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Sample records for 1-ring ubiquitin ligase

  1. SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligases.

    PubMed

    Sriramachandran, Annie M; Dohmen, R Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Covalent posttranslational modification with SUMO (small ubiquitin-related modifier) modulates functions of a wide range of proteins in eukaryotic cells. Sumoylation affects the activity, interaction properties, subcellular localization and the stability of its substrate proteins. The recent discovery of a novel class of ubiquitin ligases (E3), termed ULS (E3-S) or STUbL, that recognize sumoylated proteins, links SUMO modification to the ubiquitin/proteasome system. Here we review recent insights into the properties and function of these ligases and their roles in regulating sumoylated proteins. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Ubiquitin-Proteasome System. Guest Editors: Thomas Sommer and Dieter H. Wolf. PMID:24018209

  2. SCF ubiquitin ligase targeted therapies

    PubMed Central

    Skaar, Jeffrey R.; Pagan, Julia K.; Pagano, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Summary The recent clinical successes of inhibitors of the proteasome for the treatment of cancer have highlighted the therapeutic potential of this protein degradation system. Proteasome inhibitors prevent the degradation of numerous proteins, so increased specificity could be achieved by inhibiting the components of the ubiquitin-proteasome system that target specific subsets of proteins for degradation. F-box proteins are the substrate-targeting subunits of SKP1-CUL1-F-box protein (SCF) ubiquitin ligase complexes. Through the degradation of a plethora of diverse substrates, SCF ubiquitin ligases control a large number of processes at the cellular and organismal levels, and their misregulation is implicated in many pathologies. SCF ligases are characterized by a high specificity for their substrates, so they represent promising drug targets. However, the potential for therapeutic manipulation of SCF complexes remains an underdeveloped area. This review will explore and discuss potential strategies to target SCF-mediated biology to treat human diseases. PMID:25394868

  3. Evolution of Plant HECT Ubiquitin Ligases

    PubMed Central

    Marín, Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    HECT ubiquitin ligases are key components of the ubiquitin-proteasome system, which is present in all eukaryotes. In this study, the patterns of emergence of HECT genes in plants are described. Phylogenetic and structural data indicate that viridiplantae have six main HECT subfamilies, which arose before the split that separated green algae from the rest of plants. It is estimated that the common ancestor of all plants contained seven HECT genes. Contrary to what happened in animals, the number of HECT genes has been kept quite constant in all lineages, both in chlorophyta and streptophyta, although evolutionary recent duplications are found in some species. Several of the genes found in plants may have originated very early in eukaryotic evolution, given that they have clear similarities, both in sequence and structure, to animal genes. Finally, in Arabidopsis thaliana, we found significant correlations in the expression patterns of HECT genes and some ancient, broadly expressed genes that belong to a different ubiquitin ligase family, called RBR. These results are discussed in the context of the evolution of the gene families required for ubiquitination in plants. PMID:23869223

  4. KF-1 Ubiquitin Ligase: An Anxiety Suppressor

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto-Gotoh, Tamotsu; Iwabe, Naoyuki; Tsujimura, Atsushi; Takao, Keizo; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi

    2009-01-01

    Anxiety is an instinct that may have developed to promote adaptive survival by evading unnecessary danger. However, excessive anxiety is disruptive and can be a basic disorder of other psychiatric diseases such as depression. The KF-1, a ubiquitin ligase located on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), may prevent excessive anxiety; kf-1−/− mice exhibit selectively elevated anxiety-like behavior against light or heights. It is surmised that KF-1 degrades some target proteins, responsible for promoting anxiety, through the ER-associated degradation pathway, similar to Parkin in Parkinson's disease (PD). Parkin, another ER-ubiquitin ligase, prevents the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons by degrading the target proteins responsible for PD. Molecular phylogenetic studies have revealed that the prototype of kf-1 appeared in the very early phase of animal evolution but was lost, unlike parkin, in the lineage leading up to Drosophila. Therefore, kf-1−/− mice may be a powerful tool for elucidating the molecular mechanisms involved in emotional regulation, and for screening novel anxiolytic/antidepressant compounds. PMID:19753093

  5. Nedd8 targets ubiquitin ligase Smurf2 for neddylation and promote its degradation.

    PubMed

    Shu, Jingyi; Liu, Chao; Wei, Rongfei; Xie, Ping; He, Shan; Zhang, Lingqiang

    2016-05-20

    E3 ubiquitin ligases are pivotal effectors of the ubiquitin-proteasome system as they determine the substrate specificity and transfer ubiquitin to the substrate. HECT-type ubiquitin ligase Smad ubiquitination regulatory factor 2 (Smurf2) has been demonstrated functions as a tumor suppressor. However, the mechanisms underlying regulation of Smurf2 is still unclear. Here we show that ubiquitin-like protein Nedd8 targets the HECT-type ubiquitin ligase Smurf2 for neddylation, and promotes Smurf2 degradation. Neddylation of Smurf1 activates its ubiquitin ligase activity and Smurf2 exerts Nedd8 ligase activity. This study provided new clues of Smurf2 activation regulation. PMID:27086113

  6. A Generic Platform for Cellular Screening Against Ubiquitin Ligases

    PubMed Central

    Maculins, Timurs; Carter, Nikki; Dorval, Thierry; Hudson, Kevin; Nissink, J. Willem M.; Hay, Ronald T.; Alwan, Husam

    2016-01-01

    Ubiquitin signalling regulates most aspects of cellular life, thus deregulation of ubiquitylation has been linked with a number of diseases. E3 ubiquitin ligases provide substrate selectivity in ubiquitylation cascades and are therefore considered to be attractive targets for developing therapeutic molecules. In contrast to established drug target classes, such as protein kinases, GPCRs, hormone receptors and ion channels, ubiquitin drug discovery is in its early stages. This is, in part, due to the complexity of the ubiquitylation pathways and the lack of robust quantitative technologies that allow high-throughput screening of inhibitors. Here we report the development of a Ubiquitin Ligase Profiling system, which is a novel and generic cellular technology designed to facilitate identification of selective inhibitors against RING type E3 ubiquitin ligases. Utilization of this system requires a single co-transfection of cells with assay vectors, thereby enabling readout of E3 ubiquitin ligase catalytic activity within the cellular environment. Therefore, our robust high-throughput screening platform offers novel opportunities for the development of inhibitors against this difficult-to-target E3 ligase enzyme class. PMID:26743172

  7. Auto-ubiquitination of Mdm2 Enhances Its Substrate Ubiquitin Ligase Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Ranaweera, Ruchira S.; Yang, Xiaolu

    2013-01-01

    The RING domain E3 ubiquitin ligase Mdm2 is the master regulator of the tumor suppressor p53. It targets p53 for proteasomal degradation, restraining the potent activity of p53 and enabling cell survival and proliferation. Like most E3 ligases, Mdm2 can also ubiquitinate itself. How Mdm2 auto-ubiquitination may influence its substrate ubiquitin ligase activity is undefined. Here we show that auto-ubiquitination of Mdm2 is an activating event. Mdm2 that has been conjugated to polyubiquitin chains, but not to single ubiquitins, exhibits substantially enhanced activity to polyubiquitinate p53. Mechanistically, auto-ubiquitination of Mdm2 facilitates the recruitment of the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. This occurs through noncovalent interactions between the ubiquitin chains on Mdm2 and the ubiquitin binding domain on E2s. Mutations that diminish the noncovalent interactions render auto-ubiquitination unable to stimulate Mdm2 substrate E3 activity. These results suggest a model in which polyubiquitin chains on an E3 increase the local concentration of E2 enzymes and permit the processivity of substrate ubiquitination. They also support the notion that autocatalysis may be a prevalent mode for turning on the activity of latent enzymes. PMID:23671280

  8. Ancient origin of animal U-box ubiquitin ligases

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The patterns of emergence and diversification of the families of ubiquitin ligases provide insights about the evolution of the eukaryotic ubiquitination system. U-box ubiquitin ligases (UULs) are proteins characterized by containing a peculiar protein domain known as U box. In this study, the origin of the animal UUL genes is described. Results Phylogenetic and structural data indicate that six of the seven main UUL-encoding genes found in humans (UBE4A, UBE4B, UIP5, PRP19, CHIP and CYC4) were already present in the ancestor of all current metazoans and the seventh (WDSUB1) is found in placozoans, cnidarians and bilaterians. The fact that only 4 - 5 genes orthologous to the human ones are present in the choanoflagellate Monosiga brevicollis suggests that several animal-specific cooptions of the U box to generate new genes occurred. Significantly, Monosiga contains five additional UUL genes that are not present in animals. One of them is also present in distantly-related protozoans. Along animal evolution, losses of UUL-encoding genes are rare, except in nematodes, which lack three of them. These general patterns are highly congruent with those found for other two families (RBR, HECT) of ubiquitin ligases. Conclusions Finding that the patterns of emergence, diversification and loss of three unrelated families of ubiquitin ligases (RBR, HECT and U-box) are parallel indicates that there are underlying, linage-specific evolutionary forces shaping the complexity of the animal ubiquitin system. PMID:20979629

  9. The E3 ubiquitin ligase WVIP2 highlights the versatility of protein ubiquitination

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, Davide; Cattivelli, Luigi; Mazzucotelli, Elisabetta

    2012-01-01

    Plant cells regulate many cellular processes controlling the half-life of critical proteins through ubiquitination. Previously, we characterized two interacting RING-type E3 ubiquitin ligases of Triticum durum, TdRF1 and WVIP2. We revealed their role in tolerance to dehydration, and existing knowledge about their partners also indicated their involvement in the regulation of some aspects of plant development. Here we located WVIP2 in the regulation of the ABA signaling, based on sequence similarities. Further we acquired general evidence about the versatility of ubiquitination in plant cells. A protein can be target of different E3 ligases for a perfect tuning of its abundance as well as the same E3 ligase can ubiquitinate different and unrelated proteins, thus representing a cross-connections between different signaling pathways for a global coordination of cellular processes. PMID:22899050

  10. E3 ubiquitin ligases as novel targets for inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    Goru, Santosh Kumar; Pandey, Anuradha; Gaikwad, Anil Bhanudas

    2016-04-01

    Ubiquitination is one of the post translational modifications which decide the fate of various proteins in the cells, by either directing them towards proteasomal degradation or participation in several cell signalling pathways. Recently, the role of ubiquitination has been unravelled in pathogenesis and progression of various diseases, where inflammation is critical, like obesity, insulin resistance, atherosclerosis, angiotensin-II induced cardiac inflammation and asthma. E3 ligases are known to be instrumental in regulation of the inflammatory cascade. This review focuses on the role of different E3 ligases in the development of inflammatory diseases and thus may help us to target these E3 ligases in future drug discovery to prevent inflammation. PMID:26875639

  11. PINK1 phosphorylates ubiquitin to activate Parkin E3 ubiquitin ligase activity

    PubMed Central

    Kane, Lesley A.; Lazarou, Michael; Fogel, Adam I.; Li, Yan; Yamano, Koji; Sarraf, Shireen A.; Banerjee, Soojay

    2014-01-01

    PINK1 kinase activates the E3 ubiquitin ligase Parkin to induce selective autophagy of damaged mitochondria. However, it has been unclear how PINK1 activates and recruits Parkin to mitochondria. Although PINK1 phosphorylates Parkin, other PINK1 substrates appear to activate Parkin, as the mutation of all serine and threonine residues conserved between Drosophila and human, including Parkin S65, did not wholly impair Parkin translocation to mitochondria. Using mass spectrometry, we discovered that endogenous PINK1 phosphorylated ubiquitin at serine 65, homologous to the site phosphorylated by PINK1 in Parkin’s ubiquitin-like domain. Recombinant TcPINK1 directly phosphorylated ubiquitin and phospho-ubiquitin activated Parkin E3 ubiquitin ligase activity in cell-free assays. In cells, the phosphomimetic ubiquitin mutant S65D bound and activated Parkin. Furthermore, expression of ubiquitin S65A, a mutant that cannot be phosphorylated by PINK1, inhibited Parkin translocation to damaged mitochondria. These results explain a feed-forward mechanism of PINK1-mediated initiation of Parkin E3 ligase activity. PMID:24751536

  12. PINK1 phosphorylates ubiquitin to activate Parkin E3 ubiquitin ligase activity.

    PubMed

    Kane, Lesley A; Lazarou, Michael; Fogel, Adam I; Li, Yan; Yamano, Koji; Sarraf, Shireen A; Banerjee, Soojay; Youle, Richard J

    2014-04-28

    PINK1 kinase activates the E3 ubiquitin ligase Parkin to induce selective autophagy of damaged mitochondria. However, it has been unclear how PINK1 activates and recruits Parkin to mitochondria. Although PINK1 phosphorylates Parkin, other PINK1 substrates appear to activate Parkin, as the mutation of all serine and threonine residues conserved between Drosophila and human, including Parkin S65, did not wholly impair Parkin translocation to mitochondria. Using mass spectrometry, we discovered that endogenous PINK1 phosphorylated ubiquitin at serine 65, homologous to the site phosphorylated by PINK1 in Parkin's ubiquitin-like domain. Recombinant TcPINK1 directly phosphorylated ubiquitin and phospho-ubiquitin activated Parkin E3 ubiquitin ligase activity in cell-free assays. In cells, the phosphomimetic ubiquitin mutant S65D bound and activated Parkin. Furthermore, expression of ubiquitin S65A, a mutant that cannot be phosphorylated by PINK1, inhibited Parkin translocation to damaged mitochondria. These results explain a feed-forward mechanism of PINK1-mediated initiation of Parkin E3 ligase activity. PMID:24751536

  13. RAD5a ubiquitin ligase is involved in ubiquitination of Arabidopsis thaliana proliferating cell nuclear antigen.

    PubMed

    Strzalka, Wojciech; Bartnicki, Filip; Pels, Katarzyna; Jakubowska, Agata; Tsurimoto, Toshiki; Tanaka, Katsunori

    2013-02-01

    The proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is post-translationally modified by ubiquitin in yeast and mammalian cells. It is widely accepted that in yeast mono- and polyubiquitinated PCNA is involved in distinct pathways of DNA postreplication repair. This study showed an interaction between plant ubiquitin and PCNA in the plant cell. Using different approaches, it was demonstrated that Arabidopsis RAD5a ubiquitin ligase is involved in the post-translational modification of plant PCNA. A detailed analysis of the properties of selected Arabidopsis ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (AtUBC) has shown that a plant homologue of yeast RAD6 (AtUBC2) is sufficient to monoubiquitinate AtPCNA in the absence of ubiquitin ligase. Using different combinations of selected AtUBC proteins together with AtRAD5a, it was demonstrated that plants have potential to use different pathways to ubiquitinate PCNA. The analysis of Arabidopsis PCNA1 and PCNA2 did not demonstrate substantial differences in the ubiquitination pattern between these two proteins. The major ubiquitination target of Arabidopsis PCNA, conserved in eukaryotes, is lysine 164. Taken together, the presented results clearly demonstrate the involvement of Arabidopsis UBC and RAD5a proteins in the ubiquitination of plant PCNA at lysine 164. The data show the complexity of the plant ubiquitination system and open new questions about its regulation in the plant cell. PMID:23314815

  14. Isolation of ubiquitinated substrates by tandem affinity purification of E3 ligase-polyubiquitin-binding domain fusions (ligase traps).

    PubMed

    Mark, Kevin G; Loveless, Theresa B; Toczyski, David P

    2016-02-01

    Ubiquitination is an essential protein modification that influences eukaryotic processes ranging from substrate degradation to nonproteolytic pathway alterations, including DNA repair and endocytosis. Previous attempts to analyze substrates via physical association with their respective ubiquitin ligases have had some success. However, because of the transient nature of enzyme-substrate interactions and rapid protein degradation, detection of substrates remains a challenge. Ligase trapping is an affinity purification approach in which ubiquitin ligases are fused to a polyubiquitin-binding domain, which allows the isolation of ubiquitinated substrates. Immunoprecipitation is first used to enrich for proteins that are bound to the ligase trap. Subsequently, affinity purification is used under denaturing conditions to capture proteins conjugated with hexahistidine-tagged ubiquitin. By using this protocol, ubiquitinated substrates that are specific for a given ligase can be isolated for mass spectrometry or western blot analysis. After cells have been collected, the described protocol can be completed in 2-3 d. PMID:26766115

  15. TRIM32 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase for dysbindin.

    PubMed

    Locke, Matthew; Tinsley, Caroline L; Benson, Matthew A; Blake, Derek J

    2009-07-01

    Mutations in the gene encoding tripartite motif protein 32 (TRIM32) cause two seemingly diverse diseases: limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2H (LGMD2H) or sarcotubular myopathy (STM) and Bardet-Biedl syndrome type 11(BBS11). Although TRIM32 is involved in protein ubiquitination, its substrates and the molecular consequences of disease-causing mutations are poorly understood. In this paper, we show that TRIM32 is a widely expressed ubiquitin ligase that is localized to the Z-line in skeletal muscle. Using the yeast two-hybrid system, we found that TRIM32 binds and ubiquitinates dysbindin, a protein implicated in the genetic aetiology of schizophrenia, augmenting its degradation. Small-interfering RNA-mediated knock-down of TRIM32 in myoblasts resulted in elevated levels of dysbindin. Importantly, the LGMD2H/STM-associated TRIM32 mutations, D487N and R394H impair ubiquitin ligase activity towards dysbindin and were mislocalized in heterologous cells. These mutants were able to self-associate and also co-immunoprecipitated with wild-type TRIM32 in transfected cells. Furthermore, the D487N mutant could bind to both dysbindin and its E2 enzyme but was defective in monoubiquitination. In contrast, the BBS11 mutant P130S did not show any biochemical differences compared with the wild-type protein. Our data identify TRIM32 as a regulator of dysbindin and demonstrate that the LGMD2H/STM mutations may impair substrate ubiquitination. PMID:19349376

  16. Bacteria-host relationship: ubiquitin ligases as weapons of invasion

    PubMed Central

    Maculins, Timurs; Fiskin, Evgenij; Bhogaraju, Sagar; Dikic, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells utilize the ubiquitin (Ub) system for maintaining a balanced functioning of cellular pathways. Although the Ub system is exclusive to eukaryotes, prokaryotic bacteria have developed an armory of Ub ligase enzymes that are capable of employing the Ub systems of various hosts, ranging from plant to animal cells. These enzymes have been acquired through the evolution and can be classified into three main classes, RING (really interesting new gene), HECT (homologous to the E6-AP carboxyl terminus) and NEL (novel E3 ligases). In this review we describe the roles played by different classes of bacterial Ub ligases in infection and pathogenicity. We also provide an overview of the different mechanisms by which bacteria mimic specific components of the host Ub system and outline the gaps in our current understanding of their functions. Additionally, we discuss approaches and experimental tools for validating this class of enzymes as potential novel antibacterial therapy targets. PMID:26964724

  17. Bacteria-host relationship: ubiquitin ligases as weapons of invasion.

    PubMed

    Maculins, Timurs; Fiskin, Evgenij; Bhogaraju, Sagar; Dikic, Ivan

    2016-04-01

    Eukaryotic cells utilize the ubiquitin (Ub) system for maintaining a balanced functioning of cellular pathways. Although the Ub system is exclusive to eukaryotes, prokaryotic bacteria have developed an armory of Ub ligase enzymes that are capable of employing the Ub systems of various hosts, ranging from plant to animal cells. These enzymes have been acquired through the evolution and can be classified into three main classes, RING (really interesting new gene), HECT (homologous to the E6-AP carboxyl terminus) and NEL (novel E3 ligases). In this review we describe the roles played by different classes of bacterial Ub ligases in infection and pathogenicity. We also provide an overview of the different mechanisms by which bacteria mimic specific components of the host Ub system and outline the gaps in our current understanding of their functions. Additionally, we discuss approaches and experimental tools for validating this class of enzymes as potential novel antibacterial therapy targets. PMID:26964724

  18. Screening for E3-Ubiquitin ligase inhibitors: challenges and opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Landré, Vivien; Rotblat, Barak; Melino, Sonia; Bernassola, Francesca; Melino, Gerry

    2014-01-01

    The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) plays a role in the regulation of most cellular pathways, and its deregulation has been implicated in a wide range of human pathologies that include cancer, neurodegenerative and immunological disorders and viral infections. Targeting the UPS by small molecular regulators thus provides an opportunity for the development of therapeutics for the treatment of several diseases. The proteasome inhibitor Bortezomib was approved for treatment of hematologic malignancies by the FDA in 2003, becoming the first drug targeting the ubiquitin proteasome system in the clinic. Development of drugs targeting specific components of the ubiquitin proteasome system, however, has lagged behind, mainly due to the complexity of the ubiquitination reaction and its outcomes. However, significant advances have been made in recent years in understanding the molecular nature of the ubiquitination system and the vast variety of cellular signals that it produces. Additionally, improvement of screening methods, both in vitro and in silico, have led to the discovery of a number of compounds targeting components of the ubiquitin proteasome system, and some of these have now entered clinical trials. Here, we discuss the current state of drug discovery targeting E3 ligases and the opportunities and challenges that it provides. PMID:25237759

  19. Ubiquitin ligase parkin promotes Mdm2-arrestin interaction but inhibits arrestin ubiquitination

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, M. Rafiuddin; Zhan, Xuanzhi; Song, Xiufeng; Kook, Seunghyi; Gurevich, Vsevolod V.; Gurevich, Eugenia V.

    2011-01-01

    Numerous mutations in E3 ubiquitin ligase parkin were shown to associate with familial Parkinson's disease. Here we show that parkin binds arrestins, versatile regulators of cell signaling. Arrestin-parkin interaction was demonstrated by coimmuno-precipitation of endogenous proteins from brain tissue, and shown to be direct using purified proteins. Parkin binding enhances arrestin interactions with another E3 ubiquitin ligase, Mdm2, apparently by shifting arrestin conformational equilibrium to the basal state preferred by Mdm2. Although Mdm2 was reported to ubiquitinate arrestins, parkin-dependent increase in Mdm2 binding dramatically reduces the ubiquitination of both non-visual arrestins, basal and stimulated by receptor activation, without affecting receptor internalization. Several disease-associated parkin mutations differentially affect the stimulation of Mdm2 binding. All parkin mutants tested effectively suppress arrestin ubiquitination, suggesting that bound parkin shields arrestin lysines targeted by Mdm2. Parkin binding to arrestins along with its effects on arrestin interaction with Mdm2 and ubiquitination is a novel function of this protein with implications for Parkinson's disease pathology. PMID:21466165

  20. Ubiquitin-protein ligases in muscle wasting: multiple parallel pathways?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lecker, Stewart H.; Goldberg, A. L. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Studies in a wide variety of animal models of muscle wasting have led to the concept that increased protein breakdown via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is responsible for the loss of muscle mass seen as muscle atrophy. The complexity of the ubiquitination apparatus has hampered our understanding of how this pathway is activated in atrophying muscles and which ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes in muscle are responsible. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent experiments have shown that two newly identified ubiquitin-protein ligases (E3s), atrogin-1/MAFbx and MURF-1, are critical in the development of muscle atrophy. Other in-vitro studies also implicated E2(14k) and E3alpha, of the N-end rule pathway, as playing an important role in the process. SUMMARY: It seems likely that multiple pathways of ubiquitin conjugation are activated in parallel in atrophying muscle, perhaps to target for degradation specific classes of muscle proteins. The emerging challenge will be to define the protein targets for, as well as inhibitors of, these E3s.

  1. UHRF2, another E3 ubiquitin ligase for p53

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, Lu; Wang, Xiaohui; Jin, Fangmin; Yang, Yan; Qian, Guanhua; Duan, Changzhu

    2012-09-07

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UHRF2 associates with p53 in vivo and in vitro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UHRF2 interacts with p53 through its SRA/YDG domain. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UHRF2 ubiquitinates p53 in vivo and in vitro. -- Abstract: UHRF2, ubiquitin-like with PHD and ring finger domains 2, is a nuclear E3 ubiquitin ligase, which is involved in cell cycle and epigenetic regulation. UHRF2 interacts with multiple cell cycle proteins, including cyclins (A2, B1, D1, and E1), CDK2, and pRb; moreover, UHRF2 could ubiquitinate cyclin D1 and cyclin E1. Also, UHRF2 has been shown to be implicated in epigenetic regulation by associating with DNMTs, G9a, HDAC1, H3K9me2/3 and hemi-methylated DNA. We found that UHRF2 associates with tumor suppressor protein p53, and p53 is ubiquitinated by UHRF2 in vivo and in vitro. Given that both UHRF2 and p53 are involved in cell cycle regulation, this study may suggest a novel signaling pathway on cell proliferation.

  2. RBCK1, an E3 Ubiquitin Ligase, Interacts with and Ubiquinates the Human Pregnane X Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Ritu; Coulter, Sherry; Kinyamu, Harriet

    2013-01-01

    The pregnane X receptor (PXR, NR1I2) plays a pivotal role in the disposition and detoxification of numerous foreign and endogenous chemicals by increasing transcription of numerous target genes, including phase I and II drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters. In the present study, yeast two-hybrid screening identified an E3 ubiquitin ligase, RBCK1 (Ring-B-box-coiled-coil protein interacting with protein kinase C-1), as a human pregnane X receptor (hPXR)–interacting protein. Coimmunoprecipitation studies confirmed the interaction between RBCK1 and hPXR when both were ectopically expressed in AD-293 cells. Domain mapping studies showed that the interaction between RBCK1 and hPXR involves all RBCK1 domains. We further demonstrate that RBCK1 ubiquitinates hPXR, and this may target hPXR for degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Simultaneous ectopic overexpression of RBCK1 and PXR decreased PXR levels in AD-293 cells, and this decrease was inhibited by the proteasomal inhibitor MG-132 (carbobenzoxy-Leu-Leu-leucinal). Furthermore, overexpression of RBCK1 decreased endogenous levels of PXR in HepG2 cells. Of importance, ectopic overexpression and silencing of endogenous RBCK1 in primary human hepatocytes resulted in a decrease and increase, respectively, in endogenous PXR protein levels and in the induction of PXR target genes by rifampicin. These results suggest that RBCK1 is important for the ubiquitination of PXR and may play a role in its proteasomal degradation. PMID:23160820

  3. Structure and function of Parkin E3 ubiquitin ligase reveals aspects of RING and HECT ligases

    PubMed Central

    Riley, B.E.; Lougheed, J.C.; Callaway, K.; Velasquez, M.; Brecht, E.; Nguyen, L.; Shaler, T.; Walker, D.; Yang, Y.; Regnstrom, K.; Diep, L.; Zhang, Z.; Chiou, S.; Bova, M.; Artis, D.R.; Yao, N.; Baker, J.; Yednock, T.; Johnston, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    Parkin is a RING-between-RING E3 ligase that functions in the covalent attachment of ubiquitin to specific substrates, and mutations in Parkin are linked to Parkinson’s disease, cancer and mycobacterial infection. The RING-between-RING family of E3 ligases are suggested to function with a canonical RING domain and a catalytic cysteine residue usually restricted to HECT E3 ligases, thus termed ‘RING/HECT hybrid’ enzymes. Here we present the 1.58 Å structure of Parkin-R0RBR, revealing the fold architecture for the four RING domains, and several unpredicted interfaces. Examination of the Parkin active site suggests a catalytic network consisting of C431 and H433. In cells, mutation of C431 eliminates Parkin-catalysed degradation of mitochondria, and capture of an ubiquitin oxyester confirms C431 as Parkin’s cellular active site. Our data confirm that Parkin is a RING/HECT hybrid, and provide the first crystal structure of an RING-between-RING E3 ligase at atomic resolution, providing insight into this disease-related protein. PMID:23770887

  4. The poxvirus encoded ubiquitin ligase, p28, is regulated by proteasomal degradation and autoubiquitination.

    PubMed

    Mottet, Kelly; Bareiss, Bettina; Milne, Craig D; Barry, Michele

    2014-11-01

    Virus manipulation of the ubiquitin-proteasome system has become increasingly apparent. Ubiquitin is a 76 amino acid protein that is post-translationally conjugated to target proteins, while poly-ubiquitination subsequently leads to degradation via the 26S proteasome. Target specificity is determined by a large family of ubiquitin ligases. Poxviruses encode p28, a highly conserved ubiquitin ligase expressed in a wide range of poxviruses (J. Virol. 79:597). Here we investigate the relationship between p28 and ubiquitination. Confocal microscopy indicated that orthologs of p28 co-localized with ubiquitin at the virus factory. Flow cytometry assays further demonstrated that p28 was regulated by proteasomal degradation. Moreover, when the ubiquitin ligase activity of p28 was disrupted by mutating the RING domain conjugated ubiquitin still localized to the viral factories, indicating that an unknown ubiquitin ligase(s) was responsible for regulating p28. Our observations indicate that p28 is a ubiquitin ligase that is regulated by ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. PMID:25240226

  5. A design principle underlying the paradoxical roles of E3 ubiquitin ligases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Daewon; Kim, Minjin; Cho, Kwang-Hyun

    2014-07-01

    E3 ubiquitin ligases are important cellular components that determine the specificity of proteolysis in the ubiquitin-proteasome system. However, an increasing number of studies have indicated that E3 ubiquitin ligases also participate in transcription. Intrigued by the apparently paradoxical functions of E3 ubiquitin ligases in both proteolysis and transcriptional activation, we investigated the underlying design principles using mathematical modeling. We found that the antagonistic functions integrated in E3 ubiquitin ligases can prevent any undesirable sustained activation of downstream genes when E3 ubiquitin ligases are destabilized by unexpected perturbations. Interestingly, this design principle of the system is similar to the operational principle of a safety interlock device in engineering systems, which prevents a system from abnormal operation unless stability is guaranteed.

  6. Binding and recognition in the assembly of an active BRCA1/BARD1 ubiquitin-ligase complex

    PubMed Central

    Brzovic, Peter S.; Keeffe, Jennifer R.; Nishikawa, Hiroyuki; Miyamoto, Keiko; Fox, David; Fukuda, Mamoru; Ohta, Tomohiko; Klevit, Rachel

    2003-01-01

    BRCA1 is a breast and ovarian cancer tumor suppressor protein that associates with BARD1 to form a RING/RING heterodimer. The BRCA1/BARD1 RING complex functions as an ubiquitin (Ub) ligase with activity substantially greater than individual BRCA1 or BARD1 subunits. By using NMR spectroscopy and site-directed mutagenesis, we have mapped the binding site on the BRCA1/BARD1 heterodimer for the Ub-conjugating enzyme UbcH5c. The results demonstrate that UbcH5c binds only to the BRCA1 RING domain and not the BARD1 RING. The binding interface is formed by the first and second Zn2+-loops and central α-helix of the BRCA1 RING domain, a region disrupted by cancer-predisposing mutations. Unexpectedly, a second Ub-conjugating enzyme, UbcH7, also interacts with the BRCA1/BARD1 complex with similar affinity, although it is not active in Ub-ligase activity assays. Thus, binding alone is not sufficient for BRCA1-dependent Ub-ligase activity. PMID:12732733

  7. A novel effect of thalidomide and its analogs: suppression of cereblon ubiquitination enhances ubiquitin ligase function.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yaobin; Huang, Xiangao; He, Xian; Zhou, Yanqing; Jiang, Xiaogang; Chen-Kiang, Selina; Jaffrey, Samie R; Xu, Guoqiang

    2015-12-01

    The immunomodulatory drug (IMiD) thalidomide and its structural analogs lenalidomide and pomalidomide are highly effective in treating clinical indications. Thalidomide binds to cereblon (CRBN), a substrate receptor of the cullin-4 really interesting new gene (RING) E3 ligase complex. Here, we examine the effect of thalidomide and its analogs on CRBN ubiquitination and its functions in human cell lines. We find that the ubiquitin modification of CRBN includes K48-linked polyubiquitin chains and that thalidomide blocks the formation of CRBN-ubiquitin conjugates. Furthermore, we show that ubiquitinated CRBN is targeted for proteasomal degradation. Treatment of human myeloma cell lines such as MM1.S, OPM2, and U266 with thalidomide (100 μM) and its structural analog lenalidomide (10 μM) results in stabilization of CRBN and elevation of CRBN protein levels. This in turn leads to the reduced level of CRBN target proteins and enhances the sensitivity of human multiple myeloma cells to IMiDs. Our results reveal a novel mechanism by which thalidomide and its analogs modulate the CRBN function in cells. Through inhibition of CRBN ubiquitination, thalidomide and its analogs allow CRBN to accumulate, leading to the increased cullin-4 RING E3 ligase-mediated degradation of target proteins. PMID:26231201

  8. The Ubiquitin Ligase Hul5 Promotes Proteasomal Processivity▿

    PubMed Central

    Aviram, Sharon; Kornitzer, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The 26S proteasome is a large cytoplasmic protease that degrades polyubiquitinated proteins to short peptides in a processive manner. The proteasome 19S regulatory subcomplex tethers the target protein via its polyubiquitin adduct and unfolds the target polypeptide, which is then threaded into the proteolytic site-containing 20S subcomplex. Hul5 is a 19S subcomplex-associated ubiquitin ligase that elongates ubiquitin chains on proteasome-bound substrates. We isolated hul5Δ as a mutation with which fusions of an unstable cyclin to stable reporter proteins accumulate as partially processed products. These products appear transiently in the wild type but are strongly stabilized in 19S ATPase mutants and in the hul5Δ mutant, supporting a role for the ATPase subunits in the unfolding of proteasome substrates before insertion into the catalytic cavity and suggesting a role for Hul5 in the processive degradation of proteins that are stalled on the proteasome. PMID:20008553

  9. Regulation of cancer stem cells by RING finger ubiquitin ligases

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiao-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Like normal stem cells, cancer stem cells (CSCs) are capable of self-renewal, either by symmetric or asymmetric cell division. They have the exclusive ability to reproduce malignant tumors indefinitely, and to confer resistance in response to radiation or chemotherapy. The ubiquitin modification system plays various roles in physiology and pathology. The key component for the specificity of this system is ubiquitin ligases (E3s). Of these E3s, the majority are RING finger proteins. Many RING finger E3s, such as the Cullin1-Skp1-F-box protein (SCF) E3s, CBL, BRCA1, MDM2 and von Hippel-Lindau tumour suppressor (VHL), are crucial in the regulation of cell-cycle progression and cell differentiation. As a result, many RING finger E3s are implicated in the positive and negative regulation of CSC maintenance. This review summarizes current knowledge in this research field. PMID:27358852

  10. Fbxo45, a Novel Ubiquitin Ligase, Regulates Synaptic Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Tada, Hirobumi; Okano, Hirotaka James; Takagi, Hiroshi; Shibata, Shinsuke; Yao, Ikuko; Matsumoto, Masaki; Saiga, Toru; Nakayama, Keiichi I.; Kashima, Haruo; Takahashi, Takuya; Setou, Mitsutoshi; Okano, Hideyuki

    2010-01-01

    Neurons communicate with each other through synapses. To establish the precise yet flexible connections that make up neural networks in the brain, continuous synaptic modulation is required. The ubiquitin-proteasome system of protein degradation is one of the critical mechanisms that underlie this process, playing crucial roles in the regulation of synaptic structure and function. We identified a novel ubiquitin ligase, Fbxo45, that functions at synapses. Fbxo45 is evolutionarily conserved and selectively expressed in the nervous system. We demonstrated that the knockdown of Fbxo45 in primary cultured hippocampal neurons resulted in a greater frequency of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents. We also found that Fbxo45 induces the degradation of a synaptic vesicle-priming factor, Munc13-1. We propose that Fbxo45 plays an important role in the regulation of neurotransmission by modulating Munc13-1 at the synapse. PMID:19996097

  11. The ubiquitin ligase HACE1 regulates Golgi membrane dynamics during the cell cycle

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Danming; Xiang, Yi; De Renzis, Stefano; Rink, Jochen; Zheng, Gen; Zerial, Marino; Wang, Yanzhuang

    2012-01-01

    Partitioning of the Golgi membrane into daughter cells during mammalian cell division occurs through a unique disassembly and reassembly process that is regulated by ubiquitination. However, the identity of the ubiquitin ligase is unknown. Here we show that the Homologous to the E6-AP Carboxyl Terminus (HECT) domain containing ubiquitin ligase HACE1 is targeted to the Golgi membrane through interactions with Rab proteins. The ubiquitin ligase activity of HACE1 in mitotic Golgi disassembly is required for subsequent postmitotic Golgi membrane fusion. Depletion of HACE1 using small interfering RNAs or expression of an inactive HACE1 mutant protein in cells impaired postmitotic Golgi membrane fusion. The identification of HACE1 as a Golgi-localized ubiquitin ligase provides evidence that ubiquitin has a critical role in Golgi biogenesis during the cell cycle. PMID:21988917

  12. THE ROLE OF E3 LIGASES IN THE UBIQUITIN-DEPENDENT REGULATION OF SPERMATOGENESIS*

    PubMed Central

    Richburg, John H.; Myers, Jessica L.; Bratton, Shawn B.

    2014-01-01

    The ubiquitination of proteins is a post-translational modification that was first described as a means to target misfolded or unwanted proteins for degradation by the proteasome. It is now appreciated that the ubiquitination of proteins also serves as a mechanism to modify protein function and cellular functions such as protein trafficking, cell signaling, DNA repair, chromatin modifications, cell-cycle progression and cell death. The ubiquitination of proteins occurs through the hierarchal transfer of ubiquitin from an E1 ubiquitin-activating enzyme to an E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme and finally to an E3 ubiquitin ligase that transfers the ubiquitin to its target protein. It is the final E3 ubiquitin ligase that confers the substrate specificity for ubiquitination and is the focus of this review. Spermatogenesis is a complex and highly regulated process by which spermatogonial stem cells undergo mitotic proliferation and expansion of the diploid spermatogonial population, differentiate into spermatocytes and progress through two meiotic divisions to produce haploid spermatids that proceed through a final morphogenesis to generate mature spermatozoa. The ubiquitination of proteins in the cells of the testis occurs in many of the processes required for the progression of mature spermatozoa. Since it is the E3 ubiquitin ligase that recognizes the target protein and provides the specificity and selectivity for ubiquitination, this review highlights known examples of E3 ligases in the testis and the differing roles that they play in maintaining functional spermatogenesis. PMID:24632385

  13. The E3 Ubiquitin Ligase MID1 Catalyzes Ubiquitination and Cleavage of Fu

    PubMed Central

    Schweiger, Susann; Dorn, Stephanie; Fuchs, Melanie; Köhler, Andrea; Matthes, Frank; Müller, Eva-Christina; Wanker, Erich; Schneider, Rainer; Krauß, Sybille

    2014-01-01

    SHH (Sonic Hedgehog)-GLI signaling plays an important role during embryogenesis and in tumorigenesis. The survival and growth of several types of cancer depend on autonomously activated SHH-GLI signaling. A protein complex containing the ubiquitin ligase MID1 and protein phosphatase 2A regulates the nuclear localization and transcriptional activity of GLI3, a transcriptional effector molecule of SHH, in cancer cell lines with autonomously activated SHH signaling. However, the exact molecular mechanisms that mediate the interaction between MID1 and GLI3 remained unknown. Here, we show that MID1 catalyzes the ubiquitination and proteasomal cleavage of the GLI3 regulator Fu. Our data suggest that Fu ubiquitination and cleavage is one of the key elements connecting the MID1-PP2A protein complex with GLI3 activity control. PMID:25278022

  14. The Gp78 ubiquitin ligase: probing endoplasmic reticulum complexity.

    PubMed

    St Pierre, Pascal; Nabi, Ivan R

    2012-02-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has been classically divided, based on electron microscopy analysis, into parallel ribosome-studded rough ER sheets and a tubular smooth ER network. Recent studies have identified molecular constituents of the ER, the reticulons and DP1, that drive ER tubule formation and whose expression determines expression of ER sheets and tubules and thereby rough and smooth ER. However, segregation of the ER into only two domains remains simplistic and multiple functionally distinct ER domains necessarily exist. In this review, we will discuss the sub-organization of the ER in different domains focusing on the localization and role of the gp78 ubiquitin ligase in the mitochondria-associated smooth ER and on the evidence for a quality control ERAD domain. PMID:22045301

  15. RBR ubiquitin ligases: Diversification and streamlining in animal lineages.

    PubMed

    Marín, Ignacio

    2009-07-01

    The patterns of emergence and disappearance in animal species of genes encoding RBR ubiquitin ligases are described. RBR genes can be classified into subfamilies (Parkin, Ariadne, Dorfin, ARA54, etc.) according to sequence and structural data. Here, I show that most animal-specific RBR subfamilies emerged early in animal evolution, and that ancient animals, before the cnidarian/bilaterian split, had a set of RBR genes, which was as complex as the one currently found in mammals. However, some lineages (nematodes, dipteran insects) have recently suffered multiple losses, leading to a highly simplified set of RBR genes. Genes of a particular RBR subfamily, characterized by containing a helicase domain and so far found only in plants, are present also in some animal species. The meaning of these patterns of diversification and streamlining are discussed at the light of functional data. Extreme evolutionary conservation may be related to gene products having housekeeping functions. PMID:19526189

  16. Human ITCH E3 ubiquitin ligase deficiency causes syndromic multisystem autoimmune disease.

    PubMed

    Lohr, Naomi J; Molleston, Jean P; Strauss, Kevin A; Torres-Martinez, Wilfredo; Sherman, Eric A; Squires, Robert H; Rider, Nicholas L; Chikwava, Kudakwashe R; Cummings, Oscar W; Morton, D Holmes; Puffenberger, Erik G

    2010-03-12

    Ubiquitin ligases play an important role in the regulation of the immune system. Absence of Itch E3 ubiquitin ligase in mice has been shown to cause severe autoimmune disease. Using autozygosity mapping in a large Amish kindred, we identified a linkage region on chromosome 20 and selected candidate genes for screening. We describe, in ten patients, identification of a mutation resulting in truncation of ITCH. These patients represent the first reported human phenotype associated with ITCH deficiency. These patients not only have multisystem autoimmune disease but also display morphologic and developmental abnormalities. This disorder underscores the importance of ITCH ubiquitin ligase in many cellular processes. PMID:20170897

  17. Human ITCH E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Deficiency Causes Syndromic Multisystem Autoimmune Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lohr, Naomi J.; Molleston, Jean P.; Strauss, Kevin A.; Torres-Martinez, Wilfredo; Sherman, Eric A.; Squires, Robert H.; Rider, Nicholas L.; Chikwava, Kudakwashe R.; Cummings, Oscar W.; Morton, D. Holmes; Puffenberger, Erik G.

    2010-01-01

    Ubiquitin ligases play an important role in the regulation of the immune system. Absence of Itch E3 ubiquitin ligase in mice has been shown to cause severe autoimmune disease. Using autozygosity mapping in a large Amish kindred, we identified a linkage region on chromosome 20 and selected candidate genes for screening. We describe, in ten patients, identification of a mutation resulting in truncation of ITCH. These patients represent the first reported human phenotype associated with ITCH deficiency. These patients not only have multisystem autoimmune disease but also display morphologic and developmental abnormalities. This disorder underscores the importance of ITCH ubiquitin ligase in many cellular processes. PMID:20170897

  18. Molecular insights into RBR E3 ligase ubiquitin transfer mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Dove, Katja K; Stieglitz, Benjamin; Duncan, Emily D; Rittinger, Katrin; Klevit, Rachel E

    2016-08-01

    RING-in-between-RING (RBR) ubiquitin (Ub) ligases are a distinct class of E3s, defined by a RING1 domain that binds E2 Ub-conjugating enzyme and a RING2 domain that contains an active site cysteine similar to HECT-type E3s. Proposed to function as RING/HECT hybrids, details regarding the Ub transfer mechanism used by RBRs have yet to be defined. When paired with RING-type E3s, E2s perform the final step of Ub ligation to a substrate. In contrast, when paired with RBR E3s, E2s must transfer Ub onto the E3 to generate a E3~Ub intermediate. We show that RBRs utilize two strategies to ensure transfer of Ub from the E2 onto the E3 active site. First, RING1 domains of HHARI and RNF144 promote open E2~Ubs. Second, we identify a Ub-binding site on HHARI RING2 important for its recruitment to RING1-bound E2~Ub. Mutations that ablate Ub binding to HHARI RING2 also decrease RBR ligase activity, consistent with RING2 recruitment being a critical step for the RBR Ub transfer mechanism. Finally, we demonstrate that the mechanism defined here is utilized by a variety of RBRs. PMID:27312108

  19. Nucleostemin stabilizes ARF by inhibiting the ubiquitin ligase ULF.

    PubMed

    Lo, D; Zhang, Y; Dai, M-S; Sun, X-X; Zeng, S X; Lu, H

    2015-03-26

    Upregulated expression of nucleolar GTPase nucleostemin (NS) has been associated with increased cellular proliferation potential and tumor malignancy during cancer development. Recent reports attribute the growth regulatory effects of NS protein to its role in facilitating ribosome production. However, the oncogenic potential of NS remains unclear, as imbalanced levels of NS have been reported to exert growth inhibitory effect by modulating p53 tumor-suppressor activity. It also remains in questions if aberrant NS levels might have a p53-independent role in regulation of cell proliferation and growth. In this study, we performed affinity purification and mass spectrometry analysis to explore protein-protein interactions influencing NS growth regulatory properties independently of p53 tumor suppressor. We identified the alternative reading frame (ARF) protein as a key protein associating with NS and further verified the interaction through in vitro and in vivo assays. We demonstrated that NS is able to regulate cell cycle progression by regulating the stability of the ARF tumor suppressor. Furthermore, overexpression of NS suppressed ARF polyubiquitination by its E3 ligase Ubiquitin Ligase for ARF and elongated its half-life, whereas knockdown of NS led to the decrease of ARF levels. Also, we found that NS can enhance NPM stabilization of ARF. Thus, we propose that in the absence of p53, ARF can be stabilized by NS and nucleophosmin to serve as an alternative tumor-suppressor surveillance, preventing potential cellular transformation resulting from the growth-inducing effects of NS overexpression. PMID:24769896

  20. The Prp19 U-box Crystal Structure Suggests a Common Dimeric Architecture for a Class of Oligomeric E3 Ubiquitin Ligases †,‡

    PubMed Central

    Vander Kooi, Craig W.; Ohi, Melanie D.; Rosenberg, Joshua A.; Oldham, Michael L.; Newcomer, Marcia E.; Gould, Kathleen L.; Chazin, Walter J.

    2008-01-01

    Prp19 is an essential splicing factor and a member of the U-box family of E3 ubiquitin ligases. Prp19 forms a tetramer via a central coiled-coil domain. Here we show the U-box domain of Prp19 exists as a dimer within the context of the Prp19 tetramer. A high-resolution structure of the homo-dimeric state of the Prp19 U-box was determined by x-ray crystallography. Mutation of the U-box dimer interface abrogates U-box dimer formation and is lethal in vivo. The structure of the U-box dimer enables construction of a complete model of Prp19 providing insights into how the tetrameric protein functions as an E3 ligase. Finally, comparison of the Prp19 U-box homodimer with the heterodimeric complex of BRCA1/BARD1 RING-finger domains uncovers a common architecture for a family of oligmeric U-box and RING-finger E3 ubiquitin ligases, which has mechanistic implications for E3 ligase mediated poly-ubiquitination and E4 poly-ubiquitin ligases. PMID:16388587

  1. ATLs and BTLs, plant-specific and general eukaryotic structurally-related E3 ubiquitin ligases.

    PubMed

    Guzmán, Plinio

    2014-02-01

    Major components of the ubiquitin proteasome system are the enzymes that operate on the transfer of ubiquitin to selected target substrate, known as ubiquitin ligases. The RING finger is a domain that is present in key classes of ubiquitin ligases. This domain coordinates the interaction with a suitable E2 conjugase and the transfer of ubiquitin from the E2 to protein targets. Additional domains coupled to the same polypeptide are important for modulating the function of these ubiquitin ligases. Plants contain several types of E3 ubiquitin ligases that in many cases have expanded as multigene families. Some families are specific to the plant lineage, whereas others may have a common ancestor among plants and other eukaryotic lineages. Arabidopsis Tóxicos en Levadura (ATLs) and BCA2 zinc finger ATLs (BTLs) are two families of ubiquitin ligases that share some common structural features. These are intronless genes that encode a highly related RING finger domain, and yet during evolutionary history, their mode of gene expansion and function is rather different. In each of these two families, the co-occurrence of transmembrane helices or C2/C2 (BZF finger) domains with a selected variation on the RING finger has been subjected to strong selection pressure in order to preserve their unique domain architectures during evolution. PMID:24388516

  2. Cullin 3 Ubiquitin Ligases in Cancer Biology: Functions and Therapeutic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hsin-Yi; Chen, Ruey-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Cullin-RING ubiquitin ligases are the largest E3 ligase family in eukaryotes and are multiprotein complexes. In these complexes, the Cullin protein serves as a scaffold to connect two functional modules of the ligases, the catalytic subunit and substrate-binding subunit. To date, eight members of the Cullin family proteins have been identified. In the Cul3 ubiquitin ligases, Bric-a-brac/Tramtrack/Broad complex (BTB) domain-containing proteins function as a bridge to connect Cul3 and substrates. While the BTB domain is responsible for Cul3 binding, these proteins usually contain an additional domain for substrate interaction, such as MATH, kelch, Zn finger, and PAM, Highwire, and RPM-1 (PHR domain). With the existence of a large number of BTB proteins in human, the Cul3 ubiquitin ligases ubiquitinate a wide range of substrates involving in diverse cellular functions. In this review, we will discuss recent advances on the functions of Cul3 ubiquitin ligases in cancer development, progression, and therapeutic response and the dysregulation of Cul3-mediated ubiquitination events in human malignancies. In particular, we will focus on three Cul3 substrate adaptors, kelch-like ECH-associated protein (Keap1), kelch-like family member 20 (KLHL20), and speckle type BTB/POZ protein (SPOP), with the intent to highlight novel targets in cancer therapy. PMID:27200299

  3. Regulation of autophagy by E3 ubiquitin ligase RNF216 through BECN1 ubiquitination

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Congfeng; Feng, Kuan; Zhao, Xiaonan; Huang, Shiqian; Cheng, Yiji; Qian, Liu; Wang, Yanan; Sun, Hongxing; Jin, Min; Chuang, Tsung-Hsien; Zhang, Yanyun

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved biological process involved in an array of physiological and pathological events. Without proper control, autophagy contributes to various disorders, including cancer and autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. It is therefore of vital importance that autophagy is under careful balance. Thus, additional regulators undoubtedly deepen our understanding of the working network, and provide potential therapeutic targets for disorders. In this study, we found that RNF216 (ring finger protein 216), an E3 ubiquitin ligase, strongly inhibits autophagy in macrophages. Further exploration demonstrates that RNF216 interacts with BECN1, a key regulator in autophagy, and leads to ubiquitination of BECN1, thereby contributing to BECN1 degradation. RNF216 was involved in the ubiquitination of lysine 48 of BECN1 through direct interaction with the triad (2 RING fingers and a DRIL [double RING finger linked]) domain. We further showed that inhibition of autophagy through overexpression of RNF216 in alveolar macrophages promotes Listeria monocytogenes growth and distribution, while knockdown of RNF216 significantly inhibited these outcomes. These effects were confirmed in a mouse model of L. monocytogenes infection, suggesting that manipulating RNF216 expression could be a therapeutic approach. Thus, our study identifies a novel negative regulator of autophagy and suggests that RNF216 may be a target for treatment of inflammatory diseases. PMID:25484083

  4. Structural Basis of Dimerization-dependent Ubiquitination by the SCFFbx4 Ubiquitin Ligase

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.; Hao, B

    2010-01-01

    The F-box proteins are the substrate recognition subunits of the SCF (Skp1-Cul1-Rbx1-F-box protein) ubiquitin ligase complexes that control the stability of numerous regulators in eukaryotic cells. Here we show that dimerization of the F-box protein Fbx4 is essential for SCF{sup Fbx4} (the superscript denotes the F-box protein) ubiquitination activity toward the telomere regulator Pin2 (also known as TRF1). The crystal structure of Fbx4 in complex with an adaptor protein Skp1 reveals an antiparallel dimer configuration in which the linker domain of Fbx4 interacts with the C-terminal substrate-binding domain of the other protomer, whereas the C-terminal domain of the protein adopts a compact {alpha}/{beta} fold distinct from those of known F-box proteins. Biochemical studies indicate that both the N-terminal domain and a loop connecting the linker and C-terminal domain of Fbx4 are critical for the dimerization and activation of the protein. Our findings provide a framework for understanding the role of F-box dimerization in the SCF-mediated ubiquitination reaction.

  5. Structure of a HOIP/E2~ubiquitin complex reveals RBR E3 ligase mechanism and regulation.

    PubMed

    Lechtenberg, Bernhard C; Rajput, Akhil; Sanishvili, Ruslan; Dobaczewska, Małgorzata K; Ware, Carl F; Mace, Peter D; Riedl, Stefan J

    2016-01-28

    Ubiquitination is a central process affecting all facets of cellular signalling and function. A critical step in ubiquitination is the transfer of ubiquitin from an E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme to a substrate or a growing ubiquitin chain, which is mediated by E3 ubiquitin ligases. RING-type E3 ligases typically facilitate the transfer of ubiquitin from the E2 directly to the substrate. The RING-between-RING (RBR) family of RING-type E3 ligases, however, breaks this paradigm by forming a covalent intermediate with ubiquitin similarly to HECT-type E3 ligases. The RBR family includes Parkin and HOIP, the central catalytic factor of the LUBAC (linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex). While structural insights into the RBR E3 ligases Parkin and HHARI in their overall auto-inhibited forms are available, no structures exist of intact fully active RBR E3 ligases or any of their complexes. Thus, the RBR mechanism of action has remained largely unknown. Here we present the first structure, to our knowledge, of the fully active human HOIP RBR in its transfer complex with an E2~ubiquitin conjugate, which elucidates the intricate nature of RBR E3 ligases. The active HOIP RBR adopts a conformation markedly different from that of auto-inhibited RBRs. HOIP RBR binds the E2~ubiquitin conjugate in an elongated fashion, with the E2 and E3 catalytic centres ideally aligned for ubiquitin transfer, which structurally both requires and enables a HECT-like mechanism. In addition, three distinct helix-IBR-fold motifs inherent to RBRs form ubiquitin-binding regions that engage the activated ubiquitin of the E2~ubiquitin conjugate and, surprisingly, an additional regulatory ubiquitin molecule. The features uncovered reveal critical states of the HOIP RBR E3 ligase cycle, and comparison with Parkin and HHARI suggests a general mechanism for RBR E3 ligases. PMID:26789245

  6. A Pathogen Type III Effector with a Novel E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Skarina, Tatiana; Xu, Xiaohui; Cui, Hong; Eschen-Lippold, Lennart; Egler, Monique; Srikumar, Tharan; Raught, Brian; Lee, Justin; Scheel, Dierk; Savchenko, Alexei; Bonas, Ulla

    2013-01-01

    Type III effectors are virulence factors of Gram-negative bacterial pathogens delivered directly into host cells by the type III secretion nanomachine where they manipulate host cell processes such as the innate immunity and gene expression. Here, we show that the novel type III effector XopL from the model plant pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria exhibits E3 ubiquitin ligase activity in vitro and in planta, induces plant cell death and subverts plant immunity. E3 ligase activity is associated with the C-terminal region of XopL, which specifically interacts with plant E2 ubiquitin conjugating enzymes and mediates formation of predominantly K11-linked polyubiquitin chains. The crystal structure of the XopL C-terminal domain revealed a single domain with a novel fold, termed XL-box, not present in any previously characterized E3 ligase. Mutation of amino acids in the central cavity of the XL-box disrupts E3 ligase activity and prevents XopL-induced plant cell death. The lack of cysteine residues in the XL-box suggests the absence of thioester-linked ubiquitin-E3 ligase intermediates and a non-catalytic mechanism for XopL-mediated ubiquitination. The crystal structure of the N-terminal region of XopL confirmed the presence of a leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain, which may serve as a protein-protein interaction module for ubiquitination target recognition. While the E3 ligase activity is required to provoke plant cell death, suppression of PAMP responses solely depends on the N-terminal LRR domain. Taken together, the unique structural fold of the E3 ubiquitin ligase domain within the Xanthomonas XopL is unprecedented and highlights the variation in bacterial pathogen effectors mimicking this eukaryote-specific activity. PMID:23359647

  7. Structure of a HOIP/E2~ubiquitin complex reveals RBR E3 ligase mechanism and regulation

    PubMed Central

    Lechtenberg, Bernhard C.; Rajput, Akhil; Sanishvili, Ruslan; Dobaczewska, Małgorzata K.; Ware, Carl F.; Mace, Peter D.; Riedl, Stefan J.

    2015-01-01

    Ubiquitination is a central process affecting all facets of cellular signaling and function1. A critical step in ubiquitination is the transfer of ubiquitin from an E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme to a substrate or a growing ubiquitin chain, which is mediated by E3 ubiquitin ligases. RING-type E3 ligases typically facilitate the transfer of ubiquitin from the E2 directly to the substrate2,3. The RBR family of RING-type E3 ligases, however, breaks this paradigm by forming a covalent intermediate with ubiquitin similarly to HECT-type E3 ligases4–6. The RBR family includes Parkin4 and HOIP, the central catalytic factor of the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC)7. While structural insights into the RBR E3 ligases Parkin and HHARI in their overall autoinhibited forms are available8–13, no structures exist of intact fully active RBR E3 ligases or any of their complexes. Thus, the RBR mechanism of action has remained largely enigmatic. Here we present the first structure of the fully active HOIP-RBR in its transfer complex with an E2~ubiquitin conjugate, which elucidates the intricate nature of RBR E3 ligases. The active HOIP-RBR adopts a conformation markedly different from that of autoinhibited RBRs. HOIP-RBR binds the E2~ubiquitin conjugate in an elongated fashion, with the E2 and E3 catalytic centers ideally aligned for ubiquitin transfer, which structurally both requires and enables a HECT-like mechanism. In addition, surprisingly, three distinct helix–IBR-fold motifs inherent to RBRs form ubiquitin-binding regions that engage the activated ubiquitin of the E2~Ub conjugate as well as an additional regulatory ubiquitin molecule. The features uncovered reveal critical states of the HOIP-RBR E3 ligase cycle, and comparison with Parkin and HHARI suggests a general mechanism for RBR E3 ligases. PMID:26789245

  8. Assembly of the Elongin A Ubiquitin Ligase Is Regulated by Genotoxic and Other Stresses.

    PubMed

    Weems, Juston C; Slaughter, Brian D; Unruh, Jay R; Hall, Shawn M; McLaird, Merry B; Gilmore, Joshua M; Washburn, Michael P; Florens, Laurence; Yasukawa, Takashi; Aso, Teijiro; Conaway, Joan W; Conaway, Ronald C

    2015-06-12

    Elongin A performs dual functions in cells as a component of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) transcription elongation factor Elongin and as the substrate recognition subunit of a Cullin-RING E3 ubiquitin ligase that has been shown to target Pol II stalled at sites of DNA damage. Here we investigate the mechanism(s) governing conversion of the Elongin complex from its elongation factor to its ubiquitin ligase form. We report the discovery that assembly of the Elongin A ubiquitin ligase is a tightly regulated process. In unstressed cells, Elongin A is predominately present as part of Pol II elongation factor Elongin. Assembly of Elongin A into the ubiquitin ligase is strongly induced by genotoxic stress; by transcriptional stresses that lead to accumulation of stalled Pol II; and by other stimuli, including endoplasmic reticulum and nutrient stress and retinoic acid signaling, that activate Elongin A-dependent transcription. Taken together, our findings shed new light on mechanisms that control the Elongin A ubiquitin ligase and suggest that it may play a role in Elongin A-dependent transcription. PMID:25878247

  9. Assembly of the Elongin A Ubiquitin Ligase Is Regulated by Genotoxic and Other Stresses*

    PubMed Central

    Weems, Juston C.; Slaughter, Brian D.; Unruh, Jay R.; Hall, Shawn M.; McLaird, Merry B.; Gilmore, Joshua M.; Washburn, Michael P.; Florens, Laurence; Yasukawa, Takashi; Aso, Teijiro; Conaway, Joan W.; Conaway, Ronald C.

    2015-01-01

    Elongin A performs dual functions in cells as a component of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) transcription elongation factor Elongin and as the substrate recognition subunit of a Cullin-RING E3 ubiquitin ligase that has been shown to target Pol II stalled at sites of DNA damage. Here we investigate the mechanism(s) governing conversion of the Elongin complex from its elongation factor to its ubiquitin ligase form. We report the discovery that assembly of the Elongin A ubiquitin ligase is a tightly regulated process. In unstressed cells, Elongin A is predominately present as part of Pol II elongation factor Elongin. Assembly of Elongin A into the ubiquitin ligase is strongly induced by genotoxic stress; by transcriptional stresses that lead to accumulation of stalled Pol II; and by other stimuli, including endoplasmic reticulum and nutrient stress and retinoic acid signaling, that activate Elongin A-dependent transcription. Taken together, our findings shed new light on mechanisms that control the Elongin A ubiquitin ligase and suggest that it may play a role in Elongin A-dependent transcription. PMID:25878247

  10. RBR E3 ubiquitin ligases: new structures, new insights, new questions

    PubMed Central

    Spratt, Donald E.; Walden, Helen; Shaw, Gary S.

    2014-01-01

    The RBR (RING-BetweenRING-RING) or TRIAD [two RING fingers and a DRIL (double RING finger linked)] E3 ubiquitin ligases comprise a group of 12 complex multidomain enzymes. This unique family of E3 ligases includes parkin, whose dysfunction is linked to the pathogenesis of early-onset Parkinson's disease, and HOIP (HOIL-1-interacting protein) and HOIL-1 (haem-oxidized IRP2 ubiquitin ligase 1), members of the LUBAC (linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex). The RBR E3 ligases share common features with both the larger RING and HECT (homologous with E6-associated protein C-terminus) E3 ligase families, directly catalysing ubiquitin transfer from an intrinsic catalytic cysteine housed in the C-terminal domain, as well as recruiting thioester-bound E2 enzymes via a RING domain. Recent three-dimensional structures and biochemical findings of the RBRs have revealed novel protein domain folds not previously envisioned and some surprising modes of regulation that have raised many questions. This has required renaming two of the domains in the RBR E3 ligases to more accurately reflect their structures and functions: the C-terminal Rcat (required-for-catalysis) domain, essential for catalytic activity, and a central BRcat (benign-catalytic) domain that adopts the same fold as the Rcat, but lacks a catalytic cysteine residue and ubiquitination activity. The present review discusses how three-dimensional structures of RBR (RING1-BRcat-Rcat) E3 ligases have provided new insights into our understanding of the biochemical mechanisms of these important enzymes in ubiquitin biology. PMID:24576094

  11. Roles of E3 ubiquitin ligases in cell adhesion and migration.

    PubMed

    Huang, Cai

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that a number of E3 ubiquitin ligases, including Cbl, Smurf1, Smurf2, HDM2, BCA2, SCF(beta-TRCP) and XRNF185, play important roles in cell adhesion and migration. Cbl negatively regulates cell adhesion via alpha integrin and Rap1 and inhibits actin polymerization by ubiquitinating mDab1 and WAVE2. Smurf1 regulates cell migration through ubiquitination of RhoA, talin head domain and hPEM2, while Smurf2 ubiquitinates Smurf1, TGFbeta type I receptor and RaplB to modulate cell migration and adhesion. HDM2 negatively regulates cell migration by targeting NFAT (a transcription factor) for ubiquitination and degradation, while SCF(beta-TRCP) ubiquitinates Snail (a transcriptional repressor of E-cadherin) to inhibit cell migration. TRIM32 promotes cell migration through ubiquitination of Abl interactor 2 (Abi2), a tumor suppressor. RNF5 and XRNF185 modulate cell migration by ubiquitinating paxillin. Thus, these E3 ubiquitin ligases regulate cell adhesion and (or) migration through ubiquitination of their specific substrates. PMID:20009572

  12. Chimeric ubiquitin ligases inhibit non-small cell lung cancer via negative modulation of EGFR signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Daixing; Ru, Yi; Wang, Qinhao; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Jian; Wei, Junxia; Wu, Jin; Yao, Libo; Li, Xiaofei; Li, Xia

    2015-04-01

    Targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) represents a promising therapeutic strategy for non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC). The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is a major pathway that mediates protein degradation. To target the degradation of EGFR, we generated two artificial ubiquitin ligases, which are composed of an EGFR-binding domain, i.e., the SH2 domain from growth factor receptor binding protein 2 (Grb2), and an ubiquitin ligase catalytic domain, i.e., the RING domain from Cbl or the U-box domain from CHIP. When the chimeric ubiquitin ligases were introduced into lung cancer SPC-A1 cells, they effectively associated with EGFR, promoted its ubiquitination and degradation, and as a result, blocked the downstream PI3K-Akt signal pathway. Moreover, cell proliferation and invasion were inhibited, the sensitivity to docetaxel-induced apoptosis was enhanced and the tumorigenicity was suppressed. In conclusion, negative modulation of EGFR signaling by the chimeric ubiquitin ligases can inhibit malignancy of SPC-A1 cells and sensitize these cells to chemotherapy, thus it may be applied to targeted therapy for NSCLC. PMID:25573345

  13. Structural insight into SUMO chain recognition and manipulation by the ubiquitin ligase RNF4.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yingqi; Plechanovová, Anna; Simpson, Peter; Marchant, Jan; Leidecker, Orsolya; Kraatz, Sebastian; Hay, Ronald T; Matthews, Steve J

    2014-01-01

    The small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) can form polymeric chains that are important signals in cellular processes such as meiosis, genome maintenance and stress response. The SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase RNF4 engages with SUMO chains on linked substrates and catalyses their ubiquitination, which targets substrates for proteasomal degradation. Here we use a segmental labelling approach combined with solution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and biochemical characterization to reveal how RNF4 manipulates the conformation of the SUMO chain, thereby facilitating optimal delivery of the distal SUMO domain for ubiquitin transfer. PMID:24969970

  14. Structural insight into SUMO chain recognition and manipulation by the ubiquitin ligase RNF4

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yingqi; Plechanovová, Anna; Simpson, Peter; Marchant, Jan; Leidecker, Orsolya; Kraatz, Sebastian; Hay, Ronald T.; Matthews, Steve J.

    2014-01-01

    The small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) can form polymeric chains that are important signals in cellular processes such as meiosis, genome maintenance and stress response. The SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase RNF4 engages with SUMO chains on linked substrates and catalyses their ubiquitination, which targets substrates for proteasomal degradation. Here we use a segmental labelling approach combined with solution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and biochemical characterization to reveal how RNF4 manipulates the conformation of the SUMO chain, thereby facilitating optimal delivery of the distal SUMO domain for ubiquitin transfer. PMID:24969970

  15. Structure And Function of the Yeast U-Box-Containing Ubiquitin Ligase Ufd2p

    SciTech Connect

    Tu, D.; Li, W.; Ye, Y.; Brunger, A.T.

    2009-06-04

    Proteins conjugated by Lys-48-linked polyubiquitin chains are preferred substrates of the eukaryotic proteasome. Polyubiquitination requires an activating enzyme (E1), a conjugating enzyme (E2), and a ligase (E3). Occasionally, these enzymes only assemble short ubiquitin oligomers, and their extension to full length involves a ubiquitin elongating factor termed E4. Ufd2p, as the first E4 identified to date, is involved in the degradation of misfolded proteins of the endoplasmic reticulum and of a ubiquitin-{beta}-GAL fusion substrate in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The mechanism of action of Ufd2p is unknown. Here we describe the crystal structure of the full-length yeast Ufd2p protein. Ufd2p has an elongated shape consisting of several irregular Armadillo-like repeats with two helical hairpins protruding from it and a U-box domain flexibly attached to its C terminus. The U-box of Ufd2p has a fold similar to that of the RING (Really Interesting New Gene) domain that is present in certain ubiquitin ligases. Accordingly, Ufd2p has all of the hallmarks of a RING finger-containing ubiquitin ligase: it associates with its cognate E2 Ubc4p via its U-box domain and catalyzes the transfer of ubiquitin from the E2 active site to Ufd2p itself or to an acceptor ubiquitin molecule to form unanchored diubiquitin oligomers. Thus, Ufd2p can function as a bona fide E3 ubiquitin ligase to promote ubiquitin chain elongation on a substrate.

  16. Comprehensive database of human E3 ubiquitin ligases: application to aquaporin-2 regulation.

    PubMed

    Medvar, Barbara; Raghuram, Viswanathan; Pisitkun, Trairak; Sarkar, Abhijit; Knepper, Mark A

    2016-07-01

    Aquaporin-2 (AQP2) is regulated in part via vasopressin-mediated changes in protein half-life that are in turn dependent on AQP2 ubiquitination. Here we addressed the question, "What E3 ubiquitin ligase is most likely to be responsible for AQP2 ubiquitination?" using large-scale data integration based on Bayes' rule. The first step was to bioinformatically identify all E3 ligase genes coded by the human genome. The 377 E3 ubiquitin ligases identified in the human genome, consisting predominant of HECT, RING, and U-box proteins, have been used to create a publically accessible and downloadable online database (https://hpcwebapps.cit.nih.gov/ESBL/Database/E3-ligases/). We also curated a second database of E3 ligase accessory proteins that included BTB domain proteins, cullins, SOCS-box proteins, and F-box proteins. Using Bayes' theorem to integrate information from multiple large-scale proteomic and transcriptomic datasets, we ranked these 377 E3 ligases with respect to their probability of interaction with AQP2. Application of Bayes' rule identified the E3 ligases most likely to interact with AQP2 as (in order of probability): NEDD4 and NEDD4L (tied for first), AMFR, STUB1, ITCH, ZFPL1. Significantly, the two E3 ligases tied for top rank have also been studied extensively in the reductionist literature as regulatory proteins in renal tubule epithelia. The concordance of conclusions from reductionist and systems-level data provides strong motivation for further studies of the roles of NEDD4 and NEDD4L in the regulation of AQP2 protein turnover. PMID:27199454

  17. The E3 ubiquitin ligase CHIP mediates ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of PRMT5.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huan-Tian; Zeng, Ling-Fei; He, Qing-Yu; Tao, W Andy; Zha, Zhen-Gang; Hu, Chang-Deng

    2016-02-01

    Protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) is an important member of the protein arginine methyltransferase family that regulates many cellular processes through epigenetic control of target gene expression. Because of its overexpression in a number of human cancers and its essential role in cell proliferation, transformation, and cell cycle progression, PRMT5 has been recently proposed to function as an oncoprotein in cancer cells. However, how its expression is regulated in cancer cells remains largely unknown. We have previously demonstrated that the transcription of PRMT5 can be negatively regulated by the PKC/c-Fos signaling pathway through modulating the transcription factor NF-Y in prostate cancer cells. In the present study, we demonstrated that PRMT5 undergoes polyubiquitination, possibly through multiple lysine residues. We also identified carboxyl terminus of heat shock cognate 70-interacting protein (CHIP), an important chaperone-dependent E3 ubiquitin ligase that couples protein folding/refolding to protein degradation, as an interacting protein of PRMT5 via mass spectrometry. Their interaction was further verified by co-immuoprecipitation, GST pull-down, and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assay. In addition, we provided evidence that the CHIP/chaperone system is essential for the negative regulation of PRMT5 expression via K48-linked ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal degradation. Given that down-regulation of CHIP and overexpression of PRMT5 have been observed in several human cancers, our finding suggests that down-regulation of CHIP may be one of the mechanisms underlying PRMT5 overexpression in these cancers. PMID:26658161

  18. Aβ-Induced Synaptic Alterations Require the E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Nedd4-1

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Elizabeth M.; Scudder, Samantha L.; Goo, Marisa S.

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease in which patients experience progressive cognitive decline. A wealth of evidence suggests that this cognitive impairment results from synaptic dysfunction in affected brain regions caused by cleavage of amyloid precursor protein into the pathogenic peptide amyloid-β (Aβ). Specifically, it has been shown that Aβ decreases surface AMPARs, dendritic spine density, and synaptic strength, and also alters synaptic plasticity. The precise molecular mechanisms by which this occurs remain unclear. Here we demonstrate a role for ubiquitination in Aβ-induced synaptic dysfunction in cultured rat neurons. We find that Aβ promotes the ubiquitination of AMPARs, as well as the redistribution and recruitment of Nedd4-1, a HECT E3 ubiquitin ligase we previously demonstrated to target AMPARs for ubiquitination and degradation. Strikingly, we show that Nedd4-1 is required for Aβ-induced reductions in surface AMPARs, synaptic strength, and dendritic spine density. Our findings, therefore, indicate an important role for Nedd4-1 and ubiquitin in the synaptic alterations induced by Aβ. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Synaptic changes in Alzheimer's disease (AD) include surface AMPAR loss, which can weaken synapses. In a cell culture model of AD, we found that AMPAR loss correlates with increased AMPAR ubiquitination. In addition, the ubiquitin ligase Nedd4-1, known to ubiquitinate AMPARs, is recruited to synapses in response to Aβ. Strikingly, reducing Nedd4-1 levels in this model prevented surface AMPAR loss and synaptic weakening. These findings suggest that, in AD, Nedd4-1 may ubiquitinate AMPARs to promote their internalization and weaken synaptic strength, similar to what occurs in Nedd4-1's established role in homeostatic synaptic scaling. This is the first demonstration of Aβ-mediated control of a ubiquitin ligase to regulate surface AMPAR expression. PMID:26843640

  19. Nanobody-targeted E3-ubiquitin ligase complex degrades nuclear proteins

    PubMed Central

    Ju Shin, Yeong; Kyun Park, Seung; Jung Jung, Yoo; Na Kim, Ye; Sung Kim, Ki; Kyu Park, Ok; Kwon, Seung-Hae; Ho Jeon, Sung; Trinh, Le A.; Fraser, Scott E.; Kee, Yun; Joon Hwang, Byung

    2015-01-01

    Targeted protein degradation is a powerful tool in determining the function of specific proteins or protein complexes. We fused nanobodies to SPOP, an adaptor protein of the Cullin-RING E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, resulting in rapid ubiquitination and subsequent proteasome-dependent degradation of specific nuclear proteins in mammalian cells and zebrafish embryos. This approach is easily modifiable, as substrate specificity is conferred by an antibody domain that can be adapted to target virtually any protein. PMID:26373678

  20. Structure of a RING E3 ligase and ubiquitin-loaded E2 primed for catalysis.

    PubMed

    Plechanovová, Anna; Jaffray, Ellis G; Tatham, Michael H; Naismith, James H; Hay, Ronald T

    2012-09-01

    Ubiquitin modification is mediated by a large family of specificity determining ubiquitin E3 ligases. To facilitate ubiquitin transfer, RING E3 ligases bind both substrate and a ubiquitin E2 conjugating enzyme linked to ubiquitin via a thioester bond, but the mechanism of transfer has remained elusive. Here we report the crystal structure of the dimeric RING domain of rat RNF4 in complex with E2 (UbcH5A) linked by an isopeptide bond to ubiquitin. While the E2 contacts a single protomer of the RING, ubiquitin is folded back onto the E2 by contacts from both RING protomers. The carboxy-terminal tail of ubiquitin is locked into an active site groove on the E2 by an intricate network of interactions, resulting in changes at the E2 active site. This arrangement is primed for catalysis as it can deprotonate the incoming substrate lysine residue and stabilize the consequent tetrahedral transition-state intermediate. PMID:22842904

  1. RNF38 encodes a nuclear ubiquitin protein ligase that modifies p53

    SciTech Connect

    Sheren, Jamie E.; Kassenbrock, C. Kenneth

    2013-11-01

    Highlights: •RNF38 is shown to be a nuclear protein with a bipartite nuclear localization signal. •RNF38 protein is purified and shown to have ubiquitin protein ligase (E3) activity. •We show that RNF38 binds p53 and can ubiquitinate p53 in vitro. •Overexpression of RNF38 increases p53 ubiquitination in HEK293T cells. •Overexpression of RNF38 in HEK293T cells alters p53 localization. -- Abstract: The RNF38 gene encodes a RING finger protein of unknown function. Here we demonstrate that RNF38 is a functional ubiquitin protein ligase (E3). We show that RNF38 isoform 1 is localized to the nucleus by a bipartite nuclear localization sequence (NLS). We confirm that RNF38 is a binding partner of p53 and demonstrate that RNF38 can ubiquitinate p53 in vitro and in vivo. Finally, we show that overexpression of RNF38 in HEK293T cells results in relocalization of p53 to discrete foci associated with PML nuclear bodies. These results suggest RNF38 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that may play a role in regulating p53.

  2. Lunapark Is a Component of a Ubiquitin Ligase Complex Localized to the Endoplasmic Reticulum Three-way Junctions.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yupeng; Zhang, Ting; Huo, Huanhuan; Ye, Yihong; Liu, Yanfen

    2016-08-26

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) network comprises sheets and tubules that are connected by dynamic three-way junctions. Lunapark (Lnp) localizes to and stabilizes ER three-way junctions by antagonizing the small GTPase Atlastin, but how Lnp shapes the ER network is unclear. Here, we used an affinity purification approach and mass spectrometry to identify Lnp as an interacting partner of the ER protein quality control ubiquitin ligase gp78. Accordingly, Lnp purified from mammalian cells has a ubiquitin ligase activity in vitro Intriguingly, biochemical analyses show that this activity can be attributed not only to associated ubiquitin ligase, but also to an intrinsic ubiquitin ligase activity borne by Lnp itself. This activity is contained in the N-terminal 45 amino acids of Lnp although this segment does not share homology to any known ubiquitin ligase motifs. Despite its interaction with gp78, Lnp does not seem to have a broad function in degradation of misfolded ER proteins. On the other hand, the N-terminal ubiquitin ligase-bearing motif is required for the ER three-way junction localization of Lnp. Our study identifies a new type of ubiquitin ligase and reveals a potential link between ubiquitin and ER morphology regulation. PMID:27387505

  3. Characterization and Promoter Analysis of a Cotton Ring-Type Ubiquitin Ligase (E3) Gene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A cotton fiber cDNA, GhRING1, and its corresponding gene have been cloned and characterized. The GhRING1 gene encodes a RING-type ubiquitin ligase (E3) containing 337 amino acids (aa). The GhRING1 protein contains a RING finger motif with conserved cysteine and histine residues at the C-terminus a...

  4. Human BRCA1-BARD1 ubiquitin ligase activity counteracts chromatin barriers to DNA resection.

    PubMed

    Densham, Ruth M; Garvin, Alexander J; Stone, Helen R; Strachan, Joanna; Baldock, Robert A; Daza-Martin, Manuel; Fletcher, Alice; Blair-Reid, Sarah; Beesley, James; Johal, Balraj; Pearl, Laurence H; Neely, Robert; Keep, Nicholas H; Watts, Felicity Z; Morris, Joanna R

    2016-07-01

    The opposing activities of 53BP1 and BRCA1 influence pathway choice in DNA double-strand-break repair. How BRCA1 counteracts the inhibitory effect of 53BP1 on DNA resection and homologous recombination is unknown. Here we identify the site of BRCA1-BARD1 required for priming ubiquitin transfer from E2∼ubiquitin and demonstrate that BRCA1-BARD1's ubiquitin ligase activity is required for repositioning 53BP1 on damaged chromatin. We confirm H2A ubiquitination by BRCA1-BARD1 and show that an H2A-ubiquitin fusion protein promotes DNA resection and repair in BARD1-deficient cells. BRCA1-BARD1's function in homologous recombination requires the chromatin remodeler SMARCAD1. SMARCAD1 binding to H2A-ubiquitin and optimal localization to sites of damage and activity in DNA repair requires its ubiquitin-binding CUE domains. SMARCAD1 is required for 53BP1 repositioning, and the need for SMARCAD1 in olaparib or camptothecin resistance is alleviated by 53BP1 loss. Thus, BRCA1-BARD1 ligase activity and subsequent SMARCAD1-dependent chromatin remodeling are critical regulators of DNA repair. PMID:27239795

  5. Bioinformatics analysis identifies several intrinsically disordered human E3 ubiquitin-protein ligases

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Sofie V.; Lindorff-Larsen, Kresten; Hartmann-Petersen, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome system targets misfolded proteins for degradation. Since the accumulation of such proteins is potentially harmful for the cell, their prompt removal is important. E3 ubiquitin-protein ligases mediate substrate ubiquitination by bringing together the substrate with an E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, which transfers ubiquitin to the substrate. For misfolded proteins, substrate recognition is generally delegated to molecular chaperones that subsequently interact with specific E3 ligases. An important exception is San1, a yeast E3 ligase. San1 harbors extensive regions of intrinsic disorder, which provide both conformational flexibility and sites for direct recognition of misfolded targets of vastly different conformations. So far, no mammalian ortholog of San1 is known, nor is it clear whether other E3 ligases utilize disordered regions for substrate recognition. Here, we conduct a bioinformatics analysis to examine >600 human and S. cerevisiae E3 ligases to identify enzymes that are similar to San1 in terms of function and/or mechanism of substrate recognition. An initial sequence-based database search was found to detect candidates primarily based on the homology of their ordered regions, and did not capture the unique disorder patterns that encode the functional mechanism of San1. However, by searching specifically for key features of the San1 sequence, such as long regions of intrinsic disorder embedded with short stretches predicted to be suitable for substrate interaction, we identified several E3 ligases with these characteristics. Our initial analysis revealed that another remarkable trait of San1 is shared with several candidate E3 ligases: long stretches of complete lysine suppression, which in San1 limits auto-ubiquitination. We encode these characteristic features into a San1 similarity-score, and present a set of proteins that are plausible candidates as San1 counterparts in humans. In conclusion, our work indicates that San1 is

  6. Composition, Roles, and Regulation of Cullin-Based Ubiquitin E3 Ligases

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Christina M.; Gray, William M.; Mooney, Sutton; Hellmann, Hanjo

    2014-01-01

    Due to their sessile nature, plants depend on flexible regulatory systems that allow them to adequately regulate developmental and physiological processes in context with environmental cues. The ubiquitin proteasome pathway, which targets a great number of proteins for degradation, is cellular tool that provides the necessary flexibility to accomplish this task. Ubiquitin E3 ligases provide the needed specificity to the pathway by selectively binding to particular substrates and facilitating their ubiquitylation. The largest group of E3 ligases known in plants is represented by CULLIN-REALLY INTERESTING NEW GENE (RING) E3 ligases (CRLs). In recent years, a great amount of knowledge has been generated to reveal the critical roles of these enzymes across all aspects of plant life. This review provides an overview of the different classes of CRLs in plants, their specific complex compositions, the variety of biological processes they control, and the regulatory steps that can affect their activities. PMID:25505853

  7. Identification of TRIM22 as a RING finger E3 ubiquitin ligase

    SciTech Connect

    Duan Zhijian; Gao Bo; Xu Wei; Xiong Sidong

    2008-09-26

    TRIM22, a member of the TRIM family proteins which contain RING finger, B-box, and coiled-coil domains, has been reported as a transcriptional regulator and involved in various cellular processes. In this study, the E3 ubiquitin ligase activity, a novel property of TRIM22, was demonstrated. It was found that TRIM22 underwent self-ubiquitylation in vitro in combination with the E2 enzyme UbcH5B and the ubiquitylation was dependent on its RING finger domain. Further evidences showed that TRIM22 could also be self-ubiquitylated in vivo. Importantly, TRIM22 was conjugated with poly-ubiquitin chains and stabilized by the proteasome inhibitor in 293T cells, suggesting that TRIM22 targeted itself for proteasomal degradation through the poly-ubiquitylation. We also found that TRIM22 was located in the nucleus, indicating that TRIM22 might function as a nuclear E3 ubiquitin ligase.

  8. Control of iron homeostasis by an iron-regulated ubiquitin ligase.

    PubMed

    Vashisht, Ajay A; Zumbrennen, Kimberly B; Huang, Xinhua; Powers, David N; Durazo, Armando; Sun, Dahui; Bhaskaran, Nimesh; Persson, Anja; Uhlen, Mathias; Sangfelt, Olle; Spruck, Charles; Leibold, Elizabeth A; Wohlschlegel, James A

    2009-10-30

    Eukaryotic cells require iron for survival and have developed regulatory mechanisms for maintaining appropriate intracellular iron concentrations. The degradation of iron regulatory protein 2 (IRP2) in iron-replete cells is a key event in this pathway, but the E3 ubiquitin ligase responsible for its proteolysis has remained elusive. We found that a SKP1-CUL1-FBXL5 ubiquitin ligase protein complex associates with and promotes the iron-dependent ubiquitination and degradation of IRP2. The F-box substrate adaptor protein FBXL5 was degraded upon iron and oxygen depletion in a process that required an iron-binding hemerythrin-like domain in its N terminus. Thus, iron homeostasis is regulated by a proteolytic pathway that couples IRP2 degradation to intracellular iron levels through the stability and activity of FBXL5. PMID:19762596

  9. Ozz-E3 ubiquitin ligase targets sarcomeric embryonic myosin heavy chain during muscle development.

    PubMed

    Campos, Yvan; Qiu, Xiaohui; Zanoteli, Edmar; Moshiach, Simon; Vergani, Naja; Bongiovanni, Antonella; Harris, A John; d'Azzo, Alessandra

    2010-01-01

    Muscle contractile proteins are expressed as a series of developmental isoforms that are in constant dynamic remodeling during embryogenesis, but how obsolete molecules are recognized and removed is not known. Ozz is a developmentally regulated protein that functions as the adaptor component of a RING-type ubiquitin ligase complex specific to striated muscle. Ozz(-/-) mutants exhibit defects in myofibrillogenesis and myofiber differentiation. Here we show that Ozz targets the rod portion of embryonic myosin heavy chain and preferentially recognizes the sarcomeric rather than the soluble pool of myosin. We present evidence that Ozz binding to the embryonic myosin isoform within sarcomeric thick filaments marks it for ubiquitination and proteolytic degradation, allowing its replacement with neonatal or adult isoforms. This unique function positions Ozz within a system that facilitates sarcomeric myosin remodeling during muscle maturation and regeneration. Our findings identify Ozz-E3 as the ubiquitin ligase complex that interacts with and regulates myosin within its fully assembled cytoskeletal structure. PMID:20352047

  10. Ubiquitin protein ligase Nedd4 binds to connexin43 by a phosphorylation-modulated process.

    PubMed

    Leykauf, Kerstin; Salek, Mojibrahman; Bomke, Jörg; Frech, Matthias; Lehmann, Wolf-Dieter; Dürst, Matthias; Alonso, Angel

    2006-09-01

    Connexin43 is degraded by the proteasomal as well as the lysosomal pathway with ubiquitin playing a role in both degradation pathways. So far, no ubiquitin protein ligase has been identified for any of the connexins. By using pull-down assays, here we show binding of a ubiquitin protein ligase, Nedd4, to the C-terminus of connexin43. This observation was confirmed in vivo by coimmunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence, showing colocalization of Nedd4 and connexin43. Binding of Nedd4 to its interaction partners is generally carried out by its WW domains. Our results indicate that the interaction with connexin43 occurs through all three WW domains of Nedd4. Furthermore, whereas WW1 and WW2 domains mainly interact with the unphosphorylated form of connexin43, WW3 binds phosphorylated and unphosphorylated forms equally. In addition, using the surface plasmon resonance approach we show that only the WW2 domain binds to the PY motif located at the C-terminus of connexin43. Suppression of Nedd4 expression with siRNA resulted in an accumulation of gap junction plaques at the plasma membrane, suggesting an involvement of the ubiquitin protein ligase Nedd4 in gap junction internalization. PMID:16931598

  11. Ube2w and ataxin-3 coordinately regulate the ubiquitin ligase CHIP.

    PubMed

    Scaglione, K Matthew; Zavodszky, Eszter; Todi, Sokol V; Patury, Srikanth; Xu, Ping; Rodríguez-Lebrón, Edgardo; Fischer, Svetlana; Konen, John; Djarmati, Ana; Peng, Junmin; Gestwicki, Jason E; Paulson, Henry L

    2011-08-19

    The mechanisms by which ubiquitin ligases are regulated remain poorly understood. Here we describe a series of molecular events that coordinately regulate CHIP, a neuroprotective E3 implicated in protein quality control. Through their opposing activities, the initiator E2, Ube2w, and the specialized deubiquitinating enzyme (DUB), ataxin-3, participate in initiating, regulating, and terminating the CHIP ubiquitination cycle. Monoubiquitination of CHIP by Ube2w stabilizes the interaction between CHIP and ataxin-3, which through its DUB activity limits the length of chains attached to CHIP substrates. Upon completion of substrate ubiquitination, ataxin-3 deubiquitinates CHIP, effectively terminating the reaction. Our results suggest that functional pairing of E3s with ataxin-3 or similar DUBs represents an important point of regulation in ubiquitin-dependent protein quality control. In addition, the results shed light on disease pathogenesis in SCA3, a neurodegenerative disorder caused by polyglutamine expansion in ataxin-3. PMID:21855799

  12. Ubiquitin ligase activity of TFIIH and the transcriptional response to DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Yuichiro; Masuda, Claudio A; Chang, Wei-Hau; Komori, Hirofumi; Wang, Dong; Hunter, Tony; Joazeiro, Claudio A P; Kornberg, Roger D

    2005-04-15

    Core transcription factor (TF) IIH purified from yeast possesses an E3 ubiquitin (Ub) ligase activity, which resides, at least in part, in a RING finger (RNF) domain of the Ssl1 subunit. Yeast strains mutated in the Ssl1 RNF domain are sensitive to ultraviolet (UV) light and to methyl methanesulfonate (MMS). This increased sensitivity to DNA-damaging agents does not reflect a deficiency in nucleotide excision repair. Rather, it correlates with reduced transcriptional induction of genes involved in DNA repair, suggesting that the E3 Ub ligase activity of TFIIH mediates the transcriptional response to DNA damage. PMID:15837426

  13. TRIM37 is a new histone H2A ubiquitin ligase and breast cancer oncoprotein.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, Sanchita; Gazin, Claude; Chamberlain, Lynn; Ou, Jianhong; Zhu, Xiaochun; Tushir, Jogender S; Virbasius, Ching-Man; Lin, Ling; Zhu, Lihua J; Wajapeyee, Narendra; Green, Michael R

    2014-12-01

    The TRIM37 (also known as MUL) gene is located in the 17q23 chromosomal region, which is amplified in up to ∼ 40% of breast cancers. TRIM37 contains a RING finger domain, a hallmark of E3 ubiquitin ligases, but its protein substrate(s) is unknown. Here we report that TRIM37 mono-ubiquitinates histone H2A, a chromatin modification associated with transcriptional repression. We find that in human breast cancer cell lines containing amplified 17q23, TRIM37 is upregulated and, reciprocally, the major H2A ubiquitin ligase RNF2 (also known as RING1B) is downregulated. Genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-chip experiments in 17q23-amplified breast cancer cells identified many genes, including multiple tumour suppressors, whose promoters were bound by TRIM37 and enriched for ubiquitinated H2A. However, unlike RNF2, which is a subunit of polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1), we find that TRIM37 associates with polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2). TRIM37, PRC2 and PRC1 are co-bound to specific target genes, resulting in their transcriptional silencing. RNA-interference-mediated knockdown of TRIM37 results in loss of ubiquitinated H2A, dissociation of PRC1 and PRC2 from target promoters, and transcriptional reactivation of silenced genes. Knockdown of TRIM37 in human breast cancer cells containing amplified 17q23 substantially decreases tumour growth in mouse xenografts. Conversely, ectopic expression of TRIM37 renders non-transformed cells tumorigenic. Collectively, our results reveal TRIM37 as an oncogenic H2A ubiquitin ligase that is overexpressed in a subset of breast cancers and promotes transformation by facilitating silencing of tumour suppressors and other genes. PMID:25470042

  14. F-box only protein 9 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase of PPARγ

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyeong Won; Kwak, Soo Heon; Koo, Young Do; Cho, Yun-Kyung; Lee, Hak Mo; Jung, Hye Seung; Cho, Young Min; Park, Young Joo; Chung, Sung Soo; Park, Kyong Soo

    2016-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a critical regulator of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, adipocyte differentiation and inflammatory response. Post-translational modification of PPARγ and its degradation involve several pathways, including the ubiquitin–proteasome system. Here, we identified F-box only protein 9 (FBXO9) as an E3 ubiquitin ligase of PPARγ. We screened interacting partners of PPARγ using immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometric analysis and identified FBXO9 as an E3 ubiquitin ligase of PPARγ. FBXO9 directly interacted with PPARγ through the activation function-1 domain and ligand-binding domain. FBXO9 decreased the protein stability of PPARγ through induction of ubiquitination. We found that the F-box motif of FBXO9 was required for its ubiquitination function. The activity of PPARγ was significantly decreased by FBXO9 overexpression. Furthermore, FBXO9 overexpression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes resulted in decreased levels of endogenous PPARγ and suppression of adipogenesis. These results suggest that FBXO9 is an important enzyme that regulates the stability and activity of PPARγ through ubiquitination. PMID:27197753

  15. PEX2 is the E3 ubiquitin ligase required for pexophagy during starvation.

    PubMed

    Sargent, Graeme; van Zutphen, Tim; Shatseva, Tatiana; Zhang, Ling; Di Giovanni, Valeria; Bandsma, Robert; Kim, Peter Kijun

    2016-09-12

    Peroxisomes are metabolic organelles necessary for anabolic and catabolic lipid reactions whose numbers are highly dynamic based on the metabolic need of the cells. One mechanism to regulate peroxisome numbers is through an autophagic process called pexophagy. In mammalian cells, ubiquitination of peroxisomal membrane proteins signals pexophagy; however, the E3 ligase responsible for mediating ubiquitination is not known. Here, we report that the peroxisomal E3 ubiquitin ligase peroxin 2 (PEX2) is the causative agent for mammalian pexophagy. Expression of PEX2 leads to gross ubiquitination of peroxisomes and degradation of peroxisomes in an NBR1-dependent autophagic process. We identify PEX5 and PMP70 as substrates of PEX2 that are ubiquitinated during amino acid starvation. We also find that PEX2 expression is up-regulated during both amino acid starvation and rapamycin treatment, suggesting that the mTORC1 pathway regulates pexophagy by regulating PEX2 expression levels. Finally, we validate our findings in vivo using an animal model. PMID:27597759

  16. Reversible phosphorylation controls the activity of cyclosome-associated cyclin-ubiquitin ligase.

    PubMed Central

    Lahav-Baratz, S; Sudakin, V; Ruderman, J V; Hershko, A

    1995-01-01

    Cyclin B/cdc2 is responsible both for driving cells into mitosis and for activating the ubiquitin-dependent degradation of mitotic cyclins near the end of mitosis, an event required for the completion of mitosis and entry into interphase of the next cell cycle. Previous work with cell-free extracts of rapidly dividing clam embryos has identified two specific components required for the ubiquitination of mitotic cyclins: E2-C, a cyclin-selective ubiquitin carrier protein that is constitutively active during the cell cycle, and E3-C, a cyclin-selective ubiquitin ligase that purifies as part of a approximately 1500-kDa complex, termed the cyclosome, and which is active only near the end of mitosis. Here, we have separated the cyclosome from its ultimate upstream activator, cdc2. The mitotic, active form of the cyclosome can be inactivated by incubation with a partially purified, endogenous okadaic acid-sensitive phosphatase; addition of cdc2 restores activity to the cyclosome after a lag that reproduces that seen previously in intact cells and in crude extracts. These results demonstrate that activity of cyclin-ubiquitin ligase is controlled by reversible phosphorylation of the cyclosome complex. Images Fig. 3 PMID:7568122

  17. Ubiquitin E3 ligase FIEL1 regulates fibrotic lung injury through SUMO-E3 ligase PIAS4.

    PubMed

    Lear, Travis; McKelvey, Alison C; Rajbhandari, Shristi; Dunn, Sarah R; Coon, Tiffany A; Connelly, William; Zhao, Joe Y; Kass, Daniel J; Zhang, Yingze; Liu, Yuan; Chen, Bill B

    2016-05-30

    The E3 small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) protein ligase protein inhibitor of activated STAT 4 (PIAS4) is a pivotal protein in regulating the TGFβ pathway. In this study, we discovered a new protein isoform encoded by KIAA0317, termed fibrosis-inducing E3 ligase 1 (FIEL1), which potently stimulates the TGFβ signaling pathway through the site-specific ubiquitination of PIAS4. FIEL1 targets PIAS4 using a double locking mechanism that is facilitated by the kinases PKCζ and GSK3β. Specifically, PKCζ phosphorylation of PIAS4 and GSK3β phosphorylation of FIEL1 are both essential for the degradation of PIAS4. FIEL1 protein is highly expressed in lung tissues from patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), whereas PIAS4 protein levels are significantly reduced. FIEL1 overexpression significantly increases fibrosis in a bleomycin murine model, whereas FIEL1 knockdown attenuates fibrotic conditions. Further, we developed a first-in-class small molecule inhibitor toward FIEL1 that is highly effective in ameliorating fibrosis in mice. This study provides a basis for IPF therapeutic intervention by modulating PIAS4 protein abundance. PMID:27162139

  18. Neuromuscular regulation in zebrafish by a large AAA+ ATPase/ubiquitin ligase, mysterin/RNF213

    PubMed Central

    Kotani, Yuri; Morito, Daisuke; Yamazaki, Satoru; Ogino, Kazutoyo; Kawakami, Koichi; Takashima, Seiji; Hirata, Hiromi; Nagata, Kazuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Mysterin (also known as RNF213) is a huge intracellular protein with two AAA+ ATPase modules and a RING finger ubiquitin ligase domain. Mysterin was originally isolated as a significant risk factor for the cryptogenic cerebrovascular disorder moyamoya disease, and was found to be involved in physiological angiogenesis in zebrafish. However, the function and the physiological significance of mysterin in other than blood vessels remain largely unknown, although mysterin is ubiquitously expressed in animal tissues. In this study, we performed antisense-mediated suppression of a mysterin orthologue in zebrafish larvae and revealed that mysterin-deficient larvae showed significant reduction in fast myofibrils and immature projection of primary motoneurons, leading to severe motor deficits. Fast muscle-specific restoration of mysterin expression cancelled these phenotypes, and interestingly both AAA+ ATPase and ubiquitin ligase activities of mysterin were indispensable for proper fast muscle formation, demonstrating an essential role of mysterin and its enzymatic activities in the neuromuscular regulation in zebrafish. PMID:26530008

  19. Modulation of myocardin function by the ubiquitin E3 ligase UBR5.

    PubMed

    Hu, Guoqing; Wang, Xiaobo; Saunders, Darren N; Henderson, Michelle; Russell, Amanda J; Herring, B Paul; Zhou, Jiliang

    2010-04-16

    Fully differentiated mature smooth muscle cells (SMCs) are characterized by the presence of a unique repertoire of smooth muscle-specific proteins. Although previous studies have shown myocardin to be a critical transcription factor for stimulating expression of smooth muscle-specific genes, the mechanisms regulating myocardin activity are still poorly understood. We used a yeast two-hybrid screen with myocardin as bait to search for factors that may regulate the transcriptional activity of the myocardin. From this screen we identified a HECT domain-containing protein UBR5 (ubiquitin protein ligase E3 component n-recognin 5) as a myocardin-binding protein. Previous studies have shown that HECT domain-containing proteins are ubiquitin E3 ligases that play an important role in protein degradation. UBR5 has, however, also been shown to regulate transcription independent of its E3 ligase activity. In the current study we demonstrated that UBR5 localized in the nuclei of SMCs and forms a complex with myocardin in vivo and in vitro. We also show that UBR5 specifically enhanced trans-activation of smooth muscle-specific promoters by the myocardin family of proteins. In addition, UBR5 significantly augmented the ability of myocardin to induce expression of endogenous SMC marker genes independent on its E3 ligase function. Conversely, depletion of endogenous UBR5 by small interfering RNA in fibroblast cells attenuated myocardin-induced smooth muscle-specific gene expression, and UBR5 knockdown in SMCs resulted in down-regulation of smooth muscle-specific genes. Furthermore, we found that UBR5 can attenuate myocardin protein degradation resulting in increased myocardin protein expression without affecting myocardin mRNA expression. The effects of UBR5 on myocardin requires only the HECT and UBR1 domains of UBR5. This study reveals an unexpected role for the ubiquitin E3 ligase UBR5 as an activator of smooth muscle differentiation through its ability to stabilize myocardin

  20. GIDE is a mitochondrial E3 ubiquitin ligase that induces apoptosis and slows growth

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bicheng; Huang, Jun; Li, Hong-Liang; Liu, Ting; Wang, Yan-Yi; Waterman, Paul; Mao, Ai-Ping; Xu, Liang-Guo; Zhai, Zhonghe; Liu, Depei; Marrack, Philippa; Shu, Hong-Bing

    2011-01-01

    We report here the identification of GIDE, a mitochondrially located E3 ubiquitin ligase. GIDE contains a C-terminal Ring finger domain, which is mostly conserved with those of the IAP family members, and which is required for its E3 ligase activity. Overexpression of GIDE induces apoptosis via a pathway involving activation of caspases since the caspase inhibitors, XIAP and an inactive mutant of caspase-9 block GIDE-induced apoptosis. GIDE also activates JNK, and blockade of JNK activation inhibits GIDE-induced release of cytochrome c and Smac and apoptosis, suggesting that JNK activation precedes release of cytochrome c and Smac and is required for GIDE-induced apoptosis. These proapoptotic properties of GIDE require its E3 ligase activity. When somewhat over or underexpressed, GIDE slows or hastens cell growth respectively. These pro-apoptotic or growth rate effects of GIDE may account for its absence from tumor cells. PMID:18591963

  1. The E3 ubiquitin ligase TRIM32 regulates myoblast proliferation by controlling turnover of NDRG2.

    PubMed

    Mokhonova, Ekaterina I; Avliyakulov, Nuraly K; Kramerova, Irina; Kudryashova, Elena; Haykinson, Michael J; Spencer, Melissa J

    2015-05-15

    Limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2H is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the E3 ubiquitin ligase, TRIM32. Previously, we generated and characterized a Trim32 knockout mouse (T32KO) that displays both neurogenic and myopathic features. The myopathy in these mice is attributable to impaired muscle growth, associated with satellite cell senescence and premature sarcopenia. This satellite cell senescence is due to accumulation of the SUMO ligase PIASy, a substrate of TRIM32. The goal of this investigation was to identify additional substrates of TRIM32 using 2D fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) in order to further explore its role in skeletal muscle. Because TRIM32 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase, we reasoned that TRIM32's substrates would accumulate in its absence. 2D-DIGE identified 19 proteins that accumulate in muscles from the T32KO mouse. We focused on two of these proteins, NDRG2 and TRIM72, due to their putative roles in myoblast proliferation and myogenesis. Follow-up analysis confirmed that both proteins were ubiquitinated by TRIM32 in vitro; however, only NDRG2 accumulated in skeletal muscle and myoblasts in the absence of TRIM32. NDRG2 overexpression in myoblasts led to reduced cell proliferation and delayed cell cycle withdrawal during differentiation. Thus, we identified NDRG2 as a novel target for TRIM32; these findings further corroborate the hypothesis that TRIM32 is involved in control of myogenic cells proliferation and differentiation. PMID:25701873

  2. The E3 ubiquitin ligase RNF8 stabilizes TPP1 to promote telomere end protection

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Rekha; Li, Ju-Mei; Zheng, Hong; Lok, Gabriel Tsz-Mei; Deng, Yu; Huen, Michael; Chen, Junjie; Jin, Jianping; Chang, Sandy

    2013-01-01

    TPP1, a component of the mammalian shelterin complex, plays essential roles in telomere maintenance. It forms a heterodimer with POT1 to repress ATR-dependent DNA damage signaling at telomeres, and recruits telomerase to chromosome ends. Here we show that the E3 ubiquitin ligase RNF8 localizes to and promotes the accumulation of DNA damage proteins 53BP1 and γ-H2AX to uncapped telomeres. TPP1 is unstable in the absence of RNF8, resulting in telomere shortening and chromosome fusions via the alternative non-homologous end joining (A-NHEJ)-mediated DNA repair pathway. The RNF8 ubiquitin ligase RING domain is essential for TPP1 stability and retention at telomeres. RNF8 physically interacts with TPP1 to generate Ubc13-dependent K63 polyubiquitin chains that stabilizes TPP1 at telomeres. The conserved TPP1 lysine residue 233 is essential for RNF8-mediated TPP1 ubiquitylation and localization to telomeres. Our results demonstrate that TPP1 is a novel substrate for RNF8, and suggest a previously unrecognized role for RNF8 in telomere end protection. We propose a model in which engagement of classical vs. A-NHEJ repair pathways at dysfunctional telomeres is controlled by the ubiquitin ligase functions of RNF8. PMID:22101936

  3. The E3 ubiquitin ligase GREUL1 anteriorizes ectoderm during Xenopus development.

    PubMed

    Borchers, Annette G M; Hufton, Andrew L; Eldridge, Adam G; Jackson, Peter K; Harland, Richard M; Baker, Julie C

    2002-11-15

    We have identified a family of RING finger proteins that are orthologous to Drosophila Goliath (G1, Gol). One of the members, GREUL1 (Goliath Related E3 Ubiquitin Ligase 1), can convert Xenopus ectoderm into XAG-1- and Otx2-expressing cells in the absence of both neural tissue and muscle. This activity, combined with the finding that XGREUL1 is expressed within the cement gland, suggests a role for GREUL1 in the generation of anterior ectoderm. Although GREUL1 is not a direct inducer of neural tissue, it can activate the formation of ectopic neural cells within the epidermis of intact embryos. This suggests that GREUL1 can sensitize ectoderm to neuralizing signals. In this paper, we provide evidence that GREUL1 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase. Using a biochemical assay, we show that GREUL1 catalyzes the addition of polyubiquitin chains. These events are mediated by the RING domain since a mutation in two of the cysteines abolishes ligase activity. Mutation of these cysteines also compromises GREUL1's ability to induce cement gland. Thus, GREUL1's RING domain is necessary for both the ubiquitination of substrates and for the conversion of ectoderm to an anterior fate. PMID:12435366

  4. The E3 ubiquitin ligase TRIM32 regulates myoblast proliferation by controlling turnover of NDRG2

    PubMed Central

    Mokhonova, Ekaterina I.; Avliyakulov, Nuraly K.; Kramerova, Irina; Kudryashova, Elena; Haykinson, Michael J.; Spencer, Melissa J.

    2015-01-01

    Limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2H is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the E3 ubiquitin ligase, TRIM32. Previously, we generated and characterized a Trim32 knockout mouse (T32KO) that displays both neurogenic and myopathic features. The myopathy in these mice is attributable to impaired muscle growth, associated with satellite cell senescence and premature sarcopenia. This satellite cell senescence is due to accumulation of the SUMO ligase PIASy, a substrate of TRIM32. The goal of this investigation was to identify additional substrates of TRIM32 using 2D fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) in order to further explore its role in skeletal muscle. Because TRIM32 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase, we reasoned that TRIM32's substrates would accumulate in its absence. 2D-DIGE identified 19 proteins that accumulate in muscles from the T32KO mouse. We focused on two of these proteins, NDRG2 and TRIM72, due to their putative roles in myoblast proliferation and myogenesis. Follow-up analysis confirmed that both proteins were ubiquitinated by TRIM32 in vitro; however, only NDRG2 accumulated in skeletal muscle and myoblasts in the absence of TRIM32. NDRG2 overexpression in myoblasts led to reduced cell proliferation and delayed cell cycle withdrawal during differentiation. Thus, we identified NDRG2 as a novel target for TRIM32; these findings further corroborate the hypothesis that TRIM32 is involved in control of myogenic cells proliferation and differentiation. PMID:25701873

  5. Arkadia, a novel SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase involved in PML degradation.

    PubMed

    Erker, Yigit; Neyret-Kahn, Helene; Seeler, Jacob S; Dejean, Anne; Atfi, Azeddine; Levy, Laurence

    2013-06-01

    Arkadia is a RING domain E3 ubiquitin ligase that activates the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) pathway by inducing degradation of the inhibitor SnoN/Ski. Here we show that Arkadia contains three successive SUMO-interacting motifs (SIMs) that mediate noncovalent interaction with poly-SUMO2. We identify the third SIM (VVDL) of Arkadia to be the most relevant one in this interaction. Furthermore, we provide evidence that Arkadia can function as a SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase (STUBL) by ubiquitinating SUMO chains. While the SIMs of Arkadia are not essential for SnoN/Ski degradation in response to TGF-β, we show that they are necessary for the interaction of Arkadia with polysumoylated PML in response to arsenic and its concomitant accumulation into PML nuclear bodies. Moreover, Arkadia depletion leads to accumulation of polysumoylated PML in response to arsenic, highlighting a requirement of Arkadia for arsenic-induced degradation of polysumoylated PML. Interestingly, Arkadia homodimerizes but does not heterodimerize with RNF4, the other STUBL involved in PML degradation, suggesting that these two E3 ligases do not act synergistically but most probably act independently during this process. Altogether, these results identify Arkadia to be a novel STUBL that can trigger degradation of signal-induced polysumoylated proteins. PMID:23530056

  6. Transcription factor single-minded 2 (SIM2) is ubiquitinated by the RING-IBR-RING-type E3 ubiquitin ligases.

    PubMed

    Okui, Michiyo; Yamaki, Akiko; Takayanagi, Atsushi; Kudoh, Jun; Shimizu, Nobuyoshi; Shimizu, Yoshiko

    2005-09-10

    Human single-minded 2 (SIM2) is a member of the basic helix-loop-helix/Per-Arnt-Sim (bHLH/PAS) family of transcription factors and is associated with the etiology of Down syndrome phenotype. Here, we examined a possibility of the post-translational modification of SIM2 protein by transfecting various expression constructs followed by the analysis with immunoprecipitation and Western blotting. In fact, transient expression of SIM2 cDNA in HEK293 cells revealed poly-ubiquitination of SIM2 protein. In the stable transfectants, a proteasome inhibitor MG132 protected the poly-ubiquitinated SIM2 protein from degradation. Furthermore, in the cells co-transfected with SIM2 and each of four different E3 ubiquitin ligases, SIM2 was immunoprecipitated with the RING-IBR-RING-type E3 ubiquitin ligases, Parkin and HHARI, but it was not immunoprecipitated with other E3 ligases, such as one RING-type Siah-1 and the PHD type AIRE. A series of deletion constructs revealed that Parkin actually binds to SIM2 with the IBR (294-377)-RING2 (378-465) domains and that the sites for poly-ubiquitination of SIM2 reside within the PAS1-PAS2 region (aa 141-289). We postulated that transcription factor SIM2 and E3 ubiquitin ligase Parkin may interact each other to play an important physiological role in the brain development which is controlled by ubiquitination. PMID:15963499

  7. The prolific ATL family of RING-H2 ubiquitin ligases

    PubMed Central

    Guzmán, Plinio

    2012-01-01

    An abundant class of E3 ubiquitin ligases encodes the RING-finger domain. The RING finger binds to the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme and brings together both the E2 and substrate. It is predicted that 477 RING finger E3 ligases exist in Arabidopsis thaliana. A particular family among them, named Arabidopsis Tóxicos en Levadura (ATL), consists of 91 members that contain the RING-H2 variation and a hydrophobic domain located at the N-terminal end. Transmembrane E3 ligases are important in several biological processes. For instance, some transmembrane RING finger E3 ligases are main participants in the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation pathway that targets misfolded proteins. Functional analysis of a number of ATLs has shown that some of them regulate distinct pathways in plants. Several ATLs have been shown to participate in defense responses, while others play a role in the regulation of the carbon/nitrogen response during post-germinative seedling growth transition, in the regulation of cell death during root development, in endosperm development, or in the transition to flowering under short day conditions. The ATL family has also been instrumental in evolution studies for showing how gene families are expanded in plant genomes. PMID:22827943

  8. Characterization of a novel RING-type ubiquitin E3 ligase GhRING2 differentially expressed in cotton fiber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ubiquitin-proteasome proteolysis pathway is responsible for the degradation of abnormal and short-lived proteins to regulate many important biochemical activities in eukaryotes. By employing affymetrix microarray analysis, we have identified a novel ubiquitin ligase E3 gene GhRING2 that is diffe...

  9. The APC/C Ubiquitin Ligase: From Cell Biology to Tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Penas, Clara; Ramachandran, Vimal; Ayad, Nagi George

    2011-01-01

    The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) is required for normal cell proliferation, vertebrate development, and cancer cell transformation. The UPS consists of multiple proteins that work in concert to target a protein for degradation via the 26S proteasome. Chains of an 8.5-kDa protein called ubiquitin are attached to substrates, thus allowing recognition by the 26S proteasome. Enzymes called ubiquitin ligases or E3s mediate specific attachment to substrates. Although there are over 600 different ubiquitin ligases, the Skp1–Cullin–F-box (SCF) complexes and the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) are the most studied. SCF involvement in cancer has been known for some time while APC/C’s cancer role has recently emerged. In this review we will discuss the importance of APC/C to normal cell proliferation and development, underscoring its possible contribution to transformation. We will also examine the hypothesis that modulating a specific interaction of the APC/C may be therapeutically attractive in specific cancer subtypes. Finally, given that the APC/C pathway is relatively new as a cancer target, therapeutic interventions affecting APC/C activity may be beneficial in cancers that are resistant to classical chemotherapy. PMID:22655255

  10. Identification of HECT E3 ubiquitin ligase family genes involved in stem cell regulation and regeneration in planarians.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Jordana M; Nisperos, Sean V; Weeks, Joi; Ghulam, Mahjoobah; Marín, Ignacio; Zayas, Ricardo M

    2015-08-15

    E3 ubiquitin ligases constitute a large family of enzymes that modify specific proteins by covalently attaching ubiquitin polypeptides. This post-translational modification can serve to regulate protein function or longevity. In spite of their importance in cell physiology, the biological roles of most ubiquitin ligases remain poorly understood. Here, we analyzed the function of the HECT domain family of E3 ubiquitin ligases in stem cell biology and tissue regeneration in planarians. Using bioinformatic searches, we identified 17 HECT E3 genes that are expressed in the Schmidtea mediterranea genome. Whole-mount in situ hybridization experiments showed that HECT genes were expressed in diverse tissues and most were expressed in the stem cell population (neoblasts) or in their progeny. To investigate the function of all HECT E3 ligases, we inhibited their expression using RNA interference (RNAi) and determined that orthologs of huwe1, wwp1, and trip12 had roles in tissue regeneration. We show that huwe1 RNAi knockdown led to a significant expansion of the neoblast population and death by lysis. Further, our experiments showed that wwp1 was necessary for both neoblast and intestinal tissue homeostasis as well as uncovered an unexpected role of trip12 in posterior tissue specification. Taken together, our data provide insights into the roles of HECT E3 ligases in tissue regeneration and demonstrate that planarians will be a useful model to evaluate the functions of E3 ubiquitin ligases in stem cell regulation. PMID:25956527

  11. Identifying the ERAD ubiquitin E3 ligases for viral and cellular targeting of MHC class I.

    PubMed

    van den Boomen, D J H; Lehner, P J

    2015-12-01

    The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) US2 and US11 gene products hijack mammalian ER-associated degradation (ERAD) to induce rapid degradation of major histocompatibility class I (MHC-I) molecules. The rate-limiting step in this pathway is thought to be the polyubiquitination of MHC-I by distinct host ERAD E3 ubiquitin ligases. TRC8 was identified as the ligase responsible for US2-mediated MHC-I degradation and shown to be required for the cleavage-dependent degradation of some tail-anchored proteins. In addition to MHC-I, plasma membrane profiling identified further immune receptors, which are also substrates for the US2/TRC8 complex. These include at least six α integrins, the coagulation factor thrombomodulin and the NK cell ligand CD112. US2's use of specific HCMV-encoded adaptors makes it an adaptable viral degradation hub. US11-mediated degradation is MHC-I-specific and genetic screens have identified TMEM129, an uncharacterised RING-C2 E3 ligase, as responsible for US11-mediated degradation. In a unique auto-regulatory loop, US11 readily responds to changes in cellular expression of MHC-I. Free US11 either rebinds more MHC-I or is itself degraded by the HRD1/SEL1L E3 ligase complex. While virally encoded US2 and US11 appropriate mammalian ERAD, the MHC-I complex also undergoes stringent cellular quality control and misfolded MHC-I is degraded by the HRD1/SEL1L complex. We discuss the identification and central role of E3 ubiquitin ligases in ER quality control and viral degradation of the MHC-I chain. PMID:26210183

  12. Identifying the ERAD ubiquitin E3 ligases for viral and cellular targeting of MHC class I

    PubMed Central

    van den Boomen, D.J.H.; Lehner, P.J.

    2015-01-01

    The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) US2 and US11 gene products hijack mammalian ER-associated degradation (ERAD) to induce rapid degradation of major histocompatibility class I (MHC-I) molecules. The rate-limiting step in this pathway is thought to be the polyubiquitination of MHC-I by distinct host ERAD E3 ubiquitin ligases. TRC8 was identified as the ligase responsible for US2-mediated MHC-I degradation and shown to be required for the cleavage-dependent degradation of some tail-anchored proteins. In addition to MHC-I, plasma membrane profiling identified further immune receptors, which are also substrates for the US2/TRC8 complex. These include at least six α integrins, the coagulation factor thrombomodulin and the NK cell ligand CD112. US2’s use of specific HCMV-encoded adaptors makes it an adaptable viral degradation hub. US11-mediated degradation is MHC-I-specific and genetic screens have identified TMEM129, an uncharacterised RING-C2 E3 ligase, as responsible for US11-mediated degradation. In a unique auto-regulatory loop, US11 readily responds to changes in cellular expression of MHC-I. Free US11 either rebinds more MHC-I or is itself degraded by the HRD1/SEL1L E3 ligase complex. While virally encoded US2 and US11 appropriate mammalian ERAD, the MHC-I complex also undergoes stringent cellular quality control and misfolded MHC-I is degraded by the HRD1/SEL1L complex. We discuss the identification and central role of E3 ubiquitin ligases in ER quality control and viral degradation of the MHC-I chain. PMID:26210183

  13. Synthesis of bisphosphonate derivatives of ATP by T4 DNA ligase, ubiquitin activating enzyme (E1) and other ligases.

    PubMed

    Günther Sillero, María A; de Diego, Anabel; Pérez-Zúñiga, Francisco J; Sillero, Antonio

    2008-05-15

    T4 DNA ligase and the ubiquitin activating enzyme (E1), catalyze the synthesis of ATP beta,gamma-bisphosphonate derivatives. Concerning T4 DNA ligase: (i) etidronate (pC(OH)(CH(3))p) displaced the AMP moiety of the complex E-AMP in a concentration dependent manner; (ii) the K(m) values and the rate of synthesis k(cat) (s(-1)), determined for the following compounds were, respectively: etidronate, 0.73+/-0.09 mM and (70+/-10)x10(-3) s(-1); clodronate (pCCl(2)p), 0.08+/-0.01 mM and (4.1+/-0.3)x10(-3) s(-1); methylenebisphosphonate (pCH(2)p), 0.024+/-0.001 mM and (0.6+/-0.1)x10(-3) s(-1); tripolyphosphate (P(3)) (in the synthesis of adenosine 5'-tetraphosphate, p(4)A), 1.30+/-0.30 mM and (6.2+/-1.1)x10(-3) s(-1); (iii) in the presence of GTP and ATP, inhibition of the synthesis of Ap(4)G was observed with clodronate but not with pamidronate (pC(OH)(CH(2)-CH(2)-NH(3))p). Concerning the ubiquitin activating enzyme (E1): methylenebisphosphonate was the only bisphosphonate, out of the ones tested, that served as substrate for the synthesis of an ATP derivative (K(m)=0.36+/-0.09 mM and k(cat)=0.15+/-0.02 s(-1)). None of the above bisphosphonates were substrates of the reaction catalyzed by luciferase or by acyl-CoA synthetase. The ability of acetyl-CoA synthetase to use methylenebisphosphonate as substrate depended on the commercial source of the enzyme. In our view this report widens our knowledge of the enzymes able to metabolize bisphosphonates, a therapeutic tool widely used in the treatment of osteoporosis. PMID:18378215

  14. TRAIP is a PCNA-binding ubiquitin ligase that protects genome stability after replication stress

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Saskia; Smedegaard, Stine; Nakamura, Kyosuke; Mortuza, Gulnahar B.; Räschle, Markus; Ibañez de Opakua, Alain; Oka, Yasuyoshi; Feng, Yunpeng; Blanco, Francisco J.; Mann, Matthias; Montoya, Guillermo; Groth, Anja; Bekker-Jensen, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Cellular genomes are highly vulnerable to perturbations to chromosomal DNA replication. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), the processivity factor for DNA replication, plays a central role as a platform for recruitment of genome surveillance and DNA repair factors to replication forks, allowing cells to mitigate the threats to genome stability posed by replication stress. We identify the E3 ubiquitin ligase TRAIP as a new factor at active and stressed replication forks that directly interacts with PCNA via a conserved PCNA-interacting peptide (PIP) box motif. We show that TRAIP promotes ATR-dependent checkpoint signaling in human cells by facilitating the generation of RPA-bound single-stranded DNA regions upon replication stress in a manner that critically requires its E3 ligase activity and is potentiated by the PIP box. Consequently, loss of TRAIP function leads to enhanced chromosomal instability and decreased cell survival after replication stress. These findings establish TRAIP as a PCNA-binding ubiquitin ligase with an important role in protecting genome integrity after obstacles to DNA replication. PMID:26711499

  15. Disinhibition of the HECT E3 ubiquitin ligase WWP2 by polymerized Dishevelled

    PubMed Central

    Mund, Thomas; Graeb, Michael; Mieszczanek, Juliusz; Gammons, Melissa; Pelham, Hugh R. B.; Bienz, Mariann

    2015-01-01

    Dishevelled is a pivot in Wnt signal transduction, controlling both β-catenin-dependent transcription to specify proliferative cell fates, and cell polarity and other non-nuclear events in post-mitotic cells. In response to Wnt signals, or when present at high levels, Dishevelled forms signalosomes by dynamic polymerization. Its levels are controlled by ubiquitylation, mediated by various ubiquitin ligases, including NEDD4 family members that bind to a conserved PPxY motif in Dishevelled (mammalian Dvl1–3). Here, we show that Dvl2 binds to the ubiquitin ligase WWP2 and unlocks its ligase activity from autoinhibition. This disinhibition of WWP2 depends on several features of Dvl2 including its PPxY motif and to a lesser extent its DEP domain, but crucially on the ability of Dvl2 to polymerize, indicating that WWP2 is activated in Wnt signalosomes. We show that Notch intracellular domains are substrates for Dvl-activated WWP2 and their transcriptional activity is consequently reduced, providing a molecular mechanism for cross-talk between Wnt and Notch signalling. These regulatory interactions are conserved in Drosophila whose WWP2 orthologue, Suppressor-of-deltex, downregulates Notch signalling upon activation by Dishevelled in developing wing tissue. Attentuation of Notch signalling by Dishevelled signalosomes could be important during the transition of cells from the proliferative to the post-mitotic state. PMID:26701932

  16. MDM2 E3 ligase-mediated ubiquitination and degradation of HDAC1 in vascular calcification

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Duk-Hwa; Eom, Gwang Hyeon; Ko, Jeong Hyeon; Shin, Sera; Joung, Hosouk; Choe, Nakwon; Nam, Yoon Seok; Min, Hyun-Ki; Kook, Taewon; Yoon, Somy; Kang, Wanseok; Kim, Yong Sook; Kim, Hyung Seok; Choi, Hyuck; Koh, Jeong-Tae; Kim, Nacksung; Ahn, Youngkeun; Cho, Hyun-Jai; Lee, In-Kyu; Park, Dong Ho; Suk, Kyoungho; Seo, Sang Beom; Wissing, Erin R.; Mendrysa, Susan M.; Nam, Kwang-Il; Kook, Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Vascular calcification (VC) is often associated with cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. However, the molecular mechanisms linking VC to these diseases have yet to be elucidated. Here we report that MDM2-induced ubiquitination of histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) mediates VC. Loss of HDAC1 activity via either chemical inhibitor or genetic ablation enhances VC. HDAC1 protein, but not mRNA, is reduced in cell and animal calcification models and in human calcified coronary artery. Under calcification-inducing conditions, proteasomal degradation of HDAC1 precedes VC and it is mediated by MDM2 E3 ubiquitin ligase that initiates HDAC1 K74 ubiquitination. Overexpression of MDM2 enhances VC, whereas loss of MDM2 blunts it. Decoy peptide spanning HDAC1 K74 and RG 7112, an MDM2 inhibitor, prevent VC in vivo and in vitro. These results uncover a previously unappreciated ubiquitination pathway and suggest MDM2-mediated HDAC1 ubiquitination as a new therapeutic target in VC. PMID:26832969

  17. Atypical ubiquitin ligase RNF31: the nuclear factor modulator in breast cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jian; Zhuang, Ting; Yang, Huijie; Li, Xin; Liu, Huandi; Wang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer causes the No.1 women cancer prevalence and the No.2 women cancer mortality worldwide. Nuclear receptor/transcriptional factor signaling is aberrant and plays important roles in breast cancer pathogenesis and evolution, such as estrogen receptor α (ERα/ESR1), tumor protein p53 (p53/TP53) and Nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB). About 60-70 % of breast tumors are ERα positive, while approximate 70 % of breast tumors are P53 wild type. Recent studies indicate that nuclear receptors/transcriptional factors could be tightly controlled through protein post-translational modification.The nuclear receptors/transcriptional factors could endure several types of modifications, including phosphorylation, acetylation and ubiquitination. Compared with the other two types of modifications, ubiquitination was mostly linked to protein degradation process, while few researches focused on the functional changes of the target proteins. Until recent years, ubiquitination process is no longer regarded as merely a protein degradation process, but aslo treated as one kind of modification signal.As an atypical E3 ubiquitin ligase, RNF31 was previously found to facilitate NFκB signaling transduction through linear ubiquitination on IKKγ(IκB kinase γ). Our previous studies showed important regulatory functions of RNF31 in controlling important oncogenic pathways in breast cancer, such as ERα and p53. This review highlights recent discoveries on RNF31 functions in nuclear factor modifications, breast cancer progression and possible therapeutic inhibitors targeting RNF31. PMID:27460922

  18. E3Miner: a text mining tool for ubiquitin-protein ligases.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hodong; Yi, Gwan-Su; Park, Jong C

    2008-07-01

    Ubiquitination is a regulatory process critically involved in the degradation of >80% of cellular proteins, where such proteins are specifically recognized by a key enzyme, or a ubiquitin-protein ligase (E3). Because of this important role of E3s, a rapidly growing body of the published literature in biology and biomedical fields reports novel findings about various E3s and their molecular mechanisms. However, such findings are neither adequately retrieved by general text-mining tools nor systematically made available by such protein databases as UniProt alone. E3Miner is a web-based text mining tool that extracts and organizes comprehensive knowledge about E3s from the abstracts of journal articles and the relevant databases, supporting users to have a good grasp of E3s and their related information easily from the available text. The tool analyzes text sentences to identify protein names for E3s, to narrow down target substrates and other ubiquitin-transferring proteins in E3-specific ubiquitination pathways and to extract molecular features of E3s during ubiquitination. E3Miner also retrieves E3 data about protein functions, other E3-interacting partners and E3-related human diseases from the protein databases, in order to help facilitate further investigation. E3Miner is freely available through http://e3miner.biopathway.org. PMID:18483079

  19. MDM2 E3 ligase-mediated ubiquitination and degradation of HDAC1 in vascular calcification.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Duk-Hwa; Eom, Gwang Hyeon; Ko, Jeong Hyeon; Shin, Sera; Joung, Hosouk; Choe, Nakwon; Nam, Yoon Seok; Min, Hyun-Ki; Kook, Taewon; Yoon, Somy; Kang, Wanseok; Kim, Yong Sook; Kim, Hyung Seok; Choi, Hyuck; Koh, Jeong-Tae; Kim, Nacksung; Ahn, Youngkeun; Cho, Hyun-Jai; Lee, In-Kyu; Park, Dong Ho; Suk, Kyoungho; Seo, Sang Beom; Wissing, Erin R; Mendrysa, Susan M; Nam, Kwang-Il; Kook, Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Vascular calcification (VC) is often associated with cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. However, the molecular mechanisms linking VC to these diseases have yet to be elucidated. Here we report that MDM2-induced ubiquitination of histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) mediates VC. Loss of HDAC1 activity via either chemical inhibitor or genetic ablation enhances VC. HDAC1 protein, but not mRNA, is reduced in cell and animal calcification models and in human calcified coronary artery. Under calcification-inducing conditions, proteasomal degradation of HDAC1 precedes VC and it is mediated by MDM2 E3 ubiquitin ligase that initiates HDAC1 K74 ubiquitination. Overexpression of MDM2 enhances VC, whereas loss of MDM2 blunts it. Decoy peptide spanning HDAC1 K74 and RG 7112, an MDM2 inhibitor, prevent VC in vivo and in vitro. These results uncover a previously unappreciated ubiquitination pathway and suggest MDM2-mediated HDAC1 ubiquitination as a new therapeutic target in VC. PMID:26832969

  20. Lenalidomide Stabilizes the Erythropoietin Receptor by Inhibiting the E3 Ubiquitin Ligase RNF41.

    PubMed

    Basiorka, Ashley A; McGraw, Kathy L; De Ceuninck, Leentje; Griner, Lori N; Zhang, Ling; Clark, Justine A; Caceres, Gisela; Sokol, Lubomir; Komrokji, Rami S; Reuther, Gary W; Wei, Sheng; Tavernier, Jan; List, Alan F

    2016-06-15

    In a subset of patients with non-del(5q) myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), lenalidomide promotes erythroid lineage competence and effective erythropoiesis. To determine the mechanism by which lenalidomide promotes erythropoiesis, we investigated its action on erythropoietin receptor (EpoR) cellular dynamics. Lenalidomide upregulated expression and stability of JAK2-associated EpoR in UT7 erythroid cells and primary CD71+ erythroid progenitors. The effects of lenalidomide on receptor turnover were Type I cytokine receptor specific, as evidenced by coregulation of the IL3-Rα receptor but not c-Kit. To elucidate this mechanism, we investigated the effects of lenalidomide on the E3 ubiquitin ligase RNF41. Lenalidomide promoted EpoR/RNF41 association and inhibited RNF41 auto-ubiquitination, accompanied by a reduction in EpoR ubiquitination. To confirm that RNF41 is the principal target responsible for EpoR stabilization, HEK293T cells were transfected with EpoR and/or RNF41 gene expression vectors. Steady-state EpoR expression was reduced in EpoR/RNF41 cells, whereas EpoR upregulation by lenalidomide was abrogated, indicating that cellular RNF41 is a critical determinant of drug-induced receptor modulation. Notably, shRNA suppression of CRBN gene expression failed to alter EpoR upregulation, indicating that drug-induced receptor modulation is independent of cereblon. Immunohistochemical staining showed that RNF41 expression decreased in primary erythroid cells of lenalidomide-responding patients, suggesting that cellular RNF41 expression merits investigation as a biomarker for lenalidomide response. Our findings indicate that lenalidomide has E3 ubiquitin ligase inhibitory effects that extend to RNF41 and that inhibition of RNF41 auto-ubiquitination promotes membrane accumulation of signaling competent JAK2/EpoR complexes that augment Epo responsiveness. Cancer Res; 76(12); 3531-40. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27197154

  1. Structure of the DDB1-CRBN E3 ubiquitin ligase in complex with thalidomide

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Eric S.; Böhm, Kerstin; Lydeard, John R.; Yang, Haidi; Stadler, Michael B.; Cavadini, Simone; Nagel, Jane; Serluca, Fabrizio; Acker, Vincent; Lingaraju, Gondichatnahalli M.; Tichkule, Ritesh B.; Schebesta, Michael; Forrester, William C.; Schirle, Markus; Hassiepen, Ulrich; Ottl, Johannes; Hild, Marc; Beckwith, Rohan E. J.; Harper, J. Wade; Jenkins, Jeremy L.; Thomä, Nicolas H.

    2015-01-01

    In the 1950s the drug thalidomide administered as a sedative to pregnant women led to the birth of thousands of children with multiple defects. Despite its teratogenicity, thalidomide and its derivatives lenalidomide and pomalidomide (together known as Immunomodulatory Drugs: IMiDs) recently emerged as effective treatments for multiple myeloma and 5q-dysplasia. IMiDs target the CUL4-RBX1-DDB1-CRBN (CRL4CRBN) E3 ubiquitin ligase and promote the ubiquitination of Ikaros/Aiolos transcription factors by CRL4CRBN. Here we present the crystal structure of the DDB1-CRBN complex bound to thalidomide, lenalidomide and pomalidomide. The structure establishes CRBN as a CRL4CRBN substrate receptor, which enantioselectively binds IMiDs. Through an unbiased screen we identify the homeobox transcription factor MEIS2 as an endogenous substrate of CRL4CRBN. Our studies suggest that IMiDs block endogenous substrates (MEIS2) from binding to CRL4CRBN when recruiting Ikaros/Aiolos for degradation. This dual activity implies that small molecules can principally modulate a ligase to up- or down-regulate the ubiquitination of proteins. PMID:25043012

  2. An E3 ubiquitin ligase, ERECT LEAF1, functions in brassinosteroid signaling of rice

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, Tomoaki; Kitano, Hidemi; Fujioka, Shozo

    2013-01-01

    A spontaneous rice mutant, erect leaf1 (elf1–1), produced a dwarf phenotype with erect leaves and short grains. Physiological analyses suggested that elf1–1 is brassinosteroid-insensitive, so we hypothesized that ELF1 encodes a positive regulator of brassinosteroid signaling. ELF1, identified by means of positional cloning, encodes a protein with both a U-box domain and ARMADILLO (ARM) repeats. U-box proteins have been shown to function as E3 ubiquitin ligases; in fact, ELF1 possessed E3 ubiquitin ligase activity in vitro. However, ELF1 itself does not appear to be polyubiquitinated. Mutant phenotypes of 2 more elf1 alleles indicate that the entire ARM repeats is indispensable for ELF1 activity. These results suggest that ELF1 ubiquitinates target proteins through an interaction mediated by ARM repeats. Similarities in the phenotypes of elf1 and d61 mutants (mutants of brassinosteroid receptor gene OsBRI1), and in the regulation of ELF1 and OsBRI1 expression, imply that ELF1 functions as a positive regulator of brassinosteroid signaling in rice. PMID:24299927

  3. E3 ubiquitin ligases promote progression of differentiation during C. elegans embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Du, Zhuo; He, Fei; Yu, Zidong; Bowerman, Bruce; Bao, Zhirong

    2015-02-15

    Regulated choice between cell fate maintenance and differentiation provides decision points in development to progress toward more restricted cell fates or to maintain the current one. Caenorhabditis elegans embryogenesis follows an invariant cell lineage where cell fate is generally more restricted upon each cell division. EMS is a progenitor cell in the four-cell embryo that gives rise to the endomesoderm. We recently found that when ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation is compromised, the anterior daughter of EMS, namely MS, reiterates the EMS fate. This observation demonstrates an essential function of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation in driving the progression of EMS-to-MS differentiation. Here we report a genome-wide screen of the ubiquitin pathway and extensive lineage analyses. The results suggest a broad role of E3 ligases in driving differentiation progression. First, we identified three substrate-binding proteins for two Cullin-RING ubiquitin ligase (CRL) E3 complexes that promote the progression from the EMS fate to MS, namely LIN-23/β-TrCP and FBXB-3 for the CRL1/SCF complex and ZYG-11/ZYG-11B for the CRL2 complex. Genetic analyses suggest these E3 ligases function through a multifunctional protein OMA-1 and the endomesoderm lineage specifier SKN-1 to drive differentiation. Second, we found that depletion of components of the CRL1/SCF complex induces fate reiteration in all major founder cell lineages. These data suggest that regulated choice between self-renewal and differentiation is widespread during C. elegans embryogenesis as in organisms with regulative development, and ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation drives the choice towards differentiation. Finally, bioinformatic analysis of time series gene expression data showed that expression of E3 genes is transiently enriched during time windows of developmental stage transitions. Transcription factors show similar enrichment, but not other classes of regulatory genes. Based on these

  4. E3 ubiquitin ligases promote progression of differentiation during C. elegans embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Du, Zhuo; He, Fei; Yu, Zidong; Bowerman, Bruce; Bao, Zhirong

    2014-01-01

    Regulated choice between cell fate maintenance and differentiation provides decision points in development to progress toward more restricted cell fates or to maintain the current one. C. elegans embryogenesis follows an invariant cell lineage where cell fate is generally more restricted upon each cell division. EMS is a progenitor cell in the four-cell embryo that gives rise to the endomesoderm. We recently found that when ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation is compromised, the anterior daughter of EMS, namely MS, reiterates the EMS fate. This observation demonstrates an essential function of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation in driving the progression of EMS-to-MS differentiation. Here we report a genome-wide screen of the ubiquitin pathway and extensive lineage analyses. The results suggest a broad role of E3 ligases in driving differentiation progression. First, we identified three substrate-binding proteins for two CRL (Cullin-RING ubiquitin Ligase) E3 complexes that promote the progression from the EMS fate to MS, namely LIN-23/β-TrCP and FBXB-3 for the CRL1/SCF complex and ZYG-11/ZYG-11B for the CRL2 complex. Genetic analyses suggest these E3 ligases function through a multifunctional protein OMA-1 and the endomesoderm lineage specifier SKN-1 to drive differentiation. Second, we found that depletion of components of the CRL1/SCF complex induces fate reiteration in all major founder cell lineages. These data suggest that regulated choice between self-renewal and differentiation is widespread during C. elegans embryogenesis as in organisms with regulative development, and ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation drives the choice towards differentiation. Finally, bioinformatic analysis of time series gene expression data showed that expression of E3 genes is transiently enriched during time windows of developmental stage transitions. Transcription factors show similar enrichment, but not other classes of regulatory genes. Based on these findings we

  5. Ubiquitin ligase gene neurl3 plays a role in spermatogenesis of half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis) by regulating testis protein ubiquitination.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wenteng; Li, Hailong; Dong, Zhongdian; Cui, Zhongkai; Zhang, Ning; Meng, Liang; Zhu, Ying; Liu, Yang; Li, Yangzhen; Guo, Hua; Ma, Jialu; Wei, Zhanfei; Zhang, Nianwei; Yang, Yingming; Chen, Songlin

    2016-10-30

    E3 ubiquitin ligases are a large gene family that plays a diversity of roles in spermatogenesis. In this study, the functional characterization of a neuralized E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 3 (neurl3) revealed its potential participation in spermatogenesis. Firstly, we found that neurl3 exhibited male-biased transcription and that its translation was predominant in testis germ cells. The knockdown of neurl3 by RNA interference caused increased transcription of spermatogenesis-related genes. These results corroborate previous studies indicating a role for neurl3 in spermatogenesis. Moreover, the levels of neurl3 transcription and testis protein ubiquitination were closely correlated. Based on these findings, we speculate that neurl3 modulates testis protein ubiquitination in a dosage-dependent manner and that this influences spermatogenesis. PMID:27480167

  6. Competing E3 ubiquitin ligases govern circadian periodicity by degradation of CRY in nucleus and cytoplasm.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Seung-Hee; Mohawk, Jennifer A; Siepka, Sandra M; Shan, Yongli; Huh, Seong Kwon; Hong, Hee-Kyung; Kornblum, Izabela; Kumar, Vivek; Koike, Nobuya; Xu, Ming; Nussbaum, Justin; Liu, Xinran; Chen, Zheng; Chen, Zhijian J; Green, Carla B; Takahashi, Joseph S

    2013-02-28

    Period determination in the mammalian circadian clock involves the turnover rate of the repressors CRY and PER. We show that CRY ubiquitination engages two competing E3 ligase complexes that either lengthen or shorten circadian period in mice. Cloning of a short-period circadian mutant, Past-time, revealed a glycine to glutamate missense mutation in Fbxl21, an F-box protein gene that is a paralog of Fbxl3 that targets the CRY proteins for degradation. While loss of function of FBXL3 leads to period lengthening, mutation of Fbxl21 causes period shortening. FBXL21 forms an SCF E3 ligase complex that slowly degrades CRY in the cytoplasm but antagonizes the stronger E3 ligase activity of FBXL3 in the nucleus. FBXL21 plays a dual role: protecting CRY from FBXL3 degradation in the nucleus and promoting CRY degradation within the cytoplasm. Thus, the balance and cellular compartmentalization of competing E3 ligases for CRY determine circadian period of the clock in mammals. PMID:23452855

  7. The Ubiquitin Ligase Ubr11 Is Essential for Oligopeptide Utilization in the Fission Yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    PubMed Central

    Nakase, Mai; Tohda, Hideki; Takegawa, Kaoru

    2012-01-01

    Uptake of extracellular oligopeptides in yeast is mediated mainly by specific transporters of the peptide transporter (PTR) and oligopeptide transporter (OPT) families. Here, we investigated the role of potential peptide transporters in the yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Utilization of naturally occurring dipeptides required only Ptr2/SPBC13A2.04c and none of the other 3 OPT proteins (Isp4, Pgt1, and Opt3), whereas only Isp4 was indispensable for tetrapeptide utilization. Both Ptr2 and Isp4 localized to the cell surface, but under rich nutrient conditions Isp4 localized in the Golgi apparatus through the function of the ubiquitin ligase Pub1. Furthermore, the ubiquitin ligase Ubr11 played a significant role in oligopeptide utilization. The mRNA levels of both the ptr2 and isp4 genes were significantly reduced in ubr11Δ cells, and the dipeptide utilization defect in the ubr11Δ mutant was rescued by the forced expression of Ptr2. Consistent with its role in transcriptional regulation of peptide transporter genes, the Ubr11 protein was accumulated in the nucleus. Unlike the situation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the oligopeptide utilization defect in the S. pombe ubr11Δ mutant was not rescued by inactivation of the Tup11/12 transcriptional corepressors, suggesting that the requirement for the Ubr ubiquitin ligase in the upregulation of peptide transporter mRNA levels is conserved in both yeasts; however, the actual mechanism underlying the control appears to be different. We also found that the peptidomimetic proteasome inhibitor MG132 was still operative in a strain lacking all known PTR and OPT peptide transporters. Therefore, irrespective of its peptide-like structure, MG132 is carried into cells independently of the representative peptide transporters. PMID:22226946

  8. The ubiquitin ligase APC/CCdh1 puts the brakes on DNA-end resection

    PubMed Central

    Lafranchi, Lorenzo; Sartori, Alessandro A

    2015-01-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are highly deleterious lesions and their misrepair can promote genomic instability, a hallmark of cancer. DNA-end resection is a cell cycle-regulated mechanism that is required for the faithful repair of DSBs. We recently discovered that the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome-Cdh1 (APC/CCdh1) ubiquitin ligase is responsible for the timely degradation of CtBP-interacting protein (CtIP), a key DNA-end resection factor, providing a new layer of regulation of DSB repair in human cells. PMID:27308488

  9. Covalent modifier NEDD8 is essential for SCF ubiquitin-ligase in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Osaka, F; Saeki, M; Katayama, S; Aida, N; Toh-E, A; Kominami, K; Toda, T; Suzuki, T; Chiba, T; Tanaka, K; Kato, S

    2000-07-01

    A ubiquitin-like modifier, NEDD8, is covalently attached to cullin-family proteins, but its physiological role is poorly understood. Here we report that the NEDD8-modifying pathway is essential for cell viability and function of Pcu1 (cullin-1 orthologue) in fission yeast. Pcu1 assembled on SCF ubiquitin-ligase was completely modified by NEDD8. Pcu1(K713R) defective for NEDD8 conjugation lost the ability to complement lethality due to pcu1 deletion. Forced expression of Pcu1(K713R) or depletion of NEDD8 in cells resulted in impaired cell proliferation and marked stabilization of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor Rum1, which is a substrate of the SCF complex. Based on these findings, we propose that covalent modification of cullin-1 by the NEDD8 system plays an essential role in the function of SCF in fission yeast. PMID:10880460

  10. RMND5 from Xenopus laevis Is an E3 Ubiquitin-Ligase and Functions in Early Embryonic Forebrain Development

    PubMed Central

    Pfirrmann, Thorsten; Villavicencio-Lorini, Pablo; Subudhi, Abinash K.; Menssen, Ruth; Wolf, Dieter H.; Hollemann, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae the Gid-complex functions as an ubiquitin-ligase complex that regulates the metabolic switch between glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. In higher organisms six conserved Gid proteins form the CTLH protein-complex with unknown function. Here we show that Rmnd5, the Gid2 orthologue from Xenopus laevis, is an ubiquitin-ligase embedded in a high molecular weight complex. Expression of rmnd5 is strongest in neuronal ectoderm, prospective brain, eyes and ciliated cells of the skin and its suppression results in malformations of the fore- and midbrain. We therefore suggest that Xenopus laevis Rmnd5, as a subunit of the CTLH complex, is a ubiquitin-ligase targeting an unknown factor for polyubiquitination and subsequent proteasomal degradation for proper fore- and midbrain development. PMID:25793641

  11. The ubiquitin E3 ligase TRAF6 exacerbates pathological cardiac hypertrophy via TAK1-dependent signalling

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Yan-Xiao; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Xiao-Jing; Zhao, Yi-Chao; Deng, Ke-Qiong; Jiang, Xi; Wang, Pi-Xiao; Huang, Zan; Li, Hongliang

    2016-01-01

    Tumour necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) is a ubiquitin E3 ligase that regulates important biological processes. However, the role of TRAF6 in cardiac hypertrophy remains unknown. Here, we show that TRAF6 levels are increased in human and murine hypertrophied hearts, which is regulated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Cardiac-specific Traf6 overexpression exacerbates cardiac hypertrophy in response to pressure overload or angiotensin II (Ang II) challenge, whereas Traf6 deficiency causes an alleviated hypertrophic phenotype in mice. Mechanistically, we show that ROS, generated during hypertrophic progression, triggers TRAF6 auto-ubiquitination that facilitates recruitment of TAB2 and its binding to transforming growth factor beta-activated kinase 1 (TAK1), which, in turn, enables the direct TRAF6–TAK1 interaction and promotes TAK1 ubiquitination. The binding of TRAF6 to TAK1 and the induction of TAK1 ubiquitination and activation are indispensable for TRAF6-regulated cardiac remodelling. Taken together, we define TRAF6 as an essential molecular switch leading to cardiac hypertrophy in a TAK1-dependent manner. PMID:27249171

  12. Overexpression of a Soybean Ariadne-Like Ubiquitin Ligase Gene GmARI1 Enhances Aluminum Tolerance in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaolian; Wang, Ning; Chen, Pei; Gao, Mengmeng; Liu, Juge; Wang, Yufeng; Zhao, Tuanjie; Li, Yan; Gai, Junyi

    2014-01-01

    Ariadne (ARI) subfamily of RBR (Ring Between Ring fingers) proteins have been found as a group of putative E3 ubiquitin ligases containing RING (Really Interesting New Gene) finger domains in fruitfly, mouse, human and Arabidopsis. Recent studies showed several RING-type E3 ubiquitin ligases play important roles in plant response to abiotic stresses, but the function of ARI in plants is largely unknown. In this study, an ariadne-like E3 ubiquitin ligase gene was isolated from soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., and designated as GmARI1. It encodes a predicted protein of 586 amino acids with a RBR supra-domain. Subcellular localization studies using Arabidopsis protoplast cells indicated GmARI protein was located in nucleus. The expression of GmARI1 in soybean roots was induced as early as 2–4 h after simulated stress treatments such as aluminum, which coincided with the fact of aluminum toxicity firstly and mainly acting on plant roots. In vitro ubiquitination assay showed GmARI1 protein has E3 ligase activity. Overexpression of GmARI1 significantly enhanced the aluminum tolerance of transgenic Arabidopsis. These findings suggest that GmARI1 encodes a RBR type E3 ligase, which may play important roles in plant tolerance to aluminum stress. PMID:25364908

  13. The ubiquitin conjugating enzyme UbcH10 competes with UbcH3 for binding to the SCF complex, a ubiquitin ligase involved in cell cycle progression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ubiquitylation, which regulates most biological pathways, occurs through an enzymatic cascade involving a ubiquitin (ub) activating enzyme (E1), a ub conjugating enzyme (E2) and a ub ligase (E3). UbcH3 is the E2 that interacts with SCF (Skp1/Cul1/F-box protein) complex and ubiquitylates many protein...

  14. Chlorovirus Skp1-Binding Ankyrin Repeat Protein Interplay and Mimicry of Cellular Ubiquitin Ligase Machinery

    PubMed Central

    Noel, Eric A.; Kang, Ming; Adamec, Jiri; Oyler, George A.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The ubiquitin-proteasome system is targeted by many viruses that have evolved strategies to redirect host ubiquitination machinery. Members of the genus Chlorovirus are proposed to share an ancestral lineage with a broader group of related viruses, nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDV). Chloroviruses encode an Skp1 homolog and ankyrin repeat (ANK) proteins. Several chlorovirus-encoded ANK repeats contain C-terminal domains characteristic of cellular F-boxes or related NCLDV chordopox PRANC (pox protein repeats of ankyrin at C-terminal) domains. These observations suggested that this unique combination of Skp1 and ANK repeat proteins might form complexes analogous to the cellular Skp1-Cul1-F-box (SCF) ubiquitin ligase complex. We identified two ANK proteins from the prototypic chlorovirus Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus-1 (PBCV-1) that functioned as binding partners for the virus-encoded Skp1, proteins A682L and A607R. These ANK proteins had a C-terminal Skp1 interactional motif that functioned similarly to cellular F-box domains. A C-terminal motif of ANK protein A682L binds Skp1 proteins from widely divergent species. Yeast two-hybrid analyses using serial domain deletion constructs confirmed the C-terminal localization of the Skp1 interactional motif in PBCV-1 A682L. ANK protein A607R represents an ANK family with one member present in all 41 sequenced chloroviruses. A comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of these related ANK and viral Skp1 proteins suggested partnered function tailored to the host alga or common ancestral heritage. Here, we show protein-protein interaction between corresponding family clusters of virus-encoded ANK and Skp1 proteins from three chlorovirus types. Collectively, our results indicate that chloroviruses have evolved complementing Skp1 and ANK proteins that mimic cellular SCF-associated proteins. IMPORTANCE Viruses have evolved ways to direct ubiquitination events in order to create environments conducive to their

  15. Atypical ubiquitination by E3 ligase WWP1 inhibits the proteasome-mediated degradation of mutant huntingtin.

    PubMed

    Lin, Li; Jin, Zhenzhen; Tan, Huiping; Xu, Qiaoqiao; Peng, Ting; Li, He

    2016-07-15

    Huntington's disease (HD) is caused by the expansion of CAG trinucleotide repeats in exon 1 of HD gene encoding huntingtin (Htt), which is characterized by aggregation and formation of mutant Htt containing expanded polyglutamine (polyQ) repeats. Dysfunction of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of HD. As the linkage mediator between ubiquitin and specific target proteins, E3 ubiquitin ligases have been suggested to be involved in mHtt degradation and HD pathology. However, the potential involvement of the E3 ligase WWP1 in HD has not been explored. The present study determined whether WWP1 is involved in the development of HD in both in vivo and in vitro models. The results showed that in contrast to several other E3 ligases, expression of WWP1 is enhanced in mice and N2a cells expressing mutant Htt (160Q) and co-localized with mHtt protein aggregates. In addition, expression of WWP1 positively regulates mutan Htt levels, aggregate formation, and cell toxicity. Further analysis revealed that WWP1 ubiquitinated mHtt at an atypical position of Lys-63, which may have inhibited degradation of mutant Htt through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. In conclusion, these results suggested that the E3 ligase WWP1 is involved in the pathogenesis of HD; therefore, it may be a novel target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:27107943

  16. The ubiquitin ligase SEVEN IN ABSENTIA (SINA) ubiquitinates a defense-related NAC transcription factor and is involved in defense signaling.

    PubMed

    Miao, Min; Niu, Xiangli; Kud, Joanna; Du, Xinran; Avila, Julian; Devarenne, Timothy P; Kuhl, Joseph C; Liu, Yongsheng; Xiao, Fangming

    2016-07-01

    We recently identified a defense-related tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) NAC (NAM, ATAF1,2, CUC2) transcription factor, NAC1, that is subjected to ubiquitin-proteasome system-dependent degradation in plant cells. In this study, we identified a tomato ubiquitin ligase (termed SEVEN IN ABSENTIA3; SINA3) that ubiquitinates NAC1, promoting its degradation. We conducted coimmunoprecipitation and bimolecular fluorescence complementation to determine that SINA3 specifically interacts with the NAC1 transcription factor in the nucleus. Moreover, we found that SINA3 ubiquitinates NAC1 in vitro and promotes NAC1 degradation via polyubiquitination in vivo, indicating that SINA3 is a ubiquitin ligase that ubiquitinates NAC1, promoting its degradation. Our real-time PCR analysis indicated that, in contrast to our previous finding that NAC1 mRNA abundance increases upon Pseudomonas infection, the SINA3 mRNA abundance decreases in response to Pseudomonas infection. Moreover, using Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression, we found that overexpression of SINA3 interferes with the hypersensitive response cell death triggered by multiple plant resistance proteins. These results suggest that SINA3 ubiquitinates a defense-related NAC transcription factor for degradation and plays a negative role in defense signaling. PMID:26879496

  17. Ubiquitin ligase ITCH recruitment suppresses the aggregation and cellular toxicity of cytoplasmic misfolded proteins

    PubMed Central

    Chhangani, Deepak; Upadhyay, Arun; Amanullah, Ayeman; Joshi, Vibhuti; Mishra, Amit

    2014-01-01

    The protein quality control (QC) system protects cells against cellular toxicity induced by misfolded proteins and maintains overall cellular fitness. Inefficient clearance of or failure to degrade damaged proteins causes several diseases, especially age-linked neurodegenerative disorders. Attenuation of misfolded protein degradation under severe stress conditions leads to the rapid over-accumulation of toxic proteinaceous aggregates in the cytoplasmic compartment. However, the precise cytoplasmic quality control degradation mechanism is unknown. In the present study, we demonstrate that the Nedd4-like E3 ubiquitin ligase ITCH specifically interacts with mutant bona fide misfolded proteins and colocalizes with their perinuclear aggregates. In a cell culture model, we demonstrate ITCH recruitment by cytoplasmic inclusions containing polyglutamine-expanded huntingtin or ataxin-3 proteins. Transient overexpression of ITCH dramatically induced the degradation of thermally denatured misfolded luciferase protein. Partial depletion of ITCH increased the rate of aggregate formation and cell death generated by expanded polyglutamine proteins. Finally, we demonstrate that overexpression of ITCH alleviates the cytotoxic potential of expanded polyglutamine proteins and reduces aggregation. These observations indicate that ITCH is involved in the cytosolic quality control pathway and may help to explain how abnormal proteins are targeted by QC ubiquitin-protein ligases. PMID:24865853

  18. The Ubiquitin Ligase Siah2 Regulates Obesity-induced Adipose Tissue Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Kilroy, Gail; Carter, Lauren E.; Newman, Susan; Burk, David H.; Manuel, Justin; Möller, Andreas; Bowtell, David D.; Mynatt, Randall L.; Ghosh, Sujoy; Floyd, Z. Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Objective Chronic, low-grade adipose tissue inflammation associated with adipocyte hypertrophy is an important link in the relationship between obesity and insulin resistance. Although ubiquitin ligases regulate inflammatory processes, the role of these enzymes in metabolically driven adipose tissue inflammation is relatively unexplored. Herein, we examined the effect of the ubiquitin ligase Siah2 on obesity-related adipose tissue inflammation. Methods Wild-type and Siah2KO mice were fed a low or high fat diet for 16 weeks. Indirect calorimetry, body composition, glucose and insulin tolerance were assayed along with glucose and insulin levels. Gene and protein expression, immunohistochemistry, adipocyte size distribution and lipolysis were also analyzed. Results Enlarged adipocytes in obese Siah2KO mice are not associated with obesity-induced insulin resistance. Proinflammatory gene expression, stress kinase signaling, fibrosis and crown-like structures are reduced in the Siah2KO adipose tissue and Siah2KO adipocytes are more responsive to insulin-dependent inhibition of lipolysis. Loss of Siah2 increases expression of PPARγ target genes involved in lipid metabolism and decreases expression of proinflammatory adipokines regulated by PPARγ. Conclusions Siah2 links adipocyte hypertrophy with adipocyte dysfunction and recruitment of proinflammatory immune cells to adipose tissue. Selective regulation of PPARγ activity is a Siah2-mediated mechanism contributing to obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation. PMID:26380945

  19. Ubiquitin ligase gp78 targets unglycosylated prion protein PrP for ubiquitylation and degradation.

    PubMed

    Shao, Jia; Choe, Vitnary; Cheng, Haili; Tsai, Yien Che; Weissman, Allan M; Luo, Shiwen; Rao, Hai

    2014-01-01

    Prion protein PrP is a central player in several devastating neurodegenerative disorders, including mad cow disease and Creutzfeltd-Jacob disease. Conformational alteration of PrP into an aggregation-prone infectious form PrPSc can trigger pathogenic events. How levels of PrP are regulated is poorly understood. Human PrP is known to be degraded by the proteasome, but the specific proteolytic pathway responsible for PrP destruction remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate that the ubiquitin ligase gp78, known for its role in protein quality control, is critical for unglycosylated PrP ubiquitylation and degradation. Furthermore, C-terminal sequences of PrP protein are crucial for its ubiquitylation and degradation. Our study reveals the first ubiquitin ligase specifically involved in prion protein PrP degradation and PrP sequences crucial for its turnover. Our data may lead to a new avenue to control PrP level and pathogenesis. PMID:24714645

  20. The Ubiquitin Ligase CBLC Maintains the Network Organization of the Golgi Apparatus

    PubMed Central

    Chia, Joanne; Boey, Adrian; Gunko, Natalia V.; Bard, Frederic

    2015-01-01

    The Golgi apparatus plays a pivotal role in the sorting and post-translational modifications of secreted and membrane proteins. In mammalian cells, the Golgi is organized in stacks of cisternae linked together to form a network with a ribbon shape. Regulation of Golgi ribbon formation is poorly understood. Here we find in an image-based RNAi screen that depletion of the ubiquitin-ligase CBLC induces Golgi fragmentation. Depletions of the close homologues CBL and CBLB do not induce any visible defects. In CBLC-depleted cells, Golgi stacks appear relatively unperturbed at both the light and electron microscopy levels, suggesting that CBLC controls mostly network organization. CBLC partially localizes on Golgi membranes and this localization is enhanced after activation of the SRC kinase. Inhibition of SRC reverts CBLC depletion effects, suggesting interplay between the two. CBLC’s regulation of Golgi network requires its ubiquitin ligase activity. However, SRC levels are not significantly affected by CBLC, and CBLC knockdown does not phenocopy SRC activation, suggesting that CBLC’s action at the Golgi is not direct downregulation of SRC. Altogether, our results demonstrate a role of CBLC in regulating Golgi ribbon by antagonizing the SRC tyrosine kinase. PMID:26393512

  1. Degringolade, a SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase, inhibits Hairy/Groucho-mediated repression.

    PubMed

    Abed, Mona; Barry, Kevin C; Kenyagin, Dorit; Koltun, Bella; Phippen, Taryn M; Delrow, Jeffrey J; Parkhurst, Susan M; Orian, Amir

    2011-04-01

    Transcriptional cofactors are essential for proper embryonic development. One such cofactor in Drosophila, Degringolade (Dgrn), encodes a RING finger/E3 ubiquitin ligase. Dgrn and its mammalian ortholog RNF4 are SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligases (STUbLs). STUbLs bind to SUMOylated proteins via their SUMO interaction motif (SIM) domains and facilitate substrate ubiquitylation. In this study, we show that Dgrn is a negative regulator of the repressor Hairy and its corepressor Groucho (Gro/transducin-like enhancer (TLE)) during embryonic segmentation and neurogenesis, as dgrn heterozygosity suppresses Hairy mutant phenotypes and embryonic lethality. Mechanistically Dgrn functions as a molecular selector: it targets Hairy for SUMO-independent ubiquitylation that inhibits the recruitment of its corepressor Gro, without affecting the recruitment of its other cofactors or the stability of Hairy. Concomitantly, Dgrn specifically targets SUMOylated Gro for sequestration and antagonizes Gro functions in vivo. Our findings suggest that by targeting SUMOylated Gro, Dgrn serves as a molecular switch that regulates cofactor recruitment and function during development. As Gro/TLE proteins are conserved universal corepressors, this may be a general paradigm used to regulate the Gro/TLE corepressors in other developmental processes. PMID:21343912

  2. Lafora disease E3-ubiquitin ligase malin is related to TRIM32 at both the phylogenetic and functional level

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Malin is an E3-ubiquitin ligase that is mutated in Lafora disease, a fatal form of progressive myoclonus epilepsy. In order to perform its function, malin forms a functional complex with laforin, a glucan phosphatase that facilitates targeting of malin to its corresponding substrates. While laforin phylogeny has been studied, there are no data on the evolutionary lineage of malin. Results After an extensive search for malin orthologs, we found that malin is present in all vertebrate species and a cephalochordate, in contrast with the broader species distribution previously reported for laforin. These data suggest that in addition to forming a functional complex, laforin and perhaps malin may also have independent functions. In addition, we found that malin shares significant identity with the E3-ubiquitin ligase TRIM32, which belongs to the tripartite-motif containing family of proteins. We present experimental evidence that both malin and TRIM32 share some substrates for ubiquitination, although they produce ubiquitin chains with different topologies. However, TRIM32-specific substrates were not reciprocally ubiquitinated by the laforin-malin complex. Conclusions We found that malin and laforin are not conserved in the same genomes. In addition, we found that malin shares significant identity with the E3-ubiquitin ligase TRIM32. The latter result suggests a common origin for malin and TRIM32 and provides insights into possible functional relationships between both proteins. PMID:21798009

  3. The Anaphase-Promoting Complex (APC) ubiquitin ligase affects chemosensory behavior in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Julia; Jennings, Alexandra K.

    2016-01-01

    The regulation of fundamental aspects of neurobiological function has been linked to the ubiquitin signaling system (USS), which regulates the degradation and activity of proteins and is catalyzed by E1, E2, and E3 enzymes. The Anaphase-Promoting Complex (APC) is a multi-subunit E3 ubiquitin ligase that controls diverse developmental and signaling processes in post-mitotic neurons; however, potential roles for the APC in sensory function have yet to be explored. In this study, we examined the effect of the APC ubiquitin ligase on chemosensation in Caenorhabditis elegans by testing chemotaxis to the volatile odorants, diacetyl, pyrazine, and isoamyl alcohol, to which wild-type worms are attracted. Animals with loss of function mutations in either of two alleles (g48 and ye143) of the gene encoding the APC subunit EMB-27 APC6 showed increased chemotaxis towards diacetyl and pyrazine, odorants sensed by AWA neurons, but exhibited normal chemotaxis to isoamyl alcohol, which is sensed by AWC neurons. The statistically significant increase in chemotaxis in the emb-27 APC6 mutants suggests that the APC inhibits AWA-mediated chemosensation in C. elegans. Increased chemotaxis to pyrazine was also seen with mutants lacking another essential APC subunit, MAT-2 APC1; however, mat-2 APC1 mutants exhibited wild type responses to diacetyl. The difference in responsiveness of these two APC subunit mutants may be due to differential strength of these hypomorphic alleles or may indicate the presence of functional sub-complexes of the APC at work in this process. These findings are the first evidence for APC-mediated regulation of chemosensation and lay the groundwork for further studies aimed at identifying the expression levels, function, and targets of the APC in specific sensory neurons. Because of the similarity between human and C. elegans nervous systems, the role of the APC in sensory neurons may also advance our understanding of human sensory function and disease. PMID

  4. The Anaphase-Promoting Complex (APC) ubiquitin ligase affects chemosensory behavior in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Wang, Julia; Jennings, Alexandra K; Kowalski, Jennifer R

    2016-01-01

    The regulation of fundamental aspects of neurobiological function has been linked to the ubiquitin signaling system (USS), which regulates the degradation and activity of proteins and is catalyzed by E1, E2, and E3 enzymes. The Anaphase-Promoting Complex (APC) is a multi-subunit E3 ubiquitin ligase that controls diverse developmental and signaling processes in post-mitotic neurons; however, potential roles for the APC in sensory function have yet to be explored. In this study, we examined the effect of the APC ubiquitin ligase on chemosensation in Caenorhabditis elegans by testing chemotaxis to the volatile odorants, diacetyl, pyrazine, and isoamyl alcohol, to which wild-type worms are attracted. Animals with loss of function mutations in either of two alleles (g48 and ye143) of the gene encoding the APC subunit EMB-27 APC6 showed increased chemotaxis towards diacetyl and pyrazine, odorants sensed by AWA neurons, but exhibited normal chemotaxis to isoamyl alcohol, which is sensed by AWC neurons. The statistically significant increase in chemotaxis in the emb-27 APC6 mutants suggests that the APC inhibits AWA-mediated chemosensation in C. elegans. Increased chemotaxis to pyrazine was also seen with mutants lacking another essential APC subunit, MAT-2 APC1; however, mat-2 APC1 mutants exhibited wild type responses to diacetyl. The difference in responsiveness of these two APC subunit mutants may be due to differential strength of these hypomorphic alleles or may indicate the presence of functional sub-complexes of the APC at work in this process. These findings are the first evidence for APC-mediated regulation of chemosensation and lay the groundwork for further studies aimed at identifying the expression levels, function, and targets of the APC in specific sensory neurons. Because of the similarity between human and C. elegans nervous systems, the role of the APC in sensory neurons may also advance our understanding of human sensory function and disease. PMID

  5. E3 ubiquitin ligase TRIM32 negatively regulates tumor suppressor p53 to promote tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ju; Zhang, C; Wang, X L; Ly, P; Belyi, V; Xu-Monette, Z Y; Young, K H; Hu, W; Feng, Z

    2014-11-01

    Tumor suppressor p53 has a key role in maintaining genomic stability and preventing tumorigenesis through its regulation of cellular stress responses, including apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and senescence. To ensure its proper levels and functions in cells, p53 is tightly regulated mainly through post-translational modifications, such as ubiquitination. Here, we identified E3 ubiquitin ligase TRIM32 as a novel p53 target gene and negative regulator to regulate p53-mediated stress responses. In response to stress, such as DNA damage, p53 binds to the p53 responsive element in the promoter of the TRIM32 gene and transcriptionally induces the expression of TRIM32 in cells. In turn, TRIM32 interacts with p53 and promotes p53 degradation through ubiquitination. Thus, TRIM32 negatively regulates p53-mediated apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and senescence in response to stress. TRIM32 is frequently overexpressed in different types of human tumors. TRIM32 overexpression promotes cell oncogenic transformation and tumorigenesis in mice in a largely p53-dependent manner. Taken together, our results demonstrated that as a novel p53 target and a novel negative regulator for p53, TRIM32 has an important role in regulation of p53 and p53-mediated cellular stress responses. Furthermore, our results also revealed that impairing p53 function is a novel mechanism for TRIM32 in tumorigenesis. PMID:25146927

  6. The Ubiquitin Ligase Praja1 Reduces NRAGE Expression and Inhibits Neuronal Differentiation of PC12 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Teuber, Jan; Mueller, Bettina; Fukabori, Ryoji; Lang, Daniel; Albrecht, Anne; Stork, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Evidence suggests that regulated ubiquitination of proteins plays a critical role in the development and plasticity of the central nervous system. We have previously identified the ubiquitin ligase Praja1 as a gene product induced during fear memory consolidation. However, the neuronal function of this enzyme still needs to be clarified. Here, we investigate its involvement in the nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced differentiation of rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. Praja1 co-localizes with cytoskeleton components and the neurotrophin receptor interacting MAGE homologue (NRAGE). We observed an enhanced expression of Praja1 after 3 days of NGF treatment and a suppression of neurite formation upon Praja1 overexpression in stably transfected PC12 cell lines, which was associated with a proteasome-dependent reduction of NRAGE levels. Our data suggest that Praja1, through ubiquitination and degradation of NRAGE, inhibits neuronal differentiation. The two murine isoforms, Praja1.1 and Praja1.2, appear to be functionally homologous in this respect. PMID:23717400

  7. The ubiquitin ligase Praja1 reduces NRAGE expression and inhibits neuronal differentiation of PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Teuber, Jan; Mueller, Bettina; Fukabori, Ryoji; Lang, Daniel; Albrecht, Anne; Stork, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Evidence suggests that regulated ubiquitination of proteins plays a critical role in the development and plasticity of the central nervous system. We have previously identified the ubiquitin ligase Praja1 as a gene product induced during fear memory consolidation. However, the neuronal function of this enzyme still needs to be clarified. Here, we investigate its involvement in the nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced differentiation of rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. Praja1 co-localizes with cytoskeleton components and the neurotrophin receptor interacting MAGE homologue (NRAGE). We observed an enhanced expression of Praja1 after 3 days of NGF treatment and a suppression of neurite formation upon Praja1 overexpression in stably transfected PC12 cell lines, which was associated with a proteasome-dependent reduction of NRAGE levels. Our data suggest that Praja1, through ubiquitination and degradation of NRAGE, inhibits neuronal differentiation. The two murine isoforms, Praja1.1 and Praja1.2, appear to be functionally homologous in this respect. PMID:23717400

  8. The E3 ligase CHIP mediates ubiquitination and degradation of mixed-lineage kinase 3.

    PubMed

    Blessing, Natalya A; Brockman, April L; Chadee, Deborah N

    2014-08-01

    Mixed-lineage kinase 3 (MLK3) activates mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways and has important functions in migration, invasion, proliferation, tumorigenesis, and apoptosis. We investigated the role of the E3 ligase carboxyl terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP) in the regulation of MLK3 protein levels. We show that CHIP interacts with MLK3 and, together with the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme UbcH5 (UbcH5a, -b, -c, or -d), ubiquitinates MLK3 in vitro. CHIP or Hsp70 overexpression promoted endogenous MLK3 ubiquitination and induced a decline in MLK3 protein levels in cells with Hsp90 inhibition. Furthermore, CHIP overexpression caused a proteasome-dependent reduction in exogenous MLK3 protein. Geldanamycin (GA), heat shock, and osmotic shock treatments also reduced the level of MLK3 protein via a CHIP-dependent mechanism. In addition, CHIP depletion in ovarian cancer SKOV3 cells increased cell invasion, and the enhancement of invasiveness was abrogated by small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of MLK3. Thus, CHIP modulates MLK3 protein levels in response to GA and stress stimuli, and CHIP-dependent regulation of MLK3 is required for suppression of SKOV3 ovarian cancer cell invasion. PMID:24912674

  9. System-Wide Modulation of HECT E3 Ligases with Selective Ubiquitin Variant Probes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Wu, Kuen-Phon; Sartori, Maria A; Kamadurai, Hari B; Ordureau, Alban; Jiang, Chong; Mercredi, Peter Y; Murchie, Ryan; Hu, Jicheng; Persaud, Avinash; Mukherjee, Manjeet; Li, Nan; Doye, Anne; Walker, John R; Sheng, Yi; Hao, Zhenyue; Li, Yanjun; Brown, Kevin R; Lemichez, Emmanuel; Chen, Junjie; Tong, Yufeng; Harper, J Wade; Moffat, Jason; Rotin, Daniela; Schulman, Brenda A; Sidhu, Sachdev S

    2016-04-01

    HECT-family E3 ligases ubiquitinate protein substrates to control virtually every eukaryotic process and are misregulated in numerous diseases. Nonetheless, understanding of HECT E3s is limited by a paucity of selective and potent modulators. To overcome this challenge, we systematically developed ubiquitin variants (UbVs) that inhibit or activate HECT E3s. Structural analysis of 6 HECT-UbV complexes revealed UbV inhibitors hijacking the E2-binding site and activators occupying a ubiquitin-binding exosite. Furthermore, UbVs unearthed distinct regulation mechanisms among NEDD4 subfamily HECTs and proved useful for modulating therapeutically relevant targets of HECT E3s in cells and intestinal organoids, and in a genetic screen that identified a role for NEDD4L in regulating cell migration. Our work demonstrates versatility of UbVs for modulating activity across an E3 family, defines mechanisms and provides a toolkit for probing functions of HECT E3s, and establishes a general strategy for systematic development of modulators targeting families of signaling proteins. PMID:26949039

  10. RNF111/Arkadia is a SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase that facilitates the DNA damage response

    PubMed Central

    Poulsen, Sara L.; Hansen, Rebecca K.; Wagner, Sebastian A.; van Cuijk, Loes; van Belle, Gijsbert J.; Streicher, Werner; Wikström, Mats; Choudhary, Chunaram; Houtsmuller, Adriaan B.; Marteijn, Jurgen A.; Bekker-Jensen, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Protein modifications by ubiquitin and small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) play key roles in cellular signaling pathways. SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligases (STUbLs) directly couple these modifications by selectively recognizing SUMOylated target proteins through SUMO-interacting motifs (SIMs), promoting their K48-linked ubiquitylation and degradation. Only a single mammalian STUbL, RNF4, has been identified. We show that human RNF111/Arkadia is a new STUbL, which used three adjacent SIMs for specific recognition of poly-SUMO2/3 chains, and used Ubc13–Mms2 as a cognate E2 enzyme to promote nonproteolytic, K63-linked ubiquitylation of SUMOylated target proteins. We demonstrate that RNF111 promoted ubiquitylation of SUMOylated XPC (xeroderma pigmentosum C) protein, a central DNA damage recognition factor in nucleotide excision repair (NER) extensively regulated by ultraviolet (UV)-induced SUMOylation and ubiquitylation. Moreover, we show that RNF111 facilitated NER by regulating the recruitment of XPC to UV-damaged DNA. Our findings establish RNF111 as a new STUbL that directly links nonproteolytic ubiquitylation and SUMOylation in the DNA damage response. PMID:23751493

  11. HAX1 regulates E3 ubiquitin ligase activity of cIAPs by promoting their dimerization.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jin Sun; Park, Byoung Chul; Chi, Seung Wook; Bae, Kwang-Hee; Kim, Sunhong; Cho, Sayeon; Son, Woo-Chan; Myung, Pyung Keun; Kim, Jeong-Hoon; Park, Sung Goo

    2014-10-30

    HS-1-associated protein X-1 (HAX1) is a multi-functional protein which was first identified as a Hematopoietic cell specific Lyn Substrate 1 (HS1)-binding protein. Although the roles of HAX1 in apoptosis have been unraveled and HAX1 has been proposed to be involved in several diseases, additional roles of HAX1 are still being identified. Here, we demonstrated that HAX1 directly interacted with cellular Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins (cIAPs), ubiquitin E3 ligases which regulate the abundance of cellular proteins, via ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal degradation. We showed that HAX1 promotes auto-ubiquitination and degradation of cIAPs by facilitating the intermolecular homodimerization of RING finger domain. Moreover, HAX1 regulates the non-canonical Nuclear Factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway by modulating the stability of NF-κB-Inducing Kinase (NIK), which is one of the substrates of cIAPs. Taken together, these results unveil a novel role of HAX1 in the non-canonical NF-κB pathway, and provide an important clue that HAX1 is a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of cancer. PMID:25275296

  12. SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase RNF4 plays a critical role in preventing chromosome loss.

    PubMed

    Hirota, Kouji; Tsuda, Masataka; Murai, Junko; Takagi, Tokiyo; Keka, Islam Shamima; Narita, Takeo; Fujita, Mari; Sasanuma, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Junya; Takeda, Shunichi

    2014-10-01

    RING finger protein 4 (RNF4) represents a subclass of ubiquitin ligases that target proteins modified by the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) for ubiquitin-mediated degradation. We disrupted the RNF4 gene in chicken DT40 cells and found that the resulting RNF4(-/-) cells gradually lost proliferation capability. Strikingly, this compromised proliferation was associated with an unprecedented cellular effect: the gradual decrease in the number of intact chromosomes. In the 6 weeks after gene targeting, there was a 25% reduction in the DNA content of the RNF4(-/-) cells. Regarding trisomic chromosome 2, 60% of the RNF4(-/-) cells lost one homologue, suggesting that DNA loss was mediated by whole chromosome loss. To determine the cause of this chromosome loss, we examined cell-cycle checkpoint pathways. RNF4(-/-) cells showed a partial defect in the spindle assembly checkpoint, premature dissociation of sister chromatids, and a marked increase in the number of lagging chromosomes at anaphase. Thus, combined defects in SAC and sister chromatid cohesion may result in increased lagging chromosomes, leading to chromosome loss without accompanying chromosome gain in RNF4(-/-) cells. We therefore propose that RNF4 plays a novel role in preventing the loss of intact chromosomes and ensures the maintenance of chromosome integrity. PMID:25205350

  13. RNF111/Arkadia is a SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase that facilitates the DNA damage response.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Sara L; Hansen, Rebecca K; Wagner, Sebastian A; van Cuijk, Loes; van Belle, Gijsbert J; Streicher, Werner; Wikström, Mats; Choudhary, Chunaram; Houtsmuller, Adriaan B; Marteijn, Jurgen A; Bekker-Jensen, Simon; Mailand, Niels

    2013-06-10

    Protein modifications by ubiquitin and small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) play key roles in cellular signaling pathways. SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligases (STUbLs) directly couple these modifications by selectively recognizing SUMOylated target proteins through SUMO-interacting motifs (SIMs), promoting their K48-linked ubiquitylation and degradation. Only a single mammalian STUbL, RNF4, has been identified. We show that human RNF111/Arkadia is a new STUbL, which used three adjacent SIMs for specific recognition of poly-SUMO2/3 chains, and used Ubc13-Mms2 as a cognate E2 enzyme to promote nonproteolytic, K63-linked ubiquitylation of SUMOylated target proteins. We demonstrate that RNF111 promoted ubiquitylation of SUMOylated XPC (xeroderma pigmentosum C) protein, a central DNA damage recognition factor in nucleotide excision repair (NER) extensively regulated by ultraviolet (UV)-induced SUMOylation and ubiquitylation. Moreover, we show that RNF111 facilitated NER by regulating the recruitment of XPC to UV-damaged DNA. Our findings establish RNF111 as a new STUbL that directly links nonproteolytic ubiquitylation and SUMOylation in the DNA damage response. PMID:23751493

  14. Biochemical and Proteomic Analysis of Ubiquitination of Hsc70 and Hsp70 by the E3 Ligase CHIP.

    PubMed

    Soss, Sarah E; Rose, Kristie L; Hill, Salisha; Jouan, Sophie; Chazin, Walter J

    2015-01-01

    The E3 ubiquitin ligase CHIP is involved in protein triage, serving as a co-chaperone for refolding as well as catalyzing ubiquitination of substrates. CHIP functions with both the stress induced Hsp70 and constitutive Hsc70 chaperones, and also plays a role in maintaining their balance in the cell. When the chaperones carry no client proteins, CHIP catalyzes their polyubiquitination and subsequent proteasomal degradation. Although Hsp70 and Hsc70 are highly homologous in sequence and similar in structure, CHIP mediated ubiquitination promotes degradation of Hsp70 with a higher efficiency than for Hsc70. Here we report a detailed and systematic investigation to characterize if there are significant differences in the CHIP in vitro ubiquitination of human Hsp70 and Hsc70. Proteomic analysis by mass spectrometry revealed that only 12 of 39 detectable lysine residues were ubiquitinated by UbcH5a in Hsp70 and only 16 of 45 in Hsc70. The only conserved lysine identified as ubiquitinated in one but not the other heat shock protein was K159 in Hsc70. Ubiquitination assays with K-R ubiquitin mutants showed that multiple Ub chain types are formed and that the distribution is different for Hsp70 versus Hsc70. CHIP ubiquitination with the E2 enzyme Ube2W is predominantly directed to the N-terminal amine of the substrate; however, some internal lysine modifications were also detected. Together, our results provide a detailed view of the differences in CHIP ubiquitination of these two very similar proteins, and show a clear example where substantial differences in ubiquitination can be generated by a single E3 ligase in response to not only different E2 enzymes but subtle differences in the substrate. PMID:26010904

  15. Structural Insight into the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Vif SOCS Box and Its Role in Human E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley,B.; Ehrlich, E.; Short, L.; Yu, Y.; Xiao, Z.; Yu, X.; Xiong, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) virion infectivity factor (Vif) causes the proteasome-mediated destruction of human antiviral protein APOBEC3G by tethering it to a cellular E3 ubiquitin ligase composed of ElonginB, ElonginC, Cullin5, and Rbx2. It has been proposed that HIV Vif hijacks the E3 ligase through two regions within its C-terminal domain: a BC box region that interacts with ElonginC and a novel zinc finger motif that interacts with Cullin5. We have determined the crystal structure of the HIV Vif BC box in complex with human ElonginB and ElonginC. This complex presents direct structural evidence of the recruitment of a human ubiquitin ligase by a viral BC box protein that mimics the conserved interactions of cellular ubiquitin ligases. We further mutated conserved hydrophobic residues in a region downstream of the Vif BC box. These mutations demonstrate that this region, the Vif Cullin box, composes a third E3-ligase recruiting site critical for interaction between Vif and Cullin5. Furthermore, our homology modeling reveals that the Vif Cullin box and zinc finger motif may be positioned adjacent to the N terminus of Cullin5 for interaction with loop regions in the first cullin repeat of Cullin5.

  16. Physical and functional interaction of the HECT ubiquitin-protein ligases E6AP and HERC2.

    PubMed

    Kühnle, Simone; Kogel, Ulrike; Glockzin, Sandra; Marquardt, Andreas; Ciechanover, Aaron; Matentzoglu, Konstantin; Scheffner, Martin

    2011-06-01

    Deregulation of the ubiquitin-protein ligase E6AP contributes to the development of the Angelman syndrome and to cervical carcinogenesis suggesting that the activity of E6AP needs to be under tight control. However, how E6AP activity is regulated at the post-translational level under non-pathologic conditions is poorly understood. In this study, we report that the giant protein HERC2, which is like E6AP a member of the HECT family of ubiquitin-protein ligases, binds to E6AP. The interaction is mediated by the RCC1-like domain 2 of HERC2 and a region spanning amino acid residues 150-200 of E6AP. Furthermore, we provide evidence that HERC2 stimulates the ubiquitin-protein ligase activity of E6AP in vitro and within cells and that this stimulatory effect does not depend on the ubiquitin-protein ligase activity of HERC2. Thus, the data obtained indicate that HERC2 acts as a regulator of E6AP. PMID:21493713

  17. Inhibition of SCF ubiquitin ligases by engineered ubiquitin variants that target the Cul1 binding site on the Skp1–F-box interface

    PubMed Central

    Gorelik, Maryna; Orlicky, Stephen; Sartori, Maria A.; Tang, Xiaojing; Marcon, Edyta; Kurinov, Igor; Greenblatt, Jack F.; Tyers, Mike; Moffat, Jason; Sicheri, Frank; Sidhu, Sachdev S.

    2016-01-01

    Skp1–Cul1–F-box (SCF) E3 ligases play key roles in multiple cellular processes through ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of substrate proteins. Although Skp1 and Cul1 are invariant components of all SCF complexes, the 69 different human F-box proteins are variable substrate binding modules that determine specificity. SCF E3 ligases are activated in many cancers and inhibitors could have therapeutic potential. Here, we used phage display to develop specific ubiquitin-based inhibitors against two F-box proteins, Fbw7 and Fbw11. Unexpectedly, the ubiquitin variants bind at the interface of Skp1 and F-box proteins and inhibit ligase activity by preventing Cul1 binding to the same surface. Using structure-based design and phage display, we modified the initial inhibitors to generate broad-spectrum inhibitors that targeted many SCF ligases, or conversely, a highly specific inhibitor that discriminated between even the close homologs Fbw11 and Fbw1. We propose that most F-box proteins can be targeted by this approach for basic research and for potential cancer therapies. PMID:26976582

  18. E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Fbw7 Negatively Regulates Osteoblast Differentiation by Targeting Runx2 for Degradation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Yogesh; Kapoor, Isha; Khan, Kainat; Thacker, Gatha; Khan, Mohd Parvez; Shukla, Nidhi; Kanaujiya, Jitendra Kumar; Sanyal, Sabyasachi; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya; Trivedi, Arun Kumar

    2015-12-25

    Runx2, a master regulator of osteoblast differentiation, is tightly regulated at both transcriptional and post-translational levels. Post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation and ubiquitination have differential effects on Runx2 functions. Here, we show that the reduced expression and functions of Runx2 upon its phosphorylation by GSK3β are mediated by its ubiquitin-mediated degradation through E3 ubiquitin ligase Fbw7α. Fbw7α through its WD domain interacts with Runx2 both in a heterologous (HEK293T cells) system as well as in osteoblasts. GSK3β was also present in the same complex as determined by co-immunoprecipitation. Furthermore, overexpression of either Fbw7α or GSK3β was sufficient to down-regulate endogenous Runx2 expression and function; however, both failed to inhibit endogenous Runx2 when either of them was depleted in osteoblasts. Fbw7α-mediated inhibition of Runx2 expression also led to reduced Runx2 transactivation and osteoblast differentiation. In contrast, inhibition of Fbw7α restored Runx2 levels and promoted osteoblast differentiation. We also observed reciprocal expression levels of Runx2 and Fbw7α in models of bone loss such as lactating (physiological bone loss condition) and ovariectomized (induction of surgical menopause) animals that show reduced Runx2 and enhanced Fbw7α, whereas this was reversed in the estrogen-treated ovariectomized animals. In addition, methylprednisolone (a synthetic glucocorticoid) treatment to neonatal rats showed a temporal decrease in Runx2 with a reciprocal increase in Fbw7 in their calvarium. Taken together, these data demonstrate that Fbw7α negatively regulates osteogenesis by targeting Runx2 for ubiquitin-mediated degradation in a GSK3β-dependent manner and thus provides a plausible explanation for GSK3β-mediated bone loss as described before. PMID:26542806

  19. Merlin's tumor suppression linked to inhibition of the E3 ubiquitin ligase CRL4DCAF1

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei

    2010-01-01

    The mechanism by which the FERM domain protein Merlin, encoded by the tumor suppressor NF2, restrains cell proliferation is poorly understood. Prior studies have suggested that Merlin exerts its antimitogenic effect by interacting with multiple signaling proteins located at or near the plasma membrane. We have recently observed that Merlin translocates into the nucleus and binds to and inhibits the E3 ubiquitin ligase CRL4DCAF1. Genetic evidence indicates that inactivation of Merlin induces oncogenic gene expression, hyperproliferation, and tumorigenicity by unleashing the activity of CRL4DCAF1. In addition to providing a potential explanation for the diverse effects that loss of Merlin exerts in multiple cell types, these findings suggest that compounds inhibiting CRL4DCAF1 may display therapeutic efficacy in Neurofibromatosis type 2 and other cancers driven by Merlin inactivation. PMID:21084862

  20. The Ubiquitin E3 Ligase NOSIP Modulates Protein Phosphatase 2A Activity in Craniofacial Development

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmeister, Meike; Prelle, Carola; Küchler, Philipp; Kovacevic, Igor; Moser, Markus; Müller-Esterl, Werner; Oess, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    Holoprosencephaly is a common developmental disorder in humans characterised by incomplete brain hemisphere separation and midface anomalies. The etiology of holoprosencephaly is heterogeneous with environmental and genetic causes, but for a majority of holoprosencephaly cases the genes associated with the pathogenesis could not be identified so far. Here we report the generation of knockout mice for the ubiquitin E3 ligase NOSIP. The loss of NOSIP in mice causes holoprosencephaly and facial anomalies including cleft lip/palate, cyclopia and facial midline clefting. By a mass spectrometry based protein interaction screen we identified NOSIP as a novel interaction partner of protein phosphatase PP2A. NOSIP mediates the monoubiquitination of the PP2A catalytic subunit and the loss of NOSIP results in an increase in PP2A activity in craniofacial tissue in NOSIP knockout mice. We conclude, that NOSIP is a critical modulator of brain and craniofacial development in mice and a candidate gene for holoprosencephaly in humans. PMID:25546391

  1. Ubiquitin ligase CHIP suppresses cancer stem cell properties in a population of breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Mai; Nakajima, Yuka; Hirata, Naoya; Morishita, Tamaki; Kishimoto, Hiroyuki; Kanda, Yasunari; Kimura, Keiji

    2014-10-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have several distinctive characteristics, including high metastatic potential, tumor-initiating potential, and properties that resemble normal stem cells such as self-renewal, differentiation, and drug efflux. Because of these characteristics, CSC is regarded to be responsible for cancer progression and patient prognosis. In our previous study, we showed that a ubiquitin E3 ligase carboxyl terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP) suppressed breast cancer malignancy. Moreover, a recent clinical study reported that CHIP expression levels were associated with favorable prognostic parameters of patients with breast cancer. Here we show that CHIP suppresses CSC properties in a population of breast cancer cells. CHIP depletion resulted in an increased proportion of CSCs among breast cancers when using several assays to assess CSC properties. From our results, we propose that inhibition of CSC properties may be one of the functions of CHIP as a suppressor of cancer progression. PMID:25234599

  2. Adenovirus-mediated downregulation of the ubiquitin ligase RNF8 sensitizes bladder cancer to radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xu-Guang; Xie, Kun; Jing, Yu-Hong; Wang, De-Gui

    2016-01-01

    The ubiquitin ligase RNF8 promotes the DNA damage response (DDR). We observed that the expression of RNF8 was increased in bladder cancer cells and that this change in RNF8 expression could be reversed by adenovirus-mediated shRNA treatment. Moreover, we found that RNF8 knockdown sensitized bladder cancer cells to radiotherapy, as demonstrated by reduced cell survival. Additionally, the absence of RNF8 induced a high rate of apoptosis and impaired double-strand break repair signaling after radiotherapy. Furthermore, experiments on nude mice showed that combining shRNF8 treatment with radiotherapy suppressed implanted bladder tumor growth and enhanced apoptotic cell death in vivo. Altogether, our results indicated that RNF8 might be a novel target for bladder cancer treatment. PMID:26788910

  3. [TUMOR SUPPRESSOR p63 REGULATES EXPRESSION OF UBIQUITIN LIGASE Pirh2].

    PubMed

    Daks, A A; Petukhov, A V; Shuvalov, O Yu; Vasilieva, E A; Melino, G; Barlev, N A; Fedorova, O A

    2015-01-01

    Transcription factor p63 is a member of the p53 protein family. Due to the high degree of structural similarity p53, p63, and p73 are known to have overlapping functions relating to cell cycle regulation, apoptosis and tumor transformation. Furthermore, p63 plays crucial role in epidermal tissue development and differentiation. Pirh2 (product of RCHY1 gene) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase modifying all three members of the p53 family resulting in their subsequent proteasomal degradation. Our results demonstrate that p63, similar to p53, is able to regulate expression levels of Pirh2. Importantly, Pirh2 expression is activated only by transcriptionally active isoform of p63--TAp63, but not the N-terminally truncated ΔNp63. PMID:26995965

  4. A mouse forward genetics screen identifies LISTERIN as an E3 ubiquitin ligase involved in neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Jessie; Hong, Nancy A.; Masuda, Claudio A.; Jenkins, Brian V.; Nelms, Keats A.; Goodnow, Christopher C.; Glynne, Richard J.; Wu, Hua; Masliah, Eliezer; Joazeiro, Claudio A. P.; Kay, Steve A.

    2009-01-01

    A mouse neurological mutant, lister, was identified through a genome-wide N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis screen. Homozygous lister mice exhibit profound early-onset and progressive neurological and motor dysfunction. lister encodes a RING finger protein, LISTERIN, which functions as an E3 ubiquitin ligase in vitro. Although lister is widely expressed in all tissues, motor and sensory neurons and neuronal processes in the brainstem and spinal cord are primarily affected in the mutant. Pathological signs include gliosis, dystrophic neurites, vacuolated mitochondria, and accumulation of soluble hyperphosphorylated tau. Analysis with a different lister allele generated through targeted gene trap insertion reveals LISTERIN is required for embryonic development and confirms that direct perturbation of a LISTERIN-regulated process causes neurodegeneration. The lister mouse uncovers a pathway involved in neurodegeneration and may serves as a model for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying human neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:19196968

  5. Allosteric Activation of the RNF146 Ubiquitin Ligase by a Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation Signal

    PubMed Central

    DaRosa, Paul A.; Wang, Zhizhi; Jiang, Xiaomo; Pruneda, Jonathan N.; Cong, Feng; Klevit, Rachel E.; Xu, Wenqing

    2014-01-01

    Protein poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation) plays a role in diverse cellular processes such as DNA repair, transcription, Wnt signaling, and cell death1–6. Recent studies have shown that PARylation can serve as a signal for the polyubiquitination and degradation of several critical regulatory proteins, including Axin and 3BP2 (refs 7–9). The RING-type E3 ubiquitin ligase RNF146 (a.k.a. Iduna) is responsible for PARylation-dependent ubiquitination (PARdU)10–12. Here we provide a structural basis for RNF146 catalyzed PARdU and how PARdU specificity is achieved. First, we show that iso-ADPr, the smallest internal poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) structural unit, binds between the WWE and RING domains of RNF146 and functions as an allosteric signal that switches the RING domain from a catalytically inactive state to an active one. In the absence of PAR, the RING domain is unable to efficiently bind and activate an E2. Binding of PAR/iso-ADPr induces a major conformational change that creates a functional RING structure. Thus RNF146 represents a new mechanistic class of RING E3 ligases whose activities are regulated by non-covalent ligand binding, which may provide a template for designing inducible protein-degradation systems. Second, we found that RNF146 directly interacts with the PAR polymerase tankyrase (TNKS). Disruption of the RNF146/TNKS interaction inhibits turnover of the substrate Axin in cells. Thus, both substrate PARylation and PARdU are catalyzed by enzymes within the same protein complex, and PARdU substrate specificity may be primarily determined by the substrate-TNKS interaction. We propose that maintenance of unliganded RNF146 in an inactive state may serve to maintain the stability of the RNF146-TNKS complex, which in turn regulates the homeostasis of PARdU activity in the cell. PMID:25327252

  6. The Functions of the HIV1 protein Vpr and its action through the DCAF1•DDB1•Cullin4 ubiquitin ligase

    PubMed Central

    Casey, Laurieann; Wen, Xiaoyun; de Noronha, Carlos M.C.

    2010-01-01

    Among the proteins encoded by human and simian immunodeficiency viruses (HIV and SIV) at least three, Vif, Vpu and Vpr, subvert cellular ubiquitin ligases to block the action of anti-viral defenses. This review focuses on Vpr and its HIV2/SIV counterparts, Vpx and Vpr, which all engage the DDB1•Cullin4 ubiquitin ligase complex through the DCAF1 adaptor protein. Here, we discuss the multiple functions that have been linked to Vpr expression and summarize the current knowledge on the role of the ubiquitin ligase complex in carrying out a subset of these activities. PMID:20347598

  7. Cytoplasmic CUL9/PARC ubiquitin ligase is a tumor suppressor and promotes p53-dependent apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Xin-Hai; Bai, Feng; Li, Zhijun; Smith, Matthew D.; Whitewolf, Gabrielle; Jin, Ran; Xiong, Yue

    2011-01-01

    A wide range of cell stresses, including DNA damage, signal to p53 through post-translational modification of p53. The cytoplasmic functions of p53 are emerging as an important constituent of p53’s role in tumor suppression. Here we report that deletion of the Cul9 (formerly Parc) gene, which encodes an E3 ubiquitin ligase that binds to p53 and localizes in the cytoplasm, resulted in spontaneous tumor development, accelerated Eμ-Myc-induced lymphomagenesis and rendered mice susceptible to carcinogenesis. Cul9-p53 double mutant mice exhibited indistinguishable tumor phenotypes as p53 single mutant mice, indicating that the function of Cul9 in tumor suppression is largely mediated by p53. Deletion of Cul9 had no significant effect on cell cycle progression, but attenuated DNA damage-induced apoptosis. Ectopic expression of wild-type CUL9, but not a point mutant CUL9 deficient in p53 binding, promotes apoptosis. These results demonstrate CUL9 as a potential p53 activating E3 ligase in the cytoplasm. PMID:21487039

  8. The SUMO (Small Ubiquitin-like Modifier) Ligase PIAS3 Primes ATR for Checkpoint Activation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ching-Shyi; Zou, Lee

    2016-01-01

    The maintenance of genomic stability relies on the concerted action of DNA repair and DNA damage signaling pathways. The PIAS (protein inhibitor of activated STAT) family of SUMO (small ubiquitin-like modifier) ligases has been implicated in DNA repair, but whether it plays a role in DNA damage signaling is still unclear. Here, we show that the PIAS3 SUMO ligase is important for activation of the ATR (ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3 related)-regulated DNA damage signaling pathway. PIAS3 is the only member of the PIAS family that is indispensable for ATR activation. In response to different types of DNA damage and replication stress, PIAS3 plays multiple roles in ATR activation. In cells treated with camptothecin (CPT), PIAS3 contributes to formation of DNA double-stranded breaks. In UV (ultraviolet light)- or HU (hydroxyurea)-treated cells, PIAS3 is required for efficient ATR autophosphorylation, one of the earliest events during ATR activation. Although PIAS3 is dispensable for ATRIP (ATR-interacting protein) SUMOylation and the ATR-ATRIP interaction, it is required for maintaining the basal kinase activity of ATR prior to DNA damage. In the absence of PIAS3, ATR fails to display normal kinase activity after DNA damage, which accompanies with reduced phosphorylation of ATR substrates. Together, these results suggest that PIAS3 primes ATR for checkpoint activation by sustaining its basal kinase activity, revealing a new function of the PIAS family in DNA damage signaling. PMID:26565033

  9. CUL4A ubiquitin ligase: a promising drug target for cancer and other human diseases

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Puneet; Nag, Alo

    2014-01-01

    The ability of cullin 4A (CUL4A), a scaffold protein, to recruit a repertoire of substrate adaptors allows it to assemble into distinct E3 ligase complexes to mediate turnover of key regulatory proteins. In the past decade, a considerable wealth of information has been generated regarding its biology, regulation, assembly, molecular architecture and novel functions. Importantly, unravelling of its association with multiple tumours and modulation by viral proteins establishes it as one of the key proteins that may play an important role in cellular transformation. Considering the role of its substrate in regulating the cell cycle and maintenance of genomic stability, understanding the detailed aspects of these processes will have significant consequences for the treatment of cancer and related diseases. This review is an effort to provide a broad overview of this multifaceted ubiquitin ligase and addresses its critical role in regulation of important biological processes. More importantly, its tremendous potential to be exploited for therapeutic purposes has been discussed. PMID:24522884

  10. Ubiquitin ligase Siah2 regulates RevErbα degradation and the mammalian circadian clock

    PubMed Central

    DeBruyne, Jason P.; Baggs, Julie E.; Sato, Trey K.; Hogenesch, John B.

    2015-01-01

    Regulated degradation of proteins by the proteasome is often critical to their function in dynamic cellular pathways. The molecular clock underlying mammalian circadian rhythms relies on the rhythmic expression and degradation of its core components. However, because the tools available for identifying the mechanisms underlying the degradation of a specific protein are limited, the mechanisms regulating clock protein degradation are only beginning to be elucidated. Here we describe a cell-based functional screening approach designed to quickly identify the ubiquitin E3 ligases that induce the degradation of potentially any protein of interest. We screened the nuclear hormone receptor RevErbα (Nr1d1), a key constituent of the mammalian circadian clock, for E3 ligases that regulate its stability and found Seven in absentia2 (Siah2) to be a key regulator of RevErbα stability. Previously implicated in hypoxia signaling, Siah2 overexpression destabilizes RevErbα/β, and siRNA depletion of Siah2 stabilizes endogenous RevErbα. Moreover, Siah2 depletion delays circadian degradation of RevErbα and lengthens period length. These results demonstrate the utility of functional screening approaches for identifying regulators of protein stability and reveal Siah2 as a previously unidentified circadian clockwork regulator that mediates circadian RevErbα turnover. PMID:26392558

  11. Hippo Stabilises Its Adaptor Salvador by Antagonising the HECT Ubiquitin Ligase Herc4

    PubMed Central

    Aerne, Birgit L.; Gailite, Ieva; Sims, David; Tapon, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Signalling through the Hippo (Hpo) pathway involves a kinase cascade, which leads to the phosphorylation and inactivation of the pro-growth transcriptional co-activator Yorkie (Yki). Despite the identification of a large number of pathway members and modulators, our understanding of the molecular events that lead to activation of Hpo and the downstream kinase Warts (Wts) remain incomplete. Recently, targeted degradation of several Hpo pathway components has been demonstrated as a means of regulating pathway activity. In particular, the stability of scaffold protein Salvador (Sav), which is believed to promote Hpo/Wts association, is crucially dependent on its binding partner Hpo. In a cell-based RNAi screen for ubiquitin regulators involved in Sav stability, we identify the HECT domain protein Herc4 (HECT and RLD domain containing E3 ligase) as a Sav E3 ligase. Herc4 expression promotes Sav ubiquitylation and degradation, while Herc4 depletion stabilises Sav. Interestingly, Hpo reduces Sav/Herc4 interaction in a kinase-dependent manner. This suggests the existence of a positive feedback loop, where Hpo stabilises its own positive regulator by antagonising Herc4-mediated degradation of Sav. PMID:26125558

  12. The ubiquitin-proteasome system and activation of NF-κB: involvement of the ubiquitin ligase KPC1 in p105 processing and tumor suppression

    PubMed Central

    Kravtsova-Ivantsiv, Yelena; Ciechanover, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    The p50 subunit of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) is generated from processing of the p105 precursor. We identified KIP1 ubiquitination-promoting complex 1 (KPC1) as the ubiquitin (Ub) ligase mediating this process. Overexpression of KPC1 results in tumor suppression, probably due to the generation of p50–p50 homodimers. It appears that high levels of KPC1 and nuclear p50 are important for maintaining the non-malignant state. PMID:27308511

  13. SIAH ubiquitin ligases regulate breast cancer cell migration and invasion independent of the oxygen status

    PubMed Central

    Adam, M Gordian; Matt, Sonja; Christian, Sven; Hess-Stumpp, Holger; Haegebarth, Andrea; Hofmann, Thomas G; Algire, Carolyn

    2015-01-01

    Seven-in-absentia homolog (SIAH) proteins are evolutionary conserved RING type E3 ubiquitin ligases responsible for the degradation of key molecules regulating DNA damage response, hypoxic adaptation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and cell proliferation. Many studies suggest a tumorigenic role for SIAH2. In breast cancer patients SIAH2 expression levels correlate with cancer aggressiveness and overall patient survival. In addition, SIAH inhibition reduced metastasis in melanoma. The role of SIAH1 in breast cancer is still ambiguous; both tumorigenic and tumor suppressive functions have been reported. Other studies categorized SIAH ligases as either pro- or antimigratory, while the significance for metastasis is largely unknown. Here, we re-evaluated the effects of SIAH1 and SIAH2 depletion in breast cancer cell lines, focusing on migration and invasion. We successfully knocked down SIAH1 and SIAH2 in several breast cancer cell lines. In luminal type MCF7 cells, this led to stabilization of the SIAH substrate Prolyl Hydroxylase Domain protein 3 (PHD3) and reduced Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1α (HIF1α) protein levels. Both the knockdown of SIAH1 or SIAH2 led to increased apoptosis and reduced proliferation, with comparable effects. These results point to a tumor promoting role for SIAH1 in breast cancer similar to SIAH2. In addition, depletion of SIAH1 or SIAH2 also led to decreased cell migration and invasion in breast cancer cells. SIAH knockdown also controlled microtubule dynamics by markedly decreasing the protein levels of stathmin, most likely via p27Kip1. Collectively, these results suggest that both SIAH ligases promote a migratory cancer cell phenotype and could contribute to metastasis in breast cancer. PMID:26654769

  14. E3 Ubiquitin Ligase NEDD4 Promotes Influenza Virus Infection by Decreasing Levels of the Antiviral Protein IFITM3

    PubMed Central

    Chesarino, Nicholas M.; McMichael, Temet M.; Yount, Jacob S.

    2015-01-01

    Interferon (IFN)-induced transmembrane protein 3 (IFITM3) is a cell-intrinsic factor that limits influenza virus infections. We previously showed that IFITM3 degradation is increased by its ubiquitination, though the ubiquitin ligase responsible for this modification remained elusive. Here, we demonstrate that the E3 ubiquitin ligase NEDD4 ubiquitinates IFITM3 in cells and in vitro. This IFITM3 ubiquitination is dependent upon the presence of a PPxY motif within IFITM3 and the WW domain-containing region of NEDD4. In NEDD4 knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts, we observed defective IFITM3 ubiquitination and accumulation of high levels of basal IFITM3 as compared to wild type cells. Heightened IFITM3 levels significantly protected NEDD4 knockout cells from infection by influenza A and B viruses. Similarly, knockdown of NEDD4 in human lung cells resulted in an increase in steady state IFITM3 and a decrease in influenza virus infection, demonstrating a conservation of this NEDD4-dependent IFITM3 regulatory mechanism in mouse and human cells. Consistent with the known association of NEDD4 with lysosomes, we demonstrate for the first time that steady state turnover of IFITM3 occurs through the lysosomal degradation pathway. Overall, this work identifies the enzyme NEDD4 as a new therapeutic target for the prevention of influenza virus infections, and introduces a new paradigm for up-regulating cellular levels of IFITM3 independently of IFN or infection. PMID:26263374

  15. The E3-Ubiquitin Ligase TRIM50 Interacts with HDAC6 and p62, and Promotes the Sequestration and Clearance of Ubiquitinated Proteins into the Aggresome

    PubMed Central

    Fusco, Carmela; Micale, Lucia; Egorov, Mikhail; Monti, Maria; D’Addetta, Ester Valentina; Augello, Bartolomeo; Cozzolino, Flora; Calcagnì, Alessia; Fontana, Andrea; Polishchuk, Roman S.; Didelot, Gerard; Reymond, Alexandre; Pucci, Piero; Merla, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    In this study we report that, in response to proteasome inhibition, the E3-Ubiquitin ligase TRIM50 localizes to and promotes the recruitment and aggregation of polyubiquitinated proteins to the aggresome. Using Hdac6-deficient mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEF) we show that this localization is mediated by the histone deacetylase 6, HDAC6. Whereas Trim50-deficient MEFs allow pinpointing that the TRIM50 ubiquitin-ligase regulates the clearance of polyubiquitinated proteins localized to the aggresome. Finally we demonstrate that TRIM50 colocalizes, interacts with and increases the level of p62, a multifunctional adaptor protein implicated in various cellular processes including the autophagy clearance of polyubiquitinated protein aggregates. We speculate that when the proteasome activity is impaired, TRIM50 fails to drive its substrates to the proteasome-mediated degradation, and promotes their storage in the aggresome for successive clearance. PMID:22792322

  16. Substrates of the ASB2α E3 ubiquitin ligase in dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Spinner, Camille A.; Uttenweiler-Joseph, Sandrine; Metais, Arnaud; Stella, Alexandre; Burlet-Schiltz, Odile; Moog-Lutz, Christel; Lamsoul, Isabelle; Lutz, Pierre G.

    2015-01-01

    Conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) comprise distinct populations with specialized immune functions that are mediators of innate and adaptive immune responses. Transcriptomic and proteomic approaches have been used so far to identify transcripts and proteins that are differentially expressed in these subsets to understand the respective functions of cDCs subsets. Here, we showed that the Cullin 5-RING E3 ubiquitin ligase (E3) ASB2α, by driving degradation of filamin A (FLNa) and filamin B (FLNb), is responsible for the difference in FLNa and FLNb abundance in the different spleen cDC subsets. Importantly, the ability of these cDC subsets to migrate correlates with the level of FLNa. Furthermore, our results strongly point to CD4 positive and double negative cDCs as distinct populations. Finally, we develop quantitative global proteomic approaches to identify ASB2α substrates in DCs using ASB2 conditional knockout mice. As component of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) are amenable to pharmacological manipulation, these approaches aimed to the identification of E3 substrates in physiological relevant settings could potentially lead to novel targets for therapeutic strategies. PMID:26537633

  17. Gln40 deamidation blocks structural reconfiguration and activation of SCF ubiquitin ligase complex by Nedd8

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Clinton; Mao, Haibin; Novitsky, Eric J.; Tang, Xiaobo; Rychnovsky, Scott D.; Zheng, Ning; Huang, Lan

    2015-01-01

    The full enzymatic activity of the cullin-RING ubiquitin ligases (CRLs) requires a ubiquitin-like protein (that is, Nedd8) modification. By deamidating Gln40 of Nedd8 to glutamate (Q40E), the bacterial cycle-inhibiting factor (Cif) family is able to inhibit CRL E3 activities, thereby interfering with cellular functions. Despite extensive structural studies on CRLs, the molecular mechanism by which Nedd8 Gln40 deamidation affects CRL functions remains unclear. We apply a new quantitative cross-linking mass spectrometry approach to characterize three different types of full-length human Cul1–Rbx1 complexes and uncover major Nedd8-induced structural rearrangements of the CRL1 catalytic core. More importantly, we find that those changes are not induced by Nedd8(Q40E) conjugation, indicating that the subtle change of a single Nedd8 amino acid is sufficient to revert the structure of the CRL catalytic core back to its unmodified form. Our results provide new insights into how neddylation regulates the conformation and activity of CRLs. PMID:26632597

  18. Co-chaperone CHIP stabilizes aggregate-prone malin, a ubiquitin ligase mutated in Lafora disease.

    PubMed

    Rao, Sudheendra N R; Sharma, Jaiprakash; Maity, Ranjan; Jana, Nihar Ranjan

    2010-01-01

    Lafora disease (LD) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder caused by mutation in either the dual specificity phosphatase laforin or ubiquitin ligase malin. A pathological hallmark of LD is the accumulation of cytoplasmic polyglucosan inclusions commonly known as Lafora bodies in both neuronal and non-neuronal tissues. How mutations in these two proteins cause disease pathogenesis is not well understood. Malin interacts with laforin and recruits to aggresomes upon proteasome inhibition and was shown to degrade misfolded proteins. Here we report that malin is spontaneously misfolded and tends to be aggregated, degraded by proteasomes, and forms not only aggresomes but also other cytoplasmic and nuclear aggregates in all transfected cells upon proteasomal inhibition. Malin also interacts with Hsp70. Several disease-causing mutants of malin are comparatively more unstable than wild type and form aggregates in most transfected cells even without the inhibition of proteasome function. These cytoplasmic and nuclear aggregates are immunoreactive to ubiquitin and 20 S proteasome. Interestingly, progressive proteasomal dysfunction and cell death is also most frequently observed in the mutant malin-overexpressed cells compared with the wild-type counterpart. Finally, we demonstrate that the co-chaperone carboxyl terminus of the Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP) stabilizes malin by modulating the activity of Hsp70. All together, our results suggest that malin is unstable, and the aggregate-prone protein and co-chaperone CHIP can modulate its stability. PMID:19892702

  19. Membrane-anchored ubiquitin ligase complex is required for the turnover of lysosomal membrane proteins

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ming; Koshi, Tatsuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Cells must regulate the abundance and activity of numerous nutrient transporters in different organelle membranes to achieve nutrient homeostasis. As the recycling center and major storage organelle, lysosomes are essential for maintaining nutrient homeostasis. However, very little is known about mechanisms that govern the regulation of its membrane proteins. In this study, we demonstrated that changes of Zn2+ levels trigger the downregulation of vacuolar Zn2+ transporters. Low Zn2+ levels cause the degradation of the influx transporter Cot1, whereas high Zn2+ levels trigger the degradation of the efflux channel Zrt3. The degradation process depends on the vacuole membrane recycling and degradation pathway. Unexpectedly, we identified a RING domain–containing E3 ligase Tul1 and its interacting proteins in the Dsc complex that are important for the ubiquitination of Cot1 and partial ubiquitination of Zrt3. Our study demonstrated that the Dsc complex can function at the vacuole to regulate the composition and lifetime of vacuolar membrane proteins. PMID:26527740

  20. An allosteric inhibitor of substrate recognition by the SCF[superscript Cdc4] ubiquitin ligase

    SciTech Connect

    Orlicky, Stephen; Tang, Xiaojing; Neduva, Victor; Elowe, Nadine; Brown, Eric D.; Sicheri, Frank; Tyers, Mike

    2010-09-17

    The specificity of SCF ubiquitin ligase-mediated protein degradation is determined by F-box proteins. We identified a biplanar dicarboxylic acid compound, called SCF-I2, as an inhibitor of substrate recognition by the yeast F-box protein Cdc4 using a fluorescence polarization screen to monitor the displacement of a fluorescein-labeled phosphodegron peptide. SCF-I2 inhibits the binding and ubiquitination of full-length phosphorylated substrates by SCF{sup Cdc4}. A co-crystal structure reveals that SCF-I2 inserts itself between the {beta}-strands of blades 5 and 6 of the WD40 propeller domain of Cdc4 at a site that is 25 {angstrom} away from the substrate binding site. Long-range transmission of SCF-I2 interactions distorts the substrate binding pocket and impedes recognition of key determinants in the Cdc4 phosphodegron. Mutation of the SCF-I2 binding site abrogates its inhibitory effect and explains specificity in the allosteric inhibition mechanism. Mammalian WD40 domain proteins may exhibit similar allosteric responsiveness and hence represent an extensive class of druggable target.

  1. Transcriptional repressor NIR interacts with the p53-inhibiting ubiquitin ligase MDM2

    PubMed Central

    Heyne, Kristina; Förster, Juliane; Schüle, Roland; Roemer, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    NIR (novel INHAT repressor) can bind to p53 at promoters and inhibit p53-mediated gene transactivation by blocking histone acetylation carried out by p300/CBP. Like NIR, the E3 ubiquitin ligase MDM2 can also bind and inhibit p53 at promoters. Here, we present data indicating that NIR, which shuttles between the nucleolus and nucleoplasm, not only binds to p53 but also directly to MDM2, in part via the central acidic and zinc finger domain of MDM2 that is also contacted by several other nucleolus-based MDM2/p53-regulating proteins. Like some of these, NIR was able to inhibit the ubiquitination of MDM2 and stabilize MDM2; however, unlike these nucleolus-based MDM2 regulators, NIR did not inhibit MDM2 to activate p53. Rather, NIR cooperated with MDM2 to repress p53-induced transactivation. This cooperative repression may at least in part involve p300/CBP. We show that NIR can block the acetylation of p53 and MDM2. Non-acetylated p53 has been documented previously to more readily associate with inhibitory MDM2. NIR may thus help to sustain the inhibitory p53:MDM2 complex, and we present evidence suggesting that all three proteins can indeed form a ternary complex. In sum, our findings suggest that NIR can support MDM2 to suppress p53 as a transcriptional activator. PMID:24413661

  2. A novel cereblon modulator recruits GSPT1 to the CRL4(CRBN) ubiquitin ligase.

    PubMed

    Matyskiela, Mary E; Lu, Gang; Ito, Takumi; Pagarigan, Barbra; Lu, Chin-Chun; Miller, Karen; Fang, Wei; Wang, Nai-Yu; Nguyen, Derek; Houston, Jack; Carmel, Gilles; Tran, Tam; Riley, Mariko; Nosaka, Lyn'Al; Lander, Gabriel C; Gaidarova, Svetlana; Xu, Shuichan; Ruchelman, Alexander L; Handa, Hiroshi; Carmichael, James; Daniel, Thomas O; Cathers, Brian E; Lopez-Girona, Antonia; Chamberlain, Philip P

    2016-07-14

    Immunomodulatory drugs bind to cereblon (CRBN) to confer differentiated substrate specificity on the CRL4(CRBN) E3 ubiquitin ligase. Here we report the identification of a new cereblon modulator, CC-885, with potent anti-tumour activity. The anti-tumour activity of CC-885 is mediated through the cereblon-dependent ubiquitination and degradation of the translation termination factor GSPT1. Patient-derived acute myeloid leukaemia tumour cells exhibit high sensitivity to CC-885, indicating the clinical potential of this mechanism. Crystallographic studies of the CRBN-DDB1-CC-885-GSPT1 complex reveal that GSPT1 binds to cereblon through a surface turn containing a glycine residue at a key position, interacting with both CC-885 and a 'hotspot' on the cereblon surface. Although GSPT1 possesses no obvious structural, sequence or functional homology to previously known cereblon substrates, mutational analysis and modelling indicate that the cereblon substrate Ikaros uses a similar structural feature to bind cereblon, suggesting a common motif for substrate recruitment. These findings define a structural degron underlying cereblon 'neosubstrate' selectivity, and identify an anti-tumour target rendered druggable by cereblon modulation. PMID:27338790

  3. Trim17, a novel E3 ubiquitin-ligase, initiates neuronal apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Lassot, Irina; Robbins, Ian; Kristiansen, Mark; Rahmeh, Rita; Jaudon, Fanny; Magiera, Maria M.; Mora, Stéphan; Vanhille, Laurent; Lipkin, Alexey; Pettmann, Brigitte; Ham, Jonathan; Desagher, Solange

    2010-01-01

    Accumulating data indicate that the ubiquitin-proteasome system controls apoptosis by regulating the level and the function of key regulatory proteins. In the present study, we identified Trim17, a member of the TRIM/RBCC protein family, as one of the critical E3 ubiquitin-ligases involved in the control of neuronal apoptosis upstream of mitochondria. We show that expression of Trim17 is increased both at the mRNA and protein level in several in vitro models of transcription-dependent neuronal apoptosis. Expression of Trim17 is controlled by the PI3K/Akt/GSK3 pathway in cerebellar granule neurons (CGN). Moreover, the Trim17 protein is expressed in vivo, in apoptotic neurons that naturally die during postnatal cerebellar development. Overexpression of active Trim17 in primary CGN was sufficient to induce the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis in survival conditions. This proapoptotic effect was abolished in Bax−/− neurons and depended on the E3 activity of Trim17 conferred by its RING domain. Furthermore, knock-down of endogenous Trim17 and overexpression of dominant-negative mutants of Trim17 blocked trophic factor withdrawal-induced apoptosis both in CGN and in sympathetic neurons. Collectively, our data are the first to assign a cellular function to Trim17 by showing that its E3 activity is both necessary and sufficient for the initiation of neuronal apoptosis. PMID:20559321

  4. The Ubiquitin Ligase SCF(Ucc1) Acts as a Metabolic Switch for the Glyoxylate Cycle.

    PubMed

    Nakatsukasa, Kunio; Nishimura, Takashi; Byrne, Stuart D; Okamoto, Michiyo; Takahashi-Nakaguchi, Azusa; Chibana, Hiroji; Okumura, Fumihiko; Kamura, Takumi

    2015-07-01

    Despite the crucial role played by the glyoxylate cycle in the virulence of pathogens, seed germination in plants, and sexual development in fungi, we still have much to learn about its regulation. Here, we show that a previously uncharacterized SCF(Ucc1) ubiquitin ligase mediates proteasomal degradation of citrate synthase in the glyoxylate cycle to maintain metabolic homeostasis in glucose-grown cells. Conversely, transcription of the F box subunit Ucc1 is downregulated in C2-compound-grown cells, which require increased metabolic flux for gluconeogenesis. Moreover, in vitro analysis demonstrates that oxaloacetate regenerated through the glyoxylate cycle induces a conformational change in citrate synthase and inhibits its recognition and ubiquitination by SCF(Ucc1), suggesting the existence of an oxaloacetate-dependent positive feedback loop that stabilizes citrate synthase. We propose that SCF(Ucc1)-mediated regulation of citrate synthase acts as a metabolic switch for the glyoxylate cycle in response to changes in carbon source, thereby ensuring metabolic versatility and flexibility. PMID:25982115

  5. Genome-wide identification and gene expression profiling of ubiquitin ligases for endoplasmic reticulum protein degradation

    PubMed Central

    Kaneko, Masayuki; Iwase, Ikuko; Yamasaki, Yuki; Takai, Tomoko; Wu, Yan; Kanemoto, Soshi; Matsuhisa, Koji; Asada, Rie; Okuma, Yasunobu; Watanabe, Takeshi; Imaizumi, Kazunori; Nomura, Yausyuki

    2016-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD) is a mechanism by which unfolded proteins that accumulate in the ER are transported to the cytosol for ubiquitin–proteasome-mediated degradation. Ubiquitin ligases (E3s) are a group of enzymes responsible for substrate selectivity and ubiquitin chain formation. The purpose of this study was to identify novel E3s involved in ERAD. Thirty-seven candidate genes were selected by searches for proteins with RING-finger motifs and transmembrane regions, which are the major features of ERAD E3s. We performed gene expression profiling for the identified E3s in human and mouse tissues. Several genes were specifically or selectively expressed in both tissues; the expression of four genes (RNFT1, RNF185, CGRRF1 and RNF19B) was significantly upregulated by ER stress. To determine the involvement of the ER stress-responsive genes in ERAD, we investigated their ER localisation, in vitro autoubiquitination activity and ER stress resistance. All were partially localised to the ER, whereas CGRRF1 did not possess E3 activity. RNFT1 and RNF185, but not CGRRF1 and RNF19B, exhibited significant resistance to ER stressor in an E3 activity-dependent manner. Thus, these genes are possible candidates for ERAD E3s. PMID:27485036

  6. Centromere binding and a conserved role in chromosome stability for SUMO-dependent ubiquitin ligases.

    PubMed

    van de Pasch, Loes A L; Miles, Antony J; Nijenhuis, Wilco; Brabers, Nathalie A C H; van Leenen, Dik; Lijnzaad, Philip; Brown, Markus K; Ouellet, Jimmy; Barral, Yves; Kops, Geert J P L; Holstege, Frank C P

    2013-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Slx5/8 complex is the founding member of a recently defined class of SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligases (STUbLs). Slx5/8 has been implicated in genome stability and transcription, but the precise contribution is unclear. To characterise Slx5/8 function, we determined genome-wide changes in gene expression upon loss of either subunit. The majority of mRNA changes are part of a general stress response, also exhibited by mutants of other genome integrity pathways and therefore indicative of an indirect effect on transcription. Genome-wide binding analysis reveals a uniquely centromeric location for Slx5. Detailed phenotype analyses of slx5Δ and slx8Δ mutants show severe mitotic defects that include aneuploidy, spindle mispositioning, fish hooks and aberrant spindle kinetics. This is associated with accumulation of the PP2A regulatory subunit Rts1 at centromeres prior to entry into anaphase. Knockdown of the human STUbL orthologue RNF4 also results in chromosome segregation errors due to chromosome bridges. The study shows that STUbLs have a conserved role in maintenance of chromosome stability and links SUMO-dependent ubiquitination to a centromere-specific function during mitosis. PMID:23785440

  7. Discovery of Mdm2-MdmX E3 Ligase Inhibitors Using a Cell-Based Ubiquitination Assay

    PubMed Central

    Herman, Ariel G.; Hayano, Miki; Poyurovsky, Masha V.; Shimada, Kenichi; Skouta, Rachid; Prives, Carol; Stockwell, Brent R.

    2011-01-01

    E3 ubiquitin ligases are of interest as drug targets for their ability to regulate protein stability and function. The oncogene Mdm2 is an attractive E3 ligase to target, as it is the key negative regulator of the tumor suppressor p53, which controls the transcription of genes involved in cell fate. Overexpression of Mdm2 facilitates tumorigenesis by inactivating p53, and through p53-independent oncogenic effects. We developed a high-throughput cellular Mdm2 auto-ubiquitination assay, which we used to discover a class of small molecule Mdm2 ligase activity inhibitors. These compounds inhibit Mdm2 and p53 ubiquitination in cells, reduce viability of cells with wild-type p53, and synergize with DNA-damaging agents to cause cell death. We determined that these compounds effectively inhibit the E3 ligase activity of the Mdm2-MdmX hetero-complex. This mechanism may be exploitable to create a new class of anti-tumor agents. PMID:22586610

  8. An impaired ubiquitin ligase complex favors initial growth of auxotrophic yeast strains in synthetic grape must.

    PubMed

    Mangado, Ana; Tronchoni, Jordi; Morales, Pilar; Novo, Maite; Quirós, Manuel; Gonzalez, Ramon

    2015-02-01

    We used experimental evolution in order to identify genes involved in the adaptation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to the early stages of alcoholic fermentation. Evolution experiments were run for about 200 generations, in continuous culture conditions emulating the initial stages of wine fermentation. We performed whole-genome sequencing of four adapted strains from three independent evolution experiments. Mutations identified in these strains pointed to the Rsp5p-Bul1/2p ubiquitin ligase complex as the preferred evolutionary target under these experimental conditions. Rsp5p is a multifunctional enzyme able to ubiquitinate target proteins participating in different cellular processes, while Bul1p is an Rsp5p substrate adaptor specifically involved in the ubiquitin-dependent internalization of Gap1p and other plasma membrane permeases. While a loss-of-function mutation in BUL1 seems to be enough to confer a selective advantage under these assay conditions, this did not seem to be the case for RSP5 mutated strains, which required additional mutations, probably compensating for the detrimental effect of altered Rsp5p activity on essential cellular functions. The power of this experimental approach is illustrated by the identification of four independent mutants, each with a limited number of SNPs, affected within the same pathway. However, in order to obtain information relevant for a specific biotechnological process, caution must be taken in the choice of the background yeast genotype (as shown in this case for auxotrophies). In addition, the use of very stable continuous fermentation conditions might lead to the selection of a rather limited number of adaptive responses that would mask other possible targets for genetic improvement. PMID:25620600

  9. The ubiquitin ligase tripartite-motif-protein 32 is induced in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Assereto, Stefania; Piccirillo, Rosanna; Baratto, Serena; Scudieri, Paolo; Fiorillo, Chiara; Massacesi, Manuela; Traverso, Monica; Galietta, Luis J; Bruno, Claudio; Minetti, Carlo; Zara, Federico; Gazzerro, Elisabetta

    2016-08-01

    Activation of the proteasome pathway is one of the secondary processes of cell damage, which ultimately lead to muscle degeneration and necrosis in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). In mdx mice, the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib up-regulates the membrane expression of members of the dystrophin complex and reduces the inflammatory reaction. However, chronic inhibition of the 26S proteasome may be toxic, as indicated by the systemic side-effects caused by this drug. Therefore, we sought to determine the components of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway that are specifically activated in human dystrophin-deficient muscles. The analysis of a cohort of patients with genetically determined DMD or Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) unveiled a selective up-regulation of the ubiquitin ligase tripartite motif-containing protein 32 (TRIM32). The induction of TRIM32 was due to a transcriptional effect and it correlated with disease severity in BMD patients. In contrast, atrogin1 and muscle RING-finger protein-1 (MuRF-1), which are strongly increased in distinct types of muscular atrophy, were not affected by the DMD dystrophic process. Knock-out models showed that TRIM32 is involved in ubiquitination of muscle cytoskeletal proteins as well as of protein inhibitor of activated STAT protein gamma (Piasγ) and N-myc downstream-regulated gene, two inhibitors of satellite cell proliferation and differentiation. Accordingly, we showed that in DMD/BMD muscle tissue, TRIM32 induction was more pronounced in regenerating myofibers rather than in necrotic muscle cells, thus pointing out a role of this protein in the regulation of human myoblast cell fate. This finding highlights TRIM32 as a possible therapeutic target to favor skeletal muscle regeneration in DMD patients. PMID:27295345

  10. Yeast Rsp5 ubiquitin ligase affects the actin cytoskeleton in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kaminska, Joanna; Spiess, Matthias; Stawiecka-Mirota, Marta; Monkaityte, Rasa; Haguenauer-Tsapis, Rosine; Urban-Grimal, Daniele; Winsor, Barbara; Zoladek, Teresa

    2011-12-01

    Yeast Rsp5 ubiquitin ligase is involved in several cellular processes, including endocytosis. Actin patches are sites of endocytosis, a process involving actin assembly and disassembly. Here we show Rsp5 localization in cortical patches and demonstrate its involvement in actin cytoskeleton organization and dynamics. We found that the Rsp5-F1-GFP2 N-terminal fragment and full length GFP-Rsp5 were recruited to peripheral patches that temporarily co-localized with Abp1-mCherry, a marker of actin patches. Actin cytoskeleton organization was defective in a strain lacking RSP5 or overexpressing RSP5, and this phenotype was accompanied by morphological abnormalities. Overexpression of RSP5 caused hypersensitivity of cells to Latrunculin A, an actin-depolymerizing drug and was toxic to cells lacking Las17, an activator of actin nucleation. Moreover, Rsp5 was required for efficient actin polymerization in a whole cell extract based in vitro system. Rsp5 interacted with Las17 and Las17-binding proteins, Lsb1 and Lsb2, in a GST-Rsp5-WW2/3 pull down assay. Rsp5 ubiquitinated Lsb1-HA and Lsb2-HA without directing them for degradation. Overexpression of RSP5 increased the cellular level of HA-Las17 in wild type and in lsb1Δ lsb2Δ strains in which the basal level of Las17 was already elevated. This increase was prevented in a strain devoid of Las17-binding protein Sla1 which is also a target of Rsp5 ubiquitination. Thus, Rsp5 together with Lsb1, Lsb2 and Sla1 regulate the level of Las17, an important activator of actin polymerization. PMID:22000681

  11. A Family of Salmonella Virulence Factors Functions as a Distinct Class of Autoregulated E3 Ubiquitin Ligases

    SciTech Connect

    Quezada, C.; Hicks, S; Galan, J; Stebbins, C

    2009-01-01

    Processes as diverse as receptor binding and signaling, cytoskeletal dynamics, and programmed cell death are manipulated by mimics of host proteins encoded by pathogenic bacteria. We show here that the Salmonella virulence factor SspH2 belongs to a growing class of bacterial effector proteins that harness and subvert the eukaryotic ubiquitination pathway. This virulence protein possesses ubiquitination activity that depends on a conserved cysteine residue. A crystal structure of SspH2 reveals a canonical leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain that interacts with a unique E{sub 3} ligase [which we have termed NEL for Novel E{sub 3} Ligase] C-terminal fold unrelated to previously observed HECT or RING-finger E{sub 3} ligases. Moreover, the LRR domain sequesters the catalytic cysteine residue contained in the NEL domain, and we suggest a mechanism for activation of the ligase requiring a substantial conformational change to release the catalytic domain for function. We also show that the N-terminal domain targets SspH2 to the apical plasma membrane of polarized epithelial cells and propose a model whereby binding of the LRR to proteins at the target site releases the ligase domain for site-specific function.

  12. Regulation of neddylation and deneddylation of cullin1 in SCFSkp2 ubiquitin ligase by F-box protein and substrate

    PubMed Central

    Bornstein, Gil; Ganoth, Dvora; Hershko, Avram

    2006-01-01

    The activity of cullin-containing ubiquitin protein ligase complexes is stimulated by linkage to cullin of the ubiquitin-like protein Nedd8 (“neddylation”). Neddylation is inhibited by the tight binding of cullins to CAND1 (cullin-associated and neddylation-dissociated 1) protein, and Nedd8 is removed from cullins by specific isopeptidase activity of the COP9/signalosome (CSN) complex. The mechanisms that regulate neddylation and deneddylation of cullins were unknown. We examined this problem for the case of SCFSkp2, a cullin1 (Cul1)-containing ubiquitin ligase complex that contains the S phase-associated protein Skp2 as the substrate-binding F-box protein subunit. SCFSkp2 targets for degradation the cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk) inhibitor p27 in the G1-to-S phase transition, a process that requires its phosphorylation and binding to cdk2-cyclin E. Because levels of Skp2, cyclin E, and the accessory protein Cks1 (cyclin kinase subunit 1) all rise at the end of G1 phase, it seemed possible that the neddylation of Cul1 in SCFSkp2 is regulated by the availability of the F-box protein and/or the substrate. We found that the supplementation of Skp2–Skp1 and substrate (along with further components necessary for substrate presentation to the ubiquitin ligase) to extracts of HeLa cells synergistically increased levels of neddylated Cul1. Skp2–Skp1 abrogates the inhibitory influence of CAND1 on the neddylation of Cul1 by promoting the dissociation of the cullin–CAND1 complex, whereas substrate, together with substrate-presenting components, prevents the action of CSN to deneddylate cullin. We propose a sequence of events in which the increased availability of Skp2 and substrate in the transition of cells to S phase promotes the neddylation and assembly of the SCFSkp2 ubiquitin ligase complex. PMID:16861300

  13. The multidrug resistance pump ABCB1 is a substrate for the ubiquitin ligase NEDD4-1

    PubMed Central

    Akkaya, Begum G.; Zolnerciks, Joseph K.; Ritchie, Tasha K.; Bauer, Bjoern; Hartz, Anika M.S.; Sullivan, James A.; Linton, Kenneth J.

    2016-01-01

    The ATP Binding Cassette transporter ABCB1 can export the neurotoxic peptide β-amyloid from endothelial cells that line the blood-brain barrier (BBB). This has the potential to lower cerebral levels of β-amyloid, but ABCB1 expression in the BBB appears to be progressively reduced in patients with Alzheimer's disease. The surface density of many membrane proteins is regulated by ubiquitination catalysed by ubiquitin E3 ligases. In brain capillaries of mice challenged with β-amyloid ex vivo, we show that the level of the ubiquitin ligase Nedd4 increases concomitant with reduction in Abcb1. In vitro we show that human ABCB1 is a substrate for human NEDD4-1 ligase. Recombinant ABCB1 was purified from Sf21 insect cells and incubated with recombinant NEDD4-1 purified from E. coli. The treated ABCB1 had reduced mobility on SDS-PAGE, and mass spectrometry identified eight lysine residues, K271, K272, K575, K685, K877, K885, K887 and K1062 that were ubiquitinated by NEDD4-1. Molecular modelling showed that all of the residues are exposed on the surface of the intracellular domains of ABCB1. K877, K885 and K887 in particular, are located in the intracellular loop of transmembrane helix 10 (TMH10) in close proximity, in the tertiary fold, to a putative NEDD4-1 binding site in the intracellular helix extending from TMH12 (PxY motif, residues 996-998). Transient expression of NEDD4-1 in HEK293 Flp-In cells stably expressing ABCB1 was shown to reduce the surface density of the transporter. Together, the data identify this ubiquitin ligase as a potential target for intervention in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:26006083

  14. Regulation of a DLK-1 and p38 MAP kinase pathway by the ubiquitin ligase RPM-1 is required for presynaptic development.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Katsunori; Abrams, Benjamin; Grill, Brock; Goncharov, Alexandr; Huang, Xun; Chisholm, Andrew D; Jin, Yishi

    2005-02-11

    Synapses display a stereotyped ultrastructural organization, commonly containing a single electron-dense presynaptic density surrounded by a cluster of synaptic vesicles. The mechanism controlling subsynaptic proportion is not understood. Loss of function in the C. elegans rpm-1 gene, a putative RING finger/E3 ubiquitin ligase, causes disorganized presynaptic cytoarchitecture. RPM-1 is localized to the presynaptic periactive zone. We report that RPM-1 negatively regulates a p38 MAP kinase pathway composed of the dual leucine zipper-bearing MAPKKK DLK-1, the MAPKK MKK-4, and the p38 MAP kinase PMK-3. Inactivation of this pathway suppresses rpm-1 loss of function phenotypes, whereas overexpression or constitutive activation of this pathway causes synaptic defects resembling rpm-1(lf) mutants. DLK-1, like RPM-1, is localized to the periactive zone. DLK-1 protein levels are elevated in rpm-1 mutants. The RPM-1 RING finger can stimulate ubiquitination of DLK-1. Our data reveal a presynaptic role of a previously unknown p38 MAP kinase cascade. PMID:15707898

  15. Proteolysis of MOB1 by the ubiquitin ligase praja2 attenuates Hippo signalling and supports glioblastoma growth.

    PubMed

    Lignitto, Luca; Arcella, Antonietta; Sepe, Maria; Rinaldi, Laura; Delle Donne, Rossella; Gallo, Adriana; Stefan, Eduard; Bachmann, Verena A; Oliva, Maria A; Tiziana Storlazzi, Clelia; L'Abbate, Alberto; Brunetti, Arturo; Gargiulo, Sara; Gramanzini, Matteo; Insabato, Luigi; Garbi, Corrado; Gottesman, Max E; Feliciello, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Human glioblastoma is the most frequent and aggressive form of brain tumour in the adult population. Proteolytic turnover of tumour suppressors by the ubiquitin-proteasome system is a mechanism that tumour cells can adopt to sustain their growth and invasiveness. However, the identity of ubiquitin-proteasome targets and regulators in glioblastoma are still unknown. Here we report that the RING ligase praja2 ubiquitylates and degrades Mob, a core component of NDR/LATS kinase and a positive regulator of the tumour-suppressor Hippo cascade. Degradation of Mob through the ubiquitin-proteasome system attenuates the Hippo cascade and sustains glioblastoma growth in vivo. Accordingly, accumulation of praja2 during the transition from low- to high-grade glioma is associated with significant downregulation of the Hippo pathway. These findings identify praja2 as a novel upstream regulator of the Hippo cascade, linking the ubiquitin proteasome system to deregulated glioblastoma growth. PMID:23652010

  16. A SPOPL/Cullin-3 ubiquitin ligase complex regulates endocytic trafficking by targeting EPS15 at endosomes

    PubMed Central

    Gschweitl, Michaela; Ulbricht, Anna; Barnes, Christopher A; Enchev, Radoslav I; Stoffel-Studer, Ingrid; Meyer-Schaller, Nathalie; Huotari, Jatta; Yamauchi, Yohei; Greber, Urs F; Helenius, Ari; Peter, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Cullin-3 (CUL3)-based ubiquitin ligases regulate endosome maturation and trafficking of endocytic cargo to lysosomes in mammalian cells. Here, we report that these functions depend on SPOPL, a substrate-specific CUL3 adaptor. We find that SPOPL associates with endosomes and is required for both the formation of multivesicular bodies (MVBs) and the endocytic host cell entry of influenza A virus. In SPOPL-depleted cells, endosomes are enlarged and fail to acquire intraluminal vesicles (ILVs). We identify a critical substrate ubiquitinated by CUL3-SPOPL as EPS15, an endocytic adaptor that also associates with the ESCRT-0 complex members HRS and STAM on endosomes. Indeed, EPS15 is ubiquitinated in a SPOPL-dependent manner, and accumulates with HRS in cells lacking SPOPL. Together, our data indicates that a CUL3-SPOPL E3 ubiquitin ligase complex regulates endocytic trafficking and MVB formation by ubiquitinating and degrading EPS15 at endosomes, thereby influencing influenza A virus infection as well as degradation of EGFR and other EPS15 targets. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13841.001 PMID:27008177

  17. A SPOPL/Cullin-3 ubiquitin ligase complex regulates endocytic trafficking by targeting EPS15 at endosomes.

    PubMed

    Gschweitl, Michaela; Ulbricht, Anna; Barnes, Christopher A; Enchev, Radoslav I; Stoffel-Studer, Ingrid; Meyer-Schaller, Nathalie; Huotari, Jatta; Yamauchi, Yohei; Greber, Urs F; Helenius, Ari; Peter, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Cullin-3 (CUL3)-based ubiquitin ligases regulate endosome maturation and trafficking of endocytic cargo to lysosomes in mammalian cells. Here, we report that these functions depend on SPOPL, a substrate-specific CUL3 adaptor. We find that SPOPL associates with endosomes and is required for both the formation of multivesicular bodies (MVBs) and the endocytic host cell entry of influenza A virus. In SPOPL-depleted cells, endosomes are enlarged and fail to acquire intraluminal vesicles (ILVs). We identify a critical substrate ubiquitinated by CUL3-SPOPL as EPS15, an endocytic adaptor that also associates with the ESCRT-0 complex members HRS and STAM on endosomes. Indeed, EPS15 is ubiquitinated in a SPOPL-dependent manner, and accumulates with HRS in cells lacking SPOPL. Together, our data indicates that a CUL3-SPOPL E3 ubiquitin ligase complex regulates endocytic trafficking and MVB formation by ubiquitinating and degrading EPS15 at endosomes, thereby influencing influenza A virus infection as well as degradation of EGFR and other EPS15 targets. PMID:27008177

  18. The tumour antigen PRAME is a subunit of a Cul2 ubiquitin ligase and associates with active NFY promoters

    PubMed Central

    Costessi, Adalberto; Mahrour, Nawel; Tijchon, Esther; Stunnenberg, Rieka; Stoel, Marieke A; Jansen, Pascal W; Sela, Dotan; Martin-Brown, Skylar; Washburn, Michael P; Florens, Laurence; Conaway, Joan W; Conaway, Ronald C; Stunnenberg, Hendrik G

    2011-01-01

    The human tumour antigen PRAME (preferentially expressed antigen of melanoma) is frequently overexpressed in tumours. High PRAME levels correlate with poor clinical outcome of several cancers, but the mechanisms by which PRAME could be involved in tumourigenesis remain largely elusive. We applied protein-complex purification strategies and identified PRAME as a substrate recognition subunit of a Cullin2-based E3 ubiquitin ligase. PRAME can be recruited to DNA in vitro, and genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that PRAME is specifically enriched at transcriptionally active promoters that are also bound by NFY and at enhancers. Our results are consistent with a role for the PRAME ubiquitin ligase complex in NFY-mediated transcriptional regulation. PMID:21822215

  19. The Human EKC/KEOPS Complex Is Recruited to Cullin2 Ubiquitin Ligases by the Human Tumour Antigen PRAME

    PubMed Central

    Costessi, Adalberto; Mahrour, Nawel; Sharma, Vikram; Stunnenberg, Rieka; Stoel, Marieke A.; Tijchon, Esther; Conaway, Joan W.; Conaway, Ronald C.; Stunnenberg, Hendrik G.

    2012-01-01

    The human tumour antigen PRAME (preferentially expressed antigen in melanoma) is frequently overexpressed during oncogenesis, and high PRAME levels are associated with poor clinical outcome in a variety of cancers. However, the molecular pathways in which PRAME is implicated are not well understood. We recently characterized PRAME as a BC-box subunit of a Cullin2-based E3 ubiquitin ligase. In this study, we mined the PRAME interactome to a deeper level and identified specific interactions with OSGEP and LAGE3, which are human orthologues of the ancient EKC/KEOPS complex. By characterizing biochemically the human EKC complex and its interactions with PRAME, we show that PRAME recruits a Cul2 ubiquitin ligase to EKC. Moreover, EKC subunits associate with PRAME target sites on chromatin. Our data reveal a novel link between the oncoprotein PRAME and the conserved EKC complex and support a role for both complexes in the same pathways. PMID:22912744

  20. Raft endocytosis of AMF regulates mitochondrial dynamics through Rac1 signaling and the Gp78 ubiquitin ligase.

    PubMed

    Shankar, Jay; Kojic, Liliana D; St-Pierre, Pascal; Wang, Peter T C; Fu, Min; Joshi, Bharat; Nabi, Ivan R

    2013-08-01

    Gp78 is a cell surface receptor that also functions as an E3 ubiquitin ligase in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway. The Gp78 ligand, the glycolytic enzyme phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI; also called autocrine motility factor, AMF), functions as a cytokine upon secretion by tumor cells. AMF is internalized through a PI3K- and dynamin-dependent raft endocytic pathway to the smooth ER; however, the relationship between AMF and Gp78 ubiquitin ligase activity remains unclear. AMF uptake to the smooth ER is inhibited by the dynamin inhibitor, dynasore, is reduced in Gp78 knockdown cells and induces the dynamin-dependent downregulation of its cell surface receptor. AMF uptake is Rac1-dependent and is inhibited by expression of dominant-negative Rac1 and the Rac1 inhibitor NSC23766, and is therefore distinct from Cdc42- and RhoA-dependent raft endocytic pathways. AMF stimulates Rac1 activation, but this is reduced by dynasore treatment and is absent in Gp78-knockdown cells; therefore, AMF activities require Gp78-mediated endocytosis. AMF also prevents Gp78-induced degradation of the mitochondrial fusion proteins, mitofusin 1 and 2 in a dynamin-, Rac1- and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-dependent manner. Gp78 induces mitochondrial clustering and fission in a manner dependent on GP78 ubiquitin ligase activity, and this is also reversed by uptake of AMF. The raft-dependent endocytosis of AMF, therefore, promotes Rac1-PI3K signaling that feeds back to promote AMF endocytosis and also inhibits the ability of Gp78 to target the mitofusins for degradation, thereby preventing Gp78-dependent mitochondrial fission. Through regulation of an ER-localized ubiquitin ligase, the raft-dependent endocytosis of AMF represents an extracellular regulator of mitochondrial fusion and dynamics. PMID:23690547

  1. Expansion and Diversification of BTL Ring-H2 Ubiquitin Ligases in Angiosperms: Putative Rabring7/BCA2 Orthologs

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar-Henonin, Laura; Guzmán, Plinio

    2013-01-01

    RING finger E3 ligases are components of the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) that mediate the transfer of ubiquitin to substrates. Single-subunit RING finger E3s binds the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme and contains recognition sequences for the substrate within the same polypeptide. Here we describe the characterization of a class of RING finger E3 ligases that is conserved among eukaryotes. This class encodes a RING-H2 domain related in sequence to the ATL RING-H2 domain, another class of E3 ligases, and a C2/C2 zing finger at the amino-terminus, formerly described as BZF. In viridiplantae (green algae and land plants), we designed this family as BTL for BZF ATLs. BTLs are putative orthologs of the mammalian Rabring7/BCA2 RING-H2 E3s that have expanded in angiosperms. They are found in numbers ranging from three to thirty-one, which is in contrast to the one to three members normally found in animals, fungi, and protists. Furthermore, the number of sequence LOGOs generated in angiosperms is four times greater than that in other eukaryotes. In contrast to ATLs, which show expansion by tandem duplication, tandemly duplicated BTLs are scarce. The mode of action of Rabring7/BCA2 and BTLs may be similar since both the Rabring7/BCA2 BZF and the ath|BTL4 BZF are likely to mediate the binding of ubiquitin. This study introduces valuable information on the evolution and domain structure of the Rabring7/BCA2/BTL class of E3 ligases which may be important for core eukaryotic genes. PMID:23951330

  2. Expansion and diversification of BTL ring-H2 ubiquitin ligases in angiosperms: putative Rabring7/BCA2 orthologs.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Hernández, Victor; Medina, Juliana; Aguilar-Henonin, Laura; Guzmán, Plinio

    2013-01-01

    RING finger E3 ligases are components of the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) that mediate the transfer of ubiquitin to substrates. Single-subunit RING finger E3s binds the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme and contains recognition sequences for the substrate within the same polypeptide. Here we describe the characterization of a class of RING finger E3 ligases that is conserved among eukaryotes. This class encodes a RING-H2 domain related in sequence to the ATL RING-H2 domain, another class of E3 ligases, and a C2/C2 zing finger at the amino-terminus, formerly described as BZF. In viridiplantae (green algae and land plants), we designed this family as BTL for BZF ATLs. BTLs are putative orthologs of the mammalian Rabring7/BCA2 RING-H2 E3s that have expanded in angiosperms. They are found in numbers ranging from three to thirty-one, which is in contrast to the one to three members normally found in animals, fungi, and protists. Furthermore, the number of sequence LOGOs generated in angiosperms is four times greater than that in other eukaryotes. In contrast to ATLs, which show expansion by tandem duplication, tandemly duplicated BTLs are scarce. The mode of action of Rabring7/BCA2 and BTLs may be similar since both the Rabring7/BCA2 BZF and the ath|BTL4 BZF are likely to mediate the binding of ubiquitin. This study introduces valuable information on the evolution and domain structure of the Rabring7/BCA2/BTL class of E3 ligases which may be important for core eukaryotic genes. PMID:23951330

  3. Ataxia and hypogonadism caused by the loss of ubiquitin ligase activity of the U box protein CHIP.

    PubMed

    Shi, Chang-He; Schisler, Jonathan C; Rubel, Carrie E; Tan, Song; Song, Bo; McDonough, Holly; Xu, Lei; Portbury, Andrea L; Mao, Cheng-Yuan; True, Cadence; Wang, Rui-Hao; Wang, Qing-Zhi; Sun, Shi-Lei; Seminara, Stephanie B; Patterson, Cam; Xu, Yu-Ming

    2014-02-15

    Gordon Holmes syndrome (GHS) is a rare Mendelian neurodegenerative disorder characterized by ataxia and hypogonadism. Recently, it was suggested that disordered ubiquitination underlies GHS though the discovery of exome mutations in the E3 ligase RNF216 and deubiquitinase OTUD4. We performed exome sequencing in a family with two of three siblings afflicted with ataxia and hypogonadism and identified a homozygous mutation in STUB1 (NM_005861) c.737C→T, p.Thr246Met, a gene that encodes the protein CHIP (C-terminus of HSC70-interacting protein). CHIP plays a central role in regulating protein quality control, in part through its ability to function as an E3 ligase. Loss of CHIP function has long been associated with protein misfolding and aggregation in several genetic mouse models of neurodegenerative disorders; however, a role for CHIP in human neurological disease has yet to be identified. Introduction of the Thr246Met mutation into CHIP results in a loss of ubiquitin ligase activity measured directly using recombinant proteins as well as in cell culture models. Loss of CHIP function in mice resulted in behavioral and reproductive impairments that mimic human ataxia and hypogonadism. We conclude that GHS can be caused by a loss-of-function mutation in CHIP. Our findings further highlight the role of disordered ubiquitination and protein quality control in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disease and demonstrate the utility of combining whole-exome sequencing with molecular analyses and animal models to define causal disease polymorphisms. PMID:24113144

  4. Allosteric Interactions by p53 mRNA Govern HDM2 E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Specificity under Different Conditions.

    PubMed

    Medina-Medina, Ixaura; García-Beltrán, Paola; de la Mora-de la Mora, Ignacio; Oria-Hernández, Jesús; Millot, Guy; Fahraeus, Robin; Reyes-Vivas, Horacio; Sampedro, José G; Olivares-Illana, Vanesa

    2016-08-15

    HDM2 and HDMX are key negative regulatory factors of the p53 tumor suppressor under normal conditions by promoting its degradation or preventing its trans activity, respectively. It has more recently been shown that both proteins can also act as positive regulators of p53 after DNA damage. This involves phosphorylation by ATM on serine residues HDM2(S395) and HDMX(S403), promoting their respective interaction with the p53 mRNA. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of how these phosphorylation events switch HDM2 and HDMX from negative to positive regulators of p53 is not known. Our results show that these phosphorylation events reside within intrinsically disordered domains and change the conformation of the proteins. The modifications promote the exposition of N-terminal interfaces that support the formation of a new HDMX-HDM2 heterodimer independent of the C-terminal RING-RING interaction. The E3 ubiquitin ligase activity of this complex toward p53 is prevented by the p53 mRNA ligand but, interestingly, does not affect the capacity to ubiquitinate HDMX and HDM2. These results show how ATM-mediated modifications of HDMX and HDM2 switch HDM2 E3 ubiquitin ligase activity away from p53 but toward HDMX and itself and illustrate how the substrate specificity of HDM2 E3 ligase activity is regulated. PMID:27215386

  5. E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Cbl-b Regulates Thymic-Derived CD4+CD25+ Regulatory T Cell Development by Targeting Foxp3 for Ubiquitination.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yixia; Guo, Hui; Qiao, Guilin; Zucker, Mark; Langdon, Wallace Y; Zhang, Jian

    2015-02-15

    CD28 costimulation is essential for the development of thymic-derived CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells ("tTregs"). E3 ubiquitin ligase Cbl-b has been shown to regulate CD28 dependence of T cell activation. In this paper, we report that the loss of Cbl-b partially but significantly rescues the defective development of tTregs in Cd28(-/-) mice. This partial rescue is independent of IL-2. Mechanistically, Cbl-b binds to Foxp3 upon TCR stimulation and, together with Stub1, targets Foxp3 for ubiquitination and subsequently degradation in the proteasome. As Cbl-b self-ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation is impaired in Cd28(-/-) T cells, the defective development of tTregs in Cd28(-/-) mice may in part be due to increased Foxp3 ubiquitination and degradation targeted by Stub1 and Cbl-b. Treating Cd28(-/-) mice with a proteasome inhibitor completely rescues defective tTreg development in these mice. Therefore, Cbl-b, together with Stub1, ubiquitinate Foxp3, and regulate tTreg development. PMID:25560411

  6. Trim32 is a ubiquitin ligase mutated in limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2H that binds to skeletal muscle myosin and ubiquitinates actin.

    PubMed

    Kudryashova, Elena; Kudryashov, Dmitri; Kramerova, Irina; Spencer, Melissa J

    2005-11-25

    Trim32 belongs to the tripartite motif (TRIM) protein family, which is characterized by a common domain structure composed of a RING-finger, a B-box, and a coiled-coil motif. In addition to these motifs, Trim32 possesses six C-terminal NHL-domains. A point mutation in one NHL domain (D487N) has been linked to two forms of muscular dystrophy called limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2H and sarcotubular myopathy. In the present study we demonstrate that Trim32 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that acts in conjunction with ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes UbcH5a, UbcH5c, and UbcH6. Western blot analysis showed that Trim32 is expressed primarily in skeletal muscle, and revealed its differential expression from one muscle to another. The level of Trim32 expression was elevated significantly in muscle undergoing remodeling due to changes in weight bearing. Furthermore, expression of Trim32 was induced in myogenic differentiation. Thus, variability in Trim32 expression in different skeletal muscles could be due to induction of Trim32 expression upon changes in physiological conditions. We show that Trim32 associates with skeletal muscle thick filaments, interacting directly with the head and neck region of myosin. Our data indicate that myosin is not a substrate of Trim32; however, Trim32 was found to ubiquitinate actin in vitro and to cause a decrease in the level of endogenous actin when transfected into HEK293 cells. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that Trim32 is a ubiquitin ligase that is expressed in skeletal muscle, can be induced upon muscle unloading and reloading, associates with myofibrils and is able to ubiquitinate actin, suggesting its likely participation in myofibrillar protein turnover, especially during muscle adaptation. PMID:16243356

  7. The E3 ubiquitin ligase CHIP and the molecular chaperone Hsc70 form a dynamic, tethered complex.

    PubMed

    Smith, Matthew C; Scaglione, K Matthew; Assimon, Victoria A; Patury, Srikanth; Thompson, Andrea D; Dickey, Chad A; Southworth, Daniel R; Paulson, Henry L; Gestwicki, Jason E; Zuiderweg, Erik R P

    2013-08-13

    The E3 ubiquitin ligase CHIP (C-terminus of Hsc70 Interacting Protein, a 70 kDa homodimer) binds to the molecular chaperone Hsc70 (a 70 kDa monomer), and this complex is important in both the ubiquitination of Hsc70 and the turnover of Hsc70-bound clients. Here we used NMR spectroscopy, biolayer interferometry, and fluorescence polarization to characterize the Hsc70-CHIP interaction. We found that CHIP binds tightly to two molecules of Hsc70 forming a 210 kDa complex, with a Kd of approximately 60 nM, and that the IEEVD motif at the C-terminus of Hsc70 (residues 642-646) is both necessary and sufficient for binding. Moreover, the same motif is required for CHIP-mediated ubiquitination of Hsc70 in vitro, highlighting its functional importance. Relaxation-based NMR experiments on the Hsc70-CHIP complex determined that the two partners move independently in solution, similar to "beads on a string". These results suggest that a dynamic C-terminal region of Hsc70 provides for flexibility between CHIP and the chaperone, allowing the ligase to "search" a large space and engage in productive interactions with a wide range of clients. In support of this suggestion, we find that deleting residues 623-641 of the C-terminal region, while retaining the IEEVD motif, caused a significant decrease in the efficiency of Hsc70 ubiquitination by CHIP. PMID:23865999

  8. Real Estate in the DNA Damage Response: Ubiquitin and SUMO Ligases Home in on DNA Double-Strand Breaks.

    PubMed

    Dantuma, Nico P; Pfeiffer, Annika

    2016-01-01

    Ubiquitin and the ubiquitin-like modifier SUMO are intimately connected with the cellular response to various types of DNA damage. A striking feature is the local accumulation of these proteinaceous post-translational modifications in the direct vicinity to DNA double-strand breaks, which plays a critical role in the formation of ionizing radiation-induced foci. The functional significance of these modifications is the coordinated recruitment and removal of proteins involved in DNA damage signaling and repair in a timely manner. The central orchestrators of these processes are the ubiquitin and SUMO ligases that are responsible for accurately tagging a broad array of chromatin and chromatin-associated proteins thereby changing their behavior or destination. Despite many differences in the mode of action of these enzymes, they share some striking features that are of direct relevance for their function in the DNA damage response. In this review, we outline the molecular mechanisms that are responsible for the recruitment of ubiquitin and SUMO ligases and discuss the importance of chromatin proximity in this process. PMID:27148355

  9. Real Estate in the DNA Damage Response: Ubiquitin and SUMO Ligases Home in on DNA Double-Strand Breaks

    PubMed Central

    Dantuma, Nico P.; Pfeiffer, Annika

    2016-01-01

    Ubiquitin and the ubiquitin-like modifier SUMO are intimately connected with the cellular response to various types of DNA damage. A striking feature is the local accumulation of these proteinaceous post-translational modifications in the direct vicinity to DNA double-strand breaks, which plays a critical role in the formation of ionizing radiation-induced foci. The functional significance of these modifications is the coordinated recruitment and removal of proteins involved in DNA damage signaling and repair in a timely manner. The central orchestrators of these processes are the ubiquitin and SUMO ligases that are responsible for accurately tagging a broad array of chromatin and chromatin-associated proteins thereby changing their behavior or destination. Despite many differences in the mode of action of these enzymes, they share some striking features that are of direct relevance for their function in the DNA damage response. In this review, we outline the molecular mechanisms that are responsible for the recruitment of ubiquitin and SUMO ligases and discuss the importance of chromatin proximity in this process. PMID:27148355

  10. COP1 Controls Abiotic Stress Responses by Modulating AtSIZ1 Function through Its E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Activity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joo Y; Jang, In-Cheol; Seo, Hak S

    2016-01-01

    Ubiquitination and sumoylation are essential post-translational modifications that regulate growth and development processes in plants, including control of hormone signaling mechanisms and responses to stress. This study showed that COP1 (Constitutive photomorphogenic 1) regulated the activity of Arabidopsis E3 SUMO (Small ubiquitin-related modifier) ligase AtSIZ1 through its E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. Yeast two hybrid analysis demonstrated that COP1 and AtSIZ1 directly interacted with one another, and subcellular localization assays indicated that COP1 and AtSIZ1 co-localized in nuclear bodies. Analysis of ubiquitination showed that AtSIZ1 was polyubiquitinated by COP1. The AtSIZ1 level was higher in cop1-4 mutants than in wild-type seedlings under light or dark conditions, and overexpression of a dominant-negative (DN)-COP1 mutant led to a substantial increase in AtSIZ1 accumulation. In addition, under drought, cold, and high salt conditions, SUMO-conjugate levels were elevated in DN-COP1-overexpressing plants and cop1-4 mutant plants compared to wild-type plants. Taken together, our results indicate that COP1 controls responses to abiotic stress by modulation of AtSIZ1 levels and activity. PMID:27536318

  11. COP1 Controls Abiotic Stress Responses by Modulating AtSIZ1 Function through Its E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joo Y.; Jang, In-Cheol; Seo, Hak S.

    2016-01-01

    Ubiquitination and sumoylation are essential post-translational modifications that regulate growth and development processes in plants, including control of hormone signaling mechanisms and responses to stress. This study showed that COP1 (Constitutive photomorphogenic 1) regulated the activity of Arabidopsis E3 SUMO (Small ubiquitin-related modifier) ligase AtSIZ1 through its E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. Yeast two hybrid analysis demonstrated that COP1 and AtSIZ1 directly interacted with one another, and subcellular localization assays indicated that COP1 and AtSIZ1 co-localized in nuclear bodies. Analysis of ubiquitination showed that AtSIZ1 was polyubiquitinated by COP1. The AtSIZ1 level was higher in cop1-4 mutants than in wild-type seedlings under light or dark conditions, and overexpression of a dominant-negative (DN)-COP1 mutant led to a substantial increase in AtSIZ1 accumulation. In addition, under drought, cold, and high salt conditions, SUMO-conjugate levels were elevated in DN-COP1-overexpressing plants and cop1-4 mutant plants compared to wild-type plants. Taken together, our results indicate that COP1 controls responses to abiotic stress by modulation of AtSIZ1 levels and activity. PMID:27536318

  12. The E3 ubiquitin ligase Trim7 mediates c-Jun/AP-1 activation by Ras signalling

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Atanu; Diefenbacher, Markus E.; Mylona, Anastasia; Kassel, Olivier; Behrens, Axel

    2015-01-01

    The c-Jun/AP-1 transcription factor controls key cellular behaviours, including proliferation and apoptosis, in response to JNK and Ras/MAPK signalling. While the JNK pathway has been well characterised, the mechanism of activation by Ras was elusive. Here we identify the uncharacterised ubiquitin ligase Trim7 as a critical component of AP-1 activation via Ras. We found that MSK1 directly phosphorylates Trim7 in response to direct activation by the Ras–Raf–MEK–ERK pathway, and this modification stimulates Trim7 E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. Trim7 mediates Lys63-linked ubiquitination of the AP-1 coactivator RACO-1, leading to RACO-1 protein stabilisation. Consequently, Trim7 depletion reduces RACO-1 levels and AP-1-dependent gene expression. Moreover, transgenic overexpression of Trim7 increases lung tumour burden in a Ras-driven cancer model, and knockdown of Trim7 in established xenografts reduces tumour growth. Thus, phosphorylation-ubiquitination crosstalk between MSK1, Trim7 and RACO-1 completes the long sought-after mechanism linking growth factor signalling and AP-1 activation. PMID:25851810

  13. Sterol homeostasis requires regulated degradation of squalene monooxygenase by the ubiquitin ligase Doa10/Teb4

    PubMed Central

    Foresti, Ombretta; Ruggiano, Annamaria; Hannibal-Bach, Hans K; Ejsing, Christer S; Carvalho, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Sterol homeostasis is essential for the function of cellular membranes and requires feedback inhibition of HMGR, a rate-limiting enzyme of the mevalonate pathway. As HMGR acts at the beginning of the pathway, its regulation affects the synthesis of sterols and of other essential mevalonate-derived metabolites, such as ubiquinone or dolichol. Here, we describe a novel, evolutionarily conserved feedback system operating at a sterol-specific step of the mevalonate pathway. This involves the sterol-dependent degradation of squalene monooxygenase mediated by the yeast Doa10 or mammalian Teb4, a ubiquitin ligase implicated in a branch of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated protein degradation (ERAD) pathway. Since the other branch of ERAD is required for HMGR regulation, our results reveal a fundamental role for ERAD in sterol homeostasis, with the two branches of this pathway acting together to control sterol biosynthesis at different levels and thereby allowing independent regulation of multiple products of the mevalonate pathway. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00953.001 PMID:23898401

  14. Ubiquitin ligase TRIM3 controls hippocampal plasticity and learning by regulating synaptic γ-actin levels

    PubMed Central

    Schreiber, Joerg; Végh, Marlene J.; Dawitz, Julia; Kroon, Tim; Loos, Maarten; Labonté, Dorthe; Li, Ka Wan; Van Nierop, Pim; Van Diepen, Michiel T.; De Zeeuw, Chris I.; Kneussel, Matthias; Meredith, Rhiannon M.; Smit, August B.

    2015-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity requires remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton. Although two actin isoforms, β- and γ-actin, are expressed in dendritic spines, the specific contribution of γ-actin in the expression of synaptic plasticity is unknown. We show that synaptic γ-actin levels are regulated by the E3 ubiquitin ligase TRIM3. TRIM3 protein and Actg1 transcript are colocalized in messenger ribonucleoprotein granules responsible for the dendritic targeting of messenger RNAs. TRIM3 polyubiquitylates γ-actin, most likely cotranslationally at synaptic sites. Trim3−/− mice consequently have increased levels of γ-actin at hippocampal synapses, resulting in higher spine densities, increased long-term potentiation, and enhanced short-term contextual fear memory consolidation. Interestingly, hippocampal deletion of Actg1 caused an increase in long-term fear memory. Collectively, our findings suggest that temporal control of γ-actin levels by TRIM3 is required to regulate the timing of hippocampal plasticity. We propose a model in which TRIM3 regulates synaptic γ-actin turnover and actin filament stability and thus forms a transient inhibitory constraint on the expression of hippocampal synaptic plasticity. PMID:26527743

  15. The E3 Ubiquitin Ligase COP1 Regulates Thermosensory Flowering by Triggering GI Degradation in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Kiyoung; Gil Lee, Hong; Jung, Su-Jin; Paek, Nam-Chon; Joon Seo, Pil

    2015-01-01

    Floral transition is influenced by environmental factors such as light and temperature. Plants are capable of integrating photoperiod and ambient temperature signaling into their developmental program. Despite extensive investigations on individual genetic pathways, little is known about the molecular components that integrate both pathways. Here, we demonstrate that the RING finger–containing E3 ubiquitin ligase CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1 (COP1) acts as an integrator of photoperiod and ambient temperature signaling. In addition to the role in photoperiodic destabilization of CONSTANS (CO), COP1 also regulates temperature sensitivity by controlling the degradation of GIGANTEA (GI). COP1-impaired mutants showed reduced sensitivity to low ambient temperature. Notably, COP1 is more stabilized at low temperature and accelerates GI turnover in a 26S proteasome-dependent manner. The direct association of GI with the promoter of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) was reduced because of its ambient temperature-dependent protein stability control, and thus COP1-triggered GI turnover delays flowering at low temperatures via a CO-independent pathway. Taken together, our findings indicate that environmental conditions regulate the stability of COP1, and conditional specificity of its target selection stimulates proper developmental responses and ensures reproductive success. PMID:26159740

  16. Regulation of a Spindle Positioning Factor at Kinetochores by SUMO-Targeted Ubiquitin Ligases.

    PubMed

    Schweiggert, Jörg; Stevermann, Lea; Panigada, Davide; Kammerer, Daniel; Liakopoulos, Dimitris

    2016-02-22

    Correct function of the mitotic spindle requires balanced interplay of kinetochore and astral microtubules that mediate chromosome segregation and spindle positioning, respectively. Errors therein can cause severe defects ranging from aneuploidy to developmental disorders. Here, we describe a protein degradation pathway that functionally links astral microtubules to kinetochores via regulation of a microtubule-associated factor. We show that the yeast spindle positioning protein Kar9 localizes not only to astral but also to kinetochore microtubules, where it becomes targeted for proteasomal degradation by the SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligases (STUbLs) Slx5-Slx8. Intriguingly, this process does not depend on preceding sumoylation of Kar9 but rather requires SUMO-dependent recruitment of STUbLs to kinetochores. Failure to degrade Kar9 leads to defects in both chromosome segregation and spindle positioning. We propose that kinetochores serve as platforms to recruit STUbLs in a SUMO-dependent manner in order to ensure correct spindle function by regulating levels of microtubule-associated proteins. PMID:26906737

  17. Proteomic insight into the effects of the Salmonella ubiquitin ligase SlrP on host cells.

    PubMed

    Cordero-Alba, Mar; García-Gómez, Juan José; Aguilera-Herce, Julia; Ramos-Morales, Francisco

    2016-04-01

    The virulence of the human and animal pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is dependent on two type III secretion systems. These systems translocate proteins called effectors into eukaryotic host cells. SlrP is a Salmonella type III secretion effector with ubiquitin ligase activity. Here, we used two complementary proteomic approaches, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and iTRAQ (isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification) to study the consequences of the presence of SlrP in human epithelial cells. We identified 37 proteins that were differentially expressed in HeLa cells expressing slrP compared to control cells. Microarray analysis revealed that more than a half of differentially expressed proteins did not show changes in the transcriptome, suggesting post-transcriptional regulation. A gene ontology overrepresentation test carried out on the differentially expressed proteins revealed enrichment of ontology terms related to several types of junctions mediating adhesion in epithelial cells. Consistently, slrP-transfected cells showed defects in migration and adhesion. Our results suggest that the modification of cell-cell interaction ability of the host could be one of the final consequences of the action of SlrP during an infection. PMID:26966069

  18. Control of HIPK2 stability by ubiquitin ligase Siah-1 and checkpoint kinases ATM and ATR.

    PubMed

    Winter, Melanie; Sombroek, Dirk; Dauth, Ilka; Moehlenbrink, Jutta; Scheuermann, Karin; Crone, Johanna; Hofmann, Thomas G

    2008-07-01

    The tumour suppressor HIPK2 is an important regulator of cell death induced by DNA damage, but how its activity is regulated remains largely unclear. Here we demonstrate that HIPK2 is an unstable protein that colocalizes and interacts with the E3 ubiquitin ligase Siah-1 in unstressed cells. Siah-1 knockdown increases HIPK2 stability and steady-state levels, whereas Siah-1 expression facilitates HIPK2 polyubiquitination, degradation and thereby inactivation. During recovery from sublethal DNA damage, HIPK2, which is stabilized on DNA damage, is degraded through a Siah-1-dependent, p53-controlled pathway. Downregulation of Siah-1 inhibits HIPK2 degradation and recovery from damage, driving the cells into apoptosis. We have also demonstrated that DNA damage triggers disruption of the HIPK2-Siah-1 complex, resulting in HIPK2 stabilization and activation. Disruption of the HIPK2-Siah-1 complex is mediated by the ATM/ATR pathway and involves ATM/ATR-dependent phosphorylation of Siah-1 at Ser 19. Our results provide a molecular framework for HIPK2 regulation in unstressed and damaged cells. PMID:18536714

  19. The Evolutionarily Conserved E3 Ubiquitin Ligase AtCHIP Contributes to Plant Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Copeland, Charles; Ao, Kevin; Huang, Yan; Tong, Meixuizi; Li, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Plants possess a sophisticated immune system to recognize and respond to microbial threats in their environment. The level of immune signaling must be tightly regulated so that immune responses can be quickly activated in the presence of pathogens, while avoiding autoimmunity. HSP90s, along with their diverse array of co-chaperones, forms chaperone complexes that have been shown to play both positive and negative roles in regulating the accumulation of immune receptors and regulators. In this study, we examined the role of AtCHIP, an evolutionarily conserved E3 ligase that was known to interact with chaperones including HSP90s in multicellular organisms including fruit fly, Caenorhabditis elegans, plants and human. Atchip knockout mutants display enhanced disease susceptibility to a virulent oomycete pathogen, and overexpression of AtCHIP causes enhanced disease resistance at low temperature. Although CHIP was reported to target HSP90 for ubiquitination and degradation, accumulation of HSP90.3 was not affected in Atchip plants. In addition, protein accumulation of nucleotide-binding, leucine-rich repeat domain immune receptor (NLR) SNC1 is not altered in Atchip mutant. Thus, while AtCHIP plays a role in immunity, it does not seem to regulate the turnover of HSP90 or SNC1. Further investigation is needed in order to determine the exact mechanism behind AtCHIP’s role in regulating plant immune responses. PMID:27014328

  20. Fine Tuning of the UPR by the Ubiquitin Ligases Siah1/2

    PubMed Central

    Scortegagna, Marzia; Kim, Hyungsoo; Li, Jian-Liang; Yao, Hang; Brill, Laurence M.; Han, Jaeseok; Lau, Eric; Bowtell, David; Haddad, Gabriel; Kaufman, Randal J.; Ronai, Ze'ev A.

    2014-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) responds to changes in intracellular homeostasis through activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). Yet, it is not known how UPR-signaling coordinates adaptation versus cell death. Previous studies suggested that signaling through PERK/ATF4 is required for cell death. We show that high levels of ER stress (i.e., ischemia-like conditions) induce transcription of the ubiquitin ligases Siah1/2 through the UPR transducers PERK/ATF4 and IRE1/sXBP1. In turn, Siah1/2 attenuates proline hydroxylation of ATF4, resulting in its stabilization, thereby augmenting ER stress output. Conversely, ATF4 activation is reduced upon Siah1/2 KD in cultured cells, which attenuates ER stress-induced cell death. Notably, Siah1a+/−::Siah2−/− mice subjected to neuronal ischemia exhibited smaller infarct volume and were protected from ischemia-induced death, compared with the wild type (WT) mice. In all, Siah1/2 constitutes an obligatory fine-tuning mechanism that predisposes cells to death under severe ER stress conditions. PMID:24809345

  1. The Evolutionarily Conserved E3 Ubiquitin Ligase AtCHIP Contributes to Plant Immunity.

    PubMed

    Copeland, Charles; Ao, Kevin; Huang, Yan; Tong, Meixuizi; Li, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Plants possess a sophisticated immune system to recognize and respond to microbial threats in their environment. The level of immune signaling must be tightly regulated so that immune responses can be quickly activated in the presence of pathogens, while avoiding autoimmunity. HSP90s, along with their diverse array of co-chaperones, forms chaperone complexes that have been shown to play both positive and negative roles in regulating the accumulation of immune receptors and regulators. In this study, we examined the role of AtCHIP, an evolutionarily conserved E3 ligase that was known to interact with chaperones including HSP90s in multicellular organisms including fruit fly, Caenorhabditis elegans, plants and human. Atchip knockout mutants display enhanced disease susceptibility to a virulent oomycete pathogen, and overexpression of AtCHIP causes enhanced disease resistance at low temperature. Although CHIP was reported to target HSP90 for ubiquitination and degradation, accumulation of HSP90.3 was not affected in Atchip plants. In addition, protein accumulation of nucleotide-binding, leucine-rich repeat domain immune receptor (NLR) SNC1 is not altered in Atchip mutant. Thus, while AtCHIP plays a role in immunity, it does not seem to regulate the turnover of HSP90 or SNC1. Further investigation is needed in order to determine the exact mechanism behind AtCHIP's role in regulating plant immune responses. PMID:27014328

  2. The Highwire ubiquitin ligase promotes axonal degeneration by tuning levels of Nmnat protein.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Xin; Hao, Yan; Sun, Kan; Li, Jiaxing; Li, Xia; Mishra, Bibhudatta; Soppina, Pushpanjali; Wu, Chunlai; Hume, Richard I; Collins, Catherine A

    2012-01-01

    Axonal degeneration is a hallmark of many neuropathies, neurodegenerative diseases, and injuries. Here, using a Drosophila injury model, we have identified a highly conserved E3 ubiquitin ligase, Highwire (Hiw), as an important regulator of axonal and synaptic degeneration. Mutations in hiw strongly inhibit Wallerian degeneration in multiple neuron types and developmental stages. This new phenotype is mediated by a new downstream target of Hiw: the NAD+ biosynthetic enzyme nicotinamide mononucleotide adenyltransferase (Nmnat), which acts in parallel to a previously known target of Hiw, the Wallenda dileucine zipper kinase (Wnd/DLK) MAPKKK. Hiw promotes a rapid disappearance of Nmnat protein in the distal stump after injury. An increased level of Nmnat protein in hiw mutants is both required and sufficient to inhibit degeneration. Ectopically expressed mouse Nmnat2 is also subject to regulation by Hiw in distal axons and synapses. These findings implicate an important role for endogenous Nmnat and its regulation, via a conserved mechanism, in the initiation of axonal degeneration. Through independent regulation of Wnd/DLK, whose function is required for proximal axons to regenerate, Hiw plays a central role in coordinating both regenerative and degenerative responses to axonal injury. PMID:23226106

  3. Membrane-Associated Ubiquitin Ligase SAUL1 Suppresses Temperature- and Humidity-Dependent Autoimmunity in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Disch, Eva-Maria; Tong, Meixuezi; Kotur, Tanja; Koch, Gerald; Wolf, Carl-Asmus; Li, Xin; Hoth, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Plants have evolved elaborate mechanisms to regulate pathogen defense. Imbalances in this regulation may result in autoimmune responses that are affecting plant growth and development. In Arabidopsis, SAUL1 encodes a plant U-box ubiquitin ligase and regulates senescence and cell death. Here, we show that saul1-1 plants exhibit characteristics of an autoimmune mutant. A decrease in relative humidity or temperature resulted in reduced growth and systemic lesioning of saul1-1 rosettes. These physiological changes are associated with increased expression of salicylic acid-dependent and pathogenesis-related (PR) genes. Consistently, resistance of saul1-1 plants against Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola ES4326, P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000, or Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis Noco2 was enhanced. Transmission electron microscopy revealed alterations in saul1-1 chloroplast ultrastructure and cell-wall depositions. Confocal analysis on aniline blue-stained leaf sections and cellular universal micro spectrophotometry further showed that these cell-wall depositions contain callose and lignin. To analyze signaling downstream of SAUL1, we performed epistasis analyses between saul1-1 and mutants in the EDS1/PAD4/SAG101 hub. All phenotypes observed in saul1-1 plants at low temperature were dependent on EDS1 and PAD4 but not SAG101. Taken together, SAUL1 negatively regulates immunity upstream of EDS1/PAD4, likely through the degradation of an unknown activator of the pathway. PMID:26505534

  4. Spatial control of lipid droplet proteins by the ERAD ubiquitin ligase Doa10.

    PubMed

    Ruggiano, Annamaria; Mora, Gabriel; Buxó, Laura; Carvalho, Pedro

    2016-08-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) plays a central role in the biogenesis of most membrane proteins. Among these are proteins localized to the surface of lipid droplets (LDs), fat storage organelles delimited by a phospholipid monolayer. The LD monolayer is often continuous with the membrane of the ER allowing certain membrane proteins to diffuse between the two organelles. In these connected organelles, how some proteins concentrate specifically at the surface of LDs is not known. Here, we show that the ERAD ubiquitin ligase Doa10 controls the levels of some LD proteins. Their degradation is dependent on the localization to the ER and appears independent of the folding state. Moreover, we show that by degrading the ER pool of these LD proteins, ERAD contributes to restrict their localization to LDs. The signals for LD targeting and Doa10-mediated degradation overlap, indicating that these are competing events. This spatial control of protein localization is a novel function of ERAD that might contribute to generate functional diversity in a continuous membrane system. PMID:27357570

  5. Proteomic analysis and identification of cellular interactors of the giant ubiquitin ligase HERC2.

    PubMed

    Galligan, Jeffrey T; Martinez-Noël, Gustavo; Arndt, Verena; Hayes, Sebastian; Chittenden, Thomas W; Harper, J Wade; Howley, Peter M

    2015-02-01

    HERC2 is a large E3 ubiquitin ligase with multiple structural domains that has been implicated in an array of cellular processes. Mutations in HERC2 are linked to developmental delays and impairment caused by nervous system dysfunction, such as Angelman Syndrome and autism-spectrum disorders. However, HERC2 cellular activity and regulation remain poorly understood. We used a broad proteomic approach to survey the landscape of cellular proteins that interact with HERC2. We identified nearly 300 potential interactors, a subset of which we validated binding to HERC2. The potential HERC2 interactors included the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 complex, the intracellular transport COPI coatomer complex, the glycogen regulator phosphorylase kinase, beta-catenin, PI3 kinase, and proteins involved in fatty acid transport and iron homeostasis. Through a complex bioinformatic analysis of potential interactors, we linked HERC2 to cellular processes including intracellular protein trafficking and transport, metabolism of cellular energy, and protein translation. Given its size, multidomain structure, and association with various cellular activities, HERC2 may function as a scaffold to integrate protein complexes and bridge critical cellular pathways. This work provides a significant resource with which to interrogate HERC2 function more deeply and evaluate its contributions to mechanisms governing cellular homeostasis and disease. PMID:25476789

  6. The yeast ERAD-C ubiquitin ligase Doa10 recognizes an intramembrane degron

    PubMed Central

    Habeck, Gregor; Ebner, Felix A.; Shimada-Kreft, Hiroko

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant endoplasmic reticulum (ER) proteins are eliminated by ER-associated degradation (ERAD). This process involves protein retrotranslocation into the cytosol, ubiquitylation, and proteasomal degradation. ERAD substrates are classified into three categories based on the location of their degradation signal/degron: ERAD-L (lumen), ERAD-M (membrane), and ERAD-C (cytosol) substrates. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the membrane proteins Hrd1 and Doa10 are the predominant ERAD ubiquitin-protein ligases (E3s). The current notion is that ERAD-L and ERAD-M substrates are exclusively handled by Hrd1, whereas ERAD-C substrates are recognized by Doa10. In this paper, we identify the transmembrane (TM) protein Sec61 β-subunit homologue 2 (Sbh2) as a Doa10 substrate. Sbh2 is part of the trimeric Ssh1 complex involved in protein translocation. Unassembled Sbh2 is rapidly degraded in a Doa10-dependent manner. Intriguingly, the degron maps to the Sbh2 TM region. Thus, in contrast to the prevailing view, Doa10 (and presumably its human orthologue) has the capacity for recognizing intramembrane degrons, expanding its spectrum of substrates. PMID:25918226

  7. Regulation of leukemia-initiating cell activity by the ubiquitin ligase FBXW7

    PubMed Central

    King, Bryan; Trimarchi, Thomas; Reavie, Linsey; Xu, Luyao; Mullenders, Jasper; Ntziachristos, Panagiotis; Aranda-Orgilles, Beatriz; Perez-Garcia, Arianne; Shi, Junwei; Vakoc, Christopher; Sandy, Peter; Shen, Steven S.; Ferrando, Adolfo; Aifantis, Iannis

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Sequencing efforts led to the identification of somatic mutations that could affect self-renewal and differentiation of cancer-initiating cells. One such recurrent mutation targets the binding pocket of the ubiquitin ligase FBXW7. Missense FBXW7 mutations are prevalent in various tumors, including T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). To study the effects of such lesions, we generated animals carrying regulatable Fbxw7 mutant alleles. We show here that these mutations specifically bolster cancer-initiating cell activity in collaboration with Notch1 oncogenes, but spare normal hematopoietic stem cell function. We were also able to show that FBXW7 mutations specifically affect the ubiquitylation and half-life of c-Myc protein, a key T-ALL oncogene. Using animals carrying c-Myc fusion alleles, we connected Fbxw7 function to c-Myc abundance and correlated c-Myc expression to leukemia-initiating activity. Finally, we demonstrated that small molecule-mediated suppression of MYC activity leads to T-ALL remission, suggesting a novel effective therapeutic strategy. PMID:23791182

  8. The E3 ubiquitin ligase Itch controls the protein stability of p63

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Mario; Aqeilan, Rami I.; Neale, Michael; Candi, Eleonora; Salomoni, Paolo; Knight, Richard A.; Croce, Carlo M.; Melino, Gerry

    2006-01-01

    p63, a member of the p53 family of transcription factors, plays an important role in epithelial development, regulating both cell cycle and apoptosis. Even though p63 activity is regulated mainly at the posttranslational level, the control of p63 protein stability is far from being fully understood. Here, we show that the Hect (homologous to the E6-associated protein C terminus)-containing Nedd4-like ubiquitin protein ligase Itch binds, ubiquitylates, and promotes the degradation of p63. The physical interaction occurs at the border between the PY and the SAM (sterile α motif) domains; a single Y504F mutation significantly affects p63 degradation. Itch and p63 are coexpressed in the epidermis and in primary keratinocytes where Itch controls the p63 protein steady-state level. Accordingly, p63 protein levels are significantly increased in Itch knockout keratinocytes. These data suggest that Itch has a fundamental role in the mechanism that controls endogenous p63 protein levels and therefore contributes to regulation of p63 in physiological conditions. PMID:16908849

  9. The ubiquitin ligase Ubr4 controls stability of podocin/MEC-2 supercomplexes.

    PubMed

    Rinschen, Markus M; Bharill, Puneet; Wu, Xiongwu; Kohli, Priyanka; Reinert, Matthäus J; Kretz, Oliver; Saez, Isabel; Schermer, Bernhard; Höhne, Martin; Bartram, Malte P; Aravamudhan, Sriram; Brooks, Bernard R; Vilchez, David; Huber, Tobias B; Müller, Roman-Ulrich; Krüger, Marcus; Benzing, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    The PHB-domain protein podocin maintains the renal filtration barrier and its mutation is an important cause of hereditary nephrotic syndrome. Podocin and its Caenorhabditis elegans orthologue MEC-2 have emerged as key components of mechanosensitive membrane protein signalling complexes. Whereas podocin resides at a specialized cell junction at the podocyte slit diaphragm, MEC-2 is found in neurons required for touch sensitivity. Here, we show that the ubiquitin ligase Ubr4 is a key component of the podocin interactome purified both from cultured podocytes and native glomeruli. It colocalizes with podocin and regulates its stability. In C. elegans, this process is conserved. Here, Ubr4 is responsible for the degradation of mislocalized MEC-2 multimers. Ubiquitylomic analysis of mouse glomeruli revealed that podocin is ubiquitylated at two lysine residues. These sites were Ubr4-dependent and were conserved across species. Molecular dynamics simulations revealed that ubiquitylation of one site, K301, do not only target podocin/MEC-2 for proteasomal degradation, but may also affect stability and disassembly of the multimeric complex. We suggest that Ubr4 is a key regulator of podocyte foot process proteostasis. PMID:26792178

  10. Proteomic Analysis and Identification of Cellular Interactors of the Giant Ubiquitin Ligase HERC2

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    HERC2 is a large E3 ubiquitin ligase with multiple structural domains that has been implicated in an array of cellular processes. Mutations in HERC2 are linked to developmental delays and impairment caused by nervous system dysfunction, such as Angelman Syndrome and autism-spectrum disorders. However, HERC2 cellular activity and regulation remain poorly understood. We used a broad proteomic approach to survey the landscape of cellular proteins that interact with HERC2. We identified nearly 300 potential interactors, a subset of which we validated binding to HERC2. The potential HERC2 interactors included the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 complex, the intracellular transport COPI coatomer complex, the glycogen regulator phosphorylase kinase, beta-catenin, PI3 kinase, and proteins involved in fatty acid transport and iron homeostasis. Through a complex bioinformatic analysis of potential interactors, we linked HERC2 to cellular processes including intracellular protein trafficking and transport, metabolism of cellular energy, and protein translation. Given its size, multidomain structure, and association with various cellular activities, HERC2 may function as a scaffold to integrate protein complexes and bridge critical cellular pathways. This work provides a significant resource with which to interrogate HERC2 function more deeply and evaluate its contributions to mechanisms governing cellular homeostasis and disease. PMID:25476789

  11. CHIP is associated with Parkin, a gene responsible for familial Parkinson's disease, and enhances its ubiquitin ligase activity.

    PubMed

    Imai, Yuzuru; Soda, Mariko; Hatakeyama, Shigetsugu; Akagi, Takumi; Hashikawa, Tsutomu; Nakayama, Kei Ichi; Takahashi, Ryosuke

    2002-07-01

    Unfolded Pael receptor (Pael-R) is a substrate of the E3 ubiquitin ligase Parkin. Accumulation of Pael-R in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of dopaminergic neurons induces ER stress leading to neurodegeneration. Here, we show that CHIP, Hsp70, Parkin, and Pael-R formed a complex in vitro and in vivo. The amount of CHIP in the complex was increased during ER stress. CHIP promoted the dissociation of Hsp70 from Parkin and Pael-R, thus facilitating Parkin-mediated Pael-R ubiquitination. Moreover, CHIP enhanced Parkin-mediated in vitro ubiquitination of Pael-R in the absence of Hsp70. Furthermore, CHIP enhanced the ability of Parkin to inhibit cell death induced by Pael-R. Taken together, these results indicate that CHIP is a mammalian E4-like molecule that positively regulates Parkin E3 activity. PMID:12150907

  12. Functional characterization of SAG/RBX2/ROC2/RNF7, an antioxidant protein and an E3 ubiquitin ligase

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hua

    2013-01-01

    SAG (Sensitive to Apoptosis Gene), also known as RBX2 (RING box protein 2), ROC2 (Regulator of Cullins 2), or RNF7 (RING Finger Protein 7), was originally cloned in our laboratory as a redox inducible antioxidant protein and later characterized as the second member of the RBX/ROC RING component of the SCF (SKP1-CUL-F-box Proteins) E3 ubiquitin ligase. When acting alone, SAG scavenges oxygen radicals by forming inter- and intra- molecular disulfide bonds, whereas by forming a complex with other components of the SCF E3 ligase, SAG promotes ubiquitination and degradation of a number of protein substrates, including c-JUN, DEPTOR, HIF-1α, IκBα, NF1, NOXA, p27, and procaspase-3, thus regulating various signaling pathways and biological processes. Specifically, SAG protects cells from apoptosis, confers radioresistance, and plays an essential and non-redundant role in mouse embryogenesis and vasculogenesis. Furthermore, stress-inducible SAG is overexpressed in a number of human cancers and SAG overexpression correlates with poor patient prognosis. Finally, SAG transgenic expression in epidermis causes an early stage inhibition, but later stage promotion, of skin tumorigenesis triggered by DMBA/TPA. Given its major role in promoting targeted degradation of tumor suppressive proteins, leading to apoptosis suppression and accelerated tumorigenesis, SAG E3 ligase appears to be an attractive anticancer target. PMID:23136067

  13. The Sumo-targeted ubiquitin ligase RNF4 regulates the localization and function of the HTLV-1 oncoprotein Tax

    PubMed Central

    Fryrear, Kimberly A.; Guo, Xin

    2012-01-01

    The Really Interesting New Gene (RING) Finger Protein 4 (RNF4) represents a class of ubiquitin ligases that target Small Ubiquitin-like Modifier (SUMO)–modified proteins for ubiquitin modification. To date, the regulatory function of RNF4 appears to be ubiquitin-mediated degradation of sumoylated cellular proteins. In the present study, we show that the Human T-cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 (HTLV-1) oncoprotein Tax is a substrate for RNF4 both in vivo and in vitro. We mapped the RNF4-binding site to a region adjacent to the Tax ubiquitin/SUMO modification sites K280/K284. Interestingly, RNF4 modification of Tax protein results in relocalization of the oncoprotein from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Overexpression of RNF4, but not the RNF4 RING mutant, resulted in cytoplasmic enrichment of Tax. The RNF4-induced nucleus-to-cytoplasm relocalization was associated with increased NF-κB–mediated and decreased cAMP Response Element-Binding (CREB)–mediated Tax activity. Finally, depletion of RNF4 by RNAi prevented the DNA damage–induced nuclear/cytoplasmic translocation of Tax. These results provide important new insight into STUbL-mediated pathways that regulate the subcellular localization and functional dynamics of viral oncogenes. PMID:22106342

  14. The Sumo-targeted ubiquitin ligase RNF4 regulates the localization and function of the HTLV-1 oncoprotein Tax.

    PubMed

    Fryrear, Kimberly A; Guo, Xin; Kerscher, Oliver; Semmes, O John

    2012-02-01

    The Really Interesting New Gene (RING) Finger Protein 4 (RNF4) represents a class of ubiquitin ligases that target Small Ubiquitin-like Modifier (SUMO)-modified proteins for ubiquitin modification. To date, the regulatory function of RNF4 appears to be ubiquitin-mediated degradation of sumoylated cellular proteins. In the present study, we show that the Human T-cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 (HTLV-1) oncoprotein Tax is a substrate for RNF4 both in vivo and in vitro. We mapped the RNF4-binding site to a region adjacent to the Tax ubiquitin/SUMO modification sites K280/K284. Interestingly, RNF4 modification of Tax protein results in relocalization of the oncoprotein from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Overexpression of RNF4, but not the RNF4 RING mutant, resulted in cytoplasmic enrichment of Tax. The RNF4-induced nucleus-to-cytoplasm relocalization was associated with increased NF-κB-mediated and decreased cAMP Response Element-Binding (CREB)-mediated Tax activity. Finally, depletion of RNF4 by RNAi prevented the DNA damage-induced nuclear/cytoplasmic translocation of Tax. These results provide important new insight into STUbL-mediated pathways that regulate the subcellular localization and functional dynamics of viral oncogenes. PMID:22106342

  15. The nucleoprotein of influenza A virus induces p53 signaling and apoptosis via attenuation of host ubiquitin ligase RNF43

    PubMed Central

    Nailwal, H; Sharma, S; Mayank, A K; Lal, S K

    2015-01-01

    The interplay between influenza virus and host factors to support the viral life cycle is well documented. Influenza A virus (IAV) proteins interact with an array of cellular proteins and hijack host pathways which are at the helm of cellular responses to facilitate virus invasion. The multifaceted nature of the ubiquitination pathway for protein regulation makes it a vulnerable target of many viruses including IAV. To this end we conducted a yeast two-hybrid screen to search for cellular ubiquitin ligases important for influenza virus replication. We identified host protein, RING finger protein 43 (RNF43), a RING-type E3 ubiquitin ligase, as a novel interactor of nucleoprotein (NP) of IAV and an essential partner to induce NP-driven p53-mediated apoptosis in IAV-infected cells. In this study, we demonstrate that IAV leads to attenuation of RNF43 transcripts and hence its respective protein levels in the cellular milieu whereas in RNF43 depleted cells, viral replication was escalated several folds. Moreover, RNF43 polyubiquitinates p53 which further leads to its destabilization resulting in a decrease in induction of the p53 apoptotic pathway, a hitherto unknown process targeted by NP for p53 stabilization and accumulation. Collectively, these results conclude that NP targets RNF43 to modulate p53 ubiquitination levels and hence causes p53 stabilization which is conducive to an enhanced apoptosis level in the host cells. In conclusion, our study unravels a novel strategy adopted by IAV for utilizing the much conserved ubiquitin proteasomal pathway. PMID:25996295

  16. RNF4, a SUMO-targeted ubiquitin E3 ligase, promotes DNA double-strand break repair.

    PubMed

    Galanty, Yaron; Belotserkovskaya, Rimma; Coates, Julia; Jackson, Stephen P

    2012-06-01

    Protein ubiquitylation and sumoylation play key roles in regulating cellular responses to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Here, we show that human RNF4, a small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO)-targeted ubiquitin E3 ligase, is recruited to DSBs in a manner requiring its SUMO interaction motifs, the SUMO E3 ligases PIAS1 and PIAS4, and various DSB-responsive proteins. Furthermore, we reveal that RNF4 depletion impairs ubiquitin adduct formation at DSB sites and causes persistent histone H2AX phosphorylation (γH2AX) associated with defective DSB repair, hypersensitivity toward DSB-inducing agents, and delayed recovery from radiation-induced cell cycle arrest. We establish that RNF4 regulates turnover of the DSB-responsive factors MDC1 and replication protein A (RPA) at DNA damage sites and that RNF4-depleted cells fail to effectively replace RPA by the homologous recombination factors BRCA2 and RAD51 on resected DNA. Consistent with previous data showing that RNF4 targets proteins to the proteasome, we show that the proteasome component PSMD4 is recruited to DNA damage sites in a manner requiring its ubiquitin-interacting domains, RNF4 and RNF8. Finally, we establish that PSMD4 binds MDC1 and RPA1 in a DNA damage-induced, RNF4-dependent manner and that PSMD4 depletion cause MDC1 and γH2AX persistence in irradiated cells. RNF4 thus operates as a DSB response factor at the crossroads between the SUMO and ubiquitin systems. PMID:22661229

  17. Targeting Cullin–RING E3 ubiquitin ligases for drug discovery: structure, assembly and small-molecule modulation

    PubMed Central

    Bulatov, Emil; Ciulli, Alessio

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, the ubiquitin–proteasome system has emerged as a valid target for the development of novel therapeutics. E3 ubiquitin ligases are particularly attractive targets because they confer substrate specificity on the ubiquitin system. CRLs [Cullin–RING (really interesting new gene) E3 ubiquitin ligases] draw particular attention, being the largest family of E3s. The CRLs assemble into functional multisubunit complexes using a repertoire of substrate receptors, adaptors, Cullin scaffolds and RING-box proteins. Drug discovery targeting CRLs is growing in importance due to mounting evidence pointing to significant roles of these enzymes in diverse biological processes and human diseases, including cancer, where CRLs and their substrates often function as tumour suppressors or oncogenes. In the present review, we provide an account of the assembly and structure of CRL complexes, and outline the current state of the field in terms of available knowledge of small-molecule inhibitors and modulators of CRL activity. A comprehensive overview of the reported crystal structures of CRL subunits, components and full-size complexes, alone or with bound small molecules and substrate peptides, is included. This information is providing increasing opportunities to aid the rational structure-based design of chemical probes and potential small-molecule therapeutics targeting CRLs. PMID:25886174

  18. Parkin, PINK1, and DJ-1 form a ubiquitin E3 ligase complex promoting unfolded protein degradation

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Hui; Wang, Danling; Chen, Linan; Choo, Yeun Su; Ma, Hong; Tang, Chengyuan; Xia, Kun; Jiang, Wei; Ronai, Ze’ev; Zhuang, Xiaoxi; Zhang, Zhuohua

    2009-01-01

    Mutations in PARKIN, pten-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1), and DJ-1 are individually linked to autosomal recessive early-onset familial forms of Parkinson disease (PD). Although mutations in these genes lead to the same disease state, the functional relationships between them and how their respective disease-associated mutations cause PD are largely unknown. Here, we show that Parkin, PINK1, and DJ-1 formed a complex (termed PPD complex) to promote ubiquitination and degradation of Parkin substrates, including Parkin itself and Synphilin-1 in neuroblastoma cells and human brain lysates. Genetic ablation of either Pink1 or Dj-1 resulted in reduced ubiquitination of endogenous Parkin as well as decreased degradation and increased accumulation of aberrantly expressed Parkin substrates. Expression of PINK1 enhanced Parkin-mediated degradation of heat shock–induced misfolded protein. In contrast, PD-pathogenic Parkin and PINK1 mutations showed reduced ability to promote degradation of Parkin substrates. This study identified a functional ubiquitin E3 ligase complex consisting of PD-associated Parkin, PINK1, and DJ-1 to promote degradation of un-/misfolded proteins and suggests that their PD-pathogenic mutations impair E3 ligase activity of the complex, which may constitute a mechanism underlying PD pathogenesis. PMID:19229105

  19. Impaired Neurite Contact Guidance in Ubiquitin Ligase E3a (Ube3a)-Deficient Hippocampal Neurons on Nanostructured Substrates.

    PubMed

    Tonazzini, I; Meucci, S; Van Woerden, G M; Elgersma, Y; Cecchini, M

    2016-04-01

    Recent discoveries indicate that during neuronal development the signaling processes that regulate extracellular sensing (e.g., adhesion, cytoskeletal dynamics) are important targets for ubiquitination-dependent regulation, in particular through E3 ubiquitin ligases. Among these, Ubiquitin E3a ligase (UBE3A) has a key role in brain functioning, but its function and how its deficiency results in the neurodevelopmental disorder Angelman syndrome is still unclear. Here, the role of UBE3A is investigated in neurite contact guidance during neuronal development, in vitro. The microtopography sensing of wild-type and Ube3a-deficient hippocampal neurons is studied by exploiting gratings with different topographical characteristics, with the aim to compare their capabilities to read and follow physical directional stimuli. It is shown that neuronal contact guidance is defective in Ube3a-deficient neurons, and this behavior is linked to an impaired activation of the focal adhesion signaling pathway. Taken together, the results suggest that the neuronal contact sensing machinery might be affected in Angelman syndrome. PMID:26845073

  20. Arabidopsis COP1 SUPPRESSOR 2 Represses COP1 E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Activity through Their Coiled-Coil Domains Association

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yan; Ling, Junjie; Hettiarachchi, Chamari; Tellgren-Roth, Christian; Wei, Ning; Deng, Xing Wang

    2015-01-01

    CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1 (COP1) functions as an E3 ubiquitin ligase and mediates a variety of developmental processes in Arabidopsis by targeting a number of key regulators for ubiquitination and degradation. Here, we identify a novel COP1 interacting protein, COP1 SUPPRESSOR 2 (CSU2). Loss of function mutations in CSU2 suppress the constitutive photomorphogenic phenotype of cop1-6 in darkness. CSU2 directly interacts with COP1 via their coiled-coil domains and is recruited by COP1 into nuclear speckles in living plant cells. Furthermore, CSU2 inhibits COP1 E3 ubiquitin ligase activity in vitro, and represses COP1 mediated turnover of HY5 in cell-free extracts. We propose that in csu2 cop1-6 mutants, the lack of CSU2’s repression of COP1 allows the low level of COP1 to exhibit higher activity that is sufficient to prevent accumulation of HY5 in the dark, thus restoring the etiolated phenotype. In addition, CSU2 is required for primary root development under normal light growth condition. PMID:26714275

  1. Model of the Ankyrin and SOCS Box Protein, ASB9, E3 Ligase Reveals a Mechanism for Dynamic Ubiquitin Transfer.

    PubMed

    Schiffer, Jamie M; Malmstrom, Robert D; Parnell, Jonathan; Ramirez-Sarmiento, Cesar; Reyes, Javiera; Amaro, Rommie E; Komives, Elizabeth A

    2016-08-01

    Cullin-RING E3 ligases (CRLs) are elongated and bowed protein complexes that transfer ubiquitin over 60 Å to proteins targeted for proteasome degradation. One such CRL contains the ankyrin repeat and SOCS box protein 9 (ASB9), which binds to and partially inhibits creatine kinase (CK). While current models for the ASB9-CK complex contain some known interface residues, the overall structure and precise interface of the ASB9-CK complex remains unknown. Through an integrative modeling approach, we report a third-generation model that reveals precisely the interface interactions and also fits the shape of the ASB9-CK complex as determined by small-angle X-ray scattering. We constructed an atomic model for the entire CK-targeting CRL to uncover dominant modes of motion that could permit ubiquitin transfer. Remarkably, only the correctly docked CK-containing E3 ligase and not incorrectly docked structures permitted close approach of ubiquitin to the CK substrate. PMID:27396830

  2. Copy number variation of E3 ubiquitin ligase genes in peripheral blood leukocyte and colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Bi, Haoran; Tian, Tian; Zhu, Lin; Zhou, Haibo; Hu, Hanqing; Liu, Yanhong; Li, Xia; Hu, Fulan; Zhao, Yashuang; Wang, Guiyu

    2016-01-01

    Given that E3 ubiquitin ligases (E3) regulate specific protein degradation in many cancer-related biological processes. E3 copy number variation (CNV) may affect the development and prognosis of colorectal cancer (CRC). Therefore, we detected CNVs of five E3 genes in 518 CRC patients and 518 age, gender and residence matched controls in China, and estimated the association between E3 gene CNVs and CRC risk and prognosis. We also estimated their interactions with environmental factors and CRC risk. We find a significant association between the CNVs of MDM2 and CRC risk (amp v.s. wt: odds ratio = 14.37, 95% confidence interval: 1.27, 163.74, P = 0.032), while SKP2 CNVs may significantly decrease CRC risk (del v.s. wt: odds ratio = 0.32, 95% confidence interval: 0.10, 1.00, P = 0.050). However, we find no significant association between the CNVs of other genes and CRC risk. The only significant gene-environment interaction effects are between SKP2 CNVs and consumption of fish and/or fruit (P = 0.014 and P = 0.035) and between FBXW7 CNVs and pork intake (P = 0.040). Finally, we find marginally significant association between β-TRCP CNVs and CRC prognosis (amp v.s. wt, hazard ratio = 0.42, 95% confidence interval: 0.19, 0.97, P = 0.050). PMID:27417709

  3. Role of β-TrCP ubiquitin ligase receptor in UVB mediated responses in skin

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Neehar; Demmer, Tara A.; Sharma, Alok K.; Elcheva, Irina; Spiegelman, Vladimir S.

    2011-01-01

    Skin cancers are the most common cancers in the United States. Exposure to UVB radiation is a major risk factor for skin cancer induction. SCFβ-TrCP E3 ubiquitin ligase has been found to be involved in cell cycle, cell proliferation and transformation. Aberrant up-regulation of beta-transducin repeats-containing proteins (β-TrCP) is often found in cancer cell lines and primary tumors. We have previously demonstrated that β-TrCP2 is over-expressed in chemically induced mouse skin tumors [1]. Various cellular stress stimuli, including UVB, induce an increase in β-TrCP1 mRNA and protein levels in human cells [2]. We have previously shown that inhibition of β-TrCP function, by induction of dominant negative β-TrCP2 (β-TrCP2ΔF), in vitro in hTERT immortalized normal keratinocytes, results in increase in UVB induced apoptosis [3]. We have generated transgenic mice with inducible, selective expression of dominant negative β-TrCP2 in epidermis with the Keratin 5 promoter (K5-rTA × TRE-HA-β-TrCPΔF). Here we report that inhibition of β-TrCP function in mouse epidermis results in decrease in UVB-induced edema, hyperplasia, and inflammatory response and increment in UVB-induced apoptosis in skin. Our results suggest that β-TrCP may be an essential player in UVB induced responses in skin and can be a potential therapeutic target for skin cancer. PMID:21187057

  4. The expression of the ubiquitin ligase subunit Cks1 in human breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Slotky, Merav; Shapira, Ma'anit; Ben-Izhak, Ofer; Linn, Shai; Futerman, Boris; Tsalic, Medy; Hershko, Dan D

    2005-01-01

    Introduction Loss of the cell-cycle inhibitory protein p27Kip1 is associated with a poor prognosis in breast cancer. The decrease in the levels of this protein is the result of increased proteasome-dependent degradation, mediated and rate-limited by its specific ubiquitin ligase subunits S-phase kinase protein 2 (Skp2) and cyclin-dependent kinase subunit 1 (Cks1). Skp2 was recently found to be overexpressed in breast cancers, but the role of Cks1 in these cancers is unknown. The present study was undertaken to examine the role of Cks1 expression in breast cancer and its relation to p27Kip1 and Skp2 expression and to tumor aggressiveness. Methods The expressions of Cks1, Skp2, and p27Kip1 were examined immunohistochemically on formalin-fixed, paraffin-wax-embedded tissue sections from 50 patients with breast cancer and by immunoblot analysis on breast cancer cell lines. The relation between Cks1 levels and patients' clinical and histological parameters were examined by Cox regression and the Kaplan–Meier method. Results The expression of Cks1 was strongly associated with Skp2 expression (r = 0.477; P = 0.001) and inversely with p27Kip1 (r = -0.726; P < 0.0001). Overexpression of Cks1 was associated with loss of tumor differentiation, young age, lack of expression of estrogen receptors and of progesterone receptors, and decreased disease-free (P = 0.0007) and overall (P = 0.041) survival. In addition, Cks1 and Skp2 expression were increased by estradiol in estrogen-dependent cell lines but were down-regulated by tamoxifen. Conclusion These results suggest that Cks1 is involved in p27Kip1 down-regulation and may have an important role in the development of aggressive tumor behavior in breast cancer. PMID:16168119

  5. Copy number variation of E3 ubiquitin ligase genes in peripheral blood leukocyte and colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Haoran; Tian, Tian; Zhu, Lin; Zhou, Haibo; Hu, Hanqing; Liu, Yanhong; Li, Xia; Hu, Fulan; Zhao, Yashuang; Wang, Guiyu

    2016-01-01

    Given that E3 ubiquitin ligases (E3) regulate specific protein degradation in many cancer-related biological processes. E3 copy number variation (CNV) may affect the development and prognosis of colorectal cancer (CRC). Therefore, we detected CNVs of five E3 genes in 518 CRC patients and 518 age, gender and residence matched controls in China, and estimated the association between E3 gene CNVs and CRC risk and prognosis. We also estimated their interactions with environmental factors and CRC risk. We find a significant association between the CNVs of MDM2 and CRC risk (amp v.s. wt: odds ratio = 14.37, 95% confidence interval: 1.27, 163.74, P = 0.032), while SKP2 CNVs may significantly decrease CRC risk (del v.s. wt: odds ratio = 0.32, 95% confidence interval: 0.10, 1.00, P = 0.050). However, we find no significant association between the CNVs of other genes and CRC risk. The only significant gene-environment interaction effects are between SKP2 CNVs and consumption of fish and/or fruit (P = 0.014 and P = 0.035) and between FBXW7 CNVs and pork intake (P = 0.040). Finally, we find marginally significant association between β-TRCP CNVs and CRC prognosis (amp v.s. wt, hazard ratio = 0.42, 95% confidence interval: 0.19, 0.97, P = 0.050). PMID:27417709

  6. Multiple Src Homology 3 Binding to the Ubiquitin Ligase Itch Conserved Proline-Rich Region.

    PubMed

    Desrochers, Guillaume; Lussier-Price, Mathieu; Omichinski, James G; Angers, Annie

    2015-12-22

    Itch is a member of the C2-WW-HECT (CWH) family of ubiquitin ligases involved in the control of inflammatory signaling pathways, several transcription factors, and sorting of surface receptors to the degradative pathway. In addition to these common domains, Itch also contains a conserved proline-rich region (PRR) allowing its interaction with Src homology 3 (SH3) domain-containing proteins. This region is composed of 20 amino acids and contains one consensus class I and three class II SH3-binding motifs. Several SH3 domain-containing partners have been shown to recognize the Itch PRR, but their binding properties have been poorly defined. Here we compare a subset of endocytic SH3 domain-containing proteins using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer, isothermal titration calorimetry, and pull-down assays. Results indicate that Endophilin is a high-affinity binding partner of Itch both in vivo and in vitro, with a calculated KD placing this complex among the highest-affinity SH3 domain-mediated interactions reported to date. All of the SH3 domains tested here bind to Itch with a 1:1 stoichiometry, except for β-PIX that binds with a 2:1 stoichiometry. Together, these results indicate that Itch PRR is a versatile binding module that can accommodate several different SH3 domain-containing proteins but has a preference for Endophilin. Interestingly, the catalytic activity of Itch toward different SH3 domain-containing proteins was similar, except for β-PIX that was not readily ubiquitylated even though it could interact with an affinity comparable to those of other substrates tested. PMID:26613292

  7. Lnx2 ubiquitin ligase is essential for exocrine cell differentiation in the early zebrafish pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Won, Minho; Ro, Hyunju; Dawid, Igor B.

    2015-01-01

    The gene encoding the E3 ubiquitin ligase Ligand of Numb protein-X (Lnx)2a is expressed in the ventral-anterior pancreatic bud of zebrafish embryos in addition to its expression in the brain. Knockdown of Lnx2a by using an exon 2/intron 2 splice morpholino resulted in specific inhibition of the differentiation of ventral bud derived exocrine cell types, with little effect on endocrine cell types. A frame shifting null mutation in lnx2a did not mimic this phenotype, but a mutation that removed the exon 2 splice donor site did. We found that Lnx2b functions in a redundant manner with its paralog Lnx2a. Inhibition of lnx2a exon 2/3 splicing causes exon 2 skipping and leads to the production of an N-truncated protein that acts as an interfering molecule. Thus, the phenotype characterized by inhibition of exocrine cell differentiation requires inactivation of both Lnx2a and Lnx2b. Human LNX1 is known to destabilize Numb, and we show that inhibition of Numb expression rescues the Lnx2a/b-deficient phenotype. Further, Lnx2a/b inhibition leads to a reduction in the number of Notch active cells in the pancreas. We suggest that Lnx2a/b function to fine tune the regulation of Notch through Numb in the differentiation of cell types in the early zebrafish pancreas. Further, the complex relationships among genotype, phenotype, and morpholino effect in this case may be instructive in the ongoing consideration of morpholino use. PMID:26392552

  8. Redox regulation of E3 ubiquitin ligases and their role in skeletal muscle atrophy.

    PubMed

    Olaso-Gonzalez, Gloria; Ferrando, Beatriz; Derbre, Frederic; Salvador-Pascual, Andrea; Cabo, Helena; Pareja-Galeano, Helios; Sabater-Pastor, Frederic; Gomez-Cabrera, Mari Carmen; Vina, Jose

    2014-10-01

    Muscle atrophy is linked to reactive oxygen species (ROS) production during hindlimb-unloading due, at least in part, to the activation of xanthine oxidase (XO). The major aim of our study was to determine the mechanism by which ROS cause muscle atrophy and its possible prevention by allopurinol, a well-known inhibitor of XO widely used in clinical practice, and indomethacin, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. We studied the activation of p38 MAP Kinase and NF-?B pathways, and the expression of two E3 ubiquitin ligases involved in proteolysis, the Muscle atrophy F-Box (MAFb) and Muscle RING Finger-1 (MuRF-1). Male Wistar rats (3 mold) conditioned by 14 days of hindlimb unloading (n=18), with or without the treatment, were compared with freely ambulating controls (n=18). After the experimental intervention, soleus muscles were removed, weighted and analyzed to determine oxidative stress and inflammatory parameters. We found that hindlimb unloading induced a significant increase in XO activity in plasma (39%, p=0.001) and in the protein expression of CuZnSOD and Catalase in skeletal muscle. Inhibitionof XO partially prevented protein carbonylation, both in plasma and in soleus muscle, in the unloaded animals. The most relevant new fact reported is that allopurinol prevents soleus muscle atrophy by ~20% after hindlimb unloading. Combining allopurinol and indomethacin we found a further prevention in the atrophy process. This is mediated by the inhibition of the p38 MAPK-MAFbx and NF-?B -MuRF-1 pathways. Our data point out the potential benefit of allopurinol and indomethacin administration for bedridden, astronauts, sarcopenic and cachexic patients. PMID:26461377

  9. The Pellino E3 Ubiquitin Ligases Recognize Specific Phosphothreonine Motifs and Have Distinct Substrate Specificities

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The four mammalian Pellinos (Pellinos 1, 2, 3a, and 3b) are E3 ubiquitin ligases that are emerging as critical mediators for a variety of immune signaling pathways, including those activated by Toll-like receptors, the T-cell receptor, and NOD2. It is becoming increasingly clear that each Pellino has a distinct role in facilitating immune receptor signaling. However, the underlying mechanisms by which these highly homologous proteins act selectively in these signaling pathways are not clear. In this study, we investigate whether Pellino substrate recognition contributes to the divergent functions of Pellinos. Substrate recognition of each Pellino is mediated by its noncanonical forkhead-associated (FHA) domain, a well-characterized phosphothreonine-binding module. Pellino FHA domains share very high sequence identity, so a molecular basis for differences in substrate recognition is not immediately apparent. To explore Pellino substrate specificity, we first identify a high-affinity Pellino2 FHA domain-binding motif in the Pellino substrate, interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 (IRAK1). Analysis of binding of the different Pellinos to a panel of phosphothreonine-containing peptides derived from the IRAK1-binding motif reveals that each Pellino has a distinct phosphothreonine peptide binding preference. We observe a similar binding specificity in the interaction of Pellinos with a number of known Pellino substrates. These results argue that the nonredundant roles that Pellinos play in immune signaling are in part due to their divergent substrate specificities. This new insight into Pellino substrate recognition could be exploited for pharmacological advantage in treating inflammatory diseases that have been linked to the aberrant regulation of Pellinos. PMID:25027698

  10. Structures of Pup Ligase PafA and Depupylase Dop of the Prokaryotic Ubiquitin-like Modification Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Özcelik, Dennis; Barandun, Jonas; Schmitz, Nikolaus; Sutter, Markus; Guth, Ethan; Damberger, Fred F.; Allain, Frédéric H.-T.; Ban, Nenad; Weber-Ban, Eilika

    2015-01-01

    Pupylation is a post-translational protein modification occurring in mycobacteria and other actinobacteria that is functionally analogous to ubiquitination. Here, we report the crystal structures of the modification enzymes involved in this pathway, the Pup ligase PafA and the depupylase/deamidase Dop. Both feature a larger N-terminal domain consisting of a central β-sheet packed against a cluster of helices, a fold characteristic for carboxylate-amine ligases, and a smaller C-terminal domain unique to PafA/Dop members. The active site is located on the concave surface of the β-sheet with the nucleotide bound in a deep pocket. A conserved groove leading into the active site could play a role in Pup-binding. NMR and biochemical experiments determine the region of Pup that interacts with PafA and Dop. Structural data and mutational studies identify crucial residues for catalysis of both enzymes. PMID:22910360

  11. The SOCS box encodes a hierarchy of affinities for Cullin5: implications for ubiquitin ligase formation and cytokine signalling suppression

    PubMed Central

    Babon, Jeffrey J.; Sabo, Jennifer K.; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Nicola, Nicos A.; Norton, Raymond S.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The SOCS (Suppressors of Cytokine Signalling) family of proteins inhibit the cytokine induced signalling cascade, in part by promoting the ubiquitination of signalling intermediates that are then targeted for proteasomal degradation. This activity relies upon an interaction between the SOCS box domain, the adapter complex elonginBC and a member of the Cullin family, the scaffold protein of an E3 ubiquitin ligase. Here we dissect this interaction, in vitro, using purified components. We show that all eight SOCS proteins bound Cullin5, but required prior recruitment of elonginBC. Neither SOCS nor elonginBC bound Cullin5 when in isolation. Interestingly, the affinity of each SOCS/elonginBC complex for Cullin5 varied by two orders of magnitude across the SOCS family. Unexpectedly, the most potent suppressors of signalling, SOCS-1 and SOCS-3, bound most weakly to the E3 ligase scaffold, with affinities 100- and 10-fold lower, respectively, than than the rest of the family. The remaining six SOCS proteins all bound Cullin5 with high affinity (KD ∼ 10 nM), due to a slower off-rate, and hence a longer half-life of the complex. This difference in affinity may reflect a difference in mode-of-action, as only SOCS-1 and -3 have been shown to suppress signalling using both SOCS box dependent and independent mechanisms. This is not the case with the other six SOCS proteins and our data imply the existence of two distinct sub-classes of SOCS proteins, with a high affinity for Cullin5, the E3 ligase scaffold, possibly reflecting complete dependence upon ubiquitination for suppression of cytokine signalling. PMID:19385048

  12. Ubiquitin-mediated Regulation of CD86 Protein Expression by the Ubiquitin Ligase Membrane-associated RING-CH-1 (MARCH1)*

    PubMed Central

    Corcoran, Kathleen; Jabbour, Maurice; Bhagwandin, Candida; Deymier, Martin J.; Theisen, Debra L.; Lybarger, Lonnie

    2011-01-01

    The activation of naïve T cells requires antigen presentation by dendritic cells (DCs), and the process of antigen presentation is regulated over the course of DC maturation. One key aspect of this regulation is the cell surface up-regulation upon DC maturation of peptide·MHC-II complexes and the costimulatory molecule CD86. It is now clear that these critical induction events involve changes in ubiquitin-dependent trafficking of MHC-II and CD86 by the E3 ligase membrane-associated RING-CH-1 (MARCH1). Although ubiquitin-dependent trafficking of MHC-II has been well characterized, much less is known regarding the post-transcriptional regulation of CD86 expression. Here, we examined the physical and functional interaction between CD86 and MARCH1. We observed that CD86 is rapidly endocytosed in the presence of MARCH1 followed by lysosome-dependent degradation. Furthermore, we found that the association between CD86 and MARCH1 was conferred primarily by the transmembrane domains of the respective proteins. In contrast to MHC-II, which has a single, conserved ubiquitin acceptor site in the cytosolic domain, we found that multiple lysine residues in the cytosolic tail of CD86 could support ubiquitination consistent with the relative lack of sequence conservation across species within the CD86 cytosolic domain. These findings suggest that MARCH1 recruits multiple substrates via transmembrane domain-mediated interactions to permit substrate ubiquitination in the face of diverse cytosolic domain sequences. PMID:21896490

  13. Balancing Protein Stability and Activity in Cancer: A New Approach for Identifying Driver Mutations Affecting CBL Ubiquitin Ligase Activation.

    PubMed

    Li, Minghui; Kales, Stephen C; Ma, Ke; Shoemaker, Benjamin A; Crespo-Barreto, Juan; Cangelosi, Andrew L; Lipkowitz, Stanley; Panchenko, Anna R

    2016-02-01

    Oncogenic mutations in the monomeric Casitas B-lineage lymphoma (Cbl) gene have been found in many tumors, but their significance remains largely unknown. Several human c-Cbl (CBL) structures have recently been solved, depicting the protein at different stages of its activation cycle and thus providing mechanistic insight underlying how stability-activity tradeoffs in cancer-related proteins-may influence disease onset and progression. In this study, we computationally modeled the effects of missense cancer mutations on structures representing four stages of the CBL activation cycle to identify driver mutations that affect CBL stability, binding, and activity. We found that recurrent, homozygous, and leukemia-specific mutations had greater destabilizing effects on CBL states than random noncancer mutations. We further tested the ability of these computational models, assessing the changes in CBL stability and its binding to ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2, by performing blind CBL-mediated EGFR ubiquitination assays in cells. Experimental CBL ubiquitin ligase activity was in agreement with the predicted changes in CBL stability and, to a lesser extent, with CBL-E2 binding affinity. Two thirds of all experimentally tested mutations affected the ubiquitin ligase activity by either destabilizing CBL or disrupting CBL-E2 binding, whereas about one-third of tested mutations were found to be neutral. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that computational methods incorporating multiple protein conformations and stability and binding affinity evaluations can successfully predict the functional consequences of cancer mutations on protein activity, and provide a proof of concept for mutations in CBL. PMID:26676746

  14. The cyclosome, a large complex containing cyclin-selective ubiquitin ligase activity, targets cyclins for destruction at the end of mitosis.

    PubMed Central

    Sudakin, V; Ganoth, D; Dahan, A; Heller, H; Hershko, J; Luca, F C; Ruderman, J V; Hershko, A

    1995-01-01

    The ubiquitin-mediated degradation of mitotic cyclins is required for cells to exit from mitosis. Previous work with cell-free systems has revealed four components required for cyclin-ubiquitin ligation and proteolysis: a nonspecific ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1, a soluble fraction containing a ubiquitin carrier protein activity called E2-C, a crude particulate fraction containing a ubiquitin ligase (E3) activity that is activated during M-phase, and a constitutively active 26S proteasome that degrades ubiquitinated proteins. Here, we identify a novel approximately 1500-kDa complex, termed the cyclosome, which contains a cyclin-selective ubiquitin ligase activity, E3-C. E3-C is present but inactive during interphase; it can be activated in vitro by the addition of cdc2, enabling the transfer of ubiquitin from E2-C to cyclin. The kinetics of E3-C activation suggest the existence of one or more intermediates between cdc2 and E3-C. Cyclosome-associated E3-C acts on both cyclin A and B, and requires the presence of wild-type N-terminal destruction box motifs in each cyclin. Ubiquitinated cyclins are then rapidly recognized and degraded by the proteasome. These results identify the cyclosome-associated E3-C as the component of the cyclin destruction machinery whose activity is ultimately regulated by cdc2 and, as such, the element directly responsible for setting mitotic cyclin levels during early embryonic cell cycles. Images PMID:7787245

  15. A non-proteolytic role for ubiquitin in deadenylation of MHC-I mRNA by the RNA-binding E3-ligase MEX-3C.

    PubMed

    Cano, Florencia; Rapiteanu, Radu; Sebastiaan Winkler, G; Lehner, Paul J

    2015-01-01

    The regulation of protein and mRNA turnover is essential for many cellular processes. We recently showed that ubiquitin--traditionally linked to protein degradation--directly regulates the degradation of mRNAs through the action of a newly identified family of RNA-binding E3 ubiquitin ligases. How ubiquitin regulates mRNA decay remains unclear. Here, we identify a new role for ubiquitin in regulating deadenylation, the initial and often rate-limiting step in mRNA degradation. MEX-3C, a canonical member of this family of RNA-binding ubiquitin ligases, associates with the cytoplasmic deadenylation complexes and ubiquitinates CNOT7(Caf1), the main catalytic subunit of the CCR4-NOT deadenylation machinery. We establish a new role for ubiquitin in regulating MHC-I mRNA deadenylation as ubiquitination of CNOT7 by MEX-3C regulates its deadenylation activity and is required for MHC-I mRNA degradation. Since neither proteasome nor lysosome inhibitors rescued MEX-3C-mediated MHC-I mRNA degradation, our findings suggest a new non-proteolytic function for ubiquitin in the regulation of mRNA decay. PMID:26471122

  16. Shigella IpaH7.8 E3 ubiquitin ligase targets glomulin and activates inflammasomes to demolish macrophages.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Shiho; Mimuro, Hitomi; Kim, Minsoo; Ogawa, Michinaga; Ashida, Hiroshi; Toyotome, Takahito; Franchi, Luigi; Suzuki, Masato; Sanada, Takahito; Suzuki, Toshihiko; Tsutsui, Hiroko; Núñez, Gabriel; Sasakawa, Chihiro

    2014-10-01

    When nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors (NLRs) sense cytosolic-invading bacteria, they induce the formation of inflammasomes and initiate an innate immune response. In quiescent cells, inflammasome activity is tightly regulated to prevent excess inflammation and cell death. Many bacterial pathogens provoke inflammasome activity and induce inflammatory responses, including cell death, by delivering type III secreted effectors, the rod component flagellin, and toxins. Recent studies indicated that Shigella deploy multiple mechanisms to stimulate NLR inflammasomes through type III secretion during infection. Here, we show that Shigella induces rapid macrophage cell death by delivering the invasion plasmid antigen H7.8 (IpaH7.8) enzyme 3 (E3) ubiquitin ligase effector via the type III secretion system, thereby activating the NLR family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) and NLR family CARD domain-containing 4 (NLRC4) inflammasomes and caspase-1 and leading to macrophage cell death in an IpaH7.8 E3 ligase-dependent manner. Mice infected with Shigella possessing IpaH7.8, but not with Shigella possessing an IpaH7.8 E3 ligase-null mutant, exhibited enhanced bacterial multiplication. We defined glomulin/flagellar-associated protein 68 (GLMN) as an IpaH7.8 target involved in IpaH7.8 E3 ligase-dependent inflammasome activation. This protein originally was identified through its association with glomuvenous malformations and more recently was described as a member of a Cullin ring ligase inhibitor. Modifying GLMN levels through overexpression or knockdown led to reduced or augmented inflammasome activation, respectively. Macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide/ATP induced GLMN puncta that localized with the active form of caspase-1. Macrophages from GLMN(+/-) mice were more responsive to inflammasome activation than those from GLMN(+/+) mice. Together, these results highlight a unique bacterial adaptation that hijacks inflammasome activation via

  17. Investigation of the intermolecular recognition mechanism between the E3 ubiquitin ligase Keap1 and substrate based on multiple substrates analysis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zheng-Yu; Xu, Li-Li; Lu, Meng-Chen; Pan, Yang; Huang, Hao-Ze; Zhang, Xiao-Jin; Sun, Hao-Peng; You, Qi-Dong

    2014-12-01

    E3 ubiquitin ligases are attractive drug targets due to their specificity to the ubiquitin machinery. However, the development of E3 ligase inhibitors has proven challenging for the fact that they must disrupt protein-protein interactions (PPIs). The E3 ligase involved in interactome provide new hope for the discovery of the E3 ligase inhibitors. These currently known natural binding partners of the E3 ligase can benefit the discovery of other unknown substrates and also the E3 ligase inhibitors. Herein, we present a novel strategy that using multiple substrates to elucidate the molecular recognition mechanism of E3 ubiquitin ligase. Molecular dynamics simulation, molecular mechanics-generalized born surface area (MM-GBSA) binding energy calculation and energy decomposition scheme were incorporated to evaluate the quantitative contributions of sub-pocket and per-residue to binding. In this case, Kelch-like ECH-associated protein-1 (Keap1), a substrate adaptor component of the Cullin-RING ubiquitin ligases complex, is applied for the investigation of how it recognize its substrates, especially Nrf2, a master regulator of the antioxidant response. By analyzing multiple substrates binding determinants, we found that both the polar sub-pockets (P1 and P2) and the nonpolar sub-pockets (P4 and P5) of Keap1 can make remarkable contributions to intermolecular interactions. This finding stresses the requirement for substrates to interact with the polar and nonpolar sub-pockets simultaneously. The results discussed in this paper not only show the binding determinants of the Keap1 substrates but also provide valuable implications for both Keap1 substrate discovery and PPI inhibitor design. PMID:25301376

  18. A SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase is involved in the degradation of the nuclear pool of the SUMO E3 ligase Siz1

    PubMed Central

    Westerbeck, Jason W.; Pasupala, Nagesh; Guillotte, Mark; Szymanski, Eva; Matson, Brooke C.; Esteban, Cecilia; Kerscher, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    The Slx5/Slx8 heterodimer constitutes a SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase (STUbL) with an important role in SUMO-targeted degradation and SUMO-dependent signaling. This STUbL relies on SUMO-interacting motifs in Slx5 to aid in substrate targeting and carboxy-terminal RING domains in both Slx5 and Slx8 for substrate ubiquitylation. In budding yeast cells, Slx5 resides in the nucleus, forms distinct foci, and can associate with double-stranded DNA breaks. However, it remains unclear how STUbLs interact with other proteins and their substrates. To examine the targeting and functions of the Slx5/Slx8 STUbL, we constructed and analyzed truncations of the Slx5 protein. Our structure–function analysis reveals a domain of Slx5 involved in nuclear localization and in the interaction with Slx5, SUMO, Slx8, and a novel interactor, the SUMO E3 ligase Siz1. We further analyzed the functional interaction of Slx5 and Siz1 in vitro and in vivo. We found that a recombinant Siz1 fragment is an in vitro ubiquitylation target of the Slx5/Slx8 STUbL. Furthermore, slx5∆ cells accumulate phosphorylated and sumoylated adducts of Siz1 in vivo. Specifically, we show that Siz1 can be ubiquitylated in vivo and is degraded in an Slx5-dependent manner when its nuclear egress is prevented in mitosis. In conclusion, our data provide a first look into the STUbL-mediated regulation of a SUMO E3 ligase. PMID:24196836

  19. CUL4-DDB1-CDT2 E3 Ligase Regulates the Molecular Clock Activity by Promoting Ubiquitination-Dependent Degradation of the Mammalian CRY1

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Xin; Zhang, Deqiang; Guha, Anirvan; Arthurs, Blake; Cazares, Victor; Gupta, Neil; Yin, Lei

    2015-01-01

    The CUL4-DDB1 E3 ligase complex serves as a critical regulator in various cellular processes, including cell proliferation, DNA damage repair, and cell cycle progression. However, whether this E3 ligase complex regulates clock protein turnover and the molecular clock activity in mammalian cells is unknown. Here we show that CUL4-DDB1-CDT2 E3 ligase ubiquitinates CRY1 and promotes its degradation both in vitro and in vivo. Depletion of the major components of this E3 ligase complex, including Ddb1, Cdt2, and Cdt2-cofactor Pcna, leads to CRY1 stabilization in cultured cells or in the mouse liver. CUL4A-DDB1-CDT2 E3 ligase targets lysine 585 within the C-terminal region of CRY1 protein, shown by the CRY1 585KA mutant’s resistance to ubiquitination and degradation mediated by the CUL4A-DDB1 complex. Surprisingly, both depletion of Ddb1 and over-expression of Cry1-585KA mutant enhance the oscillatory amplitude of the Bmal1 promoter activity without altering its period length, suggesting that CUL4A-DDB1-CDT2 E3 targets CRY1 for degradation and reduces the circadian amplitude. All together, we uncovered a novel biological role for CUL4A-DDB1-CDT2 E3 ligase that regulates molecular circadian behaviors via promoting ubiquitination-dependent degradation of CRY1. PMID:26431207

  20. E3 ubiquitin ligase RFWD2 controls lung branching through protein-level regulation of ETV transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Yokoyama, Shigetoshi; Herriges, John C; Zhang, Zhen; Young, Randee E; Verheyden, Jamie M; Sun, Xin

    2016-07-01

    The mammalian lung is an elaborate branching organ, and it forms following a highly stereotypical morphogenesis program. It is well established that precise control at the transcript level is a key genetic underpinning of lung branching. In comparison, little is known about how regulation at the protein level may play a role. Ring finger and WD domain 2 (RFWD2, also termed COP1) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that modifies specific target proteins, priming their degradation via the ubiquitin proteasome system. RFWD2 is known to function in the adult in pathogenic processes such as tumorigenesis. Here, we show that prenatal inactivation of Rfwd2 gene in the lung epithelium led to a striking halt in branching morphogenesis shortly after secondary branch formation. This defect is accompanied by distalization of the lung epithelium while growth and cellular differentiation still occurred. In the mutant lung, two E26 transformation-specific (ETS) transcription factors essential for normal lung branching, ETS translocation variant 4 (ETV4) and ETV5, were up-regulated at the protein level, but not at the transcript level. Introduction of Etv loss-of-function alleles into the Rfwd2 mutant background attenuated the branching phenotype, suggesting that RFWD2 functions, at least in part, through degrading ETV proteins. Because a number of E3 ligases are known to target factors important for lung development, our findings provide a preview of protein-level regulatory network essential for lung branching morphogenesis. PMID:27335464

  1. Dual control by Cdk1 phosphorylation of the budding yeast APC/C ubiquitin ligase activator Cdh1.

    PubMed

    Höckner, Sebastian; Neumann-Arnold, Lea; Seufert, Wolfgang

    2016-07-15

    The antagonism between cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) and the ubiquitin ligase APC/C-Cdh1 is central to eukaryotic cell cycle control. APC/C-Cdh1 targets cyclin B and other regulatory proteins for degradation, whereas Cdks disable APC/C-Cdh1 through phosphorylation of the Cdh1 activator protein at multiple sites. Budding yeast Cdh1 carries nine Cdk phosphorylation sites in its N-terminal regulatory domain, most or all of which contribute to inhibition. However, the precise role of individual sites has remained unclear. Here, we report that the Cdk phosphorylation sites of yeast Cdh1 are organized into autonomous subgroups and act through separate mechanisms. Cdk sites 1-3 had no direct effect on the APC/C binding of Cdh1 but inactivated a bipartite nuclear localization sequence (NLS) and thereby controlled the partitioning of Cdh1 between cytoplasm and nucleus. In contrast, Cdk sites 4-9 did not influence the cell cycle-regulated localization of Cdh1 but prevented its binding to the APC/C. Cdk sites 4-9 reside near two recently identified APC/C interaction motifs in a pattern conserved with the human Cdh1 orthologue. Thus a Cdk-inhibited NLS goes along with Cdk-inhibited APC/C binding sites in yeast Cdh1 to relay the negative control by Cdk1 phosphorylation of the ubiquitin ligase APC/C-Cdh1. PMID:27226481

  2. A MARCH6 and IDOL E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Circuit Uncouples Cholesterol Synthesis from Lipoprotein Uptake in Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Loregger, Anke; Cook, Emma Claire Laura; Nelson, Jessica Kristin; Moeton, Martina; Sharpe, Laura Jane; Engberg, Susanna; Karimova, Madina; Lambert, Gilles; Brown, Andrew John

    2015-01-01

    Cholesterol synthesis and lipoprotein uptake are tightly coordinated to ensure that the cellular level of cholesterol is adequately maintained. Hepatic dysregulation of these processes is associated with pathological conditions, most notably cardiovascular disease. Using a genetic approach, we have recently identified the E3 ubiquitin ligase MARCH6 as a regulator of cholesterol biosynthesis, owing to its ability to promote degradation of the rate-limiting enzymes 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR) and squalene epoxidase (SQLE). Here, we present evidence for MARCH6 playing a multifaceted role in the control of cholesterol homeostasis in hepatocytes. We identify MARCH6 as an endogenous inhibitor of the sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) transcriptional program. Accordingly, loss of MARCH6 increases expression of SREBP-regulated genes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis and lipoprotein uptake. Unexpectedly, this is associated with a decrease in cellular lipoprotein uptake, induced by enhanced lysosomal degradation of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR). Finally, we provide evidence that induction of the E3 ubiquitin ligase IDOL represents the molecular mechanism underlying this MARCH6-induced phenotype. Our study thus highlights a MARCH6-dependent mechanism to direct cellular cholesterol accretion that relies on uncoupling of cholesterol synthesis from lipoprotein uptake. PMID:26527619

  3. Ubiquitin ligase Nedd4L targets activated Smad2/3 to limit TGF-beta signaling.

    PubMed

    Gao, Sheng; Alarcón, Claudio; Sapkota, Gopal; Rahman, Sadia; Chen, Pan-Yu; Goerner, Nina; Macias, Maria J; Erdjument-Bromage, Hediye; Tempst, Paul; Massagué, Joan

    2009-11-13

    TGF-beta induces phosphorylation of the transcription factors Smad2 and Smad3 at the C terminus as well as at an interdomain linker region. TGF-beta-induced linker phosphorylation marks the activated Smad proteins for proteasome-mediated destruction. Here, we identify Nedd4L as the ubiquitin ligase responsible for this step. Through its WW domain, Nedd4L specifically recognizes a TGF-beta-induced phosphoThr-ProTyr motif in the linker region, resulting in Smad2/3 polyubiquitination and degradation. Nedd4L is not interchangeable with Smurf1, a ubiquitin ligase that targets BMP-activated, linker-phosphorylated Smad1. Nedd4L limits the half-life of TGF-beta-activated Smads and restricts the amplitude and duration of TGF-beta gene responses, and in mouse embryonic stem cells, it limits the induction of mesoendodermal fates by Smad2/3-activating factors. Hierarchical regulation is provided by SGK1, which phosphorylates Nedd4L to prevent binding of Smad2/3. Previously identified as a regulator of renal sodium channels, Nedd4L is shown here to play a broader role as a general modulator of Smad turnover during TGF-beta signal transduction. PMID:19917253

  4. Ring finger protein 146/Iduna is a Poly (ADP-ribose) polymer binding and PARsylation dependent E3 ubiquitin ligase

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhi-dong; Chan, Christine Hui-shan; Xiao, Zhi-cheng

    2011-01-01

    Recent findings suggest that Ring finger protein 146 (RNF146), also called Iduna, have neuroprotective property due to its inhibition of Parthanatos via binding with Poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR). The Parthanatos is a PAR dependent cell death that has been implicated in many human diseases. RNF146/Iduna acts as a PARsylation-directed E3 ubquitin ligase to mediate tankyrase-dependent degradation of axin, thereby positively regulates Wnt signaling. RNF146/Iduna can also facilitate DNA repair and protect against cell death induced by DNA damaging agents or γ-irradiation. It can translocate to the nucleus after cellular injury and promote the ubiquitination and degradation of various nuclear proteins involved in DNA damage repair. The PARsylation-directed ubquitination mediated by RNF146/Iduna is analogous to the phosphorylation-directed ubquitination catalyzed by Skp1-Cul1-F-box (SCF) E3 ubiquitin complex. RNF146/Iduna has been found to be implicated in neurodegenerative disease and cancer development. Therefore modulation of the PAR-binding and PARsylation dependent E3 ligase activity of RNF146/Iduna could have therapeutic significance for diseases, in which PAR and PAR-binding proteins play key pathophysiologic roles. PMID:22274711

  5. A HECT Ubiquitin-Protein Ligase as a Novel Candidate Gene for Altered Quinine and Quinidine Responses in Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Cecilia P.; Cyrklaff, Marek; Mu, Jianbing; Ferdig, Michael T.; Stein, Wilfred D.; Lanzer, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The emerging resistance to quinine jeopardizes the efficacy of a drug that has been used in the treatment of malaria for several centuries. To identify factors contributing to differential quinine responses in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, we have conducted comparative quantitative trait locus analyses on the susceptibility to quinine and also its stereoisomer quinidine, and on the initial and steady-state intracellular drug accumulation levels in the F1 progeny of a genetic cross. These data, together with genetic screens of field isolates and laboratory strains associated differential quinine and quinidine responses with mutated pfcrt, a segment on chromosome 13, and a novel candidate gene, termed MAL7P1.19 (encoding a HECT ubiquitin ligase). Despite a strong likelihood of association, episomal transfections demonstrated a role for the HECT ubiquitin-protein ligase in quinine and quinidine sensitivity in only a subset of genetic backgrounds, and here the changes in IC50 values were moderate (approximately 2-fold). These data show that quinine responsiveness is a complex genetic trait with multiple alleles playing a role and that more experiments are needed to unravel the role of the contributing factors. PMID:24830312

  6. Concerted action of the ubiquitin-fusion degradation protein 1 (Ufd1) and Sumo-targeted ubiquitin ligases (STUbLs) in the DNA-damage response.

    PubMed

    Køhler, Julie Bonne; Jørgensen, Maria Louise Mønster; Beinoraité, Gabriele; Thorsen, Michael; Thon, Geneviève

    2013-01-01

    In eukaryotes many players in the DNA-damage response (DDR) catalyze protein sumoylation or ubiquitylation. Emphasis has been placed on how these modifications orchestrate the sequential recruitment of repair factors to sites of DNA damage or stalled replication forks. Here, we shed light on a pathway in which sumoylated factors are eliminated through the coupled action of Sumo-targeted ubiquitin ligases (STUbLs) and the ubiquitin-fusion degradation protein 1 (Ufd1). Ufd1 is a subunit of the Cdc48-Ufd1-Npl4 complex implicated in the sorting of ubiquitylated substrates for degradation by the proteasome. We find that in fission yeast, Ufd1 interacts physically and functionally with the Sumo-targeted ubiquitin ligase (STUbL) Rfp1, homologous to human RNF4, and with the Sumo E3 ligase Pli1, homologous to human PIAS1. Deleting a C-terminal domain of Ufd1 that mediates the interaction of Ufd1 with Rfp1, Pli1, and Sumo (ufd1ΔCt(213-342) ) lead to an accumulation of high-molecular-weight Sumo conjugates and caused severe genomic instabilities. The spectrum of sensitivity of ufd1ΔCt(213-342) cells to genotoxins, the epistatic relationships of ufd1ΔCt(213-342) with mutations in DNA repair factors, and the localization of the repair factor Rad22 in ufd1ΔCt(213-342) cells point to ufd1ΔCt(213-342) cells accumulating aberrant structures during replication that require homologous recombination (HR) for their repair. We present evidence that HR is however often not successful in ufd1ΔCt(213-342) cells and we identify Rad22 as one of the high-molecular-weight conjugates accumulating in the ufd1ΔCt(213-342) mutant consistent with Rad22 being a STUbL/Ufd1 substrate. Suggesting a direct role of Ufd1 in the processing of Sumo-conjugates, Ufd1 formed nuclear foci colocalizing with Sumo during the DDR, and Sumo-conjugates accumulated in foci in the ufd1ΔCt(213-342) mutant. Broader functional relationships between Ufd1 and STUbLs conceivably affect numerous cellular processes

  7. The Replisome-Coupled E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Rtt101Mms22 Counteracts Mrc1 Function to Tolerate Genotoxic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Melnik, Andre; Wilson-Zbinden, Caroline; Schellhaas, René; Kastner, Lisa; Piwko, Wojciech; Dees, Martina; Picotti, Paola; Maric, Marija; Labib, Karim; Luke, Brian; Peter, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Faithful DNA replication and repair requires the activity of cullin 4-based E3 ubiquitin ligases (CRL4), but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. The budding yeast Cul4 homologue, Rtt101, in complex with the linker Mms1 and the putative substrate adaptor Mms22 promotes progression of replication forks through damaged DNA. Here we characterized the interactome of Mms22 and found that the Rtt101Mms22 ligase associates with the replisome progression complex during S-phase via the amino-terminal WD40 domain of Ctf4. Moreover, genetic screening for suppressors of the genotoxic sensitivity of rtt101Δ cells identified a cluster of replication proteins, among them a component of the fork protection complex, Mrc1. In contrast to rtt101Δ and mms22Δ cells, mrc1Δ rtt101Δ and mrc1Δ mms22Δ double mutants complete DNA replication upon replication stress by facilitating the repair/restart of stalled replication forks using a Rad52-dependent mechanism. Our results suggest that the Rtt101Mms22 E3 ligase does not induce Mrc1 degradation, but specifically counteracts Mrc1’s replicative function, possibly by modulating its interaction with the CMG (Cdc45-MCM-GINS) complex at stalled forks. PMID:26849847

  8. A non-proteolytic role for ubiquitin in deadenylation of MHC-I mRNA by the RNA-binding E3-ligase MEX-3C

    PubMed Central

    Cano, Florencia; Rapiteanu, Radu; Sebastiaan Winkler, G.; Lehner, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    The regulation of protein and mRNA turnover is essential for many cellular processes. We recently showed that ubiquitin—traditionally linked to protein degradation—directly regulates the degradation of mRNAs through the action of a newly identified family of RNA-binding E3 ubiquitin ligases. How ubiquitin regulates mRNA decay remains unclear. Here, we identify a new role for ubiquitin in regulating deadenylation, the initial and often rate-limiting step in mRNA degradation. MEX-3C, a canonical member of this family of RNA-binding ubiquitin ligases, associates with the cytoplasmic deadenylation complexes and ubiquitinates CNOT7(Caf1), the main catalytic subunit of the CCR4-NOT deadenylation machinery. We establish a new role for ubiquitin in regulating MHC-I mRNA deadenylation as ubiquitination of CNOT7 by MEX-3C regulates its deadenylation activity and is required for MHC-I mRNA degradation. Since neither proteasome nor lysosome inhibitors rescued MEX-3C-mediated MHC-I mRNA degradation, our findings suggest a new non-proteolytic function for ubiquitin in the regulation of mRNA decay. PMID:26471122

  9. Structural basis of lenalidomide-induced CK1α degradation by the CRL4(CRBN) ubiquitin ligase.

    PubMed

    Petzold, Georg; Fischer, Eric S; Thomä, Nicolas H

    2016-04-01

    Thalidomide and its derivatives, lenalidomide and pomalidomide, are immune modulatory drugs (IMiDs) used in the treatment of haematologic malignancies. IMiDs bind CRBN, the substrate receptor of the CUL4-RBX1-DDB1-CRBN (also known as CRL4(CRBN)) E3 ubiquitin ligase, and inhibit ubiquitination of endogenous CRL4(CRBN) substrates. Unexpectedly, IMiDs also repurpose the ligase to target new proteins for degradation. Lenalidomide induces degradation of the lymphoid transcription factors Ikaros and Aiolos (also known as IKZF1 and IKZF3), and casein kinase 1α (CK1α), which contributes to its clinical efficacy in the treatment of multiple myeloma and 5q-deletion associated myelodysplastic syndrome (del(5q) MDS), respectively. How lenalidomide alters the specificity of the ligase to degrade these proteins remains elusive. Here we present the 2.45 Å crystal structure of DDB1-CRBN bound to lenalidomide and CK1α. CRBN and lenalidomide jointly provide the binding interface for a CK1α β-hairpin-loop located in the kinase N-lobe. We show that CK1α binding to CRL4(CRBN) is strictly dependent on the presence of an IMiD. Binding of IKZF1 to CRBN similarly requires the compound and both, IKZF1 and CK1α, use a related binding mode. Our study provides a mechanistic explanation for the selective efficacy of lenalidomide in del(5q) MDS therapy. We anticipate that high-affinity protein-protein interactions induced by small molecules will provide opportunities for drug development, particularly for targeted protein degradation. PMID:26909574

  10. Down-regulation of intestinal apical calcium entry channel TRPV6 by ubiquitin E3 ligase Nedd4-2.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Na, Tao; Wu, Guojin; Jing, Haiyan; Peng, Ji-Bin

    2010-11-19

    Nedd4-2 is an archetypal HECT ubiquitin E3 ligase that disposes target proteins for degradation. Because of the proven roles of Nedd4-2 in degradation of membrane proteins, such as epithelial Na(+) channel, we examined the effect of Nedd4-2 on the apical Ca(2+) channel TRPV6, which is involved in transcellular Ca(2+) transport in the intestine using the Xenopus laevis oocyte system. We demonstrated that a significant amount of Nedd4-2 protein was distributed to the absorptive epithelial cells in ileum, cecum, and colon along with TRPV6. When co-expressed in oocytes, Nedd4-2 and, to a lesser extent, Nedd4 down-regulated the protein abundance and Ca(2+) influx of TRPV6 and TRPV5, respectively. TRPV6 ubiquitination was increased, and its stability was decreased by Nedd4-2. The Nedd4-2 inhibitory effects on TRPV6 were partially blocked by proteasome inhibitor MG132 but not by the lysosome inhibitor chloroquine. The rate of TRPV6 internalization was not significantly altered by Nedd4-2. The HECT domain was essential to the inhibitory effect of Nedd4-2 on TRPV6 and to their association. The WW1 and WW2 domains interacted with TRPV6 terminal regions, and a disruption of the interactions by D204H and D376H mutations in the WW1 and WW2 domains increased TRPV6 ubiquitination and degradation. Thus, WW1 and WW2 may serve as a molecular switch to limit the ubiquitination of TRPV6 by the HECT domain. In conclusion, Nedd4-2 may regulate TRPV6 protein abundance in intestinal epithelia by controlling TRPV6 ubiquitination. PMID:20843805

  11. Inhibition of Cullin-RING E3 ubiquitin ligase 7 by simian virus 40 large T antigen

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Thomas; Xu, Xinsong; Kronast, Mira; Muehlich, Susanne; Meyer, Kathleen; Zimmermann, Wolfgang; Hurwitz, Jerard; Pan, Zhen-Qiang; Engelhardt, Stefan; Sarikas, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Simian virus 40 (SV40) large tumor antigen (LT) triggers oncogenic transformation by inhibition of key tumor suppressor proteins, including p53 and members of the retinoblastoma family. In addition, SV40 transformation requires binding of LT to Cullin 7 (CUL7), a core component of Cullin-RING E3 ubiquitin ligase 7 (CRL7). However, the pathomechanistic effects of LT–CUL7 interaction are mostly unknown. Here we report both in vitro and in vivo experimental evidence that SV40 LT suppresses the ubiquitin ligase function of CRL7. We show that SV40 LT, but not a CUL7 binding-deficient mutant (LTΔ69–83), impaired 26S proteasome-dependent proteolysis of the CRL7 target protein insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1), a component of the insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 signaling pathway. SV40 LT expression resulted in the accumulation and prolonged half-life of IRS1. In vitro, purified SV40 LT reduced CRL7-dependent IRS1 ubiquitination in a concentration-dependent manner. Expression of SV40 LT, or depletion of CUL7 by RNA interference, resulted in the enhanced activation of IRS1 downstream signaling pathways phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/AKT and Erk mitogen-activated pathway kinase, as well as up-regulation of the downstream target gene c-fos. Finally, SV40 LT-positive carcinoma of carcinoembryonic antigen 424/SV40 LT transgenic mice displayed elevated IRS1 protein levels and activation of downstream signaling. Taken together, these data suggest that SV40 LT protects IRS1 from CRL7-mediated degradation, thereby sustaining high levels of promitogenic IRS1 downstream signaling pathways. PMID:24550499

  12. Histone Modification of Nedd4 Ubiquitin Ligase Controls the Loss of AMPA Receptors and Cognitive Impairment Induced by Repeated Stress

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jing; Xiong, Zhe; Lee, Janine B.; Cheng, Jia; Duffney, Lara J.; Matas, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Stress and the major stress hormone corticosterone induce profound influences in the brain. Altered histone modification and transcriptional dysfunction have been implicated in stress-related mental disorders. We previously found that repeated stress caused an impairment of prefrontal cortex (PFC)-mediated cognitive functions by increasing the ubiquitination and degradation of AMPA-type glutamate receptors via a mechanism depending on the E3 ubiquitin ligase Nedd4. Here, we demonstrated that in PFC of repeatedly stressed rats, active glucocorticoid receptor had the increased binding to the glucocorticoid response element of histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) promoter, resulting in the upregulation of HDAC2. Inhibition or knock-down of HDAC2 blocked the stress-induced impairment of synaptic transmission, AMPAR expression, and recognition memory. Furthermore, we found that, in stressed animals, the HDAC2-dependent downregulation of histone methyltransferase Ehmt2 (G9a) led to the loss of repressive histone methylation at the Nedd4-1 promoter and the transcriptional activation of Nedd4. These results have provided an epigenetic mechanism and a potential treatment strategy for the detrimental effects of chronic stress. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Prolonged stress exposure can induce altered histone modification and transcriptional dysfunction, which may underlie the profound influence of stress in regulating brain functions. We report an important finding about the epigenetic mechanism controlling the detrimental effects of repeated stress on synaptic transmission and cognitive function. First, it has revealed the stress-induced alteration of key epigenetic regulators HDAC2 and Ehmt2, which determines the synaptic and behavioral effects of repeated stress. Second, it has uncovered the stress-induced histone modification of the target gene Nedd4, an E3 ligase that is critically involved in the ubiquitination and degradation of AMPA receptors and cognition. Third, it has provided

  13. RING-type ubiquitin ligase McCPN1 catalyzes UBC8-dependent protein ubiquitination and interacts with Argonaute 4 in halophyte ice plant.

    PubMed

    Li, Chang-Hua; Chiang, Chih-Pin; Yang, Jun-Yi; Ma, Chia-Jou; Chen, Yu-Chan; Yen, Hungchen Emilie

    2014-07-01

    RING-type copines are a small family of plant-specific RING-type ubiquitin ligases. They contain an N-terminal myristoylation site for membrane anchoring, a central copine domain for substrate recognition, and a C-terminal RING domain for E2 docking. RING-type copine McCPN1 (copine1) from halophyte ice plant (Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L.) was previously identified from a salt-induced cDNA library. In this work, we characterize the activity, expression, and localization of McCPN1 in ice plant. An in vitro ubiquitination assay of McCPN1 was performed using two ice plant UBCs, McUBC1 and McUBC2, characterized from the same salt-induced cDNA library. The results showed that McUBC2, a member of the UBC8 family, stimulated the autoubiquitination activity of McCPN1, while McUBC1, a homolog of the UBC35 family, did not. The results indicate that McCPN1 has selective E2-dependent E3 ligase activity. We found that McCPN1 localizes primarily on the plasma membrane and in the nucleus of plant cells. Under salt stress, the accumulation of McCPN1 in the roots increases. A yeast two-hybrid screen was used to search for potential McCPN1-interacting partners using a library constructed from salt-stressed ice plants. Screening with full-length McCPN1 identified several independent clones containing partial Argonaute 4 (AGO4) sequence. Subsequent agro-infiltration, protoplast two-hybrid analysis, and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay confirmed that McCPN1 and AGO4 interacted in vivo in the nucleus of plant cells. The possible involvement of a catalyzed degradation of AGO4 by McCPN1 in response to salt stress is discussed. PMID:24811676

  14. Structural analysis of the TKB domain of ubiquitin ligase Cbl-b complexed with its small inhibitory peptide, Cblin.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Ayako; Ochi, Arisa; Maita, Nobuo; Ueji, Tatsuya; Bando, Aki; Nakao, Reiko; Hirasaka, Katsuya; Abe, Tomoki; Teshima-Kondo, Shigetada; Nemoto, Hisao; Okumura, Yuushi; Higashibata, Akira; Yano, Sachiko; Tochio, Hidehito; Nikawa, Takeshi

    2016-03-15

    Cbl-b is a RING-type ubiquitin ligase. Previously, we showed that Cbl-b-mediated ubiquitination and proteosomal degradation of IRS-1 contribute to muscle atrophy caused by unloading stress. The phospho-pentapeptide DGpYMP (Cblin) mimics Tyr612-phosphorylated IRS-1 and inhibits the Cbl-b-mediated ubiquitination and degradation of IRS-1 in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we confirmed the direct interaction between Cblin and the TKB domain of Cbl-b using NMR. Moreover, we showed that the shortened tripeptide GpYM also binds to the TKB domain. To elucidate the inhibitory mechanism of Cblin, we solved the crystal structure of the TKB-Cblin complex at a resolution of 2.5 Å. The pY in Cblin inserts into a positively charged pocket in the TKB domain via hydrogen-bond networks and hydrophobic interactions. Within this complex, the Cblin structure closely resembles the TKB-bound form of another substrate-derived phosphopeptide, Zap-70-derived phosphopeptide. These peptides lack the conserved intrapeptidyl hydrogen bond between pY and a conserved residue involved in TKB-domain binding. Instead of the conserved interaction, these peptides specifically interact with the TKB domain. Based on this binding mode of Cblin to the TKB domain, we can design drugs against unloading-mediated muscle atrophy. PMID:26874193

  15. Association of the SEL1L protein transmembrane domain with HRD1 ubiquitin ligase regulates ERAD-L.

    PubMed

    Hosokawa, Nobuko; Wada, Ikuo

    2016-01-01

    Misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are transported to the cytoplasm for degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system, a process otherwise known as ER-associated degradation (ERAD). Mammalian HRD1, an integral membrane ubiquitin ligase that ubiquitinates ERAD substrates, forms a large assembly in the ER membrane including SEL1L, a single-pass membrane protein, and additional components. The mechanism by which these molecules export misfolded proteins through the ER membrane remains unclear. Unlike Hrd3p, the homologue in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, human SEL1L is an unstable protein, which is restored by the association with HRD1. Here we report that the inherently unstable nature of the human SEL1L protein lies in its transmembrane domain, and that association of HRD1 with the SEL1L transmembrane domain restored its stability. On the other hand, we found that the SEL1L luminal domain escaped degradation, and inhibited the degradation of misfolded α1 -antitrypsin variant null Hong Kong by retaining the misfolded cargo in the ER. Overexpression of HRD1 inhibited the degradation of unfolded secretory cargo, which was restored by the interaction of HRD1 with the SEL1L transmembrane domain. Hence, we propose that SEL1L critically regulates HRD1-mediated disposal of misfolded cargo through its short membrane spanning stretch. PMID:26471130

  16. Structural Basis of the Cks1-Dependent Recognition of P27Kip1 by the SCF skp2 Ubiquitin Ligase

    SciTech Connect

    Hao,B.; Zheng, N.; Schulman, B.; Wu, G.; Miller, J.; Pagano, M.; Pavletich, N.

    2005-01-01

    The ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis of the Cdk2 inhibitor p27(Kip1) plays a central role in cell cycle progression, and enhanced degradation of p27(Kip1) is associated with many common cancers. Proteolysis of p27(Kip1) is triggered by Thr187 phosphorylation, which leads to the binding of the SCF(Skp2) (Skp1-Cul1-Rbx1-Skp2) ubiquitin ligase complex. Unlike other known SCF substrates, p27(Kip1) ubiquitination also requires the accessory protein Cks1. The crystal structure of the Skp1-Skp2-Cks1 complex bound to a p27(Kip1) phosphopeptide shows that Cks1 binds to the leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain and C-terminal tail of Skp2, whereas p27(Kip1) binds to both Cks1 and Skp2. The phosphorylated Thr187 side chain of p27(Kip1) is recognized by a Cks1 phosphate binding site, whereas the side chain of an invariant Glu185 inserts into the interface between Skp2 and Cks1, interacting with both. The structure and biochemical data support the proposed model that Cdk2-cyclin A contributes to the recruitment of p27(Kip1) to the SCF(Skp2)-Cks1 complex.

  17. The E3 ubiquitin ligase WWP1 regulates {Delta}Np63-dependent transcription through Lys63 linkages

    SciTech Connect

    Peschiaroli, Angelo; Scialpi, Flavia; Bernassola, Francesca; Sherbini, El Said El; Melino, Gerry

    2010-11-12

    Research highlights: {yields} WWP1 ubiquitylates {Delta}Np63 through conjugation of Lys63-linked poly-ubiquitin chains. {yields} WWP1 does not control {Delta}Np63 protein stability. {yields} WWP1 regulates {Delta}Np63-dependent transcription. -- Abstract: The transcription factor p63, a member of the p53 family, plays a crucial role in epithelial development and tumorigenesis through the regulation of epithelial progenitor cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Similarly to p53, p63 activity is regulated by post-translational modifications, including ubiquitylation. Here, we report that the WWP1 E3 ubiquitin ligase binds specifically to {Delta}Np63 isoform but it does not trigger {Delta}Np63 proteasome-dependent degradation. Accordingly, we found that WWP1-dependent ubiquitylation of {Delta}Np63 occurs through the formation of Lys63-linked poly-ubiquitin chains. Importantly, we found that WWP1 is able to increase {Delta}Np63-dependent transcription and depletion of WWP1 in human primary keratinocytes induces cell cycle arrest. All together these results indicate that WWP1 regulates {Delta}Np63 transcriptional activity, acting thus as a potential regulator of the proliferation and survival of epithelial-derived cells.

  18. SUMO-targeted ubiquitin E3 ligase RNF4 is required for the response of human cells to DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Yin, Yili; Seifert, Anne; Chua, Joy Shijia; Maure, Jean-François; Golebiowski, Filip; Hay, Ronald T

    2012-06-01

    Here we demonstrate that RNF4, a highly conserved small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO)-targeted ubiquitin E3 ligase, plays a critical role in the response of mammalian cells to DNA damage. Human cells in which RNF4 expression was ablated by siRNA or chicken DT40 cells with a homozygous deletion of the RNF4 gene displayed increased sensitivity to DNA-damaging agents. Recruitment of RNF4 to double-strand breaks required its RING and SUMO interaction motif (SIM) domains and DNA damage factors such as NBS1, mediator of DNA damage checkpoint 1 (MDC1), RNF8, 53BP1, and BRCA1. In the absence of RNF4, these factors were still recruited to sites of DNA damage, but 53BP1, RNF8, and RNF168 displayed delayed clearance from such foci. SILAC-based proteomics of SUMO substrates revealed that MDC1 was SUMO-modified in response to ionizing radiation. As a consequence of SUMO modification, MDC1 recruited RNF4, which mediated ubiquitylation at the DNA damage site. Failure to recruit RNF4 resulted in defective loading of replication protein A (RPA) and Rad51 onto ssDNA. This appeared to be a consequence of reduced recruitment of the CtIP nuclease, resulting in inefficient end resection. Thus, RNF4 is a novel DNA damage-responsive protein that plays a role in homologous recombination and integrates SUMO modification and ubiquitin signaling in the cellular response to genotoxic stress. PMID:22661230

  19. Structural model of ubiquitin transfer onto an artificial RING finger as an E3 ligase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, Kazuhide

    2014-10-01

    The artificial WSTF PHD_EL5 RING finger was designed via ``α-helical region substitution'', and its structural model for the attachment of activated ubiquitin has been demonstrated. Chemical modifications of Cys residues, the circular dichroism spectra, and substrate-independent ubiquitination assays illustrated that the WSTF PHD_EL5 RING finger has E3 activity, and it is ubiquitinated via Lys14. Homology modeling calculations revealed that the WSTF PHD_EL5 RING finger possesses a classical RING fold for specific E2-E3 binding. The docking poses of the WSTF PHD_EL5 RING finger with the UbcH5b-ubiquitin conjugate provided insight into its functional E2 interaction and development of ubiquitination at the atomic level. The structural model of the artificial WSTF PHD_EL5 RING finger proposed by the present work is useful and may help to extend the strategy of α-helical region substitution.

  20. Multiple interactions drive adaptor-mediated recruitment of the ubiquitin ligase rsp5 to membrane proteins in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, James A; Lewis, Michael J; Nikko, Elina; Pelham, Hugh R B

    2007-07-01

    Recognition of membrane proteins by the Nedd4/Rsp5 ubiquitin ligase family is a critical step in their targeting to the multivesicular body pathway. Some substrates contain "PY" motifs (PPxY), which bind to WW domains in the ligase. Others lack PY motifs and instead rely on adaptors that recruit the ligase to them. To investigate the mechanism of adaptor-mediated ubiquitination, we have characterized the interactions between the adaptor Bsd2, the ubiquitin ligase Rsp5, and the membrane proteins Cps1, Tre1, and Smf1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We have reconstituted adaptor-mediated modification of Cps1 and Tre1 in vitro, and we show that two PY motifs in Bsd2 and two WW domains (WW2 and WW3) in Rsp5 are crucial for this. The binding of a weak noncanonical DMAPSY motif in Bsd2 to WW3 is an absolute requirement for Bsd2 adaptor function. We show that sorting of the manganese transporter Smf1, which requires both Bsd2 and Tre1, depends upon two PY motifs in Bsd2 and one motif in Tre1 but only two WW domains in Rsp5. We suggest that sequential assembly of first a Bsd2/Rsp5 complex, then a Tre1/Bsd2/Rsp5 complex followed by a rearrangement of PY-WW interactions is required for the ubiquitination of Smf1. PMID:17429078

  1. Progestin-inducible EDD E3 ubiquitin ligase binds to α4 phosphoprotein to regulate ubiquitination and degradation of protein phosphatase PP2Ac.

    PubMed

    McDonald, William J; Thomas, Lynn N; Koirala, Samir; Too, Catherine K L

    2014-01-25

    Mammalian α4 phosphoprotein binds to the protein phosphatase 2A catalytic subunit (PP2Ac) to regulate PP2A activity, and to poly(A)-binding protein (PABP) and progestin-inducible EDD E3 ubiquitin ligase. This study showed induction of the EDD protein by progesterone, 17β-estradiol and prolactin in breast cancer cells. Co-immunoprecipitation analyses, using lysates of COS-1 cells transfected with α4-deletion constructs, showed the α4 N-terminus binding to endogenous PP2Ac and PABP, and the C-terminus to EDD. Monoubiquitinated α4 in MCF-7 cells was unaffected by EDD-targeting siRNA (siEDD) nor by non-targetting siNT, thus, EDD does not ubiquitinate α4. PP2Ac is polyubiquitinated, and 36-kDa PP2Ac only was detected in siEDD- or siNT-transfected cells. However, treatment with proteasomal inhibitor MG132 showed polyubiquitinated-PP2Ac molecules (∼65-250kDa) abundantly in siNT controls but low in siEDD-transfectants, implicating PP2Ac as an EDD substrate. Finally, progesterone induction of EDD in MCF-7 cells correlated with decreased PP2Ac levels, further implicating hormone-inducible EDD in PP2Ac turnover. PMID:24145130

  2. E3 ubiquitin ligase CHIP interacts with C-type lectin-like receptor CLEC-2 and promotes its ubiquitin-proteasome degradation.

    PubMed

    Shao, Miaomiao; Li, Lili; Song, Shushu; Wu, Weicheng; Peng, Peike; Yang, Caiting; Zhang, Mingming; Duan, Fangfang; Jia, Dongwei; Zhang, Jie; Wu, Hao; Zhao, Ran; Wang, Lan; Ruan, Yuanyuan; Gu, Jianxin

    2016-10-01

    C-type lectin-like receptor 2 (CLEC-2) was originally identified as a member of non-classical C-type lectin-like receptors in platelets and immune cells. Activation of CLEC-2 is involved in thrombus formation, lymphatic/blood vessel separation, platelet-mediated tumor metastasis and immune response. Nevertheless, the regulation of CLEC-2 expression is little understood. In this study, we identified that the C terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP) interacted with CLEC-2 by mass spectrometry analysis, and CHIP decreased the protein expression of CLEC-2 through lysine-48-linked ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. Deleted and point mutation also revealed that CHIP controlled CLEC-2 protein expression via both tetratricopeptide repeats (TPR) domain and Ubox domain in a HSP70/90-independent manner. Moreover, reduced CHIP expression was associated with decreased CLEC-2 polyubiquitination and increased CLEC-2 protein levels in PMA-induced differentiation of THP-1 monocytes into macrophages. These results indicate that CLEC-2 is the target substrate of E3 ubiquitin ligase CHIP, and suggest that the CHIP/CLEC-2 axis may play an important role in the modulation of immune response. PMID:27443248

  3. Deficiency of UBE2T, the E2 Ubiquitin Ligase Necessary for FANCD2 and FANCI Ubiquitination, Causes FA-T Subtype of Fanconi Anemia.

    PubMed

    Rickman, Kimberly A; Lach, Francis P; Abhyankar, Avinash; Donovan, Frank X; Sanborn, Erica M; Kennedy, Jennifer A; Sougnez, Carrie; Gabriel, Stacey B; Elemento, Olivier; Chandrasekharappa, Settara C; Schindler, Detlev; Auerbach, Arleen D; Smogorzewska, Agata

    2015-07-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare bone marrow failure and cancer predisposition syndrome resulting from pathogenic mutations in genes encoding proteins participating in the repair of DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs). Mutations in 17 genes (FANCA-FANCS) have been identified in FA patients, defining 17 complementation groups. Here, we describe an individual presenting with typical FA features who is deficient for the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2), UBE2T. UBE2T is known to interact with FANCL, the E3 ubiquitin-ligase component of the multiprotein FA core complex, and is necessary for the monoubiquitination of FANCD2 and FANCI. Proband fibroblasts do not display FANCD2 and FANCI monoubiquitination, do not form FANCD2 foci following treatment with mitomycin C, and are hypersensitive to crosslinking agents. These cellular defects are complemented by expression of wild-type UBE2T, demonstrating that deficiency of the protein UBE2T can lead to Fanconi anemia. UBE2T gene gains an alias of FANCT. PMID:26119737

  4. PDLIM7 is a novel target of the ubiquitin ligase Nedd4-1 in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    D'Cruz, Robert; Plant, Pamela J; Pablo, Lesley A; Lin, Shouzhe; Chackowicz, Joshua; Correa, Judy; Bain, James; Batt, Jane

    2016-02-01

    Skeletal muscle atrophy remains a complication occurring both as a natural response to muscle disuse and as a pathophysiological response to illness such as diabetes mellitus and nerve injury, such as traumatic muscle denervation. The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is the predominant proteolytic machinery responsible for atrophy of skeletal muscle, and Nedd4-1 (neural precursor cell-expressed developmentally down-regulated 4-1) is one of a series of E3 ubiquitin ligases identified to mediate inactivity-induced muscle wasting. Targets of Nedd4-1 mediated ubiquitination in skeletal muscle remain poorly understood. In the present study, we identified PDLIM7 (PDZ and LIM domain 7, Enigma), a member of the PDZ-LIM family of proteins, as a novel target of Nedd4-1 in skeletal muscle. The PDZ-LIM family of proteins is known to regulate muscle development and function. We show that Nedd4-1 expression in muscle atrophied by denervation is co-incident with a decrease in PDLIM7 and that PDLIM7 protein levels are stabilized in denervated muscle of Nedd4-1 skeletal muscle-specific knockout mice (SMS-KO). Exogenous PDLIM7 and Nedd4-1 transfected into human embryonic kidney (HEK)293 cells co-immunoprecipitate through binding between the PY motif of PDLIM7 and the second and third WW domains of Nedd4-1 and endogenous PDLIM7 and Nedd4-1 interact in the cytoplasm of differentiated C2C12 myotubes, leading to PDLIM7 ubiquitination. These results identify PDLIM7 as a bona fide skeletal muscle substrate of Nedd4-1 and suggest that this interaction may underlie the progression of skeletal muscle atrophy. This offers a novel therapeutic target that could be potentially used to attenuate muscle atrophy. PMID:26556890

  5. Genetically engineered mouse models for functional studies of SKP1-CUL1-F-box-protein (SCF) E3 ubiquitin ligases

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Weihua; Wei, Wenyi; Sun, Yi

    2013-01-01

    The SCF (SKP1 (S-phase-kinase-associated protein 1), Cullin-1, F-box protein) E3 ubiquitin ligases, the founding member of Cullin-RING ligases (CRLs), are the largest family of E3 ubiquitin ligases in mammals. Each individual SCF E3 ligase consists of one adaptor protein SKP1, one scaffold protein cullin-1 (the first family member of the eight cullins), one F-box protein out of 69 family members, and one out of two RING (Really Interesting New Gene) family proteins RBX1/ROC1 or RBX2/ROC2/SAG/RNF7. Various combinations of these four components construct a large number of SCF E3s that promote the degradation of many key regulatory proteins in cell-context, temporally, and spatially dependent manners, thus controlling precisely numerous important cellular processes, including cell cycle progression, apoptosis, gene transcription, signal transduction, DNA replication, maintenance of genome integrity, and tumorigenesis. To understand how the SCF E3 ligases regulate these cellular processes and embryonic development under in vivo physiological conditions, a number of mouse models with transgenic (Tg) expression or targeted deletion of components of SCF have been established and characterized. In this review, we will provide a brief introduction to the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) and the SCF E3 ubiquitin ligases, followed by a comprehensive overview on the existing Tg and knockout (KO) mouse models of the SCF E3s, and discuss the role of each component in mouse embryogenesis, cell proliferation, apoptosis, carcinogenesis, as well as other pathogenic processes associated with human diseases. We will end with a brief discussion on the future directions of this research area and the potential applications of the knowledge gained to more effective therapeutic interventions of human diseases. PMID:23528706

  6. Proteolysis of MOB1 by the ubiquitin ligase praja2 attenuates Hippo signalling and supports glioblastoma growth

    PubMed Central

    Lignitto, Luca; Arcella, Antonietta; Sepe, Maria; Rinaldi, Laura; Delle Donne, Rossella; Gallo, Adriana; Stefan, Eduard; Bachmann, Verena A.; Oliva, Maria A.; Tiziana Storlazzi, Clelia; L'Abbate, Alberto; Brunetti, Arturo; Gargiulo, Sara; Gramanzini, Matteo; Insabato, Luigi; Garbi, Corrado; Gottesman, Max E.; Feliciello, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Human glioblastoma is the most frequent and aggressive form of brain tumour in the adult population. Proteolytic turnover of tumour suppressors by the ubiquitin–proteasome system is a mechanism that tumour cells can adopt to sustain their growth and invasiveness. However, the identity of ubiquitin–proteasome targets and regulators in glioblastoma are still unknown. Here we report that the RING ligase praja2 ubiquitylates and degrades Mob, a core component of NDR/LATS kinase and a positive regulator of the tumour-suppressor Hippo cascade. Degradation of Mob through the ubiquitin–proteasome system attenuates the Hippo cascade and sustains glioblastoma growth in vivo. Accordingly, accumulation of praja2 during the transition from low- to high-grade glioma is associated with significant downregulation of the Hippo pathway. These findings identify praja2 as a novel upstream regulator of the Hippo cascade, linking the ubiquitin proteasome system to deregulated glioblastoma growth. PMID:23652010

  7. Cdc48 and a ubiquitin ligase drive disassembly of the CMG helicase at the end of DNA replication

    PubMed Central

    De Piccoli, Giacomo; Labib, Karim

    2015-01-01

    Chromosome replication is initiated by a universal mechanism in eukaryotic cells, involving the assembly and activation at replication origins of the CMG (Cdc45-MCM-GINS) DNA helicase, which is essential for the progression of replication forks. Disassembly of CMG is likely to be a key regulated step at the end of chromosome replication, but the mechanism was unknown until now. Here we show that the ubiquitin ligase known as SCFDia2 promotes ubiquitylation of CMG during the final stages of chromosome replication in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The Cdc48/p97 segregase then associates with ubiquitylated CMG, leading rapidly to helicase disassembly. These findings indicate that the end of chromosome replication in eukaryotes is controlled in a similarly complex fashion to the much-better-characterized initiation step. PMID:25342810

  8. Tumor cell-specific inhibition of MYC function using small molecule inhibitors of the HUWE1 ubiquitin ligase.

    PubMed

    Peter, Stefanie; Bultinck, Jennyfer; Myant, Kevin; Jaenicke, Laura A; Walz, Susanne; Müller, Judith; Gmachl, Michael; Treu, Matthias; Boehmelt, Guido; Ade, Carsten P; Schmitz, Werner; Wiegering, Armin; Otto, Christoph; Popov, Nikita; Sansom, Owen; Kraut, Norbert; Eilers, Martin

    2014-12-01

    Deregulated expression of MYC is a driver of colorectal carcinogenesis, necessitating novel strategies to inhibit MYC function. The ubiquitin ligase HUWE1 (HECTH9, ARF-BP1, MULE) associates with both MYC and the MYC-associated protein MIZ1. We show here that HUWE1 is required for growth of colorectal cancer cells in culture and in orthotopic xenograft models. Using high-throughput screening, we identify small molecule inhibitors of HUWE1, which inhibit MYC-dependent transactivation in colorectal cancer cells, but not in stem and normal colon epithelial cells. Inhibition of HUWE1 stabilizes MIZ1. MIZ1 globally accumulates on MYC target genes and contributes to repression of MYC-activated target genes upon HUWE1 inhibition. Our data show that transcriptional activation by MYC in colon cancer cells requires the continuous degradation of MIZ1 and identify a novel principle that allows for inhibition of MYC function in tumor cells. PMID:25253726

  9. Structural analysis of a function-associated loop mutant of the substrate-recognition domain of Fbs1 ubiquitin ligase.

    PubMed

    Nishio, Kazuya; Yoshida, Yukiko; Tanaka, Keiji; Mizushima, Tsunehiro

    2016-08-01

    The SCF ubiquitin ligase comprises four components: Skp1, Cul1, Rbx1 and a variable-subunit F-box protein. The F-box protein Fbs1, which recognizes the N-linked glycoproteins, is involved in the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation pathway. Although FBG3, another F-box protein, shares 51% sequence identity with Fbs1, FBG3 does not bind glycoproteins. To investigate the sequence-structure relationship of the substrate-binding pocket, the crystal structure of a mutant substrate-binding domain of Fbs1 in which the six nonconserved regions (β1, β2-β3, β3-β4, β5-β6, β7-β8 and β9-β10) of Fbs1 were substituted with those of FBG3 was determined. The substrate-binding pocket of this model exhibits structural features that differ from those of Fsb1. PMID:27487926

  10. Degradation of the deubiquitinating enzyme USP33 is mediated by p97 and the ubiquitin ligase HERC2.

    PubMed

    Chan, Nickie C; den Besten, Willem; Sweredoski, Michael J; Hess, Sonja; Deshaies, Raymond J; Chan, David C

    2014-07-11

    Because the deubiquitinating enzyme USP33 is involved in several important cellular processes (β-adrenergic receptor recycling, centrosome amplification, RalB signaling, and cancer cell migration), its levels must be carefully regulated. Using quantitative mass spectrometry, we found that the intracellular level of USP33 is highly sensitive to the activity of p97. Knockdown or chemical inhibition of p97 causes robust accumulation of USP33 due to inhibition of its degradation. The p97 adaptor complex involved in this function is the Ufd1-Npl4 heterodimer. Furthermore, we identified HERC2, a HECT domain-containing E3 ligase, as being responsible for polyubiquitination of USP33. Inhibition of p97 causes accumulation of polyubiquitinated USP33, suggesting that p97 is required for postubiquitination processing. Thus, our study has identified several key molecules that control USP33 degradation within the ubiquitin-proteasome system. PMID:24855649

  11. NIRF, a Novel Ubiquitin Ligase, Inhibits Hepatitis B Virus Replication Through Effect on HBV Core Protein and H3 Histones.

    PubMed

    Qian, Guanhua; Hu, Bin; Zhou, Danlin; Xuan, Yanyan; Bai, Lu; Duan, Changzhu

    2015-05-01

    Np95/ICBP90-like RING finger protein (NIRF), a novel E3 ubiquitin ligase, has been shown to interact with HBc and promote its degradation. This study investigated the effects of NIRF on replication of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and the mechanisms. We have shown that NIRF inhibits replication of HBV DNA and secretion of HBsAg and HBeAg in HepG2 cells transfected with pAAV-HBV1.3. NIRF also inhibits the replication and secretion of HBV in a mouse model that expressed HBV. NIRF reduces acetylation of HBV cccDNA-bound H3 histones. These results showed that NIRF is involved in the HBV replication cycle not only through direct interaction with HBc but also reduces acetylation of HBV cccDNA-bound H3 histones. PMID:25664994

  12. Investigation of the molecular mechanism of δ-catenin ubiquitination: Implication of β-TrCP-1 as a potential E3 ligase.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Hridaya; Yuan, Tingting; He, Yongfeng; Moon, Pyong-Gon; Shrestha, Nensi; Ryu, Taeyong; Park, So-Yeon; Cho, Young-Chang; Lee, Chan-Hyeong; Baek, Moon-Chang; Cho, Sayeon; Simkhada, Shishli; Kim, Hangun; Kim, Kwonseop

    2016-09-01

    Ubiquitination, a post-translational modification, involves the covalent attachment of ubiquitin to the target protein. The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and the endosome-lysosome pathway control the degradation of the majority of eukaryotic proteins. Our previous study illustrated that δ-catenin ubiquitination occurs in a glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) phosphorylation-dependent manner. However, the molecular mechanism of δ-catenin ubiquitination is still unknown. Here, we show that the lysine residues required for ubiquitination are located mainly in the C-terminal portion of δ-catenin. In addition, we provide evidence that β-TrCP-1 interacts with δ-catenin and functions as an E3 ligase, mediating δ-catenin ubiquitin-proteasome degradation. Furthermore, we prove that both the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and the lysosome degradation pathway are involved in δ-catenin degradation. Our novel findings on the mechanism of δ-catenin ubiquitination will add a new perspective to δ-catenin degradation and the effects of δ-catenin on E-cadherin involved in epithelial cell-cell adhesion, which is implicated in prostate cancer progression. PMID:27316454

  13. Identification of a Protein Network Interacting with TdRF1, a Wheat RING Ubiquitin Ligase with a Protective Role against Cellular Dehydration1[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, Davide; Mastrangelo, Anna Maria; Lopez-Torrejon, Gema; Marzin, Stephan; Schweizer, Patrick; Stanca, Antonio Michele; del Pozo, Juan Carlos; Cattivelli, Luigi; Mazzucotelli, Elisabetta

    2012-01-01

    Plants exploit ubiquitination to modulate the proteome with the final aim to ensure environmental adaptation and developmental plasticity. Ubiquitination targets are specifically driven to degradation through the action of E3 ubiquitin ligases. Genetic analyses have indicated wide functions of ubiquitination in plant life; nevertheless, despite the large number of predicted E3s, only a few of them have been characterized so far, and only a few ubiquitination targets are known. In this work, we characterized durum wheat (Triticum durum) RING Finger1 (TdRF1) as a durum wheat nuclear ubiquitin ligase. Moreover, its barley (Hordeum vulgare) homolog was shown to protect cells from dehydration stress. A protein network interacting with TdRF1 has been defined. The transcription factor WHEAT BEL1-TYPE HOMEODOMAIN1 (WBLH1) was degraded in a TdRF1-dependent manner through the 26S proteasome in vivo, the mitogen-activated protein kinase TdWNK5 [for Triticum durum WITH NO LYSINE (K)5] was able to phosphorylate TdRF1 in vitro, and the RING-finger protein WHEAT VIVIPAROUS-INTERACTING PROTEIN2 (WVIP2) was shown to have a strong E3 ligase activity. The genes coding for the TdRF1 interactors were all responsive to cold and/or dehydration stress, and a negative regulative function in dehydration tolerance was observed for the barley homolog of WVIP2. A role in the control of plant development was previously known, or predictable based on homology, for wheat BEL1-type homeodomain1(WBLH1). Thus, TdRF1 E3 ligase might act regulating the response to abiotic stress and remodeling plant development in response to environmental constraints. PMID:22167118

  14. RING protein Trim32 associated with skin carcinogenesis has anti-apoptotic and E3-ubiquitin ligase properties.

    PubMed

    Horn, Elizabeth J; Albor, Amador; Liu, Yuangang; El-Hizawi, Sally; Vanderbeek, Gretchen E; Babcock, Melissa; Bowden, G Tim; Hennings, Henry; Lozano, Guillermina; Weinberg, Wendy C; Kulesz-Martin, Molly

    2004-02-01

    Tripartite motif protein 32, Trim32, mRNA and protein expression was elevated in independently transformed and tumorigenic keratinocytes of a mouse epidermal carcinogenesis model, in ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced squamous cell carcinomas (SCC), and in approximately 20-25% of chemically induced mouse papillomas and human head and neck SCCs. This suggests that elevated Trim32 expression occurs frequently in experimental epidermal carcinogenesis and is relevant to human cancer. Transduced Trim32 increased colony number in an epidermal in vitro transformation assay and epidermal thickening in vivo when skin-grafted to athymic nu/nu mice. These effects were not associated with proliferation and were not sufficient for tumorigenesis, even with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate treatment or defects in the tumor suppressor p53. However, transduced Trim32 inhibited the synergistic effect of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) on UVB-induced apoptosis of keratinocytes in vitro and the apoptotic response of keratinocyte grafts exposed to UVB-light in vivo. Consistent with its RING domain, Trim32 exhibited characteristics of E3-ubiquitin ligases, including being ubiquitylated itself and interacting with ubiquitylated proteins, with increases in these properties following treatment of cultured keratinocytes with TNFalpha/UVB. Interestingly, missense point mutation of human TRIM32 has been reported in Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy Type 2H, an autosomal recessive disease. We propose a model in which Trim32 activities as an E3-ubiquitin ligase favor initiated cell survival in carcinogenesis by blocking UVB-induced TNFalpha apoptotic signaling. PMID:14578165

  15. Phosphorylation by PINK1 Releases the UBL Domain and Initializes the Conformational Opening of the E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Parkin

    PubMed Central

    Moussaud-Lamodière, Elisabeth L.; Dourado, Daniel F. A. R.; Flores, Samuel C.; Springer, Wolfdieter

    2014-01-01

    Loss-of-function mutations in PINK1 or PARKIN are the most common causes of autosomal recessive Parkinson's disease. Both gene products, the Ser/Thr kinase PINK1 and the E3 Ubiquitin ligase Parkin, functionally cooperate in a mitochondrial quality control pathway. Upon stress, PINK1 activates Parkin and enables its translocation to and ubiquitination of damaged mitochondria to facilitate their clearance from the cell. Though PINK1-dependent phosphorylation of Ser65 is an important initial step, the molecular mechanisms underlying the activation of Parkin's enzymatic functions remain unclear. Using molecular modeling, we generated a complete structural model of human Parkin at all atom resolution. At steady state, the Ub ligase is maintained inactive in a closed, auto-inhibited conformation that results from intra-molecular interactions. Evidently, Parkin has to undergo major structural rearrangements in order to unleash its catalytic activity. As a spark, we have modeled PINK1-dependent Ser65 phosphorylation in silico and provide the first molecular dynamics simulation of Parkin conformations along a sequential unfolding pathway that could release its intertwined domains and enable its catalytic activity. We combined free (unbiased) molecular dynamics simulation, Monte Carlo algorithms, and minimal-biasing methods with cell-based high content imaging and biochemical assays. Phosphorylation of Ser65 results in widening of a newly defined cleft and dissociation of the regulatory N-terminal UBL domain. This motion propagates through further opening conformations that allow binding of an Ub-loaded E2 co-enzyme. Subsequent spatial reorientation of the catalytic centers of both enzymes might facilitate the transfer of the Ub moiety to charge Parkin. Our structure-function study provides the basis to elucidate regulatory mechanisms and activity of the neuroprotective Parkin. This may open up new avenues for the development of small molecule Parkin activators through

  16. UBR-5, a Conserved HECT-Type E3 Ubiquitin Ligase, Negatively Regulates Notch-Type Signaling in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Safdar, Komal; Gu, Anniya; Xu, Xia; Au, Vinci; Taylor, Jon; Flibotte, Stephane; Moerman, Donald G; Maine, Eleanor M

    2016-01-01

    Notch-type signaling mediates cell-cell interactions important for animal development. In humans, reduced or inappropriate Notch signaling activity is associated with various developmental defects and disease states, including cancers. Caenorhabditis elegans expresses two Notch-type receptors, GLP-1 and LIN-12. GLP-1 mediates several cell-signaling events in the embryo and promotes germline proliferation in the developing and adult gonad. LIN-12 acts redundantly with GLP-1 in certain inductive events in the embryo and mediates several cell-cell interactions during larval development. Recovery of genetic suppressors and enhancers of glp-1 or lin-12 loss- or gain-of-function mutations has identified numerous regulators of GLP-1 and LIN-12 signaling activity. Here, we report the molecular identification of sog-1, a gene identified in screens for recessive suppressors of conditional glp-1 loss-of-function mutations. The sog-1 gene encodes UBR-5, the sole C. elegans member of the UBR5/Hyd family of HECT-type E3 ubiquitin ligases. Molecular and genetic analyses indicate that the loss of ubr-5 function suppresses defects caused by reduced signaling via GLP-1 or LIN-12. In contrast, ubr-5 mutations do not suppress embryonic or larval lethality associated with mutations in a downstream transcription factor, LAG-1. In the gonad, ubr-5 acts in the receiving cells (germ cells) to limit GLP-1 signaling activity. SEL-10 is the F-box component of SCF(SEL-10) E3 ubiquitin-ligase complex that promotes turnover of Notch intracellular domain. UBR-5 acts redundantly with SEL-10 to limit Notch signaling in certain tissues. We hypothesize that UBR-5 activity limits Notch-type signaling by promoting turnover of receptor or limiting its interaction with pathway components. PMID:27185398

  17. Inactivation of SAG E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Blocks Embryonic Stem Cell Differentiation and Sensitizes Leukemia Cells to Retinoid Acid

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ruiguo; Xi, Ning; Sun, Yi

    2011-01-01

    Sensitive to Apoptosis Gene (SAG), also known as RBX2 (RING box protein-2), is the RING component of SCF (SKP1, Cullin, and F-box protein) E3 ubiquitin ligase. Our previous studies have demonstrated that SAG is an anti-apoptotic protein and an attractive anti-cancer target. We also found recently that Sag knockout sensitized mouse embryonic stem cells (mES) to radiation and blocked mES cells to undergo endothelial differentiation. Here, we reported that compared to wild-type mES cells, the Sag−/− mES cells were much more sensitive to all-trans retinoic acid (RA)-induced suppression of cell proliferation and survival. While wild-type mES cells underwent differentiation upon exposure to RA, Sag−/− mES cells were induced to death via apoptosis instead. The cell fate change, reflected by cellular stiffness, can be detected as early as 12 hrs post RA exposure by AFM (Atomic Force Microscopy). We then extended this novel finding to RA differentiation therapy of leukemia, in which the resistance often develops, by testing our hypothesis that SAG inhibition would sensitize leukemia to RA. Indeed, we found a direct correlation between SAG overexpression and RA resistance in multiple leukemia lines. By using MLN4924, a small molecule inhibitor of NEDD8-Activating Enzyme (NAE), that inactivates SAG-SCF E3 ligase by blocking cullin neddylation, we were able to sensitize two otherwise resistant leukemia cell lines, HL-60 and KG-1 to RA. Mechanistically, RA sensitization by MLN4924 was mediated via enhanced apoptosis, likely through accumulation of pro-apoptotic proteins NOXA and c-JUN, two well-known substrates of SAG-SCF E3 ligase. Taken together, our study provides the proof-of-concept evidence for effective treatment of leukemia patients by RA-MLN4924 combination. PMID:22110742

  18. The LRR and RING Domain Protein LRSAM1 Is an E3 Ligase Crucial for Ubiquitin-Dependent Autophagy of Intracellular Salmonella Typhimurium

    PubMed Central

    Huett, Alan; Heath, Robert J.; Begun, Jakob; Sassi, Slim O.; Baxt, Leigh A.; Vyas, Jatin M.; Goldberg, Marcia B.; Xavier, Ramnik J.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Several species of pathogenic bacteria replicate within an intracellular vacuolar niche. Bacteria that escape into the cytosol are captured by the autophagic pathway and targeted for lysosomal degradation, representing a defense against bacterial exploitation of the host cytosol. Autophagic capture of Salmonella Typhimurium occurs predominantly via generation of a polyubiquitin signal around cytosolic bacteria, binding of adaptor proteins, and recruitment of autophagic machinery. However, the components mediating bacterial target selection and ubiquitination remain obscure. We identify LRSAM1 as the E3 ligase responsible for anti-Salmonella autophagy-associated ubiquitination. LRSAM1 localizes to several intracellular bacterial pathogens and generates the bacteria-associated ubiquitin signal; these functions require LRSAM1’s leucine-rich repeat and RING domains, respectively. Using cells from LRSAM1-deficient individuals, we confirm that LRSAM1 is required for ubiquitination associated with intracellular bacteria but dispensable for ubiquitination of aggregated proteins. LRSAM1 is therefore a bacterial recognition protein and ubiquitin ligase that defends the cytoplasm from invasive pathogens. PMID:23245322

  19. Targeted Degradation of Abscisic Acid Receptors Is Mediated by the Ubiquitin Ligase Substrate Adaptor DDA1 in Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Irigoyen, María Luisa; Iniesto, Elisa; Rodriguez, Lesia; Puga, María Isabel; Yanagawa, Yuki; Pick, Elah; Strickland, Elizabeth; Paz-Ares, Javier; Wei, Ning; De Jaeger, Geert; Rodriguez, Pedro L.; Deng, Xing Wang; Rubio, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    CULLIN4-RING E3 ubiquitin ligases (CRL4s) regulate key developmental and stress responses in eukaryotes. Studies in both animals and plants have led to the identification of many CRL4 targets as well as specific regulatory mechanisms that modulate their function. The latter involve COP10-DET1-DDB1 (CDD)–related complexes, which have been proposed to facilitate target recognition by CRL4, although the molecular basis for this activity remains largely unknown. Here, we provide evidence that Arabidopsis thaliana DET1-, DDB1-ASSOCIATED1 (DDA1), as part of the CDD complex, provides substrate specificity for CRL4 by interacting with ubiquitination targets. Thus, we show that DDA1 binds to the abscisic acid (ABA) receptor PYL8, as well as PYL4 and PYL9, in vivo and facilitates its proteasomal degradation. Accordingly, we found that DDA1 negatively regulates ABA-mediated developmental responses, including inhibition of seed germination, seedling establishment, and root growth. All other CDD components displayed a similar regulatory function, although they did not directly interact with PYL8. Interestingly, DDA1-mediated destabilization of PYL8 is counteracted by ABA, which protects PYL8 by limiting its polyubiquitination. Altogether, our data establish a function for DDA1 as a substrate receptor for CRL4-CDD complexes and uncover a mechanism for the desensitization of ABA signaling based on the regulation of ABA receptor stability. PMID:24563205

  20. End-joining inhibition at telomeres requires the translocase and polySUMO-dependent ubiquitin ligase Uls1.

    PubMed

    Lescasse, Rachel; Pobiega, Sabrina; Callebaut, Isabelle; Marcand, Stéphane

    2013-03-20

    In eukaryotes, permanent inhibition of the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) repair pathway at telomeres ensures that chromosome ends do not fuse. In budding yeast, binding of Rap1 to telomere repeats establishes NHEJ inhibition. Here, we show that the Uls1 protein is required for the maintenance of NHEJ inhibition at telomeres. Uls1 protein is a non-essential Swi2/Snf2-related translocase and a Small Ubiquitin-related Modifier (SUMO)-Targeted Ubiquitin Ligase (STUbL) with unknown targets. Loss of Uls1 results in telomere-telomere fusions. Uls1 requirement is alleviated by the absence of poly-SUMO chains and by rap1 alleles lacking SUMOylation sites. Furthermore, Uls1 limits the accumulation of Rap1 poly-SUMO conjugates. We propose that one of Uls1 functions is to clear non-functional poly-SUMOylated Rap1 molecules from telomeres to ensure the continuous efficiency of NHEJ inhibition. Since Uls1 is the only known STUbL with a translocase activity, it can be the general molecular sweeper for the clearance of poly-SUMOylated proteins on DNA in eukaryotes. PMID:23417015

  1. Misfolded membrane proteins are specifically recognized by the transmembrane domain of the Hrd1p ubiquitin ligase

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Brian K.; Schulz, Daniel; Do, Phong H.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Quality control pathways such as ER-associated degradation (ERAD) employ a small number of factors to specifically recognize a wide variety of protein substrates. Delineating the mechanisms of substrate selection is a principle goal in studying quality control. The Hrd1p ubiquitin ligase mediates ERAD of numerous misfolded proteins including soluble, lumenal ERAD-L and membrane-anchored ERAD-M substrates. We tested if the Hrd1p multi-spanning membrane domain was involved in ERAD-M specificity. In this work, we have identified site-directed membrane domain mutants of Hrd1p impaired only for ERAD-M and normal for ERAD-L. Furthermore, other Hrd1p variants were specifically deficient for degradation of individual ERAD-M substrates. Thus, the Hrd1p transmembrane region bears determinants of high specificity in the ERAD-M pathway. From in vitro and interaction studies, we suggest a model in which the Hrd1p membrane domain employs intra-membrane residues to evaluate substrate misfolding, leading to selective ubiquitination of appropriate ERAD-M clients. PMID:19394298

  2. Cullin3-KLHL15 ubiquitin ligase mediates CtIP protein turnover to fine-tune DNA-end resection

    PubMed Central

    Ferretti, Lorenza P.; Himmels, Sarah-Felicitas; Trenner, Anika; Walker, Christina; von Aesch, Christine; Eggenschwiler, Aline; Murina, Olga; Enchev, Radoslav I.; Peter, Matthias; Freire, Raimundo; Porro, Antonio; Sartori, Alessandro A.

    2016-01-01

    Human CtIP is a decisive factor in DNA double-strand break repair pathway choice by enabling DNA-end resection, the first step that differentiates homologous recombination (HR) from non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ). To coordinate appropriate and timely execution of DNA-end resection, CtIP function is tightly controlled by multiple protein–protein interactions and post-translational modifications. Here, we identify the Cullin3 E3 ligase substrate adaptor Kelch-like protein 15 (KLHL15) as a new interaction partner of CtIP and show that KLHL15 promotes CtIP protein turnover via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. A tripeptide motif (FRY) conserved across vertebrate CtIP proteins is essential for KLHL15-binding; its mutation blocks KLHL15-dependent CtIP ubiquitination and degradation. Consequently, DNA-end resection is strongly attenuated in cells overexpressing KLHL15 but amplified in cells either expressing a CtIP-FRY mutant or lacking KLHL15, thus impacting the balance between HR and NHEJ. Collectively, our findings underline the key importance and high complexity of CtIP modulation for genome integrity. PMID:27561354

  3. Hul5 HECT Ubiquitin Ligase Plays A Major Role in The Ubiquitylation and Turn Over of Cytosolic Misfolded Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Nancy N.; Ng, Alex H.M.; Measday, Vivien; Mayor, Thibault

    2016-01-01

    Cellular toxicity introduced by protein misfolding threatens cell fitness and viability. Failure to eliminate these polypeptides is associated with numerous aggregation diseases. Several protein quality control mechanisms degrade non-native proteins by the ubiquitin proteasome system. Here, we use quantitative mass spectrometry to demonstrate that heat-shock triggers a large increase of ubiquitylation associated with misfolding of cytosolic proteins. We discover that the Hul5 HECT ubiquitin ligase participates in this heat-shock stress response. Hul5 is required to maintain cell fitness after heat-shock and to degrade short-lived misfolded proteins. In addition, localization of Hul5 in the cytoplasm is important for its quality control function. We identify potential Hul5 substrates in heat-shock and physiological conditions to reveal that Hul5 is required for ubiquitylation of low solubility cytosolic proteins including the Pin3 prion-like protein. These findings indicate that Hul5 is involved in a cytosolic protein quality control pathway that targets misfolded proteins for degradation. PMID:21983566

  4. E3 ubiquitin ligase E6AP negatively regulates adipogenesis by downregulating proadipogenic factor C/EBPalpha.

    PubMed

    Pal, Pooja; Lochab, Savita; Kanaujiya, Jitendra Kumar; Kapoor, Isha; Sanyal, Sabyasachi; Behre, Gerhard; Trivedi, Arun Kumar

    2013-01-01

    CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Protein Alpha (C/EBPα) is a key transcription factor involved in the adipocyte differentiation. Here for the first time we demonstrate that E6AP, an E3 ubiquitin ligase inhibits adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells as revealed by reduced lipid staining with oil red. Knock down of E6AP in mouse 3T3L1 preadipocytes is sufficient to convert them to adipocytes independent of external hormonal induction. C/EBPα protein level is drastically increased in E6AP deficient 3T3L1 preadipocytes while inverse is observed when wild type E6AP is over expressed. We show that transient transfection of wild type E6AP downregulates C/EBPα protein expression in a dose dependent manner while catalytically inactive E6AP-C843A rather stabilizes it. In addition, wild type E6AP inhibits expression of proadipogenic genes while E6AP-C843A enhances them. More importantly, overexpression of E6AP-C843A in mesenchymal progenitor cells promotes accumulation of lipid droplets while there is drastically reduced lipid droplet formation when E6AP is over expressed. Taken together, our finding suggests that E6AP may negatively control adipogenesis by inhibiting C/EBPα expression by targeting it to ubiquitin-proteasome pathway for degradation. PMID:23762344

  5. End-joining inhibition at telomeres requires the translocase and polySUMO-dependent ubiquitin ligase Uls1

    PubMed Central

    Lescasse, Rachel; Pobiega, Sabrina; Callebaut, Isabelle; Marcand, Stéphane

    2013-01-01

    In eukaryotes, permanent inhibition of the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) repair pathway at telomeres ensures that chromosome ends do not fuse. In budding yeast, binding of Rap1 to telomere repeats establishes NHEJ inhibition. Here, we show that the Uls1 protein is required for the maintenance of NHEJ inhibition at telomeres. Uls1 protein is a non-essential Swi2/Snf2-related translocase and a Small Ubiquitin-related Modifier (SUMO)-Targeted Ubiquitin Ligase (STUbL) with unknown targets. Loss of Uls1 results in telomere–telomere fusions. Uls1 requirement is alleviated by the absence of poly-SUMO chains and by rap1 alleles lacking SUMOylation sites. Furthermore, Uls1 limits the accumulation of Rap1 poly-SUMO conjugates. We propose that one of Uls1 functions is to clear non-functional poly-SUMOylated Rap1 molecules from telomeres to ensure the continuous efficiency of NHEJ inhibition. Since Uls1 is the only known STUbL with a translocase activity, it can be the general molecular sweeper for the clearance of poly-SUMOylated proteins on DNA in eukaryotes. PMID:23417015

  6. An OBSL1-Cul7Fbxw8 Ubiquitin Ligase Signaling Mechanism Regulates Golgi Morphology and Dendrite Patterning

    PubMed Central

    Litterman, Nadia; Ikeuchi, Yoshiho; Gallardo, Gilbert; O'Connell, Brenda C.; Sowa, Mathew E.; Gygi, Steven P.; Harper, J. Wade; Bonni, Azad

    2011-01-01

    The elaboration of dendrites in neurons requires secretory trafficking through the Golgi apparatus, but the mechanisms that govern Golgi function in neuronal morphogenesis in the brain have remained largely unexplored. Here, we report that the E3 ubiquitin ligase Cul7Fbxw8 localizes to the Golgi complex in mammalian brain neurons. Inhibition of Cul7Fbxw8 by independent approaches including Fbxw8 knockdown reveals that Cul7Fbxw8 is selectively required for the growth and elaboration of dendrites but not axons in primary neurons and in the developing rat cerebellum in vivo. Inhibition of Cul7Fbxw8 also dramatically impairs the morphology of the Golgi complex, leading to deficient secretory trafficking in neurons. Using an immunoprecipitation/mass spectrometry screening approach, we also uncover the cytoskeletal adaptor protein OBSL1 as a critical regulator of Cul7Fbxw8 in Golgi morphogenesis and dendrite elaboration. OBSL1 forms a physical complex with the scaffold protein Cul7 and thereby localizes Cul7 at the Golgi apparatus. Accordingly, OBSL1 is required for the morphogenesis of the Golgi apparatus and the elaboration of dendrites. Finally, we identify the Golgi protein Grasp65 as a novel and physiologically relevant substrate of Cul7Fbxw8 in the control of Golgi and dendrite morphogenesis in neurons. Collectively, these findings define a novel OBSL1-regulated Cul7Fbxw8 ubiquitin signaling mechanism that orchestrates the morphogenesis of the Golgi apparatus and patterning of dendrites, with fundamental implications for our understanding of brain development. PMID:21572988

  7. The role of E3 ubiquitin-ligases MuRF-1 and MAFbx in loss of skeletal muscle mass.

    PubMed

    Rom, Oren; Reznick, Abraham Z

    2016-09-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is the main regulatory mechanism of protein degradation in skeletal muscle. The ubiquitin-ligase enzymes (E3s) have a central role in determining the selectivity and specificity of the UPS. Since their identification in 2001, the muscle specific E3s, muscle RING finger-1 (MuRF-1) and muscle atrophy F-box (MAFbx), have been shown to be implicated in the regulation of skeletal muscle atrophy in various pathological and physiological conditions. This review aims to explore the involvement of MuRF-1 and MAFbx in catabolism of skeletal muscle during various pathologies, such as cancer cachexia, sarcopenia of aging, chronic kidney disease (CKD), diabetes, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In addition, the effects of various lifestyle and modifiable factors (e.g. nutrition, exercise, cigarette smoking, and alcohol) on MuRF-1 and MAFbx regulation will be discussed. Finally, evidence of potential strategies to protect against skeletal muscle wasting through inhibition of MuRF-1 and MAFbx expression will be explored. PMID:26738803

  8. Pooled RNAi screen identifies ubiquitin ligase Itch as crucial for influenza A virus release from the endosome during virus entry

    PubMed Central

    Su, Wen-Chi; Chen, Yung-Chia; Tseng, Chung-Hsin; Hsu, Paul Wei-Che; Tung, Kuo-Feng; Jeng, King-Song; Lai, Michael M. C.

    2013-01-01

    Influenza viruses, like other viruses, rely on host factors to support their life cycle as viral proteins usually “hijack,” or collaborate with, cellular proteins to execute their functions. Identification and understanding of these factors can increase the knowledge of molecular mechanisms manipulated by the viruses and facilitate development of antiviral drugs. To this end, we developed a unique genome-wide pooled shRNA screen to search for cellular factors important for influenza A virus (IAV) replication. We identified an E3 ubiquitin ligase, Itch, as an essential factor for an early step in the viral life cycle. In Itch knockdown cells, the incorporation of viral ribonucleoprotein complex into endosomes was normal, but its subsequent release from endosomes and transport to the nucleus was retarded. In addition, upon virus infection, Itch was phosphorylated and recruited to the endosomes, where virus particles were located. Furthermore, Itch interacted with viral M1 protein and ubiquitinated M1 protein. Collectively, our findings unravel a critical role of Itch in mediating IAV release from the endosome and offer insights into the mechanism for IAV uncoating during virus entry. These findings also highlight the feasibility of pooled RNAi screening for exploring the cellular cofactors of lytic viruses. PMID:24101521

  9. Complementary genetic screens identify the E3 ubiquitin ligase CBLC, as a modifier of PARP inhibitor sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Brough, Rachel; Hodny, Zdenek; Ashworth, Alan; Bartek, Jiri; Lord, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Based on a series of basic, preclinical and clinical studies, the Poly (ADP-ribose) Polymerase 1 (PARP1) inhibitor, olaparib, has recently been approved for use in ovarian cancer patients with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. By identifying novel predictive biomarkers of tumour cell sensitivity to olaparib, it is possible that the utility of PARP inhibitors could be extended beyond this patient subgroup. Many of the known genetic determinants of PARP inhibitor response have key roles in DNA damage response (DDR) pathways. Although protein ubiquitylation is known to play an important role in regulating the DDR, the exact mechanisms by which this occurs are not fully understood. Using two parallel RNA interference-based screening approaches, we identified the E3 ubiquitin ligase, CBLC, as a candidate biomarker of response to olaparib. We validated this observation by demonstrating that silencing of CBLC causes increased sensitivity to olaparib in breast cancer cell line models and that defective homologous recombination (HR) DNA repair is the likely cause. This data provides an example of how defects in the ubiquitin machinery have the potential to influence the response of tumour cells to PARP inhibitors. PMID:25883215

  10. Host Cell-catalyzed S-Palmitoylation Mediates Golgi Targeting of the Legionella Ubiquitin Ligase GobX.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi-Han; Doms, Alexandra G; Cheng, Eric; Kim, Byoungkwan; Evans, Timothy R; Machner, Matthias P

    2015-10-16

    The facultative intracellular pathogen Legionella pneumophila, the causative agent of Legionnaires disease, infects and replicates within human alveolar macrophages. L. pneumophila delivers almost 300 effector proteins into the besieged host cell that alter signaling cascades and create conditions that favor intracellular bacterial survival. In order for the effectors to accomplish their intracellular mission, their activity needs to be specifically directed toward the correct host cell protein or target organelle. Here, we show that the L. pneumophila effector GobX possesses E3 ubiquitin ligase activity that is mediated by a central region homologous to mammalian U-box domains. Furthermore, we demonstrate that GobX exploits host cell S-palmitoylation to specifically localize to Golgi membranes. The hydrophobic palmitate moiety is covalently attached to a cysteine residue at position 175, which is part of an amphipathic α-helix within the C-terminal region of GobX. Site-directed mutagenesis of cysteine 175 or residues on the hydrophobic face of the amphipathic helix strongly attenuated palmitoylation and Golgi localization of GobX. Together, our study provides evidence that the L. pneumophila effector GobX exploits two post-translational modification pathways of host cells, ubiquitination and S-palmitoylation. PMID:26316537

  11. E3-ubiquitin ligase Nedd4 determines the fate of AID-associated RNA polymerase II in B cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jianbo; Keim, Celia D; Wang, Jiguang; Kazadi, David; Oliver, Paula M; Rabadan, Raul; Basu, Uttiya

    2013-08-15

    Programmed mutagenesis of the immunoglobulin locus of B lymphocytes during class switch recombination (CSR) and somatic hypermutation requires RNA polymerase II (polII) transcription complex-dependent targeting of the DNA mutator activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID). AID deaminates cytidine residues on substrate sequences in the immunoglobulin (Ig) locus via a transcription-dependent mechanism, and this activity is stimulated by the RNA polII stalling cofactor Spt5 and the 11-subunit cellular noncoding RNA 3'-5' exonucleolytic processing complex RNA exosome. The mechanism by which the RNA exosome recognizes immunoglobulin locus RNA substrates to stimulate AID DNA deamination activity on its in vivo substrate sequences is an important question. Here we report that E3-ubiquitin ligase Nedd4 destabilizes AID-associated RNA polII by a ubiquitination event, leading to generation of 3' end free RNA exosome RNA substrates at the Ig locus and other AID target sequences genome-wide. We found that lack of Nedd4 activity in B cells leads to accumulation of RNA exosome substrates at AID target genes and defective CSR. Taken together, our study links noncoding RNA processing following RNA polII pausing with regulation of the mutator AID protein. Our study also identifies Nedd4 as a regulator of noncoding RNAs that are generated by stalled RNA polII genome-wide. PMID:23964096

  12. Cullin3-KLHL15 ubiquitin ligase mediates CtIP protein turnover to fine-tune DNA-end resection.

    PubMed

    Ferretti, Lorenza P; Himmels, Sarah-Felicitas; Trenner, Anika; Walker, Christina; von Aesch, Christine; Eggenschwiler, Aline; Murina, Olga; Enchev, Radoslav I; Peter, Matthias; Freire, Raimundo; Porro, Antonio; Sartori, Alessandro A

    2016-01-01

    Human CtIP is a decisive factor in DNA double-strand break repair pathway choice by enabling DNA-end resection, the first step that differentiates homologous recombination (HR) from non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ). To coordinate appropriate and timely execution of DNA-end resection, CtIP function is tightly controlled by multiple protein-protein interactions and post-translational modifications. Here, we identify the Cullin3 E3 ligase substrate adaptor Kelch-like protein 15 (KLHL15) as a new interaction partner of CtIP and show that KLHL15 promotes CtIP protein turnover via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. A tripeptide motif (FRY) conserved across vertebrate CtIP proteins is essential for KLHL15-binding; its mutation blocks KLHL15-dependent CtIP ubiquitination and degradation. Consequently, DNA-end resection is strongly attenuated in cells overexpressing KLHL15 but amplified in cells either expressing a CtIP-FRY mutant or lacking KLHL15, thus impacting the balance between HR and NHEJ. Collectively, our findings underline the key importance and high complexity of CtIP modulation for genome integrity. PMID:27561354

  13. Structural and biochemical basis for ubiquitin ligase recruitment by arrestin-related domain-containing protein-3 (ARRDC3).

    PubMed

    Qi, Shiqian; O'Hayre, Morgan; Gutkind, J Silvio; Hurley, James H

    2014-02-21

    After protracted stimulation, the β2-adrenergic receptor and many other G-protein-coupled receptors are ubiquitinated and down-regulated. Arrestin-related domain-containing protein-3 (ARRDC3) has been proposed to recruit the ubiquitin ligase Nedd4 to the β2-adrenergic receptor. ARRDC3 contains two PPXY motifs that could potentially interact with any of the four WW domains of Nedd4. Here we dissect the interaction determinants. ARRDC3 PPXY-Nedd4 WW dissociation constants vary from unmeasurable to Kd = 3 μM for the third WW domain of Nedd4 binding to the first PPXY motif of ARRDC3. Structures of the uncomplexed and PPXY1-bound WW3 domain were determined at 1.1 and 1.7 Å resolution. The structures revealed conformational changes upon binding and the hydrogen bonding network in exquisite detail. Tight packing of ARRDC3 Val-352', part of a 310 helix at the C terminus of PPXY1, is important for high affinity binding to WW3. Although no single WW domain is strictly essential for the binding of Nedd4 and ARRDC3 expressed in HEK293 cells, high affinity binding of full-length ARRDC3 and Nedd4 is driven by the avid interaction of both PPXY motifs with either the WW2-WW3 or WW3-WW4 combinations, with Kd values as low as 300 nM. PMID:24379409

  14. The stress phenotype makes cancer cells addicted to CDT2, a substrate receptor of the CRL4 ubiquitin ligase

    PubMed Central

    Olivero, Martina; Dettori, Daniela; Arena, Sabrina; Zecchin, Davide; Lantelme, Erica; Di Renzo, Maria Flavia

    2014-01-01

    CDT2/L2DTL/RAMP is one of the substrate receptors of the Cullin Ring Ubiquitin Ligase 4 that targets for ubiquitin mediated degradation a number of substrates, such as CDT1, p21 and CHK1, involved in the regulation of cell cycle and survival. Here we show that CDT2 depletion was alone able to induce the apoptotic death in 12/12 human cancer cell lines from different tissues, regardless of the mutation profile and CDT2 expression level. Cell death was associated to rereplication and to loss of CDT1 degradation. Conversely, CDT2 depletion did not affect non-transformed human cells, such as immortalized kidney, lung and breast cell lines, and primary cultures of endothelial cells and osteoblasts. The ectopic over-expression of an activated oncogene, such as the mutation-activated RAS or the amplified MET in non-transformed immortalized breast cell lines and primary human osteoblasts, respectively, made cells transformed in vitro, tumorigenic in vivo, and susceptible to CDT2 loss. The widespread effect of CDT2 depletion in different cancer cells suggests that CDT2 is not in a synthetic lethal interaction to a single specific pathway. CDT2 likely is a non-oncogene to which transformed cells become addicted because of their enhanced cellular stress, such as replicative stress and DNA damage. PMID:25115388

  15. Pooled RNAi screen identifies ubiquitin ligase Itch as crucial for influenza A virus release from the endosome during virus entry.

    PubMed

    Su, Wen-Chi; Chen, Yung-Chia; Tseng, Chung-Hsin; Hsu, Paul Wei-Che; Tung, Kuo-Feng; Jeng, King-Song; Lai, Michael M C

    2013-10-22

    Influenza viruses, like other viruses, rely on host factors to support their life cycle as viral proteins usually "hijack," or collaborate with, cellular proteins to execute their functions. Identification and understanding of these factors can increase the knowledge of molecular mechanisms manipulated by the viruses and facilitate development of antiviral drugs. To this end, we developed a unique genome-wide pooled shRNA screen to search for cellular factors important for influenza A virus (IAV) replication. We identified an E3 ubiquitin ligase, Itch, as an essential factor for an early step in the viral life cycle. In Itch knockdown cells, the incorporation of viral ribonucleoprotein complex into endosomes was normal, but its subsequent release from endosomes and transport to the nucleus was retarded. In addition, upon virus infection, Itch was phosphorylated and recruited to the endosomes, where virus particles were located. Furthermore, Itch interacted with viral M1 protein and ubiquitinated M1 protein. Collectively, our findings unravel a critical role of Itch in mediating IAV release from the endosome and offer insights into the mechanism for IAV uncoating during virus entry. These findings also highlight the feasibility of pooled RNAi screening for exploring the cellular cofactors of lytic viruses. PMID:24101521

  16. E3 Ubiquitin Ligase E6AP Negatively Regulates Adipogenesis by Downregulating Proadipogenic Factor C/EBPalpha

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Pooja; Lochab, Savita; Kanaujiya, Jitendra Kumar; Kapoor, Isha; Sanyal, Sabyasachi; Behre, Gerhard; Trivedi, Arun Kumar

    2013-01-01

    CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Protein Alpha (C/EBPα) is a key transcription factor involved in the adipocyte differentiation. Here for the first time we demonstrate that E6AP, an E3 ubiquitin ligase inhibits adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells as revealed by reduced lipid staining with oil red. Knock down of E6AP in mouse 3T3L1 preadipocytes is sufficient to convert them to adipocytes independent of external hormonal induction. C/EBPα protein level is drastically increased in E6AP deficient 3T3L1 preadipocytes while inverse is observed when wild type E6AP is over expressed. We show that transient transfection of wild type E6AP downregulates C/EBPα protein expression in a dose dependent manner while catalytically inactive E6AP-C843A rather stabilizes it. In addition, wild type E6AP inhibits expression of proadipogenic genes while E6AP-C843A enhances them. More importantly, overexpression of E6AP-C843A in mesenchymal progenitor cells promotes accumulation of lipid droplets while there is drastically reduced lipid droplet formation when E6AP is over expressed. Taken together, our finding suggests that E6AP may negatively control adipogenesis by inhibiting C/EBPα expression by targeting it to ubiquitin-proteasome pathway for degradation. PMID:23762344

  17. Structural and Biochemical Basis for Ubiquitin Ligase Recruitment by Arrestin-related Domain-containing Protein-3 (ARRDC3)*

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Shiqian; O'Hayre, Morgan; Gutkind, J. Silvio; Hurley, James H.

    2014-01-01

    After protracted stimulation, the β2-adrenergic receptor and many other G-protein-coupled receptors are ubiquitinated and down-regulated. Arrestin-related domain-containing protein-3 (ARRDC3) has been proposed to recruit the ubiquitin ligase Nedd4 to the β2-adrenergic receptor. ARRDC3 contains two PPXY motifs that could potentially interact with any of the four WW domains of Nedd4. Here we dissect the interaction determinants. ARRDC3 PPXY-Nedd4 WW dissociation constants vary from unmeasurable to Kd = 3 μm for the third WW domain of Nedd4 binding to the first PPXY motif of ARRDC3. Structures of the uncomplexed and PPXY1-bound WW3 domain were determined at 1.1 and 1.7 Å resolution. The structures revealed conformational changes upon binding and the hydrogen bonding network in exquisite detail. Tight packing of ARRDC3 Val-352′, part of a 310 helix at the C terminus of PPXY1, is important for high affinity binding to WW3. Although no single WW domain is strictly essential for the binding of Nedd4 and ARRDC3 expressed in HEK293 cells, high affinity binding of full-length ARRDC3 and Nedd4 is driven by the avid interaction of both PPXY motifs with either the WW2-WW3 or WW3-WW4 combinations, with Kd values as low as 300 nm. PMID:24379409

  18. Lipopolysaccharide Primes the NALP3 Inflammasome by Inhibiting Its Ubiquitination and Degradation Mediated by the SCFFBXL2 E3 Ligase*

    PubMed Central

    Han, SeungHye; Lear, Travis B.; Jerome, Jacob A.; Rajbhandari, Shristi; Snavely, Courtney A.; Gulick, Dexter L.; Gibson, Kevin F.; Zou, Chunbin; Chen, Bill B.; Mallampalli, Rama K.

    2015-01-01

    The inflammasome is a multiprotein complex that augments the proinflammatory response by increasing the generation and cellular release of key cytokines. Specifically, the NALP3 inflammasome requires two-step signaling, priming and activation, to be functional to release the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18. The priming process, through unknown mechanisms, increases the protein levels of NALP3 and pro-IL-1β in cells. Here we show that LPS increases the NALP3 protein lifespan without significantly altering steady-state mRNA in human cells. LPS exposure reduces the ubiquitin-mediated proteasomal processing of NALP3 by inducing levels of an E3 ligase component, FBXO3, which targets FBXL2. The latter is an endogenous mediator of NALP3 degradation. FBXL2 recognizes Trp-73 within NALP3 for interaction and targets Lys-689 within NALP3 for ubiquitin ligation and degradation. A unique small molecule inhibitor of FBXO3 restores FBXL2 levels, resulting in decreased NALP3 protein levels in cells and, thereby, reducing the release of IL-1β and IL-18 in human inflammatory cells after NALP3 activation. Our findings uncover NALP3 as a molecular target for FBXL2 and suggest that therapeutic targeting of the inflammasome may serve as a platform for preclinical intervention. PMID:26037928

  19. The RING-Finger Ubiquitin Ligase HAF1 Mediates Heading date 1 Degradation during Photoperiodic Flowering in Rice[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ying; Fu, Debao; Zhu, Chunmei; He, Yizhou; Zhang, Huijun; Liu, Tao; Li, Xianghua; Wu, Changyin

    2015-01-01

    The photoperiodic response is one of the most important factors determining heading date in rice (Oryza sativa). Although rhythmic expression patterns of flowering time genes have been reported to fine-tune the photoperiodic response, posttranslational regulation of key flowering regulators has seldom been elucidated in rice. Heading date 1 (Hd1) encodes a zinc finger transcription factor that plays a crucial role in the photoperiodic response, which determines rice regional adaptability. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of Hd1 accumulation during the photoperiod response. Here, we identify a C3HC4 RING domain-containing E3 ubiquitin ligase, Heading date Associated Factor 1 (HAF1), which physically interacts with Hd1. HAF1 mediates ubiquitination and targets Hd1 for degradation via the 26S proteasome-dependent pathway. The haf1 mutant exhibits a later flowering heading date under both short-day and long-day conditions. In addition, the haf1 hd1 double mutant headed as late as hd1 plants under short-day conditions but exhibited a heading date similar to haf1 under long-day conditions, thus indicating that HAF1 may determine heading date mainly through Hd1 under short-day conditions. Moreover, high levels of Hd1 accumulate in haf1. Our results suggest that HAF1 is essential to precise modulation of the timing of Hd1 accumulation during the photoperiod response in rice. PMID:26296966

  20. Heterologous expression of the gourd E3 ubiquitin ligase gene LsRZF1 compromises the drought stress tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Min, Ji-Hee; Ju, Hyun-Woo; Yang, Kwang-Yeol; Chung, Jung-Sung; Cho, Baik-Ho; Kim, Cheol Soo

    2014-04-01

    Protein ubiquitination is one of the major regulatory processes used by eukaryotic cells. The ubiquitin E3 ligase acts as a main determinant of substrate specificity. However, the precise roles of E3 ligase in plants to drought stress are poorly understood. In this study, a gourd family (Lagenaria siceraria) ortholog of Arabidopsis thaliana RING Zinc Finger 1 (AtRZF1) gene, designated LsRZF1, was identified and characterized. LsRZF1 was reduced by abscisic acid (ABA), osmotic stress, and drought conditions. Compared to wild type, transgenic Arabidopsis plants ectopic expressing LsRZF1 were hypersensitive to ABA and osmotic stress during early seedling development, indicating that LsRZF1 negatively regulates drought-mediated control of early seedling development. Moreover, the ectopic expression of the LsRZF1 gene was very influential in drought sensitive parameters including proline content, water loss, and the expression of dehydration stress-related genes. Furthermore, ubiquitin E3 ligase activity and genetic data indicate that AtRZF1 and LsRZF1 function in similar pathway to control proline metabolism in Arabidopsis under drought condition. Together, these results suggest that the E3 ligase LsRZF1 is an important regulator of water deficit stress during early seedling development. PMID:24525351

  1. Ubiquitin ligase gp78 increases solubility and facilitates degradation of the Z variant of {alpha}-1-antitrypsin

    SciTech Connect

    Shen Yuxian; Ballar, Petek; Fang, Shengyun . E-mail: fangs@umbi.umd.edu

    2006-11-03

    Deficiency of circulating {alpha}-1-antitrypsin (AAT) is the most widely recognized abnormality of a proteinase inhibitor that causes lung disease. AAT-deficiency is caused by mutations of the AAT gene that lead to AAT protein retention in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Moreover, the mutant AAT accumulated in the ER predisposes the homozygote to severe liver injuries, such as neonatal hepatitis, juvenile cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Despite the fact that mutant AAT protein is subject to ER-associated degradation (ERAD), yeast genetic studies have determined that the ubiquitination machinery, Hrd1/Der3p-cue1p-Ubc7/6p, which plays a prominent role in ERAD, is not involved in degradation of mutant AAT. Here we report that gp78, a ubiquitin ligase (E3) pairing with mammalian Ubc7 for ERAD, ubiquitinates and facilitates degradation of ATZ, the classic deficiency variant of AAT having a Z mutation (Glu 342 Lys). Unexpectedly, gp78 over-expression also significantly increases ATZ solubility. p97/VCP, an AAA ATPase essential for retrotranslocation of misfolded proteins from the ER during ERAD, is involved in gp78-mediated degradation of ATZ. Surprisingly, unlike other ERAD substrates that cause ER stress leading to apoptosis when accumulated in the ER, ATZ, in fact, increases cell proliferation when over-expressed in cells. This effect can be partially inhibited by gp78 over-expression. These data indicate that gp78 assumes multiple unique quality control roles over ATZ, including the facilitation of degradation and inhibition of aggregation of ATZ.

  2. Sequential Elution Interactome Analysis of the Mind Bomb 1 Ubiquitin Ligase Reveals a Novel Role in Dendritic Spine Outgrowth*

    PubMed Central

    Mertz, Joseph; Tan, Haiyan; Pagala, Vishwajeeth; Bai, Bing; Chen, Ping-Chung; Li, Yuxin; Cho, Ji-Hoon; Shaw, Timothy; Wang, Xusheng; Peng, Junmin

    2015-01-01

    The mind bomb 1 (Mib1) ubiquitin ligase is essential for controlling metazoan development by Notch signaling and possibly the Wnt pathway. It is also expressed in postmitotic neurons and regulates neuronal morphogenesis and synaptic activity by mechanisms that are largely unknown. We sought to comprehensively characterize the Mib1 interactome and study its potential function in neuron development utilizing a novel sequential elution strategy for affinity purification, in which Mib1 binding proteins were eluted under different stringency and then quantified by the isobaric labeling method. The strategy identified the Mib1 interactome with both deep coverage and the ability to distinguish high-affinity partners from low-affinity partners. A total of 817 proteins were identified during the Mib1 affinity purification, including 56 high-affinity partners and 335 low-affinity partners, whereas the remaining 426 proteins are likely copurified contaminants or extremely weak binding proteins. The analysis detected all previously known Mib1-interacting proteins and revealed a large number of novel components involved in Notch and Wnt pathways, endocytosis and vesicle transport, the ubiquitin-proteasome system, cellular morphogenesis, and synaptic activities. Immunofluorescence studies further showed colocalization of Mib1 with five selected proteins: the Usp9x (FAM) deubiquitinating enzyme, alpha-, beta-, and delta-catenins, and CDKL5. Mutations of CDKL5 are associated with early infantile epileptic encephalopathy-2 (EIEE2), a severe form of mental retardation. We found that the expression of Mib1 down-regulated the protein level of CDKL5 by ubiquitination, and antagonized CDKL5 function during the formation of dendritic spines. Thus, the sequential elution strategy enables biochemical characterization of protein interactomes; and Mib1 analysis provides a comprehensive interactome for investigating its role in signaling networks and neuronal development. PMID:25931508

  3. Engineered ubiquitin ligase PTB-U-box targets insulin/insulin-like growth factor receptor for degradation and coordinately inhibits cancer malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Daixing; Zhang, Jing; Yao, Libo; Li, Xia

    2014-01-01

    The type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R) is a promising target for cancer therapy with antibodies and small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) which have been actively tested clinically. Evidences have demonstrated that insulin receptor (IR), which is implicated in tumorigenesis, conveys resistance to IGF-1R targeted therapy. This provided the compelling rationale for co-targeting IGF-1R and IR. Herein we have developed an approach to simultaneously down-regulate IGF-1R and IR in protein levels. By generating and screening several engineered ubiquitin ligases, we have identified that, PTB-U-box, which is composed of an IGF-1R/IR-binding domain and a functional E3 ubiquitin ligase domain, binds activated IGF-1R/IR and targets their ubiquitination and degradation. When ectopically expressed in HepG2 and HeLa cells, PTB-U-box inhibits cell proliferation and invasion, increases chemo-sensitivity, as well as interrupts glucose metabolism. Finally, intratumoral injection of adenovirus carrying PTB-U-box dramatically retards the growth of HepG2 xenograft. Therefore, well-designed engineered ubiquitin ligase represents an effective therapeutic strategy for the treatment of the cancers with co-expressed IGF-1R/IR. PMID:24970814

  4. A C2HC zinc finger is essential for the RING-E2 interaction of the ubiquitin ligase RNF125.

    PubMed

    Bijlmakers, Marie-José; Teixeira, João M C; Boer, Roeland; Mayzel, Maxim; Puig-Sàrries, Pilar; Karlsson, Göran; Coll, Miquel; Pons, Miquel; Crosas, Bernat

    2016-01-01

    The activity of RING ubiquitin ligases (E3s) depends on an interaction between the RING domain and ubiquitin conjugating enzymes (E2), but posttranslational events or additional structural elements, yet largely undefined, are frequently required to enhance or regulate activity. Here, we show for the ubiquitin ligase RNF125 that, in addition to the RING domain, a C2HC Zn finger (ZnF) is crucial for activity, and a short linker sequence (Li2(120-128)) enhances activity. The contribution of these regions was first shown with truncated proteins, and the essential role of the ZnF was confirmed with mutations at the Zn chelating Cys residues. Using NMR, we established that the C2HC ZnF/Li2(120-128) region is crucial for binding of the RING domain to the E2 UbcH5a. The partial X-ray structure of RNF125 revealed the presence of extensive intramolecular interactions between the RING and C2HC ZnF. A mutation at one of the contact residues in the C2HC ZnF, a highly conserved M112, resulted in the loss of ubiquitin ligase activity. Thus, we identified the structural basis for an essential role of the C2HC ZnF and conclude that this domain stabilizes the RING domain, and is therefore required for binding of RNF125 to an E2. PMID:27411375

  5. A C2HC zinc finger is essential for the RING-E2 interaction of the ubiquitin ligase RNF125

    PubMed Central

    Bijlmakers, Marie-José; Teixeira, João M. C.; Boer, Roeland; Mayzel, Maxim; Puig-Sàrries, Pilar; Karlsson, Göran; Coll, Miquel; Pons, Miquel; Crosas, Bernat

    2016-01-01

    The activity of RING ubiquitin ligases (E3s) depends on an interaction between the RING domain and ubiquitin conjugating enzymes (E2), but posttranslational events or additional structural elements, yet largely undefined, are frequently required to enhance or regulate activity. Here, we show for the ubiquitin ligase RNF125 that, in addition to the RING domain, a C2HC Zn finger (ZnF) is crucial for activity, and a short linker sequence (Li2120-128) enhances activity. The contribution of these regions was first shown with truncated proteins, and the essential role of the ZnF was confirmed with mutations at the Zn chelating Cys residues. Using NMR, we established that the C2HC ZnF/Li2120-128 region is crucial for binding of the RING domain to the E2 UbcH5a. The partial X-ray structure of RNF125 revealed the presence of extensive intramolecular interactions between the RING and C2HC ZnF. A mutation at one of the contact residues in the C2HC ZnF, a highly conserved M112, resulted in the loss of ubiquitin ligase activity. Thus, we identified the structural basis for an essential role of the C2HC ZnF and conclude that this domain stabilizes the RING domain, and is therefore required for binding of RNF125 to an E2. PMID:27411375

  6. Cullin-5, a ubiquitin ligase scaffold protein, is significantly underexpressed in endometrial adenocarcinomas and is a target of miR-182

    PubMed Central

    DEVOR, ERIC J.; SCHICKLING, BRANDON M.; REYES, HENRY D.; WARRIER, AKSHAYA; LINDSAY, BRITTANY; GOODHEART, MICHAEL J.; SANTILLAN, DONNA A.; LESLIE, KIMBERLY K.

    2016-01-01

    Altered expression of cullin-5 (CUL5), a member of the cullin-RING E3 ubiquitin ligase family, has been implicated in a number of types of cancers including breast, cervical and hepatocellular cancers. In the present study, we found that CUL5 expression was significantly decreased in both endometrioid and serous endometrial adenocarcinomas with the more aggressive serous type displaying a higher reduction (−4.3-fold) than the less aggressive endometrioid type (−2.9-fold). Overexpression of CUL5 mRNA and protein in Ishikawa H endometrial cancer cells resulted in decreased cell proliferation and in a reduction in CUL5-RING E3 ligase downstream clients JAK2 and FAS-L. Finally, we demonstrated for the first time that CUL5 is a direct target of miR-182 that we previously showed to be significantly overexpressed in endometrial adenocarcinomas and we provided evidence that increased miR-182 expression is, at least in part, a result of demethylation of its upstream promoter. These data suggest a cascade in which miR-182 expression is epigenetically increased leading to decreased CUL5 expression and increased cellular proliferation. The final step in the cascade may be operating through a decrease in ubiquitination of pro-growth CUL5 ubiquitin ligase clients. This cascade offers a series of potential interventional steps involving epigenetic modification, miRNA and/or gene targeting and ubiquitination. PMID:26847831

  7. Protein Interaction Screening for the Ankyrin Repeats and Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling (SOCS) Box (ASB) Family Identify Asb11 as a Novel Endoplasmic Reticulum Resident Ubiquitin Ligase*

    PubMed Central

    Andresen, Christina Aaen; Smedegaard, Stine; Sylvestersen, Kathrine Beck; Svensson, Charlotte; Iglesias-Gato, Diego; Cazzamali, Giuseppe; Nielsen, Tine Kragh; Nielsen, Michael Lund; Flores-Morales, Amilcar

    2014-01-01

    The ankyrin and SOCS (suppressor of cytokine signaling) box (ASB) family of proteins function as the substrate recognition subunit in a subset of Elongin-Cullin-SOCS (ECS) E3 ubiquitin ligases. Despite counting 18 members in humans, the identity of the physiological targets of the Asb proteins remains largely unexplored. To increase our understanding of the function of ASB proteins, we conducted a family-wide SILAC (stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture)-based protein/protein interaction analysis. This investigation led to the identification of novel as well as known ASB-associated proteins like Cullin 5 and Elongins B/C. We observed that several proteins can be bound by more than one Asb protein. The additional exploration of this phenomenon demonstrated that ASB-Cullin 5 complexes can oligomerize and provides evidence that Cullin 5 forms heterodimeric complexes with the Cullin 4a-DDB1 complex. We also demonstrated that ASB11 is a novel endoplasmic reticulum-associated ubiquitin ligase with the ability to interact and promote the ubiquitination of Ribophorin 1, an integral protein of the oligosaccharyltransferase (OST) glycosylation complex. Moreover, expression of ASB11 can increase Ribophorin 1 protein turnover in vivo. In summary, we provide a comprehensive protein/protein interaction data resource that can aid the biological and functional characterization of ASB ubiquitin ligases. PMID:24337577

  8. The E3 ubiquitin protein ligase MDM2 dictates all-trans retinoic acid-induced osteoblastic differentiation of osteosarcoma cells by modulating the degradation of RARα.

    PubMed

    Ying, M; Zhang, L; Zhou, Q; Shao, X; Cao, J; Zhang, N; Li, W; Zhu, H; Yang, B; He, Q

    2016-08-18

    Retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARα) has a critical role in the differentiation process of osteosarcoma cells induced by all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA). However, degradation of RARα through ubiquitin proteasome pathway weakens the differentiation efficiency of osteosarcoma cells. In this study, we discover that murine double minute-2 (MDM2) acts as an E3 ubiquitin ligase to target RARα for degradation. We observe that MDM2 is required for RARα polyubiquitination and proteasomal degradation because downregulation of MDM2 by short hairpin RNA results in the accumulation of RARα, and MDM2 overexpression promotes the degradation of RARα. We also demonstrate that the N-terminal domain of MDM2 (amino acids 1-109) is the major RARα-binding site. Importantly, endogenous MDM2 levels are not only upregulated in human primary osteosarcoma blasts but are also inversely correlated with the level of osteopontin, which is a marker of bone differentiation. Moreover, MDM2 impairs the ATRA-induced osteoblastic differentiation of osteosarcoma cells, whereas an inhibitor of the MDM2 ubiquitin ligase synergizes with ATRA to enhance the differentiation of osteosarcoma cells and primary osteosarcoma blasts. Therefore, our study indicates that MDM2 serves as an E3 ubiquitin ligase to regulate the degradation of RARα and suggests that MDM2 is a novel therapeutic target for ATRA-based differentiation therapeutic approaches in osteosarcoma. PMID:26776160

  9. Arabidopsis RZFP34/CHYR1, a Ubiquitin E3 Ligase, Regulates Stomatal Movement and Drought Tolerance via SnRK2.6-Mediated Phosphorylation[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a phytohormone that plays a fundamental role in plant development and stress response, especially in the regulation of stomatal closure in response to water deficit stress. The signal transduction that occurs in response to ABA and drought stress is mediated by protein phosphorylation and ubiquitination. This research identified Arabidopsis thaliana RING ZINC-FINGER PROTEIN34 (RZP34; renamed here as CHY ZINC-FINGER AND RING PROTEIN1 [CHYR1]) as an ubiquitin E3 ligase. CHYR1 expression was significantly induced by ABA and drought, and along with its corresponding protein, was expressed mainly in vascular tissues and stomata. Analysis of CHYR1 gain-of-function and loss-of-function plants revealed that CHYR1 promotes ABA-induced stomatal closure, reactive oxygen species production, and plant drought tolerance. Furthermore, CHYR1 interacted with SNF1-RELATED PROTEIN KINASE2 (SnRK2) kinases and could be phosphorylated by SnRK2.6 on the Thr-178 residue. Overexpression of CHYR1T178A, a phosphorylation-deficient mutant, interfered with the proper function of CHYR1, whereas CHYR1T178D phenocopied the gain of function of CHYR1. Thus, this study identified a RING-type ubiquitin E3 ligase that functions positively in ABA and drought responses and detailed how its ubiquitin E3 ligase activity is regulated by SnRK2.6-mediated protein phosphorylation. PMID:26508764

  10. Essential Role of the E3 Ubiquitin Ligase NOPPERABO1 in Schizogenous Intercellular Space Formation in the Liverwort Marchantia polymorpha[W

    PubMed Central

    Ishizaki, Kimitsune; Mizutani, Miya; Shimamura, Masaki; Masuda, Akihide; Nishihama, Ryuichi; Kohchi, Takayuki

    2013-01-01

    The vast majority of land plants develop gas-exchange tissues with intercellular spaces (ICSs) connected directly to the air. Although the developmental processes of ICS have been described in detail at the morphological and ultrastructural level in diverse land plants, little is known about the molecular mechanism responsible for ICS formation. The liverwort Marchantia polymorpha develops a multilayered tissue with a large ICS (air chamber), whose formation is initiated at selected positions of epidermal cells. We isolated a mutant of M. polymorpha showing impaired air-chamber formation, nopperabo1 (nop1), from T-DNA–tagged lines. In nop1 plants, no ICS was formed; consequently, a single-layered epidermis developed on the dorsal side of the thallus. The causal gene NOP1 encodes a Plant U-box (PUB) E3 ubiquitin ligase carrying tandem ARMADILLO (ARM) repeats in the C terminus. An in vitro ubiquitination assay indicated that the NOP1 protein possesses E3 ubiquitin ligase activity in a U-box–dependent manner. Confocal microscopy and biochemical analysis showed that NOP1 was localized to the plasma membrane. Our investigation demonstrated the essential role of the PUB-ARM–type ubiquitin ligase in ICS formation in M. polymorpha, which sheds light on the molecular mechanism of schizogenous ICS formation in land plants. PMID:24170128

  11. SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase (STUbL) Slx5 regulates proteolysis of centromeric histone H3 variant Cse4 and prevents its mislocalization to euchromatin

    PubMed Central

    Ohkuni, Kentaro; Takahashi, Yoshimitsu; Fulp, Alyona; Lawrimore, Josh; Au, Wei-Chun; Pasupala, Nagesh; Levy-Myers, Reuben; Warren, Jack; Strunnikov, Alexander; Baker, Richard E.; Kerscher, Oliver; Bloom, Kerry; Basrai, Munira A.

    2016-01-01

    Centromeric histone H3, CENP-ACse4, is essential for faithful chromosome segregation. Stringent regulation of cellular levels of CENP-ACse4 restricts its localization to centromeres. Mislocalization of CENP-ACse4 is associated with aneuploidy in yeast and flies and tumorigenesis in human cells; thus defining pathways that regulate CENP-A levels is critical for understanding how mislocalization of CENP-A contributes to aneuploidy in human cancers. Previous work in budding yeast shows that ubiquitination of overexpressed Cse4 by Psh1, an E3 ligase, partially contributes to proteolysis of Cse4. Here we provide the first evidence that Cse4 is sumoylated by E3 ligases Siz1 and Siz2 in vivo and in vitro. Ubiquitination of Cse4 by the small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO)-targeted ubiquitin ligase (STUbL) Slx5 plays a critical role in proteolysis of Cse4 and prevents mislocalization of Cse4 to euchromatin under normal physiological conditions. Accumulation of sumoylated Cse4 species and increased stability of Cse4 in slx5∆ strains suggest that sumoylation precedes ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis of Cse4. Slx5-mediated Cse4 proteolysis is independent of Psh1, since slx5∆ psh1∆ strains exhibit higher levels of Cse4 stability and mislocalization than either slx5∆ or psh1∆ strains. Our results demonstrate a role for Slx5 in ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis of Cse4 to prevent its mislocalization and maintain genome stability. PMID:26960795

  12. E6AP, an E3 ubiquitin ligase negatively regulates granulopoiesis by targeting transcription factor C/EBPα for ubiquitin-mediated proteasome degradation.

    PubMed

    Pal, P; Lochab, S; Kanaujiya, J K; Kapoor, I; Sanyal, S; Behre, G; Trivedi, A K

    2013-01-01

    CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPα) is an important transcription factor involved in granulocytic differentiation. Here, for the first time we demonstrate that E6-associated protein (E6AP), an E3 ubiquitin ligase targets C/EBPα for ubiquitin-mediated proteasome degradation and thereby negatively modulates its functions. Wild-type E6AP promotes ubiquitin dependent proteasome degradation of C/EBPα, while catalytically inactive E6-associated protein having cysteine replaced with alanine at amino-acid position 843 (E6AP-C843A) rather stabilizes it. Further, these two proteins physically associate both in non-myeloid (overexpressed human embryonic kidney epithelium) and myeloid cells. We show that E6AP-mediated degradation of C/EBPα protein expression curtails its transactivation potential on its target genes. Noticeably, E6AP degrades both wild-type 42 kDa CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein alpha (p42C/EBPα) and mutant isoform 30 kDa CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein alpha (p30C/EBPα), this may explain perturbed p42C/EBPα/p30C/EBPα ratio often observed in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We show that overexpression of catalytically inactive E6AP-C843A in C/EBPα inducible K562- p42C/EBPα-estrogen receptor (ER) cells inhibits β-estradiol (E2)-induced C/EBPα degradation leading to enhanced granulocytic differentiation. This enhanced granulocytic differentiation upon E2-induced activation of C/EBPα in C/EBPα stably transfected cells (β-estradiol inducible K562 cells stably expressing p42C/EBPα-ER (K562-C/EBPα-p42-ER)) was further substantiated by siE6AP-mediated knockdown of E6AP in both K562-C/EBPα-p42-ER and 32dcl3 (32D clone 3, a cell line widely used model for in vitro study of hematopoietic cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis) cells. Taken together, our data suggest that E6AP targeted C/EBPα protein degradation may provide a possible explanation for both loss of expression and/or functional inactivation of C/EBPα often

  13. E6AP, an E3 ubiquitin ligase negatively regulates granulopoiesis by targeting transcription factor C/EBPα for ubiquitin-mediated proteasome degradation

    PubMed Central

    Pal, P; Lochab, S; Kanaujiya, J K; Kapoor, I; Sanyal, S; Behre, G; Trivedi, A K

    2013-01-01

    CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPα) is an important transcription factor involved in granulocytic differentiation. Here, for the first time we demonstrate that E6-associated protein (E6AP), an E3 ubiquitin ligase targets C/EBPα for ubiquitin-mediated proteasome degradation and thereby negatively modulates its functions. Wild-type E6AP promotes ubiquitin dependent proteasome degradation of C/EBPα, while catalytically inactive E6-associated protein having cysteine replaced with alanine at amino-acid position 843 (E6AP-C843A) rather stabilizes it. Further, these two proteins physically associate both in non-myeloid (overexpressed human embryonic kidney epithelium) and myeloid cells. We show that E6AP-mediated degradation of C/EBPα protein expression curtails its transactivation potential on its target genes. Noticeably, E6AP degrades both wild-type 42 kDa CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein alpha (p42C/EBPα) and mutant isoform 30 kDa CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein alpha (p30C/EBPα), this may explain perturbed p42C/EBPα/p30C/EBPα ratio often observed in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We show that overexpression of catalytically inactive E6AP-C843A in C/EBPα inducible K562- p42C/EBPα-estrogen receptor (ER) cells inhibits β-estradiol (E2)-induced C/EBPα degradation leading to enhanced granulocytic differentiation. This enhanced granulocytic differentiation upon E2-induced activation of C/EBPα in C/EBPα stably transfected cells (β-estradiol inducible K562 cells stably expressing p42C/EBPα-ER (K562-C/EBPα-p42-ER)) was further substantiated by siE6AP-mediated knockdown of E6AP in both K562-C/EBPα-p42-ER and 32dcl3 (32D clone 3, a cell line widely used model for in vitro study of hematopoietic cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis) cells. Taken together, our data suggest that E6AP targeted C/EBPα protein degradation may provide a possible explanation for both loss of expression and/or functional inactivation of C/EBPα often

  14. Ubiquitin Ligase TRIM62 Regulates CARD9-Mediated Anti-fungal Immunity and Intestinal Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zhifang; Conway, Kara L; Heath, Robert J; Rush, Jason S; Leshchiner, Elizaveta S; Ramirez-Ortiz, Zaida G; Nedelsky, Natalia B; Huang, Hailiang; Ng, Aylwin; Gardet, Agnès; Cheng, Shih-Chin; Shamji, Alykhan F; Rioux, John D; Wijmenga, Cisca; Netea, Mihai G; Means, Terry K; Daly, Mark J; Xavier, Ramnik J

    2015-10-20

    CARD9 is a central component of anti-fungal innate immune signaling via C-type lectin receptors, and several immune-related disorders are associated with CARD9 alterations. Here, we used a rare CARD9 variant that confers protection against inflammatory bowel disease as an entry point to investigating CARD9 regulation. We showed that the protective variant of CARD9, which is C-terminally truncated, acted in a dominant-negative manner for CARD9-mediated cytokine production, indicating an important role for the C terminus in CARD9 signaling. We identified TRIM62 as a CARD9 binding partner and showed that TRIM62 facilitated K27-linked poly-ubiquitination of CARD9. We identified K125 as the ubiquitinated residue on CARD9 and demonstrated that this ubiquitination was essential for CARD9 activity. Furthermore, we showed that similar to Card9-deficient mice, Trim62-deficient mice had increased susceptibility to fungal infection. In this study, we utilized a rare protective allele to uncover a TRIM62-mediated mechanism for regulation of CARD9 activation. PMID:26488816

  15. UBR-5, a Conserved HECT-Type E3 Ubiquitin Ligase, Negatively Regulates Notch-Type Signaling in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Safdar, Komal; Gu, Anniya; Xu, Xia; Au, Vinci; Taylor, Jon; Flibotte, Stephane; Moerman, Donald G.; Maine, Eleanor M.

    2016-01-01

    Notch-type signaling mediates cell−cell interactions important for animal development. In humans, reduced or inappropriate Notch signaling activity is associated with various developmental defects and disease states, including cancers. Caenorhabditis elegans expresses two Notch-type receptors, GLP-1 and LIN-12. GLP-1 mediates several cell-signaling events in the embryo and promotes germline proliferation in the developing and adult gonad. LIN-12 acts redundantly with GLP-1 in certain inductive events in the embryo and mediates several cell−cell interactions during larval development. Recovery of genetic suppressors and enhancers of glp-1 or lin-12 loss- or gain-of-function mutations has identified numerous regulators of GLP-1 and LIN-12 signaling activity. Here, we report the molecular identification of sog-1, a gene identified in screens for recessive suppressors of conditional glp-1 loss-of-function mutations. The sog-1 gene encodes UBR-5, the sole C. elegans member of the UBR5/Hyd family of HECT-type E3 ubiquitin ligases. Molecular and genetic analyses indicate that the loss of ubr-5 function suppresses defects caused by reduced signaling via GLP-1 or LIN-12. In contrast, ubr-5 mutations do not suppress embryonic or larval lethality associated with mutations in a downstream transcription factor, LAG-1. In the gonad, ubr-5 acts in the receiving cells (germ cells) to limit GLP-1 signaling activity. SEL-10 is the F-box component of SCFSEL-10 E3 ubiquitin–ligase complex that promotes turnover of Notch intracellular domain. UBR-5 acts redundantly with SEL-10 to limit Notch signaling in certain tissues. We hypothesize that UBR-5 activity limits Notch-type signaling by promoting turnover of receptor or limiting its interaction with pathway components. PMID:27185398

  16. Pharmacological inactivation of Skp2 SCF ubiquitin ligase restricts cancer stem cell traits and cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Chia-Hsin; Morrow, John Kenneth; Li, Chien-Feng; Gao, Yuan; Jin, Guoxiang; Moten, Asad; Stagg, Loren J.; Ladbury, John E.; Cai, Zhen; Xu, Dazhi; Logothetis, Christopher J.; Hung, Mien-Chie; Zhang, Shuxing; Lin, Hui-Kuan

    2013-01-01

    Skp2 E3 ligase is overexpressed in numerous human cancers and plays a critical role in cell cycle progression, senescence, metabolism, cancer progression and metastasis. In the present study, we identified a specific Skp2 inhibitor using high-throughput in silico screening of large and diverse chemical libraries. This Skp2 inhibitor selectively suppresses Skp2 E3 ligase activity, but not activity of other SCF complexes. It also phenocopies the effects observed upon genetic Skp2 deficiency, such as suppressing survival, Akt-mediated glycolysis as well as triggering p53-independent cellular senescence. Strikingly, we discovered a critical function of Skp2 in positively regulating cancer stem cell populations and self-renewal ability through genetic and pharmacological approaches. Notably, Skp2 inhibitor exhibits potent anti-tumor activities in multiple animal models and cooperates with chemotherapeutic agents to reduce cancer cell survival. Our study thus provides pharmacological evidence that Skp2 is a promising target for restricting cancer stem cell and cancer progression. PMID:23911321

  17. Role of TRIM5α RING domain E3 ubiquitin ligase activity in capsid disassembly, reverse transcription blockade, and restriction of simian immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jonghwa; Tipper, Christopher; Sodroski, Joseph

    2011-08-01

    The mammalian tripartite motif protein, TRIM5α, recognizes retroviral capsids entering the cytoplasm and blocks virus infection. Depending on the particular TRIM5α protein and retrovirus, complete disruption of the TRIM5α RING domain decreases virus-restricting activity to various degrees. TRIM5α exhibits RING domain-dependent E3 ubiquitin ligase activity, but the specific role of this activity in viral restriction is unknown. We created a panel of African green monkey TRIM5α (TRIM5α(AGM)) mutants, many of which are specifically altered in RING domain E3 ubiquitin ligase function, and characterized the phenotypes of these mutants with respect to restriction of simian and human immunodeficiency viruses (SIV(mac) and HIV-1, respectively). TRIM5α(AGM) ubiquitin ligase activity was essential for both the accelerated disassembly of SIV(mac) capsids and the disruption of reverse transcription. The levels of SIV(mac) particulate capsids in the cytosol of target cells expressing the TRIM5α variants strongly correlated with the levels of viral late reverse transcripts. RING-mediated ubiquitylation and B30.2(SPRY) domain-determined capsid binding independently contributed to the potency of SIV(mac) restriction by TRIM5α(AGM). In contrast, TRIM5α proteins attenuated in RING ubiquitin ligase function still accelerated HIV-1 capsid disassembly, inhibited reverse transcription, and blocked infection. Replacement of the helix-4/5 loop in the SIV(mac) capsid with the corresponding region of the HIV-1 capsid diminished the dependence of restriction on TRIM5α RING function. Thus, ubiquitylation mediated by the RING domain of TRIM5α(AGM) is essential for blocking SIV(mac) infection at the stage of capsid uncoating. PMID:21680520

  18. GpDSR7, a Novel E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Gene in Grimmia pilifera Is Involved in Tolerance to Drought Stress in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mengmeng; Li, Yihao; Zhao, Junyi; Liu, Hai; Jia, Shenghua; Li, Jie; Zhao, Heping; Han, Shengcheng; Wang, Yingdian

    2016-01-01

    The growth and development of plants under drought stress depends mainly on the expression levels of various genes and modification of proteins. To clarify the molecular mechanism of drought-tolerance of plants, suppression subtractive hybridisation cDNA libraries were screened to identify drought-stress-responsive unigenes in Grimmia pilifera, and a novel E3 ubiquitin ligase gene, GpDSR7, was identified among the 240 responsive unigenes. GpDSR7 expression was induced by various abiotic stresses, particularly by drought. GpDSR7 displayed E3 ubiquitin ligase activity in vitro and was exclusively localised on the ER membrane in Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts. GpDSR7-overexpressing transgenic Arabidopsis plants showed a high water content and survival ratio under drought stress. Moreover, the expression levels of some marker genes involved in drought stress were higher in the transgenic plants than in wild-type plants. These results suggest that GpDSR7, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, is involved in tolerance to drought stress at the protein modification level. PMID:27228205

  19. IRT1 DEGRADATION FACTOR1, a RING E3 Ubiquitin Ligase, Regulates the Degradation of IRON-REGULATED TRANSPORTER1 in Arabidopsis[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Lung-Jiun; Lo, Jing-Chi; Chen, Guan-Hong; Callis, Judy; Fu, Hongyong; Yeh, Kuo-Chen

    2013-01-01

    Fe is an essential micronutrient for plant growth and development; plants have developed sophisticated strategies to acquire ferric Fe from the soil. Nongraminaceous plants acquire Fe by a reduction-based mechanism, and graminaceous plants use a chelation-based mechanism. In Arabidopsis thaliana, which uses the reduction-based method, IRON-REGULATED TRANSPORTER1 (IRT1) functions as the most important transporter for ferrous Fe uptake. Rapid and constitutive degradation of IRT1 allows plants to quickly respond to changing conditions to maintain Fe homeostasis. IRT1 degradation involves ubiquitination. To identify the specific E3 ubiquitin ligases involved in IRT1 degradation, we screened a set of insertional mutants in RING-type E3 ligases and identified a mutant that showed delayed degradation of IRT1 and loss of IRT1-ubiquitin complexes. The corresponding gene was designated IRT1 DEGRADATION FACTOR1 (IDF1). Evidence of direct interaction between IDF1 and IRT1 in the plasma membrane supported the role of IDF1 in IRT1 degradation. IRT1 accumulation was reduced when coexpressed with IDF1 in yeast or Xenopus laevis oocytes. IDF1 function was RING domain dependent. The idf1 mutants showed increased tolerance to Fe deficiency, resulting from increased IRT1 levels. This evidence indicates that IDF1 directly regulates IRT1 degradation through its RING-type E3 ligase activity. PMID:23995086

  20. Ubiquitination and Degradation of the Hominoid-Specific Oncoprotein TBC1D3 Is Mediated by CUL7 E3 Ligase

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Chen; Samovski, Dmitri; Srikanth, Priya; Wainszelbaum, Marisa J.; Charron, Audra J.; Liu, Jialiu; Lange, Jeffrey J.; Chen, Pin-I; Pan, Zhen-Qiang; Su, Xiong; Stahl, Philip D.

    2012-01-01

    Expression of the hominoid-specific TBC1D3 oncoprotein enhances growth factor receptor signaling and subsequently promotes cellular proliferation and survival. Here we report that TBC1D3 is degraded in response to growth factor signaling, suggesting that TBC1D3 expression is regulated by a growth factor-driven negative feedback loop. To gain a better understanding of how TBC1D3 is regulated, we studied the effects of growth factor receptor signaling on TBC1D3 post-translational processing and turnover. Using a yeast two-hybrid screen, we identified CUL7, the scaffolding subunit of the CUL7 E3 ligase complex, as a TBC1D3-interacting protein. We show that CUL7 E3 ligase ubiquitinates TBC1D3 in response to serum stimulation. Moreover, TBC1D3 recruits F-box 8 (Fbw8), the substrate recognition domain of CUL7 E3 ligase, in pull-down experiments and in an in vitro assay. Importantly, alkaline phosphatase treatment of TBC1D3 suppresses its ability to recruit Fbw8, indicating that TBC1D3 phosphorylation is critical for its ubiquitination and degradation. We conclude that serum- and growth factor-stimulated TBC1D3 ubiquitination and degradation are regulated by its interaction with CUL7-Fbw8. PMID:23029530

  1. GpDSR7, a Novel E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Gene in Grimmia pilifera Is Involved in Tolerance to Drought Stress in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Li, Mengmeng; Li, Yihao; Zhao, Junyi; Liu, Hai; Jia, Shenghua; Li, Jie; Zhao, Heping; Han, Shengcheng; Wang, Yingdian

    2016-01-01

    The growth and development of plants under drought stress depends mainly on the expression levels of various genes and modification of proteins. To clarify the molecular mechanism of drought-tolerance of plants, suppression subtractive hybridisation cDNA libraries were screened to identify drought-stress-responsive unigenes in Grimmia pilifera, and a novel E3 ubiquitin ligase gene, GpDSR7, was identified among the 240 responsive unigenes. GpDSR7 expression was induced by various abiotic stresses, particularly by drought. GpDSR7 displayed E3 ubiquitin ligase activity in vitro and was exclusively localised on the ER membrane in Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts. GpDSR7-overexpressing transgenic Arabidopsis plants showed a high water content and survival ratio under drought stress. Moreover, the expression levels of some marker genes involved in drought stress were higher in the transgenic plants than in wild-type plants. These results suggest that GpDSR7, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, is involved in tolerance to drought stress at the protein modification level. PMID:27228205

  2. The Arabidopsis EDR1 Protein Kinase Negatively Regulates the ATL1 E3 Ubiquitin Ligase to Suppress Cell Death[W

    PubMed Central

    Serrano, Irene; Gu, Yangnan; Qi, Dong; Dubiella, Ullrich

    2014-01-01

    Loss-of-function mutations in the Arabidopsis thaliana ENHANCED DISEASE RESISTANCE1 (EDR1) gene confer enhanced programmed cell death under a variety of abiotic and biotic stress conditions. All edr1 mutant phenotypes can be suppressed by missense mutations in the KEEP ON GOING gene, which encodes a trans-Golgi network/early endosome (TGN/EE)-localized E3 ubiquitin ligase. Here, we report that EDR1 interacts with a second E3 ubiquitin ligase, ARABIDOPSIS TOXICOS EN LEVADURA1 (ATL1), and negatively regulates its activity. Overexpression of ATL1 in transgenic Arabidopsis induced severe growth inhibition and patches of cell death, while transient overexpression in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves induced cell death and tissue collapse. The E3 ligase activity of ATL1 was required for both of these processes. Importantly, we found that ATL1 interacts with EDR1 on TGN/EE vesicles and that EDR1 suppresses ATL1-mediated cell death in N. benthamiana and Arabidopsis. Lastly, knockdown of ATL1 expression suppressed cell death phenotypes associated with the edr1 mutant and made Arabidopsis hypersusceptible to powdery mildew infection. Taken together, our data indicate that ATL1 is a positive regulator of programmed cell death and EDR1 negatively regulates ATL1 activity at the TGN/EE and thus controls stress responses initiated by ATL1-mediated ubiquitination events. PMID:25398498

  3. Polycomb-group complex 1 acts as an E3 ubiquitin ligase for Geminin to sustain hematopoietic stem cell activity

    PubMed Central

    Ohtsubo, Motoaki; Yasunaga, Shin'ichiro; Ohno, Yoshinori; Tsumura, Miyuki; Okada, Satoshi; Ishikawa, Nobutsune; Shirao, Kenichiro; Kikuchi, Akira; Nishitani, Hideo; Kobayashi, Masao; Takihara, Yoshihiro

    2008-01-01

    Polycomb-group (PcG) genes encode multimeric nuclear protein complexes, PcG complex 1 and 2. PcG complex 2 was proved to induce transcription repression and to further methylate histone H3 at lysine-27 (H3K27). Subsequently PcG complex 1 is recruited through recognition of methylated H3K27 and maintains the transcription silencing by mediating monoubiquitination of histone H2A at lysine-119. Genetic evidence demonstrated a crucial role for PcG complex 1 in stem cells, and Bmi1, a member of PcG complex 1, was shown to sustain adult stem cells through direct repression of the INK4a locus encoding cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p16CKI, and p19ARF. The molecular functions of PcG complex 1, however, remain insufficiently understood. In our study, deficiency of Rae28, a member of PcG complex 1, was found to impair ubiquitin-proteasome-mediated degradation of Geminin, an inhibitor of DNA replication licensing factor Cdt1, and to increase protein stability. The resultant accumulation of Geminin, based on evidence from retroviral transduction experiments, presumably eliminated hematopoietic stem cell activity in Rae28-deficient mice. Rae28 mediates recruiting Scmh1, which provides PcG complex 1 an interaction domain for Geminin. Moreover, PcG complex 1 acts as the E3 ubiquitin ligase for Geminin, as we demonstrated in vivo as well as in vitro by using purified recombinant PcG complex 1 reconstituted in insect cells. Our findings suggest that PcG complex 1 supports the activity of hematopoietic stem cells, in which high-level Geminin expression induces quiescence securing genome stability, by enhancing cycling capability and hematopoietic activity through direct regulation of Geminin. PMID:18650381

  4. Multiple Orientia tsutsugamushi Ankyrin Repeat Proteins Interact with SCF1 Ubiquitin Ligase Complex and Eukaryotic Elongation Factor 1 α

    PubMed Central

    Min, Chan-Ki; Kwon, Ye-Jin; Ha, Na-Young; Cho, Bon-A; Kim, Jo-Min; Kwon, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Yeon-Sook; Choi, Myung-Sik; Kim, Ik-Sang; Cho, Nam-Hyuk

    2014-01-01

    Background Orientia tsutsugamushi, the causative agent of scrub typhus, is an obligate intracellular bacterium. Previously, a large number of genes that encode proteins containing eukaryotic protein-protein interaction motifs such as ankyrin-repeat (Ank) domains were identified in the O. tsutsugamushi genome. However, little is known about the Ank protein function in O. tsutsugamushi. Methodology/Principal Findings To characterize the function of Ank proteins, we investigated a group of Ank proteins containing an F-box–like domain in the C-terminus in addition to the Ank domains. All nine selected ank genes were expressed at the transcriptional level in host cells infected with O. tsutsugamushi, and specific antibody responses against three Ank proteins were detected in the serum from human patients, indicating an active expression of the bacterial Ank proteins post infection. When ectopically expressed in HeLa cells, the Ank proteins of O. tsutsugamushi were consistently found in the nucleus and/or cytoplasm. In GST pull-down assays, multiple Ank proteins specifically interacted with Cullin1 and Skp1, core components of the SCF1 ubiquitin ligase complex, as well as the eukaryotic elongation factor 1 α (EF1α). Moreover, one Ank protein co-localized with the identified host targets and induced downregulation of EF1α potentially via enhanced ubiquitination. The downregulation of EF1α was observed consistently in diverse host cell types infected with O. tsutsugamushi. Conclusion/Significance These results suggest that conserved targeting and subsequent degradation of EF1α by multiple O. tsutsugamushi Ank proteins could be a novel bacterial strategy for replication and/or pathogenesis during mammalian host infection. PMID:25166298

  5. Deficiency of the E3 ubiquitin ligase TRIM32 in mice leads to a myopathy with a neurogenic component.

    PubMed

    Kudryashova, Elena; Wu, Jun; Havton, Leif A; Spencer, Melissa J

    2009-04-01

    Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2H (LGMD2H) and sarcotubular myopathy are hereditary skeletal muscle disorders caused by mutations in TRIM32. We previously identified TRIM32 as an E3 ubiquitin ligase that binds to myosin and ubiquitinates actin. To date four TRIM32 mutations have been linked to LGMD2H, all of which occur in the C-terminal NHL domains. Unexpectedly, a fifth mutation in the B-box of TRIM32 causes a completely different, multisystemic disorder, Bardet-Biedl syndrome type 11. It is not understood how allelic mutations in TRIM32 can create such diverse phenotypic outcomes. To generate a tool for elucidating the complex in vivo functions of TRIM32, we created the first murine Trim32 knock-out model (T32KO). Histological analysis of T32KO skeletal muscles revealed mild myopathic changes. Electron microscopy showed areas with Z-line streaming and a dilated sarcotubular system with vacuoles -- the latter being a prominent feature of sarcotubular myopathy. Therefore, our model replicates phenotypes of LGMD2H and sarcotubular myopathy. The level of Trim32 expression in normal mouse brain exceeds that observed in skeletal muscle by more than 100 times, as we demonstrated by real-time PCR. Intriguingly, analysis of T32KO neural tissue revealed a decreased concentration of neurofilaments and a reduction in myelinated motoraxon diameters. The axonal changes suggest a shift toward a slower motor unit type. Not surprisingly, T32KO soleus muscle expressed an elevated type I slow myosin isotype with a concomitant reduction in the type II fast myosin. These data suggest that muscular dystrophy due to TRIM32 mutations involves both neurogenic and myogenic characteristics. PMID:19155210

  6. An Unusual Transmembrane Helix in the Endoplasmic Reticulum Ubiquitin Ligase Doa10 Modulates Degradation of Its Cognate E2 Enzyme*

    PubMed Central

    Kreft, Stefan G.; Hochstrasser, Mark

    2011-01-01

    In the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), nascent membrane and secreted proteins that are misfolded are retrotranslocated into the cytosol and degraded by the proteasome. For most ER-associated degradation (ERAD) substrates, ubiquitylation is essential for both their retrotranslocation and degradation. Yeast Doa10 is a polytopic membrane ubiquitin ligase (E3) that along with its cognate ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (E2s), Ubc7 and the C-terminally membrane-anchored Ubc6, makes a major contribution to ER-associated degradation. Ubc6 is also a substrate of Doa10. One highly conserved Doa10 element, the uncharacterized ∼130-residue TEB4-Doa10 domain, includes three transmembrane helices (TMs). We find that the first of these, TM5, includes an absolutely conserved ΦPΦXXG motif that is required for Doa10 function, as well as highly conserved negatively charged glutamate and aspartate residues. The conservative exchange of the TM5 glutamate to aspartate (doa10-E633D) results in complete stabilization of Ubc6 but has little if any effect on other substrates. Unexpectedly, mutating the glutamate to glutamine (doa10-E633Q) specifically accelerates Ubc6 degradation by ∼5-fold. Other substrates are weakly stabilized in doa10-E633Q cells, consistent with reduced Ubc6 levels. Notably, catalytically inactive ubc6-C87A is degraded in doa10-E633Q but not wild-type cells, but an active version of Ubc6 is required in trans. Fusion of the Ubc6 TM to a soluble protein yields a protein that is degraded in a doa10-E633Q-dependent manner, whereas fusion of the C-terminal TM from an unrelated protein does not. These results suggest that the TEB4-Doa10 domain regulates Doa10 association with the Ubc6 membrane anchor, thereby controlling the degradation rate of the E2. PMID:21467040

  7. Usa1p Is Required for Optimal Function and Regulation of the Hrd1p Endoplasmic Reticulum-associated Degradation Ubiquitin Ligase*

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Sarah M.; Hampton, Randolph Y.

    2010-01-01

    Usa1p is a recently discovered member of the HRD ubiquitin ligase complex. The HRD pathway is a conserved route of ubiquitin-dependent, endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD) of numerous lumenal (ERAD-L) and membrane-anchored (ERAD-M) substrates. We have investigated Usa1p to understand its importance in HRD complex action. Usa1p was required for the optimal function of the Hrd1p E3 ubiquitin ligase; its loss caused deficient degradation of both membrane-associated and lumenal proteins. Furthermore, Usa1p functioned in regulation of Hrd1p by two mechanisms. First, Hrd1p self-degradation, which serves to limit the levels of uncomplexed E3, is absolutely dependent on Usa1p and the ubiquitin-like (Ubl) domain of Usa1p. We found that Usa1p allows Hrd1p degradation by promoting trans interactions between Hrd1p molecules. The Ubl domain of Usa1p was required specifically for Hrd1p self-ubiquitination but not for degradation of either ERAD-L or ERAD-M substrates. In addition, Usa1p was able to attenuate the activity-dependent toxicity of Hrd1p without compromising substrate degradation, indicating a separate role in ligase regulation that operates in parallel to stability control. Many of the described actions of Usa1p are distinct from those of Der1p, which is recruited to the HRD complex by Usa1p. Thus, this novel, conserved factor is broadly involved in the function and regulation of the HRD pathway of ERAD. PMID:19940128

  8. Diversity in the Architecture of ATLs, a Family of Plant Ubiquitin-Ligases, Leads to Recognition and Targeting of Substrates in Different Cellular Environments

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar-Hernández, Victor; Aguilar-Henonin, Laura; Guzmán, Plinio

    2011-01-01

    Ubiquitin-ligases or E3s are components of the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) that coordinate the transfer of ubiquitin to the target protein. A major class of ubiquitin-ligases consists of RING-finger domain proteins that include the substrate recognition sequences in the same polypeptide; these are known as single-subunit RING finger E3s. We are studying a particular family of RING finger E3s, named ATL, that contain a transmembrane domain and the RING-H2 finger domain; none of the member of the family contains any other previously described domain. Although the study of a few members in A. thaliana and O. sativa has been reported, the role of this family in the life cycle of a plant is still vague. To provide tools to advance on the functional analysis of this family we have undertaken a phylogenetic analysis of ATLs in twenty-four plant genomes. ATLs were found in all the 24 plant species analyzed, in numbers ranging from 20–28 in two basal species to 162 in soybean. Analysis of ATLs arrayed in tandem indicates that sets of genes are expanding in a species-specific manner. To get insights into the domain architecture of ATLs we generated 75 pHMM LOGOs from 1815 ATLs, and unraveled potential protein-protein interaction regions by means of yeast two-hybrid assays. Several ATLs were found to interact with DSK2a/ubiquilin through a region at the amino-terminal end, suggesting that this is a widespread interaction that may assist in the mode of action of ATLs; the region was traced to a distinct sequence LOGO. Our analysis provides significant observations on the evolution and expansion of the ATL family in addition to information on the domain structure of this class of ubiquitin-ligases that may be involved in plant adaptation to environmental stress. PMID:21887349

  9. New role of E3 ubiquitin ligase in the regulation of necroptosis.

    PubMed

    Seo, Jinho; Lee, Eun-Woo; Song, Jaewhan

    2016-05-01

    Necroptosis is a well-known form of caspase-independent cell death. Necroptosis can be triggered by various extrinsic stimuli, including death ligands in the presence of receptorinteracting protein kinase 3 (RIPK3), a key mediator of necroptosis induction. Our recent studies have revealed that C-terminus HSC-70 interacting protein (CHIP), an E3 ligase, can function as an inhibitor of necroptosis. CHIP-/- mouse embryonic fibroblast showed higher sensitivity to necrotic stimuli than wild-type mouse embryonic fibroblast cells. Deleterious effects of CHIP knockout MEFs were retrieved by RIPK3 depletion. We found that CHIP negatively regulated RIPK3 and RIPK1 by ubiquitylation- and lysosome- dependent degradation. In addition, CHIP-/- mice showed postnatal lethality with intestinal defects that could be rescued by crossing with RIPK3-/- mice. These results suggest that CHIP is a negative regulator of RIPK1 and RIPK3, thus inhibiting necroptosis. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(5): 247-248]. PMID:27099235

  10. Ring Finger Protein 149 Is an E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Active on Wild-type v-Raf Murine Sarcoma Viral Oncogene Homolog B1 (BRAF)*

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Seung-Woo; Jin, Dong-Hoon; Shin, Jae-Sik; Moon, Jai-Hee; Na, Young-Soon; Jung, Kyung-Ah; Kim, Seung-Mi; Kim, Jin Cheon; Kim, Kyu-pyo; Hong, Yong Sang; Lee, Jae-Lyun; Choi, Eun Kyung; Lee, Jung Shin; Kim, Tae Won

    2012-01-01

    Members of the RAF family (ARAF, BRAF, and CRAF/RAF-1) are involved in a variety of cellular activities, including growth, survival, differentiation, and transformation. An oncogene encodes BRAF, the function of which is linked to MEK activation. BRAF is the most effective RAF kinase in terms of induction of MEK/ERK activity. However, the mechanisms involved in BRAF regulation remain unclear. In the present work, we used a tandem affinity purification approach to show that RNF149 (RING finger protein 149) interacts with wild-type BRAF. The latter protein is a RING domain-containing E3 ubiquitin ligase involved in control of gene transcription, translation, cytoskeletal organization, cell adhesion, and epithelial development. We showed that RNF149 bound directly to the C-terminal kinase-containing domain of wild-type BRAF and induced ubiquitination, followed by proteasome-dependent degradation, of the latter protein. Functionally, RNF149 attenuated the increase in cell growth induced by wild-type BRAF. However, RNF149 did not bind to mutant BRAF or induce ubiquitination thereof. Thus, we show that RNF149 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase active on wild-type BRAF. PMID:22628551

  11. Protein-Protein Interactions Modulate the Docking-Dependent E3-Ubiquitin Ligase Activity of Carboxy-Terminus of Hsc70-Interacting Protein (CHIP).

    PubMed

    Narayan, Vikram; Landré, Vivien; Ning, Jia; Hernychova, Lenka; Muller, Petr; Verma, Chandra; Walkinshaw, Malcolm D; Blackburn, Elizabeth A; Ball, Kathryn L

    2015-11-01

    CHIP is a tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain protein that functions as an E3-ubiquitin ligase. As well as linking the molecular chaperones to the ubiquitin proteasome system, CHIP also has a docking-dependent mode where it ubiquitinates native substrates, thereby regulating their steady state levels and/or function. Here we explore the effect of Hsp70 on the docking-dependent E3-ligase activity of CHIP. The TPR-domain is revealed as a binding site for allosteric modulators involved in determining CHIP's dynamic conformation and activity. Biochemical, biophysical and modeling evidence demonstrate that Hsp70-binding to the TPR, or Hsp70-mimetic mutations, regulate CHIP-mediated ubiquitination of p53 and IRF-1 through effects on U-box activity and substrate binding. HDX-MS was used to establish that conformational-inhibition-signals extended from the TPR-domain to the U-box. This underscores inter-domain allosteric regulation of CHIP by the core molecular chaperones. Defining the chaperone-associated TPR-domain of CHIP as a manager of inter-domain communication highlights the potential for scaffolding modules to regulate, as well as assemble, complexes that are fundamental to protein homeostatic control. PMID:26330542

  12. The role of HERC2 and RNF8 ubiquitin E3 ligases in the promotion of translesion DNA synthesis in the chicken DT40 cell line.

    PubMed

    Mohiuddin; Kobayashi, Shunsuke; Keka, Islam Shamima; Guilbaud, Guillaume; Sale, Julian; Narita, Takeo; Abdel-Aziz, H Ismail; Wang, Xin; Ogawa, Saki; Sasanuma, Hiroyuki; Chiu, Roland; Oestergaard, Vibe H; Lisby, Michael; Takeda, Shunichi

    2016-04-01

    The replicative DNA polymerases are generally blocked by template DNA damage. The resulting replication arrest can be released by one of two post-replication repair (PRR) pathways, translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) and template switching by homologous recombination (HR). The HERC2 ubiquitin ligase plays a role in homologous recombination by facilitating the assembly of the Ubc13 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme with the RNF8 ubiquitin ligase. To explore the role of HERC2 and RNF8 in PRR, we examined immunoglobulin diversification in chicken DT40 cells deficient in HERC2 and RNF8. Unexpectedly, the HERC2(-/-) and RNF8(-/-) cells and HERC2(-/-)/RNF8(-/-) double mutant cells exhibit a significant reduction in the rate of immunoglobulin (Ig) hypermutation, compared to wild-type cells. Further, the HERC2(-/-) and RNF8(-/-) mutants exhibit defective maintenance of replication fork progression immediately after exposure to UV while retaining proficient post-replicative gap filling. These mutants are both proficient in mono-ubiquitination of PCNA. Taken together, these results suggest that HERC2 and RNF8 promote TLS past abasic sites and UV-lesions at or very close to stalled replication forks. PMID:26994443

  13. The E3 ubiquitin ligase TRIM23 regulates adipocyte differentiation via stabilization of the adipogenic activator PPARγ

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Masashi; Takahashi, Hidehisa; Saeki, Yasushi; Ozaki, Takashi; Itoh, Shihori; Suzuki, Masanobu; Mizushima, Wataru; Tanaka, Keiji; Hatakeyama, Shigetsugu

    2015-01-01

    Adipocyte differentiation is a strictly controlled process regulated by a series of transcriptional activators. Adipogenic signals activate early adipogenic activators and facilitate the transient formation of early enhanceosomes at target genes. These enhancer regions are subsequently inherited by late enhanceosomes. PPARγ is one of the late adipogenic activators and is known as a master regulator of adipogenesis. However, the factors that regulate PPARγ expression remain to be elucidated. Here, we show that a novel ubiquitin E3 ligase, tripartite motif protein 23 (TRIM23), stabilizes PPARγ protein and mediates atypical polyubiquitin conjugation. TRIM23 knockdown caused a marked decrease in PPARγ protein abundance during preadipocyte differentiation, resulting in a severe defect in late adipogenic differentiation, whereas it did not affect the formation of early enhanceosomes. Our results suggest that TRIM23 plays a critical role in the switching from early to late adipogenic enhanceosomes by stabilizing PPARγ protein possibly via atypical polyubiquitin conjugation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05615.001 PMID:25905670

  14. Structures of SPOP-Substrate Complexes: Insights into Molecular Architectures of BTB-Cul3 Ubiquitin Ligases

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuang, Min; Calabrese, Matthew F.; Liu, Jiang; Waddell, M. Brett; Nourse, Amanda; Hammel, Michal; Miller, Darcie J.; Walden, Helen; Duda, David M.; Seyedin, Steven N.; Hoggard, Timothy; Harper, J. Wade; White, Kevin P.; Schulman, Brenda A.

    2009-11-17

    In the largest E3 ligase subfamily, Cul3 binds a BTB domain, and an associated protein-interaction domain such as MATH recruits substrates for ubiquitination. Here, we present biochemical and structural analyses of the MATH-BTB protein, SPOP. We define a SPOP-binding consensus (SBC) and determine structures revealing recognition of SBCs from the phosphatase Puc, the transcriptional regulator Ci, and the chromatin component MacroH2A. We identify a dimeric SPOP-Cul3 assembly involving a conserved helical structure C-terminal of BTB domains, which we call '3-box' due to its facilitating Cul3 binding and its resemblance to F-/SOCS-boxes in other cullin-based E3s. Structural flexibility between the substrate-binding MATH and Cul3-binding BTB/3-box domains potentially allows a SPOP dimer to engage multiple SBCs found within a single substrate, such as Puc. These studies provide a molecular understanding of how MATH-BTB proteins recruit substrates to Cul3 and how their dimerization and conformational variability may facilitate avid interactions with diverse substrates.

  15. Loss of Cbl and Cbl-b ubiquitin ligases abrogates hematopoietic stem cell quiescence and sensitizes leukemic disease to chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    An, Wei; Nadeau, Scott A.; Mohapatra, Bhopal C.; Feng, Dan; Zutshi, Neha; Storck, Matthew D.; Arya, Priyanka; Talmadge, James E.; Meza, Jane L.; Band, Vimla; Band, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Cbl and Cbl-b are tyrosine kinase-directed RING finger type ubiquitin ligases (E3s) that negatively regulate cellular activation pathways. E3 activity-disrupting human Cbl mutations are associated with myeloproliferative disorders (MPD) that are reproduced in mice with Cbl RING finger mutant knock-in or hematopoietic Cbl and Cbl-b double knockout. However, the role of Cbl proteins in hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) homeostasis, especially in the context of MPD is unclear. Here we demonstrate that HSC expansion and MPD development upon combined Cbl and Cbl-b deletion are dependent on HSCs. Cell cycle analysis demonstrated that DKO HSCs exhibit reduced quiescence associated with compromised reconstitution ability and propensity to undergo exhaustion. We show that sustained c-Kit and FLT3 signaling in DKO HSCs promotes loss of colony-forming potential, and c-Kit or FLT3 inhibition in vitro protects HSCs from exhaustion. In vivo, treatment with 5-fluorouracil hastens DKO HSC exhaustion and protects mice from death due to MPD. Our data reveal a novel and leukemia therapy-relevant role of Cbl and Cbl-b in the maintenance of HSC quiescence and protection against exhaustion, through negative regulation of tyrosine kinase-coupled receptor signaling. PMID:25871390

  16. Tumor cell-specific inhibition of MYC function using small molecule inhibitors of the HUWE1 ubiquitin ligase

    PubMed Central

    Peter, Stefanie; Bultinck, Jennyfer; Myant, Kevin; Jaenicke, Laura A; Walz, Susanne; Müller, Judith; Gmachl, Michael; Treu, Matthias; Boehmelt, Guido; Ade, Carsten P; Schmitz, Werner; Wiegering, Armin; Otto, Christoph; Popov, Nikita; Sansom, Owen; Kraut, Norbert; Eilers, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Deregulated expression of MYC is a driver of colorectal carcinogenesis, necessitating novel strategies to inhibit MYC function. The ubiquitin ligase HUWE1 (HECTH9, ARF-BP1, MULE) associates with both MYC and the MYC-associated protein MIZ1. We show here that HUWE1 is required for growth of colorectal cancer cells in culture and in orthotopic xenograft models. Using high-throughput screening, we identify small molecule inhibitors of HUWE1, which inhibit MYC-dependent transactivation in colorectal cancer cells, but not in stem and normal colon epithelial cells. Inhibition of HUWE1 stabilizes MIZ1. MIZ1 globally accumulates on MYC target genes and contributes to repression of MYC-activated target genes upon HUWE1 inhibition. Our data show that transcriptional activation by MYC in colon cancer cells requires the continuous degradation of MIZ1 and identify a novel principle that allows for inhibition of MYC function in tumor cells. See also: FX Schaub & JL Cleveland (December 2014) PMID:25253726

  17. Ubiquitin ligase RNF20/40 facilitates spindle assembly and promotes breast carcinogenesis through stabilizing motor protein Eg5

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Yang; Huo, Dawei; Gao, Jie; Wu, Heng; Ye, Zheng; Liu, Zhe; Zhang, Kai; Shan, Lin; Zhou, Xing; Wang, Yue; Su, Dongxue; Ding, Xiang; Shi, Lei; Wang, Yan; Shang, Yongfeng; Xuan, Chenghao

    2016-01-01

    Whether transcriptional regulators are functionally involved in mitosis is a fundamental question in cell biology. Here we report that the RNF20/40 complex, a major ubiquitin ligase catalysing histone H2B monoubiquitination, interacts with the motor protein Eg5 during mitosis and participates in spindle assembly. We show that the RNF20/40 complex monoubiquitinates and stabilizes Eg5. Loss of RNF20/40 results in spindle assembly defects, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Consistently, depletion of either RNF20/40 or Eg5 suppresses breast cancer in vivo. Significantly, RNF20/40 and Eg5 are concurrently upregulated in human breast carcinomas and high Eg5 expression is associated with poorer overall survival of patients with luminal A, or B, breast cancer. Our study uncovers an important spindle assembly role of the RNF20/40 complex, and implicates the RNF20/40-Eg5 axis in breast carcinogenesis, supporting the pursuit of these proteins as potential targets for breast cancer therapeutic interventions. PMID:27557628

  18. Structural and kinetic analysis of the COP9-Signalosome activation and the cullin-RING ubiquitin ligase deneddylation cycle

    PubMed Central

    Mosadeghi, Ruzbeh; Reichermeier, Kurt M; Winkler, Martin; Schreiber, Anne; Reitsma, Justin M; Zhang, Yaru; Stengel, Florian; Cao, Junyue; Kim, Minsoo; Sweredoski, Michael J; Hess, Sonja; Leitner, Alexander; Aebersold, Ruedi; Peter, Matthias; Deshaies, Raymond J; Enchev, Radoslav I

    2016-01-01

    The COP9-Signalosome (CSN) regulates cullin–RING ubiquitin ligase (CRL) activity and assembly by cleaving Nedd8 from cullins. Free CSN is autoinhibited, and it remains unclear how it becomes activated. We combine structural and kinetic analyses to identify mechanisms that contribute to CSN activation and Nedd8 deconjugation. Both CSN and neddylated substrate undergo large conformational changes upon binding, with important roles played by the N-terminal domains of Csn2 and Csn4 and the RING domain of Rbx1 in enabling formation of a high affinity, fully active complex. The RING domain is crucial for deneddylation, and works in part through conformational changes involving insert-2 of Csn6. Nedd8 deconjugation and re-engagement of the active site zinc by the autoinhibitory Csn5 glutamate-104 diminish affinity for Cul1/Rbx1 by ~100-fold, resulting in its rapid ejection from the active site. Together, these mechanisms enable a dynamic deneddylation-disassembly cycle that promotes rapid remodeling of the cellular CRL network. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12102.001 PMID:27031283

  19. Effects of oxidative stress on the solubility of HRD1, a ubiquitin ligase implicated in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Saito, Ryo; Kaneko, Masayuki; Kitamura, Yoshihisa; Takata, Kazuyuki; Kawada, Koichi; Okuma, Yasunobu; Nomura, Yasuyuki

    2014-01-01

    The E3 ubiquitin ligase HRD1 is found in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane of brain neurons and is involved in endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation. We previously demonstrated that suppression of HRD1 expression in neurons causes accumulation of amyloid precursor protein, resulting in amyloid β production associated with endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis. Furthermore, HRD1 levels are significantly decreased in the cerebral cortex of Alzheimer's disease patients because of its insolubility. The mechanisms that affect HRD1 solubility are not well understood. We here show that HRD1 protein was insolubilized by oxidative stress but not by other Alzheimer's disease-related molecules and stressors, such as amyloid β, tau, and endoplasmic reticulum stress. Furthermore, we raise the possibility that modifications of HRD1 by 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, an oxidative stress marker, decrease HRD1 protein solubility and the oxidative stress led to the accumulation of HRD1 into the aggresome. Thus, oxidative stress-induced HRD1 insolubilization might be involved in a vicious cycle of increased amyloid β production and amyloid β-induced oxidative stress in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis. PMID:24788773

  20. The ER membrane-anchored ubiquitin ligase Hrd1 is a positive regulator of T-cell immunity

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yuanming; Zhao, Fang; Qiu, Quan; Chen, Kun; Wei, Juncheng; Kong, Qingfei; Gao, Beixue; Melo-Cardenas, Johanna; Zhang, Bin; Zhang, Jinping; Song, Jianxun; Zhang, Donna D.; Zhang, Jianing; Fan, Yunping; Li, Huabin; Fang, Deyu

    2016-01-01

    Identification of positive regulators of T-cell immunity induced during autoimmune diseases is critical for developing novel therapies. The endoplasmic reticulum resident ubiquitin ligase Hrd1 has recently emerged as a critical regulator of dendritic cell antigen presentation, but its role in T-cell immunity is unknown. Here we show that genetic deletion of Hrd1 in mice inhibits T-cell proliferation, production of IL-2, and differentiation of Th1 and Th17 cells, and consequently protects mice from experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Hrd1 facilitates T-cell proliferation by the destruction of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27kip1, and deletion of p27kip1 in Hrd1-null T-cells rescues proliferative capacity but not the production of cytokines, including IL-2, IFN-γ and IL-17. T-cell expression of Hrd1 is higher in patients with multiple sclerosis than in healthy individuals, and knockdown of Hrd1 in human CD4+ T cells inhibits activation and differentiation to Th1 and Th17 cells. Our study identifies Hrd1 as a previously unappreciated positive regulator of T cells and implies that Hrd1 is a potential therapeutic target for autoimmune diseases. PMID:27417417

  1. Overexpressed ubiquitin ligase Cullin7 in breast cancer promotes cell proliferation and invasion via down-regulating p53

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Hongsheng; Wu, Fenping; Wang, Yan; Yan, Chong; Su, Wenmei

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • Cullin7 is overexpressed in human breast cancer samples. • Cullin7 stimulated proliferation and invasion of breast cancer cells. • Inhibition of p53 contributes to Cullin7-induced proliferation and invasion. - Abstract: Ubiquitin ligase Cullin7 has been identified as an oncogene in some malignant diseases such as choriocarcinoma and neuroblastoma. However, the role of Cullin7 in breast cancer carcinogenesis remains unclear. In this study, we compared Cullin7 protein levels in breast cancer tissues with normal breast tissues and identified significantly higher expression of Cullin7 protein in breast cancer specimens. By overexpressing Cullin7 in breast cancer cells HCC1937, we found that Cullin7 could promote cell growth and invasion in vitro. In contrast, the cell growth and invasion was inhibited by silencing Cullin7 in breast cancer cell BT474. Moreover, we demonstrated that Cullin7 promoted breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion via down-regulating p53 expression. Thus, our study provided evidence that Cullin7 functions as a novel oncogene in breast cancer and may be a potential therapeutic target for breast cancer management.

  2. TRIM56 Is a Virus- and Interferon-Inducible E3 Ubiquitin Ligase That Restricts Pestivirus Infection ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jie; Liu, Baoming; Wang, Nan; Lee, Young-Min; Liu, Chunming; Li, Kui

    2011-01-01

    The tripartite motif (TRIM) protein family comprises more than 60 members that have diverse functions in various biological processes. Although a small number of TRIM proteins have been shown to regulate innate immunity, much remains to be learned about the functions of the majority of the TRIM proteins. Here we identify TRIM56 as a cellular protein associated with the N-terminal protease (Npro) of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), a pestiviral interferon antagonist which degrades interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) through the proteasome. We found that TRIM56 was constitutively expressed in most tissues, and its abundance was further upregulated moderately by interferon or virus. The manipulation of TRIM56 abundance did not affect the protein turnover of Npro and IRF3. Rather, ectopic expression of TRIM56 substantially impaired, while knockdown of TRIM56 expression greatly enhanced, BVDV replication in cell culture. The antiviral activity of TRIM56 depended on its E3 ubiquitin ligase activity as well as the integrity of its C-terminal region but was not attributed to a general augmentation of the interferon antiviral response. Overexpression of TRIM56 did not inhibit the replication of vesicular stomatitis virus or hepatitis C virus, a virus closely related to BVDV. Together, our data demonstrate that TRIM56 is a novel antiviral host factor that restricts pestivirus infection. PMID:21289118

  3. mTOR complex 2 regulates proper turnover of insulin receptor substrate-1 via the ubiquitin ligase subunit Fbw8

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Jin; DeStefano, Michael A.; Oh, Won Jun; Wu, Chang-chih; Vega-Cotto, Nicole M.; Finlan, Monica; Liu, Dou; Su, Bing; Jacinto, Estela

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) integrates signals from nutrients and insulin via two distinct complexes, mTORC1 and mTORC2. Disruption of mTORC2 impairs the insulin-induced activation of Akt, an mTORC2 substrate. Here we found that mTORC2 can also regulate insulin signaling at the level of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1). Despite phosphorylation at the mTORC1-mediated serine sites, which supposedly triggers IRS-1 downregulation, inactive IRS-1 accumulated in mTORC2-disrupted cells. Defective IRS-1 degradation was due to attenuated expression and phosphorylation of the ubiquitin ligase substrate-targeting subunit, Fbw8. mTORC2 stabilizes Fbw8 by phosphorylation at Ser86, allowing the insulin-induced translocation of Fbw8 to the cytosol where it mediates IRS-1 degradation. Thus, mTORC2 negatively feeds back to IRS-1 via control of Fbw8 stability and localization. Our findings reveal that in addition to persistent mTORC1 signaling, heightened mTORC2 signals can promote insulin resistance due to mTORC2-mediated degradation of IRS-1. PMID:23142081

  4. Evidence for a regulatory role of Cullin-RING E3 ubiquitin ligase 7 in insulin signalling§

    PubMed Central

    Kruse, Michael; Hartmann, Thomas; Lempart, Justine; Mühlich, Susanne; Pfeiffer, Andreas F. H.; Field, Loren J.; Charron, Maureen J.; Pan, Zhen-Qiang; Engelhardt, Stefan; Sarikas, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Dysfunctional regulation of signalling pathways downstream of the insulin receptor plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. In this study we report both in vitro and in vivo experimental evidence for a role of Cullin-RING E3 ubiquitin ligase 7 (CRL7) in the regulation of insulin signalling and glucose homeostasis. We show that Cul7−/− mouse embryonic fibroblasts displayed enhanced AKT and Erk MAP kinase phosphorylation upon insulin stimulation. Depletion of CUL7 by RNA interference in C2C12 myotubes led to increased activation of insulin signalling pathways and cellular glucose uptake, as well as a reduced capacity of these cells to execute insulin-induced degradation of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1). In vivo, heterozygosity of either Cul7 or Fbxw8, both key components of CRL7, resulted in elevated PI3 kinase / AKT activation in skeletal muscle tissue upon insulin stimulation when compared to wild-type controls. Finally, Cul7+/− or Fbxw8+/− mice exhibited enhanced insulin sensitivity and plasma glucose clearance. Collectively, our findings point to a yet unrecognized role of CRL7 in insulin-mediated control of glucose homeostasis by restraining PI3 kinase / AKT activities in skeletal muscle cells. PMID:24219910

  5. Structural and Functional Impact of Parkinson Disease-Associated Mutations in the E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Parkin

    PubMed Central

    Fiesel, Fabienne C.; Caulfield, Thomas R.; Moussaud-Lamodière, Elisabeth L.; Ogaki, Kotaro; Dourado, Daniel F.A.R.; Flores, Samuel C.; Ross, Owen A.; Springer, Wolfdieter

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the PARKIN/PARK2 gene that result in loss-of-function of the encoded, neuroprotective E3 ubiquitin ligase Parkin cause recessive, familial early-onset Parkinson disease. As an increasing number of rare Parkin sequence variants with unclear pathogenicity are identified, structure-function analyses will be critical to determine their disease relevance. Depending on the specific amino acids affected, several distinct pathomechanisms can result in loss of Parkin function. These include disruption of overall Parkin folding, decreased solubility and protein aggregation. However pathogenic effects can also result from misregulation of Parkin auto-inhibition and of its enzymatic functions. In addition, interference of binding to co-enzymes, substrates and adaptor proteins can affect its catalytic activity too. Herein, we have performed a comprehensive structural and functional analysis of 21 PARK2 missense mutations distributed across the individual protein domains. Using this combined approach we were able to pinpoint some of the pathogenic mechanisms of individual sequence variants. Similar analyses will be critical in gaining a complete understanding of the complex regulations and enzymatic functions of Parkin. These studies will not only highlight the important residues, but will also help to develop novel therapeutics aimed at activating and preserving an active, neuroprotective form of Parkin. PMID:25939424

  6. Ubiquitin ligase UBE3C promotes melanoma progression by increasing epithelial-mesenchymal transition in melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Li; Yi, Xue-Mei; Chen, Jia; Chen, Fu-Juan; Lou, Wei; Gao, Yun-Lu; Zhou, Jing; Su, Li-Na; Xu, Xin; Lu, Jia-Qing; Ma, Jun; Yu, Ning; Ding, Yang-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Melanoma is the most aggressive type of skin cancer, exhibiting extensive local invasion and early distant metastasis. Aberrant expression of ubiquitin-protein ligase E3C (UBE3C) plays a key role in tumor development and progression. In the present study, we analyzed UBE3C expression in samples of cancerous and normal skin tissue. Levels of UBE3C expression were much higher in primary and metastatic melanoma tissues than in normal skin, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma or basal cell carcinoma. Melanoma cells overexpressing UBE3C frequently exhibited a mesenchymal phenotype, including reduced expression of the epithelial marker E-cadherin and expression of the mesenchymal marker vimentin. Knockdown of UBE3C expression in melanoma cells significantly suppressed melanoma growth and progression. Furthermore, silencing UBE3C led to increased E-cadherin expression and decreased vimentin and Snail1 expression. Thus UBE3C promotes melanoma progression, possibly by inducing epithelial-mesenchymal transition in melanoma cells. Inhibiting UBE3C activity may suppress melanoma invasion and metastasis and may represent a targeted therapeutic approach. PMID:26894856

  7. Regulating ehrlich and demethiolation pathways for alcohols production by the expression of ubiquitin-protein ligase gene HUWE1.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Quan; Jia, Kai-Zhi; Xia, Shi-Tao; Xu, Yang-Hua; Liu, Rui-Sang; Li, Hong-Mei; Tang, Ya-Jie

    2016-01-01

    Ehrlich and demethiolation pathways as two competing branches converted amino acid into alcohols. Controlling both pathways offers considerable potential for industrial applications including alcohols overproduction, flavor-quality control and developing new flavors. While how to regulate ehrlich and demethiolation pathways is still not applicable. Taking the conversion of methionine into methionol and methanethiol for example, we constructed two suppression subtractive cDNA libraries of Clonostachys rosea by using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) technology for screening regulators controlling the conversion. E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase gene HUWE1 screened from forward SSH library was validated to be related with the biosynthesis of end products. Overexpressing HUWE1 in C. rosea and S. cerevisiae significantly increased the biosynthesis of methanethiol and its derivatives in demethiolation pathway, while suppressed the biosynthesis of methional and methionol in ehrlich pathway. These results attained the directional regulation of both pathways by overexpressing HUWE1. Thus, HUWE1 has potential to be a key target for controlling and enhancing alcohols production by metabolic engineering. PMID:26860895

  8. Circadian control of XPA and excision repair of cisplatin-DNA damage by cryptochrome and HERC2 ubiquitin ligase.

    PubMed

    Kang, Tae-Hong; Lindsey-Boltz, Laura A; Reardon, Joyce T; Sancar, Aziz

    2010-03-16

    Cisplatin is one of the most commonly used anticancer drugs. It kills cancer cells by damaging their DNA, and hence cellular DNA repair capacity is an important determinant of its efficacy. Here, we investigated the repair of cisplatin-induced DNA damage in mouse liver and testis tissue extracts prepared at regular intervals over the course of a day. We find that the XPA protein, which plays an essential role in repair of cisplatin damage by nucleotide excision repair, exhibits circadian oscillation in the liver but not in testis. Consequently, removal of cisplatin adducts in liver extracts, but not in testis extracts, exhibits a circadian pattern with zenith at approximately 5 pm and nadir at approximately 5 am. Furthermore, we find that the circadian oscillation of XPA is achieved both by regulation of transcription by the core circadian clock proteins including cryptochrome and by regulation at the posttranslational level by the HERC2 ubiquitin ligase. These findings may be used as a guide for timing of cisplatin chemotherapy. PMID:20304803

  9. The ER membrane-anchored ubiquitin ligase Hrd1 is a positive regulator of T-cell immunity.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yuanming; Zhao, Fang; Qiu, Quan; Chen, Kun; Wei, Juncheng; Kong, Qingfei; Gao, Beixue; Melo-Cardenas, Johanna; Zhang, Bin; Zhang, Jinping; Song, Jianxun; Zhang, Donna D; Zhang, Jianing; Fan, Yunping; Li, Huabin; Fang, Deyu

    2016-01-01

    Identification of positive regulators of T-cell immunity induced during autoimmune diseases is critical for developing novel therapies. The endoplasmic reticulum resident ubiquitin ligase Hrd1 has recently emerged as a critical regulator of dendritic cell antigen presentation, but its role in T-cell immunity is unknown. Here we show that genetic deletion of Hrd1 in mice inhibits T-cell proliferation, production of IL-2, and differentiation of Th1 and Th17 cells, and consequently protects mice from experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Hrd1 facilitates T-cell proliferation by the destruction of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(kip1), and deletion of p27(kip1) in Hrd1-null T-cells rescues proliferative capacity but not the production of cytokines, including IL-2, IFN-γ and IL-17. T-cell expression of Hrd1 is higher in patients with multiple sclerosis than in healthy individuals, and knockdown of Hrd1 in human CD4(+) T cells inhibits activation and differentiation to Th1 and Th17 cells. Our study identifies Hrd1 as a previously unappreciated positive regulator of T cells and implies that Hrd1 is a potential therapeutic target for autoimmune diseases. PMID:27417417

  10. Sequential Poly-ubiquitylation by Specialized Conjugating Enzymes Expands the Versatility of a Quality Control Ubiquitin Ligase.

    PubMed

    Weber, Annika; Cohen, Itamar; Popp, Oliver; Dittmar, Gunnar; Reiss, Yuval; Sommer, Thomas; Ravid, Tommer; Jarosch, Ernst

    2016-09-01

    The Doa10 quality control ubiquitin (Ub) ligase labels proteins with uniform lysine 48-linked poly-Ub (K48-pUB) chains for proteasomal degradation. Processing of Doa10 substrates requires the activity of two Ub conjugating enzymes. Here we show that the non-canonical conjugating enzyme Ubc6 attaches single Ub molecules not only to lysines but also to hydroxylated amino acids. These Ub moieties serve as primers for subsequent poly-ubiquitylation by Ubc7. We propose that the evolutionary conserved propensity of Ubc6 to mount Ub on diverse amino acids augments the number of ubiquitylation sites within a substrate and thereby increases the target range of Doa10. Our work provides new insights on how the consecutive activity of two specialized conjugating enzymes facilitates the attachment of poly-Ub to very heterogeneous client molecules. Such stepwise ubiquitylation reactions most likely represent a more general cellular phenomenon that extends the versatility yet sustains the specificity of the Ub conjugation system. PMID:27570077

  11. PLR-1, a putative E3 ubiquitin ligase, controls cell polarity and axonal extensions in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Jaffar M; Pan, Jie; Hutter, Harald

    2015-02-01

    During embryonic development neurons differentiate and extend axons and dendrites that have to reach their appropriate targets. In Caenorhabditis elegans the AVG neuron is the first neuron to extend an axon during the establishment of the ventral nerve cord, the major longitudinal axon tract in the animal. In genetic screens we isolated alleles of plr-1, which caused polarity reversals of the AVG neuron as well as outgrowth and navigation defects of the AVG axon. In addition plr-1 mutants show outgrowth defects in several other classes of neurons as well as the posterior excretory canals. plr-1 is predicted to encode a transmembrane E3 ubiquitin ligase and is widely expressed in the animal including the AVG neuron and the excretory cell. plr-1 has recently been shown to negatively regulate Wnt signalling by removing Wnt receptors from the cell surface. We observed that mutations in a gene reducing Wnt signalling as well as mutations in unc-53/NAV2 and unc-73/Trio suppress the AVG polarity defects in plr-1 mutants, but not the defects seen in other cells. This places plr-1 in a Wnt regulation pathway, but also suggests that plr-1 has Wnt independent functions and interacts with unc-53 and unc-73 to control cell polarity. PMID:25448694

  12. The FACT complex interacts with the E3 ubiquitin ligase Psh1 to prevent ectopic localization of CENP-A

    PubMed Central

    Deyter, Gary M.R.

    2014-01-01

    Centromere identity and its epigenetic maintenance require the incorporation of a histone H3 variant called CENP-A at centromeres. CENP-A mislocalization to ectopic sites may disrupt chromatin-based processes and chromosome segregation, so it is important to uncover the mechanisms by which this variant is exclusively localized to centromeres. Here, we identify a role for the conserved chromatin-modifying complex FACT (facilitates chromatin transcription/transactions) in preventing budding yeast CENP-ACse4 mislocalization to euchromatin by mediating its proteolysis. The Spt16 subunit of the FACT complex binds to Psh1 (Pob3/Spt16/histone), an E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets CENP-ACse4 for degradation. The interaction between Psh1 and Spt16 is critical for both CENP-ACse4 ubiquitylation and its exclusion from euchromatin. We found that Psh1 cannot efficiently ubiquitylate CENP-ACse4 nucleosomes in vitro, suggesting that additional factors must facilitate CENP-ACse4 removal from chromatin in vivo. Consistent with this, a Psh1 mutant that cannot associate with FACT has a reduced interaction with CENP-ACse4 in vivo. Together, our data identify a previously unknown mechanism to maintain centromere identity and genomic stability through the FACT-mediated degradation of ectopically localized CENP-ACse4. PMID:25128498

  13. The ubiquitin E3 ligase ITCH enhances breast tumor progression by inhibiting the Hippo tumor suppressor pathway

    PubMed Central

    Salah, Zaidoun; Itzhaki, Ella; Aqeilan, Rami I

    2014-01-01

    The Hippo kinase pathway is emerging as a conserved signaling pathway that is essential for organ growth and tumorigenesis. Recently, we reported that the ubiquitin E3 ligase ITCH negatively regulates LATS1, thereby increasing YAP activity, which leads to increased cell proliferation and decreased apoptosis. Here, we investigated the role of ITCH in breast tumorigenesis. In particular, we show that ITCH enhances epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) through boosting YAP oncogenic function. By contrast, a point mutation in the catalytic domain or WW1 domain of ITCH abolished its EMT-mediated effects. Furthermore, while overexpression of ITCH expression in breast cells is associated with increased incidence of mammary tumor formation and progression, its knockdown inhibited breast cancer cell tumorigenicity and metastasis. Importantly, YAP knockdown was able to attenuate ITCH pro-tumorigenic functions. Lastly, we found that ITCH expression is significantly upregulated in invasive and metastatic breast cancer cases and is associated with worse survival. Together, our results reveal that ITCH pro-tumorigenic functions in breast cancer are mediated, at least in part, through inactivation of the Hippo tumor suppressor pathway. PMID:25350971

  14. Red Light-Mediated Degradation of CONSTANS by the E3 Ubiquitin Ligase HOS1 Regulates Photoperiodic Flowering in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Lazaro, Ana; Mouriz, Alfonso; Piñeiro, Manuel; Jarillo, José A.

    2015-01-01

    The regulation of CONSTANS (CO) gene expression is crucial to accurately measure changes in daylength, which influences flowering time in Arabidopsis thaliana. CO expression is under both transcriptional and posttranslational control mechanisms. We previously showed that the E3 ubiquitin ligase HIGH EXPRESSION OF OSMOTICALLY RESPONSIVE GENES1 (HOS1) physically interacts with CO in Arabidopsis. This interaction is required to precisely modulate the timing of CO accumulation and, consequently, to maintain low levels of FLOWERING LOCUS T expression during the first part of the day. The data presented here demonstrate that HOS1 is involved in the red light-mediated degradation of CO that takes place in the early stages of the daylight period. Our results show that phytochrome B (phyB) is able to regulate flowering time, acting in the phloem companion cells, as previously described for CO and HOS1. Moreover, we reveal that phyB physically interacts with HOS1 and CO, indicating that the three proteins may be present in a complex in planta that is required to coordinate a correct photoperiodic response in Arabidopsis. PMID:26373454

  15. Regulating ehrlich and demethiolation pathways for alcohols production by the expression of ubiquitin-protein ligase gene HUWE1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Quan; Jia, Kai-Zhi; Xia, Shi-Tao; Xu, Yang-Hua; Liu, Rui-Sang; Li, Hong-Mei; Tang, Ya-Jie

    2016-01-01

    Ehrlich and demethiolation pathways as two competing branches converted amino acid into alcohols. Controlling both pathways offers considerable potential for industrial applications including alcohols overproduction, flavor-quality control and developing new flavors. While how to regulate ehrlich and demethiolation pathways is still not applicable. Taking the conversion of methionine into methionol and methanethiol for example, we constructed two suppression subtractive cDNA libraries of Clonostachys rosea by using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) technology for screening regulators controlling the conversion. E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase gene HUWE1 screened from forward SSH library was validated to be related with the biosynthesis of end products. Overexpressing HUWE1 in C. rosea and S. cerevisiae significantly increased the biosynthesis of methanethiol and its derivatives in demethiolation pathway, while suppressed the biosynthesis of methional and methionol in ehrlich pathway. These results attained the directional regulation of both pathways by overexpressing HUWE1. Thus, HUWE1 has potential to be a key target for controlling and enhancing alcohols production by metabolic engineering. PMID:26860895

  16. Neuroblastoma patient outcomes, tumor differentiation, and ERK activation are correlated with expression levels of the ubiquitin ligase UBE4B

    PubMed Central

    Woodfield, Sarah E.; Guo, Rong Jun; Liu, Yin; Major, Angela M.; Hollingsworth, Emporia Faith; Indiviglio, Sandra; Whittle, Sarah B.; Mo, Qianxing; Bean, Andrew J.; Ittmann, Michael; Lopez-Terrada, Dolores; Zage, Peter E.

    2016-01-01

    Background UBE4B is an E3/E4 ubiquitin ligase whose gene is located in chromosome 1p36.22. We analyzed the associations of UBE4B gene and protein expression with neuroblastoma patient outcomes and with tumor prognostic features and histology. Methods We evaluated the association of UBE4B gene expression with neuroblastoma patient outcomes using the R2 Platform. We screened neuroblastoma tumor samples for UBE4B protein expression using immunohistochemistry. FISH for UBE4B and 1p36 deletion was performed on tumor samples. We then evaluated UBE4B expression for associations with prognostic factors and with levels of phosphorylated ERK in neuroblastoma tumors and cell lines. Results Low UBE4B gene expression is associated with poor outcomes in patients with neuroblastoma and with worse outcomes in all patient subgroups. UBE4B protein expression was associated with neuroblastoma tumor differentiation, and decreased UBE4B protein levels were associated with high-risk features. UBE4B protein levels were also associated with levels of phosphorylated ERK. Conclusions We have demonstrated associations between UBE4B gene expression and neuroblastoma patient outcomes and prognostic features. Reduced UBE4B protein expression in neuroblastoma tumors was associated with high-risk features, a lack of differentiation, and with ERK activation. These results suggest UBE4B may contribute to the poor prognosis of neuroblastoma tumors with 1p36 deletions and that UBE4B expression may mediate neuroblastoma differentiation. PMID:27014418

  17. The E3 ubiquitin ligase EDD regulates S-phase and G(2)/M DNA damage checkpoints.

    PubMed

    Munoz, Marcia A; Saunders, Darren N; Henderson, Michelle J; Clancy, Jennifer L; Russell, Amanda J; Lehrbach, Gillian; Musgrove, Elizabeth A; Watts, Colin K W; Sutherland, Robert L

    2007-12-15

    The cellular response to DNA damage is critical for maintenance of genomic integrity and inhibition of tumorigenesis. Mutations or aberrant expression of the E3 ubiquitin ligase EDD have been observed in a number of carcinomas and we recently reported that EDD modulates activity of the DNA damage checkpoint kinase, CHK2. Here, we demonstrate that EDD is necessary for G(1)/S and intra S phase DNA damage checkpoint activation and for the maintenance of G(2)/M arrest after double strand DNA breaks. Defective checkpoint activation in EDD-depleted cells led to radio-resistant DNA synthesis, premature entry into mitosis, accumulation of polyploid cells, and cell death via mitotic catastrophe. In addition to decreased CHK2 activation in EDD-depleted cells, the expression of several key cell cycle mediators including Cdc25A/C and E2F1 was altered, suggesting that these checkpoint defects may be both CHK2-dependent and -independent. These data support a role for EDD in the maintenance of genomic stability, emphasising the potential importance of dysregulated EDD expression and/or function in the evolution of cancer. PMID:18073532

  18. The Homeodomain Transcription Factor Hoxa2 Interacts with and Promotes the Proteasomal Degradation of the E3 Ubiquitin Protein Ligase RCHY1

    PubMed Central

    Bergiers, Isabelle; Bridoux, Laure; Nguyen, Nathan; Twizere, Jean-Claude; Rezsöhazy, René

    2013-01-01

    Hox proteins are conserved homeodomain transcription factors known to be crucial regulators of animal development. As transcription factors, the functions and modes of action (co-factors, target genes) of Hox proteins have been very well studied in a multitude of animal models. However, a handful of reports established that Hox proteins may display molecular activities distinct from gene transcription regulation. Here, we reveal that Hoxa2 interacts with 20S proteasome subunits and RCHY1 (also known as PIRH2), an E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets p53 for degradation. We further show that Hoxa2 promotes proteasome-dependent degradation of RCHY1 in an ubiquitin-independent manner. Correlatively, Hoxa2 alters the RCHY1-mediated ubiquitination of p53 and promotes p53 stabilization. Together, our data establish that Hoxa2 can regulate the proteasomal degradation of RCHY1 and stabilization of p53. PMID:24244684

  19. Tobacco RING E3 Ligase NtRFP1 Mediates Ubiquitination and Proteasomal Degradation of a Geminivirus-Encoded βC1.

    PubMed

    Shen, Qingtang; Hu, Tao; Bao, Min; Cao, Linge; Zhang, Huawei; Song, Fengmin; Xie, Qi; Zhou, Xueping

    2016-06-01

    The βC1 protein encoded by the Tomato yellow leaf curl China virus-associated betasatellite functions as a pathogenicity determinant. To better understand the molecular basis whereby βC1 functions in pathogenicity, a yeast two-hybrid screen of a tobacco cDNA library was carried out using βC1 as the bait. The screen revealed that βC1 interacts with a tobacco RING-finger protein designated NtRFP1, which was further confirmed by the bimolecular fluorescence complementation and co-immunoprecipitation assays in Nicotiana benthamiana cells. Expression of NtRFP1 was induced by βC1, and in vitro ubiquitination assays showed that NtRFP1 is a functional E3 ubiquitin ligase that mediates βC1 ubiquitination. In addition, βC1 was shown to be ubiquitinated in vivo and degraded by the plant 26S proteasome. After viral infection, plants overexpressing NtRFP1 developed attenuated symptoms, whereas plants with silenced expression of NtRFP1 showed severe symptoms. Other lines of evidence showed that NtRFP1 attenuates βC1-induced symptoms through promoting its degradation by the 26S proteasome. Taken together, our results suggest that tobacco RING E3 ligase NtRFP1 attenuates disease symptoms by interacting with βC1 to mediate its ubiquitination and degradation via the ubiquitin/26S proteasome system. PMID:27018391

  20. Absence of Association between Polymorphisms in the RING E3 Ubiquitin Protein Ligase Gene and Ex Vivo Susceptibility to Conventional Antimalarial Drugs in Plasmodium falciparum Isolates from Dakar, Senegal.

    PubMed

    Gendrot, Mathieu; Fall, Bécaye; Madamet, Marylin; Fall, Mansour; Wade, Khalifa Ababacar; Amalvict, Rémy; Nakoulima, Aminata; Benoit, Nicolas; Diawara, Silman; Diémé, Yaya; Diatta, Bakary; Wade, Boubacar; Pradines, Bruno

    2016-08-01

    The RING E3 ubiquitin protein ligase is crucial for facilitating the transfer of ubiquitin. The only polymorphism identified in the E3 ubiquitin protein ligase gene was the D113N mutation (62.5%) but was not significantly associated with the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of conventional antimalarial drugs. However, some mutated isolates (D113N) present a trend of reduced susceptibility to piperaquine (P = 0.0938). To evaluate the association of D113N polymorphism with susceptibility to antimalarials, more isolates are necessary. PMID:27185795

  1. Transcription factor RFX1 is ubiquitinated by E3 ligase STUB1 in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yu; Zhao, Ming; Lu, Qianjin

    2016-08-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease caused by complex interactions between genes and the environment. The expression level of transcription factor regulatory factor X 1 (RFX1) is reduced in T cells from SLE patients. RFX1 can regulate epigenetic modifications of CD70 and CD11a and plays an important role in the development of SLE. However, the mechanisms that mediate reduction of RFX1 in SLE are unclear. Here, we demonstrate that RFX1 protein expression can be tightly regulated by polyubiquitination-mediated proteosomal degradation via STIP1 homology and U-box containing protein 1 (STUB1). The E3 ligase STUB1 is upregulated in CD4(+)T cells of SLE patients compared to healthy subjects. Overexpression of STUB1 in CD4(+)T cells leads to upregulation of levels of CD70 and CD11a in T cells. The modulation of STUB1 activity may provide a novel therapeutic approach for SLE. PMID:27283392

  2. Nse1 RING-like Domain Supports Functions of the Smc5-Smc6 Holocomplex in Genome Stability

    PubMed Central

    Pebernard, Stephanie; Perry, J. Jefferson P.; Tainer, John A.

    2008-01-01

    The Smc5-Smc6 holocomplex plays essential but largely enigmatic roles in chromosome segregation, and facilitates DNA repair. The Smc5-Smc6 complex contains six conserved non-SMC subunits. One of these, Nse1, contains a RING-like motif that often confers ubiquitin E3 ligase activity. We have functionally characterized the Nse1 RING-like motif, to determine its contribution to the chromosome segregation and DNA repair roles of Smc5-Smc6. Strikingly, whereas a full deletion of nse1 is lethal, the Nse1 RING-like motif is not essential for cellular viability. However, Nse1 RING mutant cells are hypersensitive to a broad spectrum of genotoxic stresses, indicating that the Nse1 RING motif promotes DNA repair functions of Smc5-Smc6. We tested the ability of both human and yeast Nse1 to mediate ubiquitin E3 ligase activity in vitro and found no detectable activity associated with full-length Nse1 or the isolated RING domains. Interestingly, however, the Nse1 RING-like domain is required for normal Nse1-Nse3-Nse4 trimer formation in vitro and for damage-induced recruitment of Nse4 and Smc5 to subnuclear foci in vivo. Thus, we propose that the Nse1 RING-like motif is a protein–protein interaction domain required for Smc5-Smc6 holocomplex integrity and recruitment to, or retention at, DNA lesions. PMID:18667531

  3. Lentiviral Vpx Accessory Factor Targets VprBP/DCAF1 Substrate Adaptor for Cullin 4 E3 Ubiquitin Ligase to Enable Macrophage Infection

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Smita; Swanson, Selene K.; Manel, Nicolas; Florens, Laurence; Washburn, Michael P.; Skowronski, Jacek

    2008-01-01

    Vpx is a small virion-associated adaptor protein encoded by viruses of the HIV-2/SIVsm lineage of primate lentiviruses that enables these viruses to transduce monocyte-derived cells. This probably reflects the ability of Vpx to overcome an as yet uncharacterized block to an early event in the virus life cycle in these cells, but the underlying mechanism has remained elusive. Using biochemical and proteomic approaches, we have found that Vpx protein of the pathogenic SIVmac 239 strain associates with a ternary protein complex comprising DDB1 and VprBP subunits of Cullin 4–based E3 ubiquitin ligase, and DDA1, which has been implicated in the regulation of E3 catalytic activity, and that Vpx participates in the Cullin 4 E3 complex comprising VprBP. We further demonstrate that the ability of SIVmac as well as HIV-2 Vpx to interact with VprBP and its associated Cullin 4 complex is required for efficient reverse transcription of SIVmac RNA genome in primary macrophages. Strikingly, macrophages in which VprBP levels are depleted by RNA interference resist SIVmac infection. Thus, our observations reveal that Vpx interacts with both catalytic and regulatory components of the ubiquitin proteasome system and demonstrate that these interactions are critical for Vpx ability to enable efficient SIVmac replication in primary macrophages. Furthermore, they identify VprBP/DCAF1 substrate receptor for Cullin 4 E3 ubiquitin ligase and its associated protein complex as immediate downstream effector of Vpx for this function. Together, our findings suggest a model in which Vpx usurps VprBP-associated Cullin 4 ubiquitin ligase to enable efficient reverse transcription and thereby overcome a block to lentivirus replication in monocyte-derived cells, and thus provide novel insights into the underlying molecular mechanism. PMID:18464893

  4. Establishment of a Wheat Cell-Free Synthesized Protein Array Containing 250 Human and Mouse E3 Ubiquitin Ligases to Identify Novel Interaction between E3 Ligases and Substrate Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Hirotaka; Uematsu, Atsushi; Yamanaka, Satoshi; Imamura, Mei; Nakajima, Tatsuro; Doi, Kousuke; Yasuoka, Saki; Takahashi, Chikako; Takeda, Hiroyuki; Sawasaki, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    Ubiquitination is a key post-translational modification in the regulation of numerous biological processes in eukaryotes. The primary roles of ubiquitination are thought to be the triggering of protein degradation and the regulation of signal transduction. During protein ubiquitination, substrate specificity is mainly determined by E3 ubiquitin ligase (E3). Although more than 600 genes in the human genome encode E3, the E3s of many target proteins remain unidentified owing to E3 diversity and the instability of ubiquitinated proteins in cell. We demonstrate herein a novel biochemical analysis for the identification of E3s targeting specific proteins. Using wheat cell-free protein synthesis system, a protein array containing 227 human and 23 mouse recombinant E3s was synthesized. To establish the high-throughput binding assay using AlphaScreen technology, we selected MDM2 and p53 as the model combination of E3 and its target protein. The AlphaScreen assay specifically detected the binding of p53 and MDM2 in a crude translation mixture. Then, a comprehensive binding assay using the E3 protein array was performed. Eleven of the E3s showed high binding activity, including four previously reported E3s (e.g., MDM2, MDM4, and WWP1) targeting p53. This result demonstrated the reliability of the assay. Another interactors, RNF6 and DZIP3—which there have been no report to bind p53—were found to ubiquitinate p53 in vitro. Further analysis showed that RNF6 decreased the amount of p53 in H1299 cells in E3 activity-dependent manner. These results suggest the possibility that the RNF6 ubiquitinates and degrades p53 in cells. The novel in vitro screening system established herein is a powerful tool for finding novel E3s of a target protein. PMID:27249653

  5. Iron-binding haemerythrin RING ubiquitin ligases regulate plant iron responses and accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Takanori; Nagasaka, Seiji; Senoura, Takeshi; Itai, Reiko Nakanishi; Nakanishi, Hiromi; Nishizawa, Naoko K.

    2013-01-01

    Iron is essential for most living organisms. Plants transcriptionally induce genes involved in iron acquisition under conditions of low iron availability, but the nature of the deficiency signal and its sensors are unknown. Here we report the identification of new iron regulators in rice, designated Oryza sativa Haemerythrin motif-containing Really Interesting New Gene (RING)- and Zinc-finger protein 1 (OsHRZ1) and OsHRZ2. OsHRZ1, OsHRZ2 and their Arabidopsis homologue BRUTUS bind iron and zinc, and possess ubiquitination activity. OsHRZ1 and OsHRZ2 are susceptible to degradation in roots irrespective of iron conditions. OsHRZ-knockdown plants exhibit substantial tolerance to iron deficiency, and accumulate more iron in their shoots and grains irrespective of soil iron conditions. The expression of iron deficiency-inducible genes involved in iron utilization is enhanced in OsHRZ-knockdown plants, mostly under iron-sufficient conditions. These results suggest that OsHRZ1 and OsHRZ2 are iron-binding sensors that negatively regulate iron acquisition under conditions of iron sufficiency. PMID:24253678

  6. Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) May Act as a Substrate and a Recognition Unit for CRL4CRBN and Stub1 E3 Ligases Facilitating Ubiquitination of Proteins Involved in Presynaptic Functions and Neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Del Prete, Dolores; Rice, Richard C; Rajadhyaksha, Anjali M; D'Adamio, Luciano

    2016-08-12

    The amyloid precursor protein (APP), whose mutations cause Alzheimer disease, plays an important in vivo role and facilitates transmitter release. Because the APP cytosolic region (ACR) is essential for these functions, we have characterized its brain interactome. We found that the ACR interacts with proteins that regulate the ubiquitin-proteasome system, predominantly with the E3 ubiquitin-protein ligases Stub1, which binds the NH2 terminus of the ACR, and CRL4(CRBN), which is formed by Cul4a/b, Ddb1, and Crbn, and interacts with the COOH terminus of the ACR via Crbn. APP shares essential functions with APP-like protein-2 (APLP2) but not APP-like protein-1 (APLP1). Noteworthy, APLP2, but not APLP1, interacts with Stub1 and CRL4(CRBN), pointing to a functional pathway shared only by APP and APLP2. In vitro ubiquitination/ubiquitome analysis indicates that these E3 ligases are enzymatically active and ubiquitinate the ACR residues Lys(649/650/651/676/688) Deletion of Crbn reduces ubiquitination of Lys(676) suggesting that Lys(676) is physiologically ubiquitinated by CRL4(CRBN) The ACR facilitated in vitro ubiquitination of presynaptic proteins that regulate exocytosis, suggesting a mechanism by which APP tunes transmitter release. Other dementia-related proteins, namely Tau and apoE, interact with and are ubiquitinated via the ACR in vitro This, and the evidence that CRBN and CUL4B are linked to intellectual disability, prompts us to hypothesize a pathogenic mechanism, in which APP acts as a modulator of E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase(s), shared by distinct neuronal disorders. The well described accumulation of ubiquitinated protein inclusions in neurodegenerative diseases and the link between the ubiquitin-proteasome system and neurodegeneration make this concept plausible. PMID:27325702

  7. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus K-Rta exhibits SUMO-targeting ubiquitin ligase (STUbL) like activity and is essential for viral reactivation.

    PubMed

    Izumiya, Yoshihiro; Kobayashi, Keisuke; Kim, Kevin Y; Pochampalli, Mamata; Izumiya, Chie; Shevchenko, Bogdan; Wang, Don-Hong; Huerta, Steve B; Martinez, Anthony; Campbell, Mel; Kung, Hsing-Jien

    2013-01-01

    The small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) is a protein that regulates a wide variety of cellular processes by covalent attachment of SUMO moieties to a diverse array of target proteins. Sumoylation also plays an important role in the replication of many viruses. Previously, we showed that Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) encodes a SUMO-ligase, K-bZIP, which catalyzes sumoylation of host and viral proteins. We report here that this virus also encodes a gene that functions as a SUMO-targeting ubiquitin-ligase (STUbL) which preferentially targets sumoylated proteins for degradation. K-Rta, the major transcriptional factor which turns on the entire lytic cycle, was recently found to have ubiquitin ligase activity toward a selected set of substrates. We show in this study that K-Rta contains multiple SIMs (SUMO interacting motif) and binds SUMOs with higher affinity toward SUMO-multimers. Like RNF4, the prototypic cellular STUbL, K-Rta degrades SUMO-2/3 and SUMO-2/3 modified proteins, including promyelocytic leukemia (PML) and K-bZIP. PML-NBs (nuclear bodies) or ND-10 are storage warehouses for sumoylated proteins, which negatively regulate herpesvirus infection, as part of the intrinsic immune response. Herpesviruses have evolved different ways to degrade or disperse PML bodies, and KSHV utilizes K-Rta to inhibit PML-NBs formation. This process depends on K-Rta's ability to bind SUMO, as a K-Rta SIM mutant does not effectively degrade PML. Mutations in the K-Rta Ring finger-like domain or SIM significantly inhibited K-Rta transactivation activity in reporter assays and in the course of viral reactivation. Finally, KSHV with a mutation in the Ring finger-like domain or SIM of K-Rta replicates poorly in culture, indicating that reducing SUMO-conjugates in host cells is important for viral replication. To our knowledge, this is the first virus which encodes both a SUMO ligase and a SUMO-targeting ubiquitin ligase that together may generate unique gene

  8. Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus K-Rta Exhibits SUMO-Targeting Ubiquitin Ligase (STUbL) Like Activity and Is Essential for Viral Reactivation

    PubMed Central

    Izumiya, Yoshihiro; Kobayashi, Keisuke; Kim, Kevin Y.; Pochampalli, Mamata; Izumiya, Chie; Shevchenko, Bogdan; Wang, Don-Hong; Huerta, Steve B.; Martinez, Anthony; Campbell, Mel; Kung, Hsing-Jien

    2013-01-01

    The small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) is a protein that regulates a wide variety of cellular processes by covalent attachment of SUMO moieties to a diverse array of target proteins. Sumoylation also plays an important role in the replication of many viruses. Previously, we showed that Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) encodes a SUMO-ligase, K-bZIP, which catalyzes sumoylation of host and viral proteins. We report here that this virus also encodes a gene that functions as a SUMO-targeting ubiquitin-ligase (STUbL) which preferentially targets sumoylated proteins for degradation. K-Rta, the major transcriptional factor which turns on the entire lytic cycle, was recently found to have ubiquitin ligase activity toward a selected set of substrates. We show in this study that K-Rta contains multiple SIMs (SUMO interacting motif) and binds SUMOs with higher affinity toward SUMO-multimers. Like RNF4, the prototypic cellular STUbL, K-Rta degrades SUMO-2/3 and SUMO-2/3 modified proteins, including promyelocytic leukemia (PML) and K-bZIP. PML-NBs (nuclear bodies) or ND-10 are storage warehouses for sumoylated proteins, which negatively regulate herpesvirus infection, as part of the intrinsic immune response. Herpesviruses have evolved different ways to degrade or disperse PML bodies, and KSHV utilizes K-Rta to inhibit PML-NBs formation. This process depends on K-Rta's ability to bind SUMO, as a K-Rta SIM mutant does not effectively degrade PML. Mutations in the K-Rta Ring finger-like domain or SIM significantly inhibited K-Rta transactivation activity in reporter assays and in the course of viral reactivation. Finally, KSHV with a mutation in the Ring finger-like domain or SIM of K-Rta replicates poorly in culture, indicating that reducing SUMO-conjugates in host cells is important for viral replication. To our knowledge, this is the first virus which encodes both a SUMO ligase and a SUMO-targeting ubiquitin ligase that together may generate unique gene

  9. FLYING SAUCER1 Is a Transmembrane RING E3 Ubiquitin Ligase That Regulates the Degree of Pectin Methylesterification in Arabidopsis Seed Mucilage[W

    PubMed Central

    Voiniciuc, Cătălin; Dean, Gillian H.; Griffiths, Jonathan S.; Kirchsteiger, Kerstin; Hwang, Yeen Ting; Gillett, Alan; Dow, Graham; Western, Tamara L.; Estelle, Mark; Haughn, George W.

    2013-01-01

    Pectins are complex polysaccharides that form the gel matrix of the primary cell wall and are abundant in the middle lamella that holds plant cells together. Their degree of methylesterification (DM) impacts wall strength and cell adhesion since unesterified pectin regions can cross-link via Ca2+ ions to form stronger gels. Here, we characterize flying saucer1 (fly1), a novel Arabidopsis thaliana seed coat mutant, which displays primary wall detachment, reduced mucilage extrusion, and increased mucilage adherence. These defects appear to result from a lower DM in mucilage and are enhanced by the addition of Ca2+ or completely rescued using alkaline Ca2+ chelators. FLY1 encodes a transmembrane protein with a RING-H2 domain that has in vitro E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. FLY1 is orthologous to TRANSMEMBRANE UBIQUITIN LIGASE1, a Golgi-localized E3 ligase involved in the quality control of membrane proteins in yeast. However, FLY1–yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) fusions are localized in punctae that are predominantly distinct from the Golgi and the trans-Golgi network/early endosome in the seed coat epidermis. Wortmannin treatment, which induces the fusion of late endosomes in plants, resulted in enlarged FLY1-YFP bodies. We propose that FLY1 regulates the DM of pectin in mucilage, potentially by recycling pectin methylesterase enzymes in the endomembrane system of seed coat epidermal cells. PMID:23482858

  10. Flying saucer1 is a transmembrane RING E3 ubiquitin ligase that regulates the degree of pectin methylesterification in Arabidopsis seed mucilage.

    PubMed

    Voiniciuc, Catalin; Dean, Gillian H; Griffiths, Jonathan S; Kirchsteiger, Kerstin; Hwang, Yeen Ting; Gillett, Alan; Dow, Graham; Western, Tamara L; Estelle, Mark; Haughn, George W

    2013-03-01

    Pectins are complex polysaccharides that form the gel matrix of the primary cell wall and are abundant in the middle lamella that holds plant cells together. Their degree of methylesterification (DM) impacts wall strength and cell adhesion since unesterified pectin regions can cross-link via Ca(2+) ions to form stronger gels. Here, we characterize flying saucer1 (fly1), a novel Arabidopsis thaliana seed coat mutant, which displays primary wall detachment, reduced mucilage extrusion, and increased mucilage adherence. These defects appear to result from a lower DM in mucilage and are enhanced by the addition of Ca(2+) or completely rescued using alkaline Ca(2+) chelators. FLY1 encodes a transmembrane protein with a RING-H2 domain that has in vitro E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. FLY1 is orthologous to TRANSMEMBRANE UBIQUITIN LIGASE1, a Golgi-localized E3 ligase involved in the quality control of membrane proteins in yeast. However, FLY1-yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) fusions are localized in punctae that are predominantly distinct from the Golgi and the trans-Golgi network/early endosome in the seed coat epidermis. Wortmannin treatment, which induces the fusion of late endosomes in plants, resulted in enlarged FLY1-YFP bodies. We propose that FLY1 regulates the DM of pectin in mucilage, potentially by recycling pectin methylesterase enzymes in the endomembrane system of seed coat epidermal cells. PMID:23482858

  11. Haploid Genetic Screens Identify an Essential Role for PLP2 in the Downregulation of Novel Plasma Membrane Targets by Viral E3 Ubiquitin Ligases

    PubMed Central

    Timms, Richard T.; Duncan, Lidia M.; Tchasovnikarova, Iva A.; Antrobus, Robin; Smith, Duncan L.; Dougan, Gordon; Weekes, Michael P.; Lehner, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    The Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus gene products K3 and K5 are viral ubiquitin E3 ligases which downregulate MHC-I and additional cell surface immunoreceptors. To identify novel cellular genes required for K5 function we performed a forward genetic screen in near-haploid human KBM7 cells. The screen identified proteolipid protein 2 (PLP2), a MARVEL domain protein of unknown function, as essential for K5 activity. Genetic loss of PLP2 traps the viral ligase in the endoplasmic reticulum, where it is unable to ubiquitinate and degrade its substrates. Subsequent analysis of the plasma membrane proteome of K5-expressing KBM7 cells in the presence and absence of PLP2 revealed a wide range of novel K5 targets, all of which required PLP2 for their K5-mediated downregulation. This work ascribes a critical function to PLP2 for viral ligase activity and underlines the power of non-lethal haploid genetic screens in human cells to identify the genes involved in pathogen manipulation of the host immune system. PMID:24278019

  12. The Expression of the Ubiquitin Ligase SIAH2 (Seven In Absentia Homolog 2) Is Increased in Human Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Paula; Lara-Chica, Maribel; Soler-Torronteras, Rafael; Caro, Teresa; Medina, Manuel; Álvarez, Antonio; Salvatierra, Ángel; Muñoz, Eduardo; Calzado, Marco A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Overall 5-year survival has shown little improvement over the last decades. Seven in absentia homolog (SIAH) proteins are E3 ubiquitin ligases that mediate proteasomal protein degradation by poly-ubiquitination. Even though SIAH proteins play a key role in several biological processes, their role in human cancer remains controversial. The aim of the study was to document SIAH2 expression pattern at different levels (mRNA, protein level and immunohistochemistry) in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) samples compared to surrounding healthy tissue from the same patient, and to analyse the association with clinicopathological features. Materials and Methods One hundred and fifty-two samples from a patient cohort treated surgically for primary lung cancer were obtained for the study. Genic and protein expression levels of SIAH2 were analysed and compared with clinic-pathologic variables. Results The present study is the first to analyze the SIAH2 expression pattern at different levels (RNA, protein expression and immunohistochemistry) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We found that SIAH2 protein expression is significantly enhanced in human lung adenocarcinoma (ADC) and squamous cell lung cancer (SCC). Paradoxically, non-significant changes at RNA level were found, suggesting a post-traductional regulatory mechanism. More importantly, an increased correlation between SIAH2 expression and tumor grade was detected, suggesting that this protein could be used as a prognostic biomarker to predict lung cancer progression. Likewise, SIAH2 protein expression showed a strong positive correlation with fluorodeoxyglucose (2-deoxy-2(18F)fluoro-D-glucose) uptake in primary NSCLC, which may assist clinicians in stratifying patients at increased overall risk of poor survival. Additionally, we described an inverse correlation between the expression of SIAH2 and the levels of one of its substrates

  13. Functional conservation between mammalian MGRN1 and plant LOG2 ubiquitin ligases

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, Damian D.; Pratelli, Réjane; Kraft, Edward; Callis, Judy; Pilot, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    Plant LOSS OF GDU 2 (LOG2) and mammalian MAHOGUNIN RING FINGER 1 (MGRN1) proteins are RING-type E3 ligases sharing similarity N-terminal to the RING domain. Deletion of this region disrupts the interaction of LOG2 with the plant membrane protein GLUTAMINE DUMPER 1 (GDU1). Phylogenetic analysis identified two clades of LOG2/MGRN1-like proteins in vertebrates and plants. The ability of MGRN1 to functionally replace LOG2 was tested. MGRN1 ubiquitylates GDU1 in vitro and can partially substitute for LOG2 in the plant, partially restoring amino acid resistance to a GDU1-myc over-expression, log2-1 background. Altogether, these results suggest a conserved function for the N-terminal domain in evolution. Structured summary of protein interactionsGDU1 physically interactswith rnMGRN1by two hybrid (1, 2)rnMGRN1 binds to GDU1by pull down(View interaction)GDU6 physically interactswith rnMGRN1by two hybrid (1, 2)GDU3 physically interactswith hsMGRN1by two hybrid (1, 2)rnMGRN1 physically interactswith GDU7by two hybrid (1, 2)GDU5 physically interactswith hsMGRN1by two hybrid (1, 2)hsMGRN1 physically interactswith GDU1by two hybrid (1, 2)rnMGRN1 physically interactswith GDU3by two hybrid (1, 2)rnMGRN1 physically interactswith GDU5by two hybrid (1, 2)hsMGRN1 physically interactswith GDU7by two hybrid (1, 2)GDU6 physically interactswith hsMGRN1by two hybrid (1, 2)LOG2 binds to GDU1by pull down (1, 2)hsMGRN1 physically interactswith GDU4by two hybrid (1, 2)rnMGRN1 physically interactswith GDU2by two hybrid (1, 2)GDU4 physically interactswith rnMGRN1by two hybrid (1, 2)LOG2 physically interactswith GDU1by two hybrid (1, 2, 3, 4)GDU2 physically interactswith hsMGRN1by two hybrid (1, 2) PMID:24036454

  14. The ubiquitin ligase HERC3 attenuates NF-κB-dependent transcription independently of its enzymatic activity by delivering the RelA subunit for degradation

    PubMed Central

    Hochrainer, Karin; Pejanovic, Nadja; Olaseun, Victoria A.; Zhang, Sheng; Iadecola, Costantino; Anrather, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Activation of NF-κB-dependent transcription represents an important hallmark of inflammation. While the acute inflammatory response is per se beneficial, it can become deleterious if its spatial and temporal profile is not tightly controlled. Classically, NF-κB activity is limited by cytoplasmic retention of the NF-κB dimer through binding to inhibitory IκB proteins. However, increasing evidence suggests that NF-κB activity can also be efficiently contained by direct ubiquitination of NF-κB subunits. Here, we identify the HECT-domain ubiquitin ligase HERC3 as novel negative regulator of NF-κB activity. We find that HERC3 restricts NF-κB nuclear import and DNA binding without affecting IκBα degradation. Instead HERC3 indirectly binds to the NF-κB RelA subunit after liberation from IκBα inhibitor leading to its ubiquitination and protein destabilization. Remarkably, the regulation of RelA activity by HERC3 is independent of its inherent ubiquitin ligase activity. Rather, we show that HERC3 and RelA are part of a multi-protein complex containing the proteasome as well as the ubiquitin-like protein ubiquilin-1 (UBQLN1). We present evidence that HERC3 and UBQLN1 provide a link between NF-κB RelA and the 26S proteasome, thereby facilitating RelA protein degradation. Our findings establish HERC3 as novel candidate regulating the inflammatory response initiated by NF-κB. PMID:26476452

  15. The ubiquitin ligase HERC3 attenuates NF-κB-dependent transcription independently of its enzymatic activity by delivering the RelA subunit for degradation.

    PubMed

    Hochrainer, Karin; Pejanovic, Nadja; Olaseun, Victoria A; Zhang, Sheng; Iadecola, Costantino; Anrather, Josef

    2015-11-16

    Activation of NF-κB-dependent transcription represents an important hallmark of inflammation. While the acute inflammatory response is per se beneficial, it can become deleterious if its spatial and temporal profile is not tightly controlled. Classically, NF-κB activity is limited by cytoplasmic retention of the NF-κB dimer through binding to inhibitory IκB proteins. However, increasing evidence suggests that NF-κB activity can also be efficiently contained by direct ubiquitination of NF-κB subunits. Here, we identify the HECT-domain ubiquitin ligase HERC3 as novel negative regulator of NF-κB activity. We find that HERC3 restricts NF-κB nuclear import and DNA binding without affecting IκBα degradation. Instead HERC3 indirectly binds to the NF-κB RelA subunit after liberation from IκBα inhibitor leading to its ubiquitination and protein destabilization. Remarkably, the regulation of RelA activity by HERC3 is independent of its inherent ubiquitin ligase activity. Rather, we show that HERC3 and RelA are part of a multi-protein complex containing the proteasome as well as the ubiquitin-like protein ubiquilin-1 (UBQLN1). We present evidence that HERC3 and UBQLN1 provide a link between NF-κB RelA and the 26S proteasome, thereby facilitating RelA protein degradation. Our findings establish HERC3 as novel candidate regulating the inflammatory response initiated by NF-κB. PMID:26476452

  16. The RING Finger Ubiquitin E3 Ligase OsHTAS Enhances Heat Tolerance by Promoting H2O2-Induced Stomatal Closure in Rice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianping; Zhang, Cuicui; Wei, Chuchu; Liu, Xin; Wang, Mugui; Yu, Feifei; Xie, Qi; Tu, Jumin

    2016-01-01

    Heat stress often results in the generation of reactive oxygen species, such as hydrogen peroxide, which plays a vital role as a secondary messenger in the process of abscisic acid (ABA)-mediated stomatal closure. Here, we characterized the rice (Oryza sativa) HEAT TOLERANCE AT SEEDLING STAGE (OsHTAS) gene, which plays a positive role in heat tolerance at the seedling stage. OsHTAS encodes a ubiquitin ligase localized to the nucleus and cytoplasm. OsHTAS expression was detected in all tissues surveyed and peaked in leaf blade, in which the expression was concentrated in mesophyll cells. OsHTAS was responsive to multiple stresses and was strongly induced by exogenous ABA. In yeast two-hybrid assays, OsHTAS interacted with components of the ubiquitin/26S proteasome system and an isoform of rice ascorbate peroxidase. OsHTAS modulated hydrogen peroxide accumulation in shoots, altered the stomatal aperture status of rice leaves, and promoted ABA biosynthesis. The results suggested that the RING finger ubiquitin E3 ligase OsHTAS functions in leaf blade to enhance heat tolerance through modulation of hydrogen peroxide-induced stomatal closure and is involved in both ABA-dependent and DROUGHT AND SALT TOLERANCE-mediated pathways. PMID:26564152

  17. Ubiquitin-conjugated degradation of golden 2-like transcription factor is mediated by CUL4-DDB1-based E3 ligase complex in tomato.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiaofeng; Miao, Min; Niu, Xiangli; Zhang, Danfeng; Cao, Xulv; Jin, Xichen; Zhu, Yunye; Fan, Youhong; Wang, Hongtao; Liu, Ying; Sui, Yuan; Wang, Wenjie; Wang, Anquan; Xiao, Fangming; Giovannoni, Jim; Liu, Yongsheng

    2016-02-01

    CULLIN4-RING ubiquitin ligases (CRL4s) as well as their targets are fundamental regulators functioning in many key developmental and stress responses in eukaryotes. In tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), molecular cloning has revealed that the underlying genes of natural spontaneous mutations high pigment 1 (hp1), high pigment 2 (hp2) and uniform ripening (u) encode UV-DAMAGED DNA BINDING PROTEIN 1 (DDB1), DE-ETIOLATED 1 (DET1) and GOLDEN 2-LIKE (GLK2), respectively. However, the molecular basis of the opposite actions of tomato GLK2 vs CUL4-DDB1-DET1 complex on regulating plastid level and fruit quality remains unknown. Here, we provide molecular evidence showing that the tomato GLK2 protein is a substrate of the CUL4-DDB1-DET1 ubiquitin ligase complex for the proteasome degradation. SlGLK2 is degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome system, which is mainly determined by two lysine residues (K11 and K253). SlGLK2 associates with the CUL4-DDB1-DET1 E3 complex in plant cells. Genetically impairing CUL4, DDB1 or DET1 results in a retardation of SlGLK2 degradation by the 26S proteasome. These findings are relevant to the potential of nutrient accumulation in tomato fruit by mediating the plastid level and contribute to a deeper understanding of an important regulatory loop, linking protein turnover to gene regulation. PMID:26352615

  18. Fbs2 is a new member of the E3 ubiquitin ligase family that recognizes sugar chains.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Yukiko; Tokunaga, Fuminori; Chiba, Tomoki; Iwai, Kazuhiro; Tanaka, Keiji; Tai, Tadashi

    2003-10-31

    F-box proteins are substrate recognition components of Skp1-Cullin1-F-box protein-Roc1 (SCF) E3 ubiquitin-protein ligases. We reported previously that Fbs1 (F-box protein that recognizes sugar chains; equivalent to Fbx2 or NFB42) binds specifically to proteins attached with high mannose oligosaccharides and subsequently contributes to elimination of N-glycoproteins in cytosol (Yoshida, Y., Chiba, T., Tokunaga, F., Kawasaki, H., Iwai, K., Suzuki, T., Ito, Y., Matsuoka, K., Yoshida, M., Tanaka, K., and Tai, T. (2002) Nature 418, 438-442). Here we report the identification of another F-box protein that recognizes N-glycan, Fbs2 (called Fbx6b or FBG2 previously). Although the expression of Fbs1 was restricted to the adult brain and testis, the Fbs2 transcript was widely expressed. The Fbs2 protein forms an SCFFbs2 ubiquitinligase complex that targets sugar chains in N-glycoproteins for ubiquitylation. Only glycoproteins bound to concanavalin A lectin and not to wheat germ agglutinin or Ricinus communis agglutinin interacted with Fbs2 in various tissues and cell lines. Pull-down analysis using various oligosaccharides revealed that Man3-9GlcNAc2 glycans were required for efficient Fbs2 binding, whereas modifications of mannose residues by other sugars or deletion of inner GlcNAc reduced Fbs2 binding. Fbs2 interacted with N-glycans of T-cell receptor alpha-subunit (TCRalpha), a typical substrate of the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway, and the forced expression of mutant Fbs2DeltaF, which lacks the F-box domain essential for forming the SCF complex, and decrease of endogenous Fbs2 by small interfering RNA led to inhibition of TCRalpha degradation in cells. Thus, Fbs2 is a novel member of F-box protein family that recognizes N-glycans and plays a role in ERAD. PMID:12939278

  19. The E3 ubiquitin protein ligase HERC2 modulates the activity of tumor protein p53 by regulating its oligomerization.

    PubMed

    Cubillos-Rojas, Monica; Amair-Pinedo, Fabiola; Peiró-Jordán, Roser; Bartrons, Ramon; Ventura, Francesc; Rosa, Jose Luis

    2014-05-23

    The tumor suppressor p53 is a transcription factor that coordinates the cellular response to several kinds of stress. p53 inactivation is an important step in tumor progression. Oligomerization of p53 is critical for its posttranslational modification and its ability to regulate the transcription of target genes necessary to inhibit tumor growth. Here we report that the HECT E3 ubiquitin ligase HERC2 interacts with p53. This interaction involves the CPH domain of HERC2 (a conserved domain within Cul7, PARC, and HERC2 proteins) and the last 43 amino acid residues of p53. Through this interaction, HERC2 regulates p53 activity. RNA interference experiments showed how HERC2 depletion reduces the transcriptional activity of p53 without affecting its stability. This regulation of p53 activity by HERC2 is independent of proteasome or MDM2 activity. Under these conditions, up-regulation of cell growth and increased focus formation were observed, showing the functional relevance of the HERC2-p53 interaction. This interaction was maintained after DNA damage caused by the chemotherapeutic drug bleomycin. In these stressed cells, p53 phosphorylation was not impaired by HERC2 knockdown. Interestingly, p53 mutations that affect its tetramerization domain disrupted the HERC2-p53 interaction, suggesting a role for HERC2 in p53 oligomerization. This regulatory role was shown using cross-linking assays. Thus, the inhibition of p53 activity after HERC2 depletion can be attributed to a reduction in p53 oligomerization. Ectopic expression of HERC2 (residues 2292-2923) confirmed these observations. Together, these results identify HERC2 as a novel regulator of p53 signaling. PMID:24722987

  20. Quantitative Lys-ϵ-Gly-Gly (diGly) Proteomics Coupled with Inducible RNAi Reveals Ubiquitin-mediated Proteolysis of DNA Damage-inducible Transcript 4 (DDIT4) by the E3 Ligase HUWE1

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Joel W.; Nagel, Jane; Hoving, Sjouke; Gerrits, Bertran; Bauer, Andreas; Thomas, Jason R.; Kirschner, Marc W.; Schirle, Markus; Luchansky, Sarah J.

    2014-01-01

    Targeted degradation of proteins through the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) via the activities of E3 ubiquitin ligases regulates diverse cellular processes, and misregulation of these enzymes contributes to the pathogenesis of human diseases. One of the challenges facing the UPS field is to delineate the complete cohort of substrates for a particular E3 ligase. Advances in mass spectrometry and the development of antibodies recognizing the Lys-ϵ-Gly-Gly (diGly) remnant from ubiquitinated proteins following trypsinolysis have provided a tool to address this question. We implemented an inducible loss of function approach in combination with quantitative diGly proteomics to find novel substrates of HUWE1 (HECT, UBA, and WWE domain containing 1, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase), an E3 ligase implicated in cancer and intellectual disabilities. diGly proteomics results led to the identification of DNA damage-inducible transcript 4 (DDIT4) as a putative HUWE1 substrate. Cell-based assays demonstrated that HUWE1 interacts with and regulates ubiquitination and stability of DDIT4. Together these data suggest a model in which HUWE1 mediates DDIT4 proteasomal degradation. Our results demonstrate proof of concept that inducible knockdown of an E3 ligase in combination with diGly proteomics provides a potentially advantageous method for identifying novel E3 substrates that may help to identify candidates for therapeutic modulation in the UPS. PMID:25147182

  1. Functional Analysis of NopM, a Novel E3 Ubiquitin Ligase (NEL) Domain Effector of Rhizobium sp. Strain NGR234

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Da-Wei; Liao, Sha; Xie, Zhi-Ping; Hann, Dagmar R.; Steinle, Lea; Boller, Thomas; Staehelin, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Type 3 effector proteins secreted via the bacterial type 3 secretion system (T3SS) are not only virulence factors of pathogenic bacteria, but also influence symbiotic interactions between nitrogen-fixing nodule bacteria (rhizobia) and leguminous host plants. In this study, we characterized NopM (nodulation outer protein M) of Rhizobium sp. strain NGR234, which shows sequence similarities with novel E3 ubiquitin ligase (NEL) domain effectors from the human pathogens Shigella flexneri and Salomonella enterica. NopM expressed in Escherichia coli, but not the non-functional mutant protein NopM-C338A, showed E3 ubiquitin ligase activity in vitro. In vivo, NopM, but not inactive NopM-C338A, promoted nodulation of the host plant Lablab purpureus by NGR234. When NopM was expressed in yeast, it inhibited mating pheromone signaling, a mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway. When expressed in the plant Nicotiana benthamiana, NopM inhibited one part of the plant's defense response, as shown by a reduced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in response to the flagellin peptide flg22, whereas it stimulated another part, namely the induction of defense genes. In summary, our data indicate the potential for NopM as a functional NEL domain E3 ubiquitin ligase. Our findings that NopM dampened the flg22-induced ROS burst in N. benthamiana but promoted defense gene induction are consistent with the concept that pattern-triggered immunity is split in two separate signaling branches, one leading to ROS production and the other to defense gene induction. PMID:22615567

  2. Jak-STAT3 pathway triggers DICER1 for proteasomal degradation by ubiquitin ligase complex of CUL4A(DCAF1) to promote colon cancer development.

    PubMed

    Ren, Weiguo; Shen, Shourong; Sun, Zhenqiang; Shu, Peng; Shen, Xiaohua; Bu, Chibin; Ai, Feiyan; Zhang, Xuemei; Tang, Anliu; Tian, Li; Li, Guiyuan; Li, Xiayu; Ma, Jian

    2016-06-01

    Chronic intestinal inflammation is closely associated with colon cancer development and STAT3 seems to take center stage in bridging chronic inflammation to colon cancer progress. Here, we discovered that DICER1 was significantly downregulated in response to IL-6 or LPS stimulation and identified a novel mechanism for DICER1 downregulation via proteasomal degradation by ubiquitin ligase complex of CUL4A(DCAF1) in colon cancer cells. Meanwhile, PI3K-AKT signaling pathway phosphorylated DICER1 and contributed to its proteasomal degradation. The regulation of DICER1 by CUL4A(DCAF1) affected cell growth and apoptosis which is controlled by IL-6 activated Jak-STAT3 pathway. Intervention of CUL4A(DCAF1) ubiquitin ligase complex led to fluctuation in expression levels of DICER1 and microRNAs, and thus affected tumor growth in a mouse xenograft model. A panel of microRNAs that were downregulated by IL-6 stimulation was rescued by siRNA-CUL4A, and their predicated functions are involved in regulation of cell proliferation, apoptosis and motility. Furthermore, clinical specimen analysis revealed that decreased DICER1 expression was negatively correlated with STAT3 activation and cancer progression in human colon cancers. DICER1 and p-STAT3 expression levels correlated with 5-year overall survival of colon cancer patients. Consequently, this study proposes that inflammation-induced Jak-STAT3 signaling leads to colon cancer development through proteasomal degradation of DICER1 by ubiquitin ligase complex of CUL4A(DCAF1), which suggests a novel therapeutic opportunity for colon cancer. PMID:26965998

  3. Suppression of Arabidopsis RING E3 ubiquitin ligase AtATL78 increases tolerance to cold stress and decreases tolerance to drought stress.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo Jin; Kim, Woo Taek

    2013-08-19

    AtATL78 is an Arabidopsis RING E3 ubiquitin ligase. RT-PCR and promoter-GUS assays revealed that AtATL78 was up-regulated by cold stress and down-regulated by drought. AtATL78 was localized at the plasma-membrane. Suppression of AtATL78 increased tolerance to cold stress but decreased tolerance to drought. Our data suggests that AtATL78 is a negative regulator of cold stress response and a positive regulator of drought stress response in Arabidopsis. These results further suggest that AtATL78 plays opposing roles in cold and drought stress responses. PMID:23831064

  4. The degradation of p53 and its major E3 ligase Mdm2 is differentially dependent on the proteasomal ubiquitin receptor S5a

    PubMed Central

    Sparks, A; Dayal, S; Das, J; Robertson, P; Menendez, S; Saville, M K

    2014-01-01

    p53 and its major E3 ligase Mdm2 are both ubiquitinated and targeted to the proteasome for degradation. Despite the importance of this in regulating the p53 pathway, little is known about the mechanisms of proteasomal recognition of ubiquitinated p53 and Mdm2. In this study, we show that knockdown of the proteasomal ubiquitin receptor S5a/PSMD4/Rpn10 inhibits p53 protein degradation and results in the accumulation of ubiquitinated p53. Overexpression of a dominant-negative deletion of S5a lacking its ubiquitin-interacting motifs (UIM)s, but which can be incorporated into the proteasome, also causes the stabilization of p53. Furthermore, small-interferring RNA (siRNA) rescue experiments confirm that the UIMs of S5a are required for the maintenance of low p53 levels. These observations indicate that S5a participates in the recognition of ubiquitinated p53 by the proteasome. In contrast, targeting S5a has no effect on the rate of degradation of Mdm2, indicating that proteasomal recognition of Mdm2 can be mediated by an S5a-independent pathway. S5a knockdown results in an increase in the transcriptional activity of p53. The selective stabilization of p53 and not Mdm2 provides a mechanism for p53 activation. Depletion of S5a causes a p53-dependent decrease in cell proliferation, demonstrating that p53 can have a dominant role in the response to targeting S5a. This study provides evidence for alternative pathways of proteasomal recognition of p53 and Mdm2. Differences in recognition by the proteasome could provide a means to modulate the relative stability of p53 and Mdm2 in response to cellular signals. In addition, they could be exploited for p53-activating therapies. This work shows that the degradation of proteins by the proteasome can be selectively dependent on S5a in human cells, and that this selectivity can extend to an E3 ubiquitin ligase and its substrate. PMID:24121268

  5. Cancer-testis antigen MAGE-C2 binds Rbx1 and inhibits ubiquitin ligase-mediated turnover of cyclin E

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jingjing; Guo, Chengli; Li, Yan; Li, Bing; Zhang, Yu; Yin, Yanhui

    2015-01-01

    Cancer-testis antigen MAGE-C2 is normally expressed in testis but aberrantly expressed in various kinds of tumors. Its functions in tumor cells are mostly unknown. Here, we show that MAGE-C2 binds directly to the RING domain protein Rbx1, and participates in Skp1-Cullin1-F box protein (SCF) complex. Furthermore, MAGE-C2 can inhibit the E3 ubiquitin ligase activity of SCF complex. Ablation of endogenous MAGE-C2 decreases the level of cyclin E and accelerates cyclin E turnover by inhibiting ubiquitin-mediated proteasome degradation. Overexpression of MAGE-C2 increases the level of cyclin E and promotes G1-S transition and cell proliferation, and the results are further confirmed by knockdown of MAGE-C2. Overall, the study indicates that MAGE-C2 is involved in SCF complex and increases the stability of cyclin E in tumor cells. PMID:26540345

  6. Composite low affinity interactions dictate recognition of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor Sic1 by the SCF[superscript Cdc4] ubiquitin ligase

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Xiaojing; Orlicky, Stephen; Mittag, Tanja; Csizmok, Veronika; Pawson, Tony; Forman-Kay, Julie D.; Sicheri, Frank; Tyers, Mike

    2012-05-24

    The ubiquitin ligase SCF{sup Cdc4} (Skp1/Cul1/F-box protein) recognizes its substrate, the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor Sic1, in a multisite phosphorylation-dependent manner. Although short diphosphorylated peptides derived from Sic1 can bind to Cdc4 with high affinity, through systematic mutagenesis and quantitative biophysical analysis we show that individually weak, dispersed Sic1 phospho sites engage Cdc4 in a dynamic equilibrium. The affinities of individual phosphoepitopes serve to tune the overall phosphorylation site threshold needed for efficient recognition. Notably, phosphoepitope affinity for Cdc4 is dramatically weakened in the context of full-length Sic1, demonstrating the importance of regional environment on binding interactions. The multisite nature of the Sic1-Cdc4 interaction confers cooperative dependence on kinase activity for Sic1 recognition and ubiquitination under equilibrium reaction conditions. Composite dynamic interactions of low affinity sites may be a general mechanism to establish phosphorylation thresholds in biological responses.

  7. The Ubiquitin Ligase Synoviolin Up-regulates Amyloid β Production by Targeting a Negative Regulator of γ-Secretase, Rer1, for Degradation*

    PubMed Central

    Tanabe, Chiaki; Maeda, Tomoji; Zou, Kun; Liu, Junjun; Liu, Shuyu; Nakajima, Toshihiro; Komano, Hiroto

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is characterized by the deposition of Aβ, which is generated from the amyloid precursor protein through its cleavage by β- and γ-secretases. The γ-secretase complex component nicastrin (NCT) plays significant roles in the assembly and proper trafficking of the γ-secretase complex and in the recognition of amyloid precursor protein. NCT is incorporated into the γ-secretase complex in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and glycosylated in the Golgi. In contrast, unassembled NCT is retrieved or retained in the ER by the protein Retention in endoplasmic reticulum 1 (Rer1). We reported previously that synoviolin (Syvn), an E3 ubiquitin ligase, degrades NCT and affects the generation of Aβ. Here, we examined in more detail the effect of Syvn on the generation of Aβ. We found that overexpression of a dominant negative form of Syvn (C307A mutant) and a Syvn-RNAi decreased the generation of Aβ. These results indicate that the ubiquitin ligase activity of Syvn up-regulates the generation of Aβ. We hypothesized, therefore, that Syvn regulates the assembly or localization of the γ-secretase complex by ubiquitinating Rer1, resulting in its subsequent degradation. Our findings that the level of Rer1 was increased in Syvn knockout fibroblasts because of inhibition of its degradation support this hypothesis. Moreover, we found that Rer1 interacts with Syvn in the ER, is ubiquitinated by Syvn, and is then degraded via the proteasome or lysosomal pathways. Finally, we showed that localization of mature NCT to the plasma membrane as well as γ-secretase complex levels are decreased in fibroblasts of Syvn knockout mice. Thus, it is likely that Syvn regulates the assembly of the γ-secretase complex via the degradation of Rer1, which results in the generation of Aβ. PMID:23129766

  8. Genome-wide identification and characterization of the apple (Malus domestica) HECT ubiquitin-protein ligase family and expression analysis of their responsiveness to abiotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jianing; Xing, Shanshan; Cui, Haoran; Chen, Xuesen; Wang, Xiaoyun

    2016-04-01

    The ubiquitin-protein ligases (E3s) directly participate in ubiquitin (Ub) transferring to the target proteins in the ubiquitination pathway. The HECT ubiquitin-protein ligase (UPL), one type of E3s, is characterized as containing a conserved HECT domain of approximately 350 amino acids in the C terminus. Some UPLs were found to be involved in trichome development and leaf senescence in Arabidopsis. However, studies on plant UPLs, such as characteristics of the protein structure, predicted functional motifs of the HECT domain, and the regulatory expression of UPLs have all been limited. Here, we present genome-wide identification of the genes encoding UPLs (HECT gene) in apple. The 13 genes (named as MdUPL1-MdUPL13) from ten different chromosomes were divided into four groups by phylogenetic analysis. Among these groups, the encoding genes in the intron-exon structure and the included additional functional domains were quite different. Notably, the F-box domain was first found in MdUPL7 in plant UPLs. The HECT domain in different MdUPL groups also presented different spatial features and three types of conservative motifs were identified. The promoters of each MdUPL member carried multiple stress-response related elements by cis-acting element analysis. Experimental results demonstrated that the expressions of several MdUPLs were quite sensitive to cold-, drought-, and salt-stresses by qRT-PCR assay. The results of this study helped to elucidate the functions of HECT proteins, especially in Rosaceae plants. PMID:26510744

  9. The ESCRT-Associated Protein Alix Recruits the Ubiquitin Ligase Nedd4-1 To Facilitate HIV-1 Release through the LYPXnL L Domain Motif▿

    PubMed Central

    Sette, Paola; Jadwin, Joshua A.; Dussupt, Vincent; Bello, Nana F.; Bouamr, Fadila

    2010-01-01

    The p6 region of HIV-1 Gag contains two late (L) domains, PTAP and LYPXnL, that bind Tsg101 and Alix, respectively. Interactions with these two cellular proteins recruit members of the host's fission machinery (ESCRT) to facilitate HIV-1 release. Other retroviruses gain access to the host ESCRT components by utilizing a PPXY-type L domain that interacts with cellular Nedd4-like ubiquitin ligases. Despite the absence of a PPXY motif in HIV-1 Gag, interaction with the ubiquitin ligase Nedd4-2 was recently shown to stimulate HIV-1 release. We show here that another Nedd4-like ubiquitin ligase, Nedd4-1, corrected release defects resulting from the disruption of PTAP (PTAP−), suggesting that HIV-1 Gag also recruits Nedd4-1 to facilitate virus release. Notably, Nedd4-1 remediation of HIV-1 PTAP− budding defects is independent of cellular Tsg101, implying that Nedd4-1's function in HIV-1 release does not involve ESCRT-I components and is therefore distinct from that of Nedd4-2. Consistent with this finding, deletion of the p6 region decreased Nedd4-1-Gag interaction, and disruption of the LYPXnL motif eliminated Nedd4-1-mediated restoration of HIV-1 PTAP−. This result indicated that both Nedd4-1 interaction with Gag and function in virus release occur through the Alix-binding LYPXnL motif. Mutations of basic residues located in the NC domain of Gag that are critical for Alix's facilitation of HIV-1 release, also disrupted release mediated by Nedd4-1, further confirming a Nedd4-1-Alix functional interdependence. In fact we found that Nedd4-1 binds Alix in both immunoprecipitation and yeast-two-hybrid assays. In addition, Nedd4-1 requires its catalytic activity to promote virus release. Remarkably, RNAi knockdown of cellular Nedd4-1 eliminated Alix ubiquitination in the cell and impeded its ability to function in HIV-1 release. Together our data support a model in which Alix recruits Nedd4-1 to facilitate HIV-1 release mediated through the LYPXnL/Alix budding pathway

  10. Regulation of amino acid transporter trafficking by mTORC1 in primary human trophoblast cells is mediated by the ubiquitin ligase Nedd4-2.

    PubMed

    Rosario, Fredrick J; Dimasuay, Kris Genelyn; Kanai, Yoshikatsu; Powell, Theresa L; Jansson, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Changes in placental amino acid transfer directly contribute to altered fetal growth, which increases the risk for perinatal complications and predisposes for the development of obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease later in life. Placental amino acid transfer is critically dependent on the expression of specific transporters in the plasma membrane of the trophoblast, the transporting epithelium of the human placenta. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating this process are largely unknown. Nedd4-2 is an ubiquitin ligase that catalyses the ubiquitination of proteins, resulting in proteasomal degradation. We hypothesized that inhibition of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) decreases amino acid uptake in primary human trophoblast (PHT) cells by activation of Nedd4-2, which increases transporter ubiquitination resulting in decreased transporter expression in the plasma membrane. mTORC 1 inhibition increased the expression of Nedd4-2, promoted ubiquitination and decreased the plasma membrane expression of SNAT2 (an isoform of the System A amino acid transporter) and LAT1 (a System L amino acid transporter isoform), resulting in decreased cellular amino acid uptake. Nedd4-2 silencing markedly increased the trafficking of SNAT2 and LAT1 to the plasma membrane, which stimulated cellular amino acid uptake. mTORC1 inhibition by silencing of raptor failed to decrease amino acid transport following Nedd4-2 silencing. In conclusion, we have identified a novel link between mTORC1 signalling and ubiquitination, a common posttranslational modification. Because placental mTORC1 is inhibited in fetal growth restriction and activated in fetal overgrowth, we propose that regulation of placental amino acid transporter ubiquitination by mTORC1 and Nedd4-2 constitutes a molecular mechanisms underlying abnormal fetal growth. PMID:26608079

  11. Ubiquitination of inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1) by the E3 ligase CHIP mediates the IRE1/TRAF2/JNK pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xu; Zhang, Ju; Sun, Huiying; Jiang, Cuicui; Dong, Yusheng; Shan, Qiang; Su, Siyuan; Xie, Yingying; Xu, Ningzhi; Lou, Xiaomin; Liu, Siqi

    2014-10-31

    Deciphering the inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1) signaling pathway is fundamentally important for understanding the unfolded protein response (UPR). The ubiquitination of proteins residing on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane has been reported to be involved in the UPR, although the mechanism has yet to be fully elucidated. Using immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry, IRE1 was identified as a substrate of the E3 ligase CHIP (carboxyl terminus of HSC70-interacting protein) in HEK293 cells under geldanamycin-induced ER stress. Two residues of IRE1, Lys(545) and Lys(828), were targeted for Lys(63)-linked ubiquitination. Moreover, in CHIP knockdown cells, IRE1 phosphorylation and the IRE1-TRAF2 interaction were nearly abolished under ER stress, which may be due to lacking ubiquitination of IRE1 on Lys(545) and Lys(828), respectively. The cellular responses were evaluated, and the data indicated that CHIP-regulated IRE1/TRAF2/JNK signaling antagonized the senescence process. Therefore, our findings suggest that CHIP-mediated ubiquitination of IRE1 contributes to the dynamic regulation of the UPR. PMID:25225294

  12. Lys29-linkage of ASK1 by Skp1−Cullin 1−Fbxo21 ubiquitin ligase complex is required for antiviral innate response

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Zhou; Chen, Taoyong; Li, Xuelian; Yang, Mingjin; Tang, Songqing; Zhu, Xuhui; Gu, Yan; Su, Xiaoping; Xia, Meng; Li, Weihua; Zhang, Xuemin; Wang, Qingqing; Cao, Xuetao; Wang, Jianli

    2016-01-01

    Protein ubiquitination regulated by ubiquitin ligases plays important roles in innate immunity. However, key regulators of ubiquitination during innate response and roles of new types of ubiquitination (apart from Lys48- and Lys63-linkage) in control of innate signaling have not been clearly understood. Here we report that F-box only protein Fbxo21, a functionally unknown component of SCF (Skp1–Cul1–F-box protein) complex, facilitates Lys29-linkage and activation of ASK1 (apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1), and promotes type I interferon production upon viral infection. Fbxo21 deficiency in mice cells impairs virus-induced Lys29-linkage and activation of ASK1, attenuates c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 signaling pathway, and decreases the production of proinflammatory cytokines and type I interferon, resulting in reduced antiviral innate response and enhanced virus replication. Therefore Fbxo21 is required for ASK1 activation via Lys29-linkage of ASK1 during antiviral innate response, providing mechanistic insights into non-proteolytic roles of SCF complex in innate immune response. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14087.001 PMID:27063938

  13. Drought Stress-Induced Rma1H1, a RING Membrane-Anchor E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Homolog, Regulates Aquaporin Levels via Ubiquitination in Transgenic Arabidopsis Plants[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun Kyung; Cho, Seok Keun; Son, Ora; Xu, Zhengyi; Hwang, Inhwan; Kim, Woo Taek

    2009-01-01

    Ubiquitination is involved in a variety of biological processes, but the exact role of ubiquitination in abiotic responses is not clearly understood in higher plants. Here, we investigated Rma1H1, a hot pepper (Capsicum annuum) homolog of a human RING membrane-anchor 1 E3 ubiquitin (Ub) ligase. Bacterially expressed Rma1H1 displayed E3 Ub ligase activity in vitro. Rma1H1 was rapidly induced by various abiotic stresses, including dehydration, and its overexpression in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants conferred strongly enhanced tolerance to drought stress. Colocalization experiments with marker proteins revealed that Rma1H1 resides in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane. Overexpression of Rma1H1 in Arabidopsis inhibited trafficking of an aquaporin isoform PIP2;1 from the ER to the plasma membrane and reduced PIP2;1 levels in protoplasts and transgenic plants. This Rma1H1-induced reduction of PIP2;1 was inhibited by MG132, an inhibitor of the 26S proteasome. Furthermore, Rma1H1 interacted with PIP2;1 in vitro and ubiquitinated it in vivo. Similar to Rma1H1, Rma1, an Arabidopsis homolog of Rma1H1, localized to the ER, and its overexpression reduced the PIP2;1 protein level and inhibited trafficking of PIP2;1 from the ER to the plasma membrane in protoplasts. In addition, reduced expression of Rma homologs resulted in the increased level of PIP2;1 in protoplasts. We propose that Rma1H1 and Rma1 play a critical role in the downregulation of plasma membrane aquaporin levels by inhibiting aquaporin trafficking to the plasma membrane and subsequent proteasomal degradation as a response to dehydration in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. PMID:19234086

  14. Smurf2 E3 ubiquitin ligase modulates proliferation and invasiveness of breast cancer cells in a CNKSR2 dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Smurf2 is a member of the HECT family of E3 ubiquitin ligases that play important roles in determining the competence of cells to respond to TGF- β/BMP signaling pathway. However, besides TGF-β/BMP pathway, Smurf2 regulates a repertoire of other signaling pathways ranging from planar cell polarity during embryonic development to cell proliferation, migration, differentiation and senescence. Expression of Smurf2 is found to be dysregulated in many cancers including breast cancer. The purpose of the present study is to examine the effect of Smurf2 knockdown on the tumorigenic potential of human breast cancer cells emphasizing more on proliferative signaling pathway. Methods siRNAs targeting different regions of the Smurf2 mRNA were employed to knockdown the expression of Smurf2. The biological effects of synthetic siRNAs on human breast cancer cells were investigated by examining the cell proliferation, migration, invasion, focus formation, anchorage-independent growth, cell cycle arrest, and cell cycle and cell proliferation related protein expressions upon Smurf2 silencing. Results Smurf2 silencing in human breast cancer cells resulted in a decreased focus formation potential and clonogenicity as well as in vitro cell migration/invasion capabilities. Moreover, knockdown of Smurf2 suppressed cell proliferation. Cell cycle analysis showed that the anti-proliferative effect of Smurf2 siRNA was mediated by arresting cells in the G0/G1 phase, which was caused by decreased expression of cyclin D1and cdk4, followed by upregulation p21 and p27. Furthermore, we demonstrated that silencing of Smurf2 downregulated the proliferation of breast cancer cells by modulating the PI3K- PTEN-AKT-FoxO3a pathway via the scaffold protein CNKSR2 which is involved in RAS-dependent signaling pathways. The present study provides the first evidence that silencing Smurf2 using synthetic siRNAs can regulate the tumorigenic properties of human breast cancer cells in a CNKSR2

  15. The tomato DWD motif-containing protein DDI1 interacts with the CUL4–DDB1-based ubiquitin ligase and plays a pivotal role in abiotic stress responses

    SciTech Connect

    Miao, Min; Zhu, Yunye; Qiao, Maiju; Tang, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Wei; Xiao, Fangming; Liu, Yongsheng

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • We identify DDI1 as a DAMAGED DNA BINDING PROTEIN1 (DDB1)-interacting protein. • DDI1 interacts with the CUL4–DDB1-based ubiquitin ligase in the nucleus. • DDI1 plays a positive role in regulating abiotic stress response in tomato. - Abstract: CULLIN4(CUL4)–DAMAGED DNA BINDING PROTEIN1 (DDB1)-based ubiquitin ligase plays significant roles in multiple physiological processes via ubiquitination-mediated degradation of relevant target proteins. The DDB1–CUL4-associated factor (DCAF) acts as substrate receptor in the CUL4–DDB1 ubiquitin ligase complex and determines substrate specificity. In this study, we identified a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) DDB1-interacting (DDI1) protein as a DCAF protein involved in response to abiotic stresses, including UV radiation, high salinity and osmotic stress. Co-immunoprecipitation and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay indicated that DDI1 associates with CUL4–DDB1 in the nucleus. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis indicated the DDI1 gene is induced by salt, mannitol and UV-C treatment. Moreover, transgenic tomato plants with overexpression or knockdown of the DDI1 gene exhibited enhanced or attenuated tolerance to salt/mannitol/UV-C, respectively. Thus, our data suggest that DDI1 functions as a substrate receptor of the CUL4–DDB1 ubiquitin ligase, positively regulating abiotic stress response in tomato.

  16. A cancer-associated RING finger protein, RNF43, is a ubiquitin ligase that interacts with a nuclear protein, HAP95

    SciTech Connect

    Sugiura, Takeyuki Yamaguchi, Aya; Miyamoto, Kentaro

    2008-04-15

    RNF43 is a recently discovered RING finger protein that is implicated in colon cancer pathogenesis. This protein possesses growth-promoting activity but its mechanism remains unknown. In this study, to gain insight into the biological action of RNF43 we characterized it biochemically and intracellularly. A combination of indirect immunofluorescence analysis and biochemical fractionation experiments suggests that RNF43 resides in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) as well as in the nuclear envelope. Sucrose density gradient fractionation demonstrates that RNF43 co-exists with emerin, a representative inner nuclear membrane protein in the nuclear subcompartment. The cell-free system with pure components reveals that recombinant RNF43 fused with maltose-binding protein has autoubiquitylation activity. By the yeast two-hybrid screening we identified HAP95, a chromatin-associated protein interfacing the nuclear envelope, as an RNF43-interacting protein and substantiated this interaction in intact cells by the co-immunoprecipitation experiments. HAP95 is ubiquitylated and subjected to a proteasome-dependent degradation pathway, however, the experiments in which 293 cells expressing both RNF43 and HAP95 were treated with a proteasome inhibitor, MG132, show that HAP95 is unlikely to serve as a substrate of RNF43 ubiquitin ligase. These results infer that RNF43 is a resident protein of the ER and, at least partially, the nuclear membrane, with ubiquitin ligase activity and may be involved in cell growth control potentially through the interaction with HAP95.

  17. Identification of multiple proteins expressed in murine embryos as binding partners for the WW domains of the ubiquitin-protein ligase Nedd4.

    PubMed Central

    Jolliffe, C N; Harvey, K F; Haines, B P; Parasivam, G; Kumar, S

    2000-01-01

    Nedd4 is a member of a growing family of ubiquitin-protein ligases which consist of a lipid-binding domain, two to four WW domains and a C-terminal ubiquitin-protein ligase domain. The Nedd4 mRNA levels are developmentally regulated and Nedd4 protein is highly expressed in many mouse embryonic tissues. In this study we have used a far-Western screen to identify embryonic proteins that interact with the WW domains in mouse Nedd4. We report here identification of eight Nedd4 WW-domain-interacting proteins from mouse embryonic cDNA expression libraries. Two of the proteins are novel, while two have been identified previously as ligands for a WW domain. All of these proteins contain one or more PY motifs. In seven of the eight proteins, these PY motifs are necessary for their interaction with the WW domains of Nedd4. Using site-directed mutagenesis, and by using individual WW domains of Nedd4 as probes for far-Western analysis, we show that the three WW domains in Nedd4 interact with varying affinities with the PY motifs present in various Nedd4-binding proteins. These results provide evidence that Nedd4 can potentially interact with multiple proteins, possibly simultaneously, through its WW domains. PMID:11042109

  18. AtCHIP, a U-Box-Containing E3 Ubiquitin Ligase, Plays a Critical Role in Temperature Stress Tolerance in Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Juqiang; Wang, Jing; Li, Qingtian; Hwang, Jae Ryoung; Patterson, Cam; Zhang, Hong

    2003-01-01

    The Arabidopsis gene AtCHIP encodes a protein with three tetratricopeptide repeats and a U-box domain, which is structurally similar to the animal CHIP proteins, a new class of E3 ubiquitin ligases. Like animal CHIP proteins, AtCHIP has E3 ubiquitin ligase activity in vitro. AtCHIP is a single-copy gene, and its transcript is up-regulated by several stress conditions such as low and high temperatures. However, increased AtCHIP expression alone was not correlated with increased stress tolerance; in fact, overexpression of AtCHIP in Arabidopsis rendered plants more sensitive to both low- and high-temperature treatments. Higher electrolyte leakage was observed in leaves of AtCHIP overexpression plants after chilling temperature treatment, suggesting that membrane function is likely impaired in these plants under such a condition. These results indicate that AtCHIP plays an important role in plant cellular metabolism under temperature stress conditions. PMID:12805616

  19. Arabidopsis C3HC4-RING finger E3 ubiquitin ligase AtAIRP4 positively regulates stress-responsive abscisic acid signaling.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liang; Liu, Qiaohong; Liu, Zhibin; Yang, Hao; Wang, Jianmei; Li, Xufeng; Yang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Degradation of proteins via the ubiquitin system is an important step in many stress signaling pathways in plants. E3 ligases recognize ligand proteins and dictate the high specificity of protein degradation, and thus, play a pivotal role in ubiquitination. Here, we identified a gene, named Arabidopsis thaliana abscisic acid (ABA)-insensitive RING protein 4 (AtAIRP4), which is induced by ABA and other stress treatments. AtAIRP4 encodes a cellular protein with a C3HC4-RING finger domain in its C-terminal side, which has in vitro E3 ligase activity. Loss of AtAIRP4 leads to a decrease in sensitivity of root elongation and stomatal closure to ABA, whereas overexpression of this gene in the T-DNA insertion mutant atairp4 effectively recovered the ABA-associated phenotypes. AtAIRP4 overexpression plants were hypersensitive to salt and osmotic stresses during seed germination, and showed drought avoidance compared with the wild-type and atairp4 mutant plants. In addition, the expression levels of ABA- and drought-induced marker genes in AtAIRP4 overexpression plants were markedly higher than those in the wild-type and atairp4 mutant plants. Hence, these results indicate that AtAIRP4 may act as a positive regulator of ABA-mediated drought avoidance and a negative regulator of salt tolerance in Arabidopsis. PMID:25913143

  20. Endoplasmic reticulum-resident E3 ubiquitin ligase Hrd1 controls B-cell immunity through degradation of the death receptor CD95/Fas.

    PubMed

    Kong, Sinyi; Yang, Yi; Xu, Yuanming; Wang, Yajun; Zhang, Yusi; Melo-Cardenas, Johanna; Xu, Xiangping; Gao, Beixue; Thorp, Edward B; Zhang, Donna D; Zhang, Bin; Song, Jianxun; Zhang, Kezhong; Zhang, Jianning; Zhang, Jinping; Li, Huabin; Fang, Deyu

    2016-09-13

    Humoral immunity involves multiple checkpoints during B-cell development, maturation, and activation. The cell death receptor CD95/Fas-mediated apoptosis plays a critical role in eliminating the unwanted activation of B cells by self-reactive antigens and in maintaining B-cell homeostasis through activation-induced B-cell death (AICD). The molecular mechanisms controlling AICD remain largely undefined. Herein, we show that the E3 ubiquitin ligase Hrd1 protected B cells from activation-induced cell death by degrading the death receptor Fas. Hrd1-null B cells exhibited high Fas expression during activation and rapidly underwent Fas-mediated apoptosis, which could be largely inhibited by FasL neutralization. Fas mutation in Hrd1 KO mice abrogated the increase in B-cell AICD. We identified Hrd1 as the first E3 ubiquitin ligase of the death receptor Fas and Hrd1-mediated Fas destruction as a molecular mechanism in regulating B-cell immunity. PMID:27573825

  1. Expression of the Rho-GEF Pbl/ECT2 is regulated by the UBE3A E3 ubiquitin ligase

    PubMed Central

    Reiter, Lawrence T.; Seagroves, Tiffany N.; Bowers, Megan; Bier, Ethan

    2013-01-01

    We applied genetic tools available in Drosophila to identify candidate substrates of the UBE3A ubiquitin ligase, the gene responsible for Angelman syndrome (AS). Human UBE3A was expressed in Drosophila heads to identify proteins differentially regulated in UBE3A-expressing versus wild-type extracts. Using two-dimensional gel and MALDI-TOF analysis, we detected 20 proteins that were differentially regulated by over-expression of human UBE3A in Drosophila heads. One protein responsive to UBE3A was the Rho-GEF pebble (pbl). Here, we present three lines of evidence suggesting that UBE3A regulates Pbl. First, we show genetic evidence that UBE3A and the Drosophila de-ubiquitinase fat facets (faf) exert opposing effects on Pbl function. Secondly, we find that both Pbl and ECT2, the mammalian orthologue of Pbl called epithelial cell transforming sequence 2 oncogene, physically interact with their respective ubiquitin E3 ligases. Finally, we show that Ect2 expression is regulated by Ube3a in mouse neurons as the pattern of Ect2 expression is dramatically altered in the hippocampus and cerebellum of Ube3a null mice. These results suggest that an orthologous UBE3A post-translational regulatory pathway regulates neuronal outgrowth in the mammalian brain and that dysregulation of this pathway may result in neurological phenotypes including AS and possibly other autism spectrum disorders. PMID:16905559

  2. The cowpea RING ubiquitin ligase VuDRIP interacts with transcription factor VuDREB2A for regulating abiotic stress responses.

    PubMed

    Sadhukhan, Ayan; Panda, Sanjib Kumar; Sahoo, Lingaraj

    2014-10-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) is an important grain legume cultivated in drought-prone parts of the world, having higher tolerance to heat and drought than many other crops. The transcription factor, Dehydration-Responsive Element-Binding protein 2A (DREB2A), controls expression of many genes involved in osmotic and heat stress responses of plants. In Arabidopsis, DREB2A-interacting proteins (DRIPs), which function as E3 ubiquitin ligases (EC 6.3.2.19), regulate the stability of DREB2A by targeting it for proteasome-mediated degradation. In this study, we cloned the cowpea ortholog of DRIP (VuDRIP) using PCR based methods. The 1614 bp long VuDRIP mRNA encoded a protein of 433 amino acids having a C3HC4-type Really Interesting New Gene (RING) domain in the N-terminus and a C-terminal conserved region, similar to Arabidopsis DRIP1 and DRIP2. We found VuDRIP up-regulation in response to various abiotic stresses and phytohormones. Using yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisae) two-hybrid analysis, VuDRIP was identified as a VuDREB2A-interacting protein. The results indicate negative regulation of VuDREB2A by ubiquitin ligases in cowpea similar to Arabidopsis along with their other unknown roles in stress and hormone signaling pathways. PMID:25090086

  3. Structure/Function Implications in a Dynamic Complex of the Intrinsically Disordered Sic1 with the Cdc4 Subunit of an SCF Ubiquitin Ligase

    SciTech Connect

    Mittag, Tanja; Marsh, Joseph; Grishaev, Alexander; Orlicky, Stephen; Lin, Hong; Sicheri, Frank; Tyers, Mike; Forman-Kay, Julie D.

    2010-11-22

    Intrinsically disordered proteins can form highly dynamic complexes with partner proteins. One such dynamic complex involves the intrinsically disordered Sic1 with its partner Cdc4 in regulation of yeast cell cycle progression. Phosphorylation of six N-terminal Sic1 sites leads to equilibrium engagement of each phosphorylation site with the primary binding pocket in Cdc4, the substrate recognition subunit of a ubiquitin ligase. ENSEMBLE calculations using experimental nuclear magnetic resonance and small-angle X-ray scattering data reveal significant transient structure in both phosphorylation states of the isolated ensembles (Sic1 and pSic1) that modulates their electrostatic potential, suggesting a structural basis for the proposed strong contribution of electrostatics to binding. A structural model of the dynamic pSic1-Cdc4 complex demonstrates the spatial arrangements in the ubiquitin ligase complex. These results provide a physical picture of a protein that is predominantly disordered in both its free and bound states, enabling aspects of its structure/function relationship to be elucidated.

  4. The E3 Ubiquitin Ligase IDOL Induces the Degradation of the Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor Family Members VLDLR and ApoER2*

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Cynthia; Duit, Sarah; Jalonen, Pilvi; Out, Ruud; Scheer, Lilith; Sorrentino, Vincenzo; Boyadjian, Rima; Rodenburg, Kees W.; Foley, Edan; Korhonen, Laura; Lindholm, Dan; Nimpf, Johannes; van Berkel, Theo J. C.; Tontonoz, Peter; Zelcer, Noam

    2010-01-01

    We have previously identified the E3 ubiquitin ligase-inducible degrader of the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) (Idol) as a post-translational modulator of LDLR levels. Idol is a direct target for regulation by liver X receptors (LXRs), and its expression is responsive to cellular sterol status independent of the sterol-response element-binding proteins. Here we demonstrate that Idol also targets two closely related LDLR family members, VLDLR and ApoE receptor 2 (ApoER2), proteins implicated in both neuronal development and lipid metabolism. Idol triggers ubiquitination of the VLDLR and ApoER2 on their cytoplasmic tails, leading to their degradation. We further show that the level of endogenous VLDLR is sensitive to cellular sterol content, Idol expression, and activation of the LXR pathway. Pharmacological activation of the LXR pathway in mice leads to increased Idol expression and to decreased Vldlr levels in vivo. Finally, we establish an unexpected functional link between LXR and Reelin signaling. We demonstrate that LXR activation results in decreased Reelin binding to VLDLR and reduced Dab1 phosphorylation. The identification of VLDLR and ApoER2 as Idol targets suggests potential roles for this LXR-inducible E3 ligase in the central nervous system in addition to lipid metabolism. PMID:20427281

  5. A novel ubiquitin-protein ligase E3 functions as a modulator of immune response against lipopolysaccharide in Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Qi; Wang, Hao; Jiang, Shuai; Wang, Lingling; Xin, Lusheng; Liu, Conghui; Jia, Zhihao; Song, Linsheng; Zhu, Beiwei

    2016-07-01

    Ubiquitination is an important post-translational protein modification and plays a crucial role in various processes such as cell cycle, signal transduction, and transcriptional regulation. In the present study, a novel ubiquitin (Ub)-protein ligase E3 (designed as CgE3Rv1) was identified from Crassostrea gigas, and its ubiquitination regulation in the immune response against lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation was investigated. The open reading frame of CgE3Rv1 gene was of 1455 bp encoding a polypeptide of 484 amino acids with the predicted molecular mass of 54.89 kDa. There were two transmembrane regions and a RING-variant (RINGv) domain identified in CgE3Rv1. CgE3Rv1 shared similar C4HC3 zinc-finger-like motif with those RINGv domain Ub-protein ligases E3s identified from vertebrates and invertebrates, and it was closely clustered with the membrane-associated RING-CH2 (MARCH2) Ub-protein ligases E3s in the phylogenetic tree. The mRNA transcript of CgE3Rv1 was highest expressed in gonads and hemolymph (p < 0.05), and its mRNA expression level in hemocytes was significantly increased at 6 h (p < 0.01) after the stimulation of LPS, while the up-regulated mRNA expression was significantly decreased (p < 0.01) after acetylcholine stimulation. No significant changes of CgE3Rv1 expression were observed after peptidoglycan or mannan stimulation. Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization assays revealed that CgE3Rv1 protein and mRNA were dominantly distributed in the gonad. In the hemocytes, CgE3Rv1 was mainly located around the nucleus, and slightly distributed in the cytoplasm and on the cell membrane. Recombinant CgE3Rv1 RINGv domain protein (rCgE3Rv1-RINGv) was confirmed to activate the Ub reaction system in vitro with the aid of Ub-activating enzyme E1 and Ub-conjugating enzyme E2. These results demonstrated that CgE3Rv1 was an Ub-protein ligase E3, which was involved in the immune response against LPS and the interaction with cell surface signal

  6. Control of the dynamics and homeostasis of the Drosophila Hedgehog receptor Patched by two C2-WW-HECT-E3 Ubiquitin ligases

    PubMed Central

    Brigui, Amira; Hofmann, Line; Argüelles, Camilla; Sanial, Matthieu; Holmgren, Robert A.; Plessis, Anne

    2015-01-01

    The conserved Hedgehog (HH) signals control animal development, adult stem cell maintenance and oncogenesis. In Drosophila, the HH co-receptor Patched (PTC) controls both HH gradient formation and signalling. PTC is post-translationally downregulated by HH, which promotes its endocytosis and destabilization, but the mechanisms of PTC trafficking and its importance in the control of PTC remain to be understood. PTC interacts with E3 Ubiquitin (UB)-ligases of the C2-WW-HECT family; two of them—SMURF and NEDD4—are known to regulate its levels. We demonstrate that mutation of the PTC PY motif, which mediates binding of C2-WW-HECT family members, inhibits its internalization but not its autonomous and non-autonomous signalling activities. In addition, we show that the two related UB-C2-WW-HECT ligases NEDD4 and SU(DX) regulate PTC trafficking and finely tune its accumulation through partially redundant but distinct functions. While both NEDD4 and SU(DX) promote PTC endocytosis, only SU(DX) is able to induce its lysosomal targeting and degradation. In conclusion, PTC trafficking and homeostasis are tightly regulated by a family of UB-ligases. PMID:26446620

  7. Mitochondrial ubiquitin ligase activator of NF-κB regulates NF-κB signaling in cells subjected to ER stress.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Hidetoshi; Aratani, Satoko; Fujii, Ryouji; Yamano, Yoshihisa; Yagishita, Naoko; Araya, Natsumi; Izumi, Toshihiko; Azakami, Kazuko; Hasegawa, Daisuke; Nishioka, Kusuki; Nakajima, Toshihiro

    2016-06-01

    The nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) transcription factor family members control various biological processes, such as apoptosis and proliferation. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has emerged as a major site of cellular homeostasis regulation. The accumulation of misfolded protein in the ER causes stress and ER stress-induced NF-κB activation to protect cells from apoptosis. In this study, we found a putative ER stress-response element (ERSE) on the promoter of mitochondrial ubiquitin ligase activator of NF-κB (MULAN), and that MULAN expression was upregulated by ER stress. MULAN specifically activated NF-κB dependent gene expression in an E3 ligase activity-dependent manner. The ectopic expression of MULAN induced the nuclear translocation of endogenous p65 and the degradation of IκB. Binding assay revealed that MULAN was associated with transforming growth factor β-activated kinase (TAK1). The knockdown of MULAN using siRNA inhibited the activation of NF-κB in the cells subjected to ER stress. The findings of our study indicate that MULAN is an E3 ligase that regulates NF-κB activation to protect cells from ER stress-induced apoptosis. PMID:27082251

  8. The Human Adenovirus Type 5 E4orf6/E1B55K E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Complex Enhances E1A Functional Activity

    PubMed Central

    Dallaire, Frédéric; Schreiner, Sabrina; Blair, G. Eric; Dobner, Thomas; Branton, Philip E.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human adenovirus (Ad) E1A proteins have long been known as the central regulators of virus infection as well as the major source of adenovirus oncogenic potential. Not only do they activate expression of other early viral genes, they make viral replication possible in terminally differentiated cells, at least in part, by binding to the retinoblastoma (Rb) tumor suppressor family of proteins to activate E2F transcription factors and thus viral and cellular DNA synthesis. We demonstrate in an accompanying article (F. Dallaire et al., mSphere 1:00014-15, 2016) that the human adenovirus E3 ubiquitin ligase complex formed by the E4orf6 and E1B55K proteins is able to mimic E1A activation of E2F transactivation factors. Acting alone in the absence of E1A, the Ad5 E4orf6 protein in complex with E1B55K was shown to bind E2F, disrupt E2F/Rb complexes, and induce hyperphosphorylation of Rb, leading to induction of viral and cellular DNA synthesis, as well as stimulation of early and late viral gene expression and production of viral progeny. While these activities were significantly lower than those exhibited by E1A, we report here that this ligase complex appeared to enhance E1A activity in two ways. First, the E4orf6/E1B55K complex was shown to stabilize E1A proteins, leading to higher levels in infected cells. Second, the complex was demonstrated to enhance the activation of E2F by E1A products. These findings indicated a new role of the E4orf6/E1B55K ligase complex in promoting adenovirus replication. IMPORTANCE Following our demonstration that adenovirus E3 ubiquitin ligase formed by the viral E4orf6 and E1B55K proteins is able to mimic the activation of E2F by E1A, we conducted a series of studies to determine if this complex might also promote the ability of E1A to do so. We found that the complex both significantly stabilizes E1A proteins and also enhances their ability to activate E2F. This finding is of significance because it represents an entirely new

  9. The Human Adenovirus Type 5 E4orf6/E1B55K E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Complex Enhances E1A Functional Activity.

    PubMed

    Dallaire, Frédéric; Schreiner, Sabrina; Blair, G Eric; Dobner, Thomas; Branton, Philip E; Blanchette, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Human adenovirus (Ad) E1A proteins have long been known as the central regulators of virus infection as well as the major source of adenovirus oncogenic potential. Not only do they activate expression of other early viral genes, they make viral replication possible in terminally differentiated cells, at least in part, by binding to the retinoblastoma (Rb) tumor suppressor family of proteins to activate E2F transcription factors and thus viral and cellular DNA synthesis. We demonstrate in an accompanying article (F. Dallaire et al., mSphere 1:00014-15, 2016) that the human adenovirus E3 ubiquitin ligase complex formed by the E4orf6 and E1B55K proteins is able to mimic E1A activation of E2F transactivation factors. Acting alone in the absence of E1A, the Ad5 E4orf6 protein in complex with E1B55K was shown to bind E2F, disrupt E2F/Rb complexes, and induce hyperphosphorylation of Rb, leading to induction of viral and cellular DNA synthesis, as well as stimulation of early and late viral gene expression and production of viral progeny. While these activities were significantly lower than those exhibited by E1A, we report here that this ligase complex appeared to enhance E1A activity in two ways. First, the E4orf6/E1B55K complex was shown to stabilize E1A proteins, leading to higher levels in infected cells. Second, the complex was demonstrated to enhance the activation of E2F by E1A products. These findings indicated a new role of the E4orf6/E1B55K ligase complex in promoting adenovirus replication. IMPORTANCE Following our demonstration that adenovirus E3 ubiquitin ligase formed by the viral E4orf6 and E1B55K proteins is able to mimic the activation of E2F by E1A, we conducted a series of studies to determine if this complex might also promote the ability of E1A to do so. We found that the complex both significantly stabilizes E1A proteins and also enhances their ability to activate E2F. This finding is of significance because it represents an entirely new function for

  10. A Conserved C-terminal Element in the Yeast Doa10 and Human MARCH6 Ubiquitin Ligases Required for Selective Substrate Degradation.

    PubMed

    Zattas, Dimitrios; Berk, Jason M; Kreft, Stefan G; Hochstrasser, Mark

    2016-06-01

    Specific proteins are modified by ubiquitin at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and are degraded by the proteasome, a process referred to as ER-associated protein degradation. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, two principal ER-associated protein degradation ubiquitin ligases (E3s) reside in the ER membrane, Doa10 and Hrd1. The membrane-embedded Doa10 functions in the degradation of substrates in the ER membrane, nuclear envelope, cytoplasm, and nucleoplasm. How most E3 ligases, including Doa10, recognize their protein substrates remains poorly understood. Here we describe a previously unappreciated but highly conserved C-terminal element (CTE) in Doa10; this cytosolically disposed 16-residue motif follows the final transmembrane helix. A conserved CTE asparagine residue is required for ubiquitylation and degradation of a subset of Doa10 substrates. Such selectivity suggests that the Doa10 CTE is involved in substrate discrimination and not general ligase function. Functional conservation of the CTE was investigated in the human ortholog of Doa10, MARCH6 (TEB4), by analyzing MARCH6 autoregulation of its own degradation. Mutation of the conserved Asn residue (N890A) in the MARCH6 CTE stabilized the normally short lived enzyme to the same degree as a catalytically inactivating mutation (C9A). We also report the localization of endogenous MARCH6 to the ER using epitope tagging of the genomic MARCH6 locus by clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9-mediated genome editing. These localization and CTE analyses support the inference that MARCH6 and Doa10 are functionally similar. Moreover, our results with the yeast enzyme suggest that the CTE is involved in the recognition and/or ubiquitylation of specific protein substrates. PMID:27068744

  11. Spliceosomal introns in the 5′ untranslated region of plant BTL RING-H2 ubiquitin ligases are evolutionary conserved and required for gene expression

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Introns located close to the 5′ end of a gene or in the 5′ untranslated region often exert positive effects on gene expression. This effect, known as intron-mediated enhancement (IME), has been observed in diverse eukaryotic organisms, including plants. The sequences involved in IME seem to be spread across the intron and function in an additive manner. The IMEter algorithm was developed to predict plant introns that may enhance gene expression. We have identified several plant members of the BTL class of E3s, which may have orthologs across eukaryotes, that contain a 5′UTR intron. The RING finger E3 ligases are key enzymes of the ubiquitination system that mediate the transfer of ubiquitin to substrates. Results In this study, we retrieved BTL sequences from several angiosperm species and found that 5′UTR introns showing a strong IMEter score were predicted, suggesting that they may be conserved by lineage. Promoter-GUS fusion lines were used to confirm the IME effect of these 5′UTR introns on gene expression. IMEter scores of BTLs were compared with the 5′UTR introns of two gene families MHX and polyubiquitin genes. Conclusions Analysis performed in two Arabidopsis BTL E3 ligases genes indicated that the 5′UTR introns were essential for gene expression in all the tissues tested. Comparison of the average 5′UTR intron size on three gene families in ten angiosperm species suggests that a prevalent size for a 5′UTR intron is in the range of 600 nucleotides, and that the overall IMEter score within a gene family is preserved across several angiosperms. Our results indicated that gene expression dependent on a 5′UTR intron is an efficient regulatory mechanism in BTL E3 ligases that has been preserved throughout plant evolution. PMID:24228887

  12. Skp1, a component of E3 ubiquitin ligase, is necessary for growth, sporulation, development and pathogenicity in rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe oryzae).

    PubMed

    Prakash, Chandra; Manjrekar, Johannes; Chattoo, Bharat B

    2016-08-01

    Ubiqitination is an important process in eukaryotic cells involving E3 ubiquitin ligase, which co-ordinates with cell cycle proteins and controls various cell functions. Skp1 (S-phase kinase-associated protein 1) is a core component of the SCF (Skp1-Cullin 1-F-box) E3 ubiquitin ligase complex necessary for protein degradation by the 26S proteasomal pathway. The rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae has a single MoSKP1(MGG_04978) required for viability. Skp1 has multiple functions; however, its roles in growth, sporulation and appressorial development are not understood. MoSKP1 complements Skp1 function in the fission yeast temperature-sensitive mutant skp1 A7, restoring the normal length of yeast cells at restrictive temperature. The MoSkp1 protein in M. oryzae is present in spores and germ tubes, and is abundantly expressed in appressoria. Various RNA interference (RNAi) and antisense transformants of MoSKP1 in B157 show reduced sporulation, defective spore morphology, lesser septation and diffuse nuclei. Further, they show elongated germ tubes and are unable to form appressoria. Transformants arrested in G1/S stage during initial spore germination show a similar phenotype to wild-type spores treated with hydroxyurea (HU). Reduced MoSkp1 transcript and protein levels in knockdown transformants result in atypical germ tube development. MoSkp1 interacts with the putative F-box protein (MGG_06351) revealing the ability to form protein complexes. Our investigation of the role of MoSKP1 suggests that a decrease in MoSkp1 manifests in decreased total protein ubiquitination and, consequently, defective cell cycle and appressorial development. Thus, MoSKP1 plays important roles in growth, sporulation, appressorial development and pathogenicity of M. oryzae. PMID:26575697

  13. Differential response between the p53 ubiquitin-protein ligases Pirh2 and MdM2 following DNA damage in human cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Duan Wenrui; Gao, Li; Wu Xin; Zhang Yang; Otterson, Gregory A.; Villalona-Calero, Miguel A. . E-mail: Miguel.villalona@osumc.edu

    2006-10-15

    Pirh2, a recently identified ubiquitin-protein ligase, has been reported to promote p53 degradation. Pirh2 physically interacts with p53 and promotes ubiquitination of p53 independently of MDM2. Like MDM2, Pirh2 is thought to participate in an autoregulatory feedback loop that controls p53 function. We have previously reported that Pirh2 was overexpressed in human and murine lung cancers as compared to uninvolved lung tissue. Pirh2 increase could potentially cause degradation of wildtype p53 and reduce its tumor suppression function in the lung tumor cells. Since Pirh2 has been reported to be transactivated by p53, however, the mechanisms by which a high level of Pirh2 expression is maintained in tumor cells despite low level of wildtype p53 protein are unclear. In order to evaluate p53 involvement in the transactivation of Pirh2, we evaluated Pirh2, MDM2, p53 and p21 expression with Western blot analysis and real time PCR after {gamma} irradiation or cisplatin DNA damage treatment using human cancer cell lines containing wildtype (A549, MCF-7), mutant (H719) and null (H1299) p53. Surprisingly, Pirh2 expression was not affected by the presence of wildtype p53 in the cancer cells. In contrast, MDM2 was upregulated by wildtype p53 in A549 and MCF-7 cells and was absent from the H1299 and the H719 cells. We conclude that Pirh2 operates in a distinct manner from MDM2 in response to DNA damage in cancer cells. Pirh2 elevation in p53 null cells indicates the existence of additional molecular mechanisms for Pirh2 upregulation and suggests that p53 is not the sole target of Pirh2 ubiquitin ligase activity.

  14. Phosphorylation of Arabidopsis Ubiquitin Ligase ATL31 Is Critical for Plant Carbon/Nitrogen Nutrient Balance Response and Controls the Stability of 14-3-3 Proteins*

    PubMed Central

    Yasuda, Shigetaka; Sato, Takeo; Maekawa, Shugo; Aoyama, Shoki; Fukao, Yoichiro; Yamaguchi, Junji

    2014-01-01

    Ubiquitin ligase plays a fundamental role in regulating multiple cellular events in eukaryotes by fine-tuning the stability and activity of specific target proteins. We have previously shown that ubiquitin ligase ATL31 regulates plant growth in response to nutrient balance between carbon and nitrogen (C/N) in Arabidopsis. Subsequent study demonstrated that ATL31 targets 14-3-3 proteins for ubiquitination and modulates the protein abundance in response to C/N-nutrient status. However, the underlying mechanism for the targeting of ATL31 to 14-3-3 proteins remains unclear. Here, we show that ATL31 interacts with 14-3-3 proteins in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. We identified Thr209, Ser247, Ser270, and Ser303 as putative 14-3-3 binding sites on ATL31 by motif analysis. Mutation of these Ser/Thr residues to Ala in ATL31 inhibited the interaction with 14-3-3 proteins, as demonstrated by yeast two-hybrid and co-immunoprecipitation analyses. Additionally, we identified in vivo phosphorylation of Thr209 and Ser247 on ATL31 by MS analysis. A peptide competition assay showed that the application of synthetic phospho-Thr209 peptide, but not the corresponding unphosphorylated peptide, suppresses the interaction between ATL31 and 14-3-3 proteins. Moreover, Arabidopsis plants overexpressing mutated ATL31, which could not bind to 14-3-3 proteins, showed accumulation of 14-3-3 proteins and growth arrest in disrupted C/N-nutrient conditions similar to wild-type plants, although overexpression of intact ATL31 resulted in repression of 14-3-3 accumulation and tolerance to the conditions. Together, these results demonstrate that the physiological role of phosphorylation at 14-3-3 binding sites on ATL31 is to modulate the binding ability and stability of 14-3-3 proteins to control plant C/N-nutrient response. PMID:24722992

  15. The polyglutamine-expanded androgen receptor responsible for spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy inhibits the APC/CCdh1 ubiquitin ligase complex

    PubMed Central

    Bott, Laura C.; Salomons, Florian A.; Maric, Dragan; Liu, Yuhong; Merry, Diane; Fischbeck, Kenneth H.; Dantuma, Nico P.

    2016-01-01

    Polyglutamine expansion in the androgen receptor (AR) causes spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA), an X-linked neuromuscular disease that is fully manifest only in males. It has been suggested that proteins with expanded polyglutamine tracts impair ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis due to their propensity to aggregate, but recent studies indicate that the overall activity of the ubiquitin-proteasome system is preserved in SBMA models. Here we report that AR selectively interferes with the function of the ubiquitin ligase anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), which, together with its substrate adaptor Cdh1, is critical for cell cycle arrest and neuronal architecture. We show that both wild-type and mutant AR physically interact with the APC/CCdh1 complex in a ligand-dependent fashion without being targeted for proteasomal degradation. Inhibition of APC/CCdh1 by mutant but not wild-type AR in PC12 cells results in enhanced neurite outgrowth which is typically followed by rapid neurite retraction and mitotic entry. Our data indicate a role of AR in neuronal differentiation through regulation of APC/CCdh1 and suggest abnormal cell cycle reactivation as a pathogenic mechanism in SBMA. PMID:27312068

  16. Ubiquitin Ligase Cbl-b Is a Negative Regulator for Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Signaling during Muscle Atrophy Caused by Unloading▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Nakao, Reiko; Hirasaka, Katsuya; Goto, Jumpei; Ishidoh, Kazumi; Yamada, Chiharu; Ohno, Ayako; Okumura, Yuushi; Nonaka, Ikuya; Yasutomo, Koji; Baldwin, Kenneth M.; Kominami, Eiki; Higashibata, Akira; Nagano, Keisuke; Tanaka, Keiji; Yasui, Natsuo; Mills, Edward M.; Takeda, Shin'ichi; Nikawa, Takeshi

    2009-01-01

    Skeletal muscle atrophy caused by unloading is characterized by both decreased responsiveness to myogenic growth factors (e.g., insulin-like growth factor 1 [IGF-1] and insulin) and increased proteolysis. Here, we show that unloading stress resulted in skeletal muscle atrophy through the induction and activation of the ubiquitin ligase Cbl-b. Upon induction, Cbl-b interacted with and degraded the IGF-1 signaling intermediate IRS-1. In turn, the loss of IRS-1 activated the FOXO3-dependent induction of atrogin-1/MAFbx, a dominant mediator of proteolysis in atrophic muscle. Cbl-b-deficient mice were resistant to unloading-induced atrophy and the loss of muscle function. Furthermore, a pentapeptide mimetic of tyrosine608-phosphorylated IRS-1 inhibited Cbl-b-mediated IRS-1 ubiquitination and strongly decreased the Cbl-b-mediated induction of atrogin-1/MAFbx. Our results indicate that the Cbl-b-dependent destruction of IRS-1 is a critical dual mediator of both increased protein degradation and reduced protein synthesis observed in unloading-induced muscle atrophy. The inhibition of Cbl-b-mediated ubiquitination may be a new therapeutic strategy for unloading-mediated muscle atrophy. PMID:19546233

  17. Mitochondrial E3 ubiquitin ligase MARCH5 controls mitochondrial fission and cell sensitivity to stress-induced apoptosis through regulation of MiD49 protein

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shan; Cherok, Edward; Das, Shweta; Li, Sunan; Roelofs, Brian A.; Ge, Shealinna X.; Polster, Brian M.; Boyman, Liron; Lederer, W. Jonathan; Wang, Chunxin; Karbowski, Mariusz

    2016-01-01

    Ubiquitin- and proteasome-dependent outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM)-associated degradation (OMMAD) is critical for mitochondrial and cellular homeostasis. However, the scope and molecular mechanisms of the OMMAD pathways are still not well understood. We report that the OMM-associated E3 ubiquitin ligase MARCH5 controls dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1)-dependent mitochondrial fission and cell sensitivity to stress-induced apoptosis. MARCH5 knockout selectively inhibited ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of MiD49, a mitochondrial receptor of Drp1, and consequently led to mitochondrial fragmentation. Mitochondrial fragmentation in MARCH5−/− cells was not associated with inhibition of mitochondrial fusion or bioenergetic defects, supporting the possibility that MARCH5 is a negative regulator of mitochondrial fission. Both MARCH5 re-expression and MiD49 knockout in MARCH5−/− cells reversed mitochondrial fragmentation and reduced sensitivity to stress-induced apoptosis. These findings and data showing MARCH5-dependent degradation of MiD49 upon stress support the possibility that MARCH5 regulation of MiD49 is a novel mechanism controlling mitochondrial fission and, consequently, the cellular response to stress. PMID:26564796

  18. Proteomic discovery of MNT as a novel interacting partner of E3 ubiquitin ligase E6AP and a key mediator of myeloid differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, Isha; Kanaujiya, Jitendra; Kumar, Yogesh; Thota, Jagadeshwar Reddy; Bhatt, Madan L.B.; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya; Sanyal, Sabyasachi; Trivedi, Arun Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Perturbed stability of regulatory proteins is a major cause of transformations leading to cancer, including several leukemia subtypes. Here, for the first time we demonstrate that E6-associated protein (E6AP), an E3 ubiquitin ligase negatively targets MAX binding protein MNT for ubiquitin-mediated proteasome degradation and impedes ATRA mediated myeloid cell differentiation. MNT is a member of the Myc/Max/Mad network of transcription factor that regulates cell proliferation, differentiation, cellular transformation and tumorigenesis. Wild-type E6AP promoted proteasome dependent degradation of MNT, while catalytically inactive E6AP having cysteine replaced with alanine at amino-acid 843 position (E6APC843A) rather stabilized it. Further, these proteins physically associated with each other both in non-myeloid (HEK293T) and myeloid cells. MNT overexpression induced G0-G1 growth arrest and promoted myeloid differentiation while its knockdown mitigated even ATRA induced differentiation suggesting MNT to be crucial for myeloid differentiation. We further showed that ATRA inhibited E6AP and stabilized MNT expression by protecting it from E6AP mediated ubiquitin-proteasome degradation. Notably, E6AP knockdown in HL60 cells restored MNT expression and promoted myeloid differentiation. Taken together, our data demonstrated that E6AP negatively regulates granulocytic differentiation by targeting MNT for degradation which is required for growth arrest and subsequent myeloid differentiation by various differentiation inducing agents. PMID:26506232

  19. The Mid2 X-linked Intellectual Disability Ubiquitin Ligase Associates with Astrin and Regulates Astrin Levels to Promote Cell Division

    PubMed Central

    Gholkar, Ankur A.; Senese, Silvia; Lo, Yu-Chen; Vides, Edmundo; Contreras, Ely; Hodara, Emmanuelle; Capri, Joseph; Whitelegge, Julian P.; Torres, Jorge Z.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Mid1 and Mid2 are ubiquitin ligases that regulate microtubule dynamics and whose mutation is associated with X-linked developmental disorders. We show that Astrin, a microtubule-organizing protein, co-purifies with Mid1 and Mid2, has an overlapping localization with Mid1 and Mid2 at intercellular bridge microtubules, is ubiquitinated by Mid2 on lysine 409 and is degraded during cytokinesis. Mid2 depletion led to Astrin stabilization during cytokinesis, cytokinetic defects, multinucleated cells, and cell death. Similarly, expression of a K409A mutant Astrin in Astrin-depleted cells led to the accumulation of K409A on intercellular bridge microtubules and an increase in cytokinetic defects, multinucleated cells, and cell death. These results indicate that Mid2 regulates cell division through the ubiquitination of Astrin on K409, which is critical for its degradation and proper cytokinesis. These results may help explain how mutation of MID2 leads to misregulation of microtubule organization and the downstream disease pathology associated with X-linked intellectual disabilities. PMID:26748699

  20. The negative regulator of plant cold responses, HOS1, is a RING E3 ligase that mediates the ubiquitination and degradation of ICE1.

    PubMed

    Dong, Chun-Hai; Agarwal, Manu; Zhang, Yiyue; Xie, Qi; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2006-05-23

    Plant responses to cold stress are mediated by a transcriptional cascade, in which the transcription factor ICE1 and possibly related proteins activate the expression of C-repeat (CRT)-binding factors (CBFs), leading to the transcription of downstream effector genes. The variant RING finger protein high expression of osmotically responsive gene (HOS)1 was identified genetically as a negative regulator of cold responses. We present evidence here that HOS1 is an E3 ligase required for the ubiquitination of ICE1. HOS1 physically interacts with ICE1 and mediates the ubiquitination of ICE1 both in vitro and in vivo. We found that cold induces the degradation of ICE1 in plants, and this degradation requires HOS1. Consistent with enhanced cold-responsive gene expression in loss-of-function hos1 mutant plants, overexpression of HOS1 represses the expression of CBFs and their downstream genes and confers increased sensitivity to freezing stress. Our results indicate that cold stress responses in Arabidopsis are attenuated by a ubiquitination/proteasome pathway in which HOS1 mediates the degradation of the ICE1 protein. PMID:16702557

  1. Deletion of the ubiquitin ligase CHIP leads to the accumulation, but not the aggregation, of both endogenous phospho- and caspase-3-cleaved tau species.

    PubMed

    Dickey, Chad A; Yue, Mei; Lin, Wen-Lang; Dickson, Dennis W; Dunmore, Judith H; Lee, Wing C; Zehr, Cynthia; West, Gemma; Cao, Songsong; Clark, Amber M K; Caldwell, Guy A; Caldwell, Kim A; Eckman, Christopher; Patterson, Cam; Hutton, Michael; Petrucelli, Leonard

    2006-06-28

    Accumulation of the microtubule-associated protein tau into neurofibrillary lesions is a pathological consequence of several neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. Hereditary mutations in the MAPT gene were shown to promote the formation of structurally distinct tau aggregates in patients that had a parkinsonian-like clinical presentation. Whether tau aggregates themselves or the soluble intermediate species that precede their aggregation are neurotoxic entities in these disorders has yet to be resolved; however, recent in vivo evidence supports the latter. We hypothesized that depletion of CHIP, a tau ubiquitin ligase, would lead to an increase in abnormal tau. Here, we show that deletion of CHIP in mice leads to the accumulation of non-aggregated, ubiquitin-negative, hyperphosphorylated tau species. CHIP-/- mice also have increased neuronal caspase-3 levels and activity, as well as caspase-cleaved tau immunoreactivity. Overexpression of mutant (P301L) human tau in CHIP-/- mice is insufficient to promote either argyrophilic or "pre-tangle" structures, despite marked phospho-tau accumulation throughout the brain. These observations are supported in post-developmental studies using RNA interference for CHIP (chn-1) in Caenorhabditis elegans and cell culture systems. Our results demonstrate that CHIP is a primary component in the ubiquitin-dependent degradation of tau. We also show that hyperphosphorylation and caspase-3 cleavage of tau both occur before aggregate formation. Based on these findings, we propose that polyubiquitination of tau by CHIP may facilitate the formation of insoluble filamentous tau lesions. PMID:16807328

  2. Structural basis of the Cks1-dependent recognition of p27(Kip1) by the SCF(Skp2) ubiquitin ligase

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, B.; Zheng, N.; Schulman, B.A.; Wu, G.; Miller, J.J.; Pagano, M.; Pavletich, N.P.

    2010-07-19

    The ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis of the Cdk2 inhibitor p27{sup Kip1} plays a central role in cell cycle progression, and enhanced degradation of p27{sup Kip1} is associated with many common cancers. Proteolysis of p27{sup Kip1} is triggered by Thr187 phosphorylation, which leads to the binding of the SCF{sup Skp2} (Skp1-Cul1-Rbx1-Skp2) ubiquitin ligase complex. Unlike other known SCF substrates, p27{sup Kip1} ubiquitination also requires the accessory protein Cks1. The crystal structure of the Skp1-Skp2-Cks1 complex bound to a p27{sup Kip1} phosphopeptide shows that Cks1 binds to the leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain and C-terminal tail of Skp2, whereas p27{sup Kip1} binds to both Cks1 and Skp2. The phosphorylated Thr187 side chain of p27{sup Kip1} is recognized by a Cks1 phosphate binding site, whereas the side chain of an invariant Glu185 inserts into the interface between Skp2 and Cks1, interacting with both. The structure and biochemical data support the proposed model that Cdk2-cyclin A contributes to the recruitment of p27{sup Kip1} to the SCF{sup Skp2}-Cks1 complex.

  3. The ubiquitin ligase CHIP inactivates NF-κB signaling and impairs the ability of migration and invasion in gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fei; Zhou, Jun; Zhou, Peng; Chen, Weichang; Guo, Feng

    2015-05-01

    Ubiquitin modification of proteins influences cellular processes related to carcinogenesis. The carboxyl terminus of Hsc-70-interacting protein (CHIP), as U-box-type ubiquitin ligase, induces ubiquitination and proteasome-mediated degradation of its substrate proteins. In this study, the role of CHIP in diverse aspects of gastric cancer cells was investigated. CHIP overexpression in the AGS gastric cancer cells caused impaired tumor growth. CHIP overexpression significantly inhibited the migration and invasion of the AGS cells. Moreover, we found that not only RelA/p65 but also RelB, the NF-κB subunits, was negatively regulated by CHIP, likely owing to the TRAF2 reduction. Downregulated target genes of NF-κB subunits, including MMP-2 and -9, integrin β-1 and Bcl-2 were involved in these processes. We also showed that the expression level of CHIP was frequently decreased in gastric cancer tissues and the low level of CHIP expression might be an indicator of an unfavorable prognosis. Taken together, these observations provide functional evidence for CHIP behaviors as a tumor suppressor in gastric cancer. PMID:25672477

  4. The interaction of Piasy with Trim32, an E3-ubiquitin ligase mutated in limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2H, promotes Piasy degradation and regulates UVB-induced keratinocyte apoptosis through NFkappaB.

    PubMed

    Albor, Amador; El-Hizawi, Sally; Horn, Elizabeth J; Laederich, Melanie; Frosk, Patrick; Wrogemann, Klaus; Kulesz-Martin, Molly

    2006-09-01

    Protein inhibitors of activated STATs (PIAS) family members are ubiquitin-protein isopeptide ligase-small ubiquitin-like modifier ligases for diverse transcription factors. However, the regulation of PIAS protein activity in cells is poorly understood. Previously, we reported that expression of Trim32, a RING domain ubiquitin-protein isopeptide ligase-ubiquitin ligase mutated in human limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2H (LGMD2H) and Bardet-Biedl syndrome, is elevated during mouse skin carcinogenesis, protecting keratinocytes from apoptosis induced by UVB and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha). Here we report that Trim32 interacts with Piasy and promotes Piasy ubiquitination and degradation. Ubiquitination of Piasy by Trim32 could be reproduced in vitro using purified components. Their interaction was induced by treatment with UVB/TNFalpha and involved redistribution of Piasy from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, where it accumulated in cytoplasmic granules that colocalized with Trim32. Piasy destabilization and ubiquitination required an intact RING domain in Trim32. The LGMD2H-associated missense point mutation prevented Trim32 binding to Piasy, and human Piasy failed to colocalize with human Trim32 in fibroblasts isolated from an LGMD2H patient. Trim32 expression increased the transcriptional activity of NFkappaB in epidermal keratinocytes, both under basal treatment and after UVB/TNFalpha treatment. Conversely, Piasy inhibited NFkappaB activity under the same conditions and sensitized keratinocytes to apoptosis induced by TNFalpha and UVB. Our results indicate that, by controlling Piasy stability, Trim32 regulates UVB-induced keratinocyte apoptosis through induction of NFkappaB and suggests loss of function of Trim32 in LGMD2H. PMID:16816390

  5. Identification of 14-3-3 proteins as a target of ATL31 ubiquitin ligase, a regulator of the C/N response in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Sato, Takeo; Maekawa, Shugo; Yasuda, Shigetaka; Domeki, Yukie; Sueyoshi, Kuni; Fujiwara, Masayuki; Fukao, Yoichiro; Goto, Derek B; Yamaguchi, Junji

    2011-10-01

    The balance between carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) availability is an important determinant for various phases of plant growth; however, the detailed mechanisms regulating the C/N response are not well understood. We previously described two related ubiquitin ligases, ATL31 and ATL6, that function in the C/N response in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we used FLAG tag affinity purification and MS analysis to identify proteins targeted by ATL31, and thus likely to be involved in regulating the phase transition checkpoint based on C/N status. This analysis revealed that 14-3-3 proteins were associated with ATL31, and one of these, 14-3-3χ, was selected for detailed characterization. The interaction between ATL31 and 14-3-3χ was confirmed by yeast two-hybrid and co-immunoprecipitation analyses. In vitro assays showed that ubiquitination of 14-3-3χ is catalyzed by ATL31. Degradation of 14-3-3χin vivo was shown to be correlated with ATL31 activity, and to occur in a proteasome-dependent manner. Furthermore, 14-3-3 protein accumulation was induced by a shift to high-C/N stress conditions in Arabidopsis seedlings, and this regulated response required both ATL31 and ATL6. It was also shown that over-expression of 14-3-3χ leads to hypersensitivity of Arabidopsis seedlings to C/N stress conditions. These results indicate that ATL31 targets and ubiquitinates 14-3-3 proteins for degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome system during the response to cellular C/N status. PMID:21668537

  6. PARP9-DTX3L ubiquitin ligase targets host histone H2BJ and viral 3C protease to enhance interferon signaling and control viral infection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Mao, Dailing; Roswit, William T; Jin, Xiaohua; Patel, Anand C; Patel, Dhara A; Agapov, Eugene; Wang, Zhepeng; Tidwell, Rose M; Atkinson, Jeffrey J; Huang, Guangming; McCarthy, Ronald; Yu, Jinsheng; Yun, Nadezhda E; Paessler, Slobodan; Lawson, T Glen; Omattage, Natalie S; Brett, Tom J; Holtzman, Michael J

    2015-12-01

    Enhancing the response to interferon could offer an immunological advantage to the host. In support of this concept, we used a modified form of the transcription factor STAT1 to achieve hyper-responsiveness to interferon without toxicity and markedly improve antiviral function in transgenic mice and transduced human cells. We found that the improvement depended on expression of a PARP9-DTX3L complex with distinct domains for interaction with STAT1 and for activity as an E3 ubiquitin ligase that acted on host histone H2BJ to promote interferon-stimulated gene expression and on viral 3C proteases to degrade these proteases via the immunoproteasome. Thus, PARP9-DTX3L acted on host and pathogen to achieve a double layer of immunity within a safe reserve in the interferon signaling pathway. PMID:26479788

  7. Putative E3 Ubiquitin Ligase of Human Rotavirus Inhibits NF-κB Activation by Using Molecular Mimicry To Target β-TrCP

    PubMed Central

    Morelli, Marco; Dennis, Allison F.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT   NF-κB plays a critical role in the induction and maintenance of innate and adaptive immune transcriptional programs. An associated inhibitor of κB protein (IκB) regulates NF-κB activation and contains a degron motif (DSGΦxS) that undergoes phosphorylation following pathogen recognition or other proinflammatory signals. The E3 ubiquitin ligase SCFβ-TrCP recognizes this phosphodegron through its β-transducin repeat-containing protein (β-TrCP) subunit and induces IκB degradation, allowing NF-κB to translocate to the nucleus and modulate gene expression. Rotavirus (RV), a major cause of pediatric gastroenteritis, can block NF-κB activation through the action of its nonstructural protein NSP1, a putative E3 ubiquitin ligase that mediates the degradation of β-TrCP or other immunomodulatory proteins in a virus strain-specific manner. Here, we show that NSP1 targets β-TrCP by mimicking the IκB phosphodegron. The NSP1 proteins of most human and porcine RV strains conserve a C-terminal phosphodegron-like (PDL) motif, DSGΦS. Deletion of this motif or mutation of its serine residues disrupts NSP1-mediated degradation of β-TrCP and inhibition of NF-κB activation. Additionally, a point mutation within the phosphodegron-binding pocket protects β-TrCP from NSP1-mediated turnover. Fusion of the PDL motif to an NSP1 protein known to target other immunomodulatory proteins generates a chimeric NSP1 protein that can induce β-TrCP degradation and block NF-κB activation. Other viral proteins (Epstein-Barr virus LMP1, HIV-1 Vpu, and vaccinia virus A49) also contain a PDL motif and interact with β-TrCP to inhibit NF-κB activation. Taken together, these data suggest that targeting β-TrCP by molecular mimicry may be a common strategy used by human viruses to evade the host immune response. IMPORTANCE   The transcription factor NF-κB, a central regulator of the host response to infection, is a frequent target of viral antagonism. Pathogen detection

  8. PARP9-DTX3L ubiquitin ligase targets host histone H2BJ and viral 3C protease to enhance interferon signaling and control viral infection

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yong; Mao, Dailing; Roswit, William T.; Jin, Xiaohua; Patel, Anand C.; Patel, Dhara A.; Agapov, Eugene; Wang, Zhepeng; Tidwell, Rose M.; Atkinson, Jeffrey J.; Huang, Guangming; McCarthy, Ronald; Yu, Jinsheng; Yun, Nadezhda E.; Paessler, Slobodan; Lawson, T. Glen; Omattage, Natalie S.; Brett, Tom J.; Holtzman, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Enhancing the response to interferon could offer an immunological advantage to the host. In support of this concept, we used a modified form of the transcription factor STAT1 to achieve interferon hyperresponsiveness without toxicity and markedly improve antiviral function in transgenic mice and transduced human cells. We found that the improvement depends on expression of a PARP9-DTX3L complex with distinct domains for interaction with STAT1 and for activity as an E3 ubiquitin ligase that acts on host histone H2BJ to promote interferon-stimulated gene expression and on viral 3C proteases to initiate their degradation via the immunoproteasome. Together, PARP9-DTX3L acts on host and pathogen to achieve a double layer of immunity within a safe reserve in the interferon signaling pathway. PMID:26479788

  9. Bacterial E3 Ubiquitin Ligase IpaH4.5 of Shigella flexneri Targets TBK1 To Dampen the Host Antibacterial Response.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zirui; Wei, Congwen; Guan, Kai; Yuan, Yuan; Zhang, Yanhong; Ma, Shengli; Cao, Ye; Wang, Fang; Zhong, Hui; He, Xiang

    2016-02-01

    IFN regulatory factors play a pivotal role in many cellular processes, including inflammatory and immune responses. Their activation is tightly regulated by TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1). In response to microbial components, TBK1 activates IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and cytokine expression. In this article, we show that TBK1 is a novel target of the IpaH4.5 protein, a Shigella type III effector possessing E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. Remarkably, IpaH4.5 interacts with TBK1 and promotes its K48-linked polyubiquitylation. Consequently, polyubiquitylated TBK1 undergoes proteasome-dependent degradation, which perturbs the phosphorylation, nuclear translocation, and activation of IRF3. Because IRF3 and TBK1 are required for restricting Shigella growth, we propose that the polyubiquitylation and degradation of TBK1 during Shigella infection are new bacterial strategies to modulate the host antibacterial responses. PMID:26700764

  10. The Role of E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Cbl Proteins in β-Elemene Reversing Multi-Drug Resistance of Human Gastric Adenocarcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ye; Mu, Xiao-Dong; Li, En-Zhe; Luo, Ying; Song, Na; Qu, Xiu-Juan; Hu, Xue-Jun; Liu, Yun-Peng

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that β-elemene, a compound isolated from the Chinese herbal medicine Curcuma wenyujin, is capable of reversing tumor MDR, although the mechanism remains elusive. In this study, β-Elemene treatment markedly increased the intracellular accumulation of doxorubicin (DOX) and rhodamine 123 in both K562/DNR and SGC7901/ADR cells and significantly inhibited the expression of P-gp. Treatment of SGC7901/ADR cells with β-elemene led to downregulation of Akt phosphorylation and significant upregulation of the E3 ubiquitin ligases, c-Cbl and Cbl-b. Importantly, β-elemene significantly enhanced the anti-tumor activity of DOX in nude mice bearing SGC7901/ADR xenografts. Taken together, our results suggest that β-elemene may target P-gp-overexpressing leukemia and gastric cancer cells to enhance the efficacy of DOX treatment. PMID:23665906

  11. HECT E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Itch Functions as a Novel Negative Regulator of Gli-Similar 3 (Glis3) Transcriptional Activity

    PubMed Central

    ZeRuth, Gary T.; Williams, Jason G.; Cole, Yasemin C.; Jetten, Anton M.

    2015-01-01

    The transcription factor Gli-similar 3 (Glis3) plays a critical role in the generation of pancreatic ß cells and the regulation insulin gene transcription and has been implicated in the development of several pathologies, including type 1 and 2 diabetes and polycystic kidney disease. However, little is known about the proteins and posttranslational modifications that regulate or mediate Glis3 transcriptional activity. In this study, we identify by mass-spectrometry and yeast 2-hybrid analyses several proteins that interact with the N-terminal region of Glis3. These include the WW-domain-containing HECT E3 ubiquitin ligases, Itch, Smurf2, and Nedd4. The interaction between Glis3 and the HECT E3 ubiquitin ligases was verified by co-immunoprecipitation assays and mutation analysis. All three proteins interact through their WW-domains with a PPxY motif located in the Glis3 N-terminus. However, only Itch significantly contributed to Glis3 polyubiquitination and reduced Glis3 stability by enhancing its proteasomal degradation. Itch-mediated degradation of Glis3 required the PPxY motif-dependent interaction between Glis3 and the WW-domains of Itch as well as the presence of the Glis3 zinc finger domains. Transcription analyses demonstrated that Itch dramatically inhibited Glis3-mediated transactivation and endogenous Ins2 expression by increasing Glis3 protein turnover. Taken together, our study identifies Itch as a critical negative regulator of Glis3-mediated transcriptional activity. This regulation provides a novel mechanism to modulate Glis3-driven gene expression and suggests that it may play a role in a number of physiological processes controlled by Glis3, such as insulin transcription, as well as in Glis3-associated diseases. PMID:26147758

  12. The Light-Response BTB1 and BTB2 Proteins Assemble Nuclear Ubiquitin Ligases That Modify Phytochrome B and D Signaling in Arabidopsis1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Christians, Matthew J.; Gingerich, Derek J.; Hua, Zhihua; Lauer, Timothy D.; Vierstra, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    Members of the Bric-a-Brac/Tramtrack/Broad Complex (BTB) family direct the selective ubiquitylation of proteins following their assembly into Cullin3-based ubiquitin ligases. Here, we describe a subfamily of nucleus-localized BTB proteins encoded by the LIGHT-RESPONSE BTB1 (LRB1) and LRB2 loci in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) that strongly influences photomorphogenesis. Whereas single lrb1 and lrb2 mutants are relatively normal phenotypically, double mutants are markedly hypersensitive to red light, but not to far-red or blue light, and are compromised in multiple photomorphogenic processes, including seed germination, cotyledon opening and expansion, chlorophyll accumulation, shade avoidance, and flowering time. This red light hypersensitivity can be overcome by eliminating phytochrome B (phyB) and phyD, indicating that LRB1/2 act downstream of these two photoreceptor isoforms. Levels of phyB/D proteins but not their messenger RNAs are abnormally high in light-grown lrb1 lrb2 plants, implying that their light-dependent turnover is substantially dampened. Whereas other red light-hypersensitive mutants accumulate phyA protein similar to or higher than the wild type in light, the lrb1 lrb2 mutants accumulate less, suggesting that LRB1/2 also positively regulate phyA levels in a phyB/D-dependent manner. Together, these data show that the BTB ubiquitin ligases assembled with LRB1/2 function redundantly as negative regulators of photomorphogenesis, possibly by influencing the turnover of phyB/D. PMID:22732244

  13. RB1CC1 Protein Positively Regulates Transforming Growth Factor-β Signaling through the Modulation of Arkadia E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Koinuma, Daizo; Shinozaki, Masahiko; Nagano, Yoshiko; Ikushima, Hiroaki; Horiguchi, Kana; Goto, Kouichiro; Chano, Tokuhiro; Saitoh, Masao; Imamura, Takeshi; Miyazono, Kohei; Miyazawa, Keiji

    2011-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling is controlled by a variety of regulators, of which Smad7, c-Ski, and SnoN play a pivotal role in its negative regulation. Arkadia is a RING-type E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets these negative regulators for degradation to enhance TGF-β signaling. In the present study we identified a candidate human tumor suppressor gene product RB1CC1/FIP200 as a novel positive regulator of TGF-β signaling that functions as a substrate-selective cofactor of Arkadia. Overexpression of RB1CC1 enhanced TGF-β signaling, and knockdown of endogenous RB1CC1 attenuated TGF-β-induced expression of target genes as well as TGF-β-induced cytostasis. RB1CC1 down-regulated the protein levels of c-Ski but not SnoN by enhancing the activity of Arkadia E3 ligase toward c-Ski. Substrate selectivity is primarily attributable to the physical interaction of RB1CC1 with substrates, suggesting its role as a scaffold protein. RB1CC1 thus appears to play a unique role as a modulator of TGF-β signaling by restricting substrate specificity of Arkadia. PMID:21795712

  14. The RING Finger Ubiquitin E3 Ligase SDIR1 Targets SDIR1-INTERACTING PROTEIN1 for Degradation to Modulate the Salt Stress Response and ABA Signaling in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huawei; Cui, Feng; Wu, Yaorong; Lou, Lijuan; Liu, Lijing; Tian, Miaomiao; Ning, Yuese; Shu, Kai; Tang, Sanyuan; Xie, Qi

    2015-01-01

    The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) regulates many aspects of plant development and the stress response. The intracellular E3 ligase SDIR1 (SALT- AND DROUGHT-INDUCED REALLY INTERESTING NEW GENE FINGER1) plays a key role in ABA signaling, regulating ABA-related seed germination and the stress response. In this study, we found that SDIR1 is localized on the endoplasmic reticulum membrane in Arabidopsis thaliana. Using cell biology, molecular biology, and biochemistry approaches, we demonstrated that SDIR1 interacts with and ubiquitinates its substrate, SDIRIP1 (SDIR1-INTERACTING PROTEIN1), to modulate SDIRIP1 stability through the 26S proteasome pathway. SDIRIP1 acts genetically downstream of SDIR1 in ABA and salt stress signaling. In detail, SDIRIP1 selectively regulates the expression of the downstream basic region/leucine zipper motif transcription factor gene ABA-INSENSITIVE5, rather than ABA-RESPONSIVE ELEMENTS BINDING FACTOR3 (ABF3) or ABF4, to regulate ABA-mediated seed germination and the plant salt response. Overall, the SDIR1/SDIRIP1 complex plays a vital role in ABA signaling through the ubiquitination pathway. PMID:25616872

  15. Genome-wide RNAi screening implicates the E3 ubiquitin ligase Sherpa in mediating innate immune signaling by Toll in Drosophila adults.

    PubMed

    Kanoh, Hirotaka; Tong, Li-Li; Kuraishi, Takayuki; Suda, Yamato; Momiuchi, Yoshiki; Shishido, Fumi; Kurata, Shoichiro

    2015-10-27

    The Drosophila Toll pathway plays important roles in innate immune responses against Gram-positive bacteria and fungi. To identify previously uncharacterized components of this pathway, we performed comparative, ex vivo, genome-wide RNA interference screening. In four screens, we overexpressed the Toll adaptor protein dMyd88, the downstream kinase Pelle, or the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) homolog Dif, or we knocked down Cactus, the Drosophila homolog of mammalian inhibitor of NF-κB. On the basis of these screens, we identified the E3 ubiquitin ligase Sherpa as being necessary for the activation of Toll signaling. A loss-of-function sherpa mutant fly exhibited compromised production of antimicrobial peptides and enhanced susceptibility to infection by Gram-positive bacteria. In cultured cells, Sherpa mediated ubiquitylation of dMyd88 and Sherpa itself, and Sherpa and Drosophila SUMO (small ubiquitin-like modifier) were required for the proper membrane localization of an adaptor complex containing dMyd88. These findings highlight a role for Sherpa in Drosophila host defense and suggest the SUMOylation-mediated regulation of dMyd88 functions in Toll innate immune signaling. PMID:26508789

  16. Degradation of Tiam1 by Casein Kinase 1 and the SCFβTrCP Ubiquitin Ligase Controls the Duration of mTOR-S6K Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    Magliozzi, Roberto; Kim, Jihoon; Low, Teck Yew; Heck, Albert J. R.; Guardavaccaro, Daniele

    2014-01-01

    Tiam1 (T-cell lymphoma invasion and metastasis 1) is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor that specifically controls the activity of the small GTPase Rac, a key regulator of cell adhesion, proliferation, and survival. Here, we report that in response to mitogens, Tiam1 is degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome system via the SCFβTrCP ubiquitin ligase. Mitogenic stimulation triggers the binding of Tiam1 to the F-box protein βTrCP via its degron sequence and subsequent Tiam1 ubiquitylation and proteasomal degradation. The proteolysis of Tiam1 is prevented by βTrCP silencing, inhibition of CK1 and MEK, or mutation of the Tiam1 degron site. Expression of a stable Tiam1 mutant that is unable to interact with βTrCP results in sustained activation of the mTOR/S6K signaling and increased apoptotic cell death. We propose that the SCFβTrCP-mediated degradation of Tiam1 controls the duration of the mTOR-S6K signaling pathway in response to mitogenic stimuli. PMID:25124033

  17. TRIM24 Is a p53-Induced E3-Ubiquitin Ligase That Undergoes ATM-Mediated Phosphorylation and Autodegradation during DNA Damage

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Abhinav K.; Allton, Kendra; Duncan, Aundrietta D.

    2014-01-01

    Tumor suppressor p53 protects cells from genomic insults and is a target of mutation in more than 50% of human cancers. Stress-mediated modification and increased stability of p53 promote p53 interaction with chromatin, which results in transcription of target genes that are critical for the maintenance of genomic integrity. We recently discovered that TRIM24, an E3-ubiquitin ligase, ubiquitinates and promotes proteasome-mediated degradation of p53. Here, we show that TRIM24 is destabilized by ATM-mediated phosphorylation of TRIM24S768 in response to DNA damage, which disrupts TRIM24-p53 interactions and promotes the degradation of TRIM24. Transcription of TRIM24 is directly induced by damage-activated p53, which binds p53 response elements and activates expression of TRIM24. Newly synthesized TRIM24 interacts with phosphorylated p53 to target it for degradation and termination of the DNA damage response. These studies indicate that TRIM24, like MDM2, controls p53 levels in an autoregulatory feedback loop. However, unlike MDM2, TRIM24 also targets activated p53 to terminate p53-regulated response to DNA damage. PMID:24820418

  18. HTLV-1 Tax Functions as a Ubiquitin E3 Ligase for Direct IKK Activation via Synthesis of Mixed-Linkage Polyubiquitin Chains

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chong; Long, Wenying; Peng, Chao; Hu, Lin; Zhang, Qiong; Wu, Ailing; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Duan, Xiaotao; Wong, Catherine C. L.; Tanaka, Yuetsu; Xia, Zongping

    2016-01-01

    The HTLV-1 oncoprotein Tax plays a key role in CD4+ T cell transformation by promoting cell proliferation and survival, mainly through permanent activation of the NK-κB pathway and induction of many NF-κB target genes. Elucidating the underlying molecular mechanism is therefore critical in understanding HTLV-1-mediated transformation. Current studies have suggested multiple but controversial mechanisms regarding Tax-induced IKK activation mainly due to blending of primary Tax-induced IKK activation events and secondary IKK activation events induced by cytokines secreted by the primary Tax-induced IKK-NF-κB activation events. We reconstituted Tax-stimulated IKK activation in a cell-free system to dissect the essential cellular components for primary IKK activation by Tax and studied the underlying biochemical mechanism. We found that Tax is a putative E3 ubiquitin ligase, which, together with UbcH2, UhcH5c, or UbcH7, catalyzes the assembly of free mixed-linkage polyubiquitin chains. These free mixed-linkage polyubiquitin chains are then responsible for direct IKK activation by binding to the NEMO subunit of IKK. Our studies revealed the biochemical function of Tax in the process of IKK activation, which utilizes the minimal cellular ubiquitination components for NF-κB activation. PMID:27082114

  19. HTLV-1 Tax Functions as a Ubiquitin E3 Ligase for Direct IKK Activation via Synthesis of Mixed-Linkage Polyubiquitin Chains.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chong; Long, Wenying; Peng, Chao; Hu, Lin; Zhang, Qiong; Wu, Ailing; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Duan, Xiaotao; Wong, Catherine C L; Tanaka, Yuetsu; Xia, Zongping

    2016-04-01

    The HTLV-1 oncoprotein Tax plays a key role in CD4+ T cell transformation by promoting cell proliferation and survival, mainly through permanent activation of the NK-κB pathway and induction of many NF-κB target genes. Elucidating the underlying molecular mechanism is therefore critical in understanding HTLV-1-mediated transformation. Current studies have suggested multiple but controversial mechanisms regarding Tax-induced IKK activation mainly due to blending of primary Tax-induced IKK activation events and secondary IKK activation events induced by cytokines secreted by the primary Tax-induced IKK-NF-κB activation events. We reconstituted Tax-stimulated IKK activation in a cell-free system to dissect the essential cellular components for primary IKK activation by Tax and studied the underlying biochemical mechanism. We found that Tax is a putative E3 ubiquitin ligase, which, together with UbcH2, UhcH5c, or UbcH7, catalyzes the assembly of free mixed-linkage polyubiquitin chains. These free mixed-linkage polyubiquitin chains are then responsible for direct IKK activation by binding to the NEMO subunit of IKK. Our studies revealed the biochemical function of Tax in the process of IKK activation, which utilizes the minimal cellular ubiquitination components for NF-κB activation. PMID:27082114

  20. The c-Cbl Ubiquitin Ligase Regulates Nuclear β-Catenin and Angiogenesis by Its Tyrosine Phosphorylation Mediated through the Wnt Signaling Pathway*

    PubMed Central

    Shivanna, Sowmya; Harrold, Itrat; Shashar, Moshe; Meyer, Rosanna; Kiang, Chrystelle; Francis, Jean; Zhao, Qing; Feng, Hui; Edelman, Elazer R.; Rahimi, Nader; Chitalia, Vipul C.

    2015-01-01

    Wnt signaling plays important roles in both the tumor-induced angiogenesis and tumorigenesis through the transcriptionally active nuclear β-catenin. Recently, c-Cbl was identified as a unique E3 ubiquitin ligase targeting the active nuclear β-catenin. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms by which c-Cbl regulates ubiquitination and degradation of active β-catenin. Here, we demonstrate that Wnt activation promotes the phosphorylation of c-Cbl at tyrosine 731(Tyr-731), which increases c-Cbl dimerization and binding to β-catenin. Tyr-731 phosphorylation and dimerization mediate c-Cbl nuclear translocation and lead to the degradation of nuclearly active β-catenin in the Wnt-on phase. c-Cbl activation also inhibits expression of the pro-angiogenic Wnt targets, IL-8 and VEGF. Phospho-Tyr-731-inactive mutant c-Cbl (Y731F) enhances and phosphomimetic mutant c-Cbl (Y731E) suppresses angiogenesis in zebrafish. Taken together, we have identified a novel mechanism for the regulation of active nuclear β-catenin by c-Cbl and its critical role in angiogenesis. This mechanism can be further explored to modulate both the pathological angiogenesis and the tumorigenesis. PMID:25784557

  1. U-box E3 ubiquitin ligase PUB17 acts in the nucleus to promote specific immune pathways triggered by Phytophthora infestans.

    PubMed

    He, Qin; McLellan, Hazel; Boevink, Petra C; Sadanandom, Ari; Xie, Conghua; Birch, Paul R J; Tian, Zhendong

    2015-06-01

    Ubiquitination regulates many processes in plants, including immunity. The E3 ubiquitin ligase PUB17 is a positive regulator of programmed cell death (PCD) triggered by resistance proteins CF4/9 in tomato. Its role in immunity to the potato late blight pathogen, Phytophthora infestans, was investigated here. Silencing StPUB17 in potato by RNAi and NbPUB17 in Nicotiana benthamiana by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) each enhanced P. infestans leaf colonization. PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI) transcriptional responses activated by flg22, and CF4/Avr4-mediated PCD were attenuated by silencing PUB17. However, silencing PUB17 did not compromise PCD triggered by P. infestans PAMP INF1, or co-expression of R3a/AVR3a, demonstrating that not all PTI- and PCD-associated responses require PUB17. PUB17 localizes to the plant nucleus and especially in the nucleolus. Transient over-expression of a dominant-negative StPUB17(V314I,V316I) mutant, which retained nucleolar localization, suppressed CF4-mediated cell death and enhanced P. infestans colonization. Exclusion of the StPUB17(V314I,V316I) mutant from the nucleus abolished its dominant-negative activity, demonstrating that StPUB17 functions in the nucleus. PUB17 is a positive regulator of immunity to late blight that acts in the nucleus to promote specific PTI and PCD pathways. PMID:25873665

  2. The SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase RNF4 localizes to etoposide-exposed mitotic chromosomes: implication for a novel DNA damage response during mitosis.

    PubMed

    Saito, Masayuki; Fujimitsu, Yuka; Sasano, Takeshi; Yoshikai, Yushi; Ban-Ishihara, Reiko; Nariai, Yuko; Urano, Takeshi; Saitoh, Hisato

    2014-04-25

    RNF4, a SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase (STUbL), localizes to the nucleus and functions in the DNA damage response during interphase of the cell cycle. RNF4 also exists in cells undergoing mitosis, where its regulation and function remain poorly understood. Here we showed that administration of etoposide, an anticancer DNA topoisomerase II poison, to mitotic human cervical cancer HeLa cells induced SUMO-2/3-dependent localization of RNF4 to chromosomes. The FK2 antibody signals, indicative of poly/multi-ubiquitin assembly, were detected on etoposide-exposed mitotic chromosomes, whereas the signals were negligible in cells depleted for RNF4 by RNA interference. This suggests that RNF4 functions as a STUbL in the etoposide-induced damage response during mitosis. Indeed, RNF4-depletion sensitized mitotic HeLa cells to etoposide and increased cells with micronuclei. These results indicate the importance of the RNF4-mediated STUbL pathway during mitosis for the maintenance of chromosome integrity and further implicate RNF4 as a target for topo II poison-based therapy for cancer patients. PMID:24695317

  3. The Ubiquitination Machinery of the Ubiquitin System

    PubMed Central

    Callis, Judy

    2014-01-01

    The protein ubiquitin is a covalent modifier of proteins, including itself. The ubiquitin system encompasses the enzymes required for catalysing attachment of ubiquitin to substrates as well as proteins that bind to ubiquitinated proteins leading them to their final fate. Also included are activities that remove ubiquitin independent of, or in concert with, proteolysis of the substrate, either by the proteasome or proteases in the vacuole. In addition to ubiquitin encoded by a family of fusion proteins, there are proteins with ubiquitin-like domains, likely forming ubiquitin's β-grasp fold, but incapable of covalent modification. However, they serve as protein-protein interaction platforms within the ubiquitin system. Multi-gene families encode all of these types of activities. Within the ubiquitination machinery “half” of the ubiquitin system are redundant, partially redundant, and unique components affecting diverse developmental and environmental responses in plants. Notably, multiple aspects of biotic and abiotic stress responses require, or are modulated by, ubiquitination. Finally, aspects of the ubiquitin system have broad utility: as components to enhance gene expression or to regulate protein abundance. This review focuses on the ubiquitination machinery: ubiquitin, unique aspects about the synthesis of ubiquitin and organization of its gene family, ubiquitin activating enzymes (E1), ubiquitin conjugating enzymes (E2) and ubiquitin ligases, or E3s. Given the large number of E3s in Arabidopsis this review covers the U box, HECT and RING type E3s, with the exception of the cullin-based E3s. PMID:25320573

  4. Fbxw7 acts as an E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets c-Myb for nemo-like kinase (NLK)-induced degradation.

    PubMed

    Kanei-Ishii, Chie; Nomura, Teruaki; Takagi, Tsuyoshi; Watanabe, Nobumoto; Nakayama, Keiichi I; Ishii, Shunsuke

    2008-11-01

    The c-myb proto-oncogene product (c-Myb) is degraded in response to Wnt-1 signaling via a pathway involving TAK1 (transforming growth factor-beta-activated kinase 1), HIPK2 (homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2), and NLK (Nemo-like kinase). NLK directly binds to c-Myb, which results in the phosphorylation of c-Myb at multiple sites, and induces its ubiquitination and proteasome-dependent degradation. Here, we report that Fbxw7, the F-box protein of an SCF complex, targets c-Myb for degradation in a Wnt-1- and NLK-dependent manner. Fbxw7alpha directly binds to c-Myb via its C-terminal WD40 domain and induces the ubiquitination of c-Myb in the presence of NLK in vivo and in vitro. The c-Myb phosphorylation site mutant failed to interact with Fbxw7alpha, suggesting that the c-Myb/Fbxw7alpha interaction is enhanced by NLK phosphorylation of c-Myb. Treatment of M1 cells with Fbxw7 small interfering RNA (siRNA) rescued the Wnt-induced c-Myb degradation and also the Wnt-induced inhibition of cell proliferation. NLK bound to Cul1, a component of the SCF complex, while HIPK2 interacted with both Fbxw7alpha and Cul1, suggesting that both kinases enhance the c-Myb/SCF interaction. In contrast to c-Myb, the v-myb gene product (v-Myb) encoded by the avian myeloblastosis virus was resistant to NLK/Fbxw7alpha-induced degradation. Thus, Fbxw7 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase of c-Myb, and the increased c-Myb levels may contribute, at least partly, to transformation induced by mutation of Fbxw7. PMID:18765672

  5. Human liver cytochrome P450 3A4 ubiquitination: molecular recognition by UBC7-gp78 autocrine motility factor receptor and UbcH5a-CHIP-Hsc70-Hsp40 E2-E3 ubiquitin ligase complexes.

    PubMed

    Wang, YongQiang; Kim, Sung-Mi; Trnka, Michael J; Liu, Yi; Burlingame, A L; Correia, Maria Almira

    2015-02-01

    CYP3A4 is an abundant and catalytically dominant human liver endoplasmic reticulum-anchored cytochrome P450 enzyme engaged in the biotransformation of endo- and xenobiotics, including >50% of clinically relevant drugs. Alterations of CYP3A4 protein turnover can influence clinically relevant drug metabolism and bioavailability and drug-drug interactions. This CYP3A4 turnover involves endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation via the ubiquitin (Ub)-dependent 26 S proteasomal system that relies on two highly complementary E2 Ub-conjugating-E3 Ub-ligase (UBC7-gp78 and UbcH5a-C terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP)-Hsc70-Hsp40) complexes, as well as protein kinases (PK) A and C. We have documented that CYP3A4 Ser/Thr phosphorylation (Ser(P)/Thr(P)) by PKA and/or PKC accelerates/enhances its Lys ubiquitination by either of these E2-E3 systems. Intriguingly, CYP3A4 Ser(P)/Thr(P) and ubiquitinated Lys residues reside within the cytosol-accessible surface loop and/or conformationally assembled acidic Asp/Glu clusters, leading us to propose that such post-translational Ser/Thr protein phosphorylation primes CYP3A4 for ubiquitination. Herein, this possibility was examined through various complementary approaches, including site-directed mutagenesis, chemical cross-linking, peptide mapping, and LC-MS/MS analyses. Our findings reveal that such CYP3A4 Asp/Glu/Ser(P)/Thr(P) surface clusters are indeed important for its intermolecular electrostatic interactions with each of these E2-E3 subcomponents. By imparting additional negative charge to these Asp/Glu clusters, such Ser/Thr phosphorylation would generate P450 phosphodegrons for molecular recognition by the E2-E3 complexes, thereby controlling the timing of CYP3A4 ubiquitination and endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation. Although the importance of phosphodegrons in the CHIP targeting of its substrates is known, to our knowledge this is the first example of phosphodegron involvement in gp78-substrate

  6. The Human Adenovirus Type 5 E4orf6/E1B55K E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Complex Can Mimic E1A Effects on E2F.

    PubMed

    Dallaire, Frédéric; Schreiner, Sabrina; Blair, G Eric; Dobner, Thomas; Branton, Philip E; Blanchette, Paola

    2016-01-01

    The human adenovirus E4orf6/E1B55K E3 ubiquitin ligase is well known to promote viral replication by degrading an increasing number of cellular proteins that inhibit the efficient production of viral progeny. We report here a new function of the adenovirus 5 (Ad5) viral ligase complex that, although at lower levels, mimics effects of E1A products on E2F transcription factors. When expressed in the absence of E1A, the E4orf6 protein in complex with E1B55K binds E2F, disrupts E2F/retinoblastoma protein (Rb) complexes, and induces hyperphosphorylation of Rb, leading to induction of viral and cellular DNA synthesis as well as stimulation of early and late viral gene expression and production of viral progeny of E1/E3-defective adenovirus vectors. These new and previously undescribed functions of the E4orf6/E1B55K E3 ubiquitin ligase could play an important role in promoting the replication of wild-type viruses. IMPORTANCE During the course of work on the adenovirus E3 ubiquitin ligase formed by the viral E4orf6 and E1B55K proteins, we found, very surprisingly, that expression of these species was sufficient to permit low levels of replication of an adenovirus vector lacking E1A, the central regulator of infection. E1A products uncouple E2F transcription factors from Rb repression complexes, thus stimulating viral gene expression and cell and viral DNA synthesis. We found that the E4orf6/E1B55K ligase mimics these functions. This finding is of significance because it represents an entirely new function for the ligase in regulating adenovirus replication. PMID:27303679

  7. The Human Adenovirus Type 5 E4orf6/E1B55K E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Complex Can Mimic E1A Effects on E2F

    PubMed Central

    Dallaire, Frédéric; Schreiner, Sabrina; Blair, G. Eric; Dobner, Thomas; Branton, Philip E.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The human adenovirus E4orf6/E1B55K E3 ubiquitin ligase is well known to promote viral replication by degrading an increasing number of cellular proteins that inhibit the efficient production of viral progeny. We report here a new function of the adenovirus 5 (Ad5) viral ligase complex that, although at lower levels, mimics effects of E1A products on E2F transcription factors. When expressed in the absence of E1A, the E4orf6 protein in complex with E1B55K binds E2F, disrupts E2F/retinoblastoma protein (Rb) complexes, and induces hyperphosphorylation of Rb, leading to induction of viral and cellular DNA synthesis as well as stimulation of early and late viral gene expression and production of viral progeny of E1/E3-defective adenovirus vectors. These new and previously undescribed functions of the E4orf6/E1B55K E3 ubiquitin ligase could play an important role in promoting the replication of wild-type viruses. IMPORTANCE During the course of work on the adenovirus E3 ubiquitin ligase formed by the viral E4orf6 and E1B55K proteins, we found, very surprisingly, that expression of these species was sufficient to permit low levels of replication of an adenovirus vector lacking E1A, the central regulator of infection. E1A products uncouple E2F transcription factors from Rb repression complexes, thus stimulating viral gene expression and cell and viral DNA synthesis. We found that the E4orf6/E1B55K ligase mimics these functions. This finding is of significance because it represents an entirely new function for the ligase in regulating adenovirus replication. PMID:27303679

  8. Global approaches to understanding ubiquitination

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Peter; Huang, Lan

    2005-01-01

    Ubiquitination - the linkage of one or more molecules of the protein ubiquitin to another protein - regulates a wide range of biological processes in all eukaryotes. We review the proteome-wide strategies that are being used to study aspects of ubiquitin biology, including substrates, components of the proteasome and ubiquitin ligases, and deubiquitination. PMID:16207362

  9. Haploinsufficiency of the E3 Ubiquitin Ligase C-Terminus of Heat Shock Cognate 70 Interacting Protein (CHIP) Produces Specific Behavioral Impairments

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, BethAnn; Buendia, Matthew A.; Saborido, Tommy P.; Palubinsky, Amy M.; Stankowski, Jeannette N.; Stanwood, Gregg D.

    2012-01-01

    The multifunctional E3 ubiquitin ligase CHIP is an essential interacting partner of HSP70, which together promote the proteasomal degradation of client proteins. Acute CHIP overexpression provides neuroprotection against neurotoxic mitochondrial stress, glucocorticoids, and accumulation of toxic amyloid fragments, as well as genetic mutations in other E3 ligases, which have been shown to result in familial Parkinson's disease. These studies have created a great deal of interest in understanding CHIP activity, expression and modulation. While CHIP knockout mice have the potential to provide essential insights into the molecular control of cell fate and survival, the animals have been difficult to characterize in vivo due to severe phenotypic and behavioral dysfunction, which have thus far been poorly characterized. Therefore, in the present study we conducted a battery of neurobehavioral and physiological assays of adult CHIP heterozygotic (HET) mutant mice to provide a better understanding of the functional consequence of CHIP deficiency. We found that CHIP HET mice had normal body and brain weight, body temperature, muscle tone and breathing patterns, but do have a significant elevation in baseline heart rate. Meanwhile basic behavioral screens of sensory, motor, emotional and cognitive functions were normative. We observed no alterations in performance in the elevated plus maze, light-dark preference and tail suspension assays, or two simple cognitive tasks: novel object recognition and spontaneous alternation in a Y maze. Significant deficits were found, however, when CHIP HET mice performed wire hang, inverted screen, wire maneuver, and open field tasks. Taken together, our data indicate a clear subset of behaviors that are altered at baseline in CHIP deficient animals, which will further guide whole animal studies of the effects of CHIP dysregulation on cardiac function, brain circuitry and function, and responsiveness to environmental and cellular stress

  10. Arabidopsis RING E3 ubiquitin ligase AtATL80 is negatively involved in phosphate mobilization and cold stress response in sufficient phosphate growth conditions.

    PubMed

    Suh, Ji Yeon; Kim, Woo Taek

    2015-08-01

    Phosphate (Pi) remobilization in plants is critical to continuous growth and development. AtATL80 is a plasma membrane (PM)-localized RING E3 ubiquitin (Ub) ligase that belongs to the Arabidopsis Tóxicos en Levadura (ATL) family. AtATL80 was upregulated by long-term low Pi (0-0.02 mM KH2PO4) conditions in Arabidopsis seedlings. AtATL80-overexpressing transgenic Arabidopsis plants (35S:AtATL80-sGFP) displayed increased phosphorus (P) accumulation in the shoots and lower biomass, as well as reduced P-utilization efficiency (PUE) under high Pi (1 mM KH2PO4) conditions compared to wild-type plants. The loss-of-function atatl80 mutant line exhibited opposite phenotypic traits. The atatl80 mutant line bolted earlier than wild-type plants, whereas AtATL80-overexpressors bloomed significantly later and produced lower seed yields than wild-type plants under high Pi conditions. Thus, AtATL80 is negatively correlated not only with P content and PUE, but also with biomass and seed yield in Arabidopsis. In addition, AtATL80-overexpressors were significantly more sensitive to cold stress than wild-type plants, while the atatl80 mutant line exhibited an increased tolerance to cold stress. Taken together, our results suggest that AtATL80, a PM-localized ATL-type RING E3 Ub ligase, participates in the Pi mobilization and cold stress response as a negative factor in Arabidopsis. PMID:26086094

  11. Lack of Cul4b, an E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Component, Leads to Embryonic Lethality and Abnormal Placental Development

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Jupeng; Qian, Yanyan; Sun, Wenjie; Zou, Yongxin; Guo, Chenhong; Chen, Bingxi; Shao, Changshun; Gong, Yaoqin

    2012-01-01

    Cullin-RING ligases (CRLs) complexes participate in the regulation of diverse cellular processes, including cell cycle progression, transcription, signal transduction and development. Serving as the scaffold protein, cullins are crucial for the assembly of ligase complexes, which recognize and target various substrates for proteosomal degradation. Mutations in human CUL4B, one of the eight members in cullin family, are one of the major causes of X-linked mental retardation. We here report the generation and characterization of Cul4b knockout mice, in which exons 3 to 5 were deleted. In contrast to the survival to adulthood of human hemizygous males with CUL4B null mutation, Cul4b null mouse embryos show severe developmental arrest and usually die before embryonic day 9.5 (E9.5). Accumulation of cyclin E, a CRL (CUL4B) substrate, was observed in Cul4b null embryos. Cul4b heterozygotes were recovered at a reduced ratio and exhibited a severe developmental delay. The placentas in Cul4b heterozygotes were disorganized and were impaired in vascularization, which may contribute to the developmental delay. As in human CUL4B heterozygotes, Cul4b null cells were selected against in Cul4b heterozygotes, leading to various degrees of skewed X-inactivation in different tissues. Together, our results showed that CUL4B is indispensable for embryonic development in the mouse. PMID:22606329

  12. Low expression of the E3 Ubiquitin Ligase CBL Confers Chemoresistance in Human Pancreatic Cancer and is Targeted by Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Kadera, Brian E.; Toste, Paul A.; Wu, Nanping; Li, Luyi; Nguyen, Andrew H.; Dawson, David W.; Donahue, Timothy R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Expression of CBL, an ubiquitin ligase, is decreased in 60% of human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDACs) and is associated with shorter overall survival. We sought to determine how low CBL directly contributes to clinically more aggressive PDAC. Experimental Design Human PDACs were stained for CBL, pEGFR, and EGFR. CBL-low was modeled in PDAC cells (Panc-1, L3.6pl, AsPC-1) via transient transfection (siRNA) or stable knockdown (shRNA). Cell viability and apoptosis were measured by MTT assays and FACS. Immunoblot and a phospho-receptor tyrosine kinase (pRTK) array were used to probe signal transduction. NOD-scid-IL2Rγnull mice were subcutaneously implanted with PDAC or PDACCBL-low cells on opposite flanks and treated with gemcitabine ± erlotinib for ≥4 weeks. Results There was an inverse correlation between CBL and pEGFR protein expression in 12 of 15 tumors. CBL knockdown increased PDAC resistance to gemcitabine and 5-FU by upregulating pEGFR (Y1068), pERK, and pAKT. A pRTK array of PDACCBL-low cells revealed additional activated tyrosine kinases but all to a much lower magnitude than EGFR. Increased chemoresistance from low CBL was abrogated by the EGFR inhibitor erlotinib both in vitro and in vivo. Erlotinib + gemcitabine treated PDACCBL-low cells exhibited greater apoptosis by cleaved PARP, Caspase 3 and Annexin V/PI. Conclusions Low CBL causes chemoresistance in PDAC via stress-induced EGFR activation that can be effectively abrogated by EGFR inhibition. These results suggest that dysregulation of ubiquitination is a key mechanism of EGFR hyperactivation in PDAC and that low CBL may define PDAC tumors likely to respond to erlotinib treatment. PMID:25348515

  13. TOPORS, a Dual E3 Ubiquitin and Sumo1 Ligase, Interacts with 26 S Protease Regulatory Subunit 4, Encoded by the PSMC1 Gene

    PubMed Central

    Czub, Barbara; Shah, Amna Z.; Alfano, Giovanna; Kruczek, Przemysław M.; Chakarova, Christina F.; Bhattacharya, Shomi S.

    2016-01-01

    The significance of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) for protein degradation has been highlighted in the context of neurodegenerative diseases, including retinal dystrophies. TOPORS, a dual E3 ubiquitin and SUMO1 ligase, forms a component of the UPS and selected substrates for its enzymatic activities, such as DJ-1/PARK7 and APOBEC2, are important for neuronal as well as retinal homeostasis, respectively. TOPORS is ubiquitously expressed, yet its mutations are only known to result in autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. We performed a yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) screen of a human retinal cDNA library in order to identify interacting protein partners of TOPORS from the retina, and thus begin delineating the putative disease mechanism(s) associated with the retina-specific phenotype resulting from mutations in TOPORS. The screen led to isolation of the 26 S protease regulatory subunit 4 (P26s4/ PSMC1), an ATPase indispensable for correct functioning of UPS-mediated proteostasis. The interaction between endogenous TOPORS and P26s4 proteins was validated by co-immuno-precipitation from mammalian cell extracts and further characterised by immunofluorescent co-localisation studies in cell lines and retinal sections. Findings from hTERT-RPE1 and 661W cells demonstrated that TOPORS and P26s4 co-localise at the centrosome in cultured cells. Immunofluorescent staining of mouse retinae revealed a strong P26s4 reactivity at the interface between retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) layer and the photoreceptors outer segments (OS). This finding leads us to speculate that P26s4, along with TOPORS, may have a role(s) in RPE phagocytosis, in addition to contributing to the overall photoreceptor and retinal homeostasis via the UPS. PMID:26872363

  14. Identification and structural mechanism for a novel interaction between a ubiquitin ligase WWP1 and Nogo-A, a key inhibitor for central nervous system regeneration.

    PubMed

    Qin, Haina; Pu, Helen X; Li, Minfen; Ahmed, Sohail; Song, Jianxing

    2008-12-23

    Nogo-A has been extensively demonstrated to play key roles in inhibiting central nervous system regeneration, regulating endoplasmic reticulum formation, and maintaining the integrity of the neuromuscular junction. In this study, an E3 ubiquitin ligase WWP1 was first identified to be a novel interacting partner for Nogo-A both in vitro and in vivo. By using CD, ITC, and NMR, we have further conducted extensive studies on all four WWP1 WW domains and their interactions with a Nogo-A peptide carrying the only PPxY motif. The results lead to several striking findings. (1) Despite containing an unstructured region, the 186-residue WWP1 fragment containing all four WW domains is able to interact with the Nogo-A(650-666) peptide with a high affinity, with a dissociation constant (K(d)) of 1.68 microM. (2) Interestingly, four isolated WW domains show differential structural properties in the free states. WW1 and WW2 are only partially folded, while WW4 is well-folded. Nevertheless, they all become well-folded upon binding to Nogo-A(650-666), with K(d) values ranging from 1.03 to 3.85 microM. (3) The solution structure of the best-folded WW4 domain is determined, and the binding-perturbed residues were derived for both WW4 and Nogo-A(650-666) by NMR HSQC titrations. Moreover, on the basis of the NMR data, the complex model is constructed by HADDOCK 2.0. This study provides rationales as well as a template Nogo-A(650-666) for further design of molecules to intervene in the WWP1-Nogo-A interaction which may regulate the Nogo-A protein level by controlling its ubiquitination. PMID:19035836

  15. STAT3 restrains RANK- and TLR4-mediated signaling by suppressing expression of the E2 ubiquitin ligase Ubc13

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huiyuan; Hu, Hongbo; Greeley, Nathaniel; Jin, Jin; Matthews, Allison J.; Ohashi, Erika; Caetano, Mauricio S.; Li, Haiyan S.; Wu, Xuefeng; Mandal, Pijus K.; McMurray, John S.; Moghaddam, Seyed Javad; Sun, Shao-Cong; Watowich, Stephanie S.

    2014-01-01

    The transcriptional regulator STAT3 curbs pro-inflammatory cytokine production mediated by NF-κB signaling in innate immune cells, yet the mechanism by which this occurs has been unclear. Here we identify STAT3 as a pivotal negative regulator of Ubc13, an E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme that facilitates TRAF6 K63-linked ubiquitination and NF-κB activation. Ubc13 accumulates intracellularly in the absence of STAT3. Depletion of Ubc13 in Stat3-deficient macrophages subdues excessive RANKL- or LPS-dependent gene expression, indicating Ubc13 overexpression mediates enhanced transcriptional responses in the absence of STAT3. In RANKL-activated macrophages, STAT3 is stimulated by autocrine IL-6 and inhibits accrual of Ets-1, Set1 methyltransferase and trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4me3) at the Ube2n (Ubc13) promoter. These results delineate a mechanism by which STAT3 operates as a transcriptional repressor on Ube2n, thus modulating NF-κB activity by regulation of Ubc13 abundance. Our data suggest this pathway plays important roles in bone homeostasis and restraint of inflammation. PMID:25503582

  16. Identification of a Src Tyrosine Kinase/SIAH2 E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Pathway That Regulates C/EBPδ Expression and Contributes to Transformation of Breast Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Tapasree Roy; Sharan, Shikha; Wang, Jun; Pawar, Snehalata A.; Cantwell, Carrie A.; Johnson, Peter F.; Morrison, Deborah K.; Wang, Ju-Ming

    2012-01-01

    The transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein delta (C/EBPδ, CEBPD) is a tumor suppressor that is downregulated during breast cancer progression but may also promote metastasis. Here, we have investigated the mechanism(s) regulating C/EBPδ expression and its role in human breast cancer cells. We describe a novel pathway by which the tyrosine kinase Src downregulates C/EBPδ through the SIAH2 E3 ubiquitin ligase. Src phosphorylates SIAH2 in vitro and leads to tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of SIAH2 in breast tumor cell lines. SIAH2 interacts with C/EBPδ, but not C/EBPβ, and promotes its polyubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. Src/SIAH2-mediated inhibition of C/EBPδ expression supports elevated cyclin D1 levels, phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein (Rb), motility, invasive properties, and survival of transformed cells. Pharmacological inhibition of Src family kinases by SKI-606 (bosutinib) induces C/EBPδ expression in an SIAH2-dependent manner, which is necessary for “therapeutic” responses to SKI-606 in vitro. Ectopic expression of degradation-resistant mutants of C/EBPδ, which do not interact with SIAH2 and/or cannot be polyubiquitinated, prevents full transformation of MCF-10A cells by activated Src (Src truncated at amino acid 531 [Src-531]) in vitro. These data reveal that C/EBPδ expression can be regulated at the protein level by oncogenic Src kinase signals through SIAH2, thus contributing to breast epithelial cell transformation. PMID:22037769

  17. Apoptosis by aloe-emodin is mediated through down-regulation of calpain-2 and ubiquitin-protein ligase E3A in human hepatoma Huh-7 cells.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Won; Jeon, Young Keul; Nam, Myeong Jin

    2012-02-01

    Natural flavonoids are associated with anti-proliferation of cancer growth. However, the antioxidant and anti-proliferation effects of AE (aloe-emodin) have not been well studied. We have investigated how AE affects the proliferation of hepatic hepatocellular carcinoma cells and exerts an anti-cancer effect. The cytotoxic effect of AE was demonstrated using an MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide] assay and Huh-7 cells were inhibited by AE treatment in both dose- and time-dependent manners. The IC(50) level of AE was ∼75 μM. AE also has anti-proliferative effects via induction of DNA damage and apoptosis. 2-DE (two-dimensional electrophoresis) revealed that several proteins were related to the anti-cancer effects of AE. CAPN2 (calpain-2) and UBE3A (ubiquitin-protein ligase E3A), which are associated with the apoptosis signalling pathway, were verified by Western blotting. AE exhibited potent anti-proliferative effects on Huh-7 cells via down-regulation of CAPN2 and UBE3A. The findings support the possibility of AE being a chemopreventative agent. PMID:21861846

  18. THE E3 UBIQUITIN LIGASE RO52 NEGATIVELY REGULATES IFN-β PRODUCTION POST-PATHOGEN RECOGNITION BY POLYUBIQUITIN-MEDIATED DEGRADATION OF IRF31

    PubMed Central

    Higgs, Rowan; Gabhann, Joan Ní; Larbi, Nadia Ben; Breen, Eamon P.; Fitzgerald, Katherine A.; Jefferies, Caroline A.

    2010-01-01

    Induction of type I interferons is a fundamental cellular response to both viral and bacterial infection. The role of the transcription factor IRF3 is well established in driving this process. However, equally as important are cellular mechanisms for turning off type I interferon production in order to limit this response. In this respect, IRF3 has previously been shown to be targeted for ubiquitin-mediated degradation post-viral detection in order to turn off the IFN-β response. Here we provide evidence that the E3 ligase Ro52 (TRIM21) targets IRF3 for degradation post-pathogen recognition receptor activation. We demonstrate that Ro52 interacts with IRF3 via its C-terminal SPRY domain, resulting in the polyubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of the transcription factor. Ro52-mediated IRF3 degradation significantly inhibits IFN-β promoter activity, an effect that is reversed in the presence of the proteasomal inhibitor MG132. Specific targeting of Ro52 using shRNA rescues IRF3 degradation following polyI:C-stimulation of HEK293T cells, with a subsequent increase in IFN-β production. Additionally, shRNA targeting of murine Ro52 enhances the production of the IRF3-dependent chemokine RANTES following Sendai virus infection of murine fibroblasts. Collectively, this demonstrates a novel role for Ro52 in turning off and thus limiting IRF3-dependent type I interferon production by targeting the transcription factor for polyubiquitination and subsequent proteasomal degradation. PMID:18641315

  19. 14-3-3 proteins sequester a pool of soluble TRIM32 ubiquitin ligase to repress autoubiquitylation and cytoplasmic body formation.

    PubMed

    Ichimura, Tohru; Taoka, Masato; Shoji, Ikuo; Kato, Hiroki; Sato, Tomonobu; Hatakeyama, Shigetsugu; Isobe, Toshiaki; Hachiya, Naomi

    2013-05-01

    Deregulated expression of tripartite motif-containing protein 32 (TRIM32, an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase) contributes to various diseases. Here we report, using quantitative proteomics and biochemistry, that 14-3-3 proteins bind to phosphorylated TRIM32 and prevent TRIM32 autoubiquitylation and the formation of TRIM32-containing cytoplasmic bodies, which are potential autoregulatory mechanisms that can reduce the concentration of soluble free TRIM32. The 14-3-3-TRIM32 interaction is dependent on protein-kinase-A-catalyzed phosphorylation of TRIM32 at Ser651. We found that the inhibitory effect of 14-3-3 is, in part, a consequence of disrupting the propensity of TRIM32 to undergo higher-order self-association without affecting its dimerization. Consequently, dimerized TRIM32 bound to 14-3-3 was sequestered in a distinct cytoplasmic pool away from the microtubule network, whereas a TRIM32 mutant that cannot bind 14-3-3 underwent multimerization and was unavailable to facilitate cell growth. Our results reveal a novel connection between ubiquitylation and phosphorylation pathways, which could modulate a variety of cell events by stimulating the formation of the 14-3-3-TRIM32 signaling complex. PMID:23444366

  20. Homozygosity mapping with SNP arrays identifies TRIM32, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, as a Bardet-Biedl syndrome gene (BBS11).

    PubMed

    Chiang, Annie P; Beck, John S; Yen, Hsan-Jan; Tayeh, Marwan K; Scheetz, Todd E; Swiderski, Ruth E; Nishimura, Darryl Y; Braun, Terry A; Kim, Kwang-Youn A; Huang, Jian; Elbedour, Khalil; Carmi, Rivka; Slusarski, Diane C; Casavant, Thomas L; Stone, Edwin M; Sheffield, Val C

    2006-04-18

    The identification of mutations in genes that cause human diseases has largely been accomplished through the use of positional cloning, which relies on linkage mapping. In studies of rare diseases, the resolution of linkage mapping is limited by the number of available meioses and informative marker density. One recent advance is the development of high-density SNP microarrays for genotyping. The SNP arrays overcome low marker informativity by using a large number of markers to achieve greater coverage at finer resolution. We used SNP microarray genotyping for homozygosity mapping in a small consanguineous Israeli Bedouin family with autosomal recessive Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS; obesity, pigmentary retinopathy, polydactyly, hypogonadism, renal and cardiac abnormalities, and cognitive impairment) in which previous linkage studies using short tandem repeat polymorphisms failed to identify a disease locus. SNP genotyping revealed a homozygous candidate region. Mutation analysis in the region of homozygosity identified a conserved homozygous missense mutation in the TRIM32 gene, a gene coding for an E3 ubiquitin ligase. Functional analysis of this gene in zebrafish and expression correlation analyses among other BBS genes in an expression quantitative trait loci data set demonstrate that TRIM32 is a BBS gene. This study shows the value of high-density SNP genotyping for homozygosity mapping and the use of expression correlation data for evaluation of candidate genes and identifies the proteasome degradation pathway as a pathway involved in BBS. PMID:16606853

  1. The SCF-FBXW5 E3-ubiquitin ligase is regulated by PLK4 and targets HsSAS-6 to control centrosome duplication.

    PubMed

    Puklowski, Anja; Homsi, Yahya; Keller, Debora; May, Martin; Chauhan, Sangeeta; Kossatz, Uta; Grünwald, Viktor; Kubicka, Stefan; Pich, Andreas; Manns, Michael P; Hoffmann, Ingrid; Gönczy, Pierre; Malek, Nisar P

    2011-08-01

    Deregulated centrosome duplication can result in genetic instability and contribute to tumorigenesis. Here, we show that centrosome duplication is regulated by the activity of an E3-ubiquitin ligase that employs the F-box protein FBXW5 (ref. 3) as its targeting subunit. Depletion of endogenous FBXW5 or overexpression of an F-box-deleted mutant version results in centrosome overduplication and formation of multipolar spindles. We identify the centriolar protein HsSAS-6 (refs 4,5) as a critical substrate of the SCF-FBXW5 complex. FBXW5 binds HsSAS-6 and promotes its ubiquitylation in vivo. The activity of SCF-FBXW5 is in turn negatively regulated by Polo-like kinase 4 (PLK4), which phosphorylates FBXW5 at Ser 151 to suppress its ability to ubiquitylate HsSAS-6. FBXW5 is a cell-cycle-regulated protein with expression levels peaking at the G1/S transition. We show that FBXW5 levels are controlled by the anaphase-promoting (APC/C) complex, which targets FBXW5 for degradation during mitosis and G1, thereby helping to reset the centrosome duplication machinery. In summary, we show that a cell-cycle-regulated SCF complex is regulated by the kinase PLK4, and that this in turn restricts centrosome re-duplication through degradation of the centriolar protein HsSAS-6. PMID:21725316

  2. The E3 ubiquitin ligase ZNRF2 is a substrate of mTORC1 and regulates its activation by amino acids.

    PubMed

    Hoxhaj, Gerta; Caddye, Edward; Najafov, Ayaz; Houde, Vanessa P; Johnson, Catherine; Dissanayake, Kumara; Toth, Rachel; Campbell, David G; Prescott, Alan R; MacKintosh, Carol

    2016-01-01

    The mechanistic Target of Rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) senses intracellular amino acid levels through an intricate machinery, which includes the Rag GTPases, Ragulator and vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase). The membrane-associated E3 ubiquitin ligase ZNRF2 is released into the cytosol upon its phosphorylation by Akt. In this study, we show that ZNRF2 interacts with mTOR on membranes, promoting the amino acid-stimulated translocation of mTORC1 to lysosomes and its activation in human cells. ZNRF2 also interacts with the V-ATPase and preserves lysosomal acidity. Moreover, knockdown of ZNRF2 decreases cell size and cell proliferation. Upon growth factor and amino acid stimulation, mTORC1 phosphorylates ZNRF2 on Ser145, and this phosphosite is dephosphorylated by protein phosphatase 6. Ser145 phosphorylation stimulates vesicle-to-cytosol translocation of ZNRF2 and forms a novel negative feedback on mTORC1. Our findings uncover ZNRF2 as a component of the amino acid sensing machinery that acts upstream of Rag-GTPases and the V-ATPase to activate mTORC1. PMID:27244671

  3. Overexpression of the human ubiquitin E3 ligase CUL4A alleviates hypoxia-reoxygenation injury in pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Can; Zhang, Li-Yang; Chen, Hong; Xiao, Ling; Liu, Xian-Peng; Zhang, Jian-Xiang

    2011-12-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overexpression of human CUL4A (hCUL4A) in PC12 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effects of hCUL4A on hypoxia-reoxygenation injury were investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer hCUL4A suppresses apoptosis and DNA damage and thus promotes cell survival. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer hCUL4A regulates apoptosis-related proteins and cell cycle regulators. -- Abstract: The ubiquitin E3 ligase CUL4A plays important roles in diverse cellular processes including carcinogenesis and proliferation. It has been reported that the expression of CUL4A can be induced by hypoxic-ischemic injury. However, the effect of elevated expression of CUL4A on hypoxia-reoxygenation injury is currently unclear. In this study, human CUL4A (hCUL4A) was expressed in rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells using adenoviral vector-mediated gene transfer, and the effects of hCUL4A expression on hypoxia-reoxygenation injury were investigated. In PC12 cells subjected to hypoxia and reoxygenation, we found that hCUL4A suppresses apoptosis and DNA damage by regulating apoptosis-related proteins and cell cycle regulators (Bcl-2, caspase-3, p53 and p27); consequently, hCUL4A promotes cell survival. Taken together, our results reveal the beneficial effects of hCUL4A in PC12 cells upon hypoxia-reoxygenation injury.

  4. The U-Box E3 Ubiquitin Ligase TUD1 Functions with a Heterotrimeric G α Subunit to Regulate Brassinosteroid-Mediated Growth in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xingming; Qian, Qian; Xu, Ting; Zhang, Yu'e; Dong, Guojun; Gao, Ting; Xie, Qi; Xue, Yongbiao

    2013-01-01

    Heterotrimeric G proteins are an important group of signaling molecules found in eukaryotes. They function with G-protein-coupled-receptors (GPCRs) to transduce various signals such as steroid hormones in animals. Nevertheless, their functions in plants are not well-defined. Previous studies suggested that the heterotrimeric G protein α subunit known as D1/RGA1 in rice is involved in a phytohormone gibberellin-mediated signaling pathway. Evidence also implicates D1 in the action of a second phytohormone Brassinosteroid (BR) and its pathway. However, it is unclear how D1 functions in this pathway, because so far no partner has been identified to act with D1. In this study, we report a D1 genetic interactor Taihu Dwarf1 (TUD1) that encodes a functional U-box E3 ubiquitin ligase. Genetic, phenotypic, and physiological analyses have shown that tud1 is epistatic to d1 and is less sensitive to BR treatment. Histological observations showed that the dwarf phenotype of tud1 is mainly due to decreased cell proliferation and disorganized cell files in aerial organs. Furthermore, we found that D1 directly interacts with TUD1. Taken together, these results demonstrate that D1 and TUD1 act together to mediate a BR-signaling pathway. This supports the idea that a D1-mediated BR signaling pathway occurs in rice to affect plant growth and development. PMID:23526892

  5. Mitochondrial ubiquitin ligase MITOL blocks S-nitrosylated MAP1B-light chain 1-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction and neuronal cell death

    PubMed Central

    Yonashiro, Ryo; Kimijima, Yuya; Shimura, Takuya; Kawaguchi, Kohei; Fukuda, Toshifumi; Inatome, Ryoko; Yanagi, Shigeru

    2012-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is implicated in neuronal cell survival. However, excessive NO production mediates neuronal cell death, in part via mitochondrial dysfunction. Here, we report that the mitochondrial ubiquitin ligase, MITOL, protects neuronal cells from mitochondrial damage caused by accumulation of S-nitrosylated microtubule-associated protein 1B-light chain 1 (LC1). S-nitrosylation of LC1 induces a conformational change that serves both to activate LC1 and to promote its ubiquination by MITOL, indicating that microtubule stabilization by LC1 is regulated through its interaction with MITOL. Excessive NO production can inhibit MITOL, and MITOL inhibition resulted in accumulation of S-nitrosylated LC1 following stimulation of NO