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  1. 36 CFR 67.1 - Sec. 48(g) and Sec. 170(h) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sec. 48(g) and Sec. 170(h) of... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HISTORIC PRESERVATION CERTIFICATIONS PURSUANT TO SEC. 48(g) AND SEC. 170(h) OF THE INTERNAL REVENUE CODE OF 1986 § 67.1 Sec. 48(g) and Sec. 170(h) of the Internal...

  2. Solution structure of the cytohesin-1 (B2–1) Sec7 domain and its interaction with the GTPase ADP ribosylation factor 1

    PubMed Central

    Betz, Stephen F.; Schnuchel, Arndt; Wang, Hong; Olejniczak, Edward T.; Meadows, Robert P.; Lipsky, Brian P.; Harris, Edith A. S.; Staunton, Donald E.; Fesik, Stephen W.

    1998-01-01

    Cytohesin-1 (B2–1) is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for human ADP ribosylation factor (Arf) GTPases, which are important for vesicular protein trafficking and coatamer assembly in the cell. Cytohesin-1 also has been reported to promote cellular adhesion via binding to the β2 integrin cytoplasmic domain. The solution structure of the Sec7 domain of cytohesin-1, which is responsible for both the protein’s guanine nucleotide exchange factor function and β2 integrin binding, was determined by NMR spectroscopy. The structure consists of 10 α-helices that form a unique tertiary fold. The binding between the Sec7 domain and a soluble, truncated version of human Arf-1 was investigated by examining 1H-15N and 1H-13C chemical shift changes between the native protein and the Sec7/Arf-1 complex. We show that the binding to Arf-1 occurs through a large surface on the C-terminal subdomain that is composed of both hydrophobic and polar residues. Structure-based mutational analysis of the cytohesin-1 Sec7 domain has been used to identify residues important for binding to Arf and for mediating nucleotide exchange. Investigations into the interaction between the Sec7 domain and the β2 integrin cytoplasmic domain suggest that the two proteins do not interact in the solution phase. PMID:9653114

  3. Inhibitor-1 and -2 of PP2A have preference between PP2A complexes.

    PubMed

    Hino, Hirotsugu; Takaki, Kaori; Mochida, Satoru

    2015-11-13

    Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) forms tens of kinds of complexes with different substrate specificity and functions by using various regulatory B subunits. But how these complexes' activities are regulated separately is not well understood. Here we showed unequal enzyme inhibition of each form by two proteinous PP2A inhibitors, I1(PP2A) and I2(PP2A). Immunoprecipitation assay using Xenopus egg extract showed that I1(PP2A) bound B″/PR48, and I2(PP2A) bound B56γ and B″/PR48 among four B subunits analyzed. Thus I1(PP2A) and I2(PP2A) seem to have B-subunit specificity. These results support the hypothesis that PP2A complexes containing common catalytic subunit are individually regulated for their separate functions in vivo. PMID:26449453

  4. Inhibitor-1 and -2 of PP2A have preference between PP2A complexes.

    PubMed

    Hino, Hirotsugu; Takaki, Kaori; Mochida, Satoru

    2015-11-13

    Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) forms tens of kinds of complexes with different substrate specificity and functions by using various regulatory B subunits. But how these complexes' activities are regulated separately is not well understood. Here we showed unequal enzyme inhibition of each form by two proteinous PP2A inhibitors, I1(PP2A) and I2(PP2A). Immunoprecipitation assay using Xenopus egg extract showed that I1(PP2A) bound B″/PR48, and I2(PP2A) bound B56γ and B″/PR48 among four B subunits analyzed. Thus I1(PP2A) and I2(PP2A) seem to have B-subunit specificity. These results support the hypothesis that PP2A complexes containing common catalytic subunit are individually regulated for their separate functions in vivo.

  5. ppGpp: magic beyond RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Dalebroux, Zachary D; Swanson, Michele S

    2012-02-16

    During stress, bacteria undergo extensive physiological transformations, many of which are coordinated by ppGpp. Although ppGpp is best known for enhancing cellular resilience by redirecting the RNA polymerase (RNAP) to certain genes, it also acts as a signal in many other cellular processes in bacteria. After a brief overview of ppGpp biosynthesis and its impact on promoter selection by RNAP, we discuss how bacteria exploit ppGpp to modulate the synthesis, stability or activity of proteins or regulatory RNAs that are crucial in challenging environments, using mechanisms beyond the direct regulation of RNAP activity.

  6. Analysis of Vernier Scans during the PP2PP run in 2009 (pp at 100 GeV/beam)

    SciTech Connect

    Drees, A.

    2011-12-13

    At the end of RHIC's 2009 operation a dedicated run for the PP2PP experiment (part of the STAR experiment) took place from Jun 29 to Jul 06 2009. Polarized protons were accelerated to 100 GeV using ramp-file pp100-90pp2pp with a {beta}* = 22 m in IR6. Since only transverse polarization was required no rotator ramp was in use. The PP2PP experiment consists mainly of two Roman Pot detectors (one horizontal and one vertical) on either side of IR6 in the outgoing-beam arms between the Q3 and Q4 magnets. The yellow pots are in sector 5, the blue ones in sector 6. Roman Pot type detectors are installed inside the beampipe causing an accelerator safety concern. To address this concern there is a limit to the allowable total beam current in the machine while Roman Pots are enabled to move closer to the beam. This limit was set to a motion limit of 5 mm from the center of the beampipe and 50 {center_dot} 10{sup 11} beam current per ring. In order to reduce the background in the detectors, beams were scraped using the RHIC collimator system prior to moving the pots closer. This was typically repeated several times throughout a store since beam halo reforms over the course of hours.

  7. Texturing of polypropylene (PP) with nanosecond lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riveiro, A.; Soto, R.; del Val, J.; Comesaña, R.; Boutinguiza, M.; Quintero, F.; Lusquiños, F.; Pou, J.

    2016-06-01

    Polypropylene (PP) is a biocompatible and biostable polymer, showing good mechanical properties that has been recently introduced in the biomedical field for bone repairing applications; however, its poor surface properties due to its low surface energy limit their use in biomedical applications. In this work, we have studied the topographical modification of polypropylene (PP) laser textured with Nd:YVO4 nanosecond lasers emitting at λ = 1064 nm, 532 nm, and 355 nm. First, optical response of this material under these laser wavelengths was determined. The application of an absorbing coating was also studied. The influence of the laser processing parameters on the surface modification of PP was investigated by means of statistically designed experiments. Processing maps to tailor the roughness, and wettability, the main parameters affecting cell adhesion characteristics of implants, were also determined. Microhardness measurements were performed to discern the impact of laser treatment on the final mechanical properties of PP.

  8. The Popularity of P&P

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruffins, Paul

    2006-01-01

    "Principles and Practices" (P&P), a real estate pre-licensing class, is one of the most popular courses in adult education, because it can literally be the key to the dual American dreams: striking it rich and owning a home. One of the things that makes the P&P class unique is that it is taught in so many different venues. The classes are often…

  9. ICI/BASF PP for acrylics swap

    SciTech Connect

    Alperowicz, N.

    1993-01-27

    ICI (London) and BASF (Ludwigshafen) have announced their long-awaited polypropylene (PP) for acrylics swap deal. ICI is buying BASF's European acrylic resin business, and the German firm will acquire ICI's European PP operations. The deal is due for completion by mid-1993, subject to regulatory approvals. BASF, hitherto a small-scale PP producer, doubles capacity to 600,000 m.t./year and moves up the European PP league to number three, behind Himont and Shell. BASF, whose process is used in the plants, secures a foothold in the UK PP market, where Shell - planning a merger with Himont - is the only other producer, with 170,000 m.t./year. ICI's purchase involves BASF's Resart GmbH and Critesa SA subsidiaries, located at Mainz, Germany and near Barcelona, Spain, respectively. The business - which will add about [Brit pounds]60 million ($93 million) to ICI Acrylics [Brit pounds]300-million revenues - employs 400 people, who will transfer to ICI.

  10. Regulation of PP2A by Sphingolipid Metabolism and Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Oaks, Joshua; Ogretmen, Besim

    2014-01-01

    Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a serine/threonine phosphatase that is a primary regulator of cellular proliferation through targeting of proliferative kinases, cell cycle regulators, and apoptosis inhibitors. It is through the regulation of these regulatory elements that gives PP2A tumor suppressor functions. In addition to mutations on the regulatory subunits, the phosphatase/tumor suppressing activity of PP2A is also inhibited in several cancer types due to overexpression or modification of the endogenous PP2A inhibitors such as SET/I2PP2A. This review focuses on the current literature regarding the interactions between the lipid signaling molecules, selectively sphingolipids, and the PP2A inhibitor SET for the regulation of PP2A, and the therapeutic potential of sphingolipids as PP2A activators for tumor suppression via targeting SET oncoprotein. PMID:25642418

  11. Heavy quark production in pp collisions

    SciTech Connect

    McGaughey, P.L.; Quack, E.; Ruuskanen, P.V. |

    1995-07-01

    A systematic study of the inclusive single heavy quark and heavy-quark pair production cross sections in pp collisions is presented for RHIC and LHC energies. We compare with existing data when possible. The dependence of the rates on the renormalization and factorization scales is discussed. Predictions of the cross sections are given for two different sets of parton distribution functions.

  12. Off-Mass-Shell {pi}N Scattering and pp {yields} pp{pi}{sup 0}

    SciTech Connect

    Pena, M.T.; Coon, S.A.; Adam, J. Jr.; Stadler, A.

    2000-12-31

    The authors adapt the off-shell {pi}N amplitude of the Tucson-Melbourne three-body force to the half-off-shell amplitude of the pion rescattering contribution to pp {yields} pp{pi}{sup 0} near threshold. This pion rescattering contribution, together with the impluse term, provides a good description of the data when the half-off-shell amplitude is linked to the phenomenological invariant amplitudes obtained from meson factory {pi}N scattering data.

  13. High-energy pp and pp-bar forward elastic scattering and total cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Block, M.M.; Cahn, R.N.

    1985-04-01

    The present status of elastic pp and pp-bar scattering in the high-energy domain is reviewed, with emphasis on the forward and near-forward regions. The experimental techniques for measuring sigma/sub tot/, rho, and B are discussed, emphasizing the importance of the region in which the nuclear and Coulomb scattering interfere. The impact-parameter representation is exploited to give simple didactic demonstrations of important rigorous theorems based on analyticity, and to illuminate the significance of the slope parameter B and the curvature parameter C. Models of elastic scattering are discussed, and a criterion for the onset of ''asymptopia'' is given. A critique of dispersion relations is presented. Simple analytic functions are used to fit simultaneously the real and imaginary parts of forward scattering amplitudes for both pp and pp-bar, obtained from experimental data for sigma/sub tot/ and rho. It is found that a good fit can be obtained using only five parameters (with a cross section rising as ln/sup 2/s), over the energy range 5 < ..sqrt..s < 62 GeV. The possibilities that (a) the cross section rises only as lns, (b) the cross section rises only locally as ln/sup 2/s, and eventually goes to a constant value, and (c) the cross-section difference between pp and pp-bar does not vanish as s..-->..infinity are examined critically. The nuclear slope parameters B are also fitted in a model-independent fashion. Examination of the fits reveals a new regularity of the pp-bar and the pp systems.

  14. Nuclear trafficking of the human cytomegalovirus pp71 (ppUL82) tegument protein

    SciTech Connect

    Shen Weiping; Westgard, Elizabeth; Huang Liqun; Ward, Michael D.; Osborn, Jodi L.; Chau, Nha H.; Collins, Lindsay; Marcum, Benjamin; Koach, Margaret A.; Bibbs, Jennifer; Semmes, O. John; Kerry, Julie A.

    2008-06-20

    The human cytomegalovirus tegument protein pp71 localizes to the nucleus immediately upon infection, and functions to initiate viral gene expression. Analysis of a series of random insertion mutations revealed that sequences within the mid region (MR) of pp71 are important for localization to the nucleus. Fusion of MR sequences with eGFP revealed that amino acids 94 to 300 were sufficient to target proteins to the nucleus. Random substitution mutagenesis within this domain resulted in two double substitution mutants, pp71P203T/T223M and pp71T228M/L275Q, with a predominantly cytoplasmic localization. Disruption of nuclear targeting resulted in relocalization of the fusion proteins to a distinct perinuclear region. Using tandem mass spectrometry, we determined that threonine 223 can be phosphorylated. Mutation of this residue to a phosphomimetic amino acid resulted in abrogation of nuclear targeting. These results strongly suggest that the intracellular trafficking of pp71 is regulated by phosphorylation.

  15. Cytomegalovirus pp65 limits dissemination but is dispensable for persistence

    SciTech Connect

    Malouli, Daniel; Hansen, Scott G.; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Marshall, Emily E.; Hughes, Colette M.; Ventura, Abigail B.; Gilbride, Roxanne M.; Lewis, Matthew S.; Xu, Guangwu; Kreklywich, Craig; Whizin, Nathan; Fischer, Miranda; Legasse, Alfred W.; Viswanathan, Kasinath; Siess, Don; Camp, David G.; Axthelm, Michael K.; Kahl, Christoph; DeFilippis, Victor R.; Smith, Richard D.; Streblow, Daniel N.; Picker, Louis J.; Früh, Klaus

    2014-04-01

    The tegument phosphoprotein pp65 (UL83) is the most abundant virion protein in human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). Since pp65 is immunodominant in persistently infected individuals, subunit vaccines against HCMV often include pp65 as T cell stimulatory component. Although HCMV pp65 is non-essential for viral growth in vitro it is thought to have an important role in primary and persistent infection since pp65 displays multiple immunomodulatory functions. To determine whether pp65 is required for infection and to evaluate its role in natural and vaccination-induced immunity we generated a rhesus CMV lacking both homologues, pp65a (Rh111) and pp65b (Rh112). Lack of pp65 resulted in a slight growth defect in vitro and an increase of defective particle formation. However, most pp65-deleted virions in the supernatant were phenotypically normal and proteomics analysis revealed that the ratios of the remaining viral proteins were largely unchanged. RhCMV Δpp65ab was able to persistently infect CMV-negative rhesus macaques (RM) and to super-infect RM previously infected with CMV. To determine whether T cells against pp65 are essential for protection against CMV, we challenged Δpp65ab-infected animals with RhCMV ΔUS2-11, a viral recombinant that lacks inhibitors of MHC-I antigen presentation and is thus unable to overcome CMV-specific T cell immunity. Despite a complete lack of pp65-specific T cells, Δpp65ab protected against ΔUS2-11 challenge suggesting that pp65-specific T cells are not essential for T cell immunity against CMV. Using the same approach we further demonstrate that pp65b-specific T cells, induced by heterologous prime/boost vaccination, are not sufficient to protect against ΔUS2-11 challenge. Our data provides a new approach to test the efficacy of subunit vaccine candidates and suggest that pp65 vaccines are insufficient to induce a T cell response that recapitulates the protective effect of natural infection.

  16. Cytomegalovirus pp65 limits dissemination but is dispensable for persistence

    PubMed Central

    Malouli, Daniel; Hansen, Scott G.; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Marshall, Emily E.; Hughes, Colette M.; Ventura, Abigail B.; Gilbride, Roxanne M.; Lewis, Matthew S.; Xu, Guangwu; Kreklywich, Craig; Whizin, Nathan; Fischer, Miranda; Legasse, Alfred W.; Viswanathan, Kasinath; Siess, Don; Camp, David G.; Axthelm, Michael K.; Kahl, Christoph; DeFilippis, Victor R.; Smith, Richard D.; Streblow, Daniel N.; Picker, Louis J.; Früh, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    The most abundantly produced virion protein in human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the immunodominant phosphoprotein 65 (pp65), which is frequently included in CMV vaccines. Although it is nonessential for in vitro CMV growth, pp65 displays immunomodulatory functions that support a potential role in primary and/or persistent infection. To determine the contribution of pp65 to CMV infection and immunity, we generated a rhesus CMV lacking both pp65 orthologs (RhCMVΔpp65ab). While deletion of pp65ab slightly reduced growth in vitro and increased defective particle formation, the protein composition of secreted virions was largely unchanged. Interestingly, pp65 was not required for primary and persistent infection in animals. Immune responses induced by RhCMVΔpp65ab did not prevent reinfection with rhesus CMV; however, reinfection with RhCMVΔUS2-11, which lacks viral-encoded MHC-I antigen presentation inhibitors, was prevented. Unexpectedly, induction of pp65b-specific T cells alone did not protect against RhCMVΔUS2-11 challenge, suggesting that T cells targeting multiple CMV antigens are required for protection. However, pp65-specific immunity was crucial for controlling viral dissemination during primary infection, as indicated by the marked increase of RhCMVΔpp65ab genome copies in CMV-naive, but not CMV-immune, animals. Our data provide rationale for inclusion of pp65 into CMV vaccines but also demonstrate that pp65-induced T cell responses alone do not recapitulate the protective effect of natural infection. PMID:24691437

  17. PP-O and PP-V, Monascus pigment homologues, production, and phylogenetic analysis in Penicillium purpurogenum.

    PubMed

    Arai, Teppei; Kojima, Ryo; Motegi, Yoshiki; Kato, Jun; Kasumi, Takafumi; Ogihara, Jun

    2015-12-01

    The production of pigments as secondary metabolites by microbes is known to vary by species and by physiological conditions within a single strain. The fungus strain Penicillium purpurogenum IAM15392 has been found to produce violet pigment (PP-V) and orange pigment (PP-O),Monascus azaphilone pigment homologues, when grown under specific culture conditions. In this study, we analysed PP-V and PP-O production capability in seven strains of P. purpurogenum in addition to strain IAM15392 under specific culture conditions. The pigment production pattern of five strains cultivated in PP-V production medium was similar to that of strain IAM15392, and all violet pigments produced by these five strains were confirmed to be PP-V. Strains that did not produce pigment were also identified. In addition, two strains cultivated in PP-O production medium produced a violet pigment identified as PP-V. The ribosomal DNA (rDNA) internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region sequences from the eight P. purpurogenum strains were sequenced and used to construct a neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree. PP-O and PP-V production of P. purpurogenum was shown to be related to phylogenetic placement based on rDNA ITS sequence. Based on these results, two hypotheses for the alteration of pigment production of P. purpurogenum in evolution were proposed.

  18. Leading neutrons from polarized pp collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Kopeliovich, B. Z.; Potashnikova, I. K.; Schmidt, Ivan; Soffer, J.

    2008-10-13

    We calculate the cross section and single-spin azimuthal asymmetry, A{sub n}(t) for inclusive neutron production in pp collisions at forward rapidities relative to the polarized proton. Absorptive corrections to the pion pole generate a relative phase between the spin-flip and non-flip amplitudes, which leads to an appreciable spin asymmetry. However, the asymmetry observed recently in the PHENIX experiment at RHIC at very small |t|{approx}0.01 GeV{sup 2} cannot be explained by this mechanism.

  19. Grafting acrylic acid onto polypropylene by reactive extrusion with pre-irradiated PP as initiator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Chuanlun; Shi, Qiang; Li, Lili; Zhu, Lianchao; Yin, Jinghua

    2008-03-01

    In this paper, the modification of polypropylene (PP) with acrylic acid (AA) by reactive extrusion using pre-irradiated PP (rPP) as initiator was investigated. It was found the relatively high graft degree (Gd) and slight degradation of modified PP was obtained when 20 wt% rPP was used. This result can be explained in terms of effective concentration of free radicals. Compared with the neat PP, the modified PP showed the high-notched impact strength and improved adhesion of PP to polar substrate. This technique is of potential industrial interest for PP modification.

  20. Some topics in physics: PP2PP, DFT revisited and transition crossing in RHIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Chunmei

    2001-11-01

    This dissertation is composed of three independent parts. Part one describes the PP2PP experiment---an experiment to study the proton-proton elastic scattering to be performed in RHIC. Some phenomenological models to interpret the proton-proton elastic scattering are presented. Existing experimental data, unpolarized and polarized, are summarized. The physics goals of the PP2PP experiment are discussed. The experimental method and its simulation results are shown. Finally, the construction status, including the results of mechanical tests of the Roman pots and silicon detector test results are presented. In the second part, resonance analysis by Fourier transformation is studied. A "peak error" dilemma is raised and the solution is given. In the third part of this thesis, the Radial-Jump method to cross transition in RHIC is studied. Abundant simulation results are presented. From the simulation, the effect of several factors, such as jump size, momentum aperture, compaction factor alpha1, mistiming, ramping rate, etc. on the crossing efficiency and bunch area growth are discussed. The transition crossing results using Radial-Jump in the RHIC 2000 run are compared with simulation result. The agreement is satisfactory. The effect of space charge on the crossing result is also analyzed.

  1. Phosphatidic acid (PA) binds PP2AA1 to regulate PP2A activity and PIN1 polar localization.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hong-Bo; Chu, Yu-Jia; Xue, Hong-Wei

    2013-09-01

    Phospholipase D (PLD) exerts broad biological functions in eukaryotes through regulating downstream effectors by its product, phosphatidic acid (PA). Protein kinases and phosphatases, such as mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), Protein Phosphatase 1 (PP1) and Protein Phosphatase 2C (PP2C), are PA-binding proteins that execute crucial regulatory functions in both animals and plants. PA participates in many signaling pathways by modulating the enzymatic activity and/or subcellular localization of bound proteins. In this study, we demonstrated that PLD-derived PA interacts with the scaffolding A1 subunit of Protein Phosphatase 2A (PP2A) and regulates PP2A-mediated PIN1 dephosphorylation in Arabidopsis. Genetic and pharmacological studies showed that both PA and PP2A participate in the regulation of auxin distribution. In addition, both the phosphorylation status and polar localization of PIN1 protein were affected by PLD inhibitors. Exogenous PA triggered the membrane accumulation of PP2AA1 and enhanced the PP2A activity at membrane, while PLD inhibition resulted in the reduced endosomal localization and perinuclear aggregation of PP2AA1. These results demonstrate the important role of PLD-derived PA in normal PP2A-mediated PIN dephosphorylation and reveal a novel mechanism, in which PA recruits PP2AA1 to the membrane system and regulates PP2A function on membrane-targeted proteins. As PA and PP2A are conserved among eukaryotes, other organisms might use similar mechanisms to mediate multiple biological processes.

  2. Annexin proteins PP4 and PP4-X. Comparative characterization of biological activities of placental and recombinant proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Römisch, J; Grote, M; Weithmann, K U; Heimburger, N; Amann, E

    1990-01-01

    The human placental proteins PP4 and PP4-X, belonging to the annexin protein family, were expressed in Escherichia coli at high yield. The proteins were purified to homogeneity. The physicochemical parameters of the recombinant proteins were determined and compared with those of their natural placental counterparts. Except for a minor change in the pI, the proteins appeared to be indistinguishable by several criteria. Both recombinant PP4 and recombinant PP4-X were biologically active in a thromboplastin inhibition test and in a phospholipase A2 inhibition test. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:2148260

  3. Strangeness production in AA and pp collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castorina, Paolo; Satz, Helmut

    2016-07-01

    Boost-invariant hadron production in high-energy collisions occurs in causally disconnected regions of finite space-time size. As a result, globally conserved quantum numbers (charge, strangeness, baryon number) are conserved locally in spatially restricted correlation clusters. Their size is determined by two time scales: the equilibration time specifying the formation of a quark-gluon plasma, and the hadronization time, specifying the onset of confinement. The expected values for these scales provide the theoretical basis for the suppression observed for strangeness production in elementary interactions ( pp , e^+e^- below LHC energies. In contrast, the space-time superposition of individual collisions in high-energy heavy-ion interactions leads to higher energy densities, resulting in much later hadronization and hence much larger hadronization volumes. This largely removes the causality constraints and results in an ideal hadronic resonance gas in full chemical equilibrium. In the present paper, we determine the collision energies needed for that; we also estimate when pp collisions reach comparable hadronization volumes and thus determine when strangeness suppression should disappear there as well.

  4. Effects of overlapping strings in pp collisions

    DOE PAGES

    Bierlich, Christian; Gustafson, Gösta; Lönnblad, Leif; Tarasov, Andrey

    2015-03-26

    In models for hadron collisions based on string hadronization, the strings are usually treated as independent, allowing no interaction between the confined colour fields. In studies of nucleus collisions it has been suggested that strings close in space can fuse to form "colour ropes." Such ropes are expected to give more strange particles and baryons, which also has been suggested as a signal for plasma formation. Overlapping strings can also be expected in pp collisions, where usually no phase transition is expected. In particular at the high LHC energies the expected density of strings is quite high. To investigate possiblemore » effects of rope formation, we present a model in which strings are allowed to combine into higher multiplets, giving rise to increased production of baryons and strangeness, or recombine into singlet structures and vanish. Also a crude model for strings recombining into junction structures is considered, again giving rise to increased baryon production. The models are implemented in the DIPSY MC event generator, using PYTHIA8 for hadronization, and comparison to pp minimum bias data, reveals improvement in the description of identified particle spectra.« less

  5. Effects of overlapping strings in pp collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Bierlich, Christian; Gustafson, Gösta; Lönnblad, Leif; Tarasov, Andrey

    2015-03-26

    In models for hadron collisions based on string hadronization, the strings are usually treated as independent, allowing no interaction between the confined colour fields. In studies of nucleus collisions it has been suggested that strings close in space can fuse to form "colour ropes." Such ropes are expected to give more strange particles and baryons, which also has been suggested as a signal for plasma formation. Overlapping strings can also be expected in pp collisions, where usually no phase transition is expected. In particular at the high LHC energies the expected density of strings is quite high. To investigate possible effects of rope formation, we present a model in which strings are allowed to combine into higher multiplets, giving rise to increased production of baryons and strangeness, or recombine into singlet structures and vanish. Also a crude model for strings recombining into junction structures is considered, again giving rise to increased baryon production. The models are implemented in the DIPSY MC event generator, using PYTHIA8 for hadronization, and comparison to pp minimum bias data, reveals improvement in the description of identified particle spectra.

  6. Threshold pp-->ppπ0 up to one-loop accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, S.; Park, T.-S.; Min, D.-P.

    2001-06-01

    The pp-->ppπ0 cross section near threshold is computed up to one-loop order including the initial and final state interactions using the hybrid heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory and the counting rule a la Weinberg. With the counter terms whose coefficients are fixed by the resonance-saturation assumption, we find that the one-loop contributions are as important as the tree-order contribution and bring the present theoretical estimation of the total cross section close to the experimental data. The short-ranged contributions are controlled by means of a cutoff, and a mild cutoff dependence is observed when all diagrams of the given chiral order are summed. To the order treated, however, the expansion is found to converge rather slowly, calling for further studies of the process.

  7. Λ0 Polarization in Exclusive pp Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felix, J.

    2006-09-01

    Among all properties of baryons, the polarization they acquire when created from unpolarized p-nucleus collisions is the most recent discovered one; so far, the origin of this polarization remains unexplained in spite of the experimental evidences accumulated in the past thirty years. Up to these days, Λ0 is the most studied baryon for polarization, due to it is very easy to produce Λ0's at the energies of the principal high energy physics accelerators of the world. This article is a review of the experimental experience accumulated on the polarization of Λ0 in unpolarized exclusive pp collisions as function of xF, PT, and M(Λ0K+) in the past fifteen years here at the Instituto de Física, Universidad de Guanajuato, inside Fermilab e690 and Brookhaven National Laboratory e766 collaborations.

  8. /bar p/p collider physics

    SciTech Connect

    Green, D.

    1989-03-01

    This note encompasses a set of six lectures given at the summer school held at Campos Do Jordao in January of 1989 near Sao Paulo, Brazil. The intent of the lectures was to describe the physics of /bar p/p at CERN and Fermilab. Particular attention has been paid to making a self contained presentation to a prospective audience of graduate students. Since large Monte Carlo codes might not be available to all members of this audience, great reliance was placed on ''back of the envelope estimates.'' Emphasis was also placed on experimental data rather than theoretical speculation, since predictions for, for example, supersymmetric particle production are easily obtained by transcription of formulae already obtained. 9 refs., 67 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Comparison of forward and backward pp pair knockout in 3He(e,e'pp)n

    DOE PAGES

    Baghdasaryan, H.; Weinstein, L. B.; Laget, J. M.; Adhikari, K. P.; Aghasyan, M.; Amaryan, M. J.; Anghinolfi, M.; Ball, J.; Battaglieri, M.; Biselli, A. S.; et al

    2012-06-21

    Measuring nucleon-nucleon Short Range Correlations (SRC) has been a goal of the nuclear physics community for many years. They are an important part of the nuclear wavefunction, accounting for almost all of the high-momentum strength. They are closely related to the EMC effect. While their overall probability has been measured, measuring their momentum distributions is more difficult. In order to determine the best configuration for studying SRC momentum distributions, we measured the 3He(e,e'pp)n reaction, looking at events with high momentum protons (pp > 0.35 GeV/c) and a low momentum neutron (pn < 0.2 GeV/c). We examined two angular configurations: eithermore » both protons emitted forward or one proton emitted forward and one backward (with respect to the momentum transfer, →q). Thus, the measured relative momentum distribution of the events with one forward and one backward proton was much closer to the calculated initial-state pp relative momentum distribution, indicating that this is the preferred configuration for measuring SRC.« less

  10. Setting the scale of the pp and pp total cross sections using AdS/QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Domokos, Sophia K.; Harvey, Jeffrey A.; Mann, Nelia

    2010-11-15

    This paper is an addendum to earlier work where we computed the Pomeron contribution to pp and pp scattering in AdS/QCD. Our model for pp scattering in the Regge regime depends on four parameters: the slope and intercept of the Pomeron trajectory {alpha}{sub c}{sup '}, {alpha}{sub c}(0), a mass scale M{sub d}, which determines a form factor entering into matrix elements of the energy-momentum tensor, and a coupling {lambda}{sub P} between the lightest spin-two glueball and the proton, which sets the overall scale of the total cross section. Here we perform a more detailed computation of {lambda}{sub P} in the Sakai-Sugimoto model by using the construction of nucleons as instantons of the dual 5D gauge theory and an effective 5D fermion description of these nucleons which has been successfully used to compute a variety of nucleon-meson couplings. We find {lambda}{sub P,SS{approx_equal}}6.38 GeV{sup -1}, which is in reasonable agreement with the value {lambda}{sub P,fit}=8.28 GeV{sup -1} determined by fitting single Pomeron exchange to data.

  11. Usage of tautomycetin, a novel inhibitor of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1), reveals that PP1 is a positive regulator of Raf-1 in vivo.

    PubMed

    Mitsuhashi, Shinya; Shima, Hiroshi; Tanuma, Nobuhiro; Matsuura, Nobuyasu; Takekawa, Mutsuhiro; Urano, Takeshi; Kataoka, Tohru; Ubukata, Makoto; Kikuchi, Kunimi

    2003-01-01

    Protein phosphatase type 1 (PP1), together with protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), is a major eukaryotic serine/threonine protein phosphatase involved in regulation of numerous cell functions. Although the roles of PP2A have been studied extensively using okadaic acid, a well known inhibitor of PP2A, biological analysis of PP1 has remained restricted because of lack of a specific inhibitor. Recently we reported that tautomycetin (TC) is a highly specific inhibitor of PP1. To elucidate the biological effects of TC, we demonstrated in preliminary experiments that treatment of COS-7 cells with 5 microm TC for 5 h inhibits endogenous PP1 by more than 90% without affecting PP2A activity. Therefore, using TC as a specific PP1 inhibitor, the biological effect of PP1 on MAPK signaling was examined. First, we found that inhibition of PP1 in COS-7 cells by TC specifically suppresses activation of ERK, among three MAPK kinases (ERK, JNK, and p38). TC-mediated inhibition of PP1 also suppressed activation of Raf-1, resulting in the inactivation of the MEK-ERK pathway. To examine the role of PP1 in regulation of Raf-1, we overexpressed the PP1 catalytic subunit (PP1C) in COS-7 cells and found that PP1C enhanced activation of Raf-1 activity, whereas phosphatase-dead PP1C blocked Raf-1 activation. Furthermore, a physical interaction between PP1C and Raf-1 was also observed. These data strongly suggest that PP1 positively regulates Raf-1 in vivo.

  12. (p)ppGpp and the bacterial cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Nazir, Aanisa; Harinarayanan, Rajendran

    2016-06-01

    Genes of the Rel/Spo homolog (RSH) superfamily synthesize and/or hydrolyse the modified nucleotides pppGpp/ ppGpp (collectively referred to as (p)ppGpp) and are prevalent across diverse bacteria and in plant chloroplasts. Bacteria accumulate (p)ppGpp in response to nutrient deprivation (generically called the stringent response) and elicit appropriate adaptive responses mainly through the regulation of transcription. Although at different concentrations (p)ppGpp affect the expression of distinct set of genes, the two well-characterized responses are reduction in expression of the protein synthesis machinery and increase in the expression of genes coding for amino acid biosynthesis. In Escherichia coli, the cellular (p)ppGpp level inversely correlates with the growth rate and increasing its concentration decreases the steady state growth rate in a defined growth medium. Since change in growth rate must be accompanied by changes in cell cycle parameters set through the activities of the DNA replication and cell division apparatus, (p)ppGpp could coordinate protein synthesis (cell mass increase) with these processes. Here we review the role of (p)ppGpp in bacterial cell cycle regulation.

  13. The magic dance of the alarmones (p)ppGpp.

    PubMed

    Steinchen, Wieland; Bange, Gert

    2016-08-01

    The alarmones (p)ppGpp are important second messengers that orchestrate pleiotropic adaptations of bacteria and plant chloroplasts in response to starvation and stress. Here, we review our structural and mechanistic knowledge on (p)ppGpp metabolism including their synthesis, degradation and interconversion by a highly diverse set of enzymes. Increasing structural information shows how (p)ppGpp interacts with an incredibly diverse set of different targets that are essential for replication, transcription, translation, ribosome assembly and metabolism. This raises the question how the chemically rather simple (p)ppGpp is able to interact with these different targets? Structural analysis shows that the diversity of (p)ppGpp interaction with cellular targets critically relies on the conformational flexibility of the 3' and 5' phosphate moieties allowing alarmones to efficiently modulate the activity of target structures in a broad concentration range. Current approaches in the design of (p)ppGpp-analogs as future antibiotics might be aided by the comprehension of conformational flexibility exhibited by the magic dancers (p)ppGpp.

  14. ALA-induced PpIX fluorescence in epileptogenic tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleen, Jonathan K.; Valdes, Pablo A.; Harris, Brent T.; Holmes, Gregory L.; Paulsen, Keith D.; Roberts, David W.

    2011-03-01

    Astrogliotic tissue displays markedly increased levels of ALA-induced PpIX fluorescence, making it useful for fluorescence-guided resection in glioma surgery. In patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and corresponding animal models, there are areas of astrogliosis that often co-localize with the epileptic focus, which can be resected to eliminate seizures in the majority of treated patients. If this epileptogenic tissue can exhibit PpIX fluorescence that is sufficiently localized, it could potentially help identify margins in epilepsy surgery. We tested the hypothesis that ALA-induced PpIX fluorescence could visually accentuate epileptogenic tissue, using an established animal model of chronic TLE. An acute dose of pilocarpine was used to induce chronic seizure activity in a rat. This rat and a normal control were given ALA, euthanized, and brains examined post-mortem for PpIX fluorescence and neuropathology. Preliminary evidence indicates increased PpIX fluorescence in areas associated with chronic epileptic changes and seizure generation in TLE, including the hippocampus and parahippocampal areas. In addition, strong PpIX fluorescence was clearly observed in layer II of the piriform cortex, a region known for epileptic reorganization and involvement in the generation of seizures in animal studies. We are further investigating whether ALA-induced PpIX fluorescence can consistently identify epileptogenic zones, which could warrant the extension of this technique to clinical studies for use as an adjuvant guidance technology in the resection of epileptic tissue.

  15. (p)ppGpp and the bacterial cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Nazir, Aanisa; Harinarayanan, Rajendran

    2016-06-01

    Genes of the Rel/Spo homolog (RSH) superfamily synthesize and/or hydrolyse the modified nucleotides pppGpp/ ppGpp (collectively referred to as (p)ppGpp) and are prevalent across diverse bacteria and in plant chloroplasts. Bacteria accumulate (p)ppGpp in response to nutrient deprivation (generically called the stringent response) and elicit appropriate adaptive responses mainly through the regulation of transcription. Although at different concentrations (p)ppGpp affect the expression of distinct set of genes, the two well-characterized responses are reduction in expression of the protein synthesis machinery and increase in the expression of genes coding for amino acid biosynthesis. In Escherichia coli, the cellular (p)ppGpp level inversely correlates with the growth rate and increasing its concentration decreases the steady state growth rate in a defined growth medium. Since change in growth rate must be accompanied by changes in cell cycle parameters set through the activities of the DNA replication and cell division apparatus, (p)ppGpp could coordinate protein synthesis (cell mass increase) with these processes. Here we review the role of (p)ppGpp in bacterial cell cycle regulation. PMID:27240988

  16. PP and PS interferometric images of near-seafloor sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haines, S.S.

    2011-01-01

    I present interferometric processing examples from an ocean-bottom cable OBC dataset collected at a water depth of 800 m in the Gulf of Mexico. Virtual source and receiver gathers created through cross-correlation of full wavefields show clear PP reflections and PS conversions from near-seafloor layers of interest. Virtual gathers from wavefield-separated data show improved PP and PS arrivals. PP and PS brute stacks from the wavefield-separated data compare favorably with images from a non-interferometric processing flow. ?? 2011 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  17. EMODnet Physical Parameters (EMODNet PP) Portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novellino, A.; Schaap, D.; Manzella, G. M. R.; Pouliquen, S.; Gorringe, P.

    2012-04-01

    In December 2007 the European Parliament and Council adopted a common text for the Marine Strategy Framework Directive which aims to achieve environmentally healthy marine waters by 2020. This Directive includes an initiative for an overarching European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODNet). During the one-year consultation phase that followed the release of the EU Green Paper on a Future Maritime Policy for the European Union, stakeholders gave an overwhelming positive response. Facilitating access to high quality marine data will resolve difficulties and stimulate an expansion of value-added public and commercial services, lay the foundations for sound governance and reduce uncertainties on human impact on the planet as well as of forecasts relating to the future state of the marine environment. Better and linked marine data will have an immediate impact on the planning of environmental policy and mitigation measures, and will also facilitate impact assessments and scientific work. The overall objectives of the EMODnet Physical Parameters (EMODNet PP) preparatory action is to provide access to archived and near real-time data on physical conditions in Europe's seas and oceans by means of a dedicated Pilot Portal and to determine how well the data meet the needs of users from industry, public authorities and scientists. The latter implicates that it is also an objective to identify data gaps and arguments why these gaps should be filled in future monitoring. This project will contribute towards the definition of an operational European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet). This is done done by: 1. providing through a portal: a. access to marine data from measurement stations and ferryboxes. Both near real-time and archived data of time series are to be made available. b. metadata for these data sets using EMODnet/INSPIRE standards. c. metadata maps and overviews for whole sea-basins showing the availability of data and monitoring intensity of that

  18. PP composites with Hybrid Nanofillers: NTC phenomenon

    SciTech Connect

    Sarlin, Juha; Immonen, Kirsi

    2010-06-02

    Electric conductive plastic composites have a wide potential for commercial applications, some examples are EMI shielding housings and components in automotive industry and in consumer electronics, equipments in health care sector and fuel cell components. A phenomenon in conductive composites, especially in composites with carbon based fillers, is change of thermal induced change in conductivity as a result of morphological transitions. Usually the observed changes are practically irreversible. The phenomenon may cause increasing resistivity, usually called as 'positive temperature coefficient' (PTC) or decreasing resistivity, called 'negative temperature coefficient' (NTC), where the new morphology created by heat treatment is more favorable for electric conductivity compared to the original state. The existence of NTC is a sing of the lost potential in material design and processing. Therefore detailed information about the phenomenon gives us tools to develop high performance conductive materials. It this paper we discuss about NTC phenomenon observed in PP composites with CNT or in-situ synthesized CNT-PANi hybrid nanofiller with an amphiphilic dispersing agent. The goal of the paper is not to present a comprehensive model of this phenomenon; we present some experimental results which may be related to polymer-filler interactions. These details are a part of this complicated phenomenon.

  19. Surface treated polypropylene (PP) fibres for reinforced concrete

    SciTech Connect

    López-Buendía, Angel M.; Romero-Sánchez, María Dolores; Climent, Verónica

    2013-12-15

    Surface treatments on a polypropylene (PP) fibre have contributed to the improvement of fibre/concrete adhesion in fibre-reinforced concrete. The treatments to the PP fibre were characterized by contact angle measurements, ATR-IR and XPS to analyse chemical alterations. The surface topography and fibre/concrete interaction were analysed by several microscopic techniques, namely optical petrographic, and scanning electron microscopy. Treatment modified the surface chemistry and topography of the fibre by introducing sodium moieties and created additional fibre surface roughness. Modifications in the fibre surface led to an increase in the adhesion properties between the treated fibres and concrete and an improvement in the mechanical properties of the fibre-reinforced concrete composite as compared to the concrete containing untreated PP fibres. Compatibility with the concrete and increased roughness and mineral surface was also improved by nucleated portlandite and ettringite mineral association anchored on the alkaline PP fibre surface, which is induced during treatment.

  20. Singular PP waves, Junction Conditions and BPS States

    SciTech Connect

    Canfora, Fabrizio; Vilasi, Gaetano

    2005-03-16

    A simple model to study the collision of PP waves via the Israel junction conditions is proposed. The junction conditions are interpreted as topological conservation laws, and the relation with BPS states is shortly described.

  1. Heavy neutrinos and the pp → lljj CMS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gluza, Janusz; Jeliński, Tomasz

    2015-09-01

    We show that the excess in the pp → eejj CMS data can be naturally interpreted within the Minimal Left-Right Symmetric model (MLRSM), keeping gL =gR, if CP phases and non-degenerate masses of heavy neutrinos are taken into account. As an additional benefit, a natural interpretation of the reported ratio (14 : 1) of the opposite-sign (OS) pp →l±l∓ jj to the same-sign (SS) pp →l±l± jj lepton signals is possible. Finally, a suppression of muon pairs with respect to electron pairs in the pp → lljj data is obtained, in accordance with experimental data. If the excess in the CMS data survives in the future, it would be a first clear hint towards presence of heavy neutrinos in right-handed charged currents with specific CP phases, mixing angles and masses, which will have far reaching consequences for particle physics directions.

  2. pp waves of conformal gravity with self-interacting source

    SciTech Connect

    Ayon-Beato, Eloy . E-mail: ayon@cecs.cl; Hassaine, Mokhtar . E-mail: hassaine@cecs.cl

    2005-05-01

    Recently, Deser, Jackiw and Pi have shown that three-dimensional conformal gravity with a source given by a conformally coupled scalar field admits pp wave solutions. In this paper, we consider this model with a self-interacting potential preserving the conformal structure. A pp wave geometry is also supported by this system and, we show that this model is equivalent to topologically massive gravity with a cosmological constant whose value is given in terms of the potential strength.

  3. High p{sub T} jet production in pp collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Eskola, K.J.; Wang, X.N.

    1995-07-01

    Production rates of large p{sub T} jets in pp collisions at RHIC and LHC energies are studied using the next-to-leading order calculation of S. D. Ellis, Z. Zunszt and D. Soper. The computed inclusive one-jet cross sections are compared against the CERN and Fermilab jet data from p{bar p} and pp collisions. The dependence of the results on the choice of the parton distributions and renormalization/factorization scales is investigated.

  4. pp-waves with torsion and metric-affine gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasic, Vedad; Vassiliev, Dmitri

    2005-10-01

    A classical pp-wave is a four-dimensional Lorentzian spacetime which admits a nonvanishing parallel spinor field; here the connection is assumed to be Levi-Civita. We generalize this definition to metric compatible spacetimes with torsion and describe basic properties of such spacetimes. We use our generalized pp-waves for constructing new explicit vacuum solutions of quadratic metric-affine gravity.

  5. Mitotic exit: Determining the PP2A dephosphorylation program.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Gislene; Schiebel, Elmar

    2016-08-29

    In mitotic exit, proteins that were highly phosphorylated are sequentially targeted by the phosphatase PP2A-B55, but what underlies substrate selection is unclear. In this issue, Cundell et al. (2016. J. Cell Biol http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201606033) identify the determinants of PP2A-B55's dephosphorylation program, thereby influencing spindle disassembly, nuclear envelope reformation, and cytokinesis.

  6. Onset of radial flow in p+p collisions

    DOE PAGES

    Jiang, Kun; Zhu, Yinying; Liu, Weitao; Chen, Hongfang; Li, Cheng; Ruan, Lijuan; Tang, Zebo; Xu, Zhangbu

    2015-02-23

    It has been debated for decades whether hadrons emerging from p+p collisions exhibit collective expansion. The signal of the collective motion in p+p collisions is not as clear as in heavy-ion collisions because of the low multiplicity and large fluctuation in p+p collisions. Tsallis Blast-Wave (TBW) model is a thermodynamic approach, introduced to handle the overwhelming correlation and fluctuation in the hadronic processes. We have systematically studied the identified particle spectra in p+p collisions from RHIC to LHC using TBW and found no appreciable radial flow in p+p collisions below √s = 900 GeV. At LHC higher energy of 7more » TeV in p+p collisions, the radial flow velocity achieves an average of (β) = 0.320 ± 0.005. This flow velocity is comparable to that in peripheral (40-60%) Au+Au collisions at RHIC. In addition, breaking of the identified particle spectra mT scaling was also observed at LHC from a model independent test.« less

  7. Overexpression of a novel Arabidopsis PP2C isoform, AtPP2CF1, enhances plant biomass production by increasing inflorescence stem growth.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Hiroki; Kondo, Satoshi; Tanaka, Tomoko; Imamura, Chie; Muramoto, Nobuhiko; Hattori, Etsuko; Ogawa, Ken'ichi; Mitsukawa, Norihiro; Ohto, Chikara

    2014-10-01

    In contrast to mammals, higher plants have evolved to express diverse protein phosphatase 2Cs (PP2Cs). Of all Arabidopsis thaliana PP2Cs, members of PP2C subfamily A, including ABI1, have been shown to be key negative regulators of abscisic acid (ABA) signalling pathways, which regulate plant growth and development as well as tolerance to adverse environmental conditions. However, little is known about the enzymatic and signalling roles of other PP2C subfamilies. Here, we report a novel Arabidopsis subfamily E PP2C gene, At3g05640, designated AtPP2CF1. AtPP2CF1 was dramatically expressed in response to exogenous ABA and was expressed in vascular tissues and guard cells, similar to most subfamily A PP2C genes. In vitro enzymatic activity assays showed that AtPP2CF1 possessed functional PP2C activity. However, yeast two-hybrid analysis revealed that AtPP2CF1 did not interact with PYR/PYL/RCAR receptors or three SnRK2 kinases, which are ABI1-interacting proteins. This was supported by homology-based structural modelling demonstrating that the putative active- and substrate-binding site of AtPP2CF1 differed from that of ABI1. Furthermore, while overexpression of ABI1 in plants induced an ABA-insensitive phenotype, Arabidopsis plants overexpressing AtPP2CF1 (AtPP2CF1oe) were weakly hypersensitive to ABA during seed germination and drought stress. Unexpectedly, AtPP2CF1oe plants also exhibited increased biomass yield, mainly due to accelerated growth of inflorescence stems through the activation of cell proliferation and expansion. Our results provide new insights into the physiological significance of AtPP2CF1 as a candidate gene for plant growth production and for potential application in the sustainable supply of plant biomass.

  8. Overexpression of a novel Arabidopsis PP2C isoform, AtPP2CF1, enhances plant biomass production by increasing inflorescence stem growth.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Hiroki; Kondo, Satoshi; Tanaka, Tomoko; Imamura, Chie; Muramoto, Nobuhiko; Hattori, Etsuko; Ogawa, Ken'ichi; Mitsukawa, Norihiro; Ohto, Chikara

    2014-10-01

    In contrast to mammals, higher plants have evolved to express diverse protein phosphatase 2Cs (PP2Cs). Of all Arabidopsis thaliana PP2Cs, members of PP2C subfamily A, including ABI1, have been shown to be key negative regulators of abscisic acid (ABA) signalling pathways, which regulate plant growth and development as well as tolerance to adverse environmental conditions. However, little is known about the enzymatic and signalling roles of other PP2C subfamilies. Here, we report a novel Arabidopsis subfamily E PP2C gene, At3g05640, designated AtPP2CF1. AtPP2CF1 was dramatically expressed in response to exogenous ABA and was expressed in vascular tissues and guard cells, similar to most subfamily A PP2C genes. In vitro enzymatic activity assays showed that AtPP2CF1 possessed functional PP2C activity. However, yeast two-hybrid analysis revealed that AtPP2CF1 did not interact with PYR/PYL/RCAR receptors or three SnRK2 kinases, which are ABI1-interacting proteins. This was supported by homology-based structural modelling demonstrating that the putative active- and substrate-binding site of AtPP2CF1 differed from that of ABI1. Furthermore, while overexpression of ABI1 in plants induced an ABA-insensitive phenotype, Arabidopsis plants overexpressing AtPP2CF1 (AtPP2CF1oe) were weakly hypersensitive to ABA during seed germination and drought stress. Unexpectedly, AtPP2CF1oe plants also exhibited increased biomass yield, mainly due to accelerated growth of inflorescence stems through the activation of cell proliferation and expansion. Our results provide new insights into the physiological significance of AtPP2CF1 as a candidate gene for plant growth production and for potential application in the sustainable supply of plant biomass. PMID:25038254

  9. Overexpression of RelA/SpoT homologs, PpRSH2a and PpRSH2b, induces the growth suppression of the moss Physcomitrella patens.

    PubMed

    Sato, Michio; Takahashi, Tomohiro; Ochi, Kozo; Matsuura, Hideyuki; Nabeta, Kensuke; Takahashi, Kosaku

    2015-01-01

    Two genes encoding RelA/SpoT homologs, PpRSH2a and PpRSH2b, which are involved in the synthesis of bacterial alarmone guanosine 5'-diphosphate 3'-diphosphate (ppGpp) for the stringent response, were isolated from the moss, Physcomitrella patens. A complementary analysis of PpRSH2a and PpRSH2b in Escherichia coli showed that these genes had ppGpp biosynthetic activity. The recombinant PpRSH2a and PpRSH2b were also shown to synthesize ppGpp in vitro. Both proteins were localized to the chloroplasts of P. patens. Expression of the PpRSH genes was induced upon treatment with abscisic acid or abiotic stresses, such as dehydration and UV irradiation. Overexpression of PpRSH2a and PpRSH2b caused suppression of the growth in response to 1% (w/v) of glucose. The present study suggests the existence of a mechanism to regulate the growth of P. patens, which is governed by plant RSH in chloroplasts.

  10. GR@PPA 2.7 event generator for pp/pp¯ collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuno, S.; Kaneko, T.; Kurihara, Y.; Odaka, S.; Kato, K.

    2006-11-01

    The GR@PPA event generator has been updated to version 2.7. This distribution provides event generators for V ( W or Z) + jets (⩽4 jets), VV+jets (⩽2 jets) and QCD multi-jet (⩽4 jets) production processes at pp and pp¯ collisions, in addition to the four bottom quark productions implemented in our previous work (GR@PPA_4b). Also included are the top-pair and top-pair + jet production processes, where the correlation between the decay products are fully reproduced at the tree level. Namely, processes up to seven-body productions can be simulated, based on ordinary Feynman diagram calculations at the tree level. In this version, the GR@PPA framework and the process dependent matrix-element routines are separately provided. This makes it easier to add further new processes, and allows users to make a choice of processes to implement. This version also has several new features to handle complicated multi-body production processes. A systematic way to combine many subprocesses to a single base-subprocess has been introduced, and a new method has been adopted to calculate the color factors of complicated QCD processes. They speed up the calculation significantly. Program summaryTitle of program:GR@PPA (v2.7) Catalogue identifier:ADRH_v2_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADRH_v2_0 Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Operating system under which the program has been tested:UNIX Programming language used:Fortran77 Other CPC library programs required:PYTHIA, HERWIG, BASES, SPRING Memory required to execute with typical data:56.5 kwords for an integration, 74.6 kwords for an event generation Number of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 570 587 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.:143 327 Distribution format:tar.gz Nature of physical problem:The multi-legs interaction processes have become more important with increasing the colliding energy available

  11. Diversity in (p)ppGpp metabolism and effectors

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kuanqing; Bittner, Alycia N.; Wang, Jue D.

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria produce guanosine tetraphosphate and pentaphosphate, collectively named (p)ppGpp, in response to a variety of environmental stimuli. These two remarkable molecules regulate many cellular processes, including the central dogma processes and metabolism, to ensure survival and adaptation. Work in Escherichia coli laid the foundation for understanding the molecular details of (p)ppGpp and its cellular functions. As recent studies expand to other species, it is apparent that there exists considerable variation, with respect to not only (p)ppGpp metabolism, but also to its mechanism of action. From an evolutionary standpoint, this diversification is an elegant example of how different species adapt a particular regulatory network to their diverse lifestyles. PMID:25636134

  12. Diversity in (p)ppGpp metabolism and effectors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kuanqing; Bittner, Alycia N; Wang, Jue D

    2015-04-01

    Bacteria produce guanosine tetraphosphate and pentaphosphate, collectively named (p)ppGpp, in response to a variety of environmental stimuli. These two remarkable molecules regulate many cellular processes, including the central dogma processes and metabolism, to ensure survival and adaptation. Work in Escherichia coli laid the foundation for understanding the molecular details of (p)ppGpp and its cellular functions. As recent studies expand to other species, it is apparent that there exists considerable variation, with respect to not only (p)ppGpp metabolism, but also to its mechanism of action. From an evolutionary standpoint, this diversification is an elegant example of how different species adapt a particular regulatory network to their diverse lifestyles.

  13. Development and validation of a robust and sensitive assay for the discovery of selective inhibitors for serine/threonine protein phosphatases PP1α (PPP1C) and PP5 (PPP5C).

    PubMed

    Swingle, Mark R; Honkanen, Richard E

    2014-10-01

    Protein phosphatase types 1 α (PP1α/PPP1C) and 5 (PP5/PPP5C) are members of the PPP family of serine/threonine protein phosphatases. PP1 and PP5 share a common catalytic mechanism, and several natural compounds, including okadaic acid, microcystin, and cantharidin, act as strong inhibitors of both enzymes. However, to date there have been no reports of compounds that can selectively inhibit PP1 or PP5, and specific or highly selective inhibitors for either PP1 or PP5 are greatly desired by both the research and pharmaceutical communities. Here we describe the development and optimization of a sensitive and robust (representative PP5C assay data: Z'=0.93; representative PP1Cα assay data: Z'=0.90) fluorescent phosphatase assay that can be used to simultaneously screen chemical libraries and natural product extracts for the presence of catalytic inhibitors of PP1 and PP5. PMID:25383722

  14. Development and validation of a robust and sensitive assay for the discovery of selective inhibitors for serine/threonine protein phosphatases PP1α (PPP1C) and PP5 (PPP5C).

    PubMed

    Swingle, Mark R; Honkanen, Richard E

    2014-10-01

    Protein phosphatase types 1 α (PP1α/PPP1C) and 5 (PP5/PPP5C) are members of the PPP family of serine/threonine protein phosphatases. PP1 and PP5 share a common catalytic mechanism, and several natural compounds, including okadaic acid, microcystin, and cantharidin, act as strong inhibitors of both enzymes. However, to date there have been no reports of compounds that can selectively inhibit PP1 or PP5, and specific or highly selective inhibitors for either PP1 or PP5 are greatly desired by both the research and pharmaceutical communities. Here we describe the development and optimization of a sensitive and robust (representative PP5C assay data: Z'=0.93; representative PP1Cα assay data: Z'=0.90) fluorescent phosphatase assay that can be used to simultaneously screen chemical libraries and natural product extracts for the presence of catalytic inhibitors of PP1 and PP5.

  15. pp wave big bangs: Matrix strings and shrinking fuzzy spheres

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Sumit R.; Michelson, Jeremy

    2005-10-15

    We find pp wave solutions in string theory with null-like linear dilatons. These provide toy models of big bang cosmologies. We formulate matrix string theory in these backgrounds. Near the big bang 'singularity', the string theory becomes strongly coupled but the Yang-Mills description of the matrix string is weakly coupled. The presence of a second length scale allows us to focus on a specific class of non-Abelian configurations, viz. fuzzy cylinders, for a suitable regime of parameters. We show that, for a class of pp waves, fuzzy cylinders which start out big at early times dynamically shrink into usual strings at sufficiently late times.

  16. 75 FR 78705 - Issuance of Exposure Drafts on Implementation Guidance on the Accounting for the Disposal of G-PP...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-16

    ... G-PP&E and Implementation Guidance for Estimating the Historical Cost of G-PP&E AGENCY: Federal... Guidance on the Accounting for the Disposal of G-PP&E and Implementation Guidance for Estimating...

  17. Polarized proton parameters for the 2015 PP-on-Au setup in RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, C. J.

    2015-08-25

    Values are given for RHIC circumference shifts due to snakes for various situations. Relevant parameters are tabulated for polarized protons (PP) in the booster and in AGS and RHIC for PP-on-Au stores.

  18. Polarized proton parameters for the 2015 PP-on-Aluminum setup in RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, C. J.

    2015-10-02

    Values are given for RHIC circumference shifts due to snakes for various situations. Relevant parameters are tabulated for polarized protons (PP) in the booster and in AGS and RHIC for PP-on-Aluminum stores.

  19. The Cloning and Functional Characterization of Peach CONSTANS and FLOWERING LOCUS T Homologous Genes PpCO and PpFT

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Thi Hung; Liang, Huike; Wang, Rui; Liu, Xiayan; Li, Tianhong; Qi, Yafei; Yu, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Flowering is an essential stage of plant growth and development. The successful transition to flowering not only ensures the completion of plant life cycles, it also serves as the basis for the production of economically important seeds and fruits. CONSTANS (CO) and FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) are two genes playing critical roles in flowering time control in Arabidopsis. Through homology-based cloning and rapid-amplifications of cDNA ends (RACE), we obtained full-lengths cDNA sequences of Prunus persica CO (PpCO) and Prunus persica FT (PpFT) from peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) and investigated their functions in flowering time regulation. PpCO and PpFT showed high homologies to Arabidopsis CO and FT at DNA, mRNA and protein levels. We showed that PpCO and PpFT were nucleus-localized and both showed transcriptional activation activities in yeast cells, consistent with their potential roles as transcription activators. Moreover, we established that the over-expression of PpCO could restore the late flowering phenotype of the Arabidopsis co-2 mutant, and the late flowering defect of the Arabidopsis ft-1 mutant can be rescued by the over-expression of PpFT, suggesting functional conservations of CO and FT genes in peach and Arabidopsis. Our results suggest that PpCO and PpFT are homologous genes of CO and FT in peach and they may function in regulating plant flowering time. PMID:25905637

  20. The Cloning and Functional Characterization of Peach CONSTANS and FLOWERING LOCUS T Homologous Genes PpCO and PpFT.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiang; An, Lijun; Nguyen, Thi Hung; Liang, Huike; Wang, Rui; Liu, Xiayan; Li, Tianhong; Qi, Yafei; Yu, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Flowering is an essential stage of plant growth and development. The successful transition to flowering not only ensures the completion of plant life cycles, it also serves as the basis for the production of economically important seeds and fruits. CONSTANS (CO) and FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) are two genes playing critical roles in flowering time control in Arabidopsis. Through homology-based cloning and rapid-amplifications of cDNA ends (RACE), we obtained full-lengths cDNA sequences of Prunus persica CO (PpCO) and Prunus persica FT (PpFT) from peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) and investigated their functions in flowering time regulation. PpCO and PpFT showed high homologies to Arabidopsis CO and FT at DNA, mRNA and protein levels. We showed that PpCO and PpFT were nucleus-localized and both showed transcriptional activation activities in yeast cells, consistent with their potential roles as transcription activators. Moreover, we established that the over-expression of PpCO could restore the late flowering phenotype of the Arabidopsis co-2 mutant, and the late flowering defect of the Arabidopsis ft-1 mutant can be rescued by the over-expression of PpFT, suggesting functional conservations of CO and FT genes in peach and Arabidopsis. Our results suggest that PpCO and PpFT are homologous genes of CO and FT in peach and they may function in regulating plant flowering time.

  1. Genetic characterization of two fully sequenced multi-drug resistant plasmids pP10164-2 and pP10164-3 from Leclercia adecarboxylata

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Fengjun; Zhou, Dongsheng; Sun, Qiang; Luo, Wenbo; Tong, Yigang; Zhang, Defu; Wang, Qian; Feng, Wei; Chen, Weijun; Fan, Yahan; Xia, Peiyuan

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported the complete sequence of the resistance plasmid pP10164-NDM, harboring blaNDM (conferring carbapenem resistance) and bleMBL (conferring bleomycin resistance), which is recovered from a clinical Leclercia adecarboxylata isolate P10164 from China. This follow-up work disclosed that there were still two multidrug-resistant (MDR) plasmids pP10164-2 and pP10164-3 coexisting in this strain. pP10164-2 and pP10164-3 were completely sequenced and shown to carry a wealth of resistance genes, which encoded the resistance to at least 10 classes of antibiotics (β-lactams. macrolides, quinolones, aminoglycosides, tetracyclines, amphenicols, quaternary ammonium compounds, sulphonamides, trimethoprim, and rifampicin) and 7 kinds of heavy mental (mercury, silver, copper, nickel, chromate, arsenic, and tellurium). All of these antibiotic resistance genes are associated with mobile elements such as transposons, integrons, and insertion sequence-based transposable units, constituting a total of three novel MDR regions, two in pP10164-2 and the other one in pP10164-3. Coexistence of three resistance plasmids pP10164-NDM, pP10164-2 and pP10164-3 makes L. adecarboxylata P10164 tend to become extensively drug-resistant. PMID:27658354

  2. Optical screw-wrench for interlocking 2PP-microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhler, J.; Zyla, G.; Ksouri, S. I.; Esen, C.; Ostendorf, A.

    2016-03-01

    Two-photon polymerization (2PP) has emerged as a powerful platform for processing three-dimensional microstructures with high resolution. Furthermore, by adding nanoparticles of different materials to the photopolymer the microstructures can be functionalized, e.g. magnetic or electric properties can be adjusted. However, to combine different functions within one microstructure or to manufacture complex microsystems, assembling techniques for multiple 2PP written building blocks are required. In this paper a qualitative approach for assembling microstructures utilizing optical forces is presented. Therefore, screw and nut shaped microstructures are produced by 2PP-technique and screwed together using a holographic optical tweezer (HOT). The interlocking structures are trapped and rotated into each other to cause connection. In this paper the used parameters and possible designs of the interlocking connection are discussed. These findings provide not only the assembling of building blocks to complex microstructures, rather different functionalized 2PP-microstructures can be combined by simply screwing them together with the use of optical forces.

  3. Improved murine glioma detection following modified diet and photobleaching of skin PpIX fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbs, Summer L.; O'Hara, Julia A.; Hoopes, P. Jack; Pogue, Brian W.

    2007-02-01

    The Aminolevulinic Acid (ALA) - Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) system is unique in the world of photosensitizers in that the prodrug ALA is enzymatically transformed via the tissue of interest into fluorescently detectable levels of PpIX. This system can be used to monitor cellular metabolism of tumor tissue for applications such as therapy monitoring. Detecting PpIX fluorescence noninvasively has proven difficult due to the high levels of PpIX produced in the skin compared to other tissue both with and without ALA administration. In the current study, methods to decrease skin PpIX autofluorescence and skin PpIX fluorescence following ALA administration have been examined. Use of a purified diet is found to decrease both skin PpIX autofluorescence and skin PpIX fluorescence following ALA administration, while addition of a broad spectrum antibiotic to the water shows little effect. Following ALA administration, improved brain tumor detection is seen when skin PpIX fluorescence is photobleached via blue light prior to transmission spectroscopic measurements of tumor bearing and control animals. Both of these methods to decrease skin PpIX autofluorescence and skin PpIX fluorescence following ALA administration are shown to have a large effect on the ability to detect tumor tissue PpIX fluorescence noninvasively in vivo.

  4. Visualization of the dynamic multimerization of human Cytomegalovirus pp65 in punctuate nuclear foci

    SciTech Connect

    Cui Zongqiang; Zhang Ke; Zhang Zhiping; Liu Yalan; Zhou Yafeng; Wei Hongping; Zhang Xian-En

    2009-09-30

    The phosphorylated protein pp65 of human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the predominant virion protein and the major tegument constituent. It plays important roles in HCMV infection and virion assembly. Live cell imaging and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) analysis showed that HCMV pp65 accumulated dynamically in punctuate nuclear foci when transiently expressed in mammalian cells. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) imaging disclosed that pp65 can self-interact in its localization foci. Yeast two-hybrid assay verified that pp65 is a self-associating protein, and the N-terminal amino acids 14-22 were determined to be essential for pp65 self-association. However, these amino acids were not related to pp65 localization in the specific nuclear foci. The interaction of pp65 and ppUL97 was also studied by FRET microscopy, and the result suggested that there is another signal sequence in pp65, being the ppUL97 phosphorylation site, that is responsible for localization of pp65 in nuclear foci. These results help to understand the function of pp65 in HCMV infection and virion morphogenesis.

  5. Toughening of wood plastic composite based on X-PP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meekum, U.; Khongrit, A.

    2016-03-01

    Wood plastic composite(WPC) based on crosslinked polypropylene(X-PP)/wood flour was explored. The peroxide/silane was used as crosslinking system. The sauna incubation under moisture saturated oven was applied to accelerate the competition of the siloxy/moisture networking reaction. There were three parts of the research work; design of experiment, toughening of WPC and the effect of peroxide, silane and PP copolymer on properties of the WPC, respectively. In this published work, the toughness improvement of the composite was focused. Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) and Ethylene propylene diene terpolymer(EPDM) were employed to improve impact strength via blending with x-PP matrix. Composites were compounded into pellets by co-rotational twin screw extruder and test specimens were prepared by injection molding. Sauna incubation at 105°C for 12 hrs in oven chamber was performed to accelerate the final silane condensation crosslink reaction. MFI, impact strength, flexural properties and heat deflection temperature measurement were conducted. Impact strength, HDT and flexural modulus were improved with increasing UHMWPE content, and the optimal values around 5-10 phr of UHMWPE were achieved. Addition of EPDM elastomer to the matrix blends, reduced flexural strength and modulus but increased impact strength. While incorporation of EPDM into the PP/UHMWPE blends was exhibited much higher impact strength than that of the PP/UHMWPE binary blends. Silane crosslinked through sauna treatment improved the impact strength. HDT were also much risen for the crosslinked composite comparing with the non-crosslinked one.

  6. Energy dependence of forward 1S0 diproton production in the ppppπ0 reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurbatov, V.; Büscher, M.; Dymov, S.; Gusev, D.; Hartmann, M.; Kacharava, A.; Khoukaz, A.; Komarov, V.; Kulikov, A.; Macharashvili, G.; Mersmann, T.; Merzliakov, S.; Mikirtytchiants, S.; Prasuhn, D.; Rathmann, F.; Schleichert, R.; Ströher, H.; Tsirkov, D.; Uzikov, Yu.; Wilkin, C.; Yaschenko, S.

    2008-03-01

    The pp →{pp}sπ0 differential cross section has been measured with the ANKE spectrometer at COSY-Jülich for seven proton beam energies Tp between 0.51 and 1.97 GeV. By selecting proton pairs with an excitation energy of less than 3 MeV it is ensured that the final {pp}s system is in the S10 state. In the measured region of θppcm ≲ 18 °, the data reveal a forward dip for Tp ⩽ 1.4 GeV whereas a forward peaking is seen at 1.97 GeV. The energy dependence of the forward cross section shows a broad peak in the 0.6-0.8 GeV region, probably associated with Δ (1232) excitation, and a minimum at 1.4 GeV. Some of these features are similar to those observed for the spin-isospin partner reaction, pp → dπ+. However, the ratio of the forward differential cross sections of the two reactions shows a significant suppression of single pion production associated with a spin-singlet final nucleon pair.

  7. The PP1 binding code: a molecular-lego strategy that governs specificity.

    PubMed

    Heroes, Ewald; Lesage, Bart; Görnemann, Janina; Beullens, Monique; Van Meervelt, Luc; Bollen, Mathieu

    2013-01-01

    Ser/Thr protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) is a single-domain hub protein with nearly 200 validated interactors in vertebrates. PP1-interacting proteins (PIPs) are ubiquitously expressed but show an exceptional diversity in brain, testis and white blood cells. The binding of PIPs is mainly mediated by short motifs that dock to surface grooves of PP1. Although PIPs often contain variants of the same PP1 binding motifs, they differ in the number and combination of docking sites. This molecular-lego strategy for binding to PP1 creates holoenzymes with unique properties. The PP1 binding code can be described as specific, universal, degenerate, nonexclusive and dynamic. PIPs control associated PP1 by interference with substrate recruitment or access to the active site. In addition, some PIPs have a subcellular targeting domain that promotes dephosphorylation by increasing the local concentration of PP1. The diversity of the PP1 interactome and the properties of the PP1 binding code account for the exquisite specificity of PP1 in vivo.

  8. Structural basis of PP2A activation by PTPA, an ATP-dependent activation chaperone

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Feng; Stanevich, Vitali; Wlodarchak, Nathan; Sengupta, Rituparna; Jiang, Li; Satyshur, Kenneth A.; Xing, Yongna

    2013-10-08

    Proper activation of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) catalytic subunit is central for the complex PP2A regulation and is crucial for broad aspects of cellular function. The crystal structure of PP2A bound to PP2A phosphatase activator (PTPA) and ATPγS reveals that PTPA makes broad contacts with the structural elements surrounding the PP2A active site and the adenine moiety of ATP. PTPA-binding stabilizes the protein fold of apo-PP2A required for activation, and orients ATP phosphoryl groups to bind directly to the PP2A active site. This allows ATP to modulate the metal-binding preferences of the PP2A active site and utilize the PP2A active site for ATP hydrolysis. In vitro, ATP selectively and drastically enhances binding of endogenous catalytic metal ions, which requires ATP hydrolysis and is crucial for acquisition of pSer/Thr-specific phosphatase activity. Furthermore, both PP2A- and ATP-binding are required for PTPA function in cell proliferation and survival. Our results suggest novel mechanisms of PTPA in PP2A activation with structural economy and a unique ATP-binding pocket that could potentially serve as a specific therapeutic target.

  9. Cytosolic ppGpp accumulation induces retarded plant growth and development.

    PubMed

    Ihara, Yuta; Masuda, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    In bacteria a second messenger, guanosine 5'-diphosphate 3'-diphosphate (ppGpp), synthesized upon nutrient starvation, controls many gene expressions and enzyme activities, which is necessary for growth under changeable environments. Recent studies have shown that ppGpp synthase and hydrolase are also conserved in eukaryotes, although their functions are not well understood. We recently showed that ppGpp-overaccumulation in Arabidopsis chloroplasts results in robust growth under nutrient-limited conditions, demonstrating that the bacterial-like stringent response at least functions in plastids. To test if ppGpp also functions in the cytosol, we constructed the transgenic Arabidopsis expressing Bacillus subtilis ppGpp synthase gene yjbM. Upon induction of the gene, the mutant synthesizes ∼10-20-fold higher levels of ppGpp, and its fresh weight was reduced to ˜80% that of the wild type. These results indicate that cytosolic ppGpp negatively regulates plant growth and development.

  10. "PP2C7s", Genes Most Highly Elaborated in Photosynthetic Organisms, Reveal the Bacterial Origin and Stepwise Evolution of PPM/PP2C Protein Phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Kerk, David; Silver, Dylan; Uhrig, R Glen; Moorhead, Greg B G

    2015-01-01

    Mg+2/Mn+2-dependent type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs) are ubiquitous in eukaryotes, mediating diverse cellular signaling processes through metal ion catalyzed dephosphorylation of target proteins. We have identified a distinct PP2C sequence class ("PP2C7s") which is nearly universally distributed in Eukaryotes, and therefore apparently ancient. PP2C7s are by far most prominent and diverse in plants and green algae. Combining phylogenetic analysis, subcellular localization predictions, and a distillation of publically available gene expression data, we have traced the evolutionary trajectory of this gene family in photosynthetic eukaryotes, demonstrating two major sequence assemblages featuring a succession of increasingly derived sub-clades. These display predominant expression moving from an ancestral pattern in photosynthetic tissues toward non-photosynthetic, specialized and reproductive structures. Gene co-expression network composition strongly suggests a shifting pattern of PP2C7 gene functions, including possible regulation of starch metabolism for one homologue set in Arabidopsis and rice. Distinct plant PP2C7 sub-clades demonstrate novel amino terminal protein sequences upon motif analysis, consistent with a shifting pattern of regulation of protein function. More broadly, neither the major events in PP2C sequence evolution, nor the origin of the diversity of metal binding characteristics currently observed in different PP2C lineages, are clearly understood. Identification of the PP2C7 sequence clade has allowed us to provide a better understanding of both of these issues. Phylogenetic analysis and sequence comparisons using Hidden Markov Models strongly suggest that PP2Cs originated in Bacteria (Group II PP2C sequences), entered Eukaryotes through the ancestral mitochondrial endosymbiosis, elaborated in Eukaryotes, then re-entered Bacteria through an inter-domain gene transfer, ultimately producing bacterial Group I PP2C sequences. A key evolutionary

  11. "PP2C7s", Genes Most Highly Elaborated in Photosynthetic Organisms, Reveal the Bacterial Origin and Stepwise Evolution of PPM/PP2C Protein Phosphatases

    PubMed Central

    Kerk, David; Silver, Dylan; Uhrig, R. Glen; Moorhead, Greg B. G.

    2015-01-01

    Mg+2/Mn+2-dependent type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs) are ubiquitous in eukaryotes, mediating diverse cellular signaling processes through metal ion catalyzed dephosphorylation of target proteins. We have identified a distinct PP2C sequence class (“PP2C7s”) which is nearly universally distributed in Eukaryotes, and therefore apparently ancient. PP2C7s are by far most prominent and diverse in plants and green algae. Combining phylogenetic analysis, subcellular localization predictions, and a distillation of publically available gene expression data, we have traced the evolutionary trajectory of this gene family in photosynthetic eukaryotes, demonstrating two major sequence assemblages featuring a succession of increasingly derived sub-clades. These display predominant expression moving from an ancestral pattern in photosynthetic tissues toward non-photosynthetic, specialized and reproductive structures. Gene co-expression network composition strongly suggests a shifting pattern of PP2C7 gene functions, including possible regulation of starch metabolism for one homologue set in Arabidopsis and rice. Distinct plant PP2C7 sub-clades demonstrate novel amino terminal protein sequences upon motif analysis, consistent with a shifting pattern of regulation of protein function. More broadly, neither the major events in PP2C sequence evolution, nor the origin of the diversity of metal binding characteristics currently observed in different PP2C lineages, are clearly understood. Identification of the PP2C7 sequence clade has allowed us to provide a better understanding of both of these issues. Phylogenetic analysis and sequence comparisons using Hidden Markov Models strongly suggest that PP2Cs originated in Bacteria (Group II PP2C sequences), entered Eukaryotes through the ancestral mitochondrial endosymbiosis, elaborated in Eukaryotes, then re-entered Bacteria through an inter-domain gene transfer, ultimately producing bacterial Group I PP2C sequences. A key

  12. Silencing PP2A Inhibitor by Lenti-shRNA Interference Ameliorates Neuropathologies and Memory Deficits in tg2576 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Gong-Ping; Wei, Wei; Zhou, Xin; Shi, Hai-Rong; Liu, Xing-Hua; Chai, Gao-Shang; Yao, Xiu-Qing; Zhang, Jia-Yu; Peng, Cai-Xia; Hu, Juan; Li, Xia-Chun; Wang, Qun; Wang, Jian-Zhi

    2013-01-01

    Deficits of protein phosphatase-2A (PP2A) play a crucial role in tau hyperphosphorylation, amyloid overproduction, and synaptic suppression of Alzheimer's disease (AD), in which PP2A is inactivated by the endogenously increased inhibitory protein, namely inhibitor-2 of PP2A (I2PP2A). Therefore, in vivo silencing I2PP2A may rescue PP2A and mitigate AD neurodegeneration. By infusion of lentivirus-shRNA targeting I2PP2A (LV-siI2PP2A) into hippocampus and frontal cortex of 11-month-old tg2576 mice, we demonstrated that expression of LV-siI2PP2A decreased remarkably the elevated I2PP2A in both mRNA and protein levels. Simultaneously, the PP2A activity was restored with the mechanisms involving reduction of the inhibitory binding of I2PP2A to PP2A catalytic subunit (PP2AC), repression of the inhibitory Leu309-demethylation and elevation of PP2AC. Silencing I2PP2A induced a long-lasting attenuation of amyloidogenesis in tg2576 mice with inhibition of amyloid precursor protein hyperphosphorylation and β-secretase activity, whereas simultaneous inhibition of PP2A abolished the antiamyloidogenic effects of I2PP2A silencing. Finally, silencing I2PP2A could improve learning and memory of tg2576 mice with preservation of several memory-associated components. Our data reveal that targeting I2PP2A can efficiently rescue Aβ toxicities and improve the memory deficits in tg2576 mice, suggesting that I2PP2A could be a promising target for potential AD therapies. PMID:23922015

  13. Results from Vernier scans during the RHIC 2008 PP Run

    SciTech Connect

    Drees,A.; D Ottavio, T.

    2009-05-04

    Using the vernier scan or Van der Meer scan technique, where one beam is swept stepwise across the other while measuring the collision rate as a function of beam displacement, the transverse beam profiles, the luminosity and the effective cross section of the detector in question can be measured. This report briefly recalls the vernier scan method and presents results from the 100 GeV 2008 RHIC polarized proton (pp) run.

  14. Using anti pp annihilation to find exotic mesons

    SciTech Connect

    Sharpe, S.R.

    1987-10-01

    Present data suggests that a number of mesons have been found which cannot be accommodated in standard anti qq multiplets. Theory suggests that such exotic mesons should exist in the spectrum of Quantum Chromodynamics, but provides little guide to their properties. It is argued that a high luminosity, low energy anti pp machine would be a powerful tool with which to search for such exotics.

  15. Prompt photon production in p-p collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Cleymans, J.; Quack, E.; Redlich, K.

    1995-07-01

    A systematic study of the inclusive photon cross-section in p-p collisions is presented. The dependence of the {gamma} rates on the renormalization and factorization scales is discussed. A comparison is made with experimental data for centre-of-mass energies ranging from 23 GeV to 1.8 TeV. Predictions of the cross-sections are given for two different sets of structure functions for RHIC and LHC energies.

  16. Cardiomyocyte specific deletion of PP2A causes cardiac hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lei; Fang, Chao; Xu, Di; Xu, Yidan; Fu, Heling; Li, Jianmin

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is a common pathological alteration in heart disease, which has been reported to be connected with serine/threonine protein phosphatases that control the dephosphorylation of a variety of cardiac proteins. Herein, we generated protein phosphatase type 2A knockout expressing a tamoxifen-inducible Cre recombinase protein fused to two mutant estrogen-receptor ligand-binding domains (MerCreMer) under the control of the a-myosin heavy chain promoter. Cardiac function of mice was determined by echocardiography. Decrease in PP2A activity leads to increased cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and fibrosis. Loss of PP2ACα leads to the heart failure, including the changes of EF, FS, LV, ANP and BNP. On the molecular level, knockout mice shows increased expression of B55a and B56e at 60 days after tamoxifen injection. Additionally, the regulation of the Akt/GSK3β/β-catenin pathway is severely disturbed in knockout mice. In conclusion, cardiomyocyte specific deletion of PP2A gene causes the cardiac hypertrophy. We will use the knockout mice to generate a type of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy mouse model with myocardial fibrosis. PMID:27186301

  17. Generation IV PR and PP Methods and Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bari,R.A.

    2008-10-13

    This paper presents an evaluation methodology for proliferation resistance and physical protection (PR&PP) of Generation IV nuclear energy systems (NESs). For a proposed NES design, the methodology defines a set of challenges, analyzes system response to these challenges, and assesses outcomes. The challenges to the NES are the threats posed by potential actors (proliferant States or sub-national adversaries). The characteristics of Generation IV systems, both technical and institutional, are used to evaluate the response of the system and determine its resistance against proliferation threats and robustness against sabotage and terrorism threats. The outcomes of the system response are expressed in terms of six measures for PR and three measures for PP, which are the high-level PR&PP characteristics of the NES. The methodology is organized to allow evaluations to be performed at the earliest stages of system design and to become more detailed and more representative as design progresses. Uncertainty of results are recognized and incorporated into the evaluation at all stages. The results are intended for three types of users: system designers, program policy makers, and external stakeholders. Particular current relevant activities will be discussed in this regard. The methodology has been illustrated in a series of demonstration and case studies and these will be summarized in the paper.

  18. Global Observations of Mantle Discontinuities Using SS and PP Precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deuss, Arwen

    2009-10-01

    SS and PP precursors are currently the only body wave data types that have significant coverage in both oceanic and continental regions to study the existence and characteristics of mantle discontinuities on a global scale. Here, the techniques used by global seismologists to observe SS and PP precursors are reviewed. Seismograms, aligned on SS or PP, are stacked using normal move out (NMO) techniques to obtain common depth point gathers. Bootstrap methods are employed to determine 95% confidence levels of the stacks and robustness of the observations. With these relatively simple techniques, a range of discontinuities has been found in the mantle up to 1,200 km depth. The stacks are dominated by the transition zone discontinuities at 410, 520 and 660 km depth, but additional discontinuities at 220, 300-350, 800-900 and 1,100-1,200 km depth are also seen in certain regions. An overview is given of the most recent observational results with a discussion of their mineral physical interpretation and geodynamical significance. Both seismology and mineral physics agree on the level of complexity at the transition discontinuities: a simple 410, a more complicated 520 and a highly complicated 660-km discontinuity are consistently found in both disciplines.

  19. Two-pion-exchange and other higher-order contributions to the pp{yields}pp{pi}{sup 0} reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Y.; Sato, T.; Myhrer, F.; Kubodera, K.

    2009-07-15

    Much effort has been invested on effective-field-theoretical studies of the near-threshold NN{yields}NN{pi} reactions and, in order to deal with the somewhat large three-momentum transfers involved, the momentum counting scheme (MCS) was proposed as an alternative to the usual Weinberg counting scheme. Given the fact that a quantitative explanation of the existing high-precision NN{yields}NN{pi} data requires a careful examination of higher chiral order contributions to the transition operator, we make a detailed numerical investigation of the convergence property of MCS for a pilot case of the pp{yields}pp{pi}{sup 0} reaction. Our study indicates that MCS is superior to the Weinberg scheme in identifying dominant higher order contributions to the NN{yields}NN{pi} reactions.

  20. PP2A regulates kinetochore-microtubule attachment during meiosis I in oocyte.

    PubMed

    Tang, An; Shi, Peiliang; Song, Anying; Zou, Dayuan; Zhou, Yue; Gu, Pengyu; Huang, Zan; Wang, Qinghua; Lin, Zhaoyu; Gao, Xiang

    2016-06-01

    Studies using in vitro cultured oocytes have indicated that the protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), a major serine/threonine protein phosphatase, participates in multiple steps of meiosis. Details of oocyte maturation regulation by PP2A remain unclear and an in vivo model can provide more convincing information. Here, we inactivated PP2A by mutating genes encoding for its catalytic subunits (PP2Acs) in mouse oocytes. We found that eliminating both PP2Acs caused female infertility. Oocytes lacking PP2Acs failed to complete 1(st) meiotic division due to chromosome misalignment and abnormal spindle assembly. In mitosis, PP2A counteracts Aurora kinase B/C (AurkB/C) to facilitate correct kinetochore-microtubule (KT-MT) attachment. In meiosis I in oocyte, we found that PP2Ac deficiency destabilized KT-MT attachments. Chemical inhibition of AurkB/C in PP2Ac-null oocytes partly restored the formation of lateral/merotelic KT-MT attachments but not correct KT-MT attachments. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that PP2Acs are essential for chromosome alignments and regulate the formation of correct KT-MT attachments in meiosis I in oocytes.

  1. An altered form of pp60/sup c-src/ is expressed primarily in the central nervous system

    SciTech Connect

    Le Beau, J.M.; Wiestler, O.D.; Walter, G.

    1987-11-01

    The expression of two forms of pp60/sup c-scr/, pp60 and pp60/sup +/, was measured in the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system. Both forms were expressed in the CNS, whereas only pp60 was primarily detected in the peripheral nervous system. Our findings suggest that pp60/sup +/ may play a role in events important to the CNS.

  2. Structural Basis for the Catalytic Activity of Human Serine/Threonine Protein Phosphatase type 5 (PP5)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swingle, Mark R.; Ciszak, Ewa M.; Honkanen, Richard E.

    2004-01-01

    Serine/threonine protein phosphatase-5 (PP5) is a member of the PPP-gene family of protein phosphatases that is widely expressed in mammalian tissues and is highly conserved among eukaryotes. PP5 associates with several proteins that affect signal transduction networks, including the glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-heat shock protein-90 (Hsp90)-heterocomplex, the CDC16 and CDC27 subunits of the anaphase-promoting complex, elF2alpha kinase, the A subunit of PP2A, the G12-alpha / G13-alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins and DNA-PK. The catalytic domain of PP5 (PP5c) shares 35-45% sequence identity with the catalytic domains of other PPP-phosphatases, including protein phosphatase-1 (PP1), -2A (PP2A), -2B / calcineurin (PP2B), -4 (PP4), -6 (PP6), and -7 (PP7). Like PP1, PP2A and PP4, PP5 is also sensitive to inhibition by okadaic acid, microcystin, cantharidin, tautomycin, and calyculin A. Here we report the crystal structure of the PP5 catalytic domain (PP5c) at a resolution of 1.6 angstroms. From this structure we propose a mechanism for PP5-mediated hydrolysis of phosphoprotein substrates, which requires the precise positioning of two metal ions within a conserved Asp(sup 271)-M(sub 1):M(sub 2)-W(sup 1)-His(sup 304)-Asp(sup 274) catalytic motif. The structure of PP5c provides a possible structural basis for explaining the exceptional catalytic proficiency of protein phosphatases, which are among the most powerful known catalysts. Resolution of the entire C-terminus revealed a novel subdomain, and the structure of the PP5c should also aid development of type-specific inhibitors.

  3. Production of the S10 diproton in the ppppπ0 reaction at 0.8 GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dymov, S.; Büscher, M.; Gusev, D.; Hartmann, M.; Hejny, V.; Kacharava, A.; Khoukaz, A.; Komarov, V.; Kulessa, P.; Kulikov, A.; Kurbatov, V.; Lang, N.; Macharashvili, G.; Mersmann, T.; Merzliakov, S.; Mikirtytchiants, S.; Mussgiller, A.; Prasuhn, D.; Rathmann, F.; Schleichert, R.; Ströher, H.; Uzikov, Yu.; Wilkin, C.; Yaschenko, S.

    2006-04-01

    The ppppπ0 differential cross section has been measured with the ANKE spectrometer at COSY-Jülich for pion cms angles between 0° and 15.4° at a proton beam energy of 0.8 GeV. The selection of diproton pairs with an excitation energy Epp < 3 MeV ensures that the final pp system is dominantly in the spin-singlet S10 state. The kinematics are therefore very similar to those of pp → dπ+ but with different spin and isospin transitions. The cross sections are over two orders of magnitude smaller than those of pp → dπ+ and show a forward dip that is even stronger than that seen at lower energies. The results should provide a crucial extra test of pion production models in nucleon-nucleon collisions.

  4. Molecular Mimicry Regulates ABA Signaling by SnRK2 Kinases and PP2C Phosphatases

    SciTech Connect

    Soon, Fen-Fen; Ng, Ley-Moy; Zhou, X. Edward; West, Graham M.; Kovach, Amanda; Tan, M.H. Eileen; Suino-Powell, Kelly M.; He, Yuanzheng; Xu, Yong; Chalmers, Michael J.; Brunzelle, Joseph S.; Zhang, Huiming; Yang, Huaiyu; Jiang, Hualiang; Li, Jun; Yong, Eu-Leong; Cutler, Sean; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Griffin, Patrick R.; Melcher, Karsten; Xu, H. Eric

    2014-10-02

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is an essential hormone for plants to survive environmental stresses. At the center of the ABA signaling network is a subfamily of type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs), which form exclusive interactions with ABA receptors and subfamily 2 Snfl-related kinase (SnRK2s). Here, we report a SnRK2-PP2C complex structure, which reveals marked similarity in PP2C recognition by SnRK2 and ABA receptors. In the complex, the kinase activation loop docks into the active site of PP2C, while the conserved ABA-sensing tryptophan of PP2C inserts into the kinase catalytic cleft, thus mimicking receptor-PP2C interactions. These structural results provide a simple mechanism that directly couples ABA binding to SnRK2 kinase activation and highlight a new paradigm of kinase-phosphatase regulation through mutual packing of their catalytic sites.

  5. Recent functional insights into the role of (p)ppGpp in bacterial physiology.

    PubMed

    Hauryliuk, Vasili; Atkinson, Gemma C; Murakami, Katsuhiko S; Tenson, Tanel; Gerdes, Kenn

    2015-05-01

    The alarmones guanosine tetraphosphate and guanosine pentaphosphate (collectively referred to as (p)ppGpp) are involved in regulating growth and several different stress responses in bacteria. In recent years, substantial progress has been made in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of (p)ppGpp metabolism and (p)ppGpp-mediated regulation. In this Review, we summarize these recent insights, with a focus on the molecular mechanisms governing the activity of the RelA/SpoT homologue (RSH) proteins, which are key players that regulate the cellular levels of (p)ppGpp. We also discuss the structural basis of transcriptional regulation by (p)ppGpp and the role of (p)ppGpp in GTP metabolism and in the emergence of bacterial persisters.

  6. ppGpp couples transcription to DNA repair in E. coli.

    PubMed

    Kamarthapu, Venu; Epshtein, Vitaly; Benjamin, Bradley; Proshkin, Sergey; Mironov, Alexander; Cashel, Michael; Nudler, Evgeny

    2016-05-20

    The small molecule alarmone (p)ppGpp mediates bacterial adaptation to nutrient deprivation by altering the initiation properties of RNA polymerase (RNAP). ppGpp is generated in Escherichia coli by two related enzymes, RelA and SpoT. We show that ppGpp is robustly, but transiently, induced in response to DNA damage and is required for efficient nucleotide excision DNA repair (NER). This explains why relA-spoT-deficient cells are sensitive to diverse genotoxic agents and ultraviolet radiation, whereas ppGpp induction renders them more resistant to such challenges. The mechanism of DNA protection by ppGpp involves promotion of UvrD-mediated RNAP backtracking. By rendering RNAP backtracking-prone, ppGpp couples transcription to DNA repair and prompts transitions between repair and recovery states.

  7. Recent functional insights into the role of (p)ppGpp in bacterial physiology

    PubMed Central

    Hauryliuk, Vasili; Atkinson, Gemma C.; Murakami, Katsuhiko S.; Tenson, Tanel; Gerdes, Kenn

    2015-01-01

    The alarmone (p)ppGpp is involved in regulating growth and several different stress responses in bacteria. In recent years, substantial progress has been made in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of (p)ppGpp metabolism and (p)ppGpp-mediated regulation. In this Review, we summarize these recent insights, with a focus on the molecular mechanisms governing the activity of the RelA/SpoT Homologue (RSH) proteins, which are key players that regulate the cellular leves of (p)ppGpp, the structural basis of transcriptional regulation by (p)ppGpp and the role of (p)ppGpp in GTP metabolism and in the emergence of bacterial persisters. PMID:25853779

  8. Molecular Mimicry Regulates ABA Signaling by SnRK2 Kinases and PP2C Phosphatases

    PubMed Central

    Soon, Fen-Fen; Ng, Ley-Moy; Zhou, X. Edward; West, Graham M.; Kovach, Amanda; Tan, M. H. Eileen; Suino-Powell, Kelly M.; He, Yuanzheng; Xu, Yong; Chalmers, Michael J.; Brunzelle, Joseph S.; Zhang, Huiming; Yang, Huaiyu; Jiang, Hualiang; Li, Jun; Yong, Eu-Leong; Cutler, Sean; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Griffin, Patrick R.; Melcher, Karsten; Xu, H. Eric

    2013-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is an essential hormone for plants to survive environmental stresses. At the center of the ABA signaling network is a subfamily of type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs), which form exclusive interactions with ABA receptors and subfamily 2 Snfl-related kinase (SnRK2s). Here, we report a SnRK2-PP2C complex structure, which reveals marked similarity in PP2C recognition by SnRK2 and ABA receptors. In the complex, the kinase activation loop docks into the active site of PP2C, while the conserved ABA-sensing tryptophan of PP2C inserts into the kinase catalytic cleft, thus mimicking receptor-PP2C interactions. These structural results provide a simple mechanism that directly couples ABA binding to SnRK2 kinase activation and highlight a new paradigm of kinase-phosphatase regulation through mutual packing of their catalytic sites. PMID:22116026

  9. Gamma radiation induced degradation in PE-PP block copolymer

    SciTech Connect

    Ravi, H. R.; Sreepad, H. R.; Ahmed, Khaleel; Govindaiah, T. N.

    2012-06-05

    In the present investigation, effect of gamma irradiation on the PP-PE block copolymer has been studied. The polymer has been subjected to gamma irradiation from 100 to 500 Mrad dosages. Characterization of the polymer using XRD and FTIR was done both before irradiation and after irradiation in each step. Effect of irradiation on the electrical properties of the material has also been studied. FTIR study shows that the sample loses C - C stretching mode of vibration but gains C=C stretching mode of vibration after irradiation. Present investigation clearly indicates that though the electrical conductivity increases in the material, it undergoes degradation and shows brittleness due to irradiation.

  10. GridPP: the UK grid for particle physics.

    PubMed

    Britton, D; Cass, A J; Clarke, P E L; Coles, J; Colling, D J; Doyle, A T; Geddes, N I; Gordon, J C; Jones, R W L; Kelsey, D P; Lloyd, S L; Middleton, R P; Patrick, G N; Sansum, R A; Pearce, S E

    2009-06-28

    The start-up of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, Geneva, presents a huge challenge in processing and analysing the vast amounts of scientific data that will be produced. The architecture of the worldwide grid that will handle 15 PB of particle physics data annually from this machine is based on a hierarchical tiered structure. We describe the development of the UK component (GridPP) of this grid from a prototype system to a full exploitation grid for real data analysis. This includes the physical infrastructure, the deployment of middleware, operational experience and the initial exploitation by the major LHC experiments. PMID:19451101

  11. Measurement of J/ ψ polarization in pp collisions at

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaij, R.; Abellan Beteta, C.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Adrover, C.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; Anderlini, L.; Anderson, J.; Andreassen, R.; Appleby, R. B.; Aquines Gutierrez, O.; Archilli, F.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Baesso, C.; Balagura, V.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Bauer, Th.; Bay, A.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Belogurov, S.; Belous, K.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Benayoun, M.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bettler, M.-O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bien, A.; Bifani, S.; Bird, T.; Bizzeti, A.; Bjørnstad, P. M.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borghi, S.; Borgia, A.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Brambach, T.; van den Brand, J.; Bressieux, J.; Brett, D.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brook, N. H.; Brown, H.; Burducea, I.; Bursche, A.; Busetto, G.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Callot, O.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Camboni, A.; Campana, P.; Campora Perez, D.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carranza-Mejia, H.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casse, G.; Castillo Garcia, L.; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chen, P.; Chiapolini, N.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Ciba, K.; Cid Vidal, X.; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coca, C.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D. C.; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; David, P.; David, P. N. Y.; Davis, A.; De Bonis, I.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Silva, W.; De Simone, P.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Di Canto, A.; Dijkstra, H.; Dogaru, M.; Donleavy, S.; Dordei, F.; Dosil Suárez, A.; Dossett, D.; Dovbnya, A.; Dupertuis, F.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; van Eijk, D.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; El Rifai, I.; Elsasser, Ch.; Elsby, D.; Falabella, A.; Färber, C.; Fardell, G.; Farinelli, C.; Farry, S.; Fave, V.; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fiore, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forty, R.; Francisco, O.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Furcas, S.; Furfaro, E.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; Garofoli, J.; Garosi, P.; Garra Tico, J.; Garrido, L.; Gaspar, C.; Gauld, R.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gibson, V.; Gligorov, V. V.; Göbel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gordon, H.; Gotti, C.; Grabalosa Gándara, M.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Granado Cardoso, L. A.; Graugés, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Greening, E.; Gregson, S.; Grünberg, O.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C.; Hall, S.; Hampson, T.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Harrison, J.; Hartmann, T.; He, J.; Heijne, V.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; van Herwijnen, E.; Hicheur, A.; Hicks, E.; Hill, D.; Hoballah, M.; Hombach, C.; Hopchev, P.; Hulsbergen, W.; Hunt, P.; Huse, T.; Hussain, N.; Hutchcroft, D.; Hynds, D.; Iakovenko, V.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jans, E.; Jaton, P.; Jing, F.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Kaballo, M.; Kandybei, S.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T. M.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kerzel, U.; Ketel, T.; Keune, A.; Khanji, B.; Kochebina, O.; Komarov, I.; Koopman, R. F.; Koppenburg, P.; Korolev, M.; Kozlinskiy, A.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krocker, G.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; La Thi, V. N.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.; Lambert, R. W.; Lanciotti, E.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J.-P.; Lefèvre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrançois, J.; Leo, S.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Li, Y.; Li Gioi, L.; Liles, M.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.; Liu, B.; Liu, G.; Lohn, S.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J. H.; Lopez Asamar, E.; Lopez-March, N.; Lu, H.; Lucchesi, D.; Luisier, J.; Luo, H.; Machefert, F.; Machikhiliyan, I. V.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Malde, S.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Marconi, U.; Märki, R.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martens, A.; Martín Sánchez, A.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez Santos, D.; Martins Tostes, D.; Martynov, A.; Massafferri, A.; Matev, R.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Maurice, E.; Mazurov, A.; McCarthy, J.; McNab, A.; McNulty, R.; Meadows, B.; Meier, F.; Meissner, M.; Merk, M.; Milanes, D. A.; Minard, M.-N.; Molina Rodriguez, J.; Monteil, S.; Moran, D.; Morawski, P.; Morello, M. J.; Mountain, R.; Mous, I.; Muheim, F.; Müller, K.; Muresan, R.; Muryn, B.; Muster, B.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nasteva, I.; Needham, M.; Neufeld, N.; Nguyen, A. D.; Nguyen, T. D.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Nicol, M.; Niess, V.; Niet, R.; Nikitin, N.; Nikodem, T.; Nomerotski, A.; Novoselov, A.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Oggero, S.; Ogilvy, S.; Okhrimenko, O.; Oldeman, R.; Orlandea, M.; Otalora Goicochea, J. M.; Owen, P.; Oyanguren, A.; Pal, B. K.; Palano, A.; Palutan, M.; Panman, J.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Parkes, C.; Parkinson, C. J.; Passaleva, G.; Patel, G. D.; Patel, M.; Patrick, G. N.; Patrignani, C.; Pavel-Nicorescu, C.; Pazos Alvarez, A.; Pellegrino, A.; Penso, G.; Pepe Altarelli, M.; Perazzini, S.; Perego, D. L.; Perez Trigo, E.; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A.; Perret, P.; Perrin-Terrin, M.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; Phan, A.; Picatoste Olloqui, E.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pilař, T.; Pinci, D.; Playfer, S.; Plo Casasus, M.; Polci, F.; Polok, G.; Poluektov, A.; Polycarpo, E.; Popov, D.; Popovici, B.; Potterat, C.; Powell, A.; Prisciandaro, J.; Pritchard, A.; Prouve, C.; Pugatch, V.; Puig Navarro, A.; Punzi, G.; Qian, W.; Rademacker, J. H.; Rakotomiaramanana, B.; Rangel, M. S.; Raniuk, I.; Rauschmayr, N.; Raven, G.; Redford, S.; Reid, M. M.; dos Reis, A. C.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, A.; Rinnert, K.; Rives Molina, V.; Roa Romero, D. A.; Robbe, P.; Rodrigues, E.; Rodriguez Perez, P.; Roiser, S.; Romanovsky, V.; Romero Vidal, A.; Rouvinet, J.; Ruf, T.; Ruffini, F.; Ruiz, H.; Ruiz Valls, P.; Sabatino, G.; Saborido Silva, J. J.; Sagidova, N.; Sail, P.; Saitta, B.; Salzmann, C.; Sanmartin Sedes, B.; Sannino, M.; Santacesaria, R.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santovetti, E.; Sapunov, M.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Savrie, M.; Savrina, D.; Schaack, P.; Schiller, M.; Schindler, H.; Schlupp, M.; Schmelling, M.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schune, M.-H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Seco, M.; Semennikov, A.; Senderowska, K.; Sepp, I.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Seyfert, P.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shatalov, P.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, O.; Shevchenko, V.; Shires, A.; Silva Coutinho, R.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, N. A.; Smith, E.; Smith, M.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Soomro, F.; Souza, D.; Souza De Paula, B.; Spaan, B.; Sparkes, A.; Spradlin, P.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stoica, S.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Subbiah, V. K.; Swientek, S.; Syropoulos, V.; Szczekowski, M.; Szczypka, P.; Szumlak, T.; T'Jampens, S.; Teklishyn, M.; Teodorescu, E.; Teubert, F.; Thomas, C.; Thomas, E.; van Tilburg, J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M.; Tolk, S.; Tonelli, D.; Topp-Joergensen, S.; Torr, N.; Tournefier, E.; Tourneur, S.; Tran, M. T.; Tresch, M.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsopelas, P.; Tuning, N.; Ubeda Garcia, M.; Ukleja, A.; Urner, D.; Uwer, U.; Vagnoni, V.; Valenti, G.; Vazquez Gomez, R.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vecchi, S.; Velthuis, J. J.; Veltri, M.; Veneziano, G.; Vesterinen, M.; Viaud, B.; Vieira, D.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Vollhardt, A.; Volyanskyy, D.; Voong, D.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Voß, C.; Voss, H.; Waldi, R.; Wallace, R.; Wandernoth, S.; Wang, J.; Ward, D. R.; Watson, N. K.; Webber, A. D.; Websdale, D.; Whitehead, M.; Wicht, J.; Wiechczynski, J.; Wiedner, D.; Wiggers, L.; Wilkinson, G.; Williams, M. P.; Williams, M.; Wilson, F. F.; Wishahi, J.; Witek, M.; Wotton, S. A.; Wright, S.; Wu, S.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Xing, Z.; Yang, Z.; Young, R.; Yuan, X.; Yushchenko, O.; Zangoli, M.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, W. C.; Zhang, Y.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokhov, A.; Zhong, L.; Zvyagin, A.

    2013-11-01

    An angular analysis of the decay J/ ψ→ μ + μ - is performed to measure the polarization of prompt J/ ψ mesons produced in pp collisions at . The dataset corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 0.37 fb-1 collected with the LHCb detector. The measurement is presented as a function of transverse momentum, p T, and rapidity, y, of the J/ ψ meson, in the kinematic region 2< p T<15 GeV/ c and 2.0< y<4.5.

  12. GridPP: the UK grid for particle physics.

    PubMed

    Britton, D; Cass, A J; Clarke, P E L; Coles, J; Colling, D J; Doyle, A T; Geddes, N I; Gordon, J C; Jones, R W L; Kelsey, D P; Lloyd, S L; Middleton, R P; Patrick, G N; Sansum, R A; Pearce, S E

    2009-06-28

    The start-up of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, Geneva, presents a huge challenge in processing and analysing the vast amounts of scientific data that will be produced. The architecture of the worldwide grid that will handle 15 PB of particle physics data annually from this machine is based on a hierarchical tiered structure. We describe the development of the UK component (GridPP) of this grid from a prototype system to a full exploitation grid for real data analysis. This includes the physical infrastructure, the deployment of middleware, operational experience and the initial exploitation by the major LHC experiments.

  13. Gamma radiation induced degradation in PE-PP block copolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravi, H. R.; Sreepad, H. R.; Ahmed, Khaleel; Govindaiah, T. N.

    2012-06-01

    In the present investigation, effect of gamma irradiation on the PP-PE block copolymer has been studied. The polymer has been subjected to gamma irradiation from 100 to 500 Mrad dosages. Characterization of the polymer using XRD and FTIR was done both before irradiation and after irradiation in each step. Effect of irradiation on the electrical properties of the material has also been studied. FTIR study shows that the sample loses C - C stretching mode of vibration but gains C=C stretching mode of vibration after irradiation. Present investigation clearly indicates that though the electrical conductivity increases in the material, it undergoes degradation and shows brittleness due to irradiation.

  14. Semiclassical treatment of pp formation in p-H collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrera-Trujillo, R.

    2005-05-01

    As the energy of an antiproton colliding with a hydrogen atom decreases, the probability for formation of protonium (pp) increases. In this work, we present a calculation of protonium formation using the Electron-Nuclear Dynamics (END) theory for projectile energies from 1 eV to 10 eV. We present preliminary results for the protonium formation cross section, the stopping cross section (nuclear and electronic). In particular, we explore the role of non-adiabatic effects and the ionization channel within the END formalism.

  15. Parton branching model for pp¯ collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, A. H.; Chew, C. K.

    1990-02-01

    A detailed analysis of the behavior of the initial numbers of gluons and quarks in the generalized multiplicity distribution (GMD) is presented. Two special cases of GMD, namely, the negative-binomial distribution and the Furry-Yule distribution, are also discussed in relation to the non-single-diffractive data at 200, 546, and 900 GeV c.m.-system energies and pseudorapidity intervals ηc. The GMD may provide an alternate distribution to understand parton action for future pp¯ collisions at high TeV energies.

  16. The Structural Basis for Tight Control of PP2A Methylation and Function by LCMT-1

    SciTech Connect

    Stanevich, Vitali; Jiang, Li; Satyshur, Kenneth A.; Li, Yongfeng; Jeffrey, Philip D.; Li, Zhu; Menden, Patrick; Semmelhack, Martin F.; Xing, Yongna

    2012-05-29

    Proper formation of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) holoenzymes is essential for the fitness of all eukaryotic cells. Carboxyl methylation of the PP2A catalytic subunit plays a critical role in regulating holoenzyme assembly; methylation is catalyzed by PP2A-specific methyltransferase LCMT-1, an enzyme required for cell survival. We determined crystal structures of human LCMT-1 in isolation and in complex with PP2A stabilized by a cofactor mimic. The structures show that the LCMT-1 active-site pocket recognizes the carboxyl terminus of PP2A, and, interestingly, the PP2A active site makes extensive contacts to LCMT-1. We demonstrated that activation of the PP2A active site stimulates methylation, suggesting a mechanism for efficient conversion of activated PP2A into substrate-specific holoenzymes, thus minimizing unregulated phosphatase activity or formation of inactive holoenzymes. A dominant-negative LCMT-1 mutant attenuates the cell cycle without causing cell death, likely by inhibiting uncontrolled phosphatase activity. Our studies suggested mechanisms of LCMT-1 in tight control of PP2A function, important for the cell cycle and cell survival.

  17. The Structural Basis for Tight Control of PP2A Methylation and Function by LCMT-1

    SciTech Connect

    V Stanevich; L Jiang; K Satyshur; Y Li; P Jeffrey; Z Li; P Menden; M Semmelhack; Y Xing

    2011-12-31

    Proper formation of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) holoenzymes is essential for the fitness of all eukaryotic cells. Carboxyl methylation of the PP2A catalytic subunit plays a critical role in regulating holoenzyme assembly; methylation is catalyzed by PP2A-specific methyltransferase LCMT-1, an enzyme required for cell survival. We determined crystal structures of human LCMT-1 in isolation and in complex with PP2A stabilized by a cofactor mimic. The structures show that the LCMT-1 active-site pocket recognizes the carboxyl terminus of PP2A, and, interestingly, the PP2A active site makes extensive contacts to LCMT-1. We demonstrated that activation of the PP2A active site stimulates methylation, suggesting a mechanism for efficient conversion of activated PP2A into substrate-specific holoenzymes, thus minimizing unregulated phosphatase activity or formation of inactive holoenzymes. A dominant-negative LCMT-1 mutant attenuates the cell cycle without causing cell death, likely by inhibiting uncontrolled phosphatase activity. Our studies suggested mechanisms of LCMT-1 in tight control of PP2A function, important for the cell cycle and cell survival.

  18. Influence of photodynamic effect on biological activity of PBR-PP complexes.

    PubMed

    Bombalska, Aneta; Graczyk, Alfreda

    2010-02-12

    The aim of this study was to examine the influence of photodynamic effect on biological activity of PBR-PP complexes. These measurements were performed in pH dependent environment. Constant concentration of solubilized receptor was titrated with increasing concentration of porphyrins (PPIX, Hp, PP(Arg)(2), Hp(Arg)(2), PP(Gly)(2), PP(Ala)(2), PP(Ser)(2), PP(Phe)(2)) and binding constants were calculated. PBP-PP mixtures were illuminated with 3 J, 5 J or 10 J of blue light and changes in protein fluorescence was recorded. Experimental data were fitted to weak and strong binding models. As a result for all derivatives weak binding model was the best fitted. The strongest binding showed PPIX in pH 7.4 and with pH drop binding constants showed greater values for all examined derivatives. Out of amino acid derivatives the strongest binding was noticed for PP(Gly)(2) and PP(Phe)(2) and for the last one pH influence was not observed.

  19. The GridPP DIRAC project: Implementation of a multi-VO DIRAC service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, D.; Colling, D.; Currie, R.; Fayer, S.; Huffman, A.; Martyniak, J.; Rand, D.; Richards, A.

    2015-12-01

    The GridPP consortium provides computing support to many high energy physics projects in the UK. As part of this GridPP offers access to a large amount of highly distributed resources across the UK for multiple collaborations. The userbase supported by GridPP includes hundreds of users spanning multiple virtual organisations with many different computing requirements. In order to provide a common interface to these distributed a centralised DIRAC instance has been setup at Imperial College London. This paper describes the experiences learnt from deploying this DIRAC instance and the modifications that have made to support the GridPP use case.

  20. Effect of blend ratio of PP/kapok blend nonwoven fabrics on oil sorption capacity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Hee; Kim, Ji-Soo; Kim, Do-Hyung; Shin, Min-Seung; Jung, Young-Jin; Lee, Dong-Jin; Kim, Han-Do

    2013-01-01

    More research and development on novel oil sorbent materials is needed to protect the environmental pollution. New nonwoven fabrics (pads) of polypropylene (PP)/kapok blends (blend ratio: 100/0, 75/25, 50/50, 25/75 and 10/90) were prepared by needle punching process at a fixed (optimized) condition (punch density: 50 punches/cm2 and depth: 4mm). This study focused on the effect of blend ratio of PP/kapok nonwoven fabrics on oil sorption capacities to find the best blend ratio having the highest synergy effect. The PP/kapok blend (50/50) sample has the lowest bulk density and showed the best oil absorption capacity. The oil sorption capacity of PP/kapok blend (50/50) nonwoven fabric for kerosene/soybean oil [21.09/27.01 (g oil/g sorbent)] was 1.5-2 times higher than those of commercial PP pad oil sorbents. The highest synergy effect of PP/kapok blend (50/50) was ascribed to the lowest bulk density of PP/kapok blend (50/50), which might be due to the highest morphologically incompatibility between PP fibre and kapok. These results suggest that the PP/kapok blend (50/50) having the highest synergy effect has a high potential as a new high-performance oil sorbent material.

  1. Different effects of ppGpp on Escherichia coli DNA replication in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Maciąg-Dorszyńska, Monika; Szalewska-Pałasz, Agnieszka; Węgrzyn, Grzegorz

    2013-01-01

    Inhibition of Escherichia coli DNA replication by guanosine tetraphosphate (ppGpp) is demonstrated in vitro. This finding is compatible with impairment of the DnaG primase activity by this nucleotide. However, in agreement to previous reports, we were not able to detect a rapid inhibition of DNA synthesis in E. coli cells under the stringent control conditions, when intracellular ppGpp levels increase dramatically. We suggest that the process of ppGpp-mediated inhibition of DnaG activity may be masked in E. coli cells, which could provide a rationale for explanation of differences between ppGpp effects on DNA replication in E. coli and Bacillus subtilis.

  2. Differential regulation by ppGpp versus pppGpp in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Mechold, Undine; Potrykus, Katarzyna; Murphy, Helen; Murakami, Katsuhiko S; Cashel, Michael

    2013-07-01

    Both ppGpp and pppGpp are thought to function collectively as second messengers for many complex cellular responses to nutritional stress throughout biology. There are few indications that their regulatory effects might be different; however, this question has been largely unexplored for lack of an ability to experimentally manipulate the relative abundance of ppGpp and pppGpp. Here, we achieve preferential accumulation of either ppGpp or pppGpp with Escherichia coli strains through induction of different Streptococcal (p)ppGpp synthetase fragments. In addition, expression of E. coli GppA, a pppGpp 5'-gamma phosphate hydrolase that converts pppGpp to ppGpp, is manipulated to fine tune differential accumulation of ppGpp and pppGpp. In vivo and in vitro experiments show that pppGpp is less potent than ppGpp with respect to regulation of growth rate, RNA/DNA ratios, ribosomal RNA P1 promoter transcription inhibition, threonine operon promoter activation and RpoS induction. To provide further insights into regulation by (p)ppGpp, we have also determined crystal structures of E. coli RNA polymerase-σ(70) holoenzyme with ppGpp and pppGpp. We find that both nucleotides bind to a site at the interface between β' and ω subunits.

  3. From (p)ppGpp to (pp)pGpp: Characterization of Regulatory Effects of pGpp Synthesized by the Small Alarmone Synthetase of Enterococcus faecalis

    PubMed Central

    Gaca, Anthony O.; Kudrin, Pavel; Colomer-Winter, Cristina; Beljantseva, Jelena; Liu, Kuanqing; Anderson, Brent; Wang, Jue D.; Rejman, Dominik; Potrykus, Katarzyna; Cashel, Michael

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The bacterial stringent response (SR) is a conserved stress tolerance mechanism that orchestrates physiological alterations to enhance cell survival. This response is mediated by the intracellular accumulation of the alarmones pppGpp and ppGpp, collectively called (p)ppGpp. In Enterococcus faecalis, (p)ppGpp metabolism is carried out by the bifunctional synthetase/hydrolase E. faecalis Rel (RelEf) and the small alarmone synthetase (SAS) RelQEf. Although Rel is the main enzyme responsible for SR activation in Firmicutes, there is emerging evidence that SASs can make important contributions to bacterial homeostasis. Here, we showed that RelQEf synthesizes ppGpp more efficiently than pppGpp without the need for ribosomes, tRNA, or mRNA. In addition to (p)ppGpp synthesis from GDP and GTP, RelQEf also efficiently utilized GMP to form GMP 3′-diphosphate (pGpp). Based on this observation, we sought to determine if pGpp exerts regulatory effects on cellular processes affected by (p)ppGpp. We found that pGpp, like (p)ppGpp, strongly inhibits the activity of E. faecalis enzymes involved in GTP biosynthesis and, to a lesser extent, transcription of rrnB by Escherichia coli RNA polymerase. Activation of E. coli RelA synthetase activity was observed in the presence of both pGpp and ppGpp, while RelQEf was activated only by ppGpp. Furthermore, enzymatic activity of RelQEf is insensitive to relacin, a (p)ppGpp analog developed as an inhibitor of “long” RelA/SpoT homolog (RSH) enzymes. We conclude that pGpp can likely function as a bacterial alarmone with target-specific regulatory effects that are similar to what has been observed for (p)ppGpp. IMPORTANCE Accumulation of the nucleotide second messengers (p)ppGpp in bacteria is an important signal regulating genetic and physiological networks contributing to stress tolerance, antibiotic persistence, and virulence. Understanding the function and regulation of the enzymes involved in (p)ppGpp turnover is therefore

  4. N* production from pp and p-barp collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Jiajun; Cao Xu; Molina, R.; Oset, E.; Zou, B. S.

    2011-10-21

    With an effective Lagrangian approach, we give a full analysis on the NN{yields}NN{pi}{pi} and pp{yields}pn{pi}{sup +} reactions for proton beam energy from 1 to 1.5 GeV. The results are very consistent with the experiment data from CELSIUS, KEK, COSY, and so on. Based on these results, we consider the N-barN{yields}N-barN{pi}{pi} and p-barp{yields}p-barn{pi}{sup +} for proton beam energy up to 4 GeV. Compare to the pp collisions, there are many benefits to study N* resonances in these two reactions. And for the high proton beam energy up to 15 GeV, we consider some new resonances with hidden charm which are definitely beyond three constituent quarks model in the p-barp{yields}p-barpJ/{psi} and p-barp{yields}p-barp{eta}{sub c}, where there are very nice places to find these new N{sub cc}-bar*. The predicted results about p-barp collisions can be looked for at the forthcoming PANDA/FAIR experiments.

  5. Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and CRM1-dependent MHC class I peptide presentation of human cytomegalovirus pp65.

    PubMed

    Frankenberg, Nadine; Lischka, Peter; Pepperl-Klindworth, Sandra; Stamminger, Thomas; Plachter, Bodo

    2012-11-01

    The phosphoprotein 65 (pp65) of human cytomegalovirus is a prominent target of the antiviral CD8 T lymphocyte response. This study focused on investigating the properties of pp65 that render it a privileged antigen. It was found that pp65 was metabolically stable. The tegument protein was introduced into MHC class I presentation following its delivery via non-replicating dense bodies. No ubiquitination was found on particle-associated pp65. Proof was obtained that pp65 was a nucleocytoplasmic shuttle protein, using heterokaryon analyses. Based on this finding, inhibition experiments showed that presentation of particle-derived pp65 by HLA-A2 was sensitive to the impairment of the CRM1-mediated nuclear export pathway. The data support the idea that particle-derived pp65 can serve as a nuclear reservoir for proteasomal processing and MHC class I presentation, following its CRM1-dependent nuclear export. The presentation of pp65-derived peptides was also impaired by CRM1-inhibition following de novo synthesis of the tegument protein. However, pp65 protein levels were also reduced when blocking CRM1-mediated export after transient expression. This indicated that pp65 expression rather than direct interference with its own nuclear export was responsible for its reduced presentation in this case. The functionality of CRM1-mediated nuclear export is thus important for the presentation of pp65-derived peptides in the context of MHC class I on organ cells, both after exogenous uptake and after de novo synthesis of the tegument protein, but different mechanisms may account for either case.

  6. Essential roles for Mycobacterium tuberculosis Rel beyond the production of (p)ppGpp.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Leslie A; Stallings, Christina L

    2013-12-01

    In Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the stringent response to amino acid starvation is mediated by the M. tuberculosis Rel (RelMtb) enzyme, which transfers a pyrophosphate from ATP to GDP or GTP to synthesize ppGpp and pppGpp, respectively. (p)ppGpp then influences numerous metabolic processes. RelMtb also encodes a second, distinct catalytic domain that hydrolyzes (p)ppGpp into pyrophosphate and GDP or GTP. RelMtb is required for chronic M. tuberculosis infection in mice; however, it is unknown which catalytic activity of RelMtb mediates pathogenesis and whether (p)ppGpp itself is necessary. In order to individually investigate the roles of (p)ppGpp synthesis and hydrolysis during M. tuberculosis pathogenesis, we generated RelMtb point mutants that were either synthetase dead (RelMtb(H344Y)) or hydrolase dead (RelMtb(H80A)). M. tuberculosis strains expressing the synthetase-dead RelMtb(H344Y) mutant did not persist in mice, demonstrating that the RelMtb (p)ppGpp synthetase activity is required for maintaining bacterial titers during chronic infection. Deletion of a second predicted (p)ppGpp synthetase had no effect on pathogenesis, demonstrating that RelMtb was the major contributor to (p)ppGpp production during infection. Interestingly, expression of an allele encoding the hydrolase-dead RelMtb mutant, RelMtb(H80A), that is incapable of hydrolyzing (p)ppGpp but still able to synthesize (p)ppGpp decreased the growth rate of M. tuberculosis and changed the colony morphology of the bacteria. In addition, RelMtb(H80A) expression during acute or chronic M. tuberculosis infection in mice was lethal to the infecting bacteria. These findings highlight a distinct role for RelMtb-mediated (p)ppGpp hydrolysis that is essential for M. tuberculosis pathogenesis.

  7. Essential Roles for Mycobacterium tuberculosis Rel beyond the Production of (p)ppGpp

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Leslie A.

    2013-01-01

    In Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the stringent response to amino acid starvation is mediated by the M. tuberculosis Rel (RelMtb) enzyme, which transfers a pyrophosphate from ATP to GDP or GTP to synthesize ppGpp and pppGpp, respectively. (p)ppGpp then influences numerous metabolic processes. RelMtb also encodes a second, distinct catalytic domain that hydrolyzes (p)ppGpp into pyrophosphate and GDP or GTP. RelMtb is required for chronic M. tuberculosis infection in mice; however, it is unknown which catalytic activity of RelMtb mediates pathogenesis and whether (p)ppGpp itself is necessary. In order to individually investigate the roles of (p)ppGpp synthesis and hydrolysis during M. tuberculosis pathogenesis, we generated RelMtb point mutants that were either synthetase dead (RelMtbH344Y) or hydrolase dead (RelMtbH80A). M. tuberculosis strains expressing the synthetase-dead RelMtbH344Y mutant did not persist in mice, demonstrating that the RelMtb (p)ppGpp synthetase activity is required for maintaining bacterial titers during chronic infection. Deletion of a second predicted (p)ppGpp synthetase had no effect on pathogenesis, demonstrating that RelMtb was the major contributor to (p)ppGpp production during infection. Interestingly, expression of an allele encoding the hydrolase-dead RelMtb mutant, RelMtbH80A, that is incapable of hydrolyzing (p)ppGpp but still able to synthesize (p)ppGpp decreased the growth rate of M. tuberculosis and changed the colony morphology of the bacteria. In addition, RelMtbH80A expression during acute or chronic M. tuberculosis infection in mice was lethal to the infecting bacteria. These findings highlight a distinct role for RelMtb-mediated (p)ppGpp hydrolysis that is essential for M. tuberculosis pathogenesis. PMID:24123821

  8. The molecular chaperone Hsp70 activates protein phosphatase 5 (PP5) by binding the tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain.

    PubMed

    Connarn, Jamie N; Assimon, Victoria A; Reed, Rebecca A; Tse, Eric; Southworth, Daniel R; Zuiderweg, Erik R P; Gestwicki, Jason E; Sun, Duxin

    2014-01-31

    Protein phosphatase 5 (PP5) is auto-inhibited by intramolecular interactions with its tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain. Hsp90 has been shown to bind PP5 to activate its phosphatase activity. However, the functional implications of binding Hsp70 to PP5 are not yet clear. In this study, we find that both Hsp90 and Hsp70 bind to PP5 using a luciferase fragment complementation assay. A fluorescence polarization assay shows that Hsp90 (MEEVD motif) binds to the TPR domain of PP5 almost 3-fold higher affinity than Hsp70 (IEEVD motif). However, Hsp70 binding to PP5 stimulates higher phosphatase activity of PP5 than the binding of Hsp90. We find that PP5 forms a stable 1:1 complex with Hsp70, but the interaction appears asymmetric with Hsp90, with one PP5 binding the dimer. Solution NMR studies reveal that Hsc70 and PP5 proteins are dynamically independent in complex, tethered by a disordered region that connects the Hsc70 core and the IEEVD-TPR contact area. This tethered binding is expected to allow PP5 to carry out multi-site dephosphorylation of Hsp70-bound clients with a range of sizes and shapes. Together, these results demonstrate that Hsp70 recruits PP5 and activates its phosphatase activity which suggests dual roles for PP5 that might link chaperone systems with signaling pathways in cancer and development.

  9. Modulation of cell spreading and migration by pp125FAK phosphorylation.

    PubMed Central

    Sankar, S.; Mahooti-Brooks, N.; Hu, G.; Madri, J. A.

    1995-01-01

    We provide evidence for both matrix-dependent and pp60v-src tyrosine kinase-dependent modulation of cell migration via tyrosine phosphorylation of pp125FAK, a focal adhesion kinase, thought to be involved in integrin-mediated signaling. Enhanced pp125FAK tyrosine phosphorylation and cell spreading was associated with decreased migration. Cells plated on type I collagen were less spread and exhibited lower levels of pp125FAK tyrosine phosphorylation and faster migration rates compared with cells on fibronectin that were well spread, which exhibited enhanced levels of pp125FAK tyrosine phosphorylation and slower migration rates. Inside-out signaling via expression of pp60v-src or its kinase-negative mutant caused a decrease in cell migration by changing the extent of pp125FAK tyrosine phosphorylation to above or below the levels obtained with control cells plated on fibronectin. Hence, pp125FAK tyrosine phosphorylation appears to play a role in the signaling cascade pathway involved in regulation of extracellular matrix-modulated, integrin-mediated cell migration. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:7677174

  10. Evidence for CP violation in B+ → ppK+ decays.

    PubMed

    Aaij, R; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Akar, S; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; An, L; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreassen, R; Andreotti, M; Andrews, J E; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Baalouch, M; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Badalov, A; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Batozskaya, V; Battista, V; Bay, A; Beaucourt, L; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Borsato, M; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brodzicka, J; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Bursche, A; Busetto, G; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Calabrese, R; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cassina, L; Castillo Garcia, L; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Cenci, R; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chefdeville, M; Chen, S; Cheung, S-F; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Corvo, M; Counts, I; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D C; Cruz Torres, M; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; Dalseno, J; David, P; David, P N Y; Davis, A; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Silva, W; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Déléage, N; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Di Canto, A; Dijkstra, H; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dorigo, M; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dreimanis, K; Dujany, G; Dupertuis, F; Durante, P; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Ely, S; Esen, S; Evans, H-M; Evans, T; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Farinelli, C; Farley, N; Farry, S; Fay, Rf; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fiore, M; Fiorini, M; Firlej, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fiutowski, T; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Fu, J; Furfaro, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gallorini, S; Gambetta, S; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; García Pardiñas, J; Garofoli, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gavardi, L; Gavrilov, G; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gianelle, A; Giani', S; Gibson, V; Giubega, L; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gotti, C; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Griffith, P; Grillo, L; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hamilton, B; Hampson, T; Han, X; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; He, J; Head, T; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Henry, L; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Heß, M; Hicheur, A; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hombach, C; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jalocha, J; Jans, E; Jaton, P; Jawahery, A; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Jurik, N; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Kanso, W; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Karodia, S; Kelsey, M; Kenyon, I R; Ketel, T; Khanji, B; Khurewathanakul, C; Klaver, S; Klimaszewski, K; Kochebina, O; Kolpin, M; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucewicz, W; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kurek, K; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Langhans, B; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leo, S; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, Y; Likhomanenko, T; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Lionetto, F; Liu, B; Lohn, S; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lopez-March, N; Lowdon, P; Lu, H; Lucchesi, D; Luo, H; Lupato, A; Luppi, E; Lupton, O; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Malde, S; Malinin, A; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Maratas, J; Marchand, J F; Marconi, U; Marin Benito, C; Marino, P; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martinez Vidal, F; Martins Tostes, D; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Mazurov, A; McCann, M; McCarthy, J; McNab, A; McNulty, R; McSkelly, B; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Moggi, N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Morandin, M; Morawski, P; Mordà, A; Morello, M J; Moron, J; Morris, A-B; Mountain, R; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Mussini, M; Muster, B; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neri, N; Neubert, S; Neufeld, N; Neuner, M; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Novoselov, A; O'Hanlon, D P; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Onderwater, G; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Oyanguren, A; Pal, B K; Palano, A; Palombo, F; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Pappalardo, L L; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrignani, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pearce, A; Pellegrino, A; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perez Trigo, E; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pescatore, L; Pesen, E; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Pistone, A; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polci, F; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, A; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Price, E; Prisciandaro, J; Pritchard, A; Prouve, C; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Punzi, G; Qian, W; Rachwal, B; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rama, M; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Rauschmayr, N; Raven, G; Reichert, S; Reid, M M; Dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, S; Rihl, M; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, A B; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Perez, P; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Romero Vidal, A; Rotondo, M; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, H; Ruiz Valls, P; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salustino Guimaraes, V; Sanchez Mayordomo, C; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santovetti, E; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Saunders, D M; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M-H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Sestini, L; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Simi, G; Sirendi, M; Skidmore, N; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Smith, E; Smith, J; Smith, M; Snoek, H; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Soomro, F; Souza, D; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Sridharan, S; Stagni, F; Stahl, M; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stenyakin, O; Stevenson, S; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Stracka, S; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Stroili, R; Subbiah, V K; Sun, L; Sutcliffe, W; Swientek, K; Swientek, S; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szilard, D; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teklishyn, M; Tellarini, G; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tomassetti, L; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Ustyuzhanin, A; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vallier, A; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vázquez Sierra, C; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vieites Diaz, M; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; Voss, H; de Vries, J A; Waldi, R; Wallace, C; Wallace, R; Walsh, J; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wiedner, D; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wimberley, J; Wishahi, J; Wislicki, W; Witek, M; Wormser, G; Wotton, S A; Wright, S; Wu, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, Z; Xu, Z; Yang, Z; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhokhov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    2014-10-01

    Three-body B+ → ppK+ and B(+) → ppπ(+) decays are studied using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.0 fb(-1) collected by the LHCb experiment in proton-proton collisions at center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV. Evidence of CP violation in the B(+) → ppK(+) decay is found in regions of the phase space, representing the first measurement of this kind for a final state containing baryons. Measurements of the forward-backward asymmetry of the light meson in the pp rest frame yield A(FB)(ppK(+),m(pp)<2.85 GeV/c(2)) = 0.495 ± 0.012 (stat) ± 0.007 (syst) and A(FB)(ppπ(+),m(pp) <2.85 GeV/c(2)) = -0.409 ± 0.033 (stat) ± 0.006 (syst). In addition, the branching fraction of the decay B(+) → Λ(1520)p is measured to be B(B(+) → Λ(1520)p) = (3.15 ± 0.48 (stat) ± 0.07 (syst) ± 0.26 (BF)) × 10(-7), where BF denotes the uncertainty on secondary branching fractions. PMID:25325630

  11. Evaluation of PpIX formation in Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia I (CIN) using widefield fluorescence images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbinatto, Fernanda M.; Inada, Natalia M.; Fortunato, Thereza C.; Lombardi, Welington; da Silva, Eduardo V.; Vollet Filho, José D.; Kurachi, Cristina; Pratavieira, Sebastião.; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.

    2016-03-01

    Optical techniques has been described as auxiliary technology for screening of neoplasia because shows the potential for tissues differentiation in real-time and it is a noninvasive detection and safe. However, only endogenous fluorophores presents the lesion may be insufficient and needed of the administration of the fluorophores synthesized, such as, precursor molecule of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) induced by 5- aminolevulinic acid and your derivatives. Topical application of methylaminolevulinate (MAL), induces formation of the endogenous photosensitizer, PpIX in tissues where carcinogenesis has begun. The PpIX tend to accumulate in premalignant and malignant tissues and the illumination with light with appropriate wavelength beginning to excitation of PpIX fluorescence, which helps to localize PpIX-rich areas and identify potentially malignant tissues. The aim of the study is to evaluate the production of PpIX in the cervix with CIN I through of the fluorescence images captured after 1 hour of cream application. It was possible to visualize PpIX fluorescence in cervix and it was possible to observe the selectivity in fluorescence in squamous-columnar junction, which a pre-cancerous condition (CIN) and usually is localized. Through the image processing it was possible to quantify the increase of red fluorescence. For the CIN I the increase of red fluorescence was approximately of 4 times indicating a good PpIX formation.

  12. Molecular mechanism and evolution of guanylate kinase regulation by (p)ppGpp.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kuanqing; Myers, Angela R; Pisithkul, Tippapha; Claas, Kathy R; Satyshur, Kenneth A; Amador-Noguez, Daniel; Keck, James L; Wang, Jue D

    2015-02-19

    The nucleotide (p)ppGpp mediates bacterial stress responses, but its targets and underlying mechanisms of action vary among bacterial species and remain incompletely understood. Here, we characterize the molecular interaction between (p)ppGpp and guanylate kinase (GMK), revealing the importance of this interaction in adaptation to starvation. Combining structural and kinetic analyses, we show that (p)ppGpp binds the GMK active site and competitively inhibits the enzyme. The (p)ppGpp-GMK interaction prevents the conversion of GMP to GDP, resulting in GMP accumulation upon amino acid downshift. Abolishing this interaction leads to excess (p)ppGpp and defective adaptation to amino acid starvation. A survey of GMKs from phylogenetically diverse bacteria shows that the (p)ppGpp-GMK interaction is conserved in members of Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Deinococcus-Thermus, but not in Proteobacteria, where (p)ppGpp regulates RNA polymerase (RNAP). We propose that GMK is an ancestral (p)ppGpp target and RNAP evolved more recently as a direct target in Proteobacteria.

  13. ppGpp inhibits peptide elongation cycle of chloroplast translation system in vitro.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Yuhta; Takabayashi, Taito; Kuroda, Hiroshi; Yukawa, Yasushi; Sattasuk, Kwanchanok; Akita, Mitsuru; Nozawa, Akira; Tozawa, Yuzuru

    2012-01-01

    Chloroplasts possess common biosynthetic pathways for generating guanosine 3',5'-(bis)pyrophosphate (ppGpp) from GDP and ATP by RelA-SpoT homolog enzymes. To date, several hypothetical targets of ppGpp in chloroplasts have been suggested, but they remain largely unverified. In this study, we have investigated effects of ppGpp on translation apparatus in chloroplasts by developing in vitro protein synthesis system based on an extract of chloroplasts isolated from pea (Pisum sativum). The chloroplast extracts showed stable protein synthesis activity in vitro, and the activity was sensitive to various types of antibiotics. We have demonstrated that ppGpp inhibits the activity of chloroplast translation in dose-effective manner, as does the toxic nonhydrolyzable GTP analog guanosine 5'-(β,γ-imido)triphosphate (GDPNP). We further examined polyuridylic acid-directed polyphenylalanine synthesis as a measure of peptide elongation activity in the pea chloroplast extract. Both ppGpp and GDPNP as well as antibiotics, fusidic acid and thiostrepton, inhibited the peptide elongation cycle of the translation system, but GDP in the similar range of the tested ppGpp concentration did not affect the activity. Our results thus show that ppGpp directly affect the translation system of chloroplasts, as they do that of bacteria. We suggest that the role of the ppGpp signaling system in translation in bacteria is conserved in the translation system of chloroplasts.

  14. M-theory on pp-waves with a holomorphic superpotential and its matrix description

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Nakwoo

    2008-11-23

    We study relationships between a new class of inhomogeneous pp-waves in D = 11 supergravity and Matrix models with a generic superpotential. One can consider supermembrane in the pp-wave background and obtain the interacting matrix model via discretizing the membrane worldvolume.

  15. ppGpp is the major source of growth rate control in E. coli.

    PubMed

    Potrykus, Katarzyna; Murphy, Helen; Philippe, Nadège; Cashel, Michael

    2011-03-01

    It is widely accepted that the DNA, RNA and protein content of Enterobacteriaceae is regulated as a function of exponential growth rates; macromolecular content increases with faster growth regardless of specific composition of the growth medium. This phenomenon, called growth rate control, primarily involves regulation of ribosomal RNA and ribosomal protein synthesis. However, it was uncertain whether the global regulator ppGpp is the major determinant for growth rate control. Therefore, here we re-evaluate the effect of ppGpp on macromolecular content for different balanced growth rates in defined media. We find that when ppGpp is absent, RNA/protein and RNA/DNA ratios are equivalent in fast and slow growing cells. Moreover, slow growing ppGpp-deficient cells with increased RNA content, display a normal ribosomal subunit composition although polysome content is reduced when compared with fast growing wild-type cells. From this we conclude that growth rate control does not occur in the absence of ppGpp. Also, artificial elevation of ppGpp or introduction of stringent RNA polymerase mutants in ppGpp-deficient cells restores this control. We believe these findings strongly argue in favour of ppGpp and against redundant regulation of growth rate control by other factors in Escherichia coli and other enteric bacteria.

  16. Identification of the bacterial alarmone guanosine 5'-diphosphate 3'-diphosphate (ppGpp) in plants.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kosaku; Kasai, Koji; Ochi, Kozo

    2004-03-23

    Stringent control mediated by the bacterial alarmone guanosine 5'-diphosphate 3'-diphosphate (ppGpp) is a key regulatory process governing bacterial gene expression. By devising a system to measure ppGpp in plants, we have been able to identify ppGpp in the chloroplasts of plant cells. Levels of ppGpp increased markedly when plants were subjected to such biotic and abiotic stresses as wounding, heat shock, high salinity, acidity, heavy metal, drought, and UV irradiation. Abrupt changes from light to dark also caused a substantial elevation in ppGpp levels. In vitro, chloroplast RNA polymerase activity was inhibited in the presence of ppGpp, demonstrating the existence of a bacteria-type stringent response in plants. Elevation of ppGpp levels was elicited also by treatment with plant hormones jasmonic acid, abscisic acid, and ethylene, but these effects were blocked completely by another plant hormone, indole-3-acetic acid. On the basis of these findings, we propose that ppGpp plays a critical role in systemic plant signaling in response to environmental stresses, contributing to the adaptation of plants to environmental changes.

  17. Molecular mechanism and evolution of guanylate kinase regulation by (p)ppGpp

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kuanqing; Myers, Angela R.; Pisithkul, Tippapha; Claas, Kathy R.; Satyshur, Kenneth A.; Amador-Noguez, Daniel; Keck, James L.; Wang, Jue D.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The nucleotide (p)ppGpp mediates bacterial stress responses, but its targets and underlying mechanisms of action vary among bacterial species and remain incompletely understood. Here we characterize the molecular interaction between (p)ppGpp and guanylate kinase (GMK) revealing the importance of this interaction in adaptation to starvation. Combining structural and kinetic analyses, we show that (p)ppGpp binds the GMK active site and competitively inhibits the enzyme. The (p)ppGpp-GMK interaction prevents the conversion of GMP to GDP, resulting in GMP accumulation upon amino acid downshift. Abolishing this interaction leads to excess (p)ppGpp and defective adaptation to amino acid starvation. A survey of GMKs from phylogenetically diverse bacteria shows that the (p)ppGpp-GMK interaction is conserved in members of Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Deinococcus-Thermus, but not in Proteobacteria where (p)ppGpp regulates RNA polymerase (RNAP). We propose that GMK is an ancestral (p)ppGpp target and RNAP evolved more recently as a direct target in Proteobacteria. PMID:25661490

  18. Evidence for CP violation in B+ → ppK+ decays.

    PubMed

    Aaij, R; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Akar, S; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; An, L; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreassen, R; Andreotti, M; Andrews, J E; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Baalouch, M; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Badalov, A; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Batozskaya, V; Battista, V; Bay, A; Beaucourt, L; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Borsato, M; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brodzicka, J; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Bursche, A; Busetto, G; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Calabrese, R; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cassina, L; Castillo Garcia, L; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Cenci, R; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chefdeville, M; Chen, S; Cheung, S-F; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Corvo, M; Counts, I; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D C; Cruz Torres, M; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; Dalseno, J; David, P; David, P N Y; Davis, A; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Silva, W; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Déléage, N; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Di Canto, A; Dijkstra, H; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dorigo, M; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dreimanis, K; Dujany, G; Dupertuis, F; Durante, P; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Ely, S; Esen, S; Evans, H-M; Evans, T; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Farinelli, C; Farley, N; Farry, S; Fay, Rf; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fiore, M; Fiorini, M; Firlej, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fiutowski, T; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Fu, J; Furfaro, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gallorini, S; Gambetta, S; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; García Pardiñas, J; Garofoli, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gavardi, L; Gavrilov, G; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gianelle, A; Giani', S; Gibson, V; Giubega, L; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gotti, C; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Griffith, P; Grillo, L; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hamilton, B; Hampson, T; Han, X; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; He, J; Head, T; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Henry, L; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Heß, M; Hicheur, A; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hombach, C; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jalocha, J; Jans, E; Jaton, P; Jawahery, A; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Jurik, N; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Kanso, W; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Karodia, S; Kelsey, M; Kenyon, I R; Ketel, T; Khanji, B; Khurewathanakul, C; Klaver, S; Klimaszewski, K; Kochebina, O; Kolpin, M; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucewicz, W; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kurek, K; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Langhans, B; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leo, S; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, Y; Likhomanenko, T; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Lionetto, F; Liu, B; Lohn, S; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lopez-March, N; Lowdon, P; Lu, H; Lucchesi, D; Luo, H; Lupato, A; Luppi, E; Lupton, O; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Malde, S; Malinin, A; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Maratas, J; Marchand, J F; Marconi, U; Marin Benito, C; Marino, P; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martinez Vidal, F; Martins Tostes, D; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Mazurov, A; McCann, M; McCarthy, J; McNab, A; McNulty, R; McSkelly, B; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Moggi, N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Morandin, M; Morawski, P; Mordà, A; Morello, M J; Moron, J; Morris, A-B; Mountain, R; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Mussini, M; Muster, B; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neri, N; Neubert, S; Neufeld, N; Neuner, M; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Novoselov, A; O'Hanlon, D P; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Onderwater, G; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Oyanguren, A; Pal, B K; Palano, A; Palombo, F; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Pappalardo, L L; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrignani, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pearce, A; Pellegrino, A; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perez Trigo, E; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pescatore, L; Pesen, E; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Pistone, A; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polci, F; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, A; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Price, E; Prisciandaro, J; Pritchard, A; Prouve, C; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Punzi, G; Qian, W; Rachwal, B; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rama, M; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Rauschmayr, N; Raven, G; Reichert, S; Reid, M M; Dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, S; Rihl, M; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, A B; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Perez, P; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Romero Vidal, A; Rotondo, M; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, H; Ruiz Valls, P; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salustino Guimaraes, V; Sanchez Mayordomo, C; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santovetti, E; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Saunders, D M; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M-H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Sestini, L; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Simi, G; Sirendi, M; Skidmore, N; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Smith, E; Smith, J; Smith, M; Snoek, H; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Soomro, F; Souza, D; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Sridharan, S; Stagni, F; Stahl, M; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stenyakin, O; Stevenson, S; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Stracka, S; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Stroili, R; Subbiah, V K; Sun, L; Sutcliffe, W; Swientek, K; Swientek, S; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szilard, D; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teklishyn, M; Tellarini, G; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tomassetti, L; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Ustyuzhanin, A; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vallier, A; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vázquez Sierra, C; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vieites Diaz, M; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; Voss, H; de Vries, J A; Waldi, R; Wallace, C; Wallace, R; Walsh, J; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wiedner, D; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wimberley, J; Wishahi, J; Wislicki, W; Witek, M; Wormser, G; Wotton, S A; Wright, S; Wu, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, Z; Xu, Z; Yang, Z; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhokhov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    2014-10-01

    Three-body B+ → ppK+ and B(+) → ppπ(+) decays are studied using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.0 fb(-1) collected by the LHCb experiment in proton-proton collisions at center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV. Evidence of CP violation in the B(+) → ppK(+) decay is found in regions of the phase space, representing the first measurement of this kind for a final state containing baryons. Measurements of the forward-backward asymmetry of the light meson in the pp rest frame yield A(FB)(ppK(+),m(pp)<2.85 GeV/c(2)) = 0.495 ± 0.012 (stat) ± 0.007 (syst) and A(FB)(ppπ(+),m(pp) <2.85 GeV/c(2)) = -0.409 ± 0.033 (stat) ± 0.006 (syst). In addition, the branching fraction of the decay B(+) → Λ(1520)p is measured to be B(B(+) → Λ(1520)p) = (3.15 ± 0.48 (stat) ± 0.07 (syst) ± 0.26 (BF)) × 10(-7), where BF denotes the uncertainty on secondary branching fractions.

  19. From the Biology of PP2A to the PADs for Therapy of Hematologic Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Ciccone, Maria; Calin, George A.; Perrotti, Danilo

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decades, an emerging role of phosphatases in the pathogenesis of hematologic malignancies and solid tumors has been established. The tumor-suppressor protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) belongs to the serine–threonine phosphatases family and accounts for the majority of serine–threonine phosphatase activity in eukaryotic cells. Numerous studies have shown that inhibition of PP2A expression and/or function may contribute to leukemogenesis in several hematological malignancies. Likewise, overexpression or aberrant expression of physiologic PP2A inhibitory molecules (e.g., SET and its associated SETBP1 and CIP2A) may turn off PP2A function and participate to leukemic progression. The discovery of PP2A as tumor suppressor has prompted the evaluation of the safety and the efficacy of new compounds, which can restore PP2A activity in leukemic cells. Although further studies are needed to better understand how PP2A acts in the intricate phosphatases/kinases cancer network, the results reviewed herein strongly support the development on new PP2A-activating drugs and the immediate introduction of those available into clinical protocols for leukemia patients refractory or resistant to current available therapies. PMID:25763353

  20. Suggested Involvement of PP1/PP2A Activity and De Novo Gene Expression in Anhydrobiotic Survival in a Tardigrade, Hypsibius dujardini, by Chemical Genetic Approach.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Koyuki; Kubo, Takeo; Kunieda, Takekazu

    2015-01-01

    Upon desiccation, some tardigrades enter an ametabolic dehydrated state called anhydrobiosis and can survive a desiccated environment in this state. For successful transition to anhydrobiosis, some anhydrobiotic tardigrades require pre-incubation under high humidity conditions, a process called preconditioning, prior to exposure to severe desiccation. Although tardigrades are thought to prepare for transition to anhydrobiosis during preconditioning, the molecular mechanisms governing such processes remain unknown. In this study, we used chemical genetic approaches to elucidate the regulatory mechanisms of anhydrobiosis in the anhydrobiotic tardigrade, Hypsibius dujardini. We first demonstrated that inhibition of transcription or translation drastically impaired anhydrobiotic survival, suggesting that de novo gene expression is required for successful transition to anhydrobiosis in this tardigrade. We then screened 81 chemicals and identified 5 chemicals that significantly impaired anhydrobiotic survival after severe desiccation, in contrast to little or no effect on survival after high humidity exposure only. In particular, cantharidic acid, a selective inhibitor of protein phosphatase (PP) 1 and PP2A, exhibited the most profound inhibitory effects. Another PP1/PP2A inhibitor, okadaic acid, also significantly and specifically impaired anhydrobiotic survival, suggesting that PP1/PP2A activity plays an important role for anhydrobiosis in this species. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of the required activities of signaling molecules for desiccation tolerance in tardigrades. The identified inhibitory chemicals could provide novel clues to elucidate the regulatory mechanisms underlying anhydrobiosis in tardigrades.

  1. Suggested Involvement of PP1/PP2A Activity and De Novo Gene Expression in Anhydrobiotic Survival in a Tardigrade, Hypsibius dujardini, by Chemical Genetic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Koyuki; Kubo, Takeo; Kunieda, Takekazu

    2015-01-01

    Upon desiccation, some tardigrades enter an ametabolic dehydrated state called anhydrobiosis and can survive a desiccated environment in this state. For successful transition to anhydrobiosis, some anhydrobiotic tardigrades require pre-incubation under high humidity conditions, a process called preconditioning, prior to exposure to severe desiccation. Although tardigrades are thought to prepare for transition to anhydrobiosis during preconditioning, the molecular mechanisms governing such processes remain unknown. In this study, we used chemical genetic approaches to elucidate the regulatory mechanisms of anhydrobiosis in the anhydrobiotic tardigrade, Hypsibius dujardini. We first demonstrated that inhibition of transcription or translation drastically impaired anhydrobiotic survival, suggesting that de novo gene expression is required for successful transition to anhydrobiosis in this tardigrade. We then screened 81 chemicals and identified 5 chemicals that significantly impaired anhydrobiotic survival after severe desiccation, in contrast to little or no effect on survival after high humidity exposure only. In particular, cantharidic acid, a selective inhibitor of protein phosphatase (PP) 1 and PP2A, exhibited the most profound inhibitory effects. Another PP1/PP2A inhibitor, okadaic acid, also significantly and specifically impaired anhydrobiotic survival, suggesting that PP1/PP2A activity plays an important role for anhydrobiosis in this species. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of the required activities of signaling molecules for desiccation tolerance in tardigrades. The identified inhibitory chemicals could provide novel clues to elucidate the regulatory mechanisms underlying anhydrobiosis in tardigrades. PMID:26690982

  2. Protein phosphatase PP1-NIPP1 activates mesenchymal genes in HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Van Dessel, Nele; Boens, Shannah; Lesage, Bart; Winkler, Claudia; Görnemann, Janina; Van Eynde, Aleyde; Bollen, Mathieu

    2015-05-22

    The deletion of the protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) regulator known as Nuclear Inhibitor of PP1 (NIPP1) is embryonic lethal during gastrulation, hinting at a key role of PP1-NIPP1 in lineage specification. Consistent with this notion we show here that a mild, stable overexpression of NIPP1 in HeLa cells caused a massive induction of genes of the mesenchymal lineage, in particular smooth/cardiac-muscle and matrix markers. This reprogramming was associated with the formation of actin-based stress fibers and retracting filopodia, and a reduced proliferation potential. The NIPP1-induced mesenchymal transition required functional substrate and PP1-binding domains, suggesting that it involves the selective dephosphorylation of substrates of PP1-NIPP1. PMID:25907536

  3. PP2A inhibition results in hepatic insulin resistance despite Akt2 activation.

    PubMed

    Galbo, Thomas; Perry, Rachel J; Nishimura, Erica; Samuel, Varman T; Quistorff, Bjørn; Shulman, Gerald I

    2013-10-01

    In the liver, insulin suppresses hepatic gluconeogenesis by activating Akt, which inactivates the key gluconeogenic transcription factor FoxO1 (Forkhead Box O1). Recent studies have implicated hyperactivity of the Akt phosphatase Protein Phosphatase 2A (PP2A) and impaired Akt signaling as a molecular defect underlying insulin resistance. We therefore hypothesized that PP2A inhibition would enhance insulin-stimulated Akt activity and decrease glucose production. PP2A inhibitors increased hepatic Akt phosphorylation and inhibited FoxO1in vitro and in vivo, and suppressed gluconeogenesis in hepatocytes. Paradoxically, PP2A inhibition exacerbated insulin resistance in vivo. This was explained by phosphorylation of both hepatic glycogen synthase (GS) (inactivation) and phosphorylase (activation) resulting in impairment of glycogen storage. Our findings underline the significance of GS and Phosphorylase as hepatic PP2A substrates and importance of glycogen metabolism in acute plasma glucose regulation. PMID:24150286

  4. Additional diterpenes from Physcomitrella patens synthesized by copalyl diphosphate/kaurene synthase (PpCPS/KS).

    PubMed

    Zhan, Xin; Bach, Søren Spanner; Hansen, Nikolaj Lervad; Lunde, Christina; Simonsen, Henrik Toft

    2015-11-01

    The bifunctional diterpene synthase, copalyl diphosphate/kaurene synthase from the moss Physcomitrella patens (PpCPS/KS), catalyses the formation of at least four diterpenes, including ent-beyerene, ent-sandaracopimaradiene, ent-kaur-16-ene, and 16-hydroxy-ent-kaurene. The enzymatic activity has been confirmed through generation of a targeted PpCPS/KS knock-out mutant in P. patens via homologous recombination, through transient expression of PpCPS/KS in Nicotiana benthamiana, and expression of PpCPS/KS in E. coli. GC-MS analysis of the knock-out mutant shows that it lacks the diterpenoids, supporting that all are products of PpCPS/KS as observed in N. benthamiana and E. coli. These results provide additional knowledge of the mechanism of this bifunctional diterpene synthase, and are in line with proposed reaction mechanisms in kaurene biosynthesis.

  5. Functional interaction between nuclear inhibitor of protein phosphatase type 1 (NIPP1) and protein phosphatase type 1 (PP1) in Drosophila: consequences of over-expression of NIPP1 in flies and suppression by co-expression of PP1.

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Louise; Gross, Sascha; Beullens, Monique; Bollen, Mathieu; Bennett, Daimark; Alphey, Luke

    2002-01-01

    The catalytic subunit of type 1 Ser/Thr protein phosphatases (PP1c) forms complexes with many proteins that target it to particular subcellular locations and regulate its activity towards specific substrates. We report the identification of a Drosophila orthologue of nuclear inhibitor of PP1 (NIPP1Dm) through interaction with PP1c in the yeast two-hybrid system. NIPP1Dm shares many properties with mammalian NIPP1 including inhibition of PP1c in vitro, binding to RNA and PP1c, and localization to nuclear speckles. However, the mechanism controlling interaction of PP1c with NIPP1 is not conserved in Drosophila. NIPP1 can function independently of PP1c as a splicing factor, but the relative importance of this function is unknown. Over-expression of NIPP1Dm in Drosophila is cell-lethal in a range of tissues and developmental stages. The effects of ectopic NIPP1Dm are suppressed by co-expression of PP1c, indicating that the only effect of ectopic NIPP1Dm is to affect PP1c function. Co-expression of NIPP1Dm and PP1c does not have any detectable physiological effect in vivo, suggesting that the NIPP1Dm-PP1c holoenzyme is not normally limiting in Drosophila. These data show that NIPP1Dm and PP1c interact in vivo and suggest that NIPP1's role as a phosphatase regulator is conserved in Drosophila. PMID:12358598

  6. VII Workshop Italiano sulla fisica pp a LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LHCpp2016 è la settima edizione dell'incontro nazionale sulla fisica p-p a LHC. Questa serie di incontri è nata a Pisa nel 2003 con lo scopo di stimolare lo scambio di idee tra le comunità sperimentali di ATLAS, CMS e LHCB e la comunità teorica. Caratteristica fondamentale di questi incontri è la preparazione di larga parte dei talk in collaborazione tra i vari esperimenti e la comunità teorica. Largo spazio nella preparazione e presentazione dei talk viene dato ai giovani ricercatori. In questa settima edizione, che si tiene di nuovo a Pisa, vogliamo concentrare l'attenzione sulle potenzialità di scoperta offerte dai dati raccolti durante il runII di LHC.

  7. delta. sigma/sub L//(pp) and jet physics

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, D.G.

    1988-01-01

    We show that there is a positive contribution to ..delta..sigma/sub L/(pp; s) = sigma /sub tot/(p(+)p(+); s) /minus/ sigma/sub tot/(p(+)p(/minus/); s) (where the +- refer to proton helicities) associated with the pointlike scattering of fundamental constituents. Simple arguments imply that this positive contribution would, at very high s, be larger in absolute value than the negative contribution to ..delta..sigma/sub L/ predicted from the exchange of the A/sub 1/ reggeon, and furthermore may provide important insight into the shape of the spin weighted quark and gluon distributions. Measurements of ..delta..sigma/sub L/ in the energy range ..sqrt..s = 18 /minus/ 30 GeV also should help clarify theoretical ideas associated with the observations of ''minijets'' and could aid in the prediction of event structure at future high energy colliders. 24 refs. 6 figs.

  8. Rheological and thermal properties of PP-based WPC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzanti, V.; Mollica, F.; El Kissi, N.

    2014-05-01

    Wood Plastic Composite (WPC) has attracted great interest in outdoor building products for the reduced cost and the possibility of using recycled materials. Nevertheless the material shows two problems: the large viscosity due to the presence of high concentrations of filler and the degradation of cellulose during processing The aim of this work was to investigate the rheological and thermal properties of WPC. The material used for the experiments was a commercial PP-based WPC compound, with different concentrations of natural fibers (30, 50, 70% wt.). The thermal properties were studied to check for degradation of natural fibers during the subsequent rheological tests. Analyzing the storage and loss moduli and the complex viscosity curves obtained using a parallel plate rheometer it was possible to observe some features related to the viscoelastic nature of the composite.

  9. Dipole-based description of the pp interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalenko, V. N.

    2015-09-01

    We consider inelastic proton-proton interactions at high energies in transverse spatial coordinates. Colliding hadrons are represented as ensembles of color dipoles. We use prescriptions of the M¨uller dipole cascade model for the elementary interaction probability. Multiparton interactions are taken into account in the framework of the eikonal approach. We consider two variants of the model, namely, with and without confinement taken into account. We obtain the asymptotic form of the collision profile function for large impact parameters. We use the considered approach to find the slope of the diffraction cone in elastic pp scattering at high energies and compare our results with other models describing profile functions and with the experimental data.

  10. Molecular cloning, expression and single nucleotide polymorphisms of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) in mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi).

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiao-Yan; He, Shan; Liang, Xu-Fang; Song, Yi; Yuan, Xiao-Chen; Li, Ling; Wen, Zheng-Yong; Cai, Wen-Jing; Tao, Ya-Xiong

    2015-11-01

    In the wild, mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi) only feed on live prey fish, refusing dead prey. When reared in ponds, training will result in some mandarin fish accepting artificial diets. However, little is currently known about the molecular mechanism of the individual difference. Serine/threonine protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) is a suppressor of learning and long-term memory (LTM) in mammals. In the present study, the relationship between PP1 and the individual difference in acceptance of artificial diets in mandarin fish was investigated. The complete CDS (coding sequence) of four PP1 isoforms (PP1caa, PP1cab, PP1cb and PP1cc) were cloned in mandarin fish. The amino acid sequences of these PP1 isoforms are highly conserved in different species. The mRNA expressions of PP1caa and PP1cb in brain of artificial diet feeders were significantly higher than those in nonfeeders, suggesting the deficiency in the maintenance of long-term memory of its natural food habit (live prey fish). The SNP loci in PP1caa and PP1cb were also found to be associated with the individual difference in acceptance of artificial diets in mandarin fish. These SNPs of PP1caa and PP1cb genes could be useful markers for gene-associated breeding of mandarin fish, which could accept artificial diets. In conclusion, different mRNA expression and SNPs of PP1caa and PP1cb genes in feeders and nonfeeders of artificial diets might contribute to understanding the molecular mechanism of individual difference in acceptance of artificial diets in mandarin fish.

  11. Biochemical analyses of ppGpp effect on adenylosuccinate synthetases, key enzymes in purine biosynthesis in rice.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Yuhta; Nozawa, Akira; Tozawa, Yuzuru

    2014-01-01

    The ppGpp-signaling system functions in plant chloroplasts. In bacteria, a negative effect of ppGpp on adenylosuccinate synthetase (AdSS) has been suggested. Our biochemical analysis also revealed rice AdSS homologs are apparently sensitive to ppGpp. However, further investigation clarified that this phenomenon is cancelled by the high substrate affinity to the enzymes, leading to a limited effect of ppGpp on adenylosuccinate synthesis.

  12. Fabrication of borassus fruit lignocellulose fiber/PP composites and comparison with jute, sisal and coir fibers.

    PubMed

    Sudhakara, P; Jagadeesh, Dani; Wang, YiQi; Prasad, C Venkata; Devi, A P Kamala; Balakrishnan, G; Kim, B S; Song, J I

    2013-10-15

    Novel composites based on borassus fruit fine fiber (BFF) and polypropylene (PP) were fabricated with variable fiber composition (5, 10, 15 and 20 wt%) by injection molding. Maleated PP (MAPP) was also used as compatibilizer at 5 wt% for effective fiber-matrix adhesion. FTIR analysis confirms the evidence of a chemical bonding between the fiber and polymeric matrix through esterification in presence of MAPP. The tensile and flexural properties were found to increase with 15 and 10 wt% fiber loadings respectively, and decreased thereafter. Coir, jute and sisal fiber composites were also fabricated with 15 wt% fiber loading under the same conditions as used for BFF/PP composites. It was found that the mechanical properties of BFF (15 wt%)/PP composites were equivalent to jute/PP, sisal/PP and superior to coir/PP composites. Jute/PP and sisal/PP composites showed higher water absorption than BFF/PP and coir/PP composites. These results have demonstrated that the BFF/PP composites can also be an alternative material for composites applications.

  13. 78 FR 19194 - P&P Computers, 2531 West Maryland Avenue, Tampa, FL 33629; Order Denying Export Privileges

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ... being that of August 15, 2012 (77 FR 49699 (August 16, 2012)), has continued the Regulations in effect... Bureau of Industry and Security P&P Computers, 2531 West Maryland Avenue, Tampa, FL 33629; Order Denying... Division, P&P Computers (``P&P'') was convicted of violating the International Emergency Economic...

  14. Fabrication of borassus fruit lignocellulose fiber/PP composites and comparison with jute, sisal and coir fibers.

    PubMed

    Sudhakara, P; Jagadeesh, Dani; Wang, YiQi; Prasad, C Venkata; Devi, A P Kamala; Balakrishnan, G; Kim, B S; Song, J I

    2013-10-15

    Novel composites based on borassus fruit fine fiber (BFF) and polypropylene (PP) were fabricated with variable fiber composition (5, 10, 15 and 20 wt%) by injection molding. Maleated PP (MAPP) was also used as compatibilizer at 5 wt% for effective fiber-matrix adhesion. FTIR analysis confirms the evidence of a chemical bonding between the fiber and polymeric matrix through esterification in presence of MAPP. The tensile and flexural properties were found to increase with 15 and 10 wt% fiber loadings respectively, and decreased thereafter. Coir, jute and sisal fiber composites were also fabricated with 15 wt% fiber loading under the same conditions as used for BFF/PP composites. It was found that the mechanical properties of BFF (15 wt%)/PP composites were equivalent to jute/PP, sisal/PP and superior to coir/PP composites. Jute/PP and sisal/PP composites showed higher water absorption than BFF/PP and coir/PP composites. These results have demonstrated that the BFF/PP composites can also be an alternative material for composites applications. PMID:23987440

  15. The Bacterial Alarmone (p)ppGpp Activates the Type III Secretion System in Erwinia amylovora

    PubMed Central

    Ancona, Veronica; Lee, Jae Hoon; Chatnaparat, Tiyakhon; Oh, Jinrok; Hong, Jong-In

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The hypersensitive response and pathogenicity (hrp) type III secretion system (T3SS) is a key pathogenicity factor in Erwinia amylovora. Previous studies have demonstrated that the T3SS in E. amylovora is transcriptionally regulated by a sigma factor cascade. In this study, the role of the bacterial alarmone ppGpp in activating the T3SS and virulence of E. amylovora was investigated using ppGpp mutants generated by Red recombinase cloning. The virulence of a ppGpp-deficient mutant (ppGpp0) as well as a dksA mutant of E. amylovora was completely impaired, and bacterial growth was significantly reduced, suggesting that ppGpp is required for full virulence of E. amylovora. Expression of T3SS genes was greatly downregulated in the ppGpp0 and dksA mutants. Western blotting showed that accumulations of the HrpA protein in the ppGpp0 and dksA mutants were about 10 and 4%, respectively, of that in the wild-type strain. Furthermore, higher levels of ppGpp resulted in a reduced cell size of E. amylovora. Moreover, serine hydroxamate and α-methylglucoside, which induce amino acid and carbon starvation, respectively, activated hrpA and hrpL promoter activities in hrp-inducing minimal medium. These results demonstrated that ppGpp and DksA play central roles in E. amylovora virulence and indicated that E. amylovora utilizes ppGpp as an internal messenger to sense environmental/nutritional stimuli for regulation of the T3SS and virulence. IMPORTANCE The type III secretion system (T3SS) is a key pathogenicity factor in Gram-negative bacteria. Fully elucidating how the T3SS is activated is crucial for comprehensively understanding the function of the T3SS, bacterial pathogenesis, and survival under stress conditions. In this study, we present the first evidence that the bacterial alarmone ppGpp-mediated stringent response activates the T3SS through a sigma factor cascade, indicating that ppGpp acts as an internal messenger to sense environmental/nutritional stimuli for

  16. Measurement of the ratio of differential cross sections σ(pp̄→Z+b jet)/σ(pp̄→Z+jet) in pp̄ collisions at √s=1.96 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Alexeev, G. D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Askew, A.; Atkins, S.; Augsten, K.; Avila, C.; Badaud, F.; Bagby, L.; Baldin, B.; Bandurin, D. V.; Banerjee, S.; Barberis, E.; Baringer, P.; Bartlett, J. F.; Bassler, U.; Bazterra, V.; Bean, A.; Begalli, M.; Bellantoni, L.; Beri, S. B.; Bernardi, G.; Bernhard, R.; Bertram, I.; Besançon, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Bhat, P. C.; Bhatia, S.; Bhatnagar, V.; Blazey, G.; Blessing, S.; Bloom, K.; Boehnlein, A.; Boline, D.; Boos, E. E.; Borissov, G.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, O.; Brock, R.; Bross, A.; Brown, D.; Brown, J.; Bu, X. B.; Buehler, M.; Buescher, V.; Bunichev, V.; Burdin, S.; Buszello, C. P.; Camacho-Pérez, E.; Casey, B. C. K.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Caughron, S.; Chakrabarti, S.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, K. M.; Chandra, A.; Chapon, E.; Chen, G.; Cho, S. W.; Choi, S.; Choudhary, B.; Cihangir, S.; Claes, D.; Clutter, J.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, W. E.; Corcoran, M.; Couderc, F.; Cousinou, M.-C.; Cutts, D.; Das, A.; Davies, G.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; Déliot, F.; Demina, R.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; Desai, S.; Deterre, C.; DeVaughan, K.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; Ding, P. F.; Dominguez, A.; Dubey, A.; Dudko, L. V.; Duggan, D.; Duperrin, A.; Dutt, S.; Dyshkant, A.; Eads, M.; Edmunds, D.; Ellison, J.; Elvira, V. D.; Enari, Y.; Evans, H.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Facini, G.; Feng, L.; Ferbel, T.; Fiedler, F.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, H. E.; Fortner, M.; Fox, H.; Fuess, S.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; García-González, J. A.; García-Guerra, G. A.; Gavrilov, V.; Geng, W.; Gerber, C. E.; Gershtein, Y.; Ginther, G.; Golovanov, G.; Grannis, P. D.; Greder, S.; Greenlee, H.; Grenier, G.; Gris, Ph.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Grohsjean, A.; Grünendahl, S.; Grünewald, M. W.; Guillemin, T.; Gutierrez, G.; Gutierrez, P.; Haley, J.; Han, L.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hays, J.; Head, T.; Hebbeker, T.; Hedin, D.; Hegab, H.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Hensel, C.; Heredia-De La Cruz, I.; Herner, K.; Hesketh, G.; Hildreth, M. D.; Hirosky, R.; Hoang, T.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hogan, J.; Hohlfeld, M.; Howley, I.; Hubacek, Z.; Hynek, V.; Iashvili, I.; Ilchenko, Y.; Illingworth, R.; Ito, A. S.; Jabeen, S.; Jaffré, M.; Jayasinghe, A.; Jeong, M. S.; Jesik, R.; Jiang, P.; Johns, K.; Johnson, E.; Johnson, M.; Jonckheere, A.; Jonsson, P.; Joshi, J.; Jung, A. W.; Juste, A.; Kajfasz, E.; Karmanov, D.; Kasper, P. A.; Katsanos, I.; Kehoe, R.; Kermiche, S.; Khalatyan, N.; Khanov, A.; Kharchilava, A.; Kharzheev, Y. N.; Kiselevich, I.; Kohli, J. M.; Kozelov, A. V.; Kraus, J.; Kumar, A.; Kupco, A.; Kurča, T.; Kuzmin, V. A.; Lammers, S.; Landsberg, G.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, S. W.; Lee, W. M.; Lei, X.; Lellouch, J.; Li, D.; Li, H.; Li, L.; Li, Q. Z.; Lim, J. K.; Lincoln, D.; Linnemann, J.; Lipaev, V. V.; Lipton, R.; Liu, H.; Liu, Y.; Lobodenko, A.; Lokajicek, M.; Lopes de Sa, R.; Luna-Garcia, R.; Lyon, A. L.; Maciel, A. K. A.; Magaña-Villalba, R.; Malik, S.; Malyshev, V. L.; Maravin, Y.; Martínez-Ortega, J.; McCarthy, R.; McGivern, C. L.; Meijer, M. M.; Melnitchouk, A.; Menezes, D.; Mercadante, P. G.; Merkin, M.; Meyer, A.; Meyer, J.; Miconi, F.; Mondal, N. K.; Mulhearn, M.; Nagy, E.; Naimuddin, M.; Narain, M.; Nayyar, R.; Neal, H. A.; Negret, J. P.; Neustroev, P.; Nguyen, H. T.; Nunnemann, T.; Orduna, J.; Osman, N.; Osta, J.; Padilla, M.; Pal, A.; Parashar, N.; Parihar, V.; Park, S. K.; Partridge, R.; Parua, N.; Patwa, A.; Penning, B.; Perfilov, M.; Peters, Y.; Petridis, K.; Petrillo, G.; Pétroff, P.; Pleier, M.-A.; Podesta-Lerma, P. L. M.; Podstavkov, V. M.; Popov, A. V.; Prewitt, M.; Price, D.; Prokopenko, N.; Qian, J.; Quadt, A.; Quinn, B.; Rangel, M. S.; Ranjan, K.; Ratoff, P. N.; Razumov, I.; Renkel, P.; Ripp-Baudot, I.; Rizatdinova, F.; Rominsky, M.; Ross, A.; Royon, C.; Rubinov, P.; Ruchti, R.; Sajot, G.; Salcido, P.; Sánchez-Hernández, A.; Sanders, M. P.; Santos, A. S.; Savage, G.; Sawyer, L.; Scanlon, T.; Schamberger, R. D.; Scheglov, Y.; Schellman, H.; Schwanenberger, C.; Schwienhorst, R.; Sekaric, J.; Severini, H.; Shabalina, E.; Shary, V.; Shaw, S.; Shchukin, A. A.; Shivpuri, R. K.; Simak, V.; Skubic, P.; Slattery, P.; Smirnov, D.; Smith, K. J.; Snow, G. R.; Snow, J.; Snyder, S.; Söldner-Rembold, S.; Sonnenschein, L.; Soustruznik, K.; Stark, J.; Stoyanova, D. A.; Strauss, M.; Suter, L.; Svoisky, P.; Titov, M.; Tokmenin, V. V.; Tsai, Y.-T.; Tsybychev, D.; Tuchming, B.; Tully, C.; Uvarov, L.; Uvarov, S.; Uzunyan, S.; Van Kooten, R.; van Leeuwen, W. M.; Varelas, N.; Varnes, E. W.; Vasilyev, I. A.; Verdier, P.; Verkheev, A. Y.; Vertogradov, L. S.; Verzocchi, M.; Vesterinen, M.; Vilanova, D.; Vokac, P.; Wahl, H. D.; Wang, M. H. L. S.; Warchol, J.; Watts, G.; Wayne, M.; Weichert, J.; Welty-Rieger, L.; White, A.

    2013-05-28

    We measure the ratio of cross sections, σ(pp̄→Z+b jet)/σ(pp̄→Z+jet), for associated production of a Z boson with at least one jet. The ratio is also measured as a function of the Z boson transverse momentum, jet transverse momentum, jet pseudorapidity, and the azimuthal angle between the Z boson with respect to the highest pT b tagged jet. These measurements use data collected by the D0 experiment in Run II of Fermilab’s Tevatron pp̄ Collider at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV, and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 9.7 fb⁻¹. The results are compared to predictions from next-to-leading order calculations and various Monte Carlo event generators.

  17. Measurement of the ratio of differential cross sections σ(pp̄→Z+b jet)/σ(pp̄→Z+jet) in pp̄ collisions at √s=1.96 TeV

    DOE PAGES

    Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Alexeev, G. D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Askew, A.; Atkins, S.; et al

    2013-05-28

    We measure the ratio of cross sections, σ(pp̄→Z+b jet)/σ(pp̄→Z+jet), for associated production of a Z boson with at least one jet. The ratio is also measured as a function of the Z boson transverse momentum, jet transverse momentum, jet pseudorapidity, and the azimuthal angle between the Z boson with respect to the highest pT b tagged jet. These measurements use data collected by the D0 experiment in Run II of Fermilab’s Tevatron pp̄ Collider at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV, and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 9.7 fb⁻¹. The results are compared to predictions from next-to-leading order calculationsmore » and various Monte Carlo event generators.« less

  18. Direct binding targets of the stringent response alarmone (p)ppGpp.

    PubMed

    Kanjee, Usheer; Ogata, Koji; Houry, Walid A

    2012-09-01

    The Escherichia coli stringent response, mediated by the alarmone ppGpp, is responsible for the reorganization of cellular transcription upon nutritional starvation and other stresses. These transcriptional changes occur mainly as a result of the direct effects of ppGpp and its partner transcription factor DksA on RNA polymerase. An often overlooked feature of the stringent response is the direct targeting of other proteins by ppGpp. Here we review the literature on proteins that are known to bind ppGpp and, based on sequence homology, X-ray crystal structures and in silico docking, we propose new potential protein binding targets for ppGpp. These proteins were found to fall into five main categories: (i) cellular GTPases, (ii) proteins involved in nucleotide metabolism, (iii) proteins involved in lipid metabolism, (iv) general metabolic proteins and (v) PLP-dependent basic aliphatic amino acid decarboxylases. Bioinformatic rationale is provided for expanding the role of ppGpp in regulating the activities of the cellular GTPases. Proteins involved in nucleotide and lipid metabolism and general metabolic proteins provide an interesting set of structurally varied stringent response targets. While the inhibition of some PLP-dependent decarboxylases by ppGpp suggests the existence of cross-talk between the acid stress and stringent response systems. PMID:22812515

  19. Alarmone (p)ppGpp regulates the transition from pathogenicity to mutualism in Photorhabdus luminescens.

    PubMed

    Bager, Ragnhild; Roghanian, Mohammad; Gerdes, Kenn; Clarke, David J

    2016-05-01

    The enteric gamma-proteobacterium Photorhabdus luminescens kills a wide range of insects, whilst also maintaining a mutualistic relationship with soil nematodes from the family Heterorhabditis. Pathogenicity is associated with bacterial exponential growth, whilst mutualism is associated with post-exponential (stationary) phase. During post-exponential growth, P. luminescens also elaborates an extensive secondary metabolism, including production of bioluminescence, antibiotics and pigment. However, the regulatory network that controls the expression of this secondary metabolism is not well understood. The stringent response is a well-described global regulatory system in bacteria and mediated by the alarmone (p)ppGpp. In this study, we disrupted the genes relA and spoT, encoding the two predicted (p)ppGpp synthases of P. luminescens TTO1, and we showed that (p)ppGpp is required for secondary metabolism. Moreover, we found the (p)ppGpp is not required for pathogenicity of P. luminescens, but is required for bacterial survival within the insect cadaver. Finally, we showed that (p)ppGpp is required for P. luminescens to support normal nematode growth and development. Therefore, the regulatory network that controls the transition from pathogenicity to mutualism in P. luminescens requires (p)ppGpp. This is the first report outlining a role for (p)ppGpp in controlling the outcome of an interaction between a bacteria and its host. PMID:26845750

  20. Characterization of a bifunctional enzyme with (p)ppGpp-hydrolase/synthase activity in Leptospira interrogans.

    PubMed

    He, Ping; Deng, Cong; Liu, Boyu; Zeng, LingBing; Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Yan; Jiang, XuCheng; Guo, XiaoKui; Qin, JinHong

    2013-11-01

    Alarmone Guanosine 5'-diphosphate (or 5'-triphosphate) 3'-diphosphate [(p)ppGpp] is the key component that globally regulates stringent control in bacteria. There are two homologous enzymes, RelA and SpoT in Escherichia coli, which are responsible for fluctuations in (p)ppGpp concentration inside the cell, whereas there exists only a single RelA/SpoT enzyme in Gram-positive bacteria. We have identified a bifunctional enzyme with (p)ppGpp-hydrolase/synthase activity in Leptospira interrogans. We show that the relLin gene (LA_3085) encodes a protein that fully complements the relA/spoT double mutants in E. coli. The protein functions as a (p)ppGpp degradase as well as a (p)ppGpp synthase when the cells encounter amino acid stress and deprivation of carbon sources. N-terminus HD and RSD domains of relLin (relLinN ) were observed to restore growth of double mutants of E. coli. Finally, We demonstrate that purified RelLin and RelLinN show high (p)ppGpp synthesis activity in vitro. Taken together, our results suggest that L. interrogans contain a single Rel-like bifunctional protein, RelLin , which plays an important role in maintaining the basal level of (p)ppGpp in the cell potentially contributing to the regulation of bacterial stress response.

  1. (p)ppGpp synthetases regulate the pathogenesis of zoonotic Streptococcus suis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jiawen; Zhang, Tengfei; Su, Zhipeng; Li, Lu; Wang, Dong; Xiao, Ran; Teng, Muye; Tan, Meifang; Zhou, Rui

    2016-10-01

    (p)ppGpp-mediated stringent response is one of the main adaption mechanism in bacteria, and the ability to adapt to environment is linked to the pathogenesis of bacterial pathogens. In the zoonotic pathogen Streptococcus suis, there are two (p)ppGpp synthetases, RelA and RelQ. To investigate the regulatory functions of (p)ppGpp/(p)ppGpp synthetases on the pathogenesis of S. suis, the phenotypes of the [(p)ppGpp(0)] mutant ΔrelAΔrelQ and its parental strain were compared. Light and electron microscopy observation showed that the mutant strain had a longer chain-length than its parental strain. Disruption of relA and relQ led to decreased adhesive and invasive ability to HEp-2 cells, and increased sensitivity to the blood killing and phagocytosis. Mouse infection experiments showed that the mutant strain was attenuated and easier to be cleaned up in vivo. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that the expressions of virulence related genes involving in morphology and virulence were down-regulated in the mutant strain. Our study demonstrated that the (p)ppGpp synthetases or (p)ppGpp can regulate the pathogenesis of this important zoonotic pathogen.

  2. Selective and sensitive colorimetric detection of stringent alarmone ppGpp with Fenton-like reagent.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lin Ling; Huang, Cheng Zhi

    2014-12-01

    Stringent alarmone, namely, guanosine 3'-diphosphate-5'-diphosphate (ppGpp), is a global regulator that plays a critical role in the survival, growth, metabolism, and many other vital processes of microorganisms. Because of its structural similarity to normal nucleotides, it is also a challenge for the selective and sensitive detection of ppGpp nowadays. Herein, we developed a colorimetric method for the selective detection of ppGpp by inhibiting the redox reaction between Fenton-like reagent (composed of Fe(3+) and H2O2) with 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS). Owing to the strong coordination affinity between ppGpp and Fe(3+), the chromogenic reaction between ABTS and Fenton-like reagent, occurred in aqueous medium at 37 °C and resulted in a bluish-green solution, which was inhibited with the addition of ppGpp. This phenomenon forms the basis for the colorimetric detection of ppGpp, with a detection limit of 0.19 μM and good selectivity for ppGpp over other nucleotides and anions. Furthermore, the results could be visualized by the naked eye, and the sensitivity of the naked-eye observation could even be further improved with the aid of the introduction of a background color.

  3. Catalytic mechanism and allosteric regulation of an oligomeric (p)ppGpp synthetase by an alarmone.

    PubMed

    Steinchen, Wieland; Schuhmacher, Jan S; Altegoer, Florian; Fage, Christopher D; Srinivasan, Vasundara; Linne, Uwe; Marahiel, Mohamed A; Bange, Gert

    2015-10-27

    Nucleotide-based second messengers serve in the response of living organisms to environmental changes. In bacteria and plant chloroplasts, guanosine tetraphosphate (ppGpp) and guanosine pentaphosphate (pppGpp) [collectively named "(p)ppGpp"] act as alarmones that globally reprogram cellular physiology during various stress conditions. Enzymes of the RelA/SpoT homology (RSH) family synthesize (p)ppGpp by transferring pyrophosphate from ATP to GDP or GTP. Little is known about the catalytic mechanism and regulation of alarmone synthesis. It also is unclear whether ppGpp and pppGpp execute different functions. Here, we unravel the mechanism and allosteric regulation of the highly cooperative alarmone synthetase small alarmone synthetase 1 (SAS1) from Bacillus subtilis. We determine that the catalytic pathway of (p)ppGpp synthesis involves a sequentially ordered substrate binding, activation of ATP in a strained conformation, and transfer of pyrophosphate through a nucleophilic substitution (SN2) reaction. We show that pppGpp-but not ppGpp-positively regulates SAS1 at an allosteric site. Although the physiological significance remains to be elucidated, we establish the structural and mechanistic basis for a biological activity in which ppGpp and pppGpp execute different functional roles.

  4. Alarmone (p)ppGpp regulates the transition from pathogenicity to mutualism in Photorhabdus luminescens.

    PubMed

    Bager, Ragnhild; Roghanian, Mohammad; Gerdes, Kenn; Clarke, David J

    2016-05-01

    The enteric gamma-proteobacterium Photorhabdus luminescens kills a wide range of insects, whilst also maintaining a mutualistic relationship with soil nematodes from the family Heterorhabditis. Pathogenicity is associated with bacterial exponential growth, whilst mutualism is associated with post-exponential (stationary) phase. During post-exponential growth, P. luminescens also elaborates an extensive secondary metabolism, including production of bioluminescence, antibiotics and pigment. However, the regulatory network that controls the expression of this secondary metabolism is not well understood. The stringent response is a well-described global regulatory system in bacteria and mediated by the alarmone (p)ppGpp. In this study, we disrupted the genes relA and spoT, encoding the two predicted (p)ppGpp synthases of P. luminescens TTO1, and we showed that (p)ppGpp is required for secondary metabolism. Moreover, we found the (p)ppGpp is not required for pathogenicity of P. luminescens, but is required for bacterial survival within the insect cadaver. Finally, we showed that (p)ppGpp is required for P. luminescens to support normal nematode growth and development. Therefore, the regulatory network that controls the transition from pathogenicity to mutualism in P. luminescens requires (p)ppGpp. This is the first report outlining a role for (p)ppGpp in controlling the outcome of an interaction between a bacteria and its host.

  5. Greatwall dephosphorylation and inactivation upon mitotic exit is triggered by PP1.

    PubMed

    Ma, Sheng; Vigneron, Suzanne; Robert, Perle; Strub, Jean Marc; Cianferani, Sara; Castro, Anna; Lorca, Thierry

    2016-04-01

    Entry into mitosis is induced by the activation of cyclin-B-Cdk1 and Greatwall (Gwl; also known as MASTL in mammals) kinases. Cyclin-B-Cdk1 phosphorylates mitotic substrates, whereas Gwl activation promotes the phosphorylation of the small proteins Arpp19 and ENSA. Phosphorylated Arpp19 and/or ENSA bind to and inhibit PP2A comprising the B55 subunit (PP2A-B55; B55 is also known as PPP2R2A), the phosphatase responsible for cyclin-B-Cdk1 substrate dephosphorylation, allowing the stable phosphorylation of mitotic proteins. Upon mitotic exit, cyclin-B-Cdk1 and Gwl kinases are inactivated, and mitotic substrates are dephosphorylated. Here, we have identified protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) as the phosphatase involved in the dephosphorylation of the activating site (Ser875) of Gwl. Depletion of PP1 from meioticXenopusegg extracts maintains phosphorylation of Ser875, as well as the full activity of this kinase, resulting in a block of meiotic and mitotic exit. By contrast, preventing the reactivation of PP2A-B55 through the addition of a hyperactive Gwl mutant (GwlK72M) mainly affected Gwl dephosphorylation on Thr194, resulting in partial inactivation of Gwl and in the incomplete exit from mitosis or meiosis. We also show that when PP2A-B55 is fully reactivated by depleting Arpp19, this protein phosphatase is able to dephosphorylate both activating sites, even in the absence of PP1.

  6. Ongoing advances in quantitative PpIX fluorescence guided intracranial tumor resection (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, Jonathan D.; Kanick, Stephen C.; Bravo, Jaime J.; Roberts, David W.; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2016-03-01

    Aminolevulinc-acid induced protoporphyrin IX (ALA-PpIX) is being investigated as a biomarker to guide neurosurgical resection of brain tumors. ALA-PpIX fluorescence can be observed visually in the surgical field; however, raw fluorescence emissions can be distorted by factors other than the fluorophore concentration. Specifically, fluorescence emissions are mixed with autofluorescence and attenuated by background absorption and scattering properties of the tissue. Recent work at Dartmouth has developed advanced fluorescence detection approaches that return quantitative assessments of PpIX concentration, which are independent of background optical properties. The quantitative fluorescence imaging (qFI) approach has increased sensitivity to residual disease within the resection cavity at the end of surgery that was not visible to the naked eye through the operating microscope. This presentation outlines clinical observations made during an ongoing investigation of ALA-PpIX based guidance of tumor resection. PpIX fluorescence measurements made in a wide-field hyperspectral imaging approach are co-registered with point-assessment using a fiber optic probe. Data show variations in the measured PpIX accumulation among different clinical tumor grades (i.e. high grade glioma, low grade glioma), types (i.e. primary tumors. metastases) and normal structures of interest (e.g. normal cortex, hippocampus). These results highlight the contrast enhancement and underscore the potential clinical benefit offered from quantitative measurements of PpIX concentration during resection of intracranial tumors.

  7. A Phytophthora infestans RXLR effector targets plant PP1c isoforms that promote late blight disease

    PubMed Central

    Boevink, Petra C.; Wang, Xiaodan; McLellan, Hazel; He, Qin; Naqvi, Shaista; Armstrong, Miles R.; Zhang, Wei; Hein, Ingo; Gilroy, Eleanor M.; Tian, Zhendong; Birch, Paul R. J.

    2016-01-01

    Plant pathogens deliver effectors to alter host processes. Knowledge of how effectors target and manipulate host proteins is critical to understand crop disease. Here, we show that in planta expression of the RXLR effector Pi04314 enhances leaf colonization by Phytophthora infestans via activity in the host nucleus and attenuates induction of jasmonic and salicylic acid-responsive genes. Pi04314 interacts with three host protein phosphatase 1 catalytic (PP1c) isoforms, causing their re-localization from the nucleolus to the nucleoplasm. Re-localization of PP1c-1 also occurs during infection and is dependent on an R/KVxF motif in the effector. Silencing the PP1c isoforms or overexpression of a phosphatase-dead PP1c-1 mutant attenuates infection, demonstrating that host PP1c activity is required for disease. Moreover, expression of PP1c–1mut abolishes enhanced leaf colonization mediated by in planta Pi04314 expression. We argue that PP1c isoforms are susceptibility factors forming holoenzymes with Pi04314 to promote late blight disease. PMID:26822079

  8. Catalytic mechanism and allosteric regulation of an oligomeric (p)ppGpp synthetase by an alarmone

    PubMed Central

    Steinchen, Wieland; Schuhmacher, Jan S.; Altegoer, Florian; Fage, Christopher D.; Srinivasan, Vasundara; Linne, Uwe; Marahiel, Mohamed A.; Bange, Gert

    2015-01-01

    Nucleotide-based second messengers serve in the response of living organisms to environmental changes. In bacteria and plant chloroplasts, guanosine tetraphosphate (ppGpp) and guanosine pentaphosphate (pppGpp) [collectively named “(p)ppGpp”] act as alarmones that globally reprogram cellular physiology during various stress conditions. Enzymes of the RelA/SpoT homology (RSH) family synthesize (p)ppGpp by transferring pyrophosphate from ATP to GDP or GTP. Little is known about the catalytic mechanism and regulation of alarmone synthesis. It also is unclear whether ppGpp and pppGpp execute different functions. Here, we unravel the mechanism and allosteric regulation of the highly cooperative alarmone synthetase small alarmone synthetase 1 (SAS1) from Bacillus subtilis. We determine that the catalytic pathway of (p)ppGpp synthesis involves a sequentially ordered substrate binding, activation of ATP in a strained conformation, and transfer of pyrophosphate through a nucleophilic substitution (SN2) reaction. We show that pppGpp—but not ppGpp—positively regulates SAS1 at an allosteric site. Although the physiological significance remains to be elucidated, we establish the structural and mechanistic basis for a biological activity in which ppGpp and pppGpp execute different functional roles. PMID:26460002

  9. Direct binding targets of the stringent response alarmone (p)ppGpp.

    PubMed

    Kanjee, Usheer; Ogata, Koji; Houry, Walid A

    2012-09-01

    The Escherichia coli stringent response, mediated by the alarmone ppGpp, is responsible for the reorganization of cellular transcription upon nutritional starvation and other stresses. These transcriptional changes occur mainly as a result of the direct effects of ppGpp and its partner transcription factor DksA on RNA polymerase. An often overlooked feature of the stringent response is the direct targeting of other proteins by ppGpp. Here we review the literature on proteins that are known to bind ppGpp and, based on sequence homology, X-ray crystal structures and in silico docking, we propose new potential protein binding targets for ppGpp. These proteins were found to fall into five main categories: (i) cellular GTPases, (ii) proteins involved in nucleotide metabolism, (iii) proteins involved in lipid metabolism, (iv) general metabolic proteins and (v) PLP-dependent basic aliphatic amino acid decarboxylases. Bioinformatic rationale is provided for expanding the role of ppGpp in regulating the activities of the cellular GTPases. Proteins involved in nucleotide and lipid metabolism and general metabolic proteins provide an interesting set of structurally varied stringent response targets. While the inhibition of some PLP-dependent decarboxylases by ppGpp suggests the existence of cross-talk between the acid stress and stringent response systems.

  10. PP2ARts1 is a master regulator of pathways that control cell size

    PubMed Central

    Zapata, Jessica; Dephoure, Noah; MacDonough, Tracy; Yu, Yaxin; Parnell, Emily J.; Mooring, Meghan; Gygi, Steven P.; Stillman, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Cell size checkpoints ensure that passage through G1 and mitosis occurs only when sufficient growth has occurred. The mechanisms by which these checkpoints work are largely unknown. PP2A associated with the Rts1 regulatory subunit (PP2ARts1) is required for cell size control in budding yeast, but the relevant targets are unknown. In this paper, we used quantitative proteome-wide mass spectrometry to identify proteins controlled by PP2ARts1. This revealed that PP2ARts1 controls the two key checkpoint pathways thought to regulate the cell cycle in response to cell growth. To investigate the role of PP2ARts1 in these pathways, we focused on the Ace2 transcription factor, which is thought to delay cell cycle entry by repressing transcription of the G1 cyclin CLN3. Diverse experiments suggest that PP2ARts1 promotes cell cycle entry by inhibiting the repressor functions of Ace2. We hypothesize that control of Ace2 by PP2ARts1 plays a role in mechanisms that link G1 cyclin accumulation to cell growth. PMID:24493588

  11. A Phytophthora infestans RXLR effector targets plant PP1c isoforms that promote late blight disease.

    PubMed

    Boevink, Petra C; Wang, Xiaodan; McLellan, Hazel; He, Qin; Naqvi, Shaista; Armstrong, Miles R; Zhang, Wei; Hein, Ingo; Gilroy, Eleanor M; Tian, Zhendong; Birch, Paul R J

    2016-01-01

    Plant pathogens deliver effectors to alter host processes. Knowledge of how effectors target and manipulate host proteins is critical to understand crop disease. Here, we show that in planta expression of the RXLR effector Pi04314 enhances leaf colonization by Phytophthora infestans via activity in the host nucleus and attenuates induction of jasmonic and salicylic acid-responsive genes. Pi04314 interacts with three host protein phosphatase 1 catalytic (PP1c) isoforms, causing their re-localization from the nucleolus to the nucleoplasm. Re-localization of PP1c-1 also occurs during infection and is dependent on an R/KVxF motif in the effector. Silencing the PP1c isoforms or overexpression of a phosphatase-dead PP1c-1 mutant attenuates infection, demonstrating that host PP1c activity is required for disease. Moreover, expression of PP1c-1mut abolishes enhanced leaf colonization mediated by in planta Pi04314 expression. We argue that PP1c isoforms are susceptibility factors forming holoenzymes with Pi04314 to promote late blight disease. PMID:26822079

  12. Signalling by the global regulatory molecule ppGpp in bacteria and chloroplasts of land plants.

    PubMed

    Tozawa, Y; Nomura, Y

    2011-09-01

    The hyperphosphorylated guanine ribonucleotide ppGpp mediates the stringent response in bacteria. Biochemical and genetic studies of this response in Escherichia coli have shown that the biosynthesis of ppGpp is catalysed by two homologous enzymes, RelA and SpoT. RelA is activated in response to amino acid starvation, and SpoT responds to abiotic physical stress beside nutritional stress. All free-living bacteria, including Gram-positive firmicutes, contain RelA-SpoT homologues (RSH). Further, novel ppGpp biosynthetic enzymes, designated small alarmone synthetases (SASs), were recently identified in a subset of bacteria, including the Gram-positive organism Bacillus subtilis, and were shown to consist only of a ppGpp synthetase domain. Studies suggest that these SAS proteins contribute to ppGpp signalling in response to stressful conditions in a manner distinct from that of RelA-SpoT enzymes. SAS proteins currently appear to always occur in addition to RSH enzymes in various combinations but never alone. RSHs have also been identified in chloroplasts, organelles of photosynthetic eukaryotes that originated from endosymbiotic photosynthetic bacteria. These chloroplast RSHs are exclusively encoded in nuclear DNA and targeted into chloroplasts. The findings suggest that ppGpp may regulate chloroplast functions similar to those regulated in bacteria, including transcription and translation. In addition, a novel ppGpp synthetase that is regulated by Ca²⁺ as a result of the presence of two EF-hand motifs at its COOH terminus was recently identified in chloroplasts of land plants. This finding indicates the existence of a direct connection between eukaryotic Ca²⁺ signalling and prokaryotic ppGpp signalling in chloroplasts. The new observations with regard to ppGpp signalling in land plants suggest that such signalling contributes to the regulation of a wider range of cellular functions than previously anticipated.

  13. Identification and characterization of a novel human PP1 phosphatase complex.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong-Heon; You, Jinsam; Dobrota, Erika; Skalnik, David G

    2010-08-01

    Mammalian Wdr82 is a regulatory component of the Setd1a and Setd1b histone H3-lysine 4 methyltransferase complexes and is implicated in the tethering of Setd1 complexes to transcriptional start sites of active genes. In the studies reported here, immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry analyses reveal that Wdr82 additionally associates with multiple protein complexes, including an RNA polymerase II complex, four distinct histone H3-Lys(4) methyltransferase complexes, protein phosphatase 1 (PP1)-associated proteins, a chaperonin-containing Tcp1 complex, and other uncharacterized proteins. Further characterization of the PP1-associated proteins identified a stable multimeric complex composed of regulatory subunits PNUTS, Tox4, and Wdr82 and a PP1 catalytic subunit (denoted as the PTW/PP1 phosphatase complex). The PTW/PP1 complex exhibits in vitro phosphatase activity in a PP1-dependent manner. Analysis of protein-protein interactions reveals that PNUTS mediates phosphatase complex formation by providing a binding platform to each component. The PNUTS and Tox4 subunits are predominantly associated with the PTW/PP1 phosphatase complex in HEK293 cells, and the integrity of this complex remains intact throughout cell cycle progression. Inducible expression of a PP1 interaction-defective form of PNUTS (W401A) or small interfering RNA-mediated depletion of PNUTS in HEK293 cells causes cell cycle arrest at mitotic exit and apoptotic cell death. PNUTS (W401A) shows normal association with chromosomes but causes defects in the process of chromosome decondensation at late telophase. These data reveal that mammalian Wdr82 functions in a variety of cellular processes and reveal a potential role of the PTW/PP1 phosphatase complex in the regulation of chromatin structure during the transition from mitosis into interphase. PMID:20516061

  14. The moss genes PpSKI1 and PpSKI2 encode nuclear SnRK1 interacting proteins with homologues in vascular plants.

    PubMed

    Thelander, Mattias; Nilsson, Anders; Olsson, Tina; Johansson, Monika; Girod, Pierre-Alain; Schaefer, Didier G; Zrÿd, Jean-Pierre; Ronne, Hans

    2007-07-01

    The yeast Snf1, animal AMPK, and plant SnRK1 protein kinases constitute a family of related proteins that have been proposed to serve as metabolic sensors of the eukaryotic cell. We have previously reported the characterization of two redundant SnRK1 encoding genes (PpSNF1a and PpSNF1b) in the moss Physcomitrella patens. Phenotypic analysis of the snf1a snf1b double knockout mutant suggested that SnRK1 is important for the plant's ability to recognize and adapt to conditions of limited energy supply, and also suggested a possible role of SnRK1 in the control of plant development. We have now used a yeast two-hybrid system to screen for PpSnf1a interacting proteins. Two new moss genes were found, PpSKI1 and PpSKI2, which encode highly similar proteins with homologues in vascular plants. Fusions of the two encoded proteins to the green fluorescent protein localize to the nucleus. Knockout mutants for either gene have an excess of gametophores under low light conditions, and exhibit reduced gametophore stem lengths. Possible functions of the new proteins and their connection to the SnRK1 kinase are discussed.

  15. Near threshold {Lambda} and {Sigma}{sup 0} production in pp collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Gasparian, A.; Haidenbauer, J.; Hanhart, C.; Kondratyuk, L.; Speth, J.

    2000-12-31

    The reactions pp {yields} p{Lambda}K{sup +} and pp {yields} p{Sigma}{sup 0}K{sup +} are studied near their thresholds. The strangeness production process is described by the {pi}- and K exchange mechanisms. Effects from the final-state interaction in the hyperon-nucleon system are taken into account rigorously. It is shown that the experimentally observed strong suppression of {Sigma}{sup 0} production compared to {Lambda} production can be explained by a destructive interference between {pi} and K exchange in the reaction pp {yields} p{Sigma}{sup 0}K{sup +}.

  16. Imaging the proton via hard exclusive production in diffractive pp scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Charles Hyde; Leonid Frankfurt; Mark Strikman; Christian Weiss

    2007-05-21

    We discuss the prospects for probing Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) via exclusive production of a high-mass system (H = heavy quarkonium, di-photon, di-jet, Higgs boson) in diffractive pp scattering, pp -> p + H + p. In such processes the interplay of hard and soft interactions gives rise to a diffraction pattern in the final-state proton transverse momenta, which is sensitive to the transverse spatial distribution of partons in the colliding protons. We comment on the plans for diffractive pp measurements at RHIC and LHC. Such studies could complement future measurements of GPDs in hard exclusive ep scattering (JLab, COMPASS, EIC).

  17. BacPP: a web-based tool for Gram-negative bacterial promoter prediction.

    PubMed

    de Avila E Silva, S; Notari, D L; Neis, F A; Ribeiro, H G; Echeverrigaray, S

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial Promoter Prediction (BacPP) is a tool used to predict given sequences as promoters of Gram-negative bacteria according to the σ factor that recognizes it. The first version of BacPP was implemented in Python language in a desktop version without a friendly interface. For this reason, a web version of BacPP is now available with the purpose of improving its usability and availability. The present paper describes the implementation of the web version of this tool, focusing on its software architecture and user functionalities. The software is available at www.bacpp.bioinfoucs.com/home. PMID:27173187

  18. Variational Calculation of K-pp with Chiral SU(3)-BASED bar KN Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doté, A.; Hyodo, T.; Weise, W.

    The prototype of a bar K nuclear cluster, K-pp, has been investigated using effective bar KN potentials based on chiral SU(3) dynamics. Variational calculation shows a bound state solution with shallow binding energy B(K-pp) = 20 ± 3 MeV and broad mesonic decay width Γ (bar KNN -> π YN) = 40 - 70 {MeV}. The bar KN(I = 0) pair in the K-pp system exhibits a similar structure as the Λ(1405). We have also estimated the dispersive correction, p-wave bar KN interaction, and two-nucleon absorption width.

  19. Variational Calculation of K-pp with Chiral SU(3)-BASED bar KN Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doté, A.; Hyodo, T.; Weise, W.

    2010-10-01

    The prototype of a bar K nuclear cluster, K-pp, has been investigated using effective bar KN potentials based on chiral SU(3) dynamics. Variational calculation shows a bound state solution with shallow binding energy B(K-pp) = 20 ± 3 MeV and broad mesonic decay width Γ (bar KNN -> π YN) = 40 - 70 {MeV}. The bar KN(I = 0) pair in the K-pp system exhibits a similar structure as the Λ(1405). We have also estimated the dispersive correction, p-wave bar KN interaction, and two-nucleon absorption width.

  20. PP: A graphics post-processor for the EQ6 reaction path code

    SciTech Connect

    Stockman, H.W.

    1994-09-01

    The PP code is a graphics post-processor and plotting program for EQ6, a popular reaction-path code. PP runs on personal computers, allocates memory dynamically, and can handle very large reaction path runs. Plots of simple variable groups, such as fluid and solid phase composition, can be obtained with as few as two keystrokes. Navigation through the list of reaction path variables is simple and efficient. Graphics files can be exported for inclusion in word processing documents and spreadsheets, and experimental data may be imported and superposed on the reaction path runs. The EQ6 thermodynamic database can be searched from within PP, to simplify interpretation of complex plots.

  1. Over activation of hippocampal serine/threonine protein phosphatases PP1 and PP2A is involved in lead-induced deficits in learning and memory in young rats.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Abdur; Khan, Khalid M; Al-Khaledi, Ghanim; Khan, Islam; Al-Shemary, Tahany

    2012-06-01

    Serine/threonine protein phosphatases regulate several key cellular events in the brain, including learning and memory. These enzymes, when over-activated, are known to function as a constraint on learning and memory. We investigated whether these phosphatases are implicated in lead (Pb)-induced deficits in learning and memory. Wistar rat pups were exposed to 0.2% Pb-acetate via their dams' drinking water from postnatal day (PND) 1-21 and directly in drinking water until PND 30. Pb levels in blood, brain and hippocampus were measured and expression of PP1, PP2A, PP2B and PP5 in hippocampus was analyzed. Total phosphatase activity, and PP1 and PP2A activities were determined. Tau phosphorylation at various epitopes was determined by Western blot. Spatial learning and memory was determined by Morris water maze test. Pb exposure significantly increased levels of Pb in blood, brain and hippocampus, reduced the number of synapses in hippocampus and impaired learning and long-term memory (LTM). Short-term memory (STM) was only affected in rats at PND21. Pb exposure increased the expression and activity of PP1 and decreased phosphorylation of tau at threonine-231 in hippocampus at both PND21 and PND30. Pb-induced phosphorylation of tau at serine-199/202 (AT8) paralleled with PP2A activity; at PND21 PP2A activity increased and AT8 phosphorylation decreased; at PND30 PP2A activity decreased and AT8 phosphorylation increased. Increased PP1 activity in hippocampus by Pb is associated with learning and LTM impairment, whereas, increased PP2A activity is associated with STM impairment. These findings suggest the overactivation of PP1 and PP2A, together with changes in tau phosphorylation, as a potential mechanism of lead-induced deficits in learning and memory.

  2. Expressional regulation of PpDAM5 and PpDAM6, peach (Prunus persica) dormancy-associated MADS-box genes, by low temperature and dormancy-breaking reagent treatment.

    PubMed

    Yamane, Hisayo; Ooka, Tomomi; Jotatsu, Hiroaki; Hosaka, Yukari; Sasaki, Ryuta; Tao, Ryutaro

    2011-06-01

    The present study investigated the expressional regulation of PpDAM5 and PpDAM6, two of the six peach (Prunus persica) dormancy-associated MADS-box genes, in relation to lateral bud endodormancy. PpDAM5 and PpDAM6 were originally identified as homologues of Arabidopsis SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE/AGAMOUS-LIKE 24 identified in the EVERGROWING locus of peach. Furthermore, PpDAM5 and PpDAM6 have recently been suggested to be involved in terminal bud dormancy. In this study, seasonal expression analyses using leaves, stems, and lateral buds of high-chill and low-chill peaches in field conditions indicated that both genes were up-regulated during the endodormancy period and down-regulated with endodormancy release. Controlled environment experiments showed that the expression of both PpDAM5 and PpDAM6 were up-regulated by ambient cool temperatures in autumn, while they were down-regulated by the prolonged period of cold temperatures in winter. A negative correlation between expression levels of PpDAM5 and PpDAM6 and bud burst percentage was found in the prolonged cold temperature treatment. Application of the dormancy-breaking reagent cyanamide to endo/ecodormant lateral buds induced early bud break and down-regulation of PpDAM5 and PpDAM6 expression at the same time. These results collectively suggest that PpDAM5 and PpDAM6 may function in the chilling requirement of peach lateral buds through growth-inhibiting functions for bud break.

  3. The magic spot: a ppGpp binding site on E. coli RNA polymerase responsible for regulation of transcription initiation.

    PubMed

    Ross, Wilma; Vrentas, Catherine E; Sanchez-Vazquez, Patricia; Gaal, Tamas; Gourse, Richard L

    2013-05-01

    The global regulatory nucleotide ppGpp ("magic spot") regulates transcription from a large subset of Escherichia coli promoters, illustrating how small molecules can control gene expression promoter-specifically by interacting with RNA polymerase (RNAP) without binding to DNA. However, ppGpp's target site on RNAP, and therefore its mechanism of action, has remained unclear. We report here a binding site for ppGpp on E. coli RNAP, identified by crosslinking, protease mapping, and analysis of mutant RNAPs that fail to respond to ppGpp. A strain with a mutant ppGpp binding site displays properties characteristic of cells defective for ppGpp synthesis. The binding site is at an interface of two RNAP subunits, ω and β', and its position suggests an allosteric mechanism of action involving restriction of motion between two mobile RNAP modules. Identification of the binding site allows prediction of bacterial species in which ppGpp exerts its effects by targeting RNAP.

  4. The anti-esophageal cancer cell activity by a novel tyrosine/phosphoinositide kinase inhibitor PP121

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Yi; Zhou, Yajuan; Cheng, Long; Hu, Desheng; Zhou, Xiaoyi; Wang, Zhaohua; Xie, Conghua; Zhou, Fuxiang

    2015-09-11

    Here we explored the potential effect of PP121, a novel dual inhibitor of tyrosine and phosphoinositide kinases, against human esophageal cancer cells. We showed that PP121 exerted potent cytotoxic effect in primary (patient-derived) and established (Eca-109, TE-1 and TE-3 lines) esophageal cancer cells, possibly through activating caspase-3-dependnent apoptosis. PP121 was, however, non-cytotoxic to the normal human esophageal epithelial cells (EECs). At the molecular level, we showed that PP121 blocked Akt-mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) activation in esophageal cancer cells, which was restored by introducing a constitutively-active Akt (CA-Akt). Yet, CA-Akt only partly inhibited cytotoxicity by PP121 in Eca-109 cells. Importantly, we showed that PP121 inhibited nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) signaling activation in esophageal cancer cells, which appeared independent of Akt-mTOR blockage. In vivo, oral administration of PP121 remarkably inhibited Eca-109 xenograft growth in nude mice, and significantly improved mice survival. Further, the immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Western blot assays analyzing xenografted tumors showed that PP121 inhibited Akt-mTOR and NFκB activations in vivo. Together, we demonstrate that PP121 potently inhibits esophageal cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, possibly through concurrently inhibiting Akt-mTOR and NFκB signalings. - Highlights: • PP121 is cytotoxic against primary and established esophageal cancer cells. • PP121 induces caspase-3-dependnent apoptosis in esophageal cancer cells. • PP121 blocks Akt-mTOR activation in esophageal cancer cells. • PP121 inhibits NFκB activation, independent of Akt-mTOR blockage. • PP121 inhibits Eca-109 xenograft growth and Akt-mTOR/NFκB activation in vivo.

  5. pp Elastic Scattering: New Results from EDDA (COSY)

    SciTech Connect

    Scobel, W.; EDDA Collaboration

    2000-12-31

    In the EDDA experiment excitation functions of proton{endash}proton elastic scattering are studied with narrow steps in the projectile momentum range from 0.8 to 3.4 GeV/c and angular range 35{degree} {le} {Theta}{sub cm} {le} 90 {degree} with a detector providing {Delta}{Theta}{sub cm} {approx} 1.4{degree} resolution and 85% solid angle coverage. Measurements are performed continuously during projectile acceleration on the Cooler Synchrotron COSY. In phase 1 of the experiment spin-averaged differential cross sections d{sigma}/d{Omega} have been measured with an internal CH{sub 2} fiber target; background corrections were derived from measurements with a carbon fiber target and from Monte Carlo simulations of inelastic pp contributions. The results provide excitation functions and angular distributions of high precision and internal consistency. In phase 2 of the experiment excitation functions of the analyzing power A{sub N} have been measured using a polarized (P{ge}75%) atomic beam target, and those of the polarization correlation parameters A{sub NN}, A{sub SS} and A{sub SL} will be measured later on with the polarized COSY beam. The measured excitation functions are compared to recent phase shift analyses, and their impact on them is discussed. So far evidence for narrow structures was neither found in the spin-averaged cross sections nor in the analyzing powers.

  6. DETAIL OF THE EXTERIOR OF PP45L (PATCHBOARD), ALTITUDE CHAMBER L, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF THE EXTERIOR OF PP45L (PATCHBOARD), ALTITUDE CHAMBER L, FACING EAST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Altitude Chambers, First Street, between Avenue D and Avenue E, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  7. DETAIL OF THE EXTERIOR OF PP44L (VIEWING PORTAL), ALTITUDE CHAMBER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF THE EXTERIOR OF PP44L (VIEWING PORTAL), ALTITUDE CHAMBER L, FACING NORTHWEST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Altitude Chambers, First Street, between Avenue D and Avenue E, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  8. DETAIL OF THE INTERIOR OF PP45L (PATCHBOARD), ALTITUDE CHAMBER L, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF THE INTERIOR OF PP45L (PATCHBOARD), ALTITUDE CHAMBER L, FACING WEST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Altitude Chambers, First Street, between Avenue D and Avenue E, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  9. ppGpp and polyphosphate modulate cell cycle progression in Caulobacter crescentus.

    PubMed

    Boutte, Cara C; Henry, Jonathan T; Crosson, Sean

    2012-01-01

    Caulobacter crescentus differentiates from a motile, foraging swarmer cell into a sessile, replication-competent stalked cell during its cell cycle. This developmental transition is inhibited by nutrient deprivation to favor the motile swarmer state. We identify two cell cycle regulatory signals, ppGpp and polyphosphate (polyP), that inhibit the swarmer-to-stalked transition in both complex and glucose-exhausted media, thereby increasing the proportion of swarmer cells in mixed culture. Upon depletion of available carbon, swarmer cells lacking the ability to synthesize ppGpp or polyP improperly initiate chromosome replication, proteolyze the replication inhibitor CtrA, localize the cell fate determinant DivJ, and develop polar stalks. Furthermore, we show that swarmer cells produce more ppGpp than stalked cells upon starvation. These results provide evidence that ppGpp and polyP are cell-type-specific developmental regulators.

  10. Bacterial global regulators DksA/ppGpp increase fidelity of transcription.

    PubMed

    Roghanian, Mohammad; Zenkin, Nikolay; Yuzenkova, Yulia

    2015-02-18

    Collisions between paused transcription elongation complexes and replication forks inevitably happen, which may lead to collapse of replication fork and could be detrimental to cells. Bacterial transcription factor DksA and its cofactor alarmone ppGpp were proposed to contribute to prevention of such collisions, although the mechanism of this activity remains elusive. Here we show that DksA/ppGpp do not destabilise transcription elongation complexes or inhibit their backtracking, as was proposed earlier. Instead, we show, both in vitro and in vivo, that DksA/ppGpp increase fidelity of transcription elongation by slowing down misincorporation events. As misincorporation events cause temporary pauses, contribution to fidelity suggests the mechanism by which DksA/ppGpp contribute to prevention of collisions of transcription elongation complexes with replication forks. DksA is only the second known accessory factor, after transcription factor Gre, that increases fidelity of RNA synthesis in bacteria.

  11. Intrinsic fluctuations of the proton saturation momentum scale in high multiplicity p+p collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLerran, Larry; Tribedy, Prithwish

    2016-01-01

    High multiplicity events in p+p collisions are studied using the theory of the Color Glass Condensate. We show that intrinsic fluctuations of the proton saturation momentum scale are needed in addition to the sub-nucleonic color charge fluctuations to explain the very high multiplicity tail of distributions in p+p collisions. The origin of such intrinsic fluctuations is presumably non-perturbative in nature. Classical Yang Mills simulations using the IP-Glasma model are performed to make quantitative estimations. We find that fluctuations as large as O(1) of the average values of the saturation momentum scale can lead to rare high multiplicity events seen in p+p data at RHIC and LHC energies. Using the available data on multiplicity distributions we try to constrain the distribution of the proton saturation momentum scale and make predictions for the multiplicity distribution in 13 TeV p+p collisions.

  12. Intrinsic fluctuations of the proton saturation momentum scale in high multiplicity p+p collisions

    SciTech Connect

    McLerran, Larry; Tribedy, Prithwish

    2015-11-02

    High multiplicity events in p+p collisions are studied using the theory of the Color Glass Condensate. Here, we show that intrinsic fluctuations of the proton saturation momentum scale are needed in addition to the sub-nucleonic color charge fluctuations to explain the very high multiplicity tail of distributions in p+p collisions. It is presumed that the origin of such intrinsic fluctuations is non-perturbative in nature. Classical Yang Mills simulations using the IP-Glasma model are performed to make quantitative estimations. Furthermore, we find that fluctuations as large as O(1) of the average values of the saturation momentum scale can lead to rare high multiplicity events seen in p+p data at RHIC and LHC energies. Using the available data on multiplicity distributions we try to constrain the distribution of the proton saturation momentum scale and make predictions for the multiplicity distribution in 13 TeV p+p collisions.

  13. Effects of (p)ppGpp on the progression of the cell cycle of Caulobacter crescentus.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Diego; Collier, Justine

    2014-07-01

    Bacteria must control the progression of their cell cycle in response to nutrient availability. This regulation can be mediated by guanosine tetra- or pentaphosphate [(p)ppGpp], which are synthesized by enzymes of the RelA/SpoT homologue (Rsh) family, particularly under starvation conditions. Here, we study the effects of (p)ppGpp on the cell cycle of Caulobacter crescentus, an oligotrophic bacterium with a dimorphic life cycle. C. crescentus divides asymmetrically, producing a motile swarmer cell that cannot replicate its chromosome and a sessile stalked cell that is replication competent. The swarmer cell rapidly differentiates into a stalked cell in appropriate conditions. An artificial increase in the levels of (p)ppGpp in nonstarved C. crescentus cells was achieved by expressing a truncated relA gene from Escherichia coli, encoding a constitutively active (p)ppGpp synthetase. By combining single-cell microscopy, flow cytometry approaches, and swarming assays, we show that an increase in the intracellular concentration of (p)ppGpp is sufficient to slow down the swarmer-to-stalked cell differentiation process and to delay the initiation of chromosome replication. We also present evidence that the intracellular levels of two master regulators of the cell cycle of C. crescentus, DnaA and CtrA, are modulated in response to (p)ppGpp accumulation, even in the absence of actual starvation. CtrA proteolysis and DnaA synthesis seem indirectly inhibited by (p)ppGpp accumulation. By extending the life span of the motile nonreproductive swarmer cell and thus promoting dispersal and foraging functions over multiplication under starvation conditions, (p)ppGpp may play a central role in the ecological adaptation of C. crescentus to nutritional stresses.

  14. Crystallinity-based product design: Utilizing the polymorphism of isotactic PP homo- and copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gahleitner, Markus; Mileva, Daniela; Androsch, René; Gloger, Dietrich; Tranchida, Davide; Sandholzer, Martina; Doshev, Petar

    2015-12-01

    The polymorphism of isotactic polypropylene (iPP) in combination with the strong response of this polymer to nucleation can be utilized for expanding the application range of this versatile polymer. Based on three "case studies" related to β-iPP pressure pipes, ethylene-propylene (EP) random copolymers for thin-wall injection molding and sterilization resistance of cast films we demonstrate ways of combining polymer composition, nucleation and process settings to achieve the desired application performance.

  15. RESULTS FROM PP AT 62.4 AND 200 GeV WITH THE BRAHMS EXPERIMENTATION.

    SciTech Connect

    VIDEBAEK,F.

    2007-02-11

    Measurements of elementary pp collisions are essential for understanding heavy ion collisions. R.esu1ts for pp collisions at 200 and 62.4 GeV are presented. At both energies NLO pQCD describes pion production well. The measured pion transverse single spin asymmetries are very large at 62.4 GeV and are reasonably well described by models relying on pQCD at transverse momenta larger than 1 GeV/c.

  16. Evaluation of ALA-induced PpIX as a photosensitizer for PDT in cats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucroy, Michael D.; Edwards, Benjamin F.; Peavy, George M.; Krasieva, Tatiana B.; Griffey, Stephen M.; Madewell, Bruce R.

    1998-07-01

    Given exogenously, ALA defeats intrinsic regulatory feedback mechanisms allowing intracellular accumulation of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), a highly efficient photosensitizer. In vivo, PpIX synthesis in neoplastic mammary tissues averages 20-fold higher than in normal mammary tissues. PpIX is retained intracellularly, unlike perivascular localization of other photosensitizers, and it is then cleared quickly from the body. In vitro, ALA induced PpIX production in our laboratory in 6 cell lines tested, including an established feline kidney cell line and dermal fibroblasts from primary skin biopsy explant, resulting in photosensitization. Fluorescent microscopy confirmed PpIX production in skin adnexae following ALA administration in a normal cat. To evaluate toxicity, three cats were treated with a single i.v. dose of ALA (either 100, 200, of 400 mg/kg) and followed for 7 days. Cats receiving 100 or 200 mg/kg ALA i.v. had elevated liver enzymes and bilirubin within 24 hours. Histopathology revealed hydropic changes in the liver and renal fibrosis. The cat receiving 400 mg/kg ALA intravenously had cutaneous flush, bradycardia and apnea associated with ALA administration; within 24 hours the cat was lethargic, anorectic and icteric. ALT, AST and bilirubin concentrations had increased significantly. At necropsy the liver had a prominent lobular pattern; histopathology revealed severe periportal hepatitis and splenic necrosis. Systemically administered ALA induces PpIX production, but toxicity may preclude its clinical application in the cat. PpIX levels seem to be more time dependent than those dependent at these three ALA doses and they are well beyond the saturation point for adequate PpIX conversion. The literature is scant regarding toxicity associated with parenteral administration of ALA.

  17. PpRab1, a Rab GTPase from maritime pine is differentially expressed during embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Sónia; Cairney, John; Rodríguez, María Pérez; Cánovas, Francisco; Oliveira, Margarida; Miguel, Célia

    2007-09-01

    Rab-related small GTP-binding proteins are known to be involved in the regulation of the vesicular transport system in eukaryotic cells. We report the characterization of a previously isolated full-length cDNA PpRab1 from Pinus pinaster. Amino acid sequence analysis revealed the presence of G1-G5 conserved domains of the GTPase Ras superfamily and a double cysteine motif in the C-terminal, characteristic of Rab proteins. The PpRab1 protein shows high sequence similarity to several Rab1 GTP-binding proteins in plants. Phylogenetic analysis showed that, within the Ras superfamily, PpRab1 is more closely related to the Rab family and within this, PpRab1 protein was found to cluster with Arabidopsis subfamily AtRABE, whose members are known to regulate ER-to-Golgi membrane trafficking steps. PpRab1 transcripts were expressed at constitutively high levels for the initial stages of zygotic embryo development, and then their relative abundance decreased as embryo matures. The PpRab1 transcript is not embryo-specific as it was found in roots, cotyledons and hypocotyls. An increase in PpRab1 expression level was observed when seeds are germinated and collected at successive time points of development. In situ RT-PCR analysis revealed an expression signal in early zygotic embryos. In view of the proposed roles of Rab1 GTP-binding protein, the possible function of the protein encoded by PpRab1 in embryogenesis is discussed.

  18. A subset of RAB proteins modulates PP2A phosphatase activity.

    PubMed

    Sacco, Francesca; Mattioni, Anna; Boldt, Karsten; Panni, Simona; Santonico, Elena; Castagnoli, Luisa; Ueffing, Marius; Cesareni, Gianni

    2016-01-01

    Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is one of the most abundant serine-threonine phosphatases in mammalian cells. PP2A is a hetero-trimeric holoenzyme participating in a variety of physiological processes whose deregulation is often associated to cancer. The specificity and activity of this phosphatase is tightly modulated by a family of regulatory B subunits that dock the catalytic subunit to the substrates. Here we characterize a novel and unconventional molecular mechanism controlling the activity of the tumor suppressor PP2A. By applying a mass spectrometry-based interactomics approach, we identified novel PP2A interacting proteins. Unexpectedly we found that a significant number of RAB proteins associate with the PP2A scaffold subunit (PPP2R1A), but not with the catalytic subunit (PPP2CA). Such interactions occur in vitro and in vivo in specific subcellular compartments. Notably we demonstrated that one of these RAB proteins, RAB9, competes with the catalytic subunit PPP2CA in binding to PPP2R1A. This competitive association has an important role in controlling the PP2A catalytic activity, which is compromised in several solid tumors and leukemias. PMID:27611305

  19. The catalytic role of the M2 metal ion in PP2Cα.

    PubMed

    Pan, Chang; Tang, Jun-yi; Xu, Yun-fei; Xiao, Peng; Liu, Hong-da; Wang, Hao-an; Wang, Wen-bo; Meng, Fan-guo; Yu, Xiao; Sun, Jin-peng

    2015-01-01

    PP2C family phosphatases (the type 2C family of protein phosphatases; or metal-dependent phosphatase, PPM) constitute an important class of signaling enzymes that regulate many fundamental life activities. All PP2C family members have a conserved binuclear metal ion active center that is essential for their catalysis. However, the catalytic role of each metal ion during catalysis remains elusive. In this study, we discovered that mutations in the structurally buried D38 residue of PP2Cα (PPM1A) redefined the water-mediated hydrogen network in the active site and selectively disrupted M2 metal ion binding. Using the D38A and D38K mutations of PP2Cα as specific tools in combination with enzymology analysis, our results demonstrated that the M2 metal ion determines the rate-limiting step of substrate hydrolysis, participates in dianion substrate binding and stabilizes the leaving group after P-O bond cleavage. The newly characterized catalytic role of the M2 metal ion in this family not only provides insight into how the binuclear metal centers of the PP2C phosphatases are organized for efficient catalysis but also helps increase our understanding of the function and substrate specificity of PP2C family members. PMID:25708299

  20. Variational calculation of the ppK{sup -} system based on chiral SU(3) dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Dote, Akinobu; Hyodo, Tetsuo; Weise, Wolfram

    2009-01-15

    The ppK{sup -} system, as a prototype for possible quasibound K nuclei, is investigated using a variational approach. Several versions of energy-dependent effective KN interactions derived from chiral SU(3) dynamics are employed as input, together with a realistic NN potential (Av18). Taking into account theoretical uncertainties in the extrapolations below the KN threshold, we find that the antikaonic dibaryon ppK{sup -} is not deeply bound. With the driving s-wave KN interaction the resulting total binding energy is B(ppK{sup -})=20{+-}3 MeV and the mesonic decay width involving KN{yields}{pi}Y is expected to be in the range 40-70 MeV. Properties of this quasibound ppK{sup -} system (such as density distributions of nucleons and antikaon) are discussed. The {lambda}(1405), as an I=0 quasibound state of K and a nucleon, appears to survive in the ppK{sup -} cluster. Estimates are given for the influence of p-wave KN interactions and for the width from two-nucleon absorption (KNN{yields}YN) processes. With inclusion of these effects and dispersive corrections from absorption, the ppK{sup -} binding energy is expected to be in the range 20-40 MeV, whereas the total decay width can reach 100 MeV but with large theoretical uncertainties.

  1. Evidence for CP Violation in B+→pp ¯K+ Decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaij, R.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Anderson, J.; Andreassen, R.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Aquines Gutierrez, O.; Archilli, F.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Bay, A.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Belogurov, S.; Belous, K.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bettler, M.-O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bien, A.; Bifani, S.; Bird, T.; Bizzeti, A.; Bjørnstad, P. M.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borghi, S.; Borgia, A.; Borsato, M.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Brambach, T.; van den Brand, J.; Bressieux, J.; Brett, D.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brodzicka, J.; Brook, N. H.; Brown, H.; Bursche, A.; Busetto, G.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Calabrese, R.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Campana, P.; Campora Perez, D.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casse, G.; Cassina, L.; Castillo Garcia, L.; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Cenci, R.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chefdeville, M.; Chen, S.; Cheung, S.-F.; Chiapolini, N.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Ciba, K.; Cid Vidal, X.; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Corvo, M.; Counts, I.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D. C.; Cruz Torres, M.; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Dalseno, J.; David, P.; David, P. N. Y.; Davis, A.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Silva, W.; De Simone, P.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Déléage, N.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Di Canto, A.; Dijkstra, H.; Donleavy, S.; Dordei, F.; Dorigo, M.; Dosil Suárez, A.; Dossett, D.; Dovbnya, A.; Dreimanis, K.; Dujany, G.; Dupertuis, F.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; El Rifai, I.; Elsasser, Ch.; Ely, S.; Esen, S.; Evans, H.-M.; Evans, T.; Falabella, A.; Färber, C.; Farinelli, C.; Farley, N.; Farry, S.; Fay, RF; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fiore, M.; Fiorini, M.; Firlej, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fiutowski, T.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forty, R.; Francisco, O.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Fu, J.; Furfaro, E.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gallorini, S.; Gambetta, S.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; García Pardiñas, J.; Garofoli, J.; Garra Tico, J.; Garrido, L.; Gaspar, C.; Gauld, R.; Gavardi, L.; Gavrilov, G.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gianelle, A.; Giani', S.; Gibson, V.; Giubega, L.; Gligorov, V. V.; Göbel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gotti, C.; Grabalosa Gándara, M.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Granado Cardoso, L. A.; Graugés, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Greening, E.; Gregson, S.; Griffith, P.; Grillo, L.; Grünberg, O.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C.; Hall, S.; Hamilton, B.; Hampson, T.; Han, X.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Harrison, J.; He, J.; Head, T.; Heijne, V.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Henry, L.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; van Herwijnen, E.; Heß, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hill, D.; Hoballah, M.; Hombach, C.; Hulsbergen, W.; Hunt, P.; Hussain, N.; Hutchcroft, D.; Hynds, D.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jalocha, J.; Jans, E.; Jaton, P.; Jawahery, A.; Jing, F.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Jurik, N.; Kaballo, M.; Kandybei, S.; Kanso, W.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T. M.; Karodia, S.; Kelsey, M.; Kenyon, I. R.; Ketel, T.; Khanji, B.; Khurewathanakul, C.; Klaver, S.; Klimaszewski, K.; Kochebina, O.; Kolpin, M.; Komarov, I.; Koopman, R. F.; Koppenburg, P.; Korolev, M.; Kozlinskiy, A.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krocker, G.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kurek, K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; La Thi, V. N.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.; Lambert, R. W.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Langhans, B.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J.-P.; Lefèvre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrançois, J.; Leo, S.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Li, Y.; Likhomanenko, T.; Liles, M.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.; Lionetto, F.; Liu, B.; Lohn, S.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J. H.; Lopez-March, N.; Lowdon, P.; Lu, H.; Lucchesi, D.; Luo, H.; Lupato, A.; Luppi, E.; Lupton, O.; Machefert, F.; Machikhiliyan, I. V.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Malde, S.; Malinin, A.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Maratas, J.; Marchand, J. F.; Marconi, U.; Marin Benito, C.; Marino, P.; Märki, R.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martens, A.; Martín Sánchez, A.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez Santos, D.; Martinez Vidal, F.; Martins Tostes, D.; Massafferri, A.; Matev, R.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mazurov, A.; McCann, M.; McCarthy, J.; McNab, A.; McNulty, R.; McSkelly, B.; Meadows, B.; Meier, F.; Meissner, M.; Merk, M.; Milanes, D. A.; Minard, M.-N.; Moggi, N.; Molina Rodriguez, J.; Monteil, S.; Morandin, M.; Morawski, P.; Mordà, A.; Morello, M. J.; Moron, J.; Morris, A.-B.; Mountain, R.; Muheim, F.; Müller, K.; Mussini, M.; Muster, B.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nasteva, I.; Needham, M.; Neri, N.; Neubert, S.; Neufeld, N.; Neuner, M.; Nguyen, A. D.; Nguyen, T. D.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Nicol, M.; Niess, V.; Niet, R.; Nikitin, N.; Nikodem, T.; Novoselov, A.; O'Hanlon, D. P.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Oggero, S.; Ogilvy, S.; Okhrimenko, O.; Oldeman, R.; Onderwater, G.; Orlandea, M.; Otalora Goicochea, J. M.; Owen, P.; Oyanguren, A.; Pal, B. K.; Palano, A.; Palombo, F.; Palutan, M.; Panman, J.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Parkes, C.; Parkinson, C. J.; Passaleva, G.; Patel, G. D.; Patel, M.; Patrignani, C.; Pazos Alvarez, A.; Pearce, A.; Pellegrino, A.; Pepe Altarelli, M.; Perazzini, S.; Perez Trigo, E.; Perret, P.; Perrin-Terrin, M.; Pescatore, L.; Pesen, E.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; Picatoste Olloqui, E.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pilař, T.; Pinci, D.; Pistone, A.; Playfer, S.; Plo Casasus, M.; Polci, F.; Poluektov, A.; Polycarpo, E.; Popov, A.; Popov, D.; Popovici, B.; Potterat, C.; Price, E.; Prisciandaro, J.; Pritchard, A.; Prouve, C.; Pugatch, V.; Puig Navarro, A.; Punzi, G.; Qian, W.; Rachwal, B.; Rademacker, J. H.; Rakotomiaramanana, B.; Rama, M.; Rangel, M. S.; Raniuk, I.; Rauschmayr, N.; Raven, G.; Reichert, S.; Reid, M. M.; dos Reis, A. C.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, S.; Rihl, M.; Rinnert, K.; Rives Molina, V.; Roa Romero, D. A.; Robbe, P.; Rodrigues, A. B.; Rodrigues, E.; Rodriguez Perez, P.; Roiser, S.; Romanovsky, V.; Romero Vidal, A.; Rotondo, M.; Rouvinet, J.; Ruf, T.; Ruffini, F.; Ruiz, H.; Ruiz Valls, P.; Saborido Silva, J. J.; Sagidova, N.; Sail, P.; Saitta, B.; Salustino Guimaraes, V.; Sanchez Mayordomo, C.; Sanmartin Sedes, B.; Santacesaria, R.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santovetti, E.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Saunders, D. M.; Savrie, M.; Savrina, D.; Schiller, M.; Schindler, H.; Schlupp, M.; Schmelling, M.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schune, M.-H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Seco, M.; Semennikov, A.; Sepp, I.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Sestini, L.; Seyfert, P.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, V.; Shires, A.; Silva Coutinho, R.; Simi, G.; Sirendi, M.; Skidmore, N.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, N. A.; Smith, E.; Smith, E.; Smith, J.; Smith, M.; Snoek, H.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Soomro, F.; Souza, D.; Souza De Paula, B.; Spaan, B.; Sparkes, A.; Spradlin, P.; Sridharan, S.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, M.; Stahl, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stenyakin, O.; Stevenson, S.; Stoica, S.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Stracka, S.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Stroili, R.; Subbiah, V. K.; Sun, L.; Sutcliffe, W.; Swientek, K.; Swientek, S.; Syropoulos, V.; Szczekowski, M.; Szczypka, P.; Szilard, D.; Szumlak, T.; T'Jampens, S.; Teklishyn, M.; Tellarini, G.; Teubert, F.; Thomas, C.; Thomas, E.; van Tilburg, J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M.; Tolk, S.; Tomassetti, L.; Tonelli, D.; Topp-Joergensen, S.; Torr, N.; Tournefier, E.; Tourneur, S.; Tran, M. T.; Tresch, M.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsopelas, P.; Tuning, N.; Ubeda Garcia, M.; Ukleja, A.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Uwer, U.; Vagnoni, V.; Valenti, G.; Vallier, A.; Vazquez Gomez, R.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vázquez Sierra, C.; Vecchi, S.; Velthuis, J. J.; Veltri, M.; Veneziano, G.; Vesterinen, M.; Viaud, B.; Vieira, D.; Vieites Diaz, M.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Vollhardt, A.; Volyanskyy, D.; Voong, D.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Voß, C.; Voss, H.; de Vries, J. A.; Waldi, R.; Wallace, C.; Wallace, R.; Walsh, J.; Wandernoth, S.; Wang, J.; Ward, D. R.; Watson, N. K.; Websdale, D.; Whitehead, M.; Wicht, J.; Wiedner, D.; Wilkinson, G.; Williams, M. P.; Williams, M.; Wilson, F. F.; Wimberley, J.; Wishahi, J.; Wislicki, W.; Witek, M.; Wormser, G.; Wotton, S. A.; Wright, S.; Wu, S.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Xing, Z.; Xu, Z.; Yang, Z.; Yuan, X.; Yushchenko, O.; Zangoli, M.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, W. C.; Zhang, Y.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokhov, A.; Zhong, L.; Zvyagin, A.; LHCb Collaboration

    2014-10-01

    Three-body B+→pp ¯K+ and B+→pp ¯π+ decays are studied using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.0 fb-1 collected by the LHCb experiment in proton-proton collisions at center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV. Evidence of CP violation in the B+→pp ¯K+ decay is found in regions of the phase space, representing the first measurement of this kind for a final state containing baryons. Measurements of the forward-backward asymmetry of the light meson in the pp ¯ rest frame yield AFB(pp ¯K+,mpp ¯<2.85 GeV/c2)=0.495±0.012 (stat)±0.007 (syst) and AFB(pp ¯π+,mpp ¯<2.85 GeV/c2)=-0.409±0.033 (stat)±0.006 (syst). In addition, the branching fraction of the decay B+→Λ ¯(1520)p is measured to be Bbold" (B+→Λ ¯(1520)pbold" )=bold" (3.15±0.48 (stat)±0.07 (syst)±0.26 (BF)bold" )×10-7, where BF denotes the uncertainty on secondary branching fractions.

  2. New KF-PP-SVM classification method for EEG in brain-computer interfaces.

    PubMed

    Yang, Banghua; Han, Zhijun; Zan, Peng; Wang, Qian

    2014-01-01

    Classification methods are a crucial direction in the current study of brain-computer interfaces (BCIs). To improve the classification accuracy for electroencephalogram (EEG) signals, a novel KF-PP-SVM (kernel fisher, posterior probability, and support vector machine) classification method is developed. Its detailed process entails the use of common spatial patterns to obtain features, based on which the within-class scatter is calculated. Then the scatter is added into the kernel function of a radial basis function to construct a new kernel function. This new kernel is integrated into the SVM to obtain a new classification model. Finally, the output of SVM is calculated based on posterior probability and the final recognition result is obtained. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed KF-PP-SVM method, EEG data collected from laboratory are processed with four different classification schemes (KF-PP-SVM, KF-SVM, PP-SVM, and SVM). The results showed that the overall average improvements arising from the use of the KF-PP-SVM scheme as opposed to KF-SVM, PP-SVM and SVM schemes are 2.49%, 5.83 % and 6.49 % respectively.

  3. The catalytic role of the M2 metal ion in PP2Cα

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Chang; Tang, Jun-Yi; Xu, Yun-Fei; Xiao, Peng; Liu, Hong-Da; Wang, Hao-An; Wang, Wen-Bo; Meng, Fan-Guo; Yu, Xiao; Sun, Jin-Peng

    2015-02-01

    PP2C family phosphatases (the type 2C family of protein phosphatases; or metal-dependent phosphatase, PPM) constitute an important class of signaling enzymes that regulate many fundamental life activities. All PP2C family members have a conserved binuclear metal ion active center that is essential for their catalysis. However, the catalytic role of each metal ion during catalysis remains elusive. In this study, we discovered that mutations in the structurally buried D38 residue of PP2Cα (PPM1A) redefined the water-mediated hydrogen network in the active site and selectively disrupted M2 metal ion binding. Using the D38A and D38K mutations of PP2Cα as specific tools in combination with enzymology analysis, our results demonstrated that the M2 metal ion determines the rate-limiting step of substrate hydrolysis, participates in dianion substrate binding and stabilizes the leaving group after P-O bond cleavage. The newly characterized catalytic role of the M2 metal ion in this family not only provides insight into how the binuclear metal centers of the PP2C phosphatases are organized for efficient catalysis but also helps increase our understanding of the function and substrate specificity of PP2C family members.

  4. Three-body calculations for the K - pp system within potential models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kezerashvili, R. Ya; Tsiklauri, S. M.; Filikhin, I.; Suslov, V. M.; Vlahovic, B.

    2016-06-01

    We present three-body nonrelativistic calculations within the framework of a potential model for the kaonic cluster K - pp using two methods: the method of hyperspherical harmonics in the momentum representation and the method of Faddeev equations in configuration space. To perform numerical calculations, different NN and antikaon-nucleon interactions are applied. The results of the calculations for the ground-state energy for the K - pp system obtained by both methods are in reasonable agreement. Although the ground-state energy is not sensitive to the pp interaction, it shows very strong dependence on the K - p potential. We show that the dominant clustering of the {K}-{pp} system in the configuration Λ (1405) + p allows us to calculate the binding energy to good accuracy within a simple cluster approach for the differential Faddeev equations. The theoretical discrepancies in the binding energy and width for the K - pp system related to the different pp and K - p interactions are addressed.

  5. Three-body calculations for the K ‑ pp system within potential models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kezerashvili, R. Ya; Tsiklauri, S. M.; Filikhin, I.; Suslov, V. M.; Vlahovic, B.

    2016-06-01

    We present three-body nonrelativistic calculations within the framework of a potential model for the kaonic cluster K ‑ pp using two methods: the method of hyperspherical harmonics in the momentum representation and the method of Faddeev equations in configuration space. To perform numerical calculations, different NN and antikaon–nucleon interactions are applied. The results of the calculations for the ground-state energy for the K ‑ pp system obtained by both methods are in reasonable agreement. Although the ground-state energy is not sensitive to the pp interaction, it shows very strong dependence on the K ‑ p potential. We show that the dominant clustering of the {K}-{pp} system in the configuration Λ (1405) + p allows us to calculate the binding energy to good accuracy within a simple cluster approach for the differential Faddeev equations. The theoretical discrepancies in the binding energy and width for the K ‑ pp system related to the different pp and K ‑ p interactions are addressed.

  6. A subset of RAB proteins modulates PP2A phosphatase activity

    PubMed Central

    Sacco, Francesca; Mattioni, Anna; Boldt, Karsten; Panni, Simona; Santonico, Elena; Castagnoli, Luisa; Ueffing, Marius; Cesareni, Gianni

    2016-01-01

    Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is one of the most abundant serine–threonine phosphatases in mammalian cells. PP2A is a hetero-trimeric holoenzyme participating in a variety of physiological processes whose deregulation is often associated to cancer. The specificity and activity of this phosphatase is tightly modulated by a family of regulatory B subunits that dock the catalytic subunit to the substrates. Here we characterize a novel and unconventional molecular mechanism controlling the activity of the tumor suppressor PP2A. By applying a mass spectrometry-based interactomics approach, we identified novel PP2A interacting proteins. Unexpectedly we found that a significant number of RAB proteins associate with the PP2A scaffold subunit (PPP2R1A), but not with the catalytic subunit (PPP2CA). Such interactions occur in vitro and in vivo in specific subcellular compartments. Notably we demonstrated that one of these RAB proteins, RAB9, competes with the catalytic subunit PPP2CA in binding to PPP2R1A. This competitive association has an important role in controlling the PP2A catalytic activity, which is compromised in several solid tumors and leukemias. PMID:27611305

  7. B vitamin deficiency promotes tau phosphorylation through regulation of GSK3beta and PP2A.

    PubMed

    Nicolia, Vincenzina; Fuso, Andrea; Cavallaro, Rosaria A; Di Luzio, Andrea; Scarpa, Sigfrido

    2010-01-01

    Neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), composed of intracellular filamentous aggregates of hyperphosphorylated protein tau, are one of the pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Tau phosphorylation is regulated by the equilibrium between activities of its protein kinases and phosphatases; unbalance of these activities is proposed to be a reasonable causative factor to the disease process. Glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK3beta) is one of the most important protein kinase in regulating tau phosphorylation; overexpression of active GSK3beta causes ADlike hyperphosphorylation of tau. Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is the major phosphatase that dephosphorylates tau; it was demonstrated that highly conserved carboxyl-terminal sequence of PP2A C-subunit is a focal point for phosphatase regulation. This is the site of a reversible methyl esterification reaction that controls AB_{alpha}C heterotrimers formation. Here we demonstrate that GSK3beta and PP2A genes were upregulated by inhibiting methylation reactions through B vitamin deficiency. In this condition, methylated catalytic subunit PP2Ac was decreased, leading to reduced PP2A activity. By contrast, we observed GSK3beta protein increase and a modulation in phosphorylation sites that regulate GSK3beta activity. Therefore, one-carbon metabolism alteration seems to be a cause of deregulation of the equilibrium between GSK3beta and PP2A, leading to abnormal hyperphosphorylated tau.

  8. The melt-recrystallization behavior of highly oriented α-iPP fibers embedded in a HIPS matrix.

    PubMed

    Ye, Liwei; Li, Huihui; Qiu, Zhaobin; Yan, Shouke

    2015-03-21

    The melt-recrystallization behavior of α-iPP fibers embedded in an amorphous HIPS matrix has been studied by means of optical microscopy. The amorphous HIPS serving as a supporter of iPP fibers does not become involved in the nucleation and crystallization process of the molten highly oriented iPP fibers. It also does not provide any birefringence under the optical microscope with crossed polarizers. This enables the study of orientation-induced β-iPP crystallization through a control of the melting status of the fibers. Through melting the fibers at different temperatures above 175 °C and subsequent recrystallization, some β-iPP crystals were always produced. The content of the β-iPP crystal depends strongly on the melting temperature and melting time of the iPP fibers. It was confirmed that melting the iPP fibers at relatively lower temperature, e.g. 176 °C, less amount of β-iPP crystals were observed. The content of β-iPP crystal enhances first with increasing melting temperature and then decreases with further increase of the fiber melting temperature. The β-iPP crystallization is found to be most favorable upon melting the fibers at 178 °C for 2 min. This demonstrates the requirement of a certain chain or chain segment orientation for generating β-iPP crystallization on the one hand, while higher orientation of the iPP chains or chain segments encourages the growth of iPP crystals in the α-form on the other hand. This has been further confirmed by varying the melting time of the fiber at different temperatures, since relaxation of the iPP molecular chains at a fixed temperature is time dependent. Moreover, the complete transformation of α-iPP fibers in some local places into β-iPP crystals implies that the αβ-transition may not be required for the orientation-induced β-iPP crystallization.

  9. The melt-recrystallization behavior of highly oriented α-iPP fibers embedded in a HIPS matrix.

    PubMed

    Ye, Liwei; Li, Huihui; Qiu, Zhaobin; Yan, Shouke

    2015-03-21

    The melt-recrystallization behavior of α-iPP fibers embedded in an amorphous HIPS matrix has been studied by means of optical microscopy. The amorphous HIPS serving as a supporter of iPP fibers does not become involved in the nucleation and crystallization process of the molten highly oriented iPP fibers. It also does not provide any birefringence under the optical microscope with crossed polarizers. This enables the study of orientation-induced β-iPP crystallization through a control of the melting status of the fibers. Through melting the fibers at different temperatures above 175 °C and subsequent recrystallization, some β-iPP crystals were always produced. The content of the β-iPP crystal depends strongly on the melting temperature and melting time of the iPP fibers. It was confirmed that melting the iPP fibers at relatively lower temperature, e.g. 176 °C, less amount of β-iPP crystals were observed. The content of β-iPP crystal enhances first with increasing melting temperature and then decreases with further increase of the fiber melting temperature. The β-iPP crystallization is found to be most favorable upon melting the fibers at 178 °C for 2 min. This demonstrates the requirement of a certain chain or chain segment orientation for generating β-iPP crystallization on the one hand, while higher orientation of the iPP chains or chain segments encourages the growth of iPP crystals in the α-form on the other hand. This has been further confirmed by varying the melting time of the fiber at different temperatures, since relaxation of the iPP molecular chains at a fixed temperature is time dependent. Moreover, the complete transformation of α-iPP fibers in some local places into β-iPP crystals implies that the αβ-transition may not be required for the orientation-induced β-iPP crystallization. PMID:25708675

  10. Consequences of the factorization hypothesis in {bar p}p, pp, {gamma}p, and {gamma}{gamma} collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Block, M. M.; Kaidalov, A. B.

    2001-10-01

    Using an eikonal analysis, we examine the validity of the factorization theorem for nucleon-nucleon, {gamma}p, and {gamma}{gamma} collisions. As an example, using the additive quark model and meson vector dominance, we directly show that for all energies and values of the eikonal the factorization theorem {sigma}{sub nn}/{sigma}{sub {gamma}p}={sigma}{sub {gamma}p}/{sigma}{sub {gamma}{gamma}} holds. We can also compute the survival probability of large rapidity gaps in high energy p{bar p} and pp collisions. We show that the survival probabilities are identical (at the same energy) for {gamma}p and {gamma}{gamma} collisions, as well as for nucleon-nucleon collisions. We further show that neither the factorization theorem nor the reaction independence of the survival probabilities depends on the assumption of an additive quark model, but, more generally, depends on the opacity of the eikonal being independent of whether the reaction is n-n, {gamma}p, or {gamma}{gamma}.

  11. Many Means to a Common End: the Intricacies of (p)ppGpp Metabolism and Its Control of Bacterial Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Gaca, Anthony O.; Colomer-Winter, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    In nearly all bacterial species examined so far, amino acid starvation triggers the rapid accumulation of the nucleotide second messenger (p)ppGpp, the effector of the stringent response. While for years the enzymes involved in (p)ppGpp metabolism and the significance of (p)ppGpp accumulation to stress survival were considered well defined, a recent surge of interest in the field has uncovered an unanticipated level of diversity in how bacteria metabolize and utilize (p)ppGpp to rapidly synchronize a variety of biological processes important for growth and stress survival. In addition to the classic activation of the stringent response, it has become evident that (p)ppGpp exerts differential effects on cell physiology in an incremental manner rather than simply acting as a biphasic switch that controls growth or stasis. Of particular interest is the intimate relationship of (p)ppGpp with persister cell formation and virulence, which has spurred the pursuit of (p)ppGpp inhibitors as a means to control recalcitrant infections. Here, we present an overview of the enzymes responsible for (p)ppGpp metabolism, elaborate on the intricacies that link basal production of (p)ppGpp to bacterial homeostasis, and discuss the implications of targeting (p)ppGpp synthesis as a means to disrupt long-term bacterial survival strategies. PMID:25605304

  12. Redistribution of activated pp60c-src to integrin-dependent cytoskeletal complexes in thrombin-stimulated platelets.

    PubMed Central

    Clark, E A; Brugge, J S

    1993-01-01

    Thrombin stimulation of platelets induces a transient increase in the specific activity of pp60c-src followed by a redistribution of pp60c-src to the Triton X-100-insoluble, cytoskeleton-rich fraction. Concomitant with the observed increase in pp60c-src activity was a rapid dephosphorylation of tyrosine 527 in 10 to 15% of pp60c-src molecules. In addition, we found that pp60c-src from the Triton-insoluble fraction was phosphorylated on tyrosine 416, the autophosphorylation site which is phosphorylated in activated oncogenic variants of pp60src. Furthermore, in platelets from patients with Glanzmann's thrombasthenia (which are deficient in the integrin receptor GPIIb-IIIa), pp60c-src was not translocated to the Triton-insoluble fraction, and there was a sustained increase in pp60c-src activity following thrombin treatment. These results suggest that pp60c-src is rapidly activated in thrombin-stimulated platelets, potentially by a protein tyrosine phosphatase, before it translocates to a cytoskeletal fraction, where many of its potential substrates are found. The evidence that the cytoskeletal association of pp60c-src is dependent upon engagement of the integrin receptor GPIIb-IIIa suggests that integrin-cytoskeletal complexes may serve to compartmentalize and anchor activated enzymes involved in signal transduction. Images PMID:7680100

  13. Many means to a common end: the intricacies of (p)ppGpp metabolism and its control of bacterial homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Gaca, Anthony O; Colomer-Winter, Cristina; Lemos, José A

    2015-04-01

    In nearly all bacterial species examined so far, amino acid starvation triggers the rapid accumulation of the nucleotide second messenger (p)ppGpp, the effector of the stringent response. While for years the enzymes involved in (p)ppGpp metabolism and the significance of (p)ppGpp accumulation to stress survival were considered well defined, a recent surge of interest in the field has uncovered an unanticipated level of diversity in how bacteria metabolize and utilize (p)ppGpp to rapidly synchronize a variety of biological processes important for growth and stress survival. In addition to the classic activation of the stringent response, it has become evident that (p)ppGpp exerts differential effects on cell physiology in an incremental manner rather than simply acting as a biphasic switch that controls growth or stasis. Of particular interest is the intimate relationship of (p)ppGpp with persister cell formation and virulence, which has spurred the pursuit of (p)ppGpp inhibitors as a means to control recalcitrant infections. Here, we present an overview of the enzymes responsible for (p)ppGpp metabolism, elaborate on the intricacies that link basal production of (p)ppGpp to bacterial homeostasis, and discuss the implications of targeting (p)ppGpp synthesis as a means to disrupt long-term bacterial survival strategies.

  14. In AβPP-overexpressing cultured human muscle fibers proteasome inhibition enhances phosphorylation of AβPP751 and GSK3β activation; effects mitigated by lithium and apparently relevant to sporadic inclusion-body myositis

    PubMed Central

    Terracciano, Chiara; Nogalska, Anna; Engel, W. King; Askanas, Valerie

    2009-01-01

    Muscle fiber degeneration in sporadic inclusion-body myositis (s-IBM) is characterized by accumulation of multiprotein aggregates, including aggregated amyloid-β-precursor protein 751 (AβPP751), amyloid-β (Aβ), phosphorylated tau (p-tau), and other “Alzheimer-characteristic” proteins. Proteasome inhibition is an important component of the s-IBM pathogenesis. In brains of Alzheimer disease (AD) patients and AD transgenic mouse models, phosphorylation of neuronal AβPP695 (p-AβPP) on Threonine668 (T668) (equivalent to T724 of AβPP751) is considered detrimental because it increases generation of cytotoxic Aβ and induces tau phosphorylation. Activated glycogen synthase kinase3β (GSK3β) is involved in phosphorylation of both AβPP and tau. Lithium, an inhibitor of GSK3β, was reported to reduce levels of both the total AβPP and p-AβPP in AD animal models. In relation to s-IBM, we now show for the first time that: 1. In AβPP-overexpressing cultured human muscle fibers (human muscle culture IBM model: a) proteasome inhibition significantly increases GSK3β activity and AβPP phosphorylation; b) treatment with lithium decreases i) phosphorylated-AβPP; ii) total amount of AβPP, iii) Aβ oligomers, and iv) GSK3β activity; and c) lithium improves proteasome function. 2. In biopsied s-IBM muscle fibers, GSK3β is significantly activated and AβPP is phosphorylated on Thr724. Accordingly, treatment with lithium, or other GSK3β inhibitors, might benefit s-IBM patients. PMID:19878439

  15. From QCD-based hard-scattering to nonextensive statistical mechanical descriptions of transverse momentum spectra in high-energy pp and pp¯ collisions

    DOE PAGES

    Wong, Cheuk-Yin; Wilk, Grzegorz; Cirto, Leonardo J. L.; Tsallis, Constantino

    2015-06-22

    Transverse spectra of both jets and hadrons obtained in high-energymore » $pp$ and $$p\\bar p $$ collisions at central rapidity exhibit power-law behavior of $1/p_T^n$ at high $p_T$. The power index $n$ is 4-5 for jet production and is slightly greater for hadron production. Furthermore, the hadron spectra spanning over 14 orders of magnitude down to the lowest $p_T$ region in $pp$ collisions at LHC can be adequately described by a single nonextensive statistical mechanical distribution that is widely used in other branches of science. This suggests indirectly the dominance of the hard-scattering process over essentially the whole $p_T$ region at central rapidity in $pp$ collisions at LHC. We show here direct evidences of such a dominance of the hard-scattering process by investigating the power index of UA1 jet spectra over an extended $p_T$ region and the two-particle correlation data of the STAR and PHENIX Collaborations in high-energy $pp$ and $$p \\bar p$$ collisions at central rapidity. We then study how the showering of the hard-scattering product partons alters the power index of the hadron spectra and leads to a hadron distribution that can be cast into a single-particle non-extensive statistical mechanical distribution. Lastly, because of such a connection, the non-extensive statistical mechanical distribution can be considered as a lowest-order approximation of the hard-scattering of partons followed by the subsequent process of parton showering that turns the jets into hadrons, in high energy $pp$ and $$p\\bar p$$ collisions.« less

  16. PP2A in the regulation of cell motility and invasion.

    PubMed

    Basu, Sunanda

    2011-02-01

    Cell motility is a very critical phenomenon that plays an important role in the development of eukaryotic organisms. One of the well studied cell motility phenomena is chemotaxis, which is described as a directional movement of cell in response to changes in external chemotactic gradient. Numerous studies conducted both in unicellular organism and in mammalian cells have demonstrated the importance of phosphatidylionositol-3 kinase (PI3K) in this process. In addition, it is now well established that although PI3K plays an activation role in chemotaxis, the role of phosphatases is also critical to maintain this dynamic cyclical process. Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a major serine/threonine phosphatase that is a key player in regulating PI3K signaling. PP2A is abundantly and ubiquitously expressed and has been highly conserved during the evolution of eukaryotes. PP2A is composed of three protein subunits, A, B, and C. Subunit 'A' is a 60-65 kDa structural component, 'C' is a 36-38 kDa catalytic subunit, and 'B' is a 54-130 kDa regulatory subunit. The core complex of PP2A is comprised of the A and C subunits, which are tightly associated and this dimeric core complexes with the regulatory B subunit. The B subunit determines the substrate specificity as well as the spatial and temporal functions of PP2A. PP2A plays an important role in regulating multiple signal transduction pathways, including cell-cycle regulation, cell-growth and development, cytoskeleton dynamics, and cell motility. This review focuses on the role of PP2A in regulating motility of normal and transformed cells.

  17. Role of (p)ppGpp in Viability and Biofilm Formation of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae S8.

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Xie, Fang; Zhang, Yanhe; Bossé, Janine T; Langford, Paul R; Wang, Chunlai

    2015-01-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is a Gram-negative bacterium and the cause of porcine pleuropneumonia. When the bacterium encounters nutritional starvation, the relA-dependent (p)ppGpp-mediated stringent response is activated. The modified nucleotides guanosine 5'-diphosphate 3'-diphosphate (ppGpp) and guanosine 5'-triphosphate 3'-diphosphate (pppGpp) are known to be signaling molecules in other prokaryotes. Here, to investigate the role of (p)ppGpp in A. pleuropneumoniae, we created a mutant A. pleuropneumoniae strain, S8ΔrelA, which lacks the (p)ppGpp-synthesizing enzyme RelA, and investigated its phenotype in vitro. S8ΔrelA did not survive after stationary phase (starvation condition) and grew exclusively as non-extended cells. Compared to the wild-type (WT) strain, the S8ΔrelA mutant had an increased ability to form a biofilm. Transcriptional profiles of early stationary phase cultures revealed that a total of 405 bacterial genes were differentially expressed (including 380 up-regulated and 25 down-regulated genes) in S8ΔrelA as compared with the WT strain. Most of the up-regulated genes are involved in ribosomal structure and biogenesis, amino acid transport and metabolism, translation cell wall/membrane/envelope biogenesis. The data indicate that (p)ppGpp coordinates the growth, viability, morphology, biofilm formation and metabolic ability of A. pleuropneumoniae in starvation conditions. Furthermore, S8ΔrelA could not use certain sugars nor produce urease which has been associated with the virulence of A. pleuropneumoniae, suggesting that (p)ppGpp may directly or indirectly affect the pathogenesis of A. pleuropneumoniae during the infection process. In summary, (p)ppGpp signaling represents an essential component of the regulatory network governing stress adaptation and virulence in A. pleuropneumoniae. PMID:26509499

  18. Joint Use of PP and PS AVOA Data to Estimate Fluid Indicator in Vertically Fractured Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, B.; Sen, M. K.; Gu, H.

    2015-12-01

    The existence of fractures induces anisotropy in medium. This anisotropy might be a comprehensive result of fractures' properties, such as the direction, spacing, apertures, intensity, microstructure, fluid infill, and so on. Among these properties, the preferential orientation of fracture networks makes the medium azimuthally anisotropic with respect to seismic wave propagation. To the medium containing a set of vertical fractures, the tangential weakness does not vary with the fluid content, however on which the normal weakness shows great dependence. Based on the theory of linear slip model and the sensitivity to fracture weakness of PP- and PS-reflection coefficients which can be derived by a Born formula, we did both the PP-AVOA and PS-AVOA numerical experiment and also the joint inversion of fluid indicator. Results show that when the fractures have low saturation of gas, the fluid indicator estimated from PP-AVOA data is precise enough; when gas saturation goes up to 70%, joint inversion can help to improve the poor quality of PP-AVOA data inversion. Under high gas-saturated case, both PP inversion and joint inversion are sensitive to the errors in g, where g is the square of the ratio of S- and P- wave velocity in the unfractured medium. This dependency can be reduced by adding a different weight to PP and PS data during the inversion.Based on the result of numerical experiment, we processed field data in Sichuan Basin in China. The inversion result is consistent with the well interpretation. The first column in figure represents the PP- and PS-reflectivity computed by matrix method(Fryer and Frazer,1984). The second column is the result of Born linearized method. In the last column, upper one shows the estimated fluid indicator in different gas saturation case and the below one consider the effect of error in g on the inversion results.

  19. Role of (p)ppGpp in Viability and Biofilm Formation of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae S8.

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Xie, Fang; Zhang, Yanhe; Bossé, Janine T; Langford, Paul R; Wang, Chunlai

    2015-01-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is a Gram-negative bacterium and the cause of porcine pleuropneumonia. When the bacterium encounters nutritional starvation, the relA-dependent (p)ppGpp-mediated stringent response is activated. The modified nucleotides guanosine 5'-diphosphate 3'-diphosphate (ppGpp) and guanosine 5'-triphosphate 3'-diphosphate (pppGpp) are known to be signaling molecules in other prokaryotes. Here, to investigate the role of (p)ppGpp in A. pleuropneumoniae, we created a mutant A. pleuropneumoniae strain, S8ΔrelA, which lacks the (p)ppGpp-synthesizing enzyme RelA, and investigated its phenotype in vitro. S8ΔrelA did not survive after stationary phase (starvation condition) and grew exclusively as non-extended cells. Compared to the wild-type (WT) strain, the S8ΔrelA mutant had an increased ability to form a biofilm. Transcriptional profiles of early stationary phase cultures revealed that a total of 405 bacterial genes were differentially expressed (including 380 up-regulated and 25 down-regulated genes) in S8ΔrelA as compared with the WT strain. Most of the up-regulated genes are involved in ribosomal structure and biogenesis, amino acid transport and metabolism, translation cell wall/membrane/envelope biogenesis. The data indicate that (p)ppGpp coordinates the growth, viability, morphology, biofilm formation and metabolic ability of A. pleuropneumoniae in starvation conditions. Furthermore, S8ΔrelA could not use certain sugars nor produce urease which has been associated with the virulence of A. pleuropneumoniae, suggesting that (p)ppGpp may directly or indirectly affect the pathogenesis of A. pleuropneumoniae during the infection process. In summary, (p)ppGpp signaling represents an essential component of the regulatory network governing stress adaptation and virulence in A. pleuropneumoniae.

  20. Role of (p)ppGpp in Viability and Biofilm Formation of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae S8

    PubMed Central

    Li, Gang; Xie, Fang; Zhang, Yanhe; Bossé, Janine T.; Langford, Paul R.; Wang, Chunlai

    2015-01-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is a Gram-negative bacterium and the cause of porcine pleuropneumonia. When the bacterium encounters nutritional starvation, the relA-dependent (p)ppGpp-mediated stringent response is activated. The modified nucleotides guanosine 5’-diphosphate 3’-diphosphate (ppGpp) and guanosine 5’-triphosphate 3’-diphosphate (pppGpp) are known to be signaling molecules in other prokaryotes. Here, to investigate the role of (p)ppGpp in A. pleuropneumoniae, we created a mutant A. pleuropneumoniae strain, S8ΔrelA, which lacks the (p)ppGpp-synthesizing enzyme RelA, and investigated its phenotype in vitro. S8ΔrelA did not survive after stationary phase (starvation condition) and grew exclusively as non-extended cells. Compared to the wild-type (WT) strain, the S8ΔrelA mutant had an increased ability to form a biofilm. Transcriptional profiles of early stationary phase cultures revealed that a total of 405 bacterial genes were differentially expressed (including 380 up-regulated and 25 down-regulated genes) in S8ΔrelA as compared with the WT strain. Most of the up-regulated genes are involved in ribosomal structure and biogenesis, amino acid transport and metabolism, translation cell wall/membrane/envelope biogenesis. The data indicate that (p)ppGpp coordinates the growth, viability, morphology, biofilm formation and metabolic ability of A. pleuropneumoniae in starvation conditions. Furthermore, S8ΔrelA could not use certain sugars nor produce urease which has been associated with the virulence of A. pleuropneumoniae, suggesting that (p)ppGpp may directly or indirectly affect the pathogenesis of A. pleuropneumoniae during the infection process. In summary, (p)ppGpp signaling represents an essential component of the regulatory network governing stress adaptation and virulence in A. pleuropneumoniae. PMID:26509499

  1. Fragment of tegument protein pp65 of human cytomegalovirus induces autoantibodies in BALB/c mice

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection has been implicated in the development of autoimmunity, including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Previously we reported that HCMV phosphoprotein 65 (pp65) could induce early onset of autoantibody and glomerulonephritis on lupus-prone NZB/W mice. This study further examined whether the B cell epitope(s) in pp65 is able to drive the development of autoantibody. Methods Sera from SLE patients or HCMVpp65-immunized mice were analyzed for anti-nuclear antibody by immunoblotting, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immunofluorescent stain and Crithidia luciliae stain. The deposition of immunoglobulin to the kidney was also examined by immunofluorescent stain. The interactions between pp65 sub-fragment to cellular proteins were revealed by yeast two-hybrid analyses. Results Our results showed that most SLE patients possessed antibodies to the C-terminal half of the HCMVpp65 antigen. Of these positive sera, 73% were also positive to the pp65336-439 sub-fragment. The immunization of pp65336-439 induced formation of multiple anti-nuclear antibodies, including anti-chromatin, anti-centriole, anti-mitotic spindle type I/II (MSA I/II) and a significant elevation of anti-double-stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA) antibodies on BALB/c mice. Yeast two-hybrid analyses revealed the binding of pp65336-439 sub-fragment to cellular proteins. Immunoglobulin deposition on glomeruli was also detected on pp65336-439-immunized mice. Conclusions Our data suggested that HCMVpp65336-439 sub-fragment may induce cross-reactive antibodies to several nuclear antigens, which could contribute to the development of autoimmunity in genetic-suspected individuals. PMID:21989080

  2. Novel protein pp3501 mediates the inhibitory effect of sodium butyrate on SH-SY5Y cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yajun; Ma, Chao; Zhang, Haitao; Wu, Jun

    2012-08-01

    Sodium butyrate, a new potential therapeutic drug, improves the efficacy of chemo- and immunotherapy of cancer under unknown mechanisms. A novel gene pp3501 is significantly induced in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells upon sodium butyrate treatment. Therefore, this study has cloned pp3501 cDNA by RT-PCR and generated its recombinant fusion protein and anti-serum subsequently. The pp3501 protein localized mainly in the nucleus, as detected by immunocytochemistry and the expression of pp3501-EGFP fusion protein. pp3501 inhibited the proliferation of SH-SY5Y cells, arrested the cell cycle at G1 phase, and sensitized the SH-SY5Y cells to sodium butyrate treatment. These results provide a new mechanism of sodium butyrate inhibiting cancer cell proliferation as well as a new avenue for the future research on the functions of pp3501.

  3. Observation and study of the baryonic B-meson decays B→D(*)pp¯(π)(π)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Amo Sanchez, P.; Lees, J. P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Tisserand, V.; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; Martinelli, M.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, D. N.; Hooberman, B.; Kerth, L. T.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Lynch, G.; Osipenkov, I. L.; Tanabe, T.; Hawkes, C. M.; Watson, A. T.; Koch, H.; Schroeder, T.; Asgeirsson, D. J.; Hearty, C.; Mattison, T. S.; McKenna, J. A.; Khan, A.; Randle-Conde, A.; Blinov, V. E.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Druzhinin, V. P.; Golubev, V. B.; Onuchin, A. P.; Serednyakov, S. I.; Skovpen, Yu. I.; Solodov, E. P.; Todyshev, K. Yu.; Yushkov, A. N.; Bondioli, M.; Curry, S.; Kirkby, D.; Lankford, A. J.; Mandelkern, M.; Martin, E. C.; Stoker, D. P.; Atmacan, H.; Gary, J. W.; Liu, F.; Long, O.; Vitug, G. M.; Campagnari, C.; Flanigan, J. M.; Hong, T. M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Richman, J. D.; West, C.; Eisner, A. M.; Heusch, C. A.; Kroseberg, J.; Lockman, W. S.; Martinez, A. J.; Schalk, T.; Schumm, B. A.; Seiden, A.; Winstrom, L. O.; Cheng, C. H.; Doll, D. A.; Echenard, B.; Hitlin, D. G.; Ongmongkolkul, P.; Porter, F. C.; Rakitin, A. Y.; Andreassen, R.; Dubrovin, M. S.; Mancinelli, G.; Meadows, B. T.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Bloom, P. C.; Ford, W. T.; Gaz, A.; Nagel, M.; Nauenberg, U.; Smith, J. G.; Wagner, S. R.; Ayad, R.; Toki, W. H.; Jasper, H.; Karbach, T. M.; Merkel, J.; Petzold, A.; Spaan, B.; Wacker, K.; Kobel, M. J.; Schubert, K. R.; Schwierz, R.; Bernard, D.; Verderi, M.; Clark, P. J.; Playfer, S.; Watson, J. E.; Andreotti, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bozzi, C.; Calabrese, R.; Cecchi, A.; Cibinetto, G.; Fioravanti, E.; Franchini, P.; Luppi, E.; Munerato, M.; Negrini, M.; Petrella, A.; Piemontese, L.; Baldini-Ferroli, R.; Calcaterra, A.; de Sangro, R.; Finocchiaro, G.; Nicolaci, M.; Pacetti, S.; Patteri, P.; Peruzzi, I. M.; Piccolo, M.; Rama, M.; Zallo, A.; Contri, R.; Guido, E.; Lo Vetere, M.; Monge, M. R.; Passaggio, S.; Patrignani, C.; Robutti, E.; Tosi, S.; Bhuyan, B.; Prasad, V.; Lee, C. L.; Morii, M.; Adametz, A.; Marks, J.; Uwer, U.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Ebert, M.; Lacker, H. M.; Lueck, T.; Volk, A.; Dauncey, P. D.; Tibbetts, M.; Behera, P. K.; Mallik, U.; Chen, C.; Cochran, J.; Crawley, H. B.; Dong, L.; Meyer, W. T.; Prell, S.; Rosenberg, E. I.; Rubin, A. E.; Gritsan, A. V.; Guo, Z. J.; Arnaud, N.; Davier, M.; Derkach, D.; Firmino da Costa, J.; Grosdidier, G.; Le Diberder, F.; Lutz, A. M.; Malaescu, B.; Perez, A.; Roudeau, P.; Schune, M. H.; Serrano, J.; Sordini, V.; Stocchi, A.; Wang, L.; Wormser, G.; Lange, D. J.; Wright, D. M.; Bingham, I.; Chavez, C. A.; Coleman, J. P.; Fry, J. R.; Gabathuler, E.; Gamet, R.; Hutchcroft, D. E.; Payne, D. J.; Touramanis, C.; Bevan, A. J.; Di Lodovico, F.; Sacco, R.; Sigamani, M.; Cowan, G.; Paramesvaran, S.; Wren, A. C.; Brown, D. N.; Davis, C. L.; Denig, A. G.; Fritsch, M.; Gradl, W.; Hafner, A.; Alwyn, K. E.; Bailey, D.; Barlow, R. J.; Jackson, G.; Lafferty, G. D.; Anderson, J.; Cenci, R.; Jawahery, A.; Roberts, D. A.; Simi, G.; Tuggle, J. M.; Dallapiccola, C.; Salvati, E.; Cowan, R.; Dujmic, D.; Sciolla, G.; Zhao, M.; Lindemann, D.; Patel, P. M.; Robertson, S. H.; Schram, M.; Biassoni, P.; Lazzaro, A.; Lombardo, V.; Palombo, F.; Stracka, S.; Cremaldi, L.; Godang, R.; Kroeger, R.; Sonnek, P.; Summers, D. J.; Nguyen, X.; Simard, M.; Taras, P.; De Nardo, G.; Monorchio, D.; Onorato, G.; Sciacca, C.; Raven, G.; Snoek, H. L.; Jessop, C. P.; Knoepfel, K. J.; LoSecco, J. M.; Wang, W. F.; Corwin, L. A.; Honscheid, K.; Kass, R.; Morris, J. P.; Blount, N. L.; Brau, J.; Frey, R.; Igonkina, O.; Kolb, J. A.; Rahmat, R.; Sinev, N. B.; Strom, D.; Strube, J.; Torrence, E.; Castelli, G.; Feltresi, E.; Gagliardi, N.; Margoni, M.; Morandin, M.; Posocco, M.; Rotondo, M.; Simonetto, F.; Stroili, R.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bonneaud, G. R.; Briand, H.; Calderini, G.; Chauveau, J.; Hamon, O.; Leruste, Ph.; Marchiori, G.; Ocariz, J.; Prendki, J.; Sitt, S.; Biasini, M.; Manoni, E.; Rossi, A.; Angelini, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Carpinelli, M.; Casarosa, G.; Cervelli, A.; Forti, F.; Giorgi, M. A.; Lusiani, A.; Neri, N.; Paoloni, E.; Rizzo, G.; Walsh, J. J.; Lopes Pegna, D.; Lu, C.; Olsen, J.; Smith, A. J. S.; Telnov, A. V.; Anulli, F.; Baracchini, E.; Cavoto, G.; Faccini, R.; Ferrarotto, F.; Ferroni, F.; Gaspero, M.; Li Gioi, L.; Mazzoni, M. A.; Piredda, G.; Renga, F.; Hartmann, T.; Leddig, T.; Schröder, H.; Waldi, R.; Adye, T.; Franek, B.; Olaiya, E. O.; Wilson, F. F.; Emery, S.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Vasseur, G.; Yèche, Ch.; Zito, M.; Allen, M. T.; Aston, D.; Bard, D. J.; Bartoldus, R.; Benitez, J. F.; Cartaro, C.; Convery, M. R.; Dorfan, J.; Dubois-Felsmann, G. P.; Dunwoodie, W.; Field, R. C.; Franco Sevilla, M.; Fulsom, B. G.; Gabareen, A. M.; Graham, M. T.; Grenier, P.; Hast, C.; Innes, W. R.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kim, H.; Kim, P.; Kocian, M. L.; Leith, D. W. G. S.; Li, S.; Lindquist, B.; Luitz, S.; Luth, V.; Lynch, H. L.; MacFarlane, D. B.; Marsiske, H.; Muller, D. R.; Neal, H.; Nelson, S.; O'Grady, C. P.; Ofte, I.; Perl, M.; Pulliam, T.; Ratcliff, B. N.; Roodman, A.; Salnikov, A. A.; Santoro, V.; Schindler, R. H.; Schwiening, J.; Snyder, A.; Su, D.; Sullivan, M. K.; Sun, S.; Suzuki, K.; Thompson, J. M.; Va'vra, J.; Wagner, A. P.; Weaver, M.; West, C. A.; Wisniewski, W. J.; Wittgen, M.; Wright, D. H.; Wulsin, H. W.; Yarritu, A. K.; Young, C. C.; Ziegler, V.; Chen, X. R.; Park, W.; Purohit, M. V.; White, R. M.; Wilson, J. R.; Sekula, S. J.; Bellis, M.; Burchat, P. R.; Edwards, A. J.; Miyashita, T. S.; Ahmed, S.; Alam, M. S.; Ernst, J. A.; Pan, B.; Saeed, M. A.; Zain, S. B.; Guttman, N.; Soffer, A.; Lund, P.; Spanier, S. M.; Eckmann, R.; Ritchie, J. L.; Ruland, A. M.; Schilling, C. J.; Schwitters, R. F.; Wray, B. C.; Izen, J. M.; Lou, X. C.; Bianchi, F.; Gamba, D.; Pelliccioni, M.; Bomben, M.; Lanceri, L.; Vitale, L.; Lopez-March, N.; Martinez-Vidal, F.; Milanes, D. A.; Oyanguren, A.; Albert, J.; Banerjee, Sw.; Choi, H. H. F.; Hamano, K.; King, G. J.; Kowalewski, R.; Lewczuk, M. J.; Nugent, I. M.; Roney, J. M.; Sobie, R. J.; Gershon, T. J.; Harrison, P. F.; Latham, T. E.; Puccio, E. M. T.; Band, H. R.; Dasu, S.; Flood, K. T.; Pan, Y.; Prepost, R.; Vuosalo, C. O.; Wu, S. L.

    2012-05-01

    We present results for B-meson decay modes involving a charm meson, protons, and pions using 455×106 BB¯ pairs recorded by the BaBar detector at the SLAC PEP-II asymmetric-energy e+e- collider. The branching fractions are measured for the following ten decays: B¯0→D0pp¯, B¯0→D*0pp¯, B¯0→D+pp¯π-, B¯0→D*+pp¯π-, B-→D0pp¯π-, B-→D*0pp¯π-, B¯0→D0pp¯π-π+, B¯0→D*0pp¯π-π+, B-→D+pp¯π-π-, and B-→D*+pp¯π-π-. The four B- and the two five-body B¯0 modes are observed for the first time. The four-body modes are enhanced compared to the three- and the five-body modes. In the three-body modes, the M(pp¯) and M(D(*)0p) invariant-mass distributions show enhancements near threshold values. In the four-body mode B¯0→D+pp¯π-, the M(pπ-) distribution shows a narrow structure of unknown origin near 1.5GeV/c2. The distributions for the five-body modes, in contrast to the others, are similar to the expectations from uniform phase-space predictions.

  4. Dijet production, collision centrality, and backgrounds in high-energy p-p collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trainor, Thomas A.

    2013-03-01

    Two aspects of high-energy p-p collisions share common phenomenological elements: (a) A correlation between jet production and p-p centrality is suggested by the transverse partonic structure of hadrons inferred from deep-inelastic scattering data. (b) The underlying event (UE) is defined as the final-state particles complementary to a triggered high-energy dijet. An observable common to both topics is a variation of the so-called transverse multiplicity N⊥ with a pt,trig dijet trigger. In this paper we test assumptions associated with p-p collision centrality and the UE, and determine the nature of the UE and explore the relation between jet production and p-p centrality. We use the two-component model (TCM) of spectra and correlations derived from 200 GeV p-p collisions to construct a simulated particle distribution on (pt,nch). The simulation is used to predict the N⊥ response to pt,trig. Additionally, we use the measured pt spectrum nch dependence to explore the effect of changing p-p centrality. The results show that TCM provides a good description of N⊥ vs pt,trig and the N⊥(pt) spectrum, and the relation of N⊥ to pt and pt,trig departs from assumptions. The pt spectrum TCM combined in this analysis with measured minimum-bias p-p angular correlations suggests that the UE includes a substantial contribution from the triggered dijet in addition to the contribution from projectile fragmentation (beam-beam remnants). The jet contribution to N⊥ may represent a universal large-angle base common to all dijets that extends across 2π azimuth. The analysis further suggests that p-p centrality is not controlled significantly by pt,trig but may be correlated to some extent with an imposed nch condition, depending on the role of fluctuations. Future correlation studies may better determine the role of p-p centrality. These results may have implications for ongoing RHIC analysis and LHC searches for physics beyond the standard model.

  5. Mechanism of PP2A-mediated IKKβ dephosphorylation: a systems biological approach

    PubMed Central

    Witt, Johannes; Barisic, Sandra; Schumann, Eva; Allgöwer, Frank; Sawodny, Oliver; Sauter, Thomas; Kulms, Dagmar

    2009-01-01

    Background Biological effects of nuclear factor-κB (NFκB) can differ tremendously depending on the cellular context. For example, NFκB induced by interleukin-1 (IL-1) is converted from an inhibitor of death receptor induced apoptosis into a promoter of ultraviolet-B radiation (UVB)-induced apoptosis. This conversion requires prolonged NFκB activation and is facilitated by IL-1 + UVB-induced abrogation of the negative feedback loop for NFκB, involving a lack of inhibitor of κB (IκBα) protein reappearance. Permanent activation of the upstream kinase IKKβ results from UVB-induced inhibition of the catalytic subunit of Ser-Thr phosphatase PP2A (PP2Ac), leading to immediate phosphorylation and degradation of newly synthesized IκBα. Results To investigate the mechanism underlying the general PP2A-mediated tuning of IKKβ phosphorylation upon IL-1 stimulation, we have developed a strictly reduced mathematical model based on ordinary differential equations which includes the essential processes concerning the IL-1 receptor, IKKβ and PP2A. Combining experimental and modelling approaches we demonstrate that constitutively active, but not post-stimulation activated PP2A, tunes out IKKβ phosphorylation thus allowing for IκBα resynthesis in response to IL-1. Identifiability analysis and determination of confidence intervals reveal that the model allows reliable predictions regarding the dynamics of PP2A deactivation and IKKβ phosphorylation. Additionally, scenario analysis is used to scrutinize several hypotheses regarding the mode of UVB-induced PP2Ac inhibition. The model suggests that down regulation of PP2Ac activity, which results in prevention of IκBα reappearance, is not a direct UVB action but requires instrumentality. Conclusion The model developed here can be used as a reliable building block of larger NFκB models and offers comprehensive simplification potential for future modeling of NFκB signaling. It gives more insight into the newly discovered

  6. Catabolite repression of Aox in Pichia pastoris is dependent on hexose transporter PpHxt1 and pexophagy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ping; Zhang, Wenwen; Zhou, Xiangshan; Bai, Peng; Cregg, James M; Zhang, Yuanxing

    2010-09-01

    In this work, the identification and characterization of two hexose transporter homologs in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris, P. pastoris Hxt1 (PpHxt1) and PpHxt2, are described. When expressed in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae hxt-null mutant strain that is unable to take up monosaccharides, either protein restored growth on glucose or fructose. Both PpHXT genes are transcriptionally regulated by glucose. Transcript levels of PpHXT1 are induced by high levels of glucose, whereas transcript levels of PpHXT2 are relatively lower and are fully induced by low levels of glucose. In addition, PpHxt2 plays an important role in glycolysis-dependent fermentative growth, since PpHxt2 is essential for growth on glucose or fructose when respiration is inhibited. Notably, we firstly found that the deletion of PpHXT1, but not PpHXT2, leads to the induced expression of the alcohol oxidase I gene (AOX1) in response to glucose or fructose. We also elucidated that a sharp dropping of the sugar-induced expression level of Aox at a later growth phase is caused mainly by pexophagy, a degradation pathway in methylotrophic yeast. The sugar-inducible AOX1 promoter in an Deltahxt1 strain may be promising as a host for the expression of heterologous proteins. The functional analysis of these two hexose transporters is the first step in elucidating the mechanisms of sugar metabolism and catabolite repression in P. pastoris.

  7. Preparation of EPR/silica filler by a co-irradiation method forming PP/EPR/silica nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Jun; Dang, Shuaiying; Huang, Zhijuan; Xu, Yongshen

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to prepare ethylene-propylene rubber (EPR)/silica filler by co-irradiation method forming polypropylene (PP)/EPR/silica nanocomposites. The grafting of maleic anhydride (MAH) on EPR was first studied by co-irradiation in the micro-suspension without any chemical initiator, and the effects of MAH concentration and the total co-irradiation dose on the graft degree of MAH were investigated. Then PP/EPR/silica nanocomposites were successfully prepared by blending of PP matrix and EPR/silica filler, which was obtained by co-irradiation using a mixture of EPR/MAH microsuspension in xylene and tetraethoxysilane/KH560 sol in formic acid. FTIR and SEM results showed that the reactions between MAH on EPR chains and KH560 surrounding silica particles were adopted to form the EPR/silica filler with strong bonding and well silica dispersion. Mechanical properties of PP/EPR/silica nanocomposites with different silica contents and the comparisons with PP, PP/EPR and PP/silica films were studied. The rigid silica particles were trapped in EPR shell and well dispersed in PP/EPR/silica nanocomposites with good compatibility and strong interfacial adhesion, achieving overall improvements in stiffness, strength and toughness compared with pure PP.

  8. Fabrication of PP-g-PEGMA-g-heparin and its hemocompatibility: From protein adsorption to anticoagulant tendency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Jing; Jiang, Wei; shi, Qiang; Zhao, Jie; Yin, Jinghua; Stagnaro, Paola

    2012-05-01

    We described a two-step process to fabricate the heparinized polypropylene (PP) film using cyanuric chloride (CC) as a trifunctional reagent and poly (ethylene glycol) methacrylate (PEGMA) as a spacer. The modified PP films were characterized by attenuated total reflectance FT-IR and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy; the content of PEGMA and heparin were determined by gravimetric method and a toluidine blue assay, respectively. For the PP-g-PEGMA films, it was found that small size protein BSA tended to adsorb on the surface of low molecular weight monomer grafted PP, whereas big spindle-shaped fibrinogen tended to adsorb on the surface of high molecular weight monomer grafted PP. We gave a definition of anti-protein adsorptive factor r with two model proteins, albumin and fibrinogen. The results by platelet adhesion and plasma recalcification time (PRT) experiments indicated that the factor r could be used to quantitatively evaluate the anticoagulant tendency of PP-g-PEGMA modified films. For the PP-g-PEGMA-g-heparin modified films, the surface was proved to have a high bioactivity by the adsorption of AT III assay and very low platelet adhesion. It indicated that immobilization of heparin on the PP film with PEGMA as a spacer was an effective way to improve the hemocompatibility of PP.

  9. PP2A phosphatase acts upon SAS-5 to ensure centriole formation in C. elegans embryos.

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, Daiju; Flückiger, Isabelle; Polanowska, Jolanta; Keller, Debora; Reboul, Jérôme; Gönczy, Pierre

    2011-04-19

    Centrosome duplication occurs once per cell cycle and ensures that the two resulting centrosomes assemble a bipolar mitotic spindle. Centriole formation is fundamental for centrosome duplication. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the evolutionarily conserved proteins SPD-2, ZYG-1, SAS-6, SAS-5, and SAS-4 are essential for centriole formation, but how they function is not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that Protein Phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is also critical for centriole formation in C. elegans embryos. We find that PP2A subunits genetically and physically interact with the SAS-5/SAS-6 complex. Furthermore, we show that PP2A-mediated dephosphorylation promotes centriolar targeting of SAS-5 and ensures SAS-6 delivery to the site of centriole assembly. We find that PP2A is similarly needed for the presence of HsSAS-6 at centrioles and for centriole formation in human cells. These findings lead us to propose that PP2A-mediated loading of SAS-6 proteins is critical at the onset of centriole formation.

  10. EPR study of the formation of radicals in PP with antioxidants irradiated with gamma rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, P.; Albano, C.; Perera, R.

    2007-12-01

    The behavior of different compounds of polypropylene (PP) with stabilizers such as buthyl-hydroxy-toluene (BHT), Chimassorb 944 (Hals) (CHIM), and a copolymer of styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) was studied using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). A characteristic spectra for pure PP irradiated in air was obtained for all the samples just after being irradiated [M. Dole, The Radiation Chemistry of Macromolecules, Vol. 2, Academic Press, 1973]. A change in the lineshape of the spectra from a pure PP's EPR signal to that of nitroxyl radical as a function of time was observed. The total free radical concentration (TFRC) decayed until approximately 800 h in the PP-HALS and until around 2000 h in all other cases, when the TFRC began to increase in all the cases, except in that of PP-BHT. In this last case, the EPR signal was not detectable after 4000 h. The BHT and the SBS diluted the free radical concentrations, being them smaller when they are present. The behavior observed in all the samples is consistent with the formation of nitroxyl radicals by gamma rays.

  11. Dependence of RelA-mediated (p)ppGpp formation on tRNA identity.

    PubMed

    Payoe, Roshani; Fahlman, Richard P

    2011-04-19

    The bacterial stringent response is a cellular response to amino acid limitations and is characterized by the accumulation of the alarmone polyphosphate guanosine ((p)ppGpp). A key molecular event leading to (p)ppGpp synthesis is the binding of a deacylated tRNA to the vacant A-Site of a ribosome. The resulting ribosomal complex is recognized by and activates RelA, the (p)ppGpp synthetase. Activated RelA catalyzes (p)ppGpp formation until the deacylated tRNA passively dissociates from the ribosomal A-Site. In this report, we have investigated a novel role for the identity of A-Site bound tRNA in RelA-mediated (p)ppGpp synthesis. A comparison in the stimulation of RelA activity was made using ribosome complexes with either a tightly or weakly binding deacylated tRNA occupying the A-Site. In vitro analysis reveals that ribosome complexes formed with tight binding tRNA(Val) stimulate RelA activity at lower concentrations than that required for ribosome complexes formed with the weaker binding tRNA(Phe). The data suggest that the recovery from the stringent response may be dependent on the identity of the amino acid that was initially limiting for the bacteria.

  12. Single-pion production in pp collisions at 0.95 GeV/c (I)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd El-Samad, S.; Bilger, R.; Brinkmann, K.-Th.; Clement, H.; Dietrich, M.; Doroshkevich, E.; Dshemuchadse, S.; Erhardt, A.; Eyrich, W.; Filippi, A.; Freiesleben, H.; Fritsch, M.; Geyer, R.; Gillitzer, A.; Hauffe, J.; Hesselbarth, D.; Jaekel, R.; Jakob, B.; Karsch, L.; Kilian, K.; Koch, H.; Kress, J.; Kuhlmann, E.; Marcello, S.; Marwinski, S.; Meier, R.; Möller, K.; Morsch, H. P.; Naumann, L.; Roderburg, E.; Schönmeier, P.; Schulte-Wissermann, M.; Schroeder, W.; Steinke, M.; Stinzing, F.; Sun, G. Y.; Wächter, J.; Wagner, G. J.; Wagner, M.; Weidlich, U.; Wilms, A.; Wirth, S.; Zhang, G.; Zupranski, P.

    2006-11-01

    The single-pion production reactions pp → dπ+, pp → npπ+ and ppppπ0 were measured at a beam momentum of 0.95GeV/c ( T p ≈ 400MeV) using the short version of the COSY-TOF spectrometer. The implementation of a central calorimeter provided particle identification, energy determination and neutron detection in addition to time-of-flight and angle measurements. Thus, all pion production channels were recorded with 1-4 overconstraints. The total and differential cross-sections obtained are compared to previous data and theoretical calculations. Main emphasis is put on the discussion of the ppπ0 channel, where we obtain angular distributions different from previous experimental results, however, partly in good agreement with recent phenomenological and theoretical predictions. In particular, we observe very large anisotropies for the π0 angular distributions in the kinematical region of small relative proton momenta revealing there a dominance of proton spinflip transitions associated with π0 s and d partial waves and emphasizing the important role of π0 d-waves.

  13. Single-pion production in pp collisions at 0.95 GeV/c (II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd El-Samad, S.; Bilger, R.; Brinkmann, K.-Th.; Clement, H.; Dietrich, M.; Doroshkevich, E.; Dshemuchadse, S.; Ehrhardt, K.; Erhardt, A.; Eyrich, W.; Filippi, A.; Freiesleben, H.; Fritsch, M.; Geyer, R.; Gillitzer, A.; Hauffe, J.; Hesselbarth, D.; Jaekel, R.; Jakob, B.; Karsch, L.; Kilian, K.; Kress, J.; Kuhlmann, E.; Marcello, S.; Marwinski, S.; Meier, R.; Möller, K.; Morsch, H. P.; Naumann, L.; Ritman, J.; Roderburg, E.; Schönmeier, P.; Schulte-Wissermann, M.; Schroeder, W.; Stinzing, F.; Sun, G. Y.; Wächter, J.; Wagner, G. J.; Wagner, M.; Weidlich, U.; Wilms, A.; Wirth, S.; Zhang, G.; Zupranski, P.

    2009-03-01

    The single-pion production reactions pp rightarrow d π+_{} , pp rightarrow np π+_{} and pp rightarrow pp π0_{} were measured at a beam momentum of 0.95GeV/c ( T p ≈ 400 MeV) using the short version of the COSY-TOF spectrometer. The central calorimeter provided particle identification, energy determination and neutron detection in addition to time-of-flight and angle measurements from other detector parts. Thus all pion production channels were recorded with 1-4 overconstraints. The main emphasis is put on the presentation and discussion of the np π+_{} channel, since the results on the other channels have already been published previously. The total and differential cross-sections obtained are compared to theoretical calculations. In contrast to the pp π0_{} channel we observe in the np π+_{} channel a strong influence of the Δ excitation. In particular, the pion angular distribution exhibits a (3 cos2 Θ + 1) -dependence, typical for a pure s -channel Δ excitation and identical to that observed in the d π+_{} channel. Since the latter is understood by a s -channel resonance in the 1 D 2 pn partial wave, we discuss an analogous scenario for the pn π+_{} channel.

  14. Holographic optical tweezers: microassembling of shape-complementary 2PP building blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ksouri, Sarah Isabelle; Mattern, Manuel; Köhler, Jannis; Aumann, Andreas; Zyla, Gordon; Ostendorf, Andreas

    2014-09-01

    Based on an ongoing trend in miniaturization and due to the increased complexity in MEMS-technology new methods of assembly need to be developed. Recent developments show that particularly optical forces are suitable to meet the requirements. The unique advantages of optical tweezers (OT) are attractive due to their contactless and precise manipulation forces. Spherical as well as non-spherical shaped pre-forms can already be assembled arbitrarily by using appropriate beam profiles generated by a spatial light modulator (SLM), resulting in a so called holographic optical tweezer (HOT) setup. For the fabrication of shape-complementary pre-forms, a two-photon-polymerization (2PP) process is implemented. The purpose of the process combination of 2PP and HOT is the development of an optical microprocessing platform for assembling arbitrary building blocks. Here, the optimization of the 2PP and HOT processes is described in order to allow the fabrication and 3D assembling of interlocking components. Results include the analysis of the dependence of low and high qualities of 2PP microstructures and their manufacturing accuracy for further HOT assembling processes. Besides, the applied detachable interlocking connections of the 2PP building blocks are visualized by an application example. In the long-term a full optical assembly method without applying any mechanical forces can thus be realized.

  15. DksA and ppGpp Directly Regulate Transcription of the Escherichia coli Flagellar Cascade

    PubMed Central

    Lemke, Justin J.; Durfee, Tim; Gourse, Richard L.

    2009-01-01

    The components of the Escherichia coli flagella apparatus are synthesized in a three-level transcriptional cascade activated by the master regulator FlhDC. The cascade coordinates the synthesis rates of a large number of gene products with each other and with nutritional conditions. Recent genome-wide studies have reported that flagellar transcription is altered in cells lacking the transcription regulators DksA or ppGpp, but some or all reported effects could be indirect, and some are contradictory. We report here that the activities of promoters at all three levels of the cascade are much higher in strains lacking dksA, resulting in overproduction of flagellin and hyperflagellated cells. In vitro, DksA/ppGpp inhibits the flhDC promoter and the σ70-dependent fliA promoter transcribing the gene for σ28. However, DksA and ppGpp do not affect the σ28-dependent fliA promoter or the σ28-dependent fliC promoter in vitro, suggesting that the dramatic effects on expression of those genes in vivo are mediated indirectly through direct effects of DksA/ppGpp on FlhDC and σ28 expression. We conclude that DksA/ppGpp inhibits expression of the flagellar cascade during stationary phase and following starvation, thereby coordinating flagella and ribosome assembly and preventing expenditure of scarce energy resources on synthesis of two of the cell’s largest macromolecular complexes. PMID:19889089

  16. Enzymatic and molecular characterization of Arabidopsis ppGpp pyrophosphohydrolase, AtNUDX26.

    PubMed

    Ito, Daisuke; Kato, Takahiro; Maruta, Takanori; Tamoi, Masahiro; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Shigeoka, Shigeru

    2012-01-01

    Not only in bacteria but also in plant cells, guanosine-3',5'-tetraphosphate (ppGpp) is an important signaling molecule, that affects various cellular processes. In this study, we identified nucleoside diphosphates linked to some moiety X (Nudix) hydrolases, AtNUDX11, 15, 25, and 26, having ppGpp pyrophosphohydrolase activity from Arabidopsis plants. Among these, AtNUDX26 localized in chloroplasts had the highest Vmax and kcat values, leading to high catalytic efficiency, kcat/Km. The activity of AtNUDX26 required Mg2+ or Mn2+ ions as cofactor and was optimal at pH 9.0 and 50 °C. The expression of AtNUDX26 and of ppGpp metabolism-associated genes was regulated by various types of stress, suggesting that AtNUDX26 regulates cellular ppGpp levels in response to stress and impacts gene expression in chloroplasts. This is the first report on the molecular properties of ppGpp pyrophosphohydrolases in plants.

  17. The therapeutic effects of SET/I2PP2A inhibitors on canine melanoma.

    PubMed

    Enjoji, Shuhei; Yabe, Ryotaro; Fujiwara, Nobuyuki; Tsuji, Shunya; Vitek, Michael P; Mizuno, Takuya; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Usui, Tatsuya; Ohama, Takashi; Sato, Koichi

    2015-11-01

    Canine melanoma is one of the most important diseases in small animal medicine. Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), a well conserved serine/threonine phosphatase, plays a critical role as a tumor suppressor. SET/I2PP2A is an endogenous inhibitor for PP2A, which directly binds to PP2A and suppresses its phosphatase activity. Elevated SET protein levels have been reported to exacerbate human tumor progression. The role of SET in canine melanoma, however, has not been understood. Here, we investigated the potential therapeutic role for SET inhibitors in canine melanoma. The expression of SET protein was observed in 6 canine melanoma cell lines. We used CMeC-1 cells (primary origin) and CMeC-2 cells (metastatic origin) to generate cell lines stably expressing SET-targeting shRNAs. Knockdown of SET expression in CMeC-2, but not in CMeC-1, leads to decreased cell proliferation, invasion and colony formation. Phosphorylation level of p70 S6 kinase was decreased by SET knockdown in CMeC-2, suggesting the involvement of mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin)/p70 S6 kinase signaling. The SET inhibitors, OP449 and FTY720, more effectively killed CMeC-2 than CMeC-1. We observed PP2A activation in CMeC-2 treated with OP449 and FTY720. These results demonstrated the potential therapeutic application of SET inhibitors for canine melanoma. PMID:26062569

  18. PP1 initiates the dephosphorylation of MASTL, triggering mitotic exit and bistability in human cells

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Samuel; Fey, Dirk; McCloy, Rachael A.; Parker, Benjamin L.; Mitchell, Nicholas J.; Payne, Richard J.; Daly, Roger J.; James, David E.; Caldon, C. Elizabeth; Watkins, D. Neil; Croucher, David R.; Burgess, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Entry into mitosis is driven by the phosphorylation of thousands of substrates, under the master control of Cdk1. During entry into mitosis, Cdk1, in collaboration with MASTL kinase, represses the activity of the major mitotic protein phosphatases, PP1 and PP2A, thereby ensuring mitotic substrates remain phosphorylated. For cells to complete and exit mitosis, these phosphorylation events must be removed, and hence, phosphatase activity must be reactivated. This reactivation of phosphatase activity presumably requires the inhibition of MASTL; however, it is not currently understood what deactivates MASTL and how this is achieved. In this study, we identified that PP1 is associated with, and capable of partially dephosphorylating and deactivating, MASTL during mitotic exit. Using mathematical modelling, we were able to confirm that deactivation of MASTL is essential for mitotic exit. Furthermore, small decreases in Cdk1 activity during metaphase are sufficient to initiate the reactivation of PP1, which in turn partially deactivates MASTL to release inhibition of PP2A and, hence, create a feedback loop. This feedback loop drives complete deactivation of MASTL, ensuring a strong switch-like activation of phosphatase activity during mitotic exit. PMID:26872783

  19. The Marine Algal Virus PpV01 Has an Icosahedral Capsid with T=219 Quasisymmetry

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xiaodong; Chipman, Paul R.; Castberg, Tonje; Bratbak, Gunnar; Baker, Timothy S.

    2005-01-01

    Phaeocystis pouchetii virus (PpV01) infects and lyses the haptophyte Phaeocystis pouchetii (Hariot) Lagerheim and was first isolated from Norwegian coastal waters. We have used electron cryomicroscopy and three-dimensional image reconstruction methods to examine the native morphology of PpV01 at a resolution of 3 nm. The icosahedral capsid of PpV01 has a maximum diameter of 220 nm and is composed of 2,192 capsomers arranged with T=219 quasisymmetry. One specific capsomer in each asymmetric unit contains a fiber-like protrusion. Density attributed to the presence of a lipid membrane appears just below (inside) the capsid. PpV01 is the largest icosahedral virus whose capsid structure has been determined in three dimensions from images of vitrified samples. Striking similarities in the structures of PpV01 and a number of other large double-stranded DNA viruses are consistent with a growing body of evidence that they share a common evolutionary origin. PMID:15994818

  20. Quantitative comparison of measurement methods for the evaluation of micro- and nanostructures written with 2PP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harnisch, Emely Marie; König, Niels; Schmitt, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Two-Photon Polymerization (2PP) has become an established process for fabricating individual micro-and nanostructures nearly in the last two decades. Its high degree of freedom opened up novel possibilities for a large range of applications like functional structures for cell growth, photonic crystals, nanoantennas, diffractive optical elements and lab-on-a-chip structures (just to name a few). Since the measurement of structures written with 2PP is always very time consuming, we present a comparison between white light interferometry (WLI) and confocal microscopy (CM) which were used for measuring structures written with 2PP. By performing a GageRR analysis with both metrology devices, we calculated the process tolerance one has to accept when measuring these structures with WLI or CM.

  1. Completeness of general pp-wave spacetimes and their impulsive limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sämann, Clemens; Steinbauer, Roland; Švarc, Robert

    2016-11-01

    We investigate geodesic completeness in the full family of pp-wave (or Brinkmann) spacetimes in their extended and impulsive forms. This class of geometries contains the recently studied gyratonic pp-waves, modelling the exterior field of a spinning beam of null particles, as well as N-fronted waves with parallel rays, which generalize classical pp-waves by allowing for a general wave surface. The problem of geodesic completeness reduces to the question of completeness of trajectories on a Riemannian manifold under an external force field. Building upon respective recent results, we derive completeness criteria in terms of the spatial asymptotics of the profile function in the extended case. In the impulsive case, we use a fixed-point argument to show that, irrespective of the behaviour of the profile function, all geometries in the class are complete.

  2. Effects of layer-multiplying and interface on the content of β-transcrystallization in PP

    SciTech Connect

    Lei, Fan; Li, Jiang E-mail: nic7702@scu.edu.cn; Guo, Shaoyun E-mail: nic7702@scu.edu.cn

    2015-05-22

    The alternating multilayered polypropylene (PP layer)/β-nucleating agent filled-polypropylene (β-PP layer) were prepared through layer-multiplying extrusion combined with an assembly of layer-multiplying elements (LM Es). The content of β-crystal was firstly evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), which indicated that the relative amount of the β-crystal increased from 38.67% to 81.22% with the increase of layer numbers from 2-layer to 128-layer. It was well consistent with the results of X-ray diffraction (XRD). The morphology observation of β-crystal by polarizing microscope (POM) revealed that the closely packed nuclei in the interface could induce numerous β-transcrystallization in pure PP layer due to the confinement effect. The non-isothermal crystallization kinetic analysis via Mozhishen’s methods manifested that the crystallization rate was greatly enhanced by the augment of the layered interface.

  3. GridPP - Preparing for LHC Run 2 and the Wider Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coles, Jeremy

    2015-12-01

    This paper elaborates upon the operational status and directions within the UK Computing for Particle Physics (GridPP) project as it approaches LHC Run 2. It details the pressures that have been gradually reshaping the deployed hardware and middleware environments at GridPP sites - from the increasing adoption of larger multicore nodes to the move towards alternative batch systems and cloud alternatives - as well as changes being driven by funding considerations. The paper highlights work being done with non-LHC communities and describes some of the early outcomes of adopting a generic DIRAC based job submission and management framework. The paper presents results from an analysis of how GridPP effort is distributed across various deployment and operations tasks and how this may be used to target further improvements in efficiency.

  4. Tensor Correlations Measured in 3He(e,e'pp)n

    SciTech Connect

    Baghdasaryan, H; Weinstein, L B; Adhikari, K P; Aghasyan, K P; Amarian, M; Anghinolfi, M; Avakian, H; Ball, J; Battaglieri, M; Bedlinskiy, I; Berman, B L; Biselli, A S; Bookwalter, C; Briscoe, W J; Brooks, W K; Boltmann, S; Burkert, V D; Carman, D S; Crede, V; D'Angelo, A; Daniel, A; Dashyan, N; DeVita, R; DeSanctis, E; Deur, A; Dey, B; Dickson, R; Djalali, C; Dodge, G E; Doughty, D; Dupre, R; Egiyan, H; El Alaoui, A; El Fassi, L; Eugenio, P; Fegan, S; Gabrielyan, M Y; Gilfoyle, G P; Giovanetti, K L; Gohn, W; Gothe, R W; Griffioen, K A; Guidal, M; Guo, L; Gyurjyan, V; Hakobyan, H; Hanretty, C; Hyde, C E; Hicks, K; Holtrop, M; Ilieva, Y; Ireland, D G; Joo, K; Keller, D; Khandaker, M; Khetarpal, P; Kim, A; Kim, W; Klein, A; Klein, F J; Konczykowski, P; Kubarovsky, V; Kuhn, S E; Kuleshov, S V; Kuznetsov, V; Kvaltine, N D; Livingston, K; Lu, H Y; MacGregor, I.J.D.; Markov, N; Mayer, M; McAndrew, J; McKinnon, B; Meyer, C A; Mikhailov, K; Mokeev, V; Moreno, B; Moriya, K; Morrison, B; Moutarde, H; Munevar, E; Nadel-Turonski, P; Nepali, C; Niccolai, S; Niculescu, G; Niculescu, I; Osipenko, M; Ostrovidov, A I; Paremuzyan, R; Park, K; Park, S; Pasyuk, E; Anefalos Pereira, S; Pisano, S; Pogorelko, O; Pozdniakov, S; Price, J W; Procureur, S; Protopopescu, D; Ricco, G; Ripani, M; Rosner, G; Rossi, P; Sabatie, F; Salgado, C; Schumacher, R A; Seraydaryan, H; Smith, G D; Sober, D I; Sokhan, D; Stepanyan, S S; Stepanyan, S; Stoler, P; Strauch, S; Taiuti, M; Tang, W; Taylor, C E; Tedeschi, D J; Ungaro, M; Vineyard, M F; Voutier, E; Watts, D P; Weygand, D P; Wood, M H; Zhao, B; Zhao, Z W

    2010-11-01

    We have measured the 3He(e,e'pp)n reaction at an incident energy of 4.7 GeV over a wide kinematic range. We identified spectator correlated pp and pn nucleon pairs by using kinematic cuts and measured their relative and total momentum distributions. This is the first measurement of the ratio of pp to pn pairs as a function of pair total momentum ptot. For pair relative momenta between 0.3 and 0.5 GeV/c, the ratio is very small at low ptot and rises to approximately 0.5 at large ptot. This shows the dominance of tensor over central correlations at this relative momentum.

  5. Longitudinal scaling of net-protons in AuAu and pp collisions at RHIC energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Videbaek, Flemming

    2008-10-01

    BRAHMS has studied net-protons distributions in Au+Au and p+p collisions at √sNN=62.4 and 200 GeV. Net-proton distributions reflect the net-baryon yields and can be used to extract the nuclear stopping in the collisions, thus providing information on baryon number transport and energy available for particle production. The talk will present final and preliminary results from the above mentioned systems. It will be shown that in p+p and in Au+Au central collisions that net-proton distributions exhibit longitudinal scaling once the target contribution to the projectile rapidity range is corrected for. The difference between p+p and Au+Au will be discussed. Aspects of future measurements at the LHC of net-baryons at mid-rapidity will be brought forth.

  6. PP2A as a master regulator of the cell cycle

    PubMed Central

    Wlodarchak, Nathan; Xing, Yongna

    2016-01-01

    Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) plays a critical multi-faceted role in the regulation of the cell cycle. It is known to dephosphorylate over 300 substrates involved in the cell cycle, regulating almost all major pathways and cell cycle checkpoints. PP2A is involved in such diverse processes by the formation of structurally distinct families of holoenzymes, which are regulated spatially and temporally by specific regulators. Here, we review the involvement of PP2A in the regulation of three cell signaling pathways: wnt, mTOR and MAP kinase, as well as the G1→S transition, DNA synthesis and mitotic initiation. These processes are all crucial for proper cell survival and proliferation and are often deregulated in cancer and other diseases. PMID:26906453

  7. Two small (p)ppGpp synthases in Staphylococcus aureus mediate tolerance against cell envelope stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Geiger, Tobias; Kästle, Benjamin; Gratani, Fabio Lino; Goerke, Christiane; Wolz, Christiane

    2014-02-01

    The stringent response is a conserved global regulatory mechanism that is related to the synthesis of (p)ppGpp nucleotides. Gram-positive bacteria, such as Staphylococcus aureus, possess three (p)ppGpp synthases: the bifunctional RSH (RelA/SpoT homolog) protein, which consists of a (p)ppGpp synthase and a (p)ppGpp hydrolase domain, and two truncated (p)ppGpp synthases, designated RelP and RelQ. Here, we characterized these two small (p)ppGpp synthases. Biochemical analyses of purified proteins and in vivo studies revealed a stronger synthetic activity for RelP than for RelQ. However, both enzymes prefer GDP over GTP as the pyrophosphate recipient to synthesize ppGpp. Each of the enzymes was shown to be responsible for the essentiality of the (p)ppGpp hydrolase domain of the RSH protein. The staphylococcal RSH-hydrolase is an efficient enzyme that prevents the toxic accumulation of (p)ppGpp. Expression of (p)ppGpp synthases in a hydrolase-negative background leads not only to growth arrest but also to cell death. Transcriptional analyses showed that relP and relQ are strongly induced upon vancomycin and ampicillin treatments. Accordingly, mutants lacking relP and relQ showed a significantly reduced survival rate upon treatments with cell wall-active antibiotics. Thus, RelP and RelQ are active (p)ppGpp synthases in S. aureus that are induced under cell envelope stress to mediate tolerance against these conditions.

  8. DksA and (p)ppGpp have unique and overlapping contributions to Haemophilus ducreyi pathogenesis in humans.

    PubMed

    Holley, Concerta L; Zhang, Xinjun; Fortney, Kate R; Ellinger, Sheila; Johnson, Paula; Baker, Beth; Liu, Yunlong; Janowicz, Diane M; Katz, Barry P; Munson, Robert S; Spinola, Stanley M

    2015-08-01

    The (p)ppGpp-mediated stringent response is important for bacterial survival in nutrient limiting conditions. For maximal effect, (p)ppGpp interacts with the cofactor DksA, which stabilizes (p)ppGpp's interaction with RNA polymerase. We previously demonstrated that (p)ppGpp was required for the virulence of Haemophilus ducreyi in humans. Here, we constructed an H. ducreyi dksA mutant and showed it was also partially attenuated for pustule formation in human volunteers. To understand the roles of (p)ppGpp and DksA in gene regulation in H. ducreyi, we defined genes potentially altered by (p)ppGpp and DksA deficiency using transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq). In bacteria collected at stationary phase, lack of (p)ppGpp and DksA altered expression of 28% and 17% of H. ducreyi open reading frames, respectively, including genes involved in transcription, translation, and metabolism. There was significant overlap in genes differentially expressed in the (p)ppGpp mutant relative to the dksA mutant. Loss of (p)ppGpp or DksA resulted in the dysregulation of several known virulence determinants. Deletion of dksA downregulated lspB and rendered the organism less resistant to phagocytosis and increased its sensitivity to oxidative stress. Both mutants had reduced ability to attach to human foreskin fibroblasts; the defect correlated with reduced expression of the Flp adhesin proteins in the (p)ppGpp mutant but not in the dksA mutant, suggesting that DksA regulates the expression of an unknown cofactor(s) required for Flp-mediated adherence. We conclude that both (p)ppGpp and DksA serve as major regulators of H. ducreyi gene expression in stationary phase and have both overlapping and unique contributions to pathogenesis.

  9. Role of (p)ppGpp in biofilm formation and expression of filamentous structures in Bordetella pertussis.

    PubMed

    Sugisaki, Kentaro; Hanawa, Tomoko; Yonezawa, Hideo; Osaki, Takako; Fukutomi, Toshiyuki; Kawakami, Hayato; Yamamoto, Tomoko; Kamiya, Shigeru

    2013-07-01

    Bordetella pertussis, the causative agent of whooping cough, is highly adapted to cause human infection. The production of virulence factors, such as adhesins and toxins, is just part of an array of mechanisms by which B. pertussis causes infection. The stringent response is a global bacterial response to nutritional limitation that is mediated by the accumulation of cellular ppGpp and pppGpp [termed together as (p)ppGpp]. Here, we demonstrate that production of (p)ppGpp was controlled by RelA and SpoT proteins in B. pertussis, and that mutation-induced loss of both proteins together caused deficiencies in (p)ppGpp production. The (p)ppGpp-deficient mutants also exhibited defects in growth regulation, decreases in viability under nutritionally limited conditions, increases in susceptibility to oxidative stress and defects in biofilm formation. Analysis of the secreted proteins and the respective transcripts showed that lack of (p)ppGpp led to decreased expression of fim3 and bsp22, which encode a fimbrial subunit and the self-polymerizing type III secretion system tip protein, respectively. Moreover, electron microscopic analysis also indicated that (p)ppGpp regulated the formation of filamentous structures. Most virulence genes - including fim3 and bsp22 - were expressed in the Bvg(+) phase during which the BvgAS two-component system was activated. Although fim3 and bsp22 were downregulated in a (p)ppGpp-deficient mutant, normal expression of fhaB, cyaA and ptxA persisted. Lack of coherence between virulence gene expression and (p)ppGpp production indicated that (p)ppGpp did not modulate the Bvg phase. Taken together, our data indicate that (p)ppGpp may govern an as-yet-unrecognized system that influences B. pertussis pathogenicity.

  10. Role of ppGpp in Pseudomonas aeruginosa acute pulmonary infection and virulence regulation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaohui; Yu, Hua; Zhang, Di; Xiong, Junzhi; Qiu, Jing; Xin, Rong; He, Xiaomei; Sheng, Halei; Cai, Wenqiang; Jiang, Lu; Zhang, Kebin; Hu, Xiaomei

    2016-11-01

    During infection, bacteria might generate adaptive responses to facilitate their survival and colonization in the host environment. The alarmone guanosine 5'-triphosphate-3'-diphosphate (ppGpp), the levels of which are regulated by the RelA and SpoT enzymes, plays a critical role in mediating bacterial adaptive responses and virulence. However, the mechanism by which ppGpp regulates virulence-associated traits in Pseudomonas aeruginosa is poorly understood. To investigate the regulatory role of ppGpp, the ppGpp-deficient strain ΔRS (relA and spoT gene double mutant) and the complemented strain ΔRS(++) (complemented with relA and spoT genes) were constructed. Herein, we reported that the ΔRS strain showed decreased cytotoxicity towards A549 human alveolar adenocarcinoma cell lines and led to reduced mortality, lung edema and inflammatory cell infiltration in a mouse model of acute pneumonia compared to wild-type PAO1 and the complemented strain ΔRS(++). Subsequent analyses demonstrated that the ΔRS strain displayed reduced T3SS expression, decreased levels of elastase activity, pyocyanin, pyoverdin and alginate, and inhibited swarming and biofilm formation compared to PAO1 and the complemented strain ΔRS(++). In addition, the results demonstrate that ppGpp-mediated regulation of T3SS, virulence factor production, and swarming occurs in a quinolone quorum-sensing system-dependent manner. Taken together, these results suggest that ppGpp is required for virulence regulation in P. aeruginosa, providing new clues for the development of interference strategies against bacterial infection. PMID:27664726

  11. [Preparation of microencapsulated red phosphorus and its flame-retardant application in PP composites].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wen-Jun; Li, Zhe-Zhao; Zhang, Chun-Xiang; Fang, Jin; Yang, Xu-Jie; Lu, Lu-De; Pu, Long-Juan

    2010-05-01

    In the present study, the melamine-formaldehyde prepolymer (MFP) was first synthesized at pH 8-8.5 under about 80 degrees C with melamine, formaldehyde, triethanolamine and methanol as the starting materials. Subsequently, the microencapsulated red phosphorus (MRP) was successfully prepared by in-situ polymerization at pH 5.5 under 65 degrees C, using MFP and red phosphorus (RP) powders as raw materials, and potassium persulphate (KPS) as catalyst. The obtained products were detected by differential scan calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS). It was found that KPS is useful in enhancing the reaction activity of MFP, which can make RP be well encapsulated by melamine-formaldehyde resin (MF) and reduce the reaction time. The DSC, SEM and XPS results show that it won't get well-encapsulated MRP only under acidic condition and without any KPS. When a proper quantity of KPS is employed, the RP particles can be almost completely-encapsulated by MF and the peak temperature of oxidation reaction for MRP is 480 degrees C, which is much higher than that of RP, extending the applications for MRP. The FTIR spectrum demonstrates that the coating material on the surface of RP accurately is MF, in agreement with the reference. Polyproplene (PP) composites with different formulations were prepared by melt extrusion. It was shown that the flame-retardant efficiencies are very low when the PP composites only contain MRP or MH. However, the flame-retardant property can obviously improve if MRP and MH are both used in the PP composites. When PP : MRP: MH = 100 (phr) : 15 (phr) : 50 (phr), the limited oxygen index of the MRP/MH/PP composite is 26%, and vertical firing ranks UL-94 V-0. In addition, the possible flame-retardant mechanism of the PP composites has also been discussed, and further verified by FTIR and Raman spectroscopy.

  12. Role of ppGpp in Pseudomonas aeruginosa acute pulmonary infection and virulence regulation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaohui; Yu, Hua; Zhang, Di; Xiong, Junzhi; Qiu, Jing; Xin, Rong; He, Xiaomei; Sheng, Halei; Cai, Wenqiang; Jiang, Lu; Zhang, Kebin; Hu, Xiaomei

    2016-11-01

    During infection, bacteria might generate adaptive responses to facilitate their survival and colonization in the host environment. The alarmone guanosine 5'-triphosphate-3'-diphosphate (ppGpp), the levels of which are regulated by the RelA and SpoT enzymes, plays a critical role in mediating bacterial adaptive responses and virulence. However, the mechanism by which ppGpp regulates virulence-associated traits in Pseudomonas aeruginosa is poorly understood. To investigate the regulatory role of ppGpp, the ppGpp-deficient strain ΔRS (relA and spoT gene double mutant) and the complemented strain ΔRS(++) (complemented with relA and spoT genes) were constructed. Herein, we reported that the ΔRS strain showed decreased cytotoxicity towards A549 human alveolar adenocarcinoma cell lines and led to reduced mortality, lung edema and inflammatory cell infiltration in a mouse model of acute pneumonia compared to wild-type PAO1 and the complemented strain ΔRS(++). Subsequent analyses demonstrated that the ΔRS strain displayed reduced T3SS expression, decreased levels of elastase activity, pyocyanin, pyoverdin and alginate, and inhibited swarming and biofilm formation compared to PAO1 and the complemented strain ΔRS(++). In addition, the results demonstrate that ppGpp-mediated regulation of T3SS, virulence factor production, and swarming occurs in a quinolone quorum-sensing system-dependent manner. Taken together, these results suggest that ppGpp is required for virulence regulation in P. aeruginosa, providing new clues for the development of interference strategies against bacterial infection.

  13. Absence of intraepidermal glycosyltransferase ppGalNac-T3 expression in familial tumoral calcinosis.

    PubMed

    Topaz, Orit; Bergman, Reuven; Mandel, Ulla; Maor, Gila; Goldberg, Ruth; Richard, Gabriele; Sprecher, Eli

    2005-06-01

    Hyperphosphatemic familial tumoral calcinosis (HFTC) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by progressive, tumor-like calcifications in the dermis and subcutaneous tissues. The disease is associated with primary hyperphosphatemia due to increased renal tubular reabsorption of phosphate. We recently identified mutations in GALNT3 as the proximal cause of this metabolic disorder. GALNT3 encodes the glycosyltransferase UDP-N-acetyl-alpha-D-galactosamine:polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyl-transferase 3 (ppGalNAc-T3), which initiates mucin-type O-glycosylation and thus takes part in posttranslational modification and formation of mucin-type glycoproteins. A number of studies have previously described the histopathological and ultrastructural features of lesional skin in HFTC, but little is currently known about the morphology of the normal-appearing non-lesional skin. We obtained biopsies of uninvolved skin from two HFTC patients carrying a known splice site mutation in GALNT3. Light and electron microscopic examination of a biopsy of one of the two patients did not reveal abnormal findings in the epidermis or dermis. However, immunohistochemical studies of frozen skin sections of biopsies of the two patients using monoclonal antibodies directed against three ppGalNac isoforms revealed the complete absence of immunostaining for ppGalNAc-T3 while the staining pattern for ppGalNAc-T2 and -T6 was identical in skin biopsies obtained from HFTC patients and healthy control individuals. Our data provide for the first time evidence for ppGalNAc-T3 deficiency in the skin of HFTC patients and suggest that immunostaining of skin biopsy samples for ppGal-Nac-T3 might be a useful tool for the diagnosis of HFTC.

  14. The E3 Ubiquitin Ligase- and Protein Phosphatase 2A (PP2A)-binding Domains of the Alpha4 Protein Are Both Required for Alpha4 to Inhibit PP2A Degradation

    SciTech Connect

    LeNoue-Newton, Michele; Watkins, Guy R.; Zou, Ping; Germane, Katherine L.; McCorvey, Lisa R.; Wadzinski, Brian E.; Spiller, Benjamin W.

    2012-04-30

    Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is regulated through a variety of mechanisms, including post-translational modifications and association with regulatory proteins. Alpha4 is one such regulatory protein that binds the PP2A catalytic subunit (PP2Ac) and protects it from polyubiquitination and degradation. Alpha4 is a multidomain protein with a C-terminal domain that binds Mid1, a putative E3 ubiquitin ligase, and an N-terminal domain containing the PP2Ac-binding site. In this work, we present the structure of the N-terminal domain of mammalian Alpha4 determined by x-ray crystallography and use double electron-electron resonance spectroscopy to show that it is a flexible tetratricopeptide repeat-like protein. Structurally, Alpha4 differs from its yeast homolog, Tap42, in two important ways: (1) the position of the helix containing the PP2Ac-binding residues is in a more open conformation, showing flexibility in this region; and (2) Alpha4 contains a ubiquitin-interacting motif. The effects of wild-type and mutant Alpha4 on PP2Ac ubiquitination and stability were examined in mammalian cells by performing tandem ubiquitin-binding entity precipitations and cycloheximide chase experiments. Our results reveal that both the C-terminal Mid1-binding domain and the PP2Ac-binding determinants are required for Alpha4-mediated protection of PP2Ac from polyubiquitination and degradation.

  15. Off-shell effects for the reaction pp{yields}{pi}d at high energies

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, T.S.H.; Locher, M.P.; Lu, Y.

    1995-08-01

    The reaction pp {yields} {pi}d is studied in a relativistic meson rescattering model. For 1.3 < T{sub p} < 2.4 GeV, the differential cross section and the asymmetry are calculated and compared to experiment. The model introduces simple form factors for the leading {pi}N partial waves, which depend on the virtuality of the exchanged {pi} and {rho} mesons. All remaining input is derived from experimental constraints. The data can be described by energy-independent form factors. The asymmetries are sensitive to pp distortion factors and further details of the model. A paper describing our results was published.

  16. Multiresolution imaging of mantle reflectivity structure using SS and P'P' precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Ryan; Gu, Yu J.

    2013-10-01

    Knowledge of the mantle reflectivity structure is highly dependent on our ability to efficiently extract, and properly interpret, small seismic arrivals. Among the various data types and techniques, long-period SS/PP precursors and high-frequency receiver functions are routinely utilized to increase the confidence of the recovered mantle stratifications at distinct spatial scales. However, low resolution and a complex Fresnel zone are glaring weaknesses of SS precursors, while over-reliance on receiver distribution is a formidable challenge for the analysis of converted waves from oceanic regions. A promising high frequency alternative to receiver functions is P'P' precursors, which are capable of resolving mantle structures at vertical and lateral resolution of ˜5 and ˜200 km, respectively, owing to their spectral content, shallow angle of incidence and near-symmetric Fresnel zones. This study presents a novel processing method for both SS (or PP) and P'P' precursors based on deconvolution, stacking, Radon transform and depth migration. A suite of synthetic tests is performed to quantify the fidelity and stability of this method under different data conditions. Our multiresolution survey of the mantle at targeted areas near Nazca-South America subduction zone reveal both olivine and garnet related transitions at depths below 400 km. We attribute a depressed 660 to thermal variations, whereas compositional variations atop the upper-mantle transition zone are needed to explain the diminished or highly complex reflected/scattered signals from the 410 km discontinuity. We also observe prominent P'P' reflections within the transition zone, and the anomalous amplitudes near the plate boundary zone indicate a sharp (˜10 km thick) transition that likely resonates with the frequency content of P'P' precursors. The migration of SS precursors in this study shows no evidence of split 660 reflections, but potential majorite-ilmenite (590-640 km) and ilmenite

  17. Two-Nucleon Momentum Distributions Measured in 3He(e,e'pp)n

    SciTech Connect

    R.A. Niyazov; L.B. Weinstein; et al

    2004-02-01

    We have measured the 3He(e,e'pp)n reaction at 2.2 GeV over a wide kinematic range. The kinetic energy distribution for ''fast'' nucleons (p > 250 MeV/c) peaks where two nucleons each have 20% or less, and the third nucleon has most of the transferred energy. These fast pp and pn pairs are back-to-back with little momentum along the three-momentum transfer, indicating that they are spectators. Experimental and theoretical evidence indicates that we have measured distorted two-nucleon momentum distributions by striking the third nucleon and detecting the spectator correlated pair.

  18. Energy dependence of the transverse momentum distributions of charged particles in pp collisions measured by ALICE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abelev, B.; Adam, J.; Adamová, D.; Adare, A. M.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Agnello, M.; Agocs, A. G.; Agostinelli, A.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahmad, N.; Ahmad Masoodi, A.; Ahmed, I.; Ahn, S. A.; Ahn, S. U.; Aimo, I.; Aiola, S.; Ajaz, M.; Akindinov, A.; Aleksandrov, D.; Alessandro, B.; Alexandre, D.; Alici, A.; Alkin, A.; Alme, J.; Alt, T.; Altini, V.; Altinpinar, S.; Altsybeev, I.; Alves Garcia Prado, C.; Andrei, C.; Andronic, A.; Anguelov, V.; Anielski, J.; Antičić, T.; Antinori, F.; Antonioli, P.; Aphecetche, L.; Appelshäuser, H.; Arbor, N.; Arcelli, S.; Armesto, N.; Arnaldi, R.; Aronsson, T.; Arsene, I. C.; Arslandok, M.; Augustinus, A.; Averbeck, R.; Awes, T. C.; Äystö, J.; Azmi, M. D.; Bach, M.; Badalà, A.; Baek, Y. W.; Bailhache, R.; Bala, R.; Baldisseri, A.; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F.; Bán, J.; Baral, R. C.; Barbera, R.; Barile, F.; Barnaföldi, G. G.; Barnby, L. S.; Barret, V.; Bartke, J.; Basile, M.; Bastid, N.; Basu, S.; Bathen, B.; Batigne, G.; Batyunya, B.; Batzing, P. C.; Baumann, C.; Bearden, I. G.; Beck, H.; Bedda, C.; Behera, N. K.; Belikov, I.; Bellini, F.; Bellwied, R.; Belmont-Moreno, E.; Bencedi, G.; Beole, S.; Berceanu, I.; Bercuci, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Berenyi, D.; Bergognon, A. A. E.; Bertens, R. A.; Berzano, D.; Betev, L.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhom, J.; Bianchi, L.; Bianchi, N.; Bianchin, C.; Bielčík, J.; Bielčíková, J.; Bilandzic, A.; Bjelogrlic, S.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, F.; Blau, D.; Blume, C.; Bock, F.; Bogdanov, A.; Bøggild, H.; Bogolyubsky, M.; Boldizsár, L.; Bombara, M.; Book, J.; Borel, H.; Borissov, A.; Bornschein, J.; Botje, M.; Botta, E.; Böttger, S.; Braidot, E.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Bregant, M.; Breitner, T.; Broker, T. A.; Browning, T. A.; Broz, M.; Brun, R.; Bruna, E.; Bruno, G. E.; Budnikov, D.; Buesching, H.; Bufalino, S.; Buncic, P.; Busch, O.; Buthelezi, Z.; Caffarri, D.; Cai, X.; Caines, H.; Caliva, A.; Calvo Villar, E.; Camerini, P.; Canoa Roman, V.; Cara Romeo, G.; Carena, F.; Carena, W.; Carminati, F.; Casanova Díaz, A.; Castillo Castellanos, J.; Casula, E. A. R.; Catanescu, V.; Cavicchioli, C.; Ceballos Sanchez, C.; Cepila, J.; Cerello, P.; Chang, B.; Chapeland, S.; Charvet, J. L.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Cherney, M.; Cheshkov, C.; Cheynis, B.; Chibante Barroso, V.; Chinellato, D. D.; Chochula, P.; Chojnacki, M.; Choudhury, S.; Christakoglou, P.; Christensen, C. H.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, S. U.; Cicalo, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Cleymans, J.; Colamaria, F.; Colella, D.; Collu, A.; Colocci, M.; Conesa Balbastre, G.; Conesa del Valle, Z.; Connors, M. E.; Contin, G.; Contreras, J. G.; Cormier, T. M.; Corrales Morales, Y.; Cortese, P.; Cortés Maldonado, I.; Cosentino, M. R.; Costa, F.; Crochet, P.; Cruz Albino, R.; Cuautle, E.; Cunqueiro, L.; Dainese, A.; Dang, R.; Danu, A.; Das, K.; Das, D.; Das, I.; Dash, A.; Dash, S.; De, S.; Delagrange, H.; Deloff, A.; Dénes, E.; Deppman, A.; de Barros, G. O. V.; De Caro, A.; de Cataldo, G.; de Cuveland, J.; De Falco, A.; De Gruttola, D.; De Marco, N.; De Pasquale, S.; de Rooij, R.; Diaz Corchero, M. A.; Dietel, T.; Divià, R.; Di Bari, D.; Di Giglio, C.; Di Liberto, S.; Di Mauro, A.; Di Nezza, P.; Djuvsland, Ø.; Dobrin, A.; Dobrowolski, T.; Dönigus, B.; Dordic, O.; Dubey, A. K.; Dubla, A.; Ducroux, L.; Dupieux, P.; Dutta Majumdar, A. K.; D Erasmo, G.; Elia, D.; Emschermann, D.; Engel, H.; Erazmus, B.; Erdal, H. A.; Eschweiler, D.; Espagnon, B.; Estienne, M.; Esumi, S.; Evans, D.; Evdokimov, S.; Eyyubova, G.; Fabris, D.; Faivre, J.; Falchieri, D.; Fantoni, A.; Fasel, M.; Fehlker, D.; Feldkamp, L.; Felea, D.; Feliciello, A.; Feofilov, G.; Fernández Téllez, A.; Ferreiro, E. G.; Ferretti, A.; Festanti, A.; Figiel, J.; Figueredo, M. A. S.; Filchagin, S.; Finogeev, D.; Fionda, F. M.; Fiore, E. M.; Floratos, E.; Floris, M.; Foertsch, S.; Foka, P.; Fokin, S.; Fragiacomo, E.; Francescon, A.; Frankenfeld, U.; Fuchs, U.; Furget, C.; Fusco Girard, M.; Gaardhøje, J. J.; Gagliardi, M.; Gago, A.; Gallio, M.; Gangadharan, D. R.; Ganoti, P.; Garabatos, C.; Garcia-Solis, E.; Gargiulo, C.; Garishvili, I.; Gerhard, J.; Germain, M.; Gheata, A.; Gheata, M.; Ghidini, B.; Ghosh, P.; Gianotti, P.; Giubellino, P.; Gladysz-Dziadus, E.; Glässel, P.; Goerlich, L.; Gomez, R.; González-Zamora, P.; Gorbunov, S.; Gotovac, S.; Graczykowski, L. K.; Grajcarek, R.; Grelli, A.; Grigoras, C.; Grigoras, A.; Grigoriev, V.; Grigoryan, A.; Grigoryan, S.; Grinyov, B.; Grion, N.; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J. F.; Grossiord, J.-Y.; Grosso, R.; Guber, F.; Guernane, R.; Guerzoni, B.; Guilbaud, M.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gulkanyan, H.; Gunji, T.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, R.; Khan, K. H.; Haake, R.; Haaland, Ø.; Hadjidakis, C.; Haiduc, M.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamar, G.; Hanratty, L. D.; Hansen, A.; Harris, J. W.; Harton, A.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hayashi, S.; Hayrapetyan, A.; Heckel, S. T.; Heide, M.; Helstrup, H.; Herghelegiu, A.; Herrera Corral, G.; Herrmann, N.; Hess, B. A.; Hetland, K. F.; Hicks, B.; Hippolyte, B.; Hori, Y.; Hristov, P.; Hřivnáčová, I.; Huang, M.; Humanic, T. J.; Hutter, D.; Hwang, D. S.; Ichou, R.; Ilkaev, R.; Ilkiv, I.; Inaba, M.; Incani, E.; Innocenti, G. M.; Ionita, C.; Ippolitov, M.; Irfan, M.; Ivanov, V.; Ivanov, M.; Ivanytskyi, O.; Jachołkowski, A.; Jahnke, C.; Jang, H. J.; Janik, M. A.; Jayarathna, P. H. S. Y.; Jena, S.; Jimenez Bustamante, R. T.; Jones, P. G.; Jung, H.; Jusko, A.; Kalcher, S.; Kaliňák, P.; Kalliokoski, T.; Kalweit, A.; Kang, J. H.; Kaplin, V.; Kar, S.; Karasu Uysal, A.; Karavichev, O.; Karavicheva, T.; Karpechev, E.; Kazantsev, A.; Kebschull, U.; Keidel, R.; Ketzer, B.; Khan, S. A.; Khan, M. M.; Khan, P.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kharlov, Y.; Kileng, B.; Kim, S.; Kim, D. W.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, B.; Kim, T.; Kim, M.; Kim, M.; Kim, J. S.; Kirsch, S.; Kisel, I.; Kiselev, S.; Kisiel, A.; Kiss, G.; Klay, J. L.; Klein, J.; Klein-Bösing, C.; Kluge, A.; Knichel, M. L.; Knospe, A. G.; Köhler, M. K.; Kollegger, T.; Kolojvari, A.; Kondratiev, V.; Kondratyeva, N.; Konevskikh, A.; Kovalenko, V.; Kowalski, M.; Kox, S.; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, G.; Kral, J.; Králik, I.; Kramer, F.; Kravčáková, A.; Krelina, M.; Kretz, M.; Krivda, M.; Krizek, F.; Krus, M.; Kryshen, E.; Krzewicki, M.; Kucera, V.; Kucheriaev, Y.; Kugathasan, T.; Kuhn, C.; Kuijer, P. G.; Kulakov, I.; Kumar, J.; Kurashvili, P.; Kurepin, A. B.; Kurepin, A.; Kuryakin, A.; Kushpil, S.; Kushpil, V.; Kweon, M. J.; Kwon, Y.; Ladrón de Guevara, P.; Lagana Fernandes, C.; Lakomov, I.; Langoy, R.; Lara, C.; Lardeux, A.; La Pointe, S. L.; La Rocca, P.; Lea, R.; Lechman, M.; Lee, S. C.; Lee, G. R.; Legrand, I.; Lehnert, J.; Lemmon, R. C.; Lenhardt, M.; Lenti, V.; León Monzón, I.; Lévai, P.; Li, S.; Lien, J.; Lietava, R.; Lindal, S.; Lindenstruth, V.; Lippmann, C.; Lisa, M. A.; Ljunggren, H. M.; Lodato, D. F.; Loenne, P. I.; Loggins, V. R.; Loginov, V.; Lohner, D.; Loizides, C.; Loo, K. K.; Lopez, X.; López Torres, E.; Løvhøiden, G.; Lu, X.-G.; Luettig, P.; Lunardon, M.; Luo, J.; Luparello, G.; Luzzi, C.; Jacobs, P. M.; Ma, R.; Maevskaya, A.; Mager, M.; Mahapatra, D. P.; Maire, A.; Malaev, M.; Maldonado Cervantes, I.; Malinina, L.; Mal'Kevich, D.; Malzacher, P.; Mamonov, A.; Manceau, L.; Manko, V.; Manso, F.; Manzari, V.; Marchisone, M.; Mareš, J.; Margagliotti, G. V.; Margotti, A.; Marín, A.; Markert, C.; Marquard, M.; Martashvili, I.; Martin, N. A.; Martinengo, P.; Martínez, M. I.; Martínez García, G.; Martin Blanco, J.; Martynov, Y.; Mas, A.; Masciocchi, S.; Masera, M.; Masoni, A.; Massacrier, L.; Mastroserio, A.; Matyja, A.; Mazer, J.; Mazumder, R.; Mazzoni, M. A.; Meddi, F.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Mercado Pérez, J.; Meres, M.; Miake, Y.; Mikhaylov, K.; Milano, L.; Milosevic, J.; Mischke, A.; Mishra, A. N.; Miśkowiec, D.; Mitu, C.; Mlynarz, J.; Mohanty, B.; Molnar, L.; Montaño Zetina, L.; Monteno, M.; Montes, E.; Moon, T.; Morando, M.; Moreira De Godoy, D. A.; Moretto, S.; Morreale, A.; Morsch, A.; Muccifora, V.; Mudnic, E.; Muhuri, S.; Mukherjee, M.; Müller, H.; Munhoz, M. G.; Murray, S.; Musa, L.; Nandi, B. K.; Nania, R.; Nappi, E.; Nattrass, C.; Nayak, T. K.; Nazarenko, S.; Nedosekin, A.; Nicassio, M.; Niculescu, M.; Nielsen, B. S.; Nikolaev, S.; Nikulin, S.; Nikulin, V.; Nilsen, B. S.; Nilsson, M. S.; Noferini, F.; Nomokonov, P.; Nooren, G.; Nyanin, A.; Nyatha, A.; Nystrand, J.; Oeschler, H.; Oh, S. K.; Oh, S.; Olah, L.; Oleniacz, J.; Oliveira Da Silva, A. C.; Onderwaater, J.; Oppedisano, C.; Ortiz Velasquez, A.; Oskarsson, A.; Otwinowski, J.; Oyama, K.; Pachmayer, Y.; Pachr, M.; Pagano, P.; Paić, G.; Painke, F.; Pajares, C.; Pal, S. K.; Palaha, A.; Palmeri, A.; Papikyan, V.; Pappalardo, G. S.; Park, W. J.; Passfeld, A.; Patalakha, D. I.; Paticchio, V.; Paul, B.; Pawlak, T.; Peitzmann, T.; Pereira Da Costa, H.; Pereira De Oliveira Filho, E.; Peresunko, D.; Pérez Lara, C. E.; Perrino, D.; Peryt, W.; Pesci, A.; Pestov, Y.; Petráček, V.; Petran, M.; Petris, M.; Petrov, P.; Petrovici, M.; Petta, C.; Piano, S.; Pikna, M.; Pillot, P.; Pinazza, O.; Pinsky, L.; Pitz, N.; Piyarathna, D. B.; Planinic, M.; Płoskoń, M.; Pluta, J.; Pochybova, S.; Podesta-Lerma, P. L. M.; Poghosyan, M. G.; Polichtchouk, B.; Poljak, N.; Pop, A.; Porteboeuf-Houssais, S.; Pospíšil, V.; Potukuchi, B.; Prasad, S. K.; Preghenella, R.; Prino, F.; Pruneau, C. A.; Pshenichnov, I.; Puddu, G.; Punin, V.; Putschke, J.; Qvigstad, H.; Rachevski, A.; Rademakers, A.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ramello, L.; Raniwala, S.; Raniwala, R.; Räsänen, S. S.; Rascanu, B. T.; Rathee, D.; Rauch, W.; Rauf, A. W.; Razazi, V.; Read, K. F.; Real, J. S.; Redlich, K.; Reed, R. J.; Rehman, A.; Reichelt, P.; Reicher, M.; Reidt, F.; Renfordt, R.; Reolon, A. R.; Reshetin, A.; Rettig, F.; Revol, J.-P.; Reygers, K.; Riccati, L.; Ricci, R. A.; Richert, T.; Richter, M.; Riedler, P.; Riegler, W.; Riggi, F.; Rivetti, A.; Rodríguez Cahuantzi, M.; Rodriguez Manso, A.; Røed, K.; Rogochaya, E.; Rohni, S.; Rohr, D.; Röhrich, D.; Romita, R.; Ronchetti, F.; Rosnet, P.; Rossegger, S.; Rossi, A.; Roy, P.; Roy, C.; Rubio Montero, A. J.; Rui, R.; Russo, R.; Ryabinkin, E.; Rybicki, A.; Sadovsky, S.; Šafařík, K.; Sahoo, R.; Sahu, P. K.; Saini, J.; Sakaguchi, H.; Sakai, S.; Sakata, D.; Salgado, C. A.; Salzwedel, J.; Sambyal, S.; Samsonov, V.; Sanchez Castro, X.; Šándor, L.; Sandoval, A.; Sano, M.; Santagati, G.; Santoro, R.; Sarkar, D.; Scapparone, E.; Scarlassara, F.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schiaua, C.; Schicker, R.; Schmidt, C.; Schmidt, H. R.; Schuchmann, S.; Schukraft, J.; Schulc, M.; Schuster, T.; Schutz, Y.; Schwarz, K.; Schweda, K.; Scioli, G.; Scomparin, E.; Scott, R.; Scott, P. A.; Segato, G.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Seo, J.; Serci, S.; Serradilla, E.; Sevcenco, A.; Shabetai, A.; Shabratova, G.; Shahoyan, R.; Sharma, S.; Sharma, N.; Shigaki, K.; Shtejer, K.; Sibiriak, Y.; Siddhanta, S.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Silvermyr, D.; Silvestre, C.; Simatovic, G.; Singaraju, R.; Singh, R.; Singha, S.; Singhal, V.; Sinha, B. C.; Sinha, T.; Sitar, B.; Sitta, M.; Skaali, T. B.; Skjerdal, K.; Smakal, R.; Smirnov, N.; Snellings, R. J. M.; Søgaard, C.; Soltz, R.; Song, M.; Song, J.; Soos, C.; Soramel, F.; Spacek, M.; Sputowska, I.; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, M.; Srivastava, B. K.; Stachel, J.; Stan, I.; Stefanek, G.; Steinpreis, M.; Stenlund, E.; Steyn, G.; Stiller, J. H.; Stocco, D.; Stolpovskiy, M.; Strmen, P.; Suaide, A. A. P.; Subieta Vásquez, M. A.; Sugitate, T.; Suire, C.; Suleymanov, M.; Sultanov, R.; Šumbera, M.; Susa, T.; Symons, T. J. M.; Szanto de Toledo, A.; Szarka, I.; Szczepankiewicz, A.; Szymański, M.; Takahashi, J.; Tangaro, M. A.; Tapia Takaki, J. D.; Tarantola Peloni, A.; Tarazona Martinez, A.; Tauro, A.; Tejeda Muñoz, G.; Telesca, A.; Terrevoli, C.; Ter Minasyan, A.; Thäder, J.; Thomas, D.; Tieulent, R.; Timmins, A. R.; Toia, A.; Torii, H.; Trubnikov, V.; Trzaska, W. H.; Tsuji, T.; Tumkin, A.; Turrisi, R.; Tveter, T. S.; Ulery, J.; Ullaland, K.; Ulrich, J.; Uras, A.; Urciuoli, G. M.; Usai, G. L.; Vajzer, M.; Vala, M.; Valencia Palomo, L.; Vande Vyvre, P.; Vannucci, L.; Van Hoorne, J. W.; van Leeuwen, M.; Vargas, A.; Varma, R.; Vasileiou, M.; Vasiliev, A.; Vechernin, V.; Veldhoen, M.; Venaruzzo, M.; Vercellin, E.; Vergara, S.; Vernet, R.; Verweij, M.; Vickovic, L.; Viesti, G.; Viinikainen, J.; Vilakazi, Z.; Villalobos Baillie, O.; Vinogradov, A.; Vinogradov, L.; Vinogradov, Y.; Virgili, T.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vodopyanov, A.; Völkl, M. A.; Voloshin, S.; Voloshin, K.; Volpe, G.; von Haller, B.; Vorobyev, I.; Vranic, D.; Vrláková, J.; Vulpescu, B.; Vyushin, A.; Wagner, B.; Wagner, V.; Wagner, J.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y.; Wang, M.; Watanabe, D.; Watanabe, K.; Weber, M.; Wessels, J. P.; Westerhoff, U.; Wiechula, J.; Wikne, J.; Wilde, M.; Wilk, G.; Wilkinson, J.; Williams, M. C. S.; Windelband, B.; Winn, M.; Xiang, C.; Yaldo, C. G.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yang, H.; Yang, P.; Yang, S.; Yano, S.; Yasnopolskiy, S.; Yi, J.; Yin, Z.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yushmanov, I.; Zaccolo, V.; Zach, C.; Zampolli, C.; Zaporozhets, S.; Zarochentsev, A.; Závada, P.; Zaviyalov, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zelnicek, P.; Zgura, I. S.; Zhalov, M.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, X.; Zhou, D.; Zhou, Y.; Zhou, F.; Zhu, X.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, H.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, M. B.; Zimmermann, A.; Zinovjev, G.; Zoccarato, Y.; Zynovyev, M.; Zyzak, M.

    2013-12-01

    Differential cross sections of charged particles in inelastic pp collisions as a function of p T have been measured at at the LHC. The p T spectra are compared to NLO-pQCD calculations. Though the differential cross section for an individual cannot be described by NLO-pQCD, the relative increase of cross section with is in agreement with NLO-pQCD. Based on these measurements and observations, procedures are discussed to construct pp reference spectra at up to p T=50 GeV/ c as required for the calculation of the nuclear modification factor in nucleus-nucleus and proton-nucleus collisions.

  19. First real-time detection of solar pp neutrinos by Borexino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pallavicini, M.; Bellini, G.; Benziger, J.; Bick, D.; Bonfini, G.; Bravo, D.; Caccianiga, B.; Calaprice, F.; Caminata, A.; Cavalcante, P.; Chavarria, A.; Chepurnov, A.; D'Angelo, D.; Davini, S.; Derbin, A.; Empl, A.; Etenko, A.; Fomenko, K.; Franco, D.; Gabriele, F.; Galbiati, C.; Gazzana, S.; Ghiano, C.; Giammarchi, M.; Göger-Neff, M.; Goretti, A.; Gromov, M.; Hagner, C.; Hungerford, E.; Ianni, Al.; Ianni, An.; Kayser, M.; Kobychev, V.; Korablëv, D.; Korga, G.; Kryn, D.; Laubenstein, M.; Lehnert, B.; Lewke, T.; Litvinovich, E.; Lombardi, F.; Lombardi, P.; Ludhova, L.; Lukyanchenko, G.; Machulin, I.; Manecki, S.; Maneschg, W.; Marcocci, S.; Meindl, Q.; Meroni, E.; Meyer, M.; Miramonti, L.; Misiaszek, M.; Montuschi, M.; Mosteiro, P.; Muratova, V.; Oberauer, L.; Obolensky, M.; Ortica, F.; Otis, K.; Papp, L.; Perasso, L.; Pocar, A.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Re, A.; Romani, A.; Rossi, N.; Saldanha, R.; Salvo, C.; Schönert, S.; Simgen, H.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Sukhotin, S.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Testera, G.; Vignaud, D.; Vogelaar, R. B.; von Feilitzsch, F.; Wang, H.; Winter, J.; Wojcik, M.; Wurm, M.; Zaimidoroga, O.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2016-07-01

    Solar neutrinos have been pivotal to the discovery of neutrino flavour oscillations and are a unique tool to probe the reactions that keep the Sun shine. Although most of solar neutrino components have been directly measured, the neutrinos emitted by the keystone pp reaction, in which two protons fuse to make a deuteron, have so far eluded direct detection. The Borexino experiment, an ultra-pure liquid scintillator detector running at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso in Italy, has now filled the gap, providing the first direct real time measurement of pp neutrinos and of the solar neutrino luminosity.

  20. Diffractively Produced Charm Final States in 800-GeV / c pp Collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, M. H. L. S.; Berisso, M. C.; Christian, D. C.; Felix, J.; Gara, A.; Gottschalk, E.; Gutierrez, G.; Hartouni, E. P.; Knapp, B. C.; Kreisler, M. N.

    2001-08-20

    We report the first observation of diffractively produced open charm in 800-GeV/c pp collisions of the type pp{yields}pD{sup *}X. We measure cross sections of {sigma}{sub diff}(D{sup *+})= (0.185{+-}0.044{+-}0.054) {mu}b and {sigma}{sub diff}(D{sup *-})= (0.174{+-}0.034{+-}0.029) {mu}b. Our measurements are based on 4.3 x 10{sup 9} events recorded by FNAL E690 in the fixed-target run of 1991. We compare our results with previous fixed-target charm experiments.

  1. Search for the decay B ¯0→Λc+p ¯pp ¯

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lees, J. P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; Grauges, E.; Palano, A.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Brown, D. N.; Kerth, L. T.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Lee, M. J.; Lynch, G.; Koch, H.; Schroeder, T.; Hearty, C.; Mattison, T. S.; McKenna, J. A.; So, R. Y.; Khan, A.; Blinov, V. E.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Druzhinin, V. P.; Golubev, V. B.; Kravchenko, E. A.; Onuchin, A. P.; Serednyakov, S. I.; Skovpen, Yu. I.; Solodov, E. P.; Todyshev, K. Yu.; Yushkov, A. N.; Kirkby, D.; Lankford, A. J.; Mandelkern, M.; Dey, B.; Gary, J. W.; Long, O.; Campagnari, C.; Franco Sevilla, M.; Hong, T. M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Richman, J. D.; West, C. A.; Eisner, A. M.; Lockman, W. S.; Schumm, B. A.; Seiden, A.; Chao, D. S.; Cheng, C. H.; Echenard, B.; Flood, K. T.; Hitlin, D. G.; Ongmongkolkul, P.; Porter, F. C.; Andreassen, R.; Huard, Z.; Meadows, B. T.; Pushpawela, B. G.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Sun, L.; Bloom, P. C.; Ford, W. T.; Gaz, A.; Nauenberg, U.; Smith, J. G.; Wagner, S. R.; Ayad, R.; Toki, W. H.; Spaan, B.; Schwierz, R.; Bernard, D.; Verderi, M.; Playfer, S.; Bettoni, D.; Bozzi, C.; Calabrese, R.; Cibinetto, G.; Fioravanti, E.; Garzia, I.; Luppi, E.; Piemontese, L.; Santoro, V.; Baldini-Ferroli, R.; Calcaterra, A.; de Sangro, R.; Finocchiaro, G.; Martellotti, S.; Patteri, P.; Peruzzi, I. M.; Piccolo, M.; Rama, M.; Zallo, A.; Contri, R.; Guido, E.; Lo Vetere, M.; Monge, M. R.; Passaggio, S.; Patrignani, C.; Robutti, E.; Bhuyan, B.; Prasad, V.; Morii, M.; Adametz, A.; Uwer, U.; Lacker, H. M.; Dauncey, P. D.; Mallik, U.; Chen, C.; Cochran, J.; Meyer, W. T.; Prell, S.; Ahmed, H.; Gritsan, A. V.; Arnaud, N.; Davier, M.; Derkach, D.; Grosdidier, G.; Le Diberder, F.; Lutz, A. M.; Malaescu, B.; Roudeau, P.; Stocchi, A.; Wormser, G.; Lange, D. J.; Wright, D. M.; Coleman, J. P.; Fry, J. R.; Gabathuler, E.; Hutchcroft, D. E.; Payne, D. J.; Touramanis, C.; Bevan, A. J.; di Lodovico, F.; Sacco, R.; Cowan, G.; Bougher, J.; Brown, D. N.; Davis, C. L.; Denig, A. G.; Fritsch, M.; Gradl, W.; Griessinger, K.; Hafner, A.; Prencipe, E.; Schubert, K. R.; Barlow, R. J.; Lafferty, G. D.; Behn, E.; Cenci, R.; Hamilton, B.; Jawahery, A.; Roberts, D. A.; Cowan, R.; Dujmic, D.; Sciolla, G.; Cheaib, R.; Patel, P. M.; Robertson, S. H.; Biassoni, P.; Neri, N.; Palombo, F.; Cremaldi, L.; Godang, R.; Sonnek, P.; Summers, D. J.; Simard, M.; Taras, P.; de Nardo, G.; Monorchio, D.; Onorato, G.; Sciacca, C.; Martinelli, M.; Raven, G.; Jessop, C. P.; Losecco, J. M.; Honscheid, K.; Kass, R.; Brau, J.; Frey, R.; Sinev, N. B.; Strom, D.; Torrence, E.; Ahmed, H.; Feltresi, E.; Margoni, M.; Morandin, M.; Posocco, M.; Rotondo, M.; Simi, G.; Simonetto, F.; Stroili, R.; Akar, S.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bomben, M.; Bonneaud, G. R.; Briand, H.; Calderini, G.; Chauveau, J.; Leruste, Ph.; Marchiori, G.; Ocariz, J.; Sitt, S.; Biasini, M.; Manoni, E.; Pacetti, S.; Rossi, A.; Angelini, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Carpinelli, M.; Casarosa, G.; Cervelli, A.; Forti, F.; Giorgi, M. A.; Lusiani, A.; Oberhof, B.; Paoloni, E.; Perez, A.; Rizzo, G.; Walsh, J. J.; Lopes Pegna, D.; Olsen, J.; Smith, A. J. S.; Faccini, R.; Ferrarotto, F.; Ferroni, F.; Gaspero, M.; Li Gioi, L.; Piredda, G.; Bünger, C.; Grünberg, O.; Hartmann, T.; Leddig, T.; Schröder, H.; Voß, C.; Waldi, R.; Adye, T.; Olaiya, E. O.; Wilson, F. F.; Emery, S.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Vasseur, G.; Yèche, Ch.; Anulli, F.; Aston, D.; Bard, D. J.; Benitez, J. F.; Cartaro, C.; Convery, M. R.; Dorfan, J.; Dubois-Felsmann, G. P.; Dunwoodie, W.; Ebert, M.; Field, R. C.; Fulsom, B. G.; Gabareen, A. M.; Graham, M. T.; Hast, C.; Innes, W. R.; Kim, P.; Kocian, M. L.; Leith, D. W. G. S.; Lewis, P.; Lindemann, D.; Lindquist, B.; Luitz, S.; Luth, V.; Lynch, H. L.; Macfarlane, D. B.; Muller, D. R.; Neal, H.; Nelson, S.; Perl, M.; Pulliam, T.; Ratcliff, B. N.; Roodman, A.; Salnikov, A. A.; Schindler, R. H.; Snyder, A.; Su, D.; Sullivan, M. K.; Va'Vra, J.; Wagner, A. P.; Wang, W. F.; Wisniewski, W. J.; Wittgen, M.; Wright, D. H.; Wulsin, H. W.; Ziegler, V.; Park, W.; Purohit, M. V.; White, R. M.; Wilson, J. R.; Randle-Conde, A.; Sekula, S. J.; Bellis, M.; Burchat, P. R.; Miyashita, T. S.; Puccio, E. M. T.; Alam, M. S.; Ernst, J. A.; Gorodeisky, R.; Guttman, N.; Peimer, D. R.; Soffer, A.; Spanier, S. M.; Ritchie, J. L.; Ruland, A. M.; Schwitters, R. F.; Wray, B. C.; Izen, J. M.; Lou, X. C.; Bianchi, F.; de Mori, F.; Filippi, A.; Gamba, D.; Zambito, S.; Lanceri, L.; Vitale, L.; Martinez-Vidal, F.; Oyanguren, A.; Villanueva-Perez, P.; Albert, J.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Choi, H. H. F.; King, G. J.; Kowalewski, R.; Lewczuk, M. J.; Lueck, T.; Nugent, I. M.; Roney, J. M.; Sobie, R. J.; Tasneem, N.; Gershon, T. J.; Harrison, P. F.; Latham, T. E.; Band, H. R.; Dasu, S.; Pan, Y.; Prepost, R.; Wu, S. L.; Babar Collaboration

    2014-04-01

    We report a search for the decay B ¯0→Λc+p ¯pp ¯. Using a data sample of 471×106 BB ¯ pairs collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II2 storage ring at SLAC, we find no events and set an upper limit on the branching fraction B(B ¯0→Λc+p ¯pp ¯)×B(Λ/c+→pK-π+)0.050<2.8×10-6 at 90% C.L., where we have normalized B(Λc+→pK-π+) to the world average value.

  2. Functional barrier in two-layer recycled PP films for food packaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarfato, P.; Di Maio, L.; Milana, M. R.; Feliciani, R.; Denaro, M.; Incarnato, L.

    2014-05-01

    A preliminary study on bi-layer virgin/contaminated polypropylene co-extruded films was performed in order to evaluate the possibility to realize an effective functional barrier in PP-based multi-layer systems. In particular, the specific migration in 10% v/v aqueous ethanol of two surrogate contaminants (phenyl-cyclohexane and benzophenone) contained in the contaminated layer across the PP functional barrier was measured at different times and the results were compared with those obtained from a contaminated mono-layer polypropylene film. Moreover, the thermal and mechanical performances of the produced films were investigated.

  3. Expansion of the Ligand Knowledge Base for Chelating P,P-Donor Ligands (LKB-PP).

    PubMed

    Jover, Jesús; Fey, Natalie; Harvey, Jeremy N; Lloyd-Jones, Guy C; Orpen, A Guy; Owen-Smith, Gareth J J; Murray, Paul; Hose, David R J; Osborne, Robert; Purdie, Mark

    2012-08-13

    We have expanded the ligand knowledge base for bidentate P,P- and P,N-donor ligands (LKB-PP, Organometallics2008, 31, 1372-1383) by 208 ligands and introduced an additional steric descriptor (nHe8). This expanded knowledge base now captures information on 334 bidentate ligands and has been processed with principal component analysis (PCA) of the descriptors to produce a detailed map of bidentate ligand space, which better captures ligand variation and has been used for the analysis of ligand properties. PMID:24882917

  4. Improved luminosity determination in pp collisions at using the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aad, G.; Abajyan, T.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdel Khalek, S.; Abdelalim, A. A.; Abdinov, O.; Aben, R.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Acerbi, E.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Addy, T. N.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aefsky, S.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Agustoni, M.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahsan, M.; Aielli, G.; Akdogan, T.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A. V.; Alam, M. S.; Alam, M. A.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alessandria, F.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allport, P. P.; Allwood-Spiers, S. E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amako, K.; Amelung, C.; Ammosov, V. V.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amorim, A.; Amram, N.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Andrieux, M.-L.; Anduaga, X. S.; Anger, P.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Aoun, S.; Aperio Bella, L.; Apolle, R.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arfaoui, S.; Arguin, J.-F.; Arik, E.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnal, V.; Arnault, C.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Arutinov, D.; Asai, S.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Ask, S.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astbury, A.; Atkinson, M.; Aubert, B.; Auge, E.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Avolio, G.; Avramidou, R.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M. A.; Baccaglioni, G.; Bacci, C.; Bach, A. M.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Badescu, E.; Bagnaia, P.; Bahinipati, S.; Bai, Y.; Bailey, D. C.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baker, M. D.; Baker, S.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, P.; Banerjee, Sw.; Banfi, D.; Bangert, A.; Bansal, V.; Bansil, H. S.; Barak, L.; Baranov, S. P.; Barbaro Galtieri, A.; Barber, T.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Bardin, D. Y.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Barrillon, P.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartsch, V.; Basye, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batkova, L.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, A.; Battistin, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beale, S.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, K.; Becker, S.; Beckingham, M.; Becks, K. H.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bedikian, S.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Beemster, L. J.; Begel, M.; Behar Harpaz, S.; Behera, P. K.; Beimforde, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P. J.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellina, F.; Bellomo, M.; Belloni, A.; Beloborodova, O.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez Garcia, J. A.; Benjamin, D. P.; Benoit, M.; Bensinger, J. R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Berglund, E.; Beringer, J.; Bernat, P.; Bernhard, R.; Bernius, C.; Berry, T.; Bertella, C.; Bertin, A.; Bertolucci, F.; Besana, M. I.; Besjes, G. J.; Besson, N.; Bethke, S.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Bieniek, S. P.; Bierwagen, K.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biscarat, C.; Bittner, B.; Black, K. M.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blanchot, G.; Blazek, T.; Bloch, I.; Blocker, C.; Blocki, J.; Blondel, A.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Boddy, C. R.; Boehler, M.; Boek, J.; Boek, T. T.; Boelaert, N.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogdanchikov, A.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Bohm, J.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Bolnet, N. M.; Bomben, M.; Bona, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Booth, C. N.; Bordoni, S.; Borer, C.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borjanovic, I.; Borri, M.; Borroni, S.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Bouchami, J.; Boudreau, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Branchini, P.; Brandenburg, G. W.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Brazzale, S. F.; Brelier, B.; Bremer, J.; Brendlinger, K.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Britton, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Broggi, F.; Bromberg, C.; Bronner, J.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, T.; Brooks, W. K.; Brown, G.; Brown, H.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Brunet, S.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Buanes, T.; Buat, Q.; Bucci, F.; Buchanan, J.; Buchholz, P.; Buckingham, R. M.; Buckley, A. G.; Buda, S. I.; Budagov, I. A.; Budick, B.; Bugge, L.; Bulekov, O.; Bundock, A. C.; Bunse, M.; Buran, T.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burgess, T.; Burke, S.; Busato, E.; Büscher, V.; Bussey, P.; Buszello, C. P.; Butler, B.; Butler, J. M.; Buttar, C. M.; Butterworth, J. M.; Buttinger, W.; Byszewski, M.; Cabrera Urbán, S.; Caforio, D.; Cakir, O.; Calafiura, P.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Calkins, R.; Caloba, L. P.; Caloi, R.; Calvet, D.; Calvet, S.; Camacho Toro, R.; Camarri, P.; Cameron, D.; Caminada, L. M.; Caminal Armadans, R.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Canale, V.; Canelli, F.; Canepa, A.; Cantero, J.; Cantrill, R.; Capasso, L.; Capeans Garrido, M. D. M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capriotti, D.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Cardarelli, R.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, B.; Caron, S.; Carquin, E.; Carrillo-Montoya, G. D.; Carter, A. A.; Carter, J. R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M. P.; Cascella, M.; Caso, C.; Castaneda Hernandez, A. M.; Castaneda-Miranda, E.; Castillo Gimenez, V.; Castro, N. F.; Cataldi, G.; Catastini, P.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J. R.; Cattai, A.; Cattani, G.; Caughron, S.; Cavaliere, V.; Cavalleri, P.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Ceradini, F.; Cerqueira, A. S.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Cerutti, F.; Cetin, S. A.; Chafaq, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chalupkova, I.; Chan, K.; Chang, P.; Chapleau, B.; Chapman, J. D.; Chapman, J. W.; Chareyre, E.; Charlton, D. G.; Chavda, V.; Chavez Barajas, C. A.; Cheatham, S.; Chekanov, S.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chelkov, G. A.; Chelstowska, M. A.; Chen, C.; Chen, H.; Chen, S.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Cheplakov, A.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Chernyatin, V.; Cheu, E.; Cheung, S. L.; Chevalier, L.; Chiefari, G.; Chikovani, L.; Childers, J. T.; Chilingarov, A.; Chiodini, G.; Chisholm, A. S.; Chislett, R. T.; Chitan, A.; Chizhov, M. V.; Choudalakis, G.; Chouridou, S.; Christidi, I. A.; Christov, A.; Chromek-Burckhart, D.; Chu, M. L.; Chudoba, J.; Ciapetti, G.; Ciftci, A. K.; Ciftci, R.; Cinca, D.; Cindro, V.; Ciocca, C.; Ciocio, A.; Cirilli, M.; Cirkovic, P.; Citron, Z. H.; Citterio, M.; Ciubancan, M.; Clark, A.; Clark, P. J.; Clarke, R. N.; Cleland, W.; Clemens, J. C.; Clement, B.; Clement, C.; Coadou, Y.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Cochran, J.; Cogan, J. G.; Coggeshall, J.; Cogneras, E.; Colas, J.; Cole, S.; Colijn, A. P.; Collins, N. J.; Collins-Tooth, C.; Collot, J.; Colombo, T.; Colon, G.; Conde Muiño, P.; Coniavitis, E.; Conidi, M. C.; Consonni, S. M.; Consorti, V.; Constantinescu, S.; Conta, C.; Conti, G.; Conventi, F.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, B. D.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Copic, K.; Cornelissen, T.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Cortes-Gonzalez, A.; Cortiana, G.; Costa, G.; Costa, M. J.; Costanzo, D.; Côté, D.; Courneyea, L.; Cowan, G.; Cowden, C.; Cox, B. E.; Cranmer, K.; Crépé-Renaudin, S.; Crescioli, F.; Cristinziani, M.; Crosetti, G.; Cuciuc, C.-M.; Cuenca Almenar, C.; Cuhadar Donszelmann, T.; Curatolo, M.; Curtis, C. J.; Cuthbert, C.; Cwetanski, P.; Czirr, H.; Czodrowski, P.; Czyczula, Z.; D'Auria, S.; D'Onofrio, M.; D'Orazio, A.; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, M. J.; Da Via, C.; Dabrowski, W.; Dafinca, A.; Dai, T.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dam, M.; Dameri, M.; Damiani, D. S.; Danielsson, H. O.; Dao, V.; Darbo, G.; Darlea, G. L.; Dassoulas, J. A.; Davey, W.; Davidek, T.; Davidson, N.; Davidson, R.; Davies, E.; Davies, M.; Davignon, O.; Davison, A. R.; Davygora, Y.; Dawe, E.; Dawson, I.; Daya-Ishmukhametova, R. K.; De, K.; de Asmundis, R.; De Castro, S.; De Cecco, S.; de Graat, J.; De Groot, N.; de Jong, P.; De La Taille, C.; De la Torre, H.; De Lorenzi, F.; de Mora, L.; De Nooij, L.; De Pedis, D.; De Salvo, A.; De Sanctis, U.; De Santo, A.; De Vivie De Regie, J. B.; De Zorzi, G.; Dearnaley, W. J.; Debbe, R.; Debenedetti, C.; Dechenaux, B.; Dedovich, D. V.; Degenhardt, J.; Del Papa, C.; Del Peso, J.; Del Prete, T.; Delemontex, T.; Deliyergiyev, M.; Dell'Acqua, A.; Dell'Asta, L.; Della Pietra, M.; della Volpe, D.; Delmastro, M.; Delsart, P. A.; Deluca, C.; Demers, S.; Demichev, M.; Demirkoz, B.; Deng, J.; Denisov, S. P.; Derendarz, D.; Derkaoui, J. E.; Derue, F.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Devetak, E.; Deviveiros, P. O.; Dewhurst, A.; DeWilde, B.; Dhaliwal, S.; Dhullipudi, R.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Di Girolamo, A.; Di Girolamo, B.; Di Luise, S.; Di Mattia, A.; Di Micco, B.; Di Nardo, R.; Di Simone, A.; Di Sipio, R.; Diaz, M. A.; Diehl, E. B.; Dietrich, J.; Dietzsch, T. A.; Diglio, S.; Dindar Yagci, K.; Dingfelder, J.; Dinut, F.; Dionisi, C.; Dita, P.; Dita, S.; Dittus, F.; Djama, F.; Djobava, T.; do Vale, M. A. B.; Do Valle Wemans, A.; Doan, T. K. O.; Dobbs, M.; Dobinson, R.; Dobos, D.; Dobson, E.; Dodd, J.; Doglioni, C.; Doherty, T.; Dohmae, T.; Doi, Y.; Dolejsi, J.; Dolenc, I.; Dolezal, Z.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Donadelli, M.; Donini, J.; Dopke, J.; Doria, A.; Dos Anjos, A.; Dotti, A.; Dova, M. T.; Doxiadis, A. D.; Doyle, A. T.; Dressnandt, N.; Dris, M.; Dubbert, J.; Dube, S.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duda, D.; Dudarev, A.; Dudziak, F.; Duerdoth, I. P.; Duflot, L.; Dufour, M.-A.; Duguid, L.; Dührssen, M.; Dunford, M.; Duran Yildiz, H.; Düren, M.; Duxfield, R.; Dwuznik, M.; Dydak, F.; Ebenstein, W. L.; Ebke, J.; Eckweiler, S.; Edmonds, K.; Edson, W.; Edwards, C. A.; Edwards, N. C.; Ehrenfeld, W.; Eifert, T.; Eigen, G.; Einsweiler, K.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ekelof, T.; El Kacimi, M.; Ellert, M.; Elles, S.; Ellinghaus, F.; Ellis, K.; Ellis, N.; Elmsheuser, J.; Elsing, M.; Emeliyanov, D.; Engelmann, R.; Engl, A.; Epp, B.; Erdmann, J.; Ereditato, A.; Eriksson, D.; Ernst, J.; Ernst, M.; Ernwein, J.; Errede, D.; Errede, S.; Ertel, E.; Escalier, M.; Esch, H.; Escobar, C.; Espinal Curull, X.; Esposito, B.; Etienne, F.; Etienvre, A. I.; Etzion, E.; Evangelakou, D.; Evans, H.; Fabbri, L.; Fabre, C.; Fakhrutdinov, R. M.; Falciano, S.; Fang, Y.; Fanti, M.; Farbin, A.; Farilla, A.; Farley, J.; Farooque, T.; Farrell, S.; Farrington, S. M.; Farthouat, P.; Fassi, F.; Fassnacht, P.; Fassouliotis, D.; Fatholahzadeh, B.; Favareto, A.; Fayard, L.; Fazio, S.; Febbraro, R.; Federic, P.; Fedin, O. L.; Fedorko, W.; Fehling-Kaschek, M.; Feligioni, L.; Fellmann, D.; Feng, C.; Feng, E. J.; Fenyuk, A. B.; Ferencei, J.; Fernando, W.; Ferrag, S.; Ferrando, J.; Ferrara, V.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrari, P.; Ferrari, R.; Ferreira de Lima, D. E.; Ferrer, A.; Ferrere, D.; Ferretti, C.; Ferretto Parodi, A.; Fiascaris, M.; Fiedler, F.; Filipčič, A.; Filthaut, F.; Fincke-Keeler, M.; Fiolhais, M. C. N.; Fiorini, L.; Firan, A.; Fischer, G.; Fisher, M. J.; Flechl, M.; Fleck, I.; Fleckner, J.; Fleischmann, P.; Fleischmann, S.; Flick, T.; Floderus, A.; Flores Castillo, L. R.; Flowerdew, M. J.; Fonseca Martin, T.; Formica, A.; Forti, A.; Fortin, D.; Fournier, D.; Fowler, A. J.; Fox, H.; Francavilla, P.; Franchini, M.; Franchino, S.; Francis, D.; Frank, T.; Franz, S.; Fraternali, M.; Fratina, S.; French, S. T.; Friedrich, C.; Friedrich, F.; Froeschl, R.; Froidevaux, D.; Frost, J. A.; Fukunaga, C.; Fullana Torregrosa, E.; Fulsom, B. G.; Fuster, J.; Gabaldon, C.; Gabizon, O.; Gadfort, T.; Gadomski, S.; Gagliardi, G.; Gagnon, P.; Galea, C.; Galhardo, B.; Gallas, E. J.; Gallo, V.; Gallop, B. 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M.; Nuncio-Quiroz, A.-E.; Nunes Hanninger, G.; Nunnemann, T.; Nurse, E.; O'Brien, B. J.; O'Neale, S. W.; O'Neil, D. C.; O'Shea, V.; Oakes, L. B.; Oakham, F. G.; Oberlack, H.; Ocariz, J.; Ochi, A.; Oda, S.; Odaka, S.; Odier, J.; Ogren, H.; Oh, A.; Oh, S. H.; Ohm, C. C.; Ohshima, T.; Okawa, H.; Okumura, Y.; Okuyama, T.; Olariu, A.; Olchevski, A. G.; Olivares Pino, S. A.; Oliveira, M.; Oliveira Damazio, D.; Oliver Garcia, E.; Olivito, D.; Olszewski, A.; Olszowska, J.; Onofre, A.; Onyisi, P. U. E.; Oram, C. J.; Oreglia, M. J.; Oren, Y.; Orestano, D.; Orlando, N.; Orlov, I.; Oropeza Barrera, C.; Orr, R. S.; Osculati, B.; Ospanov, R.; Osuna, C.; Otero y Garzon, G.; Ottersbach, J. P.; Ouchrif, M.; Ouellette, E. A.; Ould-Saada, F.; Ouraou, A.; Ouyang, Q.; Ovcharova, A.; Owen, M.; Owen, S.; Ozcan, V. E.; Ozturk, N.; Pacheco Pages, A.; Padilla Aranda, C.; Pagan Griso, S.; Paganis, E.; Pahl, C.; Paige, F.; Pais, P.; Pajchel, K.; Palacino, G.; Paleari, C. P.; Palestini, S.; Pallin, D.; Palma, A.; Palmer, J. D.; Pan, Y. B.; Panagiotopoulou, E.; Pani, P.; Panikashvili, N.; Panitkin, S.; Pantea, D.; Papadelis, A.; Papadopoulou, Th. D.; Paramonov, A.; Paredes Hernandez, D.; Park, W.; Parker, M. A.; Parodi, F.; Parsons, J. A.; Parzefall, U.; Pashapour, S.; Pasqualucci, E.; Passaggio, S.; Passeri, A.; Pastore, F.; Pastore, Fr.; Pásztor, G.; Pataraia, S.; Patel, N. D.; Pater, J. R.; Patricelli, S.; Pauly, T.; Pecsy, M.; Pedraza Lopez, S.; Pedraza Morales, M. I.; Peleganchuk, S. V.; Pelikan, D.; Peng, H.; Penning, B.; Penson, A.; Penwell, J.; Perantoni, M.; Perez, K.; Perez Cavalcanti, T.; Perez Codina, E.; Pérez García-Estañ, M. T.; Perez Reale, V.; Perini, L.; Pernegger, H.; Perrino, R.; Perrodo, P.; Peshekhonov, V. D.; Peters, K.; Petersen, B. A.; Petersen, J.; Petersen, T. C.; Petit, E.; Petridis, A.; Petridou, C.; Petrolo, E.; Petrucci, F.; Petschull, D.; Petteni, M.; Pezoa, R.; Phan, A.; Phillips, P. W.; Piacquadio, G.; Picazio, A.; Piccaro, E.; Piccinini, M.; Piec, S. M.; Piegaia, R.; Pignotti, D. T.; Pilcher, J. E.; Pilkington, A. D.; Pina, J.; Pinamonti, M.; Pinder, A.; Pinfold, J. L.; Pinto, B.; Pizio, C.; Plamondon, M.; Pleier, M.-A.; Plotnikova, E.; Poblaguev, A.; Poddar, S.; Podlyski, F.; Poggioli, L.; Pohl, D.; Pohl, M.; Polesello, G.; Policicchio, A.; Polini, A.; Poll, J.; Polychronakos, V.; Pomeroy, D.; Pommès, K.; Pontecorvo, L.; Pope, B. G.; Popeneciu, G. A.; Popovic, D. S.; Poppleton, A.; Portell Bueso, X.; Pospelov, G. E.; Pospisil, S.; Potrap, I. N.; Potter, C. J.; Potter, C. T.; Poulard, G.; Poveda, J.; Pozdnyakov, V.; Prabhu, R.; Pralavorio, P.; Pranko, A.; Prasad, S.; Pravahan, R.; Prell, S.; Pretzl, K.; Price, D.; Price, J.; Price, L. E.; Prieur, D.; Primavera, M.; Prokofiev, K.; Prokoshin, F.; Protopopescu, S.; Proudfoot, J.; Prudent, X.; Przybycien, M.; Przysiezniak, H.; Psoroulas, S.; Ptacek, E.; Pueschel, E.; Purdham, J.; Purohit, M.; Puzo, P.; Pylypchenko, Y.; Qian, J.; Quadt, A.; Quarrie, D. R.; Quayle, W. B.; Quinonez, F.; Raas, M.; Radeka, V.; Radescu, V.; Radloff, P.; Rador, T.; Ragusa, F.; Rahal, G.; Rahimi, A. M.; Rahm, D.; Rajagopalan, S.; Rammensee, M.; Rammes, M.; Randle-Conde, A. S.; Randrianarivony, K.; Rauscher, F.; Rave, T. C.; Raymond, M.; Read, A. L.; Rebuzzi, D. M.; Redelbach, A.; Redlinger, G.; Reece, R.; Reeves, K.; Reinherz-Aronis, E.; Reinsch, A.; Reisinger, I.; Rembser, C.; Ren, Z. L.; Renaud, A.; Rescigno, M.; Resconi, S.; Resende, B.; Reznicek, P.; Rezvani, R.; Richter, R.; Richter-Was, E.; Ridel, M.; Rijpstra, M.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rimoldi, A.; Rinaldi, L.; Rios, R. R.; Riu, I.; Rivoltella, G.; Rizatdinova, F.; Rizvi, E.; Robertson, S. H.; Robichaud-Veronneau, A.; Robinson, D.; Robinson, J. E. M.; Robson, A.; Rocha de Lima, J. G.; Roda, C.; Roda Dos Santos, D.; Roe, A.; Roe, S.; Røhne, O.; Rolli, S.; Romaniouk, A.; Romano, M.; Romeo, G.; Romero Adam, E.; Rompotis, N.; Roos, L.; Ros, E.; Rosati, S.; Rosbach, K.; Rose, A.; Rose, M.; Rosenbaum, G. A.; Rosenberg, E. I.; Rosendahl, P. L.; Rosenthal, O.; Rosselet, L.; Rossetti, V.; Rossi, E.; Rossi, L. P.; Rotaru, M.; Roth, I.; Rothberg, J.; Rousseau, D.; Royon, C. R.; Rozanov, A.; Rozen, Y.; Ruan, X.; Rubbo, F.; Rubinskiy, I.; Ruckstuhl, N.; Rud, V. I.; Rudolph, C.; Rudolph, G.; Rühr, F.; Ruiz-Martinez, A.; Rumyantsev, L.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakovich, N. A.; Rutherfoord, J. P.; Ruwiedel, C.; Ruzicka, P.; Ryabov, Y. F.; Rybar, M.; Rybkin, G.; Ryder, N. C.; Saavedra, A. F.; Sadeh, I.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Sadykov, R.; Safai Tehrani, F.; Sakamoto, H.; Salamanna, G.; Salamon, A.; Saleem, M.; Salek, D.; Salihagic, D.; Salnikov, A.; Salt, J.; Salvachua Ferrando, B. M.; Salvatore, D.; Salvatore, F.; Salvucci, A.; Salzburger, A.; Sampsonidis, D.; Samset, B. H.; Sanchez, A.; Sánchez, J.; Sanchez Martinez, V.; Sandaker, H.; Sander, H. G.; Sanders, M. P.; Sandhoff, M.; Sandoval, T.; Sandoval, C.; Sandstroem, R.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Sansoni, A.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santoni, C.; Santonico, R.; Santos, H.; Saraiva, J. G.; Sarangi, T.; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E.; Sarri, F.; Sartisohn, G.; Sasaki, O.; Sasaki, Y.; Sasao, N.; Satsounkevitch, I.; Sauvage, G.; Sauvan, E.; Sauvan, J. B.; Savard, P.; Savinov, V.; Savu, D. O.; Sawyer, L.; Saxon, D. H.; Saxon, J.; Sbarra, C.; Sbrizzi, A.; Scannicchio, D. A.; Scarcella, M.; Schaarschmidt, J.; Schacht, P.; Schaefer, D.; Schaepe, S.; Schaetzel, S.; Schäfer, U.; Schaffer, A. C.; Schaile, D.; Schamberger, R. D.; Schamov, A. G.; Scharf, V.; Schegelsky, V. A.; Scheirich, D.; Schernau, M.; Scherzer, M. I.; Schiavi, C.; Schieck, J.; Schioppa, M.; Schlenker, S.; Schmidt, E.; Schmieden, K.; Schmitt, C.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, M.; Schneider, B.; Schnoor, U.; Schoening, A.; Schorlemmer, A. L. S.; Schott, M.; Schouten, D.; Schovancova, J.; Schram, M.; Schroeder, C.; Schroer, N.; Schultens, M. J.; Schultes, J.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Schulz, H.; Schumacher, M.; Schumm, B. A.; Schune, Ph.; Schwanenberger, C.; Schwartzman, A.; Schwegler, Ph.; Schwemling, Ph.; Schwienhorst, R.; Schwierz, R.; Schwindling, J.; Schwindt, T.; Schwoerer, M.; Sciolla, G.; Scott, W. G.; Searcy, J.; Sedov, G.; Sedykh, E.; Seidel, S. C.; Seiden, A.; Seifert, F.; Seixas, J. M.; Sekhniaidze, G.; Sekula, S. J.; Selbach, K. E.; Seliverstov, D. M.; Sellden, B.; Sellers, G.; Seman, M.; Semprini-Cesari, N.; Serfon, C.; Serin, L.; Serkin, L.; Seuster, R.; Severini, H.; Sfyrla, A.; Shabalina, E.; Shamim, M.; Shan, L. Y.; Shank, J. T.; Shao, Q. T.; Shapiro, M.; Shatalov, P. B.; Shaw, K.; Sherman, D.; Sherwood, P.; Shibata, A.; Shimizu, S.; Shimojima, M.; Shin, T.; Shiyakova, M.; Shmeleva, A.; Shochet, M. J.; Short, D.; Shrestha, S.; Shulga, E.; Shupe, M. A.; Sicho, P.; Sidoti, A.; Siegert, F.; Sijacki, Dj.; Silbert, O.; Silva, J.; Silver, Y.; Silverstein, D.; Silverstein, S. B.; Simak, V.; Simard, O.; Simic, Lj.; Simion, S.; Simioni, E.; Simmons, B.; Simoniello, R.; Simonyan, M.; Sinervo, P.; Sinev, N. B.; Sipica, V.; Siragusa, G.; Sircar, A.; Sisakyan, A. N.; Sivoklokov, S. Yu.; Sjölin, J.; Sjursen, T. B.; Skinnari, L. A.; Skottowe, H. P.; Skovpen, K.; Skubic, P.; Slater, M.; Slavicek, T.; Sliwa, K.; Smakhtin, V.; Smart, B. H.; Smestad, L.; Smirnov, S. Yu.; Smirnov, Y.; Smirnova, L. N.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, B. C.; Smith, D.; Smith, K. M.; Smizanska, M.; Smolek, K.; Snesarev, A. A.; Snow, S. W.; Snow, J.; Snyder, S.; Sobie, R.; Sodomka, J.; Soffer, A.; Soh, D. A.; Solans, C. A.; Solar, M.; Solc, J.; Soldatov, E. Yu.; Soldevila, U.; Solfaroli Camillocci, E.; Solodkov, A. A.; Solovyanov, O. V.; Solovyev, V.; Soni, N.; Sopko, V.; Sopko, B.; Sosebee, M.; Soualah, R.; Soukharev, A.; Spagnolo, S.; Spanò, F.; Spighi, R.; Spigo, G.; Spiwoks, R.; Spousta, M.; Spreitzer, T.; Spurlock, B.; St. Denis, R. D.; Stahlman, J.; Stamen, R.; Stanecka, E.; Stanek, R. W.; Stanescu, C.; Stanescu-Bellu, M.; Stanitzki, M. M.; Stapnes, S.; Starchenko, E. A.; Stark, J.; Staroba, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Staszewski, R.; Staude, A.; Stavina, P.; Steele, G.; Steinbach, P.; Steinberg, P.; Stekl, I.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer, H. J.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stenzel, H.; Stern, S.; Stewart, G. A.; Stillings, J. A.; Stockton, M. C.; Stoerig, K.; Stoicea, G.; Stonjek, S.; Strachota, P.; Stradling, A. R.; Straessner, A.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strandlie, A.; Strang, M.; Strauss, E.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Ströhmer, R.; Strom, D. M.; Strong, J. A.; Stroynowski, R.; Strube, J.; Stugu, B.; Stumer, I.; Stupak, J.; Sturm, P.; Styles, N. A.; Su, D.; Subramania, HS.; Succurro, A.; Sugaya, Y.; Suhr, C.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V. V.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, X.; Sundermann, J. E.; Suruliz, K.; Susinno, G.; Sutton, M. R.; Suzuki, Y.; Suzuki, Y.; Svatos, M.; Swedish, S.; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Ta, D.; Tackmann, K.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taiblum, N.; Takahashi, Y.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeda, H.; Takeshita, T.; Takubo, Y.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A.; Tamsett, M. C.; Tan, K. G.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tanaka, S.; Tanasijczuk, A. J.; Tani, K.; Tannoury, N.; Tapprogge, S.; Tardif, D.; Tarem, S.; Tarrade, F.; Tartarelli, G. F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tassi, E.; Tatarkhanov, M.; Tayalati, Y.; Taylor, C.; Taylor, F. E.; Taylor, G. N.; Taylor, W.; Teinturier, M.; Teischinger, F. A.; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, M.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Temming, K. K.; Ten Kate, H.; Teng, P. K.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R. J.; Therhaag, J.; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T.; Thoma, S.; Thomas, J. P.; Thompson, E. N.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomsen, L. A.; Thomson, E.; Thomson, M.; Thong, W. M.; Thun, R. P.; Tian, F.; Tibbetts, M. J.; Tic, T.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tikhonov, Y. A.; Timoshenko, S.; Tipton, P.; Tisserant, S.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Toggerson, B.; Tojo, J.; Tokár, S.; Tokushuku, K.; Tollefson, K.; Tomlinson, L.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Tonoyan, A.; Topfel, C.; Topilin, N. D.; Torchiani, I.; Torrence, E.; Torres, H.; Torró Pastor, E.; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D. R.; Trefzger, T.; Tremblet, L.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I. M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Tripiana, M. F.; Triplett, N.; Trischuk, W.; Trocmé, B.; Troncon, C.; Trottier-McDonald, M.; Trzebinski, M.; Trzupek, A.; Tsarouchas, C.; Tseng, J. C.-L.; Tsiakiris, M.; Tsiareshka, P. V.; Tsionou, D.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsiskaridze, S.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E. G.; Tsukerman, I. I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsung, J.-W.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Tua, A.; Tudorache, A.; Tudorache, V.; Tuggle, J. M.; Turala, M.; Turecek, D.; Turk Cakir, I.; Turlay, E.; Turra, R.; Tuts, P. M.; Tykhonov, A.; Tylmad, M.; Tyndel, M.; Tzanakos, G.; Uchida, K.; Ueda, I.; Ueno, R.; Ugland, M.; Uhlenbrock, M.; Uhrmacher, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Unno, Y.; Urbaniec, D.; Usai, G.; Uslenghi, M.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Vahsen, S.; Valenta, J.; Valentinetti, S.; Valero, A.; Valkar, S.; Valladolid Gallego, E.; Vallecorsa, S.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; Van Berg, R.; Van Der Deijl, P. C.; van der Geer, R.; van der Graaf, H.; Van Der Leeuw, R.; van der Poel, E.; van der Ster, D.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; van Vulpen, I.; Vanadia, M.; Vandelli, W.; Vaniachine, A.; Vankov, P.; Vannucci, F.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E. W.; Varol, T.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K. E.; Vassilakopoulos, V. I.; Vazeille, F.; Vazquez Schroeder, T.; Vegni, G.; Veillet, J. J.; Veloso, F.; Veness, R.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J. C.; Vest, A.; Vetterli, M. C.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Vickey Boeriu, O. E.; Viehhauser, G. H. A.; Viel, S.; Villa, M.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinek, E.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Virchaux, M.; Virzi, J.; Vitells, O.; Viti, M.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives Vaque, F.; Vlachos, S.; Vladoiu, D.; Vlasak, M.; Vogel, A.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, G.; Volpi, M.; Volpini, G.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Radziewski, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorwerk, V.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vu Anh, T.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Wagner, W.; Wagner, P.; Wahlen, H.; Wahrmund, S.; Wakabayashi, J.; Walch, S.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wall, R.; Waller, P.; Walsh, B.; Wang, C.; Wang, H.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, R.; Wang, S. M.; Wang, T.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Warsinsky, M.; Washbrook, A.; Wasicki, C.; Watanabe, I.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, I. J.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, A. T.; Waugh, B. M.; Weber, M. S.; Weber, P.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weigell, P.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Wells, P. S.; Wenaus, T.; Wendland, D.; Weng, Z.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Werth, M.; Wessels, M.; Wetter, J.; Weydert, C.; Whalen, K.; Wheeler-Ellis, S. J.; White, A.; White, M. J.; White, S.; Whitehead, S. R.; Whiteson, D.; Whittington, D.; Wicek, F.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik-Fuchs, L. A. M.; Wijeratne, P. A.; Wildauer, A.; Wildt, M. A.; Wilhelm, I.; Wilkens, H. G.; Will, J. Z.; Williams, E.; Williams, H. H.; Willis, W.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, J. A.; Wilson, M. G.; Wilson, A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winkelmann, S.; Winklmeier, F.; Wittgen, M.; Wollstadt, S. J.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Wong, W. C.; Wooden, G.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wozniak, K. W.; Wraight, K.; Wright, M.; Wrona, B.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wulf, E.; Wynne, B. M.; Xella, S.; Xiao, M.; Xie, S.; Xu, C.; Xu, D.; Yabsley, B.; Yacoob, S.; Yamada, M.; Yamaguchi, H.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamamura, T.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamaoka, J.; Yamazaki, T.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, U. K.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Z.; Yanush, S.; Yao, L.; Yao, Y.; Yasu, Y.; Ybeles Smit, G. V.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yilmaz, M.; Yoosoofmiya, R.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Young, C.; Young, C. J.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D.; Yu, D. R.; Yu, J.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yurkewicz, A.; Zabinski, B.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zajacova, Z.; Zanello, L.; Zanzi, D.; Zaytsev, A.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeman, M.; Zemla, A.; Zendler, C.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zenz, S.; Zerwas, D.; Zevi della Porta, G.; Zhan, Z.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, L.; Zhao, T.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, N.; Zhou, Y.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhuravlov, V.; Zieminska, D.; Zimin, N. I.; Zimmermann, R.; Zimmermann, S.; Zimmermann, S.; Zinonos, Z.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zitoun, R.; Živković, L.; Zmouchko, V. V.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; zur Nedden, M.; Zutshi, V.; Zwalinski, L.

    2013-08-01

    The luminosity calibration for the ATLAS detector at the LHC during pp collisions at in 2010 and 2011 is presented. Evaluation of the luminosity scale is performed using several luminosity-sensitive detectors, and comparisons are made of the long-term stability and accuracy of this calibration applied to the pp collisions at . A luminosity uncertainty of is obtained for the 47 pb-1 of data delivered to ATLAS in 2010, and an uncertainty of is obtained for the 5.5 fb-1 delivered in 2011.

  5. Identified particle production in p+p and d+Au collisions at RHIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hongyan; BRAHMS Collaboration

    2007-08-01

    The BRAHMS experiment at RHIC has measured the transverse momentum spectra of charged pions, kaons and (anti-)protons over a wide range of rapidity in d+Au and p+p collisions at \\sqrt{s_NN}=200 GeV. The nuclear modification factor RdAu at forward rapidity shows a clear suppression for π+. The measured net-proton yields in p+p collisions are compared to PYTHIA and HIJING/B and seem to be better described by the latter.

  6. Primary structure and transcription of the genes coding for the two virion phosphoproteins pp65 and pp71 of human cytomegalovirus.

    PubMed Central

    Rüger, B; Klages, S; Walla, B; Albrecht, J; Fleckenstein, B; Tomlinson, P; Barrell, B

    1987-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus contains a phosphorylated matrix protein of 65,000 apparent molecular weight (65K phosphoprotein; pp65) and a related phosphoprotein of 71,000 molecular weight (pp71). The 65K phosphoprotein is usually by far the most abundant structural component found in culture-grown purified virus particles. This study describes the precise mapping of the genes for both polypeptides, giving the entire nucleotide sequences and the exact positions of the respective transcripts. The 65K phosphoprotein is coded for by the 5'-terminal part of an abundant 4-kilobase (kb) mRNA. The 71K phosphoprotein corresponds to the single translational reading frame of a rare nonspliced 1.9-kb mRNA that is coterminal with the 4-kb transcript. The promoter for 4-kb mRNA appears to be unusual in structure; it does not contain a characteristic TATA sequence. The expression of antigenic epitopes from pp65 may allow improved serodiagnosis of human cytomegalovirus infections. Images PMID:3027374

  7. Greatwall-phosphorylated Endosulfine is both an inhibitor and a substrate of PP2A-B55 heterotrimers

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Byron C; Filter, Joshua J; Blake-Hodek, Kristina A; Wadzinski, Brian E; Fuda, Nicholas J; Shalloway, David; Goldberg, Michael L

    2014-01-01

    During M phase, Endosulfine (Endos) family proteins are phosphorylated by Greatwall kinase (Gwl), and the resultant pEndos inhibits the phosphatase PP2A-B55, which would otherwise prematurely reverse many CDK-driven phosphorylations. We show here that PP2A-B55 is the enzyme responsible for dephosphorylating pEndos during M phase exit. The kinetic parameters for PP2A-B55’s action on pEndos are orders of magnitude lower than those for CDK-phosphorylated substrates, suggesting a simple model for PP2A-B55 regulation that we call inhibition by unfair competition. As the name suggests, during M phase PP2A-B55’s attention is diverted to pEndos, which binds much more avidly and is dephosphorylated more slowly than other substrates. When Gwl is inactivated during the M phase-to-interphase transition, the dynamic balance changes: pEndos dephosphorylated by PP2A-B55 cannot be replaced, so the phosphatase can refocus its attention on CDK-phosphorylated substrates. This mechanism explains simultaneously how PP2A-B55 and Gwl together regulate pEndos, and how pEndos controls PP2A-B55. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01695.001 PMID:24618897

  8. The magic spot: identification of the binding site for ppGpp on E. coli RNA polymerase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite more than 40 years of study of the global regulatory nucleotide ppGpp ("magic spot") in Escherichia coli, its target site on RNA polymerase (RNAP), and therefore its mechanism of action, is unknown. We report here a binding site for ppGpp on E. coli RNAP, identified by crosslinking, protease...

  9. Subsurface PpIX imaging in vivo with ultrasound-guided tomographic spectroscopy: reconstruction vs. born-normalized data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flynn, Brendan P.; D'Souza, Alisha V.; Kanick, Stephen C.; Maytin, Edward; Hasan, Tayyaba; Pogue, Brian W.

    2013-03-01

    Aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-induced Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX)-based photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an effective treatment for skin cancers including basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Topically applied ALA promotes PpIX production preferentially in tumors, and many strategies have been developed to increase PpIX distribution and PDT treatment efficacy at depths > 1mm is not fully understood. While surface imaging techniques provide useful diagnosis, dosimetry, and efficacy information for superficial tumors, these methods cannot interrogate deeper tumors to provide in situ insight into spatial PpIX distributions. We have developed an ultrasound-guided, white-light-informed, tomographics spectroscopy system for the spatial measurement of subsurface PpIX. Detailed imaging system specifications, methodology, and optical-phantom-based characterization will be presented separately. Here we evaluate preliminary in vivo results using both full tomographic reconstruction and by plotting individual tomographic source-detector pair data against US images.

  10. A novel and essential mechanism determining specificity and activity of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) in vivo.

    PubMed

    Fellner, Thomas; Lackner, Daniel H; Hombauer, Hans; Piribauer, Patrick; Mudrak, Ingrid; Zaragoza, Katrin; Juno, Claudia; Ogris, Egon

    2003-09-01

    Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is an essential intracellular serine/threonine phosphatase containing a catalytic subunit that possesses the potential to dephosphorylate promiscuously tyrosine-phosphorylated substrates in vitro. How PP2A acquires its intracellular specificity and activity for serine/threonine-phosphorylated substrates is unknown. Here we report a novel and phylogenetically conserved mechanism to generate active phospho-serine/threonine-specific PP2A in vivo. Phosphotyrosyl phosphatase activator (PTPA), a protein of so far unknown intracellular function, is required for the biogenesis of active and specific PP2A. Deletion of the yeast PTPA homologs generated a PP2A catalytic subunit with a conformation different from the wild-type enzyme, as indicated by its altered substrate specificity, reduced protein stability, and metal dependence. Complementation and RNA-interference experiments showed that PTPA fulfills an essential function conserved from yeast to man.

  11. The upcycling of post-industrial PP/PET waste streams through in-situ microfibrillar preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Delva, Laurens Ragaert, Kim Cardon, Ludwig

    2015-12-17

    Post-industrial plastic waste streams can be re-used as secondary material streams for polymer processing by extrusion or injection moulding. One of the major commercially available waste stream contains polypropylene (PP) contaminated with polyesters (mostly polyethylene tereftalate - PET). An important practical hurdle for the direct implementation of this waste stream is the immiscibility of PP and PET in the melt, which leads to segregation within the polymer structure and adversely affects the reproducibility and mechanical properties of the manufactured parts. It has been indicated in literature that the creation of PET microfibrils in the PP matrix could undo these drawbacks and upcycle the PP/PET combination. Within the current research, a commercially available virgin PP/PET was evaluated for the microfibrillar preparation. The mechanical (tensile and impact) properties, thermal properties and morphology of the composites were characterized at different stages of the microfibrillar preparation.

  12. Protein phosphatase complex PP5/PPP2R3C dephosphorylates P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 and down-regulates the expression and function.

    PubMed

    Katayama, Kazuhiro; Yamaguchi, Miho; Noguchi, Kohji; Sugimoto, Yoshikazu

    2014-04-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp)/ABCB1 is a key molecule of multidrug resistance in cancer. Protein phosphatase (PP) 2A, regulatory subunit B, gamma (PPP2R3C), which is a regulatory subunit of PP2A and PP5, was identified as a binding candidate to P-gp. Immunoprecipitation-western blotting revealed that PP5 and PPP2R3C were coprecipitated with P-gp, while PP2A was not. PP5/PPP2R3C dephosphorylated protein kinase A/protein kinase C-phosphorylation of P-gp. Knockdown of PP5 and/or PPP2R3C increased P-gp expression and lowered the sensitivity to vincristine and doxorubicin. Consequently, our results indicate that PP5/PPP2R3C negatively regulates P-gp expression and function.

  13. Expression of the moss PpLEA4-20 gene in rice enhances membrane protection and client proteins stability.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Deng, Dandan; Chen, Xi; Wu, Baomei; Hu, Ke; Qiu, Tianhang; Cui, Suxia; Huang, Fang

    2015-05-01

    Green vegetative tissues of the moss Physcomitrella patens possess a powerful ability to tolerate severe drought stress. Proteomics analysis have revealed that a large number of late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins were key players in the drought tolerance of the photosynthetic tissues. PpLEA4-20, a member of the moss LEA protein family, was selected for further function study using an ectopic expression method in rice. Through molecular identification via PCR, southern blotting and TAIL-PCR, we demonstrated that the PpLEA4-20 gene was transformed and inserted into a non-encoded region in chromosome 4 of rice and expressed stably in transgenic rice. Unexpectedly, PpLEA4-20 protein emerged as two high-expressed spots on 2-D gels generated from transgenic rice, suggesting that PpLEA4-20 proteins are complete compatible and might be modified in rice. Both growth and physiological analysis showed that seedlings of transgenic PpLEA4-20 rice displayed altered phenotypes and tolerance to salt. In addition, electrolyte leakage was reduced in transgenic PpLEA4-20 compared to wild type under stress conditions. Anti-aggregation analysis found that the PpLEA4-20 protein expressed in rice remained soluble at high temperature and in addition to some native proteins from transgenic PpLEA4-20 rice. Based on Nano LC MS/MS analysis, we identified several proteins from transgenic PpLEA4-20 rice of increased heat-stability. Our results provide evidence for a role of PpLEA4-20 in salt tolerance and stabilization of client proteins. PMID:25791479

  14. Diversity in guanosine 3',5'-bisdiphosphate (ppGpp) sensitivity among guanylate kinases of bacteria and plants.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Yuhta; Izumi, Atsushi; Fukunaga, Yoshinori; Kusumi, Kensuke; Iba, Koh; Watanabe, Seiya; Nakahira, Yoichi; Weber, Andreas P M; Nozawa, Akira; Tozawa, Yuzuru

    2014-05-30

    The guanosine 3',5'-bisdiphosphate (ppGpp) signaling system is shared by bacteria and plant chloroplasts, but its role in plants has remained unclear. Here we show that guanylate kinase (GK), a key enzyme in guanine nucleotide biosynthesis that catalyzes the conversion of GMP to GDP, is a target of regulation by ppGpp in chloroplasts of rice, pea, and Arabidopsis. Plants have two distinct types of GK that are localized to organelles (GKpm) or to the cytosol (GKc), with both enzymes being essential for growth and development. We found that the activity of rice GKpm in vitro was inhibited by ppGpp with a Ki of 2.8 μM relative to the substrate GMP, whereas the Km of this enzyme for GMP was 73 μM. The IC50 of ppGpp for GKpm was ∼10 μM. In contrast, the activity of rice GKc was insensitive to ppGpp, as was that of GK from bakers' yeast, which is also a cytosolic enzyme. These observations suggest that ppGpp plays a pivotal role in the regulation of GTP biosynthesis in chloroplasts through specific inhibition of GKpm activity, with the regulation of GTP biosynthesis in chloroplasts thus being independent of that in the cytosol. We also found that GKs of Escherichia coli and Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 are insensitive to ppGpp, in contrast to the ppGpp sensitivity of the Bacillus subtilis enzyme. Our biochemical characterization of GK enzymes has thus revealed a novel target of ppGpp in chloroplasts and has uncovered diversity among bacterial GKs with regard to regulation by ppGpp.

  15. MS_RHII-RSD, a dual-function RNase HII-(p)ppGpp synthetase from Mycobacterium smegmatis.

    PubMed

    Murdeshwar, Maya S; Chatterji, Dipankar

    2012-08-01

    In the noninfectious soil saprophyte Mycobacterium smegmatis, intracellular levels of the stress alarmones guanosine tetraphosphate and guanosine pentaphosphate, together termed (p)ppGpp, are regulated by the enzyme Rel(Msm). This enzyme consists of a single, bifunctional polypeptide chain that is capable of both synthesizing and hydrolyzing (p)ppGpp. The rel(Msm) knockout strain of M. smegmatis (Δrel(Msm)) is expected to show a (p)ppGpp null [(p)ppGpp(0)] phenotype. Contrary to this expectation, the strain is capable of synthesizing (p)ppGpp in vivo. In this study, we identify and functionally characterize the open reading frame (ORF), MSMEG_5849, that encodes a second functional (p)ppGpp synthetase in M. smegmatis. In addition to (p)ppGpp synthesis, the 567-amino-acid-long protein encoded by this gene is capable of hydrolyzing RNA·DNA hybrids and bears similarity to the conventional RNase HII enzymes. We have classified this protein as actRel(Msm) in accordance with the recent nomenclature proposed and have named it MS_RHII-RSD, indicating the two enzymatic activities present [RHII, RNase HII domain, originally identified as domain of unknown function 429 (DUF429), and RSD, RelA_SpoT nucleotidyl transferase domain, the SYNTH domain responsible for (p)ppGpp synthesis activity]. MS_RHII-RSD is expressed and is constitutively active in vivo and behaves like a monofunctional (p)ppGpp synthetase in vitro. The occurrence of the RNase HII and (p)ppGpp synthetase domains together on the same polypeptide chain is suggestive of an in vivo role for this novel protein as a link connecting the essential life processes of DNA replication, repair, and transcription to the highly conserved stress survival pathway, the stringent response.

  16. A novel protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is involved in the transformation of human protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed Central

    González, Jorge; Cornejo, Alberto; Santos, Marcia R M; Cordero, Esteban M; Gutiérrez, Bessy; Porcile, Patricio; Mortara, Renato A; Sagua, Hernán; Da Silveira, José Franco; Araya, Jorge E

    2003-01-01

    Here we provide evidence for a critical role of PP2As (protein phosphatase 2As) in the transformation of Trypanosoma cruzi. In axenic medium at pH 5.0, trypomastigotes rapidly transform into amastigotes, a process blocked by okadaic acid, a potent PP2A inhibitor, at concentrations as low as 0.1 microM. 1-Norokadaone, an inactive okadaic acid analogue, did not affect the transformation. Electron microscopy studies indicated that okadaic acid-treated trypomastigotes had not undergone ultrastructural modifications, reinforcing the idea that PP2A inhibits transformation. Using a microcystin-Sepharose affinity column we purified the native T. cruzi PP2A. The enzyme displayed activity against 32P-labelled phosphorylase a that was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by okadaic acid. The protein was also submitted to MS and, from the peptides obtained, degenerate primers were used to clone a novel T. cruzi PP2A enzyme by PCR. The isolated gene encodes a protein of 303 amino acids, termed TcPP2A, which displayed a high degree of homology (86%) with the catalytic subunit of Trypanosoma brucei PP2A. Northern-blot analysis revealed the presence of a major 2.1-kb mRNA hybridizing in all T. cruzi developmental stages. Southern-blot analysis suggested that the TcPP2A gene is present in low copy number in the T. cruzi genome. These results are consistent with the mapping of PP2A genes in two chromosomal bands by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and chromoblot hybridization. Our studies suggest that in T. cruzi PP2A is important for the complete transformation of trypomastigotes into amastigotes during the life cycle of this protozoan parasite. PMID:12737627

  17. Fluorescence dynamics of ALA-induced PpIX in normal and malignant skin cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudworth, Caroline D.; Stringer, Mark R.; Cruse-Sawyer, Janet E.; Brown, Stanley B.

    2003-10-01

    We have applied a spectroscopic system capable of monitoring the fluorescence dynamics of photosensitiser at micron-scale locations within individual cells. This report shows that the accumulation of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) within the nucleus of formalin-fixed keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and a metastatic squamous carcinoma cell line, following incubation with 5-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA), is dependent upon both incubation time and cell proliferation status. We demonstrate that the process of photobleaching can be monitored via the depletion in PpIX fluorescence emission during exposure to 532 nm laser light. All spectra show a progressive reduction of the 634 nm PpIX peak - following a bi-exponential decay which is consistent with a singlet oxygen mediated process. The rate of photobleaching, when plotted as a function of light dose, increases with reduced incident laser power. The generation of the hydroxyaldehyde-chlorin photoproduct, as monitored by the increase in fluorescence emission centred on 672 nm, is also greatest when the lowest laser power is applied. When light is delivered in two fractions, there is evidence of PpIX fluorescence recovery during the dark period, and an increase in bleaching rate at the onset of the second exposure. These results are in qualitative agreement with measurements performed in vivo which demonstrate that the photodynamic dose is dependent upon fluence-rate and oxygen status.

  18. Designed abscisic acid analogs as antagonists of PYL-PP2C receptor interactions.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Jun; Okamoto, Masanori; Akiyama, Tomonori; Muto, Takuya; Yajima, Shunsuke; Sue, Masayuki; Seo, Mitsunori; Kanno, Yuri; Kamo, Tsunashi; Endo, Akira; Nambara, Eiji; Hirai, Nobuhiro; Ohnishi, Toshiyuki; Cutler, Sean R; Todoroki, Yasushi

    2014-06-01

    The plant stress hormone abscisic acid (ABA) is critical for several abiotic stress responses. ABA signaling is normally repressed by group-A protein phosphatases 2C (PP2Cs), but stress-induced ABA binds Arabidopsis PYR/PYL/RCAR (PYL) receptors, which then bind and inhibit PP2Cs. X-ray structures of several receptor-ABA complexes revealed a tunnel above ABA's 3' ring CH that opens at the PP2C binding interface. Here, ABA analogs with sufficiently long 3' alkyl chains were predicted to traverse this tunnel and block PYL-PP2C interactions. To test this, a series of 3'-alkylsulfanyl ABAs were synthesized with different alkyl chain lengths. Physiological, biochemical and structural analyses revealed that a six-carbon alkyl substitution produced a potent ABA antagonist that was sufficiently active to block multiple stress-induced ABA responses in vivo. This study provides a new approach for the design of ABA analogs, and the results validated structure-based design for this target class. PMID:24792952

  19. A functional genomic analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana PP2C clade D

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the reference dicot plant Arabidopsis thaliana, the PP2C family of P-protein phosphatases includes the products of 80 genes that have been separated into 10 multi-protein clades plus six singletons. Clade D includes the products of nine genes distributed among 3 chromosomes (PPD1, At3g12620; PPD2...

  20. DETAIL OF THE INTERIOR OF PP37L (VIEWING PORTAL), AND A ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF THE INTERIOR OF PP37L (VIEWING PORTAL), AND A FLUORESCENT LIGHT, ALTITUDE CHAMBER L, FACING SOUTH - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Altitude Chambers, First Street, between Avenue D and Avenue E, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  1. Midrapidity inclusive densities in high energy pp collisions in additive quark model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shabelski, Yu. M.; Shuvaev, A. G.

    2016-08-01

    High energy (CERN SPS and LHC) inelastic pp (pbar{p}) scattering is treated in the framework of the additive quark model together with Pomeron exchange theory. We extract the midrapidity inclusive density of the charged secondaries produced in a single quark-quark collision and investigate its energy dependence. Predictions for the π p collisions are presented.

  2. Spin dependence of the reaction {rvec n}p {yields} pp{pi}{sup {minus}}

    SciTech Connect

    Lacker, H.

    2000-12-31

    The reaction {rvec n}p {yields} pp{pi}{sup {minus}} was investigated with a large-acceptance time-of-flight spectrometer from threshold up to 570 MeV. The experiment was performed with the polarized neutron beam at PSI using a liquid hydrogen target. Preliminary results of invariant mass spectra, angular distributions, and asymmetries are presented.

  3. Designed abscisic acid analogs as antagonists of PYL-PP2C receptor interactions.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Jun; Okamoto, Masanori; Akiyama, Tomonori; Muto, Takuya; Yajima, Shunsuke; Sue, Masayuki; Seo, Mitsunori; Kanno, Yuri; Kamo, Tsunashi; Endo, Akira; Nambara, Eiji; Hirai, Nobuhiro; Ohnishi, Toshiyuki; Cutler, Sean R; Todoroki, Yasushi

    2014-06-01

    The plant stress hormone abscisic acid (ABA) is critical for several abiotic stress responses. ABA signaling is normally repressed by group-A protein phosphatases 2C (PP2Cs), but stress-induced ABA binds Arabidopsis PYR/PYL/RCAR (PYL) receptors, which then bind and inhibit PP2Cs. X-ray structures of several receptor-ABA complexes revealed a tunnel above ABA's 3' ring CH that opens at the PP2C binding interface. Here, ABA analogs with sufficiently long 3' alkyl chains were predicted to traverse this tunnel and block PYL-PP2C interactions. To test this, a series of 3'-alkylsulfanyl ABAs were synthesized with different alkyl chain lengths. Physiological, biochemical and structural analyses revealed that a six-carbon alkyl substitution produced a potent ABA antagonist that was sufficiently active to block multiple stress-induced ABA responses in vivo. This study provides a new approach for the design of ABA analogs, and the results validated structure-based design for this target class.

  4. Search for S = - 1 strange dibaryons by means of the reaction pp → K+X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frascaria, R.

    An experimental search for strange S = - 1 dibaryons, performed at Saturne National Laboratory by means of pp → K+X is described. The experimental status and the theoretical previsions are presented first. A presentation of our preliminary results is then given , with a discussion on further developments.

  5. Has an isotensor meson been seen in pp --> π+/-X-/+?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dover, Carl B.

    1984-10-01

    We suggest that the narrow meson X recently observed in the pp --> π+/-X-/+ reaction may have quantum numbers JπC(IG) = 1+/-(2-). Other reactions which test this isotensor assignment are discussed. Laboratoire associé au CNRS.

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of Carbaryl-Degrading Soil Isolate Pseudomonas sp. Strain C5pp.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Vikas D; Jangir, Pramod Kumar; Sharma, Rakesh; Phale, Prashant S

    2016-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequence of carbaryl-degrading Pseudomonas sp. strain C5pp. Genes encoding salicylate and gentisate metabolism, large amounts of oxygenase, nitrogen metabolism, and heavy metal tolerance were identified. The sequence will provide further insight into the biochemical and evolutionary aspects of carbaryl degradation. PMID:27284139

  7. Exclusive charm production in pp collisions at {radical}(s) < or approx. 15 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Titov, A. I.; Kaempfer, B.

    2008-08-15

    We discuss the open charm production in the peripheral reactions pp{yields}Y{sub c}Y{sub c} and pp{yields}M{sub c}M{sub c}, where Y{sub c} and M{sub c} stand for {lambda}{sub c}{sup +},{sigma}{sub c}{sup +} and D,D*, respectively, at {radical}(s) < or approx. 15 GeV, which corresponds to the energy range of FAIR. Our consideration is based on the topological decomposition of the planar quark and diquark diagrams, which allows us to estimate consistently meson and baryon exchange trajectories and energy scale parameters as well. The spin dependance is determined by the effective interaction of the lowest exchanged resonance. Unknown parameters are fixed by an independent analysis of open strangeness production in pp{yields}YY and pp{yields}KK reactions and of SU(4) symmetry. We present the corresponding cross sections and longitudinal double-spin asymmetries for exclusive binary reactions with open charm mesons and baryons in the final state. The polarization observables have a nontrivial t and s dependence that is sensitive to details of the open charm production mechanism.

  8. Intrinsic fluctuations of the proton saturation momentum scale in high multiplicity p+p collisions

    DOE PAGES

    McLerran, Larry; Tribedy, Prithwish

    2015-11-02

    High multiplicity events in p+p collisions are studied using the theory of the Color Glass Condensate. Here, we show that intrinsic fluctuations of the proton saturation momentum scale are needed in addition to the sub-nucleonic color charge fluctuations to explain the very high multiplicity tail of distributions in p+p collisions. It is presumed that the origin of such intrinsic fluctuations is non-perturbative in nature. Classical Yang Mills simulations using the IP-Glasma model are performed to make quantitative estimations. Furthermore, we find that fluctuations as large as O(1) of the average values of the saturation momentum scale can lead to raremore » high multiplicity events seen in p+p data at RHIC and LHC energies. Using the available data on multiplicity distributions we try to constrain the distribution of the proton saturation momentum scale and make predictions for the multiplicity distribution in 13 TeV p+p collisions.« less

  9. PP1-mediated moesin dephosphorylation couples polar relaxation to mitotic exit.

    PubMed

    Kunda, Patricia; Rodrigues, Nelio T L; Moeendarbary, Emadaldin; Liu, Tao; Ivetic, Aleksandar; Charras, Guillaume; Baum, Buzz

    2012-02-01

    Animal cells undergo dramatic actin-dependent changes in shape as they progress through mitosis; they round up upon mitotic entry and elongate during chromosome segregation before dividing into two [1-3]. Moesin, the sole Drosophila ERM-family protein [4], plays a critical role in this process, through the construction of a stiff, rounded metaphase cortex [5-7]. At mitotic exit, this rigid cortex must be dismantled to allow for anaphase elongation and cytokinesis through the loss of the active pool of phospho-Thr559moesin from cell poles. Here, in an RNA interference (RNAi) screen for phosphatases involved in the temporal and spatial control of moesin, we identify PP1-87B RNAi as having elevated p-moesin levels and reduced cortical compliance. In mitosis, RNAi-induced depletion of PP1-87B or depletion of a conserved noncatalytic PP1 phosphatase subunit Sds22 leads to defects in p-moesin clearance from cell poles at anaphase, a delay in anaphase elongation, together with defects in bipolar anaphase relaxation and cytokinesis. Importantly, similar cortical defects are seen at anaphase following the expression of a constitutively active, phosphomimetic version of moesin. These data reveal a new role for the PP1-87B/Sds22 phosphatase, an important regulator of the metaphase-anaphase transition, in coupling moesin-dependent cell shape changes to mitotic exit.

  10. D-meson production in 800-GeV/c pp interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammar, R.; Ball, R. C.; Banerjee, S.; Bhat, P. C.; Bosetti, P.; Bromberg, C.; Canough, G. E.; Coffin, T.; Dershem, T. O.; Dixon, R. L.; Fenker, H. C.; Ganguli, S. N.; Gensch, U.; Girtler, P.; Goshaw, A. T.; Grard, F.; Gurtu, A.; Hamilton, C.; Henri, V. P.; Hernandez, J. J.; Hrubec, J.; Iori, M.; Jones, L. W.; Kuhn, D.; Knauss, D.; Leedom, I. D.; Legros, P.; Lemonne, J.; Leutz, H.; Liu, X.; Malhotra, P. K.; Marraffino, J. M.; Mendez, G. E.; Miller, R.; Naumann, T.; Nguyen, A.; Nowak, H.; Pilette, P.; Poirier, J.; Poppleton, A.; Raghavan, R.; Rasner, K.; Reucroft, S.; Robertson, W. J.; Roe, B. P.; Roth, A.; Senko, M.; Struczinski, W.; Subramanian, A.; Touboul, M. C.; Vonck, B.; Voyvodic, L.; Waters, J. W.; Weber, M. F.; Webster, M. S.; Zabounidis, C.

    1988-11-01

    We report on a study of the inclusive production properties of D/D¯ mesons in pp collisions at 800 GeV/c and compare our results to measurements made at lower energies and to the expectations of the QCD fusion model.

  11. The Arabidopsis Protein Phosphatase PP2C38 Negatively Regulates the Central Immune Kinase BIK1.

    PubMed

    Couto, Daniel; Niebergall, Roda; Liang, Xiangxiu; Bücherl, Christoph A; Sklenar, Jan; Macho, Alberto P; Ntoukakis, Vardis; Derbyshire, Paul; Altenbach, Denise; Maclean, Dan; Robatzek, Silke; Uhrig, Joachim; Menke, Frank; Zhou, Jian-Min; Zipfel, Cyril

    2016-08-01

    Plants recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) via cell surface-localized pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), leading to PRR-triggered immunity (PTI). The Arabidopsis cytoplasmic kinase BIK1 is a downstream substrate of several PRR complexes. How plant PTI is negatively regulated is not fully understood. Here, we identify the protein phosphatase PP2C38 as a negative regulator of BIK1 activity and BIK1-mediated immunity. PP2C38 dynamically associates with BIK1, as well as with the PRRs FLS2 and EFR, but not with the co-receptor BAK1. PP2C38 regulates PAMP-induced BIK1 phosphorylation and impairs the phosphorylation of the NADPH oxidase RBOHD by BIK1, leading to reduced oxidative burst and stomatal immunity. Upon PAMP perception, PP2C38 is phosphorylated on serine 77 and dissociates from the FLS2/EFR-BIK1 complexes, enabling full BIK1 activation. Together with our recent work on the control of BIK1 turnover, this study reveals another important regulatory mechanism of this central immune component. PMID:27494702

  12. On the angular and energy distribution of solar neutrons generated in P-P reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Efimov, Y. E.; Kocharov, G. E.

    1985-01-01

    The problem of high energy neutron generation in P-P reactions in the solar atmosphere is reconsidered. It is shown that the angular distribution of emitted neutrons is anisotropic and the energy spectrum of neutrons depends on the angle of neutron emission.

  13. (p)ppGpp controls bacterial persistence by stochastic induction of toxin-antitoxin activity.

    PubMed

    Maisonneuve, Etienne; Castro-Camargo, Manuela; Gerdes, Kenn

    2013-08-29

    Persistence refers to the phenomenon in which isogenic populations of antibiotic-sensitive bacteria produce rare cells that transiently become multidrug tolerant. Whether slow growth in a rare subset of cells underlies the persistence phenotype has not be examined in wild-type bacteria. Here, we show that an exponentially growing population of wild-type Escherichia coli cells produces rare cells that stochastically switch into slow growth, that the slow-growing cells are multidrug tolerant, and that they are able to resuscitate. The persistence phenotype depends hierarchically on the signaling nucleotide (p)ppGpp, Lon protease, inorganic polyphosphate, and toxin-antitoxins. We show that the level of (p)ppGpp varies stochastically in a population of exponentially growing cells and that the high (p)ppGpp level in rare cells induces slow growth and persistence. (p)ppGpp triggers slow growth by activating toxin-antitoxin loci through a regulatory cascade depending on inorganic polyphosphate and Lon protease.

  14. PP2A and GSK-3beta act antagonistically to regulate active zone development.

    PubMed

    Viquez, Natasha M; Füger, Petra; Valakh, Vera; Daniels, Richard W; Rasse, Tobias M; DiAntonio, Aaron

    2009-09-16

    The synapse is composed of an active zone apposed to a postsynaptic cluster of neurotransmitter receptors. Each Drosophila neuromuscular junction comprises hundreds of such individual release sites apposed to clusters of glutamate receptors. Here, we show that protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is required for the development of structurally normal active zones opposite glutamate receptors. When PP2A is inhibited presynaptically, many glutamate receptor clusters are unapposed to Bruchpilot (Brp), an active zone protein required for normal transmitter release. These unapposed receptors are not due to presynaptic retraction of synaptic boutons, since other presynaptic components are still apposed to the entire postsynaptic specialization. Instead, these data suggest that Brp localization is regulated at the level of individual release sites. Live imaging of glutamate receptors demonstrates that this disruption to active zone development is accompanied by abnormal postsynaptic development, with decreased formation of glutamate receptor clusters. Remarkably, inhibition of the serine-threonine kinase GSK-3beta completely suppresses the active zone defect, as well as other synaptic morphology phenotypes associated with inhibition of PP2A. These data suggest that PP2A and GSK-3beta function antagonistically to control active zone development, providing a potential mechanism for regulating synaptic efficacy at a single release site.

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of Carbaryl-Degrading Soil Isolate Pseudomonas sp. Strain C5pp

    PubMed Central

    Trivedi, Vikas D.; Jangir, Pramod Kumar; Phale, Prashant S.

    2016-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequence of carbaryl-degrading Pseudomonas sp. strain C5pp. Genes encoding salicylate and gentisate metabolism, large amounts of oxygenase, nitrogen metabolism, and heavy metal tolerance were identified. The sequence will provide further insight into the biochemical and evolutionary aspects of carbaryl degradation. PMID:27284139

  16. The Arabidopsis Protein Phosphatase PP2C38 Negatively Regulates the Central Immune Kinase BIK1

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Xiangxiu; Bücherl, Christoph A.; Sklenar, Jan; Macho, Alberto P.; Ntoukakis, Vardis; Derbyshire, Paul; Altenbach, Denise; Robatzek, Silke; Uhrig, Joachim; Menke, Frank; Zhou, Jian-Min

    2016-01-01

    Plants recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) via cell surface-localized pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), leading to PRR-triggered immunity (PTI). The Arabidopsis cytoplasmic kinase BIK1 is a downstream substrate of several PRR complexes. How plant PTI is negatively regulated is not fully understood. Here, we identify the protein phosphatase PP2C38 as a negative regulator of BIK1 activity and BIK1-mediated immunity. PP2C38 dynamically associates with BIK1, as well as with the PRRs FLS2 and EFR, but not with the co-receptor BAK1. PP2C38 regulates PAMP-induced BIK1 phosphorylation and impairs the phosphorylation of the NADPH oxidase RBOHD by BIK1, leading to reduced oxidative burst and stomatal immunity. Upon PAMP perception, PP2C38 is phosphorylated on serine 77 and dissociates from the FLS2/EFR-BIK1 complexes, enabling full BIK1 activation. Together with our recent work on the control of BIK1 turnover, this study reveals another important regulatory mechanism of this central immune component. PMID:27494702

  17. CHARGED PARTICLE PRODUCTION AT HIGH RAPIDITY IN p+p COLLISIONS AT RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    DEBBE,R.

    2006-05-30

    This report describes the recent analysis of identified charged particle production at high rapidity performed on data collected from p+p collisions at RHIC ({radical}s = 200 GeV). The extracted invariant cross-sections compare well to NLO pQCD calculations. However, a puzzling high yield of protons at high rapidity and p{sub T} has been found.

  18. Capping motifs stabilize the leucine-rich repeat protein PP32 and rigidify adjacent repeats.

    PubMed

    Dao, Thuy P; Majumdar, Ananya; Barrick, Doug

    2014-06-01

    Capping motifs are found to flank most β-strand-containing repeat proteins. To better understand the roles of these capping motifs in organizing structure and stability, we carried out folding and solution NMR studies on the leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain of PP32, which is composed of five tandem LRR, capped by α-helical and β-hairpin motifs on the N- and C-termini. We were able to purify PP32 constructs lacking either cap and containing destabilizing substitutions. Removing the C-cap results in complete unfolding of PP32. Removing the N-cap has a much less severe effect, decreasing stability but retaining much of its secondary structure. In contrast, the dynamics and tertiary structure of the first two repeats are significantly perturbed, based on (1)H-(15)N relaxation studies, chemical shift perturbations, and residual dipolar couplings. However, more distal repeats (3 to C-cap) retain their native tertiary structure. In this regard, the N-cap drives the folding of adjacent repeats from what appears to be a molten-globule-like state. This interpretation is supported by extensive analysis using core packing substitutions in the full-length and N-cap-truncated PP32. This work highlights the importance of caps to the stability and structural integrity of β-strand-containing LRR proteins, and emphasizes the different contributions of the N- and C-terminal caps. PMID:24659532

  19. Measurement of the. pi. d. -->. pp reaction at T/sub. pi. / = 65 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Ottermann, C.R.; Boschitz, E.T.; Gyles, W.; List, W.; Tacik, R.; Mango, S.; Konter, J.A.; van den Brandt, B.; Smith, G.R.

    1986-05-01

    The vector analyzing power iT/sub 11/ has been measured for the ..pi..d..-->..pp reaction at an incident pion energy of 65 MeV, using a vector polarized deuteron target. The data are compared with predictions from coupled channels, Faddeev, and perturbation theory calculations.

  20. Anti-biofilm activity of Pseudoalteromonas flavipulchra SktPp1 against Serratia marcescens SMJ-11

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, Faiq; Usup, Gires; Ahmad, Asmat

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to examine the anti-biofilm activity of Pseudoalteromonas flavipulchra SktPp1 crude extract against the biofilm producer, Serratia marcescens. The crude extract of P. flavipulchra SktPp1 was extracted with ethyl acetate. The sub-minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), 0.1 mg/ml, has been used in this study. The anti-biofilm activity of P. flavipulchra SktPp1 crude extract was assessed against the biofilm of S. marcescens using the crystal violet assay. The growth curve has been used as the indicator of the effect of crude extracts to bacterial growth. The sub-MIC crude extract was tested against two of S. marcescens virulence factors, including the swarming ability and production of prodigiosin using the swarming assay and prodigiosin assay. The growth curves of S. marcescens indicated that the sub-MIC concentration of crude extract did not affect the growth of S. marcescens. The production of prodigiosin was reduced by 44%. The diameter of the swarming area was reduced from 8.7 cm to 0.8 cm. The sub-MIC crude extract inhibits 26.9% of the biofilm production in S. marcescens. This crude extract lost its activity at 50°C and above. In conclusion, crude extract of P. flavipulchra SktPp1 has the ability to inhibit S. marcescens SMJ-11 biofilm formation.

  1. Crystal structures and mutagenesis of PPP-family ser/thr protein phosphatases elucidate the selectivity of cantharidin and novel norcantharidin-based inhibitors of PP5C.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Debasish; Swingle, Mark R; Salter, Edward A; Wood, Eric; D'Arcy, Brandon; Zivanov, Catherine; Abney, Kevin; Musiyenko, Alla; Rusin, Scott F; Kettenbach, Arminja; Yet, Larry; Schroeder, Chad E; Golden, Jennifer E; Dunham, Wade H; Gingras, Anne-Claude; Banerjee, Surajit; Forbes, David; Wierzbicki, Andrzej; Honkanen, Richard E

    2016-06-01

    Cantharidin is a natural toxin and an active constituent in a traditional Chinese medicine used to treat tumors. Cantharidin acts as a semi-selective inhibitor of PPP-family ser/thr protein phosphatases. Despite sharing a common catalytic mechanism and marked structural similarity with PP1C, PP2AC and PP5C, human PP4C was found to be insensitive to the inhibitory activity of cantharidin. To explore the molecular basis for this selectivity, we synthesized and tested novel C5/C6-derivatives designed from quantum-based modeling of the interactions revealed in the co-crystal structures of PP5C in complex with cantharidin. Structure-activity relationship studies and analysis of high-resolution (1.25Å) PP5C-inhibitor co-crystal structures reveal close contacts between the inhibitor bridgehead oxygen and both a catalytic metal ion and a non-catalytic phenylalanine residue, the latter of which is substituted by tryptophan in PP4C. Quantum chemistry calculations predicted that steric clashes with the bulkier tryptophan side chain in PP4C would force all cantharidin-based inhibitors into an unfavorable binding mode, disrupting the strong coordination of active site metal ions observed in the PP5C co-crystal structures, thereby rendering PP4C insensitive to the inhibitors. This prediction was confirmed by inhibition studies employing native human PP4C. Mutation of PP5C (F446W) and PP1C (F257W), to mimic the PP4C active site, resulted in markedly suppressed sensitivity to cantharidin. These observations provide insight into the structural basis for the natural selectivity of cantharidin and provide an avenue for PP4C deselection. The novel crystal structures also provide insight into interactions that provide increased selectivity of the C5/C6 modifications for PP5C versus other PPP-family phosphatases.

  2. Direct and Indirect Targeting of PP2A by Conserved Bacterial Type-III Effector Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Lin; Ham, Jong Hyun; Hage, Rosemary; Zhao, Wanying; Soto-Hernández, Jaricelis; Lee, Sang Yeol; Paek, Seung-Mann; Kim, Min Gab; Boone, Charles; Coplin, David L.; Mackey, David

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial AvrE-family Type-III effector proteins (T3Es) contribute significantly to the virulence of plant-pathogenic species of Pseudomonas, Pantoea, Ralstonia, Erwinia, Dickeya and Pectobacterium, with hosts ranging from monocots to dicots. However, the mode of action of AvrE-family T3Es remains enigmatic, due in large part to their toxicity when expressed in plant or yeast cells. To search for targets of WtsE, an AvrE-family T3E from the maize pathogen Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii, we employed a yeast-two-hybrid screen with non-lethal fragments of WtsE and a synthetic genetic array with full-length WtsE. Together these screens indicate that WtsE targets maize protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) heterotrimeric enzyme complexes via direct interaction with B’ regulatory subunits. AvrE1, another AvrE-family T3E from Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato strain DC3000 (Pto DC3000), associates with specific PP2A B’ subunit proteins from its susceptible host Arabidopsis that are homologous to the maize B’ subunits shown to interact with WtsE. Additionally, AvrE1 was observed to associate with the WtsE-interacting maize proteins, indicating that PP2A B’ subunits are likely conserved targets of AvrE-family T3Es. Notably, the ability of AvrE1 to promote bacterial growth and/or suppress callose deposition was compromised in Arabidopsis plants with mutations of PP2A genes. Also, chemical inhibition of PP2A activity blocked the virulence activity of both WtsE and AvrE1 in planta. The function of HopM1, a Pto DC3000 T3E that is functionally redundant to AvrE1, was also impaired in specific PP2A mutant lines, although no direct interaction with B’ subunits was observed. These results indicate that sub-component specific PP2A complexes are targeted by bacterial T3Es, including direct targeting by members of the widely conserved AvrE-family. PMID:27191168

  3. The Ser/Thr Phosphatase PP2A Regulatory Subunit Widerborst Inhibits Notch Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Bose, Anasua; Majot, Adam T.; Bidwai, Ashok P.

    2014-01-01

    Drosophila Enhancer of split M8, an effector of Notch signaling, is regulated by protein kinase CK2. The phosphatase PP2A is thought to play an opposing (inhibitory) role, but the identity of the regulatory subunit was unknown. The studies described here reveal a role for the PP2A regulatory subunit widerborst (wdb) in three developmental contexts; the bristle, wing and the R8 photoreceptors of the eye. wdb overexpression elicits bristle and wing defects akin to reduced Notch signaling, whereas hypomorphic mutations in this PP2A subunit elicit opposite effects. We have also evaluated wdb functions using mutations in Notch and E(spl) that affect the eye. We find that the eye and R8 defects of the well-known Nspl mutation are enhanced by a hypomorphic allele of wdb, whereas they are strongly rescued by wdb overexpression. Similarly, ectopic wdb rescues the eye and R8 defects of the E(spl)D mutation, which affects the m8 gene. In addition, wdb overexpression also rescues the bristle defects of ectopically expressed M8, or the eye and R8 defects of its CK2 phosphomimetic variant M8-S159D. The latter finding suggests that PP2A may target M8 at highly conserved residues in the vicinity of the CK2 site, whose phosphorylation controls repression of Atonal and the R8 fate. Together, the studies identify PP2A-Wdb as a participant in Notch signaling, and suggest that M8 activity is controlled by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. The conservation of the phosphorylation sites between Drosophila E(spl) and the HES/HER proteins from mammals, reptiles, amphibians, birds and fish raises the prospect that this mode of regulation is widespread. PMID:25006677

  4. Shugoshin-1 balances Aurora B kinase activity via PP2A to promote chromosome bi-orientation.

    PubMed

    Meppelink, Amanda; Kabeche, Lilian; Vromans, Martijn J M; Compton, Duane A; Lens, Susanne M A

    2015-04-28

    Correction of faulty kinetochore-microtubule attachments is essential for faithful chromosome segregation and dictated by the opposing activities of Aurora B kinase and PP1 and PP2A phosphatases. How kinase and phosphatase activities are appropriately balanced is less clear. Here, we show that a centromeric pool of PP2A-B56 counteracts Aurora B T-loop phosphorylation and is recruited to centromeres through Shugoshin-1 (Sgo1). In non-transformed RPE-1 cells, Aurora B, Sgo1, and PP2A-B56 are enriched on centromeres and levels diminish as chromosomes establish bi-oriented attachments. Elevating Sgo1 levels at centromeres recruits excess PP2A-B56, and this counteracts Aurora B kinase activity, undermining efficient correction of kinetochore-microtubule attachment errors. Conversely, Sgo1-depleted cells display reduced centromeric localization of Aurora B, whereas the remaining kinase is hyperactive due to concomitant reduction of centromeric PP2A-B56. Our data suggest that Sgo1 can tune the stability of kinetochore-microtubule attachments through recruitment of PP2A-B56 that balances Aurora B activity at the centromere.

  5. PP2A methylation controls sensitivity and resistance to β-amyloid–induced cognitive and electrophysiological impairments

    PubMed Central

    Nicholls, Russell E.; Sontag, Jean-Marie; Zhang, Hong; Staniszewski, Agnieszka; Yan, Shijun; Kim, Carla Y.; Yim, Michael; Woodruff, Caitlin M.; Arning, Erland; Wasek, Brandi; Yin, Deqi; Bottiglieri, Teodoro; Sontag, Estelle; Kandel, Eric R.; Arancio, Ottavio

    2016-01-01

    Elevated levels of the β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) are thought to contribute to cognitive and behavioral impairments observed in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) participates in multiple molecular pathways implicated in AD, and its expression and activity are reduced in postmortem brains of AD patients. PP2A is regulated by protein methylation, and impaired PP2A methylation is thought to contribute to increased AD risk in hyperhomocysteinemic individuals. To examine further the link between PP2A and AD, we generated transgenic mice that overexpress the PP2A methylesterase, protein phosphatase methylesterase-1 (PME-1), or the PP2A methyltransferase, leucine carboxyl methyltransferase-1 (LCMT-1), and examined the sensitivity of these animals to behavioral and electrophysiological impairments caused by exogenous Aβ exposure. We found that PME-1 overexpression enhanced these impairments, whereas LCMT-1 overexpression protected against Aβ-induced impairments. Neither transgene affected Aβ production or the electrophysiological response to low concentrations of Aβ, suggesting that these manipulations selectively affect the pathological response to elevated Aβ levels. Together these data identify a molecular mechanism linking PP2A to the development of AD-related cognitive impairments that might be therapeutically exploited to target selectively the pathological effects caused by elevated Aβ levels in AD patients. PMID:26951658

  6. A pp32-retinoblastoma protein complex modulates androgen receptor-mediated transcription and associates with components of the splicing machinery

    SciTech Connect

    Adegbola, Onikepe; Pasternack, Gary R. . E-mail: gpastern@jhmi.edu

    2005-08-26

    We have previously shown pp32 and the retinoblastoma protein interact. pp32 and the retinoblastoma protein are nuclear receptor transcriptional coregulators: the retinoblastoma protein is a coactivator for androgen receptor, the major regulator of prostate cancer growth, while pp32, which is highly expressed in prostate cancer, is a corepressor of the estrogen receptor. We now show pp32 increases androgen receptor-mediated transcription and the retinoblastoma protein modulates this activity. Using affinity purification and mass spectrometry, we identify members of the pp32-retinoblastoma protein complex as PSF and nonO/p54nrb, proteins implicated in coordinate regulation of nuclear receptor-mediated transcription and splicing. We show that the pp32-retinoblastoma protein complex is modulated during TPA-induced K562 differentiation. Present evidence suggests that nuclear receptors assemble multiprotein complexes to coordinately regulate transcription and mRNA processing. Our results suggest that pp32 and the retinoblastoma protein may be part of a multiprotein complex that coordinately regulates nuclear receptor-mediated transcription and mRNA processing.

  7. Combination of cetuximab and PP242 synergistically suppress the progression of wild-type KRAS colorectal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Lei; Xia, Zuguang; Bian, Xinyu; Li, Guangchao; Hu, Jing; Cao, Ya; Wang, Qing; Qian, Xiaoping

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) has been shown to be overactive in human colorectal cancer, but the first-generation mTOR inhibitor, rapamycin, has failed to show clinical efficacy against colorectal cancer. On the other hand, although the second-generation mTOR inhibitor, PP242, has exerted substantial efficacy, it was revealed that independent inhibition by PP242 was transient, which could lead to positive-feedback loop to EGFR. Using wild-type KRAS colorectal cancer cells as models, we investigate the treatment efficacy of a widely used anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody, cetuximab, and PP242, alone or in combination in vitro and in vivo. Results of cell viability assays confirmed the synergistic inhibitory effect of PP242 and cetuximab on the survival of Caco-2 and HT-29 cells. Moreover, the ability of cancer-cell invasion and proliferation was also significantly inhibited by the combination therapy when compared with cetuximab or PP242 alone. Interestingly, the percentage of CD44-positive cancer cells was substantially decreased by the combination therapy in comparison with PP242 alone through fluorescence-activated cell sorting. The growth of cancer stem-like cell spheres in vitro was also maximally inhibited by combination therapy, in terms of either diameter or number. More importantly, the efficacy of combination therapy was more prominent than either drug alone in established tumor xenografts. These findings supported the potential use of combination therapy of PP242 and cetuximab against wild-type KRAS colorectal carcinomas.

  8. Overexpression of HDAC1 induces cellular senescence by Sp1/PP2A/pRb pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, Jian-Ying; Hung, Jan-Jong

    2011-04-15

    Highlights: {yields} Overexpression of HDAC1 induces Sp1 deacetylation and raises Sp1/p300 complex formation to bind to PP2Ac promoter. {yields} Overexpression of HDAC1 strongly inhibits the phosphorylation of pRb through up-regulation of PP2A. {yields} Overexpressed HDAC1 restrains cell proliferaction and induces cell senescence though a novel Sp1/PP2A/pRb pathway. -- Abstract: Senescence is associated with decreased activities of DNA replication, protein synthesis, and cellular division, which can result in deterioration of cellular functions. Herein, we report that the growth and division of tumor cells were significantly repressed by overexpression of histone deacetylase (HDAC) 1 with the Tet-off induced system or transient transfection. In addition, HDAC1 overexpression led to senescence through both an accumulation of hypophosphorylated active retinoblastoma protein (pRb) and an increase in the protein level of protein phosphatase 2A catalytic subunit (PP2Ac). HDAC1 overexpression also increased the level of Sp1 deacetylation and elevated the interaction between Sp1 and p300, and subsequently that Sp1/p300 complex bound to the promoter of PP2Ac, thus leading to induction of PP2Ac expression. Similar results were obtained in the HDAC1-Tet-off stable clone. Taken together, these results indicate that HDAC1 overexpression restrained cell proliferation and induced premature senescence in cervical cancer cells through a novel Sp1/PP2A/pRb pathway.

  9. SCF E3 ligase PP2-B11 plays a positive role in response to salt stress in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Jia, Fengjuan; Wang, Chunyan; Huang, Jinguang; Yang, Guodong; Wu, Changai; Zheng, Chengchao

    2015-08-01

    Skp1-Cullin-F-box (SCF) E3 ligases are essential to the post-translational regulation of many important factors involved in cellular signal transduction. In this study, we identified an F-box protein from Arabidopsis thaliana, AtPP2-B11, which was remarkably induced with increased duration of salt treatment in terms of both transcript and protein levels. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing AtPP2-B11 exhibited obvious tolerance to high salinity, whereas the RNA interference line was more sensitive to salt stress than wild-type plants. Isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification analysis revealed that 4311 differentially expressed proteins were regulated by AtPP2-B11 under salt stress. AtPP2-B11 could upregulate the expression of annexin1 (AnnAt1) and function as a molecular link between salt stress and reactive oxygen species accumulation in Arabidopsis. Moreover, AtPP2-B11 influenced the expression of Na(+) homeostasis genes under salt stress, and the AtPP2-B11 overexpressing lines exhibited lower Na(+) accumulation. These results suggest that AtPP2-B11 functions as a positive regulator in response to salt stress in Arabidopsis.

  10. The mechanism of E. coli RNA polymerase regulation by ppGpp is suggested by the structure of their complex.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Yuhong; Wang, Yeming; Steitz, Thomas A

    2013-05-01

    Guanosine tetraphosphate (ppGpp) is an alarmone that enables bacteria to adapt to their environment. It has been known for years that ppGpp acts directly on RNA polymerase (RNAP) to alter the rate of transcription, but its exact target site is still under debate. Here we report a crystal structure of Escherichia coli RNAP holoenzyme in complex with ppGpp at 4.5 Å resolution. The structure reveals that ppGpp binds at an interface between the shelf and core modules on the outer surface of RNAP, away from the catalytic center and the nucleic acid binding path. Bound ppGpp connects these two pivotal modules that may restrain the opening of the RNAP cleft. A detailed mechanism of action of ppGpp is proposed in which ppGpp prevents the closure of the active center that is induced by the binding of NTP, which could slow down nucleotide addition cycles and destabilize the initial transcription complexes.

  11. SCF E3 ligase PP2-B11 plays a positive role in response to salt stress in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Fengjuan; Wang, Chunyan; Huang, Jinguang; Yang, Guodong; Wu, Changai; Zheng, Chengchao

    2015-01-01

    Skp1–Cullin–F-box (SCF) E3 ligases are essential to the post-translational regulation of many important factors involved in cellular signal transduction. In this study, we identified an F-box protein from Arabidopsis thaliana, AtPP2-B11, which was remarkably induced with increased duration of salt treatment in terms of both transcript and protein levels. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing AtPP2-B11 exhibited obvious tolerance to high salinity, whereas the RNA interference line was more sensitive to salt stress than wild-type plants. Isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification analysis revealed that 4311 differentially expressed proteins were regulated by AtPP2-B11 under salt stress. AtPP2-B11 could upregulate the expression of annexin1 (AnnAt1) and function as a molecular link between salt stress and reactive oxygen species accumulation in Arabidopsis. Moreover, AtPP2-B11 influenced the expression of Na+ homeostasis genes under salt stress, and the AtPP2-B11 overexpressing lines exhibited lower Na+ accumulation. These results suggest that AtPP2-B11 functions as a positive regulator in response to salt stress in Arabidopsis. PMID:26041321

  12. Changes in Carboxy Methylation and Tyrosine Phosphorylation of Protein Phosphatase PP2A Are Associated with Epididymal Sperm Maturation and Motility.

    PubMed

    Dudiki, Tejasvi; Kadunganattil, Suraj; Ferrara, John K; Kline, Douglas W; Vijayaraghavan, Srinivasan

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian sperm contain the serine/threonine phosphatases PP1γ2 and PP2A. The role of sperm PP1γ2 is relatively well studied. Here we confirm the presence of PP2A in sperm and show that it undergoes marked changes in methylation (leucine 309), tyrosine phosphorylation (tyrosine 307) and catalytic activity during epididymal sperm maturation. Spermatozoa isolated from proximal caput, distal caput and caudal regions of the epididymis contain equal immuno-reactive amounts of PP2A. Using demethyl sensitive antibodies we show that PP2A is methylated at its carboxy terminus in sperm from the distal caput and caudal regions but not in sperm from the proximal caput region of the epididymis. The methylation status of PP2A was confirmed by isolation of PP2A with microcystin agarose followed by alkali treatment, which causes hydrolysis of protein carboxy methyl esters. Tyrosine phosphorylation of sperm PP2A varied inversely with methylation. That is, PP2A was tyrosine phosphorylated when it was demethylated but not when methylated. PP2A demethylation and its reciprocal tyrosine phosphorylation were also affected by treatment of sperm with L-homocysteine and adenosine, which are known to elevate intracellular S-adenosylhomocysteine, a feedback inhibitor of methyltransferases. Catalytic activity of PP2A declined during epididymal sperm maturation. Inhibition of PP2A by okadaic acid or by incubation of caudal epididymal spermatozoa with L-homocysteine and adenosine resulted in increase of sperm motility parameters including percent motility, velocity, and lateral head amplitude. Demethylation or pharmacological inhibition of PP2A also leads to an increase in phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3). Our results show for the first time that changes in PP2A activity due to methylation and tyrosine phosphorylation occur in sperm and that these changes may play an important role in the regulation of sperm function. PMID:26569399

  13. Dissociation of SHP-1 from spinophilin during platelet activation exposes an inhibitory binding site for protein phosphatase-1 (PP1).

    PubMed

    Ma, Peisong; Foote, Darci C; Sinnamon, Andrew J; Brass, Lawrence F

    2015-01-01

    We have recently shown that a critical regulatory node in the platelet signaling network lies immediately downstream of platelet receptors for thrombin and TxA2. This node is comprised of a scaffold protein (spinophilin, SPL), a protein tyrosine phosphatase (SHP-1), and either of the two members of the Regulators of G protein Signaling family predominantly expressed in platelets (RGS10 or RGS18). The SPL/RGS/SHP-1 complex is present in resting platelets, dissociating when thrombin or TxA2, but not ADP or collagen, activate SHP-1 and release RGS10 and RGS18 to dampen signaling. Here we demonstrate an additional regulatory role for spinophilin, showing that dissociation of SHP-1 from spinophilin is followed by an increase in the binding of spinophilin to PP1, a serine/threonine phosphatase whose binding site maps to a region close to the SHP-1 binding site. The increase in PP1 binding to spinophilin is limited to platelet agonists that cause dissociation of the complex and is selective for the α and γ isoforms of PP1. Studies in cell culture show that SHP-1 and PP1 can compete for binding to spinophilin and that binding inhibits PP1 activity since over-expression of wild type spinophilin, but not spinophilin with a disabled PP1 binding site, causes an increase in the phosphorylation of myosin light chain, a well-characterized PP1 substrate. Collectively, these results indicate that in addition to regulating RGS protein availability in resting platelets, spinophilin can serve as a time-dependent, agonist- and isoform-selective regulator of PP1, inhibiting its activity when decay of the SPL/RGS/SHP-1 complex releases SHP-1 from spinophilin, exposing a binding site for PP1.

  14. (p)ppGpp, a Small Nucleotide Regulator, Directs the Metabolic Fate of Glucose in Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Oh, Young Taek; Lee, Kang-Mu; Bari, Wasimul; Raskin, David M; Yoon, Sang Sun

    2015-05-22

    When V. cholerae encounters nutritional stress, it activates (p)ppGpp-mediated stringent response. The genes relA and relV are involved in the production of (p)ppGpp, whereas the spoT gene encodes an enzyme that hydrolyzes it. Herein, we show that the bacterial capability to produce (p)ppGpp plays an essential role in glucose metabolism. The V. cholerae mutants defective in (p)ppGpp production (i.e. ΔrelAΔrelV and ΔrelAΔrelVΔspoT mutants) lost their viability because of uncontrolled production of organic acids, when grown with extra glucose. In contrast, the ΔrelAΔspoT mutant, a (p)ppGpp overproducer strain, exhibited better growth in the presence of the same glucose concentration. An RNA sequencing analysis demonstrated that transcriptions of genes consisting of an operon for acetoin biosynthesis were markedly elevated in N16961, a seventh pandemic O1 strain, but not in its (p)ppGpp(0) mutant during glucose-stimulated growth. Transposon insertion in acetoin biosynthesis gene cluster resulted in glucose-induced loss of viability of the ΔrelAΔspoT mutant, further suggesting the crucial role of acetoin production in balanced growth under glucose-rich environments. Additional deletion of the aphA gene, encoding a negative regulator for acetoin production, failed to rescue the (p)ppGpp(0) mutant from the defective glucose-mediated growth, suggesting that (p)ppGpp-mediated acetoin production occurs independent of the presence of AphA. Overall, our results reveal that (p)ppGpp, in addition to its well known role as a stringent response mediator, positively regulates acetoin production that contributes to the successful glucose metabolism and consequently the proliferation of V. cholerae cells under a glucose-rich environment, a condition that may mimic the human intestine.

  15. (p)ppGpp, a Small Nucleotide Regulator, Directs the Metabolic Fate of Glucose in Vibrio cholerae*

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Young Taek; Lee, Kang-Mu; Bari, Wasimul; Raskin, David M.; Yoon, Sang Sun

    2015-01-01

    When V. cholerae encounters nutritional stress, it activates (p)ppGpp-mediated stringent response. The genes relA and relV are involved in the production of (p)ppGpp, whereas the spoT gene encodes an enzyme that hydrolyzes it. Herein, we show that the bacterial capability to produce (p)ppGpp plays an essential role in glucose metabolism. The V. cholerae mutants defective in (p)ppGpp production (i.e. ΔrelAΔrelV and ΔrelAΔrelVΔspoT mutants) lost their viability because of uncontrolled production of organic acids, when grown with extra glucose. In contrast, the ΔrelAΔspoT mutant, a (p)ppGpp overproducer strain, exhibited better growth in the presence of the same glucose concentration. An RNA sequencing analysis demonstrated that transcriptions of genes consisting of an operon for acetoin biosynthesis were markedly elevated in N16961, a seventh pandemic O1 strain, but not in its (p)ppGpp0 mutant during glucose-stimulated growth. Transposon insertion in acetoin biosynthesis gene cluster resulted in glucose-induced loss of viability of the ΔrelAΔspoT mutant, further suggesting the crucial role of acetoin production in balanced growth under glucose-rich environments. Additional deletion of the aphA gene, encoding a negative regulator for acetoin production, failed to rescue the (p)ppGpp0 mutant from the defective glucose-mediated growth, suggesting that (p)ppGpp-mediated acetoin production occurs independent of the presence of AphA. Overall, our results reveal that (p)ppGpp, in addition to its well known role as a stringent response mediator, positively regulates acetoin production that contributes to the successful glucose metabolism and consequently the proliferation of V. cholerae cells under a glucose-rich environment, a condition that may mimic the human intestine. PMID:25882848

  16. Dissociation of SHP-1 from Spinophilin during Platelet Activation Exposes an Inhibitory Binding Site for Protein Phosphatase-1 (PP1)

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Peisong; Foote, Darci C.; Sinnamon, Andrew J.; Brass, Lawrence F.

    2015-01-01

    We have recently shown that a critical regulatory node in the platelet signaling network lies immediately downstream of platelet receptors for thrombin and TxA2. This node is comprised of a scaffold protein (spinophilin, SPL), a protein tyrosine phosphatase (SHP-1), and either of the two members of the Regulators of G protein Signaling family predominantly expressed in platelets (RGS10 or RGS18). The SPL/RGS/SHP-1 complex is present in resting platelets, dissociating when thrombin or TxA2, but not ADP or collagen, activate SHP-1 and release RGS10 and RGS18 to dampen signaling. Here we demonstrate an additional regulatory role for spinophilin, showing that dissociation of SHP-1 from spinophilin is followed by an increase in the binding of spinophilin to PP1, a serine/threonine phosphatase whose binding site maps to a region close to the SHP-1 binding site. The increase in PP1 binding to spinophilin is limited to platelet agonists that cause dissociation of the complex and is selective for the α and γ isoforms of PP1. Studies in cell culture show that SHP-1 and PP1 can compete for binding to spinophilin and that binding inhibits PP1 activity since over-expression of wild type spinophilin, but not spinophilin with a disabled PP1 binding site, causes an increase in the phosphorylation of myosin light chain, a well-characterized PP1 substrate. Collectively, these results indicate that in addition to regulating RGS protein availability in resting platelets, spinophilin can serve as a time-dependent, agonist- and isoform-selective regulator of PP1, inhibiting its activity when decay of the SPL/RGS/SHP-1 complex releases SHP-1 from spinophilin, exposing a binding site for PP1. PMID:25785436

  17. Structure of pp32, an acidic nuclear protein which inhibits oncogene-induced formation of transformed foci.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, T H; Brody, J R; Romantsev, F E; Yu, J G; Kayler, A E; Voneiff, E; Kuhajda, F P; Pasternack, G R

    1996-01-01

    pp32 is a nuclear protein found highly expressed in normal tissues in those cells capable of self-renewal and in neoplastic cells. We report the cloning of cDNAs encoding human and murine pp32. The clones encode a 28.6-kDa protein; approximately two-thirds of the N-terminal predicts an amphipathic alpha helix containing two possible nuclear localization signals and a potential leucine zipper motif. The C-terminal third is exceptionally acidic, comprised of approximately 70% aspartic and glutamic acid residues; the predicted pI of human pp32 is 3.81. Human and murine pp32 cDNAs are 88% identical; the predicted proteins are 89% identical and 95% similar. Although the structure of pp32 is suggestive of a transcription factor, pp32 did not significantly modulate transcription of a reporter construct when fused to the Gal4 DNA-binding domain. In contrast, in cotransfection experiments, pp32 inhibited the ability of a broad assortment of oncogene pairs to transform rat embryo fibroblasts, including ras + myc, ras + jun, ras + E1a, ras + mutant p53, and E6 + E7. In related experiments, pp32 inhibited the ability of Rat 1a-myc cells to grow in soft agar, whereas it failed to affect ras-induced focus formation in NIH3T3 cells. These results suggest that pp32 may play a key role in self-renewing cell populations where it may act in the nucleus to limit their sensitivity to transformation. Images PMID:8970164

  18. AIP1 recruits phosphatase PP2A to ASK1 in tumor necrosis factor-induced ASK1-JNK activation.

    PubMed

    Min, Wang; Lin, Yan; Tang, Shibo; Yu, Luyang; Zhang, Haifeng; Wan, Ting; Luhn, Tricia; Fu, Haian; Chen, Hong

    2008-04-11

    Previously we have shown that AIP1 (apoptosis signal-regulating kinase [ASK]1-interacting protein 1), a novel member of the Ras-GAP protein family, facilitates dephosphorylation of ASK1 at pSer967 and subsequently 14-3-3 release from ASK1, leading to enhanced ASK1-JNK signaling. However, the phosphatase(s) responsible for ASK1 dephosphorylation at pSer967 has not been identified. In the present study, we identified protein phosphatase (PP)2A as a potential phosphatase in vascular endothelial cells (ECs). Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced dephosphorylation of ASK1 pSer967 in ECs was blocked by PP2A inhibitor okadaic acid. Overexpression of PP2A catalytic subunit induced dephosphorylation of ASK1 pSer967 and activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). In contrast, a catalytic inactive form of PP2A or PP2A small interfering RNA blunted TNF-induced dephosphorylation of ASK1 pSer967 and activation of JNK without effects on NF-kappaB activation. Whereas AIP1, via its C2 domain, binds to ASK1, PP2A binds to the GAP domain of AIP1. Endogenous AIP1-PP2A complex can be detected in the resting state, and TNF induces a complex formation of AIP1-PP2A with ASK1. Furthermore, TNF-induced association of PP2A with ASK1 was diminished in AIP1-knockdown ECs, suggesting a critical role of AIP1 in recruiting PP2A to ASK1. TNF-signaling molecules TRAF2 and RIP1, known to be in complex with AIP1 and activate AIP1 by phosphorylating AIP1 at Ser604, are critical for TNF-induced ASK1 dephosphorylation. Finally, PP2A and AIP1 cooperatively induce activation of ASK1-JNK signaling and EC apoptosis, as demonstrated by both overexpression and small interfering RNA knockdown approaches. Taken together, our data support a critical role of PP2A-AIP1 complex in TNF-induced activation of ASK1-JNK apoptotic signaling. PMID:18292600

  19. Reducing ppGpp level rescues an extreme growth defect caused by mutant EF-Tu.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Jessica M; Hammarlöf, Disa L; Hughes, Diarmaid

    2014-01-01

    Transcription and translation of mRNA's are coordinated processes in bacteria. We have previously shown that a mutant form of EF-Tu (Gln125Arg) in Salmonella Typhimurium with a reduced affinity for aa-tRNA, causes ribosome pausing, resulting in an increased rate of RNase E-mediated mRNA cleavage, causing extremely slow growth, even on rich medium. The slow growth phenotype is reversed by mutations that reduce RNase E activity. Here we asked whether the slow growth phenotype could be reversed by overexpression of a wild-type gene. We identified spoT (encoding ppGpp synthetase/hydrolase) as a gene that partially reversed the slow growth rate when overexpressed. We found that the slow-growing mutant had an abnormally high basal level of ppGpp that was reduced when spoT was overexpressed. Inactivating relA (encoding the ribosome-associated ppGpp synthetase) also reduced ppGpp levels and significantly increased growth rate. Because RelA responds specifically to deacylated tRNA in the ribosomal A-site this suggested that the tuf mutant had an increased level of deacylated tRNA relative to the wild-type. To test this hypothesis we measured the relative acylation levels of 4 families of tRNAs and found that proline isoacceptors were acylated at a lower level in the mutant strain relative to the wild-type. In addition, the level of the proS tRNA synthetase mRNA was significantly lower in the mutant strain. We suggest that an increased level of deacylated tRNA in the mutant strain stimulates RelA-mediated ppGpp production, causing changes in transcription pattern that are inappropriate for rich media conditions, and contributing to slow growth rate. Reducing ppGpp levels, by altering the activity of either SpoT or RelA, removes one cause of the slow growth and reveals the interconnectedness of intracellular regulatory mechanisms.

  20. PP2A inhibition determines poor outcome and doxorubicin resistance in early breast cancer and its activation shows promising therapeutic effects

    PubMed Central

    Zazo, Sandra; Arpí, Oriol; Menéndez, Silvia; Manso, Rebeca; Lluch, Ana; Eroles, Pilar; Rovira, Ana; Albanell, Joan; García-Foncillas, Jesús; Madoz-Gúrpide, Juan; Rojo, Federico

    2015-01-01

    The protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a key tumor suppressor which has emerged as a novel molecular target in some human cancers. Here, we show that PP2A inhibition is a common event in breast cancer and identified PP2A phosphorylation and deregulation SET and CIP2A as molecular contributing mechanisms to inactivate PP2A. Interestingly, restoration of PP2A activity after FTY720 treatment reduced cell growth, induced apoptosis and decreased AKT and ERK activation. Moreover, FTY720 led to PP2A activation then enhancing doxorubicin-induced antitumor effects both in vitro and in vivo. PP2A inhibition (CPscore: PP2A phosphorylation and/or CIP2A overexpression) was detected in 27% of cases (62/230), and associated with grade (p = 0.017), relapse (p < 0.001), negative estrogen (p < 0.001) and progesterone receptor expression (p < 0.001), HER2-positive tumors (p = 0.049), Ki-67 expression (p < 0.001), and higher AKT (p < 0.001) and ERK (p < 0.001) phosphorylation. Moreover, PP2A inhibition determined shorter overall (p = 0.006) and event-free survival (p = 0.003), and multivariate analysis confirmed its independent prognostic impact. Altogether, our results indicate that PP2A is frequently inactivated in breast cancer and determines worse outcome, and its restoration using PP2A activators represents an alternative therapeutic strategy in this disease. PMID:25726524

  1. Tensor hypercontracted ppRPA: Reducing the cost of the particle-particle random phase approximation from O(r 6) to O(r 4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shenvi, Neil; van Aggelen, Helen; Yang, Yang; Yang, Weitao

    2014-07-01

    In recent years, interest in the random-phase approximation (RPA) has grown rapidly. At the same time, tensor hypercontraction has emerged as an intriguing method to reduce the computational cost of electronic structure algorithms. In this paper, we combine the particle-particle random phase approximation with tensor hypercontraction to produce the tensor-hypercontracted particle-particle RPA (THC-ppRPA) algorithm. Unlike previous implementations of ppRPA which scale as O(r6), the THC-ppRPA algorithm scales asymptotically as only O(r4), albeit with a much larger prefactor than the traditional algorithm. We apply THC-ppRPA to several model systems and show that it yields the same results as traditional ppRPA to within mH accuracy. Our method opens the door to the development of post-Kohn Sham functionals based on ppRPA without the excessive asymptotic cost of traditional ppRPA implementations.

  2. Adaptation of HepG2 cells to a steady-state reduction in the content of protein phosphatase 6 (PP6) catalytic subunit

    SciTech Connect

    Boylan, Joan M.; Salomon, Arthur R.; Tantravahi, Umadevi; Gruppuso, Philip A.

    2015-07-15

    Protein phosphatase 6 (PP6) is a ubiquitous Ser/Thr phosphatase involved in an array of cellular processes. To assess the potential of PP6 as a therapeutic target in liver disorders, we attenuated expression of the PP6 catalytic subunit in HepG2 cells using lentiviral-transduced shRNA. Two PP6 knock-down (PP6KD) cell lines (90% reduction of PP6-C protein content) were studied in depth. Both proliferated at a rate similar to control cells. However, flow cytometry indicated G2/M cell cycle arrest that was accounted for by a shift of the cells from a diploid to tetraploid state. PP6KD cells did not show an increase in apoptosis, nor did they exhibit reduced viability in the presence of bleomycin or taxol. Gene expression analysis by microarray showed attenuated anti-inflammatory signaling. Genes associated with DNA replication were downregulated. Mass spectrometry-based phosphoproteomic analysis yielded 80 phosphopeptides representing 56 proteins that were significantly affected by a stable reduction in PP6-C. Proteins involved in DNA replication, DNA damage repair and pre-mRNA splicing were overrepresented among these. PP6KD cells showed intact mTOR signaling. Our studies demonstrated involvement of PP6 in a diverse set of biological pathways and an adaptive response that may limit the effectiveness of targeting PP6 in liver disorders. - Highlights: • Lentiviral-transduced shRNA was used to generate a stable knockdown of PP6 in HepG2 cells. • Cells adapted to reduced PP6; cell proliferation was unaffected, and cell survival was normal. • However, PP6 knockdown was associated with a transition to a tetraploid state. • Genomic profiling showed downregulated anti-inflammatory signaling and DNA replication. • Phosphoproteomic profiling showed changes in proteins associated with DNA replication and repair.

  3. Kinetic parameters of the thermal degradation of the PP and nondegraded and degraded HDPE blends

    SciTech Connect

    Albano, C.; Freitas, E.

    1996-12-31

    We study the thermodegradative behavior of PP, of non-degraded and degraded HDPE and their blends, in order to analyze the thermal stability of such materials. Van-Krevelen (V-K), Coats-Redfern (C-R) and Horowitz-Metzger (H-M) integral methods as well as the Freeman-Carroll (F-C) differential one, were used to determine the kinetic parameters. The activation energy (E{sub a}) obtained for the PP mixed with non-degraded HDPE (5 to 50%) is lower than the E{sub a} correspondent to pure polymers and does not depend on the HDPE concentration. Blends of degraded materials, show an approximate value of E{sub a} of 200 kJ/mol for mixtures with concentrations by weight of HDPE up to 20%, but its value decreases drastically with higher concentrations. 11 refs., 2 tabs.

  4. Assessment of ALA-induced PpIX production in porcine skin pretreated with microneedles.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Phamilla Gracielli Sousa; Campos de Menezes, Priscila Fernanda; Fujita, Alessandra Keiko Lima; Escobar, André; Barboza de Nardi, Andrigo; Kurachi, Cristina; Bagnato, Vanderlei S

    2015-09-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is used for skin treatments of premalignant and cancer lesions and recognized as a non-invasive technique that combines tissue photosensitization and subsequent exposure to light to induce cell death. However, it is limited to the treatment of superficial lesions, mainly due to the low cream penetration. Therefore, the improvement of transdermal distribution of aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is needed. In this study, the kinetics and homogeneity of production of ALA-induced PpIX after the skin pre-treatment with microneedles rollers of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mm length were investigated. An improvement in homogeneity and production of PpIX was shown in a porcine model. Widefield fluorescence imaging three hours after the topical application of ALA-cream in the combined treatment with microeedles rollers. PMID:25319567

  5. Charged kaon femtoscopic correlations in pp collisions at s=7TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abelev, B.; Adam, J.; Adamová, D.; Adare, A. M.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Agnello, M.; Agocs, A. G.; Agostinelli, A.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahmad, N.; Ahmad Masoodi, A.; Ahn, S. U.; Ahn, S. A.; Ajaz, M.; Akindinov, A.; Aleksandrov, D.; Alessandro, B.; Alici, A.; Alkin, A.; Almaráz Aviña, E.; Alme, J.; Alt, T.; Altini, V.; Altinpinar, S.; Altsybeev, I.; Andrei, C.; Andronic, A.; Anguelov, V.; Anielski, J.; Anson, C.; Antičić, T.; Antinori, F.; Antonioli, P.; Aphecetche, L.; Appelshäuser, H.; Arbor, N.; Arcelli, S.; Arend, A.; Armesto, N.; Arnaldi, R.; Aronsson, T.; Arsene, I. C.; Arslandok, M.; Asryan, A.; Augustinus, A.; Averbeck, R.; Awes, T. C.; Äystö, J.; Azmi, M. D.; Bach, M.; Badalà, A.; Baek, Y. W.; Bailhache, R.; Bala, R.; Baldini Ferroli, R.; Baldisseri, A.; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F.; Bán, J.; Baral, R. C.; Barbera, R.; Barile, F.; Barnaföldi, G. G.; Barnby, L. S.; Barret, V.; Bartke, J.; Basile, M.; Bastid, N.; Basu, S.; Bathen, B.; Batigne, G.; Batyunya, B.; Baumann, C.; Bearden, I. G.; Beck, H.; Behera, N. K.; Belikov, I.; Bellini, F.; Bellwied, R.; Belmont-Moreno, E.; Bencedi, G.; Beole, S.; Berceanu, I.; Bercuci, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Berenyi, D.; Bergognon, A. A. E.; Berzano, D.; Betev, L.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhom, J.; Bianchi, L.; Bianchi, N.; Bielčík, J.; Bielčíková, J.; Bilandzic, A.; Bjelogrlic, S.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, F.; Blau, D.; Blume, C.; Boccioli, M.; Böttger, S.; Bogdanov, A.; Bøggild, H.; Bogolyubsky, M.; Boldizsár, L.; Bombara, M.; Book, J.; Borel, H.; Borissov, A.; Bossú, F.; Botje, M.; Botta, E.; Braidot, E.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Bregant, M.; Breitner, T.; Browning, T. A.; Broz, M.; Brun, R.; Bruna, E.; Bruno, G. E.; Budnikov, D.; Buesching, H.; Bufalino, S.; Buncic, P.; Busch, O.; Buthelezi, Z.; Caffarri, D.; Cai, X.; Caines, H.; Calvo Villar, E.; Camerini, P.; Canoa Roman, V.; Cara Romeo, G.; Carena, F.; Carena, W.; Carlin Filho, N.; Carminati, F.; Casanova Díaz, A.; Castillo Castellanos, J.; Castillo Hernandez, J. F.; Casula, E. A. R.; Catanescu, V.; Cavicchioli, C.; Ceballos Sanchez, C.; Cepila, J.; Cerello, P.; Chang, B.; Chapeland, S.; Charvet, J. L.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chawla, I.; Cherney, M.; Cheshkov, C.; Cheynis, B.; Chibante Barroso, V.; Chinellato, D. D.; Chochula, P.; Chojnacki, M.; Choudhury, S.; Christakoglou, P.; Christensen, C. H.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, S. U.; Cicalo, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Cleymans, J.; Coccetti, F.; Colamaria, F.; Colella, D.; Collu, A.; Conesa Balbastre, G.; Conesa del Valle, Z.; Connors, M. E.; Contin, G.; Contreras, J. G.; Cormier, T. M.; Corrales Morales, Y.; Cortese, P.; Cortés Maldonado, I.; Cosentino, M. R.; Costa, F.; Cotallo, M. E.; Crescio, E.; Crochet, P.; Cruz Alaniz, E.; Cuautle, E.; Cunqueiro, L.; Dainese, A.; Dalsgaard, H. H.; Danu, A.; Das, S.; Das, I.; Das, D.; Das, K.; Dash, A.; Dash, S.; De, S.; de Barros, G. O. V.; De Caro, A.; de Cataldo, G.; de Cuveland, J.; De Falco, A.; De Gruttola, D.; Delagrange, H.; Deloff, A.; De Marco, N.; Dénes, E.; De Pasquale, S.; Deppman, A.; D Erasmo, G.; de Rooij, R.; Diaz Corchero, M. A.; Di Bari, D.; Dietel, T.; Di Giglio, C.; Di Liberto, S.; Di Mauro, A.; Di Nezza, P.; Divià, R.; Djuvsland, Ø.; Dobrin, A.; Dobrowolski, T.; Dönigus, B.; Dordic, O.; Driga, O.; Dubey, A. K.; Dubla, A.; Ducroux, L.; Dupieux, P.; Dutta Majumdar, A. K.; Dutta Majumdar, M. R.; Elia, D.; Emschermann, D.; Engel, H.; Erazmus, B.; Erdal, H. A.; Espagnon, B.; Estienne, M.; Esumi, S.; Evans, D.; Eyyubova, G.; Fabris, D.; Faivre, J.; Falchieri, D.; Fantoni, A.; Fasel, M.; Fearick, R.; Fehlker, D.; Feldkamp, L.; Felea, D.; Feliciello, A.; Fenton-Olsen, B.; Feofilov, G.; Fernández Téllez, A.; Ferretti, A.; Festanti, A.; Figiel, J.; Figueredo, M. A. S.; Filchagin, S.; Finogeev, D.; Fionda, F. M.; Fiore, E. M.; Floratos, E.; Floris, M.; Foertsch, S.; Foka, P.; Fokin, S.; Fragiacomo, E.; Francescon, A.; Frankenfeld, U.; Fuchs, U.; Furget, C.; Fusco Girard, M.; Gaardhøje, J. J.; Gagliardi, M.; Gago, A.; Gallio, M.; Gangadharan, D. R.; Ganoti, P.; Garabatos, C.; Garcia-Solis, E.; Garishvili, I.; Gerhard, J.; Germain, M.; Geuna, C.; Gheata, M.; Gheata, A.; Ghosh, P.; Gianotti, P.; Girard, M. R.; Giubellino, P.; Gladysz-Dziadus, E.; Glässel, P.; Gomez, R.; Ferreiro, E. G.; González-Trueba, L. H.; González-Zamora, P.; Gorbunov, S.; Goswami, A.; Gotovac, S.; Graczykowski, L. K.; Grajcarek, R.; Grelli, A.; Grigoras, C.; Grigoras, A.; Grigoriev, V.; Grigoryan, S.; Grigoryan, A.; Grinyov, B.; Grion, N.; Gros, P.; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J. F.; Grossiord, J.-Y.; Grosso, R.; Guber, F.; Guernane, R.; Guerzoni, B.; Guilbaud, M.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gulkanyan, H.; Gunji, T.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, R.; Haaland, Ø.; Hadjidakis, C.; Haiduc, M.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamar, G.; Han, B. H.; Hanratty, L. D.; Hansen, A.; Harmanová-Tóthová, Z.; Harris, J. W.; Hartig, M.; Harton, A.; Hasegan, D.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hayashi, S.; Hayrapetyan, A.; Heckel, S. T.; Heide, M.; Helstrup, H.; Herghelegiu, A.; Herrera Corral, G.; Herrmann, N.; Hess, B. A.; Hetland, K. F.; Hicks, B.; Hippolyte, B.; Hori, Y.; Hristov, P.; Hřivnáčová, I.; Huang, M.; Humanic, T. J.; Hwang, D. S.; Ichou, R.; Ilkaev, R.; Ilkiv, I.; Inaba, M.; Incani, E.; Innocenti, G. M.; Innocenti, P. G.; Ippolitov, M.; Irfan, M.; Ivan, C.; Ivanov, V.; Ivanov, A.; Ivanov, M.; Ivanytskyi, O.; Jachołkowski, A.; Jacobs, P. M.; Jang, H. J.; Janik, M. A.; Janik, R.; Jayarathna, P. H. S. Y.; Jena, S.; Jha, D. M.; Jimenez Bustamante, R. T.; Jones, P. G.; Jung, H.; Jusko, A.; Kaidalov, A. B.; Kalcher, S.; Kaliňák, P.; Kalliokoski, T.; Kalweit, A.; Kang, J. H.; Kaplin, V.; Karasu Uysal, A.; Karavichev, O.; Karavicheva, T.; Karpechev, E.; Kazantsev, A.; Kebschull, U.; Keidel, R.; Khan, M. M.; Khan, P.; Khan, K. H.; Khan, S. A.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kharlov, Y.; Kileng, B.; Kim, S.; Kim, M.; Kim, M.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, D. W.; Kim, B.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, T.; Kirsch, S.; Kisel, I.; Kiselev, S.; Kisiel, A.; Klay, J. L.; Klein, J.; Klein-Bösing, C.; Kliemant, M.; Kluge, A.; Knichel, M. L.; Knospe, A. G.; Köhler, M. K.; Kollegger, T.; Kolojvari, A.; Kompaniets, M.; Kondratiev, V.; Kondratyeva, N.; Konevskikh, A.; Kour, R.; Kovalenko, V.; Kowalski, M.; Kox, S.; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, G.; Kral, J.; Králik, I.; Kramer, F.; Kravčáková, A.; Krawutschke, T.; Krelina, M.; Kretz, M.; Krivda, M.; Krizek, F.; Krus, M.; Kryshen, E.; Krzewicki, M.; Kucheriaev, Y.; Kugathasan, T.; Kuhn, C.; Kuijer, P. G.; Kulakov, I.; Kumar, J.; Kurashvili, P.; Kurepin, A. B.; Kurepin, A.; Kuryakin, A.; Kushpil, V.; Kushpil, S.; Kvaerno, H.; Kweon, M. J.; Kwon, Y.; Ladrón de Guevara, P.; Lakomov, I.; Langoy, R.; La Pointe, S. L.; Lara, C.; Lardeux, A.; La Rocca, P.; Lea, R.; Lechman, M.; Lee, G. R.; Lee, K. S.; Lee, S. C.; Legrand, I.; Lehnert, J.; Lenhardt, M.; Lenti, V.; León, H.; León Monzón, I.; León Vargas, H.; Lévai, P.; Li, S.; Lien, J.; Lietava, R.; Lindal, S.; Lindenstruth, V.; Lippmann, C.; Lisa, M. A.; Ljunggren, H. M.; Loenne, P. I.; Loggins, V. R.; Loginov, V.; Lohner, D.; Loizides, C.; Loo, K. K.; Lopez, X.; López Torres, E.; Løvhøiden, G.; Lu, X.-G.; Luettig, P.; Lunardon, M.; Luo, J.; Luparello, G.; Luzzi, C.; Ma, K.; Ma, R.; Madagodahettige-Don, D. M.; Maevskaya, A.; Mager, M.; Mahapatra, D. P.; Maire, A.; Malaev, M.; Maldonado Cervantes, I.; Malinina, L.; Mal'Kevich, D.; Malzacher, P.; Mamonov, A.; Manceau, L.; Mangotra, L.; Manko, V.; Manso, F.; Manzari, V.; Mao, Y.; Marchisone, M.; Mareš, J.; Margagliotti, G. V.; Margotti, A.; Marín, A.; Markert, C.; Marquard, M.; Martashvili, I.; Martin, N. A.; Martinengo, P.; Martínez, M. I.; Martínez Davalos, A.; Martínez García, G.; Martynov, Y.; Mas, A.; Masciocchi, S.; Masera, M.; Masoni, A.; Massacrier, L.; Mastroserio, A.; Matthews, Z. L.; Matyja, A.; Mayer, C.; Mazer, J.; Mazzoni, M. A.; Meddi, F.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Mercado Pérez, J.; Meres, M.; Miake, Y.; Mikhailov, K.; Milano, L.; Milosevic, J.; Mischke, A.; Mishra, A. N.; Miśkowiec, D.; Mitu, C.; Mizuno, S.; Mlynarz, J.; Mohanty, B.; Molnar, L.; Montaño Zetina, L.; Monteno, M.; Montes, E.; Moon, T.; Morando, M.; Moreira De Godoy, D. A.; Moretto, S.; Morreale, A.; Morsch, A.; Muccifora, V.; Mudnic, E.; Muhuri, S.; Mukherjee, M.; Müller, H.; Munhoz, M. G.; Musa, L.; Musinsky, J.; Musso, A.; Nandi, B. K.; Nania, R.; Nappi, E.; Nattrass, C.; Navin, S.; Nayak, T. K.; Nazarenko, S.; Nedosekin, A.; Nicassio, M.; Niculescu, M.; Nielsen, B. S.; Niida, T.; Nikolaev, S.; Nikolic, V.; Nikulin, S.; Nikulin, V.; Nilsen, B. S.; Nilsson, M. S.; Noferini, F.; Nomokonov, P.; Nooren, G.; Novitzky, N.; Nyanin, A.; Nyatha, A.; Nygaard, C.; Nystrand, J.; Ochirov, A.; Oeschler, H.; Oh, S. K.; Oh, S.; Oleniacz, J.; Oliveira Da Silva, A. C.; Oppedisano, C.; Ortiz Velasquez, A.; Oskarsson, A.; Ostrowski, P.; Otwinowski, J.; Oyama, K.; Ozawa, K.; Pachmayer, Y.; Pachr, M.; Padilla, F.; Pagano, P.; Paić, G.; Painke, F.; Pajares, C.; Pal, S. K.; Palaha, A.; Palmeri, A.; Papikyan, V.; Pappalardo, G. S.; Park, W. J.; Passfeld, A.; Patalakha, D. I.; Paticchio, V.; Paul, B.; Pavlinov, A.; Pawlak, T.; Peitzmann, T.; Pereira Da Costa, H.; Pereira De Oliveira Filho, E.; Peresunko, D.; Pérez Lara, C. E.; Perini, D.; Perrino, D.; Peryt, W.; Pesci, A.; Peskov, V.; Pestov, Y.; Petráček, V.; Petran, M.; Petris, M.; Petrov, P.; Petrovici, M.; Petta, C.; Piano, S.; Piccotti, A.; Pikna, M.; Pillot, P.; Pinazza, O.; Pinsky, L.; Pitz, N.; Piyarathna, D. B.; Planinic, M.; Płoskoń, M.; Pluta, J.; Pocheptsov, T.; Pochybova, S.; Podesta-Lerma, P. L. M.; Poghosyan, M. G.; Polák, K.; Polichtchouk, B.; Pop, A.; Porteboeuf-Houssais, S.; Pospíšil, V.; Potukuchi, B.; Prasad, S. K.; Preghenella, R.; Prino, F.; Pruneau, C. A.; Pshenichnov, I.; Puddu, G.; Punin, V.; Putiš, M.; Putschke, J.; Quercigh, E.; Qvigstad, H.; Rachevski, A.; Rademakers, A.; Räihä, T. S.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ramello, L.; Ramírez Reyes, A.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Räsänen, S. S.; Rascanu, B. T.; Rathee, D.; Read, K. F.; Real, J. S.; Redlich, K.; Reed, R. J.; Rehman, A.; Reichelt, P.; Reicher, M.; Renfordt, R.; Reolon, A. R.; Reshetin, A.; Rettig, F.; Revol, J.-P.; Reygers, K.; Riccati, L.; Ricci, R. A.; Richert, T.; Richter, M.; Riedler, P.; Riegler, W.; Riggi, F.; Rodríguez Cahuantzi, M.; Rodriguez Manso, A.; Røed, K.; Rohr, D.; Röhrich, D.; Romita, R.; Ronchetti, F.; Rosnet, P.; Rossegger, S.; Rossi, A.; Roy, P.; Roy, C.; Rubio Montero, A. J.; Rui, R.; Russo, R.; Ryabinkin, E.; Rybicki, A.; Sadovsky, S.; Šafařík, K.; Sahoo, R.; Sahu, P. K.; Saini, J.; Sakaguchi, H.; Sakai, S.; Sakata, D.; Salgado, C. A.; Salzwedel, J.; Sambyal, S.; Samsonov, V.; Sanchez Castro, X.; Šándor, L.; Sandoval, A.; Sano, M.; Santagati, G.; Santoro, R.; Sarkamo, J.; Scapparone, E.; Scarlassara, F.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schiaua, C.; Schicker, R.; Schmidt, H. R.; Schmidt, C.; Schuchmann, S.; Schukraft, J.; Schuster, T.; Schutz, Y.; Schwarz, K.; Schweda, K.; Scioli, G.; Scomparin, E.; Scott, P. A.; Scott, R.; Segato, G.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Senyukov, S.; Seo, J.; Serci, S.; Serradilla, E.; Sevcenco, A.; Shabetai, A.; Shabratova, G.; Shahoyan, R.; Sharma, S.; Sharma, N.; Rohni, S.; Shigaki, K.; Shtejer, K.; Sibiriak, Y.; Sicking, E.; Siddhanta, S.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Silvermyr, D.; Silvestre, C.; Simatovic, G.; Simonetti, G.; Singaraju, R.; Singh, R.; Singha, S.; Singhal, V.; Sinha, T.; Sinha, B. C.; Sitar, B.; Sitta, M.; Skaali, T. B.; Skjerdal, K.; Smakal, R.; Smirnov, N.; Snellings, R. J. M.; Søgaard, C.; Soltz, R.; Son, H.; Song, M.; Song, J.; Soos, C.; Soramel, F.; Sputowska, I.; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, M.; Srivastava, B. K.; Stachel, J.; Stan, I.; Stefanek, G.; Steinpreis, M.; Stenlund, E.; Steyn, G.; Stiller, J. H.; Stocco, D.; Stolpovskiy, M.; Strmen, P.; Suaide, A. A. P.; Subieta Vásquez, M. A.; Sugitate, T.; Suire, C.; Sultanov, R.; Šumbera, M.; Susa, T.; Symons, T. J. M.; Szanto de Toledo, A.; Szarka, I.; Szczepankiewicz, A.; Szostak, A.; Szymański, M.; Takahashi, J.; Tapia Takaki, J. D.; Tarantola Peloni, A.; Tarazona Martinez, A.; Tauro, A.; Tejeda Muñoz, G.; Telesca, A.; Terrevoli, C.; Thäder, J.; Thomas, D.; Tieulent, R.; Timmins, A. R.; Tlusty, D.; Toia, A.; Torii, H.; Toscano, L.; Trubnikov, V.; Truesdale, D.; Trzaska, W. H.; Tsuji, T.; Tumkin, A.; Turrisi, R.; Tveter, T. S.; Ulery, J.; Ullaland, K.; Ulrich, J.; Uras, A.; Urbán, J.; Urciuoli, G. M.; Usai, G. L.; Vajzer, M.; Vala, M.; Valencia Palomo, L.; Vallero, S.; Vande Vyvre, P.; van Leeuwen, M.; Vannucci, L.; Vargas, A.; Varma, R.; Vasileiou, M.; Vasiliev, A.; Vechernin, V.; Veldhoen, M.; Venaruzzo, M.; Vercellin, E.; Vergara, S.; Vernet, R.; Verweij, M.; Vickovic, L.; Viesti, G.; Vilakazi, Z.; Villalobos Baillie, O.; Vinogradov, Y.; Vinogradov, L.; Vinogradov, A.; Virgili, T.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vodopyanov, A.; Voloshin, K.; Voloshin, S.; Volpe, G.; von Haller, B.; Vorobyev, I.; Vranic, D.; Vrláková, J.; Vulpescu, B.; Vyushin, A.; Wagner, V.; Wagner, B.; Wan, R.; Wang, D.; Wang, M.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y.; Watanabe, K.; Weber, M.; Wessels, J. P.; Westerhoff, U.; Wiechula, J.; Wikne, J.; Wilde, M.; Wilk, A.; Wilk, G.; Williams, M. C. S.; Windelband, B.; Xaplanteris Karampatsos, L.; Yaldo, C. G.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yang, H.; Yang, S.; Yasnopolskiy, S.; Yi, J.; Yin, Z.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yoon, J.; Yu, W.; Yuan, X.; Yushmanov, I.; Zaccolo, V.; Zach, C.; Zampolli, C.; Zaporozhets, S.; Zarochentsev, A.; Závada, P.; Zaviyalov, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zelnicek, P.; Zgura, I. S.; Zhalov, M.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, X.; Zhou, D.; Zhou, Y.; Zhou, F.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, X.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, A.; Zinovjev, G.; Zoccarato, Y.; Zynovyev, M.; Zyzak, M.

    2013-03-01

    Correlations of two charged identical kaons (KchKch) are measured in pp collisions at s=7TeV by the ALICE experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). One-dimensional KchKch correlation functions are constructed in three multiplicity and four transverse momentum ranges. The KchKch femtoscopic source parameters R and λ are extracted. The KchKch correlations show a slight increase of femtoscopic radii with increasing multiplicity and a slight decrease of radii with increasing transverse momentum. These trends are similar to the ones observed for ππ and Ks0Ks0 correlations in pp and heavy-ion collisions. However at high multiplicities, there is an indication that the one-dimensional correlation radii for charged kaons are larger than those for pions in contrast to what was observed in heavy-ion collisions at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider.

  6. RESEARCH NOTE FROM COLLABORATION: GridPP: development of the UK computing Grid for particle physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grid PP Collaboration; Faulkner, P. J. W.; Lowe, L. S.; Tan, C. L. A.; Watkins, P. M.; Bailey, D. S.; Barrass, T. A.; Brook, N. H.; Croft, R. J. H.; Kelly, M. P.; Mackay, C. K.; Metson, S.; Maroney, O. J. E.; Newbold, D. M.; Wilson, F. F.; Hobson, P. R.; Khan, A.; Kyberd, P.; Nebrensky, J. J.; Bly, M.; Brew, C.; Burke, S.; Byrom, R.; Coles, J.; Cornwall, L. A.; Djaoui, A.; Field, L.; Fisher, S. M.; Folkes, G. T.; Geddes, N. I.; Gordon, J. C.; Hicks, S. J. C.; Jensen, J. G.; Johnson, G.; Kant, D.; Kelsey, D. P.; Kuznetsov, G.; Leake, J.; Middleton, R. P.; Patrick, G. N.; Prassas, G.; Saunders, B. J.; Ross, D.; Sansum, R. A.; Shah, T.; Strong, B.; Synge, O.; Tam, R.; Thorpe, M.; Traylen, S.; Wheeler, J. F.; White, N. G. H.; Wilson, A. J.; Antcheva, I.; Artiaga, E.; Beringer, J.; Bird, I. G.; Casey, J.; Cass, A. J.; Chytracek, R.; Gallas Torreira, M. V.; Generowicz, J.; Girone, M.; Govi, G.; Harris, F.; Heikkurinen, M.; Horvath, A.; Knezo, E.; Litmaath, M.; Lubeck, M.; Moscicki, J.; Neilson, I.; Poinsignon, E.; Pokorski, W.; Ribon, A.; Sekera, Z.; Smith, D. H.; Tomlin, W. L.; van Eldik, J. E.; Wojcieszuk, J.; Brochu, F. M.; Das, S.; Harrison, K.; Hayes, M.; Hill, J. C.; Lester, C. G.; Palmer, M. J.; Parker, M. A.; Nelson, M.; Whalley, M. R.; Glover, E. W. N.; Anderson, P.; Clark, P. J.; Earl, A. D.; Holt, A.; Jackson, A.; Joo, B.; Kenway, R. D.; Maynard, C. M.; Perry, J.; Smith, L.; Thorn, S.; Trew, A. S.; Bell, W. H.; Burgon-Lyon, M.; Cameron, D. G.; Doyle, A. T.; Flavell, A.; Hanlon, S. J.; Martin, D. J.; McCance, G.; Millar, A. P.; Nicholson, C.; Paterson, S. K.; Pickford, A.; Soler, P.; Speirs, F.; St. Denis, R.; Thompson, A. S.; Britton, D.; Cameron, W.; Colling, D.; Davies, G.; Dornan, P.; Egede, U.; Georgiou, K.; Lewis, P.; MacEvoy, B.; Marr, S.; Martyniak, J.; Tallini, H.; Wakefield, S.; Walker, R.; Bertram, I. A.; Bouhova-Thacker, E.; Evans, D.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Jones, R. W. L.; Love, P.; Downing, S.; George, M. P.; Irving, A. C.; McNeile, C.; Sroczynski, Z.; Tobin, M.; Washbrook, A. J.; Barlow, R. J.; Dallison, S.; Fairey, G.; Forti, A.; Hughes-Jones, R. E.; Jones, M. A. S.; Kaushal, S.; Marshall, R.; McNab, A.; Salih, S.; Werner, J. C.; Bartsch, V.; Cioffi, C.; Gronbech, P.; Harnew, N.; Harris, J. F.; Huffman, B. T.; Leslie, M.; McArthur, I.; Newman, R.; Soroko, A.; Stokes-Rees, I.; Stonjek, S.; Tseng, J.; Waters, D.; Wilkinson, G.; Arter, T. R.; Cordenonsi, R. A.; Datta, A. S.; Hartin, T.; Lloyd, S. L.; Martin, A. J.; Pearce, S. E.; Williams, C. J.; Gardner, M.; George, S.; Green, B. J.; Johal, S.; Rybkine, G.; Strong, J. A.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Hodgson, P.; Robinson, M.; Tovey, D. R.; Spooner, N. J. C.; Allton, C. R.; Armour, W.; Clarke, P.; Mealor, P.; Waters, D.; Waugh, B.; West, B.

    2006-01-01

    The GridPP Collaboration is building a UK computing Grid for particle physics, as part of the international effort towards computing for the Large Hadron Collider. The project, funded by the UK Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council (PPARC), began in September 2001 and completed its first phase 3 years later. GridPP is a collaboration of approximately 100 researchers in 19 UK university particle physics groups, the Council for the Central Laboratory of the Research Councils and CERN, reflecting the strategic importance of the project. In collaboration with other European and US efforts, the first phase of the project demonstrated the feasibility of developing, deploying and operating a Grid-based computing system to meet the UK needs of the Large Hadron Collider experiments. This note describes the work undertaken to achieve this goal.

  7. Extraction of {gamma} from charmless hadronic B {yields} PP decays using SU(3) flavor symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Suprun, Denis A.

    2006-07-11

    The decays of B mesons to a pair of charmless pseudoscalar mesons (PP decays) have been analyzed within the framework of flavor SU(3) symmetry and quark-diagrammatic topological approach. Flavor symmetry breaking is taken into account in tree (T) amplitudes through ratios of decay constants fK and f{pi}; exact SU(3) is assumed elsewhere. Acceptable fits to B {yields} PP branching ratios and CP asymmetries are obtained with tree, color-suppressed and QCD penguin amplitudes. Singlet penguin amplitude was introduced to describe decay amplitudes of the modes with {eta} and {eta}' mesons in the final state. Electroweak penguin amplitudes were expressed in terms of the corresponding tree-level diagrams. Values of the weak phase {gamma} were found to be consistent with the current indirect bounds from other analyses of CKM parameters.

  8. The microsortation of post-consumer HDPE/PP mixtures using near-critical carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Karmana, E.; Eiler, B.; Mainiero, D.

    1996-12-31

    The microsortation of mixed polyolefins was accomplished using near-critical carbon dioxide as a float-sink medium. A slowly turning U-shaped, helical or large-diameter pitched blade impeller was required to agitate the mixed plastics, however. This slight agitation allowed these irregular, jagged chips to either float or sink without being hindered by the neighboring chips. A post-consumer flake mixture of 85%HDPE/15%PP was sorted into HDPE and PP streams of 99+% purity. A discounted cash flow economic analysis of a 900 kg/hr polyolefin microsortation plant indicated that the value of sorted plastics must be $0.03-$0.04/lb greater than the clean, dry, mixed feed to achieve a reasonable rate of return. 14 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Use of Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) in the Characterization of EPDM/PP Blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stelescu, Maria Daniela; Airinei, Anton; Grigoras, Cristian; Niculescu-Aron, Ileana-Gabriela

    2010-12-01

    New polyolefinic thermoplastic elastomers based on the ethylene-propylene-diene monomer (EPDM) and polypropylene (PP) containing an EPDM elastomer of the last generation (Nordel NDR 47130), obtained by polymerization in the gaseous phase with metallocene catalysis, were prepared and characterized. The melting and crystallization behavior of these blends was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry. It is observed that the melting temperature, crystallization temperature, and crystallinity degree increase with an increase of PP loading. The influence of the blend composition on the physico-mechanical characteristics was discussed using statistical processing of the experimental data. Two compatibilizing procedures were utilized to improve the physico-mechanical characteristics of the samples: an addition method using different compatibilizing agents and dynamical vulcanization with three types of crosslinking systems. Significant improvements of the tensile strength and tear strength were noted by dynamic crosslinking, and the best results were obtained using a crosslinking system based on phenolic resin and tin chloride.

  10. Testing hydrodynamic descriptions of p+p collisions at √{s}=7 TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habich, M.; Miller, G. A.; Romatschke, P.; Xiang, W.

    2016-07-01

    In high-energy collisions of heavy ions, experimental findings of collective flow are customarily associated with the presence of a thermalized medium expanding according to the laws of hydrodynamics. Recently, the ATLAS, CMS, and ALICE experiments found signals of the same type and magnitude in ultrarelativistic proton-proton collisions. In this study, the state-of-the-art hydrodynamic model SONIC is used to simulate the systems created in p+p collisions. By varying the size of the second-order transport coefficients, the range of applicability of hydrodynamics itself to the systems created in p+p collisions is quantified. It is found that hydrodynamics can give quantitatively reliable results for the particle spectra and the elliptic momentum anisotropy coefficient v_2. Using a simple geometric model of the proton based on the elastic form factor leads to results of similar type and magnitude to those found in experiment when allowing for a small bulk viscosity coefficient.

  11. Color reconnection: a fundamental ingredient of the hadronisation in p-p collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuautle, E.; Iga, S.; Ortiz, A.; Paić, G.

    2016-07-01

    At the LHC very interesting similarities among different colliding systems (p-p, p-Pb and Pb-Pb) where observed in the multiplicity evolution of the transverse momentum spectra. This has prompted a number of analyses that have explained the results in terms of collective hydrodynamic flow. The explanation in terms of hydrodynamics has recognized problems with the smallness of the interaction volume in the systems created in p-p and p- Pb collisions. On the other hand, some event generators based on QCD produce a reasonable qualitative, and sometimes quantitative, agreement with the data. Those results can be achieved introducing in the hadronisation model the so-called color reconnection which produces flowlike patterns via boosted strings. In this work we present the behavior of the various color reconnection (CR) schemes compared to those without the CR case for different center-of-mass energies at the LHC (0.9, 7 and 13 TeV).

  12. Detecting and discriminating PE and PP polymers for plastics recycling using NIR imaging spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Biasio, Martin; Arnold, Thomas; McGunnigle, Gerald; Leitner, Raimund; Balthasar, Dirk; Rehrmann, Volker

    2010-05-01

    There are commercially available industrial systems for identifying and separating polymers, for instance PE from PP. However, there is a demand for analyzers that can separate within polymer classes: e.g. PE-LD from PE-HD or different polypropylenes characterised by different melting points. First, the feasibility of a reliable spectral identification was tested by extracting different PE and PP samples from an industrial recycling process, and acquiring diffuse reflectance NIR spectra using an FTIR spectrometer. The resulting spectra were then subjected to a chemometrics analysis. We successfully identified characteristic spectral features; these are determined by the chemical bonds of the material, and can be correlated to the melting points of the materials. These features were then adapted for use on a NIR hyper-spectral (HS) system, making it possible to distinguish not only different polymers, but also different types of one polymer in real-time.

  13. Vector resonances in weak-boson-fusion at future pp colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohan, Kirtimaan; Vignaroli, Natascia

    2015-10-01

    We present a first estimate of the reach of future pp colliders, the 14 TeV LHC and a futuristic 100 TeV pp collider, on a vector resonance, specifically a W', produced via weak-boson-fusion, and decaying dominantly into tb. The analysis is motivated by Composite Higgs, Randall-Sundrum and Little Higgs scenarios, which predict the existence of vector resonances with a large coupling to W and Z longitudinal bosons. In particular, in composite Higgs models with partial compositeness, the standard Drell-Yan production channel is suppressed at large coupling while the weak-boson-fusion is enhanced and could thus provide a unique opportunity to directly test the large coupling regime of the theory. We outline a search strategy for the W' in the weak-boson-fusion channel and present the reach of future colliders on the W' mass vs coupling parameter space.

  14. Dijet azimuthal decorrelations in pp collisions at √s=7 TeV.

    PubMed

    Khachatryan, V; Sirunyan, A M; Tumasyan, A; Adam, W; Bergauer, T; Dragicevic, M; Erö, J; Fabjan, C; Friedl, M; Frühwirth, R; Ghete, V M; Hammer, J; Hänsel, S; Hartl, C; Hoch, M; Hörmann, N; Hrubec, J; Jeitler, M; Kasieczka, G; Kiesenhofer, W; Krammer, M; Liko, D; Mikulec, I; Pernicka, M; Rohringer, H; Schöfbeck, R; Strauss, J; Taurok, A; Teischinger, F; Wagner, P; Waltenberger, W; Walzel, G; Widl, E; Wulz, C-E; Mossolov, V; Shumeiko, N; Suarez Gonzalez, J; Benucci, L; Cerny, K; De Wolf, E A; Janssen, X; Maes, T; Mucibello, L; Ochesanu, S; Roland, B; Rougny, R; Selvaggi, M; Van Haevermaet, H; Van Mechelen, P; Van Remortel, N; Beauceron, S; Blekman, F; Blyweert, S; D'Hondt, J; Devroede, O; Gonzalez Suarez, R; Kalogeropoulos, A; Maes, J; Maes, M; Tavernier, S; Van Doninck, W; Van Mulders, P; Van Onsem, G P; Villella, I; Charaf, O; Clerbaux, B; De Lentdecker, G; Dero, V; Gay, A P R; Hammad, G H; Hreus, T; Marage, P E; Thomas, L; Vander Velde, C; Vanlaer, P; Wickens, J; Adler, V; Costantini, S; Grunewald, M; Klein, B; Marinov, A; Mccartin, J; Ryckbosch, D; Thyssen, F; Tytgat, M; Vanelderen, L; Verwilligen, P; Walsh, S; Zaganidis, N; Basegmez, S; Bruno, G; Caudron, J; Ceard, L; De Favereau De Jeneret, J; Delaere, C; Demin, P; Favart, D; Giammanco, A; Grégoire, G; Hollar, J; Lemaitre, V; Liao, J; Militaru, O; Ovyn, S; Pagano, D; Pin, A; Piotrzkowski, K; Schul, N; Beliy, N; Caebergs, T; Daubie, E; Alves, G A; De Jesus Damiao, D; Pol, M E; Souza, M H G; Carvalho, W; Da Costa, E M; De Oliveira Martins, C; Fonseca De Souza, S; Mundim, L; Nogima, H; Oguri, V; Prado Da Silva, W L; Santoro, A; Silva Do Amaral, S M; Sznajder, A; Dias, F A; Dias, M A F; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T R; Gregores, E M; Marinho, F; Novaes, S F; Padula, Sandra S; Darmenov, N; Dimitrov, L; Genchev, V; Iaydjiev, P; Piperov, S; Rodozov, M; Stoykova, S; Sultanov, G; Tcholakov, V; Trayanov, R; Vankov, I; Dyulendarova, M; Hadjiiska, R; Kozhuharov, V; Litov, L; Marinova, E; Mateev, M; Pavlov, B; Petkov, P; Bian, J G; Chen, G M; Chen, H S; Jiang, C H; Liang, D; Liang, S; Wang, J; Wang, J; Wang, X; Wang, Z; Xu, M; Yang, M; Zang, J; Zhang, Z; Ban, Y; Guo, S; Guo, Y; Li, W; Mao, Y; Qian, S J; Teng, H; Zhang, L; Zhu, B; Zou, W; Cabrera, A; Gomez Moreno, B; Ocampo Rios, A A; Osorio Oliveros, A F; Sanabria, J C; Godinovic, N; Lelas, D; Lelas, K; Plestina, R; Polic, D; Puljak, I; Antunovic, Z; Dzelalija, M; Brigljevic, V; Duric, S; Kadija, K; Morovic, S; Attikis, A; Galanti, M; Mousa, J; Nicolaou, C; Ptochos, F; Razis, P A; Rykaczewski, H; Assran, Y; Mahmoud, M A; Hektor, A; Kadastik, M; Kannike, K; Müntel, M; Raidal, M; Rebane, L; Azzolini, V; Eerola, P; Czellar, S; Härkönen, J; Heikkinen, A; Karimäki, V; Kinnunen, R; Klem, J; Kortelainen, M J; Lampén, T; Lassila-Perini, K; Lehti, S; Lindén, T; Luukka, P; Mäenpää, T; Tuominen, E; Tuominiemi, J; Tuovinen, E; Ungaro, D; Wendland, L; Banzuzi, K; Korpela, A; Tuuva, T; Sillou, D; Besancon, M; Choudhury, S; Dejardin, M; Denegri, D; Fabbro, B; Faure, J L; Ferri, F; Ganjour, S; Gentit, F X; Givernaud, A; Gras, P; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Jarry, P; Locci, E; Malcles, J; Marionneau, M; Millischer, L; Rander, J; Rosowsky, A; Shreyber, I; Titov, M; Verrecchia, P; Baffioni, S; Beaudette, F; Bianchini, L; Bluj, M; Broutin, C; Busson, P; Charlot, C; Dahms, T; Dobrzynski, L; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Haguenauer, M; Miné, P; Mironov, C; Ochando, C; Paganini, P; Sabes, D; Salerno, R; Sirois, Y; Thiebaux, C; Wyslouch, B; Zabi, A; Agram, J-L; Andrea, J; Besson, A; Bloch, D; Bodin, D; Brom, J-M; Cardaci, M; Chabert, E C; Collard, C; Conte, E; Drouhin, F; Ferro, C; Fontaine, J-C; Gelé, D; Goerlach, U; Greder, S; Juillot, P; Karim, M; Le Bihan, A-C; Mikami, Y; Van Hove, P; Fassi, F; Mercier, D; Baty, C; Beaupere, N; Bedjidian, M; Bondu, O; Boudoul, G; Boumediene, D; Brun, H; Chanon, N; Chierici, R; Contardo, D; Depasse, P; El Mamouni, H; Falkiewicz, A; Fay, J; Gascon, S; Ille, B; Kurca, T; Le Grand, T; Lethuillier, M; Mirabito, L; Perries, S; Sordini, V; Tosi, S; Tschudi, Y; Verdier, P; Xiao, H; Megrelidze, L; Roinishvili, V; Lomidze, D; Anagnostou, G; Edelhoff, M; Feld, L; Heracleous, N; Hindrichs, O; Jussen, R; Klein, K; Merz, J; Mohr, N; Ostapchuk, A; Perieanu, A; Raupach, F; Sammet, J; Schael, S; Sprenger, D; Weber, H; Weber, M; Wittmer, B; Ata, M; Bender, W; Erdmann, M; Frangenheim, J; Hebbeker, T; Hinzmann, A; Hoepfner, K; Hof, C; Klimkovich, T; Klingebiel, D; Kreuzer, P; Lanske, D; Magass, C; Masetti, G; Merschmeyer, M; Meyer, A; Papacz, P; Pieta, H; Reithler, H; Schmitz, S A; Sonnenschein, L; Steggemann, J; Teyssier, D; Bontenackels, M; Davids, M; Duda, M; Flügge, G; Geenen, H; Giffels, M; Haj Ahmad, W; Heydhausen, D; Kress, T; Kuessel, Y; Linn, A; Nowack, A; Perchalla, L; Pooth, O; Rennefeld, J; Sauerland, P; Stahl, A; Thomas, M; Tornier, D; Zoeller, M H; Aldaya Martin, M; Behrenhoff, W; Behrens, U; Bergholz, M; Borras, K; Cakir, A; Campbell, A; Castro, E; Dammann, D; Eckerlin, G; Eckstein, D; Flossdorf, A; Flucke, G; Geiser, A; Glushkov, I; Hauk, J; 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Varelas, N; Akgun, U; Albayrak, E A; Bilki, B; Cankocak, K; Clarida, W; Duru, F; Lae, C K; McCliment, E; Merlo, J-P; Mermerkaya, H; Mestvirishvili, A; Moeller, A; Nachtman, J; Newsom, C R; Norbeck, E; Olson, J; Onel, Y; Ozok, F; Sen, S; Wetzel, J; Yetkin, T; Yi, K; Barnett, B A; Blumenfeld, B; Bonato, A; Eskew, C; Fehling, D; Giurgiu, G; Gritsan, A V; Guo, Z J; Hu, G; Maksimovic, P; Rappoccio, S; Swartz, M; Tran, N V; Whitbeck, A; Baringer, P; Bean, A; Benelli, G; Grachov, O; Murray, M; Noonan, D; Radicci, V; Sanders, S; Wood, J S; Zhukova, V; Bolton, T; Chakaberia, I; Ivanov, A; Makouski, M; Maravin, Y; Shrestha, S; Svintradze, I; Wan, Z; Gronberg, J; Lange, D; Wright, D; Baden, A; Boutemeur, M; Eno, S C; Ferencek, D; Gomez, J A; Hadley, N J; Kellogg, R G; Kirn, M; Lu, Y; Mignerey, A C; Rossato, K; Rumerio, P; Santanastasio, F; Skuja, A; Temple, J; Tonjes, M B; Tonwar, S C; Twedt, E; Alver, B; Bauer, G; Bendavid, J; Busza, W; Butz, E; Cali, I A; Chan, M; Dutta, V; Everaerts, P; Gomez Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; Hahn, K A; Harris, P; Kim, Y; Klute, M; Lee, Y-J; Li, W; Loizides, C; Luckey, P D; Ma, T; Nahn, S; Paus, C; Ralph, D; Roland, C; Roland, G; Rudolph, M; Stephans, G S F; Sumorok, K; Sung, K; Wenger, E A; Xie, S; Yang, M; Yilmaz, Y; Yoon, A S; Zanetti, M; Cole, P; Cooper, S I; Cushman, P; Dahmes, B; De Benedetti, A; Dudero, P R; Franzoni, G; Haupt, J; Klapoetke, K; Kubota, Y; Mans, J; Rekovic, V; Rusack, R; Sasseville, M; Singovsky, A; Cremaldi, L M; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Perera, L; Rahmat, R; Sanders, D A; Summers, D; Bloom, K; Bose, S; Butt, J; Claes, D R; Dominguez, A; Eads, M; Keller, J; Kelly, T; Kravchenko, I; Lazo-Flores, J; Lundstedt, C; Malbouisson, H; Malik, S; Snow, G R; Baur, U; Godshalk, A; Iashvili, I; Jain, S; Kharchilava, A; Kumar, A; Shipkowski, S P; Smith, K; Alverson, G; Barberis, E; Baumgartel, D; Boeriu, O; Chasco, M; Reucroft, S; Swain, J; Wood, D; Zhang, J; Anastassov, A; Kubik, A; Odell, N; Ofierzynski, R A; Pollack, B; Pozdnyakov, A; Schmitt, M; Stoynev, S; Velasco, M; Won, S; Antonelli, L; Berry, D; Hildreth, M; Jessop, C; Karmgard, D J; Kolb, J; Kolberg, T; Lannon, K; Luo, W; Lynch, S; Marinelli, N; Morse, D M; Pearson, T; Ruchti, R; Slaunwhite, J; Valls, N; Warchol, J; Wayne, M; Ziegler, J; Bylsma, B; Durkin, L S; Gu, J; Hill, C; Killewald, P; Kotov, K; Ling, T Y; Rodenburg, M; Williams, G; Adam, N; Berry, E; Elmer, P; Gerbaudo, D; Halyo, V; Hebda, P; Hunt, A; Jones, J; Laird, E; Lopes Pegna, D; Marlow, D; Medvedeva, T; Mooney, M; Olsen, J; Piroué, P; Quan, X; Saka, H; Stickland, D; Tully, C; Werner, J S; Zuranski, A; Acosta, J G; Huang, X T; Lopez, A; Mendez, H; Oliveros, S; Ramirez Vargas, J E; Zatserklyaniy, A; Alagoz, E; Barnes, V E; Bolla, G; Borrello, L; Bortoletto, D; Everett, A; Garfinkel, A F; Gecse, Z; Gutay, L; Hu, Z; Jones, M; Koybasi, O; Laasanen, A T; Leonardo, N; Liu, C; Maroussov, V; Merkel, P; Miller, D H; Neumeister, N; Shipsey, I; Silvers, D; Svyatkovskiy, A; Yoo, H D; Zablocki, J; Zheng, Y; Jindal, P; Parashar, N; Boulahouache, C; Cuplov, V; Ecklund, K M; Geurts, F J M; Liu, J H; Padley, B P; Redjimi, R; Roberts, J; Zabel, J; Betchart, B; Bodek, A; Chung, Y S; Covarelli, R; de Barbaro, P; Demina, R; Eshaq, Y; Flacher, H; Garcia-Bellido, A; Goldenzweig, P; Gotra, Y; Han, J; Harel, A; Miner, D C; Orbaker, D; Petrillo, G; Vishnevskiy, D; Zielinski, M; Bhatti, A; Ciesielski, R; Demortier, L; Goulianos, K; Lungu, G; Mesropian, C; Yan, M; Atramentov, O; Barker, A; Duggan, D; Gershtein, Y; Gray, R; Halkiadakis, E; Hidas, D; Hits, D; Lath, A; Panwalkar, S; Patel, R; Richards, A; Rose, K; Schnetzer, S; Somalwar, S; Stone, R; Thomas, S; Cerizza, G; Hollingsworth, M; Spanier, S; Yang, Z C; York, A; Asaadi, J; Eusebi, R; Gilmore, J; Gurrola, A; Kamon, T; Khotilovich, V; Montalvo, R; Nguyen, C N; Osipenkov, I; Pivarski, J; Safonov, A; Sengupta, S; Tatarinov, A; Toback, D; Weinberger, M; Akchurin, N; Bardak, C; Damgov, J; Jeong, C; Kovitanggoon, K; Lee, S W; Mane, P; Roh, Y; Sill, A; Volobouev, I; Wigmans, R; Yazgan, E; Appelt, E; Brownson, E; Engh, D; Florez, C; Gabella, W; Johns, W; Kurt, P; Maguire, C; Melo, A; Sheldon, P; Velkovska, J; Arenton, M W; Balazs, M; Boutle, S; Buehler, M; Conetti, S; Cox, B; Francis, B; Hirosky, R; Ledovskoy, A; Lin, C; Neu, C; Yohay, R; Gollapinni, S; Harr, R; Karchin, P E; Lamichhane, P; Mattson, M; Milstène, C; Sakharov, A; Anderson, M; Bachtis, M; Bellinger, J N; Carlsmith, D; Dasu, S; Efron, J; Gray, L; Grogg, K S; Grothe, M; Hall-Wilton, R; Herndon, M; Klabbers, P; Klukas, J; Lanaro, A; Lazaridis, C; Leonard, J; Loveless, R; Mohapatra, A; Reeder, D; Ross, I; Savin, A; Smith, W H; Swanson, J; Weinberg, M

    2011-03-25

    Measurements of dijet azimuthal decorrelations in pp collisions at √s=7 TeV using the CMS detector at the CERN LHC are presented. The analysis is based on an inclusive dijet event sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 2.9 pb⁻¹. The results are compared to predictions from perturbative QCD calculations and various Monte Carlo event generators. The dijet azimuthal distributions are found to be sensitive to initial-state gluon radiation. PMID:21517306

  15. Computing posterior probabilities for score-based alignments using ppALIGN.

    PubMed

    Wolfsheimer, Stefan; Hartmann, Alexander; Rabus, Ralf; Nuel, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    Score-based pairwise alignments are widely used in bioinformatics in particular with molecular database search tools, such as the BLAST family. Due to sophisticated heuristics, such algorithms are usually fast but the underlying scoring model unfortunately lacks a statistical description of the reliability of the reported alignments. In particular, close to gaps, in low-score or low-complexity regions, a huge number of alternative alignments arise which results in a decrease of the certainty of the alignment. ppALIGN is a software package that uses hidden Markov Model techniques to compute position-wise reliability of score-based pairwise alignments of DNA or protein sequences. The design of the model allows for a direct connection between the scoring function and the parameters of the probabilistic model. For this reason it is suitable to analyze the outcomes of popular score based aligners and search tools without having to choose a complicated set of parameters. By contrast, our program only requires the classical score parameters (the scoring function and gap costs). The package comes along with a library written in C++, a standalone program for user defined alignments (ppALIGN) and another program (ppBLAST) which can process a complete result set of BLAST. The main algorithms essentially exhibit a linear time complexity (in the alignment lengths), and they are hence suitable for on-line computations. We have also included alternative decoding algorithms to provide alternative alignments. ppALIGN is a fast program/library that helps detect and quantify questionable regions in pairwise alignments. Due to its structure, the input/output interface it can to be connected to other post-processing tools. Empirically, we illustrate its usefulness in terms of correctly predicted reliable regions for sequences generated using the ROSE model for sequence evolution, and identify sensor-specific regions in the denitrifying betaproteobacterium Aromatoleum aromaticum. PMID

  16. Molecular modeling of human BAD and its interaction with PKAc or PP1c.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie

    2009-03-01

    To build up the structure of human BAD (Bcl-2 antagonist of cell death), subsequently combined with PKAc or PP1c (protein phosphatase 1), to investigate the interaction relationship between BAD and its kinase/PTPese at the molecular level. Additionally, it is concerned with the search for all optimal positions and orientations of a set of amino acid residues of BAD, while its binding sites include N-termini (Glu19, Ala27, and Ser34-Lys35), BH3-located helical domain (Arg98-Lys126), and C-termini (Trp154-Ser163 and Ser167-Gln168). The related sites of PKAc are mainly assembled in C-terminal alpha/beta-domain of PKAc, which comprises the KTL motif (47-49), Glu203 residue, a helical region (Asp241-Arg256), and the span from 328 to 333; while the interaction sites with BAD converge at C-terminal beta-domain of PP1c, which includes the DEK motif (166-168), the stretch from 179 to 197 including a helix (Glu184-Arg188), Glu230-Asp242 segment containing Val232-His237 helix, and Glu287-Leu289 loop. In conclusion, analysis of the complex between BAD and PKAc or PP1c provides a novel viewpoint on the structural origins of molecular recognition. And the complex models suggest that BH3 domain of BAD interact with PKAc or PP1c by electrostatic, van der Waals contacts, hydrogen bond and salt bridge. This is helpful for our development and research of some new drugs, especially mimetic BH3 peptides and inspires scientists with BAD complex and molecular mechanism of its integrating glycolysis and apoptosis.

  17. Biochemical studies on Francisella tularensis RelA in (p)ppGpp biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Rachael C.; Batten, Laura E.; Wells, Neil J.; Oyston, Petra C.F.; Roach, Peter L.

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial stringent response is induced by nutrient deprivation and is mediated by enzymes of the RSH (RelA/SpoT homologue; RelA, (p)ppGpp synthetase I; SpoT, (p)ppGpp synthetase II) superfamily that control concentrations of the ‘alarmones’ (p)ppGpp (guanosine penta- or tetra-phosphate). This regulatory pathway is present in the vast majority of pathogens and has been proposed as a potential anti-bacterial target. Current understanding of RelA-mediated responses is based on biochemical studies using Escherichia coli as a model. In comparison, the Francisella tularensis RelA sequence contains a truncated regulatory C-terminal region and an unusual synthetase motif (EXSD). Biochemical analysis of F. tularensis RelA showed the similarities and differences of this enzyme compared with the model RelA from Escherichia coli. Purification of the enzyme yielded a stable dimer capable of reaching concentrations of 10 mg/ml. In contrast with other enzymes from the RelA/SpoT homologue superfamily, activity assays with F. tularensis RelA demonstrate a high degree of specificity for GTP as a pyrophosphate acceptor, with no measurable turnover for GDP. Steady state kinetic analysis of F. tularensis RelA gave saturation activity curves that best fitted a sigmoidal function. This kinetic profile can result from allosteric regulation and further measurements with potential allosteric regulators demonstrated activation by ppGpp (5′,3′-dibisphosphate guanosine) with an EC50 of 60±1.9 μM. Activation of F. tularensis RelA by stalled ribosomal complexes formed with ribosomes purified from E. coli MRE600 was observed, but interestingly, significantly weaker activation with ribosomes isolated from Francisella philomiragia. PMID:26450927

  18. Bose-Einstein correlations in pp and PbPb collisions with ALICE at the LHC

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    We report on the results of identical pion femtoscopy at the LHC. The Bose-Einstein correlation analysis was performed on the large-statistics ALICE p+p at sqrt{s}= 0.9 TeV and 7 TeV datasets collected during 2010 LHC running and the first Pb+Pb dataset at sqrt{s_NN}= 2.76 TeV. Detailed pion femtoscopy studies in heavy-ion collisions have shown that emission region sizes ("HBT radii") decrease with increasing pair momentum, which is understood as a manifestation of the collective behavior of matter. 3D radii were also found to universally scale with event multiplicity. In p+p collisions at 7 TeV one measures multiplicities which are comparable with those registered in peripheral AuAu and CuCu collisions at RHIC, so direct comparisons and tests of scaling laws are now possible. We show the results of double-differential 3D pion HBT analysis, as a function of multiplicity and pair momentum. The results for two collision energies are compared to results obtained in the heavy-ion collisions at similar multiplicity and p+p collisions at lower energy. We identify the relevant scaling variables for the femtoscopic radii and discuss the similarities and differences to results from heavy-ions. The observed trends give insight into the soft particle production mechanism in p+p collisions and suggest that a self-interacting collective system may be created in sufficiently high multiplicity events. First results for the central Pb+Pb collisions are also shown. A significant increase of the reaction zone volume and lifetime in comparison to RHIC is observed. Signatures of collective hydrodynamics-like behavior of the system are also apparent, and are compared to model predictions.

  19. Cannabis-based medicine reduces multiple pathological processes in AβPP/PS1 mice.

    PubMed

    Aso, Ester; Sánchez-Pla, Alexandre; Vegas-Lozano, Esteban; Maldonado, Rafael; Ferrer, Isidro

    2015-01-01

    Several recent findings suggest that targeting the endogenous cannabinoid system can be considered as a potential therapeutic approach to treat Alzheimer's disease (AD). The present study supports this hypothesis demonstrating that delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) or cannabidiol (CBD) botanical extracts, as well as the combination of both natural cannabinoids, which are the components of an already approved cannabis-based medicine, preserved memory in AβPP/PS1 transgenic mice when chronically administered during the early symptomatic stage. Moreover, THC + CBD reduced learning impairment in AβPP/PS1 mice. A significant decrease in soluble Aβ42 peptide levels and a change in plaques composition were also observed in THC + CBD-treated AβPP/PS1 mice, suggesting a cannabinoid-induced reduction in the harmful effect of the most toxic form of the Aβ peptide. Among the mechanisms related with these positive cognitive effects, the anti-inflammatory properties of cannabinoids may also play a relevant role. Here we observed reduced astrogliosis, microgliosis, and inflammatory-related molecules in treated AβPP/PS1 mice, which were more marked after treatment with THC + CBD than with either THC or CBD. Moreover, other cannabinoid-induced effects were uncovered by a genome-wide gene expression study. Thus, we have identified the redox protein thioredoxin 2 and the signaling protein Wnt16 as significant substrates for the THC + CBD-induced effects in our AD model. In summary, the present findings show that the combination of THC and CBD exhibits a better therapeutic profile than each cannabis component alone and support the consideration of a cannabis-based medicine as potential therapy against AD.

  20. Injection molding of iPP samples in controlled conditions and resulting morphology

    SciTech Connect

    Sessa, Nino De Santis, Felice Pantani, Roberto

    2015-12-17

    Injection molded parts are driven down in size and weight especially for electronic applications. In this work, an investigation was carried out on the process of injection molding of thin iPP samples and on the morphology of these parts. Melt flow in the mold cavity was analyzed and described with a mathematical model. Influence of mold temperature and injection pressure was analyzed. Samples orientation was studied using optical microscopy.

  1. Effects on PP waves and Rayleigh waves of water column approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Y.; Ni, S.

    2015-12-01

    Spectral-element method (SEM) combines the flexibility of the finite-element method and the accuracy of the pseudo-spectral method. It can handle the complexity of the 3-D earth model, such as heterogeneity of velocity and density, anisotropy, anelasticity, sharp velocity and density contrasts, topography. And with water column approximation, it can also deal with oceans. Because of its powerful ability, there are a wide range of application of SEM in studies of PP waves and Rayleigh waves. PP wave and its precursors have been used in measuring topography of 410 km or 660 km. Rayleigh waves are the most recognizable part of the seismograms and have been broadly applied in crustal and uppermost mantle tomography. In global SEM simulation, oceans are usually assumed to be incompressible, which means that the entire water column moves as a whole as a result of the normal displacement of the seafloor. It is necessary to investigate the accuracy of water column approximation when thickness of ocean approaches wavelength of the wave in the ocean water. In this paper, based on plane wave assumption, we study both the accurate form and water column approximate form of effective boundary condition. The reflection coefficient equation of PP waves with effective boundary of water was derived. Accurate and approximate PP reflection coefficient with oceans in different depth is demonstrated. The formula of Rayleigh wave phase velocity dispersion with effective water boundary is also investigated. It is shown that water column approximation in global SEM simulation is not sufficient for some parts of the ocean.

  2. Biochemical studies on Francisella tularensis RelA in (p)ppGpp biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Rachael C; Batten, Laura E; Wells, Neil J; Oyston, Petra C F; Roach, Peter L

    2015-10-08

    The bacterial stringent response is induced by nutrient deprivation and is mediated by enzymes of the RSH (RelA/SpoT homologue; RelA, (p)ppGpp synthetase I; SpoT, (p)ppGpp synthetase II) superfamily that control concentrations of the 'alarmones' (p)ppGpp (guanosine penta- or tetra-phosphate). This regulatory pathway is present in the vast majority of pathogens and has been proposed as a potential anti-bacterial target. Current understanding of RelA-mediated responses is based on biochemical studies using Escherichia coli as a model. In comparison, the Francisella tularensis RelA sequence contains a truncated regulatory C-terminal region and an unusual synthetase motif (EXSD). Biochemical analysis of F. tularensis RelA showed the similarities and differences of this enzyme compared with the model RelA from Escherichia coli. Purification of the enzyme yielded a stable dimer capable of reaching concentrations of 10 mg/ml. In contrast with other enzymes from the RelA/SpoT homologue superfamily, activity assays with F. tularensis RelA demonstrate a high degree of specificity for GTP as a pyrophosphate acceptor, with no measurable turnover for GDP. Steady state kinetic analysis of F. tularensis RelA gave saturation activity curves that best fitted a sigmoidal function. This kinetic profile can result from allosteric regulation and further measurements with potential allosteric regulators demonstrated activation by ppGpp (5',3'-dibisphosphate guanosine) with an EC50 of 60±1.9 μM. Activation of F. tularensis RelA by stalled ribosomal complexes formed with ribosomes purified from E. coli MRE600 was observed, but interestingly, significantly weaker activation with ribosomes isolated from Francisella philomiragia.

  3. TWEAK prevents TNF-α-induced insulin resistance through PP2A activation in human adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Carballo, Ana; Ceperuelo-Mallafré, Victòria; Chacón, Matilde R; Maymó-Masip, Elsa; Lorenzo, Margarita; Porras, Almudena; Vendrell, Joan; Fernández-Veledo, Sonia

    2013-07-01

    Visceral fat is strongly associated with insulin resistance. Obesity-associated adipose tissue inflammation and inflammatory cytokine production are considered key mediators of insulin signaling inhibition. TWEAK is a relatively new member of the TNF cytokine superfamily, which can exist as full length membrane-associated (mTWEAK) and soluble (sTWEAK) isoforms. Although TWEAK has been shown to have important functions in chronic inflammatory diseases its physiological role in adipose tissue remains unresolved. In this study, we explore the molecular mechanisms involved in the modulation of TNF-α-induced effects on insulin sensitivity by sTWEAK in a human visceral adipose cell line and also in primary human adipocytes obtained from visceral fat depots. Our data reveal that sTWEAK ameliorates TNF-α-induced insulin resistance on glucose uptake, GLUT4 translocation and insulin signaling without affecting other metabolic effects of TNF-α such as lipolysis or apoptotis. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments in adipose cells revealed that pretreatment with sTWEAK specifically inhibits TRAF2 association with TNFR1, but not with TNFR2, which mediates insulin resistance. However, sTWEAK does not affect other downstream molecules activated by TNF-α, such as TAK1. Rather, sTWEAK abolishes the stimulatory effect of TNF-α on JNK1/2, which is directly involved in the development of insulin resistance. This is associated with an increase in PP2A activity upon sTWEAK treatment. Silencing of the PP2A catalytic subunit gene overcomes the dephosphorylation effect of sTWEAK on JNK1/2, pointing to PP2A as a relevant mediator of sTWEAK-induced JNK inactivation. Overall, our data reveal a protective role of TWEAK in glucose homeostasis and identify PP2A as a new driver in the modulation of TNF-α signaling by sTWEAK.

  4. Dijet azimuthal decorrelations in pp collisions at √s=7 TeV.

    PubMed

    Khachatryan, V; Sirunyan, A M; Tumasyan, A; Adam, W; Bergauer, T; Dragicevic, M; Erö, J; Fabjan, C; Friedl, M; Frühwirth, R; Ghete, V M; Hammer, J; Hänsel, S; Hartl, C; Hoch, M; Hörmann, N; Hrubec, J; Jeitler, M; Kasieczka, G; Kiesenhofer, W; Krammer, M; Liko, D; Mikulec, I; Pernicka, M; Rohringer, H; Schöfbeck, R; Strauss, J; Taurok, A; Teischinger, F; Wagner, P; Waltenberger, W; Walzel, G; Widl, E; Wulz, C-E; Mossolov, V; Shumeiko, N; Suarez Gonzalez, J; Benucci, L; Cerny, K; De Wolf, E A; Janssen, X; Maes, T; Mucibello, L; Ochesanu, S; Roland, B; Rougny, R; Selvaggi, M; Van Haevermaet, H; Van Mechelen, P; Van Remortel, N; Beauceron, S; Blekman, F; Blyweert, S; D'Hondt, J; Devroede, O; Gonzalez Suarez, R; Kalogeropoulos, A; Maes, J; Maes, M; Tavernier, S; Van Doninck, W; Van Mulders, P; Van Onsem, G P; Villella, I; Charaf, O; Clerbaux, B; De Lentdecker, G; Dero, V; Gay, A P R; Hammad, G H; Hreus, T; Marage, P E; Thomas, L; Vander Velde, C; Vanlaer, P; Wickens, J; Adler, V; Costantini, S; Grunewald, M; Klein, B; Marinov, A; Mccartin, J; Ryckbosch, D; Thyssen, F; Tytgat, M; Vanelderen, L; Verwilligen, P; Walsh, S; Zaganidis, N; Basegmez, S; Bruno, G; Caudron, J; Ceard, L; De Favereau De Jeneret, J; Delaere, C; Demin, P; Favart, D; Giammanco, A; Grégoire, G; Hollar, J; Lemaitre, V; Liao, J; Militaru, O; Ovyn, S; Pagano, D; Pin, A; Piotrzkowski, K; Schul, N; Beliy, N; Caebergs, T; Daubie, E; Alves, G A; De Jesus Damiao, D; Pol, M E; Souza, M H G; Carvalho, W; Da Costa, E M; De Oliveira Martins, C; Fonseca De Souza, S; Mundim, L; Nogima, H; Oguri, V; Prado Da Silva, W L; Santoro, A; Silva Do Amaral, S M; Sznajder, A; Dias, F A; Dias, M A F; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T R; Gregores, E M; Marinho, F; Novaes, S F; Padula, Sandra S; Darmenov, N; Dimitrov, L; Genchev, V; Iaydjiev, P; Piperov, S; Rodozov, M; Stoykova, S; Sultanov, G; Tcholakov, V; Trayanov, R; Vankov, I; Dyulendarova, M; Hadjiiska, R; Kozhuharov, V; Litov, L; Marinova, E; Mateev, M; Pavlov, B; Petkov, P; Bian, J G; Chen, G M; 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Della Negra, M; Fulcher, J; Futyan, D; Guneratne Bryer, A; Hall, G; Hatherell, Z; Hays, J; Iles, G; Karapostoli, G; Lyons, L; Magnan, A-M; Marrouche, J; Nandi, R; Nash, J; Nikitenko, A; Papageorgiou, A; Pesaresi, M; Petridis, K; Pioppi, M; Raymond, D M; Rompotis, N; Rose, A; Ryan, M J; Seez, C; Sharp, P; Sparrow, A; Tapper, A; Tourneur, S; Vazquez Acosta, M; Virdee, T; Wakefield, S; Wardrope, D; Whyntie, T; Barrett, M; Chadwick, M; Cole, J E; Hobson, P R; Khan, A; Kyberd, P; Leslie, D; Martin, W; Reid, I D; Teodorescu, L; Hatakeyama, K; Bose, T; Carrera Jarrin, E; Clough, A; Fantasia, C; Heister, A; St John, J; Lawson, P; Lazic, D; Rohlf, J; Sperka, D; Sulak, L; Avetisyan, A; Bhattacharya, S; Chou, J P; Cutts, D; Ferapontov, A; Heintz, U; Jabeen, S; Kukartsev, G; Landsberg, G; Narain, M; Nguyen, D; Segala, M; Speer, T; Tsang, K V; Borgia, M A; Breedon, R; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, M; Cebra, D; Chauhan, S; Chertok, M; Conway, J; Cox, P T; Dolen, J; Erbacher, R; Friis, E; Ko, W; Kopecky, A; Lander, R; Liu, H; Maruyama, S; Miceli, T; Nikolic, M; Pellett, D; Robles, J; Salur, S; Schwarz, T; Searle, M; Smith, J; Squires, M; Tripathi, M; Vasquez Sierra, R; Veelken, C; Andreev, V; Arisaka, K; Cline, D; Cousins, R; Deisher, A; Duris, J; Erhan, S; Farrell, C; Hauser, J; Ignatenko, M; Jarvis, C; Plager, C; Rakness, G; Schlein, P; Tucker, J; Valuev, V; Babb, J; Clare, R; Ellison, J; Gary, J W; Giordano, F; Hanson, G; Jeng, G Y; Kao, S C; Liu, F; Liu, H; Luthra, A; Nguyen, H; Pasztor, G; Satpathy, A; Shen, B C; Stringer, R; Sturdy, J; Sumowidagdo, S; Wilken, R; Wimpenny, S; Andrews, W; Branson, J G; Cerati, G B; Dusinberre, E; Evans, D; Golf, F; Holzner, A; Kelley, R; Lebourgeois, M; Letts, J; Mangano, B; Muelmenstaedt, J; Padhi, S; Palmer, C; Petrucciani, G; Pi, H; Pieri, M; Ranieri, R; Sani, M; Sharma, V; Simon, S; Tu, Y; Vartak, A; Würthwein, F; Yagil, A; Barge, D; Bellan, R; Campagnari, C; D'Alfonso, M; Danielson, T; Flowers, K; Geffert, P; Incandela, J; Justus, C; Kalavase, P; Koay, S A; Kovalskyi, D; Krutelyov, V; Lowette, S; McColl, N; Pavlunin, V; Rebassoo, F; Ribnik, J; Richman, J; Rossin, R; Stuart, D; To, W; Vlimant, J R; Bornheim, A; Bunn, J; Chen, Y; Gataullin, M; Kcira, D; Litvine, V; Ma, Y; Mott, A; Newman, H B; Rogan, C; Timciuc, V; Traczyk, P; Veverka, J; Wilkinson, R; Yang, Y; Zhu, R Y; Akgun, B; Carroll, R; Ferguson, T; Iiyama, Y; Jang, D W; Jun, S Y; Liu, Y F; Paulini, M; Russ, J; Terentyev, N; Vogel, H; Vorobiev, I; Cumalat, J P; Dinardo, M E; Drell, B R; Edelmaier, C J; Ford, W T; Gaz, A; Heyburn, B; Luiggi Lopez, E; Nauenberg, U; Smith, J G; Stenson, K; Ulmer, K A; Wagner, S R; Zang, S L; Agostino, L; Alexander, J; Chatterjee, A; Das, S; Eggert, N; Fields, L J; Gibbons, L K; Heltsley, B; Hopkins, W; Khukhunaishvili, A; Kreis, B; Kuznetsov, V; Kaufman, G Nicolas; Patterson, J R; Puigh, D; Riley, D; Ryd, A; Shi, X; Sun, W; Teo, W D; Thom, J; Thompson, J; Vaughan, J; Weng, Y; Winstrom, L; Wittich, P; Biselli, A; Cirino, G; Winn, D; Abdullin, S; Albrow, M; Anderson, J; Apollinari, G; Atac, M; Bakken, J A; Banerjee, S; Bauerdick, L A T; Beretvas, A; Berryhill, J; Bhat, P C; Bloch, I; Borcherding, F; Burkett, K; Butler, J N; Chetluru, V; Cheung, H W K; Chlebana, F; Cihangir, S; Demarteau, M; Eartly, D P; Elvira, V D; Esen, S; Fisk, I; Freeman, J; Gao, Y; Gottschalk, E; Green, D; Gunthoti, K; Gutsche, O; Hahn, A; Hanlon, J; Harris, R M; Hirschauer, J; Hooberman, B; James, E; Jensen, H; Johnson, M; Joshi, U; Khatiwada, R; Kilminster, B; Klima, B; Kousouris, K; Kunori, S; Kwan, S; Leonidopoulos, C; Limon, P; Lipton, R; Lykken, J; Maeshima, K; Marraffino, J M; Mason, D; McBride, P; McCauley, T; Miao, T; Mishra, K; Mrenna, S; Musienko, Y; Newman-Holmes, C; O'Dell, V; Popescu, S; Pordes, R; Prokofyev, O; Saoulidou, N; Sexton-Kennedy, E; Sharma, S; Soha, A; Spalding, W J; Spiegel, L; Tan, P; Taylor, L; Tkaczyk, S; Uplegger, L; Vaandering, E W; Vidal, R; Whitmore, J; Wu, W; Yang, F; Yumiceva, F; Yun, J C; Acosta, D; Avery, P; Bourilkov, D; Chen, M; Di Giovanni, G P; Dobur, D; Drozdetskiy, A; Field, R D; Fisher, M; Fu, Y; Furic, I K; Gartner, J; Goldberg, S; Kim, B; Klimenko, S; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kropivnitskaya, A; Kypreos, T; Matchev, K; Mitselmakher, G; Muniz, L; Pakhotin, Y; Prescott, C; Remington, R; Schmitt, M; Scurlock, B; Sellers, P; Skhirtladze, N; Wang, D; Yelton, J; Zakaria, M; Ceron, C; Gaultney, V; Kramer, L; Lebolo, L M; Linn, S; Markowitz, P; Martinez, G; Rodriguez, J L; Adams, T; Askew, A; Bandurin, D; Bochenek, J; Chen, J; Diamond, B; Gleyzer, S V; Haas, J; Hagopian, S; Hagopian, V; Jenkins, M; Johnson, K F; Prosper, H; Quertenmont, L; Sekmen, S; Veeraraghavan, V; Baarmand, M M; Dorney, B; Guragain, S; Hohlmann, M; Kalakhety, H; Ralich, R; Vodopiyanov, I; Adams, M R; Anghel, I M; Apanasevich, L; Bai, Y; Bazterra, V E; Betts, R R; Callner, J; Cavanaugh, R; Dragoiu, C; Garcia-Solis, E J; Gauthier, L; Gerber, C E; Hofman, D J; Khalatyan, S; Lacroix, F; Malek, M; O'Brien, C; Silvestre, C; Smoron, A; Strom, D; Varelas, N; Akgun, U; Albayrak, E A; Bilki, B; Cankocak, K; Clarida, W; Duru, F; Lae, C K; McCliment, E; Merlo, J-P; Mermerkaya, H; Mestvirishvili, A; Moeller, A; Nachtman, J; Newsom, C R; Norbeck, E; Olson, J; Onel, Y; Ozok, F; Sen, S; Wetzel, J; Yetkin, T; Yi, K; Barnett, B A; Blumenfeld, B; Bonato, A; Eskew, C; Fehling, D; Giurgiu, G; Gritsan, A V; Guo, Z J; Hu, G; Maksimovic, P; Rappoccio, S; Swartz, M; Tran, N V; Whitbeck, A; Baringer, P; Bean, A; Benelli, G; Grachov, O; Murray, M; Noonan, D; Radicci, V; Sanders, S; Wood, J S; Zhukova, V; Bolton, T; Chakaberia, I; Ivanov, A; Makouski, M; Maravin, Y; Shrestha, S; Svintradze, I; Wan, Z; Gronberg, J; Lange, D; Wright, D; Baden, A; Boutemeur, M; Eno, S C; Ferencek, D; Gomez, J A; Hadley, N J; Kellogg, R G; Kirn, M; Lu, Y; Mignerey, A C; Rossato, K; Rumerio, P; Santanastasio, F; Skuja, A; Temple, J; Tonjes, M B; Tonwar, S C; Twedt, E; Alver, B; Bauer, G; Bendavid, J; Busza, W; Butz, E; Cali, I A; Chan, M; Dutta, V; Everaerts, P; Gomez Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; Hahn, K A; Harris, P; Kim, Y; Klute, M; Lee, Y-J; Li, W; Loizides, C; Luckey, P D; Ma, T; Nahn, S; Paus, C; Ralph, D; Roland, C; Roland, G; Rudolph, M; Stephans, G S F; Sumorok, K; Sung, K; Wenger, E A; Xie, S; Yang, M; Yilmaz, Y; Yoon, A S; Zanetti, M; Cole, P; Cooper, S I; Cushman, P; Dahmes, B; De Benedetti, A; Dudero, P R; Franzoni, G; Haupt, J; Klapoetke, K; Kubota, Y; Mans, J; Rekovic, V; Rusack, R; Sasseville, M; Singovsky, A; Cremaldi, L M; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Perera, L; Rahmat, R; Sanders, D A; Summers, D; Bloom, K; Bose, S; Butt, J; Claes, D R; Dominguez, A; Eads, M; Keller, J; Kelly, T; Kravchenko, I; Lazo-Flores, J; Lundstedt, C; Malbouisson, H; Malik, S; Snow, G R; Baur, U; Godshalk, A; Iashvili, I; Jain, S; Kharchilava, A; Kumar, A; Shipkowski, S P; Smith, K; Alverson, G; Barberis, E; Baumgartel, D; Boeriu, O; Chasco, M; Reucroft, S; Swain, J; Wood, D; Zhang, J; Anastassov, A; Kubik, A; Odell, N; Ofierzynski, R A; Pollack, B; Pozdnyakov, A; Schmitt, M; Stoynev, S; Velasco, M; Won, S; Antonelli, L; Berry, D; Hildreth, M; Jessop, C; Karmgard, D J; Kolb, J; Kolberg, T; Lannon, K; Luo, W; Lynch, S; Marinelli, N; Morse, D M; Pearson, T; Ruchti, R; Slaunwhite, J; Valls, N; Warchol, J; Wayne, M; Ziegler, J; Bylsma, B; Durkin, L S; Gu, J; Hill, C; Killewald, P; Kotov, K; Ling, T Y; Rodenburg, M; Williams, G; Adam, N; Berry, E; Elmer, P; Gerbaudo, D; Halyo, V; Hebda, P; Hunt, A; Jones, J; Laird, E; Lopes Pegna, D; Marlow, D; Medvedeva, T; Mooney, M; Olsen, J; Piroué, P; Quan, X; Saka, H; Stickland, D; Tully, C; Werner, J S; Zuranski, A; Acosta, J G; Huang, X T; Lopez, A; Mendez, H; Oliveros, S; Ramirez Vargas, J E; Zatserklyaniy, A; Alagoz, E; Barnes, V E; Bolla, G; Borrello, L; Bortoletto, D; Everett, A; Garfinkel, A F; Gecse, Z; Gutay, L; Hu, Z; Jones, M; Koybasi, O; Laasanen, A T; Leonardo, N; Liu, C; Maroussov, V; Merkel, P; Miller, D H; Neumeister, N; Shipsey, I; Silvers, D; Svyatkovskiy, A; Yoo, H D; Zablocki, J; Zheng, Y; Jindal, P; Parashar, N; Boulahouache, C; Cuplov, V; Ecklund, K M; Geurts, F J M; Liu, J H; Padley, B P; Redjimi, R; Roberts, J; Zabel, J; Betchart, B; Bodek, A; Chung, Y S; Covarelli, R; de Barbaro, P; Demina, R; Eshaq, Y; Flacher, H; Garcia-Bellido, A; Goldenzweig, P; Gotra, Y; Han, J; Harel, A; Miner, D C; Orbaker, D; Petrillo, G; Vishnevskiy, D; Zielinski, M; Bhatti, A; Ciesielski, R; Demortier, L; Goulianos, K; Lungu, G; Mesropian, C; Yan, M; Atramentov, O; Barker, A; Duggan, D; Gershtein, Y; Gray, R; Halkiadakis, E; Hidas, D; Hits, D; Lath, A; Panwalkar, S; Patel, R; Richards, A; Rose, K; Schnetzer, S; Somalwar, S; Stone, R; Thomas, S; Cerizza, G; Hollingsworth, M; Spanier, S; Yang, Z C; York, A; Asaadi, J; Eusebi, R; Gilmore, J; Gurrola, A; Kamon, T; Khotilovich, V; Montalvo, R; Nguyen, C N; Osipenkov, I; Pivarski, J; Safonov, A; Sengupta, S; Tatarinov, A; Toback, D; Weinberger, M; Akchurin, N; Bardak, C; Damgov, J; Jeong, C; Kovitanggoon, K; Lee, S W; Mane, P; Roh, Y; Sill, A; Volobouev, I; Wigmans, R; Yazgan, E; Appelt, E; Brownson, E; Engh, D; Florez, C; Gabella, W; Johns, W; Kurt, P; Maguire, C; Melo, A; Sheldon, P; Velkovska, J; Arenton, M W; Balazs, M; Boutle, S; Buehler, M; Conetti, S; Cox, B; Francis, B; Hirosky, R; Ledovskoy, A; Lin, C; Neu, C; Yohay, R; Gollapinni, S; Harr, R; Karchin, P E; Lamichhane, P; Mattson, M; Milstène, C; Sakharov, A; Anderson, M; Bachtis, M; Bellinger, J N; Carlsmith, D; Dasu, S; Efron, J; Gray, L; Grogg, K S; Grothe, M; Hall-Wilton, R; Herndon, M; Klabbers, P; Klukas, J; Lanaro, A; Lazaridis, C; Leonard, J; Loveless, R; Mohapatra, A; Reeder, D; Ross, I; Savin, A; Smith, W H; Swanson, J; Weinberg, M

    2011-03-25

    Measurements of dijet azimuthal decorrelations in pp collisions at √s=7 TeV using the CMS detector at the CERN LHC are presented. The analysis is based on an inclusive dijet event sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 2.9 pb⁻¹. The results are compared to predictions from perturbative QCD calculations and various Monte Carlo event generators. The dijet azimuthal distributions are found to be sensitive to initial-state gluon radiation.

  5. Injection molding of iPP samples in controlled conditions and resulting morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sessa, Nino; De Santis, Felice; Pantani, Roberto

    2015-12-01

    Injection molded parts are driven down in size and weight especially for electronic applications. In this work, an investigation was carried out on the process of injection molding of thin iPP samples and on the morphology of these parts. Melt flow in the mold cavity was analyzed and described with a mathematical model. Influence of mold temperature and injection pressure was analyzed. Samples orientation was studied using optical microscopy.

  6. Dijet Azimuthal Decorrelations in pp Collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Khachatryan, Vardan; et al.

    2011-03-01

    Measurements of dijet azimuthal decorrelations in pp collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV using the CMS detector at the CERN LHC are presented. The analysis is based on an inclusive dijet event sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 2.9 inverse picobarns. The results are compared to predictions from perturbative QCD calculations and various Monte Carlo event generators. The dijet azimuthal distributions are found to be sensitive to initial-state gluon radiation.

  7. Whole-Genome Sequence of Rummeliibacillus stabekisii Strain PP9 Isolated from Antarctic Soil

    PubMed Central

    da Mota, Fábio Faria; Vollú, Renata Estebanez; Jurelevicius, Diogo

    2016-01-01

    The whole genome of Rummeliibacillus stabekisii PP9, isolated from a soil sample from Antarctica, consists of a circular chromosome of 3,412,092 bp and a circular plasmid of 8,647 bp, with 3,244 protein-coding genes, 12 copies of the 16S-23S-5S rRNA operon, 101 tRNA genes, and 6 noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs). PMID:27231360

  8. Generalized parton distributions and rapidity gap survival in exclusive diffractive pp scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Frankfurt, L.; Hyde, C. E.; Strikman, M.; Weiss, C.

    2007-03-01

    We study rapidity gap survival (RGS) in the production of high-mass systems (H=dijet, heavy quarkonium, Higgs boson) in double-gap exclusive diffractive pp scattering, pp{yields}p+(gap)+H+(gap)+p. Our approach is based on the idea that hard and soft interactions are approximately independent because they proceed over widely different time and distance scales. We implement this idea in a partonic description of proton structure, which allows for a model-independent treatment of the interplay of hard and soft interactions. The high-mass system is produced in a hard scattering process with exchange of two gluons between the protons, whose amplitude is calculable in terms of the gluon generalized parton distribution (GPD), measured in exclusive ep scattering. The hard scattering process is modified by soft spectator interactions, which we calculate neglecting correlations between hard and soft interactions (independent interaction approximation). We obtain an analytic expression for the RGS probability in terms of the phenomenological pp elastic scattering amplitude, without reference to the eikonal approximation. Contributions from inelastic intermediate states are suppressed. The onset of the black-disk limit in pp scattering at TeV energies strongly suppresses diffraction at small impact parameters and is the main factor in determining the RGS probability. Correlations between hard and soft interactions (e.g. due to scattering from the long-range pion field of the proton or due to possible short-range transverse correlations between partons) further decrease the RGS probability. We also investigate the dependence of the diffractive cross section on the transverse momenta of the final-state protons ('diffraction pattern'). By measuring this dependence one can perform detailed tests of the interplay of hard and soft interactions and even extract information about the gluon GPD in the proton. Such studies appear to be feasible with the planned forward detectors at the

  9. Essential functions of Sds22p in chromosome stability and nuclear localization of PP1.

    PubMed

    Peggie, Mark W; MacKelvie, Sarah H; Bloecher, Andrew; Knatko, Elena V; Tatchell, Kelly; Stark, Michael J R

    2002-01-01

    Sds22p is a conserved, leucine-rich repeat protein that interacts with the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1(C)) and which has been proposed to regulate one or more functions of PP1(C) during mitosis. Here we show that Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sds22p is a largely nuclear protein, most of which is present as a sTable 1:1 complex with yeast PP1(C) (Glc7p). Temperature-sensitive (Ts(-)) S. cerevisiae sds22 mutants show profound chromosome instability at elevated growth temperatures but do not confer a cell cycle stage-specific arrest. In the sds22-6 Ts(-) mutant, nuclear Glc7p is both reduced in level and aberrantly localized at 37 degrees C and the interaction between Glc7p and Sds22p in vitro is reduced at higher temperatures, consistent with the in vivo Ts(-) growth defect. Like some glc7 mutations, sds22-6 can suppress the Ts(-) growth defect associated with ipl1-2, a loss of function mutation in a protein kinase that is known to work in opposition to PP1 on at least two nuclear substrates. This, together with reciprocal genetic interactions between GLC7 and SDS22, suggests that Sds22p functions positively with Glc7p to promote dephosphorylation of nuclear substrates required for faithful transmission of chromosomes during mitosis, and this role is at least partly mediated by effects of Sds22p on the nuclear distribution of Glc7p

  10. On the potential role of the Collins effect in A_N in pp --> pion X

    SciTech Connect

    Anselmino, Mauro; Boglione, Mariaelena; D'Alesio, Umberto; Leader, Elliot; Melis, Stefano; Murgia, Francesco; Prokudin, Alexey

    2013-10-01

    Transverse single spin asymmetries in pp --> pion X processes, while on a quite firm ground experimentally, are still a much debated phenomenological issue. We consider them in a transverse momentum dependent factorization scheme. After revisiting a previous result, we give new estimates of the Collins contribution by adopting the latest information on the Collins and transversity functions, as extracted from SIDIS and e+e- data.

  11. Confirmation of pp-bar Mass Threshold Enhancement and X(1835) at BESIII

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Yanping

    2010-08-05

    pp-bar mass threshold enhancement is studied using the data samples of J/{psi} and {psi}' collected with BESIII detector in 2009. The enhancement is evident in J/{psi} radiative decay, which is consistent with BESII result. No significant narrow enhancement is observed in {psi}' radiative decay. The study of J/{psi}{yields}{gamma}{pi}{sup +{pi}-{eta}}' is also presented, it is also consistent with BESII result, which shows that the X(1835) is confirmed at BESIII.

  12. P(P bar)P elastic scattering and cosmic ray data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    FAZAL-E-ALEEM; Saleem, M.

    1985-01-01

    It is shown that the total cross section for pp elastic scattering at cosmic ray energies, as well as the total cross section, the slope parameter b(s,t) and the differential cross section for small momentum transfer at ISR and collider energies for p(p)p elastic scattering can be simultaneously fitted by using a simple Regge pole model. The results of this theory is discussed in detail.

  13. Direct experimental reconstruction of the pp elastic scattering matrix at 579 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Aprile, E.; Eisenegger, C.; Hausammann, R.; Heer, E.; Hess, R.; Lechanoine-Leluc, C.; Leo, W.R.; Morenzoni, S.; Onel, Y.; Rapin, D.; Mango, S.

    1981-04-20

    We have made, for the first time, a direct reconstruction of the pp elastic scattering matrix at 579 MeV from a series of experiments performed with a polarized beam line. Fifteen observables consisting of the polarization, two-spin correlation and transfer parameters, and three-spin parameters were measured at seven angles between 66/sup 0/ and 90/sup 0/ center of mass. The experimental results and reconstructed amplitudes are presented and compared to a phase-shift analysis.

  14. On the production of π+_{} π+_{} pairs in pp collisions at 0.8 GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd El-Samad, S.; Bilger, R.; Brinkmann, K.-Th.; Clement, H.; Dietrich, M.; Doroshkevich, E.; Dshemuchadse, S.; Ehrhardt, K.; Erhardt, A.; Eyrich, W.; Filippi, A.; Freiesleben, H.; Fritsch, M.; Geyer, R.; Gillitzer, A.; Hauffe, J.; Hesselbarth, D.; Jaekel, R.; Jakob, B.; Karsch, L.; Kilian, K.; Kress, J.; Kuhlmann, E.; Marcello, S.; Marwinski, S.; Meier, R.; Möller, K.; Morsch, H. P.; Naumann, L.; Ritman, J.; Roderburg, E.; Schönmeier, P.; Schulte-Wissermann, M.; Schroeder, W.; Stinzing, F.; Sun, G. Y.; Wächter, J.; Wagner, G. J.; Wagner, M.; Weidlich, U.; Wilms, A.; Wirth, S.; Zhang, G.; Zupranski, P.

    2009-11-01

    Data accumulated recently for the exclusive measurement of the pp rightarrow pp π+_{} π-_{} reaction at a beam energy of 0.793GeV using the COSY-TOF spectrometer have been analyzed with respect to possible events from the pp rightarrow nn π+_{} π+_{} reaction channel. The latter is expected to be the only π π production channel, which contains no major contributions from resonance excitation close to threshold and hence should be a good testing ground for chiral dynamics in the π π production process. No single event has been found, which meets all conditions for being a candidate for the pp rightarrow nn π+_{} π+_{} reaction. This gives an upper limit for the cross-section of 0.16μb (90% C.L.), which is more than an order of magnitude smaller than the cross-sections of the other two-pion production channels at the same incident energy.

  15. Micro(mi) RNA-34a targets protein phosphatase (PP)1γ to regulate DNA damage tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Yuko; Venkitaraman, Ashok R

    2015-01-01

    The DNA damage response (DDR) triggers widespread changes in gene expression, mediated partly by alterations in micro(mi) RNA levels, whose nature and significance remain uncertain. Here, we report that miR-34a, which is upregulated during the DDR, modulates the expression of protein phosphatase 1γ (PP1γ) to regulate cellular tolerance to DNA damage. Multiple bio-informatic algorithms predict that miR-34a targets the PP1CCC gene encoding PP1γ protein. Ionising radiation (IR) decreases cellular expression of PP1γ in a dose-dependent manner. An miR-34a-mimic reduces cellular PP1γ protein. Conversely, an miR-34a inhibitor antagonizes IR-induced decreases in PP1γ protein expression. A wild-type (but not mutant) miR-34a seed match sequence from the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) of PP1CCC when transplanted to a luciferase reporter gene makes it responsive to an miR-34a-mimic. Thus, miR-34a upregulation during the DDR targets the 3′ UTR of PP1CCC to decrease PP1γ protein expression. PP1γ is known to antagonize DDR signaling via the ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) kinase. Interestingly, we find that cells exposed to DNA damage become more sensitive – in an miR-34a-dependent manner – to a second challenge with damage. Increased sensitivity to the second challenge is marked by enhanced phosphorylation of ATM and p53, increased γH2AX formation, and increased cell death. Increased sensitivity can be partly recapitulated by a miR-34a-mimic, or antagonized by an miR-34a-inhibitor. Thus, our findings suggest a model in which damage-induced miR-34a induction reduces PP1γ expression and enhances ATM signaling to decrease tolerance to repeated genotoxic challenges. This mechanism has implications for tumor suppression and the response of cancers to therapeutic radiation. PMID:26111201

  16. PRG-1 Regulates Synaptic Plasticity via Intracellular PP2A/β1-Integrin Signaling.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xingfeng; Huai, Jisen; Endle, Heiko; Schlüter, Leslie; Fan, Wei; Li, Yunbo; Richers, Sebastian; Yurugi, Hajime; Rajalingam, Krishnaraj; Ji, Haichao; Cheng, Hong; Rister, Benjamin; Horta, Guilherme; Baumgart, Jan; Berger, Hendrik; Laube, Gregor; Schmitt, Ulrich; Schmeisser, Michael J; Boeckers, Tobias M; Tenzer, Stefan; Vlachos, Andreas; Deller, Thomas; Nitsch, Robert; Vogt, Johannes

    2016-08-01

    Alterations in dendritic spine numbers are linked to deficits in learning and memory. While we previously revealed that postsynaptic plasticity-related gene 1 (PRG-1) controls lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) signaling at glutamatergic synapses via presynaptic LPA receptors, we now show that PRG-1 also affects spine density and synaptic plasticity in a cell-autonomous fashion via protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A)/β1-integrin activation. PRG-1 deficiency reduces spine numbers and β1-integrin activation, alters long-term potentiation (LTP), and impairs spatial memory. The intracellular PRG-1 C terminus interacts in an LPA-dependent fashion with PP2A, thus modulating its phosphatase activity at the postsynaptic density. This results in recruitment of adhesome components src, paxillin, and talin to lipid rafts and ultimately in activation of β1-integrins. Consistent with these findings, activation of PP2A with FTY720 rescues defects in spine density and LTP of PRG-1-deficient animals. These results disclose a mechanism by which bioactive lipid signaling via PRG-1 could affect synaptic plasticity and memory formation. PMID:27453502

  17. Study of J/ψ→pp̄ and J/ψ→nn̄

    DOE PAGES

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Ambrose, D. J.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; An, Z. H.; Bai, J. Z.; Ban, Y.; Becker, J.; Berger, N.; et al

    2012-08-31

    The decays J/ψ→pp̄ and J/ψ→nn̄ have been investigated with a sample of 225.2×10⁶ J/ψ events collected with the BESIII detector at the BEPCII e⁺e⁻ collider. The branching fractions are determined to be B(J/ψ→pp̄)=(2.112±0.004±0.031)×10⁻³ and B(J/ψ→nn̄)=(2.07±0.01±0.17)×10⁻³. Distributions of the angle θ between the proton or antineutron and the beam direction are well described by the form 1+αcos²θ, and we find α=0.595±0.012±0.015 for J/ψ→pp̄ and α=0.50±0.04±0.21 for J/ψ→nn̄. Our branching-fraction results suggest a large phase angle between the strong and electromagnetic amplitudes describing the J/ψ→NN¯¯¯ decay.

  18. Isospin mixing reveals 30P(p, γ)31S resonance influencing nova nucleosynthesis

    DOE PAGES

    Bennett, M. B.; Wrede, C.; Brown, B. A.; Liddick, S. N.; Perez-Loureiro, D.; Bardayan, D. W.; Chen, A. A.; Chipps, K. A.; Fry, C.; Glassman, B. E.; et al

    2016-03-08

    Here, the thermonuclear 30P(p, γ)31S reaction rate is critical for modeling the final elemental and isotopic abundances of ONe nova nucleosynthesis, which affect the calibration of proposed nova thermometers and the identification of presolar nova grains, respectively. Unfortunately, the rate of this reaction is essentially unconstrained experimentally, because the strengths of key 31S proton capture resonance states are not known, largely due to uncertainties in their spins and parities. Using the β decay of 31Cl, we have observed the β-delayed γ decay of a 31S state at Ex = 6390.2(7) keV, with a 30P(p, γ)31S resonance energy of Er =more » 259.3(8) keV, in the middle of the 30P(p, γ)31S Gamow window for peak nova temperatures. This state exhibits isospin mixing with the nearby isobaric analog state at Ex = 6279.0(6) keV, giving it an unambiguous spin and parity of 3/2+ and making it an important l = 0 resonance for proton capture on 30P.« less

  19. DSC study of the isothermal crystallization of iPP-CNF nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chipara, Dorina M.; Chipara, Mircea

    2013-03-01

    Nanocomposite materials have been obtained by dispersing vapor grown carbon nanofibers (VGCNFs) with diameters ranging between 60 and 100 nm and lengths between 30,000 and 100,000 nm supplied by Pyrograf Products, Inc (PR-24AG) within a polymer matrix - isotactic polypropylene (iPP) - type Marlex HLN-120-01 with density 0.906 g/cm3 and melt flow rate at 230 oC of 12 g/10 min, supplied by Philips Sumika Polypropylene Company. VGCNFs have been purified and disentangled by reflux in dichloromethane and deionized water followed by vacuum filtering (for 24 h) and drying at 110 oC for 24h. The nanocomposites were obtained by melt mixing at 180 oC for 9 minutes with a speed of 65 rpm followed by an additional mixing at 90 rpm for 5 minutes, using a HAAKE Rheomix, Nanocomposites loaded with various amounts of VGCNFs (0%, 1%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% wt.) have been prepared and investigated by TA DSC Q-500. Isothermal crystallization was investigated in detail and analyzed by using an expression derived from the Avrami equation. The effect of the filler on the isothermal crystallization of iPP is discussed in detail. The research is focused on the effect of VGCNF on the degree of crystallization of iPP, crystallization rate, and dimensionality of the crystallization process. This research has been supported by National Science Foundation under DMR. Contract grant number 0934157.

  20. A Conserved Motif Provides Binding Specificity to the PP2A-B56 Phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Hertz, Emil Peter Thrane; Kruse, Thomas; Davey, Norman E; López-Méndez, Blanca; Sigurðsson, Jón Otti; Montoya, Guillermo; Olsen, Jesper V; Nilsson, Jakob

    2016-08-18

    Dynamic protein phosphorylation is a fundamental mechanism regulating biological processes in all organisms. Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is the main source of phosphatase activity in the cell, but the molecular details of substrate recognition are unknown. Here, we report that a conserved surface-exposed pocket on PP2A regulatory B56 subunits binds to a consensus sequence on interacting proteins, which we term the LxxIxE motif. The composition of the motif modulates the affinity for B56, which in turn determines the phosphorylation status of associated substrates. Phosphorylation of amino acid residues within the motif increases B56 binding, allowing integration of kinase and phosphatase activity. We identify conserved LxxIxE motifs in essential proteins throughout the eukaryotic domain of life and in human viruses, suggesting that the motifs are required for basic cellular function. Our study provides a molecular description of PP2A binding specificity with broad implications for understanding signaling in eukaryotes.

  1. The Basic Biology of PP2A in Hematologic Cells and Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Haesen, Dorien; Sents, Ward; Lemaire, Katleen; Hoorne, Yana; Janssens, Veerle

    2014-01-01

    Reversible protein phosphorylation plays a crucial role in regulating cell signaling. In normal cells, phosphoregulation is tightly controlled by a network of protein kinases counterbalanced by several protein phosphatases. Deregulation of this delicate balance is widely recognized as a central mechanism by which cells escape external and internal self-limiting signals, eventually resulting in malignant transformation. A large fraction of hematologic malignancies is characterized by constitutive or unrestrained activation of oncogenic kinases. This is in part achieved by activating mutations, chromosomal rearrangements, or constitutive activation of upstream kinase regulators, in part by inactivation of their anti-oncogenic phosphatase counterparts. Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) represents a large family of cellular serine/threonine phosphatases with suspected tumor suppressive functions. In this review, we highlight our current knowledge about the complex structure and biology of these phosphatases in hematologic cells, thereby providing the rationale behind their diverse signaling functions. Eventually, this basic knowledge is a key to truly understand the tumor suppressive role of PP2A in leukemogenesis and to allow further rational development of therapeutic strategies targeting PP2A.

  2. A Conserved Motif Provides Binding Specificity to the PP2A-B56 Phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Hertz, Emil Peter Thrane; Kruse, Thomas; Davey, Norman E; López-Méndez, Blanca; Sigurðsson, Jón Otti; Montoya, Guillermo; Olsen, Jesper V; Nilsson, Jakob

    2016-08-18

    Dynamic protein phosphorylation is a fundamental mechanism regulating biological processes in all organisms. Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is the main source of phosphatase activity in the cell, but the molecular details of substrate recognition are unknown. Here, we report that a conserved surface-exposed pocket on PP2A regulatory B56 subunits binds to a consensus sequence on interacting proteins, which we term the LxxIxE motif. The composition of the motif modulates the affinity for B56, which in turn determines the phosphorylation status of associated substrates. Phosphorylation of amino acid residues within the motif increases B56 binding, allowing integration of kinase and phosphatase activity. We identify conserved LxxIxE motifs in essential proteins throughout the eukaryotic domain of life and in human viruses, suggesting that the motifs are required for basic cellular function. Our study provides a molecular description of PP2A binding specificity with broad implications for understanding signaling in eukaryotes. PMID:27453045

  3. Co-overexpression of PpPDI enhances secretion of ancrod in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shou-Tao; Fang, Hui-Min; Zhao, Li; Tian, Qing-Nan; Qin, Yun-Fei; Lu, Ping; Chen, San-Jun; Bao, Zhen-Xia; Liang, Feng

    2011-08-01

    Ancrod, a serine protease purified from the venom of Agkistrodon rhodostoma, is highly specific for fibrinogen. It causes anticoagulation by defibrinogenation and has been used as a therapeutic anticoagulant for the treatment of moderate to severe forms of peripheral arterial circulatory disorders in a variety of countries. The DNA of ancrod was amplified by recursive PCR with a yeast bias codon and cloned into the pGEM-T Easy vector. In order to achieve a high level secretion and a full activity expression of ancrod in Pichia pastoris (P. pastoris), the P. pastoris protein disulfide bond isomerase (PpPDI) was co-overexpressed in the strain. The secretion characteristics of ancrod with and without PpPDI were examined. With co-overexpression of PpPDI, the production of recombinant ancrod (rAncrod) was increased to 315 mg/L in the culture medium, which is twofold higher than the control strain carrying only the ancrod gene. Through purified by Ni²⁺ affinity chromatography and phenyl Sepharose column, the purity of rAncrod was found to be as high as 95.2%. The fibrinogenolytic and zymographic activities of the rAncrod were determined and found to be similar to that of the native protein. This improved expression system can facilitate further studies and the industrial production of ancrod. PMID:21340538

  4. Bio-composites fabricated by sandwiching sisal fibers with polypropylene (PP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sosiati, H.; Nahyudin, A.; Fauzi, I.; Wijayanti, D. A.; Triyana, K.

    2016-04-01

    Sisal fibers reinforced polypropylene (PP) composites were successfully fabricated using sandwiching sisal fibers with PP sheets. The ratio of fiber and polymer matrix was 50:50 (wt. %). Untreated short and long sisal fibers, and alkali treated short sisal fibers in 6% NaOH at 100°C for 1 and 3 h were used as reinforcement or fillers. A small amount (3 wt. %) of maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene (MAPP) was added as a coupling agent. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy were used to characterize the surface morphology and chemical composition of the fibers, respectively. Flexural test of sisal/PP composites was done according to ASTM D 790-02. The results showed that flexural strength of untreated long fiber reinforced composite is much higher than that of the untreated and alkali treated short fibers reinforced composites with and without the addition of MAPP. Alkalization related to fiber surface modification, fiber length/fiber orientation and a composite fabrication technique are important factors in contributing to the fiber distribution within the matrix, the bonding between the fiber and the matrix and the enhancement of flexural strength of the bio-composite.

  5. (p)ppGpp-dependent and -independent pathways for salt tolerance in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Tarusawa, Takefusa; Ito, Shion; Goto, Simon; Ushida, Chisato; Muto, Akira; Himeno, Hyouta

    2016-07-01

    Addition of some kinds of translation inhibitors targeting the ribosome such as kasugamycin to the culture medium as well as removal of a ribosome maturation factor or a ribosomal protein provides Escherichia coli cells with tolerance to high salt stress. Here, we found that another kind of translation inhibitor, serine hydroxamate (SHX), which induces amino acid starvation leading to (p)ppGpp production, also has a similar effect, but via a different pathway. Unlike kasugamycin, SHX was not effective in (p)ppGpp-null mutant cells. SHX and depletion of RsgA, a ribosome maturation factor, had an additive effect on salt tolerance, while kasugamycin or depletion of RsgA did not. These results indicate the presence of two distinct pathways, (p)ppGpp-dependent and -independent pathways, for salt tolerance of E. coli cell. Both pathways operate even in the absence of σ(S), an alternative sigma factor involved in the stationary phase or stress response. Hastened activation of the exocytoplasmic stress-specific sigma factor, σ(E), after salt shock was observed in the cells treated with SHX, as has been observed in the cells treated with a translation inhibitor or depleted of a ribosome maturation factor.

  6. Energy dependence of p¯/p ratio in p+p collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singha, Subhash; Netrakanti, Pawan Kumar; Kumar, Lokesh; Mohanty, Bedangadas

    2010-10-01

    We compiled the experimentally measured p¯/p ratio at midrapidity in p+p collisions from s=23 to 7000 GeV and compared it to various mechanisms of baryon production as implemented in the pythia, phojet, and Heavy Ion Jet Interaction Generator (HIJING)/B-B¯ models. For the models studied with default settings, phojet has the best agreement with the measurements, pythia gives a higher value for s<200 GeV, and the ratios from HIJING/B-B¯ are consistently lower for all the s studied. A comparison of the data to different mechanisms of baryon production as implemented in pythia shows that through a suitable tuning of the suppression of diquark-antidiquark pair production in the color field relative to quark-antiquark production and allowing the diquarks to split according to the popcorn scheme, a fairly reasonable description of the measured p¯/p ratio for s<200 GeV is given. A comparison of the beam energy dependence of the p¯/p ratio in p+p and nucleus-nucleus (A + A) collisions at midrapidity shows that the baryon production is significantly more for A + A collisions relative to p+p collisions for s<200 GeV. We also carry out a phenomenological fit to the ybeam dependence of the p¯/p ratio.

  7. Energy dependence of p-bar/p ratio in p+p collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Singha, Subhash; Mohanty, Bedangadas; Netrakanti, Pawan Kumar; Kumar, Lokesh

    2010-10-15

    We compiled the experimentally measured p-bar/p ratio at midrapidity in p+p collisions from {radical}(s)=23 to 7000 GeV and compared it to various mechanisms of baryon production as implemented in the pythia, phojet, and Heavy Ion Jet Interaction Generator (HIJING)/B-B models. For the models studied with default settings, phojet has the best agreement with the measurements, pythia gives a higher value for {radical}(s)<200 GeV, and the ratios from HIJING/B-B are consistently lower for all the {radical}(s) studied. A comparison of the data to different mechanisms of baryon production as implemented in pythia shows that through a suitable tuning of the suppression of diquark-antidiquark pair production in the color field relative to quark-antiquark production and allowing the diquarks to split according to the popcorn scheme, a fairly reasonable description of the measured p-bar/p ratio for {radical}(s)<200 GeV is given. A comparison of the beam energy dependence of the p-bar/p ratio in p+p and nucleus-nucleus (A + A) collisions at midrapidity shows that the baryon production is significantly more for A + A collisions relative to p+p collisions for {radical}(s)<200 GeV. We also carry out a phenomenological fit to the y{sub beam} dependence of the p-bar/p ratio.

  8. Increased expression levels of ppGalNAc-T13 in lung cancers: Significance in the prognostic diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Nogimori, Kenichi; Hori, Tomoko; Kawaguchi, Koji; Fukui, Takayuki; Mii, Shinji; Nakada, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Yasuyuki; Yamauchi, Yoshio; Takahashi, Masahide; Furukawa, Keiko; Tetsuya, Okajima; Yokoi, Kohei; Hasegawa, Yoshinori; Furukawa, Koichi

    2016-10-01

    ppGalNAc-T13 is upregulated along with reduced expression of GM1 in high metastatic sublines of the murine Lewis lung cancer cell line, but little is known about the implication of ppGalNAc-T13 expression in human cancers. Since lung cancer cell lines showed high expression levels of ppGalNAc-T13, we analyzed ppGalNAc-T13 expression in surgical lung cancer specimens to examine whether ppGalNAc-T13 can be used as a prognostic marker or a therapeutic target. We analyzed mRNA expression levels of GALNT13 and its variant exon usages in surgical specimens by real-time RT-PCR, and the results were evaluated by correlating with clinical data. Ninety-one surgical specimens were analyzed. Consequently, recurrence-free survival was significantly shorter (P=0.045) in high expression group of GALNT13 mRNA. In the analysis of tumor specific exon usage in GALNT13 RNA sequence, one variant exon was significantly associated with worse prognosis. By contrast, in another variant exon, positive variant expression group showed better prognosis than negative group. We also tried to detect GALNT13 mRNA in 63 serum samples from patients with lung cancers to examine whether GALNT13 mRNA can be measured in body fluids, detecting significant levels in 4 samples. Finally, expression of GM1, ppGalNAc-T13 and trimeric Tn antigen was examined by immunohistochemistry in order to evaluate them as a prognostic factor. It was demonstrated that ppGalNAc-T13 and trimeric Tn antigen had a relationship with worse prognosis in 35 investigated lung cancer patients. In conclusion, our results suggest that ppGalNAc-T13 might be a useful prognostic factor of lung cancers. PMID:27499036

  9. ppGpp-dependent negative control of DNA replication of Shiga toxin-converting bacteriophages in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Nowicki, Dariusz; Kobiela, Wioletta; Węgrzyn, Alicja; Wegrzyn, Grzegorz; Szalewska-Pałasz, Agnieszka

    2013-11-01

    The pathogenicity of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) strains depends on the production of Shiga toxins that are encoded on lambdoid prophages. Effective production of these toxins requires prophage induction and subsequent phage replication. Previous reports indicated that lytic development of Shiga toxin-converting bacteriophages is inhibited in amino acid-starved bacteria. However, those studies demonstrated that inhibition of both phage-derived plasmid replication and production of progeny virions occurred during the stringent as well as the relaxed response to amino acid starvation, i.e., in the presence as well as the absence of high levels of ppGpp, an alarmone of the stringent response. Therefore, we asked whether ppGpp influences DNA replication and lytic development of Shiga toxin-converting bacteriophages. Lytic development of 5 such bacteriophages was tested in an E. coli wild-type strain and an isogenic mutant that does not produce ppGpp (ppGpp(0)). In the absence of ppGpp, production of progeny phages was significantly (in the range of an order of magnitude) more efficient than in wild-type cells. Such effects were observed in infected bacteria as well as after prophage induction. All tested bacteriophages formed considerably larger plaques on lawns formed by ppGpp(0) bacteria than on those formed by wild-type E. coli. The efficiency of synthesis of phage DNA and relative amount of lambdoid plasmid DNA were increased in cells devoid of ppGpp relative to bacteria containing a basal level of this nucleotide. We conclude that ppGpp negatively influences the lytic development of Shiga toxin-converting bacteriophages and that phage DNA replication efficiency is limited by the stringent control alarmone.

  10. ppGpp-Dependent Negative Control of DNA Replication of Shiga Toxin-Converting Bacteriophages in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Nowicki, Dariusz; Kobiela, Wioletta; Węgrzyn, Alicja; Szalewska-Pałasz, Agnieszka

    2013-01-01

    The pathogenicity of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) strains depends on the production of Shiga toxins that are encoded on lambdoid prophages. Effective production of these toxins requires prophage induction and subsequent phage replication. Previous reports indicated that lytic development of Shiga toxin-converting bacteriophages is inhibited in amino acid-starved bacteria. However, those studies demonstrated that inhibition of both phage-derived plasmid replication and production of progeny virions occurred during the stringent as well as the relaxed response to amino acid starvation, i.e., in the presence as well as the absence of high levels of ppGpp, an alarmone of the stringent response. Therefore, we asked whether ppGpp influences DNA replication and lytic development of Shiga toxin-converting bacteriophages. Lytic development of 5 such bacteriophages was tested in an E. coli wild-type strain and an isogenic mutant that does not produce ppGpp (ppGpp0). In the absence of ppGpp, production of progeny phages was significantly (in the range of an order of magnitude) more efficient than in wild-type cells. Such effects were observed in infected bacteria as well as after prophage induction. All tested bacteriophages formed considerably larger plaques on lawns formed by ppGpp0 bacteria than on those formed by wild-type E. coli. The efficiency of synthesis of phage DNA and relative amount of lambdoid plasmid DNA were increased in cells devoid of ppGpp relative to bacteria containing a basal level of this nucleotide. We conclude that ppGpp negatively influences the lytic development of Shiga toxin-converting bacteriophages and that phage DNA replication efficiency is limited by the stringent control alarmone. PMID:23995636

  11. A protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) inhibition assay using a recombinant enzyme for rapid detection of microcystins.

    PubMed

    Ikehara, Tsuyoshi; Imamura, Shihoko; Oshiro, Naomasa; Ikehara, Satsuki; Shinjo, Fukiko; Yasumoto, Takeshi

    2008-06-15

    Worldwide blooms of toxic cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) commonly occur in freshwater, often in drinking water sources, necessitating routine monitoring of water quality. Microcystin-LR and related cyanobacterial toxins strongly inhibit protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) and are therefore assayable by measuring the extent of PP2A inhibition. In this study, we evaluated the suitability of the catalytic subunit of recombinant PP2A (rPP2Ac) expressed with a baculovirus system for use in a microplate microcystin assay. Five microcystin analogs, microcystin-LR, -RR, -YR, -LF, and -LW, and nodularin strongly inhibited rPP2Ac activity with IC(50) values of 0.048, 0.072, 0.147, 0.096, 0.114, and 0.54 nM, respectively. Microcystin-LR in a water sample could be assayed from 0.005 to 5 ng/ml. The assay could detect the toxin at a far lower level than required by the World Health Organization for regulation of microcystin-LR or its equivalent (1 microg/L). Pretreatment or concentration of water samples with low toxin concentrations was not necessary. The microplate assay using rPP2Ac was more sensitive than an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method and a cytotoxicity assay. The genetically engineered rPP2Ac was more stable than a commercially available dimeric enzyme, producing accurate and reproducible results. Our results confirm that the rPP2Ac we prepared is an excellent tool for detecting and quantifying microcystins in water.

  12. Enhancement and optimization of PpIX-based photodynamic therapy of skin cancer: translational studies from bench to clinic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maytin, Edward V.; Anand, Sanjay; Baran, Christine; Honari, Golara; Lohser, Sara; Kyei, Angela; Bailin, Philip; Pogue, Brian W.

    2009-02-01

    Nonmelanoma skin carcinomas are the most common of all human cancers. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) using 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) has been used to treat these tumors, but has shown variable results. We are pursuing a multifaceted approach toward optimizing tumor responsiveness. First, a new paradigm is being developed in which tumors are pretreated with differentiation-inducing agents, e.g. methotrexate or Vitamin D, to enhance synthesis of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) and improve tumor cell killing upon exposure to 635 nm light. This principle was first elucidated in cell culture studies, and has now been shown to hold true for murine skin tumors, and for a human subcutaneous tumor model (A431 cells injected in nude mice). Clinical trials to test methotrexate and Vitamin D as augmenting agents for ALA-PDT of nonmelanoma skin cancer are being designed. Second, better methods to measure PpIX in patients' skin tumors in real time are being developed. In a clinical study to measure PpIX in patients with dysplastic skin lesions, in vivo fluorescence dosimetry was used to measure the accumulation of PpIX over time, and revealed that intralesional PpIX may reach clinically-useful levels earlier than previously thought for the treatment of actinic keratoses. In a second clinical study to examine depth of PpIX production in nonmelanoma skin cancer, the depth of PpIX within BCC tumors was found at relatively deep levels (>1 mm) in some tumor nests, but not in others. Production of PpIX in deep squamous cell carcinoma was very low. In summary, molecular approaches such as differentiation therapy to enhance ALA-PDT for individual patients may ultimately be needed to help to improve skin cancer responses to this modality.

  13. A protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) inhibition assay using a recombinant enzyme for rapid detection of microcystins.

    PubMed

    Ikehara, Tsuyoshi; Imamura, Shihoko; Oshiro, Naomasa; Ikehara, Satsuki; Shinjo, Fukiko; Yasumoto, Takeshi

    2008-06-15

    Worldwide blooms of toxic cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) commonly occur in freshwater, often in drinking water sources, necessitating routine monitoring of water quality. Microcystin-LR and related cyanobacterial toxins strongly inhibit protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) and are therefore assayable by measuring the extent of PP2A inhibition. In this study, we evaluated the suitability of the catalytic subunit of recombinant PP2A (rPP2Ac) expressed with a baculovirus system for use in a microplate microcystin assay. Five microcystin analogs, microcystin-LR, -RR, -YR, -LF, and -LW, and nodularin strongly inhibited rPP2Ac activity with IC(50) values of 0.048, 0.072, 0.147, 0.096, 0.114, and 0.54 nM, respectively. Microcystin-LR in a water sample could be assayed from 0.005 to 5 ng/ml. The assay could detect the toxin at a far lower level than required by the World Health Organization for regulation of microcystin-LR or its equivalent (1 microg/L). Pretreatment or concentration of water samples with low toxin concentrations was not necessary. The microplate assay using rPP2Ac was more sensitive than an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method and a cytotoxicity assay. The genetically engineered rPP2Ac was more stable than a commercially available dimeric enzyme, producing accurate and reproducible results. Our results confirm that the rPP2Ac we prepared is an excellent tool for detecting and quantifying microcystins in water. PMID:18430448

  14. Flavor dependence of jet quenching in pp collisions and its effect on R AA for heavy mesons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharov, B. G.

    2016-03-01

    The flavor dependence of the medium modification factor R pp for pp collisions has been studied for a scenario with formation of a small-size quark-gluon plasma (QGP) for RHIC (√ s = 0.2 TeV) and LHC (√ s = 2.76 TeV) energies. It has been found that at p T ~ 10 GeV the pion spectrum is suppressed by ~20-30 (25-35)% for RHIC (LHC), for D ( B) mesons the suppression effect is smaller by a factor of ~0.7-0.8 (0.5). The flavor hierarchy R pp π < R pp D < R pp B is held at p T ≲ 20 GeV for RHIC and at p T ≲ 70 GeV for LHC. This gives a significant reduction of the heavy-to-light ratios of the nuclear modification factors R AA as compared to that in the standard scenario without the QGP production in pp collisions.

  15. Mutational analysis of the (p)ppGpp synthetase activity of the Rel enzyme of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Bag, Satyabrata; Das, Bhabatosh; Dasgupta, Shreya; Bhadra, Rupak K

    2014-08-01

    Rel(Mtb), a GTP pyrophosphokinase encoded by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) genome, catalyzes synthesis of (p)ppGpp from ATP and GDP(GTP) and its hydrolysis to GDP(GTP) and pyrophosphate to mediate stringent response, which helps bacteria to survive during nutrient limitation. Like other members of Rel_Spo homologs, Rel(Mtb) has four distinct domains: HD, Rel_Spo (RSD), TGS and ACT. The N-terminal HD and RSD are responsible for (p)ppGpp hydrolysis and synthesis, respectively. In this study, we have dissected the rel(Mtb) gene function and determined the minimal region essential for (p)ppGpp synthetic activity. The Rel(Mtb) and its truncated derivatives were expressed from an arabinose inducible promoter (P(BAD)), and in vivo functional analyses were done in a (p)ppGpp null Escherichia coli strain. Our results indicate that only 243 amino acids (188-430 residues) containing fragment are sufficient for Rel(Mtb) (p)ppGpp synthetic activity. The results were further confirmed by in vitro assays using purified proteins. We further characterized the RSD of Rel(Mtb) by substituting several conserved amino acids with structurally related residues and identified six such residues, which appeared to be critical for maintaining its catalytic activity. Furthermore, we have also extended our analysis to an RSD encoding gene rv1366 of Mtb, and experimental results indicated that the encoded protein Rv1366 is unable to synthesize (p)ppGpp.

  16. Two Higgs doublet model with vectorlike leptons and contributions to pp → W W and H → W W

    DOE PAGES

    Dermíšek, Radovan; Lunghi, Enrico; Shin, Seodong

    2016-02-18

    In this paper, we study a two Higgs doublet model extended by vectorlike leptons mixing with one family of standard model leptons. Generated flavor violating couplings between heavy and light leptons can dramatically alter the decay patterns of heavier Higgs bosons. We focus on pp → H → ν4νμ → W μνμ, where ν4 is a new neutral lepton, and study possible effects of this process on the measurements of pp → W W and H → W W since it leads to the same final states. We discuss predictions for contributions to pp → W W and H →WWmore » and their correlations from the region of the parameter space that satisfies all available constraints including precision electroweak observables and from pair production of vectorlike leptons. Large contributions, close to current limits, favor small tan β region of the parameter space. We find that, as a result of adopted cuts in experimental analyses, the contribution to pp → W W can be an order of magnitude larger than the contribution to H → W W . Thus, future precise measurements of pp → W W will further constrain the parameters of the model. Also, we also consider possible contributions to pp → W W from the heavy Higgs decays into a new charged lepton e4 (H → e4μ → W μνμ), exotic SM Higgs decays, and pair production of vectorlike leptons.« less

  17. Direct regulation of GTP homeostasis by (p)ppGpp: a critical component of viability and stress resistance.

    PubMed

    Kriel, Allison; Bittner, Alycia N; Kim, Sok Ho; Liu, Kuanqing; Tehranchi, Ashley K; Zou, Winnie Y; Rendon, Samantha; Chen, Rui; Tu, Benjamin P; Wang, Jue D

    2012-10-26

    Cells constantly adjust their metabolism in response to environmental conditions, yet major mechanisms underlying survival remain poorly understood. We discover a posttranscriptional mechanism that integrates starvation response with GTP homeostasis to allow survival, enacted by the nucleotide (p)ppGpp, a key player in bacterial stress response and persistence. We reveal that (p)ppGpp activates global metabolic changes upon starvation, allowing survival by regulating GTP. Combining metabolomics with biochemical demonstrations, we find that (p)ppGpp directly inhibits the activities of multiple GTP biosynthesis enzymes. This inhibition results in robust and rapid GTP regulation in Bacillus subtilis, which we demonstrate is essential to maintaining GTP levels within a range that supports viability even in the absence of starvation. Correspondingly, without (p)ppGpp, gross GTP dysregulation occurs, revealing a vital housekeeping function of (p)ppGpp; in fact, loss of (p)ppGpp results in death from rising GTP, a severe and previously unknown consequence of GTP dysfunction.

  18. Novel Ser/Thr Protein Phosphatase 5 (PP5) Regulated Targets during DNA Damage Identified by Proteomics Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ham, Bryan M.; Jayachandran, Hemalatha; Yang, Feng; Jaitly, Navdeep; Polpitiya, Ashoka D.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Wang, Ling; Zhao, Rui; Purvine, Samuel O.; Livesay, Eric A.; Camp, David G.; Rossie, Sandra S.; Smith, Richard D.

    2010-02-05

    The DNA damage response is a global phosphorylation signaling cascade process involved in sensing the damaged DNA condition and coordinating responses to cope with and repair the perturbed cellular state. We utilized a label-free liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry approach to evaluate changes in protein phosphorylation associated with PP5 activity during the DNA damage response. Biological replicate analyses of bleomycin-treated HeLa cells expressing either WT-PP5 or mutant inactive PP5 lead to the identification of six potential target proteins of PP5 action. Four of these putative targets are known to be involved in DNA damage responses. Using phospho-site specific antibodies, we confirmed that phosphorylation of one target, ribosomal protein S6, was selectively decreased in cells overexpressing catalytically inactive PP5. Our findings also suggest that PP5 may play a role in controlling translation and in regulating substrates for proline-directed kinases, such as MAP kinases and cyclin-dependent protein kinases that are involved in response to DNA damage.

  19. Direct Regulation of GTP Homeostasis by (p)ppGpp: A Critical Component of Viability and Stress Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Kriel, Allison; Bittner, Alycia N.; Kim, Sok Ho; Liu, Kuanqing; Tehranchi, Ashley K.; Zou, Winnie Y.; Rendon, Samantha; Chen, Rui; Tu, Benjamin P.; Wang, Jue D.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Cells constantly adjust their metabolism in response to environmental conditions, yet major mechanisms underlying survival remain poorly understood. We discover a post-transcriptional mechanism that integrates starvation response with GTP homeostasis to allow survival, enacted by the nucleotide (p)ppGpp, a key player in bacterial stress response and persistence. We reveal that (p)ppGpp activates global metabolic changes upon starvation, allowing survival by regulating GTP. Combining metabolomics with biochemical demonstrations, we find that (p)ppGpp directly inhibits the activities of multiple GTP biosynthesis enzymes. This inhibition results in robust and rapid GTP regulation in Bacillus subtilis, which we demonstrate is essential to maintaining GTP levels within a range that supports viability even in the absence of starvation. Correspondingly, without (p)ppGpp, gross GTP dysregulation occurs, revealing a vital housekeeping function of (p)ppGpp; in fact, loss of (p)ppGpp results in death from rising GTP, a severe and previously unknown consequence of GTP dysfunction. PMID:22981860

  20. pp and p¯p total cross sections and elastic scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnachie, A.; Landshoff, P. V.

    2013-12-01

    It is shown that pp and ppbar data, including those from the TOTEM experiment, agree well with Regge theory. making the three form factors Fi(t) identical and of the simple form (1c); making the trajectories αi(t) linear; making the ρ and ω trajectories degenerate, and also the f2 and a2; omitting all non-single exchanges other than PP and taking it to have the simple form (2b); assuming the simple form (3b) for the ggg term when t is not large. Fig. 4 shows an example of data that were not used to make the fit but are described well by it. Another such example is the ratio of the real to imaginary parts of the forward amplitudes, Fig. 5. A correct description of the dips is challenging and our simple model is able to describe those in pp scattering rather better than in pbarp scattering. We will not succumb to the temptation to say that, having been taken somewhat hurriedly in the very last few days of operation of the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings, the pbarp data at 53 GeV are unreliable.The triple-gluon-exchange term g(t) plays a key role in giving the dips. At large enough t it results in dσ/dt∼0.073/t8, somewhat smaller than our old fit [20]. Fig. 6 shows the pp elastic differential cross section at various energies. The data make our fit very energy-independent for |t|>4 GeV, where it is dominated by the term ggg. We have previously [26] drawn attention to the interest of checking whether, at sufficiently high energy, this energy independence might give way to a steady increase with energy.The term P contributes a behaviour s0.110 to the total cross sections, while PP is negative and behaves as s0.220 together with the denominator logarithmic factors shown in (2b). Fig. 7 shows that, over a very wide range of values of √{s}, together their behaviour is very close to the simple power behaviour s0.096 that was extracted from the data by Cudell and collaborators [5]. The Froissart-Lukaszuk-Martin bound [27] is about 20 barns at LHC energies and so has

  1. Predictions from a Simple Hadron Rescattering Model for pp Collisions at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truesdale, David C.

    With studies of heavy ion and pp physics already under way at the LHC, it is necessary to consider how hadron rescattering will effect the observed results from experiments such as ALICE, ATLAS and CMS. Through the use of a simple, relativistic kinematics based hadron rescattering model, this dissertation shows that the hadron rescattering phase can obscure some signals for radial flow in pp collisions at LHC energies. This dissertation presents an in depth description of the hardware based alignment monitoring system developed for the ALICE Inner Tracking System. It details the development of the ITSAMS, which uses geometric optics and a CMOS array to measure micron scale motion between two points. By monitoring three strategic points on the ITS in relation to the TPC endplate, the ITSAMS can determine translational shifts between the two detectors to a resolution of 9.4 mum in the transverse plane and 78 mum along the longitudinal axis. The ITSAMS can measure rotational shifts to 10 murad or better about all three axes. After a brief discussion of the ALICE experiment and the theory and practice of two-particle intensity interferometry, this dissertation details a simple hadron rescattering computer model developed by Dr. T. J. Humanic. The process of porting the model to the C++ computer language is presented here, along with the improvements made. The model has been updated with a new space-time distribution scheme that is more appropriate for pp collision studies. The model is then compared with final-state PYTHIA generated Monte-Carlo data. It is shown that the hadron rescattering model accurately reproduces pseudorapidity distributions for pp collisions at s = 0.9, 7, 10, and 14 TeV. Moreover, except for a slight overprediction of kaons and a slight underprediction of protons, the rescattering model accurately reproduces PYTHIA pT spectra. This dissertation then endeavours compare results to the HBT radii present in the ALICE collaboration's analysis of

  2. The Effect of Chemoradiotherapy with SRC Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor, PP2 and Temozolomide on Malignant Glioma Cells In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Eom, Keun-Yong; Cho, Bong Jun; Choi, Eun Jung; Kim, Jin-Ho; Chie, Eui Kyu; Wu, Hong-Gyun; Kim, Il Han; Paek, Sun Ha; Kim, Jae-Sung; Kim, In Ah

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We investigated the effect of chemoradiotherapy with PP2 and temozolomide (TMZ) on malignant glioma cells using clonogenic assays and in vivo brain tumor model. Materials and Methods The effect of PP2 on radiosensitivity of U251 and T98G cells was investigated using clonogenic assays. The expression of E-cadherin, matrix metalloproteinases 2 (MMP2), Ephrin type-A receptor 2 (EphA2), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was measured by Western blotting and an accumulation of γH2AX foci 6 hours after radiotherapy was measured after PP2 treatment. The effect of PP2 on migration, invasion, and vasculogenic mimicry formation (VMF) of U251 cells was evaluated. In an orthotopical brain tumor model with U251 cells, PP2 was injected intraperitoneally with or without oral TMZ before, during and after whole brain radiotherapy. Bioluminescence images were taken to visualize in vivo tumors and immunohistochemical staining of VEGF, CD31, EphA2, and hypoxia-inducible factor 1a was performed. Results PP2 increased radiosensitivity of U251 and T98G cells without decreasing survival of normal human astrocytes. Chemoradiotherapy with PP2 and TMZ resulted in increased accumulation of γH2AX foci. PP2 induced overexpression of E-cadherin and suppression of MMP2, VEGF, and EphA2. PP2 also compromised invasion, migration, and VMF of U251 cells. In brain tumors, chemoradiotherapy with PP2 and TMZ decreased tumor volume best, but not statistically significantly compared with chemoradiotherapy with TMZ. The expression of VEGF and CD31 was suppressed in PP2-treated tumors. Conclusion PP2 enhances radiosensitivity of malignant glioma cells and suppresses invasion and migration of U251 cells. Chemoradiotherapy with PP2 and TMZ resulted in non-significant tumor volume decrease. PMID:26044161

  3. Cyclic cis-locked phospho-dipeptides reduce entry of AβPP into amyloidogenic processing pathway

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Carolyn L.; Resnick, Ross J.; De, Soumya; Acevedo, Lucila A.; Lu, Kun Ping; Schroeder, Frank C.; Nicholson, Linda K.

    2016-01-01

    The cis/trans isomerization of X-Pro peptide bonds in proteins in some instances acts as a molecular switch in biological pathways. Our prior work suggests that the cis isomer of the phospho-Thr668-Pro669 motif, located in the cytoplasmic domain of the amyloid-β precursor protein (AβPP), is correlated with an increase in amyloidogenic processing of AβPP and production of amyloid beta (Aβ), the neurotoxic peptide fragment in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We designed a 100% cis-locked cyclic dipeptide composed of cyclized phospho-Thr-Pro (pCDP) as a mimic for this putative pathological conformation, and three phosphate-blocked derivatives (pCDP-diBzl, pCDP-Bzl, and pCDP-diPOM). Two H4 neuroglioma cell lines were established as AD cell models for use in testing these compounds: H4-AβPP695 for stable overexpression of wild-type AβPP695, and H4-BACE1 for stable overexpression of β-site AβPP Cleaving Enzyme-1 (BACE1). The level of the secreted AβPP fragment resulting from BACE1 activity, sAβPPβ, served as a key proxy for amyloidogenic processing, since cleavage of AβPP by BACE1 is a requisite first step in Aβ production. Of the compounds tested, pCDP-diBzl decreased sAβPPβ levels in both cell lines, while pCDP-diPOM decreased sAβPPβ levels in only H4-BACE1 cells, all with similar dose-dependences and patterns of proteolytic AβPP fragments. Enzymatic assays showed that none of the pCDP derivatives directly inhibit BACE1 catalytic activity. These results suggest a model in which pCDP-diBzl and pCDP-diPOM act at a common point to inhibit entry of AβPP into the amyloidogenic AβPP processing pathway but through different targets, and provide important insights for the development of novel AD therapeutics. Keywords: Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor, Alzheimer’s Disease, cyclic dipeptides, diketopiperazine, phosphorylated Thr668. PMID:27662285

  4. Strong binding and shrinkage of single and double nuclear systems (K−pp, K−ppn, K−K−p and K−K−pp) predicted by Faddeev-Yakubovsky calculations

    PubMed Central

    MAEDA, Shuji; AKAISHI, Yoshinori; YAMAZAKI, Toshimitsu

    2013-01-01

    Non-relativistic Faddeev and Faddeev-Yakubovsky calculations were made for K−pp, K−ppn, K−K−p and K−K−pp kaonic nuclear clusters, where the quasi bound states were treated as bound states by employing real separable potential models for the K−-K− and the K−-nucleon interactions as well as for the nucleon-nucleon interaction. The binding energies and spatial shrinkages of these states, obtained for various values of the interaction, were found to increase rapidly with the interaction strength. Their behaviors are shown in a reference diagram, where possible changes by varying the interaction in the dense nuclear medium are given. Using the Λ(1405) ansatz with a PDG mass of 1405 MeV/c2 for K−p, the following ground-state binding energies together with the wave functions were obtained: 51.5 MeV (K−pp), 69 MeV (K−ppn), 30.4 MeV (K−K−p) and 93 MeV (K−K−pp), which are in good agreement with previous results of variational calculation based on the Akaishi-Yamazaki coupled-channel potential. The K−K−pp state has a significantly increased density where the two nucleons are located very close to each other, in spite of the inner NN repulsion. Relativistic corrections on the calculated non-relativistic results indicate substantial lowering of the bound-state masses, especially of K−K−pp, toward the kaon condensation regime. The fact that the recently observed binding energy of K−pp is much larger (by a factor of 2) than the originally predicted one may infer an enhancement of the interaction in dense nuclei by about 25% possibly due to chiral symmetry restoration. In this respect some qualitative accounts are given based on “clearing QCD vacuum” model of Brown, Kubodera and Rho. PMID:24213206

  5. Dietary vitamin E and pulmonary biochemical and morphological alterations of rats exposed to 0. 1 ppM ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, C.K.; Plopper, C.G.; Chiu, M.; Dungworth, D.L.

    1981-04-01

    Three groups of 28 1-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats each were fed a basal vitamin E-deficient diet and supplemented with either 0, 11, or 110 ppM vitamin E for 38 days, and were then exposed to 0 or 0.1 ppM ozone continuously for 7 days. Following ozone exposure, the level of reduced glutathione (GSH) and activities of GSH peroxidase, GSH reductase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), but not of malic dehydrogenase, were significantly elevated in the lungs of rats fed the vitamin E deficient diet. The level of GSH and activities of GSH peroxidase and G-6-PD were also significantly increased in the lungs of the animal group fed the 11 ppM vitamin E diet, while none of the biochemical measurements made was significantly altered by ozone in the 110-ppM vitamin E diet fed rats. Scanning electron microscope examination revealed that five out of six rats on the vitamin E-deficient diet and four out of six from the 11-ppM vitamin E diet had detectable lesions following ozone exposure, as compared with only one of the six exposed animals from the 110-ppM vitamin E diet. The lesion was restricted to bronchiolar epithelium and alveoli immediately adjacent to the bronchiole-alveolar duct junction. None of the control animals had detectable lesions. The results suggest that exposure to ozone at 0.1-ppM level can produce detectable pulmonary damage, and that dietary vitamin E alters pulmonary susceptibility to ozone exposure.

  6. Mutational analysis of the pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) phloem exudate lectin, PP2 reveals Ser-104 is crucial for carbohydrate binding.

    PubMed

    Bobbili, Kishore Babu; Bandari, Shyam; Grobe, Kay; Swamy, Musti J

    2014-07-18

    The pumpkin phloem lectin (PP2) is an RNA-binding, defense-related, chitooligosaccharide-specific, homodimeric lectin of Mr 48 kDa expressed at high concentrations in the sieve elements and companion cells of pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima). In the present study, PP2 was expressed in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris with the Saccharomyces α-factor sequence to direct the recombinant protein into the secretory pathway as a prerequisite for unimpaired folding and posttranslational glycosylation of recombinant PP2. Previous computational modeling and ligand docking studies predicted a putative chitooligosaccharide-binding site on the PP2 surface, which was divided into three subsites, with two amino acid residues in each subsite identified as possible candidates for interaction with chitooligosaccharides (CHOs). In this work, mutational analysis and hemagglutination assays were employed to verify the role of the predicted residues in the carbohydrate binding activity of the protein. The results obtained revealed that mutation of Ser-104 to Ala (S104A) at subsite-2 resulted in about 90% loss of agglutination activity of the protein, indicating that Ser-104 is crucial for the binding of CHOs to PP2. Also, L100A (at subsite-1) and K200A (at subsite-3) independently decreased the lectin activity by about 40%, indicating that these two residues also contribute significantly to sugar binding by PP2. Together, these findings confirm that all the three subsites contribute to varying degrees toward PP2-carbohydrate interaction, and confirm the validity of the computational model, as proposed earlier.

  7. The architecture and ppGpp-dependent expression of the primary transcriptome of Salmonella Typhimurium during invasion gene expression

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Invasion of intestinal epithelial cells by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) requires expression of the extracellular virulence gene expression programme (STEX), activation of which is dependent on the signalling molecule guanosine tetraphosphate (ppGpp). Recently, next-generation transcriptomics (RNA-seq) has revealed the unexpected complexity of bacterial transcriptomes and in this report we use differential RNA sequencing (dRNA-seq) to define the high-resolution transcriptomic architecture of wild-type S. Typhimurium and a ppGpp null strain under growth conditions which model STEX. In doing so we show that ppGpp plays a much wider role in regulating the S. Typhimurium STEX primary transcriptome than previously recognised. Results Here we report the precise mapping of transcriptional start sites (TSSs) for 78% of the S. Typhimurium open reading frames (ORFs). The TSS mapping enabled a genome-wide promoter analysis resulting in the prediction of 169 alternative sigma factor binding sites, and the prediction of the structure of 625 operons. We also report the discovery of 55 new candidate small RNAs (sRNAs) and 302 candidate antisense RNAs (asRNAs). We discovered 32 ppGpp-dependent alternative TSSs and determined the extent and level of ppGpp-dependent coding and non-coding transcription. We found that 34% and 20% of coding and non-coding RNA transcription respectively was ppGpp-dependent under these growth conditions, adding a further dimension to the role of this remarkable small regulatory molecule in enabling rapid adaptation to the infective environment. Conclusions The transcriptional architecture of S. Typhimurium and finer definition of the key role ppGpp plays in regulating Salmonella coding and non-coding transcription should promote the understanding of gene regulation in this important food borne pathogen and act as a resource for future research. PMID:22251276

  8. The PP-motif in luminal loop 2 of ZnT transporters plays a pivotal role in TNAP activation.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Shigeyuki; Tsuji, Tokuji; Fujiwara, Takashi; Takeda, Taka-Aki; Merriman, Chengfeng; Fukunaka, Ayako; Nishito, Yukina; Fu, Dax; Hoch, Eitan; Sekler, Israel; Fukue, Kazuhisa; Miyamae, Yusaku; Masuda, Seiji; Nagao, Masaya; Kambe, Taiho

    2016-09-01

    Secretory and membrane-bound zinc-requiring enzymes are thought to be activated by binding zinc in the early secretory pathway. One such enzyme, tissue-non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP), is activated through a two-step mechanism, via protein stabilization and subsequent enzyme activation through metalation, by ZnT5-ZnT6 heterodimers or ZnT7 homodimers. However, little is known about the molecular basis underlying the activation process. In the present study, we found that the di-proline motif (PP-motif) in luminal loop 2 of ZnT5 and ZnT7 is important for TNAP activation. TNAP activity was significantly reduced in cells lacking ZnT5-ZnT6 heterodimers and ZnT7 homodimers [triple knockout (TKO) cells]. The decreased TNAP activity was restored by expressing hZnT5 with hZnT6 or hZnT7, but significantly less so (almost 90% less) by expressing mutants thereof in which the PP-motif was mutated to alanine (PP-AA). In TKO cells, overexpressed hTNAP was not completely activated, and it was converted less efficiently into the holo form by expressing a PP-AA mutant of hZnT5 with hZnT6, whose defects were not restored by zinc supplementation. The zinc transport activity of hZnT7 was not significantly impaired by the PP-AA mutation, indicating that the PP-motif is involved in the TNAP maturation process, although it does not control zinc transport activity. The PP-motif is highly conserved in ZnT5 and ZnT7 orthologues, and its importance for TNAP activation is conserved in the Caenorhabditis elegans hZnT5 orthologue CDF5. These results provide novel molecular insights into the TNAP activation process in the early secretory pathway. PMID:27303047

  9. Combination of cetuximab and PP242 synergistically suppress the progression of wild-type KRAS colorectal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Lei; Xia, Zuguang; Bian, Xinyu; Li, Guangchao; Hu, Jing; Cao, Ya; Wang, Qing; Qian, Xiaoping

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) has been shown to be overactive in human colorectal cancer, but the first-generation mTOR inhibitor, rapamycin, has failed to show clinical efficacy against colorectal cancer. On the other hand, although the second-generation mTOR inhibitor, PP242, has exerted substantial efficacy, it was revealed that independent inhibition by PP242 was transient, which could lead to positive-feedback loop to EGFR. Using wild-type KRAS colorectal cancer cells as models, we investigate the treatment efficacy of a widely used anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody, cetuximab, and PP242, alone or in combination in vitro and in vivo. Results of cell viability assays confirmed the synergistic inhibitory effect of PP242 and cetuximab on the survival of Caco-2 and HT-29 cells. Moreover, the ability of cancer-cell invasion and proliferation was also significantly inhibited by the combination therapy when compared with cetuximab or PP242 alone. Interestingly, the percentage of CD44-positive cancer cells was substantially decreased by the combination therapy in comparison with PP242 alone through fluorescence-activated cell sorting. The growth of cancer stem-like cell spheres in vitro was also maximally inhibited by combination therapy, in terms of either diameter or number. More importantly, the efficacy of combination therapy was more prominent than either drug alone in established tumor xenografts. These findings supported the potential use of combination therapy of PP242 and cetuximab against wild-type KRAS colorectal carcinomas. PMID:26586952

  10. Observation and study of the baryonic B-meson decays B→D(*)pp̄(π)(π)

    DOE PAGES

    del Amo Sanchez, P.; Lees, J. P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Tisserand, V.; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; Martinelli, M.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; et al

    2012-05-30

    We present results for B-meson decay modes involving a charm meson, protons, and pions using 455×10⁶ BB¯¯¯ pairs recorded by the BaBar detector at the SLAC PEP-II asymmetric-energy e⁺e⁻ collider. The branching fractions are measured for the following ten decays: B¯¯¯⁰→D⁰pp̄, B¯¯¯⁰→D*⁰pp̄, B¯¯¯⁰→D⁺pp̄π⁻, B¯¯¯⁰→D*⁺pp̄π⁻, B⁻→D⁰pp̄π⁻, B⁻→D*⁰pp̄π⁻, B¯¯¯⁰→D⁰pp̄π⁻π⁺, B¯¯¯⁰→D*⁰pp̄π⁻π⁺, B⁻→D⁺pp̄π⁻π⁻, and B⁻→D*⁺pp̄π⁻π⁻. The four B⁻ and the two five-body B¯¯¯⁰ modes are observed for the first time. The four-body modes are enhanced compared to the three- and the five-body modes. In the three-body modes, the M(pp̄) and M(D(*)⁰p) invariant-mass distributions show enhancements near threshold values. In the four-body mode B¯¯¯⁰→D⁺pp̄π⁻, themore » M(pπ⁻) distribution shows a narrow structure of unknown origin near 1.5 GeV/c². The distributions for the five-body modes, in contrast to the others, are similar to the expectations from uniform phase-space predictions.« less

  11. Observation and study of the baryonic B-meson decays B→D(*)pp̄(π)(π)

    SciTech Connect

    del Amo Sanchez, P.; Lees, J. P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Tisserand, V.; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; Martinelli, M.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, D. N.; Hooberman, B.; Kerth, L. T.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Lynch, G.; Osipenkov, I. L.; Tanabe, T.; Hawkes, C. M.; Watson, A. T.; Koch, H.; Schroeder, T.; Asgeirsson, D. J.; Hearty, C.; Mattison, T. S.; McKenna, J. A.; Khan, A.; Randle-Conde, A.; Blinov, V. E.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Druzhinin, V. P.; Golubev, V. B.; Onuchin, A. P.; Serednyakov, S. I.; Skovpen, Yu. I.; Solodov, E. P.; Todyshev, K. Yu.; Yushkov, A. N.; Bondioli, M.; Curry, S.; Kirkby, D.; Lankford, A. J.; Mandelkern, M.; Martin, E. C.; Stoker, D. P.; Atmacan, H.; Gary, J. W.; Liu, F.; Long, O.; Vitug, G. M.; Campagnari, C.; Flanigan, J. M.; Hong, T. M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Richman, J. D.; West, C.; Eisner, A. M.; Heusch, C. A.; Kroseberg, J.; Lockman, W. S.; Martinez, A. J.; Schalk, T.; Schumm, B. A.; Seiden, A.; Winstrom, L. O.; Cheng, C. H.; Doll, D. A.; Echenard, B.; Hitlin, D. G.; Ongmongkolkul, P.; Porter, F. C.; Rakitin, A. Y.; Andreassen, R.; Dubrovin, M. S.; Mancinelli, G.; Meadows, B. T.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Bloom, P. C.; Ford, W. T.; Gaz, A.; Nagel, M.; Nauenberg, U.; Smith, J. G.; Wagner, S. R.; Ayad, R.; Toki, W. H.; Jasper, H.; Karbach, T. M.; Merkel, J.; Petzold, A.; Spaan, B.; Wacker, K.; Kobel, M. J.; Schubert, K. R.; Schwierz, R.; Bernard, D.; Verderi, M.; Clark, P. J.; Playfer, S.; Watson, J. E.; Andreotti, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bozzi, C.; Calabrese, R.; Cecchi, A.; Cibinetto, G.; Fioravanti, E.; Franchini, P.; Luppi, E.; Munerato, M.; Negrini, M.; Petrella, A.; Piemontese, L.; Baldini-Ferroli, R.; Calcaterra, A.; de Sangro, R.; Finocchiaro, G.; Nicolaci, M.; Pacetti, S.; Patteri, P.; Peruzzi, I. M.; Piccolo, M.; Rama, M.; Zallo, A.; Contri, R.; Guido, E.; Lo Vetere, M.; Monge, M. R.; Passaggio, S.; Patrignani, C.; Robutti, E.; Tosi, S.; Bhuyan, B.; Prasad, V.; Lee, C. L.; Morii, M.; Adametz, A.; Marks, J.; Uwer, U.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Ebert, M.; Lacker, H. M.; Lueck, T.; Volk, A.; Dauncey, P. D.; Tibbetts, M.; Behera, P. K.; Mallik, U.; Chen, C.; Cochran, J.; Crawley, H. B.; Dong, L.; Meyer, W. T.; Prell, S.; Rosenberg, E. I.; Rubin, A. E.; Gritsan, A. V.; Guo, Z. J.; Arnaud, N.; Davier, M.; Derkach, D.; Firmino da Costa, J.; Grosdidier, G.; Le Diberder, F.; Lutz, A. M.; Malaescu, B.; Perez, A.; Roudeau, P.; Schune, M. H.; Serrano, J.; Sordini, V.; Stocchi, A.; Wang, L.; Wormser, G.; Lange, D. J.; Wright, D. M.; Bingham, I.; Chavez, C. A.; Coleman, J. P.; Fry, J. R.; Gabathuler, E.; Gamet, R.; Hutchcroft, D. E.; Payne, D. J.; Touramanis, C.; Bevan, A. J.; Di Lodovico, F.; Sacco, R.; Sigamani, M.; Cowan, G.; Paramesvaran, S.; Wren, A. C.; Brown, D. N.; Davis, C. L.; Denig, A. G.; Fritsch, M.; Gradl, W.; Hafner, A.; Alwyn, K. E.; Bailey, D.; Barlow, R. J.; Jackson, G.; Lafferty, G. D.; Anderson, J.; Cenci, R.; Jawahery, A.; Roberts, D. A.; Simi, G.; Tuggle, J. M.; Dallapiccola, C.; Salvati, E.; Cowan, R.; Dujmic, D.; Sciolla, G.; Zhao, M.; Lindemann, D.; Patel, P. M.; Robertson, S. H.; Schram, M.; Biassoni, P.; Lazzaro, A.; Lombardo, V.; Palombo, F.; Stracka, S.; Cremaldi, L.; Godang, R.; Kroeger, R.; Sonnek, P.; Summers, D. J.; Nguyen, X.; Simard, M.; Taras, P.; De Nardo, G.; Monorchio, D.; Onorato, G.; Sciacca, C.; Raven, G.; Snoek, H. L.; Jessop, C. P.; Knoepfel, K. J.; LoSecco, J. M.; Wang, W. F.; Corwin, L. A.; Honscheid, K.; Kass, R.; Morris, J. P.; Blount, N. L.; Brau, J.; Frey, R.; Igonkina, O.; Kolb, J. A.; Rahmat, R.; Sinev, N. B.; Strom, D.; Strube, J.; Torrence, E.; Castelli, G.; Feltresi, E.; Gagliardi, N.; Margoni, M.; Morandin, M.; Posocco, M.; Rotondo, M.; Simonetto, F.; Stroili, R.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bonneaud, G. R.; Briand, H.; Calderini, G.; Chauveau, J.; Hamon, O.; Leruste, Ph.; Marchiori, G.; Ocariz, J.; Prendki, J.; Sitt, S.; Biasini, M.; Manoni, E.; Rossi, A.; Angelini, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Carpinelli, M.; Casarosa, G.; Cervelli, A.; Forti, F.; Giorgi, M. A.; Lusiani, A.; Neri, N.; Paoloni, E.; Rizzo, G.; Walsh, J. J.; Lopes Pegna, D.; Lu, C.; Olsen, J.; Smith, A. J. S.; Telnov, A. V.; Anulli, F.; Baracchini, E.; Cavoto, G.; Faccini, R.; Ferrarotto, F.; Ferroni, F.; Gaspero, M.; Li Gioi, L.; Mazzoni, M. A.; Piredda, G.; Renga, F.; Hartmann, T.; Leddig, T.; Schröder, H.; Waldi, R.; Adye, T.; Franek, B.; Olaiya, E. O.; Wilson, F. F.; Emery, S.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Vasseur, G.; Yèche, Ch.; Zito, M.; Allen, M. T.; Aston, D.; Bard, D. J.; Bartoldus, R.; Benitez, J. F.; Cartaro, C.; Convery, M. R.; Dorfan, J.; Dubois-Felsmann, G. P.; Dunwoodie, W.; Field, R. C.; Franco Sevilla, M.; Fulsom, B. G.; Gabareen, A. M.; Graham, M. T.; Grenier, P.; Hast, C.; Innes, W. R.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kim, H.; Kim, P.; Kocian, M. L.; Leith, D. W. G. S.; Li, S.; Lindquist, B.; Luitz, S.; Luth, V.; Lynch, H. L.; MacFarlane, D. B.; Marsiske, H.; Muller, D. R.; Neal, H.; Nelson, S.; O’Grady, C. P.; Ofte, I.; Perl, M.; Pulliam, T.; Ratcliff, B. N.; Roodman, A.; Salnikov, A. A.; Santoro, V.; Schindler, R. H.; Schwiening, J.; Snyder, A.; Su, D.; Sullivan, M. K.; Sun, S.; Suzuki, K.; Thompson, J. M.; Va’vra, J.; Wagner, A. P.; Weaver, M.; West, C. A.; Wisniewski, W. J.; Wittgen, M.; Wright, D. H.; Wulsin, H. W.; Yarritu, A. K.; Young, C. C.; Ziegler, V.; Chen, X. R.; Park, W.; Purohit, M. V.; White, R. M.; Wilson, J. R.; Sekula, S. J.; Bellis, M.; Burchat, P. R.; Edwards, A. J.; Miyashita, T. S.; Ahmed, S.; Alam, M. S.; Ernst, J. A.; Pan, B.; Saeed, M. A.; Zain, S. B.; Guttman, N.; Soffer, A.; Lund, P.; Spanier, S. M.; Eckmann, R.; Ritchie, J. L.; Ruland, A. M.; Schilling, C. J.; Schwitters, R. F.; Wray, B. C.; Izen, J. M.; Lou, X. C.; Bianchi, F.; Gamba, D.; Pelliccioni, M.; Bomben, M.; Lanceri, L.; Vitale, L.; Lopez-March, N.; Martinez-Vidal, F.; Milanes, D. A.; Oyanguren, A.; Albert, J.; Banerjee, Sw.; Choi, H. H. F.; Hamano, K.; King, G. J.; Kowalewski, R.; Lewczuk, M. J.; Nugent, I. M.; Roney, J. M.; Sobie, R. J.; Gershon, T. J.; Harrison, P. F.; Latham, T. E.; Puccio, E. M. T.; Band, H. R.; Dasu, S.; Flood, K. T.; Pan, Y.; Prepost, R.; Vuosalo, C. O.; Wu, S. L.

    2012-05-30

    We present results for B-meson decay modes involving a charm meson, protons, and pions using 455×10⁶ BB¯¯¯ pairs recorded by the BaBar detector at the SLAC PEP-II asymmetric-energy e⁺e⁻ collider. The branching fractions are measured for the following ten decays: B¯¯¯⁰→D⁰pp̄, B¯¯¯⁰→D*⁰pp̄, B¯¯¯⁰→D⁺pp̄π⁻, B¯¯¯⁰→D*⁺pp̄π⁻, B⁻→D⁰pp̄π⁻, B⁻→D*⁰pp̄π⁻, B¯¯¯⁰→D⁰pp̄π⁻π⁺, B¯¯¯⁰→D*⁰pp̄π⁻π⁺, B⁻→D⁺pp̄π⁻π⁻, and B⁻→D*⁺pp̄π⁻π⁻. The four B⁻ and the two five-body B¯¯¯⁰ modes are observed for the first time. The four-body modes are enhanced compared to the three- and the five-body modes. In the three-body modes, the M(pp̄) and M(D(*)⁰p) invariant-mass distributions show enhancements near threshold values. In the four-body mode B¯¯¯⁰→D⁺pp̄π⁻, the M(pπ⁻) distribution shows a narrow structure of unknown origin near 1.5 GeV/c². The distributions for the five-body modes, in contrast to the others, are similar to the expectations from uniform phase-space predictions.

  12. Observation of B{sup 0}{yields}ppK*{sup 0} with a Large K*{sup 0} Polarization

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J.-H.; Wang, M.-Z.; Chao, Y.; Chen, K.-F.; Hou, W.-S.; Hsiung, Y. B.; Shiu, J.-G.; Ueno, K.; Wang, C. C.; Adachi, I.; Haba, J.; Hazumi, M.; Itoh, R.; Katayama, N.; Kichimi, H.; Krokovny, P.; Nakao, M.; Nishida, S.; Ozaki, H.; Sakai, Y.

    2008-06-27

    Using a 492 fb{sup -1} data sample collected near the {upsilon}(4S) resonance with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} collider, we observe the decay B{sup 0}{yields}ppK*{sup 0} with a branching fraction of (1.18{sub -0.25}{sup +0.29}(stat){+-}0.11(syst))x10{sup -6}. We study the decay dynamics of B{sup 0}{yields}ppK*{sup 0} and compare with B{sup +}{yields}ppK*{sup +}. The K*{sup 0} meson is found to be almost 100% polarized (with a fraction of (101{+-}13{+-}3)% in the helicity zero state), while the K*{sup +} meson has a (32{+-}17{+-}9)% fraction in the helicity zero state. The direct CP asymmetries for B{sup 0}{yields}ppK*{sup 0} and B{sup +}{yields}ppK*{sup +} are measured to be -0.08{+-}0.20{+-}0.02 and -0.01{+-}0.19{+-}0.02, respectively. In addition, we report improved measurements of the branching fractions B(B{sup +}{yields}ppK*{sup +})=(3.38{sub -0.60}{sup +0.73}{+-}0.39)x10{sup -6} and B(B{sup 0}{yields}ppK{sup 0})=(2.51{sub -0.29}{sup +0.35}{+-}0.21)x10{sup -6}, which supersede our previous measurements.

  13. The human cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response to cytomegalovirus is dominated by structural protein pp65: frequency, specificity, and T-cell receptor usage of pp65-specific CTL.

    PubMed Central

    Wills, M R; Carmichael, A J; Mynard, K; Jin, X; Weekes, M P; Plachter, B; Sissons, J G

    1996-01-01

    Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) appear to play an important role in the control of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) in the normal virus carrier: previous studies have identified peripheral blood CD8+ CTL specific for the HCMV major immediate-early gene product (IE1) and more recently, by bulk culture and cloning techniques, have identified CTL specific for a structural gene product, the lower matrix protein pp65. In order to determine the relative contributions of CTL which recognize the HCMV proteins IE1, pp65, and glycoprotein B (gB) to the total HCMV-specific CTL response, we have used a limiting-dilution analysis system to quantify HCMV-specific CTL precursors with different specificities, allowing the antigenic specificity of multiple short-term CTL clones to be assessed, in a group of six healthy seropositive donors. All donors showed high frequencies of HCMV-specific major histocompatibility complex-restricted CTL precursors. There was a very high frequency of CTL specific for pp65 (lower matrix protein); IE1-specific CTL were also detectable at lower frequencies in three of five donors, while CTL directed to gB were undetectable. A pp65 gene deletion mutant of HCMV was then used to estimate the contribution of pp65-specific CTL to the total HCMV-specific CTL response; this showed that between 70 and 90% of all CTL recognizing HCMV-infected cells were pp65 specific. Analysis of the peptide specificity of pp65-specific CTL showed that some donors have a highly focused response recognizing a single peptide; the T-cell receptor Vbeta gene usage in these two donors was shown to be remarkably restricted, with over half of the responding CD8+ T cells utilizing a single Vbeta gene rearrangement. Other subjects recognized multiple pp65 peptides: nine new pp65 CTL peptide epitopes were defined, and for five of these the HLA-presenting allele has been identified. All four of the HLA A2 donors tested in this study recognized the same peptide. This apparent domination of the

  14. Primary over-expression of AβPP in muscle does not lead to the development of inclusion body myositis in a new lineage of the MCK-AβPP transgenic mouse

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yue-Bei; Johnsen, Russell D; Griffiths, Lisa; Needham, Merrilee; Fabian, Victoria A; Fletcher, Sue; Wilton, Steve D; Mastaglia, Frank L

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine whether primary over-expression of AβPP in skeletal muscle results in the development of features of inclusion body myositis (IBM) in a new lineage of the MCK-AβPP transgenic mouse. Quantitative histological, immunohistochemical and western blotting studies were performed on muscles from 3 to 18 month old transgenic and wild-type C57BL6/SJL mice. Electron microscopy was also performed on muscle sections from selected animals. Although western blotting confirmed that there was over-expression of full length AβPP in transgenic mouse muscles, deposition of amyloid-β and fibrillar amyloid could not be demonstrated histochemically or with electron microscopy. Additionally, other changes typical of IBM such as rimmed vacuoles, cytochrome C oxidase-deficient fibres, upregulation of MHC antigens, lymphocytic inflammatory infiltration and T cell fibre invasion were absent. The most prominent finding in both transgenic and wild-type animals was the presence of tubular aggregates which was age-related and largely restricted to male animals. Expression of full length AβPP in this MCK-AβPP mouse lineage did not reach the levels required for immunodetection or deposition of amyloid-β as in the original transgenic strains, and was not associated with the development of pathological features of IBM. These negative results emphasise the potential pitfalls of re-deriving transgenic mouse strains in different laboratories. PMID:24205796

  15. A 3-D CFD Analysis of the Space Shuttle RSRM With Propellant Fins @ 1 sec. Burn-Back

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morstadt, Robert A.

    2003-01-01

    In this study 3-D Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) runs have been made for the Space Shuttle RSRM using 2 different grids and 4 different turbulent models, which were the Standard KE, the RNG KE, the Realizable KE, and the Reynolds stress model. The RSRM forward segment consists of 11 fins. By taking advantage of the forward fin symmetry only half of one fin along the axis had to be used in making the grid. This meant that the 3-D model consisted of a pie slice that encompassed 1/22nd of the motor circumference and went along the axis of the entire motor. The 3-D flow patterns in the forward fin region are of particular interest. Close inspection of these flow patterns indicate that 2 counter-rotating axial vortices emerge from each submerged solid propellant fin. Thus, the 3-D CFD analysis allows insight into complicated internal motor flow patterns that are not available from the simpler 2-D axi-symmetric studies. In addition, a comparison is made between the 3-D bore pressure drop and the 2-D axi-symmetric pressure drop.

  16. Modulation of phosphorylation of tocopherol and phosphatidylinositol by hTAP1/SEC14L2-mediated lipid exchange

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The vitamin E derivative, alpha-tocopheryl phosphate (aTP), is detectable in cultured cells, plasma and tissues in small amounts, suggesting the existence of enzyme(s) with a-tocopherol (aT) kinase activity. Here, we characterize the production of aTP from aT and [g-32P]-ATP in primary human coronar...

  17. A protein phosphatase 1 gamma (PP1γ) of the human protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis is involved in proliferation and cell attachment to the host cell.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Christian; Pérez, Mauricio; Orrego, Patricio R; Osorio, Luis; Gutiérrez, Bessy; Sagua, Hernán; Castillo, Juan L; Martínez-Oyanedel, Jose; Arroyo, Rossana; Meza-Cervantez, Patricia; da Silveira, Jose Franco; Midlej, Victor; Benchimol, Marlene; Cordero, Esteban; Morales, Patricio; Araya, Jorge E; González, Jorge

    2012-07-01

    In this work, evidence for a critical role of Trichomonas vaginalis protein phosphatase 1 gamma (TvPP1γ) in proliferation and attachment of the parasite to the mammalian cell is provided. Firstly, proliferation and attachment of T. vaginalis parasites to HeLa cells was blocked by calyculin A (CA), a potent PP1 inhibitor. Secondly, it was demonstrated that the enzyme activity of native and recombinant TvPP1γ proteins was inhibited by CA. Thirdly, reverse genetic studies confirmed that antisense oligonucleotides targeted to PP1γ but not PP1α or β inhibited proliferation and attachment of trichomonads CA-treated parasites underwent cytoskeletal modifications, including a lack of axostyle typical labelling, suggesting that cytoskeletal phosphorylation could be regulated by a CA-sensitive phosphatase where the role of PP1γ could not be ruled out. Analysis of subcellular distribution of TvPP1γ by cell fractionation and electron microscopy demonstrated the association between TvPP1γ and the cytoskeleton. The expression of adhesins, AP120 and AP65, at the cell surface was also inhibited by CA. The concomitant inhibition of expression of adhesins and changes in the cytoskeleton in CA-treated parasites suggest a specific role for PP1γ -dependent dephosphorylation in the early stages of the host-parasite interaction. Molecular modelling of TvPP1γ showed the conservation of residues critical for maintaining proper folding into the gross structure common to PP1 proteins. Taken together, these results suggest that TvPP1γ could be considered a potential novel drug target for treatment of trichomoniasis.

  18. Heterologous expression of a plant RelA-SpoT homologue results in increased stress tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by accumulation of the bacterial alarmone ppGpp.

    PubMed

    Ochi, Kozo; Nishizawa, Tomoyasu; Inaoka, Takashi; Yamada, Akiyo; Hashimoto, Kohsuke; Hosaka, Takeshi; Okamoto, Susumu; Ozeki, Yoshihiro

    2012-08-01

    The bacterial alarmone ppGpp is present only in bacteria and the chloroplasts of plants, but not in mammalian cells or eukaryotic micro-organisms such as yeasts and fungi. The importance of the ppGpp signalling system in eukaryotes has therefore been largely overlooked. Here, we demonstrated that heterologous expression of a relA-spoT homologue (Sj-RSH) isolated from the halophilic plant Suaeda japonica in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae results in accumulation of ppGpp, accompanied by enhancement of tolerance against various stress stimuli, such as osmotic stress, ethanol, hydrogen peroxide, high temperature and freezing. Unlike bacterial ppGpp accumulation, ppGpp was accumulated in the early growth phase but not in the late growth phase. Moreover, nutritional downshift resulted in a decrease in ppGpp level, suggesting that the observed Sj-RSH activity to synthesize ppGpp is not starvation-dependent, contrary to our expectations based on bacteria. Accumulated ppGpp was found to be present solely in the cytosolic fraction and not in the mitochondrial fraction, perhaps reflecting the ribosome-independent ppGpp synthesis in S. cerevisiae cells. Unlike bacterial inosine monophosphate (IMP) dehydrogenases, the IMP dehydrogenase of S. cerevisiae was insensitive to ppGpp. Microarray analysis showed that ppGpp accumulation gave rise to marked changes in gene expression, with both upregulation and downregulation, including changes in mitochondrial gene expression. The most prominent upregulation (38-fold) was detected in the hypothetical gene YBR072C-A of unknown function, followed by many other known stress-responsive genes. S. cerevisiae may provide new opportunities to uncover and analyse the ppGpp signalling system in eukaryotic cells.

  19. Effect of cyclical thermal to mechanical properties of Hybrid Laminate Composites (HLC) with skin recycle polypropylene/natural fiber/halloysite and core PP/KF composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sri Suharty, Neng; Ismail, Hanafi; Suci Handayani, Desi; Diharjo, Kuncoro; Rachman Wibowo, Fajar; Arnita Wuri, Margaretha

    2016-02-01

    This research has successfully synthesized six hybrid laminate composites (HLC). These HLC consist of two layers skin composites and one layer of core PP/KF composites. There are sticked with epoxy adhesive by using cold press method. In this research 6 types of skin are used, namely the rPP (recycled polypropylene, HC1); rPP/DVB/PP-g-AA/KF (HC2); rPP/DVB/PP-g-AA/Hall (HC3); rPP/DVB/PP-g-AA/Hall+ZB (HC4); rPP/DVB/PP-g-AA/KF/Hall (HC5) and rPP/DVB/PP-g-AA/KF/Hall+ZB (HC6) composites. The mechanical properties assessment tensile strength (TS) of various HLC before and after cyclical thermal (CT) was done by ASTM D638. While testing the flame retardant: such as time to ignition (TTI) and burning rate (BR) was done by ASTM D635. Heat stability of HLC can be recognized by conducting the CT treatment. It is to determine the effect of fluctuating heat loads on mechanical properties of HLC materials. The TS result of five HLCs (HC2, HC3, HC4, HC5 and HC6) before CT treatment were higher than HC1 (blank HLC). Those five HLC are also able to increase the TTI and reduce the BR compared to HC1. The CT treatment conditions performed at 45 oC as much as 125 times. After CT treatment, the TS values only slightly decline compared to before CT treatment.

  20. A protein phosphatase 1 gamma (PP1γ) of the human protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis is involved in proliferation and cell attachment to the host cell.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Christian; Pérez, Mauricio; Orrego, Patricio R; Osorio, Luis; Gutiérrez, Bessy; Sagua, Hernán; Castillo, Juan L; Martínez-Oyanedel, Jose; Arroyo, Rossana; Meza-Cervantez, Patricia; da Silveira, Jose Franco; Midlej, Victor; Benchimol, Marlene; Cordero, Esteban; Morales, Patricio; Araya, Jorge E; González, Jorge

    2012-07-01

    In this work, evidence for a critical role of Trichomonas vaginalis protein phosphatase 1 gamma (TvPP1γ) in proliferation and attachment of the parasite to the mammalian cell is provided. Firstly, proliferation and attachment of T. vaginalis parasites to HeLa cells was blocked by calyculin A (CA), a potent PP1 inhibitor. Secondly, it was demonstrated that the enzyme activity of native and recombinant TvPP1γ proteins was inhibited by CA. Thirdly, reverse genetic studies confirmed that antisense oligonucleotides targeted to PP1γ but not PP1α or β inhibited proliferation and attachment of trichomonads CA-treated parasites underwent cytoskeletal modifications, including a lack of axostyle typical labelling, suggesting that cytoskeletal phosphorylation could be regulated by a CA-sensitive phosphatase where the role of PP1γ could not be ruled out. Analysis of subcellular distribution of TvPP1γ by cell fractionation and electron microscopy demonstrated the association between TvPP1γ and the cytoskeleton. The expression of adhesins, AP120 and AP65, at the cell surface was also inhibited by CA. The concomitant inhibition of expression of adhesins and changes in the cytoskeleton in CA-treated parasites suggest a specific role for PP1γ -dependent dephosphorylation in the early stages of the host-parasite interaction. Molecular modelling of TvPP1γ showed the conservation of residues critical for maintaining proper folding into the gross structure common to PP1 proteins. Taken together, these results suggest that TvPP1γ could be considered a potential novel drug target for treatment of trichomoniasis. PMID:22713760

  1. Important role for phylogenetically invariant PP2Acalpha active site and C-terminal residues revealed by mutational analysis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, D R; Hemmings, B A

    2000-01-01

    PP2A is a central regulator of eukaryotic signal transduction. The human catalytic subunit PP2Acalpha functionally replaces the endogenous yeast enzyme, Pph22p, indicating a conservation of function in vivo. Therefore, yeast cells were employed to explore the role of invariant PP2Ac residues. The PP2Acalpha Y127N substitution abolished essential PP2Ac function in vivo and impaired catalysis severely in vitro, consistent with the prediction from structural studies that Tyr-127 mediates substrate binding and its side chain interacts with the key active site residues His-118 and Asp-88. The V159E substitution similarly impaired PP2Acalpha catalysis profoundly and may cause global disruption of the active site. Two conditional mutations in the yeast Pph22p protein, F232S and P240H, were found to cause temperature-sensitive impairment of PP2Ac catalytic function in vitro. Thus, the mitotic and cell lysis defects conferred by these mutations result from a loss of PP2Ac enzyme activity. Substitution of the PP2Acalpha C-terminal Tyr-307 residue by phenylalanine impaired protein function, whereas the Y307D and T304D substitutions abolished essential function in vivo. Nevertheless, Y307D did not reduce PP2Acalpha catalytic activity significantly in vitro, consistent with an important role for the C terminus in mediating essential protein-protein interactions. Our results identify key residues important for PP2Ac function and characterize new reagents for the study of PP2A in vivo. PMID:10978272

  2. Jet production in pp, p-Pb and Pb-Pb collisions measured by ALICE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Rosi; ALICE Collaboration

    2015-08-01

    Particle jets, formed when a hard scattered parton fragments into a jet of hadrons, are an ideal probe of the medium formed in heavy-ion collisions. The hard-scattered partons that produce them come from early in the collision, prior to the medium formation. These partons lose energy as they traverse the medium, and eventually fragment into jets of hadrons, which exhibit a modification when compared to jets produced in pp and p-Pb collisions. At LHC energies, the parton production cross-section is much larger than at RHIC, allowing jets to be reconstructed over a much wider kinematic range. Jet reconstruction allows for a more differential investigation of the parton energy loss than single hadrons, which have been used as jet proxies in the past, as the jets collect a larger percentage of the final state energy, which means their kinematics are more closely correlated to the kinematics of the initial parton. Jets are reconstructed in ALICE either using information from the tracking systems, or by combining this with the ALICE electromagnetic calorimeter (EMCal). In these proceedings, jet spectra from 2.76 TeV Pb-Pb and pp collisions will be presented. In particular, the centrality and event-plane dependence of the measured spectra and the background will be discussed. Jets from different centrality classes and event-plane orientations provide additional information necessary for understanding the path-length and temperature dependence of energy loss mechanisms. The reconstruction and correction procedures for jets will be shown. Results from Pb-Pb events will be compared to the baseline pp and p-Pb results, which allows the initial state and cold nuclear matter effects to be disentangled from hot medium effects. The jet nuclear modification, which quantifies the suppression, will be compared to energy-loss models.

  3. Longitudinal polarization of hyperons in the forward region in polarized pp collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Wei; Zhou Shanshan; Xu Qinghua

    2010-03-01

    We study the longitudinal polarization of hyperons and antihyperons at forward pseudorapidity, 2.5<{eta}<4, in singly polarized pp collisions at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider energies by using different parametrizations of the polarized parton densities and different models for the polarized fragmentation functions. The results show that the {Sigma}{sup +} polarization is able to distinguish different pictures on spin transfer in high energy fragmentation processes; and the polarization of {Lambda} and {Lambda} hyperons can provide sensitivity to the helicity distribution of strange sea quarks. The influence from beam remnant to hyperon polarization in the forward region is also discussed.

  4. Study on the preparation and structural performance of polyaniline/PP conductive fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hong; Wang, Lijiu

    2007-07-01

    Polyaniline/PP conductive fiber was obtained by in-situ adsorption polymerization. In this work, we discussed the influence of these reaction factors such as adulteration acid concentration, oxidizer concentration, polyaniline monomer content and reaction time to the polymerization and conduct property. In the meanwhile, surface handling with plasma have also been compared for examining the change of polymerization and conduct property. FT-IR spectra analysis and the physic mechanical properties have been used to investigate the structure and properties of conductive fibers. The result shows that with this method of polymerization the conductive property is superior and the conductivity can be reached by 4.5KΩ.

  5. Proton source size measurements in the eA {yields} e{prime}ppX reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksey Stavinskiy; Konstantin Mikhaylov; R. Lednicky; Alexander Vlassov; Et. Al.

    2004-06-01

    Two-proton correlations at small relative momentum q were studied in the eA({sup 3}He, {sup 4}He, C, Fe) {yields} e{prime}ppX reaction at E{sub 0} = 4.46 GeV using the CLAS detector at Jefferson Lab. The enhancement of the correlation function at small q was found to be in accordance with theoretical expectation. Emission region sizes were extracted and proved to be dependent on A and proton momentum. The size of the two-proton emission region on the lightest possible nucleus, He, was measured for the first time.

  6. Multiplicity dependence of two-particle azimuthal correlations in pp collisions at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abelev, B.; Adam, J.; Adamová, D.; Adare, A. M.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Agnello, M.; Agocs, A. G.; Agostinelli, A.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahmad Masoodi, A.; Ahmad, N.; Ahmed, I.; Ahn, S. U.; Ahn, S. A.; Aimo, I.; Ajaz, M.; Akindinov, A.; Aleksandrov, D.; Alessandro, B.; Alexandre, D.; Alici, A.; Alkin, A.; Alme, J.; Alt, T.; Altini, V.; Altinpinar, S.; Altsybeev, I.; Andrei, C.; Andronic, A.; Anguelov, V.; Anielski, J.; Anson, C.; Antičić, T.; Antinori, F.; Antonioli, P.; Aphecetche, L.; Appelshäuser, H.; Arbor, N.; Arcelli, S.; Arend, A.; Armesto, N.; Arnaldi, R.; Aronsson, T.; Arsene, I. C.; Arslandok, M.; Asryan, A.; Augustinus, A.; Averbeck, R.; Awes, T. C.; Äystö, J.; Azmi, M. D.; Bach, M.; Badalà, A.; Baek, Y. W.; Bailhache, R.; Bala, R.; Baldisseri, A.; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F.; Bán, J.; Baral, R. C.; Barbera, R.; Barile, F.; Barnaföldi, G. G.; Barnby, L. S.; Barret, V.; Bartke, J.; Basile, M.; Bastid, N.; Basu, S.; Bathen, B.; Batigne, G.; Batyunya, B.; Batzing, P. C.; Baumann, C.; Bearden, I. G.; Beck, H.; Behera, N. K.; Belikov, I.; Bellini, F.; Bellwied, R.; Belmont-Moreno, E.; Bencedi, G.; Beole, S.; Berceanu, I.; Bercuci, A.; Berdanikov, Y.; Berenyi, D.; Bergognon, A. A. E.; Bertens, R. A.; Berzano, D.; Betev, L.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhom, J.; Bianchi, L.; Bianchi, N.; Bianchin, C.; Bielčík, J.; Bielčíková, J.; Bilandzic, A.; Bjelogrlic, S.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, F.; Blau, D.; Blume, C.; Boccioli, M.; Bock, F.; Böttger, S.; Bogdanov, A.; Bøggild, H.; Bogolyubsky, M.; Boldizsár, L.; Bombara, M.; Book, J.; Borel, H.; Borissov, A.; Bornschein, J.; Bossú, F.; Botje, M.; Botta, E.; Braidot, E.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Bregant, M.; Breitner, T.; Broker, T. A.; Browning, T. A.; Broz, M.; Brun, R.; Bruna, E.; Bruno, G. E.; Budnikov, D.; Buesching, H.; Bufalino, S.; Buncic, P.; Busch, O.; Buthelezi, Z.; Caffarri, D.; Cai, X.; Caines, H.; Caliva, A.; Calvo Villar, E.; Camerini, P.; Canoa Roman, V.; Cara Romeo, G.; Carena, F.; Carena, W.; Carlin Filho, N.; Carminati, F.; Casanova Díaz, A.; Castillo Castellanos, J.; Castillo Hernandez, J. F.; Casula, E. A. R.; Catanescu, V.; Cavicchioli, C.; Ceballos Sanchez, C.; Cepila, J.; Cerello, P.; Chang, B.; Chapeland, S.; Charvet, J. L.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Cherney, M.; Cheshkov, C.; Cheynis, B.; Chibante Barroso, V.; Chinellato, D. D.; Chochula, P.; Chojnacki, M.; Choudhury, S.; Christakoglou, P.; Christensen, C. H.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, S. U.; Cicalo, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Cleymans, J.; Colamaria, F.; Colella, D.; Collu, A.; Conesa Balbastre, G.; Conesa del Valle, Z.; Connors, M. E.; Contin, G.; Contreras, J. G.; Cormier, T. M.; Corrales Morales, Y.; Cortese, P.; Cortés Maldonado, I.; Cosentino, M. R.; Costa, F.; Cotallo, M. E.; Crescio, E.; Crochet, P.; Cruz Alaniz, E.; Cruz Albino, R.; Cuautle, E.; Cunqueiro, L.; Czopowicz, T. R.; Dainese, A.; Dang, R.; Danu, A.; Das, I.; Das, S.; Das, D.; Das, K.; Dash, S.; Dash, A.; De, S.; de Barros, G. O. V.; De Caro, A.; de Cataldo, G.; de Cuveland, J.; De Falco, A.; De Gruttola, D.; Delagrange, H.; Deloff, A.; De Marco, N.; Dénes, E.; De Pasquale, S.; Deppman, A.; Erasmo, G. D.; de Rooij, R.; Diaz Corchero, M. A.; Di Bari, D.; Dietel, T.; Di Giglio, C.; Di Liberto, S.; Di Mauro, A.; Di Nezza, P.; Divià, R.; Djuvsland, Ø.; Dobrin, A.; Dobrowolski, T.; Dönigus, B.; Dordic, O.; Dubey, A. K.; Dubla, A.; Ducroux, L.; Dupieux, P.; Dutta Majumdar, A. K.; Elia, D.; Elwood, B. G.; Emschermann, D.; Engel, H.; Erazmus, B.; Erdal, H. A.; Eschweiler, D.; Espagnon, B.; Estienne, M.; Esumi, S.; Evans, D.; Evdokimov, S.; Eyyubova, G.; Fabris, D.; Faivre, J.; Falchieri, D.; Fantoni, A.; Fasel, M.; Fehlker, D.; Feldkamp, L.; Felea, D.; Feliciello, A.; Fenton-Olsen, B.; Feofilov, G.; Fernández Téllez, A.; Ferretti, A.; Festanti, A.; Figiel, J.; Figueredo, M. A. S.; Filchagin, S.; Finogeev, D.; Fionda, F. M.; Fiore, E. M.; Floratos, E.; Floris, M.; Foertsch, S.; Foka, P.; Fokin, S.; Fragiacomo, E.; Francescon, A.; Frankenfeld, U.; Fuchs, U.; Furget, C.; Fusco Girard, M.; Gaardhøje, J. J.; Gagliardi, M.; Gago, A.; Gallio, M.; Gangadharan, D. R.; Ganoti, P.; Garabatos, C.; Garcia-Solis, E.; Gargiulo, C.; Garishvili, I.; Gerhard, J.; Germain, M.; Gheata, M.; Gheata, A.; Ghidini, B.; Ghosh, P.; Gianotti, P.; Giubellino, P.; Gladysz-Dziadus, E.; Glässel, P.; Goerlich, L.; Gomez, R.; Ferreiro, E. G.; González-Zamora, P.; Gorbunov, S.; Goswami, A.; Gotovac, S.; Graczykowski, L. K.; Grajcarek, R.; Grelli, A.; Grigoras, A.; Grigoras, C.; Grigoriev, V.; Grigoryan, A.; Grigoryan, S.; Grinyov, B.; Grion, N.; Gros, P.; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J. F.; Grossiord, J.-Y.; Grosso, R.; Guber, F.; Guernane, R.; Guerzoni, B.; Guilbaud, M.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gulkanyan, H.; Gunji, T.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, R.; Haake, R.; Haaland, Ø.; Hadjidakis, C.; Haiduc, M.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamar, G.; Han, B. H.; Hanratty, L. D.; Hansen, A.; Harris, J. W.; Harton, A.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hayashi, S.; Hayrapetyan, A.; Heckel, S. T.; Heide, M.; Helstrup, H.; Herghelegiu, A.; Herrera Corral, G.; Herrmann, N.; Hess, B. A.; Hetland, K. F.; Hicks, B.; Hippolyte, B.; Hori, Y.; Hristov, P.; Hřivnáčová, I.; Huang, M.; Humanic, T. J.; Hutter, D.; Hwang, D. S.; Ichou, R.; Ilkaev, R.; Ilkiv, I.; Inaba, M.; Incani, E.; Innocenti, P. G.; Innocenti, G. M.; Ionita, C.; Ippolitov, M.; Irfan, M.; Ivanov, A.; Ivanov, V.; Ivanov, M.; Ivanytskyi, O.; Jacholkowski, A.; Jacobs, P. M.; Jahnke, C.; Jang, H. J.; Janik, M. A.; Jayarathna, P. H. S. Y.; Jena, S.; Jha, D. M.; Jimenez Bustamante, R. T.; Jones, P. G.; Jung, H.; Jusko, A.; Kaidalov, A. B.; Kalcher, S.; Kaliňák, P.; Kalliokoski, T.; Kalweit, A.; Kang, J. H.; Kaplin, V.; Kar, S.; Karasu Uysal, A.; Karavichev, O.; Karavicheva, T.; Karpechev, E.; Kazantsev, A.; Kebschull, U.; Keidel, R.; Ketzer, B.; Khan, K. H.; Khan, P.; Khan, S. A.; Khan, M. M.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kharlov, Y.; Kileng, B.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, T.; Kim, M.; Kim, M.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, S.; Kim, B.; Kim, D. W.; Kirsch, S.; Kisel, I.; Kiselev, S.; Kisiel, A.; Kiss, G.; Klay, J. L.; Klein, J.; Klein-Bösing, C.; Kliemant, M.; Kluge, A.; Knichel, M. L.; Knospe, A. G.; Köhler, M. K.; Kollegger, T.; Kolojvari, A.; Kompaniets, M.; Kondratiev, V.; Kondratyeva, N.; Konevskikh, A.; Kovalenko, V.; Kowalski, M.; Kox, S.; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, G.; Kral, J.; Králik, I.; Kramer, F.; Kravčáková, A.; Krelina, M.; Kretz, M.; Krivda, M.; Krizek, F.; Krus, M.; Kryshen, E.; Krzewicki, M.; Kucera, V.; Kucheriaev, Y.; Kugathasan, T.; Kuhn, C.; Kuijer, P. G.; Kulakov, I.; Kumar, J.; Kurashvili, P.; Kurepin, A.; Kurepin, A. B.; Kuryakin, A.; Kushpil, V.; Kushpil, S.; Kvaerno, H.; Kweon, M. J.; Kwon, Y.; Ladrón de Guevara, P.; Lagana Fernandes, C.; Lakomov, I.; Langoy, R.; La Pointe, S. L.; Lara, C.; Lardeux, A.; La Rocca, P.; Lea, R.; Lechman, M.; Lee, S. C.; Lee, G. R.; Legrand, I.; Lehnert, J.; Lemmon, R. C.; Lenhardt, M.; Lenti, V.; León, H.; Leoncino, M.; León Monzón, I.; Lévai, P.; Li, S.; Lien, J.; Lietava, R.; Lindal, S.; Lindenstruth, V.; Lippmann, C.; Lisa, M. A.; Ljunggren, H. M.; Lodato, D. F.; Loenne, P. I.; Loggins, V. R.; Loginov, V.; Lohner, D.; Loizides, C.; Loo, K. K.; Lopez, X.; López Torres, E.; Løvhøiden, G.; Lu, X.-G.; Luettig, P.; Lunardon, M.; Luo, J.; Luparello, G.; Luzzi, C.; Ma, R.; Ma, K.; Madagodahettige-Don, D. M.; Maevskaya, A.; Mager, M.; Mahapatra, D. P.; Maire, A.; Malaev, M.; Maldonado Cervantes, I.; Malinina, L.; Mal'Kevich, D.; Malzacher, P.; Mamonov, A.; Manceau, L.; Mangotra, L.; Manko, V.; Manso, F.; Manzari, V.; Marchisone, M.; Mareš, J.; Margagliotti, G. V.; Margotti, A.; Marín, A.; Markert, C.; Marquard, M.; Martashvili, I.; Martin, N. A.; Martin Blanco, J.; Martinengo, P.; Martínez, M. I.; Martınez García, G.; Martynov, Y.; Mas, A.; Masciocchi, S.; Masera, M.; Masoni, A.; Massacrier, L.; Mastroserio, A.; Matyja, A.; Mayer, C.; Mazer, J.; Mazumder, R.; Mazzoni, M. A.; Meddi, F.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Mercado Pérez, J.; Meres, M.; Miake, Y.; Mikhaylov, K.; Milano, L.; Milosevic, J.; Mischke, A.; Mishra, A. N.; Miskowiec, D.; Mitu, C.; Mlynarz, J.; Mohanty, B.; Molnar, L.; Montaño Zetina, L.; Monteno, M.; Montes, E.; Moon, T.; Morando, M.; Moreira De Godoy, D. A.; Moretto, S.; Morreale, A.; Morsch, A.; Muccifora, V.; Mudnic, E.; Muhuri, S.; Mukherjee, M.; Müller, H.; Munhoz, M. G.; Murray, S.; Musa, L.; Musinsky, J.; Nandi, B. K.; Nania, R.; Nappi, E.; Nasar, M.; Nattrass, C.; Nayak, T. K.; Nazarenko, S.; Nedosekin, A.; Nicassio, M.; Niculescu, M.; Nielsen, B. S.; Nikolaev, S.; Nikolic, V.; Nikulin, S.; Nikulin, V.; Nilsen, B. S.; Nilsson, M. S.; Noferini, F.; Nomokonov, P.; Nooren, G.; Nyanin, A.; Nyatha, A.; Nygaard, C.; Nystrand, J.; Ochirov, A.; Oeschler, H.; Oh, S.; Oh, S. K.; Olah, L.; Oleniacz, J.; Da Silva, A. C. Oliveira; Onderwaater, J.; Oppedisano, C.; Ortiz Velasquez, A.; Oskarsson, A.; Ostrowski, P.; Otwinowski, J.; Oyama, K.; Ozawa, K.; Pachmayer, Y.; Pachr, M.; Padilla, F.; Pagano, P.; Paić, G.; Painke, F.; Pajares, C.; Pal, S. K.; Palaha, A.; Palmeri, A.; Papikyan, V.; Pappalardo, G. S.; Park, W. J.; Passfeld, A.; Patalakha, D. I.; Paticchio, V.; Paul, B.; Pavlinov, A.; Pawlak, T.; Peitzmann, T.; Pereira Da Costa, H.; Pereira De Oliveira Filho, E.; Peresunko, D.; Pérez Lara, C. E.; Perrino, D.; Peryt, W.; Pesci, A.; Pestov, Y.; Petráček, V.; Petran, M.; Petris, M.; Petrov, P.; Petrovici, M.; Petta, C.; Piano, S.; Pikna, M.; Pillot, P.; Pinazza, O.; Pinsky, L.; Pitz, N.; Piyarathna, D. B.; Planinic, M.; Ploskon, M.; Pluta, J.; Pocheptsov, T.; Pochybova, S.; Podesta-Lerma, P. L. M.; Poghosyan, M. G.; Polák, K.; Polichtchouk, B.; Poljak, N.; Pop, A.; Porteboeuf-Houssais, S.; Pospíšil, V.; Potukuchi, B.; Prasad, S. K.; Preghenella, R.; Prino, F.; Pruneau, C. A.; Pshenichnov, I.; Puddu, G.; Punin, V.; Putschke, J.; Qvigstad, H.; Rachevski, A.; Rademakers, A.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ramello, L.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Räsänen, S. S.; Rascanu, B. T.; Rathee, D.; Rauch, W.; Rauf, A. W.; Razazi, V.; Read, K. F.; Real, J. S.; Redlich, K.; Reed, R. J.; Rehman, A.; Reichelt, P.; Reicher, M.; Reidt, F.; Renfordt, R.; Reolon, A. R.; Reshetin, A.; Rettig, F.; Revol, J.-P.; Reygers, K.; Riccati, L.; Ricci, R. A.; Richert, T.; Richter, M.; Riedler, P.; Riegler, W.; Riggi, F.; Rivetti, A.; Rodríguez Cahuantzi, M.; Rodriguez Manso, A.; Røed, K.; Rogochaya, E.; Rohr, D.; Röhrich, D.; Romita, R.; Ronchetti, F.; Rosnet, P.; Rossegger, S.; Rossi, A.; Roy, C.; Roy, P.; Rubio Montero, A. J.; Rui, R.; Russo, R.; Ryabinkin, E.; Rybicki, A.; Sadovsky, S.; Šafařík, K.; Sahoo, R.; Sahu, P. K.; Saini, J.; Sakaguchi, H.; Sakai, S.; Sakata, D.; Salgado, C. A.; Salzwedel, J.; Sambyal, S.; Samsonov, V.; Sanchez Castro, X.; Šándor, L.; Sandoval, A.; Sano, M.; Santagati, G.; Santoro, R.; Sarkar, D.; Scapparone, E.; Scarlassara, F.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schiaua, C.; Schicker, R.; Schmidt, C.; Schmidt, H. R.; Schuchmann, S.; Schukraft, J.; Schulc, M.; Schuster, T.; Schutz, Y.; Schwarz, K.; Schweda, K.; Scioli, G.; Scomparin, E.; Scott, P. A.; Scott, R.; Segato, G.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Senyukov, S.; Seo, J.; Serci, S.; Serradilla, E.; Sevcenco, A.; Shabetai, A.; Shabratova, G.; Shahoyan, R.; Sharma, S.; Sharma, N.; Rohni, S.; Shigaki, K.; Shtejer, K.; Sibiriak, Y.; Sicking, E.; Siddhanta, S.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Silvermyr, D.; Silvestre, C.; Simatovic, G.; Simonetti, G.; Singaraju, R.; Sputowska, I.; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, M.; Srivastava, B. K.; Stachel, J.; Stan, I.; Stefanek, G.; Steinpreis, M.; Stenlund, E.; Steyn, G.; Stiller, J. H.; Stocco, D.; Stolpovskiy, M.; Strmen, P.; Suaide, A. A. P.; Subieta Vásquez, M. A.; Sugitate, T.; Suire, C.; Suleymanov, M.; Sultanov, R.; Šumbera, M.; Susa, T.; Symons, T. J. M.; Singh, R.; Singha, S.; Singhal, V.; Sinha, B. C.; Sinha, T.; Sitar, B.; Sitta, M.; Skaali, T. B.; Skjerdal, K.; Smakal, R.; Smirnov, N.; Snellings, R. J. M.; Søgaard, C.; Soltz, R.; Song, M.; Song, J.; Soos, C.; Soramel, F.; Spacek, M.; Szanto de Toledo, A.; Szarka, I.; Szczepankiewicz, A.; Szymanski, M.; Takahashi, J.; Tangaro, M. A.; Tapia Takaki, J. D.; Tarantola Peloni, A.; Tarazona Martinez, A.; Tauro, A.; Tejeda Muñoz, G.; Telesca, A.; Ter Minasyan, A.; Terrevoli, C.; Thäder, J.; Thomas, D.; Tieulent, R.; Timmins, A. R.; Tlusty, D.; Toia, A.; Torii, H.; Toscano, L.; Trubnikov, V.; Truesdale, D.; Trzaska, W. H.; Tsuji, T.; Tumkin, A.; Turrisi, R.; Tveter, T. S.; Ulery, J.; Ullaland, K.; Ulrich, J.; Uras, A.; Urciuoli, G. M.; Usai, G. L.; Vajzer, M.; Vala, M.; Valencia Palomo, L.; Vallero, S.; Vande Vyvre, P.; Van Hoorne, J. W.; van Leeuwen, M.; Vannucci, L.; Vargas, A.; Varma, R.; Vasileiou, M.; Vasiliev, A.; Vechernin, V.; Veldhoen, M.; Venaruzzo, M.; Vercellin, E.; Vergara, S.; Vernet, R.; Verweij, M.; Vickovic, L.; Viesti, G.; Viinikainen, J.; Vilakazi, Z.; Villalobos Baillie, O.; Vinogradov, Y.; Vinogradov, L.; Vinogradov, A.; Virgili, T.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vodopyanov, A.; Völkl, M. A.; Voloshin, S.; Voloshin, K.; Volpe, G.; von Haller, B.; Vorobyev, I.; Vranic, D.; Vrláková, J.; Vulpescu, B.; Vyushin, A.; Wagner, V.; Wagner, B.; Wagner, J.; Wang, M.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y.; Watanabe, K.; Watanabe, D.; Weber, M.; Wessels, J. P.; Westerhoff, U.; Wiechula, J.; Wielanek, D.; Wikne, J.; Wilde, M.; Wilk, G.; Wilkinson, J.; Williams, M. C. S.; Windelband, B.; Winn, M.; Xiang, C.; Yaldo, C. G.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yang, H.; Yang, S.; Yang, P.; Yano, S.; Yasnopolskiy, S.; Yi, J.; Yin, Z.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yoon, J.; Yushmanov, I.; Zaccolo, V.; Zach, C.; Zampolli, C.; Zaporozhets, S.; Zarochentsev, A.; Závada, P.; Zaviyalov, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zelnicek, P.; Zgura, I. S.; Zhalov, M.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, Y.; Zhou, D.; Zhou, F.; Zhou, Y.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, X.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, J.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, A.; Zinovjev, G.; Zoccarato, Y.; Zynovyev, M.; Zyzak, M.

    2013-09-01

    We present the measurements of particle pair yields per trigger particle obtained from di-hadron azimuthal correlations in pp collisions at = 0 .9, 2.76, and 7 TeV recorded with the ALICE detector. The yields are studied as a function of the charged particle multiplicity. Taken together with the single particle yields the pair yields provide information about parton fragmentation at low transverse momenta, as well as on the contribution of multiple parton interactions to particle production. Data are compared to calculations using the PYTHIA6, PYTHIA8, and PHOJET event generators. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  7. Search for narrow structures in pp¯π+ and Λp¯π+/- systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, S. U.; Etkin, A.; Fernow, R. C.; Foley, K. J.; Goldman, J. H.; Kirk, H.; Kopp, J.; Lesnik, A.; Love, W. A.; Morris, T. W.; Ozaki, S.; Platner, E. D.; Protopopescu, S. D.; Saulys, A.; Weygand, D. P.; Wheeler, C. D.; Willen, E. H.; Winik, M.; Bensinger, J.; Morris, W.; Lindenbaum, S. J.; Kramer, M. A.; Mallik, U.; Bar-Yam, Z.; Dowd, J.; Kern, W.; Button-Shafer, J.; Dhar, S.; Lichti, R.

    1981-11-01

    We have performed a high-statistics search for narrow meson states (Γ<=30 MeV) produced in π-p interactions at 16 GeV/c and decaying into pp¯π+ or Λp¯π+/-. This is the first systematic search in channels requiring exchange of exotic mesons. The cross section for production of such states is ruled out at the 95% confidence level with upper limits ranging from ~10 nb at 2.3 GeV to ~40 nb at 2.8 GeV.

  8. Studies on Dynamic Damage Evolution for Pp/pa Polymer Blends Under High Strain Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zi-Jian; Wang, Li-Li

    The dynamic damage evolution for PP/PA blends with different compatibilizers is studied in high strain rates from two different approaches, namely by determining the unloading elastic modulus of specimen experienced impact deformation and by combining the split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) experimental technique with the back-propagation (BP) neural network. The results obtained by both approaches consistently show that a threshold strain ɛth exists for dynamic damage evolution, and both the damage evolution and ɛth are dependent on strain and strain rate. For non-linear visco-elastic materials, the damage evolution determined by the unloading elastic modulus provides an underestimation of real damage evolution.

  9. Measurement of the forward W boson cross-section in pp collisions at TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaij, R.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Anderson, J.; Andreassen, R.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Aquines Gutierrez, O.; Archilli, F.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Bay, A.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Belogurov, S.; Belous, K.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bettler, M.-O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bien, A.; Bifani, S.; Bird, T.; Bizzeti, A.; Bjørnstad, P. M.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borghi, S.; Borgia, A.; Borsato, M.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Brambach, T.; van den Brand, J.; Bressieux, J.; Brett, D.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brodzicka, J.; Brook, N. H.; Brown, H.; Bursche, A.; Busetto, G.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Calabrese, R.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Campana, P.; Campora Perez, D.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casse, G.; Cassina, L.; Castillo Garcia, L.; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Cenci, R.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chefdeville, M.; Chen, S.; Cheung, S.-F.; Chiapolini, N.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Ciba, K.; Cid Vidal, X.; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Corvo, M.; Counts, I.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D. C.; Cruz Torres, M.; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Dalseno, J.; David, P.; David, P. N. Y.; Davis, A.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Silva, W.; De Simone, P.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Déléage, N.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Di Canto, A.; Dijkstra, H.; Donleavy, S.; Dordei, F.; Dorigo, M.; Dosil Suárez, A.; Dossett, D.; Dovbnya, A.; Dreimanis, K.; Dujany, G.; Dupertuis, F.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; El Rifai, I.; Elsasser, Ch.; Ely, S.; Esen, S.; Evans, H.-M.; Evans, T.; Falabella, A.; Färber, C.; Farinelli, C.; Farley, N.; Farry, S.; Fay, RF; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fiore, M.; Fiorini, M.; Firlej, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fiutowski, T.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forty, R.; Francisco, O.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Fu, J.; Furfaro, E.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gallorini, S.; Gambetta, S.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; García Pardiñas, J.; Garofoli, J.; Garra Tico, J.; Garrido, L.; Gaspar, C.; Gauld, R.; Gavardi, L.; Gavrilov, G.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gianelle, A.; Giani', S.; Gibson, V.; Giubega, L.; Gligorov, V. V.; Göbel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gotti, C.; Grabalosa Gándara, M.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Granado Cardoso, L. A.; Graugés, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Greening, E.; Gregson, S.; Griffith, P.; Grillo, L.; Grünberg, O.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C.; Hall, S.; Hamilton, B.; Hampson, T.; Han, X.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Harrison, J.; He, J.; Head, T.; Heijne, V.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Henry, L.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; van Herwijnen, E.; Heß, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hill, D.; Hoballah, M.; Hombach, C.; Hulsbergen, W.; Hunt, P.; Hussain, N.; Hutchcroft, D.; Hynds, D.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jalocha, J.; Jans, E.; Jaton, P.; Jawahery, A.; Jing, F.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Jurik, N.; Kaballo, M.; Kandybei, S.; Kanso, W.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T. M.; Karodia, S.; Kelsey, M.; Kenyon, I. R.; Ketel, T.; Khanji, B.; Khurewathanakul, C.; Klaver, S.; Klimaszewski, K.; Kochebina, O.; Kolpin, M.; Komarov, I.; Koopman, R. F.; Koppenburg, P.; Korolev, M.; Kozlinskiy, A.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krocker, G.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kurek, K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; La Thi, V. N.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.; Lambert, R. W.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Langhans, B.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J.-P.; Lefèvre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrançois, J.; Leo, S.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Li, Y.; Likhomanenko, T.; Liles, M.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.; Lionetto, F.; Liu, B.; Lohn, S.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J. H.; Lopez-March, N.; Lowdon, P.; Lu, H.; Lucchesi, D.; Luo, H.; Lupato, A.; Luppi, E.; Lupton, O.; Machefert, F.; Machikhiliyan, I. V.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Malde, S.; Malinin, A.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Maratas, J.; Marchand, J. F.; Marconi, U.; Marin Benito, C.; Marino, P.; Märki, R.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martens, A.; Martín Sánchez, A.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez Santos, D.; Martinez Vidal, F.; Martins Tostes, D.; Massafferri, A.; Matev, R.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mazurov, A.; McCann, M.; McCarthy, J.; McNab, A.; McNulty, R.; McSkelly, B.; Meadows, B.; Meier, F.; Meissner, M.; Merk, M.; Milanes, D. A.; Minard, M.-N.; Moggi, N.; Molina Rodriguez, J.; Monteil, S.; Morandin, M.; Morawski, P.; Mordà, A.; Morello, M. J.; Moron, J.; Morris, A.-B.; Mountain, R.; Muheim, F.; Müller, K.; Mussini, M.; Muster, B.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nasteva, I.; Needham, M.; Neri, N.; Neubert, S.; Neufeld, N.; Neuner, M.; Nguyen, A. D.; Nguyen, T. D.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Nicol, M.; Niess, V.; Niet, R.; Nikitin, N.; Nikodem, T.; Novoselov, A.; O'Hanlon, D. P.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Oggero, S.; Ogilvy, S.; Okhrimenko, O.; Oldeman, R.; Onderwater, G.; Orlandea, M.; Otalora Goicochea, J. M.; Owen, P.; Oyanguren, A.; Pal, B. K.; Palano, A.; Palombo, F.; Palutan, M.; Panman, J.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Parkes, C.; Parkinson, C. J.; Passaleva, G.; Patel, G. D.; Patel, M.; Patrignani, C.; Pazos Alvarez, A.; Pearce, A.; Pellegrino, A.; Pepe Altarelli, M.; Perazzini, S.; Perez Trigo, E.; Perret, P.; Perrin-Terrin, M.; Pescatore, L.; Pesen, E.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; Picatoste Olloqui, E.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pilař, T.; Pinci, D.; Pistone, A.; Playfer, S.; Plo Casasus, M.; Polci, F.; Poluektov, A.; Polycarpo, E.; Popov, A.; Popov, D.; Popovici, B.; Potterat, C.; Price, E.; Prisciandaro, J.; Pritchard, A.; Prouve, C.; Pugatch, V.; Puig Navarro, A.; Punzi, G.; Qian, W.; Rachwal, B.; Rademacker, J. H.; Rakotomiaramanana, B.; Rama, M.; Rangel, M. S.; Raniuk, I.; Rauschmayr, N.; Raven, G.; Reichert, S.; Reid, M. M.; dos Reis, A. C.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, S.; Rihl, M.; Rinnert, K.; Rives Molina, V.; Roa Romero, D. A.; Robbe, P.; Rodrigues, A. B.; Rodrigues, E.; Rodriguez Perez, P.; Roiser, S.; Romanovsky, V.; Romero Vidal, A.; Rotondo, M.; Rouvinet, J.; Ruf, T.; Ruffini, F.; Ruiz, H.; Ruiz Valls, P.; Saborido Silva, J. J.; Sagidova, N.; Sail, P.; Saitta, B.; Salustino Guimaraes, V.; Sanchez Mayordomo, C.; Sanmartin Sedes, B.; Santacesaria, R.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santovetti, E.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Saunders, D. M.; Savrie, M.; Savrina, D.; Schiller, M.; Schindler, H.; Schlupp, M.; Schmelling, M.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schune, M.-H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Seco, M.; Semennikov, A.; Sepp, I.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Sestini, L.; Seyfert, P.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, V.; Shires, A.; Silva Coutinho, R.; Simi, G.; Sirendi, M.; Skidmore, N.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, N. A.; Smith, E.; Smith, E.; Smith, J.; Smith, M.; Snoek, H.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Soomro, F.; Souza, D.; Souza De Paula, B.; Spaan, B.; Sparkes, A.; Spradlin, P.; Sridharan, S.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, M.; Stahl, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stenyakin, O.; Stevenson, S.; Stoica, S.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Stracka, S.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Stroili, R.; Subbiah, V. K.; Sun, L.; Sutcliffe, W.; Swientek, K.; Swientek, S.; Syropoulos, V.; Szczekowski, M.; Szczypka, P.; Szilard, D.; Szumlak, T.; T'Jampens, S.; Teklishyn, M.; Tellarini, G.; Teubert, F.; Thomas, C.; Thomas, E.; van Tilburg, J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M.; Tolk, S.; Tomassetti, L.; Tonelli, D.; Topp-Joergensen, S.; Torr, N.; Tournefier, E.; Tourneur, S.; Tran, M. T.; Tresch, M.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsopelas, P.; Tuning, N.; Ubeda Garcia, M.; Ukleja, A.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Uwer, U.; Vagnoni, V.; Valenti, G.; Vallier, A.; Vazquez Gomez, R.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vázquez Sierra, C.; Vecchi, S.; Velthuis, J. J.; Veltri, M.; Veneziano, G.; Vesterinen, M.; Viaud, B.; Vieira, D.; Vieites Diaz, M.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Vollhardt, A.; Volyanskyy, D.; Voong, D.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Voß, C.; Voss, H.; de Vries, J. A.; Waldi, R.; Wallace, C.; Wallace, R.; Walsh, J.; Wandernoth, S.; Wang, J.; Ward, D. R.; Watson, N. K.; Websdale, D.; Whitehead, M.; Wicht, J.; Wiedner, D.; Wilkinson, G.; Williams, M. P.; Williams, M.; Wilson, F. F.; Wimberley, J.; Wishahi, J.; Wislicki, W.; Witek, M.; Wormser, G.; Wotton, S. A.; Wright, S.; Wu, S.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Xing, Z.; Xu, Z.; Yang, Z.; Yuan, X.; Yushchenko, O.; Zangoli, M.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, W. C.; Zhang, Y.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokhov, A.; Zhong, L.; Zvyagin, A.

    2014-12-01

    A measurement of the inclusive W → μν production cross-section using data from pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of TeV is presented. The analysis is based on an integrated luminosity of about 1 .0 fb-1 recorded with the LHCb detector. Results are reported for muons with a transverse momentum greater than 20 GeV/ c and pseudorapidity between 2.0 and 4.5. The W + and W - production cross-sections are measured to be

  10. New physics and signal-background interference in associated pp → HZ production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Englert, Christoph; Rosenfeld, Rogerio; Spannowsky, Michael; Tonero, Alberto

    2016-05-01

    We re-investigate electroweak signal-background interference in associated Higgs production via gluon fusion in the presence of new physics in the top Higgs sector. Considering the full final state pp \\to b \\bar b \\ell^+\\ell^-~(\\ell=e,μ) , we discuss how new physics in the top Higgs sector that enhances the ZZ component can leave footprints in the HZ limit setting. In passing we investigate the phenomenology of a class of new physics interactions that can be genuinely studied in this process.

  11. Inclusive charm cross sections in 800 GeV/ c p-p interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammar, R.; Banerjee, S.; Baland, J. F.; Ball, S.; Ball, R. C.; Bhat, P. C.; Bromberg, C.; Brun, R.; Canough, G. E.; Coffin, T.; Commichau, V.; Davis, R.; Dershem, T. O.; Dixon, R. L.; Fenker, H. C.; Ganguli, S. N.; Gensch, U.; Giokaris, N.; Girtler, P.; Goshaw, A. T.; Gress, J.; Gurtu, A.; Henri, V. P.; Hernandez, J. J.; Hrubec, J.; Iori, M.; Jones, L. W.; Knauss, D.; Kuhn, D.; Kwak, N.; Leedom, I. D.; Legros, P.; Lemonne, J.; Leutz, H.; Liu, X.; Malhotra, P. K.; Marraffino, J. M.; Mendez, G. E.; Mikocki, S.; Miller, R.; Naumann, T.; Neuhofer, G.; Nguyen, A.; Nikolic, M.; Nowak, H.; Pilette, P.; Poppleton, A.; Poirier, J.; Raghavan, R.; Rasner, K.; Reucroft, S.; Robertson, W. J.; Roe, B. P.; Roos, C. E.; Roth, A.; Senko, M.; Struczinski, W.; Subramanian, A.; Touboul, M. C.; Vonck, B.; Voyvodic, L.; Walker, W. D.; Waters, J. W.; Weber, M. F.; Webster, M. S.; Wickens, J.; Wild, C. F.; Youtsey, S.; LEBC-MPS Collaboration

    1987-01-01

    We report a measurement of the inclusive D/D¯ production cross section in 800 GeV/ c proton-proton interactions. The experiment used the high resolution bubble chamber LEBC exposed to an 800 GeV/ c proton beam at the Fermilab MPS. We obtain σ( D/ D¯)=59 -15+22μ b (statistical errors), having analysed 25% of the total data sample. Comparison with 400 GeV/ c pp dat a obtained with LEBC at CERN shows a D/D¯ cross section increase by a factor of 1.7 -0.5+0.7. This is in good agreement with fusion model calculations.

  12. TSALLIS FITS TO pT SPECTRA FOR pp COLLISIONS AT THE LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Wilk, Grzegorz

    2012-01-01

    Phenomenological Tsallis fits to the CMS and ATLAS transverse spectra of charged particles were found to extend for pT from 0.5 to 181 GeV in pp collisions at the LHC at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV, and for pT from 0.5 to 31 GeV at sqrt(s) = 0.9 TeV. The simplicity of the Tsallis parametrization and the large range of the fitting transverse momentum raise questions on the physical meaning of the degrees of freedom that enter into the Tsallis distribution or q-statistics

  13. QCD CORRECTIONS TO DILEPTON PRODUCTION NEAR PARTONIC THRESHOLD IN PP SCATTERING.

    SciTech Connect

    SHIMIZU, H.; STERMAN, G.; VOGELSANG, W.; YOKOYA, H.

    2005-10-02

    We present a recent study of the QCD corrections to dilepton production near partonic threshold in transversely polarized {bar p}p scattering, We analyze the role of the higher-order perturbative QCD corrections in terms of the available fixed-order contributions as well as of all-order soft-gluon resummations for the kinematical regime of proposed experiments at GSI-FAIR. We find that perturbative corrections are large for both unpolarized and polarized cross sections, but that the spin asymmetries are stable. The role of the far infrared region of the momentum integral in the resummed exponent and the effect of the NNLL resummation are briefly discussed.

  14. J/ψ polarization in pp collisions at √s=7 TeV.

    PubMed

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Graczykowski, L K; Grajcarek, R; Grelli, A; Grigoras, A; Grigoras, C; Grigoriev, V; Grigoryan, S; Grigoryan, A; Grinyov, B; Grion, N; Gros, P; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J F; Grossiord, J-Y; Grosso, R; Guber, F; Guernane, R; Guerra Gutierrez, C; Guerzoni, B; Guilbaud, M; Gulbrandsen, K; Gunji, T; Gupta, A; Gupta, R; Gutbrod, H; Haaland, Ø; Hadjidakis, C; Haiduc, M; Hamagaki, H; Hamar, G; Han, B H; Hanratty, L D; Hansen, A; Harmanova, Z; Harris, J W; Hartig, M; Hasegan, D; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hayrapetyan, A; Heide, M; Helstrup, H; Herghelegiu, A; Herrera Corral, G; Herrmann, N; Hetland, K F; Hicks, B; Hille, P T; Hippolyte, B; Horaguchi, T; Hori, Y; Hristov, P; Hřivnáčová, I; Huang, M; Huber, S; Humanic, T J; Hwang, D S; Ichou, R; Ilkaev, R; Ilkiv, I; Inaba, M; Incani, E; Innocenti, P G; Innocenti, G M; Ippolitov, M; Irfan, M; Ivan, C; Ivanov, A; Ivanov, M; Ivanov, V; Ivanytskyi, O; Jachołkowski, A; Jacobs, P M; Jancurová, L; Jangal, S; Janik, M A; Janik, R; Jayarathna, P H S Y; Jena, S; Jimenez Bustamante, R T; Jirden, L; Jones, P G; Jung, H; Jung, W; Jusko, A; Kaidalov, A B; Kakoyan, V; Kalcher, S; Kaliňák, P; Kalisky, M; Kalliokoski, T; Kalweit, A; Kanaki, K; Kang, J H; Kaplin, V; Karasu Uysal, A; Karavichev, O; Karavicheva, T; Karpechev, E; Kazantsev, A; Kebschull, U; Keidel, R; Khan, M M; Khan, S A; Khan, P; Khanzadeev, A; Kharlov, Y; Kileng, B; Kim, S; Kim, D W; Kim, J H; Kim, J S; Kim, M; Kim, S H; Kim, T; Kim, B; Kim, D J; Kirsch, S; Kisel, I; Kiselev, S; Kisiel, A; Klay, J L; Klein, J; Klein-Bösing, C; Kliemant, M; Kluge, A; Knichel, M L; Koch, K; Köhler, M K; Kolojvari, A; Kondratiev, V; Kondratyeva, N; Konevskikh, A; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C; Kour, R; Kowalski, M; Kox, S; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, G; Kral, J; Králik, I; Kramer, F; Kraus, I; Krawutschke, T; Kretz, M; Krivda, M; Krizek, F; Krus, M; Kryshen, E; Krzewicki, M; Kucheriaev, Y; Kuhn, C; Kuijer, P G; Kurashvili, P; Kurepin, A B; Kurepin, A; Kuryakin, A; Kushpil, V; Kushpil, S; Kvaerno, H; Kweon, M J; Kwon, Y; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Lakomov, I; Langoy, R; Lara, C; Lardeux, A; La Rocca, P; Larsen, D T; Lazzeroni, C; Lea, R; Le Bornec, Y; Lee, S C; Lee, K S; Lefèvre, F; Lehnert, J; Leistam, L; Lenhardt, M; Lenti, V; León, H; León Monzón, I; León Vargas, H; Lévai, P; Li, X; Lien, J; Lietava, R; Lindal, S; Lindenstruth, V; Lippmann, C; Lisa, M A; Liu, L; Loenne, P I; Loggins, V R; Loginov, V; Lohn, S; Lohner, D; Loizides, C; Loo, K K; Lopez, X; López Torres, E; Løvhøiden, G; Lu, X-G; Luettig, P; Lunardon, M; Luo, J; Luparello, G; Luquin, L; Luzzi, C; Ma, R; Ma, K; Madagodahettige-Don, D M; Maevskaya, A; Mager, M; Mahapatra, D P; Maire, A; Malaev, M; Maldonado Cervantes, I; Malinina, L; Mal'Kevich, D; Malzacher, P; Mamonov, A; Manceau, L; Mangotra, L; Manko, V; Manso, F; Manzari, V; Mao, Y; Marchisone, M; Mareš, J; Margagliotti, G V; Margotti, A; Marín, A; Markert, C; Martashvili, I; Martinengo, P; Martínez, M I; Martínez Davalos, A; Martínez García, G; Martynov, Y; Mas, A; Masciocchi, S; Masera, M; Masoni, A; Massacrier, L; Mastromarco, M; Mastroserio, A; Matthews, Z L; Matyja, A; Mayani, D; Mayer, C; Mazzoni, M A; Meddi, F; Menchaca-Rocha, A; Mercado Pérez, J; Meres, M; Miake, Y; Michalon, A; Midori, J; Milano, L; Milosevic, J; Mischke, A; Mishra, A N; Miśkowiec, D; Mitu, C; Mlynarz, J; Mohanty, A K; Mohanty, B; Molnar, L; Montaño Zetina, L; Monteno, M; Montes, E; Moon, T; Morando, M; Moreira De Godoy, D A; Moretto, S; Morsch, A; Muccifora, V; Mudnic, E; Muhuri, S; Müller, H; Munhoz, M G; Musa, L; Musso, A; Nandi, B K; Nania, R; Nappi, E; Nattrass, C; Naumov, N P; Navin, S; Nayak, T K; Nazarenko, S; Nazarov, G; Nedosekin, A; Nicassio, M; Nielsen, B S; Niida, T; Nikolaev, S; Nikolic, V; Nikulin, V; Nikulin, S; Nilsen, B S; Nilsson, M S; Noferini, F; Nomokonov, P; Nooren, G; Novitzky, N; Nyanin, A; Nyatha, A; Nygaard, C; Nystrand, J; Obayashi, H; Ochirov, A; Oeschler, H; Oh, S K; Oleniacz, J; Oppedisano, C; Ortiz Velasquez, A; Ortona, G; Oskarsson, A; Ostrowski, P; Otterlund, I; Otwinowski, J; Øvrebekk, G; Oyama, K; Ozawa, K; Pachmayer, Y; Pachr, M; Padilla, F; Pagano, P; Paić, G; Painke, F; Pajares, C; Pal, S; Pal, S K; Palaha, A; Palmeri, A; Papikyan, V; Pappalardo, G S; Park, W J; Passfeld, A; Pastirčák, B; Patalakha, D I; Paticchio, V; Pavlinov, A; Pawlak, T; Peitzmann, T; Perales, M; Pereira De Oliveira Filho, E; Peresunko, D; Pérez Lara, C E; Perez Lezama, E; Perini, D; Perrino, D; Peryt, W; Pesci, A; Peskov, V; Pestov, Y; Petráček, V; Petran, M; Petris, M; Petrov, P; Petrovici, M; Petta, C; Piano, S; Piccotti, A; Pikna, M; Pillot, P; Pinazza, O; Pinsky, L; Pitz, N; Piuz, F; Piyarathna, D B; Płoskoń, M; Pluta, J; Pocheptsov, T; Pochybova, S; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Poghosyan, M G; Polák, K; Polichtchouk, B; Pop, A; Porteboeuf-Houssais, S; Pospíšil, V; Potukuchi, B; Prasad, S K; Preghenella, R; Prino, F; Pruneau, C A; Pshenichnov, I; Puddu, G; Pulvirenti, A; Punin, V; Putiš, M; Putschke, J; Quercigh, E; Qvigstad, H; Rachevski, A; Rademakers, A; Radomski, S; Räihä, T S; Rak, J; Rakotozafindrabe, A; Ramello, L; Ramírez Reyes, A; Raniwala, S; Raniwala, R; Räsänen, S S; Rascanu, B T; Rathee, D; Read, K F; Real, J S; Redlich, K; Reichelt, P; Reicher, M; Renfordt, R; Reolon, A R; Reshetin, A; Rettig, F; Revol, J-P; Reygers, K; Ricaud, H; Riccati, L; Ricci, R A; Richter, M; Riedler, P; Riegler, W; Riggi, F; Rodríguez Cahuantzi, M; Rohr, D; Röhrich, D; Romita, R; Ronchetti, F; Rosnet, P; Rossegger, S; Rossi, A; Roukoutakis, F; Roy, C; Roy, P; Rubio Montero, A J; Rui, R; Ryabinkin, E; Rybicki, A; Sadovsky, S; Safařík, K; Sahu, P K; Saini, J; Sakaguchi, H; Sakai, S; Sakata, D; Salgado, C A; Sambyal, S; Samsonov, V; Sanchez Castro, X; Sándor, L; Sandoval, A; Sano, M; Sano, S; Santo, R; Santoro, R; Sarkamo, J; Scapparone, E; Scarlassara, F; Scharenberg, R P; Schiaua, C; Schicker, R; Schmidt, H R; Schmidt, C; Schreiner, S; Schuchmann, S; Schukraft, J; Schutz, Y; Schwarz, K; Schweda, K; Scioli, G; Scomparin, E; Scott, R; Scott, P A; Segato, G; Selyuzhenkov, I; Senyukov, S; Seo, J; Serci, S; Serradilla, E; Sevcenco, A; Sgura, I; Shabratova, G; Shahoyan, R; Sharma, N; Sharma, S; Shigaki, K; Shimomura, M; Shtejer, K; Sibiriak, Y; Siciliano, M; Sicking, E; Siddhanta, S; Siemiarczuk, T; Silvermyr, D; Simonetti, G; Singaraju, R; Singh, R; Singha, S; Sinha, T; Sinha, B C; Sitar, B; Sitta, M; Skaali, T B; Skjerdal, K; Smakal, R; Smirnov, N; Snellings, R; Søgaard, C; Soltz, R; Son, H; Song, J; Song, M; Soos, C; Soramel, F; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, M; Srivastava, B K; Stachel, J; Stan, I; Stan, I; Stefanek, G; Stefanini, G; Steinbeck, T; Steinpreis, M; Stenlund, E; Steyn, G; Stocco, D; Stolpovskiy, M; Strmen, P; Suaide, A A P; Subieta Vásquez, M A; Sugitate, T; Suire, C; Sukhorukov, M; Sultanov, R; Sumbera, M; Susa, T; Szanto de Toledo, A; Szarka, I; Szostak, A; Tagridis, C; Takahashi, J; Tapia Takaki, J D; Tauro, A; Tejeda Muñoz, G; Telesca, A; Terrevoli, C; Thäder, J; Thomas, J H; Thomas, D; Tieulent, R; Timmins, A R; Tlusty, D; Toia, A; Torii, H; Toscano, L; Tosello, F; Traczyk, T; Truesdale, D; Trzaska, W H; Tsuji, T; Tumkin, A; Turrisi, R; Tveter, T S; Ulery, J; Ullaland, K; Ulrich, J; Uras, A; Urbán, J; Urciuoli, G M; Usai, G L; Vajzer, M; Vala, M; Valencia Palomo, L; Vallero, S; van der Kolk, N; Vande Vyvre, P; van Leeuwen, M; Vannucci, L; Vargas, A; Varma, R; Vasileiou, M; Vasiliev, A; Vechernin, V; Veldhoen, M; Venaruzzo, M; Vercellin, E; Vergara, S; Vernekohl, D C; Vernet, R; Verweij, M; Vickovic, L; Viesti, G; Vikhlyantsev, O; Vilakazi, Z; Villalobos Baillie, O; Vinogradov, A; Vinogradov, L; Vinogradov, Y; Virgili, T; Viyogi, Y P; Vodopyanov, A; Voloshin, K; Voloshin, S; Volpe, G; von Haller, B; Vranic, D; Vrláková, J; Vulpescu, B; Vyushin, A; Wagner, V; Wagner, B; Wan, R; Wang, Y; Wang, D; Wang, Y; Wang, M; Watanabe, K; Wessels, J P; Westerhoff, U; Wiechula, J; Wikne, J; Wilde, M; Wilk, G; Wilk, A; Williams, M C S; Windelband, B; Xaplanteris Karampatsos, L; Yang, H; Yano, S; Yasnopolskiy, S; Yi, J; Yin, Z; Yokoyama, H; Yoo, I-K; Yoon, J; Yu, W; Yuan, X; Yushmanov, I; Zach, C; Zampolli, C; Zaporozhets, S; Zarochentsev, A; Závada, P; Zaviyalov, N; Zbroszczyk, H; Zelnicek, P; Zgura, I; Zhalov, M; Zhang, X; Zhou, F; Zhou, D; Zhou, Y; Zhu, X; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, A; Zinovjev, G; Zoccarato, Y; Zynovyev, M

    2012-02-24

    The ALICE Collaboration has studied J/ψ production in pp collisions at √s=7 TeV at the LHC through its muon pair decay. The polar and azimuthal angle distributions of the decay muons were measured, and results on the J/ψ polarization parameters λ(θ) and λ(φ) were obtained. The study was performed in the kinematic region 2.5

  15. High mobility organic thin-film transistors based on p-p heterojunction buffer layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Xianrui; Wang, Tong; Yan, Donghang

    2013-10-01

    The p-p heterojunction of 5, 6, 11, 12-tetraphenylnaphthacene/vanadyl phthalocyanine, which has been used as the buffer layer, is demonstrated. The highest field-effect mobility is 5.1 cm2/Vs, which is one of the highest reported for polycrystalline rubrene thin film transistors. Current versus voltage characteristics of heterojunction diodes are utilized to investigate the charge injection mechanism, revealing the factors that bring about the improvement of carrier injection and the reduction of contact resistance. These results suggest that our approach is very promising to fabricate high performance organic thin-film transistors for practical applications in organic electronics.

  16. pp Annihilation into two mesons using the 3P0 model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, A. M.; Niskanen, J. A.; Wycech, S.

    1984-05-01

    The NN optical potential due to annihilation into two mesons is derived. The model is based on quark-antiquark rearrangement plus a single quark-antiquark annihilation into the vacuum. The imaginary part of the optical potential is dominated by the NN(13P0) component and results in a central pp potential that is considerably weaker than that of Dover and Richard. Partly supported by the Polish-US Maria Sklodowska-Curie Fund under Grant no. P-F7F037P.

  17. Absolute np and pp Cross Section Determinations Aimed At Improving The Standard For Cross Section Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Laptev, A. B.; Haight, R. C.; Tovesson, F.; Arndt, R. A.; Briscoe, W. J.; Paris, M. W.; Strakovsky, I. I.; Workman, R. L.

    2011-06-01

    Purpose of present research is a keeping improvement of the standard for cross section measurements of neutron-induced reactions. The cross sections for np and pp scattering below 1 GeV are determined based on partial-wave analyses (PWAs) of nucleon-nucleon scattering data. These cross sections are compared with the most recent ENDF/B-VII.0 and JENDL-4.0 data files, and the Nijmegen PWA. Also a comparison of evaluated data with recent experimental data was made to check a quality of evaluation. Excellent agreement was found between the new experimental data and our PWA predictions.

  18. Absolute np and pp cross section determinations aimed at improving the standard for cross section measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Laptev, Alexander B; Haight, Robert C; Tovesson, Fredrik; Arndt, Richard A; Briscoe, William J; Paris, Mark W; Strakovsky, Igor I; Workman, Ron L

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of present research is a keeping improvement of the standard for cross section measurements of neutron-induced reactions. The cross sections for np and pp scattering below 1000 MeV are determined based on partial-wave analyses (PW As) of nucleon-nucleon scattering data. These cross sections are compared with the most recent ENDF/B-V11.0 and JENDL-4.0 data files, and the Nijmegen PWA. Also a comparison of evaluated data with recent experimental data was made to check a quality of evaluation. Excellent agreement was found between the new experimental data and our PWA predictions.

  19. Production of Λ -hyperons in inelastic p+p interactions at 158 {GeV}/c

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aduszkiewicz, A.; Ali, Y.; Andronov, E.; Antićić, T.; Antoniou, N.; Baatar, B.; Bay, F.; Blondel, A.; Bogomilov, M.; Brandin, A.; Bravar, A.; Brzychczyk, J.; Bunyatov, S. A.; Busygina, O.; Christakoglou, P.; Ćirković, M.; Czopowicz, T.; Damyanova, A.; Davis, N.; Dembinski, H.; Deveaux, M.; Diakonos, F.; Di Luise, S.; Dominik, W.; Dumarchez, J.; Dynowski, K.; Engel, R.; Ereditato, A.; Feofilov, G. A.; Fodor, Z.; Garibov, A.; Gaździcki, M.; Golubeva, M.; Grebieszkow, K.; Grzeszczuk, A.; Guber, F.; Haesler, A.; Hasegawa, T.; Hervé, A. E.; Hierholzer, M.; Igolkin, S.; Ivashkin, A.; Johnson, S. R.; Kadija, K.; Kapoyannis, A.; Kaptur, E.; Kisiel, J.; Kobayashi, T.; Kolesnikov, V. I.; Kolev, D.; Kondratiev, V. P.; Korzenev, A.; Kowalik, K.; Kowalski, S.; Koziel, M.; Krasnoperov, A.; Kuich, M.; Kurepin, A.; Larsen, D.; László, A.; Lewicki, M.; Lyubushkin, V. V.; Maćkowiak-Pawłowska, M.; Maksiak, B.; Malakhov, A. I.; Manić, D.; Marcinek, A.; Marino, A. D.; Marton, K.; Mathes, H.-J.; Matulewicz, T.; Matveev, V.; Melkumov, G. L.; Messerly, B.; Mills, G. B.; Morozov, S.; Mrówczyński, S.; Nagai, Y.; Nakadaira, T.; Naskręt, M.; Nirkko, M.; Nishikawa, K.; Panagiotou, A. D.; Paolone, V.; Pavin, M.; Petukhov, O.; Pistillo, C.; Płaneta, R.; Popov, B. A.; Posiadała, M.; Puławski, S.; Puzović, J.; Rauch, W.; Ravonel, M.; Redij, A.; Renfordt, R.; Richter-Wąs, E.; Robert, A.; Röhrich, D.; Rondio, E.; Roth, M.; Rubbia, A.; Rumberger, B. T.; Rustamov, A.; Rybczynski, M.; Sadovsky, A.; Sakashita, K.; Schmidt, K.; Sekiguchi, T.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Seryakov, A.; Seyboth, P.; Sgalaberna, D.; Shibata, M.; Słodkowski, M.; Staszel, P.; Stefanek, G.; Stepaniak, J.; Ströbele, H.; Šuša, T.; Szuba, M.; Tada, M.; Taranenko, A.; Tefelski, D.; Tereshchenko, V.; Tsenov, R.; Turko, L.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Vassiliou, M.; Veberič, D.; Vechernin, V. V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vinogradov, L.; Wilczek, A.; Włodarczyk, Z.; Wojtaszek-Szwarc, A.; Wyszyński, O.; Zambelli, L.; Zimmerman, E. D.

    2016-04-01

    Inclusive production of Λ -hyperons was measured with the large acceptance NA61/SHINE spectrometer at the CERN SPS in inelastic p+p interactions at beam momentum of 158 {GeV}/c. Spectra of transverse momentum and transverse mass as well as distributions of rapidity and x_{_F} are presented. The mean multiplicity was estimated to be 0.120 {± } 0.006(stat.){± }0.010(sys.). The results are compared with previous measurements and predictions of the Epos, Ur qmd and Fritiof models.

  20. TaPP2C1, a Group F2 Protein Phosphatase 2C Gene, Confers Resistance to Salt Stress in Transgenic Tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Wei; Yan, Yan; Hou, Xiaowan; He, Yanzhen; Wei, Yunxie; Yang, Guangxiao; He, Guangyuan; Peng, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Group A protein phosphatases 2Cs (PP2Cs) are essential components of abscisic acid (ABA) signaling in Arabidopsis; however, the function of group F2 subfamily PP2Cs is currently less known. In this study, TaPP2C1 which belongs to group F2 was isolated and characterized from wheat. Expression of the TaPP2C1-GFP fusion protein suggested its ubiquitous localization within a cell. TaPP2C1 expression was downregulated by abscisic acid (ABA) and NaCl treatments, but upregulated by H2O2 treatment. Overexpression of TaPP2C1 in tobacco resulted in reduced ABA sensitivity and increased salt resistance of transgenic seedlings. Additionally, physiological analyses showed that improved resistance to salt stress conferred by TaPP2C1 is due to the reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, the improved antioxidant system, and the increased transcription of genes in the ABA-independent pathway. Finally, transgenic tobacco showed increased resistance to oxidative stress by maintaining a more effective antioxidant system. Taken together, these results demonstrated that TaPP2C1 negatively regulates ABA signaling, but positively regulates salt resistance. TaPP2C1 confers salt resistance through activating the antioxidant system and ABA-independent gene transcription process. PMID:26057628

  1. The Stringent Response Mediated by (p)ppGpp Is Required for Virulence of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato and Its Survival on Tomato.

    PubMed

    Chatnaparat, Tiyakhon; Li, Zhong; Korban, Schuyler S; Zhao, Youfu

    2015-07-01

    The hypersensitive response and pathogenicity (hrp) type III secretion system (T3SS) is a key pathogenicity factor in Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (DC3000). In this study, the role of the second messenger (p)ppGpp on virulence and survival of DC3000 was investigated. Results have demonstrated that (p)ppGpp-deficient mutant (ppGpp(0)) of DC3000 exhibited lower levels of expression of the T3SS and genes of other virulence traits, such as coronatine toxin. The ppGpp(0) mutant of DC3000 was greatly impaired in causing disease and in growth in planta. Furthermore, (p)ppGpp was required for swarming motility, pyoverdine production, the oxidative stress response, as well as γ-amino butyric acid utilization. Screening of amino acids, major signals in activation of ppGpp biosynthesis, revealed that promoter activities of the avrPto gene could be either activated or suppressed by various amino acids in a ppGpp-dependent or -independent manner. Moreover, the ppGpp(0) mutant exhibited increased cell size and decreased survival on plant surfaces. Altogether, these findings indicate that ppGpp acts as an internal signal that regulates the T3SS as well as other virulence factors in pseudomonads and suggest that bacterial pathogens utilize intracellular messengers to sense environmental and nutritional signals for rapid, precise, and reversible control of their pathogenesis and survival.

  2. The Stringent Response Mediated by (p)ppGpp Is Required for Virulence of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato and Its Survival on Tomato.

    PubMed

    Chatnaparat, Tiyakhon; Li, Zhong; Korban, Schuyler S; Zhao, Youfu

    2015-07-01

    The hypersensitive response and pathogenicity (hrp) type III secretion system (T3SS) is a key pathogenicity factor in Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (DC3000). In this study, the role of the second messenger (p)ppGpp on virulence and survival of DC3000 was investigated. Results have demonstrated that (p)ppGpp-deficient mutant (ppGpp(0)) of DC3000 exhibited lower levels of expression of the T3SS and genes of other virulence traits, such as coronatine toxin. The ppGpp(0) mutant of DC3000 was greatly impaired in causing disease and in growth in planta. Furthermore, (p)ppGpp was required for swarming motility, pyoverdine production, the oxidative stress response, as well as γ-amino butyric acid utilization. Screening of amino acids, major signals in activation of ppGpp biosynthesis, revealed that promoter activities of the avrPto gene could be either activated or suppressed by various amino acids in a ppGpp-dependent or -independent manner. Moreover, the ppGpp(0) mutant exhibited increased cell size and decreased survival on plant surfaces. Altogether, these findings indicate that ppGpp acts as an internal signal that regulates the T3SS as well as other virulence factors in pseudomonads and suggest that bacterial pathogens utilize intracellular messengers to sense environmental and nutritional signals for rapid, precise, and reversible control of their pathogenesis and survival. PMID:25675257

  3. Design and test of low-capacitance, air-insulated, 80-kV, 0. 5-sec source cables for MFTF sustaining-neutral-beam power supples

    SciTech Connect

    Mayhall, D.J.; Wilson, J.H.; Caldwell, W.J.; Watson, T.F.; Jenkins, J.W. Jr.

    1981-10-16

    The design of air-insulated cables, which meet strict requirements, is described. Inductance, heat transfer, and electrostatic computer codes are used in design. Tests include electric circiut parameters, dc voltage holdoff, impulse voltage holdoff, heat rise at greater than peak duty, and shield mechanical strength.

  4. Study of e+e-→pp¯π0 in the vicinity of the ψ(3770)

    DOE PAGES

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M.  N.; Ai, X.  C.; Albayrak, O.; Albrecht, M.; Ambrose, D.  J.; An, F.  F.; An, Q.; Bai, J.  Z.; Baldini Ferroli, R.; et al

    2014-08-22

    The process e+e-→pp¯π0 has been studied by analyzing data collected at √s=3.773 GeV, at s√=3.650 GeV, and during a ψ(3770) line shape scan with the BESIII detector at the BEPCII collider. The Born cross section of pp¯π0 in the vicinity of the ψ(3770) is measured, and the Born cross section of ψ(3770)→pp¯π0 is extracted considering interference between resonant and continuum production amplitudes. Two solutions with the same probability and a significance of 1.5σ are found. The solutions for the Born cross section of ψ(3770)→pp¯π0 are 33.8±1.8±2.1 pb and 0.06+0.10-0.04+0.01-0.01 pb (<0.22 pb at a 90% confidence level). Using the estimatedmore » cross section and a constant decay amplitude approximation, the cross section σ(pp¯→ψ(3770)π0) is calculated for the kinematic situation of the planned P¯ANDA experiment. The maximum cross section corresponding to the two solutions is expected to be less than 0.79 nb at 90% confidence level and 122±10 nb at a center-of-mass energy of 5.26 GeV.« less

  5. Determination of polyparameter linear free energy relationship (pp-LFER) substance descriptors for established and alternative flame retardants.

    PubMed

    Stenzel, Angelika; Goss, Kai-Uwe; Endo, Satoshi

    2013-02-01

    Polyparameter linear free energy relationships (pp-LFERs) can predict partition coefficients for a multitude of environmental and biological phases with high accuracy. In this work, the pp-LFER substance descriptors of 40 established and alternative flame retardants (e.g., polybrominated diphenyl ethers, hexabromocyclododecane, bromobenzenes, trialkyl phosphates) were determined experimentally. In total, 251 data for gas-chromatographic (GC) retention times and liquid/liquid partition coefficients (K) were measured and used to calibrate the pp-LFER substance descriptors. Substance descriptors were validated through a comparison between predicted and experimental log K for the systems octanol/water (K(ow)), water/air (K(wa)), organic carbon/water (K(oc)) and liposome/water (K(lipw)), revealing a high reliability of pp-LFER predictions based on our descriptors. For instance, the difference between predicted and experimental log K(ow) was <0.3 log units for 17 out of 21 compounds for which experimental values were available. Moreover, we found an indication that the H-bond acceptor value (B) depends on the solvent for some compounds. Thus, for predicting environmentally relevant partition coefficients it is important to determine B values using measurements in aqueous systems. The pp-LFER descriptors calibrated in this study can be used to predict partition coefficients for which experimental data are unavailable, and the predicted values can serve as references for further experimental measurements.

  6. Phosphotransferase-dependent accumulation of (p)ppGpp in response to glutamine deprivation in Caulobacter crescentus

    PubMed Central

    Ronneau, Séverin; Petit, Kenny; De Bolle, Xavier; Hallez, Régis

    2016-01-01

    The alarmone (p)ppGpp is commonly used by bacteria to quickly respond to nutrient starvation. Although (p)ppGpp synthetases such as SpoT have been extensively studied, little is known about the molecular mechanisms stimulating alarmone synthesis upon starvation. Here, we describe an essential role of the nitrogen-related phosphotransferase system (PTSNtr) in controlling (p)ppGpp accumulation in Caulobacter crescentus. We show that cells sense nitrogen starvation by way of detecting glutamine deprivation using the first enzyme (EINtr) of PTSNtr. Decreasing intracellular glutamine concentration triggers phosphorylation of EINtr and its downstream components HPr and EIIANtr. Once phosphorylated, both HPr∼P and EIIANtr∼P stimulate (p)ppGpp accumulation by modulating SpoT activities. This burst of second messenger primarily impacts the non-replicative phase of the cell cycle by extending the G1 phase. This work highlights a new role for bacterial PTS systems in stimulating (p)ppGpp accumulation in response to metabolic cues and in controlling cell cycle progression and cell growth. PMID:27109061

  7. Oxygen Availability for Porphyrin Biosynthesis Enzymes Determines the Production of Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) during Hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Shimpei; Matsumoto, Kentaro; Nakajima, Motowo; Tanaka, Tohru; Ogura, Shun-Ichiro

    2015-01-01

    5-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA), a precursor of porphyrin, is specifically converted to the fluorescent substance protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) in tumors to be used as a prodrug for photodynamic therapy and diagnosis. Hypoxia, a common feature of solid tumors, decreases the efficacy of ALA-based photodynamic therapy and diagnosis. This decrease results from the excretion of porphyrin precursor coproporphyrinogen III (CPgenIII), an intermediate in the biosynthesis of PpIX. However, the mechanism of CPgenIII excretion during hypoxia remains unclear. In this study, we revealed the importance of mitochondrial respiration for the production of PpIX during hypoxia. Porphyrin concentrations were estimated in human gastric cancer cell lines by HPLC. Expression levels of porphyrin biosynthesis genes were measured by qRT-PCR and immunoblotting. Blockage of porphyrin biosynthesis was an oxygen-dependent phenomenon resulting from decreased PpIX production in mitochondria under hypoxic conditions. PpIX production was increased by the inhibition of mitochondrial respiration complexes, which indicates that the enzymes of porphyrin biosynthesis compete with respiration complexes for molecular oxygen. Our results indicate that targeting the respiration complexes is a rationale for enhancing the effect of ALA-mediated treatment and diagnosis. PMID:26717566

  8. Identification of isoforms of the exocytosis-sensitive phosphoprotein PP63/parafusin in Paramecium tetraurelia and demonstration of phosphoglucomutase activity.

    PubMed Central

    Hauser, K; Kissmehl, R; Linder, J; Schultz, J E; Lottspeich, F; Plattner, H

    1997-01-01

    PP63 (parafusin) is a 63 kDa phosphoprotein which is very rapidly (within 80 ms) dephosphorylated (to P63) during triggered trichocyst exocytosis; this occurs selectively in exocytosis-competent Paramecium tetraurelia strains. In the present work, two cDNAs coding for PP63/parafusin have been isolated, one of which is a new isoform. These isoforms are 99.6% identical and are derived from two different genes. Similarity searches revealed 43-51% identity of the deduced amino acid sequences with known phosphoglucomutases from yeast and mammals. The sequences of two proteolytic peptides obtained from PP63/parafusin isolated from Paramecium are identical to parts of the amino acid sequence deduced from the major cDNA. The major cDNA was mutated from the macronuclear ciliate genetic code into the universal genetic code and expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant protein shows the same biochemical and immunological characteristics as the (P)P63/parafusin originally isolated from Paramecium. It has the same specific phosphoglucomutase activity as phosphoglucomutase from chicken muscle. We also show that recombinant P63-1 parafusin 1 is a substrate of an endogenous casein kinase from Paramecium, as is the originally isolated P63/parafusin. Polyclonal antibodies against recombinant P63-1/parafusin 1 were raised which recognized phosphoglucomutases from different sources. Thus we show that PP63/parafusin and phosphoglucomutase in Paramecium are identical. PMID:9173895

  9. Inhibition of Pten deficient Castration Resistant Prostate Cancer by Targeting of the SET - PP2A Signaling axis

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiaoyong; Garcia, Consuelo; Fazli, Ladan; Gleave, Martin; Vitek, Michael P.; Jansen, Marilyn; Christensen, Dale; Mulholland, David J

    2015-01-01

    The PP2A signaling axis regulates multiple oncogenic drivers of castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). We show that targeting the endogenous PP2A regulator, SET (I2PP2A), is a viable strategy to inhibit prostate cancers that are resistant to androgen deprivation therapy. Our data is corroborated by analysis of prostate cancer patient cohorts showing significant elevation of SET transcripts. Tissue microarray analysis reveals that elevated SET expression correlates with clinical cancer grading, duration of neoadjuvant hormone therapy (NHT) and time to biochemical recurrence. Using prostate regeneration assays, we show that in vivo SET overexpression is sufficient to induce hyperplasia and prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia. Knockdown of SET induced significant reductions in tumorgenesis both in murine and human xenograft models. To further validate SET as a therapeutic target, we conducted in vitro and in vivo treatments using OP449 - a recently characterized PP2A-activating drug (PAD). OP449 elicits robust anti-cancer effects inhibiting growth in a panel of enzalutamide resistant prostate cancer cell lines. Using the Pten conditional deletion mouse model of prostate cancer, OP449 potently inhibited PI3K-Akt signaling and impeded CRPC progression. Collectively, our data supports a critical role for the SET-PP2A signaling axis in CRPC progression and hormone resistant disease. PMID:26563471

  10. Phosphotransferase-dependent accumulation of (p)ppGpp in response to glutamine deprivation in Caulobacter crescentus.

    PubMed

    Ronneau, Séverin; Petit, Kenny; De Bolle, Xavier; Hallez, Régis

    2016-04-25

    The alarmone (p)ppGpp is commonly used by bacteria to quickly respond to nutrient starvation. Although (p)ppGpp synthetases such as SpoT have been extensively studied, little is known about the molecular mechanisms stimulating alarmone synthesis upon starvation. Here, we describe an essential role of the nitrogen-related phosphotransferase system (PTS(Ntr)) in controlling (p)ppGpp accumulation in Caulobacter crescentus. We show that cells sense nitrogen starvation by way of detecting glutamine deprivation using the first enzyme (EI(Ntr)) of PTS(Ntr). Decreasing intracellular glutamine concentration triggers phosphorylation of EI(Ntr) and its downstream components HPr and EIIA(Ntr). Once phosphorylated, both HPr∼P and EIIA(Ntr)∼P stimulate (p)ppGpp accumulation by modulating SpoT activities. This burst of second messenger primarily impacts the non-replicative phase of the cell cycle by extending the G1 phase. This work highlights a new role for bacterial PTS systems in stimulating (p)ppGpp accumulation in response to metabolic cues and in controlling cell cycle progression and cell growth.

  11. PP2A delays APC/C-dependent degradation of separase-associated but not free securin

    PubMed Central

    Hellmuth, Susanne; Böttger, Franziska; Pan, Cuiping; Mann, Matthias; Stemmann, Olaf

    2014-01-01

    The universal triggering event of eukaryotic chromosome segregation is cleavage of centromeric cohesin by separase. Prior to anaphase, most separase is kept inactive by association with securin. Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) constitutes another binding partner of human separase, but the functional relevance of this interaction has remained enigmatic. We demonstrate that PP2A stabilizes separase-associated securin by dephosphorylation, while phosphorylation of free securin enhances its polyubiquitylation by the ubiquitin ligase APC/C and proteasomal degradation. Changing PP2A substrate phosphorylation sites to alanines slows degradation of free securin, delays separase activation, lengthens early anaphase, and results in anaphase bridges and DNA damage. In contrast, separase-associated securin is destabilized by introduction of phosphorylation-mimetic aspartates or extinction of separase-associated PP2A activity. G2- or prometaphase-arrested cells suffer from unscheduled activation of separase when endogenous securin is replaced by aspartate-mutant securin. Thus, PP2A-dependent stabilization of separase-associated securin prevents precocious activation of separase during checkpoint-mediated arrests with basal APC/C activity and increases the abruptness and fidelity of sister chromatid separation in anaphase. PMID:24781523

  12. ppGpp controlled by the Gac/Rsm regulatory pathway sustains biocontrol activity in Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Kasumi; Yamada, Kosumi; Haas, Dieter

    2012-11-01

    In Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0 and other fluorescent pseudomonads, the Gac/Rsm signal transduction pathway is instrumental for secondary metabolism and biocontrol of root pathogens via the expression of regulatory small RNAs (sRNAs). Furthermore, in strain CHA0, an imbalance in the Krebs cycle can affect the strain's ability to produce extracellular secondary metabolites, including biocontrol factors. Here, we report the metabolome of wild-type CHA0, a gacA-negative mutant, which has lost Gac/Rsm activities, and a retS-negative mutant, which shows strongly enhanced Gac/Rsm-dependent activities. Capillary electrophoresis-based metabolomic profiling revealed that the gacA and retS mutations had opposite effects on the intracellular levels of a number of central metabolites, suggesting that the Gac/Rsm pathway regulates not only secondary metabolism but also primary metabolism in strain CHA0. Among the regulated metabolites identified, the alarmone guanosine tetraphosphate (ppGpp) was characterized in detail by the construction of relA (for ppGpp synthase) and spoT (for ppGpp synthase/hydrolase) deletion mutants. In a relA spoT double mutant, ppGpp synthesis was completely abolished, the expression of Rsm sRNAs was attenuated, and physiological functions such as antibiotic production, root colonization, and plant protection were markedly diminished. Thus, ppGpp appears to be essential for sustaining epiphytic fitness and biocontrol activity of strain CHA0.

  13. Dose-dependent reduction of replication elongation rate by (p)ppGpp in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Denapoli, Jessica; Tehranchi, Ashley K; Wang, Jue D

    2013-04-01

    DNA replication is regulated in response to environmental constraints such as nutrient availability. While much is known about regulation of replication during initiation, little is known about regulation of replication during elongation. In the bacterium Bacillus subtilis, replication elongation is paused upon sudden amino acid starvation by the starvation-inducible nucleotide (p)ppGpp. However, in many bacteria including Escherichia coli, replication elongation is thought to be unregulated by nutritional availability. Here we reveal that the replication elongation rate in E. coli is modestly but significantly reduced upon strong amino acid starvation. This reduction requires (p)ppGpp and is exacerbated in a gppA mutant with increased pppGpp levels. Importantly, high levels of (p)ppGpp, independent of amino acid starvation, are sufficient to inhibit replication elongation even in the absence of transcription. Finally, in both E. coli and B. subtilis, (p)ppGpp inhibits replication elongation in a dose-dependent manner rather than via a switch-like mechanism, although this inhibition is much stronger in B. subtilis. This supports a model where replication elongation rates are regulated by (p)ppGpp to allow rapid and tunable response to multiple abrupt stresses in evolutionarily diverse bacteria.

  14. Oxygen Availability for Porphyrin Biosynthesis Enzymes Determines the Production of Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) during Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Otsuka, Shimpei; Matsumoto, Kentaro; Nakajima, Motowo; Tanaka, Tohru; Ogura, Shun-ichiro

    2015-01-01

    5-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA), a precursor of porphyrin, is specifically converted to the fluorescent substance protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) in tumors to be used as a prodrug for photodynamic therapy and diagnosis. Hypoxia, a common feature of solid tumors, decreases the efficacy of ALA-based photodynamic therapy and diagnosis. This decrease results from the excretion of porphyrin precursor coproporphyrinogen III (CPgenIII), an intermediate in the biosynthesis of PpIX. However, the mechanism of CPgenIII excretion during hypoxia remains unclear. In this study, we revealed the importance of mitochondrial respiration for the production of PpIX during hypoxia. Porphyrin concentrations were estimated in human gastric cancer cell lines by HPLC. Expression levels of porphyrin biosynthesis genes were measured by qRT-PCR and immunoblotting. Blockage of porphyrin biosynthesis was an oxygen-dependent phenomenon resulting from decreased PpIX production in mitochondria under hypoxic conditions. PpIX production was increased by the inhibition of mitochondrial respiration complexes, which indicates that the enzymes of porphyrin biosynthesis compete with respiration complexes for molecular oxygen. Our results indicate that targeting the respiration complexes is a rationale for enhancing the effect of ALA-mediated treatment and diagnosis. PMID:26717566

  15. Lifetime exposure to 2. 4 ppM nitric oxide in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Oda, H.; Nogami, H.; Kusumoto, S.; Nakajima, T.; Kurata, A.

    1980-06-01

    JCL:ICR mice were exposed to 2.4 ppM nitric oxide during their life span, while contaminated NO/sub 2/ was kept below 0.04 ppM. Body weight and survival rate which were observed up to 29 months did not show any difference between the control and exposed mice except for the decreased survival rate of 16-month exposure mice. The deceased mice had leukemia, lymphoma, nephritis, and lung adenoma, which appeared to spontaneously occur with no significant difference in their incidence between the groups. Some mice were sacrificed 3, 6, 13, and 23 months after the start of exposure and examined by various hematological, biochemical, and histological methods. The level of nitrosyl-hemoglobin of the exposed mice detected by the electron spin resonance method was only 0.01% and methemoglobin did not increase. The change of osmotic resistance of the red blood cells and the decrease of serum haptoglobin suggested acceleration of hemolysis though at a minimum level. Because there was no difference in the histological findings of the lungs between the control and exposed mice, the effect of nitric oxide seemed to be milder than that of NO/sub 2/ with respect to the effect on the respiratory organs.

  16. Inclusive photon production at forward rapidities in pp collisions at LHC energies with the ALICE experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudipan Dethe ALICE Collaboration

    2016-04-01

    Measurements of multiplicity and pseudorapidity distributions of particles produced in pp collisions are important for the study of particle production mechanisms and to obtain baseline distributions to be compared with those from heavy-ion collisions. The inclusive photon measurements (dominated by π0 decays) are complementary to the charged particle measurements. The present work focuses on the forward rapidity region with comparisons to different models such as PYTHIA and PHOJET. We report the measurements of multiplicity and pseudorapidity distributions of inclusive photons using the ALICE Photon Multiplicity Detector (PMD) at forward rapidities (2.3 < η < 3.9) in pp collisions at = 0.9, 2.76 and 7 TeV. It is observed that the photon multiplicity distributions are well described by negative binomial distributions (NBD). Multiplicity distributions are studied in terms of KNO variables for each energy. It is shown that the increase in the average photon multiplicity as a function of beam energy is compatible with both a logarithmic and power law dependence. The results are compared to different model predictions. These models reproduce experimental results at lower energy while they are not accurate at higher energies.

  17. Bioactive properties of peptides obtained from Argentinian defatted soy flour protein by Corolase PP hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Coscueta, Ezequiel R; Amorim, Maria M; Voss, Glenise B; Nerli, Bibiana B; Picó, Guillermo A; Pintado, Manuela E

    2016-05-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis of soybean meal protein isolate (SPI) obtained under two temperature conditions with Corolase PP was studied, assessing the impact of hydrolysis on potential antioxidant and antihypertensive activities. The protein was isolated from soybean meal under controlled conditions of time and temperature (70 °C, 1h; 90 °C, 30 min). Degree of hydrolysis assessed the progress of hydrolysis at different sampling times. For hydrolysates the antioxidant and angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities were measured. As observed, the DH was increasing until reaching 20% at 10h with disappearance of globular proteins and generation of low molecular weight peptides (less than 3kDa). A significant increase in antioxidant and ACE inhibitory capacities was observed. Five main peptides were identified, which may explain through their sequences the bioactive properties analyzed. Through this study was possible to obtain for the first time with Corolase PP soy hydrolysates with potential antioxidant and ACE inhibitory activities, which can be used to obtain new added value functional ingredients from soy meal.

  18. Comparison between two portable devices for widefield PpIX fluorescence during cervical intraepithelial neoplasia treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbinatto, Fernanda M.; Inada, Natalia Mayumi; Lombardi, Welington; Cossetin, Natália Fernandez; Varoto, Cinthia; Kurachi, Cristina; Bagnato, Vanderlei Salvador

    2015-06-01

    The use of portable electronic devices, in particular mobile phones such as smartphones is increasing not only for all known applications, but also for diagnosis of diseases and monitoring treatments like topical Photodynamic Therapy. The aim of the study is to evaluate the production of the photosensitizer Protoporphyrin IX (