technique is devised which uses a Newton scheme to repetitively solve a nonlinear algebraic system for two parameters to provide the on-line guidance. The turn control takes advantage of the high dynamic pressure at the beginning of the flight path; the lift solution acts to null deviations from the prescribed altitude. Control solutions are compared for a continuously updated, approximate physical model, for a simulation of the approximate optimal guidance in a true physical model, and for a parameter optimization solution for the true model. End constraint satisfaction is excellent. Overall trajectory agreement is good, if the assumed atmospheric model is reasonably accurate.

  3. Maximum terminal velocity turns at constant altitude

    SciTech Connect

    Eisler, G.R.; Hull, D.G.

    1987-01-01

    An optimal control problem is formulated for a maneuvering reentry vehicle to execute a maximum terminal velocity turn at constant altitude to a fixed final position. A control solution technique is devised which uses a Newton scheme to repetitively solve a nonlinear algebraic system for two parameters to provide the on-line guidance. The turn control takes advantage of the high dynamic pressure at the beginning of the flight path; the lift solution acts to null deviations from the prescribed altitude. Control solutions are compared for a continuously updated, approximate physical model, for a simulation of the approximate optimal guidance in a true physical model, and for a parameter optimization solution for the true model. End constraint satisfaction is excellent. Overall trajectory agreement is good, if the assumed atmospheric model is reasonably accurate.

  4. The 1988 Solar Maximum Mission event list

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, B. R.; Licata, J. P.; Tolbert, A. K.

    1992-01-01

    Information on solar burst and transient activity observed by the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) during 1988 pointed observations is presented. Data from the following SMM experiments are included: (1) gamma ray spectrometer; (2) hard x ray burst spectrometer; (3) flat crystal spectrometers; (4) bent crystal spectrometer; (5) ultraviolet spectrometer polarimeter; and (6) coronagraph/polarimeter. Correlative optical, radio, and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) x ray data are also presented. Where possible, bursts, or transients observed in the various wavelengths were grouped into discrete flare events identified by unique event numbers. Each event carries a qualifier denoting the quality or completeness of the observation. Spacecraft pointing coordinates and flare site angular displacement values from sun center are also included.

  5. Experimental shock metamorphism of maximum microcline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, P. B.

    1975-01-01

    A series of recovery experiments are conducted to study the behavior of single-crystal perthitic maximum microcline shock-loaded to a peak pressure of 417 kbar. Microcline is found to deform in a manner similar to quartz and other alkali feldspars. It is observed that shock-induced cleavages occur initially at or slightly below the Hugoniot elastic limit (60-85 kbar), that shock-induced rather than thermal disordering begins above the Hugoniot elastic limit, and that all types of planar elements form parallel to crystallographic planes of low Miller indices. When increasing pressure, it is found that bulk density, refractive indices, and birefringence of the recovered material decrease and approach diaplectic glass values, whereas disappearance and weakening of reflections in Debye-Sherrer patterns are due to disordering of the feldspar lattice.

  6. Quantum gravity momentum representation and maximum energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moffat, J. W.

    2016-11-01

    We use the idea of the symmetry between the spacetime coordinates xμ and the energy-momentum pμ in quantum theory to construct a momentum space quantum gravity geometry with a metric sμν and a curvature tensor Pλ μνρ. For a closed maximally symmetric momentum space with a constant 3-curvature, the volume of the p-space admits a cutoff with an invariant maximum momentum a. A Wheeler-DeWitt-type wave equation is obtained in the momentum space representation. The vacuum energy density and the self-energy of a charged particle are shown to be finite, and modifications of the electromagnetic radiation density and the entropy density of a system of particles occur for high frequencies.

  7. Maximum entropy principle and relativistic hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Weert, Ch. G.

    1982-04-01

    A relativistic theory of hydrodynamics applicable beyond the hydrodynamic regime is developed on the basis of the maximum entropy principle. This allows the construction of a unique statistical operator representing the state of the system as specified by the values of the hydrodynamical densities. Special attention is paid to the thermodynamic limit and the virial theorem which leads to an expression for the pressure in terms of the field-theoretic energymomentum tensor of Coleman and Jackiw. It is argued that outside the hydrodynamic regime the notion of a local Gibbs relation, as usually postulated, must be abandoned in general. In the nontext of the linear approximation, the memory-retaining and non-local generalizations of the relativistic Navier-Stokes equations are derived from the underlying Heisenberg equations of motion. The formal similarity to the Zwanzig-Mori description of non-relativistic fluids is expounded.

  8. Maximum efficiency of the collisional Penrose process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaslavskii, O. B.

    2016-09-01

    We consider the collision of two particles that move in the equatorial plane near a general stationary rotating axially symmetric extremal black hole. One of the particles is critical (with fine-tuned parameters) and moves in the outward direction. The second particle (usual, not fine-tuned) comes from infinity. We examine the efficiency η of the collisional Penrose process. There are two relevant cases here: a particle falling into a black hole after collision (i) is heavy or (ii) has a finite mass. We show that the maximum of η in case (ii) is less than or equal to that in case (i). It is argued that for superheavy particles, the bound applies to nonequatorial motion as well. As an example, we analyze collision in the Kerr-Newman background. When the bound is the same for processes (i) and (ii), η =3 for this metric. For the Kerr black hole, recent results in the literature are reproduced.

  9. A general optimization for maximum terminal velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vulpetti, G.

    1982-09-01

    A numerical model is developed to determine the maximum velocity which can be attained by a rocket propulsion system. Particular attention is given to the ratio of active mass, that which can be converted to propulsive energy, to inert mass, which remains after the propulsive energy is expended. Calculations are based on the law of conservation of energy applied to a spaceship with chemical, laser-sail, interstellar ramjet, and annihilation engines. Limits on the exhaust velocity of the thrust system are neglected. Specific attention is given to relativistic calculations involving the annihilation reactions, noting that classical propulsion systems have critical mass values significantly lower than the propulsion required by extra-solar system flight. Numerical results are presented of critical values of propellant which produce an optimal jet speed, which is determined to be a constant.

  10. Maximum entropy model for business cycle synchronization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Ning; Muneepeerakul, Rachata; Azaele, Sandro; Wang, Yougui

    2014-11-01

    The global economy is a complex dynamical system, whose cyclical fluctuations can mainly be characterized by simultaneous recessions or expansions of major economies. Thus, the researches on the synchronization phenomenon are key to understanding and controlling the dynamics of the global economy. Based on a pairwise maximum entropy model, we analyze the business cycle synchronization of the G7 economic system. We obtain a pairwise-interaction network, which exhibits certain clustering structure and accounts for 45% of the entire structure of the interactions within the G7 system. We also find that the pairwise interactions become increasingly inadequate in capturing the synchronization as the size of economic system grows. Thus, higher-order interactions must be taken into account when investigating behaviors of large economic systems.

  11. Diffusivity Maximum in a Reentrant Nematic Phase

    PubMed Central

    Stieger, Tillmann; Mazza, Marco G.; Schoen, Martin

    2012-01-01

    We report molecular dynamics simulations of confined liquid crystals using the Gay–Berne–Kihara model. Upon isobaric cooling, the standard sequence of isotropic–nematic–smectic A phase transitions is found. Upon further cooling a reentrant nematic phase occurs. We investigate the temperature dependence of the self-diffusion coefficient of the fluid in the nematic, smectic and reentrant nematic phases. We find a maximum in diffusivity upon isobaric cooling. Diffusion increases dramatically in the reentrant phase due to the high orientational molecular order. As the temperature is lowered, the diffusion coefficient follows an Arrhenius behavior. The activation energy of the reentrant phase is found in reasonable agreement with the reported experimental data. We discuss how repulsive interactions may be the underlying mechanism that could explain the occurrence of reentrant nematic behavior for polar and non-polar molecules. PMID:22837730

  12. Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Airborne Contaminants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2008-01-01

    The enclosed table lists official spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMACs), which are guideline values set by the NASA/JSC Toxicology Group in cooperation with the National Research Council Committee on Toxicology (NRCCOT). These values should not be used for situations other than human space flight without careful consideration of the criteria used to set each value. The SMACs take into account a number of unique factors such as the effect of space-flight stress on human physiology, the uniform good health of the astronauts, and the absence of pregnant or very young individuals. Documentation of the values is given in a 5 volume series of books entitled "Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants" published by the National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. These books can be viewed electronically at http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=9786&page=3. Short-term (1 and 24 hour) SMACs are set to manage accidental releases aboard a spacecraft and permit risk of minor, reversible effects such as mild mucosal irritation. In contrast, the long-term SMACs are set to fully protect healthy crewmembers from adverse effects resulting from continuous exposure to specific air pollutants for up to 1000 days. Crewmembers with allergies or unusual sensitivity to trace pollutants may not be afforded complete protection, even when long-term SMACs are not exceeded. Crewmember exposures involve a mixture of contaminants, each at a specific concentration (C(sub n)). These contaminants could interact to elicit symptoms of toxicity even though individual contaminants do not exceed their respective SMACs. The air quality is considered acceptable when the toxicity index (T(sub grp)) for each toxicological group of compounds is less than 1, where T(sub grp), is calculated as follows: T(sub grp) = C(sub 1)/SMAC(sub 1) + C(sub 2/SMAC(sub 2) + ...+C(sub n)/SMAC(sub n).

  13. The effects of training volume and competition on the salivary cortisol concentrations of Olympic weightlifters.

    PubMed

    Crewther, Blair T; Heke, Taati; Keogh, Justin W L

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effects of training volume and competition on the salivary cortisol (Sal-C) concentrations of Olympic weightlifters. Male (n = 5) and female (n = 4) Olympic weightlifters provided saliva samples across a 5-week experimental = period. The first aim was to assess the weekly effects of high (≥ 200 sets) and low (≤ 100 sets) training volume on Sal-C. The second aim was to compare Sal-C concentrations and 1 repetition maximum (1RM) performance during 2 simulated and 2 actual competitions. Performance was assessed using the snatch, clean and jerk, and the Olympic total lift. Data from each competition setting were pooled before analysis. There were no significant weekly changes in Sal-C levels (p > 0.05). The actual competitions produced higher (128-130%) Sal-C concentrations (p < 0.001) and superior 1RM lifts (1.9-2.6%) for the clean and jerk, and the Olympic total, than the simulated competitions (p < 0.05). Individual Sal-C concentrations before the simulated competitions were positively correlated to all of the 1RM lifts (r = 0.48-0.49, p < 0.05). In conclusion, actual competitions produced greater Sal-C responses than simulated competitions, and this appeared to benefit the 1RM performance of Olympic weightlifters. Individuals with higher Sal-C concentrations also tended to exhibit superior 1RM lifts during the simulated competitions. Given these findings, greater emphasis should be placed upon the monitoring of C to establish normative values, training standards and to assist with performance prediction.

  14. Elastic Bands as a Component of Periodized Resistance Training.

    PubMed

    Joy, Jordan M; Lowery, Ryan P; Oliveira de Souza, Eduardo; Wilson, Jacob M

    2016-08-01

    Joy, JM, Lowery, RP, Oliveira de Souza, E, and Wilson, JM. Elastic bands as a component of periodized resistance training. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2100-2106, 2016-Variable resistance training (VRT) has recently become a component of strength and conditioning programs. Prior research has demonstrated increases in power and/or strength using low loads of variable resistance. However, no study has examined using high loads of variable resistance as a part of a periodized training protocol to examine VRT within the context of a periodized training program and to examine a greater load of variable resistance than has been examined in prior research. Fourteen National Collegiate Athletic Association division II male basketball players were recruited for this study. Athletes were divided equally into either a variable resistance or control group. The variable resistance group added 30% of their 1 repetition maximum (1RM) as band tension to their prescribed weight 1 session per week. Rate of power development (RPD), peak power, strength, body composition, and vertical jump height were measured pretreatment and posttreatment. No baseline differences were observed between groups for any measurement of strength, power, or body composition. A significant group by time interaction was observed for RPD, in which RPD was greater in VRT posttraining than in the control group. Significant time effects were observed for all other variables including squat 1RM, bench press 1RM, deadlift 1RM, clean 3RM, vertical jump, and lean mass. Although there were no significant group ×-time interactions, the VRT group's percent changes and effect sizes indicate a larger treatment effect in the squat and bench press 1RM values and the vertical jump performed on the force plate and vertec. These results suggest that when using variable resistance as a component of a periodized training program, power and strength can be enhanced. Therefore, athletes who add variable resistance to 1 training

  15. Acute Effects of Elastic Bands on Kinetic Characteristics During the Deadlift at Moderate and Heavy Loads.

    PubMed

    Galpin, Andrew J; Malyszek, Kylie K; Davis, Kyle A; Record, Shaina M; Brown, Lee E; Coburn, Jared W; Harmon, RoQue A; Steele, Jeff M; Manolovitz, Adam D

    2015-12-01

    Loading a barbell with variable resistance positively alters kinetic characteristics during the back squat and bench press but has never been studied during the deadlift. The purpose of this project was to examine the acute effects of combining elastic bands and free weights during the deadlift at moderate and heavy loads. Twelve trained men (age: 24.08 ± 2.35 years, height: 175.94 ± 5.38 cm, mass: 85.58 ± 12.49 kg, deadlift 1 repetition maximum (RM): 188.64 ± 16.13 kg) completed 2 variable resistance (B1 and B2) and 1 traditional free-weight (NB) condition at both 60 and 85% 1RM on a force plate. B1 had 15% resistance from bands, with the remaining 85% from free weights. B2 had 35% bands and 65% free weights. NB used free weights only. Average resistance was equated for all conditions. Power and velocity generally increased, whereas force decreased with the addition of bands. The amount of band tension (B1 or B2) had little impact on power when lifting at 60% 1RM. However, greater resistance from bands resulted in greater peak and relative power when lifting at 85% 1RM. Adding elastic bands decreased time to peak force (PF), time between PF and peak power (PP), and time between PF and peak velocity (PV) when compared with NB at 60% 1RM (NB > B1 > B2). These differences only reached significance for NB > B2 when lifting at 85% 1RM. These same differences existed for time between PP and PV. Thus, the amount of tension from bands has less impact on interpeak variables at heavier absolute loads. Practitioners should consider using heavy bands when prescribing the deadlift for speed or power, but not maximal force. PMID:26079737

  16. Physiological profile of elite Chinese female wrestlers.

    PubMed

    Zi-Hong, He; Lian-Shi, Feng; Hao-Jie, Zhang; Kui-Yuan, Xu; Feng-Tang, Chi; Da-Lang, Tao; Ming-Yi, Liu; Lucia, Alejandro; Fleck, Steven J

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to describe the physiological profile of elite, senior Chinese female wrestlers. Twenty-five elite wrestlers, nationally ranked in the top 3 of their weight class, participated in this study. The subjects included Olympic and world champion medalists. The physiological profile included testing of running maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), 3,200-m run time, 400-m run time, 30-second Wingate anaerobic power and capacity, shoulder, elbow, knee, and trunk isokinetic torque, and 1 repetition maximums (1RMs) in specified exercises. The major results (mean ± SD) were VO2max: 50.58 ± 3.33 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1); 3,200-m run: 14 minutes 1 second ± 49 seconds; 400-m run: 1 minute 11 seconds ± 4 seconds; Wingate maximal anaerobic power: 495.21 ± 79.13 W and mean power: 262.97 ± 52.39 W; 1RM deadlift: 124 ± 19 kg; 1RM deep squat: 98 ± 11 kg; 1RM prone rowing: 72 ± 8 kg; 1RM power clean: 76 ± 12 kg; and 1RM hold and squat: 109 ± 17 kg. In absolute terms in the majority of measures, the heavier weight classes had greater values than the lighter weight classes, but relative to body mass, there were few differences in measures between the weight classes. The Olympic and World Championship medalist had the best value or was at the upper end of a measure's range for the strength and power measures. The results indicate that female wrestling success is not dependent on one physiological characteristic, but that a variety of physiological profiles can result in success. These data on elite female wrestlers can be compared with other wrestlers to help determine individual weaknesses or strengths and to design training programs that result in wrestling success. PMID:23238092

  17. Maximal strength training in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis or osteopenia.

    PubMed

    Mosti, Mats P; Kaehler, Nils; Stunes, Astrid K; Hoff, Jan; Syversen, Unni

    2013-10-01

    Current guidelines recommend weight-bearing activities, preferably strength training for improving skeletal health in patients with osteoporosis. What type of strength training that is most beneficial for these patients is not established. Maximal strength training (MST) is known to improve 1-repetition maximum (1RM) and rate of force development (RFD), which are considered as important covariables for skeletal health. Squat exercise MST might serve as an effective intervention for patients with low bone mass. We hypothesized that 12 weeks of squat exercise MST would improve 1RM and RFD in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis or osteopenia and that these changes would coincide with improved bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC), and serum markers of bone metabolism. The participants were randomized to a training group (TG, n = 10) or control group (CG, n = 11). The TG underwent 12 weeks of supervised squat exercise MST, 3 times a week, with emphasis on rapid initiation of the concentric part of the movement. The CG was encouraged to follow current exercise guidelines. Measurements included 1RM, RFD, BMD, BMC, and serum bone metabolism markers; type 1 collagen amino-terminal propeptide (P1NP) and type 1 collagen C breakdown products (CTX). At posttest, 8 participants remained in each group for statistical analyses. The TG improved the 1RM and RFD by 154 and 52%, respectively. Lumbar spine and femoral neck BMC increased by 2.9 and 4.9%. The ratio of serum P1NP/CTX tended to increase (p = 0.09), indicating stimulation of bone formation. In conclusion, squat exercise MST improved 1RM, RFD, and skeletal properties in postmenopausal women with osteopenia or osteoporosis. The MST can be implemented as a simple and effective training method for patients with reduced bone mass.

  18. Baseline strength can influence the ability of salivary free testosterone to predict squat and sprinting performance.

    PubMed

    Crewther, Blair T; Cook, Christian J; Gaviglio, Chris M; Kilduff, Liam P; Drawer, Scott

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if salivary free testosterone can predict an athlete's performance during back squats and sprints over time and the influence baseline strength on this relationship. Ten weight-trained male athletes were divided into 2 groups based on their 1 repetition maximum (1RM) squats, good squatters (1RM > 2.0 × body weight, n = 5) and average squatters (1RM < 1.9 × body weight, n = 5). The good squatters were stronger than the average squatters (p < 0.05). Each subject was assessed for squat 1RM and 10-m sprint times on 10 separate occasions over a 40-day period. A saliva sample was collected before testing and assayed for free testosterone and cortisol. The pooled testosterone correlations were strong and significant in the good squatters (r = 0.92 for squats, r = -0.87 for sprints, p < 0.01), but not significant for the average squatters (r = 0.35 for squats, r = -0.18 for sprints). Cortisol showed no significant correlations with 1RM squat and 10-m sprint performance, and no differences were identified between the 2 squatting groups. In summary, these results suggest that free testosterone is a strong individual predictor of squat and sprinting performance in individuals with relatively high strength levels but a poor predictor in less strong individuals. This information can assist coaches, trainers, and performance scientists working with stronger weight-trained athletes, for example, the preworkout measurement of free testosterone could indicate likely training outcomes or a readiness to train at a certain intensity level, especially if real-time measurements are made. Our results also highlight the need to separate group and individual hormonal data during the repeated testing of athletes with variable strength levels.

  19. Elastic Bands as a Component of Periodized Resistance Training.

    PubMed

    Joy, Jordan M; Lowery, Ryan P; Oliveira de Souza, Eduardo; Wilson, Jacob M

    2016-08-01

    Joy, JM, Lowery, RP, Oliveira de Souza, E, and Wilson, JM. Elastic bands as a component of periodized resistance training. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2100-2106, 2016-Variable resistance training (VRT) has recently become a component of strength and conditioning programs. Prior research has demonstrated increases in power and/or strength using low loads of variable resistance. However, no study has examined using high loads of variable resistance as a part of a periodized training protocol to examine VRT within the context of a periodized training program and to examine a greater load of variable resistance than has been examined in prior research. Fourteen National Collegiate Athletic Association division II male basketball players were recruited for this study. Athletes were divided equally into either a variable resistance or control group. The variable resistance group added 30% of their 1 repetition maximum (1RM) as band tension to their prescribed weight 1 session per week. Rate of power development (RPD), peak power, strength, body composition, and vertical jump height were measured pretreatment and posttreatment. No baseline differences were observed between groups for any measurement of strength, power, or body composition. A significant group by time interaction was observed for RPD, in which RPD was greater in VRT posttraining than in the control group. Significant time effects were observed for all other variables including squat 1RM, bench press 1RM, deadlift 1RM, clean 3RM, vertical jump, and lean mass. Although there were no significant group ×-time interactions, the VRT group's percent changes and effect sizes indicate a larger treatment effect in the squat and bench press 1RM values and the vertical jump performed on the force plate and vertec. These results suggest that when using variable resistance as a component of a periodized training program, power and strength can be enhanced. Therefore, athletes who add variable resistance to 1 training

  20. The effect of stance width on the electromyographical activity of eight superficial thigh muscles during back squat with different bar loads.

    PubMed

    Paoli, Antonio; Marcolin, Giuseppe; Petrone, Nicola

    2009-01-01

    Many strength trainers believe that varying the stance width during the back squat can target specific muscles of the thigh. The aim of the present work was to test this theory measuring the activation of 8 thigh muscles while performing back squats at 3 stance widths and with 3 different bar loads. Six experienced lifters performed 3 sets of 10 repetitions of squats, each one with a different stance width, using 3 resistances: no load, 30% of 1-repetition maximum (1RM), and 70% 1RM. Sets were separated by 6 minutes of rest. Electromyographic (EMG) surface electrodes were placed on the vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, rectus femoris, semitendinosus, biceps femoris, gluteus maximus, gluteus medium, and adductor maior. Analysis of variance and Scheffè post hoc tests indicated a significant difference in EMG activity only for the gluteus maximus; in particular, there was a higher electrical activity of this muscle when back squats were performed at the maximum stance widths at 0 and 70% 1RM. There were no significant differences concerning the EMG activity of the other analyzed muscles. These findings suggest that a large width is necessary for a greater activation of the gluteus maximus during back squats. PMID:19130646

  1. Maximal strength on different resistance training rowing exercises predicts start phase performance in elite kayakers.

    PubMed

    Ualí, Ismael; Herrero, Azael J; Garatachea, Nuria; Marín, Pedro J; Alvear-Ordenes, Ildefonso; García-López, David

    2012-04-01

    This study aimed to examine the relationship existing between maximum strength values in 2 common resistance training row exercises (bilateral bench pull [BBP] and one-arm cable row [OACR]) and short sprint performance in elite kayakers. Ten junior kayakers (5 women and 5 men) were tested on different days for 1 repetition maximum (1RM) and maximal voluntary isometric contraction in both exercises. Moreover, a 12-m sprint kayak was performed in a dew pond to record split times (2, 5, and 10 m), peak velocity, distance completed considering the first 8 strokes, and mean acceleration induced by right blade and left blade strokes. No differences (p > 0.05) were observed when right and left arms were compared in sprint testing or strength testing variables. Maximal strength values in BBP and OACR were significantly correlated with short sprint performance variables, showing the bilateral exercise with slightly stronger correlation coefficients than the unilateral seated row. Moreover, the relationship between strength testing and sprint testing variables is stronger when maximal force is measured through a dynamic approach (1RM) in comparison with an isometric approach. In conclusion, maximal strength in BBP and OACR is a good predictor of the start phase performance in elite sprint kayakers, mainly the 1RM value in BBP.

  2. Maximum life spiral bevel reduction design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, M.; Prasanna, M. G.; Coe, H. H.

    1992-01-01

    Optimization is applied to the design of a spiral bevel gear reduction for maximum life at a given size. A modified feasible directions search algorithm permits a wide variety of inequality constraints and exact design requirements to be met with low sensitivity to initial values. Gear tooth bending strength and minimum contact ratio under load are included in the active constraints. The optimal design of the spiral bevel gear reduction includes the selection of bearing and shaft proportions in addition to gear mesh parameters. System life is maximized subject to a fixed back-cone distance of the spiral bevel gear set for a specified speed ratio, shaft angle, input torque, and power. Significant parameters in the design are: the spiral angle, the pressure angle, the numbers of teeth on the pinion and gear, and the location and size of the four support bearings. Interpolated polynomials expand the discrete bearing properties and proportions into continuous variables for gradient optimization. After finding the continuous optimum, a designer can analyze near optimal designs for comparison and selection. Design examples show the influence of the bearing lives on the gear parameters in the optimal configurations. For a fixed back-cone distance, optimal designs with larger shaft angles have larger service lives.

  3. Uncertainty analysis for Probable Maximum Precipitation estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micovic, Zoran; Schaefer, Melvin G.; Taylor, George H.

    2015-02-01

    An analysis of uncertainty associated with Probable Maximum Precipitation (PMP) estimates is presented. The focus of the study is firmly on PMP estimates derived through meteorological analyses and not on statistically derived PMPs. Theoretical PMP cannot be computed directly and operational PMP estimates are developed through a stepwise procedure using a significant degree of subjective professional judgment. This paper presents a methodology for portraying the uncertain nature of PMP estimation by analyzing individual steps within the PMP derivation procedure whereby for each parameter requiring judgment, a set of possible values is specified and accompanied by expected probabilities. The resulting range of possible PMP values can be compared with the previously derived operational single-value PMP, providing measures of the conservatism and variability of the original estimate. To our knowledge, this is the first uncertainty analysis conducted for a PMP derived through meteorological analyses. The methodology was tested on the La Joie Dam watershed in British Columbia. The results indicate that the commonly used single-value PMP estimate could be more than 40% higher when possible changes in various meteorological variables used to derive the PMP are considered. The findings of this study imply that PMP estimates should always be characterized as a range of values recognizing the significant uncertainties involved in PMP estimation. In fact, we do not know at this time whether precipitation is actually upper-bounded, and if precipitation is upper-bounded, how closely PMP estimates approach the theoretical limit.

  4. Maximum likelihood inference of reticulate evolutionary histories.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yun; Dong, Jianrong; Liu, Kevin J; Nakhleh, Luay

    2014-11-18

    Hybridization plays an important role in the evolution of certain groups of organisms, adaptation to their environments, and diversification of their genomes. The evolutionary histories of such groups are reticulate, and methods for reconstructing them are still in their infancy and have limited applicability. We present a maximum likelihood method for inferring reticulate evolutionary histories while accounting simultaneously for incomplete lineage sorting. Additionally, we propose methods for assessing confidence in the amount of reticulation and the topology of the inferred evolutionary history. Our method obtains accurate estimates of reticulate evolutionary histories on simulated datasets. Furthermore, our method provides support for a hypothesis of a reticulate evolutionary history inferred from a set of house mouse (Mus musculus) genomes. As evidence of hybridization in eukaryotic groups accumulates, it is essential to have methods that infer reticulate evolutionary histories. The work we present here allows for such inference and provides a significant step toward putting phylogenetic networks on par with phylogenetic trees as a model of capturing evolutionary relationships. PMID:25368173

  5. CORA: Emission Line Fitting with Maximum Likelihood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ness, Jan-Uwe; Wichmann, Rainer

    2011-12-01

    The advent of pipeline-processed data both from space- and ground-based observatories often disposes of the need of full-fledged data reduction software with its associated steep learning curve. In many cases, a simple tool doing just one task, and doing it right, is all one wishes. In this spirit we introduce CORA, a line fitting tool based on the maximum likelihood technique, which has been developed for the analysis of emission line spectra with low count numbers and has successfully been used in several publications. CORA uses a rigorous application of Poisson statistics. From the assumption of Poissonian noise we derive the probability for a model of the emission line spectrum to represent the measured spectrum. The likelihood function is used as a criterion for optimizing the parameters of the theoretical spectrum and a fixed point equation is derived allowing an efficient way to obtain line fluxes. As an example we demonstrate the functionality of the program with an X-ray spectrum of Capella obtained with the Low Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (LETGS) on board the Chandra observatory and choose the analysis of the Ne IX triplet around 13.5 Å.

  6. CORA - emission line fitting with Maximum Likelihood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ness, J.-U.; Wichmann, R.

    2002-07-01

    The advent of pipeline-processed data both from space- and ground-based observatories often disposes of the need of full-fledged data reduction software with its associated steep learning curve. In many cases, a simple tool doing just one task, and doing it right, is all one wishes. In this spirit we introduce CORA, a line fitting tool based on the maximum likelihood technique, which has been developed for the analysis of emission line spectra with low count numbers and has successfully been used in several publications. CORA uses a rigorous application of Poisson statistics. From the assumption of Poissonian noise we derive the probability for a model of the emission line spectrum to represent the measured spectrum. The likelihood function is used as a criterion for optimizing the parameters of the theoretical spectrum and a fixed point equation is derived allowing an efficient way to obtain line fluxes. As an example we demonstrate the functionality of the program with an X-ray spectrum of Capella obtained with the Low Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (LETGS) on board the Chandra observatory and choose the analysis of the Ne IX triplet around 13.5 Å.

  7. Maximum windmill efficiency in finite time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huleihil, Mahmoud

    2009-05-01

    The fraction of the kinetic energy of the wind impinging on the rotor-swept area that a wind turbine can convert to useful power has been shown by Betz in an idealized laminar-flow model to have an upper limit of 16/27 or 59% approximately [I. H. Shames, Mechanics of Fluids, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1982), pp. A26-A31]. This figure is known as Betz number. Other studies [A. Rauh and W. Seelret, Appl. Energy 17, 15 (1984)] suggested that this figure should be considered as a guideline. In this paper, a new model is introduced and its efficiency at maximum power output is derived. The derived value is shown to be a function of the Betz number B and given by the formula ηmp=1-√1-B . This value is 36.2%, which agrees well with those of actually operating wind turbines. As a guideline, the wind turbine efficiency can be considered to be within the range of the two numbers of merit, the Betz number and ηmp.

  8. Theoretical Estimate of Maximum Possible Nuclear Explosion

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Bethe, H. A.

    1950-01-31

    The maximum nuclear accident which could occur in a Na-cooled, Be moderated, Pu and power producing reactor is estimated theoretically. (T.R.H.) 2O82 Results of nuclear calculations for a variety of compositions of fast, heterogeneous, sodium-cooled, U-235-fueled, plutonium- and power-producing reactors are reported. Core compositions typical of plate-, pin-, or wire-type fuel elements and with uranium as metal, alloy, and oxide were considered. These compositions included atom ratios in the following range: U-23B to U-235 from 2 to 8; sodium to U-235 from 1.5 to 12; iron to U-235 from 5 to 18; and vanadium to U-235 from 11 to 33. Calculations were performed to determine the effect of lead and iron reflectors between the core and blanket. Both natural and depleted uranium were evaluated as the blanket fertile material. Reactors were compared on a basis of conversion ratio, specific power, and the product of both. The calculated results are in general agreement with the experimental results from fast reactor assemblies. An analysis of the effect of new cross-section values as they became available is included. (auth)

  9. TRENDS IN ESTIMATED MIXING DEPTH DAILY MAXIMUMS

    SciTech Connect

    Buckley, R; Amy DuPont, A; Robert Kurzeja, R; Matt Parker, M

    2007-11-12

    Mixing depth is an important quantity in the determination of air pollution concentrations. Fireweather forecasts depend strongly on estimates of the mixing depth as a means of determining the altitude and dilution (ventilation rates) of smoke plumes. The Savannah River United States Forest Service (USFS) routinely conducts prescribed fires at the Savannah River Site (SRS), a heavily wooded Department of Energy (DOE) facility located in southwest South Carolina. For many years, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has provided forecasts of weather conditions in support of the fire program, including an estimated mixing depth using potential temperature and turbulence change with height at a given location. This paper examines trends in the average estimated mixing depth daily maximum at the SRS over an extended period of time (4.75 years) derived from numerical atmospheric simulations using two versions of the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). This allows for differences to be seen between the model versions, as well as trends on a multi-year time frame. In addition, comparisons of predicted mixing depth for individual days in which special balloon soundings were released are also discussed.

  10. PAML 4: phylogenetic analysis by maximum likelihood.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ziheng

    2007-08-01

    PAML, currently in version 4, is a package of programs for phylogenetic analyses of DNA and protein sequences using maximum likelihood (ML). The programs may be used to compare and test phylogenetic trees, but their main strengths lie in the rich repertoire of evolutionary models implemented, which can be used to estimate parameters in models of sequence evolution and to test interesting biological hypotheses. Uses of the programs include estimation of synonymous and nonsynonymous rates (d(N) and d(S)) between two protein-coding DNA sequences, inference of positive Darwinian selection through phylogenetic comparison of protein-coding genes, reconstruction of ancestral genes and proteins for molecular restoration studies of extinct life forms, combined analysis of heterogeneous data sets from multiple gene loci, and estimation of species divergence times incorporating uncertainties in fossil calibrations. This note discusses some of the major applications of the package, which includes example data sets to demonstrate their use. The package is written in ANSI C, and runs under Windows, Mac OSX, and UNIX systems. It is available at -- (http://abacus.gene.ucl.ac.uk/software/paml.html).

  11. Visual tracking by separability-maximum boosting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Jie; Mao, Yao-bin; Sun, Jin-sheng

    2013-10-01

    Recently, visual tracking has been formulated as a classification problem whose task is to detect the object from the scene with a binary classifier. Boosting based online feature selection methods, which adopt the classifier to appearance changes by choosing the most discriminative features, have been demonstrated to be effective for visual tracking. A major problem of such online feature selection methods is that an inaccurate classifier may give imprecise tracking windows. Tracking error accumulates when the tracker trains the classifier with misaligned samples and finally leads to drifting. Separability-maximum boosting (SMBoost), an alternative form of AdaBoost which characterizes the separability between the object and the scene by their means and covariance matrices, is proposed. SMBoost only needs the means and covariance matrices during training and can be easily adopted to online learning problems by estimating the statistics incrementally. Experiment on UCI machine learning datasets shows that SMBoost is as accurate as offline AdaBoost, and significantly outperforms Oza's online boosting. Accurate classifier stabilizes the tracker on challenging video sequences. Empirical results also demonstrate improvements in term of tracking precision and speed, comparing ours to those state-of-the-art ones.

  12. Approach trajectory planning system for maximum concealment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, David N., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A computer-simulation study was undertaken to investigate a maximum concealment guidance technique (pop-up maneuver), which military aircraft may use to capture a glide path from masked, low-altitude flight typical of terrain following/terrain avoidance flight enroute. The guidance system applied to this problem is the Fuel Conservative Guidance System. Previous studies using this system have concentrated on the saving of fuel in basically conventional land and ship-based operations. Because this system is based on energy-management concepts, it also has direct application to the pop-up approach which exploits aircraft performance. Although the algorithm was initially designed to reduce fuel consumption, the commanded deceleration is at its upper limit during the pop-up and, therefore, is a good approximation of a minimum-time solution. Using the model of a powered-lift aircraft, the results of the study demonstrated that guidance commands generated by the system are well within the capability of an automatic flight-control system. Results for several initial approach conditions are presented.

  13. Maximum likelihood continuity mapping for fraud detection

    SciTech Connect

    Hogden, J.

    1997-05-01

    The author describes a novel time-series analysis technique called maximum likelihood continuity mapping (MALCOM), and focuses on one application of MALCOM: detecting fraud in medical insurance claims. Given a training data set composed of typical sequences, MALCOM creates a stochastic model of sequence generation, called a continuity map (CM). A CM maximizes the probability of sequences in the training set given the model constraints, CMs can be used to estimate the likelihood of sequences not found in the training set, enabling anomaly detection and sequence prediction--important aspects of data mining. Since MALCOM can be used on sequences of categorical data (e.g., sequences of words) as well as real valued data, MALCOM is also a potential replacement for database search tools such as N-gram analysis. In a recent experiment, MALCOM was used to evaluate the likelihood of patient medical histories, where ``medical history`` is used to mean the sequence of medical procedures performed on a patient. Physicians whose patients had anomalous medical histories (according to MALCOM) were evaluated for fraud by an independent agency. Of the small sample (12 physicians) that has been evaluated, 92% have been determined fraudulent or abusive. Despite the small sample, these results are encouraging.

  14. 46 CFR 154.556 - Cargo hose: Maximum working pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cargo hose: Maximum working pressure. 154.556 Section... Equipment Cargo Hose § 154.556 Cargo hose: Maximum working pressure. A cargo hose must have a maximum working pressure not less than the maximum pressure to which it may be subjected and at least 1034...

  15. 46 CFR 154.556 - Cargo hose: Maximum working pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo hose: Maximum working pressure. 154.556 Section... Equipment Cargo Hose § 154.556 Cargo hose: Maximum working pressure. A cargo hose must have a maximum working pressure not less than the maximum pressure to which it may be subjected and at least 1034...

  16. 14 CFR 23.1527 - Maximum operating altitude.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maximum operating altitude. 23.1527 Section... Information § 23.1527 Maximum operating altitude. (a) The maximum altitude up to which operation is allowed... established. (b) A maximum operating altitude limitation of not more than 25,000 feet must be established...

  17. 14 CFR 23.1527 - Maximum operating altitude.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maximum operating altitude. 23.1527 Section... Information § 23.1527 Maximum operating altitude. (a) The maximum altitude up to which operation is allowed... established. (b) A maximum operating altitude limitation of not more than 25,000 feet must be established...

  18. 14 CFR 23.1527 - Maximum operating altitude.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maximum operating altitude. 23.1527 Section... Information § 23.1527 Maximum operating altitude. (a) The maximum altitude up to which operation is allowed... established. (b) A maximum operating altitude limitation of not more than 25,000 feet must be established...

  19. 14 CFR 23.1527 - Maximum operating altitude.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maximum operating altitude. 23.1527 Section... Information § 23.1527 Maximum operating altitude. (a) The maximum altitude up to which operation is allowed... established. (b) A maximum operating altitude limitation of not more than 25,000 feet must be established...

  20. 21 CFR 17.2 - Maximum penalty amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Maximum penalty amounts. 17.2 Section 17.2 Food... PENALTIES HEARINGS § 17.2 Maximum penalty amounts. The following table shows maximum civil monetary... Penalty Amounts U.S.C. Section Former Maximum Penalty Amount (in dollars) Assessment Method Date of...

  1. 20 CFR 211.14 - Maximum creditable compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maximum creditable compensation. 211.14... CREDITABLE RAILROAD COMPENSATION § 211.14 Maximum creditable compensation. Maximum creditable compensation... Employment Accounts shall notify each employer of the amount of maximum creditable compensation applicable...

  2. 24 CFR 941.306 - Maximum project cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Maximum project cost. 941.306... DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC HOUSING DEVELOPMENT Application and Proposal § 941.306 Maximum project cost. (a) Calculation of maximum project cost. The maximum project cost represents the total amount of public...

  3. 24 CFR 941.306 - Maximum project cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maximum project cost. 941.306... DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC HOUSING DEVELOPMENT Application and Proposal § 941.306 Maximum project cost. (a) Calculation of maximum project cost. The maximum project cost represents the total amount of public...

  4. 49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24... Allowable Stress § 230.24 Maximum allowable stress. (a) Maximum allowable stress value. The maximum allowable stress value on any component of a steam locomotive boiler shall not exceed 1/4 of the...

  5. 49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24... Allowable Stress § 230.24 Maximum allowable stress. (a) Maximum allowable stress value. The maximum allowable stress value on any component of a steam locomotive boiler shall not exceed 1/4 of the...

  6. 49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24... Allowable Stress § 230.24 Maximum allowable stress. (a) Maximum allowable stress value. The maximum allowable stress value on any component of a steam locomotive boiler shall not exceed 1/4 of the...

  7. 49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24... Allowable Stress § 230.24 Maximum allowable stress. (a) Maximum allowable stress value. The maximum allowable stress value on any component of a steam locomotive boiler shall not exceed 1/4 of the...

  8. Paleofield of early space, maximum estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kletetschka, G.; Wasilewski, P. J.

    2001-12-01

    Magnetic records in meteorites have been used by many to estimate paleofield in early history of our solar system. Modified Thellier-Thellier analyses provided paleofield intensities in broad range of values (10,000-200,000nT). However, in meteorites we can never assume that the NRM is a TRM. In fact any meteorite with plessite or grains with the "M" shaped diffusion profiles will contain, anisotropic and interacting mineralogies for which we do not have a physical model. The carbonaceous chondrites that are likely to have their useful NRM's associated with hydrothermal events against a thermochemical remanence are very difficult to deal with since even if a non-thermal paleofield is applied there is no calibration basis. We are essentially addressing these issues since the ultimate goal of meteorite studies is to provide confident estimates of early solar system magnetic fields. Modes of remanence other than thermal are considered to drive the estimated paleofield values even higher and thus the paleofield value estimate commonly serves as a minimum estimate. Using the strict assumptions in the Thellier-Thellier method and considering the presence of multiple kinds of remanence we show that the estimated paleofield values are not minima but maxima. In the key equation for paleofield estimates: Mt/Hu=Mtlab/Hlab, Mt is natural remanence of thermal origin and is contained within natural remanent magnetization Mnrm that contains additional modes of remanence (M1+.+Mn), Hu is an unknown paleofield intensity, Mtlab is a thermoremanence acquired in laboratory field Hlab. Thus Mt=Mnrm-(M1+.+Mn). Therefore the unknown field has a form: Hu=(Mnrm- (M1+.+Mn)) Hlab/Mtlab. This equation clearly shows that if none of the remanence is thermal, the Hu approaches zero. Thus the estimated values of paleofield that are derived using the Thellier-Thellier approach are not minimum but maximum estimates.

  9. Maximum likelihood molecular clock comb: analytic solutions.

    PubMed

    Chor, Benny; Khetan, Amit; Snir, Sagi

    2006-04-01

    Maximum likelihood (ML) is increasingly used as an optimality criterion for selecting evolutionary trees, but finding the global optimum is a hard computational task. Because no general analytic solution is known, numeric techniques such as hill climbing or expectation maximization (EM), are used in order to find optimal parameters for a given tree. So far, analytic solutions were derived only for the simplest model--three taxa, two state characters, under a molecular clock. Four taxa rooted trees have two topologies--the fork (two subtrees with two leaves each) and the comb (one subtree with three leaves, the other with a single leaf). In a previous work, we devised a closed form analytic solution for the ML molecular clock fork. In this work, we extend the state of the art in the area of analytic solutions ML trees to the family of all four taxa trees under the molecular clock assumption. The change from the fork topology to the comb incurs a major increase in the complexity of the underlying algebraic system and requires novel techniques and approaches. We combine the ultrametric properties of molecular clock trees with the Hadamard conjugation to derive a number of topology dependent identities. Employing these identities, we substantially simplify the system of polynomial equations. We finally use tools from algebraic geometry (e.g., Gröbner bases, ideal saturation, resultants) and employ symbolic algebra software to obtain analytic solutions for the comb. We show that in contrast to the fork, the comb has no closed form solutions (expressed by radicals in the input data). In general, four taxa trees can have multiple ML points. In contrast, we can now prove that under the molecular clock assumption, the comb has a unique (local and global) ML point. (Such uniqueness was previously shown for the fork.).

  10. Gauging the Nearness and Size of Cycle Maximum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert M.; Hathaway, David H.

    2003-01-01

    A simple method for monitoring the nearness and size of conventional cycle maximum for an ongoing sunspot cycle is examined. The method uses the observed maximum daily value and the maximum monthly mean value of international sunspot number and the maximum value of the 2-mo moving average of monthly mean sunspot number to effect the estimation. For cycle 23, a maximum daily value of 246, a maximum monthly mean of 170.1, and a maximum 2-mo moving average of 148.9 were each observed in July 2000. Taken together, these values strongly suggest that conventional maximum amplitude for cycle 23 would be approx. 124.5, occurring near July 2002 +/-5 mo, very close to the now well-established conventional maximum amplitude and occurrence date for cycle 23-120.8 in April 2000.

  11. Acute effect of passive static stretching on lower-body strength in moderately trained men.

    PubMed

    Gergley, Jeffrey C

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was conducted to determine the acute effect of passive static stretching (PSS) of the lower-body musculature on lower-body strength in a 1 repetition maximum (1RM) squat exercise in young (18-24 years.) moderately trained men (n = 17). Two supervised warm-up treatments were applied before each performance testing session using a counterbalanced design on nonconsecutive days. The first treatment consisted of an active dynamic warm-up (AD) with resistance machines (i.e., leg extension/leg flexion) and free weights (i.e., barbell squat), whereas the second treatment added PSS of the lower body plus the AD treatment. One repetition maximum was determined using the maximum barbell squat following a progressive loading protocol. Subjects were also asked to subjectively evaluate their lower-body stability during 1RM testing sessions for both the AD and PSS treatments. A significant decrease in 1RM (8.36%) and lower-body stability (22.68%) was observed after the PSS treatment. Plausible explanations for this observation may be related to a more compliant muscle tendon unit and/or altered or impaired neurologic function in the active musculature. It is also possible that strength was impaired by the PSS because of joint instability. The findings of this study suggest that intensive stretching such as lower-body PSS should be avoided before training the lower body or performing the 1RM in the squat exercise in favor of an AD dynamic warm-up using resistance training equipment in the lower-body musculature.

  12. Pattern formation, logistics, and maximum path probability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkaldy, J. S.

    1985-05-01

    The concept of pattern formation, which to current researchers is a synonym for self-organization, carries the connotation of deductive logic together with the process of spontaneous inference. Defining a pattern as an equivalence relation on a set of thermodynamic objects, we establish that a large class of irreversible pattern-forming systems, evolving along idealized quasisteady paths, approaches the stable steady state as a mapping upon the formal deductive imperatives of a propositional function calculus. In the preamble the classical reversible thermodynamics of composite systems is analyzed as an externally manipulated system of space partitioning and classification based on ideal enclosures and diaphragms. The diaphragms have discrete classification capabilities which are designated in relation to conserved quantities by descriptors such as impervious, diathermal, and adiabatic. Differentiability in the continuum thermodynamic calculus is invoked as equivalent to analyticity and consistency in the underlying class or sentential calculus. The seat of inference, however, rests with the thermodynamicist. In the transition to an irreversible pattern-forming system the defined nature of the composite reservoirs remains, but a given diaphragm is replaced by a pattern-forming system which by its nature is a spontaneously evolving volume partitioner and classifier of invariants. The seat of volition or inference for the classification system is thus transferred from the experimenter or theoretician to the diaphragm, and with it the full deductive facility. The equivalence relations or partitions associated with the emerging patterns may thus be associated with theorems of the natural pattern-forming calculus. The entropy function, together with its derivatives, is the vehicle which relates the logistics of reservoirs and diaphragms to the analog logistics of the continuum. Maximum path probability or second-order differentiability of the entropy in isolation are

  13. The relationship between muscle action and repetition maximum on the squat and bench press in men and women.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, Shawn D; Mills, Matthew D; Sterczala, Adam J; Mala, Jesse; Comstock, Brett A; Szivak, Tunde K; DuPont, William H; Looney, David P; McDermott, Danielle M; Hooper, David R; White, Mark T; Dunn-Lewis, Courtenay; Volek, Jeff S; Maresh, Carl M; Kraemer, William J

    2014-09-01

    The relationship between muscle action and fatigue is not well understood, especially in terms of potential sex-specific differences. The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether a different number of repetitions could be performed on the individual muscle actions of the bench press and squat in men and women. Ten resistance-trained men (n = 10; age, 25.2 ± 1.2 years; height, 178.6 ± 8.8 cm; weight, 91.4 ± 18.1 kg; body fat, 12.7 ± 3.6%) and women (n = 10; age, 25.4 ± 2.4 years; height, 164 ± 4.0 cm; weight, 58.45 ± 3.3 kg; body fat, 20.8 ± 1.5%) participated in this balanced and randomized within-group study. Using 85% of a 1 repetition maximum, over the course of 3 visits, subjects performed 1 eccentric (ECC), concentric (CON), or combined (COMB) set to failure on the squat and bench press. Differences in muscle action and sex-specific number of repetitions to failure were compared on the squat and bench press, where significance was p ≤ 0.05. Across both exercises and sex, we observed significant differences between each of the 3 muscle actions, where the number of repetitions decreased from ECC to COMB to CON. While no sex-specific differences were observed in the squat, women performed significantly more repetitions on the ECC and CON muscle actions of the bench press. Men performed more combined repetitions, however, indicating a greater reliance on the stretch-shortening cycle. Different muscle actions contribute uniquely to the successful performance of a lift and fatigue. These contributions appear to differ in men and women.

  14. The time-frame of acute resistance exercise effects on football skill performance: the impact of exercise intensity.

    PubMed

    Draganidis, Dimitrios; Chatzinikolaou, Athanasios; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z; Carlos Barbero, Jose; Tsoukas, Dimitrios; Theodorou, Apostolos Spyridon; Margonis, Konstantinos; Michailidis, Yannis; Avloniti, Alexandra; Theodorou, Anastasios; Kambas, Antonis; Fatouros, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the recovery rate of football skill performance following resistance exercise of moderate or high intensity. Ten elite football players participated in three different trials: control, low-intensity resistance exercise (4 sets, 8-10 repetitions/set, 65-70% 1 repetition maximum [1RM]) and high-intensity resistance exercise (4 sets, 4-6 repetitions/set, 85-90% 1RM) in a counterbalanced manner. In each experimental condition, participants were evaluated pre, post, and at 24, 48, 72 h post exercise time points. Football skill performance was assessed through the Loughborough Soccer Passing Test, long passing, dribbling, shooting and heading. Delayed onset muscle soreness, knee joint range of motion, and muscle strength (1RM) in squat were considered as muscle damage markers. Blood samples analysed for creatine kinase activity, C-reactive protein, and leukocyte count. Passing and shooting performance declined (P < 0.05) post-exercise following resistance exercise. Strength declined post-exercise following high-intensity resistance exercise. Both trials induced only a mild muscle damage and inflammatory response in an intensity-dependent manner. These results indicate that football skill performance is minimally affected by acute resistance exercise independent of intensity suggesting that elite players may be able to participate in a football practice or match after only 24 h following a strength training session. PMID:23301779

  15. The time-frame of acute resistance exercise effects on football skill performance: the impact of exercise intensity.

    PubMed

    Draganidis, Dimitrios; Chatzinikolaou, Athanasios; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z; Carlos Barbero, Jose; Tsoukas, Dimitrios; Theodorou, Apostolos Spyridon; Margonis, Konstantinos; Michailidis, Yannis; Avloniti, Alexandra; Theodorou, Anastasios; Kambas, Antonis; Fatouros, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the recovery rate of football skill performance following resistance exercise of moderate or high intensity. Ten elite football players participated in three different trials: control, low-intensity resistance exercise (4 sets, 8-10 repetitions/set, 65-70% 1 repetition maximum [1RM]) and high-intensity resistance exercise (4 sets, 4-6 repetitions/set, 85-90% 1RM) in a counterbalanced manner. In each experimental condition, participants were evaluated pre, post, and at 24, 48, 72 h post exercise time points. Football skill performance was assessed through the Loughborough Soccer Passing Test, long passing, dribbling, shooting and heading. Delayed onset muscle soreness, knee joint range of motion, and muscle strength (1RM) in squat were considered as muscle damage markers. Blood samples analysed for creatine kinase activity, C-reactive protein, and leukocyte count. Passing and shooting performance declined (P < 0.05) post-exercise following resistance exercise. Strength declined post-exercise following high-intensity resistance exercise. Both trials induced only a mild muscle damage and inflammatory response in an intensity-dependent manner. These results indicate that football skill performance is minimally affected by acute resistance exercise independent of intensity suggesting that elite players may be able to participate in a football practice or match after only 24 h following a strength training session.

  16. Rest Interval Required for Power Training With Power Load in the Bench Press Throw Exercise.

    PubMed

    Hernández Davó, Jose L; Solana, Rafael Sabido; Sarabia Marín, Jose M; Fernández Fernández, Jaime; Moya Ramón, Manuel

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to test the influence of various rest interval (RI) durations used between sets on power output performance and physiological and perceptual variables during a strength training session using 40% of the 1 repetition maximum (1RM) in the bench press throw exercise. Thirty-one college students (18 males and 13 females) took part in the study. The experimental protocol consists of 5 sets of 8 repetitions of the bench press throw exercise with a load representing 40% of 1RM. Subjects performed the experimental protocol on 3 different occasions, differing by the RI between sets (1, 2, or 3 minutes). During the sessions, power data (mean power and peak power), physiological (lactate concentration [La]) and perceptual (rating of perceived exertion) variables were measured. In addition, delayed onset muscular soreness was reported 24 and 48 hours after the training session. One-way repeated-measures analysis of variance showed that 1-minute RI entailed higher power decreases and greater increases in values of physiological and perceptual variables compared with both 2- and 3-minute RIs. Nevertheless, no differences were found between 2- and 3-minute RIs. Therefore, this study showed that, when training with 40% of 1RM in the bench press throw exercise, a 2-minute RI between sets can be enough to avoid significant decreases in power output. Consequently, training sessions' duration could be reduced without causing excessive fatigue, allowing additional time to focus on other conditioning priorities.

  17. The salivary testosterone and cortisol response to three loading schemes.

    PubMed

    Crewther, Blair; Cronin, John; Keogh, Justin; Cook, Christian

    2008-01-01

    This aim of this study was to examine the free hormone (in saliva) responses to squat workouts performed by recreationally weight-trained males, using either a power (8 sets of 6 reps, 45% 1 repetition maximum [1RM], 3-minute rest periods, ballistic movements), hypertrophy (10 sets of 10 reps, 75% 1RM, 2-minute rest periods, controlled movements), or maximal strength scheme (6 sets of 4 reps, 88% 1RM, 4-minute rest periods, explosive intent). To determine the relative importance of the different training variables, these schemes were equated by workout duration with the power and strength schemes also equated by load volume. Salivary testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) both increased following the hypertrophy scheme (P < 0.05), with little to no hormonal change across the power and maximal strength schemes (P > 0.05). In general, the postexercise T and C responses to the hypertrophy scheme exceeded the other two schemes (P < 0.05). The greater volume of load lifted in the hypertrophy protocol over the same workout duration may explain the endocrine differences observed. The similar T and C responses to the power and maximal strength schemes (of equal volume) support such a view and suggest that differences in load intensity, rest periods, and technique are secondary to volume. Because the acute hormonal responses to resistance exercise contribute to protein metabolism, then load volume may be the most important workout variable activating the endocrine system and stimulating muscle growth.

  18. The effect of ephedra and caffeine on maximal strength and power in resistance-trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Williams, Andrew D; Cribb, Paul J; Cooke, Matthew B; Hayes, Alan

    2008-03-01

    Caffeine and ephedrine-related alkaloids recently have been removed from International Olympic Committee banned substances lists, whereas ephedrine itself is now permissible at urinary concentrations less than 10 mug.mL. The changes to the list may contribute to an increased use of caffeine and ephedra as ergogenic aids by athletes. Consequently, we sought to investigate the effects of ingesting caffeine (C) or a combination of ephedra and caffeine (C + E) on muscular strength and anaerobic power using a double-blind, crossover design. Forty-five minutes after ingesting a glucose placebo (P: 300 mg), C (300 mg) or C + E (300 mg + 60 mg), 9 resistance-trained male participants were tested for maximal strength by bench press [BP; 1 repetition maximum (1RM)] and latissimus dorsi pull down (LP; 1RM). Subjects also performed repeated repetitions at 80% of 1RM on both BP and LP until exhaustion. After this test, subjects underwent a 30-second Wingate test to determine peak anaerobic cycling power, mean power, and fatigue index. Although subjects reported increased alertness and enhanced mood after supplementation with caffeine and ephedra, there were no significant differences between any of the treatments in muscle strength, muscle endurance, or peak anaerobic power. Our results do not support the contention that supplementation with ephedra or caffeine will enhance either muscle strength or anaerobic exercise performance.

  19. Maximum Power Training and Plyometrics for Cross-Country Running.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebben, William P.

    2001-01-01

    Provides a rationale for maximum power training and plyometrics as conditioning strategies for cross-country runners, examining: an evaluation of training methods (strength training and maximum power training and plyometrics); biomechanic and velocity specificity (role in preventing injury); and practical application of maximum power training and…

  20. 14 CFR 27.1527 - Maximum operating altitude.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maximum operating altitude. 27.1527 Section 27.1527 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... § 27.1527 Maximum operating altitude. The maximum altitude up to which operation is allowed, as...

  1. 14 CFR 29.1527 - Maximum operating altitude.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maximum operating altitude. 29.1527 Section 29.1527 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Limitations § 29.1527 Maximum operating altitude. The maximum altitude up to which operation is allowed,...

  2. 14 CFR 29.1527 - Maximum operating altitude.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maximum operating altitude. 29.1527 Section 29.1527 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Limitations § 29.1527 Maximum operating altitude. The maximum altitude up to which operation is allowed,...

  3. 14 CFR 27.1527 - Maximum operating altitude.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maximum operating altitude. 27.1527 Section 27.1527 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... § 27.1527 Maximum operating altitude. The maximum altitude up to which operation is allowed, as...

  4. 14 CFR 29.1527 - Maximum operating altitude.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maximum operating altitude. 29.1527 Section 29.1527 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Limitations § 29.1527 Maximum operating altitude. The maximum altitude up to which operation is allowed,...

  5. 14 CFR 27.1527 - Maximum operating altitude.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maximum operating altitude. 27.1527 Section 27.1527 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... § 27.1527 Maximum operating altitude. The maximum altitude up to which operation is allowed, as...

  6. 14 CFR 29.1527 - Maximum operating altitude.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maximum operating altitude. 29.1527 Section 29.1527 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Limitations § 29.1527 Maximum operating altitude. The maximum altitude up to which operation is allowed,...

  7. 14 CFR 27.1527 - Maximum operating altitude.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maximum operating altitude. 27.1527 Section 27.1527 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... § 27.1527 Maximum operating altitude. The maximum altitude up to which operation is allowed, as...

  8. 76 FR 71554 - Civil Penalties; Notice of Adjusted Maximum Amounts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-18

    ... COMMISSION Civil Penalties; Notice of Adjusted Maximum Amounts AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety Commission. ACTION: Notice of adjusted maximum civil penalty amounts. SUMMARY: In 1990, Congress enacted statutory amendments that provided for periodic adjustments to the maximum civil penalty amounts authorized under...

  9. 40 CFR 94.107 - Determination of maximum test speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... specified in 40 CFR 1065.510. These data points form the lug curve. It is not necessary to generate the... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Determination of maximum test speed... Determination of maximum test speed. (a) Overview. This section specifies how to determine maximum test...

  10. 14 CFR 25.1505 - Maximum operating limit speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum operating limit speed. 25.1505... Operating Limitations § 25.1505 Maximum operating limit speed. The maximum operating limit speed (V MO/M MO airspeed or Mach Number, whichever is critical at a particular altitude) is a speed that may not...

  11. 14 CFR 25.1505 - Maximum operating limit speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maximum operating limit speed. 25.1505... Operating Limitations § 25.1505 Maximum operating limit speed. The maximum operating limit speed (V MO/M MO airspeed or Mach Number, whichever is critical at a particular altitude) is a speed that may not...

  12. 40 CFR 94.107 - Determination of maximum test speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... specified in 40 CFR 1065.510. These data points form the lug curve. It is not necessary to generate the... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Determination of maximum test speed. 94... Determination of maximum test speed. (a) Overview. This section specifies how to determine maximum test...

  13. 14 CFR 25.1505 - Maximum operating limit speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maximum operating limit speed. 25.1505... Operating Limitations § 25.1505 Maximum operating limit speed. The maximum operating limit speed (V MO/M MO airspeed or Mach Number, whichever is critical at a particular altitude) is a speed that may not...

  14. 40 CFR 94.107 - Determination of maximum test speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... specified in 40 CFR 1065.510. These data points form the lug curve. It is not necessary to generate the... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Determination of maximum test speed... Determination of maximum test speed. (a) Overview. This section specifies how to determine maximum test...

  15. 40 CFR 94.107 - Determination of maximum test speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... specified in 40 CFR 1065.510. These data points form the lug curve. It is not necessary to generate the... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Determination of maximum test speed... Determination of maximum test speed. (a) Overview. This section specifies how to determine maximum test...

  16. 14 CFR 25.1505 - Maximum operating limit speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maximum operating limit speed. 25.1505... Operating Limitations § 25.1505 Maximum operating limit speed. The maximum operating limit speed (V MO/M MO airspeed or Mach Number, whichever is critical at a particular altitude) is a speed that may not...

  17. 40 CFR 94.107 - Determination of maximum test speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... specified in 40 CFR 1065.510. These data points form the lug curve. It is not necessary to generate the... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Determination of maximum test speed... Determination of maximum test speed. (a) Overview. This section specifies how to determine maximum test...

  18. 14 CFR 25.1505 - Maximum operating limit speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maximum operating limit speed. 25.1505... Operating Limitations § 25.1505 Maximum operating limit speed. The maximum operating limit speed (V MO/M MO airspeed or Mach Number, whichever is critical at a particular altitude) is a speed that may not...

  19. 31 CFR 149.3 - Maximum obligation limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maximum obligation limitation. 149.3 Section 149.3 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance MONETARY OFFICES, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CALCULATION OF MAXIMUM OBLIGATION LIMITATION § 149.3 Maximum obligation...

  20. 13 CFR 107.840 - Maximum term of Financing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maximum term of Financing. 107.840... COMPANIES Financing of Small Businesses by Licensees Structuring Licensee's Financing of An Eligible Small Business: Terms and Conditions of Financing § 107.840 Maximum term of Financing. The maximum term of...

  1. 7 CFR 4290.840 - Maximum term of Financing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maximum term of Financing. 4290.840 Section 4290.840... Financing of Enterprises by RBICs Structuring Rbic Financing of Eligible Enterprises-Types of Financings § 4290.840 Maximum term of Financing. The maximum term of any Debt Security must be no longer than...

  2. Maximum principles for second order dynamic equations on time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stehlik, Petr; Thompson, Bevan

    2007-07-01

    This paper establishes some new maximum principles for second order dynamic equations on time scales, including: a strong maximum principle; a generalized maximum principle; and a boundary point lemma. The new results include, as special cases, well-known ideas for ordinary differential equations and difference equations.

  3. Maximum Likelihood Estimation of Multivariate Polyserial and Polychoric Correlation Coefficients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poon, Wai-Yin; Lee, Sik-Yum

    1987-01-01

    Reparameterization is used to find the maximum likelihood estimates of parameters in a multivariate model having some component variable observable only in polychotomous form. Maximum likelihood estimates are found by a Fletcher Powell algorithm. In addition, the partition maximum likelihood method is proposed and illustrated. (Author/GDC)

  4. 16 CFR 1505.8 - Maximum acceptable material temperatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum acceptable material temperatures... ARTICLES INTENDED FOR USE BY CHILDREN Regulations § 1505.8 Maximum acceptable material temperatures. The maximum acceptable material temperatures for electrically operated toys shall be as follows (Classes...

  5. 16 CFR 1505.7 - Maximum acceptable surface temperatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maximum acceptable surface temperatures... ARTICLES INTENDED FOR USE BY CHILDREN Regulations § 1505.7 Maximum acceptable surface temperatures. The maximum acceptable surface temperatures for electrically operated toys shall be as follows: Surface...

  6. 16 CFR 1505.8 - Maximum acceptable material temperatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maximum acceptable material temperatures... ARTICLES INTENDED FOR USE BY CHILDREN Regulations § 1505.8 Maximum acceptable material temperatures. The maximum acceptable material temperatures for electrically operated toys shall be as follows (Classes...

  7. 16 CFR 1505.7 - Maximum acceptable surface temperatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maximum acceptable surface temperatures... ARTICLES INTENDED FOR USE BY CHILDREN Regulations § 1505.7 Maximum acceptable surface temperatures. The maximum acceptable surface temperatures for electrically operated toys shall be as follows: Surface...

  8. 16 CFR 1505.8 - Maximum acceptable material temperatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maximum acceptable material temperatures... ARTICLES INTENDED FOR USE BY CHILDREN Regulations § 1505.8 Maximum acceptable material temperatures. The maximum acceptable material temperatures for electrically operated toys shall be as follows (Classes...

  9. 16 CFR 1505.8 - Maximum acceptable material temperatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maximum acceptable material temperatures... ARTICLES INTENDED FOR USE BY CHILDREN Regulations § 1505.8 Maximum acceptable material temperatures. The maximum acceptable material temperatures for electrically operated toys shall be as follows (Classes...

  10. 16 CFR 1505.7 - Maximum acceptable surface temperatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maximum acceptable surface temperatures... ARTICLES INTENDED FOR USE BY CHILDREN Regulations § 1505.7 Maximum acceptable surface temperatures. The maximum acceptable surface temperatures for electrically operated toys shall be as follows: Surface...

  11. 16 CFR 1505.7 - Maximum acceptable surface temperatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maximum acceptable surface temperatures... ARTICLES INTENDED FOR USE BY CHILDREN Regulations § 1505.7 Maximum acceptable surface temperatures. The maximum acceptable surface temperatures for electrically operated toys shall be as follows: Surface...

  12. 16 CFR 1505.8 - Maximum acceptable material temperatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maximum acceptable material temperatures... ARTICLES INTENDED FOR USE BY CHILDREN Regulations § 1505.8 Maximum acceptable material temperatures. The maximum acceptable material temperatures for electrically operated toys shall be as follows (Classes...

  13. 20 CFR 617.14 - Maximum amount of TRA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maximum amount of TRA. 617.14 Section 617.14... FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Trade Readjustment Allowances (TRA) § 617.14 Maximum amount of TRA. (a) General rule. Except as provided under paragraph (b) of this section, the maximum amount...

  14. 20 CFR 617.14 - Maximum amount of TRA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Maximum amount of TRA. 617.14 Section 617.14... FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Trade Readjustment Allowances (TRA) § 617.14 Maximum amount of TRA. (a) General rule. Except as provided under paragraph (b) of this section, the maximum amount...

  15. 20 CFR 617.14 - Maximum amount of TRA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Maximum amount of TRA. 617.14 Section 617.14... FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Trade Readjustment Allowances (TRA) § 617.14 Maximum amount of TRA. (a) General rule. Except as provided under paragraph (b) of this section, the maximum amount...

  16. 20 CFR 617.14 - Maximum amount of TRA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Maximum amount of TRA. 617.14 Section 617.14... FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Trade Readjustment Allowances (TRA) § 617.14 Maximum amount of TRA. (a) General rule. Except as provided under paragraph (b) of this section, the maximum amount...

  17. 20 CFR 617.14 - Maximum amount of TRA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Maximum amount of TRA. 617.14 Section 617.14... FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Trade Readjustment Allowances (TRA) § 617.14 Maximum amount of TRA. (a) General rule. Except as provided under paragraph (b) of this section, the maximum amount...

  18. 33 CFR 183.35 - Maximum weight capacity: Outboard boats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... difference between its maximum displacement and boat weight. (b) For the purposes of paragraph (a) of this section: (1) “Maximum displacement” is the weight of the volume of water displaced by the boat at its maximum level immersion in calm water without water coming aboard except for water coming through...

  19. 33 CFR 183.35 - Maximum weight capacity: Outboard boats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... difference between its maximum displacement and boat weight. (b) For the purposes of paragraph (a) of this section: (1) “Maximum displacement” is the weight of the volume of water displaced by the boat at its maximum level immersion in calm water without water coming aboard except for water coming through...

  20. 33 CFR 183.35 - Maximum weight capacity: Outboard boats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... difference between its maximum displacement and boat weight. (b) For the purposes of paragraph (a) of this section: (1) “Maximum displacement” is the weight of the volume of water displaced by the boat at its maximum level immersion in calm water without water coming aboard except for water coming through...

  1. 33 CFR 183.35 - Maximum weight capacity: Outboard boats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... difference between its maximum displacement and boat weight. (b) For the purposes of paragraph (a) of this section: (1) “Maximum displacement” is the weight of the volume of water displaced by the boat at its maximum level immersion in calm water without water coming aboard except for water coming through...

  2. 33 CFR 183.35 - Maximum weight capacity: Outboard boats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... difference between its maximum displacement and boat weight. (b) For the purposes of paragraph (a) of this section: (1) “Maximum displacement” is the weight of the volume of water displaced by the boat at its maximum level immersion in calm water without water coming aboard except for water coming through...

  3. 49 CFR 230.27 - Maximum shearing strength of rivets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Strength of Materials § 230.27 Maximum shearing strength of rivets. The maximum shearing strength... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maximum shearing strength of rivets....

  4. 49 CFR 230.27 - Maximum shearing strength of rivets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Strength of Materials § 230.27 Maximum shearing strength of rivets. The maximum shearing strength... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Maximum shearing strength of rivets....

  5. 49 CFR 230.27 - Maximum shearing strength of rivets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Strength of Materials § 230.27 Maximum shearing strength of rivets. The maximum shearing strength... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Maximum shearing strength of rivets....

  6. 49 CFR 230.27 - Maximum shearing strength of rivets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Strength of Materials § 230.27 Maximum shearing strength of rivets. The maximum shearing strength... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Maximum shearing strength of rivets....

  7. 49 CFR 230.27 - Maximum shearing strength of rivets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Strength of Materials § 230.27 Maximum shearing strength of rivets. The maximum shearing strength... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Maximum shearing strength of rivets....

  8. 30 CFR 56.19062 - Maximum acceleration and deceleration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maximum acceleration and deceleration. 56.19062... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 56.19062 Maximum acceleration and deceleration. Maximum normal operating acceleration and deceleration shall not exceed 6 feet per second per second. During emergency braking,...

  9. 30 CFR 57.19062 - Maximum acceleration and deceleration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Maximum acceleration and deceleration. 57.19062... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 57.19062 Maximum acceleration and deceleration. Maximum normal operating acceleration and deceleration shall not exceed 6 feet per second per second. During emergency braking,...

  10. 30 CFR 57.19062 - Maximum acceleration and deceleration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maximum acceleration and deceleration. 57.19062... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 57.19062 Maximum acceleration and deceleration. Maximum normal operating acceleration and deceleration shall not exceed 6 feet per second per second. During emergency braking,...

  11. 30 CFR 57.19062 - Maximum acceleration and deceleration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum acceleration and deceleration. 57.19062... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 57.19062 Maximum acceleration and deceleration. Maximum normal operating acceleration and deceleration shall not exceed 6 feet per second per second. During emergency braking,...

  12. 30 CFR 56.19062 - Maximum acceleration and deceleration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Maximum acceleration and deceleration. 56.19062... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 56.19062 Maximum acceleration and deceleration. Maximum normal operating acceleration and deceleration shall not exceed 6 feet per second per second. During emergency braking,...

  13. 30 CFR 56.19062 - Maximum acceleration and deceleration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Maximum acceleration and deceleration. 56.19062... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 56.19062 Maximum acceleration and deceleration. Maximum normal operating acceleration and deceleration shall not exceed 6 feet per second per second. During emergency braking,...

  14. 30 CFR 57.19062 - Maximum acceleration and deceleration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maximum acceleration and deceleration. 57.19062... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 57.19062 Maximum acceleration and deceleration. Maximum normal operating acceleration and deceleration shall not exceed 6 feet per second per second. During emergency braking,...

  15. 30 CFR 56.19062 - Maximum acceleration and deceleration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maximum acceleration and deceleration. 56.19062... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 56.19062 Maximum acceleration and deceleration. Maximum normal operating acceleration and deceleration shall not exceed 6 feet per second per second. During emergency braking,...

  16. 30 CFR 57.19062 - Maximum acceleration and deceleration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Maximum acceleration and deceleration. 57.19062... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 57.19062 Maximum acceleration and deceleration. Maximum normal operating acceleration and deceleration shall not exceed 6 feet per second per second. During emergency braking,...

  17. 30 CFR 56.19062 - Maximum acceleration and deceleration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum acceleration and deceleration. 56.19062... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 56.19062 Maximum acceleration and deceleration. Maximum normal operating acceleration and deceleration shall not exceed 6 feet per second per second. During emergency braking,...

  18. 14 CFR 375.23 - Maximum allowable weights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum allowable weights. 375.23 Section... Applicable § 375.23 Maximum allowable weights. Foreign civil aircraft that are permitted to navigate in the... maximum certificated weights prescribed or authorized for the particular variation of the aircraft...

  19. 5 CFR 550.106 - Annual maximum earnings limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Annual maximum earnings limitation. 550... PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Maximum Earnings Limitations § 550.106 Annual maximum earnings limitation. (a)(1) For any pay period in which the head of an agency (or designee), or the...

  20. 16 CFR 1505.7 - Maximum acceptable surface temperatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum acceptable surface temperatures... ARTICLES INTENDED FOR USE BY CHILDREN Regulations § 1505.7 Maximum acceptable surface temperatures. The maximum acceptable surface temperatures for electrically operated toys shall be as follows: Surface...

  1. 36 CFR 20.3 - Maximum number of permittees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maximum number of permittees... INTERIOR ISLE ROYALE NATIONAL PARK; COMMERCIAL FISHING § 20.3 Maximum number of permittees. Commercial fishermen to whom the annual revocable permits may be granted shall not exceed the maximum number of...

  2. Effects of 4-Week Training Intervention with Unknown Loads on Power Output Performance and Throwing Velocity in Junior Team Handball Players

    PubMed Central

    Sabido, Rafael; Hernández-Davó, Jose Luis; Botella, Javier; Moya, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To compare the effect of 4-week unknown vs known loads strength training intervention on power output performance and throwing velocity in junior team handball players. Methods Twenty-eight junior team-handball players (17.2 ± 0.6 years, 1.79 ± 0.07 m, 75.6 ± 9.4 kg)were divided into two groups (unknown loads: UL; known loads: KL). Both groups performed two sessions weekly consisting of four sets of six repetitions of the bench press throw exercise, using the 30%, 50% and 70% of subjects’ individual 1 repetition maximum (1RM). In each set, two repetitions with each load were performed, but the order of the loads was randomised. In the KL group, researchers told the subjects the load to mobilise prior each repetition, while in the UL group, researchers did not provide any information. Maximal dynamic strength (1RM bench press), power output (with 30, 50 and 70% of 1RM) and throwing velocity (7 m standing throw and 9 m jumping throw) were assessed pre- and post-training intervention. Results Both UL and KL group improved similarly their 1RM bench press as well as mean and peak power with all loads. There were significant improvements in power developed in all the early time intervals measured (150 ms) with the three loads (30, 50, 70% 1RM) in the UL group, while KL only improved with 30% 1RM (all the time intervals) and with 70% 1RM (at certain time intervals). Only the UL group improved throwing velocity in both standing (4.7%) and jumping (5.3%) throw (p > 0.05). Conclusions The use of unknown loads has led to greater gains in power output in the early time intervals as well as to increases in throwing velocity compared with known loads. Therefore unknown loads are of significant practical use to increase both strength and in-field performance in a short period of training. PMID:27310598

  3. Improved parameterized complexity of the maximum agreement subtree and maximum compatible tree problems.

    PubMed

    Berry, Vincent; Nicolas, François

    2006-01-01

    Given a set of evolutionary trees on a same set of taxa, the maximum agreement subtree problem (MAST), respectively, maximum compatible tree problem (MCT), consists of finding a largest subset of taxa such that all input trees restricted to these taxa are isomorphic, respectively compatible. These problems have several applications in phylogenetics such as the computation of a consensus of phylogenies obtained from different data sets, the identification of species subjected to horizontal gene transfers and, more recently, the inference of supertrees, e.g., Trees Of Life. We provide two linear time algorithms to check the isomorphism, respectively, compatibility, of a set of trees or otherwise identify a conflict between the trees with respect to the relative location of a small subset of taxa. Then, we use these algorithms as subroutines to solve MAST and MCT on rooted or unrooted trees of unbounded degree. More precisely, we give exact fixed-parameter tractable algorithms, whose running time is uniformly polynomial when the number of taxa on which the trees disagree is bounded. The improves on a known result for MAST and proves fixed-parameter tractability for MCT.

  4. Relationship Between Selected Strength and Power Assessments to Peak and Average Velocity of the Drive Block in Offensive Line Play.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Bert H; Conchola, Eric C; Smith, Doug B; Akehi, Kazuma; Glass, Rob G

    2016-08-01

    Jacobson, BH, Conchola, EC, Smith, DB, Akehi, K, and Glass, RG. Relationship between selected strength and power assessments to peak and average velocity of the drive block in offensive line play. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2202-2205, 2016-Typical strength training for football includes the squat and power clean (PC) and routinely measured variables include 1 repetition maximum (1RM) squat and 1RM PC along with the vertical jump (VJ) for power. However, little research exists regarding the association between the strength exercises and velocity of an actual on-the-field performance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of peak velocity (PV) and average velocity (AV) of the offensive line drive block to 1RM squat, 1RM PC, the VJ, body mass (BM), and body composition. One repetition maximum assessments for the squat and PC were recorded along with VJ height, BM, and percent body fat. These data were correlated with PV and AV while performing the drive block. Peal velocity and AV were assessed using a Tendo Power and Speed Analyzer as the linemen fired, from a 3-point stance into a stationary blocking dummy. Pearson product analysis yielded significant (p ≤ 0.05) correlations between PV and AV and the VJ, the squat, and the PC. A significant inverse association was found for both PV and AV and body fat. These data help to confirm that the typical exercises recommended for American football linemen is positively associated with both PV and AV needed for the drive block effectiveness. It is recommended that these exercises remain the focus of a weight room protocol and that ancillary exercises be built around these exercises. Additionally, efforts to reduce body fat are recommended.

  5. Solar Maximum Mission Experiment - Ultraviolet Spectroscopy and Polarimetry on the Solar Maximum Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tandberg-Hanssen, E.; Cheng, C. C.; Woodgate, B. E.; Brandt, J. C.; Chapman, R. D.; Athay, R. G.; Beckers, J. M.; Bruner, E. C.; Gurman, J. B.; Hyder, C. L.

    1981-01-01

    The Ultraviolet Spectrometer and Polarimeter on the Solar Maximum Mission spacecraft is described. It is pointed out that the instrument, which operates in the wavelength range 1150-3600 A, has a spatial resolution of 2-3 arcsec and a spectral resolution of 0.02 A FWHM in second order. A Gregorian telescope, with a focal length of 1.8 m, feeds a 1 m Ebert-Fastie spectrometer. A polarimeter comprising rotating Mg F2 waveplates can be inserted behind the spectrometer entrance slit; it permits all four Stokes parameters to be determined. Among the observing modes are rasters, spectral scans, velocity measurements, and polarimetry. Examples of initial observations made since launch are presented.

  6. 40 CFR 35.585 - Maximum federal share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Water Pollution Control (sections 106... water pollution control program. (b) The Regional Administrator may increase the maximum federal...

  7. 40 CFR 35.585 - Maximum federal share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Water Pollution Control (sections 106... water pollution control program. (b) The Regional Administrator may increase the maximum federal...

  8. 40 CFR 35.585 - Maximum federal share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Water Pollution Control (sections 106... water pollution control program. (b) The Regional Administrator may increase the maximum federal...

  9. 40 CFR 35.585 - Maximum federal share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Water Pollution Control (sections 106... water pollution control program. (b) The Regional Administrator may increase the maximum federal...

  10. 40 CFR 35.585 - Maximum federal share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Water Pollution Control (sections 106... water pollution control program. (b) The Regional Administrator may increase the maximum federal...

  11. 46 CFR 151.03-37 - Maximum allowable working pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Maximum allowable working pressure. 151.03-37 Section... working pressure. The maximum allowable working pressure shall be as defined in section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code....

  12. 49 CFR 195.406 - Maximum operating pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maximum operating pressure. 195.406 Section 195... HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Operation and Maintenance § 195.406 Maximum operating pressure. (a) Except for surge pressures and other variations from normal operations, no operator may operate a pipeline at...

  13. 49 CFR 195.406 - Maximum operating pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Maximum operating pressure. 195.406 Section 195... HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Operation and Maintenance § 195.406 Maximum operating pressure. (a) Except for surge pressures and other variations from normal operations, no operator may operate a pipeline at...

  14. 46 CFR 151.03-37 - Maximum allowable working pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maximum allowable working pressure. 151.03-37 Section... working pressure. The maximum allowable working pressure shall be as defined in section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code....

  15. 46 CFR 151.03-37 - Maximum allowable working pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Maximum allowable working pressure. 151.03-37 Section... working pressure. The maximum allowable working pressure shall be as defined in section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code....

  16. 46 CFR 151.03-37 - Maximum allowable working pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Maximum allowable working pressure. 151.03-37 Section... working pressure. The maximum allowable working pressure shall be as defined in section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code....

  17. 49 CFR 195.406 - Maximum operating pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Maximum operating pressure. 195.406 Section 195... HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Operation and Maintenance § 195.406 Maximum operating pressure. (a) Except for surge pressures and other variations from normal operations, no operator may operate a pipeline at...

  18. 46 CFR 151.03-37 - Maximum allowable working pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Maximum allowable working pressure. 151.03-37 Section... working pressure. The maximum allowable working pressure shall be as defined in section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code....

  19. 49 CFR 195.406 - Maximum operating pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Maximum operating pressure. 195.406 Section 195... HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Operation and Maintenance § 195.406 Maximum operating pressure. (a) Except for surge pressures and other variations from normal operations, no operator may operate a pipeline at...

  20. 30 CFR 57.5039 - Maximum permissible concentration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum permissible concentration. 57.5039... Maximum permissible concentration. Except as provided by standard § 57.5005, persons shall not be exposed to air containing concentrations of radon daughters exceeding 1.0 WL in active workings....

  1. 30 CFR 57.5039 - Maximum permissible concentration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Maximum permissible concentration. 57.5039... Maximum permissible concentration. Except as provided by standard § 57.5005, persons shall not be exposed to air containing concentrations of radon daughters exceeding 1.0 WL in active workings....

  2. 30 CFR 57.5039 - Maximum permissible concentration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Maximum permissible concentration. 57.5039... Maximum permissible concentration. Except as provided by standard § 57.5005, persons shall not be exposed to air containing concentrations of radon daughters exceeding 1.0 WL in active workings....

  3. 30 CFR 57.5039 - Maximum permissible concentration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maximum permissible concentration. 57.5039... Maximum permissible concentration. Except as provided by standard § 57.5005, persons shall not be exposed to air containing concentrations of radon daughters exceeding 1.0 WL in active workings....

  4. 30 CFR 57.5039 - Maximum permissible concentration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maximum permissible concentration. 57.5039... Maximum permissible concentration. Except as provided by standard § 57.5005, persons shall not be exposed to air containing concentrations of radon daughters exceeding 1.0 WL in active workings....

  5. 33 CFR 155.775 - Maximum cargo level of oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Transfer Personnel, Procedures, Equipment, and Records § 155.775 Maximum cargo level of oil. (a) For the purposes of... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum cargo level of oil....

  6. 24 CFR 232.565 - Maximum loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maximum loan amount. 232.565... Fire Safety Equipment Eligible Security Instruments § 232.565 Maximum loan amount. The principal amount... equipment, including the cost of installation, or the amount supported by the residual income, which is...

  7. 24 CFR 242.7 - Maximum mortgage amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maximum mortgage amounts. 242.7 Section 242.7 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... MORTGAGE INSURANCE FOR HOSPITALS General Eligibility Requirements § 242.7 Maximum mortgage amounts....

  8. 34 CFR 682.204 - Maximum loan amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... academic year in 34 CFR 668.3. (m) Any TEACH Grants that have been converted to Direct Unsubsidized Loans... 34 Education 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maximum loan amounts. 682.204 Section 682.204 Education... Maximum loan amounts. (a) Stafford Loan Program annual limits. (1) In the case of an undergraduate...

  9. 38 CFR 8a.2 - Maximum amount of insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maximum amount of... MORTGAGE LIFE INSURANCE § 8a.2 Maximum amount of insurance. (a) Each eligible veteran is authorized up to a... amount of insurance in force as provided for in § 8a.4(a) the amount of VMLI thereafter available...

  10. 38 CFR 8a.2 - Maximum amount of insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum amount of... MORTGAGE LIFE INSURANCE § 8a.2 Maximum amount of insurance. (a) Each eligible veteran is authorized up to a... amount of insurance in force as provided for in § 8a.4(a) the amount of VMLI thereafter available...

  11. 7 CFR 3565.204 - Maximum loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... assistance in 7 CFR 3560.63 (d) or successor provision. ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maximum loan amount. 3565.204 Section 3565.204... AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAM Loan Requirements § 3565.204 Maximum loan amount....

  12. 49 CFR 174.86 - Maximum allowable operating speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Maximum allowable operating speed. 174.86 Section... operating speed. (a) For molten metals and molten glass shipped in packagings other than those prescribed in § 173.247 of this subchapter, the maximum allowable operating speed may not exceed 24 km/hour (15...

  13. 30 CFR 57.19061 - Maximum hoisting speeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maximum hoisting speeds. 57.19061 Section 57... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 57.19061 Maximum hoisting speeds. The safe speed for hoisting persons shall be determined for each shaft, and this speed shall not be exceeded. Persons shall not be hoisted at...

  14. 30 CFR 56.19061 - Maximum hoisting speeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maximum hoisting speeds. 56.19061 Section 56... Hoisting Procedures § 56.19061 Maximum hoisting speeds. The safe speed for hoisting persons shall be determined for each shaft, and this speed shall not be exceeded. Persons should not be hoisted at a...

  15. 30 CFR 56.19061 - Maximum hoisting speeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum hoisting speeds. 56.19061 Section 56... Hoisting Procedures § 56.19061 Maximum hoisting speeds. The safe speed for hoisting persons shall be determined for each shaft, and this speed shall not be exceeded. Persons should not be hoisted at a...

  16. 49 CFR 174.86 - Maximum allowable operating speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Maximum allowable operating speed. 174.86 Section... operating speed. (a) For molten metals and molten glass shipped in packagings other than those prescribed in § 173.247 of this subchapter, the maximum allowable operating speed may not exceed 24 km/hour (15...

  17. 49 CFR 174.86 - Maximum allowable operating speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Maximum allowable operating speed. 174.86 Section... operating speed. (a) For molten metals and molten glass shipped in packagings other than those prescribed in § 173.247 of this subchapter, the maximum allowable operating speed may not exceed 24 km/hour (15...

  18. 30 CFR 57.19061 - Maximum hoisting speeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Maximum hoisting speeds. 57.19061 Section 57... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 57.19061 Maximum hoisting speeds. The safe speed for hoisting persons shall be determined for each shaft, and this speed shall not be exceeded. Persons shall not be hoisted at...

  19. 49 CFR 174.86 - Maximum allowable operating speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Maximum allowable operating speed. 174.86 Section... operating speed. (a) For molten metals and molten glass shipped in packagings other than those prescribed in § 173.247 of this subchapter, the maximum allowable operating speed may not exceed 24 km/hour (15...

  20. 30 CFR 57.19061 - Maximum hoisting speeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maximum hoisting speeds. 57.19061 Section 57... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 57.19061 Maximum hoisting speeds. The safe speed for hoisting persons shall be determined for each shaft, and this speed shall not be exceeded. Persons shall not be hoisted at...

  1. 30 CFR 56.19061 - Maximum hoisting speeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Maximum hoisting speeds. 56.19061 Section 56... Hoisting Procedures § 56.19061 Maximum hoisting speeds. The safe speed for hoisting persons shall be determined for each shaft, and this speed shall not be exceeded. Persons should not be hoisted at a...

  2. 30 CFR 57.19061 - Maximum hoisting speeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum hoisting speeds. 57.19061 Section 57... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 57.19061 Maximum hoisting speeds. The safe speed for hoisting persons shall be determined for each shaft, and this speed shall not be exceeded. Persons shall not be hoisted at...

  3. 30 CFR 56.19061 - Maximum hoisting speeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maximum hoisting speeds. 56.19061 Section 56... Hoisting Procedures § 56.19061 Maximum hoisting speeds. The safe speed for hoisting persons shall be determined for each shaft, and this speed shall not be exceeded. Persons should not be hoisted at a...

  4. 30 CFR 57.19061 - Maximum hoisting speeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Maximum hoisting speeds. 57.19061 Section 57... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 57.19061 Maximum hoisting speeds. The safe speed for hoisting persons shall be determined for each shaft, and this speed shall not be exceeded. Persons shall not be hoisted at...

  5. 30 CFR 56.19061 - Maximum hoisting speeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Maximum hoisting speeds. 56.19061 Section 56... Hoisting Procedures § 56.19061 Maximum hoisting speeds. The safe speed for hoisting persons shall be determined for each shaft, and this speed shall not be exceeded. Persons should not be hoisted at a...

  6. 49 CFR 174.86 - Maximum allowable operating speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maximum allowable operating speed. 174.86 Section... operating speed. (a) For molten metals and molten glass shipped in packagings other than those prescribed in § 173.247 of this subchapter, the maximum allowable operating speed may not exceed 24 km/hour (15...

  7. 22 CFR 201.67 - Maximum freight charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Maximum freight charges. 201.67 Section 201.67 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES AND PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO COMMODITY TRANSACTIONS FINANCED BY USAID Price Provisions § 201.67 Maximum freight charges. (a) Ocean freight...

  8. 22 CFR 201.67 - Maximum freight charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Maximum freight charges. 201.67 Section 201.67 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES AND PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO COMMODITY TRANSACTIONS FINANCED BY USAID Price Provisions § 201.67 Maximum freight charges. (a) Ocean freight...

  9. 25 CFR 273.4 - Policy of maximum Indian participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Policy of maximum Indian participation. 273.4 Section 273.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND... Policy of maximum Indian participation. The meaningful participation in all aspects of...

  10. 25 CFR 273.4 - Policy of maximum Indian participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Policy of maximum Indian participation. 273.4 Section 273.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND... Policy of maximum Indian participation. The meaningful participation in all aspects of...

  11. 34 CFR 682.506 - Limitations on maximum loan amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Student Loan Programs § 682.506 Limitations on maximum loan amounts. (a) The Secretary does not guarantee... loan is intended less— (i) The student's estimated financial assistance; and (ii) The student's... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limitations on maximum loan amounts. 682.506...

  12. 5 CFR 550.105 - Biweekly maximum earnings limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Biweekly maximum earnings limitation. 550.105 Section 550.105 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Maximum Earnings Limitations § 550.105 Biweekly...

  13. 22 CFR 192.44 - Maximum limitation on benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Maximum limitation on benefits. 192.44 Section 192.44 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE HOSTAGE RELIEF VICTIMS OF TERRORISM COMPENSATION Educational Benefits for Captive Situations § 192.44 Maximum limitation on benefits. (a) In no event...

  14. 22 CFR 192.44 - Maximum limitation on benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Maximum limitation on benefits. 192.44 Section 192.44 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE HOSTAGE RELIEF VICTIMS OF TERRORISM COMPENSATION Educational Benefits for Captive Situations § 192.44 Maximum limitation on benefits. (a) In no event...

  15. 22 CFR 192.44 - Maximum limitation on benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Maximum limitation on benefits. 192.44 Section 192.44 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE HOSTAGE RELIEF VICTIMS OF TERRORISM COMPENSATION Educational Benefits for Captive Situations § 192.44 Maximum limitation on benefits. (a) In no event...

  16. 22 CFR 192.44 - Maximum limitation on benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Maximum limitation on benefits. 192.44 Section 192.44 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE HOSTAGE RELIEF VICTIMS OF TERRORISM COMPENSATION Educational Benefits for Captive Situations § 192.44 Maximum limitation on benefits. (a) In no event...

  17. The maximum principle for the Navier-Stokes equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akysh, Abdigali Sh.

    2016-08-01

    New connections were established between extreme values of the velocity, the density of kinetic energy (in particular local maximum) and the pressure of the Navier-Stokes equations. Validity of the maximum principle was shown for nonlinear Navier-Stokes equations using these connections, that is fundamentally-key from the mathematical point of view.

  18. Walking after Stroke: Comfortable versus Maximum Safe Speed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohannon, Richard W.

    1992-01-01

    This study attempted to (1) determine whether stroke patients (n=20) can safely increase their walking speed above that of comfortable walking; (2) describe the relationship between comfortable and maximum safe walking speed; and (3) examine correlations between maximum and comfortable speeds and a functional walking score. Subjects were able to…

  19. 43 CFR 418.13 - Maximum allowable limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Conditions of Water Delivery § 418.13 Maximum allowable limits. (a) Maximum allowable diversions. (1) A provisional water budget in the Newlands Project Water Budget table must be recalculated for each irrigation season to reflect anticipated water-righted acres to be irrigated. At the start of the irrigation...

  20. 33 CFR 401.3 - Maximum vessel dimensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum vessel dimensions. 401.3... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Condition of Vessels § 401.3 Maximum vessel dimensions..., and having dimensions that do not exceed the limits set out in the block diagram in appendix I of...

  1. 33 CFR 401.3 - Maximum vessel dimensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maximum vessel dimensions. 401.3... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Condition of Vessels § 401.3 Maximum vessel dimensions..., and having dimensions that do not exceed the limits set out in the block diagram in appendix I of...

  2. 49 CFR 209.103 - Minimum and maximum penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Minimum and maximum penalties. 209.103 Section 209... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Hazardous Materials Penalties Civil Penalties § 209.103 Minimum and maximum penalties. (a) A person who knowingly violates...

  3. 49 CFR 209.103 - Minimum and maximum penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Minimum and maximum penalties. 209.103 Section 209... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Hazardous Materials Penalties Civil Penalties § 209.103 Minimum and maximum penalties. (a) A person who knowingly violates...

  4. 21 CFR 17.2 - Maximum penalty amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL CIVIL MONEY... Public Health Service Act. Civil Monetary Penalties Authorities Administered by FDA and Adjusted Maximum... assessed under The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act do not have a “former maximum penalty.”...

  5. 21 CFR 17.2 - Maximum penalty amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL CIVIL MONEY... Public Health Service Act. Civil Monetary Penalties Authorities Administered by FDA and Adjusted Maximum... assessed under The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act do not have a “former maximum penalty.”...

  6. 21 CFR 17.2 - Maximum penalty amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL CIVIL MONEY... Public Health Service Act. Civil Monetary Penalties Authorities Administered by FDA and Adjusted Maximum... assessed under The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act do not have a “former maximum...

  7. Renewing Solar Science. The Solar Maximum Repair Mission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Valerie

    This publication describes the Solar Maximum Repair Mission for restoring the operational capability of the solar observatory in space by using the Space Shuttle. Major sections include: (1) "The Solar Maximum Mission" (describing the duties of the mission); (2) "Studying Solar Flares" (summarizing the major scientific accomplishments of the…

  8. 32 CFR 842.35 - Depreciation and maximum allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Depreciation and maximum allowances. 842.35... LITIGATION ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS Personnel Claims (31 U.S.C. 3701, 3721) § 842.35 Depreciation and maximum allowances. The military services have jointly established the “Allowance List-Depreciation Guide”...

  9. 30 CFR 77.1402-1 - Maximum load; posting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum load; posting. 77.1402-1 Section 77.1402-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY... MINES Personnel Hoisting § 77.1402-1 Maximum load; posting. The operator shall designate the...

  10. 49 CFR 209.103 - Minimum and maximum penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Minimum and maximum penalties. 209.103 Section 209... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Hazardous Materials Penalties Civil Penalties § 209.103 Minimum and maximum penalties. (a) A person who knowingly violates...

  11. 49 CFR 209.103 - Minimum and maximum penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Minimum and maximum penalties. 209.103 Section 209... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Hazardous Materials Penalties Civil Penalties § 209.103 Minimum and maximum penalties. (a) A person who knowingly violates...

  12. 49 CFR 209.103 - Minimum and maximum penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Minimum and maximum penalties. 209.103 Section 209... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Hazardous Materials Penalties Civil Penalties § 209.103 Minimum and maximum penalties. (a) A person who knowingly violates...

  13. 46 CFR 154.556 - Cargo hose: Maximum working pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cargo hose: Maximum working pressure. 154.556 Section 154.556 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... Equipment Cargo Hose § 154.556 Cargo hose: Maximum working pressure. A cargo hose must have a...

  14. 46 CFR 154.556 - Cargo hose: Maximum working pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cargo hose: Maximum working pressure. 154.556 Section 154.556 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... Equipment Cargo Hose § 154.556 Cargo hose: Maximum working pressure. A cargo hose must have a...

  15. 46 CFR 154.556 - Cargo hose: Maximum working pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cargo hose: Maximum working pressure. 154.556 Section 154.556 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... Equipment Cargo Hose § 154.556 Cargo hose: Maximum working pressure. A cargo hose must have a...

  16. 43 CFR 418.13 - Maximum allowable limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... calculated annually to ensure an adequate water supply for all water right holders whose water use complies... subsequent decisions concerning transfers of Project water rights, using the methodology established in this... Conditions of Water Delivery § 418.13 Maximum allowable limits. (a) Maximum allowable diversions. (1)...

  17. 43 CFR 418.13 - Maximum allowable limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... calculated annually to ensure an adequate water supply for all water right holders whose water use complies... subsequent decisions concerning transfers of Project water rights, using the methodology established in this... Conditions of Water Delivery § 418.13 Maximum allowable limits. (a) Maximum allowable diversions. (1)...

  18. 40 CFR 141.13 - Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... turbidity. 141.13 Section 141.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Maximum Contaminant Levels § 141.13... part. The maximum contaminant levels for turbidity in drinking water, measured at a...

  19. 40 CFR 141.13 - Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... turbidity. 141.13 Section 141.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Maximum Contaminant Levels § 141.13... part. The maximum contaminant levels for turbidity in drinking water, measured at a...

  20. 47 CFR 95.639 - Maximum transmitter power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Maximum transmitter power. 95.639 Section 95.639 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Technical Regulations Technical Standards § 95.639 Maximum transmitter power. (a) No GMRS transmitter, under any condition...

  1. 28 CFR 97.13 - Maximum driving time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Department of Transportation regulations at 49 CFR 395.3 which will apply regardless of whether a private... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maximum driving time. 97.13 Section 97.13... OR DETAINEE SERVICES § 97.13 Maximum driving time. Companies covered under this part must adhere...

  2. 28 CFR 97.13 - Maximum driving time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Department of Transportation regulations at 49 CFR 395.3 which will apply regardless of whether a private... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maximum driving time. 97.13 Section 97.13... OR DETAINEE SERVICES § 97.13 Maximum driving time. Companies covered under this part must adhere...

  3. 28 CFR 97.13 - Maximum driving time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Department of Transportation regulations at 49 CFR 395.3 which will apply regardless of whether a private... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Maximum driving time. 97.13 Section 97.13... OR DETAINEE SERVICES § 97.13 Maximum driving time. Companies covered under this part must adhere...

  4. 28 CFR 97.13 - Maximum driving time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Department of Transportation regulations at 49 CFR 395.3 which will apply regardless of whether a private... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Maximum driving time. 97.13 Section 97.13... OR DETAINEE SERVICES § 97.13 Maximum driving time. Companies covered under this part must adhere...

  5. 28 CFR 97.13 - Maximum driving time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Department of Transportation regulations at 49 CFR 395.3 which will apply regardless of whether a private... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum driving time. 97.13 Section 97.13... OR DETAINEE SERVICES § 97.13 Maximum driving time. Companies covered under this part must adhere...

  6. 22 CFR 192.44 - Maximum limitation on benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maximum limitation on benefits. 192.44 Section 192.44 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE HOSTAGE RELIEF VICTIMS OF TERRORISM COMPENSATION Educational Benefits for Captive Situations § 192.44 Maximum limitation on benefits. (a) In no event...

  7. Probable maximum flood at Lake Chippewa near Winter, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krug, William R.

    1976-01-01

    The probable maximum flood was computed for Lake Chippewa, Wisconsin, and routed through the lake to determine maximum lake stage. The peak discharge of the probable maximum flood at Lake Chippewa was computed to be about 75,000 cubic feet per second, primarily caused by rainfall on the lake. A secondary peak of about 41,000 cubic feet per second was due to streamflow entering Lake Chippewa. The 14-day volume of this flood was 450 ,000 acre-feet. Using an assumed operating procedure for Winter Dam, the maximum lake stage for the probable maximum flood was computed to be about 1,318 feet above mean sea level--about 3 feet below the dam crest and 6 feet above the proposed normal summer operating level. The probability of this flood occurring in any year is less than 1 in 10,000. (Woodard-USGS)

  8. Comparison of force exerted on the sternum during a sneeze versus during low-, moderate-, and high-intensity bench press resistance exercise with and without the valsalva maneuver in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Adams, Jenny; Schmid, Jack; Parker, Robert D; Coast, J Richard; Cheng, Dunlei; Killian, Aaron D; McCray, Stephanie; Strauss, Danielle; McLeroy Dejong, Sandra; Berbarie, Rafic

    2014-03-15

    Sternal precautions are intended to prevent complications after median sternotomy, but little data exist to support the consensus recommendations. To better characterize the forces on the sternum that can occur during everyday events, we conducted a prospective nonrandomized study of 41 healthy volunteers that evaluated the force exerted during bench press resistance exercise and while sneezing. A balloon-tipped esophageal catheter, inserted through the subject's nose and advanced into the thoracic cavity, was used to measure the intrathoracic pressure differential during the study activities. After the 1 repetition maximum (1-RM) was assessed, the subject performed the bench press at the following intensities, first with controlled breathing and then with the Valsalva maneuver: 40% of 1-RM (low), 70% of 1-RM (moderate), and 1-RM (high). Next, various nasal irritants were used to induce a sneeze. The forces on the sternum were calculated according to a cylindrical model, and a 2-tailed paired t test was used to compare the mean force exerted during a sneeze with the mean force exerted during each of the 6 bench press exercises. No statistically significant difference was found between the mean force from a sneeze (41.0 kg) and the mean total force exerted during moderate-intensity bench press exercise with breathing (41.4 kg). In conclusion, current guidelines and recommendations limit patient activity after a median sternotomy. Because these patients can repeatedly withstand a sneeze, our study indicates that they can withstand the forces from more strenuous activities than are currently allowed. PMID:24440333

  9. Acute and chronic cardiovascular response to 16 weeks of combined eccentric or traditional resistance and aerobic training in elderly hypertensive women: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Eduardo S; Asano, Ricardo Y; Filho, Irênio G; Lopes, Nilson L; Panelli, Paulo; Nascimento, Dahan da C; Collier, Scott R; Prestes, Jonato

    2014-11-01

    Both aerobic (AT) and resistance training (RT) are recommended as nonpharmacological treatments to prevent hypertension. However, there is a paucity of literature investigating the effects of combined exercise modes (RT combined with AT) in elderly hypertensive women. Thus, our aim was to compare the postexercise hypotension (PEH) response to both protocol models and to assess the correlation between the degree of PEH after acute and chronic training. Furthermore, we also compared several biochemical variables for each training group. Sixty hypertensive older women were randomly assigned into nonexercised control (no systematic exercise training throughout the study), eccentric RT (ERT), and traditional RT (TRT). The training programs consisted of 16 weeks of RT combined with AT. Blood pressure (BP), biochemical profiles, and 1 repetition maximum (1RM) were evaluated. There was a significant increase in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) after both training regimens pre- to posttraining (combined ERT +5% and TRT +7%; p = 0.001 for both). There was a decrease in systolic BP (SBP) (combined ERT -19% and TRT -21%; p = 0.001 for both) and diastolic BP (DBP) (-13% for both; p = 0.001 for both). There was an increase in bench press 1RM (combined ERT +54% and TRT +35%; p = 0.001 for both) and leg press 1RM (combined ERT +52% and TRT +33%; p = 0.001 for both). The magnitude of decrease in SBP after acute exercise was moderately correlated with the drop in SBP after chronic training for the ERT combined with AT group (r = 0.64). Both combined training protocols are effective in promoting benefits in health-related factors (HDL, SBP, DBP, and 1RM). Considering the lower cardiovascular stress experienced during combined ERT, this type of training seems to be the most suitable for elders, deconditioned individuals, and hypertensives. PMID:24845208

  10. Salivary testosterone and cortisol responses in professional rugby players after four resistance exercise protocols.

    PubMed

    Beaven, C Martyn; Gill, Nicholas D; Cook, Christian J

    2008-03-01

    The acute response of free salivary testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) concentrations to four resistance exercise (RE) protocols in 23 elite men rugby players was investigated. We hypothesized that hormonal responses would differ among individuals after four distinct RE protocols: four sets of 10 repetitions (reps) at 70% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM) with 2 minutes' rest between sets (4 x 10-70%); three sets of five reps at 85% 1RM with 3 minutes' rest (3 x 5-85%); five sets of 15 reps at 55% 1RM with 1 minute's rest (5 x 15-55%); and three sets of five reps at 40% 1RM with 3 minutes' rest (3 x 5-40%). Each athlete completed each of the four RE protocols in a random order on separate days. T and C concentrations were measured before exercise (PRE), immediately after exercise (POST), and 30 minutes post exercise (30 POST). Each protocol consisted of four exercises: bench press, leg press, seated row, and squats. Pooled T data did not change as a result of RE, whereas C declined significantly. Individual athletes differed in their T response to each of the protocols, a difference that was masked when examining the pooled group data. When individual data were retrospectively tabulated according to the protocol in which each athlete showed the highest T response, a significant protocol-dependent T increase for all individuals was revealed. Therefore, RE induced significant individual, protocol-dependent hormonal changes lasting up to 30 minutes after exercise. These individual responses may have important ramifications for modulating adaptation to RE and could explain the variability often observed in studies of hormonal response to RE.

  11. Efficacy of Blood Flow-Restricted Low-Load Resistance Training For Quadriceps Strengthening in Men at Risk of Symptomatic Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Maria D.; Mikesky, Alan E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Greater quadriceps strength has been associated with lower risk of symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA) in older adults. However, factors that confer elevated risk of knee OA (eg, sedentary lifestyle, obesity, and knee injury) also contribute to a reduced tolerance of resistance training programs at ≥60% 1-repetition maximum (1RM). Therefore, the current study assessed whether concurrent application of blood flow restriction (BFR) to low-load resistance training is an efficacious and tolerable means of improving quadriceps strength in men at risk of symptomatic knee OA. Methods: Men older than age 45, with a history of knee injury or elevated body mass index (BMI), were randomized to low-load resistance training (30% 1RM) either with or without concurrent BFR. Isotonic double-leg press strength and isokinetic knee extensor strength were assessed before and after 4 weeks of training 3 times/wk. Knee pain (Knee Osteoarthritis Outcome Score) was assessed for tolerance. Results: Of the 42 men (mean age 56.1 ± 7.7 years) who were randomized, 41 completed the program. There were no significant intergroup differences in age, BMI, knee pathology, or muscle strength at baseline. Although leg press 1RM improved in both control and BFR groups, there were no significant intergroup differences in primary or secondary measures of muscle strength. The BFR was not associated with worsening of knee pain, but there was a significant improvement in knee pain in the control group. Conclusions: In comparison with training without BFR, addition of BFR to 30% 1RM resistance training for 4 weeks did not confer significantly greater increases in leg press or quadriceps strength in older men with risk factors for symptomatic knee OA. PMID:26328230

  12. Electromyographic and Force Plate Analysis of the Deadlift Performed With and Without Chains.

    PubMed

    Nijem, Ramsey M; Coburn, Jared W; Brown, Lee E; Lynn, Scott K; Ciccone, Anthony B

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of deadlift chain variable resistance on surface electromyography (EMG) of the gluteus maximus, erector spinae, and vastus lateralis muscles, ground reaction forces (GRFs), and rate of force development (RFD). Thirteen resistance-trained men (24.0 ± 2.1 years, 179.3 ± 4.8 cm, 87.0 ± 10.6 kg) volunteered for the study. On day 1, subjects performed 1 repetition maximum (1RM) testing of the deadlift exercise. On day 2, subjects performed one set of 3 repetitions with a load of 85% 1RM with chains (CH) and without chains (NC). The order of the CH and NC conditions was randomly determined for each subject. For the CH condition, the chains accounted for approximately 20% (19.9 ± 0.6%) of the 85% 1RM load, matched at the top of the lift. Surface EMG was recorded to differentiate muscle activity between conditions (CH, NC), range of motion (ROM; bottom, top), and phase (concentric, eccentric). Peak GRFs and RFD were measured using a force plate. Electromyography results revealed that for the gluteus maximus there was significantly greater EMG activity during the NC condition vs. the CH condition. For the erector spinae, EMG activity was greater at the bottom than the top ROM (p ≤ 0.05). Force plate results revealed that deadlifting at 85% 1RM with an accommodating chain resistance of approximately 20% results in a reduction in GRFs (p ≤ 0.05) and no change in RFD (p > 0.05). Collectively, these results suggest that the use of chain resistance during deadlifting can alter muscle activation and force characteristics of the lift. PMID:26840441

  13. The effects of a 7-week practical blood flow restriction program on well-trained collegiate athletes.

    PubMed

    Luebbers, Paul E; Fry, Andrew C; Kriley, Luke M; Butler, Michael S

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a 7-week practical blood flow restriction (BFR) protocol used in conjunction with a strength training program on measures of muscular strength and size in collegiate American football players. Sixty-two participants were divided into 4 groups. Three groups completed a traditional upper- and lower-body split strength program. Two of these groups also completed supplemental lifting sessions. Of these 2, 1 completed the additional lifts with BFR. The final group completed a modified training program, followed by the supplemental lifts, with BFR. The supplemental lifting protocol consisted of bench press and squat, using 20% 1 repetition maximum (1RM) for 4 sets with 30 repetitions performed in the first set and 20 repetitions performed in the following 3 sets. Each set was separated by 45 seconds of rest. The supplemental bench press was completed at the end of upper-body days and the squat at the end of lower-body days. Dependent measures were taken before the start of the program and again on conclusion the following dependent variables were measured: upper- and lower-body girths, 1RM bench, and squat. Results of a 4 × 2 mixed-model multivariate analysis of covariance revealed a significant difference for the interaction on the dependent variables. Follow-up univariate analysis of variances indicated a significant difference for 1RM squat. This suggests that a practical BFR program used in addition to a traditional strength training program can be effective at increasing 1RM squat performance. The use of elastic knee wraps makes BFR a feasible training option for coaches and athletes.

  14. The effects of short-cycle sprints on power, strength, and salivary hormones in elite rugby players.

    PubMed

    Crewther, Blair T; Cook, Christian J; Lowe, Tim E; Weatherby, Robert P; Gill, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effects of short-cycle sprints on power, strength, and salivary hormones in elite rugby players. Thirty male rugby players performed an upper-body power and lower-body strength (UPLS) and/or a lower-body power and upper-body strength (LPUS) workout using a crossover design (sprint vs. control). A 40-second upper-body or lower-body cycle sprint was performed before the UPLS and LPUS workouts, respectively, with the control sessions performed without the sprints. Bench throw (BT) power and box squat (BS) 1 repetition maximum (1RM) strength were assessed in the UPLS workout, and squat jump (SJ) power and bench press (BP) 1RM strength were assessed in the LPUS workout. Saliva was collected across each workout and assayed for testosterone (Sal-T) and cortisol (Sal-C). The cycle sprints improved BS (2.6 ± 1.2%) and BP (2.8 ± 1.0%) 1RM but did not affect BT and SJ power. The lower-body cycle sprint produced a favorable environment for the BS by elevating Sal-T concentrations. The upper-body cycle sprint had no hormonal effect, but the workout differences (%) in Sal-T (r = -0.59) and Sal-C (r = 0.42) concentrations correlated to the BP, along with the Sal-T/C ratio (r = -0.49 to -0.66). In conclusion, the cycle sprints improved the BP and BS 1RM strength of elite rugby players but not power output in the current format. The improvements noted may be explained, in part, by the changes in absolute or relative hormone concentrations. These findings have practical implications for prescribing warm-up and training exercises.

  15. Cardiac autonomic recovery after a single session of resistance exercise with and without vascular occlusion.

    PubMed

    Okuno, Nilo M; Pedro, Rafael E; Leicht, Anthony S; de Paula Ramos, Solange; Nakamura, Fábio Y

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the heart rate variability (HRV) after resistance training with and without vascular occlusion. It was hypothesized that low intensity (LI) with vascular occlusion (LIO) would elicit comparable postexercise HRV responses with that of high intensity (HI) without vascular occlusion. Nine subjects undertook 4 experimental sessions of leg press exercise on different days: (a) 1 repetition maximum (1RM) test, (b) 4 sets of 8 repetitions + 1 set until exhaustion at 80% of 1RM without vascular occlusion (HI), (c) 4 sets of 16 repetitions + 1 set until exhaustion at 40% of 1RM with vascular occlusion (LIO), and (d) 4 sets of 16 repetitions + 1 set with the number of repetitions equal to the last set of LIO but at 40% of 1RM without vascular occlusion (LI). Heart rate variability was analyzed 10 minutes, 20 minutes, 30 minutes, 1 hour, 5 hours, and 24 hours after the HI, LIO, and LI sessions. The HI session increased the heart rate (HR) and reduced the root mean square of the successive difference of R-R intervals (RMSSD) and log-transformed high-frequency (lnHF) power during prolonged recovery (HR = 5 hours; RMSSD = 30 minutes; lnHF = 1 hour) at a greater magnitude when compared with LIO and LI. Despite the same intensity of exercise for LIO and LI, the occlusion delayed the recovery of HR and HRV variables. Postexercise blood lactate concentration was moderate to strongly correlated with peak HR (r = 0.87), RMSSD (r = -0.64), and lnHF (r = -0.68). This study has demonstrated that LIO was able to reduce cardiac autonomic stress when compared with HI.

  16. Psychological correlates of performance in female athletes during a 12-week off-season strength and conditioning program.

    PubMed

    Jones, Margaret T; Matthews, Tracey D; Murray, Mimi; Van Raalte, Judy; Jensen, Barbara E

    2010-03-01

    Examination of the relationship between performance testing and psychological measures before and after a 12-week strength and conditioning program was the study's purpose. Female NCAA Division-III soccer (n = 28), field hockey (n = 28), and softball (n = 19) athletes completed pre- and post-testing held 12 weeks apart. On day 1, athletes completed informed consent, 3 psychological measures (Profile of Mood States [POMS], Physical Self Perception Profile [PSPP], and Athlete's Self Perception of Physical Abilities [ASPPA]), and 2 strength tests (1 repetition maximum [1RM] bench, 1RM back squat). Day 2 consisted of the 30-yd sprint, pro agility run (PRO), vertical jump (VJ), and standing long jump (SLJ). All sports improved (p < 0.01) in 1RM bench and squat and reported increases in perceived Physical Strength on the PSPP (p < 0.01). Soccer athletes improved (p < 0.01) in VJ, SLJ, and PRO (p < 0.05). No differences were found in POMS scores. The POMS scores indicated that the athletes were not overtrained or experiencing staleness. A series of correlations showed relationships between physical and psychological measures. Specifically, Physical Strength was correlated with 1RM upper-body (r = 0.49, p < 0.01) and lower-body (r = 0.42, p < 0.01) strength. The PSPP Physical Strength was correlated with ASPPA ratings of upper-body (r = 0.68, p < 0.01) and lower-body (r = 0.57, p < 0.01) strength. The PSPP Sport Competence correlated with ASPPA ratings of power (r = 0.45, p < 0.01) and PRO (r = 0.38, p < 0.05). The study's results highlight the benefits of strength and conditioning. Furthermore, these results demonstrate how physical changes are related to athletes' physical self-perceptions and self-assessment of ability within their teams.

  17. The acute effects of heavy and light resistances on the flight time of a basketball push-pass during upper body complex training.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Martyn; O'Conchuir, Cian; Comfort, Paul

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the acute effect of high-load and low-load complex training on upper-body performance-determined by the flight time of a basketball push-pass. Twelve competitive male athletes (21.8 +/- 4.5 years, 82.0 +/- 11.7 kg, 181.6 +/- 5.6 cm), with at least 6 months weight training experience and no musculoskeletal disorders, undertook 3 testing conditions. Condition 1 involved 5 repetitions at 85% of a 1 repetition maximum (1RM) bench press; Condition 2 involved 5 repetitions of a 2.3-kg medicine ball push-pass; and Condition 3 was the control, where participants rested for the equivalent time of the other conditions ( approximately 20 seconds). Each condition was preceded and followed by an electronically timed basketball push-pass. Results indicate a significant (3.99%, P = 0.001) reduction in flight time following the completion of Condition 1 (85% 1RM) but no significant changes (1.96%, P = 0.154) were seen following Condition 2 (medicine ball push-pass). Furthermore, there was a significant difference (P = 0.016) between Condition 1 (85% 1RM) and Condition 2 (medicine ball throw). This study appears to confirm previous research suggesting that high loads are required to elicit a potentiation effect. For those athletes wishing to produce a short-term enhancement of power, they should consider loads in the region of 85% 1RM. Results with the lower load showed greater variation, with some individuals responding and others not. Because there appears to be an individual potentiation response to lighter loads, we recommend that, when equipment is limited, athletes and coaches experiment with a range of loads when performing contrast training.

  18. 40 CFR 1042.140 - Maximum engine power, displacement, power density, and maximum in-use engine speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... as specified in 40 CFR 1065.610. This is the maximum in-use engine speed used for calculating the NOX... procedures of 40 CFR part 1065, based on the manufacturer's design and production specifications for the..., power density, and maximum in-use engine speed. 1042.140 Section 1042.140 Protection of...

  19. 40 CFR 1042.140 - Maximum engine power, displacement, power density, and maximum in-use engine speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... as specified in 40 CFR 1065.610. This is the maximum in-use engine speed used for calculating the NOX... procedures of 40 CFR part 1065, based on the manufacturer's design and production specifications for the..., power density, and maximum in-use engine speed. 1042.140 Section 1042.140 Protection of...

  20. 40 CFR 1042.140 - Maximum engine power, displacement, power density, and maximum in-use engine speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... as specified in 40 CFR 1065.610. This is the maximum in-use engine speed used for calculating the NOX... procedures of 40 CFR part 1065, based on the manufacturer's design and production specifications for the..., power density, and maximum in-use engine speed. 1042.140 Section 1042.140 Protection of...

  1. 40 CFR 1042.140 - Maximum engine power, displacement, power density, and maximum in-use engine speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... as specified in 40 CFR 1065.610. This is the maximum in-use engine speed used for calculating the NOX... procedures of 40 CFR part 1065, based on the manufacturer's design and production specifications for the..., power density, and maximum in-use engine speed. 1042.140 Section 1042.140 Protection of...

  2. 40 CFR 1042.140 - Maximum engine power, displacement, power density, and maximum in-use engine speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... as specified in 40 CFR 1065.610. This is the maximum in-use engine speed used for calculating the NOX... procedures of 40 CFR part 1065, based on the manufacturer's design and production specifications for the..., power density, and maximum in-use engine speed. 1042.140 Section 1042.140 Protection of...

  3. Watershed Regressions for Pesticides (WARP) for Predicting Annual Maximum and Annual Maximum Moving-Average Concentrations of Atrazine in Streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, Wesley W.; Gilliom, Robert J.; Crawford, Charles G.

    2008-01-01

    Regression models were developed for predicting annual maximum and selected annual maximum moving-average concentrations of atrazine in streams using the Watershed Regressions for Pesticides (WARP) methodology developed by the National Water-Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The current effort builds on the original WARP models, which were based on the annual mean and selected percentiles of the annual frequency distribution of atrazine concentrations. Estimates of annual maximum and annual maximum moving-average concentrations for selected durations are needed to characterize the levels of atrazine and other pesticides for comparison to specific water-quality benchmarks for evaluation of potential concerns regarding human health or aquatic life. Separate regression models were derived for the annual maximum and annual maximum 21-day, 60-day, and 90-day moving-average concentrations. Development of the regression models used the same explanatory variables, transformations, model development data, model validation data, and regression methods as those used in the original development of WARP. The models accounted for 72 to 75 percent of the variability in the concentration statistics among the 112 sampling sites used for model development. Predicted concentration statistics from the four models were within a factor of 10 of the observed concentration statistics for most of the model development and validation sites. Overall, performance of the models for the development and validation sites supports the application of the WARP models for predicting annual maximum and selected annual maximum moving-average atrazine concentration in streams and provides a framework to interpret the predictions in terms of uncertainty. For streams with inadequate direct measurements of atrazine concentrations, the WARP model predictions for the annual maximum and the annual maximum moving-average atrazine concentrations can be used to characterize

  4. Determining Maximum Glycolytic Capacity Using Extracellular Flux Measurements.

    PubMed

    Mookerjee, Shona A; Nicholls, David G; Brand, Martin D

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of glycolytic rate and maximum glycolytic capacity using extracellular flux analysis can give crucial information about cell status and phenotype during normal operation, development of pathology, differentiation, and malignant transformation. They are also of great use when assessing the effects of chemical or drug treatments. Here, we experimentally define maximum glycolytic capacity, demonstrate how it differs from glycolytic rate, and provide a protocol for determining the basal glycolytic rate and maximum glycolytic capacity in cells using extracellular flux measurements. The results illustrate the power of extracellular flux analysis to describe the energetics of adherent cells in culture in a fully quantitative way. PMID:27031845

  5. Quasi-Maximum Modulus Principle for the Stokes Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Tongkeun; Choe, Hi Jun

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we extend the maximum modulus estimate of the solutions of the nonstationary Stokes equations in the bounded C 2 cylinders for the space variables in Chang and Choe (J Differ Equ 254(7):2682-2704, 2013) to time estimate. We show that if the boundary data is {L^{∞}} and the normal part of the boundary data has log-Dini continuity with respect to the time, then the velocity is bounded. We emphasize that there is no continuity assumption on space variables in the new maximum modulus estimate. This completes the maximum modulus estimate.

  6. The distribution of maximum temperatures of coronal active region loops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teske, R. G.; Mayfield, E. B.

    1981-01-01

    Starting with the integrated emission measure distributions of solar active regions, the distribution of the maximum temperature parameter which characterizes individual plasma loops is determined. The observed emission measure distributions were determined by combining EUV and X-ray data from two separate experiments on ATM/Skylab. The present work sets some limits on such an approach. It is found that the distribution of maximum temperature has approximately the same shape as the integrated emission measure distributions, a result which is expected since most of the loop emission measure is near their maximum temperatures.

  7. Postflight evaluation of the solar maximum spacecraft magnetometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunham, W. D.

    1985-01-01

    The Solar Maximum Mission spacecraft was launched February 14, 1980 from Cape Kennedy. Attached to one side of the spacecraft was the Modular Attitude Control System (MACS). Two Schonstedt magnetometers were located within the MACS module. Although primarily used as a backup attitude determination system during the Solar Maximum Repair Mission, the magnetometers were instrumental in stabilizing the spacecraft. In October of 1984 the Solar Maximum magnetometers were returned to Schonstedt Instrument Company for postflight analysis, where they were subjected to the same electrical performance tests performed prior to use. In both instances the magnetometer performance was exceptional. Postflight test data nearly duplicated preflight test data.

  8. Determining Maximum Glycolytic Capacity Using Extracellular Flux Measurements.

    PubMed

    Mookerjee, Shona A; Nicholls, David G; Brand, Martin D

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of glycolytic rate and maximum glycolytic capacity using extracellular flux analysis can give crucial information about cell status and phenotype during normal operation, development of pathology, differentiation, and malignant transformation. They are also of great use when assessing the effects of chemical or drug treatments. Here, we experimentally define maximum glycolytic capacity, demonstrate how it differs from glycolytic rate, and provide a protocol for determining the basal glycolytic rate and maximum glycolytic capacity in cells using extracellular flux measurements. The results illustrate the power of extracellular flux analysis to describe the energetics of adherent cells in culture in a fully quantitative way.

  9. Determining Maximum Glycolytic Capacity Using Extracellular Flux Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Mookerjee, Shona A.; Nicholls, David G.; Brand, Martin D.

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of glycolytic rate and maximum glycolytic capacity using extracellular flux analysis can give crucial information about cell status and phenotype during normal operation, development of pathology, differentiation, and malignant transformation. They are also of great use when assessing the effects of chemical or drug treatments. Here, we experimentally define maximum glycolytic capacity, demonstrate how it differs from glycolytic rate, and provide a protocol for determining the basal glycolytic rate and maximum glycolytic capacity in cells using extracellular flux measurements. The results illustrate the power of extracellular flux analysis to describe the energetics of adherent cells in culture in a fully quantitative way. PMID:27031845

  10. A stochastic model for the analysis of maximum daily temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirangelo, B.; Caloiero, T.; Coscarelli, R.; Ferrari, E.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, a stochastic model for the analysis of the daily maximum temperature is proposed. First, a deseasonalization procedure based on the truncated Fourier expansion is adopted. Then, the Johnson transformation functions were applied for the data normalization. Finally, the fractionally autoregressive integrated moving average model was used to reproduce both short- and long-memory behavior of the temperature series. The model was applied to the data of the Cosenza gauge (Calabria region) and verified on other four gauges of southern Italy. Through a Monte Carlo simulation procedure based on the proposed model, 105 years of daily maximum temperature have been generated. Among the possible applications of the model, the occurrence probabilities of the annual maximum values have been evaluated. Moreover, the procedure was applied for the estimation of the return periods of long sequences of days with maximum temperature above prefixed thresholds.

  11. 47 CFR 95.639 - Maximum transmitter power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... citations affecting § 95.639, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids... (ERP). (e) The maximum transmitter output power authorized for LPRS stations is 100 mW. (f) In the...

  12. Prediction of Maximum Aerobic Power in Untrained Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolgener, Forrest A.

    1978-01-01

    The author presents an equation for predicting maximum aerobic power in untrained females from values of percent body fat, weight, and submaximal values of heart rate, respiratory quotient, and expired gas. (MJB)

  13. Weibull distribution based on maximum likelihood with interval inspection data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rheinfurth, M. H.

    1985-01-01

    The two Weibull parameters based upon the method of maximum likelihood are determined. The test data used were failures observed at inspection intervals. The application was the reliability analysis of the SSME oxidizer turbine blades.

  14. Maximum likelihood estimation of finite mixture model for economic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phoong, Seuk-Yen; Ismail, Mohd Tahir

    2014-06-01

    Finite mixture model is a mixture model with finite-dimension. This models are provides a natural representation of heterogeneity in a finite number of latent classes. In addition, finite mixture models also known as latent class models or unsupervised learning models. Recently, maximum likelihood estimation fitted finite mixture models has greatly drawn statistician's attention. The main reason is because maximum likelihood estimation is a powerful statistical method which provides consistent findings as the sample sizes increases to infinity. Thus, the application of maximum likelihood estimation is used to fit finite mixture model in the present paper in order to explore the relationship between nonlinear economic data. In this paper, a two-component normal mixture model is fitted by maximum likelihood estimation in order to investigate the relationship among stock market price and rubber price for sampled countries. Results described that there is a negative effect among rubber price and stock market price for Malaysia, Thailand, Philippines and Indonesia.

  15. Low-complexity approximations to maximum likelihood MPSK modulation classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamkins, Jon

    2004-01-01

    We present a new approximation to the maximum likelihood classifier to discriminate between M-ary and M'-ary phase-shift-keying transmitted on an additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel and received noncoherentl, partially coherently, or coherently.

  16. Pedagogy in Prison: Teaching in Maximum Security Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcoran, Farrel

    1985-01-01

    Based on experience teaching media studies in two maximum security institutions in the Midwest, the author describes difficulties teaching in the restrictive environment of prison and ways the challenge can be met. (PD)

  17. Maximum Photovoltaic Penetration Levels on Typical Distribution Feeders: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Hoke, A.; Butler, R.; Hambrick, J.; Kroposki, B.

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents simulation results for a taxonomy of typical distribution feeders with various levels of photovoltaic (PV) penetration. For each of the 16 feeders simulated, the maximum PV penetration that did not result in steady-state voltage or current violation is presented for several PV location scenarios: clustered near the feeder source, clustered near the midpoint of the feeder, clustered near the end of the feeder, randomly located, and evenly distributed. In addition, the maximum level of PV is presented for single, large PV systems at each location. Maximum PV penetration was determined by requiring that feeder voltages stay within ANSI Range A and that feeder currents stay within the ranges determined by overcurrent protection devices. Simulations were run in GridLAB-D using hourly time steps over a year with randomized load profiles based on utility data and typical meteorological year weather data. For 86% of the cases simulated, maximum PV penetration was at least 30% of peak load.

  18. Maximum Principles and Boundary Value Problems for FDEs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domoshnitsky, Alexander

    2009-05-01

    The maximum principles present one of the classical parts in the qualitative theory of ordinary and partial differential equations. Although assertions about the maximum principles for functional differential equations can be interpreted in a corresponding sense as analogs of corresponding classical ones in the case of ordinary differential equations, they do not imply important corollaries, reached on the basis of finite dimensional fundamental systems. For example, results associated with the maximum principles in contrast with the cases of ordinary and even partial differential equations do not add so much in problems of existence and uniqueness. In this paper we obtain the maximum principles for functional differential equations and on this basis new results on existence and uniqueness of solutions for various boundary value problems are proposed.

  19. Distribution of maximum velocities in avalanches near the depinning transition.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Michael; Angheluta, Luiza; Dahmen, Karin; Goldenfeld, Nigel

    2012-09-01

    We report exact predictions for universal scaling exponents and scaling functions associated with the distribution of the maximum collective avalanche propagation velocities v(m) in the mean field theory of the interface depinning transition. We derive the extreme value distribution P(v(m)|T) for the maximum velocities in avalanches of fixed duration T and verify the results by numerical simulation near the critical point. We find that the tail of the distribution of maximum velocity for an arbitrary avalanche duration, v(m), scales as P(v(m))~v(m)(-2) for large v(m). These results account for the observed power-law distribution of the maximum amplitudes in acoustic emission experiments of crystal plasticity and are also broadly applicable to other systems in the mean-field interface depinning universality class, ranging from magnets to earthquakes.

  20. 40 CFR 35.9060 - Maximum Federal share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9060 Maximum... development of a comprehensive conservation and management plan for the estuary as specified in the...

  1. 40 CFR 35.9060 - Maximum Federal share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9060 Maximum... development of a comprehensive conservation and management plan for the estuary as specified in the...

  2. 40 CFR 35.9060 - Maximum Federal share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9060 Maximum... development of a comprehensive conservation and management plan for the estuary as specified in the...

  3. 40 CFR 35.9060 - Maximum Federal share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9060 Maximum... development of a comprehensive conservation and management plan for the estuary as specified in the...

  4. Efficiency at maximum power of motor traffic on networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golubeva, N.; Imparato, A.

    2014-06-01

    We study motor traffic on Bethe networks subject to hard-core exclusion for both tightly coupled one-state machines and loosely coupled two-state machines that perform work against a constant load. In both cases we find an interaction-induced enhancement of the efficiency at maximum power (EMP) as compared to noninteracting motors. The EMP enhancement occurs for a wide range of network and single-motor parameters and is due to a change in the characteristic load-velocity relation caused by phase transitions in the system. Using a quantitative measure of the trade-off between the EMP enhancement and the corresponding loss in the maximum output power we identify parameter regimes where motor traffic systems operate efficiently at maximum power without a significant decrease in the maximum power output due to jamming effects.

  5. Changes in context and perception of maximum reaching height.

    PubMed

    Wagman, Jeffrey B; Day, Brian M

    2014-01-01

    Successfully performing a given behavior requires flexibility in both perception and behavior. In particular, doing so requires perceiving whether that behavior is possible across the variety of contexts in which it might be performed. Three experiments investigated how (changes in) context (ie point of observation and intended reaching task) influenced perception of maximum reaching height. The results of experiment 1 showed that perceived maximum reaching height more closely reflected actual reaching ability when perceivers occupied a point of observation that was compatible with that required for the reaching task. The results of experiments 2 and 3 showed that practice perceiving maximum reaching height from a given point of observation improved perception of maximum reaching height from a different point of observation, regardless of whether such practice occurred at a compatible or incompatible point of observation. In general, such findings show bounded flexibility in perception of affordances and are thus consistent with a description of perceptual systems as smart perceptual devices.

  6. Strength and power determinants of grinding performance in America's Cup sailors.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Simon N; Hume, Patria A; Cronin, John B; Slyfield, David

    2009-09-01

    The purpose grinding is a physically demanding component of America's Cup sailing that is important to overall team performance, but little research is available on the determinants of grinding performance. We examined the relationship between various measures of muscular performance and the performance of upper-body grinding. Eleven elite male America's Cup sailors (33.9 +/- 5.5 yr, 97.8 +/- 12.5 kg, 186.0 +/- 7.1 cm) who performed grinding as part of their on-board role with extensive strength training experience participated in this study. Muscular performance testing examined the force, velocity, and power capabilities of the upper-body musculature, with upper-body push (bench press) and pull (bench pull) movements performed across loads of 10-100% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM). Functional grinding performance was examined for both forward and backward grinding and at 2 different resistances (moderate = 48 N x m, heavy = 68 N x m) using a land-based ergometer. Bench press 1RM and maximum force capability were the measures demonstrating the strongest correlation with forward grinding performance (r = 0.88-0.99 and 0.87-0.99, respectively), with the relationship increasing with grinding load. For backward grinding, there was a very strong relationship with bench pull maximum power (r = 0.85-0.98) in addition to 1RM (r = 0.90-0.95) and maximum force (r = 0.87-0.95). It appears that although maximal strength is a crucial muscular performance characteristic for grinding performance in all conditions, for backward grinding, there is the additional need to focus on the development of speed strength/power to maximize performance gains. This information was used by the Emirates Team New Zealand physical conditioner to develop a conditioning intervention to help improve grinding performance. PMID:19675468

  7. Maximum organic carbon limits at different melter feed rates (U)

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, A.S.

    1995-12-31

    This report documents the results of a study to assess the impact of varying melter feed rates on the maximum total organic carbon (TOC) limits allowable in the DWPF melter feed. Topics discussed include: carbon content; feed rate; feed composition; melter vapor space temperature; combustion and dilution air; off-gas surges; earlier work on maximum TOC; overview of models; and the results of the work completed.

  8. The maximum entropy production principle: two basic questions

    PubMed Central

    Martyushev, Leonid M.

    2010-01-01

    The overwhelming majority of maximum entropy production applications to ecological and environmental systems are based on thermodynamics and statistical physics. Here, we discuss briefly maximum entropy production principle and raises two questions: (i) can this principle be used as the basis for non-equilibrium thermodynamics and statistical mechanics and (ii) is it possible to ‘prove’ the principle? We adduce one more proof which is most concise today. PMID:20368251

  9. The maximum cooling density of a realistic Stirling refrigerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berrin Erbay, L.; Yavuz, Hasbi

    1998-02-01

    The maximum cooling density of a Stirling refrigerator operating in a closed regenerative thermodynamic cycle is presented in this paper. The cooling density is the cooling load per unit volume of the refrigerator. Since the size of the refrigerator is involved in the cooling density, the maximization of the cooling density has given a critical compression ratio. The maximum cooling density serves as a better comparison criterion for thermoeconomic considerations.

  10. Maximum spectral demands in the near-fault region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huang, Yin-Nan; Whittaker, Andrew S.; Luco, Nicolas

    2008-01-01

    The Next Generation Attenuation (NGA) relationships for shallow crustal earthquakes in the western United States predict a rotated geometric mean of horizontal spectral demand, termed GMRotI50, and not maximum spectral demand. Differences between strike-normal, strike-parallel, geometric-mean, and maximum spectral demands in the near-fault region are investigated using 147 pairs of records selected from the NGA strong motion database. The selected records are for earthquakes with moment magnitude greater than 6.5 and for closest site-to-fault distance less than 15 km. Ratios of maximum spectral demand to NGA-predicted GMRotI50 for each pair of ground motions are presented. The ratio shows a clear dependence on period and the Somerville directivity parameters. Maximum demands can substantially exceed NGA-predicted GMRotI50 demands in the near-fault region, which has significant implications for seismic design, seismic performance assessment, and the next-generation seismic design maps. Strike-normal spectral demands are a significantly unconservative surrogate for maximum spectral demands for closest distance greater than 3 to 5 km. Scale factors that transform NGA-predicted GMRotI50 to a maximum spectral demand in the near-fault region are proposed.

  11. Maximum spectral demands in the near-fault region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huang, Y.-N.; Whittaker, A.S.; Luco, N.

    2008-01-01

    The Next Generation Attenuation (NGA) relationships for shallow crustal earthquakes in the western United States predict a rotated geometric mean of horizontal spectral demand, termed GMRotI50, and not maximum spectral demand. Differences between strike-normal, strike-parallel, geometric-mean, and maximum spectral demands in the near-fault region are investigated using 147 pairs of records selected from the NGA strong motion database. The selected records are for earthquakes with moment magnitude greater than 6.5 and for closest site-to-fault distance less than 15 km. Ratios of maximum spectral demand to NGA-predicted GMRotI50 for each pair of ground motions are presented. The ratio shows a clear dependence on period and the Somerville directivity parameters. Maximum demands can substantially exceed NGA-predicted GMRotI50 demands in the near-fault region, which has significant implications for seismic design, seismic performance assessment, and the next-generation seismic design maps. Strike-normal spectral demands are a significantly unconservative surrogate for maximum spectral demands for closest distance greater than 3 to 5 km. Scale factors that transform NGA-predicted GMRotI50 to a maximum spectral demand in the near-fault region are proposed. ?? 2008, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  12. Achieving Maximum Power in Thermoelectric Generation with Simple Power Electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youn, Nari; Lee, Hohyun; Wee, Daehyun; Gomez, Miguel; Reid, Rachel; Ohara, Brandon

    2014-06-01

    A thermoelectric generator typically delivers a relatively low power output, and hence it is of great practical importance to determine a design and operating condition close to those which can provide the maximum attainable power. To maintain a favorable condition for the maximum power output, power electronics circuits are usually applied. One of the simplest methods is to control the operating voltage at half the open-circuit voltage, assuming that the typical impedance-matching condition, in which the load and internal resistances are matched, yields the maximum power output. However, recent investigations have shown that, when external thermal resistances exist between the thermoelectric modules and thermal reservoirs, the impedance-matching condition is not identical to the condition for the maximum power output. In this article, it is argued that, although the impedance-matching condition is not the condition for maximum power output, the maximum power is still achievable when the operating voltage is kept at half the open-circuit voltage. More precisely, it is shown that the typical V- I curve for thermoelectric generators must show approximately linear behavior, which justifies the use of a simple strategy in thermoelectric power generation applications. The conditions for the validity of the approximation are mathematically discussed, supported by a few examples. Experimental evidence at room temperature is also provided.

  13. Timing and significance of maximum and minimum equatorial insolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashkenazy, Yosef; Gildor, Hezi

    2008-01-01

    Variations in summer insolation at high northern latitudes on a timescale of 100 ka are very small. Thus a common belief is that the pronounced ~100 ka glacial cycles are not directly linked to the very weak 100 ka insolation periodicity. Here we show, analytically and numerically, that the annual maximum (and minimum) of daily equatorial insolation has pronounced eccentricity periodicities, with timescales of ~400 ka and ~100 ka, as well as a pronounced half-precession periodicity with timescale of ~11 ka. The timing of the maximum (and minimum) annual equatorial insolation may change around the equinoxes (solstices), alternating between the vernal and autumnal equinoxes (summer and winter solstices) where the time of the maximum (minimum) equatorial insolation may occur up to more than 1 month from the equinoxes (solstices). We also show that when considering the mean insolation of periods larger than 1 d, the ~11 ka periodicity becomes less dominant, and it vanishes when the averaging period is half a year; for the later case the maximum (minimum) may occur for any day in the annual cycle. The maximum equatorial insolation may alter the timing and amplitude of the maximum surface temperature of the summer hemisphere and in this way may drastically affect the Hadley circulation. Changes in Hadley circulation affect the heat and moisture transport from low to high latitudes, affecting the buildup of the high-latitude Northern Hemisphere ice sheets.

  14. Prediction of three dimensional maximum isometric neck strength.

    PubMed

    Fice, Jason B; Siegmund, Gunter P; Blouin, Jean-Sébastien

    2014-09-01

    We measured maximum isometric neck strength under combinations of flexion/extension, lateral bending and axial rotation to determine whether neck strength in three dimensions (3D) can be predicted from principal axes strength. This would allow biomechanical modelers to validate their neck models across many directions using only principal axis strength data. Maximum isometric neck moments were measured in 9 male volunteers (29±9 years) for 17 directions. The 3D moments were normalized by the principal axis moments, and compared to unity for all directions tested. Finally, each subject's maximum principal axis moments were used to predict their resultant moment in the off-axis directions. Maximum moments were 30±6 N m in flexion, 32±9 N m in lateral bending, 51±11 N m in extension, and 13±5 N m in axial rotation. The normalized 3D moments were not significantly different from unity (95% confidence interval contained one), except for three directions that combined ipsilateral axial rotation and lateral bending; in these directions the normalized moments exceeded one. Predicted resultant moments compared well to the actual measured values (r2=0.88). Despite exceeding unity, the normalized moments were consistent across subjects to allow prediction of maximum 3D neck strength using principal axes neck strength.

  15. DMSP Auroral Charging at Solar Cycle 24 Maximum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandler, Michael; Parker, Linda Neergaard; Minow, Joseph I.

    2013-01-01

    It has been well established that polar orbiting satellites can experience mild to severe auroral charging levels (on the order of a few hundred volts to few kilovolts negative frame potentials) during solar minimum conditions (Frooninckx and Sojka, 1992; Anderson and Koons, 1996; Anderson, 2012). These same studies have shown a strong reduction in charging during the rising and declining phases of the past few solar cycles with a nearly complete suppression of auroral charging at solar maximum. Recently, we have observed examples of high level charging during the recent approach to Solar Cycle 24 solar maximum conditions not unlike those reported by Frooninckx and Sojka (1992). These observations demonstrate that spacecraft operations during solar maximum cannot be considered safe from auroral charging when solar activity is low. We present a survey of auroral charging events experienced by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) F16 satellite during Solar Cycle 24 maximum conditions. We summarize the auroral energetic particle environment and the conditions necessary for charging to occur in this environment, we describe how the lower than normal solar activity levels for Solar Cycle 24 maximum conditions are conducive to charging in polar orbits, and we show examples of the more extreme charging events, sometimes exceeding 1 kV, during this time period.

  16. DMSP Auroral Charging at Solar Cycle 24 Maximum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandler, M.; Parker, L. Neergaard; Minow, J. I.

    2013-01-01

    It has been well established that polar orbiting satellites can experience mild to severe auroral charging levels (on the order of a few hundred volts to few kilovolts negative frame potentials) during solar minimum conditions. These same studies have shown a strong reduction in charging during the rising and declining phases of the past few solar cycles with a nearly complete suppression of auroral charging at solar maximum. Recently, we have observed examples of high level charging during the recent approach to Solar Cycle 24 solar maximum conditions not unlike those reported by Frooninckx and Sojka. These observations demonstrate that spacecraft operations during solar maximum cannot be considered safe from auroral charging when solar activity is low. We present a survey of auroral charging events experienced by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) F16 satellite during Solar Cycle 24 maximum conditions. We summarize the auroral energetic particle environment and the conditions necessary for charging to occur in this environment, we describe how the lower than normal solar activity levels for Solar Cycle 24 maximum conditions are conducive to charging in polar orbits, and we show examples of the more extreme charging events, sometimes exceeding 1 kV, during this time period.

  17. Individual Module Maximum Power Point Tracking for Thermoelectric Generator Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vadstrup, Casper; Schaltz, Erik; Chen, Min

    2013-07-01

    In a thermoelectric generator (TEG) system the DC/DC converter is under the control of a maximum power point tracker which ensures that the TEG system outputs the maximum possible power to the load. However, if the conditions, e.g., temperature, health, etc., of the TEG modules are different, each TEG module will not produce its maximum power. If each TEG module is controlled individually, each TEG module can be operated at its maximum power point and the TEG system output power will therefore be higher. In this work a power converter based on noninverting buck-boost converters capable of handling four TEG modules is presented. It is shown that, when each module in the TEG system is operated under individual maximum power point tracking, the system output power for this specific application can be increased by up to 8.4% relative to the situation when the modules are connected in series and 16.7% relative to the situation when the modules are connected in parallel.

  18. Predicting species' maximum dispersal distances from simple plant traits.

    PubMed

    Tamme, Riin; Götzenberger, Lars; Zobel, Martin; Bullock, James M; Hooftman, Danny A P; Kaasik, Ants; Pärtel, Meelis

    2014-02-01

    Many studies have shown plant species' dispersal distances to be strongly related to life-history traits, but how well different traits can predict dispersal distances is not yet known. We used cross-validation techniques and a global data set (576 plant species) to measure the predictive power of simple plant traits to estimate species' maximum dispersal distances. Including dispersal syndrome (wind, animal, ant, ballistic, and no special syndrome), growth form (tree, shrub, herb), seed mass, seed release height, and terminal velocity in different combinations as explanatory variables we constructed models to explain variation in measured maximum dispersal distances and evaluated their power to predict maximum dispersal distances. Predictions are more accurate, but also limited to a particular set of species, if data on more specific traits, such as terminal velocity, are available. The best model (R2 = 0.60) included dispersal syndrome, growth form, and terminal velocity as fixed effects. Reasonable predictions of maximum dispersal distance (R2 = 0.53) are also possible when using only the simplest and most commonly measured traits; dispersal syndrome and growth form together with species taxonomy data. We provide a function (dispeRsal) to be run in the software package R. This enables researchers to estimate maximum dispersal distances with confidence intervals for plant species using measured traits as predictors. Easily obtainable trait data, such as dispersal syndrome (inferred from seed morphology) and growth form, enable predictions to be made for a large number of species.

  19. Limitations to maximum sprinting speed imposed by muscle mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Miller, Ross H; Umberger, Brian R; Caldwell, Graham E

    2012-04-01

    It has been suggested that the force-velocity relationship of skeletal muscle plays a critical limiting role in the maximum speed at which humans can sprint. However, this theory has not been tested directly, and it is possible that other muscle mechanical properties play limiting roles as well. In this study, forward dynamics simulations of human sprinting were generated using a 2D musculoskeletal model actuated by Hill muscle models. The initial simulation results compared favorably to kinetic, kinematic, and electromyographic data recorded from sprinting humans. Muscle mechanical properties were then removed in isolation to quantify their effect on maximum sprinting speed. Removal of the force-velocity, excitation-activation, and force-length relationships increased the maximum speed by 15, 8, and 4%, respectively. Removal of the series elastic force-extension relationship decreased the maximum speed by 26%. Each relationship affected both stride length and stride frequency except for the force-length relationship, which mainly affected stride length. Removal of all muscular properties entirely (optimized joint torques) increased speed (+22%) to a greater extent than the removal of any single contractile property. The results indicate that the force-velocity relationship is indeed the most important contractile property of muscle regarding limits to maximum sprinting speed, but that other muscular properties also play important roles. Interactions between the various muscular properties should be considered when explaining limits to maximal human performance.

  20. Maximum vehicle cabin temperatures under different meteorological conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grundstein, Andrew; Meentemeyer, Vernon; Dowd, John

    2009-05-01

    A variety of studies have documented the dangerously high temperatures that may occur within the passenger compartment (cabin) of cars under clear sky conditions, even at relatively low ambient air temperatures. Our study, however, is the first to examine cabin temperatures under variable weather conditions. It uses a unique maximum vehicle cabin temperature dataset in conjunction with directly comparable ambient air temperature, solar radiation, and cloud cover data collected from April through August 2007 in Athens, GA. Maximum cabin temperatures, ranging from 41-76°C, varied considerably depending on the weather conditions and the time of year. Clear days had the highest cabin temperatures, with average values of 68°C in the summer and 61°C in the spring. Cloudy days in both the spring and summer were on average approximately 10°C cooler. Our findings indicate that even on cloudy days with lower ambient air temperatures, vehicle cabin temperatures may reach deadly levels. Additionally, two predictive models of maximum daily vehicle cabin temperatures were developed using commonly available meteorological data. One model uses maximum ambient air temperature and average daily solar radiation while the other uses cloud cover percentage as a surrogate for solar radiation. From these models, two maximum vehicle cabin temperature indices were developed to assess the level of danger. The models and indices may be useful for forecasting hazardous conditions, promoting public awareness, and to estimate past cabin temperatures for use in forensic analyses.

  1. Maximum vehicle cabin temperatures under different meteorological conditions.

    PubMed

    Grundstein, Andrew; Meentemeyer, Vernon; Dowd, John

    2009-05-01

    A variety of studies have documented the dangerously high temperatures that may occur within the passenger compartment (cabin) of cars under clear sky conditions, even at relatively low ambient air temperatures. Our study, however, is the first to examine cabin temperatures under variable weather conditions. It uses a unique maximum vehicle cabin temperature dataset in conjunction with directly comparable ambient air temperature, solar radiation, and cloud cover data collected from April through August 2007 in Athens, GA. Maximum cabin temperatures, ranging from 41-76 degrees C, varied considerably depending on the weather conditions and the time of year. Clear days had the highest cabin temperatures, with average values of 68 degrees C in the summer and 61 degrees C in the spring. Cloudy days in both the spring and summer were on average approximately 10 degrees C cooler. Our findings indicate that even on cloudy days with lower ambient air temperatures, vehicle cabin temperatures may reach deadly levels. Additionally, two predictive models of maximum daily vehicle cabin temperatures were developed using commonly available meteorological data. One model uses maximum ambient air temperature and average daily solar radiation while the other uses cloud cover percentage as a surrogate for solar radiation. From these models, two maximum vehicle cabin temperature indices were developed to assess the level of danger. The models and indices may be useful for forecasting hazardous conditions, promoting public awareness, and to estimate past cabin temperatures for use in forensic analyses. PMID:19234721

  2. Variability of annual daily maximum rainfall of Dhaka, Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahammed, Faisal; Hewa, Guna Alankarage; Argue, John R.

    2014-02-01

    This paper deals with a study on rainfall characterises of Dhaka, the capital city of Bangladesh for the period of 1953 to 2009. Data were collected from Bangladesh Meteorological Department in January 2011 and found 2.84% missing data. Descriptive statistical analysis was conducted on annual rainfall, annual daily and monthly maximum rainfall. We applied Gumbel distribution function to estimate return periods of extreme rainfall events and found that annual daily maximum rainfall equal or greater than 425 mm had a return period of 100 years. Normal distribution function was adopted to forecast rainfall variability due to global climate change and found that annual daily maximum rainfall equal or greater than 200 mm might occur in any 12 years during the period of 2010 to 2066. The outcomes of this paper can be used in better understanding rainfall patterns of Dhaka, Bangladesh.

  3. Stationary neutrino radiation transport by maximum entropy closure

    SciTech Connect

    Bludman, S.A. ||; Cernohorsky, J.

    1994-11-01

    The authors obtain the angular distributions that maximize the entropy functional for Maxwell-Boltzmann (classical), Bose-Einstein, and Fermi-Dirac radiation. In the low and high occupancy limits, the maximum entropy closure is bounded by previously known variable Eddington factors that depend only on the flux. For intermediate occupancy, the maximum entropy closure depends on both the occupation density and the flux. The Fermi-Dirac maximum entropy variable Eddington factor shows a scale invariance, which leads to a simple, exact analytic closure for fermions. This two-dimensional variable Eddington factor gives results that agree well with exact (Monte Carlo) neutrino transport calculations out of a collapse residue during early phases of hydrostatic neutron star formation.

  4. Propane spectral resolution enhancement by the maximum entropy method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonavito, N. L.; Stewart, K. P.; Hurley, E. J.; Yeh, K. C.; Inguva, R.

    1990-01-01

    The Burg algorithm for maximum entropy power spectral density estimation is applied to a time series of data obtained from a Michelson interferometer and compared with a standard FFT estimate for resolution capability. The propane transmittance spectrum was estimated by use of the FFT with a 2 to the 18th data sample interferogram, giving a maximum unapodized resolution of 0.06/cm. This estimate was then interpolated by zero filling an additional 2 to the 18th points, and the final resolution was taken to be 0.06/cm. Comparison of the maximum entropy method (MEM) estimate with the FFT was made over a 45/cm region of the spectrum for several increasing record lengths of interferogram data beginning at 2 to the 10th. It is found that over this region the MEM estimate with 2 to the 16th data samples is in close agreement with the FFT estimate using 2 to the 18th samples.

  5. Prompt merger collapse and the maximum mass of neutron stars.

    PubMed

    Bauswein, A; Baumgarte, T W; Janka, H-T

    2013-09-27

    We perform hydrodynamical simulations of neutron-star mergers for a large sample of temperature-dependent nuclear equations of state and determine the threshold mass above which the merger remnant promptly collapses to form a black hole. We find that, depending on the equation of state, the threshold mass is larger than the maximum mass of a nonrotating star in isolation by between 30 and 70 percent. Our simulations also show that the ratio between the threshold mass and maximum mass is tightly correlated with the compactness of the nonrotating maximum-mass configuration. We speculate on how this relation can be used to derive constraints on neutron-star properties from future observations.

  6. Quality, precision and accuracy of the maximum No. 40 anemometer

    SciTech Connect

    Obermeir, J.; Blittersdorf, D.

    1996-12-31

    This paper synthesizes available calibration data for the Maximum No. 40 anemometer. Despite its long history in the wind industry, controversy surrounds the choice of transfer function for this anemometer. Many users are unaware that recent changes in default transfer functions in data loggers are producing output wind speed differences as large as 7.6%. Comparison of two calibration methods used for large samples of Maximum No. 40 anemometers shows a consistent difference of 4.6% in output speeds. This difference is significantly larger than estimated uncertainty levels. Testing, initially performed to investigate related issues, reveals that Gill and Maximum cup anemometers change their calibration transfer functions significantly when calibrated in the open atmosphere compared with calibration in a laminar wind tunnel. This indicates that atmospheric turbulence changes the calibration transfer function of cup anemometers. These results call into question the suitability of standard wind tunnel calibration testing for cup anemometers. 6 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. DEM interpolation weight calculation modulus based on maximum entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Tian-wei; Yang, Xia

    2015-12-01

    There is negative-weight in traditional interpolation of gridding DEM, in the article, the principle of Maximum Entropy is utilized to analyze the model system which depends on modulus of space weight. Negative-weight problem of the DEM interpolation is researched via building Maximum Entropy model, and adding nonnegative, first and second order's Moment constraints, the negative-weight problem is solved. The correctness and accuracy of the method was validated with genetic algorithm in matlab program. The method is compared with the method of Yang Chizhong interpolation and quadratic program. Comparison shows that the volume and scaling of Maximum Entropy's weight is fit to relations of space and the accuracy is superior to the latter two.

  8. The optimal polarizations for achieving maximum contrast in radar images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swartz, A. A.; Yueh, H. A.; Kong, J. A.; Novak, L. M.; Shin, R. T.

    1988-01-01

    There is considerable interest in determining the optimal polarizations that maximize contrast between two scattering classes in polarimetric radar images. A systematic approach is presented for obtaining the optimal polarimetric matched filter, i.e., that filter which produces maximum contrast between two scattering classes. The maximization procedure involves solving an eigenvalue problem where the eigenvector corresponding to the maximum contrast ratio is an optimal polarimetric matched filter. To exhibit the physical significance of this filter, it is transformed into its associated transmitting and receiving polarization states, written in terms of horizontal and vertical vector components. For the special case where the transmitting polarization is fixed, the receiving polarization which maximizes the contrast ratio is also obtained. Polarimetric filtering is then applies to synthetic aperture radar images obtained from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. It is shown, both numerically and through the use of radar imagery, that maximum image contrast can be realized when data is processed with the optimal polarimeter matched filter.

  9. Mass mortality of the vermetid gastropod Ceraesignum maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, A. L.; Frazer, T. K.; Shima, J. S.; Osenberg, C. W.

    2016-09-01

    Ceraesignum maximum (G.B. Sowerby I, 1825), formerly Dendropoma maximum, was subject to a sudden, massive die-off in the Society Islands, French Polynesia, in 2015. On Mo'orea, where we have detailed documentation of the die-off, these gastropods were previously found in densities up to 165 m-2. In July 2015, we surveyed shallow back reefs of Mo'orea before, during and after the die-off, documenting their swift decline. All censused populations incurred 100% mortality. Additional surveys and observations from Mo'orea, Tahiti, Bora Bora, and Huahine (but not Taha'a) suggested a similar, and approximately simultaneous, die-off. The cause(s) of this cataclysmic mass mortality are currently unknown. Given the previously documented negative effects of C. maximum on corals, we expect the die-off will have cascading effects on the reef community.

  10. Face recognition using multiple maximum scatter difference discrimination dictionary learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yanyong; Dong, Jiwen; Li, Hengjian

    2015-10-01

    Based on multiple maximum scatter difference discrimination Dictionary learning, a novel face recognition algorithm is proposed. Dictionary used for sparse coding plays a key role in sparse representation classification. In this paper, a multiple maximum scatter difference discriminated criterion is used for dictionary learning. During the process of dictionary learning, the multiple maximum scatter difference computes its discriminated vectors from both the range of the between class scatter matrix and the null space of the within-class scatter matrix. The proposed algorithm is theoretically elegant and easy to calculate. Extensive experimental studies conducted on the AR database and Extended Yale Database B in comparison with existing basic sparse representation and other classification methods, it shows that the performance is a little better than the original sparse representation methods with lower complexity.

  11. Approach to forecasting daily maximum ozone levels in St. Louis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prior, E. J.; Schiess, J. R.; Mcdougal, D. S.

    1981-01-01

    Measurements taken in 1976 from the St. Louis Regional Air Pollution Study (RAPS) data base, conducted by EPA, were analyzed to determine an optimum set of air-quality and meteorological variables for predicting maximum ozone levels for each day in 1976. A 'leaps and bounds' regression analysis was used to identify the best subset of variables. Three particular variables, the 9 a.m. ozone level, the forecasted maximum temperature, and the 6-9 a.m. averaged wind speed, have useful forecasting utility. The trajectory history of air masses entering St. Louis was studied, and it was concluded that transport-related variables contribute to the appearance of very high ozone levels. The final empirical forecast model predicts the daily maximum ozone over 341 days with a standard deviation of 11 ppb, which approaches the estimated error.

  12. Semidefinite Programming for Approximate Maximum Likelihood Sinusoidal Parameter Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lui, Kenneth W. K.; So, H. C.

    2009-12-01

    We study the convex optimization approach for parameter estimation of several sinusoidal models, namely, single complex/real tone, multiple complex sinusoids, and single two-dimensional complex tone, in the presence of additive Gaussian noise. The major difficulty for optimally determining the parameters is that the corresponding maximum likelihood (ML) estimators involve finding the global minimum or maximum of multimodal cost functions because the frequencies are nonlinear in the observed signals. By relaxing the nonconvex ML formulations using semidefinite programs, high-fidelity approximate solutions are obtained in a globally optimum fashion. Computer simulations are included to contrast the estimation performance of the proposed semi-definite relaxation methods with the iterative quadratic maximum likelihood technique as well as Cramér-Rao lower bound.

  13. Estimating the maximum potential revenue for grid connected electricity storage :

    SciTech Connect

    Byrne, Raymond Harry; Silva Monroy, Cesar Augusto.

    2012-12-01

    The valuation of an electricity storage device is based on the expected future cash flow generated by the device. Two potential sources of income for an electricity storage system are energy arbitrage and participation in the frequency regulation market. Energy arbitrage refers to purchasing (stor- ing) energy when electricity prices are low, and selling (discharging) energy when electricity prices are high. Frequency regulation is an ancillary service geared towards maintaining system frequency, and is typically procured by the independent system operator in some type of market. This paper outlines the calculations required to estimate the maximum potential revenue from participating in these two activities. First, a mathematical model is presented for the state of charge as a function of the storage device parameters and the quantities of electricity purchased/sold as well as the quantities o ered into the regulation market. Using this mathematical model, we present a linear programming optimization approach to calculating the maximum potential revenue from an elec- tricity storage device. The calculation of the maximum potential revenue is critical in developing an upper bound on the value of storage, as a benchmark for evaluating potential trading strate- gies, and a tool for capital nance risk assessment. Then, we use historical California Independent System Operator (CAISO) data from 2010-2011 to evaluate the maximum potential revenue from the Tehachapi wind energy storage project, an American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) energy storage demonstration project. We investigate the maximum potential revenue from two di erent scenarios: arbitrage only and arbitrage combined with the regulation market. Our analysis shows that participation in the regulation market produces four times the revenue compared to arbitrage in the CAISO market using 2010 and 2011 data. Then we evaluate several trading strategies to illustrate how they compare to the

  14. Thermoelectric cooler concepts and the limit for maximum cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seifert, W.; Pluschke, V.; Hinsche, N. F.

    2014-06-01

    The conventional analysis of a Peltier cooler approximates the material properties as independent of temperature using a constant properties model (CPM). Alternative concepts have been published by Bian and Shakouri (2006 Appl. Phys. Lett. 89 212101), Bian (et al 2007 Phys. Rev. B 75 245208) and Snyder et al (2012 Phys. Rev. B 86 045202). While Snyder's Thomson cooler concept results from a consideration of compatibility, the method of Bian et al focuses on the redistribution of heat. Thus, both approaches are based on different principles. In this paper we compare the new concepts to CPM and we reconsider the limit for maximum cooling. The results provide a new perspective on maximum cooling.

  15. Microcanonical origin of the maximum entropy principle for open systems.

    PubMed

    Lee, Julian; Pressé, Steve

    2012-10-01

    There are two distinct approaches for deriving the canonical ensemble. The canonical ensemble either follows as a special limit of the microcanonical ensemble or alternatively follows from the maximum entropy principle. We show the equivalence of these two approaches by applying the maximum entropy formulation to a closed universe consisting of an open system plus bath. We show that the target function for deriving the canonical distribution emerges as a natural consequence of partial maximization of the entropy over the bath degrees of freedom alone. By extending this mathematical formalism to dynamical paths rather than equilibrium ensembles, the result provides an alternative justification for the principle of path entropy maximization as well.

  16. Efficiency of autonomous soft nanomachines at maximum power.

    PubMed

    Seifert, Udo

    2011-01-14

    We consider nanosized artificial or biological machines working in steady state enforced by imposing nonequilibrium concentrations of solutes or by applying external forces, torques, or electric fields. For unicyclic and strongly coupled multicyclic machines, efficiency at maximum power is not bounded by the linear response value 1/2. For strong driving, it can even approach the thermodynamic limit 1. Quite generally, such machines fall into three different classes characterized, respectively, as "strong and efficient," "strong and inefficient," and "balanced." For weakly coupled multicyclic machines, efficiency at maximum power has lost any universality even in the linear response regime.

  17. On the maximum grain size entrained by photoevaporative winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchison, Mark A.; Laibe, Guillaume; Maddison, Sarah T.

    2016-09-01

    We model the behaviour of dust grains entrained by photoevaporation-driven winds from protoplanetary discs assuming a non-rotating, plane-parallel disc. We obtain an analytic expression for the maximum entrainable grain size in extreme-UV radiation-driven winds, which we demonstrate to be proportional to the mass loss rate of the disc. When compared with our hydrodynamic simulations, the model reproduces almost all of the wind properties for the gas and dust. In typical turbulent discs, the entrained grain sizes in the wind are smaller than the theoretical maximum everywhere but the inner disc due to dust settling.

  18. Generalized relativistic wave equations with intrinsic maximum momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ching, Chee Leong; Ng, Wei Khim

    2014-05-01

    We examine the nonperturbative effect of maximum momentum on the relativistic wave equations. In momentum representation, we obtain the exact eigen-energies and wave functions of one-dimensional Klein-Gordon and Dirac equation with linear confining potentials, and the Dirac oscillator. Bound state solutions are only possible when the strength of scalar potential is stronger than vector potential. The energy spectrum of the systems studied is bounded from above, whereby classical characteristics are observed in the uncertainties of position and momentum operators. Also, there is a truncation in the maximum number of bound states that is allowed. Some of these quantum-gravitational features may have future applications.

  19. Estimating maximum depth distribution of seagrass using underwater videography

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, J.G.; Wyllie-Echeverria, S.

    1997-06-01

    The maximum depth distribution of eelgrass (Zostera marina) beds in Willapa Bay, Washington appears to be limited by light penetration which is likely related to water turbidity. Using underwater videographic techniques we estimated that the maximum depth penetration in the less turbid outer bay was -5.85 ft (MILW) and in the more turbid inner bay was only -1.59 ft (MLLW). Eelgrass beds had well defined deepwater edges and no eelgrass was observed in the deep channels of the bay. The results from this study suggest that aerial photographs taken during low tide periods are capable of recording the majority of eelgrass beds in Willapa Bay.

  20. The effect of chromium picolinate on muscular strength and body composition in women athletes.

    PubMed

    Livolsi, J M; Adams, G M; Laguna, P L

    2001-05-01

    Fifteen women softball athletes were randomly divided into 2 groups, the chromium treatment group (n = 8) and the placebo control group (n = 7) to examine the effect of chromium, in the form of chromium picolinate (CrPic) supplementation, on muscular strength, body composition (body weight, percent body fat, and lean body mass), and urinary excretion. The CrPic supplementation consisted of a 500 ug dosage taken once per day. All participants trained 3 times per week with 2-3 sets of 8-12 repetitions at 80% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM) using variable resistance machines and free weights. No significant (p < 0.05) differences in muscular strength or body composition were found after 6 weeks of resistance training. In addition, chromium excretion (microg per 24 every hours) was examined and increased significantly with the treatment group after the 6-week period.

  1. 40 CFR 141.13 - Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... turbidity. 141.13 Section 141.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Maximum Contaminant Levels § 141.13... both community water systems and non-community water systems using surface water sources in whole or...

  2. 40 CFR 141.13 - Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... turbidity. 141.13 Section 141.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Maximum Contaminant Levels § 141.13... both community water systems and non-community water systems using surface water sources in whole or...

  3. 21 CFR 801.415 - Maximum acceptable level of ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. (e) The method and apparatus specified in 40 CFR part 50... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Maximum acceptable level of ozone. 801.415 Section... level of ozone. (a) Ozone is a toxic gas with no known useful medical application in...

  4. 21 CFR 801.415 - Maximum acceptable level of ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. (e) The method and apparatus specified in 40 CFR part 50... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Maximum acceptable level of ozone. 801.415 Section... level of ozone. (a) Ozone is a toxic gas with no known useful medical application in...

  5. 21 CFR 801.415 - Maximum acceptable level of ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. (e) The method and apparatus specified in 40 CFR part 50... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Maximum acceptable level of ozone. 801.415 Section... level of ozone. (a) Ozone is a toxic gas with no known useful medical application in...

  6. Triadic conceptual structure of the maximum entropy approach to evolution.

    PubMed

    Herrmann-Pillath, Carsten; Salthe, Stanley N

    2011-03-01

    Many problems in evolutionary theory are cast in dyadic terms, such as the polar oppositions of organism and environment. We argue that a triadic conceptual structure offers an alternative perspective under which the information generating role of evolution as a physical process can be analyzed, and propose a new diagrammatic approach. Peirce's natural philosophy was deeply influenced by his reception of both Darwin's theory and thermodynamics. Thus, we elaborate on a new synthesis which puts together his theory of signs and modern Maximum Entropy approaches to evolution in a process discourse. Following recent contributions to the naturalization of Peircean semiosis, pointing towards 'physiosemiosis' or 'pansemiosis', we show that triadic structures involve the conjunction of three different kinds of causality, efficient, formal and final. In this, we accommodate the state-centered thermodynamic framework to a process approach. We apply this on Ulanowicz's analysis of autocatalytic cycles as primordial patterns of life. This paves the way for a semiotic view of thermodynamics which is built on the idea that Peircean interpretants are systems of physical inference devices evolving under natural selection. In this view, the principles of Maximum Entropy, Maximum Power, and Maximum Entropy Production work together to drive the emergence of information carrying structures, which at the same time maximize information capacity as well as the gradients of energy flows, such that ultimately, contrary to Schrödinger's seminal contribution, the evolutionary process is seen to be a physical expression of the Second Law. PMID:21055440

  7. 40 CFR 35.265 - Maximum federal share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maximum federal share. 35.265 Section 35.265 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Nonpoint Source-Management (section 319(h)) §...

  8. 40 CFR 35.215 - Maximum federal share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maximum federal share. 35.215 Section 35.215 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Hazardous Waste Management (section...

  9. 40 CFR 35.145 - Maximum federal share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Air Pollution Control (section 105) § 35.145 Maximum federal share. (a) The Regional Administrator may provide air pollution control agencies, as... programs for the prevention and control of air pollution or implementing national primary and...

  10. 40 CFR 35.2205 - Maximum allowable project cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... adjustments for differing site conditions will be exempt, provided the requirements of 40 CFR part 35, subpart... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maximum allowable project cost. 35.2205 Section 35.2205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER...

  11. 40 CFR 35.2205 - Maximum allowable project cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... adjustments for differing site conditions will be exempt, provided the requirements of 40 CFR part 35, subpart... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Maximum allowable project cost. 35.2205 Section 35.2205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER...

  12. 40 CFR 35.2205 - Maximum allowable project cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... adjustments for differing site conditions will be exempt, provided the requirements of 40 CFR part 35, subpart... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Maximum allowable project cost. 35.2205 Section 35.2205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER...

  13. 40 CFR 35.2205 - Maximum allowable project cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... adjustments for differing site conditions will be exempt, provided the requirements of 40 CFR part 35, subpart... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maximum allowable project cost. 35.2205 Section 35.2205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER...

  14. Spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations for selected airborne contaminants, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    As part of its efforts to promote safe conditions aboard spacecraft, NASA requested the National Research Council (NRC) to develop guidelines for establishing spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMAC's) for contaminants, and to review SMAC's for various spacecraft contaminants to determine whether NASA's recommended exposure limits are consistent with the guidelines recommended by the subcommittee. In response to NASA's request, the NRC organized the Subcommittee on Guidelines for Developing Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Space Station Contaminants within the Committee on Toxicology (COT). In the first phase of its work, the subcommittee developed the criteria and methods for preparing SMAC's for spacecraft contaminants. The subcommittee's report, entitled Guidelines for Developing Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Space Station Contaminants, was published in 1992. The executive summary of that report is reprinted as Appendix A of this volume. In the second phase of the study, the Subcommittee on Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations reviewed reports prepared by NASA scientists and contractors recommending SMAC's for 35 spacecraft contaminants. The subcommittee sought to determine whether the SMAC reports were consistent with the 1992 guidelines. Appendix B of this volume contains the first 11 SMAC reports that have been reviewed for their application of the guidelines developed in the first phase of this activity and approved by the subcommittee.

  15. 40 CFR 141.66 - Maximum contaminant levels for radionuclides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51... levels for radionuclides. (a) (b) MCL for combined radium-226 and -228. The maximum contaminant level for combined radium-226 and radium-228 is 5 pCi/L. The combined radium-226 and radium-228 value is...

  16. 40 CFR 141.66 - Maximum contaminant levels for radionuclides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51... levels for radionuclides. (a) (b) MCL for combined radium-226 and -228. The maximum contaminant level for combined radium-226 and radium-228 is 5 pCi/L. The combined radium-226 and radium-228 value is...

  17. 40 CFR 141.66 - Maximum contaminant levels for radionuclides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51... levels for radionuclides. (a) (b) MCL for combined radium-226 and -228. The maximum contaminant level for combined radium-226 and radium-228 is 5 pCi/L. The combined radium-226 and radium-228 value is...

  18. 40 CFR 141.66 - Maximum contaminant levels for radionuclides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51... levels for radionuclides. (a) (b) MCL for combined radium-226 and -228. The maximum contaminant level for combined radium-226 and radium-228 is 5 pCi/L. The combined radium-226 and radium-228 value is...

  19. 40 CFR 141.66 - Maximum contaminant levels for radionuclides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51... levels for radionuclides. (a) (b) MCL for combined radium-226 and -228. The maximum contaminant level for combined radium-226 and radium-228 is 5 pCi/L. The combined radium-226 and radium-228 value is...

  20. 7 CFR 1703.133 - Maximum and minimum amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maximum and minimum amounts. 1703.133 Section 1703.133 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL DEVELOPMENT Distance Learning and Telemedicine Combination Loan and...

  1. 7 CFR 1703.143 - Maximum and minimum amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maximum and minimum amounts. 1703.143 Section 1703.143 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL DEVELOPMENT Distance Learning and Telemedicine Loan Program §...

  2. 7 CFR 1703.133 - Maximum and minimum amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maximum and minimum amounts. 1703.133 Section 1703.133 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL DEVELOPMENT Distance Learning and Telemedicine Combination Loan and...

  3. 7 CFR 1703.143 - Maximum and minimum amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maximum and minimum amounts. 1703.143 Section 1703.143 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL DEVELOPMENT Distance Learning and Telemedicine Loan Program §...

  4. 7 CFR 1703.133 - Maximum and minimum amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maximum and minimum amounts. 1703.133 Section 1703.133 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL DEVELOPMENT Distance Learning and Telemedicine Combination Loan and...

  5. 7 CFR 1703.143 - Maximum and minimum amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum and minimum amounts. 1703.143 Section 1703.143 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL DEVELOPMENT Distance Learning and Telemedicine Loan Program §...

  6. 7 CFR 1703.124 - Maximum and minimum grant amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maximum and minimum grant amounts. 1703.124 Section 1703.124 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL DEVELOPMENT Distance Learning and Telemedicine Grant Program §...

  7. 7 CFR 1703.124 - Maximum and minimum grant amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maximum and minimum grant amounts. 1703.124 Section 1703.124 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL DEVELOPMENT Distance Learning and Telemedicine Grant Program §...

  8. 7 CFR 1703.124 - Maximum and minimum grant amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum and minimum grant amounts. 1703.124 Section 1703.124 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL DEVELOPMENT Distance Learning and Telemedicine Grant Program §...

  9. 7 CFR 1703.124 - Maximum and minimum grant amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maximum and minimum grant amounts. 1703.124 Section 1703.124 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL DEVELOPMENT Distance Learning and Telemedicine Grant Program §...

  10. 7 CFR 1703.143 - Maximum and minimum amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maximum and minimum amounts. 1703.143 Section 1703.143 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL DEVELOPMENT Distance Learning and Telemedicine Loan Program §...

  11. 7 CFR 1703.133 - Maximum and minimum amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maximum and minimum amounts. 1703.133 Section 1703.133 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL DEVELOPMENT Distance Learning and Telemedicine Combination Loan and...

  12. 7 CFR 1703.143 - Maximum and minimum amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maximum and minimum amounts. 1703.143 Section 1703.143 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL DEVELOPMENT Distance Learning and Telemedicine Loan Program §...

  13. 7 CFR 1703.133 - Maximum and minimum amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum and minimum amounts. 1703.133 Section 1703.133 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL DEVELOPMENT Distance Learning and Telemedicine Combination Loan and...

  14. 7 CFR 1703.124 - Maximum and minimum grant amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maximum and minimum grant amounts. 1703.124 Section 1703.124 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL DEVELOPMENT Distance Learning and Telemedicine Grant Program §...

  15. 24 CFR 241.630 - Maximum insurance against loss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Maximum insurance against loss. 241.630 Section 241.630 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND...

  16. 40 CFR 35.235 - Maximum federal share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maximum federal share. 35.235 Section 35.235 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Pesticide Cooperative Enforcement (section...

  17. 40 CFR 35.235 - Maximum federal share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum federal share. 35.235 Section 35.235 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Pesticide Cooperative Enforcement (section...

  18. Risk and maximum residue limits: a study of hops production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper examines how maximum residue limits (MRLs) affect the optimal choice by growers of chemical applications to control pests and diseases. In practice, growers who export balance both yield risk and pesticide residue uncertainty when making chemical application decisions. To address these is...

  19. 22 CFR 201.67 - Maximum freight charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maximum freight charges. 201.67 Section 201.67 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES AND PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO COMMODITY... for similar shipments, recognized sources of charter market rate information will be consulted and,...

  20. 7 CFR 1429.107 - Maximum and final payment rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS ASPARAGUS REVENUE MARKET LOSS... may apply to the program, the estimated maximum per pound payment rates for fresh market asparagus and for processed market asparagus are: (1) $1.06 per pound ($106.00 per hundredweight) for 2003...