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Sample records for 1-spot overnight urine

  1. Mutagenic activity of overnight urine from healthy non-smoking subjects.

    PubMed

    Pavanello, Sofia; Lupi, Silvia; Pulliero, Alessandra; Gregorio, Pasquale; Saia, Bruno Onofrio; Clonfero, Erminio

    2007-03-01

    Urinary mutagenicity was evaluated in relation to environmental mutagen exposure (i.e., diet, indoor/outdoor activities, residential area etc.) on the day prior to sample collection, and also considering factors that contribute to the variability of Salmonella mutagenicity assay results. Overnight urine samples from 283 healthy non-smoking residents of northeast Italy (46% males, 20-62 years) were analyzed for mutagenicity on sensitive Salmonella typhimurium strain YG1024 with S9 mix employing the preincubation version of the plate incorporation assay (i.e., the Salmonella reverse mutation test). Urinary mutagenicity varied between 0.02 and 9.84 rev/ equiv. ml, and 7% of samples were positive (i.e., sample elicited a two-fold increase in revertants). There was an evident increase in mutagenicity in subjects with increased intake of mutagen-rich meals (n = 80) (P < 0.01 and positive urine 13% vs. 5%, P = 0.025). Indoor-exposed subjects (n = 65) also showed a higher percentage of positive urine (14% vs. 5%, P = 0.015). In particular, those subjects exposed to cooking fumes the previous evening (n = 28) revealed higher urinary mutagenicity (P = 0.035, positive urine 25% vs. 5%, P < 0.001) than non-indoor exposed. The sources of variability of the mutagenicity assay, mainly the histidine content of the urine concentrate (z = 4.06, P < 0.0001), and to a lesser extent bacterial inoculum size (z = 2.33, P = 0.019), also significantly influenced urinary mutagenicity values. In a linear multiple regression analysis, their effects were still significant (i.e., histidine content P = 0.026 and inoculum size P = 0.021), but the effects of diet, indoor exposure, and other environmental exposures (i.e., traffic and heating system exhausts, residential area) were not. It is concluded that the previous day's exposure to mutagen-rich meals and cooking fumes may influence the presence of mutagenic activity in the overnight urine of non-smoking subjects. This mutagenic activity, which

  2. Morning Spot Urine Glucose-to-Creatinine Ratios Predict Overnight Urinary Glucose Excretion in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, So Ra; Lee, Yong-ho; Lee, Sang-Guk; Lee, Sun Hee; Kang, Eun Seok; Cha, Bong-Soo; Lee, Hyun Chul; Kim, Jeong-Ho

    2017-01-01

    Background With the advent of sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors to control glucose and treat diabetes, laboratory data aided by either timed or spot glucose levels in the urine could be used as an alternative marker of drug response. The aim of this study was to assess the agreement between overnight urinary glucose excretion (UGE) and morning spot urinary glucose-to-creatinine ratio (UGCR). Methods In this prospective cross-sectional study, we enrolled a total of 215 participants with either normal glucose tolerance (NGT), pre-diabetes, or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). To exclude external factors such as food intake and physical activity, urine samples collected overnight at an 8-hr interval and the first-voided morning spot urine were collected and compared. Results The median values of overnight 8-hr UGE in participants with NGT (N=14), pre-diabetes (N=41), and T2DM (N=160) were 35.0 mg, 35.6 mg, and 653.4 mg, respectively. In participants with T2DM, the median values of overnight 8-hr UGCR and first-voided morning spot UGCR (M-UGCR) were 1.37 mg/mg and 0.16 mg/mg, respectively. Quantitative analyses using an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) demonstrated a good reliability of measurement of the overnight 8-hr UGCR and M-UGCR (ICC=0.943, P<0.001). The M-UGCR was also significantly related to the overnight 8-hr UGE (r=0.828, P<0.001). Conclusions M-UGCR and overnight 8-hr UGCR showed good agreement, suggesting that M-UGCR be used as a simple index for estimating overnight amounts of UGE in patients with T2DM. PMID:27834060

  3. Overnight Scentsation Rose Plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    International Flavors and Fragrances Inc., Dr. Braja Mookherjee with the Overnight Scentsation rose plant after its flight aboard NASA's shuttle mission STS-95 for experimentation on scent in microgravity.

  4. A comparison of overnight and 24 hour collection to measure urinary catecholamines.

    PubMed

    White, I R; Brunner, E J; Barron, J L

    1995-02-01

    The period of urine collection used to measure excretion of catecholamines varies in epidemiological practice. We set out to compare overnight with 24 hour collection. Twenty-four subjects each collected urine for 24 hours, with the overnight urine being separately collected. The correlation of overnight and 24 hour catecholamines was highest when both measures were standardised for creatinine excretion and when creatinine excretion was adjusted for urine flow rate. The observed correlations were 0.74 for dopamine, 0.81 for noradrenaline and 0.54 for adrenaline. The use of overnight collections may therefore require a sample size up to 1.5 times as large (for noradrenaline) or 3.4 times as large (for adrenaline) to achieve the same power as with 24 hour collections. However, the figures given exaggerate the advantage of 24 hour collections if these incorporate measurement errors that are not present in overnight collections.

  5. Do environmental variables influence overnight weight loss of yearling steers in semiarid rangelands?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to measure the weight gains of free-ranging livestock, animals are frequently corralled and confined overnight prior to weighing. Animals may take several days to recover from this overnight loss in weight associated with dehydration and excretion of urine and feces. Quantitative estimates ...

  6. The Overnight Scentsation Rose Plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    International Flavors and Fragrances Inc., is a company that creates and manufactures flavors, fragrances and aroma chemicals. The Overnight Scentsation rose plant will be housed aboard NASA's shuttle flight STS-95 in a specially-designed structure under ultraviolet lights. The flowering plant was brought to Cape Canaveral from its home at IFF's greenhouse in Union Beach, New Jersey.

  7. 46 CFR 177.710 - Overnight accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Overnight accommodations. 177.710 Section 177.710 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Crew Spaces § 177.710 Overnight accommodations....

  8. Catecholamines - urine

    MedlinePlus

    Dopamine-urine test; Epinephrine-urine test; Adrenalin-urine test; Urine metanephrine; Normetanephrine; Norepinephrine-urine test; Urine catecholamines; VMA; HVA; Metanephrine; Homovanillic acid (HVA)

  9. Overnight Changes Recorded by Phoenix Conductivity Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This graph presents simplified data from overnight measurements by the Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander from noon of the mission's 70th Martian day, or sol, to noon the following sol (Aug. 5 to Aug. 6, 2008).

    The graph shows that water disappeared from the atmosphere overnight, at the same time that electrical measurements detected changes consistent with addition of water to the soil.

    Water in soil appears to increase overnight, when water in the atmosphere disappears.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  10. A mechanical model of overnight hair curling.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Hang; Chen, Xi

    2015-09-01

    Based on the observation of overnight hair curling procedure, we establish a mechanical model to describe the temporary wave formation of straight hair (initial curvature is zero), which incorporates the contact between hair and hair roller. Systematic studies are carried out to explore the effects of radius ratio between hair and hair roller, hair's average axial strain, creep time, Poisson's ratio and gravity on the curl retention. The variation of curl retention with respect to time obtained from our numerical model is validated by a simple theoretical model and by overnight curling experiments on hair samples. The results of simulation show that overnight hair curling is suitable to create a wavy hairstyle within about 7 hours, while the combined usage with hair fixatives enables a wavy hairstyle with desired curvature that lasts for a day or more.

  11. Negative reinforcement impairs overnight memory consolidation.

    PubMed

    Stamm, Andrew W; Nguyen, Nam D; Seicol, Benjamin J; Fagan, Abigail; Oh, Angela; Drumm, Michael; Lundt, Maureen; Stickgold, Robert; Wamsley, Erin J

    2014-11-01

    Post-learning sleep is beneficial for human memory. However, it may be that not all memories benefit equally from sleep. Here, we manipulated a spatial learning task using monetary reward and performance feedback, asking whether enhancing the salience of the task would augment overnight memory consolidation and alter its incorporation into dreaming. Contrary to our hypothesis, we found that the addition of reward impaired overnight consolidation of spatial memory. Our findings seemingly contradict prior reports that enhancing the reward value of learned information augments sleep-dependent memory processing. Given that the reward followed a negative reinforcement paradigm, consolidation may have been impaired via a stress-related mechanism.

  12. Negative Reinforcement Impairs Overnight Memory Consolidation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamm, Andrew W.; Nguyen, Nam D.; Seicol, Benjamin J.; Fagan, Abigail; Oh, Angela; Drumm, Michael; Lundt, Maureen; Stickgold, Robert; Wamsley, Erin J.

    2014-01-01

    Post-learning sleep is beneficial for human memory. However, it may be that not all memories benefit equally from sleep. Here, we manipulated a spatial learning task using monetary reward and performance feedback, asking whether enhancing the salience of the task would augment overnight memory consolidation and alter its incorporation into…

  13. Porphyrins - urine

    MedlinePlus

    ... results may be due to: Liver cancer Hepatitis Lead poisoning Porphyria (several types) Alternative Names Urine uroporphyrin; Urine ... More Delta-ALA urine test Enzyme Hemoglobin Hepatitis Lead poisoning Liver cancer - hepatocellular carcinoma PBG urine test Porphyria ...

  14. Urine and Urination

    MedlinePlus

    ... urinary system is healthy, your bladder can hold up to 16 ounces (2 cups) of urine comfortably for 2 to 5 hours. You may have problems with urination if you have Kidney failure Urinary tract infections An enlarged prostate Bladder control problems like ...

  15. Urine culture

    MedlinePlus

    Culture and sensitivity - urine ... when urinating. You also may have a urine culture after you have been treated for an infection. ... when bacteria or yeast are found in the culture. This likely means that you have a urinary ...

  16. Urine Culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Urine Culture Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Urine Culture and Sensitivity; Urine C and S Formal name: Culture, ...

  17. Urine odor

    MedlinePlus

    ... rare disease of metabolism. Liver disease and certain metabolic disorders may cause musty-smelling urine. Some conditions that ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Metabolic Disorders Urinalysis Urinary Tract Infections Urine and Urination Browse ...

  18. Urine - bloody

    MedlinePlus

    ... and other blood disorders Urinalysis Urinary cytology Urine culture 24-hour urine collection for creatinine, protein, calcium Blood tests such as PT , PTT or INR tests The treatment will depend on the cause of blood in the urine.

  19. The overnight effect on the Taiwan stock market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Kuo-Ting; Lih, Jiann-Shing; Ko, Jing-Yuan

    2012-12-01

    This study examines statistical regularities among three components of stocks and indices: daytime (trading hour) return, overnight (off-hour session) return, and total (close-to-close) return. Owing to the fact that the Taiwan Stock Exchange (TWSE) has the longest non-trading periods among major markets, the TWSE is selected to explore the correlation among the three components and compare it with major markets such as the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) and the National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotation (NASDAQ). Analysis results indicate a negative cross correlation between the sign of daytime return and the sign of overnight return; possibly explaining why most stocks feature a negative cross correlation between daytime return and overnight return [F. Wang, S.-J. Shieh, S. Havlin, H.E. Stanley, Statistical analysis of the overnight and daytime return, Phys. Rev. E 79 (2009) 056109]. Additionally, the cross correlation between the magnitude of returns is analyzed. According to those results, a larger magnitude of overnight return implies a higher probability that the sign of the following daytime return is the opposite of the sign of overnight return. Namely, the predictability of daytime return might be improved when a stock undergoes a large magnitude of overnight return. Furthermore, the cross correlations of 29 indices of worldwide markets are discussed.

  20. Urine Odor

    MedlinePlus

    ... urine odor. Urine that contains a lot of water and few waste products has little to no odor. If urine becomes highly concentrated — a high level of waste products with little water — your urine may have a strong ammonia odor. ...

  1. Urination Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... Related Conditions Kidneys and Urinary Tract Urine Tests Bedwetting Ultrasound: Renal (Kidneys, Ureters, Bladder) Urinary Tract Infections ( ... Quiz: Urinary System Your Kidneys Your Urinary System Bedwetting Urinary Tract Infections Kidneys and Urinary Tract Urine ...

  2. Amylase - urine

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003607.htm Amylase - urine To use the sharing features on this ... is a test that measures the amount of amylase in urine. Amylase is an enzyme that helps ...

  3. Urine Cytology

    MedlinePlus

    ... your bladder. Examining the urine sample in the laboratory Your urine sample is sent to a laboratory for testing by a doctor who specializes in ... can expect to wait for your results. Each laboratory has its own way of describing the results ...

  4. Urination - painful

    MedlinePlus

    ... and vagina Other causes of painful urination include: Interstitial cystitis Prostate infection ( prostatitis ) Radiation cystitis - damage to the ... Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Bladder ... Cystitis Prostate Diseases Sexually Transmitted Diseases Urinary Tract Infections ...

  5. Urine Preservative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M. (Inventor); Nillen, Jeannie (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    Disclosed is CPG, a combination of a chlorhexidine salt (such as chlorhexidine digluconate, chlorhexidine diacetate, or chlorhexidine dichloride) and n-propyl gallate that can be used at ambient temperatures as a urine preservative.

  6. Calcium - urine

    MedlinePlus

    ... into the urine, which causes calcium kidney stones Sarcoidosis Taking too much calcium Too much production of ... Milk-alkali syndrome Proximal renal tubular acidosis Rickets Sarcoidosis Vitamin D Review Date 5/3/2015 Updated ...

  7. Urine melanin

    MedlinePlus

    Normally, melanin is not present in urine. Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Some labs use different measurements or test different samples. Talk to your doctor about the meaning of your specific test results.

  8. Immunoelectrophoresis - urine

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer called multiple myeloma Kidney disorders such as IgA nephropathy or IgM nephropathy White blood cell cancer ... 19. Read More Cancer Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) IgA nephropathy Immunoelectrophoresis - blood Multiple myeloma Protein urine test ...

  9. Urine 24-hour volume

    MedlinePlus

    ... in a day, such as: Creatinine Sodium Potassium Nitrogen Protein This test may also be done if ... disease Potassium urine test Sodium urine test Urea nitrogen urine test Urination - excessive amount Urine output - decreased ...

  10. Ketones urine test

    MedlinePlus

    Ketone bodies - urine; Urine ketones; Ketoacidosis - urine ketones test; Diabetic ketoacidosis - urine ketones test ... Urine ketones are usually measured as a "spot test." This is available in a test kit that ...

  11. Urine culture - catheterized specimen

    MedlinePlus

    Culture - urine - catheterized specimen; Urine culture - catheterization; Catheterized urine specimen culture ... urinary tract infections may be found in the culture. This is called a contaminant. You may not ...

  12. Substantial overnight reaeration by convective cooling discovered in pond ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holgerson, Meredith A.; Zappa, Christopher J.; Raymond, Peter A.

    2016-08-01

    Trends in freshwater dissolved oxygen (DO) reflect whole-ecosystem properties and influence organismal survival and behavior. Here we show that small ponds have unique oxygen dynamics that differ from larger lakes. We discovered that ponds undersaturated in DO experienced substantial increases in oxygen concentration overnight. Nighttime increases in DO occurred on 45% of the nights sampled and resulted in DO saturation increasing 12-fold (22% saturation) on average. Oxygen spikes were likely to occur when ponds became at least 1.8°C warmer than the air and later in the season when oxygen levels were low (<31% saturation) and the air was warm (≥5.8°C). We demonstrate that overnight increases in surface water DO resulted from atmospheric oxygen invasion as opposed to internal production. Convective cooling enhanced turbulence and air-water gas exchange, leading to intense bursts of oxygen invasion during nighttime hours. This mechanism has not been demonstrated before and has important implications for the biogeochemistry of these systems, as well as understanding how organisms survive in hypoxic small ponds.

  13. Urine Color

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feb. 9, 2015. Wald R. Urinalysis in the diagnosis of kidney disease. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Feb. 9, 2015. McPherson RA, et al. Basic examination of urine. In: Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods. 22nd ed. Philadelphia. ...

  14. Urine concentration test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Test is Performed For this test, the specific gravity of urine , urine electrolytes , and/or urine osmolality ... it is tested right away. For urine specific gravity, the health care provider uses a dipstick made ...

  15. Hybrid optimal online-overnight charging coordination of plug-in electric vehicles in smart grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masoum, Mohammad A. S.; Nabavi, Seyed M. H.

    2016-10-01

    Optimal coordinated charging of plugged-in electric vehicles (PEVs) in smart grid (SG) can be beneficial for both consumers and utilities. This paper proposes a hybrid optimal online followed by overnight charging coordination of high and low priority PEVs using discrete particle swarm optimization (DPSO) that considers the benefits of both consumers and electric utilities. Objective functions are online minimization of total cost (associated with grid losses and energy generation) and overnight valley filling through minimization of the total load levels. The constraints include substation transformer loading, node voltage regulations and the requested final battery state of charge levels (SOCreq). The main challenge is optimal selection of the overnight starting time (toptimal-overnight,start) to guarantee charging of all vehicle batteries to the SOCreq levels before the requested plug-out times (treq) which is done by simultaneously solving the online and overnight objective functions. The online-overnight PEV coordination approach is implemented on a 449-node SG; results are compared for uncoordinated and coordinated battery charging as well as a modified strategy using cost minimizations for both online and overnight coordination. The impact of toptimal-overnight,start on performance of the proposed PEV coordination is investigated.

  16. Estimating overnight weight loss of corralled yearling steers in semiarid rangeland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Free-ranging livestock grazing native vegetation on rangelands are frequently gathered and confined overnight in a corral (sensu drylot) prior to weighing to determine periodic weight gains for grazing studies. Quantification of this overnight percent shrink across the grazing season could provide t...

  17. Urine - abnormal color

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003139.htm Urine - abnormal color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine ...

  18. Urine Tests (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the urine is collected. In this "clean-catch" method, the patient (or parent) cleans the skin, the child then urinates, stops momentarily (if the child is old enough to cooperate), then urinates again into the ...

  19. Urine drainage bags

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000142.htm Urine drainage bags To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Urine drainage bags collect urine. Your bag will attach ...

  20. Glucose urine test

    MedlinePlus

    Urine sugar test; Urine glucose test; Glucosuria test; Glycosuria test ... After you provide a urine sample, it is tested right away. The health care provider uses a dipstick made with a color-sensitive pad. The ...

  1. Urination - difficulty with flow

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/article/003143.htm Urination - difficulty with flow To use the sharing features on this page, ... at night? Has the force of your urine flow decreased? Do you have dribbling or leaking urine? ...

  2. Metabolic characteristics of human subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissueafter overnight fast

    PubMed Central

    Humphreys, Sandy M.

    2012-01-01

    Subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue is one of the largest fat depots and contributes the major proportion of circulating nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA). Little is known about aspects of human adipose tissue metabolism in vivo other than lipolysis. Here we collated data from 331 experiments in 255 healthy volunteers over a 23-year period, in which subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue metabolism was studied by measurements of arterio-venous differences after an overnight fast. NEFA and glycerol were released in a ratio of 2.7:1, different (P < 0.001) from the value of 3.0 that would indicate no fatty acid re-esterification. Fatty acid re-esterification was 10.2 ± 1.4%. Extraction of triacylglycerol (TG) (fractional extraction 5.7 ± 0.4%) indicated intravascular lipolysis by lipoprotein lipase, and this contributed 21 ± 3% of the glycerol released. Glucose uptake (fractional extraction 2.6 ± 0.3%) was partitioned around 20–25% for provision of glycerol 3-phosphate and 30% into lactate production. There was release of lactate and pyruvate, with extraction of the ketone bodies 3-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate, although these were small numerically compared with TG and glucose uptake. NEFA release (expressed per 100 g tissue) correlated inversely with measures of fat mass (e.g., with BMI, rs = −0.24, P < 0.001). We examined within-person variability. Systemic NEFA concentrations, NEFA release, fatty acid re-esterification, and adipose tissue blood flow were all more consistent within than between individuals. This picture of human adipose tissue metabolism in the fasted state should contribute to a greater understanding of adipose tissue physiology and pathophysiology. PMID:22167523

  3. Photoluminescence of urine salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordun, O.; Drobchak, O.

    2008-02-01

    Photoexcitation and luminescence spectra of dried urine sample under laser excitation were studied. Luminescence spectra of urine are determined by luminescence of urea which is the main component of urine. The presence of pathological salts in urine leads to the long-wave shifting of maxima of luminescence and to the decreasing of luminescence intensity.

  4. An Overnight Success?: Usage Patterns and Demographics of Academic Library Patrons during the Overnight Period from 11 p.m.-8 a.m.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Mark; Hodges, Chris

    2014-01-01

    During the Fall 2013 semester East Carolina University's main library piloted 24/5 hours of operation by opening on Sunday morning and not closing until Friday night. This article details the planning and execution of the pilot program, as well the findings from the data collected during the overnight period by people-counting cameras and a…

  5. Quantification of chromatographic effects of vitamin B supplementation in urine and implications for hydration assessment.

    PubMed

    Kenefick, Robert W; Heavens, K R; Dennis, W E; Caruso, E M; Guerriere, K I; Charkoudian, N; Cheuvront, S N

    2015-07-15

    Changes in body water elicit reflex adjustments at the kidney, thus maintaining fluid volume homeostasis. These renal adjustments change the concentration and color of urine, variables that can, in turn, be used as biomarkers of hydration status. It has been suggested that vitamin supplementation alters urine color; it is unclear whether any such alteration would confound hydration assessment via colorimetric evaluation. We tested the hypothesis that overnight vitamin B2 and/or B12 supplementation alters urine color as a marker of hydration status. Thirty healthy volunteers were monitored during a 3-day euhydrated baseline, confirmed via first morning nude body mass, urine specific gravity, and urine osmolality. Volunteers then randomly received B2 (n = 10), B12 (n = 10), or B2 + B12 (n = 10) at ∼200 × recommended dietary allowance. Euhydration was verified on trial days (two of the following: body mass ± 1.0% of the mean of visits 1-3, urine specific gravity < 1.02, urine osmolality < 700 mmol/kg). Vitamin purity and urinary B2 concentration ([B2]) and [B12] were quantified via ultraperformance liquid chromatography. Two independent observers assessed urine color using an eight-point standardized color chart. Following supplementation, urinary [B2] was elevated; however, urine color was not different between nonsupplemented and supplemented trials. For example, in the B2 trial, urinary [B2] increased from 8.6 × 10(4) ± 7.7 × 10(4) to 5.7 × 10(6) ± 5.3 × 10(6) nmol/l (P < 0.05), and urine color went from 4 ± 1 to 5 ± 1 (P > 0.05). Both conditions met the euhydrated color classification. We conclude that a large overnight dose of vitamins B2 and B12 does not confound assessment of euhydrated status via urine color.

  6. Urine specific gravity test

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003587.htm Urine specific gravity test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Urine specific gravity is a laboratory test that shows the concentration ...

  7. Leukocyte esterase urine test

    MedlinePlus

    ... the urine. This may mean you have a urinary tract infection . If this test is positive, the urine should ... Results Mean An abnormal result indicates a possible urinary tract infection. Alternative Names WBC esterase Images Male urinary system ...

  8. Urine drug screen

    MedlinePlus

    Drug screen -- urine ... detect the presence of illegal and some prescription drugs in your urine. Their presence indicates that you recently used these drugs. Some drugs may remain in your system for ...

  9. Uric acid - urine

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003616.htm Uric acid urine test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The uric acid urine test measures the level of uric acid ...

  10. Urination - excessive amount

    MedlinePlus

    ... of urination for an adult is more than 2.5 liters of urine per day. However, this can vary depending on how much water you drink and what your total body water is. This problem is different from needing to urinate often. Polyuria ...

  11. Urine sample (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A "clean-catch" urine sample is performed by collecting the sample of urine in midstream. Men or boys should wipe clean the head ... water and rinse well. A small amount of urine should initially fall into the toilet bowl before ...

  12. Effects of overnight fasting on working memory-related brain network: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Chechko, Natalia; Vocke, Sebastian; Habel, Ute; Toygar, Timur; Kuckartz, Lisa; Berthold-Losleben, Mark; Laoutidis, Zacharias G; Orfanos, Stelios; Wassenberg, Annette; Karges, Wölfram; Schneider, Frank; Kohn, Nils

    2015-03-01

    Glucose metabolism serves as the central source of energy for the human brain. Little is known about the effects of blood glucose level (BGL) on higher-order cognitive functions within a physiological range (e.g., after overnight fasting). In this randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind study, we assessed the impact of overnight fasting (14 h) on brain activation during a working memory task. We sought to mimic BGLs that occur naturally in healthy humans after overnight fasting. After standardized periods of food restriction, 40 (20 male) healthy participants were randomly assigned to receive either glucagon to balance the BGL or placebo (NaCl). A parametric fMRI paradigm, including 2-back and 0-back tasks, was used. Subclinically low BGL following overnight fasting was found to be linked to reduced involvement of the bilateral dorsal midline thalamus and the bilateral basal ganglia, suggesting high sensitivity of those regions to minimal changes in BGLs. Our results indicate that overnight fasting leads to physiologically low levels of glucose, impacting brain activation during working memory tasks even when there are no differences in cognitive performance.

  13. Learning and Overnight Retention in Declarative Memory in Specific Language Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Lukács, Ágnes; Kemény, Ferenc; Lum, Jarrad A. G.; Ullman, Michael T.

    2017-01-01

    We examined learning and retention in nonverbal and verbal declarative memory in Hungarian children with (n = 21) and without (n = 21) SLI. Recognition memory was tested both 10 minutes and one day after encoding. On nonverbal items, only the children with SLI improved overnight, with no resulting group differences in performance. In the verbal domain, the children with SLI consistently showed worse performance than the typically-developing children, but the two groups showed similar overnight changes. The findings suggest the possibility of spared or even enhanced declarative memory consolidation in SLI. PMID:28046095

  14. Effects of Model Performances on Music Skill Acquisition and Overnight Memory Consolidation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cash, Carla D.; Allen, Sarah E.; Simmons, Amy L.; Duke, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the extent to which the presentation of an auditory model prior to learning a novel melody affects performance during active practice and the overnight consolidation of procedural memory. During evening training sessions, 32 nonpianist musicians practiced a 13-note keyboard melody with their left…

  15. EVALUATION OF CHROMOMYCIN A3 ASSAY IN HUMAN SPERM AFTER SIMULATED OVERNIGHT SHIPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    EVALUATION OF CHROMOMYCIN A3ASSAY IN HUMAN SPERM AFTER SIMULATED OVERNIGHT SHIPMENT.
    SC Jeffay1, R Morris Buus1, LF Strader1, AF Olshan2, DP Evenson3, SD Perreault1. 1US EPA/ORD, RTP, NC;2UNC-CH, Chapel Hill, NC;3SDSU, Brookings, SD.

    Semen collection kits that allow ...

  16. Psychosocial outcomes of a summer overnight recreational experience for children with heart disease.

    PubMed

    Bultas, Margaret W; Steurer, Lisa M; Balakas, Karen; Brooks, Charlotte; Fields, Heidi

    2015-12-01

    Children with chronic heart disease (CHD) are often turned away from recreational summer overnight experiences because of complicated medical histories and medication regimens. The purpose of this qualitative study was to evaluate the psychosocial impact of a five-day overnight recreational experience for children with CHD and their parents. Thirty-six children with CHD between the age of 8 and 15 years and their parents participated in the study. Data were collected from the children using photovoice interviews. Parent data were collected using a post camp survey. Results included the following external outcome themes: inclusion in a peer group and the importance of friendship, fun, and safety. Internal or personal outcome themes included counselor as a role model, increased self-confidence, and the realization of life's possibilities. Parent themes included increased child independence, increased child confidence, and child feelings of normalcy related to belonging to a peer group. Findings from this study can be used to encourage families of children with CHD to allow participation in a well-supervised overnight recreational experience. Such an experience can foster the child's overall development, provide peer group support, and reduce parent anxiety about overnight separation from the child.

  17. EVALUATION OF SPERM CHROMATIN STRUCTURE ASSAY (SCSA REGISTERED TRADEMARK) IN HUMAN SPERM AFTER SIMULATED OVERNIGHT SHIPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Home semen collection kits allow men to collect a sample at their convenience and send it via overnight mail to the laboratory. Benefits of this approach include facilitated sample collection from different geographic locations, minimized variability through analysis by a central...

  18. Is Everything All Right at Night? Measuring User Response to Overnight Library Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chrzastowski, Tina E.; Nutefall, Jennifer E.

    2016-01-01

    A multiple methods study was conducted over three academic terms during the 2015 fiscal year at Santa Clara University Library to assess the impact and value of overnight library hours. A survey was conducted after midnight during times the Library was open 24 hours, five days a week (24/5), the last two weeks of the quarter. The survey was…

  19. Objective Sleep Assessments in Patients with Postural Tachycardia Syndrome using Overnight Polysomnograms

    PubMed Central

    Bagai, Kanika; Peltier, Amanda C.; Malow, Beth A.; Diedrich, André; Shibao, Cyndya A.; Black, Bonnie K.; Paranjape, Sachin Y.; Orozco, Carlos; Biaggioni, Italo; Robertson, David; Raj, Satish R.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Patients with postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) commonly complain of fatigue, unrefreshing sleep, daytime sleepiness, and diminished quality of life. The study objective was to assess objective sleep quality in POTS patients using overnight polysomnography. Methods: We studied 16 patients with POTS and 15 healthy control subjects performing daytime autonomic functions tests and overnight polysomnography at the Vanderbilt Clinical Research Center. Results: There were no significant differences in the objective sleep parameters including sleep efficiency, sleep onset latency, wake time after sleep onset, REM latency, percentage of time spent in N1, N2, N3, and REM sleep, arousal index, apnea-hypopnea index, or periodic leg movement index in POTS patients as compared with healthy control subjects. There were significant negative correlations between sleep efficiency and the change in HR from supine to stand (rs = −0.527; p = 0.036) Conclusions: POTS patients do not have significant differences in objective sleep parameters as compared to control subjects based on overnight polysomnograms. Activation of the sympathetic nervous system may contribute significantly to the hyper arousal state and worsening of subjective estimates of sleep quality as previously reported in POTS patients. Citation: Bagai K, Peltier AC, Malow BA, Diedrich A, Shibao CA, Black BK, Paranjape SY, Orozco C, Biaggioni I, Robertson D, Raj SR. Objective sleep assessments in patients with postural tachycardia syndrome using overnight polysomnograms. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(5):727–733. PMID:26951415

  20. Purple Urine Bag Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Abubacker, Naufal Rizwan Taraganar; Jayaraman, Senthil Manikandan Thirumanilayur; Sivanesan, Magesh Kumar; Mathew, Renu

    2015-01-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) is a rare disorder seen in elderly persons, wherein the urinary bag and the tubing turn in to purple colour. It is usually seen in patients who are on urinary catheters for a long time. Purple coloured urine occurs due to the accumulation of indigo and indirubin, which are the end products of tryptophan metabolism due to the action of sulfatases and phosphatases formed by bacteria like Providencia, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Klebsiella etc. We present this interesting phenomenon of purple urine in a young male who was on prolonged urinary catheterization. The urine culture was positive for Providencia and constipation was an added risk factor for the purple urine. The urinary catheter and tubing was changed along with a course of antibiotics which lead to the normalization of the urine colour. PMID:26435987

  1. Urine Pretreat Injection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    A new method of introducing the OXONE (Registered Trademark) Monopersulfate Compound for urine pretreat into a two-phase urine/air flow stream has been successfully tested and evaluated. The feasibility of this innovative method has been established for purposes of providing a simple, convenient, and safe method of handling a chemical pretreat required for urine processing in a microgravity space environment. Also, the Oxone portion of the urine pretreat has demonstrated the following advantages during real time collection of 750 pounds of urine in a Space Station design two-phase urine Fan/Separator: Eliminated urine precipitate buildup on internal hardware and plumbing; Minimized odor from collected urine; and Virtually eliminated airborne bacteria. The urine pretreat, as presently defined for the Space Station program for proper downstream processing of urine, is a two-part chemical treatment of 5.0 grams of Oxone and 2.3 ml of H2SO4 per liter of urine. This study program and test demonstrated only the addition of the proper ratio of Oxone into the urine collection system upstream of the Fan/Separator. This program was divided into the following three major tasks: (1) A trade study, to define and recommend the type of Oxone injection method to pursue further; (2) The design and fabrication of the selected method; and (3) A test program using high fidelity hardware and fresh urine to demonstrate the method feasibility. The trade study was conducted which included defining several methods for injecting Oxone in different forms into a urine system. Oxone was considered in a liquid, solid, paste and powered form. The trade study and the resulting recommendation were presented at a trade study review held at Hamilton Standard on 24-25 October 94. An agreement was reached at the meeting to continue the solid tablet in a bag concept which included a series of tablets suspended in the urine/air flow stream. These Oxone tablets would slowly dissolve at a controlled rate

  2. Crew Factors in Flight Operations 7: Psychophysiological Responses to Overnight Cargo Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gander, Philippa H.; Gregory, Kevin B.; Connell, Linda J.; Miller, Donna L.; Graeber, R. Curtis; Rosekind, Mark R.

    1996-01-01

    To document the psychophysiological effects of flying overnight cargo operations, 41 B-727 crew members (average age 38 yr) were monitored before, during, and after one of two typical 8-day trip patterns. During daytime layovers, the average sleep episode was 3 hr (41%) shorter than nighttime sleeps and was rated as lighter, less restorative, and poorer overall. Sleep was frequently split into several episodes and totaled 1.2 hr less per 24 hr than on pretrip days. Each trip pattern included a night off, which was an effective countermeasure against the accumulating sleep debt. The organization of sleep during daytime layovers reflected the interaction of duty timing with circadian physiology. The circadian temperature rhythm did not adapt completely to the inverted wake-rest schedule on duty days, being delayed by about 3 hr. Highest subjective fatigue and lowest activation occurred around the time of the temperature minimum. On duty days, reports of headaches increased by 400%, of congested nose by 200%, and of burning eyes by 900%. Crew members also reported eating more snacks. Compared with daytime short-haul air-transport operations, the overnight cargo trips included fewer duty and flight hours, and had longer layovers. Overnight cargo crews also averaged 5.4 yr younger than their daytime short-haul counterparts. On trips, both groups lost a comparable amount of sleep per 24 hr, but the overnight cargo crews had shorter individual sleep episodes and more broken sleep. These data clearly demonstrate that overnight cargo operations, like other night work, involve physiological disruption not found in comparable daytime operations.

  3. Overnight Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Nancy N.; Stahl, Robert J.

    1981-01-01

    Outlines objectives for an elementary science camping program and summarizes general operational procedures. Campsite activities related to such topics as microorganisms, eye and sight, nature trails, bees, carpentry, and astronomy are described. (DS)

  4. Urine Monitoring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feedback, Daniel L.; Cibuzar, Branelle R.

    2009-01-01

    The Urine Monitoring System (UMS) is a system designed to collect an individual crewmember's void, gently separate urine from air, accurately measure void volume, allow for void sample acquisition, and discharge remaining urine into the Waste Collector Subsystem (WCS) onboard the International Space Station. The Urine Monitoring System (UMS) is a successor design to the existing Space Shuttle system and will resolve anomalies such as: liquid carry-over, inaccurate void volume measurements, and cross contamination in void samples. The crew will perform an evaluation of airflow at the ISS UMS urinal hose interface, a calibration evaluation, and a full user interface evaluation. o The UMS can be used to facilitate non-invasive methods for monitoring crew health, evaluation of countermeasures, and implementation of a variety of biomedical research protocols on future exploration missions.

  5. Urine collection device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michaud, R. B. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A urine collection device for females is described. It is comprised of a collection element defining a urine collection chamber and an inlet opening into the chamber and is adapted to be disposed in surrounding relation to the urethral opening of the user. A drainage conduit is connected to the collection element in communication with the chamber whereby the chamber and conduit together comprise a urine flow pathway for carrying urine generally away from the inlet. A first body of wicking material is mounted adjacent the collection element and extends at least partially into the flow pathway. The device preferably also comprise a vaginal insert element including a seal portion for preventing the entry of urine into the vagina.

  6. Hantavirus Infections among Overnight Visitors to Yosemite National Park, California, USA, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Núñez, Jonathan J.; Fritz, Curtis L.; Knust, Barbara; Buttke, Danielle; Enge, Barryett; Novak, Mark G.; Kramer, Vicki; Osadebe, Lynda; Messenger, Sharon; Albariño, César G.; Ströher, Ute; Niemela, Michael; Amman, Brian R.; Wong, David; Manning, Craig R.; Nichol, Stuart T.; Rollin, Pierre E.; Xia, Dongxiang; Watt, James P.

    2014-01-01

    In summer 2012, an outbreak of hantavirus infections occurred among overnight visitors to Yosemite National Park in California, USA. An investigation encompassing clinical, epidemiologic, laboratory, and environmental factors identified 10 cases among residents of 3 states. Eight case-patients experienced hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, of whom 5 required intensive care with ventilatory support and 3 died. Staying overnight in a signature tent cabin (9 case-patients) was significantly associated with becoming infected with hantavirus (p<0.001). Rodent nests and tunnels were observed in the foam insulation of the cabin walls. Rodent trapping in the implicated area resulted in high trap success rate (51%), and antibodies reactive to Sin Nombre virus were detected in 10 (14%) of 73 captured deer mice. All signature tent cabins were closed and subsequently dismantled. Continuous public awareness and rodent control and exclusion are key measures in minimizing the risk for hantavirus infection in areas inhabited by deer mice. PMID:24565589

  7. Overnight consolidation promotes generalization across talkers in the identification of nonnative speech sounds.

    PubMed

    Earle, F Sayako; Myers, Emily B

    2015-01-01

    This investigation explored the generalization of phonetic learning across talkers following training on a nonnative (Hindi dental and retroflex) contrast. Participants were trained in two groups, either in the morning or in the evening. Discrimination and identification performance was assessed in the trained talker and an untrained talker three times over 24 h following training. Results suggest that overnight consolidation promotes generalization across talkers in identification, but not necessarily discrimination, of nonnative speech sounds.

  8. A single bout of exercise activates skeletal muscle satellite cells during subsequent overnight recovery.

    PubMed

    Snijders, Tim; Verdijk, Lex B; Beelen, Milou; McKay, Bryon R; Parise, Gianni; Kadi, Fawzi; van Loon, Luc J C

    2012-06-01

    Skeletal muscle satellite cell (SC) content has been reported to increase following a single bout of exercise. Data on muscle fibre type-specific SC content and/or SC activation status are presently lacking. The objective of the study was to determine the impact of a single bout of exercise on muscle fibre type-specific SC content and activation status following subsequent overnight recovery. Eight healthy men (age, 20 ± 1 years) performed a single bout of combined endurance- and resistance-type exercise. Muscle biopsies were collected before and immediately after exercise, and following 9 h of postexercise, overnight recovery. Muscle fibre type-specific SC and myonuclear content and SC activation status were determined by immunohistochemical analyses. Satellite cell activation status was assessed by immunohistochemical staining for both Delta-like homologue 1 (DLK1) and Ki-67. Muscle fibre size and fibre area per nucleus were greater in type II compared with type I muscle fibres (P < 0.05). At baseline, no differences were observed in the percentage of SCs staining positive for DLK1 and/or Ki67 between fibre types. No significant changes were observed in SC content following 9 h of postexercise, overnight recovery; however, the percentage of DLK1-positive SCs increased significantly during overnight recovery, from 22 ± 5 to 41 ± 5% and from 24 ± 6 to 51 ± 9% in the type I and II muscle fibres, respectively. No changes were observed in the percentage of Ki-67-positive SCs. A single bout of exercise activates both type I and II skeletal muscle fibre SCs within a single night of postexercise recovery, preceding the subsequent increase in SC content.

  9. Overnight S100B in Parkinson's Disease: A glimpse into sleep-related neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, D Z; Schönwald, S V; Schumacher-Schuh, A F; Braga, C W; Souza, D O; Oses, J P; Donis, K C; Rieder, C R

    2015-11-03

    Calcium-binding protein B (S100B), a primary product of astrocytes, is a proposed marker of Parkinson's Disease (PD) pathophysiology, diagnosis and progression. However, it has also been implicated in sleep disruption, which is very common in PD. To explore the relationship between S100B, disease severity, sleep symptoms and polysomnography (PSG) findings, overnight changes in serum S100B levels were investigated for the first time in PD. 17 fully treated, non-demented, moderately advanced PD patients underwent PSG and clinical assessment of sleep symptoms. Serum S100B samples were collected immediately before and after the PSG. Results are shown as median [interquartile range]. Night and morning S100B levels were similar, but uncorrelated (rs=-0.277, p=0.28). Morning S100B levels, as opposed to night levels, positively correlated with the Unified Parkinson's Disease rating scale (UPDRS) subsections I and II (rs=0.547, p=0.023; rs=0.542, p=0.025). Compared to those with overnight S100B reduction, patients with overnight S100B elevation had higher H&Y scores (2.5 [0.87] vs. 2 [0.25], p=0.035) and worse total Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Parkinson's Disease Sleep Scores (10 [3.2] vs. 8 [4.5], p=0.037; 92.9 [39] vs. 131.4 [28], p=0.034). Correlation between morning S100B levels and total UPDRS score was strengthened after controlling for total PSQI score (rs=0.531, p=0.034; partial rs=0.699, p=0.004, respectively). Overnight S100B variation and morning S100B were associated with PD severity and perceived sleep disruption. S100B is proposed as a putative biomarker for sleep-related neuroinflammation in PD. Noradrenergic-astrocytic dysfunction is hypothesized as a possible mechanism underlying these findings.

  10. Overnight caffeine abstinence and negative reinforcement of preference for caffeine-containing drinks.

    PubMed

    Rogers, P J; Richardson, N J; Elliman, N A

    1995-08-01

    It has been suggested that liking for the taste, flavour and aroma of, for example, coffee and tea is acquired through the process of classical conditioning, involving association of these orosensory cues with the psychopharmacological consequences of caffeine ingestion. Accordingly, this study investigated caffeine reinforcement by assessing changes in preference for a novel drink consumed with or without caffeine. Particular care was taken to use "ecologically valid" procedures; that is, overnight caffeine abstinence followed by a cup-of-coffee equivalent dose of caffeine (70 mg) at breakfast. Caffeine had no significant effects on drink preference or mood in subjects with habitually low intakes of caffeine. In contrast, moderate users of caffeine developed a relative dislike for the drink lacking caffeine and showed somewhat lowered mood following overnight caffeine abstinence (e.g., less lively, clearheaded and cheerful), which was significantly improved by caffeine. These together with other recent results strongly suggest that, in everyday life, caffeine reinforcement can occur as the result of the alleviation by caffeine of the adverse effects of overnight caffeine abstinence (negative reinforcement). They also demonstrate the utility of this flavour-conditioning procedure, which could be applied in the wider investigation of the reinforcing properties of drugs.

  11. Nonhazardous Urine Pretreatment Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akse, James R.; Holtsnider, John T.

    2012-01-01

    A method combines solid phase acidification with two non-toxic biocides to prevent ammonia volatilization and microbial proliferation. The safe, non-oxidizing biocide combination consists of a quaternary amine and a food preservative. This combination has exhibited excellent stabilization of both acidified and unacidified urine. During pretreatment tests, composite urine collected from donors was challenged with a microorganism known to proliferate in urine, and then was processed using the nonhazardous urine pre-treatment method. The challenge microorganisms included Escherichia coli, a common gram-negative bacteria; Enterococcus faecalis, a ureolytic gram-positive bacteria; Candida albicans, a yeast commonly found in urine; and Aspergillus niger, a problematic mold that resists urine pre-treatment. Urine processed in this manner remained microbially stable for over 57 days. Such effective urine stabilization was achieved using non-toxic, non-oxidizing biocides at higher pH (3.6 to 5.8) than previous methods in use or projected for use aboard the International Space Station (ISS). ISS urine pretreatment methods employ strong oxidants including ozone and hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)), a carcinogenic material, under very acidic conditions (pH = 1.8 to 2.4). The method described here offers a much more benign chemical environment than previous pretreatment methods, and will lower equivalent system mass (ESM) by reducing containment volume and mass, system complexity, and crew time needed to handle pre-treatment chemicals. The biocides, being non-oxidizing, minimize the potential for chemical reactions with urine constituents to produce volatile, airborne contaminants such as cyanogen chloride. Additionally, the biocides are active under significantly less acidic conditions than those used in the current system, thereby reducing the degree of required acidification. A simple flow-through solid phase acidification (SPA) bed is employed to overcome the natural buffering

  12. Urination and its discontents.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, J

    1994-01-01

    "Urination and Its Discontents" is an attempt to answer why various twentieth-century artists have made works that use or are about urination. Andy Warhol's act of "pissing" onto a canvas in his Oxidation Paintings is related to homosexual "sex clubs," but also to the iconoclasm of Mapplethorpe, Serrano, Duchamp, and Pollock. Freud's idea that civilization began with the renunciation of the "homosexual competition" of urinating on the fire is discussed and compared to Ellis's idealization of the erotics of bodily functions. Weinberg suggests that artists follow Ellis instead of Freud in undermining the boundaries society places on what is clean and dirty and what is sexually permissible.

  13. Overnight Motor Skill Learning Outcomes in Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Effect of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Landry, Shane; O'Driscoll, Denise M.; Hamilton, Garun S.; Conduit, Russell

    2016-01-01

    Study Objective: To determine the effectiveness of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy in alleviating known impairments in the overnight consolidation of motor skill learning in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Methods: Twenty-five patients with untreated moderate-severe OSA, 13 first-night CPAP users, 17 compliant CPAP users, and 14 healthy control patients were trained on a motor sequence learning task (Sequential Finger Tapping Task, SFTT) and were subsequently tested prior to and after polysomnographic recorded sleep. Measures of subjective sleepiness (Karolinska Sleepiness Scale) and sustained attention (Psychomotor Vigilance Task) were also completed before and after sleep. Results: Typical analyses of overnight improvement on the SFTT show significantly greater overnight gains in motor task speed in controls (+11.6 ± 4.7%, p = 0.007) and compliant CPAP users (+8.9 ± 4.3%, p = 0.008) compared to patients with OSA (−4.86 ± 4.5%). Additional analyses suggest that these improvements in motor performance occurred prior to the sleep episode, as all groups significantly improved (15% to 22%) over a 10-min presleep rest period. Thereafter, performance in all groups significantly deteriorated over sleep (6% to 16%) with trends toward patients with OSA showing greater losses in performance compared to control patients and compliant CPAP users. No between-group differences in subjective sleepiness and sustained attention were found presleep and postsleep. Conclusions: The current data suggest impairments in overnight motor learning in patients with OSA may be a combination of deficient stabilization of memory over a sleep episode as well as increased vulnerability to time on task fatigue effects. Compliant CPAP usage possibly offsets both of these impediments to learning outcomes by improving both sleep quality and subsequent daytime function. Citation: Landry S, O'Driscoll DM, Hamilton GS, Conduit R. Overnight motor skill learning

  14. Leucine aminopeptidase - urine

    MedlinePlus

    ... GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Leucine aminopeptidase - urine URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ ...

  15. Clean catch urine sample

    MedlinePlus

    ... specimen; Urine collection - clean catch; UTI - clean catch; Urinary tract infection - clean catch; Cystitis - clean catch ... LE, Norrby SR. Approach to the patient with urinary tract infection. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil ...

  16. Urine Tests (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... a doctor suspects that a child has a urinary tract infection (UTI) or a health problem that can cause ... to-Creatinine Ratio Kidney Diseases in Childhood Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections and Related Conditions Urinary Tract Infections Urine Test: ...

  17. PBG urine test

    MedlinePlus

    Porphobilinogen test ... temporarily stop taking medicines that may affect the test results. Be sure to tell your provider about ... This test involves only normal urination, and there is no discomfort.

  18. Urinating more at night

    MedlinePlus

    ... you to urinate more often during the night. Caffeine and alcohol after dinner can also lead to ... or urinary tract Drinking a lot of alcohol, caffeine, or other fluids before bedtime Enlarged prostate gland ( ...

  19. 5-HIAA urine test

    MedlinePlus

    HIAA; 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid; Serotonin metabolite ... This test measures the level of 5-HIAA in the urine. It is often done to detect certain tumors in the digestive tract ( carcinoid tumors ) ...

  20. Frequent or urgent urination

    MedlinePlus

    Urgent urination; Urinary frequency or urgency; Urgency-frequency syndrome; Overactive bladder (OAB) syndrome; Urge syndrome ... Also call your provider if: You have urinary frequency or urgency, but you are not pregnant and ...

  1. Maple syrup urine disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... for this disorder: Plasma amino acid test Urine organic acid test Genetic testing There will be signs ... GM, Cowan TM, Klein O, Packman S. Aminoacidemias and organic acidemias. In: Swaiman K, Ashwal S, Ferriero DM, Ferriero ...

  2. Citric acid urine test

    MedlinePlus

    ... used to diagnose renal tubular acidosis and evaluate kidney stone disease. Normal Results The normal range is 320 ... tubular acidosis and a tendency to form calcium kidney stones. The following may decrease urine citric acid levels: ...

  3. Effects of caloric restriction and overnight fasting on cycling endurance performance.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Lisa M; Rossi, Kelly A; Ward, Emily; Jadwin, Emily; Miller, Todd A; Miller, Wayne C

    2009-03-01

    In addition to aerobic endurance and anaerobic capacity, high power-to-weight ratio (PWR) is important for cycling performance. Cyclists often try to lose weight before race season to improve body composition and optimize PWR. Research has demonstrated body fat-reducing benefits of exercise after fasting overnight. We hypothesized that fasted-state exercise in calorie-restricted trained cyclists would not result in performance decrements and that their PWR would improve significantly. We also hypothesized that substrate use during fasted-state submaximal endurance cycling would shift to greater reliance on fat. Ten trained, competitive cyclists completed a protocol consisting of baseline testing, 3 weeks of caloric restriction (CR), and post-CR testing. The testing sessions measured pre- and post-CR values for resting metabolic rate (RMR), body composition, VO2, PWR and power-to-lean weight ratio (PLWR), and power output, as well as 2-hour submaximal cycling performance, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), and respiratory exchange ratio (RER). There were no significant differences between baseline and post-CR for submaximal trial RER, power output, VO2, RMR, VO2max, or workload at VO2max. However, RPE was significantly lower, and PWR was significantly higher post-CR, whereas RER did not change. The cyclists' PWR and body composition improved significantly, and their overall weight, fat weight, and body fat percentage decreased. Lean mass was maintained. The cyclists' RPE decreased significantly during 2 hours of submaximal cycling post-CR, and there was no decrement in submaximal or maximal cycling performance after 3 weeks of CR combined with overnight fasting. Caloric restriction (up to 40% for 3 weeks) and exercising after fasting overnight can improve a cyclist's PWR without compromising endurance cycling performance.

  4. The Human Urine Metabolome

    PubMed Central

    Bouatra, Souhaila; Aziat, Farid; Mandal, Rupasri; Guo, An Chi; Wilson, Michael R.; Knox, Craig; Bjorndahl, Trent C.; Krishnamurthy, Ramanarayan; Saleem, Fozia; Liu, Philip; Dame, Zerihun T.; Poelzer, Jenna; Huynh, Jessica; Yallou, Faizath S.; Psychogios, Nick; Dong, Edison; Bogumil, Ralf; Roehring, Cornelia; Wishart, David S.

    2013-01-01

    Urine has long been a “favored” biofluid among metabolomics researchers. It is sterile, easy-to-obtain in large volumes, largely free from interfering proteins or lipids and chemically complex. However, this chemical complexity has also made urine a particularly difficult substrate to fully understand. As a biological waste material, urine typically contains metabolic breakdown products from a wide range of foods, drinks, drugs, environmental contaminants, endogenous waste metabolites and bacterial by-products. Many of these compounds are poorly characterized and poorly understood. In an effort to improve our understanding of this biofluid we have undertaken a comprehensive, quantitative, metabolome-wide characterization of human urine. This involved both computer-aided literature mining and comprehensive, quantitative experimental assessment/validation. The experimental portion employed NMR spectroscopy, gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), direct flow injection mass spectrometry (DFI/LC-MS/MS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) experiments performed on multiple human urine samples. This multi-platform metabolomic analysis allowed us to identify 445 and quantify 378 unique urine metabolites or metabolite species. The different analytical platforms were able to identify (quantify) a total of: 209 (209) by NMR, 179 (85) by GC-MS, 127 (127) by DFI/LC-MS/MS, 40 (40) by ICP-MS and 10 (10) by HPLC. Our use of multiple metabolomics platforms and technologies allowed us to identify several previously unknown urine metabolites and to substantially enhance the level of metabolome coverage. It also allowed us to critically assess the relative strengths and weaknesses of different platforms or technologies. The literature review led to the identification and annotation of another 2206 urinary compounds and was used to help guide the subsequent experimental studies. An online database containing

  5. An overnight chill induces a delayed inhibition of photosynthesis at midday in mango (Mangifera indica L.).

    PubMed

    Allen, D J; Ratner, K; Giller, Y E; Gussakovsky, E E; Shahak, Y; Ort, D R

    2000-11-01

    The effect of a cold night on photosynthesis in herbaceous chilling-sensitive crops, like tomato, has been extensively studied and is well characterized. This investigation examined the behaviour of the sub-tropical fruit tree, mango, to enable comparison with these well-studied systems. Unlike tomato, chilling between 5 degrees C and 7 degrees C overnight produced no significant inhibition of light-saturated CO(2) assimilation (A:) during the first hours following rewarming, measured either under controlled environment conditions or in the field. By midday, however, there was a substantial decline in A:, which could not be attributed to photoinhibition of PSII, but rather was associated with an increase in stomatal limitation of A: and lower Rubisco activity. Overnight chilling of tomato can cause severe disruption in the circadian regulation of key photosynthetic enzymes and is considered to be a major factor underlying the dysfunction of photosynthesis in chilling-sensitive herbaceous plants. Examination of the gas exchange of mango leaves maintained under constant conditions for 2 d, demonstrated that large depressions in A: during the subjective night were primarily the result of stomatal closure. Chilling did not disrupt the ability of mango leaves to produce a circadian rhythm in stomatal conductance. Rather, the midday increase in stomatal limitation of A: appeared to be the result of altered guard cell sensitivity to CO(2) following the dark chill.

  6. Cocaine metabolite (benzoylecgonine) in hair and urine of drug users.

    PubMed

    Martinez, F; Poet, T S; Pillai, R; Erickson, J; Estrada, A L; Watson, R R

    1993-01-01

    Two methods of drug detection, urinalysis and hair analysis, were compared with respect to the efficiency of identification of drug use in a population of men living on the Arizona-Mexico border. The standard curve of cannabinoids in urine was linear to 20 ng/mL. The GC/MS levels for all cannabinoids combined in urine were very similar to that obtained by radioimmunoassay (RIA), 91% concordance. Similar results were obtained from samples analyzed dually for the cocaine metabolite benzoylecgonine (BE) after spiking. As determined by RIA of urine, 74% of the subjects were positive for cannabinoids. The majority were in the range of 100-1000 ng/mg creatinine. The pattern of excretion of THC metabolites with respect to the verbally reported time of first use was fairly normal, with the peak rate of elimination 13-24 hours following the last reported use. Washed hair samples were extracted by overnight acid hydrolysis. Urine samples and neutralized hair extracts were analyzed for cocaine and BE by RIA. Of the hair samples, 55% contained cocaine/BE, as compared with only 4.3% of the urine samples. Most hair samples contained cocaine/BE in the range of 25-100 ng/sample (100 mg hair). All hair samples testing negative for cocaine/BE by RIA also tested negative by GC/MS, and four samples containing the highest amounts of cocaine and BE by RIA were similarly found to contain the highest amounts by GC/MS. Hair analysis, therefore, gives a wider window of detection of drug use than does urinalysis and shows merit in the confirmation of cocaine use in small clinical research studies.

  7. HCG in urine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Other HCG tests include: HCG in blood serum - qualitative HCG in blood serum - quantitative Pregnancy test ... Urine HCG tests are a common method of determining if a woman is pregnant. The best time to test for pregnancy at home is after you miss your period.

  8. Purple Urine Bag Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Al Montasir, Ahmed; Al Mustaque, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) is rare disease entity, occurs predominantly in constipated women, chronically catheterized and associated with bacterial urinary infections that produce sulphatase/phosphatase. The etiology is due to indigo (blue) and indirubin (red) or to their mixture that becomes purple. We present a case report of this rare phenomenon occurring in an 86-year-old woman. PMID:24479059

  9. 24-hour urine protein

    MedlinePlus

    ... your doctor may be able to order a test that is done on just one urine sample (protein-to-creatinine ratio). Normal Results The normal value is less than 100 milligrams per day or less than 10 milligrams per deciliter ... of these tests. Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different ...

  10. 24-hour urine copper test

    MedlinePlus

    ... associated with providing a urine sample. Alternative Names Quantitative urinary copper Images Copper urine test References McPherson ... for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed physician should be consulted for diagnosis ...

  11. Advanced urine toxicology testing.

    PubMed

    Tenore, Peter L

    2010-10-01

    Urine toxicology screening testing is an important standard of care in the addiction and pain treatment setting, offering a reproducible, unbiased, and accurate laboratory test to monitor patients and provide objective support for clinical observations. It has been shown that physicians do not have proficiency in the ordering or interpretation of these tests. This article is an attempt to respond to that need. Current antibody-based enzymatic immunoassays (EIAs) used for urine toxicology screening are useful to detect classes of drugs (ex., opiate) but cannot determine which specific drug (ex., morphine) is present. Gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy can determine exactly which drugs are present, allowing prescribed (or illicit) opiates and benzodiazepines to be identified. This article will discuss principles and details of opiate and benzodiazepine EIA and gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy urine toxicology testing. The approach to detecting patients attributing positive opiate EIAs to prescription opiates who are using heroin or other opioids will be reviewed. Cases of controlled prescription drugs that do not produce the expected positive urine tests (ex., oxycodone producing negative opiate screening tests) will be discussed. How to differentiate codeine from heroin and the role of poppy seeds in toxicology will be examined. The case of an anti-depressant drug that produces false-positive benzodiazepine results and antibiotics that cause positive opiate urine toxicology results will be reviewed. Common benzodiazepines (ex., clonazepam and lorazepam) that do not reliably produce positive benzodiazepine EIAs will be discussed. The approach to detection and management of all these types of toxicology cases will be reviewed, and it is hoped that the analyses presented will impart an adequate information base to medical providers and staff members of drug treatment and pain centers, enabling them to order and interpret these tests in the clinic more

  12. Characterization of human epidermal growth factor in human serum and urine under native conditions.

    PubMed

    Aybay, Cemalettin; Karakus, Resul; Yucel, Aysegul

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the molecular nature of the human epidermal growth factor (EGF) in serum and urine samples of normal subjects. Recombinant EGF emerged as a single peak and did not interact with human IgG1 and albumin up to the concentration of 12 microg/ml. Freshly separated human serum contained only trace amounts of EGF. However, EGF appeared and increased in serum separated from blood after spontaneous overnight clotting. The authentic 6 kDa form of EGF made up nearly 40% of the total EGF in serum and revealed relatively homogeneous feature. The remaining immunoreactive fractions corresponded to 160 kDa proEGF. Immunoreactive EGF in blood seemed to be associated with the EGF release from platelets. TSKgel G3000SW chromatography of freshly-voided morning and day urines revealed that urine samples mainly contained two major form of EGF; a high-molecular-weight (HMW) and low-molecular-weight (LMW) forms. In the sense of molecular nature of EGF contents, morning urine was more heterogeneous than day urine of the same individuals. The LMW form of EGF in morning urine, in which its proportion was more than 90% of the total EGF, revealed further heterogeneous feature generally containing three to four different components.

  13. Obstructive Sleep Apnea Severity and Overnight Body Fluid Shift before and after Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Forni Ogna, Valentina; Mihalache, Alexandra; Pruijm, Menno; Halabi, Georges; Phan, Olivier; Cornette, Françoise; Bassi, Isabelle; Haba Rubio, José; Burnier, Michel; Heinzer, Raphaël

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with significantly increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Fluid overload may promote obstructive sleep apnea in patients with ESRD through an overnight fluid shift from the legs to the neck soft tissues. Body fluid shift and severity of obstructive sleep apnea before and after hemodialysis were compared in patients with ESRD. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Seventeen patients with hemodialysis and moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea were included. Polysomnographies were performed the night before and after hemodialysis to assess obstructive sleep apnea, and bioimpedance was used to measure fluid overload and leg fluid volume. Results The mean overnight rostral fluid shift was 1.27±0.41 L prehemodialysis; it correlated positively with fluid overload volume (r=0.39; P=0.02) and was significantly lower posthemodialysis (0.78±0.38 L; P<0.001). There was no significant difference in the mean obstructive apnea-hypopnea index before and after hemodialysis (46.8±22.0 versus 42.1±18.6 per hour; P=0.21), but obstructive apnea-hypopnea index was significantly lower posthemodialysis (−10.1±10.8 per hour) in the group of 12 patients, with a concomitant reduction of fluid overload compared with participants without change in fluid overload (obstructive apnea-hypopnea index +8.2±16.1 per hour; P<0.01). A lower fluid overload after hemodialysis was significantly correlated (r=0.49; P=0.04) with a lower obstructive apnea-hypopnea index. Fluid overload—assessed by bioimpedance—was the best predictor of the change in obstructive apnea-hypopnea index observed after hemodialysis (standardized r=−0.68; P=0.01) in multivariate regression analysis. Conclusions Fluid overload influences overnight rostral fluid shift and obstructive sleep apnea severity in patients with ESRD undergoing intermittent hemodialysis. Although no benefit of hemodialysis on obstructive sleep apnea severity

  14. A naturally occurring -263G/C variant of the human AA-NAT gene and overnight melatonin production.

    PubMed

    Ying, Grace Wang; Lee, Caroline Guat Lay; Lee, Edmund Jon Deoon

    2004-01-01

    Several lines of evidence show that the daily amount of melatonin produced differs greatly between individuals. Any polymorphism in the gene of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT), a critical enzyme involved in melatonin biosynthesis, may contribute to the variability of melatonin production. The present study investigated the possible association between overnight melatonin excretion and a commonly occurring -263G/C polymorphism in the promoter region of the human AA-NAT gene. However, we found that -263G/C variant had no effect on the overnight 6-OHMS excretion. In this study, individual genotyping for -263G/C was determined by denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) and confirmed by sequencing. The overnight urinary 6-hydroxymelatonin sulfate (6-OHMS) excretion was quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

  15. Electrolytic pretreatment of urine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Electrolysis has been under evaluation for several years as a process to pretreat urine for ultimate recovery of potable water in manned spacecraft applications. The conclusions that were drawn from this investigation are the following: (1) A platinum alloy containing 10 percent rhodium has been shown to be an effective, corrosion-resistant anode material for the electrolytic pretreatment of urine. Black platinum has been found to be suitable as a cathode material. (2) The mechanism of the reactions occurring during the electrolysis of urine is two-stage: (a) a total Kjeldahl nitrogen and total organic carbon (TOC) removal in the first stage is the result of electrochemical oxidation of urea to CO2, H2O, and ammonia followed by chloride interaction to produce N2 from ammonia, (b) after the urea has been essentially removed and the chloride ions have no more ammonia to interact with, the chloride ions start to oxidize to higher valence states, thus producing perchlorates. (3) Formation of perchlorates can be suppressed by high/low current operation, elevated temperature, and pH adjustment. (4) UV-radiation showed promise in assisting electrolytic TOC removal in beaker tests, but was not substantiated in limited single cell testing. This may have been due to non-optimum configurations of the single cell test rig and the light source.

  16. Relative density of urine: methods and clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Pradella, M; Dorizzi, R M; Rigolin, F

    1988-01-01

    The physical properties and chemical composition of urine are highly variable and are determined in large measure by the quantity and the type of food consumed. The specific gravity is the ratio of the density to that of water, and it is dependent on the number and weight of solute particles and on the temperature of the sample. The weight of solute particles is constituted mainly of urea (73%), chloride (5.4%), sodium (5.1%), potassium (2.4%), phosphate (2.0%), uric acid (1.7%), and sulfate (1.3%). Nevertheless, urine osmolality depends only on the number of solute particles. The renal production of maximally concentrated urine and formation of dilute urine may be reduced to two basic elements: (1) generation and maintenance of a renal medullary solute concentration hypertonic to plasma and (2) a mechanism for osmotic equilibration between the inner medulla and the collecting duct fluid. The interaction of the renal medullary countercurrent system, circulating levels of antidiuretic hormone, and thirst regulates water metabolism. Renin, aldosterone, prostaglandins, and kinins also play a role. Clinical estimation of the concentrating and diluting capacity can be performed by relatively simple provocative tests. However, urinary specific gravity after taking no fluids for 12 h overnight should be 1.025 or more, so that the second urine in the morning is a useful sample for screening purposes. Many preservation procedures affect specific gravity measurements. The concentration of solids (or water) in urine can be measured by weighing, hydrometer, refractometry, surface tension, osmolality, a reagent strip, or oscillations of a capillary tube. These measurements are interrelated, not identical. Urinary density measurement is useful to assess the disorders of water balance and to discriminate between prerenal azotemia and acute tubular necrosis. The water balance regulates the serum sodium concentration, therefore disorders are revealed by hypo- and hypernatremia. The

  17. Correlation between sodium and potassium excretion in 24- and 12-h urine samples.

    PubMed

    Mill, J G; Silva, A B T da; Baldo, M P; Molina, M C B; Rodrigues, S L

    2012-09-01

    Low-sodium and high-potassium diets have been recommended as an adjunct to prevention and treatment of hypertension. Analysis of these nutrients in 24-h urine has been considered the reference method to estimate daily intake of these minerals. However, 24-h urine collection is difficult in epidemiological studies, since urine must be collected and stored in job environments. Therefore, strategies for shorter durations of urine collection at home have been proposed. We have previously reported that collecting urine during a 12-h period (overnight) is more feasible and that creatinine clearance correlated strongly with that detected in 24-h samples. In the present study, we collected urine for 24 h divided into two 12-h periods (from 7:00 am to 7:00 pm and from 7:00 pm to 7:00 am next day). A sample of 109 apparently healthy volunteers aged 30 to 74 years of both genders working in a University institution was investigated. Subjects with previous myocardial infarction, stroke, renal insufficiency, and pregnant women were not included. Significant (P < 0.001) Spearman correlation coefficients (r s) were found between the total amount of sodium and potassium excreted in the urine collected at night and in the 24-h period (r s = 0.76 and 0.74, respectively). Additionally, the 12-h sodium and potassium excretions (means ± SD, 95% confidence interval) corresponded to 47.3 ± 11.2%, 95%CI = 45.3-49.3, and 39.3 ± 4.6%, 95%CI = 37.3-41.3, respectively, of the 24-h excretion of these ions. Therefore, these findings support the assumption that 12-h urine collected at night can be used as a reliable tool to estimate 24-h intake/excretion of sodium and potassium.

  18. Flight Schedule and the Circadian Clock Influence on Sleep Loss During Overnight Cargo Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gander, Philippa H.; Gregory, Kevin B.; Rosekind, Mark R.; Shafto, Michael G. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Thirty-four flight crew members were monitored before, during, and after two 8-day overnight cargo duty patterns which involved multiple flights at night crossing no more than one time zone per 24 h. Rectal temperature, heart rate, and wrist activity were recorded every 2 min. Sleep quantity and quality, and nap timing, were noted in a logbook. To reduce the masking effects of physical activity on temperature, 0.28 C was added to each subject's raw temperature data whenever he reported being asleep. For both masked and unmasked data, daily temperature minima were estimated from the multiple complex demodulated waveform. The temperature minima did not show a progressive adaptation to night duty, which was interrupted by a night off after 5 nights on one trip pattern and after 3 nights on the other. On duty days, the average temperature minimum delayed by about 3 h, occurring near the end of the duty period. Daytime sleep episodes averaged 2.9 h shorter than nighttime sleep episodes, and were rated as lighter, less restorative, and poorer overall. Fifty-three percent of subjects slept more than once per 24 h while they were on night duty, compared to 17% when able to sleep at night. The total sleep per 24 h on duty days averaged 1.2 h less than pretrip. Twenty-nine percent of subjects lost more than 2 h of sleep per 24 h across the 8-day duty patterns. After night duty, subjects awoke around 1400 local time, even when they had slept 2-3 h less than a normal nocturnal sleep episode. Consequently, the duration of morning sleep episodes was correlated with the off-duty time (multiple r(sup 2)=0.44, F=37.23, p less than 0.0001). Anecdotally, crew members complained of being unable to sleep longer and not feeling well-rested. These wakeups were clustered 6 h after the temperature minimum, which suggests that they may have been a response to the circadian wakeup signal. Daytime layovers in which crew members were able to sleep again in the evening ended later (0200

  19. Infrequent dream recall associated with low performance but high overnight improvement on mirror-tracing.

    PubMed

    Dumel, Gaëlle; Carr, Michelle; Marquis, Louis-Philippe; Blanchette-Carrière, Cloé; Paquette, Tyna; Nielsen, Tore

    2015-08-01

    Although sleep facilitates learning and memory, the roles of dreaming and habitual levels of recalling dreams remain unknown. This study examined if performance and overnight improvement on a rapid eye movement sleep-sensitive visuomotor task is associated differentially with habitually high or low dream recall frequency. As a relation between dream production and visuospatial skills has been demonstrated previously, one possibility is that frequency of dream recall will be linked to performance on visuomotor tasks such as the Mirror Tracing Task. We expected that habitually low dream recallers would perform more poorly on the Mirror Tracing Task than would high recallers and would show less task improvement following a night of sleep. Fifteen low and 20 high dream recallers slept one night each in the laboratory and performed the Mirror Tracing Task before and after sleep. Low recallers had overall worse baseline performance but a greater evening-to-morning improvement than did high recallers. Greater improvements in completion time in low recallers were associated with Stage 2 rather than rapid eye movement sleep. Findings support the separate notions that dreaming is related to visuomotor processes and that different levels of visuomotor skill engage different sleep- and dream-related consolidation mechanisms.

  20. Efficient lentiviral gene transfer to canine repopulating cells using an overnight transduction protocol.

    PubMed

    Horn, Peter A; Keyser, Kirsten A; Peterson, Laura J; Neff, Tobias; Thomasson, Bobbie M; Thompson, Jesse; Kiem, Hans-Peter

    2004-05-15

    The use of lentiviral vectors for the transduction of hematopoietic stem cells has evoked much interest owing to their ability to stably integrate into the genome of nondividing cells. However, published large animal studies have reported highly variable gene transfer rates of typically less than 1%. Here we report the use of lentiviral vectors for the transduction of canine CD34(+) hematopoietic repopulating cells using a very short, 18-hour transduction protocol. We compared lentiviral transduction of hematopoietic repopulating cells from either stem cell factor (SCF)- and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF)-primed marrow or mobilized peripheral blood in a competitive repopulation assay in 3 dogs. All dogs engrafted rapidly within 9 days. Transgene expression was detected in all lineages (B cells, T cells, granulocytes, and red blood cells as well as platelets) indicating multilineage engraftment of transduced cells, with overall long-term marking levels of up to 12%. Gene transfer levels in mobilized peripheral blood cells were slightly higher than in primed marrow cells. In conclusion, we show efficient lentiviral transduction of canine repopulating cells using an overnight transduction protocol. These results have important implications for the design of stem cell gene therapy protocols, especially for those diseases in which the maintenance of stem cells in culture is a major limitation.

  1. Corneal deswelling following overnight wear of rigid and hydrogel contact lenses.

    PubMed

    Holden, B A; Sweeney, D F; La Hood, D; Kenyon, E

    1988-01-01

    The edema response over a 24-hour sleep/wake cycle of ten subjects wearing a rigid gas-permeable (RGP) lens in one eye and a hydrogel lens in the other was evaluated. Lenses that result in equivalent amounts of overnight edema were selected. There was no significant difference in the rates of deswelling during the initial hour. However, at three and five hours after eye opening, the amount of residual edema was greater in the eye wearing the hydrogel lens. We suggest that when an RGP lens provides the same closed-eye level of oxygen as a hydrogel lens, the greater tear exchange of the RGP lens will result in a greater open-eye oxygen supply, leading to less daytime edema. This suggests that the more complete deswelling we observed with RGP lenses can be attributed to a lower stimulus to open-eye swelling. Biomicroscopy, subjective vision, and patient comfort were also rated on waking and ten hours after eye opening. On eye opening there was significantly more back-surface debris (P = 0.01) with the RGP lenses. Patients wearing RGPs rated comfort as poorer and vision as better but only the latter attained statistical significance.

  2. Room air conditioning by means of overnight cooling of the concrete ceiling

    SciTech Connect

    Meierhans, R.A.

    1996-11-01

    Active control of the storage mass of an office building in Horgen, Switzerland, by means of a water-carrying pipe system installed in the core of the concrete ceilings has already proven successful over a period of three summers. Comfort measurements in practice and under load-simulated operating conditions have confirmed the suitability of the system for small and medium loads. During the day, only the supply air volume of the mechanical ventilation system is cooled to a temperature of 19 C (66.2 F); the heat stored in the concrete mass is discharged overnight. However, the proportion of cooling water generated in the free-cooling mode remained below expectations. This is attributable to the clearly lower inner thermal loads and the facade insulation, which is no longer up-to-date. Since the building already dispenses a part of its heat via the facade on cooler summer nights, the utilization efficiency of the free concrete core-cooling system diminishes somewhat in importance. The experience gained, however, is recommendation enough for the employment of the embedded pipework system, not only for the cooling but also for the heating of well-insulated buildings with small and medium cooling loads.

  3. Calcium Pre-Rinse Greatly Increases Overnight Salivary Fluoride after a 228 ppm Fluoride Rinse

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, G.L.; Chow, L.C.; Carey, C.M.

    2008-01-01

    Background Large increases in salivary fluoride were reported 1 h after a calcium pre-rinse/NaF rinse. Aims This study examined the persistence of these increases. Methods 12 subjects rinsed in the evening with water, with a 228 μg/g (ppm) F rinse or with 150 mmol/l calcium lactate followed by a 228 μg/g F rinse. In a second experiment these same patients rinsed with a 912 μg/g F rinse. Saliva samples were obtained the morning after rinsing, centrifuged and the supernatants analyzed. Results The Ca pre-rinse/228 μg/g F rinse induced an increase in overnight salivary F over the 912 μg/g F rinse (≈2.5 times) and a statistically significant increase over the 228 μg/g F rinse (≈5.5 times). Conclusions The results suggest that a Ca pretreatment may increase the cariostatic effect of topical F agents. PMID:18781069

  4. Overnight stagnation of drinking water in household taps induces microbial growth and changes in community composition.

    PubMed

    Lautenschlager, Karin; Boon, Nico; Wang, Yingying; Egli, Thomas; Hammes, Frederik

    2010-09-01

    Drinking water quality is routinely monitored in the distribution network but not inside households at the point of consumption. Fluctuating temperatures, residence times (stagnation), pipe materials and decreasing pipe diameters can promote bacterial growth in buildings. To test the influence of stagnation in households on the bacterial cell concentrations and composition, water was sampled from 10 separate households after overnight stagnation and after flushing the taps. Cell concentrations, measured by flow cytometry, increased (2-3-fold) in all water samples after stagnation. This increase was also observed in adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) concentrations (2-18-fold) and heterotrophic plate counts (4-580-fold). An observed increase in cell biovolume and ATP-per-cell concentrations furthermore suggests that the increase in cell concentrations was due to microbial growth. After 5 min flushing of the taps, cell concentrations and water temperature decreased to the level generally found in the drinking water network. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis also showed a change in the microbial composition after stagnation. This study showed that water stagnation in household pipes results in considerable microbial changes. While hygienic risk was not directly assessed, it emphasizes the need for the development of good material validation methods, recommendations and spot tests for in-house water installations. However, a simple mitigation strategy would be a short flushing of taps prior to use.

  5. Hot rocks or no hot rocks: overnight retreat availability and selection by a diurnal lizard.

    PubMed

    Sabo, John L

    2003-08-01

    I used radio telemetry to determine the effects of substrate size and composition on overnight retreat site selection by western fence lizards (Sceloporus occidentalis). In watersheds of northern California (USA), these lizards occupy two habitat types differing in substrate characteristics: rocky cobble bars found in the dry, active channels of rivers and grassy upland meadows. Rocky substrates, found almost exclusively on cobble bars, provided warmer potential retreat sites than all available retreat sites on meadows during the first 5 h of inactivity. Only cobble and sand substrates provided retreats with temperatures within the preferred daily active range (32-36 degrees C) during the inactive period for these lizards (1900-0900 hours). Females on a cobble bar used rocks as retreats on >90% of nights during the breeding season whereas females on a meadow used wood (>70% of nights) and burrows (>25% of nights). In contrast to females, cobble bar males used rocks significantly less frequently (<70%) and slept in the open air significantly more frequently (25% vs. <1%). Cobble bar females further, showed a significant preference for cobbles 15 cm thick, whereas the rocks used by males did not differ significantly in thickness from those measured in randomly placed transects. Rocks 15 cm thick were the warmest retreats commonly available on this habitat type. Thus, thermal microenvironments available to and chosen by gravid female lizards differ considerably between river and non-river habitats.

  6. Urine cup for collection of urine from cows.

    PubMed

    Fellner, V; Weiss, M F; Belo, A T; Belyea, R L; Martz, F A; Orma, A H

    1988-08-01

    A urine cup for continuous and complete collection of urine from cows was constructed from Plastisol, cotton webb strapping, Velcro Brand touch fasteners [corrected], snap-fasteners, denim patches, weather stripping, and vacuum hose. The urine cup was made from Plastisol using a heated lead mold. It was large enough to enclose a 9 cm x 6 cm area around the vulva of a cow and was attached by strapping and Velcro Brand touch fasteners [corrected] to patches glued to the rump. Urine cups were used repeatedly and provided for long-term collection of urine from cows, eliminating the need for indwelling catheters. Applications include long-term nutrient balance, radioisotope, and metabolism studies.

  7. Some historical aspects of urinals and urine receptacles.

    PubMed

    Mattelaer, J J

    1999-06-01

    In the history of mankind the first receptacles for urine were made and employed for diagnostic purposes and developed over centuries to a sophisticated matula. In ancient Greek and Roman history, chamber pots existed and urine was collected to bleach sheets, but it was only in the late medieval and renaissance times that a real urine receptacle or urinal for daily use was developed. We give a short description of the materials used, including clay, pewter, copper, and silver, but more sophisticated receptacles made of china, such as the bourdaloue, and of glass, such as the Kuttrolf, were also developed for use during long church ceremonies. Less known are the wooden "pipes" from Turkestan, used to keep babies dry. In the long history of mankind, urinals sometimes became very original objects.

  8. Nectin-1 spots as a novel adhesion apparatus that tethers mitral cell lateral dendrites in a dendritic meshwork structure of the developing mouse olfactory bulb.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Takahito; Fujiwara, Takeshi; Rikitake, Yoshiyuki; Maruo, Tomohiko; Mandai, Kenji; Kimura, Kazushi; Kayahara, Tetsuro; Wang, Shujie; Itoh, Yu; Sai, Kousyoku; Mori, Masahiro; Mori, Kensaku; Mizoguchi, Akira; Takai, Yoshimi

    2015-08-15

    Mitral cells project lateral dendrites that contact the lateral and primary dendrites of other mitral cells and granule cell dendrites in the external plexiform layer (EPL) of the olfactory bulb. These dendritic structures are critical for odor information processing, but it remains unknown how they are formed. In immunofluorescence microscopy, the immunofluorescence signal for the cell adhesion molecule nectin-1 was concentrated on mitral cell lateral dendrites in the EPL of the developing mouse olfactory bulb. In electron microscopy, the immunogold particles for nectin-1 were symmetrically localized on the plasma membranes at the contacts between mitral cell lateral dendrites, which showed bilateral darkening without dense cytoskeletal undercoats characteristic of puncta adherentia junctions. We named the contacts where the immunogold particles for nectin-1 were symmetrically accumulated "nectin-1 spots." The nectin-1 spots were 0.21 μm in length on average and the distance between the plasma membranes was 20.8 nm on average. In 3D reconstruction of serial sections, clusters of the nectin-1 spots formed a disc-like structure. In the mitral cell lateral dendrites of nectin-1-knockout mice, the immunogold particles for nectin-1 were undetectable and the plasma membrane darkening was electron-microscopically normalized, but the plasma membranes were partly separated from each other. The nectin-1 spots were further identified between mitral cell lateral and primary dendrites and between mitral cell lateral dendrites and granule cell dendritic spine necks. These results indicate that the nectin-1 spots constitute a novel adhesion apparatus that tethers mitral cell dendrites in a dendritic meshwork structure of the developing mouse olfactory bulb.

  9. Overnight studies in severe chronic left heart failure: arrhythmias and oxygen desaturation.

    PubMed Central

    Davies, S W; John, L M; Wedzicha, J A; Lipkin, D P

    1991-01-01

    Overnight studies were performed in 10 patients with severe chronic left heart failure (New York Heart Association grades III and IV) without pulmonary disease and in eight controls. Transcutaneous oxygen (Po2) and carbon dioxide tensions (Pco2) and oxygen saturation were measured and the electro-cardiogram was recorded. During sleep mean oxygen saturation fell to 92.7% (minimum 86.1%) from 95.1% when awake. During the night oxygen saturation was below 95% for 62% of the time, below 90% for 6% of the time, and below 85% for 1% of the time. In four patients there were oxygen desaturation dips (a fall of greater than 4% in oxygen saturation from a stable baseline that lasted greater than 30 s) with concurrent increases in Pco2. Two patients had bradycardia during the dips: in one there was non-sustained ventricular tachycardia during the dips and in the other there was ST depression (greater than 0.1 mV at 80 ms after the J point) during a dip. In the controls the fall in mean oxygen saturation from 95.4% when they were awake to 94.4% when they were asleep was less than the fall in patients with heart failure and there were no desaturation dips or arrhythmias. Thus patients with severe heart failure had episodes of oxygen desaturation during sleep, some of which were associated with arrhythmia. Such episodes may be related to the increased risk of sudden death in chronic heart failure. PMID:1907836

  10. Electroencephalogram (EEG) duration needed to detect abnormalities in angelman syndrome: is 1 hour of overnight recording sufficient?

    PubMed

    Robinson, Althea A; Goldman, Suzanne; Barnes, Gregory; Goodpaster, Luke; Malow, Beth A

    2015-01-01

    Approximately, 90% of patients with Angelman syndrome present with epileptic seizures. Obtaining an electroencephalogram (EEG) with sleep improves the chances of detecting ictal, interictal, and benign abnormal rhythms in Angelman syndrome. However, electroencephalograms, even when obtained during sleep, can be challenging in this population because of tactile sensitivities as well as anxiety related to a novel environment. We tested the hypothesis that 1 hour of sleep on an electroencephalogram would provide as much information as an entire night of electroencephalogram recording, yet more than a routine electroencephalogram conducted during the day. Overnight polysomnograms were collected in 14 children with Angelman syndrome seen at Vanderbilt University. All patients who obtained sleep within the first hour of the overnight electroencephalogram had interictal discharges recorded. Our results show that when sleep is obtained, a 1-hour electroencephalogram yields just as much information as recording an entire night.

  11. Detecting failures of the glucose sensor-insulin pump system: improved overnight safety monitoring for Type-1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Facchinetti, Andrea; Del Favero, Simone; Sparacino, Giovanni; Cobelli, Claudio

    2011-01-01

    New sensors for real-time continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) and pumps for continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII), possibly mounted on the same device, opened new scenarios for Type-1 diabetes treatment. However, possible failures of either CGM or CSII can expose diabetic patients to risks that can be dangerous especially overnight. In this contribution we present a proof-of-concept method, developed in a state-space context and implemented through a Kalman estimator, to detect in real time possible overnight failures of the sensor-pump system by simultaneously using CGM and CSII data. The method is tested on two simulated and one real subject. Results show that the method is able to correctly generate alerts for sensor-pump failures and stimulates further investigation on its development.

  12. The development of attachment in separated and divorced families. Effects of overnight visitation, parent and couple variables.

    PubMed

    Solomon, J; George, C

    1999-04-01

    This study represents the first systematic investigation of the effects on infant attachment to mother and to father of the increasingly common practice of overnight visitation (time-sharing) with the father in separated and divorced families. There were 145 infants (ages 12 to 20 months) and their mothers (and 83 fathers) who participated in the study. Parents completed questionnaires, were interviewed about their relationship with the baby, and were observed with their infants in the Strange Situation. Infants in separated/divorced families who had regular overnight visits with father (n = 44) were significantly less likely to be classified as secure and more likely to be classified as disorganized or unclassifiable in their attachment to mother than infants in a married comparison group (n = 52). Attachment classification to father was unrelated to visiting (time-sharing) arrangements, but infants were significantly more likely to be classified disorganized/unclassifiable with father in the separated/divorced groups (n = 39) than in dual-parent families (n = 44). Disorganized attachment to mother in the Overnight group was associated with maternal reports of low parent communication and high parent conflict, and with low maternal psychological protection of the infant, assessed from maternal interviews. Consistent with Bowlby's and Rutter's context-sensitive views of the effects of separation, the results suggest that repeated overnight separations from the primary caregiver are associated with disruption in mother-infant attachment when the conditions of visitation are poor, i.e. when parents are unable to provide adequate psychological support to the child.

  13. Computed tomographic measurement of canine urine concentration.

    PubMed

    Zwingenberger, Allison L; Carrade Holt, Danielle D

    2017-02-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is able to measure the attenuation of urine in Hounsfield units (HU) on abdominal imaging studies. This study was designed to measure the correlation of urine attenuation with urine specific gravity in urine samples of 40 dogs, providing a noninvasive measure of urine concentration. The HU of urine explained 72% of the variance in measured urine specific gravity [R(2) = 0.72, F(1,38) = 95.55, P < 0.001]. This noninvasive measurement can be used to estimate urine concentration in dogs undergoing abdominal CT imaging.

  14. Urine sediment from a Chihuahua.

    PubMed

    Pallatto, Valarie; Wood, Michael; Grindem, Carol

    2005-12-01

    A 6-year-old, intact male Chihuahua was presented with stranguria and painful urination of 5 days duration. Cystine crystals were observed in low numbers in unstained urine sediment preparations, and a diagnosis of cystinuria was made. Uroliths were removed surgically from the urethra and the bladder, and mineral analysis indicated the stones were composed of 100% cystine. Cystinuria results from an inherited defect in renal tubular transport of cystine that affects many breeds and has been found as an autosomal recessive trait in Newfoundlands. Accurate identification of cystine crystals in urine is an important means of diagnosing cystinuria.

  15. Urine and Urination - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... of All Topics All Urine and Urination - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Chinese - Traditional (繁體中文) French (français) Japanese (日本語) Korean (한국어) Russian (Русский) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Ukrainian (Українська) ...

  16. Short-Term Effects of Overnight Orthokeratology on Corneal Epithelial Permeability and Biomechanical Properties

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Thao N.; Green, Harry M.; Zhou, Yixiu; Pitts, Julie; Kitamata-Wong, Britney; Lee, Sophia; Wang, Shiyin L.; Lin, Meng C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the effects of 30 nights of overnight orthokeratology (OOK) on corneal epithelial permeability (Pdc) and corneal biomechanical properties. Methods. BE Retainer and Paragon CRT lenses were used. Visits were scheduled approximately 4 hours after awakening at baseline and after 1, 5, 10, 14, and 30 days of treatment. Pdc was measured at baseline and at day 30, whereas corneal biomechanical properties and visual acuities (VAs) were measured at all visits. Results. Thirty-nine neophytes and soft contact lens wearers completed the study. There was no difference in Pdc between baseline (ln[Pdc] [95% confidence interval (CI)] = −2.65 [−2.80 to −2.50]) and day 30 (ln[Pdc][CI] = −2.68 [−2.85 to −2.50]) (P = 0.88). Corneal hysteresis (CH) and corneal resistance factor (CRF) reduced significantly from baseline (CH [CI] = 10.89 [10.59–11.19] mm Hg and CRF [CI] = 10.35 [9.99–10.72] mm Hg) to day 30 (CH [CI] = 10.59 [10.31–10.87] mm Hg and CRF [CI] = 9.58 [9.26–9.89] mm Hg) (P = 0.001 for CH and P < 0.001 for CRF). Posttreatment VA did not reach baseline targets, and the difference was worse with low-contrast letters. Asian individuals (n = 18) had significantly worse VA than non-Asian individuals (n = 21) under most conditions through day 5, and the difference extended through day 14 with low-contrast letters under mesopic conditions. The percentage of participants who achieved 20/20 uncorrected was 17% Asian and 40% non-Asian individuals after day 1 and reached 69% Asian and 83% non-Asian individuals at day 30. Conclusions. Thirty nights of OOK did not alter Pdc when measured 4 hours after awakening. OOK caused CH and CRF to decrease, but the changes were not clinically significant compared with diseased and postsurgical cases. Asian individuals, who had lower baseline CH in this study, responded slower to OOK based on early uncorrected VA and overrefraction measurements. PMID:23652492

  17. Arousal Responses during Overnight Polysomnography and their Reproducibility in Healthy Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Azarbarzin, Ali; Ostrowski, Michele; Younes, Magdy; Keenan, Brendan T.; Pack, Allan I.; Staley, Bethany; Kuna, Samuel T.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Arousal intensity and heart rate (HR) response to arousal during polysomnography (PSG) vary considerably between patients with sleep disorders. Our objective was to determine the range of these arousal characteristics in healthy young adults and whether they are consistent on repeated testing. Design: Post hoc analysis of 56 preexisting PSG files recorded from 28 healthy adults on 2 consecutive nights. Setting: Academic medical center and Research and Development Laboratory (YRT Limited, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada). Participants: Twenty-eight healthy young adults. Interventions: None. Measurements and Results: Arousals were identified using an automatic system followed by manual editing. The intensity of arousals was scaled (between 0 and 9) using an automatic algorithm based on the change in the electroencephalography (EEG) signals' wavelet characteristics. 4,751 arousals in 28 pairs of PSGs (night 1 and night 2) were scaled. HR responses (ΔHR) to all arousals were determined and averaged at each arousal scale per file. Overall average arousal intensity ranged 3.0–7.1 in different subjects, and average ΔHR ranged 1.9–18.3 beats.min−1. Heart rate response at a given arousal intensity, expressed as ΔHR at a moderate arousal scale of 5.0 (ΔHR5), ranged 4.1–18.1 beats.min−1. There was a strong correlation between arousal intensity and ΔHR within each subject. More importantly, there were excellent intraclass correlations (ICC) between night 1 and night 2 results for all three variables (ICC = 0.72 for average intensity, 0.92 for average ΔHR4, and 0.91 for ΔHR5). Conclusions: Average arousal intensity and heart rate response to arousal are highly variable among healthy young adults and stable within individuals. Citation: Azarbarzin A, Ostrowski M, Younes M, Keenan BT, Pack AI, Staley B, Kuna ST. Arousal responses during overnight polysomnography and their reproducibility in healthy young adults. SLEEP 2015;38(8):1313–1321. PMID

  18. Urine collection apparatus. [feminine hygiene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michaud, R. B. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A urine collection device for females comprises an interface body with an interface surface for engagement with the user's body. The interface body comprises a forward portion defining a urine-receiving bore which has an inlet in the interface surface adapted to be disposed in surrounding relation to the urethral opening of the user. The interface body also has a rear portion integrally adjoining the forward portion and a non-invasive vaginal seal on the interface surface for sealing the vagina of the user from communication with the urine-receiving bore. An absorbent pad is removably supported on the interface body and extends laterally therefrom. A garment for supporting the urine collection is also disclosed.

  19. Blood in the Urine (Hematuria)

    MedlinePlus

    ... imbalances in the urine, like too much calcium kidney stones kidney diseases taking certain medicines, like some over- ... is a sign of something more serious — like kidney stones or a specific kidney disease — doctors will treat ...

  20. Treating urine by Spirulina platensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chenliang; Liu, Hong; Li, Ming; Yu, Chengying; Yu, Gurevich

    In this paper Spirulina platensis with relatively high nutrition was cultivated to treat human urine. Batch culture showed that the consumption of N in human urine could reach to 99%, and the consumption of P was more than 99.9%, and 1.05 g biomass was obtained by treating 12.5 ml synthetic human urine; continuous culture showed that S. platensis could consume N, Cl, K and S in human urine effectively, and the consumption could reach to 99.9%, 75.0%, 83.7% and 96.0%, respectively, and the consumption of P was over 99.9%, which is very important to increase the closure and safety of the bioregenerative life support system (BLSS).

  1. Blood in the Urine (Hematuria)

    MedlinePlus

    ... hematuria is when blood in the urine is invisible to the naked eye; it only shows up ... Privacy Policy & Terms of Use Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on TeensHealth® is for ...

  2. A urine volume measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poppendiek, H. F.; Mouritzen, G.; Sabin, C. M.

    1972-01-01

    An improved urine volume measurement system for use in the unusual environment of manned space flight is reported. The system utilizes a low time-constant thermal flowmeter. The time integral of the transient response of the flowmeter gives the urine volume during a void as it occurs. In addition, the two phase flows through the flowmeter present no problem. Developments of the thermal flowmeter and a verification of the predicted performance characteristics are summarized.

  3. Uncertainties of Mayak urine data

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Guthrie; Vostrotin, Vadim; Vvdensky, Vladimir

    2008-01-01

    For internal dose calculations for the Mayak worker epidemiological study, quantitative estimates of uncertainty of the urine measurements are necessary. Some of the data consist of measurements of 24h urine excretion on successive days (e.g. 3 or 4 days). In a recent publication, dose calculations were done where the uncertainty of the urine measurements was estimated starting from the statistical standard deviation of these replicate mesurements. This approach is straightforward and accurate when the number of replicate measurements is large, however, a Monte Carlo study showed it to be problematic for the actual number of replicate measurements (median from 3 to 4). Also, it is sometimes important to characterize the uncertainty of a single urine measurement. Therefore this alternate method has been developed. A method of parameterizing the uncertainty of Mayak urine bioassay measmements is described. The Poisson lognormal model is assumed and data from 63 cases (1099 urine measurements in all) are used to empirically determine the lognormal normalization uncertainty, given the measurement uncertainties obtained from count quantities. The natural logarithm of the geometric standard deviation of the normalization uncertainty is found to be in the range 0.31 to 0.35 including a measurement component estimated to be 0.2.

  4. Foamy Urine: What Does It Mean?

    MedlinePlus

    Diseases and Conditions Urine color What does it mean when you have foamy urine? Should I be concerned if it doesn't go away after ... article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/urine-color/expert-answers/foamy-urine/FAQ-20057871 . Mayo Clinic ...

  5. 28 CFR 550.41 - Urine surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Urine surveillance. 550.41 Section 550.41... Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract CTCs) § 550.41 Urine surveillance. A program of urine testing for drug use shall be established in contract CTCs. (a)...

  6. 28 CFR 550.41 - Urine surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Urine surveillance. 550.41 Section 550.41... Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract CTCs) § 550.41 Urine surveillance. A program of urine testing for drug use shall be established in contract CTCs. (a)...

  7. 28 CFR 550.41 - Urine surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Urine surveillance. 550.41 Section 550.41... Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract CTCs) § 550.41 Urine surveillance. A program of urine testing for drug use shall be established in contract CTCs. (a)...

  8. 28 CFR 550.41 - Urine surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Urine surveillance. 550.41 Section 550.41... Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract CTCs) § 550.41 Urine surveillance. A program of urine testing for drug use shall be established in contract CTCs. (a)...

  9. 28 CFR 550.41 - Urine surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Urine surveillance. 550.41 Section 550.41... Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract CTCs) § 550.41 Urine surveillance. A program of urine testing for drug use shall be established in contract CTCs. (a)...

  10. Biological measurement of estrogenic activity in urine and bile conjugates with the in vitro ER-CALUX reporter gene assay.

    PubMed

    Legler, Juliette; Jonas, Arjen; Lahr, Joost; Vethaak, A Dick; Brouwer, Abraham; Murk, Albertinka J

    2002-03-01

    Although estrogens are excreted as biologically inactive conjugates, they can be reconverted to an active form, possibly by bacteria. A simple method was developed to deconjugate estrogen metabolites present in human urine and fish bile back to active estrogens by enzymatic hydrolysis with beta-glucuronidase or live Escherichia coli cells. Deconjugated extracts were tested for estrogenic activity in the in vitro stable estrogen receptor-mediated chemical-activated luciferase gene expression (ER-CALUX) assay. Estrogen glucuronides in urine obtained from human males and females were effectively converted to active forms after incubation with beta-glucuronidase or E. coli. The highest estrogenic activity was found in deconjugated metabolites from urine of a pregnant woman, in which levels up to 3,000 nmol estradiol equivalents per liter of urine were found after overnight incubation of urine with E. coli. Bile sampled from male bream and flounder from various freshwater and marine locations was also deconjugated and a good correlation was found between high biliary estrogenic activity and elevated levels of xenoestrogenic activity in surface water as well as in plasma vitellogenin. Therefore, the measurement of deconjugated bile could form a useful (indirect) biomarker for internal dose of xenoestrogens in male fish.

  11. Urine therapy through the centuries.

    PubMed

    Savica, Vincenzo; Calò, Lorenzo A; Santoro, Domenico; Monardo, Paolo; Mallamace, Agostino; Bellinghieri, Guido

    2011-01-01

    Urine has always interested and attracted the attention of people. It was in fact never considered a waste product of the body but rather as a distilled product selected from the blood and containing useful substances for the care of the body. It was referred to as the "gold of the blood" and "elixir of long life," indicating its therapeutic potential. This paper reports on the practice of urine therapy since its origin attributed to the Indian culture, and briefly reviews its use through the centuries and different cultures and traditions. Records from the Egyptians to Jews, Greeks, Romans and from the Middle Ages and the Renaissance testify to the practice of urine therapy--a practice that continues to be found in more recent times, from the 18th century to the present. Experiences with the practice of urine therapy have even been discussed and shared recently in 2 different conferences: in 1996 in India and in 1999 in Germany, where people from different countries shared and presented their own research on urine therapy.

  12. Creating a urine black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurd, Randy; Pan, Zhao; Meritt, Andrew; Belden, Jesse; Truscott, Tadd

    2015-11-01

    Since the mid-nineteenth century, both enlisted and fashion-conscious owners of khaki trousers have been plagued by undesired speckle patterns resulting from splash-back while urinating. In recent years, industrial designers and hygiene-driven entrepreneurs have sought to limit this splashing by creating urinal inserts, with the effectiveness of their inventions varying drastically. From this large assortment of inserts, designs consisting of macroscopic pillar arrays seem to be the most effective splash suppressers. Interestingly this design partially mimics the geometry of the water capturing moss Syntrichia caninervis, which exhibits a notable ability to suppress splash and quickly absorb water from impacting rain droplets. With this natural splash suppressor in mind, we search for the ideal urine black hole by performing experiments of simulated urine streams (water droplet streams) impacting macroscopic pillar arrays with varying parameters including pillar height and spacing, draining and material properties. We propose improved urinal insert designs based on our experimental data in hopes of reducing potential embarrassment inherent in wearing khakis.

  13. Lorry drivers' work stress evaluated by catecholamines excreted in urine.

    PubMed Central

    van der Beek, A J; Meijman, T F; Frings-Dresen, M H; Kuiper, J I; Kuiper, S

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To evaluate lorry drivers' work stress by measurement of adrenaline and noradrenaline excreted in the urine, and to find out which factors in their working situation are related to the excretion rates of these catecholamines. METHODS--The urinary excretion of adrenaline and noradrenaline of 32 lorry drivers, who also had loading and unloading activities to perform, was studied for one working day and one rest day. Each driver was asked to provide six urine samples on both days. RESULTS--For all samples, except the first (overnight) sample, the excretion rates of both catecholamines on the working day were higher than those on the rest day. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were carried out to find out which factors in the drivers' working situation were related to the excretion rate of the working day. The excretion rate of adrenaline on the rest day, age, and psychosomatic complaints were positively related to the excretion rate on the working day (all P < 0.05). Body mass index and physical workload during loading and unloading were positively related to noradrenaline excretion rate (both P < 0.01). Psychosocial job strain did not significantly contribute to the proportion of variance explained in the excretion rates of both catecholamines. CONCLUSIONS--The excretion rates of adrenaline and, especially, noradrenaline on the working day were higher than those found in earlier studies among professional drivers and insufficient recovery took place after the work was ended. The only association between excretion rate on the working day and work stressors was found for noradrenaline and physical workload. The drivers' sympathoadrenal medullary reactivity to everyday work demands shows the characteristics of sustained activation. PMID:7670621

  14. The overnight effect of dietary energy balance on postprandial plasma free amino acid (PFAA) profiles in Japanese adult men.

    PubMed

    Nishioka, Manabu; Imaizumi, Akira; Ando, Toshihiko; Tochikubo, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    The plasma free amino acid (PFAA) profile is affected by various nutritional conditions, such as the dietary energy balance. Regarding the clinical use of PFAA profiling, it is of concern that differences in food ingestion patterns may generate systematic errors in a plasma amino acid profile and constitute a confounding factor in assessment. In this study, the overnight impact of the dietary energy balance on the postprandial plasma amino acid profile was investigated to elucidate in particular the effects of high protein meals typical in Japanese cuisine. We conducted diet-controlled, crossover trials in eleven healthy male volunteers aged 40-61 y. They consumed either a normal meal (meal N) or high protein meal (meal H) at dinner. Forearm venous blood was collected, and plasma amino acid concentrations were measured before dinner and the next morning. We found that a high protein meal in the evening that contained 40% energy would significantly increase the PFAA concentration the next morning, even more than 12 hours after the meal. Among amino acids, the most significant difference was observed in the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and in some urea-cycle related compounds. If the subject consumed the high protein diet at dinner, the PFAA profile after overnight fasting might be still affected by the meal even 12 hours after the meal, suggesting that the PFAA profile does not reflect the subject's health condition, but rather the acute effect of high protein ingestion.

  15. Randomized clinical trial of multimodal physiotherapy treatment compared to overnight lidocaine ointment in women with provoked vestibulodynia: Design and methods.

    PubMed

    Morin, Mélanie; Dumoulin, Chantale; Bergeron, Sophie; Mayrand, Marie-Hélène; Khalifé, Samir; Waddell, Guy; Dubois, Marie-France

    2016-01-01

    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is a highly prevalent and debilitating condition yet its management relies mainly on non-empirically validated interventions. Among the many causes of PVD, there is growing evidence that pelvic floor muscle (PFM) dysfunctions play an important role in its pathophysiology. Multimodal physiotherapy, which addresses these dysfunctions, is judged by experts to be highly effective and is recommended as a first-line treatment. However, the effectiveness of this promising intervention has been evaluated through only two small uncontrolled trials. The proposed bi-center, single-blind, parallel group, randomized controlled trial (RCT) aims to evaluate the efficacy of multimodal physiotherapy and compare it to a frequently used first-line treatment, topical overnight application of lidocaine, in women with PVD. A total of 212 women diagnosed with PVD according to a standardized protocol were eligible for the study and were randomly assigned to either multimodal physiotherapy or lidocaine treatment for 10weeks. The primary outcome measure is pain during intercourse (assessed with a numerical rating scale). Secondary measures include sexual function, pain quality, psychological factors (including pain catastrophizing, anxiety, depression and fear of pain), PFM morphology and function, and patients' global impression of change. Assessments are made at baseline, post-treatment and at the 6-month follow-up. This manuscript presents and discusses the rationale, design and methodology of the first RCT investigating physiotherapy in comparison to a commonly prescribed first-line treatment, overnight topical lidocaine, for women with PVD.

  16. Availability of 24-h urine collection method on dietary phosphorus intake estimation

    PubMed Central

    Sakuma, Masae; Morimoto, Yuuka; Suzuki, Yukie; Suzuki, Akitsu; Noda, Saaya; Nishino, Kanaho; Ando, Sakiko; Ishikawa, Makoto; Arai, Hidekazu

    2017-01-01

    Accurate assessment of dietary phosphorus intake is necessary to prevent hyperphosphatemia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the 24-h urine collection method for estimation of phosphate intake in healthy males. Two experiments, a 1-day and a 5-day loading test, were performed. After an overnight fast, subjects consumed test meals, 24-h urine collection was performed, and blood samples were obtained. In the 5-day loading test, a phosphorus supplement was orally administered on day 3. The association between the phosphorus content of test meals and urinary excretion, anthropometric indices, and blood biomarkers was analyzed to develop a more precise formula for estimating phosphorus intake. In the 1-day loading test, the standard deviation of predictive phosphorus intake, based on multiple linear regression analysis, was less than that for the phosphorus absorption rate. In the 5-day loading test, urinary phosphorus excretion was similar on days 2, 4 and 5, but was significantly higher on day 3 after phosphorus supplementation. Our results indicate that estimation of dietary phosphorus intake with the 24-h urine collection method, using the amount of phosphorus and urea nitrogen excretion, may increase the precision of short-term monitoring. PMID:28366992

  17. Urine Test: Dipstick (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... a urine dipstick test may point to a diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI), kidney disease, diabetes, or a urinary tract injury. If test results are abnormal, other tests will be needed before a definite diagnosis can be made. Preparation No preparation other than ...

  18. Chemical measurement of urine volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    Chemical method of measuring volume of urine samples using lithium chloride dilution technique, does not interfere with analysis, is faster, and more accurate than standard volumetric of specific gravity/weight techniques. Adaptation of procedure to urinalysis could prove generally practical for hospital mineral balance and catechoamine determinations.

  19. Effects of overnight sleep restriction on brain chemistry and mood in women with unipolar depression and healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    Bernier, Denise; Bartha, Robert; Devarajan, Sivakumaran; MacMaster, Frank P.; Schmidt, Matthias H.; Rusak, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    Background Partial or total overnight sleep deprivation produces immediate mood improvement in about 50% of patients with depression, but not in healthy controls. Our objectives were to compare the neurochemical changes that accompanied partial overnight sleep deprivation in healthy and depressed participants, and to compare baseline neurochemical profiles and overnight neurochemical changes between those depressed participants who did and did not respond to sleep loss with mood improvement. Methods We studied 2 brain regions (left dorsal prefrontal area and pons) in 12 women with unipolar depression and in 15 healthy women using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy acquired at 1.5 T. The scans took place at baseline and 24 hours later after a night with sleep restricted to a maximum of 2.5 hours (22:30–01:00). We assessed 3 neurochemical signals (referenced to internal water): N-acetylaspartate (NAA), choline compounds (Cho) and creatine-plus-phosphocreatine (tCr). Results In both groups combined, sleep restriction caused a 20.1% decrease in pontine tCr (F1–16 = 5.07, p = 0.039, Cohen’s d = 0.54) and an 11.3% increase in prefrontal Cho (F1–21 = 5.24, p = 0.033, Cohen’s d = 0.46). Follow-up tests revealed that prefrontal Cho increases were significant only among depressed participants (17.9% increase, t9 = −3.35, p = 0.008, Cohen’s d = 1.06). Five depressed patients showed at least 30% improvement in mood, whereas 6 showed no change or worsening in mood after sleep restriction. Baseline pontine Cho levels distinguished subsequent responders from nonresponders to sleep restriction among depressed participants (z = 2.61, p = 0.008). Limitations A limitation of this study is the relatively small sample size. Conclusion Sleep restriction altered levels of pontine tCr and prefrontal Cho in both groups combined, suggesting effects on phospholipid and creatine metabolism. Baseline levels of pontine Cho were linked to subsequent mood responses to sleep loss

  20. Getting a Urine Test (For Kids)

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Video: Getting an X-ray Getting a Urine Test (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a Urine Test (Video) Print A A A en español Obtención ... cup, but docs learn a lot from urine tests. Obviously, this test doesn't hurt. And if ...

  1. Whole-body fat oxidation increases more by prior exercise than overnight fasting in elite endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Andersson Hall, Ulrika; Edin, Fredrik; Pedersen, Anders; Madsen, Klavs

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare whole-body fat oxidation kinetics after prior exercise with overnight fasting in elite endurance athletes. Thirteen highly trained athletes (9 men and 4 women; maximal oxygen uptake: 66 ± 1 mL·min(-1)·kg(-1)) performed 3 identical submaximal incremental tests on a cycle ergometer using a cross-over design. A control test (CON) was performed 3 h after a standardized breakfast, a fasting test (FAST) 12 h after a standardized evening meal, and a postexercise test (EXER) after standardized breakfast, endurance exercise, and 2 h fasting recovery. The test consisted of 3 min each at 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, and 80% of maximal oxygen uptake and fat oxidation rates were measured through indirect calorimetry. During CON, maximal fat oxidation rate was 0.51 ± 0.04 g·min(-1) compared with 0.69 ± 0.04 g·min(-1) in FAST (P < 0.01), and 0.89 ± 0.05 g·min(-1) in EXER (P < 0.01). Across all intensities, EXER was significantly higher than FAST and FAST was higher than CON (P < 0.01). Blood insulin levels were lower and free fatty acid and cortisol levels were higher at the start of EXER compared with CON and FAST (P < 0.05). Plasma nuclear magnetic resonance-metabolomics showed similar changes in both EXER and FAST, including increased levels of fatty acids and succinate. In conclusion, prior exercise significantly increases whole-body fat oxidation during submaximal exercise compared with overnight fasting. Already high rates of maximal fat oxidation in elite endurance athletes were increased by approximately 75% after prior exercise and fasting recovery.

  2. Closing the loop overnight at home setting: psychosocial impact for adolescents with type 1 diabetes and their parents

    PubMed Central

    Barnard, Katharine D; Wysocki, Tim; Allen, Janet M; Elleri, Daniela; Thabit, Hood; Leelarathna, Lalantha; Gulati, Arti; Nodale, Marianna; Dunger, David B; Tinati, Tannaze; Hovorka, Roman

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the experiences of adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and their parents taking part in an overnight closed loop study at home, using qualitative and quantitative research methods. Research design and methods Adolescents aged 12–18 years on insulin pump therapy were recruited to a pilot closed loop study in the home setting. Following training on the use of a study insulin pump and continuous glucose monitoring (CGM), participants were randomized to receive either real-time CGM combined with overnight closed loop or real-time CGM alone followed by the alternative treatment for an additional 21 days with a 2–3-week washout period in between study arms. Semistructured interviews were performed to explore participants’ perceptions of the impact of the closed loop technology. At study entry and again at the end of each 21-day crossover arm of the trial, participants completed the Diabetes Technology Questionnaire (DTQ) and Hypoglycemia Fear Survey (HFS; also completed by parents). Results 15 adolescents and 13 parents were interviewed. Key positive themes included reassurance/peace of mind, confidence, ‘time off’ from diabetes demands, safety, and improved diabetes control. Key negative themes included difficulties with calibration, alarms, and size of the devices. DTQ results reflected these findings. HFS scores were mixed. Conclusions Closed loop insulin delivery represents cutting-edge technology in the treatment of T1DM. Results indicate that the psychological and physical benefits of the closed loop system outweighed the practical challenges reported. Further research from longitudinal studies is required to determine the long-term psychosocial benefit of the closed loop technology. PMID:25452866

  3. Impact of Protected Sleep Period for Internal Medicine Interns on Overnight Call on Depression, Burnout, and Empathy

    PubMed Central

    Shea, Judy A.; Bellini, Lisa M.; Dinges, David F.; Curtis, Meredith L.; Tao, Yuanyuan; Zhu, Jingsan; Small, Dylan S.; Basner, Mathias; Norton, Laurie; Novak, Cristina; Dine, C. Jessica; Rosen, Ilene M.; Volpp, Kevin G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Patient safety and sleep experts advocate a protected sleep period for residents. Objective We examined whether interns scheduled for a protected sleep period during overnight call would have better end-of-rotation assessments of burnout, depression, and empathy scores compared with interns without protected sleep periods and whether the amount of sleep obtained during on call predicted end-of-rotation assessments. Methods We conducted a randomized, controlled trial with internal medicine interns at the Philadelphia Veterans Affairs Medical Center (PVAMC) and the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania (HUP) in academic year 2009–2010. Four-week blocks were randomly assigned to either overnight call permitted under the 2003 duty hour standards or a protected sleep period from 12:30 am to 5:30 am. Participants wore wrist actigraphs. At the beginning and end of the rotations, they completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II), Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI-HSS), and Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI). Results A total of 106 interns participated. There were no significant differences between groups in end-of-rotation BDI-II, MBI-HSS, or IRI scores at either location (P > .05). Amount of sleep while on call significantly predicted lower MBI-Emotional Exhaustion (P < .003), MBI-Depersonalization (P < .003), and IRI-Personal Distress (P < .006) at PVAMC, and higher IRI-Perspective Taking (P < .008) at HUP. Conclusions A protected sleep period produced few consistent improvements in depression, burnout, or empathy, although depression was already low at baseline. Possibly the amount of protected time was too small to affect these emotional states or sleep may not be directly related to these scores. PMID:24949128

  4. Urine concentrating and diluting ability during aging.

    PubMed

    Sands, Jeff M

    2012-12-01

    Urine concentrating ability is reduced during normal aging in people and rats. The abundance of many of the key transport proteins that contribute to urine concentrating ability is reduced in the kidney medulla of aged rats. The reductions in water, sodium, and urea transport protein abundances, and their reduced response to water restriction, contribute to the reduced ability of aged rats to concentrate their urine and conserve water. If similar mechanisms occur in human kidneys, it would provide a molecular explanation for the reduced urine concentrating ability in aging and may provide opportunities for novel therapeutic approaches to improve urine concentrating ability and/or nocturnal polyuria.

  5. On-Demand Urine Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farquharson, Stuart; Inscore, Frank; Shende, Chetan

    2010-01-01

    A lab-on-a-chip was developed that is capable of extracting biochemical indicators from urine samples and generating their surface-enhanced Raman spectra (SERS) so that the indicators can be quantified and identified. The development was motivated by the need to monitor and assess the effects of extended weightlessness, which include space motion sickness and loss of bone and muscle mass. The results may lead to developments of effective exercise programs and drug regimes that would maintain astronaut health. The analyzer containing the lab-on-a- chip includes materials to extract 3- methylhistidine (a muscle-loss indicator) and Risedronate (a bone-loss indicator) from the urine sample and detect them at the required concentrations using a Raman analyzer. The lab-on- a-chip has both an extractive material and a SERS-active material. The analyzer could be used to monitor the onset of diseases, such as osteoporosis.

  6. Urine markers of interstitial cystitis.

    PubMed

    Erickson, D R

    2001-06-01

    This article describes the current state of the art with regard to urine markers of interstitial cystitis (IC), and describes the areas that need continuing research. Articles referenced in MEDLINE that describe urine alterations in IC were reviewed. Additional articles were identified by cross-referencing. The different marker alterations were tabulated. The relevant articles were discussed, considering different purposes for urine markers including: (1) diagnosing IC; (2) confirming a specific pathophysiology for IC; and (3) predicting or following response to a specific treatment. Currently, 2 markers (glycoprotein-51 and antiproliferative factor [APF]) clearly separate IC and control subjects, with minimal overlap. Markers that correlate with specific bladder biopsy features include 1,4-methylimidazole acetic acid and eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), which correlate with mast cell density, and interleukin (IL)-6, which correlates with mononuclear inflammation. Markers that changed after treatment were as follows: (1) nitric oxide synthase and cyclic guanosine monophosphate increased with oral L-arginine; (2) ECP decreased with subcutaneous heparin; (3) prostaglandin E(2) and kallikrein decreased after bladder distention; (4) neutrophil chemotactic activity decreased after dimethyl sulfoxide; (5) IL-2 inhibitor decreased after oral nifedipine; (6) IL-2, IL-6, and IL-8 decreased after bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine; and (7) APF and heparin-binding epidermal growth factor changed to or toward normal levels after bladder distention or sacral nerve stimulation. A larger number of urine alterations have been reported, and a few are being pursued further by correlating with bladder biopsy findings or treatment responses. Further research is needed.

  7. Urine Bag as a Modern Day Matula

    PubMed Central

    Viswanathan, Stalin

    2013-01-01

    Since time immemorial uroscopic analysis has been a staple of diagnostic medicine. It received prominence during the middle ages with the introduction of the matula. Urinary discoloration is generally due to changes in urochrome concentration associated with the presence of other endogenous or exogenous pigments. Observation of urine colors has received less attention due to the advances made in urinalysis. A gamut of urine colors can be seen in urine bags of hospitalized patients that may give clue to presence of infections, medications, poisons, and hemolysis. Although worrisome to the patient, urine discoloration is mostly benign and resolves with removal of the offending agent. Twelve urine bags with discolored urine (and their predisposing causes) have been shown as examples. Urine colors (blue-green, yellow, orange, pink, red, brown, black, white, and purple) and their etiologies have been reviewed following a literature search in these databases: Pubmed, EBSCO, Science Direct, Proquest, Google Scholar, Springer, and Ovid. PMID:24959539

  8. Dietary exposure biomarker-lead discovery based on metabolomics analysis of urine samples.

    PubMed

    Beckmann, Manfred; Lloyd, Amanda J; Haldar, Sumanto; Favé, Gaëlle; Seal, Chris J; Brandt, Kirsten; Mathers, John C; Draper, John

    2013-08-01

    Although robust associations between dietary intake and population health are evident from conventional observational epidemiology, the outcomes of large-scale intervention studies testing the causality of those links have often proved inconclusive or have failed to demonstrate causality. This apparent conflict may be due to the well-recognised difficulty in measuring habitual food intake which may lead to confounding in observational epidemiology. Urine biomarkers indicative of exposure to specific foods offer information supplementary to the reliance on dietary intake self-assessment tools, such as FFQ, which are subject to individual bias. Biomarker discovery strategies using non-targeted metabolomics have been used recently to analyse urine from either short-term food intervention studies or from cohort studies in which participants consumed a freely-chosen diet. In the latter, the analysis of diet diary or FFQ information allowed classification of individuals in terms of the frequency of consumption of specific diet constituents. We review these approaches for biomarker discovery and illustrate both with particular reference to two studies carried out by the authors using approaches combining metabolite fingerprinting by MS with supervised multivariate data analysis. In both approaches, urine signals responsible for distinguishing between specific foods were identified and could be related to the chemical composition of the original foods. When using dietary data, both food distinctiveness and consumption frequency influenced whether differential dietary exposure could be discriminated adequately. We conclude that metabolomics methods for fingerprinting or profiling of overnight void urine, in particular, provide a robust strategy for dietary exposure biomarker-lead discovery.

  9. 46 CFR 116.730 - Crew accommodations on vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Crew accommodations on vessels of more than 19.8 meters... ARRANGEMENT Crew Spaces § 116.730 Crew accommodations on vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length... more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight accommodations for more than 49...

  10. 46 CFR 116.730 - Crew accommodations on vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Crew accommodations on vessels of more than 19.8 meters... ARRANGEMENT Crew Spaces § 116.730 Crew accommodations on vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length... more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight accommodations for more than 49...

  11. 46 CFR 116.730 - Crew accommodations on vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Crew accommodations on vessels of more than 19.8 meters... ARRANGEMENT Crew Spaces § 116.730 Crew accommodations on vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length... more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight accommodations for more than 49...

  12. 46 CFR 116.730 - Crew accommodations on vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Crew accommodations on vessels of more than 19.8 meters... ARRANGEMENT Crew Spaces § 116.730 Crew accommodations on vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length... more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight accommodations for more than 49...

  13. 46 CFR 116.730 - Crew accommodations on vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Crew accommodations on vessels of more than 19.8 meters... ARRANGEMENT Crew Spaces § 116.730 Crew accommodations on vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length... more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight accommodations for more than 49...

  14. Relations of parenting quality, interparental conflict, and overnights with mental health problems of children in divorcing families with high legal conflict.

    PubMed

    Sandler, Irwin N; Wheeler, Lorey A; Braver, Sanford L

    2013-12-01

    The current study examined the associations between child mental health problems and the quality of maternal and paternal parenting, and how these associations were moderated by three contextual factors: quality of parenting by the other parent, interparental conflict, and the number of overnights parents had with the child. Data for the current study came from a sample of divorcing families who are in high legal conflict over developing or maintaining a parenting plan following divorce. Analyses revealed that the associations between child mental health problems and positive maternal and paternal parenting were moderated by the quality of parenting provided by the other parent and by the number of overnights children spent with parents, but not by the level of interparental conflict. When parenting by the other parent and number of overnights were considered together in the same model, only number of overnights moderated the relations between parenting and child-behavior problems. The results support the proposition that the well-being of children in high-conflict divorcing families is better when they spend adequate time with at least one parent who provides high-quality parenting.

  15. Bone resorption is suppressed immediately after the third and fourth days of multiday cycling but persistently increased following overnight recovery.

    PubMed

    Oosthuyse, Tanja; Badenhorst, Margaret; Avidon, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that seasoned cyclists may incur a low bone mineral density. This study investigated the effect of multiday cycling on bone turnover. Ten male cyclists completed 4 consecutive days of cycling for 3 h·day(-1). Sweat calcium excretion during exercise and serum calcium, cortisol, bone formation marker (bone alkaline phosphotase (bone-ALP)), bone resorptive marker (C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (β-CTX)), and parathyroid hormone concentration were measured before and immediately postexercise each day. Serum β-CTX concentration increased from pre- to postcycling on days 1 and 2 (p = 0.01) (day 1: 0.31 ± 0.14 to 0.60 ± 0.4 ng·mL(-1); day 2: 0.58 ± 0.26 to 0.87 ± 0.42 ng·mL(-1)), while serum bone-ALP concentration remained unchanged. Conversely, on days 3 and 4 both serum β-CTX (day 3: 0.60 ± 0.26 to 0.43 ± 0.26 ng·mL(-1), p < 0.05; day 4: 0.63 ± 0.21 to 0.43 ± 0.22 ng·mL(-1), p < 0.001) and bone-ALP (p < 0.01) response to exercise was suppressed. Interestingly, calcium lost to sweat and postexercise serum cortisol concentration were also significantly lower on days 3 and 4 than on day 1 (p < 0.05). However, both serum β-CTX (102%-124%) and bone-ALP (25%-29%) remained persistently elevated after 21 h of overnight recovery on all successive days compared with day 1 pre-exercise, where the percentage increase was greater for β-CTX (p < 0.05). Bone resorption, immediately following prolonged cycling, is acutely reduced by the third and fourth consecutive days and is coincident to reduced sweat calcium excretion and cortisol concentration. However, multiday cycling imposes a persistent increase in bone resorption following overnight recovery.

  16. A history of urine microscopy.

    PubMed

    Cameron, J Stewart

    2015-11-01

    The naked-eye appearance of the urine must have been studied by shamans and healers since the Stone Age, and an elaborate interpretation of so-called Uroscopy began around 600 AD as a form of divination. A 1000 years later, the first primitive monocular and compound microscopes appeared in the Netherlands, and along with many other objects and liquids, urine was studied from around 1680 onwards as the enlightenment evolved. However, the crude early instruments did not permit fine study because of chromatic and linear/spherical blurring. Only after complex multi-glass lenses which avoided these problems had been made and used in the 1820s in London by Lister, and in Paris by Chevalier and Amici, could urinary microscopy become a practical, clinically useful tool in the 1830s. Clinical urinary microscopy was pioneered by Rayer and his pupils in Paris (especially Vigla), in the late 1830s, and spread to UK and Germany in the 1840s, with detailed descriptions and interpretations of cells and formed elements of the urinary sediment by Nasse, Henle, Robinson and Golding Bird. Classes were held, most notably by Donné in Paris. After another 50 years, optical microscopy had reached its apogee, with magnifications of over 1000 times obtainable free of aberration, using immersion techniques. Atlases of the urinary sediment were published in all major European countries and in the US. Polarised light and phase contrast was used also after 1900 to study urine, and by the early 20th century, photomicroscopy (pioneered by Donné and Daguerre 50 years previously, but then ignored) became usual for teaching and recording. In the 1940s electron microscopy began, followed by detection of specific proteins and cells using immunofluorescent antibodies. All this had been using handheld methodology. Around 1980, machine-assisted observations began, and have dominated progress since.

  17. Papain: a novel urine adulterant.

    PubMed

    Burrows, David L; Nicolaides, Andrea; Rice, Peter J; Dufforc, Michelle; Johnson, David A; Ferslew, Kenneth E

    2005-01-01

    The estimated number of employees in the United Stated screened annually for illicit drugs is approximately 20 million, with marijuana being the most frequently abused drug. Urine adulterants provide an opportunity for illicit drug users to obtain a false-negative result on commonly used primary drug screening methods such as the enzyme multiplied immunoassay technique and the fluorescence polarized immunoassay technique (FPIA). Typical chemical adulterants such as nitrites are easily detected or render the urine specimen invalid as defined in the proposed SAMHSA guidelines for specimen validity testing based on creatinine, specific gravity, and pH. Papain is a cysteine protease with intrinsic ester hydrolysis capability. The primary metabolite of the psychoactive chemical in marijuana, 11-norcarboxy-Delta9-tetrahydrocannibinol (THC-COOH), was assayed by FPIA in concentrations ranging from 25 to 500 ng/mL, at pH values ranging from 4.5 to 8, over the course of 3 days with papain concentrations ranging from 0 to 10 mg/mL. FPIA analysis of other frequently abused drugs: amphetamines, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, cocaine, opiates, and phencyclidine, along with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) of THC-COOH and high-pressure liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV) of nordiazepam was performed in order to determine if the mechanism of urine adulteration by papain was analyte specific. Control and adulterated urine specimens (n = 30) were assayed for creatinine, specific gravity, and pH to determine if papain rendered the specimens invalid based on the proposed SAMHSA guidelines. There was a direct pH, temperature, and time-dependent correlate between the increase in papain concentration and the decrease in THC-COOH concentration from the untreated control groups (p < 0.01). The average 72-h THC-COOH concentration decrease at pH 6.2 with a papain concentration of 10 mg/mL was 50%. Papain did not significantly decrease the concentration of the

  18. Impact of Denture Cleaning Method and Overnight Storage Condition on Denture Biofilm Mass and Composition: A Cross-Over Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Duyck, Joke; Vandamme, Katleen; Krausch-Hofmann, Stefanie; Boon, Lies; De Keersmaecker, Katrien; Jalon, Eline; Teughels, Wim

    2016-01-01

    Background Appropriate oral hygiene is required to maintain oral health in denture wearers. This study aims to compare the role of denture cleaning methods in combination with overnight storage conditions on biofilm mass and composition on acrylic removable dentures. Methods In a cross-over randomized controlled trial in 13 older people, 4 conditions with 2 different mechanical cleaning methods and 2 overnight storage conditions were considered: (i) brushing and immersion in water without a cleansing tablet, (ii) brushing and immersion in water with a cleansing tablet, (iii) ultrasonic cleaning and immersion in water without a cleansing tablet, and (iv) ultrasonic cleaning and immersion in water with a cleansing tablet. Each test condition was performed for 5 consecutive days, preceded by a 2-days wash-out period. Biofilm samples were taken at baseline (control) and at the end of each test period from a standardized region. Total and individual levels of selected oral bacteria (n = 20), and of Candida albicans were identified using the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technique. Denture biofilm coverage was scored using an analogue denture plaque score. Paired t-tests and Wilcoxon-signed rank tests were used to compare the test conditions. The level of significance was set at α< 5%. Results Overnight denture storage in water with a cleansing tablet significantly reduced the total bacterial count (p<0.01). The difference in total bacterial level between the two mechanical cleaning methods was not statistically significant. No significant effect was observed on the amount of Candida albicans nor on the analogue plaque scores. Conclusions The use of cleansing tablets during overnight denture storage in addition to mechanical denture cleaning did not affect Candida albicans count, but reduced the total bacterial count on acrylic removable dentures compared to overnight storage in water. This effect was more pronounced when combined with ultrasonic cleaning compared to

  19. Thermally stimulated luminescence of urine salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordun, O.; Drobchak, O.

    2008-05-01

    The thermally stimulated luminescence (TSL) of normal and pathological urine was studied. The presence of pathological salts leads to extinguishing of TSL intensity and to the appearance of additional stripes with maxima nearly 118 and 205K, except of characteristic stripes with the maxima nearly 173 and 260K. TSL stripes depend on urine constituents. The comparison of TSL intensity of normal and pathological urine is carried out and energies of thermal activation are determined for most intensive TSL stripes.

  20. Effects of overnight captivity on antioxidant capacity and clinical chemistry of wild southern hairy-nosed wombats (Lasiorhinus latifrons).

    PubMed

    Debrincat, Steven; Taggart, David; Rich, Brian; Beveridge, Ian; Boardman, Wayne; Dibben, Ron

    2014-09-01

    An animal's antioxidant capacity is measured by its ability to quench reactive oxygen species (ROS). During everyday metabolism, antioxidants and ROS are in equilibrium with one another. In times of stress, an animal produces more ROS and therefore uses its antioxidant capacity more readily in order to maintain this equilibrium. When the production of ROS exceeds the antioxidant capacity, an animal will experience extensive oxidative stress, which can ultimately affect that animal's health. During experimental study of wild animals, it is often necessary to capture them for a short period of time. In order to obtain a measurement of the effects of short-term captivity on oxidative capacity in wild animals, a population of southern hairy-nosed wombats (Lasiorhinus latifrons) in Swan Reach, South Australia (34.57 degrees S, 139.60 degrees E), was studied. To assess the variation in antioxidant capacity, two assays, the ferric reducing ability of plasma and the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, were performed. A third assay, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, was used to measure the effects of ROS. Measurements of the specific antioxidants uric acid, ascorbic acid, retinol, alpha-tocopherol, and superoxide dismutase were also performed. The biochemical parameters albumin, total protein, cholinesterase, creatinine, and urea were measured as indicators for health. Results showed a significant reduction in antioxidant capacity during the overnight period of captivity.

  1. EEG Σ and slow-wave activity during NREM sleep correlate with overnight declarative and procedural memory consolidation.

    PubMed

    Holz, Johannes; Piosczyk, Hannah; Feige, Bernd; Spiegelhalder, Kai; Baglioni, Chiara; Riemann, Dieter; Nissen, Christoph

    2012-12-01

    Previous studies suggest that sleep-specific brain activity patterns such as sleep spindles and electroencephalographic slow-wave activity contribute to the consolidation of novel memories. The generation of both sleep spindles and slow-wave activity relies on synchronized oscillations in a thalamo-cortical network that might be implicated in synaptic strengthening (spindles) and downscaling (slow-wave activity) during sleep. This study further examined the association between electroencephalographic power during non-rapid eye movement sleep in the spindle (sigma, 12-16 Hz) and slow-wave frequency range (0.1-3.5 Hz) and overnight memory consolidation in 20 healthy subjects (10 men, 27.1 ± 4.6 years). We found that both electroencephalographic sigma power and slow-wave activity were positively correlated with the pre-post-sleep consolidation of declarative (word list) and procedural (mirror-tracing) memories. These results, although only correlative in nature, are consistent with the view that processes of synaptic strengthening (sleep spindles) and synaptic downscaling (slow-wave activity) might act in concert to promote synaptic plasticity and the consolidation of both declarative and procedural memories during sleep.

  2. Automatic method for quantitation of mercury in blood, plasma and urine.

    PubMed

    Vesterberg, O

    1991-01-01

    Here we report our experience of quantification of mercury in blood, plasma and urine by using modifications of a procedure for cold vapour atomic absorption. We have tried: (1) modifications of the instrumentation including the tower, the cell and apparatus for measurement; (2) to increase the volume of sample, avoiding problems caused by foaming and background to arrive at a reliable method with low detection limit. Blood and plasma samples were digested overnight in a mixture of nitric acid and perchloric acid (1:5). Recovery of known additions of mercury was close to 100%. Coefficients of variation (CV) within runs and between runs was for B-Hg 4.7 and 9.5, respectively at 20 nmol/l, and for U-Hg 1.8 and 5.2, respectively at 57 nmol/l. The same detection limit of 5 nmol/l was obtained with blood, plasma and urine. This is in the lower range of non-occupationally exposed normal subjects. The results, including those obtained in sample exchange with other laboratories and with reference materials, indicate that the accuracy of this method for quantification of mercury is good.

  3. Protopine alkaloids in horse urine.

    PubMed

    Wynne, Paul M; Vine, John H; Amiet, R Gary

    2004-11-05

    Protopine was extracted from Fumaria officinalis and purified by column chromatography. Urine samples were collected from horses and a human volunteer that had been administered either F. officinalis or protopine free base. Plant and urine samples were acetylated and analysed by GCMS after solid-phase extraction (SPE). The urinary metabolites of protopine were identified as 4,6,7,13-tetrahydro-9,10-dihydroxy-5-methyl-benzo[e]-l,3-benzodioxolo [4,5-1][2] benzazecin-12(5H)-one, 4,6,7,13-tetrahydro-10-hydroxy-9-methoxy-5-methyl-benzo[e]-1,3-benzodioxolo[4,5-1][2] benzazecin-12(5H)-one and 4,6,7,13-tetrahydro-9-hydroxy-10-methoxy-5-methyl-benzo[e]-1,3-benzodioxolo[4,5-l][2] benzazecin-12(5H)-one, chelianthifoline, isochelianthifoline and 2-O-desmethylchelianthifoline. The metabolic formation of the tetrahydroprotoberberines by closure of the bridge across N5 and C13 is rate limited and protopine-like metabolites accumulate only when the route is overloaded. Metabolism was qualitatively similar in the horse and human.

  4. Urine tested positive for ethyl glucuronide and ethyl sulphate after the consumption of "non-alcoholic" beer.

    PubMed

    Thierauf, Annette; Gnann, Heike; Wohlfarth, Ariane; Auwärter, Volker; Perdekamp, Markus Grosse; Buttler, Klaus-Juergen; Wurst, Friedrich M; Weinmann, Wolfgang

    2010-10-10

    In abstinence maintenance programs, for reissuing the driving licence and in workplace monitoring programs abstinence from ethanol and its proof are demanded. Various monitoring programs that mainly use ethyl glucuronide (EtG) as alcohol consumption marker have been established. To abstain from ethanol, but not from the taste of alcoholic beverages, in particular non-alcoholic beer has become more and more popular. In Germany, these "alcohol-free" beverages may still have an ethanol content of up to 0.5vol.% without the duty of declaration. Due to severe negative consequences resulting from positive EtG tests, a drinking experiment with 2.5L of non-alcoholic beer per person was performed to address the question of measurable concentrations of the direct metabolites EtG and EtS (ethyl sulphate) in urine and blood. Both alcohol consumption markers - determined by LC-MS/MS - were found in high concentrations: maximum concentrations in urine found in three volunteers were EtG 0.30-0.87mg/L and EtS 0.04-0.07mg/L, i.e., above the often applied cut-off value for the proof of abstinence of 0.1mg EtG/L. In the urine samples of one further volunteer, EtG and EtS concentrations cumulated over-night and reached up to 14.1mg/L EtG and 16.1mg/L EtS in the next morning's urine. Ethanol concentrations in blood and urine samples were negative (determined by HS-GC-FID and by an ADH-based method).

  5. Overnight Social Isolation in Pigs Decreases Salivary Cortisol but Does Not Impair Spatial Learning and Memory or Performance in a Decision-Making Task

    PubMed Central

    van der Staay, F. Josef; Schoonderwoerd, Annelieke J.; Stadhouders, Bo; Nordquist, Rebecca E.

    2016-01-01

    Pigs in modern farming practice may be exposed to a number of stressors, including social stressors such as mixing or isolation. This may potentially affect both cognitive abilities and stress physiology of the animals. We tested the hypothesis that overnight social isolation in pigs impairs performance in a cognitive holeboard (HB) task (Experiment 1) and the Pig Gambling Task (PGT) (Experiment 2), a decision-making task inspired by the Iowa Gambling Task. In addition, we tested the effect of overnight social isolation on salivary cortisol levels. A within-subjects approach was used in which performance in the two behavioral tasks and cortisol levels were first determined during normal social housing, followed by performance and cortisol levels after experiencing stress induced by overnight social isolation. A total of 19 female pigs with a birth weight closest to their respective litter average was selected from 10 different litters and placed in two pens after weaning. Following habituation, pigs were trained in the HB task, starting at 10 weeks of age. Then, the pigs were isolated overnight, five individuals per night, at 15, 16, and 17 weeks of age. Between these three isolations, social housing and training in the HB continued. Starting 6 weeks after the end of the HB experiment, at approximately 23 weeks of age, the pigs were trained in the PGT. The effects of overnight social isolation on performance in this task were assessed once, when the pigs were 25 weeks old. Salivary cortisol was measured from samples collected 15 min after the start of isolation and at the end of the isolation period and compared to baseline values collected before the start of social isolation. Our results did not confirm the hypothesis that isolation impaired HB performance and decision-making in the PGT. Unexpectedly, overnight social isolation decreased cortisol levels below baseline values, an effect that was not associated with changes in performance of the

  6. Measurement of Menadione in urine by HPLC

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Menadione may be an important metabolite of vitamin K that is excreted in urine. A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with a C30 column, fluorescence detection and post-column zinc reduction was developed to measure menadione in urine. The mobile phase was composed of 95% methanol...

  7. Urine Albumin and Albumin/ Creatinine Ratio

    MedlinePlus

    ... that is present in high concentrations in the blood. Virtually no albumin is present in the urine when the kidneys ... on trying to determine if increased levels of albumin in the urine are also indicative of CVD risk in those who do not have diabetes or high blood pressure. ^ Back to ... Proudly sponsored by ... Learn ...

  8. Radioscintigraphic demonstration of unsuspected urine extravasation

    SciTech Connect

    Bocchini, T.; Williams, W.; Patton, D.

    1989-06-01

    Three cases of unsuspected urine extravasation first detected by radionuclide scintigraphy are presented with subsequent confirmation by CT and, retrograde pyelograms. A renal study done to rule out acute transplant rejection demonstrates gallbladder uptake which was initially thought to be consistent with urine extravasation.

  9. Getting a Urine Test (For Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the Operating Room? Getting a Urine Test (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a Urine Test (Video) A A A en español Obtención de un análisis de orina (video) It may seem gross and embarrassing to pee ...

  10. The relationship between cadmium in kidney and cadmium in urine and blood in an environmentally exposed population

    SciTech Connect

    Akerstrom, Magnus; Barregard, Lars; Lundh, Thomas; Sallsten, Gerd

    2013-05-01

    Introduction: Cadmium (Cd) is toxic to the kidney and a major part of the body burden occurs here. Cd in urine (U-Cd) and blood (B-Cd) are widely-used biomarkers for assessing Cd exposure or body burden. However, empirical general population data on the relationship between Cd in kidney (K-Cd), urine, and blood are scarce. Our objectives were to determine the relationship between cadmium in kidney, urine, and blood, and calculate the elimination half-time of Cd from the kidney. Methods: Kidney cortex biopsies, urine, and blood samples were collected from 109 living kidney donors. Cd concentrations were determined and the relationships between K-Cd, U-Cd, and B-Cd were investigated in regression models. The half-time of K-Cd was estimated from the elimination constant. Results: There was a strong association between K-Cd and U-Cd adjusted for creatinine (r{sub p} = 0.70, p < 0.001), while the association with B-Cd was weaker (r{sub p} = 0.44, p < 0.001). The relationship between K-Cd and U-Cd was nonlinear, with slower elimination of Cd at high K-Cd. Estimates of the K-Cd half-time varied between 18 and 44 years. A K-Cd of 25 μg/g corresponds to U-Cd of 0.42 μg/g creatinine in overnight urine (U-Cd/K-Cd ratio: about 1:60). Multivariate models showed Cd in blood and urinary albumin as determinants for U-Cd excretion. Discussion: In healthy individuals with low-level Cd exposure, there was a strong correlation between Cd in kidney and urine, especially after adjustment for creatinine. Urinary Cd was also affected by Cd in blood and urinary albumin. Previous estimates of the U-Cd/K-Cd ratio may underestimate K-Cd at low U-Cd. - Highlights: ► The first study of the relation between Cd in kidney, blood and urine at low U-Cd ► Simultaneous samples were collected from healthy kidney donors. ► There was a nonlinear relationship between cadmium in kidney and urine. ► Estimates of the kidney cadmium half-time were 18–44 years, depending on model used. ► Previous

  11. Impact of enzymatic and alkaline hydrolysis on CBD concentration in urine.

    PubMed

    Bergamaschi, Mateus M; Barnes, Allan; Queiroz, Regina H C; Hurd, Yasmin L; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2013-05-01

    A sensitive and specific analytical method for cannabidiol (CBD) in urine was needed to define urinary CBD pharmacokinetics after controlled CBD administration, and to confirm compliance with CBD medications including Sativex-a cannabis plant extract containing 1:1 ∆(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and CBD. Non-psychoactive CBD has a wide range of therapeutic applications and may also influence psychotropic smoked cannabis effects. Few methods exist for the quantification of CBD excretion in urine, and no data are available for phase II metabolism of CBD to CBD-glucuronide or CBD-sulfate. We optimized the hydrolysis of CBD-glucuronide and/or -sulfate, and developed and validated a GC-MS method for urinary CBD quantification. Solid-phase extraction isolated and concentrated analytes prior to GC-MS. Method validation included overnight hydrolysis (16 h) at 37 °C with 2,500 units β-glucuronidase from Red Abalone. Calibration curves were fit by linear least squares regression with 1/x (2) weighting with linear ranges (r(2) > 0.990) of 2.5-100 ng/mL for non-hydrolyzed CBD and 2.5-500 ng/mL for enzyme-hydrolyzed CBD. Bias was 88.7-105.3 %, imprecision 1.4-6.4 % CV and extraction efficiency 82.5-92.7 % (no hydrolysis) and 34.3-47.0 % (enzyme hydrolysis). Enzyme-hydrolyzed urine specimens exhibited more than a 250-fold CBD concentration increase compared to alkaline and non-hydrolyzed specimens. This method can be applied for urinary CBD quantification and further pharmacokinetics characterization following controlled CBD administration.

  12. Impact of enzymatic and alkaline hydrolysis on CBD concentration in urine

    PubMed Central

    Bergamaschi, Mateus M.; Barnes, Allan; Queiroz, Regina H. C.; Hurd, Yasmin L.

    2013-01-01

    A sensitive and specific analytical method for cannabidiol (CBD) in urine was needed to define urinary CBD pharmacokinetics after controlled CBD administration, and to confirm compliance with CBD medications including Sativex—a cannabis plant extract containing 1:1 Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and CBD. Non-psychoactive CBD has a wide range of therapeutic applications and may also influence psychotropic smoked cannabis effects. Few methods exist for the quantification of CBD excretion in urine, and no data are available for phase II metabolism of CBD to CBD-glucuronide or CBD-sulfate. We optimized the hydrolysis of CBD-glucuronide and/or -sulfate, and developed and validated a GC-MS method for urinary CBD quantification. Solid-phase extraction isolated and concentrated analytes prior to GC-MS. Method validation included overnight hydrolysis (16 h) at 37 °C with 2,500 units β-glucuronidase from Red Abalone. Calibration curves were fit by linear least squares regression with 1/x2 weighting with linear ranges (r2>0.990) of 2.5–100 ng/mL for non-hydrolyzed CBD and 2.5–500 ng/mL for enzyme-hydrolyzed CBD. Bias was 88.7–105.3 %, imprecision 1.4–6.4 % CV and extraction efficiency 82.5–92.7 % (no hydrolysis) and 34.3–47.0 % (enzyme hydrolysis). Enzyme-hydrolyzed urine specimens exhibited more than a 250-fold CBD concentration increase compared to alkaline and non-hydrolyzed specimens. This method can be applied for urinary CBD quantification and further pharmacokinetics characterization following controlled CBD administration. PMID:23494274

  13. 46 CFR 122.282 - Logbook for vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight accommodations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Logbook for vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet... Voyage Records § 122.282 Logbook for vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight..., the owner, managing operator, or master of a vessel of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length...

  14. 46 CFR 122.282 - Logbook for vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight accommodations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Logbook for vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet... Voyage Records § 122.282 Logbook for vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight..., the owner, managing operator, or master of a vessel of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length...

  15. 46 CFR 122.282 - Logbook for vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight accommodations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Logbook for vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet... Voyage Records § 122.282 Logbook for vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight..., the owner, managing operator, or master of a vessel of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length...

  16. 46 CFR 122.282 - Logbook for vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight accommodations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Logbook for vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet... Voyage Records § 122.282 Logbook for vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight..., the owner, managing operator, or master of a vessel of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length...

  17. 46 CFR 122.282 - Logbook for vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight accommodations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Logbook for vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet... Voyage Records § 122.282 Logbook for vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight..., the owner, managing operator, or master of a vessel of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length...

  18. Cryopreservation of bull semen shipped overnight and its effect on post-thaw sperm motility, plasma membrane integrity, mitochondrial membrane potential and normal acrosomes.

    PubMed

    Anzar, M; Kroetsch, T; Boswall, L

    2011-06-01

    In the Canadian Animal Genetic Resource Program, bull semen is donated in frozen or fresh (diluted) states. This study was designed to assess the cryopreservation of diluted bull semen shipped at 4°C overnight, and to determine the post-thaw quality of shipped semen using different straw volumes and freezing rates. Semen was collected from four breeding bulls (three ejaculates per bull). Semen was diluted in Tris-citric acid-egg yolk-glycerol (TEYG) extender, cooled to 4°C and frozen as per routine (control semen). After cooling to 4°C, a part of semen was removed and shipped overnight to the research laboratory via express courier (shipped semen). Semen was packaged in 0.25 or 0.5 ml straws and frozen in a programmable freezer using three freezing rates, i.e., -10, -25 or -40°C/min. Control semen was also shipped to the research laboratory. Post-thaw sperm motility characteristics were assessed using CASA, and post-thaw sperm plasma membrane, mitochondrial membrane potential and normal acrosomes were assessed using flow cytometry. Post-thaw sperm quality was greater in shipped semen as compared to control (P<0.001). The shipped semen packaged in 0.25 ml straws had better post-thaw sperm quality than in 0.5 ml straws (P<0.001). Freezing rate had no effect on post-thaw sperm quality. In conclusion, bull semen can be shipped overnight for subsequent cryopreservation and gene banking. Overnight shipping of semen was found advantageous for bull semen cryopreservation. Semen packaging in 0.25 ml straws yielded better post-thaw quality than 0.5 ml straws.

  19. Markers of glycemic control in the mouse: comparisons of 6-h- and overnight-fasted blood glucoses to Hb A1c.

    PubMed

    Han, Byoung Geun; Hao, Chuan-Ming; Tchekneva, Elena E; Wang, Ying-Ying; Lee, Chieh Allen; Ebrahim, Benyamin; Harris, Raymond C; Kern, Timothy S; Wasserman, David H; Breyer, Matthew D; Qi, Zhonghua

    2008-10-01

    The present studies examined the relationship between fasting blood glucose and Hb A(1c) in C57BL/6J, DBA/2J, and KK/HlJ mice with and without diabetes mellitus. Daily averaged blood glucose levels based on continuous glucose monitoring and effects of 6-h vs. overnight fasting on blood glucose were determined. Daily averaged blood glucose levels were highly correlated with Hb A(1c), as determined with a hand-held automated device using an immunodetection method. R(2) values were 0.90, 0.95, and 0.99 in KK/HIJ, C57BL/6J, and DBA/2J, respectively. Six-hour fasting blood glucose correlated more closely with the level of daily averaged blood glucose and with Hb A(1c) than did blood glucose following an overnight fast. To validate the immunoassay-determined Hb A(1c), we also measured total glycosylated hemoglobin using boronate HPLC. Hb A(1c) values correlated well with total glycosylated hemoglobin in all three strains but were relatively lower than total glycosylated hemoglobin in diabetic DBA/2J mice. These results show that 6-h fasting glucose provides a superior index of glycemic control and correlates more closely with Hb A(1c) than overnight-fasted blood glucose in these strains of mice.

  20. Thermally stimulated luminescence of urine salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordun, O. M.; Drobchak, O. Z.

    2007-07-01

    We investigated thermally stimulated luminescence (TSL) of urine salts in the normal state and with oxalate, urate, and phosphate salts. We found that the presence of pathological salts leads to a decrease of TSL intensity and to the appearance of additional TLS bands with maxima at 118 and 205 K in addition to the characteristic bands at 173 and 260 K. The TLS bands are related to the urine components. The TSL intensities of urine salts of different chemical composition are compared. The thermal activation energy of the strongest TSL bands is determined.

  1. Urine Specimens: Tips to Help Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tests Online. AACC is a not-for-profit organization and does not endorse non-AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | ... Stool | Throat Culture Urine Specimens Children sometimes balk at the idea ...

  2. Measurement of mercury in human urine

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, D. M.; Clarke, A. D.

    1970-01-01

    Four methods of determining the concentration of mercury in human urine have been studied. A simple method suitable for general laboratory use is recommended and the requirements for accurate results are defined. The method employs mild oxidation with permanganate and HS2O4 followed by dithizone extraction and measurement of absorbance at 485 nm and 620 nm. No mercury was detected in any of 74 urines from unexposed laboratory controls and hospital patients. A random urine sample seems adequate for the investigation of clinical or industrial mercury poisoning. Two individuals, free of symptoms, but subjected to moderate exposure, excreted 3·0-9·7 μg of mercury per 100 ml of urine. After the administration of an organic mercurial to two volunteers, urinary excretion was rapid and virtually complete within 48 hours. PMID:5423951

  3. Purple Urine Bag Syndrome- An Alarming Situation

    PubMed Central

    Faridi, M S; Mibang, Naloh; Shantajit, N; Somarendra, Khumukchum

    2016-01-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) is an uncommon condition that occurs mainly in chronically catheterized patient and associated with urinary tract infection. It is characterised by purple discolouration of urine bag which leads to significant stress and anxiety to patient, care takers and health workers, so awareness regarding this condition is of utmost importance. In our report, an old gentleman with Benign Prostate Hyperplasia (BPH) on per urethral catheter (PUC) with past history of recurrent urinary tract infection developed burning micturition of urine with purple discoloration of urine bag. After proper antibiotic and catheter changed, discoloration subsided. In India, as life expectancy and geriatric care is improving, more patients are on PUC for various diseases. So, the incidence of PUBS will increase and awareness is required about the condition and its management. PMID:27042522

  4. Blood in the Urine (Hematuria) (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & ... hematuria can be seen because it changes the color of urine, which can happen with just a ...

  5. Estimating 24-hour urine sodium level with spot urine sodium and creatinine.

    PubMed

    Koo, Ho Seok; Kim, Yong Chul; Ahn, Shin Young; Oh, Se Won; Kim, Suhnggwon; Chin, Ho Jun; Park, Jung Hwan

    2014-09-01

    The 24-hr urine sodium excretion level was estimated based on the spot urine sodium, and the efficacy of the formula was validated to determine the status of low salt intake <100 mEq Na/day. The 24-hr urine samples were collected from 400 patients. The 24-hr urine creatinine level was estimated with the use of three formulas: a newly derived Korean equation (E24UCR_K), and Tanaka (E24UCR_T) and Cockcroft-Gault (E24UCR_CG) equations. The correlation coefficients between the estimated and measured 24-hr urine creatinine for these three equations were 0.863, 0.846, and 0.896, respectively (All P<0.001). After estimating the 24-hr urine sodium levels, the correlation coefficients between the estimated and measured 24-hr urine sodium levels were 0.466, 0.490, and 0.516, respectively (All P<0.001). The sensitivity of three formulas to estimate the measured 24-hr urine sodium≥100 mEq/day using the estimated amount≥100 mEq/day was 84.3%, 87.6%, and 84.8%, respectively. In conclusion, the three equations used to estimate the 24-hr urine sodium content were useful to determine the status of low salt intake.

  6. Treatment processes for source-separated urine.

    PubMed

    Maurer, M; Pronk, W; Larsen, T A

    2006-10-01

    The separate collection and treatment of urine has attracted considerable attention in the engineering community in the last few years and is seen as a viable option for enhancing the flexibility of wastewater treatment systems. This comprehensive review focuses on the status of current urine treatment processes and summarises the properties of collected urine. We distinguish between seven main purposes of urine-treatment processes: hygienisation (storage), volume reduction (evaporation, freeze-thaw, reverse osmosis), stabilisation (acidification, nitrification), P-recovery (struvite formation), N-recovery (ion-exchange, ammonia stripping, isobutylaldehyde-diurea (IBDU) precipitation), nutrient removal (anammox) and handling of micropollutants (electrodialysis, nanofiltration, ozonation). The review shows clearly that a wide range of technical options is available to treat collected urine effectively, but that none of these single options can accomplish all seven purposes. Depending on the overall goal of the treatment process, a specific technical solution or a combination of solutions can be found to meet the requirements. Such combinations are not discussed in this paper unless they are explicitly presented in the literature. Except for 'evaporation' and 'storage', none of the processes described have so far advanced beyond the laboratory stage. Considerable development work remains to be done to optimise urine-processing techniques in order to create marketable products.

  7. Chemical Method of Urine Volume Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrack, P.

    1967-01-01

    A system has been developed and qualified as flight hardware for the measurement of micturition volumes voided by crewmen during Gemini missions. This Chemical Urine Volume Measurement System (CUVMS) is used for obtaining samples of each micturition for post-flight volume determination and laboratory analysis for chemical constituents of physiological interest. The system is versatile with respect to volumes measured, with a capacity beyond the largest micturition expected to be encountered, and with respect to mission duration of inherently indefinite length. The urine sample is used for the measurement of total micturition volume by a tracer dilution technique, in which a fixed, predetermined amount of tritiated water is introduced and mixed into the voided urine, and the resulting concentration of the tracer in the sample is determined with a liquid scintillation spectrometer. The tracer employed does not interfere with the analysis for the chemical constituents of the urine. The CUVMS hardware consists of a four-way selector valve in which an automatically operated tracer metering pump is incorporated, a collection/mixing bag, and tracer storage accumulators. The assembled system interfaces with a urine receiver at the selector valve inlet, sample bags which connect to the side of the selector valve, and a flexible hose which carries the excess urine to the overboard drain connection. Results of testing have demonstrated system volume measurement accuracy within the specification limits of +/-5%, and operating reliability suitable for system use aboard the GT-7 mission, in which it was first used.

  8. Urine Test: Microalbumin-to-Creatinine Ratio (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... involves measuring the amount of a protein called albumin in the urine (pee). The amount of urine albumin is compared with the quantity of a waste ... steady rate, so comparing the ratio of urine albumin with creatinine in the same urine specimen helps ...

  9. Immediate postoperative morbidity in patients with indwelling double-J stent versus overnight-externalized ureteral catheter after tubeless percutaneous nephrolithotomy: a prospective, randomized study.

    PubMed

    Mercado, Alejandro; Fernández, Mario I; Recabal, Pedro; Fleck, Daniela; Ledezma, Rodrigo; Moya, Francisco; Sepúlveda, Francisco; Vilches, Roberto; Reyes, Diego; Marchant, Fernando

    2013-06-01

    The conventional technique for percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) ends by placing a nephrostomy tube within the access tract. However, feasibility and safety of tubeless PNL have been widely demonstrated. In this modification, a ureteral stent is usually left in place instead of the nephrostomy tube. The aim of this study is to compare the use of a postoperative indwelling double-J stent versus an overnight-externalized ureteral catheter in patients undergoing tubeless PNL. Sixty-eight patients undergoing tubeless PNL were randomized either for a postoperative double-J stent (group 1) or for an overnight-externalized ureteral catheter (group 2). Outcomes evaluated included postoperative pain, hospital stay length, incidence of hemorrhagic complications, residual lithiasis and urinary leakage. Groups were similar according to age, sex, body mass index and stone burden. There were no significant differences in terms of postoperative pain, incidence of perirenal hematomas, residual lithiasis and urinary leakage. However, patients in group 1 presented longer hospital stays (3.7 ± 1.7 vs. 1.9 ± 0.3 days; p < 0.001) and greater hematocrit drops (4.9 ± 2.2 vs. 2.1 ± 1.8 %; p < 0.001). Our results confirm that among patients undergoing tubeless PNL, both alternatives (i.e. leaving a double-J stent or an overnight-externalized ureteral catheter) are reliable and safe. However, further considerations, like the need of double-J stent removal under cystoscopy, need to be taken into account when deciding which modality to use.

  10. Urine Proteome Biomarkers in Kidney Diseases. I. Limits, Perspectives, and First Focus on Normal Urine

    PubMed Central

    Santucci, Laura; Bruschi, Maurizio; Candiano, Giovanni; Lugani, Francesca; Petretto, Andrea; Bonanni, Alice; Ghiggeri, Gian Marco

    2016-01-01

    Urine proteome is a potential source of information in renal diseases, and it is considered a natural area of investigation for biomarkers. Technology developments have markedly increased the power analysis on urinary proteins, and it is time to confront methodologies and results of major studies on the topics. This is a first part of a series of reviews that will focus on the urine proteome as a site for detecting biomarkers of renal diseases; the theme of the first review concerns methodological aspects applied to normal urine. Main issues are techniques for urine pretreatment, separation of exosomes, use of combinatorial peptide ligand libraries, mass spectrometry approaches, and analysis of data sets. Available studies show important differences, suggesting a major confounding effect of the technologies utilized for analysis. The objective is to obtain consensus about which approaches should be utilized for studying urine proteome in renal diseases. PMID:26997865

  11. Cancer detection by native fluorescence of urine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masilamani, Vadivel; Vijmasi, Trinka; Al Salhi, Mohammad; Govindaraj, Kanagaraj; Vijaya-Raghavan, Ayanam Parthasarathy; Antonisamy, Belavendra

    2010-09-01

    Because cancer is a dreaded disease, a number of techniques such as biomarker evaluation, mammograms, colposcopy, and computed tomography scan are currently employed for early diagnosis. Many of these are specific to a particular site, invasive, and often expensive. Hence, there is a definite need for a simple, generic, noninvasive protocol for cancer detection, comparable to blood and urine tests for diabetes. Our objective is to show the results of a novel study in the diagnosis of several cancer types from the native or intrinsic fluorescence of urine. We use fluorescence emission spectra (FES) and stokes shift spectra (SSS) to analyze the native fluorescence of the first voided urine samples of healthy controls (N=100) and those of cancer patients (N=50) of different etiology. We show that flavoproteins and porphyrins released into urine can act as generic biomarkers of cancer with a specificity of 92%, a sensitivity of 76%, and an overall accuracy of 86.7%. We employ FES and SSS for rapid and cost-effective quantification of certain intrinsic biomarkers in urine for screening and diagnosis of most common cancer types with an overall accuracy of 86.7%.

  12. Validation of soy protein estimates from a food-frequency questionnaire with repeated 24-h recalls and isoflavonoid excretion in overnight urine in a Western population with a wide range of soy intakes2

    PubMed Central

    Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Fraser, Gary E; Chan, Jacqueline; Franke, Adrian; Sabaté, Joan

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence of the benefits of soy on cancer risk in Western populations is inconsistent, in part because of the low intake of soy in these groups. Objective We assessed the validity of soy protein estimates from food-frequency questionnaires (FFQs) in a sample of Adventist Health Study-2 participants with a wide range of soy intakes. Design We obtained dietary intake data from 100 men and women (43 blacks and 57 nonblacks). Soy protein estimates from FFQs were compared against repeated 24-h recalls and urinary excretion of daidzein, genistein, total isoflavonoids (TIFLs), and equol (measured by HPLC/photodiode array/mass spectrometry) as reference criteria. We calculated Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients (with 95% CIs) for FFQ–24-h recall, 24 h-recall–urinary excretion, and FFQ–urinary excretion pairs. Results Among soy users, mean (± SD) soy protein values were 12.12 ± 10.80 g/d from 24-h recalls and 9.43 ± 7.83 g/d from FFQs. The unattenuated correlation (95% CI) between soy protein estimates from 24-h recalls and FFQs was 0.57 (0.32, 0.75). Correlation coefficients between soy protein intake from 24-h recalls and urinary isoflavonoids were 0.72 (0.43, 0.96) for daidzein, 0.67 (0.43, 0.91) for genistein, and 0.72 (0.47, 0.98) for TIFLs. Between FFQs and urinary excretion, these were 0.50 (0.32, 0.65), 0.48 (0.29, 0.61), and 0.50 (0.32, 0.64) for daidzein, genistein, and TIFLs, respectively. Conclusions Soy protein estimates from questionnaire were significantly correlated with soy protein from 24-h recalls and urinary excretion of daidzein, genistein, and TIFLs. The Adventist Health Study-2 FFQ is a valid instrument for assessing soy protein in a population with a wide range of soy intakes. PMID:18469267

  13. Pathogenic microbes isolated from rabbit urine.

    PubMed

    Akinboade, O A; Adegoke, G O; Ogunji, F O; Nwufoh, K J

    1981-07-01

    Asymptomatic urinary tract infections were recovered from the urine of 40 of 100 rabbits, and identical bacteria were isolated when the rabbits were retested. Urine samples which yielded significant growths of bacteria also had pus cells. Some specimens yielded more than 2 different isolates, and staphylococci were the most frequently isolated bacteria. Oxalate and uric acid crystals were seen in 6% of the samples, particularly those with significant growths of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. No ova, parasites or fungal elements were seen in 'wet-mount' preparations and no fungi were seen when urine samples were cultured. Female rabbits showed a higher number of bacterial isolates than males. Animals with significant isolates were treated with suitable antibiotics and repeat samples yielded no growth.

  14. Six-month overnight intraperitoneal amino-acid infusion in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients--no effect on nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Dombros, N V; Prutis, K; Tong, M; Anderson, G H; Harrison, J; Sombolos, K; Digenis, G; Pettit, J; Oreopoulos, D G

    1990-01-01

    The long-term effect of an AA solution based on Travasol, a solution for total parenteral nutrition, given intraperitoneally over a 6-month period was studied in 5 patients 22 to 75 years old, having been on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) for 3 to 57 months. A low oral protein intake (less than 0.8 g/kg bw/day) and/or a low serum albumin (less than 35 g/L) were used as inclusion criteria. Two liters of 1% AA solution were infused overnight, while a glucose Dianeal was used for the other exchanges. During the study, BUN increased from 22.04 mM/L to 28.06 mM/L the first month and remained at these levels, indicating the increased protein intake. However, average oral total energy and protein intake, body weight (bw), serum creatinine, cholesterol, triglycerides, total proteins, albumin, transferrin, skinfold thickness, total body potassium, and plasma AA levels remained basically unchanged. The average total body nitrogen decreased from 1.746 to 1.554 Kg, but this decrease did not reach statistical significance (p greater than 0.05). We conclude that intraperitoneal overnight administration of 2 L of 1% AA based on Travasol over 6 months did not improve the nutritional status of CAPD patients. This ineffectiveness might be due to the AA composition of the solution, the timing of administration, or to a low caloric intake and/or that our patients were not severely malnourished.

  15. The significance of interleukin 8 in urine

    PubMed Central

    Rao, W; Evans, G; Finn, A

    2001-01-01

    AIMS—To assess the implications of detection of interleukin 8 (IL-8) in urine.
METHODS—IL-8 was measured by immunoassay in all 305 urine samples from children aged 0-18.4 years received by our microbiology laboratory during four weeks, with a retrospective structured case note audit for all those in whom IL-8, white cells, or bacteria were detected. Patients were divided into three groups: urinary tract infection (UTI), at least one sample with ⩾5 leucocytes × 109/l and ⩾105 cultured bacteria/ml; possible UTI, at least one sample with ⩾5 leucocytes × 109/l or ⩾105 cultured bacteria/ml but not both; UTI unlikely, sample(s) with <5 leucocytes × 109/l and <105 cultured bacteria/ml. Medical records were sought for all in groups 1 (14/14 found) and 2 (18/21 found) and those in group 3 (41/59 found) in whose urine any leucocytes, cultured bacteria, or IL-8 were detected.
RESULTS—IL-8 was detected in 58/305 samples from 48/264 patients. IL-8 was detected in at least one urine sample from 13/14 patients with confirmed UTI (group 1); in 11/21 patients with possible UTI (group 2), of whom two were treated as UTI; and in 23/228 patients without UTI. Using a cut off of 200 pg/ml, urine IL-8 had a sensitivity of 93% and a specificity of 90% for diagnosing UTI.
CONCLUSIONS—Urine IL-8 is a sensitive test for UTI, but is poorly specific as it is also present in a variety of other infectious and inflammatory disorders.

 PMID:11517116

  16. Estimation of vitamin B1 excretion in 24-hr urine by assay of first-morning urine.

    PubMed

    Ihara, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Takayuki; Kakinoki, Takashi; Shino, Yoshio; Hashimoto, Reiko; Hashizume, Naotaka

    2008-01-01

    Urinary B1 (vitamin B1) excretion is commonly determined in 24-hr urine specimens to obtain an estimate of nutritional status. The aim of our study was to investigate whether B1 in random urine specimens, corrected for the urine creatinine (Cr), can be substituted for B1 in 24-hr urines. Collection of such hour urines is often fraught with errors; an alternative method is described here. All urine specimens voided over 24 hr were collected from 32 healthy adults as were the first-morning urines from 30 healthy Japanese women. The B1 excretion was expressed as the ratio of B1 to Cr. Although the B1 excretion was expressed as the B1/Cr ratio, the B1 excretion varied with the urine volume and the time of urine collection. The B1/Cr ratio in random urine specimens not collected at a fixed time may mislead the evaluation of the nutritional status. We found that the B1/Cr ratio in the first-morning urine correlated significantly with the ratio in 24-hr urines (r=0.970, P<0.001) and also with the concentration of total B1 (B1 plus its phosphate esters) in whole blood (r=0.733, P<0.001). We conclude that the B1/Cr ratio in 24-hr urines could be estimated by measuring the ratio in the first-morning urine.

  17. Detection of chrysotile asbestos in workers urine

    SciTech Connect

    Finn, M.B.; Hallenbeck, W.H.

    1985-03-01

    Urinary asbestos concentrations were evaluated as an indicator of occupational exposure to chrysotile asbestos via inhalation and ingestion. Detection of asbestos in the urine represents the first step in developing a biological indicator of exposure. Such an indicator could be used to supplement exposure data from workplace air sampling. A biological indicator would be particularly valuable in evaluating workers with intermittent airborne asbestos exposures and in determining if airborne exposure results in penetration of asbestos through the lung or gastro-intestinal tract. Transmission electron microscopy was selected as the most sensitive technique for identification of all sizes of asbestos fibers which might appear in the urine. The levels of chrysotile asbestos detected in the urine of five workers were significantly greater than the asbestos concentrations in matched field blanks. Also, the workers urinary asbestos levels were significantly greater than the concentrations found in the control group. Finally, the levels of chrysotile asbestos detected in the urine of two of six controls were significantly greater than those in matched field blanks. Although the project was not specifically designed to correlate urinary and airborne asbestos concentrations, preliminary data indicated that a correlation did not exist between these factors.

  18. Urine sample collection protocols for bioassay samples

    SciTech Connect

    MacLellan, J.A.; McFadden, K.M.

    1992-11-01

    In vitro radiobioassay analyses are used to measure the amount of radioactive material excreted by personnel exposed to the potential intake of radioactive material. The analytical results are then used with various metabolic models to estimate the amount of radioactive material in the subject`s body and the original intake of radioactive material. Proper application of these metabolic models requires knowledge of the excretion period. It is normal practice to design the bioassay program based on a 24-hour excretion sample. The Hanford bioassay program simulates a total 24-hour urine excretion sample with urine collection periods lasting from one-half hour before retiring to one-half hour after rising on two consecutive days. Urine passed during the specified periods is collected in three 1-L bottles. Because the daily excretion volume given in Publication 23 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP 1975, p. 354) for Reference Man is 1.4 L, it was proposed to use only two 1-L bottles as a cost-saving measure. This raised the broader question of what should be the design capacity of a 24-hour urine sample kit.

  19. Urine sample collection protocols for bioassay samples

    SciTech Connect

    MacLellan, J.A.; McFadden, K.M.

    1992-11-01

    In vitro radiobioassay analyses are used to measure the amount of radioactive material excreted by personnel exposed to the potential intake of radioactive material. The analytical results are then used with various metabolic models to estimate the amount of radioactive material in the subject's body and the original intake of radioactive material. Proper application of these metabolic models requires knowledge of the excretion period. It is normal practice to design the bioassay program based on a 24-hour excretion sample. The Hanford bioassay program simulates a total 24-hour urine excretion sample with urine collection periods lasting from one-half hour before retiring to one-half hour after rising on two consecutive days. Urine passed during the specified periods is collected in three 1-L bottles. Because the daily excretion volume given in Publication 23 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP 1975, p. 354) for Reference Man is 1.4 L, it was proposed to use only two 1-L bottles as a cost-saving measure. This raised the broader question of what should be the design capacity of a 24-hour urine sample kit.

  20. The subversion of urine drug testing.

    PubMed

    Berge, Keith H; Bush, Donna M

    2010-08-01

    Since government and private industry have instituted urine drug testing to ensure a drug-free work force, an industry dedicated to subverting the results of those tests has developed. This article describes that industry, the types of products it markets, and efforts to curb the sale of those products.

  1. CHROMagar Orientation Medium Reduces Urine Culture Workload

    PubMed Central

    Manickam, Kanchana; Karlowsky, James A.; Adam, Heather; Lagacé-Wiens, Philippe R. S.; Rendina, Assunta; Pang, Paulette; Murray, Brenda-Lee

    2013-01-01

    Microbiology laboratories continually strive to streamline and improve their urine culture algorithms because of the high volumes of urine specimens they receive and the modest numbers of those specimens that are ultimately considered clinically significant. In the current study, we quantitatively measured the impact of the introduction of CHROMagar Orientation (CO) medium into routine use in two hospital laboratories and compared it to conventional culture on blood and MacConkey agars. Based on data extracted from our Laboratory Information System from 2006 to 2011, the use of CO medium resulted in a 28% reduction in workload for additional procedures such as Gram stains, subcultures, identification panels, agglutination tests, and biochemical tests. The average number of workload units (one workload unit equals 1 min of hands-on labor) per urine specimen was significantly reduced (P < 0.0001; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.5326 to 1.047) from 2.67 in 2006 (preimplementation of CO medium) to 1.88 in 2011 (postimplementation of CO medium). We conclude that the use of CO medium streamlined the urine culture process and increased bench throughput by reducing both workload and turnaround time in our laboratories. PMID:23363839

  2. Bladder aspergillosis detected by urine cytology.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Girón, Rafael; Martínez-Torre, Santiago; Mosquera-Martínez, Joaquín

    2015-05-01

    Bladder aspergillosis is an unusual infection. We report the case of a 79-year-old man with clinical records of transitional cell carcinoma diagnosed 5 years ago. The presence of a fruiting body and septate hyphae in urine cytological smears were the key for a final diagnosis of fungal bladder infection caused by Aspergillus niger.

  3. Automated detection of bacteria in urine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleig, A. J.; Picciolo, G. L.; Chappelle, E. W.; Kelbaugh, B. N.

    1972-01-01

    A method for detecting the presence of bacteria in urine was developed which utilizes the bioluminescent reaction of adenosine triphosphate with luciferin and luciferase derived from the tails of fireflies. The method was derived from work on extraterrestrial life detection. A device was developed which completely automates the assay process.

  4. Ophthalmoplegia in Maple Syrup Urine Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zee, David S.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Reported is the case of a female infant whose early symptom of ophthalmoplegia (paralysis of one or more motor nerves in the eye) led to eventual diagnosis and treatment for maple syrup urine disease, a condition in which early dietary restrictions can prevent severe mental retardation and neurologic disability. (DB)

  5. Preparation of urine samples for proteomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Pieper, Rembert

    2008-01-01

    Reproducible procedures for the preparation of protein samples isolated from human urine are essential for meaningful proteomic analyses. Key applications are the discovery of novel proteins or their modifications in the human urine as well as protein biomarker discovery for diseases and drug treatments. The methodology presented here features experimental steps aimed at limiting protein losses because of organic solvent precipitation, effective separation of proteins from other compounds in the human urine and molecular weight-based enrichment of proteins in two distinct fractions. Urinary proteins are separated from cellular debris in the urine via centrifugation, concentrated with 5-kDa-cutoff membrane concentration devices and separated via size exclusion chromatography into fractions with a higher and a lower molecular weight than 30 kDa, respectively. A successive optional affinity removal step for highly abundant plasma proteins is described. Finally, buffer exchange steps useful for specific downstream proteomic analysis experiments of urinary proteins are presented, such as 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis, differential protein or peptide labeling and digestion with trypsin for LC-MS/MS analysis.

  6. Urine drug screening: a valuable office procedure.

    PubMed

    Standridge, John B; Adams, Stephen M; Zotos, Alexander P

    2010-03-01

    Urine drug screening can enhance workplace safety, monitor medication compliance, and detect drug abuse. Ordering and interpreting these tests requires an understanding of testing modalities, detection times for specific drugs, and common explanations for false-positive and false-negative results. Employment screening, federal regulations, unusual patient behavior, and risk patterns may prompt urine drug screening. Compliance testing may be necessary for patients taking controlled substances. Standard immunoassay testing is fast, inexpensive, and the preferred initial test for urine drug screening. This method reliably detects morphine, codeine, and heroin; however, it often does not detect other opioids such as hydrocodone, oxycodone, methadone, fentanyl, buprenorphine, and tramadol. Unexpected positive test results should be confirmed with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry or high-performance liquid chromatography. A positive test result reflects use of the drug within the previous one to three days, although marijuana can be detected in the system for a longer period of time. Careful attention to urine collection methods can identify some attempts by patients to produce false-negative test results.

  7. Urine Test: Microalbumin-to-Creatinine Ratio (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the urine specimen. A urine collection bag with adhesive tape on one end might instead be used ... Infants may occasionally experience skin irritation from the adhesive tape on the collection bag. If a catheterized ...

  8. COLLECTING URINE SAMPLES FROM YOUNG CHILDREN FOR PESTICIDE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    To estimate pesticide exposure for young children wearing diapers, a method for collecting urine samples for analysis of pesticide metabolites is needed. To find a practical method, two possibilities were investigated: (1) analysis of expressed urine from cotton diaper inserts ...

  9. Trialling urine diversion in Australia: technical and social learnings.

    PubMed

    Abeysuriya, Kumi; Fam, Dena; Mitchell, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses a urine diversion (UD) trial implemented within the institutional setting of the University of Technology Sydney that sought to identify key issues for public UD and reuse systems at scale in the Australian urban context. The trial was novel in its transdisciplinary action research approach, that included consideration of urine diverting toilets (UDTs) as socio-technical systems where interactions between users' practices and perceptions and the performance of the technology were explored. While the study explored a broad range of issues that included urine transport, reuse, and regulations, amongst others, the boundary of the work presented in this paper is the practicalities of UD practice within public urban buildings. Urine volume per urinal use, an important metric for sizing tanks for collecting urine from waterless urinal systems in commercial buildings, was also estimated. The project concluded that current UDTs are unsuitable to public/commercial spaces, but waterless urinals have a key role.

  10. Rapid processing of urine specimens by urine screening and the AutoMicrobic system.

    PubMed Central

    Wadke, M; McDonnell, C; Ashton, J K

    1982-01-01

    A total of 1,500 clean-voided urine specimens were analyzed for the presence of bacteria by urine screening with the Autobac 1 system. The specimens found positive by this method were further processed on the same day for identification and for antimicrobial susceptibility testing on the AutoMicrobic system with the Enterobacteriaceae-plus Card and the General Susceptibility Card, respectively. The inocula for these tests were prepared from the centrifuged and washed growth in the eugonic broth aspirated from the Autobac cuvette chambers. Of 1,500 specimens that were analyzed, 183 contained single isolates of gram-negative bacilli. The results of these rapid procedures were compared with results for the same organisms isolated from urine specimens cultured by the conventional method. The data showed 92.3% agreement for identification and a correlation of 93.6% for antibiotic susceptibility between the two procedures. It is concluded that gram-negative bacilli can be rapidly identified and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility with a high degree of accuracy from the centrifuged eugonic broth after urine screening. These findings also suggest that the AutoMicrobic system provides a rapid and convenient method for same-day processing of positive urine cultures when combined with the urine screening procedure. PMID:6759524

  11. ECLSS Sustaining Compatibility Testing on Urine Processor Assembly Nonmetallic Materials for Reformulation of Pretreated Urine Solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingard, C. D.

    2015-01-01

    On International Space Station (ISS), the Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) converts human urine and flush water into potable water. The urine is acid-pretreated primarily to control microbial growth. In recent years, the sulfuric acid (H2SO4) pretreatment was believed to be largely responsible for producing salt crystals capable of plugging filters in UPA components and significantly reducing the percentage of water recovery from urine. In 2012, ISS management decided to change the acid pretreatment for urine from sulfuric to phosphoric with the goal of eliminating or minimizing formation of salt crystals. In 2013-2014, as part of the qualification of the phosphoric acid (H3PO4) formulation, samples of 12 nonmetallic materials used in UPA components were immersed for up to one year in pretreated urine and brine solutions made with the new H3PO4 formulation. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) was used to measure modulus (stiffness) of the immersed samples compared to virgin control samples. Such compatibility data obtained by DMA for the H3PO4-based solutions were compared to DMA data obtained for the H2SO4-based solutions in 2002-2003.

  12. 9 CFR 311.37 - Odors, foreign and urine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Odors, foreign and urine. 311.37..., foreign and urine. (a) Carcasses which give off a pronounced odor of medicinal, chemical, or other foreign substance shall be condemned. (b) Carcasses which give off a pronounced urine odor shall be condemned....

  13. 21 CFR 876.5250 - Urine collector and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Urine collector and accessories. 876.5250 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5250 Urine collector and accessories. (a) Identification. A urine collector and accessories is a device intended to...

  14. 28 CFR 550.42 - Procedures for urine surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Procedures for urine surveillance. 550.42... DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract CTCs) § 550.42 Procedures for urine surveillance. (a) Contractor authorized personnel of the same sex as...

  15. 21 CFR 876.5250 - Urine collector and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Urine collector and accessories. 876.5250 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5250 Urine collector and accessories. (a) Identification. A urine collector and accessories is a device intended to...

  16. 21 CFR 876.5250 - Urine collector and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Urine collector and accessories. 876.5250 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5250 Urine collector and accessories. (a) Identification. A urine collector and accessories is a device intended to...

  17. 9 CFR 311.37 - Odors, foreign and urine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Odors, foreign and urine. 311.37..., foreign and urine. (a) Carcasses which give off a pronounced odor of medicinal, chemical, or other foreign substance shall be condemned. (b) Carcasses which give off a pronounced urine odor shall be condemned....

  18. 9 CFR 311.37 - Odors, foreign and urine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Odors, foreign and urine. 311.37..., foreign and urine. (a) Carcasses which give off a pronounced odor of medicinal, chemical, or other foreign substance shall be condemned. (b) Carcasses which give off a pronounced urine odor shall be condemned....

  19. 9 CFR 311.37 - Odors, foreign and urine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Odors, foreign and urine. 311.37..., foreign and urine. (a) Carcasses which give off a pronounced odor of medicinal, chemical, or other foreign substance shall be condemned. (b) Carcasses which give off a pronounced urine odor shall be condemned....

  20. 21 CFR 876.5250 - Urine collector and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Urine collector and accessories. 876.5250 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5250 Urine collector and accessories. (a) Identification. A urine collector and accessories is a device intended to...

  1. 9 CFR 311.37 - Odors, foreign and urine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Odors, foreign and urine. 311.37..., foreign and urine. (a) Carcasses which give off a pronounced odor of medicinal, chemical, or other foreign substance shall be condemned. (b) Carcasses which give off a pronounced urine odor shall be condemned....

  2. 28 CFR 550.42 - Procedures for urine surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Procedures for urine surveillance. 550.42... DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract CTCs) § 550.42 Procedures for urine surveillance. (a) Contractor authorized personnel of the same sex as...

  3. 28 CFR 550.42 - Procedures for urine surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedures for urine surveillance. 550.42... DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract CTCs) § 550.42 Procedures for urine surveillance. (a) Contractor authorized personnel of the same sex as...

  4. 21 CFR 876.5250 - Urine collector and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Urine collector and accessories. 876.5250 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5250 Urine collector and accessories. (a) Identification. A urine collector and accessories is a device intended to...

  5. 28 CFR 550.42 - Procedures for urine surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Procedures for urine surveillance. 550.42... DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract CTCs) § 550.42 Procedures for urine surveillance. (a) Contractor authorized personnel of the same sex as...

  6. 28 CFR 550.42 - Procedures for urine surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Procedures for urine surveillance. 550.42... DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract CTCs) § 550.42 Procedures for urine surveillance. (a) Contractor authorized personnel of the same sex as...

  7. Day Care vs Overnight Stay after Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy even with Co-morbidity and a Possible Second Surgery: A Patient’s Choice

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy (LC) has become the gold standard for symptomatic gall stone disease. It is being practiced as a day care procedure in healthy individuals in American Society of Anaesthesialogists (ASA) grade I and II. It is not yet established in presence of co-morbidity and when a second surgery is added. In most of the study, patient’s choice and the psycho-social factors were not considered in deciding the day care procedure. Aim To find the safety of LC and a second surgery as day care in presence of compensated co-morbidity. To study the choice of the patient whether to stay in hospital or go home after declaring them fit for day care. Materials and Methods All the patients of symptomatic cholelithiasis with co-morbidity and associations were evaluated and made uncompromising for elective surgery. All the LC were done at 8mmHg CO2 peumo-peritoneal pressure using harmonic scalpel as the energy source for dissection of gall bladder from the liver bed. Cases with conversion and placement of drain were excluded. Results A total of 1029 out of 1042 patients was included from Jan 2005 to Jan 2015. The age range was 38 to 91years (mean 44.65, SD 14.15). There were 634 females and 395 males. A total of 121(11.7%) of them had co-morbidity and associations. A total of 72(7%) had undergone a second surgery. Only 0.8% had real day care. A total of 95.7% had overnight stay even after fulfilling all the criteria. Only 0.2% needed re-admission in 30 days and one required intervention. Conclusion Patients like to stay over night in the hospital even if found fit for day care after LC. Overnight stay makes them happy, psycho-socially confident in developing nation and best suited for all patients including co-morbidity. PMID:27891393

  8. Mood and psychomotor performance effects of the first, but not of subsequent, cup-of-coffee equivalent doses of caffeine consumed after overnight caffeine abstinence.

    PubMed

    Robelin, M; Rogers, P J

    1998-11-01

    Moderate caffeine consumers (n = 64, mean caffeine intake 453 mg/day) were deprived of caffeine overnight and semi-randomly allocated to four treatment groups, designated PPP, CPP, CCP and CCC, where P is placebo and C is caffeine (1.2 mg/kg, giving an amount of caffeine similar to that consumed in a serving of ground coffee). Caffeine or placebo (i.e. no caffeine) were administered double-blind in novel fruit juice drinks at 10:15, 11:30 and 13:00 h on the test day. Before (baseline), and 45 min after each of these times the participants completed a mood questionnaire and begun psychomotor performance tests lasting 25 min (1-min tapping task, and a long-duration simple reaction time task (SRT). Caffeine significantly increased energetic mood and improved psychomotor performance relative to placebo. Caffeine had particularly marked effects on SRT performance, ameliorating the slowing of performance with time on task and removing the post-lunch dip in performance. However, the three caffeine treatments, CPP, CCP and CCC, were equally effective. That is, mood and performance were improved to the same extent by one, two and three spaced doses (totalling 86, 172 and 258 mg) of caffeine. This result is consistent with previous findings indicating a flat dose-response relationship for the psychoactive effects of caffeine; and because of the adverse effects (e.g. fatigue) associated with overnight caffeine deprivation, it suggests that there is little net benefit to be gained from frequent caffeine use. At the very least, it appears that the psychostimulant effects of caffeine cannot on their own account for the typical pattern of consumption of caffeine-containing drinks.

  9. An online failure detection method of the glucose sensor-insulin pump system: improved overnight safety of type-1 diabetic subjects.

    PubMed

    Facchinetti, Andrea; Del Favero, Simone; Sparacino, Giovanni; Cobelli, Claudio

    2013-02-01

    Sensors for real-time continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) and pumps for continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) have opened new scenarios for Type-1 diabetes treatment. However, occasional failures of either CGM or CSII may expose diabetic patients to possibly severe risks, especially overnight (e.g., inappropriate insulin administration). In this contribution, we present a method to detect in real time such failures by simultaneously using CGM and CSII data streams and a black-box model of the glucose-insulin system. First, an individualized state-space model of the glucose-insulin system is identified offline from CGM and CSII data collected during a previous monitoring. Then, this model, CGM and CSII real-time data streams are used online to obtain predictions of future glucose concentrations together with their confidence intervals by exploiting a Kalman filtering approach. If glucose values measured by the CGM sensor are not consistent with the predictions, a failure alert is generated in order to mitigate the risks for patient safety. The method is tested on 100 virtual patients created by using the UVA/Padova Type-1 diabetic simulator. Three different types of failures have been simulated: spike in the CGM profile, loss of sensitivity of glucose sensor, and failure in the pump delivery of insulin. Results show that, in all cases, the method is able to correctly generate alerts, with a very limited number of false negatives and a number of false positives, on average, lower than 10%. The use of the method in three subjects supports the simulation results, demonstrating that the accuracy of the method in generating alerts in presence of failures of the CGM sensor-CSII pump system can significantly improve safety of Type-1 diabetic patients overnight.

  10. Life cycle comparison of centralized wastewater treatment and urine source separation with struvite precipitation: Focus on urine nutrient management.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Stephanie K L; Boyer, Treavor H

    2015-08-01

    Alternative approaches to wastewater management including urine source separation have the potential to simultaneously improve multiple aspects of wastewater treatment, including reduced use of potable water for waste conveyance and improved contaminant removal, especially nutrients. In order to pursue such radical changes, system-level evaluations of urine source separation in community contexts are required. The focus of this life cycle assessment (LCA) is managing nutrients from urine produced in a residential setting with urine source separation and struvite precipitation, as compared with a centralized wastewater treatment approach. The life cycle impacts evaluated in this study pertain to construction of the urine source separation system and operation of drinking water treatment, decentralized urine treatment, and centralized wastewater treatment. System boundaries include fertilizer offsets resulting from the production of urine based struvite fertilizer. As calculated by the Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and Other Environmental Impacts (TRACI), urine source separation with MgO addition for subsequent struvite precipitation with high P recovery (Scenario B) has the smallest environmental cost relative to existing centralized wastewater treatment (Scenario A) and urine source separation with MgO and Na3PO4 addition for subsequent struvite precipitation with concurrent high P and N recovery (Scenario C). Preliminary economic evaluations show that the three urine management scenarios are relatively equal on a monetary basis (<13% difference). The impacts of each urine management scenario are most sensitive to the assumed urine composition, the selected urine storage time, and the assumed electricity required to treat influent urine and toilet water used to convey urine at the centralized wastewater treatment plant. The importance of full nutrient recovery from urine in combination with the substantial chemical inputs required for N recovery

  11. Quantitative urine confirmatory testing for synthetic cannabinoids in randomly collected urine specimens

    PubMed Central

    Castaneto, Marisol S.; Scheidweiler, Karl B.; Gandhi, Adarsh; Wohlfarth, Ariane; Klette, Kevin L.; Martin, Thomas M.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic cannabinoid intake is an ongoing health issue worldwide, with new compounds continually emerging, making drug testing complex. Parent synthetic cannabinoids are rarely detected in urine, the most common matrix employed in workplace drug testing. Optimal identification of synthetic cannabinoid markers in authentic urine specimens and correlation of metabolite concentrations and toxicities would improve synthetic cannabinoid result interpretation. We screened 20,017 randomly collected US military urine specimens between July 2011 and June 2012 with a synthetic cannabinoid immunoassay yielding 1,432 presumptive positive specimens. We analyzed all presumptive positive and 1,069 negative specimens with our qualitative synthetic cannabinoid LC-MS/MS method, which confirmed 290 positive specimens. All 290 positive and 487 randomly-selected negative specimens were quantified with the most comprehensive urine quantitative LC-MS/MS method published to date. 290 specimens confirmed positive for 22 metabolites from 11 parent synthetic cannabinoids. The five most predominant metabolites were JWH-018 pentanoic acid (93%), JWH-018 N-hydroxypentyl (84%), AM2201 N-hydroxypentyl (69%), JWH-073 butanoic acid (69%), and JWH-122 N-hydroxypentyl (45%) with 11.1 (0.1–2434), 5.1 (0.1–1239), 2.0 (0.1–321), 1.1 (0.1–48.6), and 1.1 (0.1–250) μg/L median (range) concentrations, respectively. Alkyl hydroxy and carboxy metabolites provided suitable biomarkers for 11 parent synthetic cannabinoids; although, hydroxyindoles also were observed. This is by far the largest data set of synthetic cannabinoid metabolites urine concentrations from randomly collected workplace drug testing specimens rather than acute intoxications or driving under the influence of drugs. These data improve the interpretation of synthetic cannabinoid urine test results and suggest suitable urine markers of synthetic cannabinoid intake. PMID:25231213

  12. Laboratory reporting of urine protein and albumin.

    PubMed

    Jones, Graham Rd

    2011-05-01

    Communication between pathology laboratories and clients involves more than just a result. There may be advice on recommended specimen type as well as the units and reference intervals used to report results. Between-laboratory variability in these factors has the potential to cause unnecessary confusion and even to lead to variation in interpretation for samples sent to different laboratories. A survey of Australian and New Zealand laboratories covering sample recommendations, specimens received, units and reference intervals for urine albumin and urine protein was conducted through the Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia Quality Assurance Program (RCPA QAP). The results confirm earlier findings of wide between-laboratory variability in all these factors. It is proposed that only recommendations developed by relevant professional societies and adopted by all laboratories can lead to reduction in this variability.

  13. Laboratory Measurement of Urine Albumin and Urine Total Protein in Screening for Proteinuria in Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Helen

    2011-01-01

    Laboratory measurement of urine total protein has been important for the diagnosis and monitoring of renal disease for decades, and since the late 1990s, urine albumin has been measured to determine whether a diabetic patient has incipient nephropathy. Evolving understanding of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and, in particular, the cardiovascular risks that CKD confers, demands more sensitive detection of protein in urine. As well, evidence is now emerging that cardiovascular and all-cause mortality risks are increased at levels within the current ‘normal’ range for urine albumin. Standardisation is essential to permit valid application of universal decision points, and a National Kidney Disease Education Program/International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (NKDEP/IFCC) Working Party is making progress towards a reference system for urine albumin. In the meantime, available data suggest that Australasian laboratory performance is adequate in terms of precision and accuracy above current decision limits for urine albumin. In contrast, the complexity of proteins in urine makes standardisation of urine total protein measurement impossible. As well, urine total protein measurement is insufficiently sensitive to detect clinically important concentrations of urine albumin. An Australasian Expert Group, the Proteinuria Albuminuria Working Group (PAWG) has proposed that urine albumin/creatinine ratio is measured in a fresh, first morning, spot sample to screen for proteinuria in CKD. Both NKDEP/IFCC and PAWG emphasise the need for standardisation of sample collection and handling. PMID:21611083

  14. Laboratory measurement of urine albumin and urine total protein in screening for proteinuria in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Martin, Helen

    2011-05-01

    Laboratory measurement of urine total protein has been important for the diagnosis and monitoring of renal disease for decades, and since the late 1990s, urine albumin has been measured to determine whether a diabetic patient has incipient nephropathy. Evolving understanding of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and, in particular, the cardiovascular risks that CKD confers, demands more sensitive detection of protein in urine. As well, evidence is now emerging that cardiovascular and all-cause mortality risks are increased at levels within the current 'normal' range for urine albumin. Standardisation is essential to permit valid application of universal decision points, and a National Kidney Disease Education Program/International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (NKDEP/IFCC) Working Party is making progress towards a reference system for urine albumin. In the meantime, available data suggest that Australasian laboratory performance is adequate in terms of precision and accuracy above current decision limits for urine albumin. In contrast, the complexity of proteins in urine makes standardisation of urine total protein measurement impossible. As well, urine total protein measurement is insufficiently sensitive to detect clinically important concentrations of urine albumin. An Australasian Expert Group, the Proteinuria Albuminuria Working Group (PAWG) has proposed that urine albumin/creatinine ratio is measured in a fresh, first morning, spot sample to screen for proteinuria in CKD. Both NKDEP/IFCC and PAWG emphasise the need for standardisation of sample collection and handling.

  15. Quantitative data on training new world primates to urinate.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tessa E; McCallister, Josephine M; Gordon, Stephen J; Whittikar, Melanie

    2004-09-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of operant conditioning in training three species of captive callitrichid primates (Leontopithecus rosalia, Callithrix geoffroyi, and Saguinus imperator) to urinate on demand. There were three goals to the study: 1) to develop a system for quantitatively assessing positive reinforcement training; 2) to ascertain whether or not positive reinforcement techniques can be used to train callitrichid monkeys to urinate on demand, and if so, how many training sessions are required; and 3) to determine the effect on urination behavior of the trainer entering the cage to collect a urine sample. Positive reinforcement with a continuous reinforcement schedule was used to capture a natural behavior: urination. Training sessions (30 min each) were conducted at dawn thrice weekly during five consecutive phases: habituation, control, training (animals were rewarded for urinating), maintenance (animals had reached a defined training criteria and continued to be rewarded for urinating), and collection (animals were rewarded for urinating, and the trainer entered the cage to collect the sample). The numbers of 30-min training sessions required to train the three monkey species (L. rosalia, C. geoffroyi, and S. imperator) were five, six, and eight, respectively. For the three species, the mean number of urinations per animal was significantly greater during the training, maintenance, and collection phases compared to the control phase. However, the three species differed significantly in the manner in which the rates of urination changed across the five phases. A higher proportion of subjects urinated during the training, maintenance, and collection phases compared to the control phase. Latency to first urination varied significantly across the five phases, with significantly reduced latencies to urinate during the training, maintenance, and collection phases compared to the control phase. The entry of the trainer into the cage to collect the

  16. Metals in urine and peripheral arterial disease.

    PubMed

    Navas-Acien, Ana; Silbergeld, Ellen K; Sharrett, Richey; Calderon-Aranda, Emma; Selvin, Elizabeth; Guallar, Eliseo

    2005-02-01

    Exposure to metals may promote atherosclerosis. Blood cadmium and lead were associated with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in the 1999-2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). In the present study we evaluated the association between urinary levels of cadmium, lead, barium, cobalt, cesium, molybdenum, antimony, thallium, and tungsten with PAD in a cross-sectional analysis of 790 participants > or =40 years of age in NHANES 1999-2000. PAD was defined as a blood pressure ankle brachial index < 0.9 in at least one leg. Metals were measured in casual (spot) urine specimens by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. After multivariable adjustment, subjects with PAD had 36% higher levels of cadmium in urine and 49% higher levels of tungsten compared with noncases. The adjusted odds ratio for PAD comparing the 75th to the 25th percentile of the cadmium distribution was 3.05 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.97 to 9.58]; that for tungsten was 2.25 (95% CI, 0.97 to 5.24). PAD risk increased sharply at low levels of antimony and remained elevated beyond 0.1 microg/L. PAD was not associated with other metals. In conclusion, urinary cadmium, tungsten, and possibly antimony were associated with PAD in a representative sample of the U.S. population. For cadmium, these results strengthen previous findings using blood cadmium as a biomarker, and they support its role in atherosclerosis. For tungsten and antimony, these results need to be interpreted cautiously in the context of an exploratory analysis but deserve further study. Other metals in urine were not associated with PAD at the levels found in the general population.

  17. Metals in Urine and Peripheral Arterial Disease

    PubMed Central

    Navas-Acien, Ana; Silbergeld, Ellen K.; Sharrett, A. Richey; Calderon-Aranda, Emma; Selvin, Elizabeth; Guallar, Eliseo

    2005-01-01

    Exposure to metals may promote atherosclerosis. Blood cadmium and lead were associated with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in the 1999–2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). In the present study we evaluated the association between urinary levels of cadmium, lead, barium, cobalt, cesium, molybdenum, antimony, thallium, and tungsten with PAD in a cross-sectional analysis of 790 participants ≥40 years of age in NHANES 1999–2000. PAD was defined as a blood pressure ankle brachial index < 0.9 in at least one leg. Metals were measured in casual (spot) urine specimens by inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry. After multivariable adjustment, subjects with PAD had 36% higher levels of cadmium in urine and 49% higher levels of tungsten compared with noncases. The adjusted odds ratio for PAD comparing the 75th to the 25th percentile of the cadmium distribution was 3.05 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.97 to 9.58]; that for tungsten was 2.25 (95% CI, 0.97 to 5.24). PAD risk increased sharply at low levels of antimony and remained elevated beyond 0.1 μg/L. PAD was not associated with other metals. In conclusion, urinary cadmium, tungsten, and possibly antimony were associated with PAD in a representative sample of the U.S. population. For cadmium, these results strengthen previous findings using blood cadmium as a biomarker, and they support its role in atherosclerosis. For tungsten and antimony, these results need to be interpreted cautiously in the context of an exploratory analysis but deserve further study. Other metals in urine were not associated with PAD at the levels found in the general population. PMID:15687053

  18. Urine oligosaccharide pattern in patients with hyperprolactinaemia.

    PubMed

    Ekman, Bertil; Wahlberg, Jeanette; Landberg, Eva

    2015-11-01

    Free milk-type oligosaccharides are produced during pregnancy and lactation and may have an impact on several cells in the immune system. Our aim was to investigate if patients with isolated hyperprolactinaemia, not related to pregnancy, also have increased synthesis and urinary excretion of milk-type oligosaccharides and to compare the excretion pattern with that found during pregnancy. Urine samples were collected as morning sample from 18 patients with hyperprolactinaemia, 13 healthy controls with normal prolactin levels and four pregnant women. After purification, lactose and free oligosaccharides were analysed and quantified by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection. The identity of peaks was confirmed by exoglycosidase treatment and comparison with oligosaccharide standards. Prolactin was measured in serum collected between 09 and 11 a.m. by a standardized immunochemical method. Patients with hyperprolactinaemia had higher urinary excretion of lactose than normoprolactinemic controls and urinary lactose correlated positively to prolactin levels (r = 0.51, p < 0.05). Increased levels of the fucosylated oligosaccharides 2-fucosyl lactose and lacto-di-fucotetraose were found in urine from three and two patients, respectively. The acidic oligosaccharide 3-sialyl lactose was found in high amount in urine from two patients with prolactin of >10,000 mU/l. However, pregnant women in their third trimester had the highest concentration of all these oligosaccharides and excretion increased during pregnancy. This study is first to show that both lactose and certain fucosylated and sialylated milk-type oligosaccharides are increased in some patients with hyperprolactinaemia. It remains to elucidate the functional importance of these findings.

  19. Urine Is Not Sterile: Use of Enhanced Urine Culture Techniques To Detect Resident Bacterial Flora in the Adult Female Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Hilt, Evann E.; McKinley, Kathleen; Pearce, Meghan M.; Rosenfeld, Amy B.; Zilliox, Michael J.; Mueller, Elizabeth R.; Brubaker, Linda; Gai, Xiaowu; Wolfe, Alan J.

    2014-01-01

    Our previous study showed that bacterial genomes can be identified using 16S rRNA sequencing in urine specimens of both symptomatic and asymptomatic patients who are culture negative according to standard urine culture protocols. In the present study, we used a modified culture protocol that included plating larger volumes of urine, incubation under varied atmospheric conditions, and prolonged incubation times to demonstrate that many of the organisms identified in urine by 16S rRNA gene sequencing are, in fact, cultivable using an expanded quantitative urine culture (EQUC) protocol. Sixty-five urine specimens (from 41 patients with overactive bladder and 24 controls) were examined using both the standard and EQUC culture techniques. Fifty-two of the 65 urine samples (80%) grew bacterial species using EQUC, while the majority of these (48/52 [92%]) were reported as no growth at 103 CFU/ml by the clinical microbiology laboratory using the standard urine culture protocol. Thirty-five different genera and 85 different species were identified by EQUC. The most prevalent genera isolated were Lactobacillus (15%), followed by Corynebacterium (14.2%), Streptococcus (11.9%), Actinomyces (6.9%), and Staphylococcus (6.9%). Other genera commonly isolated include Aerococcus, Gardnerella, Bifidobacterium, and Actinobaculum. Our current study demonstrates that urine contains communities of living bacteria that comprise a resident female urine microbiota. PMID:24371246

  20. Urine Cytology: Collection, Film Preparation, and Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Vap, Linda M; Shropshire, Sarah B

    2017-01-01

    Cytologic examination of the urine sediment in animals suspected of having urinary tract disease or lower urinary tract masses is one of the best means of distinguishing inflammation, infection, and neoplasia and can help determine if a positive dipstick result for hemoglobin/blood is due to hemorrhage or blood contamination. The quality of the specimen collection and handling plays an important role in the quality of results, the validity of interpretations, and selection of appropriate course of action. The method of sample collection aids localization of pathology. Air dry but do not heat fix, freeze, or expose films to formalin fumes, temperature extremes, or condensation.

  1. Ethical considerations in urine drug testing.

    PubMed

    Passik, Steven D; Kirsh, Kenneth L

    2011-01-01

    Recent passage of a House Bill in the state of Washington led to a commentary on whether mandates for urine drug testing of pain patients represented a breach of the Fourth and Fourteenth Amendment rights of patients. Issues over true consent to such tests and potential view of warrantless searches were discussed. The authors address these concerns in a broader context of risk management and stratification efforts, along with discussion about the need for a tailored approach in this arena and consideration of cost burden for such tests. Finally, the argument is made that social justice issues need to be considered (along with issues of autonomy, beneficence, and nonmaleficence).

  2. Differences in Dry Eye Questionnaire Symptoms in Two Different Modalities of Contact Lens Wear: Silicone-Hydrogel in Daily Wear Basis and Overnight Orthokeratology

    PubMed Central

    Rico-del-Viejo, Laura; Martin-Gil, Alba

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To compare the ocular surface symptoms and signs in an adult population of silicone-hydrogel (Si-Hy) contact lens (CL) wearers with another modality of CL wear, overnight orthokeratology (OK). Materials and Methods. This was a prospective and comparative study in which 31 myopic subjects were fitted with the same Si-Hy CL and 23 underwent OK treatment for 3 months. Dry eye questionnaire (DEQ) was filled in at the beginning of the study and then after 15 days, 1 month, and 3 months using each CL modality. The tear quality was evaluated with noninvasive tear break-up time. Tear production was measured with Schirmer test. Tear samples were collected with Schirmer strips being frozen to analyze the dinucleotide diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A) concentration with High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Results. After refitting with ortho-k, a reduction in discomfort and dryness symptoms at the end of the day (p < 0.05, χ2) was observed. No significant changes were observed in Ap4A concentration in any group. Bulbar redness, limbal redness, and conjunctival staining increased significantly in the Si-Hy group (p < 0.05, Kruskal–Wallis test). Conclusion. Discomfort and dryness symptoms at the end of the day are lower in the OK CL group than in the Si-Hy CL group. PMID:27689073

  3. Water recovery by catalytic treatment of urine vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budininkas, P.; Quattrone, P. D.; Leban, M. I.

    1980-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to demonstrate the feasibility of water recovery on a man-rated scale by the catalytic processing of untreated urine vapor. For this purpose, two catalytic systems, one capable of processing an air stream containing low urine vapor concentrations and another to process streams with high urine vapor concentrations, were designed, constructed, and tested to establish the quality of the recovered water.

  4. Zero-gravity open-type urine receptacle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Girala, A. S.

    1972-01-01

    The development of the zero-gravity open-type urine receptacle used in the Apollo command module is described. This type receptacle eliminates the need for a cuff-type urine collector or for the penis to circumferentially contact the receptacle in order to urinate. This device may be used in a gravity environment, varying from zero gravity to earth gravity, such as may be experienced in a space station or space base.

  5. Use of urine in snow to indicate condition of wolves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.; Seal, U.S.; DelGiudice, G.D.

    1987-01-01

    Urine deposited in snow by wild gray wolves (Canis lupus) and by fed and fasted captive wolves was analyzed for urea nitrogen, calcium, sodium, potassium, and creatinine. Ratios of the elements with creatinine were considerably higher for fed than for fasted animals, and ratios for fed wolves compared favorably with ratios from wolf urine in snow along trails leading from kills. Thus, wolf urine in the snow can indicate whether wolves have fed recently, and a series of such urine collections from any given pack can indicate relative nutritional state.

  6. Development testing of a shuttle urine collection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Flight tests conducted in December 1973 demonstrated the ability of an unisexual urine collection subsystem to function in a zero-g environment. The urinal, which could be adjusted with three degrees of freedom, accommodated 16 female test subjects with a wide range of stature, as well as five male test subjects. The urinal was in intimate contact with the female and was contoured to form an effective air seal at the periphery. When positioned 2-4 inches forward, the urinal could be used for male collection and contact was not required.

  7. Etiologic factors in diaper dermatitis: the role of urine.

    PubMed

    Berg, R W; Buckingham, K W; Stewart, R L

    1986-02-01

    Diaper dermatitis may result after repeated or prolonged contact of skin with urine and feces. A hairless mouse model was used to elucidate the role of urine in this process. The results of this work suggest that an important function of urine in the etiology of diaper dermatitis is to increase the pH of the diaper environment by breaking down urea in the presence of fecal urease. This rise in pH increases the activities of fecal proteases and lipases, which can damage skin. Urine can also increase the permeability of diapered skin to irritants and can directly irritate skin when exposure is prolonged.

  8. Urine-activated paper batteries for biosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bang Lee, Ki

    2005-09-01

    The first urine-activated laminated paper batteries have been demonstrated and reported in this paper. A simple and cheap fabrication process for the paper batteries has been developed which is compatible with the existing plastic laminating technologies or plastic molding technologies. In this battery, a magnesium (Mg) layer and copper chloride (CuCl) in the filter paper are used as the anode and the cathode, respectively. A stack consisting of a Mg layer, CuCl-doped filter paper and a copper (Cu) layer sandwiched between two plastic layers is laminated into the paper batteries by passing through the heating roller at 120 °C. The paper battery is tested and it can deliver a power greater than 1.5 mW. In addition, these urine-activated laminated paper batteries could be integrated with bioMEMS devices such as home-based health test kits providing a power source for the electronic circuit. A portion of this paper was presented at The 4th International Workshop on Micro and Nanotechnology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications (PowerMEMS 2004), 28 30 November, 2004, Kyoto, Japan.

  9. Chemotherapeutic potential of cow urine: A review

    PubMed Central

    Randhawa, Gurpreet Kaur; Sharma, Rajiv

    2015-01-01

    In the grim scenario where presently about 70% of pathogenic bacteria are resistant to at least one of the drugs for the treatment, cue is to be taken from traditional/indigenous medicine to tackle it urgently. The Indian traditional knowledge emanates from ayurveda, where Bos indicus is placed at a high pedestal for numerous uses of its various products. Urine is one of the products of a cow with many benefits and without toxicity. Various studies have found good antimicrobial activity of cow’s urine (CU) comparable with standard drugs such as ofloxacin, cefpodoxime, and gentamycin, against a vast number of pathogenic bacteria, more so against Gram-positive than negative bacteria. Interestingly antimicrobial activity has also been found against some resistant strains such as multidrug-resistant (MDR) Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Antimicrobial action is enhanced still further by it being an immune-enhancer and bioenhancer of some antibiotic drugs. Antifungal activity was comparable to amphotericin B. CU also has anthelmintic and antineoplastic action. CU has, in addition, antioxidant properties, and it can prevent the damage to DNA caused by the environmental stress. In the management of infectious diseases, CU can be used alone or as an adjunctive to prevent the development of resistance and enhance the effect of standard antibiotics. PMID:26401404

  10. An automatic critical care urine meter.

    PubMed

    Otero, Abraham; Fernandez, Roemi; Apalkov, Andrey; Armada, Manuel

    2012-09-26

    Nowadays patients admitted to critical care units have most of their physiological parameters measured automatically by sophisticated commercial monitoring devices. More often than not, these devices supervise whether the values of the parameters they measure lie within a pre-established range, and issue warning of deviations from this range by triggering alarms. The automation of measuring and supervising tasks not only discharges the healthcare staff of a considerable workload but also avoids human errors in these repetitive and monotonous tasks. Arguably, the most relevant physiological parameter that is still measured and supervised manually by critical care unit staff is urine output (UO). In this paper we present a patent-pending device that provides continuous and accurate measurements of patient's UO. The device uses capacitive sensors to take continuous measurements of the height of the column of liquid accumulated in two chambers that make up a plastic container. The first chamber, where the urine inputs, has a small volume. Once it has been filled it overflows into a second bigger chamber. The first chamber provides accurate UO measures of patients whose UO has to be closely supervised, while the second one avoids the need for frequent interventions by the nursing staff to empty the container.

  11. Variation in nuclear DNA concentrations during urination.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Donald J; Calderaro, Alexa C; Roberts, Katherine A

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the cellular origin and concentration of nuclear DNA in human urine. Ten subjects provided two entire, first-morning voids: one as a single specimen and one as a consecutive series of samples. The serial samples were centrifuged, organically extracted, and quantified by slot-blot analysis. Total DNA concentrations ranged from 0.02 to 21.3 ng/mL for the males and 25.0 to 96.9 ng/mL for the females. The female samples were found to contain numerous vaginal epithelial cells. DNA was detected in all of the serial samples of nine subjects; however, the DNA concentrations varied considerably. With six subjects, the DNA concentration of the first serial sample was at least three times greater than that of the entire void. DNA was only detected in the first 21% of the void from one male subject. The results of this study have implications for the collection of urine samples.

  12. Luminescent spectroscopy of dry tailings urine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilyi, Olexander; Bordun, Oleg; Yarynovska, Ivanna

    2006-05-01

    In the work the results of research of luminescent spectrums by photo excitation in the interval of waves lengths 250 - 550 nm and ofluminescent spectrums by the nitric laser (337,1 mn) excitation ofdiy tailings urinaryby the temperature of 300 °K are represented. In the spectral interval of 400 - 800 nm a wide bar of luminescence, intensity of which depends on the type of excitation. was observed. It is set, that presence of salts with oxalate, urate and phosphatic compositions in urine results in the move of maximum of luniinescent spectrums in the long-wave region of spectrum and changes the intensity of luminescence. The possible mechanisms of the observed changes in the spectrums of luminescence of dry urine tailings are examined in the work. The model of recombrnational processes which describe the looked luminescent processes is offered. Possible explanations of the looked features in the spectrums of luminescence combine with luminescence of nanobiological complexes, inorganic salts, urea and natural proteins enter in composition of which.

  13. Overnight improvements in two REM sleep-sensitive tasks are associated with both REM and NREM sleep changes, sleep spindle features, and awakenings for dream recall.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, T; O'Reilly, C; Carr, M; Dumel, G; Godin, I; Solomonova, E; Lara-Carrasco, J; Blanchette-Carrière, C; Paquette, T

    2015-07-01

    Memory consolidation is associated with sleep physiology but the contribution of specific sleep stages remains controversial. To clarify the contribution of REM sleep, participants were administered two REM sleep-sensitive tasks to determine if associated changes occurred only in REM sleep. Twenty-two participants (7 men) were administered the Corsi Block Tapping and Tower of Hanoi tasks prior to and again after a night of sleep. Task improvers and non-improvers were compared for sleep structure, sleep spindles, and dream recall. Control participants (N = 15) completed the tasks twice during the day without intervening sleep. Overnight Corsi Block improvement was associated with more REM sleep whereas Tower of Hanoi improvement was associated with more N2 sleep. Corsi Block improvement correlated positively with %REM sleep and Tower of Hanoi improvement with %N2 sleep. Post-hoc analyses suggest Tower of Hanoi effects-but not Corsi Block effects-are due to trait differences. Sleep spindle density was associated with Tower of Hanoi improvement whereas spindle amplitude correlated with Corsi Block improvement. Number of REM awakenings for dream reporting (but not dream recall per se) was associated with Corsi Block, but not Tower of Hanoi, improvement but was confounded with REM sleep time. This non-replication of one of 2 REM-sensitive task effects challenges both 'dual-process' and 'sequential' or 'sleep organization' models of sleep-dependent learning and points rather to capacity limitations on REM sleep. Experimental awakenings for sampling dream mentation may not perturb sleep-dependent learning effects; they may even enhance them.

  14. Overnight Polysomnographic Characteristics and Oxygen Saturation of Healthy Infants, 1 to 18 Months of Age, Born and Residing At High Altitude (2,640 Meters)

    PubMed Central

    Bazurto-Zapata, María A.; Gozal, David; González-García, Mauricio; Durán-Cantolla, Joaquín; Torres-Duque, Carlos A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Approximately 8% of the world population resides above 1,600 m, with about 10 million people living above 2,500 m in Colombia. However, reference values for polysomnography (PSG) and oxygen saturation (Spo2) of children < 2 years old residing at high altitude are currently unavailable. METHODS: Healthy infants aged 1 to 18 months born and residing at high altitude (Bogotá: 2,640 m) underwent overnight PSG. Four age groups were defined: group 1, < 45 days; group 2, 3 to 4 months; group 3, 6 to 7 months; and group 4, 10 to 18 months. Of 122 children enrolled, 50 had three consecutive PSG tests and were analyzed as a longitudinal subcohort. RESULTS: A total of 281 PSG tests were performed in 122 infants (56% girls): group 1, 106 PSG tests; group 2, 89 PSG tests; group 3, 61 PSG tests; and group 4, 25 PSG tests. Active sleep diminished and quiet sleep increased with maturation. Apnea-hypopnea indexes (total, central, and obstructive) were highest in group 1 (21.4, 12.4, and 6.8/h total sleep time, respectively) and diminished with age (P < .001). Mean Spo2 during waking and sleep increased with age (P < .001). Nadir Spo2 values during respiratory events were lower in younger infants. Longitudinal assessments of 50 infants confirmed the temporal trends described for the cross-sectional dataset. CONCLUSIONS: Healthy infants (≤ 18 months old) born and residing at high altitude show preserved sleep architecture but higher apnea-hypopnea indexes and more prominent desaturation with respiratory events than do those living at low altitude. The current study findings can be used as reference values for infants at high altitude. PMID:25811138

  15. Case Report: Red Urine After Day Care Strabismus Surgery.

    PubMed

    Caroline, Pregardien; Marie-Cécile, Nassogne; Demet, Yuksel; Francis, Veyckemans

    2017-02-15

    In the absence of surgery on the urinary tract, the emission of red urine after anesthesia should be considered as a diagnostic emergency because it can be a sign of hematuria, hemoglobinuria, blood transfusion reaction, significant myoglobinuria, or porphyria.This case describes the management of a 12-year-old boy who presented red urine at the day care unit after strabismus surgery.

  16. USE OF DISPOSABLE DIAPERS TO COLLECT URINE IN EXPOSURE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Large studies of children's health as it relates to exposures to chemicals in the environment often require measurements of biomarkers of chemical exposures or effects in urine samples. But collection of urine samples from infants and toddlers is difficult. For large exposure s...

  17. 10 CFR 26.105 - Preparing for urine collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Preparing for urine collection. 26.105 Section 26.105 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.105 Preparing for urine collection. (a) The collector shall ask the donor to remove any unnecessary...

  18. 10 CFR 26.107 - Collecting a urine specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Collecting a urine specimen. 26.107 Section 26.107 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.107 Collecting a urine specimen. (a) The collector shall direct the donor to go into the room or stall used...

  19. 10 CFR 26.113 - Splitting the urine specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Splitting the urine specimen. 26.113 Section 26.113 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.113 Splitting the urine specimen. (a) Licensees and other entities may, but are not required to, use...

  20. 10 CFR 26.113 - Splitting the urine specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Splitting the urine specimen. 26.113 Section 26.113 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.113 Splitting the urine specimen. (a) Licensees and other entities may, but are not required to, use...

  1. 10 CFR 26.107 - Collecting a urine specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Collecting a urine specimen. 26.107 Section 26.107 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.107 Collecting a urine specimen. (a) The collector shall direct the donor to go into the room or stall used...

  2. 10 CFR 26.109 - Urine specimen quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Urine specimen quantity. 26.109 Section 26.109 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.109 Urine specimen quantity. (a) Licensees and other entities who are subject to this subpart shall establish...

  3. 10 CFR 26.113 - Splitting the urine specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Splitting the urine specimen. 26.113 Section 26.113 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.113 Splitting the urine specimen. (a) Licensees and other entities may, but are not required to, use...

  4. 10 CFR 26.113 - Splitting the urine specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Splitting the urine specimen. 26.113 Section 26.113 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.113 Splitting the urine specimen. (a) Licensees and other entities may, but are not required to, use...

  5. 10 CFR 26.109 - Urine specimen quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Urine specimen quantity. 26.109 Section 26.109 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.109 Urine specimen quantity. (a) Licensees and other entities who are subject to this subpart shall establish...

  6. 10 CFR 26.107 - Collecting a urine specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Collecting a urine specimen. 26.107 Section 26.107 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.107 Collecting a urine specimen. (a) The collector shall direct the donor to go into the room or stall used...

  7. 10 CFR 26.109 - Urine specimen quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Urine specimen quantity. 26.109 Section 26.109 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.109 Urine specimen quantity. (a) Licensees and other entities who are subject to this subpart shall establish...

  8. 10 CFR 26.107 - Collecting a urine specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Collecting a urine specimen. 26.107 Section 26.107 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.107 Collecting a urine specimen. (a) The collector shall direct the donor to go into the room or stall used...

  9. 10 CFR 26.107 - Collecting a urine specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Collecting a urine specimen. 26.107 Section 26.107 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.107 Collecting a urine specimen. (a) The collector shall direct the donor to go into the room or stall used...

  10. 10 CFR 26.105 - Preparing for urine collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Preparing for urine collection. 26.105 Section 26.105 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.105 Preparing for urine collection. (a) The collector shall ask the donor to remove any unnecessary...

  11. 10 CFR 26.105 - Preparing for urine collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Preparing for urine collection. 26.105 Section 26.105 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.105 Preparing for urine collection. (a) The collector shall ask the donor to remove any unnecessary...

  12. 10 CFR 26.109 - Urine specimen quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Urine specimen quantity. 26.109 Section 26.109 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.109 Urine specimen quantity. (a) Licensees and other entities who are subject to this subpart shall establish...

  13. 10 CFR 26.105 - Preparing for urine collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Preparing for urine collection. 26.105 Section 26.105 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.105 Preparing for urine collection. (a) The collector shall ask the donor to remove any unnecessary...

  14. 10 CFR 26.109 - Urine specimen quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Urine specimen quantity. 26.109 Section 26.109 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.109 Urine specimen quantity. (a) Licensees and other entities who are subject to this subpart shall establish...

  15. 10 CFR 26.113 - Splitting the urine specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Splitting the urine specimen. 26.113 Section 26.113 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.113 Splitting the urine specimen. (a) Licensees and other entities may, but are not required to, use...

  16. 10 CFR 26.105 - Preparing for urine collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preparing for urine collection. 26.105 Section 26.105 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.105 Preparing for urine collection. (a) The collector shall ask the donor to remove any unnecessary...

  17. NEW COLUMN SEPARATION METHOD FOR EMERGENCY URINE SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S; Brian Culligan, B

    2007-08-28

    The Savannah River Site Environmental Bioassay Lab participated in the 2007 NRIP Emergency Response program administered by the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) in May, 2007. A new rapid column separation method was applied directly to the NRIP 2007 emergency urine samples, with only minimal sample preparation to reduce preparation time. Calcium phosphate precipitation, previously used to pre-concentrate actinides and Sr-90 in NRIP 2006 urine and water samples, was not used for the NRIP 2007 urine samples. Instead, the raw urine was acidified and passed directly through the stacked resin columns (TEVA+TRU+SR Resins) to separate the actinides and strontium from the NRIP urine samples more quickly. This improvement reduced sample preparation time for the NRIP 2007 emergency urine analyses significantly. This approach works well for small volume urine samples expected during an emergency response event. Based on initial feedback from NIST, the SRS Environmental Bioassay Lab had the most rapid analysis times for actinides and strontium-90 analyses for NRIP 2007 urine samples.

  18. Automated biowaste sampling system urine subsystem operating model, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogal, G. L.; Mangialardi, J. K.; Rosen, F.

    1973-01-01

    The urine subsystem automatically provides for the collection, volume sensing, and sampling of urine from six subjects during space flight. Verification of the subsystem design was a primary objective of the current effort which was accomplished thru the detail design, fabrication, and verification testing of an operating model of the subsystem.

  19. Microchemical urinalysis. IX - Determination of hydroxyproline in urine.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grunbaum, B. W.; Pace, N.

    1973-01-01

    A simplified procedure is described for the determination of hydroxyproline in human or monkey urine. In this procedure 1 ml of urine is subjected in succession to hydrolysis, oxidation, extraction, and color development. During these steps impurities and interfering substances are eliminated, thus resulting in a chromophore due to hydroxyproline alone.

  20. An association of purple urine bag syndrome with intussusception.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Rekha Neelakanta; Clavijo, Jorge; Narayanan, Manjith; Zaman, Kashif

    2007-10-01

    We report a case of an elderly lady with a long-term suprapubic catheter who developed purple discoloration of urine around the same time as she developed intussusception. Purple urine bag syndrome is a benign condition known to be associated with intestinal stasis. However, this association with intussusception should be kept in mind before the patient is reassured.

  1. 76 FR 52644 - Faucets, Showerheads, Water Closets and Urinals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Faucets, Showerheads, Water Closets and Urinals AGENCY... respect to any State regulation concerning the water use or water efficiency of faucets, showerheads, water closets and urinals that is: (1) More stringent than Federal regulation concerning the water...

  2. Application of electrolysis for detoxification of an antineoplastic in urine.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Toyohide; Hirose, Jun; Sano, Kouichi; Kato, Ryuji; Ijiri, Yoshio; Takiuchi, Hiroya; Tanaka, Kazuhiko; Goto, Emi; Tamai, Hiroshi; Nakano, Takashi

    2012-04-01

    Antineoplastics in excreta from patients have been considered to be one of the origins of cytotoxic, carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic contaminants in surface water. Recent studies have demonstrated that antineoplastics in clinical wastewater can be detoxified by electrolysis. In this study, to develop a method for the detoxification of antineoplastics in excreta, methotrexate solution in the presence of human urine was electrolyzed and evaluated. We found that urine inhibits detoxification by electrolysis; however, this inhibition decreased by diluting urine. In urine samples, the concentrations of active chlorine generated by anodic oxidation from 0.9% NaCl solution for inactivation of antineoplastics increased in dilution-dependent and time-dependent manner. These results indicate that electrolysis with platinum-based iridium oxide composite electrode is a possible method for the detoxification of a certain antineoplastic in urine.

  3. The influence of urine volume on body impedance measurement.

    PubMed

    Hong, K H; Park, K S

    2008-01-01

    Bio-signal has some characteristics that the signal is so weak. So, it is good that the factors to influence measured electrical signal are eliminated as much as they can. So, in this paper we will show the influence of urine in bladder on measuring human body impedance. Human urine has different conductivity from other human tissues. Therefore, if the volume of the urine changed, the measured body impedance data also changed.So, in this paper, we will show the influence of urine in bladder with foot-to-foot and thigh-to-thigh current paths. As a result, if the current flows through human bladder, the influence of urine in the bladder must be considered when the body impedance is measured

  4. Tritium analysis of urine samples from the general Korean public.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Seokwon; Ha, Wi-Ho; Lee, Seung-Sook

    2013-11-01

    The tritium concentrations of urine samples and the effective dose of the general Korean public were evaluated. To achieve accurate HTO analysis of urine samples, we established the optimal conditions for measuring the HTO content of urine samples. Urine samples from 50 Koreans who do not work at a nuclear facility were analyzed on the basis of the results. The average urine analysis result was 2.8 ±1 .4 Bq/L, and the range was 1.8-5.6 Bq/L. The measured values were lower than those reported for other countries. These results show that environmental factors and lifestyle differences are the main factors affecting the tritium level of the general public.

  5. Forgotten hardware: how to urinate in a spacesuit.

    PubMed

    Hollins, Hunter

    2013-06-01

    On May 5, 1961, astronaut Alan Shepard became the first American to fly in space. Although National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) had discounted the need for him to urinate, Shepard did, in his spacesuit, short circuiting his electronic biosensors. With the development of the pressure suit needed for high-altitude and space flight during the 1950s, technicians had developed the means for urine collection. However, cultural mores, combined with a lack of interagency communication, and the technical difficulties of spaceflight made human waste collection a difficult task. Despite the difficulties, technicians at NASA created a successful urine collection device that John Glenn wore on the first Mercury orbital flight on February 20, 1962. With minor modifications, male astronauts used this system to collect urine until the Space Shuttle program. John Glenn's urine collection device is at the National Air and Space Museum and has been on view to the public since 1976.

  6. Development of a qualitative liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometric method for the detection of narcotics in urine relevant to doping analysis.

    PubMed

    Deventer, Koen; Pozo, Oscar J; Van Eenoo, Peter; Delbeke, Frans T

    2007-01-01

    A new screening procedure for 18 narcotics in urine for anti-doping purposes has been developed using liquid chromatography/triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC/MS). Electrospray ionization (ESI) was used as interface. Infusion experiments were performed for all substances to investigate their mass spectrometric behaviour in terms of selecting product specific ions. These product ions were then used to develop a tandem mass spectrometric method using selected reaction monitoring (SRM). For the LC/MS analysis, chromatography was performed on an octadecylsilane column. The total run time of the chromatographic method was 5.5 min. For the sample preparation prior to LC/MS analysis, the urine samples were liquid-liquid extracted at pH 9.5 after overnight enzymatic hydrolysis. Two extraction solvents were evaluated: dichloromethane/methanol 9/1 (v/v), which is currently used for the extraction of narcotics, and diethyl ether, used for the extraction of steroids. With diethyl ether the detection limits for all compounds ranged between 0.5 and 20 ng/mL and with the mixture containing dichloromethane the detection limits ranged between 0.5 and 10 ng/mL. Taking into account the minimum required performance limits of the World Anti-Doping Agency of 200 ng/mL for narcotics, diethyl ether can also be considered as extraction solvent for narcotics. Finally, the described method was applied to the analysis of urine samples previously found to contain narcotics by our routine gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) method.

  7. Quantifying estrogen metabolism: an evaluation of the reproducibility and validity of enzyme immunoassays for 2-hydroxyestrone and 16alpha-hydroxyestrone in urine.

    PubMed Central

    Ziegler, R G; Rossi, S C; Fears, T R; Bradlow, H L; Adlercreutz, H; Sepkovic, D; Kiuru, P; Wahala, K; Vaught, J B; Donaldson, J L; Falk, R T; Fillmore, C M; Siiteri, P K; Hoover, R N; Gail, M H

    1997-01-01

    Rapid and simple enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) were recently developed to measure 2-hydroxyestrone and 16alpha-hydroxyestrone in unextracted urine. The balance between these competing estrogen metabolism pathways may serve as a biomarker of breast cancer risk. Before testing these assays in epidemiologic studies, we evaluated their reproducibility, and validity relative to gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Overnight 12-hr urine collections from five midfollicular premenopausal women, five midluteal premenopausal women, and five postmenopausal women were aliquoted and stored at -70 degrees C. Two aliquots from each woman were assayed with the EIAs in a random, blinded order, monthly over 4 months and 1 year later. Reproducibility over 4 months was good for both metabolites in premenopausal women (coefficient of variation = 8-14%) and satisfactory in postmenopausal women (approximately 19%). Reproducibility over 12 months remained good in premenopausal women, but was poor in postmenopausal women, with mean readings increasing 50 to 100%. Wide variation in estrogen metabolite levels enabled a single EIA measurement to characterize individual differences among premenopausal women in midfollicular (intraclass correlation coefficient = 98-99%) and midluteal phase (85-91%). A narrower range in metabolite levels among postmenopausal women reduced discrimination (78-82%). The correlation between EIA and GC-MS measurement was excellent for both metabolites (r>0.9), except for 2-hydroxyestrone in postmenopausal women (r=0.6). Analysis of absolute agreement suggested that both EIAs were less sensitive than GC-MS, and each detected nonspecific background. The low concentration of estrogen metabolites in urine from postmenopausal women may explain the problems with reproducibility and validity in this menstrual group. Accordingly, more sensitive EIAs have been developed and are now being evaluated. PMID:9168003

  8. GHB Urine Concentrations After Single-Dose Administration in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Haller, Christine; Thai, Dung; Jacob, Peyton; Dyer, Jo Ellen

    2008-01-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is used as an illicit drug and is implicated in drug-facilitated sexual assault, but it also has some therapeutic uses. Detection of GHB in urine is important for forensic testing and could be of clinical benefit in overdose management. Urine GHB concentration-time profiles have not been well-characterized or correlated with doses used therapeutically. GHB levels were measured by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry in urine collected over 24 h from 16 adults administered single doses of 50 mg/kg GHB (Xyrem®) alone and combined with 0.6 g/kg ethanol. Peak GHB urine concentrations averaged 150–200 mg/L and occurred in the 0–3 h urine collection. Significant variability in GHB urine levels between individuals was observed. Caucasians had lower urine concentrations than other races/ethnicities (p = 0.03). Men had lower GHB levels than women in the first 3 h after dosing (p = 0.038). Coingestion of ethanol did not significantly affect renal clearance of GHB, but urine GHB concentrations were lower in the first 3 h when ethanol and GHB were coingested (p = 0.039). At a proposed cut-off of 10 mg/L to distinguish endogenous versus exogenous GHB levels, 12.5% of the samples collected from 3 to 6 h, 81.3% of samples collected from 6 to 12 h, and 100% of urine specimens collected from 12 to 24 h were below this level. We conclude that the detection time for GHB in urine may be shorter than the previously reported 12-h window in some people taking therapeutic doses of GHB. PMID:16872565

  9. Elevated urine zinc concentration reduces the detection of methamphetamine, cocaine, THC and opiates in urine by EMIT.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Ni; Strathmann, Frederick G

    2013-01-01

    Methods for circumventing positive drug tests continue to evolve and are often spread through internet websites reporting on the proposed effectiveness of various adulteration methods. Recent claims of the use of zinc added directly to urine or ingested prior to urine collection have prompted investigation into the vulnerability of ELISA-based testing, providing interesting but inconclusive results. We investigated the potential interference of zinc used as a direct adulterant and after zinc self-administration for enzyme multiplied immunoassay technique (EMIT)-based drug abuse testing in urine. Negative urine samples and samples collected before and after zinc self-administration were fortified with d-methamphetamine, benzoylecgonine, morphine and 11-nor-9-carboxy-tetrahydrocannabinol prior to analysis by the EMIT. Our data indicate that zinc added directly to urine in concentrations 5,000 times higher than a typical random urine total zinc concentration is capable of producing false-negative results; however, self-administration of oral zinc was unable to generate random urine total zinc concentrations in the required range. Further, no evidence of a secondary interfering substance was observed as a result of oral zinc self-administration. Our results indicate that the total zinc concentrations required to directly interfere with EMIT-based testing are easily distinguishable from routine random urine total zinc concentrations, and that alleged oral ingestion of zinc does not produce total zinc concentrations capable of direct interference.

  10. Towards a method of rapid extraction of strontium-90 from urine: urine pretreatment and alkali metal removal

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkins, C.; Dietz, M.; Kaminski, M.; Mertz, C.; Shkrob, I.

    2016-03-01

    A technical program to support the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention is being developed to provide an analytical method for rapid extraction of Sr-90 from urine, with the intent of assessing the general population’s exposure during an emergency response to a radiological terrorist event. Results are presented on the progress in urine sample preparation and chemical separation steps that provide an accurate and quantitative detection of Sr-90 based upon an automated column separation sequence and a liquid scintillation assay. Batch extractions were used to evaluate the urine pretreatment and the column separation efficiency and loading capacity based upon commercial, extractant-loaded resins. An efficient pretreatment process for decolorizing and removing organics from urine without measurable loss of radiostrontium from the sample was demonstrated. In addition, the Diphonix® resin shows promise for the removal of high concentrations of common strontium interferents in urine as a first separation step for Sr-90 analysis.

  11. Dipstick Spot urine pH does not accurately represent 24 hour urine PH measured by an electrode

    PubMed Central

    Omar, Mohamed; Sarkissian, Carl; Jianbo, Li; Calle, Juan; Monga, Manoj

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives To determine whether spot urine pH measured by dipstick is an accurate representation of 24 hours urine pH measured by an electrode. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed urine pH results of patients who presented to the urology stone clinic. For each patient we recorded the most recent pH result measured by dipstick from a spot urine sample that preceded the result of a 24-hour urine pH measured by the use of a pH electrode. Patients were excluded if there was a change in medications or dietary recommendations or if the two samples were more than 4 months apart. A difference of more than 0.5 pH was considered an inaccurate result. Results A total 600 patients were retrospectively reviewed for the pH results. The mean difference in pH between spot urine value and the 24 hours collection values was 0.52±0.45 pH. Higher pH was associated with lower accuracy (p<0.001). The accuracy of spot urine samples to predict 24-hour pH values of <5.5 was 68.9%, 68.2% for 5.5 to 6.5 and 35% for >6.5. Samples taken more than 75 days apart had only 49% the accuracy of more recent samples (p<0.002). The overall accuracy is lower than 80% (p<0.001). Influence of diurnal variation was not significant (p=0.588). Conclusions Spot urine pH by dipstick is not an accurate method for evaluation of the patients with urolithiasis. Patients with alkaline urine are more prone to error with reliance on spot urine pH. PMID:27286119

  12. Contextual chemosensory urine signaling in an African cichlid fish

    PubMed Central

    Maruska, Karen P.; Fernald, Russell D.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Chemosensory signaling is crucial for communication in many fish species, but little is known about how signalers modulate chemical output in response to sensory information and social context. Here, we tested the hypothesis that dominant male African cichlid fish (Astatotilapia burtoni) use urine signals during social interactions, and demonstrate that this signaling depends on social context (reproductive; territorial) and on available sensory information (visual cues; full interaction). We injected males with dye to visualize urine pulses and exposed them to full sensory information or visual cues alone of four types: (1) dominant male; (2) gravid (reproductively receptive) females; (3) mouth-brooding (non-receptive) females; or (4) control (no fish). We found that males released urine sooner and increased their urination frequency when visually exposed to gravid females as compared with mouth-brooding females and or no-fish controls. While males could distinguish female reproductive states using visual cues alone, courtship behavior rates were ∼10-fold higher when they fully interacted with gravid females compared with receiving visual cues alone. Males also increased their urination and territorial behaviors when exposed to another male, suggesting that chemical signals may convey information on dominance status. These data support the hypothesis that dominant males use urine as a chemical signal and adjust the frequency of their urine output based on contextual information. PMID:22162854

  13. Sheep-urine-induced changes in soil microbial community structure.

    PubMed

    Nunan, Naoise; Singh, Brajesh; Reid, Eileen; Ord, Brian; Papert, Artemis; Squires, Julie; Prosser, Jim I; Wheatley, Ron E; McNicol, Jim; Millard, Peter

    2006-05-01

    Soil microbial communities play an important role in nutrient cycling and nutrient availability, especially in unimproved soils. In grazed pastures, sheep urine causes local changes in nutrient concentration which may be a source of heterogeneity in microbial community structure. In the present study, we investigated the effects of synthetic urine on soil microbial community structure, using physiological (community level physiological profiling, CLPP), biochemical (phospholipid fatty acid analysis, PLFA) and molecular (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, DGGE) fingerprinting methods. PLFA data suggested that synthetic urine treatment had no significant effect on total microbial (total PLFA), total bacterial or fungal biomass; however, significant changes in microbial community structure were observed with both PLFA and DGGE data. PLFA data suggested that synthetic urine induced a shift towards communities with higher concentrations of branched fatty acids. DGGE banding patterns derived from control and treated soils differed, due to a higher proportion of DNA sequences migrating only to the upper regions of the gel in synthetic urine-treated samples. The shifts in community structure measured by PLFA and DGGE were significantly correlated with one another, suggesting that both datasets reflected the same changes in microbial communities. Synthetic urine treatment preferentially stimulated the use of rhizosphere-C in sole-carbon-source utilisation profiles. The changes caused by synthetic urine addition accounted for only 10-15% of the total variability in community structure, suggesting that overall microbial community structure was reasonably stable and that changes were confined to a small proportion of the communities.

  14. Development of a Targeted Urine Proteome Assay for Kidney Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Cantley, Lloyd G.; Colangelo, Christopher M.; Stone, Kathryn L.; Chung, Lisa; Belcher, Justin; Abbott, Thomas; Cantley, Jennifer L.; Williams, Kenneth R.; Parikh, Chirag R.

    2016-01-01

    Human urine is the least invasive and most readily available bio fluid whose proteome has been shown to change in response to disease or drug treatment. Urine is thus very amenable to quantitative proteomics and is a logical sample choice for identifying protein biomarkers for kidney diseases. In this study potential biomarkers were identified initially by using a multi-proteomics workflow to compare urine proteomes of kidney transplant patients who exhibited immediate versus delayed graft function. To comprehensively interrogate the urine proteome two “bottom up”, mass spectrometric-based discovery approaches, iTRAQ and Label Free Quantitation (LFQ), were complemented by Differential Fluorescence Gel Electrophoresis (DIGE) analyses of intact urine proteins from kidney transplant recipients who received a deceased donor kidney. Differentially expressed proteins in the two patient groups were identified, and corresponding stable isotope–labeled internal peptide standard (SIS) peptides were synthesized for scheduled multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). The Targeted Urine Proteome Assay (TUPA) was then developed by identifying those peptides for which there were at least 2 transitions for which interference in a urine matrix across 156 MRM runs was less than 30%. This resulted in a final assay that monitors 224 peptides corresponding to 167 quantifiable proteins. PMID:26220717

  15. Catching Fakes: New Markers of Urine Sample Validity and Invalidity.

    PubMed

    Goggin, Melissa M; Tann, Cheng-Min; Miller, Anna; Nguyen, An; Janis, Gregory C

    2017-03-01

    Urine drug testing is common for workplace drug testing, prescription management, emergency medicine and the criminal justice system. Unsurprisingly, with the significant consequences based upon the results of urine drug testing, a donor in need of concealing the contents of their sample is highly motivated to cheat the process. Procedures and safeguards ensuring sample validity are well known, and include measuring sample temperature at the time of collection, and laboratory measurements of creatinine, specific gravity and pH. Synthetic urine samples are available and are designed to deceive all aspects of urine drug testing, including validity testing. These samples are sophisticated enough to contain biological levels of creatinine, and are at a physiological pH and specific gravity. The goal of our research was to develop new procedures designed to distinguish authentic samples from masquerading synthetic samples. We aimed to identify substances in commercial synthetic urines not expected to be present in a biological sample distinguishing fake specimens. Additionally, we aimed to identify and employ endogenous compounds in addition to creatinine for identifying biological samples. We successfully identified two compounds present in synthetic urines that are not present in biological samples and use them as markers of invalidity. Four new endogenous markers for validity were successfully evaluated. Validity assessment was further aided by monitoring metabolites of nicotine and caffeine. When the method was applied to patient samples, 2% of samples were identified as inconsistent with natural urine samples, even though they met the current acceptance criteria for creatinine, pH and specific gravity.

  16. Estimate of dietary phosphorus intake using 24-h urine collection.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Yuuka; Sakuma, Masae; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Akitsu; Matsushita, Asami; Umeda, Minako; Ishikawa, Makoto; Taketani, Yutaka; Takeda, Eiji; Arai, Hidekazu

    2014-07-01

    Increases in serum phosphorus levels and dietary phosphorus intake induces vascular calcification, arterial sclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. Limiting phosphorus intake is advisable, however, no assessment methods are capable of estimating dietary phosphorus intake. We hypothesized that urinary phosphorus excretion can be translated into estimation of dietary phosphorus intake, and we evaluated whether a 24-h urine collection method could estimate dietary phosphorus intake. Thirty two healthy subjects were recruited for this study. Subjects collected urine samples over 24 h and weighed dietary records. We calculated dietary protein intake and phosphorus intake from dietary records and urine collection, and investigated associations between the two methods in estimating protein and phosphorus intake. Significant positive correlations were observed between dietary records and UC for protein and phosphorus intake. The average intakes determined from dietary records were significantly higher than from urine collection for both protein and phosphorus. There was a significant positive correlation between both the phosphorus and protein difference in dietary records and urine collection. The phosphorus-protein ratio in urine collection was significantly higher than in dietary records. Our data indicated that the 24-h urine collection method can estimate the amount of dietary phosphorus intake, and the results were superior to estimation by weighed dietary record.

  17. Urine Pretreatment Configuration and Test Results for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Stanley G.; Hutchens, Cindy F.; Rethke, Donald W.; Swartley, Vernon L.; Marsh, Robert W.

    1998-01-01

    Pretreatment of urine using Oxone and sulfuric acid is baselined in the International Space Station (ISS) waste water reclamation system to control odors, fix urea and control microbial growth. In addition, pretreatment is recommended for long term flight use of urine collection and two phase separation to reduce or eliminate fouling of the associated hardware and plumbing with urine precipitates. This is important for ISS application because the amount of maintenance time for cleaning and repairing hardware must be minimized. This paper describes the development of a chemical pretreatment system based on solid tablet shapes which are positioned in the urine collection hose and are dissolved by the intrained urine at the proper ratio of pretreatment to urine. Building upon the prior success of the developed and tested solid Oxone tablet a trade study was completed to confirm if a similar approach, or alternative, would be appropriate for the sulfuric acid injection method. In addition, a recommended handling and packaging approach of the solid tablets for long term, safe and convenient use on ISS was addressed. Consequently, the solid tablet concept with suitable packaging was identified as the Urine Pretreat / Prefilter Assembly (UPPA). Testing of the UPPA configuration confirmed the disolution rates and ratios required by ISS were achieved. This testing included laboratory controlled methods as well as a 'real world' test evaluation that occurred during the 150 day Stage 10 Water Recovery Test (WRT) conducted at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  18. Invited commentary: Quantifying salt in urine--a complex solution.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Ian H; Kestenbaum, Bryan

    2013-06-01

    Reduction of dietary sodium intake has been identified as a priority to reduce the worldwide burden of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Dietary sodium intake is most precisely ascertained by using timed urine collection. Casual urine sodium measurements are relatively easy to perform, but their relationship to timed urine sodium measurements is unclear. In this issue of the Journal, Brown et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2013;177(11):1180-1192) report the development and validation of equations to estimate 24-hour urine sodium excretion from casual urine samples. Their study included a large number of participants on 2 continents, a well-collected gold standard, separate discovery and validation samples, and relevant covariates. The resulting equations represent the best available methods to estimate dietary sodium intake from casual urine samples. However, the study is limited by evidence of a suboptimal model fit, restriction to people 20-59 years of age in North America and Europe, and exclusion and adjustment that further limit external validity. In addition, individual-level correlations of estimated and measured 24-hour urine sodium excretion were modest. Properly applied, the results will facilitate tracking of dietary sodium intake within populations over time and identification of communities for which dietary sodium restriction is most likely to be beneficial. Further work is needed to extend estimation to additional populations and improve individual-level assessment.

  19. Use of diluted urine for cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Jaatinen, Sanna; Lakaniemi, Aino-Maija; Rintala, Jukka

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to study the biomass growth of microalga Chlorella vulgaris using diluted human urine as a sole nutrient source. Batch cultivations (21 days) were conducted in five different urine dilutions (1:25-1:300), in 1:100-diluted urine as such and with added trace elements, and as a reference, in artificial growth medium. The highest biomass density was obtained in 1:100-diluted urine with and without additional trace elements (0.73 and 0.60 g L(-1), respectively). Similar biomass growth trends and densities were obtained with 1:25- and 1:300-diluted urine (0.52 vs. 0.48 gVSS L(-1)) indicating that urine at dilution 1:25 can be used to cultivate microalgal based biomass. Interestingly, even 1:300-diluted urine contained sufficiently nutrients and trace elements to support biomass growth. Biomass production was similar despite pH-variation from < 5 to 9 in different incubations indicating robustness of the biomass growth. Ammonium formation did not inhibit overall biomass growth. At the beginning of cultivation, the majority of the biomass consisted of living algal cells, while towards the end, their share decreased and the estimated share of bacteria and cell debris increased.

  20. Detection of Ciprofloxacin in Urine through Sensitized Lanthanide Luminescence

    PubMed Central

    Singha, Subhankar; Ahn, Kyo Han

    2016-01-01

    Ciprofloxacin, a fluoroquinolone antibiotic, is widely used for the treatment of bacterial infection in humans due to its broad antibacterial spectrum. An excessive use or overdose of ciprofloxacin on the other hand can cause several adverse effects not only to humans but also to microorganisms. Unabsorbed ciprofloxacin in the body is mostly excreted through urine and finally goes to the environment, providing a drug resistance pressure on bacteria. Hence a simple and efficient detection method of ciprofloxacin is necessary, which, for example, can be used to analyze ciprofloxacin content in urine. Although ciprofloxacin itself shows inherent fluorescence, direct fluorescent detection of ciprofloxacin in raw urine sample is difficult due to autofluorescence of urine by other components. Herein we report that a Tb(III) complex of DO3A (1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7-triacetic acid) can be efficiently sensitized by ciprofloxacin to emit luminescence separately from the urine autofluorescence wavelength region. Tb-DO3A shows excellent sensitivity with a detection limit of three parts per billion in aqueous buffer solution. Further, Tb-DO3A is used to detect ciprofloxacin with high sensitivity and selectivity in a raw urine sample without any purification or separation procedures in the concentrations ranging from 1 µg·mL−1 to 50 µg·mL−1. The direct measurement of ciprofloxacin excreted in urine may be used to control overdose of the drug. PMID:27929396

  1. Effects of an overnight intravenous lipid infusion on intramyocellular lipid content and insulin sensitivity in African-American versus Caucasian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Lee, SoJung; Boesch, Chris; Kuk, Jennifer L.; Arslanian, Silva

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explain the predisposition for insulin resistance among African American (AA) adolescents, this study aimed to: 1) examine changes in intramyocellular lipid content (IMCL), and insulin sensitivity with intralipid (IL) infusion; and 2) determine whether the increase in IMCL is comparable between AA and Caucasian adolescents. Materials and Methods Thirteen AA and 15 Caucasian normal-weight adolescents (BMI <85th) underwent a 3-h hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, on two occasions in random order, after an overnight 12-hr infusion of: 1) 20% IL and 2) normal saline (NS). IMCL was quantified by 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy in tibialis anterior muscle before and after IL infusion. Results During IL infusion, plasma TG, glycerol, FFA and fat oxidation increased significantly, with no race differences. Hepatic insulin sensitivity decreased with IL infusion with no difference between the groups. IL infusion was associated with a significant increase in IMCL, which was comparable between AA (Δ 105%; NS: 1.9 ± 0.8 vs. IL: 3.9 ± 1.6 mmol/kg wet weight) and Caucasian (Δ 86%; NS: 2.8 ± 2.1 vs. IL: 5.2 ± 2.4 mmol/kg wet weight), with similar reductions (P<0.01) in insulin sensitivity between the groups (Δ −44%: NS: 9.1 ± 3.3 vs. IL: 5.1 ± 1.8 mg/kg/min per µU/ml in AA) and (Δ−39%: NS: 12.9 ± 6.0 vs. IL: 7.9 ± 3.8 mg/kg/min per µU/ml in Caucasian) adolescents. Conclusions In healthy adolescents, an acute elevation in plasma FFA with IL infusion is accompanied by significant increases in IMCL and reductions in insulin sensitivity with no race differential. Our findings suggest that AA normal-weight adolescents are not more susceptible than Caucasians to FFA-induced IMCL accumulation and insulin resistance. PMID:23122836

  2. Influence of various beverages on urine acid output.

    PubMed

    de Vries, E G; Meyer, C; Strubbe, M; Mulder, N H

    1986-01-01

    High dose methotrexate therapy requires a high alkaline urine output. In order to evaluate the effect of various beverages on the urine acid output, healthy volunteers (n = 6) took 1.5-2 liters of a test drink during a 2-h period. On the test day urine pH and urine acid excretion (titratable acid plus ammonia minus bicarbonate) were measured. Controls received water and tea as test drink. Orange juice (pH 3.64) and tube feeding (pH 6.78) both led to alkaline urine pH and significantly decreased urine acid output compared to the control group (n = 4, P less than 0.01 and n = 3, P less than 0.001, respectively). Yoghurt (pH 4.1), buttermilk (pH 4.58), and Coca-Cola (pH 2.54), on the other hand, all induced a higher acid output than the control group (n = 6) and a urine pH less than 7.0 during the whole test day (n = 6, NS; n = 6, P less than 0.02; n = 4, P less than 0.05, respectively). If high urine output with an alkaline pH is required, fruit juices or well balanced tube feeding, both with low cation and low sulfur-bound amino acid content, can accomplish this. Drinks with high inorganic acid content (such as Coca-Cola) or high sulfur-bound amino acid content such as yoghurt and buttermilk will result in acidification of the urine.

  3. Same Day Discharge versus Overnight Stay in the Hospital following Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Patients with Stable Coronary Artery Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Bundhun, Pravesh Kumar; Soogund, Mohammad Zafooruddin Sani; Huang, Wei-Qiang

    2017-01-01

    Background New research in interventional cardiology has shown the demand for percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) to have increased tremendously. Effective treatment with a lower hospital cost has been the aim of several PCI capable centers. This study aimed to compare the adverse clinical outcomes associated with same day discharge versus overnight stay in the hospital following PCI in a population of randomized patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods The National Library of Medicine (MEDLINE/PubMed), the Cochrane Registry of Randomized Controlled Trials and EMBASE databases were searched (from March to June 2016) for randomized trials comparing same-day discharge versus overnight stay in the hospital following PCI. Main endpoints in this analysis included adverse cardiovascular outcomes observed during a 30-day period. Statistical analysis was carried out by the RevMan 5.3 software whereby odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated with respect to a fixed or a random effects model. Results Eight randomized trials with a total number of 3081 patients (1598 patients who were discharged on the same day and 1483 patients who stayed overnight in the hospital) were included. Results of this analysis showed that mortality, myocardial infarction (MI) and major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) were not significantly different between same day discharge versus overnight stay following PCI with OR: 0.22, 95% CI: 0.04–1.35; P = 0.10, OR: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.33–1.41; P = 0.30 and OR: 0.45, 95% CI: 0.20–1.02; P = 0.06 respectively. Blood transfusion and re-hospitalization were also not significantly different between these two groups with OR: 0.64, 95% CI: 0.13–3.21; P = 0.59 and OR: 1.53, 95% CI: 0.88–2.65; P = 0.13 respectively. Similarly, any adverse event, major bleeding and repeated revascularization were also not significantly different between these two groups of patients with stable CAD, with OR: 0.42, 95% CI: 0

  4. Impact of urine concentration adjustment method on associations between urine metals and estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) in adolescents

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, Virginia M.; Vargas, Gonzalo García; Silbergeld, Ellen K.; Rothenberg, Stephen J.; Fadrowski, Jeffrey J.; Rubio-Andrade, Marisela; Parsons, Patrick J.; Steuerwald, Amy J.; and others

    2014-07-15

    Positive associations between urine toxicant levels and measures of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) have been reported recently in a range of populations. The explanation for these associations, in a direction opposite that of traditional nephrotoxicity, is uncertain. Variation in associations by urine concentration adjustment approach has also been observed. Associations of urine cadmium, thallium and uranium in models of serum creatinine- and cystatin-C-based estimated GFR (eGFR) were examined using multiple linear regression in a cross-sectional study of adolescents residing near a lead smelter complex. Urine concentration adjustment approaches compared included urine creatinine, urine osmolality and no adjustment. Median age, blood lead and urine cadmium, thallium and uranium were 13.9 years, 4.0 μg/dL, 0.22, 0.27 and 0.04 g/g creatinine, respectively, in 512 adolescents. Urine cadmium and thallium were positively associated with serum creatinine-based eGFR only when urine creatinine was used to adjust for urine concentration (β coefficient=3.1 mL/min/1.73 m{sup 2}; 95% confidence interval=1.4, 4.8 per each doubling of urine cadmium). Weaker positive associations, also only with urine creatinine adjustment, were observed between these metals and serum cystatin-C-based eGFR and between urine uranium and serum creatinine-based eGFR. Additional research using non-creatinine-based methods of adjustment for urine concentration is necessary. - Highlights: • Positive associations between urine metals and creatinine-based eGFR are unexpected. • Optimal approach to urine concentration adjustment for urine biomarkers uncertain. • We compared urine concentration adjustment methods. • Positive associations observed only with urine creatinine adjustment. • Additional research using non-creatinine-based methods of adjustment needed.

  5. Urine cytology in the detection of bladder tumor recurrence.

    PubMed

    Orandi, A; Orandi, M

    1976-11-01

    Of 118 patients with primary bladder tumors seen since 1966, 73 have been followed with urine cytology since 1969. Of the 406 tests there have been 85 positive, 296 negative and 25 ambiguous reports. The incidence of falsely positive results is estimated at 4% but the incidence of falsely negative results cannot be assessed in this study. Currently, 51 patients are living, 2 of whom had been seen in 1966. Of the 51 patients 43 are being followed with urine cytology. Bimonthly urine cytology has been found to be a relaible, convenient, safe, less hazardous and less costly method for the detection of bladder tumor recurrence.

  6. Chemical enhancement of footwear impressions in urine on fabric.

    PubMed

    Farrugia, Kevin J; Bandey, Helen; Bleay, Steve; NicDaéid, Niamh

    2012-01-10

    A range of chemical techniques were utilised for the enhancement of footwear impressions deposited on a variety of fabric types of different colours with urine as a contaminant. A semi-automated stamping device was used to deliver test impressions at a set force to minimise the variability between impressions; multiple impressions were produced and enhanced by each reagent to determine the repeatability of the enhancement. Urine samples from different donors were analysed using a spectrofluorophotometer revealing differences between individuals. Results indicated that the enhancement of footwear impressions in urine was possible using amino acid staining techniques whereas protein stains failed to achieve successful enhancement.

  7. Pholcodine interference in the immunoassay for opiates in urine.

    PubMed

    Svenneby, G; Wedege, E; Karlsen, R L

    1983-01-01

    The excretion in urine after single oral therapeutic doses of morphine derivatives was analysed with radioimmunoassay (RIA) and homogeneous enzyme immunoassay (EMIT) for opiates. In contrast to the rapid excretion of ethylmorphine and codeine, pholcodine showed positive results for opiates 2-6 weeks after intake when the urines were analysed with the RIA-method. When analysed with the EMIT-method, positive results were obtained for pholcodine for approximately 10 days. As pholcodine is a common component in cough mixtures, its prolonged excretion could represent a hazard in interpreting the results from drug analyses of urines.

  8. Chemical composition of rainbow trout urine following acute hypoxic stress

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunn, Joseph B.

    1969-01-01

    Rainbow trout (Salmo gairdnerii) were anesthetized with MS-222, catheterized, and introduced into urine collecting chambers. Twenty-four hours after introduction, a 4-hour accumulation of urine was collected to serve as the control. Water flow to the chambers was then discontinued for 30 minutes during which the oxygen content of the water exiting in the chamber dropped from 4.9 to 2.8 mg/l. Following this hypoxic stress fresh water was restored and accumulated urine samples were taken for analysis at 1, 4, and 20 hours post-hypoxic stress. Rainbow trout excrete abnormally high concentrations of Na, K, Mg, Cl, and inorganic PO4 following hypoxia.

  9. Impact of urine concentration adjustment method on associations between urine metals and estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) in adolescents☆

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Virginia M.; Vargas, Gonzalo García; Silbergeld, Ellen K.; Rothenberg, Stephen J.; Fadrowski, Jeffrey J.; Rubio-Andrade, Marisela; Parsons, Patrick J.; Steuerwald, Amy J.; Navas-Acien, Ana; Guallar, Eliseo

    2014-01-01

    Positive associations between urine toxicant levels and measures of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) have been reported recently in a range of populations. The explanation for these associations, in a direction opposite that of traditional nephrotoxicity, is uncertain. Variation in associations by urine concentration adjustment approach has also been observed. Associations of urine cadmium, thallium and uranium in models of serum creatinine- and cystatin-C-based estimated GFR (eGFR) were examined using multiple linear regression in a cross-sectional study of adolescents residing near a lead smelter complex. Urine concentration adjustment approaches compared included urine creatinine, urine osmolality and no adjustment. Median age, blood lead and urine cadmium, thallium and uranium were 13.9 years, 4.0 μg/dL, 0.22, 0.27 and 0.04 g/g creatinine, respectively, in 512 adolescents. Urine cadmium and thallium were positively associated with serum creatinine-based eGFR only when urine creatinine was used to adjust for urine concentration (β coefficient=3.1 mL/min/1.73 m2; 95% confidence interval=1.4, 4.8 per each doubling of urine cadmium). Weaker positive associations, also only with urine creatinine adjustment, were observed between these metals and serum cystatin-C-based eGFR and between urine uranium and serum creatinine-based eGFR. Additional research using non-creatinine-based methods of adjustment for urine concentration is necessary. PMID:24815335

  10. Red-Brown Urine Discolouration in Two Patients Taking Mesalamine.

    PubMed

    Smeets, Tim; van Hunsel, Florence

    2016-12-01

    A 38-year-old male and a 36-year-old female experienced red-brown urine discolouration after 2 and 3 days, respectively, during the use of mesalamine for inflammatory bowel disease. Both patients mentioned that the urine discoloured after contact with sodium hypochlorite detergent in toilet water. Mesalamine and the inactive metabolite N-acetyl-5-aminosalicylic acid are primarily excreted in the urine. We hypothesised a possible reaction with sodium hypochlorite and/or light. Naranjo assessment scores of 9 and 6 were obtained for the reports, indicating a certain and probable relationship, respectively, between the red-brown urine discolouration and the use of the suspect drug mesalamine. Knowledge of this harmless reaction is desirable to avoid unnecessary physical examination and worry.

  11. Microdetermination of urea in urine using p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde /PDAB/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geiger, P. J.

    1969-01-01

    Adaptation of the p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde method for determining urea concentration in urine is an improved micromechanical method. Accuracy and precision are satisfactory. This method avoids extra steps of deproteinizing or removing normal urinary chromogens.

  12. 28. SHOWER AND URINALS, OVERHEAD TOILET STRUCTURE ABOVE ROOF PANEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. SHOWER AND URINALS, OVERHEAD TOILET STRUCTURE ABOVE ROOF PANEL STORAGE AREA. VIEW TO SOUTH-SOUTHWEST. - Ford Motor Company Long Beach Assembly Plant, Assembly Building, 700 Henry Ford Avenue, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  13. The Hydrodynamics of Urination: to drip or jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Jonathan; Yang, Patricia; Choo, Jerome; Hu, David

    2013-11-01

    The release of waste products is fundamental to all life. How are fluids released from the body quickly and efficiently? In a combined experimental and theoretical investigation, we elucidate the hydrodynamics of urination across five orders of magnitude in animal mass. Using high-speed videography and flow-rate measurement at the Atlanta Zoo, we report discrete regimes for urination style. We observe dripping by small mammals such as rats and jetting by large mammals such as elephants. We discover urination duration is independent of animal size among animals that use jetting. We rationalize urination styles, along with the constant-time scaling, by consideration of the relative magnitudes of the driving forces, gravity and bladder pressure, and the corresponding viscous losses within the urethra. This study may give insight into why certain animals are more prone to diseases of the urinary tract, and how the urinary system evolved under the laws of fluid mechanics.

  14. Purple urine bag syndrome in an elderly patient from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Mondragón-Cardona, Alvaro; Jiménez-Canizales, Carlos Eduardo; Alzate-Carvajal, Verónica; Bastidas-Rivera, Fabricio; Sepúlveda-Arias, Juan Carlos

    2015-07-30

    A 71-year-old woman in a nursing home, with indwelling urinary catheter, bedridden, presented with a purple urine collector bag. The purple urine bag syndrome is a rare condition associated with the metabolism of tryptophan by overgrowth of intestinal bacteria. The purple color is formed by a combination of indigo and indirubin produced as a result of phosphatase and sulfatase enzymatic activity of bacteria on indoxyl sulfate, under alkaline pH of the urine. We present the second case of this syndrome reported in Colombia detailing the management of this rare syndrome associated with urinary tract infection. Several conditions should be considered in the differential diagnose of diseases that cause discoloration of the urine.

  15. Urine pretreatment for waste water processing systems. [for space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winkler, H. E.; Verostko, C. E.; Dehner, G. F.

    1983-01-01

    Recovery of high quality water from urine is an essential part of life support on a Space Station to avoid costly launch and resupply penalties. Water can be effectively recovered from urine by distillation following pretreatment by a chemical agent to inhibit microorganism contamination and fix volatile ammonia constituents. This paper presents the results of laboratory investigations of several pretreatment chemicals which were tested at several concentration levels in combination with sulfuric acid in urine. The optimum pretreatment formulation was then evaluated with urine in the Hamilton Standard Thermoelectric Integrated Membrane Evaporation Subsystem (TIMES). Over 2600 hours of test time was accumulated. Results of these laboratory and system tests are presented in this paper.

  16. Development of online NIR urine analyzing system based on AOTF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Feng; Sun, Zhendong; Li, Xiaoxia

    2006-09-01

    In this paper, some key techniques on development of on-line MR urine analyzing system based on AOTF (Acousto - Optics Tunable Filter) are introduced. Problems about designing the optical system including collimation of incident light and working distance (the shortest distance for separating incident light and diffracted light) are analyzed and researched. DDS (Direct Digital Synthesizer) controlled by microprocessor is used to realize the wavelength scan. The experiment results show that this MR urine analyzing system based on. AOTF has 10000 - 4000cm -1 wavelength range and O.3ms wavelength transfer rate. Compare with the conventional Fourier Transform NIP. spectrophotometer for analyzing multi-components in urine, this system features low cost, small volume and on-line measurement function. Unscrambler software (multivariate statistical software by CAMO Inc. Norway) is selected as the software for processing the data. This system can realize on line quantitative analysis of protein, urea and creatinine in urine.

  17. Microanalyzer for biomonitoring lead (Pb) in blood and urine.

    PubMed

    Yantasee, Wassana; Timchalk, Charles; Lin, Yuehe

    2007-01-01

    Biomonitoring of lead (Pb) in blood and urine enables quantitative evaluation of human occupational and environmental exposures to Pb. State-of-the-art ICP-MS instruments can only analyze metals in laboratories, resulting in lengthy turnaround times, and they are expensive. In response to the growing need for a metal analyzer capable of on-site, real-time monitoring of trace toxic metals in individuals, we developed a portable microanalyzer based on flow-injection/stripping voltammetry (ASV), and validated the system using rat blood and urine spiked with known amounts of Pb. Fouling of electrodes by proteins often prevents the effective use of electrochemical sensors in biological matrices. Minimization of such fouling was accomplished with suitable sample pretreatment and by establishing turbulent flow of blood and urine containing Pb onto the electrode inside the microanalyzer, which resulted in no apparent electrode fouling even when the samples contained 50% urine or 10% blood by volume. No matrix effect was observed for the voltammetric Pb signals, even when the samples contained 10% blood or 10% urine. The microanalyzer offered linear concentration ranges relevant to Pb exposure levels in humans (0-20 ppb in 10% blood samples, 0-50 ppb in 50% urine samples). The device showed excellent sensitivity and reproducibility; Pb detection limits were 0.44 ppb and 0.46 ppb, and % R.S.D. was 4.9 and 2.4 in 50% urine and 10% blood samples, respectively. It gave similar Pb concentrations in blood and urine to those measured by ICP-MS. It offered high throughput (3 min per sample) and economical use of samples (60 microL per measurement) as well as low reagent consumption (1 microg of Hg per measurement), thus minimizing environmental concerns associated with mercury use. Since it is miniaturized, the microanalyzer is portable and field-deployable. Thus, it shows much promise as the next-generation analyzer for the biomonitoring of toxic metals.

  18. Electrochemically driven extraction and recovery of ammonia from human urine.

    PubMed

    Luther, Amanda K; Desloover, Joachim; Fennell, Donna E; Rabaey, Korneel

    2015-12-15

    Human urine contains high concentrations of nitrogen, contributing about 75% of the nitrogen in municipal wastewaters yet only 1% of the volume. Source separation of urine produces an ideal waste stream for nitrogen and phosphorus recovery, reducing downstream costs of nutrient treatment at wastewater treatment facilities. We examined the efficiency and feasibility of ammonia extraction and recovery from synthetic and undiluted human urine using an electrochemical cell (EC). EC processing of synthetic urine produced an ammonium flux of 384 ± 8 g N m(-2) d(-1) with a 61 ± 1% current efficiency at an energy input of 12 kWh kg(-1) N removed. EC processing of real urine displayed similar performance, with an average ammonium flux of 275 ± 5 g N m(-2) d(-1) sustained over 10 days with 55 ± 1% current efficiency for ammonia and at an energy input of 13 kWh kg(-1) N removed. With the incorporation of an ammonia stripping and absorption unit into the real urine system, 57 ± 0.5% of the total nitrogen was recovered as ammonium sulfate. A system configuration additionally incorporating stripping of the influent headspace increased total nitrogen recovery to 79% but led to reduced performance of the EC as the urine ammonium concentration decrease. Direct stripping of ammonia (NH3) from urine with no chemical addition achieved only 12% total nitrogen recovery at hydraulic retention times comparable with the EC systems. Our results demonstrate that ammonia can be extracted via electrochemical means at reasonable energy inputs of approximately 12 kWh kg(-1) N. Considering also that the hydrogen generated is worth 4.3 kWh kg(-1) N, the net electrical input for extraction becomes approximately 8 kWh kg(-1) N if the hydrogen can be used. Critical for further development will be the inclusion of a passive means for ammonia stripping to reduce additional energy inputs.

  19. Pregnancy diagnosis in urine of Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus).

    PubMed

    Braun, B C; Frank, A; Dehnhard, M; Voigt, C C; Vargas, A; Göritz, F; Jewgenow, K

    2009-03-15

    Diagnosis of pregnancies is an important management tool for the Iberian lynx Conservation Breeding Program, a program geared to recover the world's most endangered felid. Non-invasive methods such as fecal hormone analyses are not applicable to the lynx, since fecal progestin does not follow the typical pregnancy pattern of felids. Therefore, we aimed to test whether urine can be used as an alternative substance for pregnancy diagnosis in the Iberian lynx. Progesterone immunoreactive metabolites were determined in urine samples of pregnant and non-pregnant females before and during breeding season. Additionally, we used the Witness Relaxin test to determine relaxin in blood and urine. No differences were found in progestin concentrations determined in urine samples collected from pregnant and non-pregnant animals between day 1 and 65 following mating. Although the Witness Relaxin test was positive in serum samples collected from animals between day 32 and 56 of pregnancy, it failed in both fresh and frozen urine samples collected from the same stage of pregnancy. A weak relaxin reaction in urine samples collected from animals between day 29 and 46 of pregnancy was detectable after urines were concentrated by ultrafiltration (>50x). Concentrated samples obtained from non-pregnant and early pregnant animals yielded negative test results. In conclusion, the Witness Relaxin test can be applied for pregnancy diagnosis in Iberian lynx in both serum and concentrated urine samples obtained during the second half of pregnancy. A positive relaxin test indicates an ongoing pregnancy, whereas negative tests must be judged carefully as hormone concentrations might be below detection thresholds.

  20. Using human urine as food for cyanobacteria in LSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalacheva, Galina; Gribovskaya, Iliada; Kolmakova, Angela

    In biological LSS: human, higher plants, algae, united by common cycle of matter, native human urine is the most problematic substance for using in inter-link exchange. It contains urea, ammonium compounds and up to 10 g/l of NaCl. Each of the mentioned components is toxic for growing higher plants. As for inferior plants, experiments showed that cyanobacteria of genus Spirulina platensis and similar genus Oscillatoria deflexa can grow at NaCl concentrations up to 20 g/l and NH4Cl concentrations up to 800 mg/l. These cyanobacteria can be used in LSS as a photosynthesizing link. Besides, S. platensis is edible for humans and fish. To use urine as food for algae, it is necessary to remove urea and organics. All previously used methods for urine treatment aimed at urea destruction: heating to 300oC, ultraviolet exposure, freezing, oxidation on reactor with hydrogen peroxide, had no effect. We used the following method of urine treatment: urine evaporation till dry residue, subsequent combustion in muffle furnace at 450-500oC and creation of ash water extract of the same volume as the initial urine. Comparison of standard Zarrouk's solution for S. platensis and O. deflexa with the water extract of urine ash showed that the concentrations of K, Ca, Mg, P, S were similar. Successful experiments were made with O. deflexa that were grown on nutrient solution made of the water extract of urine ash with 10 g/l of NaHCO3 and 2 g/l of NaNO3. The sources of intersystem production of HCO3 and NO3 were shown, and the biochemical composition of the investigated algae species, including mineral composition, protein, carbohydrate, amino acid, lipid and vitamin content were studied.

  1. Comparison of Urine and Oral Fluid for Workplace Drug Testing

    PubMed Central

    Casolin, Armand

    2016-01-01

    Aims To determine the relative detection rates of urine versus oral fluid testing in a safety sensitive industry and the correlation with diagnosed substance use disorders and possible impairment at work. Methods The trial involved 1,500 paired urine and oral fluid tests performed in accordance with Australian Standard/New Zealand Standard (AS/NZS) 4308:2008 and AS 4760:2006. Workers who returned a positive test were screened for substance use disorders, as defined by DSM-5, and for possible impairment at work following that particular episode of substance use. Results Substances were detected in 3.7% (n = 56) of urine samples and 0.5% (n = 8) of oral fluid samples (p < 0.0001). One worker (0.07%) had a substance detected on oral fluid alone versus 49 workers (3.3%) who had substances detected on urine alone. Twelve workers returned a positive result, defined as being consistent with the use of an illicit drug or a controlled substance without a clinical indication and prescription. Nine workers tested positive on urine alone, one on oral fluid alone and two on both (p = 0.0114). Of note, 6/11 workers who tested positive on urine had possible impairment at work and 2/11 had a substance use disorder versus 2/3 and 0/3, respectively, who tested positive on oral fluid. Conclusions Urine drug testing performed in accordance with AS/NZS 4308:2008 is more likely to detect overall substance use and illicit drug use than oral fluid testing conducted in accordance with AS 4760:2006. Urine testing performed in accordance with AS/NZS 4308:2008 may also be more likely to detect workers with possible impairment at work and substance use disorders than oral fluid testing performed in accordance with AS 4760:2006. PMID:27344042

  2. Uranium internal exposure evaluation based on urine assay data

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, J.N.P.

    1984-09-01

    The difficulties in assessing internal exposures to uranium from urine assay data are described. A simplified application of the ICRP-30 and ICRP Lung Model concepts to the estimation of uranium intake is presented. A discussion follows on the development of a computer code utilizing the ICRP-30-based uranium elimination model with the existing urine assay information. The calculated uranium exposures from 1949 through 1983 are discussed. 13 references, 1 table.

  3. White Cells and Bacteria in Voided Urine of Healthy Newborns

    PubMed Central

    Littlewood, James M.

    1971-01-01

    During a screening survey for urinary infection, 600 infants had one or more urines examined on the sixth or seventh day of life and 592 were subsequently shown to be uninfected. Bacterial and white cell counts on the first urine specimen to be examined from each infant are reported, comprising 363 specimens (188 from boys, 177 from girls) collected into plastic bags and 229 specimens (116 from boys, 113 from girls) collected by a clean catch technique. Bag specimens contained 5 white cells per mm3 or less in 98% of boys but in only 56% of girls, in whom 11% contained more than 100 white cells per mm3. Clean catch specimens contained up to 5 white cells per mm3 in 97% of boys and 94% of girls, suggesting perineal contamination in girls to be the cause of the higher white cell counts in urine collected into plastic bags. Total bacterial counts of 10,000 colonies per ml or less were obtained from bag urines in 41% of both boys and girls and from midstream urines of 73% of boys and 77% of girls. Midstream specimens were significantly better than bag specimens for purposes of culture. Examination of voided urine specimens from newborns allows infection to be excluded in approximately 45% of infants if only one bag specimen is examined and in approximately 75% if a single midstream specimen is obtained. Even bag specimens are therefore not without value. Suprapubic aspiration should be reserved for infants where difficulty arises due to repeated equivocal results from voided urines, when urgent confirmation is required, or when the presence of perineal lesions makes suitable voided urine collection impracticable. PMID:5576025

  4. Refinement of the urine concentration test in rats.

    PubMed

    Kulick, Lisa J; Clemons, Donna J; Hall, Robert L; Koch, Michael A

    2005-01-01

    The urine concentration test is a potentially stressful procedure used to assess renal function. Historically, animals have been deprived of water for 24 h or longer during this test, creating the potential for distress. Refinement of the technique to lessen distress may involve decreasing the water-deprivation period. To determine the feasibility of reduced water-deprivation time, 10 male and 10 female rats were food- and water-deprived for 22 h. Clinical condition and body weights were recorded, and urine was collected every 2 h, beginning 16 h after the onset of food and water deprivation. All rats lost weight (P < 0.001). All rats were clinically normal after 16 h, but 90% of the males and 30% of the females appeared clinically dehydrated after 22 h. After 16 h, mean urine specific gravities were 1.040 and 1.054 for males and females, respectively, and mean urine osmolalities were 1,362 and 2,080 mOsm/kg, respectively, indicating the rats were adequately concentrating urine. The rats in this study tolerated water deprivation relatively well for 16 h but showed clinical signs of dehydration after 22 h. Based on this study, it was concluded that the urine concentration test can be refined such that rats are not deprived of water for more than 16 h without jeopardizing test results.

  5. Radioimmunoassay of estrone conjugates from urine dried on filter paper.

    PubMed

    Knott, Cheryl D

    2005-09-01

    Hormonal analysis of urine from free-ranging primates has been limited due to the difficulty of preserving samples under field conditions. Drying urine on filter paper is an alternative for field preservation. This study describes a new laboratory method for eluting steroids from filter paper with methanol, along with a series of experiments used to develop and validate this method. The overall elution recovery of estrone sulfate (ES) from filter paper was 86.4%. Estrone conjugate (E1C) levels in humans and captive orangutans were analyzed by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Values from samples dried on filter paper were significantly correlated with values from matched frozen samples, with elution efficiencies ranging between 97.1% and 102.4%. Creatinine (Cr) measurements from frozen urine compared to urine dried on filter paper were also significantly correlated (r=0.96) with an elution efficiency of 101.7%. After the samples were stored for 2 years, the absolute values of E1C and Cr were significantly lower but were still significantly correlated with frozen urine values. These data demonstrate the effectiveness of filter paper as a medium for preserving urinary steroid samples, and the efficiency of methanol as a solvent for eluting E1C and Cr. This method thus provides a viable alternative to the traditional procedure of freezing urine for field studies, where freezers are not available.

  6. Miniaturized sample preparation method for determination of amphetamines in urine.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Manami; Namera, Akira; Yashiki, Mikio; Kimura, Kojiro

    2004-07-16

    A simple and miniaturized sample preparation method for determination of amphetamines in urine was developed using on-column derivatization and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Urine was directly applied to the extraction column that was pre-packed with Extrelut and sodium carbonate. Amphetamine (AP) and methamphetamine (MA) in urine were adsorbed on the surface of Extrelut. AP and MA were then converted to a free base and derivatized to N-propoxycarbonyl derivatives using propylchloroformate on the column. Pentadeuterated MA was used as an internal standard. The recoveries of AP and MA from urine were 100 and 102%, respectively. The calibration curves showed linearity in the range of 0.50-50 microg/mL for AP and MA in urine. When urine samples containing two different concentrations (0.50 and 5.0 microg/mL) of AP and MA were determined, the intra-day and inter-day coefficients of variation were 1.4-7.7%. This method was applied to 14 medico-legal cases of MA intoxication. The results were compared and a good agreement was obtained with a HPLC method.

  7. Diagnostic value of cytology of voided urine.

    PubMed

    Milicić, Valerija; Prvulović, Ivana; Panda, Natalija; Bilić-Kirin, Vesna; Kraljik, Nikola; Serić, Vatroslav

    2014-06-01

    There are 961 new cases and approximately 366 deaths from urothelial carcinoma registered annually in Croatia. Exfoliative urinary cytology has important role in detection of high grade urinary tumors, invasive and in situ lesions respectively. In contrast to cystoscopy and biopsy, cytology is a noninvasive method which is easily repeated. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess value of urinary cytology in our institution. For this purpose only patients with histological diagnosis and clinical follow up were considered. There were 138 urine specimens with cytological diagnosis of dyskaryosis, suspicious for malignancy or malignant and histology and follow up data examined at our Department of Clinical Cytology between 2004 and 2011. Cytological diagnosis suspicious for malignancy and malignant were considered positive and the results were correlated with histological diagnosis according to the WHO histological classification of tumors of the urinary tract. Patients with negative histological findings were followed for the next two years. The positive predictive value of cytological detection of malignant urothelial lesions was 91.8%. In 10 cases cytological diagnosis of malignancy was not confirmed histologically or clinically which makes the total of 8.2% of false positive reports. Of the total of detected malignant urothelial lesions 90.9% are high grade lesions and only 9.1% low-grade lesions; 67.3% are invasive lesions and 32.7% non-invasive lesions. Cytological findings of dyskariotyc cells requires further urological investigation because such findings in further processing prove the presence of tumor in 93.8% of cases. In conclusion: cytology is very good diagnostic tool for detection of high grade invasive and noninvasive carcinomas of the urinary tract. In order to make it more efficient we need to study its limits carefully, define diagnostic criteria and reach consensus in nomenclature.

  8. 49 CFR 40.45 - What form is used to document a DOT urine collection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What form is used to document a DOT urine... in DOT Urine Collections § 40.45 What form is used to document a DOT urine collection? (a) The Federal Drug Testing Custody and Control Form (CCF) must be used to document every urine...

  9. 49 CFR 40.45 - What form is used to document a DOT urine collection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What form is used to document a DOT urine... in DOT Urine Collections § 40.45 What form is used to document a DOT urine collection? (a) The Federal Drug Testing Custody and Control Form (CCF) must be used to document every urine...

  10. A Comprehensive Investigation toward the Indicative Proteins of Bladder Cancer in Urine: From Surveying Cell Secretomes to Verifying Urine Proteins.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jiao; Ren, Yan; Hou, Guixue; Wen, Bo; Xian, Feng; Chen, Zhen; Cui, Ping; Xie, Yingying; Zi, Jin; Lin, Liang; Wu, Song; Li, Zesong; Wu, Lin; Lou, Xiaomin; Liu, Siqi

    2016-07-01

    Urine is an ideal material to study the cancer-related protein biomarkers in bladder, whereas exploration to these candidates is confronting technique challenges. Herein, we propose a comprehensive strategy of searching the urine proteins related with bladder cancer. The strategy consists of three core combinations, screening the biomarker candidates in the secreted proteins derived from the bladder cancer cell lines and verifying them in patient urines, defining the differential proteins through two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) and isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) coupled with LC-MS/MS, and implementing quantitative proteomics of profiling and targeting analysis. With proteomic survey, a total of 700 proteins were found with their abundance of secreted proteins in cancer cell lines different from normal, while 87 proteins were identified in the urine samples. The multiple reaction monitoring (MRM)-based quantification was adapted in verifying the bladder cancer related proteins in individual urine samples, resulting in 10 differential urine proteins linked with the cancer. Of these candidates, receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed that the combination of CO3 and LDHB was more sensitive as the cancer indicator than other groups. The discovery of the bladder cancer indicators through our strategy has paved an avenue to further biomarker validation.

  11. The effect of urine storage on antiviral and antibiotic compounds in the liquid phase of source-separated urine.

    PubMed

    Jaatinen, Sanna T; Palmroth, Marja R T; Rintala, Jukka A; Tuhkanen, Tuula A

    2016-09-01

    The behaviour of pharmaceuticals related to the human immunodeficiency virus treatment was studied in the liquid phase of source-separated urine during six-month storage at 20°C. Six months is the recommended time for hygienization and use of urine as fertilizer. Compounds were spiked in urine as concentrations calculated to appear in urine. Assays were performed with separate compounds and as therapeutic groups of antivirals, antibiotics and anti-tuberculotics. In addition, urine was amended either with faeces or urease inhibitor. The pharmaceutical concentrations were monitored from filtered samples with solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography. The concentration reductions of the studied compounds as such or with amendments ranged from less than 1% to more than 99% after six-month storage. The reductions without amendments were 41.9-99% for anti-tuberculotics; <52% for antivirals (except with 3TC 75.6%) and <50% for antibiotics. In assays with amendments, the reductions were all <50%. Faeces amendment resulted in similar or lower reduction than without it even though bacterial activity should have increased. The urease inhibitor prevented ureolysis and pH rise but did not affect pharmaceutical removal. In conclusion, removal during storage might not be enough to reduce risks associated with the studied pharmaceuticals, in which case other feasible treatment practises or urine utilization means should be considered.

  12. The implications of urine drug testing in pain management.

    PubMed

    Vadivelu, Nalini; Chen, Isabel L; Kodumudi, Vijay; Ortigosa, Esperanza; Gudin, Maria Teresa

    2010-07-02

    In the treatment of pain management, physicians employ a variety of drugs, ranging from low-impact to highly potent, and to maximize patient health, urine toxicology analyses can significantly improve the delivery of pain treatment. Drugs such as opioids that are used for pain management are peculiar in that they provide effective pain relief and have a high risk of addiction. The use of illicit drugs in the general population has been on the rise; however, self-reporting and close monitoring of patient behavior are insufficient means to detect drug abuse and confirm compliance. Therefore, in order to create more effective drug treatment plans, physicians must understand and account for the implications of patient drug use history. Urine toxicology analysis is an important tool for pain physicians because it is more sensitive than most alternative blood tests, more efficient and cost-effective. Urine testing in addition to improving patient pain management also has forensic and legal implications. There are however limitations to urine toxicology methods as they can produce false-positive and false-negative results and are prone to human error and sample contamination There is also a need for more specific and rapid urine drug testing. Healthcare professionals should therefore be familiar with the limitations of various urine drug testing methods, and possess skills necessary to properly interpret these results. This review suggests that the overall benefits incurred by both the patient's short-term and long-term health support the routine integration of urine toxicology analysis in routine clinical care. In addition to improving health care and patient health, it has a strong potential to improve patient-physician relationships and protects the interest of involved healthcare practitioners.

  13. Microanalyzer for Biomonitoring of Lead (Pb) in Blood and Urine

    SciTech Connect

    Yantasee, Wassana; Timchalk, Chuck; Lin, Yuehe

    2007-01-01

    Biomonitoring of lead (Pb) in blood and urine enables quantitative evaluation of human occupational and environmental exposures to Pb. The state-of-the-art ICP-MS instruments analyze metals in laboratories, resulting in lengthy turn around time, and are expensive. In response to the growing need for metal analyzer for on-site, real-time monitoring of trace metals in individuals, we developed a portable microanalyzer based on flow-injection/adsorptive stripping voltammetry and used it to analyze Pb in rat blood and urine. Fouling of electrodes by proteins often prevents the effective use of electrochemical sensors in biological matrices. Minimization of such fouling was accomplished with the suitable sample pretreatment and the turbulent flowing of Pb contained blood and urine onto the glassy electrode inside the microanalyzer, which resulted in no apparent electrode fouling even when the samples contained 50% urine or 10% blood by volume. There was no matrix effect on the voltammetric Pb signals even when the samples contained 10% blood or 10% urine. The microanalyzer offered linear concentration range relevant to Pb exposure levels in human (0-20 ppb in 10%-blood samples, 0-50 ppb in 50%-urine samples). The device had excellent sensitivity and reproducibility; Pb detection limits were 0.54 ppb and 0.42 ppb, and % RSDs were 4.9 and 2.4 in 50%-urine and 10%-blood samples, respectively. It offered a high throughput (3 min per sample) and had economical use of samples (60 ?L per measurement), making the collection of blood being less invasive especially to children, and had low reagent consumption (1 ?g of Hg per measurement), thus minimizing the health concerns of mercury use. Being miniaturized in size, the microanalyzer is portable and field-deployable. Thus, it has a great potential to be the next-generation analyzer for biomonitoring of toxic metals.

  14. Mining the human urine proteome for monitoring renal transplant injury

    SciTech Connect

    Sigdel, Tara K.; Gao, Yuqian; He, Jintang; Wang, Anyou; Nicora, Carrie D.; Fillmore, Thomas L.; Shi, Tujin; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo; Smith, Richard D.; Qian, Wei-Jun; Salvatierra, Oscar; Camp, David G.; Sarwal, Minnie M.

    2016-06-01

    The human urinary proteome reflects systemic and inherent renal injury perturbations and can be analyzed to harness specific biomarkers for different kidney transplant injury states. 396 unique urine samples were collected contemporaneously with an allograft biopsy from 396 unique kidney transplant recipients. Centralized, blinded histology on the graft was used to classify matched urine samples into categories of acute rejection (AR), chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN), BK virus nephritis (BKVN), and stable graft (STA). Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS) based proteomics using iTRAQ based discovery (n=108) and global label-free LC-MS analyses of individual samples (n=137) for quantitative proteome assessment were used in the discovery step. Selected reaction monitoring (SRM) was applied to identify and validate minimal urine protein/peptide biomarkers to accurately segregate organ injury causation and pathology on unique urine samples (n=151). A total of 958 proteins were initially quantified by iTRAQ, 87% of which were also identified among 1574 urine proteins detected in LC-MS validation. 103 urine proteins were significantly (p<0.05) perturbed in injury and enriched for humoral immunity, complement activation, and lymphocyte trafficking. A set of 131 peptides corresponding to 78 proteins were assessed by SRM for their significance in an independent sample cohort. A minimal set of 35 peptides mapping to 33 proteins, were modeled to segregate different injury groups (AUC =93% for AR, 99% for CAN, 83% for BKVN). Urinary proteome discovery and targeted validation identified urine protein fingerprints for non-invasive differentiation of kidney transplant injuries, thus opening the door for personalized immune risk assessment and therapy.

  15. Urine metabolomics analysis for kidney cancer detection and biomarker discovery.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoungmi; Aronov, Pavel; Zakharkin, Stanislav O; Anderson, Danielle; Perroud, Bertrand; Thompson, Ian M; Weiss, Robert H

    2009-03-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) accounts for 11,000 deaths per year in the United States. When detected early, generally serendipitously by imaging conducted for other reasons, long term survival is generally excellent. When detected with symptoms, prognosis is poor. Under these circumstances, a screening biomarker has the potential for substantial public health benefit. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of urine metabolomics analysis for metabolomic profiling, identification of biomarkers, and ultimately for devising a urine screening test for RCC. Fifty urine samples were obtained from RCC and control patients from two institutions, and in a separate study, urine samples were taken from 13 normal individuals. Hydrophilic interaction chromatography-mass spectrometry was performed to identify small molecule metabolites present in each sample. Cluster analysis, principal components analysis, linear discriminant analysis, differential analysis, and variance component analysis were used to analyze the data. Previous work is extended to confirm the effectiveness of urine metabolomics analysis using a larger and more diverse patient cohort. It is now shown that the utility of this technique is dependent on the site of urine collection and that there exist substantial sources of variation of the urinary metabolomic profile, although group variation is sufficient to yield viable biomarkers. Surprisingly there is a small degree of variation in the urinary metabolomic profile in normal patients due to time since the last meal, and there is little difference in the urinary metabolomic profile in a cohort of pre- and postnephrectomy (partial or radical) renal cell carcinoma patients, suggesting that metabolic changes associated with RCC persist after removal of the primary tumor. After further investigations relating to the discovery and identity of individual biomarkers and attenuation of residual sources of variation, our work shows that urine metabolomics

  16. Urine as a biological specimen for forensic analysis of alcohol and variability in the urine-to-blood relationship.

    PubMed

    Jones, Alan W

    2006-01-01

    This article concerns the use of urine as a biological specimen for determination of alcohol in clinical and forensic toxicology and discusses factors that might influence variability in the urine/blood concentration ratio of alcohol. A large number of human drinking experiments were conducted to determine the time course of urine-alcohol concentrations (UAC) in relation to blood-alcohol concentrations (BAC). The UAC and BAC curves were shifted in time and the BAC curve always began to decrease before the UAC started to decline. During the early absorption phase the UAC/BAC ratio was less than unity, whereas in the late absorption/distribution period the ratio was between 1.0-1.2. On reaching the post-absorptive phase, the UAC always exceeded BAC and UAC/BAC ratios averaged 1.3-1.4, increasing appreciably as BAC decreased towards zero. Alcohol-induced diuresis was most pronounced during the rising portion of the BAC curve and near to the peak value. After about 2 hours post-drinking, the production rate of urine diminished to the pre-drinking rate of about 0.5-1 mL/min. Drinking water during the post-absorptive phase of the alcohol curve produced dilute urine, as reflected in lower creatinine content and osmolality, although the concentration of ethanol remained unchanged. After subjects drank a moderate dose of ethanol (0.54-0.85 g/kg) about 2% of the dose was recoverable in the urine after 7 hours. Ethyl glucuronide, a minor metabolite of ethanol, was measured in urine samples from drunk drivers. The UAC/BAC ratio of ethanol in drunk drivers did not depend on the creatinine content of the urine and therefore the relative dilution of the specimens. When alcohol-free urine was spiked with glucose and infected with the yeast species Candida albicans, ethanol was produced by fermentation after approximately 24 hours storage at room temperature. This post-sampling synthesis of ethanol was prevented by sodium fluoride (1% weight by volume) in the urine tubes or by

  17. Urine beta-thromboglobulin concentration or beta-thromboglobulin/creatinine ratio in single voided urine samples cannot be reliably used to estimate quantitative beta-thromboglobulin excretion.

    PubMed

    Musumeci, V; Rosa, S; Caruso, A; Zappacosta, B; Tutinelli, F; Zuppi, C

    1986-02-28

    Different procedures are currently used in the urine beta-thromboglobulin (BTG) assay. We investigated the reliability of limited urine collections and of different expressions of urine BTG results (concentration, urine BTG/creatinine ratio) for the measurement of hourly or daily BTG excretion rates. BTG was measured by a sensitive RIA method in various urine collections of normal subjects (n.80) and patients (n.120) with miscellaneous diseases where an enhanced in-vivo platelet activation could be expected. The BTG concentration in a 6-hour urine collection appeared to change in relation to the urine flow rate (r = -0.53 in normals, r = 0.27 in patients, p less than 0.01) and urine osmolality (r = 0.46 in normals, r = 0.31 in patients, p less than 0.01). In both normals and patients not a very good correlation was observed between the urine BTG/creatinine ratio and the BTG excretion rate (r = 0.54 and r = 0.48; p less than 0.001, respectively). Variable coefficients of correlation (r = 0.83-0.34) were observed between the BTG excretion rate of single voidings of the morning, afternoon-evening and night and the daily BTG excretion both in normals and patients. Reliable measurements of the BTG in urine should be expressed as the hourly excretion rate in a given period of the day for limited urine collections or as the daily excretion for 24-hour urine collections.

  18. Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Intranasal Scopolamine in Plasma Saliva and Urine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, L.; Tam, V. H.; Chow, D. S. L.; Putcha, L.

    2015-01-01

    An intranasal gel dosage formulation of scopolamine (INSCOP) was developed for the treatment of Space Motion Sickness (SMS). The bioavailability and pharmacokinetics (PK) were evaluated under IND (Investigational New Drug) guidelines. The aim of the project was to develop a PK model that can predict the relationships among plasma, saliva and urinary scopolamine concentrations using data collected from the IND clinical trial protocol with INSCOP. Twelve healthy human subjects were administered at three dose levels (0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mg) of INSCOP. Serial blood, saliva and urine samples were collected between 5 min to 24 h after dosing and scopolamine concentrations were measured by using a validated LC-MS-MS assay. PK compartmental models, using actual dosing and sampling time, were established using Phoenix (version 1.2). Model selection was based on a likelihood ratio test on the difference of criteria (-2LL (i.e. log-likelihood ratio test)) and comparison of the quality of fit plots. The results: Predictable correlations among scopolamine concentrations in compartments of plasma, saliva and urine were established, and for the first time the model satisfactorily predicted the population and individual PK of INSCOP in plasma, saliva and urine. The model can be utilized to predict the INSCOP plasma concentration by saliva and urine data, and it will be useful for monitoring the PK of scopolamine in space and other remote environments using non-invasive sampling of saliva and/or urine.

  19. Correlation between plasma and urine glucose in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Morris, L R; McGee, J A; Kitabchi, A E

    1981-04-01

    To determine whether semiquantitative glucose measurements of spot urine specimens accurately reflect prevailing plasma glucose levels, we compared reported levels from 400 second-voided urines to simultaneous plasma determinations from 246 adult diabetics. Quantitative urine levels and plasma glucose levels correlated. However, when semiquantitative urinary determinations were compared to plasma glucose stratified into 0 to 149, 150 to 199, and greater than 200 mg/dL, 75% of the urine samples associated with plasma levels from 150 to 199 mg/dL were negative by Diastix, and 16.5% of samples negative by Diastix were in the 200+ mg/dL plasma range. Only 9% of samples from 0 to 149 mg/dL showed any positive Diastix readings. Because of the low sensitivity of semiquantitative methods, we fell that, except for detection of marked hyperglycemia, spot urine glucose determinations are inadequate as the sole means of clinical assessment for management of diabetic patients. Home glucose monitoring may be a better alternative for follow-up of these patients.

  20. Sensitivity of Routine Tests for Urine Protein to Hemoglobin

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Barbara S.; Lumsden, John H.

    1985-01-01

    Increasing concentrations of canine hemoglobin were added to aliquots of urine and saline to determine the relative sensitivity of several hemoglobin and protein detection methods including commercial reagent strips and sulfosalicylic acid. The hemoglobin detection pads of the reagent strips were 50 times more sensitive than the protein detection pads, indicating the presence of hemoglobin at a concentration of 0.001 g/L whereas the protein pads did not react positively unless the hemoglobin concentration exceeded 0.05 g/L. The sulfosalicylic acid test was the least sensitive, detecting hemoglobin only at concentrations of 0.4 g/L or higher. These results were similar for hemoglobin added either in the form of lysed red blood cells, intact red blood cells or associated with plasma proteins in whole blood. It was shown that a urine hemoglobin concentration eliciting less than the maximal score on the hemoglobin detection pad will not be detected as “protein” either with the commercial urinalysis strips or with sulfosalicylic acid. It was also seen that hemoglobin becomes visible as a red pigment when exceeding 0.3-0.5 g/L in a clear, light urine. It follows that a positive urine protein reading in the presence of a positive but less than maximal hemoglobin score or a protein reading exceeding 1.0 g/L in a nonpigmented urine indicates “true” proteinuria in excess of hemoglobin and plasma proteins associated with urinary tract hemorrhage. PMID:17422554

  1. The slide centrifuge gram stain as a urine screening method.

    PubMed

    Olson, M L; Shanholtzer, C J; Willard, K E; Peterson, L R

    1991-10-01

    A slide centrifuge Gram stain procedure was performed to screen for bacteriuria 4161 urine specimens submitted in urine preservative tubes for routine culture. For slide centrifuge Gram staining, each urine sample was mixed well. Thereafter, 0.2 mL of each sample was placed, using a pipette, into a slide centrifuge chamber and centrifuged at 2,000 rpm for 5 minutes. The slides were heat fixed, Gram stained, and read by laboratory personnel who scanned 12 consecutive oil-immersion fields using a set pattern. The presence of the same organism in six or more fields was defined as a positive urine screen. Urine samples were cultured using a 0.001-mL loop and a comparison of culture growth with slide centrifuge screening was made. When growth of 100,000 or more colony-forming units per milliliter (CFU/mL) was the reference for comparison, the screen had a sensitivity rate of 98%, a specificity rate of 90%, a negative predictive value of 99%, and a positive predictive value of 65%. When a lower colony count of 10,000 or more CFU/mL was the reference for comparison, the screen had a sensitivity rate of 88%, a specificity rate of 95%, a negative predictive value of 96%, and a positive predictive value of 84%. The slide centrifuge Gram stain is a very sensitive screening method to detect bacteriuria in an adult male population.

  2. Fate of phosphorus in diluted urine with tap water.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoning; Wen, Guoqi; Wang, Huihui; Zhu, Xiaoqi; Hu, Zhengyi

    2014-10-01

    P loss during the fresh urine storage process is inevitable because of the presence of Ca and Mg. Dilution is one of the most important parameters influencing urine composition and subsequent P recovery. This study aimed to investigate the fate of P in urine with different dilution ratios (Vwater/Vurine, i.e., 0/100, 25/75, 50/50 and 75/25). The results indicate that the percentage of P loss increased from 43% to 76% as the dilution ratio increased from 0/100 to 75/25 because of more Ca and Mg obtained from tap water. Meanwhile, P removal efficiency through struvite precipitation decreased from 51% to 8% because of lower supersaturation ratio as a result of dilution. Struvite crystals with high purity were still obtained even under a dilution ratio of 50/50 urine solution. Batch experiments were also performed to study the influence of temperature (15-35°C) on P recovery and crystal size. For different dilution ratios of urine solutions, no significant discrepancy for the P removal efficiencies were observed at 15 and 35°C, whereas the P removal efficiencies at 25°C showed an increasing gap with those at 15 and 35°C. The largest average crystal sizes were found at 25°C, which was opposite to the trend of P removal efficiency.

  3. Urine Menthol as a Biomarker of Mentholated Cigarette Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Benowitz, Neal L; Dains, Katherine M.; Dempsey, Delia; Havel, Christopher; Wilson, Margaret; Jacob, Peyton

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Menthol cigarettes are smoked by 27% of U.S. smokers, and there are concerns that menthol might enhance toxicity of cigarette smoking by increasing systemic absorption of smoke toxins. We measured urine menthol concentrations in relation to biomarkers of exposure to nicotine and tobacco carcinogens. Methods Concentrations of menthol glucuronide (using a novel analytical method), nicotine plus metabolites (nicotine equivalents, NE), 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3)pyridyl-1-butanol (NNAL) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolites were measured in the urine of 60 menthol and 67 regular cigarette smokers. Results Urine menthol was measurable in 82% of menthol and 54% in regular cigarette smokers. Among menthol smokers urine menthol was highly correlated with NE, NNAL and PAHs. In a multiple regression model NE but not menthol was significantly associated with NNAL and PAHs. Conclusions Urine menthol concentration is a novel biomarker of exposure in menthol cigarette smokers, and is highly correlated with exposure to nicotine and carcinogens. Menthol is not independently associated with carcinogen exposure when nicotine intake is considered. PMID:20962297

  4. Reverse osmosis brine for phosphorus recovery from source separated urine.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xiujun; Wang, Guotian; Guan, Detian; Li, Jiuyi; Wang, Aimin; Li, Jin; Yu, Zhe; Chen, Yong; Zhang, Zhongguo

    2016-12-01

    Phosphorus (P) recovery from waste streams has recently been recognized as a key step in the sustainable supply of this indispensable and non-renewable resource. The feasibility of using brine from a reverse osmosis (RO) membrane unit treating cooling water as a precipitant for P recovery from source separated urine was evaluated in the present study. P removal efficiency, process parameters and precipitate properties were investigated in batch and continuous flow experiments. More than 90% of P removal was obtained from both undiluted fresh and hydrolyzed urines by mixing with RO brine (1:1, v/v) at a pH over 9.0. Around 2.58 and 1.24 Kg of precipitates could be recovered from 1 m(3) hydrolyzed and fresh urine, respectively, and the precipitated solids contain 8.1-19.0% of P, 10.3-15.2% of Ca, 3.7-5.0% of Mg and 0.1-3.5% of ammonium nitrogen. Satisfactory P removal performance was also achieved in a continuous flow precipitation reactor with a hydraulic retention time of 3-6 h. RO brine could be considered as urinal and toilet flush water despite of a marginally higher precipitation tendency than tap water. This study provides a widely available, low - cost and efficient precipitant for P recovery in urban areas, which will make P recovery from urine more economically attractive.

  5. Amphetamine positive urine toxicology screen secondary to atomoxetine.

    PubMed

    Fenderson, Joshua L; Stratton, Amy N; Domingo, Jennifer S; Matthews, Gerald O; Tan, Christopher D

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to report the first case of atomoxetine leading to false-positive urine drug screen. An otherwise healthy 27-year-old female with a history of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treated with atomoxetine had an acute onset tonic-clonic seizure. On arrival to the hospital, a urine toxicological drug screen with immunochemical cloned enzyme donor immunoassay (CEDIA) was performed. Results were positive for amphetamines; however, the presence of these substances could not be confirmed with urine gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). She denied any illicit drug use, herbal medications, or supplements, and her other prescription medications have not been previously known to cause a false-positive result for amphetamines. While stimulant treatments for ADHD could certainly result in a positive result on urine screen for amphetamines, there have been no reports of false-positive results for amphetamines secondary to patients using atomoxetine. We implicate atomoxetine, and/or its metabolites, as a compound or compounds which may interfere with urine drug immunoassays leading to false-positive results for amphetamines CEDIA assays.

  6. Classifying AKI by Urine Output versus Serum Creatinine Level.

    PubMed

    Kellum, John A; Sileanu, Florentina E; Murugan, Raghavan; Lucko, Nicole; Shaw, Andrew D; Clermont, Gilles

    2015-09-01

    Severity of AKI is determined by the magnitude of increase in serum creatinine level or decrease in urine output. However, patients manifesting both oliguria and azotemia and those in which these impairments are persistent are more likely to have worse disease. Thus, we investigated the relationship of AKI severity and duration across creatinine and urine output domains with the risk for RRT and likelihood of renal recovery and survival using a large, academic medical center database of critically ill patients. We analyzed electronic records from 32,045 patients treated between 2000 and 2008, of which 23,866 (74.5%) developed AKI. We classified patients by levels of serum creatinine and/or urine output according to Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes staging criteria for AKI. In-hospital mortality and RRT rates increased from 4.3% and 0%, respectively, for no AKI to 51.1% and 55.3%, respectively, when serum creatinine level and urine output both indicated stage 3 AKI. Both short- and long-term outcomes were worse when patients had any stage of AKI defined by both criteria. Duration of AKI was also a significant predictor of long-term outcomes irrespective of severity. We conclude that short- and long-term risk of death or RRT is greatest when patients meet both the serum creatinine level and urine output criteria for AKI and when these abnormalities persist.

  7. A prototype urine collection device for female aircrew

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bisson, Roger U.; Delger, Karlyna L.

    1993-01-01

    Women are gaining increased access to small military cockpits. This shift has stimulated the search for practical urine containment and disposal methods for female aircrew. There are no external urine collection devices (UCD) for women that are comfortable, convenient, and leak free. We describe a prototype UCD that begins to meet this need. Materials used to make custom aviator masks were adapted to mold a perineal mask. First, a perineal cast (negative) was used to make a mold (positive). Next, a perineal mask made of wax was formed to fit the positive mold. Finally, a soft, pliable perineal mask was fabricated using the wax model as a guide. The prototype was tested for comfort, fit, and leakage. In the sitting position, less than 5 cc of urine leakage occurred with each 600 cc of urine collected. Comfort was mostly satisfactory, but ambulation was limited and the outlet design could lead to kinking and obstruction. We concluded that a perineal mask may serve as a comfortable and functional external UCD acceptable for use by females in confined environments. Changes are needed to improve comfort, fit, and urine drainage. Integration into cockpits, pressure suits, chemical defense gear, and environments where access to relief facilities is restricted is planned.

  8. The Recovery of Water and Nitrogen from Urine in BLSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Beizhen; Liu, Hong; Deng, Shengda

    The recycle and reuse of the wastewater is one of the main factors for realizing a higher closure degree of bioregenerative life support system (BLSS), and the treatment and recovery of the crew’s urine are the most difficult and critical issues. Urine contains a lot of water and high concentrations of urea and salts. Water can be used for the irrigation of the plants in BLSS, and the nitrogen is also the necessary nutrient for plant growth. Therefore, if the nitrogen could be recycled simultaneously while desalting the urine, the substance circulation and the closure of BLSS could be improved significantly. In this study, two-step method was conducted to treat the urine and recycle the water and nitrogen. The urea was hydrolyzed firstly, and then the water vapor and ammonia gas were cooled and collected by using reduced pressure distillation in alkaline condition. High temperature acidification and urease processing methods were studied during the urea hydrolysis step. The treatment conditions of both methods were optimized and the degrees of hydrolysis were compared. This investigation may provide a reference for the establishment of the urine recycle in BLSS.

  9. Fluorescence And Alternative Methods In Urine Drug Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Naresh C.

    1988-04-01

    Drug abuse has become-one of the most compelling realities _ ot contemporary society. It has penetrated every segment ot our population: trom schools to sports and trom organized crime to board rooms . Drugs in tie w9rkplace allegedly cost government agencies and business millions ot dollars each year in increased absenteeism,. poor work performance, thefts,accidents andwastedtime. The President's Commission on Organized Crime and the federal government are in tavor ot urine drug testing. In fact many employers are now resorting to urine drug testing on current and prospective employees. This presep.tation discusses different laboratory methods used in urine drug.testing, including immunoassays, fluorescence polarization, thin layer chromatography, high pressure liquid chromatography, gas chromatography and gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry.

  10. Fluorescence anisotropy characterization of urine in the diagnosis of cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajasekaran, Ramu; Brindha, Elumalai; Sivabalan, Shanmugam; Aruna, Prakasa Rao; Koteeswaran, Dornadula; Ganesan, Singaravelu

    2016-03-01

    Cervical cancer is considered as the second most commonly occurring malignancy among women, next to breast cancer. It is well known that most of the cancer patients diagnosed with advanced stages and there is a pressing need for improved methods to detect cancer at its initial stages. Many techniques have been adopted for the diagnosis of cervical cancer. Among these, fluorescence polarization spectroscopy is a complementary technique of fluorescence spectroscopy which helps us to elucidate the spectral characteristics which highly depend on pH, viscosity and local environment. Since urine has many metabolites and the measurement of native fluorescence of urine, in principle, able to provide an indication of a number of health conditions, attempts were made to study fluorescence anisotropic characterization of the human urine of cervical cancer patients and normal subjects. Significant differences were observed between the anisotropic and polarization values of cancer subjects and normal subjects.

  11. Ryegrass uptake of carbamazepine and ibuprofen applied by urine fertilization.

    PubMed

    Winker, Martina; Clemens, Joachim; Reich, Margrit; Gulyas, Holger; Otterpohl, Ralf

    2010-03-15

    Human urine is a potential alternative fertilizer for agriculture. However, its usage is associated with a risk of spreading pharmaceutical residues to fields. The individual and combined behavior of carbamazepine and ibuprofen was investigated by GC/MS analysis in a greenhouse experiment using ryegrass fertilized with pharmaceutical-spiked urine. Only carbamazepine could be detected in soil, roots, and aerial plant parts. Fifty-three per cent of carbamazepine originally present in the urine was recovered in soil samples taken after three months. Additionally, 34% of carbamazepine was found in aerial plant parts and 0.3% in roots. Model calculations showed that neither roots nor Casparian strip posed a considerable barrier to uptake. Carbamazepine transport was clearly driven by transpiration. Ibuprofen was not detected in the soil or in any plant parts after three months. This was assumed to be due to biodegradation of ibuprofen. Carbamazepine and ibuprofen, singly or in combination, did not adversely affect the growth of ryegrass.

  12. Development Status of the International Space Station Urine Processor Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holder, Donald W.; Hutchens, Cindy F.

    2003-01-01

    NASA, Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is developing a Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) for the International Space Station (ISS). The UPA uses Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) technology to reclaim water from pre-treated urine. This water is further processed by the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) to potable quality standards for use on the ISS. NASA has developed this technology over the last 25-30 years. Over this history, many technical issues were solved with thousands of hours of ground testing that demonstrate the ability of the UPA technology to reclaim water from urine. In recent years, NASA MSFC has been responsible for taking the UPA technology to "flight design" maturity. This paper will give a brief overview of the UPA design and a status of the major design and development efforts completed recently to mature the UPA to a flight level.

  13. Acute water intoxication during military urine drug screening.

    PubMed

    Tilley, Molly A; Cotant, Casey L

    2011-04-01

    Random mandatory urine drug screening is a routine practice in the military. The pressure to produce a urine specimen creates a temptation to consume large volumes of water, putting those individuals at risk of acute water intoxication. This occurs when the amount of water consumed exceeds the kidney's ability to excrete it, resulting in hyponatremia owing to excess amount of water compared to serum solutes. The acute drop in serum osmolality leads to cerebral edema, causing headaches, confusion, seizures, and death. There has been increasing awareness of the danger of overhydration among performance athletes, but dangers in other groups can be underappreciated. We present the case of a 37-year-old male Air Force officer who developed acute water intoxication during urine drug screening. Our case demonstrates the need for a clear Air Force policy for mandatory drug testing to minimize the risk of developing this potentially fatal condition.

  14. Felinine stability in the presence of selected urine compounds.

    PubMed

    Rutherfurd, S M; Kitson, T M; Woolhouse, A D; McGrath, M C; Hendriks, W H

    2007-02-01

    The stability of felinine, an amino acid present in feline urine, was investigated. Synthetic felinine was unstable in the urine of a selection of mammals. Felinine was found to stable in feline urine in which urea had been degraded. Synthetic felinine was found to react specifically with urea and did not react with urea analogues such as biuret or thiourea or other nucleophilic compounds such as ammonia which is more nucleophilic or acetamide and water which are less nucleophilic than urea. The reaction of urea and felinine was independent of pH over the range of 3-10. Urea did not react with N-acetyl-felinine suggesting a felinine N-terminal interaction with urea. Mass spectral analysis of the reaction products showed the presence of carbamylated felinine and fragmentation ions derived from carbamyl-felinine. The physiological relevance of felinine carbamylation is yet to be determined.

  15. Development of Urine Receptacle Assembly for the Crew Exploration Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cibuzar, Branelle Rae; Thomas, Evan; Peterson, Laurie; Goforth, Johanna

    2008-01-01

    The Urine Receptacle Assembly (URA) initially was developed for Apollo as a primary means of urine collection. The aluminum housing with stainless steel honeycomb insert provided all male crewmembers with a non-invasive means of micturating into a urine capturing device and then venting to space. The performance of the URA was a substantial improvement over previous devices but its performance was not well understood. The Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) program is exploring the URA as a contingency liquid waste management system for the vehicle. URA improvements are required to meet CEV requirements, including: consumables minimization, flow performance, acceptable hygiene standards, crew comfort, and female crewmember capability. This paper presents the results of a historical review of URA performance during the Apollo program, recent URA performance tests on the reduced gravity aircraft flight under varying flow conditions, and a proposed development plan for the URA to meet CEV needs.

  16. Temporary Urine and Brine Stowage System (TUBSS) Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dries, Kevin; Carrigan, Caitlin

    2011-01-01

    International Space Station (ISS) crew liquid human waste is treated with chromic and sulfuric acids to maintain stability prior to processing to recover water. This pre-treated urine (PTU) and its processed by-product, brine, are highly toxic fluids that require special containment for on-orbit stowage. The temporary urine and brine stowage syste m (TUBSS) is an assembly used to store and transfer pre-treated urine (PTU) and brine for processing or disposal at a later date. This paper describes the development of the TUBSS, including design for two-fault tolerance and materials selection to maintain a soft, collapsible container. In addition, this paper will provide results of testing as well as lessons learned from the project, culminating in the successful launch of the hardware.

  17. Criterion values for urine-specific gravity and urine color representing adequate water intake in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Perrier, E T; Bottin, J H; Vecchio, M; Lemetais, G

    2017-02-01

    Growing evidence suggests a distinction between water intake necessary for maintaining a euhydrated state, and water intake considered to be adequate from a perspective of long-term health. Previously, we have proposed that maintaining a 24-h urine osmolality (UOsm) of ⩽500 mOsm/kg is a desirable target for urine concentration to ensure sufficient urinary output to reduce renal health risk and circulating vasopressin. In clinical practice and field monitoring, the measurement of UOsm is not practical. In this analysis, we calculate criterion values for urine-specific gravity (USG) and urine color (UCol), two measures which have broad applicability in clinical and field settings. A receiver operating characteristic curve analysis performed on 817 urine samples demonstrates that a USG ⩾1.013 detects UOsm>500 mOsm/kg with very high accuracy (AUC 0.984), whereas a subject-assessed UCol⩾4 offers high sensitivity and moderate specificity (AUC 0.831) for detecting UOsm >500 m Osm/kg.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 1 February 2017; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2016.269.

  18. Determination of struvite crystallization mechanisms in urine using turbidity measurement.

    PubMed

    Triger, Aurélien; Pic, Jean-Stéphane; Cabassud, Corinne

    2012-11-15

    Sanitation improvement in developing countries could be achieved through wastewater treatment processes. Nowadays alternative concepts such as urine separate collection are being developed. These processes would be an efficient way to reduce pollution of wastewater while recovering nutrients, especially phosphorus, which are lost in current wastewater treatment methods. The precipitation of struvite (MgNH(4)PO(4)∙6H(2)O) from urine is an efficient process yielding more than 98% phosphorus recovery with very high reaction rates. The work presented here aims to determine the kinetics and mechanisms of struvite precipitation in order to supply data for the design of efficient urine treatment processes. A methodology coupling the resolution of the population balance equation to turbidity measurement was developed, and batch experiments with synthetic and real urine were performed. The main mechanisms of struvite crystallization were identified as crystal growth and nucleation. A satisfactory approximation of the volumetric crystal size distribution was obtained. The study has shown the low influence on the crystallization process of natural organic matter contained in real urine. It has also highlighted the impact of operational parameters. Mixing conditions can create segregation and attrition which influence the nucleation rate, resulting in a change in crystals number, size, and thus final crystal size distribution (CSD). Moreover urine storage conditions can impact urea hydrolysis and lead to spontaneous struvite precipitation in the stock solution also influencing the final CSD. A few limits of the applied methodology and of the proposed modelling, due to these phenomena and to the turbidity measurement, are also discussed.

  19. Detection of Bladder Cancer Using Proteomic Profiling of Urine Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Majewski, Tadeusz; Spiess, Philippe E.; Bondaruk, Jolanta; Black, Peter; Clarke, Charlotte; Benedict, William; Dinney, Colin P.; Grossman, Herbert Barton; Tang, Kuang S.; Czerniak, Bogdan

    2012-01-01

    We used protein expression profiles to develop a classification rule for the detection and prognostic assessment of bladder cancer in voided urine samples. Using the Ciphergen PBS II ProteinChip Reader, we analyzed the protein profiles of 18 pairs of samples of bladder tumor and adjacent urothelium tissue, a training set of 85 voided urine samples (32 controls and 53 bladder cancer), and a blinded testing set of 68 voided urine samples (33 controls and 35 bladder cancer). Using t-tests, we identified 473 peaks showing significant differential expression across different categories of paired bladder tumor and adjacent urothelial samples compared to normal urothelium. Then the intensities of those 473 peaks were examined in a training set of voided urine samples. Using this approach, we identified 41 protein peaks that were differentially expressed in both sets of samples. The expression pattern of the 41 protein peaks was used to classify the voided urine samples as malignant or benign. This approach yielded a sensitivity and specificity of 59% and 90%, respectively, on the training set and 80% and 100%, respectively, on the testing set. The proteomic classification rule performed with similar accuracy in low- and high-grade bladder carcinomas. In addition, we used hierarchical clustering with all 473 protein peaks on 65 benign voided urine samples, 88 samples from patients with clinically evident bladder cancer, and 127 samples from patients with a history of bladder cancer to classify the samples into Cluster A or B. The tumors in Cluster B were characterized by clinically aggressive behavior with significantly shorter metastasis-free and disease-specific survival. PMID:22879988

  20. Detection of bladder cancer using proteomic profiling of urine sediments.

    PubMed

    Majewski, Tadeusz; Spiess, Philippe E; Bondaruk, Jolanta; Black, Peter; Clarke, Charlotte; Benedict, William; Dinney, Colin P; Grossman, Herbert Barton; Tang, Kuang S; Czerniak, Bogdan

    2012-01-01

    We used protein expression profiles to develop a classification rule for the detection and prognostic assessment of bladder cancer in voided urine samples. Using the Ciphergen PBS II ProteinChip Reader, we analyzed the protein profiles of 18 pairs of samples of bladder tumor and adjacent urothelium tissue, a training set of 85 voided urine samples (32 controls and 53 bladder cancer), and a blinded testing set of 68 voided urine samples (33 controls and 35 bladder cancer). Using t-tests, we identified 473 peaks showing significant differential expression across different categories of paired bladder tumor and adjacent urothelial samples compared to normal urothelium. Then the intensities of those 473 peaks were examined in a training set of voided urine samples. Using this approach, we identified 41 protein peaks that were differentially expressed in both sets of samples. The expression pattern of the 41 protein peaks was used to classify the voided urine samples as malignant or benign. This approach yielded a sensitivity and specificity of 59% and 90%, respectively, on the training set and 80% and 100%, respectively, on the testing set. The proteomic classification rule performed with similar accuracy in low- and high-grade bladder carcinomas. In addition, we used hierarchical clustering with all 473 protein peaks on 65 benign voided urine samples, 88 samples from patients with clinically evident bladder cancer, and 127 samples from patients with a history of bladder cancer to classify the samples into Cluster A or B. The tumors in Cluster B were characterized by clinically aggressive behavior with significantly shorter metastasis-free and disease-specific survival.

  1. Urine Metabolite Profiles Predictive of Human Kidney Allograft Status.

    PubMed

    Suhre, Karsten; Schwartz, Joseph E; Sharma, Vijay K; Chen, Qiuying; Lee, John R; Muthukumar, Thangamani; Dadhania, Darshana M; Ding, Ruchuang; Ikle, David N; Bridges, Nancy D; Williams, Nikki M; Kastenmüller, Gabi; Karoly, Edward D; Mohney, Robert P; Abecassis, Michael; Friedewald, John; Knechtle, Stuart J; Becker, Yolanda T; Samstein, Benjamin; Shaked, Abraham; Gross, Steven S; Suthanthiran, Manikkam

    2016-02-01

    Noninvasive diagnosis and prognostication of acute cellular rejection in the kidney allograft may help realize the full benefits of kidney transplantation. To investigate whether urine metabolites predict kidney allograft status, we determined levels of 749 metabolites in 1516 urine samples from 241 kidney graft recipients enrolled in the prospective multicenter Clinical Trials in Organ Transplantation-04 study. A metabolite signature of the ratio of 3-sialyllactose to xanthosine in biopsy specimen-matched urine supernatants best discriminated acute cellular rejection biopsy specimens from specimens without rejection. For clinical application, we developed a high-throughput mass spectrometry-based assay that enabled absolute and rapid quantification of the 3-sialyllactose-to-xanthosine ratio in urine samples. A composite signature of ratios of 3-sialyllactose to xanthosine and quinolinate to X-16397 and our previously reported urinary cell mRNA signature of 18S ribosomal RNA, CD3ε mRNA, and interferon-inducible protein-10 mRNA outperformed the metabolite signatures and the mRNA signature. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve for the composite metabolite-mRNA signature was 0.93, and the signature was diagnostic of acute cellular rejection with a specificity of 84% and a sensitivity of 90%. The composite signature, developed using solely biopsy specimen-matched urine samples, predicted future acute cellular rejection when applied to pristine samples taken days to weeks before biopsy. We conclude that metabolite profiling of urine offers a noninvasive means of diagnosing and prognosticating acute cellular rejection in the human kidney allograft, and that the combined metabolite and mRNA signature is diagnostic and prognostic of acute cellular rejection with very high accuracy.

  2. Quantifying the sources of error in measurements of urine activity

    SciTech Connect

    Mozley, P.D.; Kim, H.J.; McElgin, W.

    1994-05-01

    Accurate scintigraphic measurements of radioactivity in the bladder and voided urine specimens can be limited by scatter, attenuation, and variations in the volume of urine that a given dose is distributed in. The purpose of this study was to quantify some of the errors that these problems can introduce. Transmission scans and 41 conjugate images of the bladder were sequentially acquired on a dual headed camera over 24 hours in 6 subjects after the intravenous administration of 100-150 MBq (2.7-3.6 mCi) of a novel I-123 labeled benzamide. Renal excretion fractions were calculated by measuring the counts in conjugate images of 41 sequentially voided urine samples. A correction for scatter was estimated by comparing the count rates in images that were acquired with the photopeak centered an 159 keV and images that were made simultaneously with the photopeak centered on 126 keV. The decay and attenuation corrected, geometric mean activities were compared to images of the net dose injected. Checks of the results were performed by measuring the total volume of each voided urine specimen and determining the activity in a 20 ml aliquot of it with a dose calibrator. Modeling verified the experimental results which showed that 34% of the counts were attenuated when the bladder had been expanded to a volume of 300 ml. Corrections for attenuation that were based solely on the transmission scans were limited by the volume of non-radioactive urine in the bladder before the activity was administered. The attenuation of activity in images of the voided wine samples was dependent on the geometry of the specimen container. The images of urine in standard, 300 ml laboratory specimen cups had 39{plus_minus}5% fewer counts than images of the same samples laid out in 3 liter bedpans. Scatter through the carbon fiber table substantially increased the number of counts in the images by an average of 14%.

  3. Rapid determination of 226Ra in emergency urine samples

    DOE PAGES

    Maxwell, Sherrod L.; Culligan, Brian K.; Hutchison, Jay B.; ...

    2014-02-27

    A new method has been developed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) that can be used for the rapid determination of 226Ra in emergency urine samples following a radiological incident. If a radiological dispersive device event or a nuclear accident occurs, there will be an urgent need for rapid analyses of radionuclides in urine samples to ensure the safety of the public. Large numbers of urine samples will have to be analyzed very quickly. This new SRNL method was applied to 100 mL urine aliquots, however this method can be applied to smaller or larger sample aliquots as needed.more » The method was optimized for rapid turnaround times; urine samples may be prepared for counting in <3 h. A rapid calcium phosphate precipitation method was used to pre-concentrate 226Ra from the urine sample matrix, followed by removal of calcium by cation exchange separation. A stacked elution method using DGA Resin was used to purify the 226Ra during the cation exchange elution step. This approach combines the cation resin elution step with the simultaneous purification of 226Ra with DGA Resin, saving time. 133Ba was used instead of 225Ra as tracer to allow immediate counting; however, 225Ra can still be used as an option. The rapid purification of 226Ra to remove interferences using DGA Resin was compared with a slightly longer Ln Resin approach. A final barium sulfate micro-precipitation step was used with isopropanol present to reduce solubility; producing alpha spectrometry sources with peaks typically <40 keV FWHM (full width half max). This new rapid method is fast, has very high tracer yield (>90 %), and removes interferences effectively. The sample preparation method can also be adapted to ICP-MS measurement of 226Ra, with rapid removal of isobaric interferences.« less

  4. Novel Serum and Urine Markers for Pediatric Appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    Kharbanda, Anupam B.; Rai, Alex J.; Cosme, Yohaimi; Liu, Khin; Dayan, Peter S.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To describe the association between two novel biomarkers, calprotectin and leucine-rich alpha glycoprotein-1 (LRG), and appendicitis in children. Methods This was a prospective, cohort study of children 3 to 18 years old presenting to a pediatric emergency department with possible appendicitis. Blood and urine samples were assayed for calprotectin and LRG via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Final diagnosis was determined by histopathology or telephone follow-up. Biomarker levels were compared for subjects with and without appendicitis. Recursive partitioning was used to identify thresholds that predicted appendicitis. Results Of 176 subjects, mean age was 11.6 years (SD ±4.0 years) and 52% were male. Fifty-eight patients (34%) were diagnosed with appendicitis. Median plasma calprotectin, serum LRG, and urine LRG levels were higher in appendicitis versus non-appendicitis (p < 0.008). When stratified by perforation status, median plasma calprotectin and serum LRG levels were higher in non-perforated appendicitis vs. non-appendicitis (p < 0.01). Median serum LRG, urine LRG, and plasma calprotectin levels were higher in perforated appendicitis as compared to non-perforated appendicitis (p < 0.05). Urine calprotectin did not differ among groups. A serum LRG < 40,150 ng/ml, a urine LRG < 42 ng/ml, and a plasma calprotectin < 159 ng/ml, each provided a sensitivity and negative predictive value of 100% to identify children at low risk for appendicitis, but with specificities ranging from 23% to 35%. The standard white blood cell (WBC) count achieved 100% sensitivity at a higher specificity than both novel biomarkers. Conclusions Plasma calprotectin and serum/urine LRG are elevated in pediatric appendicitis. No individual marker performed as well as the WBC. PMID:22221321

  5. An emergency bioassay method for (210)Po in urine.

    PubMed

    Guérin, Nicolas; Dai, Xiongxin

    2015-09-01

    A rapid method was developed to efficiently measure (210)Po in urine samples in an emergency situation. Polonium-210 in small urine samples (10 mL) was spontaneously deposited on a stainless steel disc in 1 M HCl at room temperature for 4 h in a polyethylene bottle. The metallic disc was then counted for 4 h by alpha spectrometry. The developed method allowed the preparation of large sample batch in a short time. The method meets the requirements for an emergency bioassay procedure.

  6. The International Space Station Urine Monitoring System (UMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feeback, Daniel L.; Cibuzar, Branelle R.; Milstead, Jeffery R.; Pietrzyk,, Robert A.; Clark, Mark S.F.

    2009-01-01

    A device capable of making in-flight volume measurements of single void urine samples, the Urine Monitoring System (UMS), was developed and flown on seven U.S. Space Shuttle missions. This device provided volume data for each urine void from multiple crewmembers and allowed samples of each to be taken and returned to Earth for post-flight analysis. There were a number of design flaws in the original instrument including the presence of liquid carry-over producing invalid "actual" micturition volumes and cross-contamination between successive users from residual urine in "dead" spots". Additionally, high or low volume voids could not be accurately measured, the on-orbit calibration and nominal use sequence was time intensive, and the unit had to be returned and disassembled to retrieve the volume data. These problems have been resolved in a new version, the International Space Station (ISS) UMS, that has been designed to provide real-time in-flight volume data with accuracy and precision equivalent to measurements made on Earth and the ability to provide urine samples that are unadulterated by the device. Originally conceived to be interfaced with a U.S.-built Waste Collection System (WCS), the unit now has been modified to interface with the Russian-supplied Sanitary Hygiene Device (ASY). The ISS UMS provides significant advantages over the current method of collecting urine samples into Urine Collection Devices (UCDs), from which samples are removed and returned to Earth for analyses. A significant future advantage of the UMS is that it can provide an interface to analytical instrumentation that will allow real-time measurement of urine bioanalytes allowing monitoring of crewmember health status during flight and the ability to provide medical interventions based on the results of these measurements. Currently, the ISS UMS is scheduled to launch along with Node-3 on STS-130 (20A) in December 2009. UMS will be installed and scientific/functional verification

  7. Smartphone based point-of-care detector of urine albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cmiel, Vratislav; Svoboda, Ondrej; Koscova, Pavlina; Provaznik, Ivo

    2016-03-01

    Albumin plays an important role in human body. Its changed level in urine may indicate serious kidney disorders. We present a new point-of-care solution for sensitive detection of urine albumin - the miniature optical adapter for iPhone with in-built optical filters and a sample slot. The adapter exploits smart-phone flash to generate excitation light and camera to measure the level of emitted light. Albumin Blue 580 is used as albumin reagent. The proposed light-weight adapter can be produced at low cost using a 3D printer. Thus, the miniaturized detector is easy to use out of lab.

  8. Optimization for Peptide Sample Preparation for Urine Peptidomics

    SciTech Connect

    Sigdel, Tara K.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Hsieh, Szu-Chuan; Dai, Hong; Qian, Weijun; Camp, David G.; Sarwal, Minnie M.

    2014-02-25

    Analysis of native or endogenous peptides in biofluids can provide valuable insights into disease mechanisms. Furthermore, the detected peptides may also have utility as potential biomarkers for non-invasive monitoring of human diseases. The non-invasive nature of urine collection and the abundance of peptides in the urine makes analysis by high-throughput ‘peptidomics’ methods , an attractive approach for investigating the pathogenesis of renal disease. However, urine peptidomics methodologies can be problematic with regards to difficulties associated with sample preparation. The urine matrix can provide significant background interference in making the analytical measurements that it hampers both the identification of peptides and the depth of the peptidomics read when utilizing LC-MS based peptidome analysis. We report on a novel adaptation of the standard solid phase extraction (SPE) method to a modified SPE (mSPE) approach for improved peptide yield and analysis sensitivity with LC-MS based peptidomics in terms of time, cost, clogging of the LC-MS column, peptide yield, peptide quality, and number of peptides identified by each method. Expense and time requirements were comparable for both SPE and mSPE, but more interfering contaminants from the urine matrix were evident in the SPE preparations (e.g., clogging of the LC-MS columns, yellowish background coloration of prepared samples due to retained urobilin, lower peptide yields) when compared to the mSPE method. When we compared data from technical replicates of 4 runs, the mSPE method provided significantly improved efficiencies for the preparation of samples from urine (e.g., mSPE peptide identification 82% versus 18% with SPE; p = 8.92E-05). Additionally, peptide identifications, when applying the mSPE method, highlighted the biology of differential activation of urine peptidases during acute renal transplant rejection with distinct laddering of specific peptides, which was obscured for most proteins

  9. Escitalopram-Induced Amenorrhea and False Positive Urine Pregnancy Test

    PubMed Central

    Hour, Siv; Gunasekar, Palanikumar; Gray, Caron; Smith, James F.

    2017-01-01

    Escitalopram is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressant approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder. A 34-year-old female patient with major depressive disorder developed amenorrhea and had a false-positive urine pregnancy test after initiation of escitalopram treatment. To our knowledge, no published case report of amenorrhea and false-positive urine pregnancy tests in women taking escitalopram exists. This case report suggests that women of child-bearing age should be carefully monitored for amenorrhea while they are on an antidepressant treatment regimen. PMID:28197332

  10. AN ELECTROPHORETIC STUDY OF NEPHROTIC SERA AND URINE

    PubMed Central

    Longsworth, L. G.; MacInnes, D. A.

    1940-01-01

    The electrophoretic patterns of the sera and urine of two cases of lipoid nephrosis have been obtained and have been compared with a typical pattern of normal serum. The patterns of the pathological sera deviated widely from the normal, indicating relatively low albumin and high globulin content. The comparison of the patterns of nephrotic sera cleared by centrifugation and by ether extraction shows that a large portion of the β globulin consisted of a labile lipo-protein. The pattern of the nephrotic urine proteins resembled that of normal serum, with, however, significant differences. PMID:19870946

  11. An emergency bioassay method for actinides in urine.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xiongxin; Kramer-Tremblay, Sheila

    2011-08-01

    A rapid bioassay method has been developed for the sequential measurements of actinides in human urine samples. The method involves actinide separation from a urine matrix by co-precipitation with hydrous titanium oxide (HTiO), followed by anion exchange and extraction chromatography column purification, and final counting by alpha spectrometry after cerium fluoride micro-precipitation. The minimal detectable activities for the method were determined to be 20 mBq L(-1) or less for plutonium, uranium, americium and curium isotopes, with an 8-h sample turn-around time. Spike tests showed that this method would meet the requirements for actinide bioassay following a radiation emergency.

  12. Urine macrophage migration inhibitory factor in pediatric systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Otukesh, Hasan; Chalian, Majid; Hoseini, Rozita; Chalian, Hamid; Hooman, Nakysa; Bedayat, Arash; Yazdi, Reza Salman; Sabaghi, Saeed; Mahdavi, Saeed

    2007-12-01

    We reported a series of ten patients with lupus nephritis (five patients in the relapse phase and five in the remission phase) and measured the macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), an important pro-inflammatory cytokine with probable role in the pathogenesis of many inflammatory diseases, in their urine samples. MIF/creatinine (Cr) ratio directly correlated with disease activity and it does not have any significant difference between inactive disease and normal ones. We found that the urine MIF/Cr ratio not only differentiates active disease from inactive disease and normal ones but also correlates with the activity indices of renal pathology.

  13. Gas chromatographic determination of pentachlorophenol in human blood and urine

    SciTech Connect

    Atuma, S.S.; Okor, D.I.

    1985-09-01

    The extraction, identification and quantification of pentachlorophenol (PCP) in human blood and urine are of great importance for monitoring human exposure to this environmental chemical. Although reports abound in the literature on PCP residues, toxicity and environmental fate, there is hardly any information on its existence in the developing tropical countries, particularly in Nigeria. There is therefore the need to survey the status of PCP in Nigerian environment with a view to establishing the potential health hazards resulting from its bioaccumulation. This paper reports a preliminary survey of the residue levels of PCP in human blood and urine of the general population in Bendel State of Nigeria.

  14. Urine sampling and collection system optimization and testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogal, G. L.; Geating, J. A.; Koesterer, M. G.

    1975-01-01

    A Urine Sampling and Collection System (USCS) engineering model was developed to provide for the automatic collection, volume sensing and sampling of urine from each micturition. The purpose of the engineering model was to demonstrate verification of the system concept. The objective of the optimization and testing program was to update the engineering model, to provide additional performance features and to conduct system testing to determine operational problems. Optimization tasks were defined as modifications to minimize system fluid residual and addition of thermoelectric cooling.

  15. Urine fingerprinting: detection of sample tampering in an opiate dependency program.

    PubMed

    Kapur, B; Hershkop, S; Koren, G; Gaughan, V

    1999-04-01

    Methadone treatment programs commonly monitor patient compliance by screening urine samples for drugs of abuse. Our experience suggests that re-submission of urine samples (for example, providing a urine sample that is either not that of the patient or was previously submitted) is often used as a method of sample tampering. We have developed an algorithm that combines urine sodium, chloride, creatinine and pH values with urine drug screening results to effectively detect resubmitted samples. Given the widespread use of urine drug screening in drug and alcohol rehabilitation programs, we believe this technique has significant practical benefits. This technique may also have an application in forensic identification of duplicate samples.

  16. [Update on the diagnosis of PCa in urine. The current role of urine markers].

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Serra, A; Casanova-Salas, I; Rubio, L; Calatrava, A; García-Flores, M; García-Casado, Z; López-Guerrero, J A; Rubio-Briones, J

    2015-04-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is still a main health issue, in fact it is responsible for 10% of cancer deaths across Europe. The morphology of the prostate gland makes urine an ideal sample, non invasive, for determination both diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. We use urinary PCA3 levels to indicate a prostate biopsy, and it is the only urinary biomarkers in PCa with FDA approval for clinical use. Many other biomarkers based on the expression of specific genes of PCa are being studied and validated, for instance the fusion gene TMPRSS2-ERG with a commercial kit available, while another approach is to test the expression of a panel of genes. An emerging focus of research, which deserves attention, is miRNAs. Other newer approaches such as epigenetics, proteomics and metabolomics also would be very useful in the future for the development and validation of new biomarkers. In this paper we review the state of the art in the field of urinary biomarkers in PCa.

  17. Phosphoproteins with Stability Against All Urinary Phosphatases as Potential Biomarkers in Urine.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mindi; Liu, Kehui; Gao, Youhe

    2015-01-01

    Urine, by accumulating all kinds of changes, was proposed to be a better source for biomarker discovery. As one of the most common post-translational modifications, phosphorylation plays a vital role in many biological activities. However, the urine phosphoproteome has been largely neglected due to the low abundance of phosphoproteins and the presence of various phosphatases in urine. The low level of background phosphorylation in urine is actually advantageous, as urinary phosphopeptides/proteins that are stable to the phosphatases present in urine have the potential to serve as valuable disease biomarkers. Using a TiO2 enrichment strategy, this study aimed to create a comprehensive proteomic profile of human urinary phosphoproteins and to characterize the changes in the urine phosphoproteome after incubation of urine with renal carcinoma cell lysates. In total, 106 urine phosphorylation sites corresponding to 64 proteins, including 80 previously unidentified human urine protein phosphorylation sites, were identified by mass spectrometry. Fifteen phosphopeptides, together averaging 47% of the total phosphopeptides, were found in samples from three individuals. Cellular proteins are potential source of biomarker in urine phosphorylated proteins. Addition of renal carcinoma cellular proteins to urine did not significantly change the phosphorylation level of urine proteins. But there were still a few phosphopeptides from cell lysates survived urinary phosphatases; such phosphopeptides represent potential biomarkers in urine.

  18. Estimating residual kidney function in dialysis patients without urine collection.

    PubMed

    Shafi, Tariq; Michels, Wieneke M; Levey, Andrew S; Inker, Lesley A; Dekker, Friedo W; Krediet, Raymond T; Hoekstra, Tiny; Schwartz, George J; Eckfeldt, John H; Coresh, Josef

    2016-05-01

    Residual kidney function contributes substantially to solute clearance in dialysis patients but cannot be assessed without urine collection. We used serum filtration markers to develop dialysis-specific equations to estimate urinary urea clearance without the need for urine collection. In our development cohort, we measured 24-hour urine clearances under close supervision in 44 patients and validated these equations in 826 patients from the Netherlands Cooperative Study on the Adequacy of Dialysis. For the development and validation cohorts, median urinary urea clearance was 2.6 and 2.4 ml/min, respectively. During the 24-hour visit in the development cohort, serum β-trace protein concentrations remained in steady state but concentrations of all other markers increased. In the validation cohort, bias (median measured minus estimated clearance) was low for all equations. Precision was significantly better for β-trace protein and β2-microglobulin equations and the accuracy was significantly greater for β-trace protein, β2-microglobulin, and cystatin C equations, compared with the urea plus creatinine equation. Area under the receiver operator characteristic curve for detecting measured urinary urea clearance by equation-estimated urinary urea clearance (both 2 ml/min or more) were 0.821, 0.850, and 0.796 for β-trace protein, β2-microglobulin, and cystatin C equations, respectively; significantly greater than the 0.663 for the urea plus creatinine equation. Thus, residual renal function can be estimated in dialysis patients without urine collections.

  19. Forgotten Hardware: How to Urinate in a Spacesuit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollins, Hunter

    2013-01-01

    On May 5, 1961, astronaut Alan Shepard became the first American to fly in space. Although National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) had discounted the need for him to urinate, Shepard did, in his spacesuit, short circuiting his electronic biosensors. With the development of the pressure suit needed for high-altitude and space flight…

  20. Evaluation of an automated urine chemistry reagent-strip analyzer.

    PubMed

    Lott, J A; Johnson, W R; Luke, K E

    1995-01-01

    We evaluated the Miles Inc., Clinitek Atlas Automated Urine Chemistry Analyzer for 11 tests: bilirubin, color, glucose, ketones, leukocyte esterase, nitrite, occult blood, pH, protein, specific gravity, and urobilinogen. The instrument uses a roll of reagent strips affixed to a clear plastic support; urine specimens are automatically pipetted onto these strips. The instrument measures the pads' color using reflectance colorimetry. Specific gravity is measured using a fiberoptic refractive index method. Four hospitals participated in the evaluation, and tests were performed only on fresh urine samples. We found the instrument easy to use; it has walk-away capability with up to 40-specimen loading capacity plus spaces for STATs, calibrators and controls. We found good comparability with chemical tests and other nonreagent strip procedures, as well as good agreement with the Miles Inc. Clinitek 200+ urine chemistry analyzer and visual reading of the Miles Inc. Multistix Reagent Strips. The Clinitek Atlas is rugged and reliable, and is suitable for a high-volume urinalysis laboratory.

  1. Successful Use of the Nocturnal Urine Alarm for Diurnal Enuresis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friman, Patrick C.; Vollmer, Dennis

    1995-01-01

    A urine alarm, typically used to treat nocturnal enuresis, was effectively used to treat diurnal enuresis in a 15-year-old female with depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and conduct disorder. The study indicated that the alarm eliminated wetting in both treatment phases and that continence was maintained at three-month and…

  2. Urine Drug Screening of Adolescents on Request of Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennant, Forest

    1994-01-01

    Of 100 adolescents screened for drug use, 43% tested positive for drugs of abuse. Twenty-five percent of these adolescents entered treatment, with 8% requiring medical detoxification or inpatient treatment. Urine screening, when done for clinical rather than punitive purposes, appeared to facilitate entry into treatment. (RJM)

  3. Effects of urine application on chemistry of feedlot pen surfaces

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beef cattle feedlots can emit significant quantities of ammonia that may adversely affect air quality and decrease the fertilizer value of manure. The major source of ammonia loss may be urinary urea. We conducted three studies to evaluate the effects of urine on the chemistry of feedlot pen surface...

  4. Investigations of ascorbic acid interference in urine test strips.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Dietmar; Seiler, Dieter; Hohenberger, Ewald F; Ziegler, Manfred

    2006-01-01

    Ascorbic acid at higher concentration in urine samples can lead to false negative results in a number of urine tests, with a potential risk of clinical findings being overlooked, particularly with glucose and hemoglobin. For this reason, the ascorbic acid status of urine samples should always be routinely known so as to establish what adjustment needs to be made. A much better approach, however, is to use a test which is by design largely resistant to ascorbic acid. We compared five very common 10-parameter urine test strips from different manufacturers. The results of this study show that of the strips tested, only the product Combur-Test from Roche Diagnostics is largely resistant to ascorbic acid interference. Even lowest - but clinically relevant - concentrations of erythrocytes (10/microL), hemoglobin (0.03 mg/dL), and glucose (50 mg/dL) were correctly detected with concentrations of up to 400 mg/L ascorbic acid. Higher analyte concentrations correctly reacted positive even in the presence of up to 1000 mg/L ascorbic acid.

  5. Proteomic analysis of the urine of Dirofilaria immitis infected dogs.

    PubMed

    Hormaeche, Marta; Carretón, Elena; González-Miguel, Javier; Gussoni, Stefania; Montoya-Alonso, José Alberto; Simón, Fernando; Morchón, Rodrigo

    2014-06-16

    Canine cardiopulmonary dirofilariosis caused by Dirofilaria immitis habitually develops as a chronic disease affecting pulmonary arteries, lung parenchyma and heart. Other organs like kidneys can also be involved. Renal pathology is a consequence of glomerulonephritis whose main sign is proteinuria. The aim of the present work is to identify proteins excreted in the urine of D. immitis infected dogs showing proteinuria, and the possible contribution of their loss to heartworm disease. Proteinuria is higher in microfilaremic (mf+) than in amicrofilaremic (mf-) dogs. Using bidimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry 9 different proteins from Canis lupus familiaris in the urine of both mf- and mf+ dogs were identified (serotransferrin isoform 6, serum albumin precursor, albumin, immunoglobulin gamma heavy chain D, apolipoprotein A-I, immunoglobulin lambda-like polypeptide 5-like, arginine esterase precursor, inmunoglobulin gamma heavy chain B and hemoglobin subunit alpha). Furthermore, 3 additional proteins were identified only in the urine of mf+ dogs, corresponding to dog fibrinogen alpha chain and immunoglobulin gamma heavy chain A and actin 2 homologous to a protein of Brugia malayi. The loss of these proteins and other in the urine of D. immitis infected dogs could affect the general condition of parasitized dogs through the interference in the cholesterol metabolism and O₂ transport, among other mechanisms.

  6. Urine excretion strategy for stem cell-generated embryonic kidneys.

    PubMed

    Yokote, Shinya; Matsunari, Hitomi; Iwai, Satomi; Yamanaka, Shuichiro; Uchikura, Ayuko; Fujimoto, Eisuke; Matsumoto, Kei; Nagashima, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Eiji; Yokoo, Takashi

    2015-10-20

    There have been several recent attempts to generate, de novo, a functional whole kidney from stem cells using the organogenic niche or blastocyst complementation methods. However, none of these attempts succeeded in constructing a urinary excretion pathway for the stem cell-generated embryonic kidney. First, we transplanted metanephroi from cloned pig fetuses into gilts; the metanephroi grew to about 3 cm and produced urine, although hydronephrosis eventually was observed because of the lack of an excretion pathway. Second, we demonstrated the construction of urine excretion pathways in rats. Rat metanephroi or metanephroi with bladders (developed from cloacas) were transplanted into host rats. Histopathologic analysis showed that tubular lumina dilation and interstitial fibrosis were reduced in kidneys developed from cloacal transplants compared with metanephroi transplantation. Then we connected the host animal's ureter to the cloacal-developed bladder, a technique we called the "stepwise peristaltic ureter" (SWPU) system. The application of the SWPU system avoided hydronephrosis and permitted the cloacas to differentiate well, with cloacal urine being excreted persistently through the recipient ureter. Finally, we demonstrated a viable preclinical application of the SWPU system in cloned pigs. The SWPU system also inhibited hydronephrosis in the pig study. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing that the SWPU system may resolve two important problems in the generation of kidneys from stem cells: construction of a urine excretion pathway and continued growth of the newly generated kidney.

  7. Hair: A Diagnostic Tool to Complement Blood Serum and Urine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maugh, Thomas H., II

    1978-01-01

    Trace elements and some drugs can be identified in hair and it seems likely that other organic chemicals will be identifiable in the future. Since hair is so easily collected, stored, and analyzed it promises to be an ideal complement to serum and urine analysis as a diagnostic tool. (BB)

  8. The optical nature of methylsuccinic acid in human urine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeitman, B.; Lawless, J. G.

    1975-01-01

    Methylsuccinic acid was isolated from human urine, derivatized as the di-S-(+)-2-butyl ester, and analyzed using a gas chromatographic system capable of separating the enantiomers of the derivative. The R-(+)-isomer was found to be present. Methylsuccinic acid is potentially important as a criterion for abiogenicity, having been obtained as a racemic mixture from sources known to be abiotic.

  9. Sysmex UF-1000i performance for screening yeasts in urine.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Fernández, José; Riazzo, Cristina; Sanbonmatsu, Sara; de Dios Luna, Juan; Sorlózano, Antonio; Miranda, Consuelo; Navarro, José María

    2014-04-01

    We tested the capacity of the Sysmex UF-1000i system to detect yeasts in urine by screening a total of 22 132 urine samples received for culture in our microbiology laboratory during 1 year. We also analyzed different dilutions of previously filtered urine inoculated with a strain of Candida albicans. With clinical samples, a single cut-off point of 50 yeast-like cells (YLCs)/μL detected candiduria ≥10 000 colony forming units (CFU)/mL and >100 000 CFU/mL with a sensitivity of 87.3%/95.4%, a specificity of 97%, a negative predictive value of 95.9%, and a positive predictive value of 9.3%/5.7%. With the simulated samples, a linear relationship was observed between the dilution factor and the number of cells detected by UF-1000i. This instrument appears to be able to reliably rule out candiduria of a magnitude of at least 10 000 CFU/mL and facilitate urine sample screening, thereby providing fast results. The Sysmex UF1000i system can be adapted for candiduria screening by the use of an appropriate YLCs/μL cut-off point that takes account of the prevalence of candiduria in the population.

  10. In vitro monitoring of natural thorium in urine using fluorimeter.

    PubMed

    Kalaiselvan, S; Lakshmanan, A R; Meenakshisundaram, V

    2011-12-15

    A relatively less expensive and less time consuming radio analytical technique for quantitative determination of Th(nat) in urine at mBq level is developed and reported in this paper. Th in urine is co-precipitated with Ca(3)(PO(4))(2) from wet oxidized urine matrix and the precipitate is dissolved in HNO(3) and evaporated to dryness. The residue is dissolved in 3M HCl and 200mg of Na-EDTA is added to mask Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and Fe(3+) ions. Th(4+) is extracted into 0.01M PC-88A (2-ethyl hexyl phosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester), dissolved in toluene from the experimentally optimized pH 2.5 ± 0.3 in aqueous phase. Th(4+) is stripped into 8.0M HCl and evaporated to dryness. The content of the beaker is dissolved in pH 1.8 HCl and complexed with 3-hydroxy flavone. The sample is excited at 397 nm and fluorescence intensity is measured at 462 nm. The detailed study of the method is presented in this paper. Interference study on elements that are normally present in urine and other actinides (if present) is also given.

  11. Urine excretion strategy for stem cell-generated embryonic kidneys

    PubMed Central

    Yokote, Shinya; Matsunari, Hitomi; Iwai, Satomi; Yamanaka, Shuichiro; Uchikura, Ayuko; Fujimoto, Eisuke; Matsumoto, Kei; Nagashima, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Eiji; Yokoo, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    There have been several recent attempts to generate, de novo, a functional whole kidney from stem cells using the organogenic niche or blastocyst complementation methods. However, none of these attempts succeeded in constructing a urinary excretion pathway for the stem cell-generated embryonic kidney. First, we transplanted metanephroi from cloned pig fetuses into gilts; the metanephroi grew to about 3 cm and produced urine, although hydronephrosis eventually was observed because of the lack of an excretion pathway. Second, we demonstrated the construction of urine excretion pathways in rats. Rat metanephroi or metanephroi with bladders (developed from cloacas) were transplanted into host rats. Histopathologic analysis showed that tubular lumina dilation and interstitial fibrosis were reduced in kidneys developed from cloacal transplants compared with metanephroi transplantation. Then we connected the host animal’s ureter to the cloacal-developed bladder, a technique we called the “stepwise peristaltic ureter” (SWPU) system. The application of the SWPU system avoided hydronephrosis and permitted the cloacas to differentiate well, with cloacal urine being excreted persistently through the recipient ureter. Finally, we demonstrated a viable preclinical application of the SWPU system in cloned pigs. The SWPU system also inhibited hydronephrosis in the pig study. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing that the SWPU system may resolve two important problems in the generation of kidneys from stem cells: construction of a urine excretion pathway and continued growth of the newly generated kidney. PMID:26392557

  12. Stability studies of selected doping agents in urine: caffeine.

    PubMed

    Ventura, R; Jiménez, C; Closas, N; Segura, J; De la Torre, R

    2003-10-05

    The stability of caffeine in urine samples has been studied. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the quantification of caffeine in urine samples was validated for that purpose. The method consists of a liquid-liquid extraction at alkaline pH with chloroform-2-propanol (9:1, v/v) with a salting out effect. 7-Ethyltheophylline was used as internal standard (ISTD). Analyses were performed with an Ultrasphere ODS C18 column using water/acetonitrile (90:10, v/v) as a mobile phase at a flow rate of 1 ml/min. Ultraviolet absorption at 280 nm was monitored. Extraction recoveries for caffeine and 7-ethyltheophylline were 81.4+/-6.0 and 87.3+/-5.7%, respectively. The calibration curves were demonstrated to be linear in the working range of 6-30 microg/ml (r2>0.990). The limit of detection and the limit of quantitation were estimated as 0.7 and 2.0 microg/ml, respectively. Precisions in the range of 1.5-9.2 and 4.1-5.8% were obtained in intra- and inter-assay studies, respectively, using control samples containing 10, 14 and 26 microg/ml of caffeine. Accuracies ranging from 2.9 to 7.4% for intra-assay experiments, and from 3.9 to 5.4% in inter-assay studies were obtained. Stability of caffeine in urine samples was evaluated after long- and short-term storage at different temperature conditions. The batches of spiked urine were submitted to sterilization by filtration. No adsorption of the analyte on filters was observed. Before starting stability studies, batches of reference materials were tested for homogeneity. For long-term stability testing, caffeine concentration in freeze-dried urine stored at 4 degrees C and in liquid urine samples stored at 4, -20, -40 and -80 degrees C was determined at several time intervals for 18 months. For short-term stability testing, caffeine concentration was evaluated in liquid urine stored at 37 degrees C for 7 days. The effect of repeated freezing (at -20 degrees C) and thawing was also studied for up to three

  13. International Space Station Urine Monitoring System Functional Integration and Science Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cibuzar, Branelle R.; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to microgravity during human spaceflight is required to be defined and understood as the human exploration of space requires longer duration missions. It is known that long term exposure to microgravity causes bone loss. Urine voids are capable of measuring the calcium and other metabolic byproducts in a constituent s urine. The International Space Station (ISS) Urine Monitoring System (UMS) is an automated urine collection device designed to collect urine, separate the urine and air, measure the void volume, and allow for syringe sampling. Accurate measuring and minimal cross contamination is essential to determine bone loss and the effectiveness of countermeasures. The ISS UMS provides minimal cross contamination (<0.7 ml urine) and has volume accuracy of +/-2% between 100 to 1000 ml urine voids.

  14. International Space Station Urine Monitoring System Functional Integration and Science Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Branelle R.; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Exposure to microgravity during human spaceflight is required to be defined and understood as the human exploration of space requires longer duration missions. It is known that long term exposure to microgravity causes bone loss. Urine voids are capable of measuring the calcium and other metabolic byproducts in a constituent s urine. The International Space Station (ISS) Urine Monitoring System (UMS) is an automated urine collection device designed to collect urine, separate the urine and air, measure the void volume, and allow for syringe sampling. Accurate measuring and minimal cross contamination is essential to determine bone loss and the effectiveness of countermeasures. The ISS UMS provides minimal cross contamination (<0.7 ml urine) and has volume accuracy of +/-2% between 100 to 1000 ml urine voids.

  15. The effect of material and flushing water type on urine scale formation.

    PubMed

    Hashemi, Shervin; Han, Mooyoung; Kim, Tschungil

    2015-01-01

    One of the important challenges with current sanitation practices is pipe blockage in urinals caused by urine scale formation. Urinal material and flushing water type are the two most important factors affecting scale formation. This paper examines the scale formation process on different materials which are commonly used in urinal manufacturing and exposed to different urine-based aqua cultures. This study shows that urine scale formation is the greatest for carbon steel material, and the least for PVC. Additionally, material exposure to the urine-rainwater mixture resulted in the smallest amount of scale formation. Based on these results, two new methods for improving sanitation practices are proposed: (1) using PVC as production material for urinals and pipelines; and (2) using rainwater for flushing systems.

  16. Performance of Copan WASP for Routine Urine Microbiology.

    PubMed

    Quiblier, Chantal; Jetter, Marion; Rominski, Mark; Mouttet, Forouhar; Böttger, Erik C; Keller, Peter M; Hombach, Michael

    2016-03-01

    This study compared a manual workup of urine clinical samples with fully automated WASPLab processing. As a first step, two different inocula (1 and 10 μl) and different streaking patterns were compared using WASP and InoqulA BT instrumentation. Significantly more single colonies were produced with the10-μl inoculum than with the 1-μl inoculum, and automated streaking yielded significantly more single colonies than manual streaking on whole plates (P < 0.001). In a second step, 379 clinical urine samples were evaluated using WASP and the manual workup. Average numbers of detected morphologies, recovered species, and CFUs per milliliter of all 379 urine samples showed excellent agreement between WASPLab and the manual workup. The percentage of urine samples clinically categorized as positive or negative did not differ between the automated and manual workflow, but within the positive samples, automated processing by WASPLab resulted in the detection of more potential pathogens. In summary, the present study demonstrates that (i) the streaking pattern, i.e., primarily the number of zigzags/length of streaking lines, is critical for optimizing the number of single colonies yielded from primary cultures of urine samples; (ii) automated streaking by the WASP instrument is superior to manual streaking regarding the number of single colonies yielded (for 32.2% of the samples); and (iii) automated streaking leads to higher numbers of detected morphologies (for 47.5% of the samples), species (for 17.4% of the samples), and pathogens (for 3.4% of the samples). The results of this study point to an improved quality of microbiological analyses and laboratory reports when using automated sample processing by WASP and WASPLab.

  17. What constitutes a normal ante-mortem urine GHB concentration?

    PubMed

    Mari, Francesco; Politi, Lucia; Trignano, Claudia; Di Milia, Maria Grazia; Di Padua, Marianna; Bertol, Elisabetta

    2009-04-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is endogenously produced within the central nervous system, however it is also used as a medication for the treatment of a variety of clinical conditions, sold under the name Zyrem in the United States and Alcover in Europe. It is a very dangerous drug with a very limited safety margin, and is classified as a controlled substance in many countries. The interpretation of post-mortem studies of GHB concentrations is problematic; GHB can be detected in urine and blood from non-GHB users, both before and after death, and concentrations in both matrices may rise with prolonged storage. Because it is produced as a post-mortem artifact, forensically defensible cut-offs for post-mortem blood concentrations have yet to be established. Given the enormous degree of inter and intra-individual variation in GHB production that has been documented, it is unlikely they ever will. The important issue for forensic scientists is whether the detection of GHB in urine, in concentrations above some yet to be determined value, can be used as evidence for drug facilitated assault. In an attempt to see if a cut-off level could be determined we analyzed urine from 39 alcoholics who were being treated with known oral doses of Alcover (group 1), and compared the results with concentrations found in the urine of 30 volunteers who had no exogenous GHB intake (group 2), and 30 urine specimens taken from the alcoholics before they initiated GHB therapy (Alcover treatment group 3). More than one third (36.6%) of subjects being treated with GHB were found to have urinary GHB concentration that fell between 2.75 and 10 microg/mL. The data suggests that caution must be used when applying the currently used cut-off of 10 microg/mL.

  18. Validation of an ELISA Synthetic Cannabinoids Urine Assay

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Allan J.; Spinelli, Eliani; Young, Sheena; Martin, Thomas M.; Klette, Kevin L.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Synthetic cannabinoids are touted as legal alternatives to cannabis, at least when first released, and routine urine cannabinoid screening methods do not detect these novel psychoactive substances. Synthetic cannabinoids are widely available, are a major public health and safety problem, and a difficult challenge for drug testing laboratories. We evaluated performance of the NMS JWH-018 direct ELISA kit to sensitively, selectively, and rapidly screen urinary synthetic cannabinoids. Materials/ Methods The NMS ELISA kit targeting the JWH-018 N-(5-hydroxypentyl) metabolite was utilized to screen 2492 urine samples with 5 and 10µg/L cutoffs. A fully validated LC-MS/MS method for 29 synthetic cannabinoids markers confirmed all presumptive positive and negative results. Performance challenges at ±25 and ±50% of cutoffs determined intra- and inter-plate imprecision around proposed cutoffs. Result The immunoassay was linear from 1–500µg/L with intra- and inter-plate imprecision of ≤8.2% and <14.0%, respectively. No interferences were present from 93 common drugs of abuse, metabolites, co-administered drugs, over-the-counter medications or structurally similar compounds, and 19 of 73 individual, synthetic cannabinoids (26%) exhibited moderate to high cross-reactivity to JWH-018 N-(5-hydroxypentyl) metabolite. Sensitivity, specificity, and efficiency results were 83.7%, 99.4% and 97.6% and 71.6%, 99.7% and 96.4%, with the 5 and 10µg/L urine cutoffs, respectively. Conclusion This high throughput immunoassay exhibited good diagnostic efficiency and documented that the NMS JWH-018 direct ELISA is a viable method for screening synthetic cannabinoids in urine targeting the JWH-018 N-(5-hydroxypentyl) and related analytes. Optimal performance was achieved with a matrix-matched 5µg/L urine cutoff. PMID:25706046

  19. Analysis of urine for pure beta emitters: methods and application.

    PubMed

    Hou, Xiaolin

    2011-08-01

    Bioassay for individual radionuclides is an essential and first step in estimation of radiation risk to nuclear facilities workers and people who are exposed to the contaminated environment in the event of a nuclear accident or radiological attack. Urine is a frequently used biological sample for this purpose. Tritium and (14)C are important radionuclides for workers in nuclear reactors and radiopharmaceutical laboratories. A method for the determination of tritium and (14)C in organic and inorganic forms in urine has been developed. It involves activated charcoal absorption of organic matter followed by combustion to separate tritiated water from organically-bound tritium. Inorganic (14)C from organically-bound (14)C, the separated tritium and (14)C were measured using liquid scintillation counting. Iodine-129, a long-lived beta emitter, is normally released to the atmosphere during the operation of nuclear facilities, especially in reprocessing plants. The high concentration of iodine in the thyroid makes this radionuclide an important source of exposure to exposed populations. A simple method has been developed in this work for the determination of (129)I in urine by anion exchange preconcentration, extraction purification and liquid scintillation counting. Using accelerator mass spectrometry, urine samples can be analyzed for low level (129)I in both organic and inorganic forms after active charcoal adsorption and solvent extraction separation. Condensed water collected daily from the reactor hall in a Danish research reactor and monthly urine samples from the staff working in the reactor building were collected from 2003-2010 and analyzed using this method, and the results are presented and discussed.

  20. No evidence of rat hepatitis E virus excretion into urine of rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Tian-Cheng; Yoshizaki, Sayaka; Ami, Yasushi; Suzaki, Yuriko; Johne, Reimar; Wakita, Takaji

    2016-08-31

    To investigate whether rat hepatitis E virus (rat HEV) is excreted into the urine of rats, we infected three Wistar and six nude rats with rat HEV and examined the rat HEV RNA in serum, fecal and urine samples. We detected rat HEV RNA in the serum and fecal samples of all rats but not in the urine. Our results suggest that in rats, rat HEV is not transmitted via urine.

  1. Nitrous Oxide Fluxes, Soil Oxygen, and Dentrification Potential from Urine and Non-urine Treated Soil Under Different Irrigation Frequencies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite increased use of irrigation to improve forage quality and quantity for grazing cattle (Bos taurus), few studies have assessed how irrigation practices influence nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from urine-impacted soils. In particular, irrigation effects on soil oxygen (O2) availability, one of...

  2. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION OF URINE SAMPLES (SOP-2.14)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This SOP describes the method for collecting urine samples from the study participants (children and their primary caregivers). Urine samples will be approximate 48-hr collections, collected as spot urine samples accumulated over the 48-hr sampling period. If the household or da...

  3. Filter paper saturated by urine sample in metabolic disorders detection by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Blasco, Hélène; Garrigue, Marie-Ange; De Vos, Aymeric; Antar, Catherine; Labarthe, François; Maillot, François; Andres, Christian R; Nadal-Desbarats, Lydie

    2010-02-01

    NMR spectroscopy of urine samples is able to diagnose many inborn errors of metabolism (IEM). However, urinary metabolites have a poor stability, requiring special care for routine analysis (storage of urine at -20 or -80 degrees C, fast transport). The aim of our study was to investigate the reliability of dried urine filter paper for urine storage and transport and to evaluate the ability of NMR to detect several IEM using this method. Urine samples from five healthy subjects were analyzed by (1)H NMR following different storage conditions (-20 vs 4 degrees C vs dried on filter paper) and at different time points (24 h, 48 h, 96 h, and 7 days). Urine pattern of fresh urine was considered as a reference. We analyzed the conservation of some amino acids and organic acids using Bland and Altman plot with intraclass correlation coefficient determination. Then, we evaluated the use of filter paper to detect four different IEM (methylmalonic and isovaleric acidurias, ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency, and cystinuria). Analysis of urine samples from healthy subjects revealed a high stability of studied molecules (ICC > 0.8) even after 7 days of storage on filter paper. Moreover, an excellent preservation of metabolites specifically accumulated in IEM was observed when analysis of dried urine filter paper was compared to fresh urine (coefficient of variation < 15%). This preliminary study demonstrates that storage of dried urine on filter paper is reliable for (1)H NMR spectroscopy analysis. Preservation of urine molecules over time using that method is convenient for routine clinical practice.

  4. Lack of clinical utility of urine gram stain for suspected urinary tract infection in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Cantey, Joseph B; Gaviria-Agudelo, Claudia; McElvania TeKippe, Erin; Doern, Christopher D

    2015-04-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common infections in children. Urine culture remains the gold standard for diagnosis, but the utility of urine Gram stain relative to urinalysis (UA) is unclear. We reviewed 312 pediatric patients with suspected UTI who had urine culture, UA, and urine Gram stain performed from a single urine specimen. UA was considered positive if ≥10 leukocytes per oil immersion field were seen or if either nitrates or leukocyte esterase testing was positive. Urine Gram stain was considered positive if any organisms were seen. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were calculated using urine culture as the gold standard. Thirty-seven (12%) patients had a culture-proven UTI. Compared to urine Gram stain, UA had equal sensitivity (97.3% versus 97.5%) and higher specificity (85% versus 74%). Empirical therapy was prescribed before the Gram stain result was known in 40 (49%) patients and after in 42 (51%) patients. The antibiotics chosen did not differ between the two groups (P=0.81), nor did they differ for patients with Gram-negative rods on urine Gram stain compared to those with Gram-positive cocci (P=0.67). From these data, we conclude that UA has excellent negative predictive value that is not enhanced by urine Gram stain and that antibiotic selection did not vary based on the urine Gram stain result. In conclusion, the clinical utility of urine Gram stain does not warrant the time or cost it requires.

  5. 49 CFR 40.31 - Who may collect urine specimens for DOT drug testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Who may collect urine specimens for DOT drug... TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Urine Collection Personnel § 40.31 Who may collect urine specimens for DOT drug testing? (a) Collectors meeting the requirements of this subpart are...

  6. 49 CFR 40.49 - What materials are used to collect urine specimens?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What materials are used to collect urine specimens? 40.49 Section 40.49 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR... in DOT Urine Collections § 40.49 What materials are used to collect urine specimens? For each...

  7. 49 CFR 40.49 - What materials are used to collect urine specimens?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What materials are used to collect urine specimens? 40.49 Section 40.49 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR... in DOT Urine Collections § 40.49 What materials are used to collect urine specimens? For each...

  8. 49 CFR 40.31 - Who may collect urine specimens for DOT drug testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Who may collect urine specimens for DOT drug... TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Urine Collection Personnel § 40.31 Who may collect urine specimens for DOT drug testing? (a) Collectors meeting the requirements of this subpart are...

  9. 49 CFR 40.51 - What materials are used to send urine specimens to the laboratory?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What materials are used to send urine specimens to the laboratory? 40.51 Section 40.51 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation... and Supplies Used in DOT Urine Collections § 40.51 What materials are used to send urine specimens...

  10. 49 CFR 40.49 - What materials are used to collect urine specimens?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What materials are used to collect urine specimens? 40.49 Section 40.49 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR... in DOT Urine Collections § 40.49 What materials are used to collect urine specimens? For each...

  11. 49 CFR 40.49 - What materials are used to collect urine specimens?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What materials are used to collect urine specimens? 40.49 Section 40.49 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR... in DOT Urine Collections § 40.49 What materials are used to collect urine specimens? For each...

  12. 49 CFR 40.51 - What materials are used to send urine specimens to the laboratory?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What materials are used to send urine specimens to the laboratory? 40.51 Section 40.51 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation... and Supplies Used in DOT Urine Collections § 40.51 What materials are used to send urine specimens...

  13. 21 CFR 876.1800 - Urine flow or volume measuring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Urine flow or volume measuring system. 876.1800... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1800 Urine flow or volume measuring system. (a) Identification. A urine flow or volume measuring system is a device...

  14. 21 CFR 876.1800 - Urine flow or volume measuring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Urine flow or volume measuring system. 876.1800... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1800 Urine flow or volume measuring system. (a) Identification. A urine flow or volume measuring system is a device...

  15. 49 CFR 40.51 - What materials are used to send urine specimens to the laboratory?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What materials are used to send urine specimens to the laboratory? 40.51 Section 40.51 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation... and Supplies Used in DOT Urine Collections § 40.51 What materials are used to send urine specimens...

  16. 49 CFR 40.51 - What materials are used to send urine specimens to the laboratory?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What materials are used to send urine specimens to the laboratory? 40.51 Section 40.51 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation... and Supplies Used in DOT Urine Collections § 40.51 What materials are used to send urine specimens...

  17. 49 CFR 40.31 - Who may collect urine specimens for DOT drug testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Who may collect urine specimens for DOT drug... TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Urine Collection Personnel § 40.31 Who may collect urine specimens for DOT drug testing? (a) Collectors meeting the requirements of this subpart are...

  18. 49 CFR 40.31 - Who may collect urine specimens for DOT drug testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Who may collect urine specimens for DOT drug... TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Urine Collection Personnel § 40.31 Who may collect urine specimens for DOT drug testing? (a) Collectors meeting the requirements of this subpart are...

  19. 21 CFR 876.1800 - Urine flow or volume measuring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Urine flow or volume measuring system. 876.1800... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1800 Urine flow or volume measuring system. (a) Identification. A urine flow or volume measuring system is a device...

  20. 49 CFR 40.31 - Who may collect urine specimens for DOT drug testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Who may collect urine specimens for DOT drug... TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Urine Collection Personnel § 40.31 Who may collect urine specimens for DOT drug testing? (a) Collectors meeting the requirements of this subpart are...

  1. 49 CFR 40.51 - What materials are used to send urine specimens to the laboratory?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What materials are used to send urine specimens to the laboratory? 40.51 Section 40.51 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation... and Supplies Used in DOT Urine Collections § 40.51 What materials are used to send urine specimens...

  2. 21 CFR 876.1800 - Urine flow or volume measuring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Urine flow or volume measuring system. 876.1800... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1800 Urine flow or volume measuring system. (a) Identification. A urine flow or volume measuring system is a device...

  3. 49 CFR 40.49 - What materials are used to collect urine specimens?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What materials are used to collect urine specimens? 40.49 Section 40.49 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR... in DOT Urine Collections § 40.49 What materials are used to collect urine specimens? For each...

  4. Identification of phenothiazine antihistamines and their metabolites in urine.

    PubMed

    Maurer, H; Pfleger, K

    1988-01-01

    Identification of the phenothiazine antihistamines alimemazine, dimetotiazine, isothipendyl, mequitazine, oxomemazine, promethazine, thiethylperazine, triflupromazine and their metabolites in urine is described. After acid hydrolysis of the conjugates, extraction and acetylation the urine samples were analysed by computerized gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Using ion chromatography with the selective ions m/z 58, 72, 100, 114, 124, 128, 141, and 199 the possible presence of phenothiazine antihistamines and/or their metabolites was indicated. The identity of positive signals in the reconstructed ion chromatograms was confirmed by a visual or computerized comparison of the stored full mass spectra with the reference spectra. The ion chromatograms, reference mass spectra and gas chromatographic retention indices (OV-101) are documented. The procedure presented is integrated in a general screening procedure (general unknown analysis) for several groups of drugs.

  5. Quinine directly determined in serum or urine by separation fluoroimmunoassay.

    PubMed

    Sidki, A M; Al-Abdulla, I H; Rowell, F J

    1987-04-01

    We developed and validated a magnetizable solid-phase fluoroimmunoassay for directly determining quinine in serum or urine. We prepared the immunogen by coupling quinine hemisuccinate to keyhole-limpet hemocyanine, using this to immunize three sheep, and coupling the antisera to magnetizable solid-phase particles to facilitate separation of bound antigen from interfering components of serum or urine. We tested the stability of two fluorescein-labeled derivatives of quinine--one prepared by direct conjugation of quinine to dichlorotriazenyl aminofluorescein, the other by conjugating quinine hemisuccinate to fluorescein thiocarbamyl ethylenediamine. The latter was unstable. Using the former label and an 30-min incubation, we saw no interference by quinidine (an enantiomer of quinine) or other antimalarial drugs at their therapeutic concentrations.

  6. The hydrogen sulfide metabolite trimethylsulfonium is found in human urine

    PubMed Central

    Lajin, Bassam; Francesconi, Kevin A.

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide is the third and most recently discovered gaseous signaling molecule following nitric oxide and carbon monoxide, playing important roles both in normal physiological conditions and disease progression. The trimethylsulfonium ion (TMS) can result from successive methylation reactions of hydrogen sulfide. No report exists so far about the presence or quantities of TMS in human urine. We developed a method for determining TMS in urine using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-QQQ), and applied the method to establish the urinary levels of TMS in a group of human volunteers. The measured urinary levels of TMS were in the nanomolar range, which is commensurate with the steady-state tissue concentrations of hydrogen sulfide previously reported in the literature. The developed method can be used in future studies for the quantification of urinary TMS as a potential biomarker for hydrogen sulfide body pools. PMID:27247020

  7. Detection of a reactive metabolite of misonidazole in human urine

    SciTech Connect

    Varghese, A.J.; Whitmore, G.F.

    1984-08-01

    Chemical studies have indicated that, following reduction of misonidazole to the hydroxylamine derivative, reaction with guanosine leads to the formation of a 2-carbon addition product of guanosine. In this study, the formation of the guanosine product is used to detect the presence of a reactive metabolite of misonidazole in the urine of patients treated with misonidazole. Urine samples were incubated with (/sup 14/C)guanosine and the guanosine product was separated by HPLC analysis. The quantities of product vary as much as 10-fold from patient to patient and it is suggested that the assay be useful as a predictor of patients susceptible to the development of peripheral neuropathy or other effects of misonidazole.

  8. Partial characterization of endogenous digoxinlike substance in human urine

    SciTech Connect

    Vinge, E.; Ekman, R.

    1988-01-01

    Urinary samples were collected from individuals not taking cardiac glycosides. Aliquots of 30 ml were passed through preparative octadecylsilane-bonded phase columns and eluted in fractions by stepwise increasing concentrations of acetonitrile. Eluted fractions were analysed for their contents of endogenous digoxinlike substance (EDLS) by radioimmunoassay of digoxin and by a bioassay of cardiac glycosides, which measures the uptake of rubidium (/sup 86/Rb) by erythrocytes as an index of Na+, K+-ATPase activity. In both assays, digoxinlike activity was found in several fractions, but the highest values were consistently measured in the fractions eluted with 40% acetonitrile. Greater amounts of EDLS were recovered from the urine of pregnant women than from the urine of men and nonpregnant women.

  9. Zinc in hair and urine of paediatric patients.

    PubMed

    van Wouwe, J P; de Wolff, F A; van Gelderen, H H

    1986-02-28

    Zinc concentrations in hair and urine were measured in groups of children varying in one condition - short stature, or after prolonged upper respiratory infection, or during non-infectious diarrhea, or while on chemotherapy for acute lymphatic leukaemia and in healthy controls. As compared with controls, hair zinc was significantly low after respiratory infection (p less than 0.0001) and high in short stature (p less than 0.01). Urinary zinc was increased during initial chemotherapy (p less than 0.001) and diarrhea (p less than 0.02). It is shown that zinc deficiency occurs in one of the common symptoms in paediatric medicine, namely upper respiratory tract infection. The high overlap (34-88%) proves hair and urine zinc to be of no use for reliable individual diagnostic statements.

  10. Homocysteine level in urine of autistic and healthy children.

    PubMed

    Kałużna-Czaplińska, Joanna; Michalska, Monika; Rynkowski, Jacek

    2011-01-01

    Homocysteine is an amino acid which plays several important roles in human physiology and is an important biomarker for possible deficiencies of various vitamins (vitamin B₆ and B₁₂, folic acid). In this work GC-MS method was used to determine the levels of homocysteine in the urine of autistic and healthy children. The levels of homocysteine in urine samples from 34 autistic and 21 healthy children were 2.36 ± 1.24 and 0.76 ± 0.31 (mmol∙mol⁻¹ creatinine), respectively. The higher level of homocysteine in autistic children may indicate deficiencies of folic acid and vitamins B₆ and B₁₂ in nutrition of these children. The results of this work were taken into consideration in the nutrition of autistic children treated in the Navicula Centre of Diagnosis and Therapy of Autism in Łódź (Poland).

  11. Serum and urine biomarkers for human renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Pastore, A L; Palleschi, G; Silvestri, L; Moschese, D; Ricci, S; Petrozza, V; Carbone, A; Di Carlo, A

    2015-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) diagnosis is mostly achieved incidentally by imaging provided for unrelated clinical reasons. The surgical management of localized tumors has reported excellent results. The therapy of advanced RCC has evolved considerably over recent years with the widespread use of the so-called "targeted therapies." The identification of molecular markers in body fluids (e.g., sera and urine), which can be used for screening, diagnosis, follow-up, and monitoring of drug-based therapy in RCC patients, is one of the most ambitious challenges in oncologic research. Although there are some promising reports about potential biomarkers in sera, there is limited available data regarding urine markers for RCC. The following review reports some of the most promising biomarkers identified in the biological fluids of RCC patients.

  12. Crystallization processes derived from the interaction of urine and dolostone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cámara, Beatriz; Alvarez de Buergo, Monica; Fort, Rafael

    2015-04-01

    The increase in the number of pets (mostly dogs), homeless people and the more recent open-air drinking sessions organized by young people in historical centers of European cities, derive on the augmentation of urinations on stone façades of the built cultural heritage. Up to now this process has been considered only under an undesirable aesthetical point of view and the insalubrious conditions it creates, together with the cleaning costs that the local governments have to assume. This study aims to confirm urine as a real source of soluble salts that can trigger the decay of building materials, especially of those of built cultural heritage of the historical centers of the cities, which are suffering the new social scenario described above. For this purpose, an experimental setup was designed and performed in the laboratory to simulate this process. 5 cm side cubic specimens of dolostone were subjected to 100 testing cycles of urine absorption by capillarity. The necessary amount of urine was collected by donors and stored following clinical protocol conditions. Each cycle consisted of imbibitions of the specimens in 3 mm high urine sheet for 3 hours, drying at 40°C in an oven for 20 hours and 1 hour cooling in a dessicator. At the end of the 100 cycles, small pieces of the specimens were cut, observed and analyzed with the aid of an environmental scanning electron microscope, which presents the advantage of no sample preparation. The sampled pieces were selected considering there were different sections in height in the specimens: a) a bottom section that corresponds to the section that has been immersed in the urine solution (3 mm); b) an interface section, immediately above the immersed area, which is the area most affected by the urine capillarity process, characterized by a strong yellowish color; c) the section that we have named as section of influence, which is subjected to the capillary absorption, although not so strongly than the interface section

  13. Liver cancer diagnosis by fluorescence spectra of blood and urine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AlSalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Al Mehmadi, Abdulaziz Mayuof; Abdoo, Aiman; Masilamani, Vadivel

    2012-03-01

    Liver cancer or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a serious malady with only 10% survival rate. HCC incidence and mortality both are highest in China. This disease is detected and diagnosed by ultra sound, CT or MRI scans which are quite expensive. Also the discrimination between cirrhosis and HCC are poor by this imaging technique. The conventional tissue biopsy is quite invasive and painful. In this context, in the new diagnostic procedure presented in this paper, all the three liver malfunctions, particularly liver cancer, could be detected and discriminated by the spectral feature of blood and urine with accuracy about 80%. All that we need are 5 ml of blood and 5 ml of urine. Hence this inexpensive non invasive, optical technique will have significant impact in screening, diagnosis and also prognosis of HCC in large segment of people in the populous Asian countries.

  14. Liver cancer diagnosis by fluorescence spectra of blood and urine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AlSalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Al Mehmadi, Abdulaziz Mayuof; Abdoo, Aiman; Masilamani, Vadivel

    2011-11-01

    Liver cancer or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a serious malady with only 10% survival rate. HCC incidence and mortality both are highest in China. This disease is detected and diagnosed by ultra sound, CT or MRI scans which are quite expensive. Also the discrimination between cirrhosis and HCC are poor by this imaging technique. The conventional tissue biopsy is quite invasive and painful. In this context, in the new diagnostic procedure presented in this paper, all the three liver malfunctions, particularly liver cancer, could be detected and discriminated by the spectral feature of blood and urine with accuracy about 80%. All that we need are 5 ml of blood and 5 ml of urine. Hence this inexpensive non invasive, optical technique will have significant impact in screening, diagnosis and also prognosis of HCC in large segment of people in the populous Asian countries.

  15. Intercomparison of analytical methods for arsenic speciation in human urine.

    PubMed Central

    Crecelius, E; Yager, J

    1997-01-01

    An intercomparison exercise was conducted for the quantification of arsenic species in spiked human urine. The primary objective of the exercise was to determine the variance among laboratories in the analysis of arsenic species such as inorganic As (As+3 and As+5), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA). Laboratories that participated had previous experience with arsenic speciation analysis. The results of this interlaboratory comparison are encouraging. There is relatively good agreement on the concentrations of these arsenic species in urine at concentrations that are relevant to research on the metabolism of arsenic in humans and other mammals. Both the accuracy and precision are relatively poor for arsenic concentrations of less than about 5 micrograms/l. PMID:9288500

  16. Metformin improves urine concentration in rodents with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus

    PubMed Central

    Efe, Orhan; Klein, Janet D.; LaRocque, Lauren M.; Ren, Huiwen; Sands, Jeff M.

    2016-01-01

    Urine concentration is regulated by vasopressin. Congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is caused by vasopressin type 2 receptor (V2R) mutations. We studied whether metformin could improve urine concentration in rodent models of congenital NDI by stimulating AMPK. To block the V2R in rats, tolvaptan (10 mg/kg/d) was given by oral gavage with or without metformin (800 mg/kg/d). Control rats received vehicle with or without metformin. Tamoxifen-induced V2R KO mice were given metformin (600 mg/kg) or vehicle twice daily. Urine osmolality in tolvaptan-treated rats (1,303 ± 126 mOsM) was restored to control levels by metformin (2,335 ± 273 mOsM) within 3 days and was sustained for up to 10 days. Metformin increased protein abundance of inner medullary urea transporter UT-A1 by 61% and aquaporin 2 (AQP2) by 44% in tolvaptan-treated rats, and immunohistochemistry showed increased membrane accumulation of AQP2 with acute and chronic AMPK stimulation. Outer medullary Na+-K+-2Cl– cotransporter 2 (NKCC2) abundance increased (117%) with AMPK stimulation in control rats but not in V2R-blocked rats. Metformin increased V2R KO mouse urine osmolality within 3 hours, and the increase persisted for up to 12 hours. Metformin increased AQP2 in the V2R KO mice similar to the tolvaptan-treated rats. These results indicate that AMPK activators, such as metformin, might provide a promising treatment for congenital NDI. PMID:27478876

  17. Bisphenol A concentrations in maternal breast milk and infant urine

    PubMed Central

    Mendonca, K.; Hauser, R.; Calafat, A.M.; Arbuckle, T.E.; Duty, S.M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The present report describes the distribution of breast milk and urinary free and total bisphenol A (BPA) concentrations, from 27 post-partum women and their 31 infants, and explores the influence of age, sex, and nutritional source on infant BPA urinary concentration. Methods Both free (unconjugated) and total (free plus conjugated) BPA concentrations from women’s breast milk samples and infants’ urine samples were measured by online solid-phase extraction coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography–isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry. Descriptive statistics and non-parametric tests of group comparisons were conducted. Results Total BPA was detected in 93% of urine samples in this healthy infant population aged 3–15 months who were without known environmental exposure to BPA (interquartile range [IQR]=1.2 – 4.4 μg/L). Similarly, 75% of the mothers’ breast milk samples had detectable concentrations of total BPA (IQR=0.4 – 1.4 μg/L). The magnitude and frequency of detection of free BPA in the children’s urine and the mothers’ breast milk were much lower than the total concentrations. Conclusions Total BPA was detected in 93% of this healthy infant population aged 3–15 months who are without known environmental exposure to BPA. Neither free nor total BPA urinary concentrations differed significantly by infant’s sex or by nutritional source (breast milk and/or formula) while age group was of borderline significance. There were no significant correlations between free or total BPA concentrations in mothers’ breast milk and their infants’ urine. PMID:23212895

  18. Dietary Ammonium Chloride for the Acidification of Mouse Urine

    PubMed Central

    Reisinger, Amy J; Tannehill-Gregg, Sarah H; Waites, C Robbie; Dominick, Mark A; Schilling, Beth E; Jackson, Todd A

    2009-01-01

    A novel therapeutic compound was found to induce bladder tumors in male rats. Given the location of the tumors and the increased amounts of calcium- and magnesium-containing solids found in the urine of treated animals, we hypothesized that tumorigenesis was secondary to urine crystal formation rather than a direct effect of the drug on urothelium. To investigate the basis for the response, a method of acidifying rodent urine was needed. This study tested the efficacy of 1% dietary NH4Cl in reducing the urinary pH of male mice. After 1 wk, urinary pH (mean ± SD) at 1 h after light onset was 7.51 ± 0.32 among controls compared with 6.21 ± 0.31 for the NH4Cl-fed group. After 2 wk of supplementation, urinary pH was 7.78 ± 0.41 for controls and 6.20 ± 0.30 for the NH4Cl-fed group. To investigate whether the time of collection altered urinary pH, samples also were collected 8 h after the start of the light cycle on the day of the 2-wk collection. Urinary pH was 7.12 ± 0.28 for the control group and 5.80 ± 0.23 for the NH4Cl-fed mice. The pH differences between control and NH4Cl-fed groups and the differences in pH within groups at 1 and 8 h were statistically significant. Dietary NH4Cl is an effective urinary acidifier for mice. When evaluating the pH of mouse urine, care should be taken to compare samples collected at the same time after the start of the light cycle. PMID:19383209

  19. Determination of actinides in urine and fecal samples

    SciTech Connect

    McKibbin, T.T.

    1992-12-31

    A method of determining the radioactivity of specific actinides that are carried in urine or fecal sample material is disclosed. The samples are ashed in a muffle furnace, dissolved in an acid, and then treated in a series of steps of reduction, oxidation, dissolution, and precipitation, including a unique step of passing a solution through a chloride form anion exchange resin for separation of uranium and plutonium from americium.

  20. Carcinoembryonic antigen in the urine of patients with urothelial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hall, R R; Laurence, D J; Darcy, D; Stevens, U; James, R; Roberts, S; Munro Neville, A

    1972-09-09

    Increased amounts of carcinoembryonic antigen (C.E.A.) or C.E.A.-like material are found in the urine of many patients with transitional cell carcinomas of the bladder, including those presumed to be at an early stage of development. It is suggested that measurement of urinary C.E.A. is of clinical diagnostic value in the detection and follow-up of urothelial carcinomas.

  1. Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Intranasal Scopolamine in Plasma Saliva and Urine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, L.; Chow, D. S. L.; Tam, V.; Putcha, L.

    2014-01-01

    An intranasal gel formulation of scopolamine (INSCOP) was developed for the treatment of Space Motion Sickness. The bioavailability and pharmacokinetics (PK) were evaluated under the Food and Drug Administration guidelines for clinical trials for an Investigative New Drug (IND). The aim of this project was to develop a PK model that can predict the relationship between plasma, saliva and urinary scopolamine concentrations using data collected from the IND clinical trial with INSCOP. METHODS: Twelve healthy human subjects were administered three dose levels (0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mg) of INSCOP. Serial blood, saliva and urine samples were collected between 5 min to 24 h after dosing and scopolamine concentrations measured by using a validated LC-MS-MS assay. Pharmacokinetic Compartmental models, using actual dosing and sampling times, were built using Phoenix (version 1.2). Model discrimination was performed, by minimizing the Akaike Information Criteria (AIC), maximizing the coefficient of determination (r²) and by comparison of the quality of fit plots. RESULTS: The best structural model to describe scopolamine disposition after INSCOP administration (minimal AIC =907.2) consisted of one compartment for plasma, saliva and urine respectively that were inter-connected with different rate constants. The estimated values of PK parameters were compiled in Table 1. The model fitting exercises revealed a nonlinear PK for scopolamine between plasma and saliva compartments for K21, Vmax and Km. CONCLUSION: PK model for INSCOP was developed and for the first time it satisfactorily predicted the PK of scopolamine in plasma, saliva and urine after INSCOP administration. Using non-linear PK yielded the best structural model to describe scopolamine disposition between plasma and saliva compartments, and inclusion of non-linear PK resulted in a significant improved model fitting. The model can be utilized to predict scopolamine plasma concentration using saliva and/or urine data that

  2. Determination of actinides in urine and fecal samples

    DOEpatents

    McKibbin, T.T.

    1993-03-02

    A method of determining the radioactivity of specific actinides that are carried in urine or fecal sample material is disclosed. The samples are ashed in a muffle furnace, dissolved in an acid, and then treated in a series of steps of reduction, oxidation, dissolution, and precipitation, including a unique step of passing a solution through a chloride form anion exchange resin for separation of uranium and plutonium from americium.

  3. Determination of actinides in urine and fecal samples

    DOEpatents

    McKibbin, Terry T.

    1993-01-01

    A method of determining the radioactivity of specific actinides that are carried in urine or fecal sample material is disclosed. The samples are ashed in a muffle furnace, dissolved in an acid, and then treated in a series of steps of reduction, oxidation, dissolution, and precipitation, including a unique step of passing a solution through a chloride form anion exchange resin for separation of uranium and plutonium from americium.

  4. RAPID SEPARATION METHOD FOR EMERGENCY WATER AND URINE SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S.; Culligan, B.

    2008-08-27

    The Savannah River Site Environmental Bioassay Lab participated in the 2008 NRIP Emergency Response program administered by the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) in May, 2008. A new rapid column separation method was used for analysis of actinides and {sup 90}Sr the NRIP 2008 emergency water and urine samples. Significant method improvements were applied to reduce analytical times. As a result, much faster analysis times were achieved, less than 3 hours for determination of {sup 90}Sr and 3-4 hours for actinides. This represents a 25%-33% improvement in analysis times from NRIP 2007 and a {approx}100% improvement compared to NRIP 2006 report times. Column flow rates were increased by a factor of two, with no significant adverse impact on the method performance. Larger sample aliquots, shorter count times, faster cerium fluoride microprecipitation and streamlined calcium phosphate precipitation were also employed. Based on initial feedback from NIST, the SRS Environmental Bioassay Lab had the most rapid analysis times for actinides and {sup 90}Sr analyses for NRIP 2008 emergency urine samples. High levels of potential matrix interferences may be present in emergency samples and rugged methods are essential. Extremely high levels of {sup 210}Po were found to have an adverse effect on the uranium results for the NRIP-08 urine samples, while uranium results for NRIP-08 water samples were not affected. This problem, which was not observed for NRIP-06 or NRIP-07 urine samples, was resolved by using an enhanced {sup 210}Po removal step, which will be described.

  5. Dietary, serum and urine ascorbic acid status in male athletes.

    PubMed

    Rokitzki, L; Hinkel, S; Klemp, C; Cufi, D; Keul, J

    1994-10-01

    The ascorbic acid (AA)-status of 14 marathon runners, 12 soccer players, 9 wrestlers, 9 basketball players and 16 controls was determined. A 7-day food weighed record was kept to quantify the AA-intake. In addition, the AA-serum concentrations and urinary ascorbate excretion were measured. The AA-intake of all 44 athletes (median, 26th-75th percentile) was 180.7 (188-239) mg/d, the serum concentration 70.6 (65.7-80.2 mumol/l) and the urine ascorbate excretion 1531 (391-2934) mumol/g creatine. No significant differences could be observed between the various sport groups, or between the sport groups and controls with respect to absolute (mg/d) and relative (mg/g body weight) AA-intake, serum and urine concentrations. Only a few of the athletes had AA-intake below the RDA or serum- or urine levels smaller than the decision limit. The absolute AA-intake (n = 44) from the 7-day record (r = 0.49, p < 0.0009) and the AA-intake on the last day (1-day) prior to urine collection (r = 0.90, p < 0.0000) correlate moderately/strongly with the urinary excretion. Between AA-intake (7-day) and serum concentration there is a correlation of r = 0.59, p < 0.0000. The AA-status of highly trained athletes does not differ significantly from the control group in spite of intensive daily training. Thus, AA-supplementation beyond the normal daily intake does not appear necessary.

  6. Aviator’s Urine Collection Devices: Preliminary Laboratory Trials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-01-09

    Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) adopted a UCD, the Disposable Absorption Containment Trunk (DACT), which is a diaper -like device for high...500 for each diaper that can be worn once, then discarded even ifnot used to collect urine.3 Under normal conditions, a woman has a certain bladder...regardless of bladder volume. Urge incontinence , the involuntary loss ofurine associated with a strong desire to void, may be related to both urinary

  7. Profiling of Urine Using ProteinChip Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    Lindner, S., Meyer, M., Asif, A.R., Oellerich, M., Strutz, F. (2007) Characterization of Diabetic Nephropathy by Urinary Proteomic Analysis...Identifi cation of a Processed Ubiquitin Form as a Differentially Excreted Protein in Diabetic Nephropathy Patients. Clin Chem. 53 : 1636–1645 . 2...Thadhani, R. (2007) Prediction of Diabetic Nephropathy Using Urine Proteomic Profi ling 10 Years Prior to Development of Nephropathy . Diabetes Care. 30

  8. Cerebral computed tomography in maple syrup urine disease.

    PubMed

    Romero, F J; Ibarra, B; Rovira, M; Natal, A; Herrera, M; Segarra, A

    1984-06-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inherited metabolic disorder due to decreased decarboxylation of branched chain keto acids triggering an accumulation of leucine, isoleucine, and valine. We describe two infants with biochemically confirmed MSUD in whom computed tomography (CT) revealed cerebral edema. In one of these cases repeat CT 40 days after institution of appropriate therapy revealed that the edema had disappeared and the ventricles had enlarged.

  9. The behaviour of pharmaceuticals and heavy metals during struvite precipitation in urine.

    PubMed

    Ronteltap, Mariska; Maurer, Max; Gujer, Willi

    2007-05-01

    Separating urine from wastewater at the source reduces the costs of extensive wastewater treatment. Recovering the nutrients from urine and reusing them for agricultural purposes adds resource saving to the benefits. Phosphate can be recovered in the form of struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate). In this paper, the behaviour of pharmaceuticals and heavy metals during the precipitation of struvite in urine is studied. When precipitating struvite in urine spiked with hormones and non-ionic, acidic and basic pharmaceuticals, the hormones and pharmaceuticals remain in solution for more than 98%. For heavy metals, initial experiments were performed to study metal solubility in urine. Solubility is shown to be affected by the chemical conditions of stored and therefore hydrolysed urine. Thermodynamic modelling reveals low or very low equilibrium solute concentrations for cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni) and lead (Pb). Experiments confirmed Cd, Cu and Pb carbonate and hydroxide precipitation upon metal addition in stored urine with a reaction half-life of ca. 7 days. For all metals considered, the maximum specific metal concentrations per gram phosphate or nitrogen showed to be typically several orders of magnitudes lower in urine than in commercially available fertilizers and manure. Heavy metals in struvite precipitated from normal stored urine could not be detected. Phosphate recovery from urine over struvite precipitation is shown to render a product free from most organic micropollutants and containing only a fraction of the already low amounts of heavy metals in urine.

  10. Human Elimination of Organochlorine Pesticides: Blood, Urine, and Sweat Study.

    PubMed

    Genuis, Stephen J; Lane, Kevin; Birkholz, Detlef

    2016-01-01

    Background. Many individuals have been exposed to organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs) through food, water, air, dermal exposure, and/or vertical transmission. Due to enterohepatic reabsorption and affinity to adipose tissue, OCPs are not efficiently eliminated from the human body and may accrue in tissues. Many epidemiological studies demonstrate significant exposure-disease relationships suggesting OCPs can alter metabolic function and potentially lead to illness. There is limited study of interventions to facilitate OCP elimination from the human body. This study explored the efficacy of induced perspiration as a means to eliminate OCPs. Methods. Blood, urine, and sweat (BUS) were collected from 20 individuals. Analysis of 23 OCPs was performed using dual-column gas chromatography with electron-capture detectors. Results. Various OCPs and metabolites, including DDT, DDE, methoxychlor, endrin, and endosulfan sulfate, were excreted into perspiration. Generally, sweat samples showed more frequent OCP detection than serum or urine analysis. Many OCPs were not readily detected in blood testing while still being excreted and identified in sweat. No direct correlation was found among OCP concentrations in the blood, urine, or sweat compartments. Conclusions. Sweat analysis may be useful in detecting some accrued OCPs not found in regular serum testing. Induced perspiration may be a viable clinical tool for eliminating some OCPs.

  11. Human Elimination of Organochlorine Pesticides: Blood, Urine, and Sweat Study

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Kevin; Birkholz, Detlef

    2016-01-01

    Background. Many individuals have been exposed to organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs) through food, water, air, dermal exposure, and/or vertical transmission. Due to enterohepatic reabsorption and affinity to adipose tissue, OCPs are not efficiently eliminated from the human body and may accrue in tissues. Many epidemiological studies demonstrate significant exposure-disease relationships suggesting OCPs can alter metabolic function and potentially lead to illness. There is limited study of interventions to facilitate OCP elimination from the human body. This study explored the efficacy of induced perspiration as a means to eliminate OCPs. Methods. Blood, urine, and sweat (BUS) were collected from 20 individuals. Analysis of 23 OCPs was performed using dual-column gas chromatography with electron-capture detectors. Results. Various OCPs and metabolites, including DDT, DDE, methoxychlor, endrin, and endosulfan sulfate, were excreted into perspiration. Generally, sweat samples showed more frequent OCP detection than serum or urine analysis. Many OCPs were not readily detected in blood testing while still being excreted and identified in sweat. No direct correlation was found among OCP concentrations in the blood, urine, or sweat compartments. Conclusions. Sweat analysis may be useful in detecting some accrued OCPs not found in regular serum testing. Induced perspiration may be a viable clinical tool for eliminating some OCPs. PMID:27800487

  12. Urine Pretreatment History and Perspective in NASA Human Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Molly; Adam, Niklas; Chambers, Antja; Broyan, James

    2015-01-01

    Urine pretreatment is a technology that may seem to have small mass impacts in future spaceflight missions, but can have significant impacts on reliability, life, and performance of the rest of the wastewater management and recovery systems. NASA has experience with several different urine pretreatment systems, including those flow on the space shuttle, evaluated for NASA waste collection systems or used in Russian commodes on ISS, or developed by NASA or industry as alternatives. Each has had unique requirements for shelf life, operational life, and the life or conditions of the stored, treated urine. Each was evaluated under different test conditions depending on mission, and depending on testing experience developed over NASA's history. Those that were flown led to further lessons learned about hardware compatibility and control. As NASA looks forward to human spaceflight missions beyond low Earth orbit, these techniques need to be evaluated in new light. Based on published design reference missions, candidate requirements can be derived for future systems. Initial comparisons between these requirements and previous performance or test results can be performed. In many cases these comparisons reveal data gaps. Successful previous performance is not enough to address current needs.

  13. Heteroatom-doped highly porous carbon from human urine

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhari, Nitin Kaduba; Song, Min Young; Yu, Jong-Sung

    2014-01-01

    Human urine, otherwise potentially polluting waste, is an universal unused resource in organic form disposed by the human body. We present for the first time “proof of concept” of a convenient, perhaps economically beneficial, and innovative template-free route to synthesize highly porous carbon containing heteroatoms such as N, S, Si, and P from human urine waste as a single precursor for carbon and multiple heteroatoms. High porosity is created through removal of inherently-present salt particles in as-prepared “Urine Carbon” (URC), and multiple heteroatoms are naturally doped into the carbon, making it unnecessary to employ troublesome expensive pore-generating templates as well as extra costly heteroatom-containing organic precursors. Additionally, isolation of rock salts is an extra bonus of present work. The technique is simple, but successful, offering naturally doped conductive hierarchical porous URC, which leads to superior electrocatalytic ORR activity comparable to state of the art Pt/C catalyst along with much improved durability and methanol tolerance, demonstrating that the URC can be a promising alternative to costly Pt-based electrocatalyst for ORR. The ORR activity can be addressed in terms of heteroatom doping, surface properties and electrical conductivity of the carbon framework. PMID:24909133

  14. Direct measurement of salicylphenolic glucuronide in human urine.

    PubMed

    Imhoff, D M; Reece, P A; Dimitriadis, E; Ward, A D; Bochner, F

    1986-01-01

    Indirect measurement of salicylphenolic glucuronide (SPG) has suggested that the formation of this metabolite from therapeutic doses of salicyclic acid (SA) is capacity-limited in humans. A direct high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) assay for SPG in human urine is described. SPG was prepared by a published method and purified by HPLC. On treatment with beta-glucuronidase, SPG yielded the expected amount of SA. Spectroscopic data, melting point, and optical rotation of the glucuronide and/or its triacetyl dimethyl ester derivative were consistent with the proposed structure. SPG was assayed using a 5-micron C18 column (temperature 55 degrees C) and fluorescence detection. A nonlinear gradient mobile phase at a flow rate of 2 ml/min was used, beginning with 100% 0.1 M pH 2.1 phosphate buffer and finishing with 84% buffer, 16% acetonitrile. Total run time was 25 min. Urine (10 microliter) was injected directly on the column, and quantitation was performed using urine standards. Within-run precision for SPG ranged from 1.2% at 150 mg/L to 2.4% at 5 mg/L. The limit of detection was less than 1 mg/L. A pilot study in two volunteers, each receiving a single 500-mg dose of sodium salicylate, was carried out to validate the usefulness of the assay.

  15. Fluid Structural Analysis of Urine Flow in a Stented Ureter

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Blanco, J. Carlos; Martínez-Reina, F. Javier; Cruz, Domingo; Pagador, J. Blas; Sánchez-Margallo, Francisco M.; Soria, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Many urologists are currently studying new designs of ureteral stents to improve the quality of their operations and the subsequent recovery of the patient. In order to help during this design process, many computational models have been developed to simulate the behaviour of different biological tissues and provide a realistic computational environment to evaluate the stents. However, due to the high complexity of the involved tissues, they usually introduce simplifications to make these models less computationally demanding. In this study, the interaction between urine flow and a double-J stented ureter with a simplified geometry has been analysed. The Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) of urine and the ureteral wall was studied using three models for the solid domain: Mooney-Rivlin, Yeoh, and Ogden. The ureter was assumed to be quasi-incompressible and isotropic. Data obtained in previous studies from ex vivo and in vivo mechanical characterization of different ureters were used to fit the mentioned models. The results show that the interaction between the stented ureter and urine is negligible. Therefore, we can conclude that this type of models does not need to include the FSI and could be solved quite accurately assuming that the ureter is a rigid body and, thus, using the more simple Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) approach. PMID:27127535

  16. Investigating consumer attitudes towards the new technology of urine separation.

    PubMed

    Pahl-Wostl, C; Schönborn, A; Willi, N; Muncke, J; Larsen, T A

    2003-01-01

    The technology of urine separation and the recycling of anthropogenic nutrients as fertilizer in agriculture are considered as major innovations to improve the sustainability of today's urban wastewater management. The acceptance of consumers will be key for the introduction of the new technology. Citizens will have to make important decisions in their role as tenants and owners of houses and as consumers buying products fertilized with urine. Consumer attitudes towards the new technology were explored in a number of citizen focus groups in Switzerland. Focus groups are deliberate, moderated group discussions with informed citizens on a certain topic. The information was provided by a computer based information system specifically designed for this purpose. The acceptance of individual citizens for the new technology proved to be quite high. The majority of the citizens expressed their willingness to move into an apartment with NoMix toilets and to buy food fertilized with urine. However, they were not willing to accept additional financial costs or efforts. Arguments related to long-term sustainability (closing nutrient cycles) were of less importance than arguments that relate directly to the effects of micropollutants on human and ecosystem health. For the introduction of the new technology on a wide scale it will thus be crucial to explore the fate and effects of micropollutants.

  17. RAPID ANALYSIS OF EMERGENCY URINE AND WATER SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S

    2007-02-26

    There is a need for fast, reliable methods for the determination of actinides and Sr-89/90 analysis on environmental and bioassay samples in response to an emergency radiological incident. The SRS (Savannah River Site) Environmental Bioassay Laboratory participated in the National Institute of Standards and Technology Radiochemistry Intercomparison Program (NRIP-06) and analyzed water and urine samples within 8 hours of receipt. The SRS Environmental Laboratory was the only lab that participated in the program that analyzed these samples for both actinides and Sr-89/90 within the requested 8 hour turnaround time. A new, rapid actinide and strontium 89/90 separation method was used for both urine and water samples. This method uses stacked TEVA Resin{reg_sign}, TRU Resin{reg_sign} and Sr-Resin{reg_sign} cartridges from Eichrom Technologies (Darien, IL, USA) that allows the rapid separation of plutonium (Pu), neptunium (Np), uranium (U), and americium (Am), curium (Cm) and thorium (Th) using a single multi-stage column combined with alpha spectrometry. By using vacuum box cartridge technology and stacked cartridges with rapid flow rates, sample preparation time was minimized. This paper discusses the technology and conditions employed for both water and urine samples and presents the SRS performance data on the NRIP-06 samples.

  18. Genotyping of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from cockroaches and human urine.

    PubMed

    Saitou, Keiko; Furuhata, Katsunori; Fukuyama, Masafumi

    2010-10-01

    Molecular-epidemiological analysis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from cockroaches captured in hospitals and from patient urine was performed, employing randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis to investigate the usefulness of RAPD analysis. Four specific bands at positions of 993, 875, 521, and 402 bp were commonly detected using primer 272 in 16 of 45 cockroach-derived strains (35.6%), but not in 21 urine-derived strains. On analysis using primer 208, 4 specific bands at positions of 1,235, 1,138, 1,068, and 303 bp were commonly detected in 15 of the 45 cockroach-derived (33.3%) and 10 of the 21 patient urine-derived (47.6%) strains, in a total of 25 of 66 strains (37.8%). On cluster analysis, 12 (48.5%) and 16 (66.7%) clusters were grouped based on a homology of 89% or greater, using primer 272 and primer 208, respectively, showing that primer 208 was suitable for the confirmation of diversity. Seven patterns were clustered based on 100% homology using either primer, and 6 of these consisted of only cockroach-derived strains. In the individual groups with 100% homology, all strains in the group were isolated at an identical site during the same period. P. aeruginosa isolated from cockroaches showed diverse genotypes suggesting several sources of contamination, indicating the necessity for investigating infection control targeting cockroaches inhabiting hospitals.

  19. Heteroatom-doped highly porous carbon from human urine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhari, Nitin Kaduba; Song, Min Young; Yu, Jong-Sung

    2014-06-01

    Human urine, otherwise potentially polluting waste, is an universal unused resource in organic form disposed by the human body. We present for the first time ``proof of concept'' of a convenient, perhaps economically beneficial, and innovative template-free route to synthesize highly porous carbon containing heteroatoms such as N, S, Si, and P from human urine waste as a single precursor for carbon and multiple heteroatoms. High porosity is created through removal of inherently-present salt particles in as-prepared ``Urine Carbon'' (URC), and multiple heteroatoms are naturally doped into the carbon, making it unnecessary to employ troublesome expensive pore-generating templates as well as extra costly heteroatom-containing organic precursors. Additionally, isolation of rock salts is an extra bonus of present work. The technique is simple, but successful, offering naturally doped conductive hierarchical porous URC, which leads to superior electrocatalytic ORR activity comparable to state of the art Pt/C catalyst along with much improved durability and methanol tolerance, demonstrating that the URC can be a promising alternative to costly Pt-based electrocatalyst for ORR. The ORR activity can be addressed in terms of heteroatom doping, surface properties and electrical conductivity of the carbon framework.

  20. Programmable probiotics for detection of cancer in urine.

    PubMed

    Danino, Tal; Prindle, Arthur; Kwong, Gabriel A; Skalak, Matthew; Li, Howard; Allen, Kaitlin; Hasty, Jeff; Bhatia, Sangeeta N

    2015-05-27

    Rapid advances in the forward engineering of genetic circuitry in living cells has positioned synthetic biology as a potential means to solve numerous biomedical problems, including disease diagnosis and therapy. One challenge in exploiting synthetic biology for translational applications is to engineer microbes that are well tolerated by patients and seamlessly integrate with existing clinical methods. We use the safe and widely used probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 to develop an orally administered diagnostic that can noninvasively indicate the presence of liver metastasis by producing easily detectable signals in urine. Our microbial diagnostic generated a high-contrast urine signal through selective expansion in liver metastases (10(6)-fold enrichment) and high expression of a lacZ reporter maintained by engineering a stable plasmid system. The lacZ reporter cleaves a substrate to produce a small molecule that can be detected in urine. E. coli Nissle 1917 robustly colonized tumor tissue in rodent models of liver metastasis after oral delivery but did not colonize healthy organs or fibrotic liver tissue. We saw no deleterious health effects on the mice for more than 12 months after oral delivery. Our results demonstrate that probiotics can be programmed to safely and selectively deliver synthetic gene circuits to diseased tissue microenvironments in vivo.

  1. Serial ricinine levels in serum and urine after ricin intoxication.

    PubMed

    Røen, Bent Tore; Opstad, Aase Mari; Haavind, Anniken; Tønsager, Janne

    2013-06-01

    Ricinine is an alkaloid present in the castor bean plant (Ricinus communis) that can be used as a biomarker for ricin poisoning. Serial ricinine levels are reported in the serum and urine of a patient suffering from intentional ricin intoxication. The patient was brought to the hospital 4 h after injection and oral intake of a castor bean extract, but died 38 h later, despite intensive medical care. Ricinine was isolated from the samples by solid-phase extraction and quantitatively determined by isotopic dilution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The ricinine level in serum declined from 33 to 23 ng/mL between 10 and 29 h post-exposure. Three urine samples collected from 12 to 41 h after ricin intoxication showed ricinine concentrations in the range of 20-58 ng/mL. The creatinine corrected values (21-30 µg/g) indicated a concentration-time profile with a maximum ricinine level in urine between 12 and 29 h after exposure.

  2. Kinetics of calcium oxalate crystal formation in urine.

    PubMed

    Laube, Norbert; Klein, Florian; Bernsmann, Falk

    2017-04-01

    It is routinely observed that persons with increased urinary stone risk factors do not necessarily form uroliths. Furthermore, stone formers can present with urinalyses that do not reflect the clinical picture. We explain this discrepancy by differences in crystallization kinetics. In 1162 urines, crystallization of Ca-oxalate was induced according to the BONN-Risk-Index (BRI) method. The urine's relative light transmissivity (RLT) was recorded from 100 % at start of titration to 95 % due to nuclei formation and crystal growth. From the RLT changes, a measure of the thermodynamic inhibition threshold of crystal formation (BRI) and of crystal growth kinetics is derived ("turbidity slope" after crystallization onset). On average, subjects presenting with a low inhibition threshold, i.e., high BRI, also present significantly higher crystal growth rates compared with subjects in lower BRI classes. Only subjects in the highest BRI class show a lower growth rate than expected, probably due to a depletion of supersaturation by massive initial nucleation. With increasing thermodynamic risk of crystal formation (i.e., increasing BRI) due to an imbalance between inhibitors and promoters of crystal formation, an increase in the imbalance between inhibitors and promoters of crystal growth (i.e., increasing growth rate) is observed. Both lead to an increased urolith formation risk. Healthy subjects with increased BRI are an exception to this trend: their urine is thermodynamically prone to form stones, but they show a kinetic inhibition preventing nuclei from significant growth.

  3. Heteroatom-doped highly porous carbon from human urine.

    PubMed

    Chaudhari, Nitin Kaduba; Song, Min Young; Yu, Jong-Sung

    2014-06-09

    Human urine, otherwise potentially polluting waste, is an universal unused resource in organic form disposed by the human body. We present for the first time "proof of concept" of a convenient, perhaps economically beneficial, and innovative template-free route to synthesize highly porous carbon containing heteroatoms such as N, S, Si, and P from human urine waste as a single precursor for carbon and multiple heteroatoms. High porosity is created through removal of inherently-present salt particles in as-prepared "Urine Carbon" (URC), and multiple heteroatoms are naturally doped into the carbon, making it unnecessary to employ troublesome expensive pore-generating templates as well as extra costly heteroatom-containing organic precursors. Additionally, isolation of rock salts is an extra bonus of present work. The technique is simple, but successful, offering naturally doped conductive hierarchical porous URC, which leads to superior electrocatalytic ORR activity comparable to state of the art Pt/C catalyst along with much improved durability and methanol tolerance, demonstrating that the URC can be a promising alternative to costly Pt-based electrocatalyst for ORR. The ORR activity can be addressed in terms of heteroatom doping, surface properties and electrical conductivity of the carbon framework.

  4. Urine concentration and dilution in hypokalemic and hypercalcemic dogs

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Cleaves M.

    1970-01-01

    The urine-concentrating mechanism was studied in chronic hypokalemia (seven dogs given a low K+, high NaCl diet plus injections of deoxycorticosterone acetate [DOCA]) and chronic hypercalcemia (seven dogs given vitamin D). In the potassium-depleted dogs, muscle, serum, and urine K+ fell markedly, but glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and body weight varied little. Maximum urine osmolality fell in all dogs (mean decrease = 45%); however, solute-free water reabsorption (TCH2O) at high rates of solute excretion remained normal in three of four dogs. Free water excretion (CH2O) increased normally or supranormally as a function of increasing Na+ delivery to Henle's loop in six dogs so tested. Hypercalcemia of several weeks duration caused a decrease in both GFR (mean 36%) as well as in maximum urine osmolality (mean 57%). Maximum TCH2O was not invariably depressed; in fact, when the values were adjusted for the reduced number of functioning nephrons (TCH2O/CIn), four of seven studies were normal. CH20/CIn increased normally (or supranormally) with increasing fractional Na delivery to Henle's loop in four of five dogs. I conclude that the lowered maximum urine osmolality in these hypokalemic and hypercalcemic dogs was not related to abnormal water reabsorption from the collecting ducts. Although not specifically measured in this study, it is very likely that solute accumulation in the renal medulla was reduced. This probably was not caused by abnormal delivery of sodium to, nor reabsorption of sodium from Henle's loop. It is likely that a more subtle defect exists in the countercurrent mechanisms for establishing a steep concentration gradient in the renal medulla. In the few hypercalcemic dogs in whom GFR was very low, I believe that injury to, and blockage of medullary tubules could account for most of the reduction in maximum UOsm. Although not specifically ruled out, there is no evidence here to suggest that high serum Ca+ or low serum K+ per se causes a defect in

  5. Validity of bag urine culture for predicting urinary tract infections in febrile infants: a paired comparison of urine collection methods

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Geun-A

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Catheter urine (CATH-U) and suprapubic aspiration (SPA) are reliable urine collection methods for confirming urinary tract infections (UTI) in infants. However, noninvasive and easily accessible collecting bag urine (CBU) is widely used, despite its high contamination rate. This study investigated the validity of CBU cultures for diagnosing UTIs, using CATH-U culture results as the gold standard. Methods We retrospectively analyzed 210 infants, 2- to 24-month-old, who presented to a tertiary care hospital's pediatrics department between September 2008 and August 2013. We reviewed the results of CBU and CATH-U cultures from the same infants. Results CBU results, relative to CATH-U culture results (≥104 colony-forming units [CFU]/mL) were widely variable, ranging from no growth to ≥105 CFU/mL. A CBU cutoff value of ≥105 CFU/mL resulted in false-positive and false-negative rates of 18% and 24%, respectively. The probability of a UTI increased when the CBU bacterial count was ≥105/mL for all infants, both uncircumcised male infants and female infants (likelihood ratios [LRs], 4.16, 4.11, and 4.11, respectively). UTIs could not be excluded for female infants with a CBU bacterial density of 104-105 (LR, 1.40). The LRs for predicting UTIs based on a positive dipstick test and a positive urinalysis were 4.19 and 3.11, respectively. Conclusion The validity of obtaining urine sample from a sterile bag remains questionable. Inconclusive culture results from CBU should be confirmed with a more reliable method. PMID:26124849

  6. High bacterial titers in urine are predictive of abnormal postvoid residual urine in patients with urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Caron, F; Alexandre, K; Pestel-Caron, M; Chassagne, P; Grise, P; Etienne, M

    2015-09-01

    Urine bacterial titers (BTs) are influenced by bacterial and host factors. The impact of an abnormal postvoid residual (PVR) on BT in urine was investigated. A total of 103 inpatients with a urine growing Enterobacteriacae (≥ 10(2) CFU/mL) and a PVR measure were analyzed, mostly female (62%), elderly (mean age: 72 years), with urinary tract infection (25% of asymptomatic bacteriuria) due to Escherichia coli (85%). Fifty-two subjects (56%) had BT ≥ 10(6) CFU/mL; 48 (53%) had a PVR ≤ 100 mL, while 26 (25%) had a PVR >250 mL. PVR increased with BT, and a significant (P<0.0001) threshold was reached for 10(6) CFU/mL: 100mL mean PVR for patients with BT ≤ 10(5) CFU/mL versus 248 mL for patients with BT >10(5) CFU/mL. High PVR and BT were associated with complicated infections, concomitant bacteremia, and delayed apyrexia. Screening for patients with BT ≥ 10(6) CFU/mL is an easy way to identify patients at high risk for acute retention and voiding disorders.

  7. 49 CFR 40.41 - Where does a urine collection for a DOT drug test take place?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Where does a urine collection for a DOT drug test... in DOT Urine Collections § 40.41 Where does a urine collection for a DOT drug test take place? (a) A urine collection for a DOT drug test must take place in a collection site meeting the requirements...

  8. 49 CFR 40.41 - Where does a urine collection for a DOT drug test take place?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Where does a urine collection for a DOT drug test... in DOT Urine Collections § 40.41 Where does a urine collection for a DOT drug test take place? (a) A urine collection for a DOT drug test must take place in a collection site meeting the requirements...

  9. 49 CFR 40.41 - Where does a urine collection for a DOT drug test take place?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Where does a urine collection for a DOT drug test... in DOT Urine Collections § 40.41 Where does a urine collection for a DOT drug test take place? (a) A urine collection for a DOT drug test must take place in a collection site meeting the requirements...

  10. 49 CFR 40.41 - Where does a urine collection for a DOT drug test take place?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Where does a urine collection for a DOT drug test... in DOT Urine Collections § 40.41 Where does a urine collection for a DOT drug test take place? (a) A urine collection for a DOT drug test must take place in a collection site meeting the requirements...

  11. Cleaved Form of Osteopontin in Urine as a Clinical Marker of Lupus Nephritis

    PubMed Central

    Kitagori, Koji; Yoshifuji, Hajime; Oku, Takuma; Sasaki, Chiyomi; Miyata, Hitomi; Mori, Keita P.; Nakajima, Toshiki; Ohmura, Koichiro; Kawabata, Daisuke; Yukawa, Naoichiro; Imura, Yoshitaka; Murakami, Kosaku; Nakashima, Ran; Usui, Takashi; Fujii, Takao; Sakai, Kaoru; Yanagita, Motoko; Hirayama, Yoshitaka; Mimori, Tsuneyo

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the utility of two forms of osteopontin (OPN), OPN full and its cleaved form (OPN N-half), in plasma and urine as markers of disease activity in lupus nephritis (LN). Samples were collected from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) (LN: N = 29, non-LN: N = 27), IgA nephropathy (IgAN) (N = 14), minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS) (N = 5), diabetic nephropathy (DN) (N = 14) and healthy volunteers (HC) (N = 17). While there was no significant difference in urine OPN full concentration between groups, urine OPN N-half concentration was significantly higher in patients with LN than HC (p < 0.05). Moreover, urine OPN N-half was higher in LN patients with overt proteinuria (urine protein/creatinine ratio: P/C > 0.5) than LN patients with minimal proteinuria (P/C < 0.5, p < 0.0001), and also higher than in DN patients with overt proteinuria (P/C > 0.5, p < 0.01). Urine thrombin activity correlated with urine OPN N-half concentration (p < 0.0001), but not with urine OPN full concentration. These results suggest that urine OPN N-half concentration reflects renal inflammation. Thus, urine OPN N-half may be a novel disease activity marker for LN. PMID:27992535

  12. Uranium associations with kidney outcomes vary by urine concentration adjustment method.

    PubMed

    Shelley, Rebecca; Kim, Nam-Soo; Parsons, Patrick J; Lee, Byung-Kook; Agnew, Jacqueline; Jaar, Bernard G; Steuerwald, Amy J; Matanoski, Genevieve; Fadrowski, Jeffrey; Schwartz, Brian S; Todd, Andrew C; Simon, David; Weaver, Virginia M

    2014-01-01

    Uranium is a ubiquitous metal that is nephrotoxic at high doses. Few epidemiologic studies have examined the kidney filtration impact of chronic environmental exposure. In 684 lead workers environmentally exposed to uranium, multiple linear regression was used to examine associations of uranium measured in a 4-h urine collection with measured creatinine clearance, serum creatinine- and cystatin-C-based estimated glomerular filtration rates, and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG). Three methods were utilized, in separate models, to adjust uranium levels for urine concentration--μg uranium/g creatinine; μg uranium/l and urine creatinine as separate covariates; and μg uranium/4 h. Median urine uranium levels were 0.07 μg/g creatinine and 0.02 μg/4 h and were highly correlated (rs=0.95). After adjustment, higher ln-urine uranium was associated with lower measured creatinine clearance and higher NAG in models that used urine creatinine to adjust for urine concentration but not in models that used total uranium excreted (μg/4 h). These results suggest that, in some instances, associations between urine toxicants and kidney outcomes may be statistical, due to the use of urine creatinine in both exposure and outcome metrics, rather than nephrotoxic. These findings support consideration of non-creatinine-based methods of adjustment for urine concentration in nephrotoxicant research.

  13. Calcium Stone Growth in Urine from Cystic Fibrosis Patients and Healthy Controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McSorley, Anita; Jones, Andrew M.; Webb, A. Kevin; Rao, P. Nagaraj; Kavanagh, John P.

    2007-04-01

    Cystic fibrosis patients have an increased risk of renal stone disease. There is some evidence that this may be related to a different excretory pattern of stone risk factors, but an alternative hypothesis, that the urine of cystic fibrosis patients is deficient in urinary inhibitors of crystallization and stone formation has not been tested. Here we have grown calcium stones, in vitro, in the presence of urine from healthy controls and compared this with growth in the presence of urine from cystic fibrosis patients. A stone farm was used to grow twelve calcium stones simultaneously, firstly in artificial urine for about 200 hours and then in 90% whole human urine for another 500 hours. Six of the stones received urine from healthy controls and six received urine from adult cystic fibrosis patients. There were no significant differences in stone mass at any of the key time points or in the overall growth pattern (p>0.05) between stones destined for, or treated with, urine from CF patients and the controls. Human urine greatly inhibited stone growth in vitro but there was no difference in the growth rate in urine from healthy controls and CF patients. This refutes the hypothesis that a tendency for a higher prevalence of urinary stones in CF patients is related to a deficiency in inhibitory activity.

  14. Changes in volatile compounds of human urine as it ages: their interaction with water.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Jae; Grigsby, Claude C; Smith, Brittany R; Rizki, Mateen M; Preti, George

    2013-12-15

    The urinary odors are commonly perceived as unpleasant. While numerous studies have identified the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released from urine, the odorants responsible for the urine odor are not well characterized. Furthermore, anecdotal reports suggest that the odor of aged urine is different from that of fresh urine. However, no study has yet to investigate the specific VOCs released from aged urine. In this study, we analyzed and compared the VOCs released from fresh and aged urine samples, investigating the changes in the urinary VOCs as urine aged. We found an overall decrease in concentration of many urinary VOCs, and concluded this was due to the urine evaporating as it aged. On the contrary, some highly water-soluble compounds such as short and branched-chain organic acids and trimethylamine, increased. Their increased release is most likely due to the loss of water and the subsequent release of water-soluble VOCs as urine ages. We suggest that these VOCs may contribute to the odor of the aged urine.

  15. Urine stability and steroid profile: towards a screening index of urine sample degradation for anti-doping purpose.

    PubMed

    Mazzarino, Monica; Abate, Maria Gabriella; Alocci, Roberto; Rossi, Francesca; Stinchelli, Raffaella; Molaioni, Francesco; de la Torre, Xavier; Botrè, Francesco

    2011-01-10

    The presence of microorganisms in urine samples, under favourable conditions of storage and transportation, may alter the concentration of steroid hormones, thus altering the correct evaluation of the urinary steroid profile in doping control analysis. According to the rules of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA technical document TD2004 EAAS), a testosterone deconjugation higher than 5% and the presence of 5α-androstane-3,17-dione and 5β-androstane-3,17-dione in the deconjugated fraction, are reliable indicators of urine degradation. The determination of these markers would require an additional quantitative analysis since the steroids screening analysis, in anti-doping laboratories, is performed in the total (free+conjugated) fraction. The aim of this work is therefore to establish reliable threshold values for some representative compounds (namely 5α-androstane-3,17-dione and 5β-androstane-3,17-dione) in the total fraction in order to predict directly at the screening stage the potential microbial degradation of the urine samples. Preliminary evidence on the most suitable degradation indexes has been obtained by measuring the urinary concentration of testosterone, epitestosterone, 5α-androstane-3,17-dione and 5β-androstane-3,17-dione by gas chromatography-mass spectrometric every day for 15 days in the deconjugated, glucuronide and total fraction of 10 pools of urines from 60 healthy subjects, stored under different pH and temperature conditions, and isolating the samples with one or more markers of degradation according to the WADA technical document TD2004EAAS. The threshold values for 5α-androstane-3,17-dione and 5β-androstane-3,17-dione were therefore obtained correlating the testosterone deconjugation rate with the urinary concentrations of 5α-androstane-3,17-dione and 5β-androstane-3,17-dione in the total fraction. The threshold values suggested as indexes of urine degradation in the total fraction were: 10 ng mL(-1) for 5α-androstane-3,17-dione

  16. Albumin testing in urine using a smart-phone.

    PubMed

    Coskun, Ahmet F; Nagi, Richie; Sadeghi, Kayvon; Phillips, Stephen; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2013-11-07

    We demonstrate a digital sensing platform, termed Albumin Tester, running on a smart-phone that images and automatically analyses fluorescent assays confined within disposable test tubes for sensitive and specific detection of albumin in urine. This light-weight and compact Albumin Tester attachment, weighing approximately 148 grams, is mechanically installed on the existing camera unit of a smart-phone, where test and control tubes are inserted from the side and are excited by a battery powered laser diode. This excitation beam, after probing the sample of interest located within the test tube, interacts with the control tube, and the resulting fluorescent emission is collected perpendicular to the direction of the excitation, where the cellphone camera captures the images of the fluorescent tubes through the use of an external plastic lens that is inserted between the sample and the camera lens. The acquired fluorescent images of the sample and control tubes are digitally processed within one second through an Android application running on the same cellphone for quantification of albumin concentration in the urine specimen of interest. Using a simple sample preparation approach which takes ~5 min per test (including the incubation time), we experimentally confirmed the detection limit of our sensing platform as 5-10 μg mL(-1) (which is more than 3 times lower than the clinically accepted normal range) in buffer as well as urine samples. This automated albumin testing tool running on a smart-phone could be useful for early diagnosis of kidney disease or for monitoring of chronic patients, especially those suffering from diabetes, hypertension, and/or cardiovascular diseases.

  17. Investigating the recheck rules for urine analysis in children.

    PubMed

    He, Y M; Yao, S W; Huang, Y J; Liang, B S; Liu, H Y

    2016-04-25

    The aim of this study was to establish recheck rules of urinalysis in children by investigating the concordance rate of the results obtained using the LabUMat urine dry chemistry analyzer (referred to as dry chemistry) and the UriSed tangible composition analyzer with that of the microscopic examination. First, 1040 urine samples from children (mean age 6.5 years) were analyzed using LabUMat and UriSed analyzers, and subsequently subjected to microscopic examination. The missed detection rate was evaluated and recheck rules were established to avoid missed diagnoses of abnormal renal function. Finally, clinical validations of the recheck rules were performed on 200 additional specimens. Among the samples used to investigate the recheck rules, the samples with positive microscopic examination results accounted for 58.65% of the total, while the samples with negative results accounted for 41.35%. Of the positive samples, a major portion (>50%) were RBC positive. The samples that were WBC positive and CAST positive accounted for 23.08 and 7.69%, respectively. The concordance rate was 87.5% and the missed detection rate was 2.9%. For the validation of the recheck rules in 200 urine samples, the concordance rate was 87.5% and the missed detection rate was 2.4%. When the detection of occult blood, WBC, and protein by dry chemistry, and the detection of RBC, WBC, and CAST by the UriSed analyzer are inconsistent, or the differences between them greater than 2 levels, recheck by microscopic examination is suggested.

  18. Plasma and urine nitric oxide levels in healthy Turkish children.

    PubMed

    Elli, Murat; Söylemezoglu, Oguz; Erbas, Deniz; Bakkaloglu, Sevcan A; Buyan, Necla; Ozkaya, Ozan; Hasanoglu, Enver

    2005-11-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important messenger molecule with a wide range of actions in virtually all cell systems and organs. In kidneys it participates in glomerular and medullary hemodynamics, tubuloglomerular feed-back, renin secretion, and extracellular fluid balance. Although the role of NO in regulating renal function in adults is well-established, it has recently been suggested that NO has a more critical role in maintaining basal renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in the developing kidney. NO is rapidly metabolized to the stable end products nitrite and nitrate, which are more slowly excreted into the urine. Thus these metabolites can be recommended as useful markers of endogenous NO synthase activity, despite limited data about age-related changes in in-vivo NO production. The aims of this study were to determine age-related normal reference values of serum and urinary NO metabolites and to assess the probable relationship between these metabolites and the GFR. Normal levels of NO end products in blood and urine of 296 healthy children (117 female, 179 male) between the ages of 0 and 16 were investigated, as was whether these values change with age. Serum and urinary nitrate levels did not differ according to sex. Serum nitrate levels are higher in younger children, especially in the newborn period, and decrease with age. Nitrate levels in urine are higher in younger children with a peak in infancy (1 month to 1 year) and decrease with age. It was demonstrated that this decrease in serum and urinary nitrate levels with age parallels the increase in GFR. In conclusion, urinary NO products may be an indirect marker of serum NO levels and NO might have an important regulatory function both in the maintenance of renal function and in the maturation of the developing kidneys.

  19. The Energy Content and Composition of Meals Consumed after an Overnight Fast and Their Effects on Diet Induced Thermogenesis: A Systematic Review, Meta-Analyses and Meta-Regressions

    PubMed Central

    Quatela, Angelica; Callister, Robin; Patterson, Amanda; MacDonald-Wicks, Lesley

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review investigated the effects of differing energy intakes, macronutrient compositions, and eating patterns of meals consumed after an overnight fast on Diet Induced Thermogenesis (DIT). The initial search identified 2482 records; 26 papers remained once duplicates were removed and inclusion criteria were applied. Studies (n = 27) in the analyses were randomized crossover designs comparing the effects of two or more eating events on DIT. Higher energy intake increased DIT; in a mixed model meta-regression, for every 100 kJ increase in energy intake, DIT increased by 1.1 kJ/h (p < 0.001). Meals with a high protein or carbohydrate content had a higher DIT than high fat, although this effect was not always significant. Meals with medium chain triglycerides had a significantly higher DIT than long chain triglycerides (meta-analysis, p = 0.002). Consuming the same meal as a single bolus eating event compared to multiple small meals or snacks was associated with a significantly higher DIT (meta-analysis, p = 0.02). Unclear or inconsistent findings were found by comparing the consumption of meals quickly or slowly, and palatability was not significantly associated with DIT. These findings indicate that the magnitude of the increase in DIT is influenced by the energy intake, macronutrient composition, and eating pattern of the meal. PMID:27792142

  20. The Energy Content and Composition of Meals Consumed after an Overnight Fast and Their Effects on Diet Induced Thermogenesis: A Systematic Review, Meta-Analyses and Meta-Regressions.

    PubMed

    Quatela, Angelica; Callister, Robin; Patterson, Amanda; MacDonald-Wicks, Lesley

    2016-10-25

    This systematic review investigated the effects of differing energy intakes, macronutrient compositions, and eating patterns of meals consumed after an overnight fast on Diet Induced Thermogenesis (DIT). The initial search identified 2482 records; 26 papers remained once duplicates were removed and inclusion criteria were applied. Studies (n = 27) in the analyses were randomized crossover designs comparing the effects of two or more eating events on DIT. Higher energy intake increased DIT; in a mixed model meta-regression, for every 100 kJ increase in energy intake, DIT increased by 1.1 kJ/h (p < 0.001). Meals with a high protein or carbohydrate content had a higher DIT than high fat, although this effect was not always significant. Meals with medium chain triglycerides had a significantly higher DIT than long chain triglycerides (meta-analysis, p = 0.002). Consuming the same meal as a single bolus eating event compared to multiple small meals or snacks was associated with a significantly higher DIT (meta-analysis, p = 0.02). Unclear or inconsistent findings were found by comparing the consumption of meals quickly or slowly, and palatability was not significantly associated with DIT. These findings indicate that the magnitude of the increase in DIT is influenced by the energy intake, macronutrient composition, and eating pattern of the meal.

  1. Determination of antimicrobial susceptibilities on infected urines without isolation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Picciolo, G. L.; Chappelle, E. W.; Deming, J. W.; Shrock, C. G.; Vellend, H.; Barza, M. J.; Weinstein, L. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A method is described for the quick determination of the susceptibilities of various unidentified bacteria contained in an aqueous physiological fluid sample, particularly urine, to one or more antibiotics. A bacterial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) assay is carried out after the elimination of non-bacterial ATP to determine whether an infection exists. If an infection does exist, a portion of the sample is further processed, including subjecting parts of the portion to one or more antibiotics. Growth of the bacteria in the parts are determined, again by an ATP assay, to determine whether the unidentified bacteria in the sample are susceptible to the antibiotic or antibiotics under test.

  2. Morbid attraction to leopard urine in Toxoplasma-infected chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Poirotte, Clémence; Kappeler, Peter M; Ngoubangoye, Barthelemy; Bourgeois, Stéphanie; Moussodji, Maick; Charpentier, Marie J E

    2016-02-08

    Parasites are sometimes capable of inducing phenotypic changes in their hosts to improve transmission [1]. Toxoplasma gondii, a protozoan that infects a broad range of warm-blooded species, is one example that supports the so-called 'parasite manipulation hypothesis': it induces modifications in rodents' olfactory preferences, converting an innate aversion for cat odor into attraction and probably favoring trophic transmission to feline species, its only definitive hosts [2]. In humans, T. gondii induces behavioral modifications such as personality changes, prolonged reaction times and decreased long-term concentration [3]. However, modern humans are not suitable intermediate hosts because they are no longer preyed upon by felines. Consequently, behavioral modifications in infected people are generally assumed to be side effects of toxoplasmosis or residual manipulation traits that evolved in appropriate intermediate hosts. An alternative hypothesis, however, states that these changes result from parasite manipulative abilities that evolved when human ancestors were still under significant feline predation [3,4]. As such, T. gondii also alters olfactory preferences in humans; infected men rate cat urine, but not tiger urine, as pleasant while non-infected men do not [5]. To unravel the origin of Toxoplasma-induced modifications in humans, we performed olfactory tests on a living primate still predated by a feline species. We found in our closest relative, the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes troglodytes), that Toxoplasma-infected (TI) animals lost their innate aversion towards the urine of leopards (Panthera pardus), their only natural predator. By contrast, we observed no clear difference in the response of TI and Toxoplasma-non-infected (TN) animals towards urine collected from other definitive feline hosts that chimpanzees do not encounter in nature. Although the adaptive value of parasitically induced behavior should be assessed carefully, we suggest that the

  3. [HBsAG in feces, urine and saliva].

    PubMed

    Lento, F G; Tandurella, S

    1979-01-01

    After some observations about the tests of the research exposed in the literature, authors illustrate the tests for 142 patients divided into 5 groups: a) patients affected with acute viral hepatitis; b) patients affected with praegressa acute viral hepatitis; c) relatives of patients with acute viral hepatitis; d) volunteers; e) patients affected with chronic uraemia under dialisis periodic treatment. After the testing control, authors, conclude with an hipotesis: a possible epidemic function of faeces, urine saliva, in the passage of the acute viral hepatitis.

  4. Ruptured ectopic pregnancy with a negative urine pregnancy test.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Mallory; Lupo, Andrew; Browning, Adrianne

    2017-01-01

    Ectopic pregnancy is commonly seen as a differential diagnosis of first-trimester vaginal bleeding. Often the diagnosis is made based on a combination of exam findings, transvaginal ultrasound, and a positive pregnancy test. Our case describes a patient with a history of ectopic pregnancy treated with methotrexate and serial human chorionic gonadotropin measurements that were decreasing appropriately. At the time of evaluation, her urine pregnancy test was negative; however, she was confirmed to have a ruptured tubal ectopic pregnancy. This case highlights the variable presentation of ectopic pregnancies and the importance of combining exam findings with ultrasound and laboratory results.

  5. Ruptured ectopic pregnancy with a negative urine pregnancy test

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Mallory; Lupo, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Ectopic pregnancy is commonly seen as a differential diagnosis of first-trimester vaginal bleeding. Often the diagnosis is made based on a combination of exam findings, transvaginal ultrasound, and a positive pregnancy test. Our case describes a patient with a history of ectopic pregnancy treated with methotrexate and serial human chorionic gonadotropin measurements that were decreasing appropriately. At the time of evaluation, her urine pregnancy test was negative; however, she was confirmed to have a ruptured tubal ectopic pregnancy. This case highlights the variable presentation of ectopic pregnancies and the importance of combining exam findings with ultrasound and laboratory results. PMID:28127150

  6. Four-man rated dual catalyst system for the recovery of water from urine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budininkas, P.

    1978-01-01

    The catalytic system was integrated with a 4-man rated urine wick evaporator. During operation, urine vapor produced by the wick-evaporator was treated in the catalytic system to remove ammonia and volatile hydrocarbons, and water was recovered by condensation in a water cooled condenser. The system operated completely automatically and required no manual adjustments, except periodic supply of urine and removal of the recovered water. Although the system was designed for treating 0.325 kg urine per hour, this rate could be achieved only with a fresh wick, then gradually decreased as the wick became saturated with urine solids. The average urine treatment rates achieved during each of the three endurance tests were 0.137, 0.217, and 0.235 kg/hr. The quality of the recovered water meets drinking water standards, with the exception of a generally low pH.

  7. Determination of flunixin in equine urine and serum by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Gu, X; Meleka-Boules, M; Chen, C L; Ceska, D M; Tiffany, D M

    1997-04-25

    A capillary electrophoresis (CE) and a solid-phase extraction method was developed for the determination of flunixin in equine urine and serum. The suitable CE run conditions were described. The factors affecting flunixin recovery rates were investigated and optimum solid-phase extraction conditions for flunixin in equine urine and serum were established. Limits of detection and quantitation were 3.4 and 5.6 ng/ml for serum and 16.9 and 33.1 ng/ml for urine, respectively. The recoveries exceeded 96% for urine and 79% for serum. Urine samples from race horses and urine and serum samples from a mare administrated with flunixin were analyzed with this procedure.

  8. The Utilization of Urine Processing for the Advancement of Life Support Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grossi-Soyster, Elysse; Hogan, John; Flynn, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The success of long-duration missions will depend on resource recovery and the self-sustainability of life support technologies. Current technologies used on the International Space Station (ISS) utilize chemical and mechanical processes, such as filtration, to recover potable water from urine produced by crewmembers. Such technologies have significantly reduced the need for water resupply through closed-loop resource recovery and recycling. Harvesting the important components of urine requires selectivity, whether through the use of membranes or other physical barriers, or by chemical or biological processes. Given the chemical composition of urine, the downstream benefits of urine processing for resource recovery will be critical for many aspects of life support, such as food production and the synthesis of biofuels. This paper discusses the beneficial components of urine and their potential applications, and the challenges associated with using urine for nutrient recycling for space application.

  9. A unilateral purple urine bag syndrome in a patient with bilateral nephrostomy tubes.

    PubMed

    Karim, Adil; Abed, Firas; Bachuwa, Ghassan

    2015-12-23

    A change in the colour of urine is always of clinical significance, and a source of concern for the patient and his physician. Among the different urine colours observed, purple is the least common. Although purple discolouration of a catheter and a urine bag is an uncommon finding, it was reported in the literature as early as 1978, by Barlow and Dickson. We present a unique case of purple urine bag syndrome in a patient with bilateral nephrostomy tubes (NT) and associated urine bags (UB) with only the left nephrostomy tube and urine bag exhibiting the purple colour, which resolved with a course of appropriate antibiotics eradicating the causative bacterial pathogen, and change of NT and UB.

  10. Erythropoietin concentrations and isoforms in urine of anonymous Olympic athletes during the Nagano Olympic Games.

    PubMed

    Berglund, B; Wide, L

    2002-12-01

    The ordinary doping control urine samples of 36 anonymous participants (cross-country skiers, biathlon athletes, and curling athletes) of the 1998 Nagano Olympic Games were analyzed for erythropoietin and erythropoietin isoforms. The urine erythropoietin concentration (IU/l) was determined with a competitive radioimmunoassay method and the isoforms were studied by electrophoresis and given as milli albumin mobility units (mAMU). Erythropoietin was detectable in 23 out of 36 specimens (64%). The biathlon and curling athletes had similar urine concentration of erythropoietin. The group of 16 cross-country skiers had significantly (P < 0.05) increased urine concentration of erythropoietin as compared to curling athletes and four of them had urine erythropoietin concentrations between 3.6 and 5.1 IU/l. The electrophoretic mobility of erythropoietin was determined in all eight samples with urine concentration of erythropoietin of more than 2 (range 2.1-5.1) IU/l. No single urine specimen with a median erythropoietin electrophoretic mobility below the cut-off level of 670 mAMU (indicative of doping with recombinant erythropoietin) was registered. Erythropoietin in urine was detected in 71% and the isoforms of Epo characterized in 29% of the anonymous Olympic endurance athletes. The urine concentration of erythropoietin in the biathlon and curling athletes were similar to those of non-athletes. The group of cross-country skiers had higher levels of erythropoietin in urine. These higher levels of urine erythropoietin in cross-country skiers are partly due to more concentrated urine specimens.

  11. NMR Chemical Shift Ranges of Urine Metabolites in Various Organic Solvents

    PubMed Central

    Görling, Benjamin; Bräse, Stefan; Luy, Burkhard

    2016-01-01

    Signal stability is essential for reliable multivariate data analysis. Urine samples show strong variance in signal positions due to inter patient differences. Here we study the exchange of the solvent of a defined urine matrix and how it affects signal and integral stability of the urinary metabolites by NMR spectroscopy. The exchange solvents were methanol, acetonitrile, dimethyl sulfoxide, chloroform, acetone, dichloromethane, and dimethyl formamide. Some of these solvents showed promising results with a single batch of urine. To evaluate further differences between urine samples, various acid, base, and salt solutions were added in a defined way mimicking to some extent inter human differences. Corresponding chemical shift changes were monitored. PMID:27598217

  12. The fascinating story of urine examination: From uroscopy to the era of microscopy and beyond.

    PubMed

    Magiorkinis, Emmanouil; Diamantis, Aristidis

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to present the evolution of ideas on the examination of urine from antiquity till our days. A thorough study of texts, medical books from antiquity till twentieth century along with a thorough review of the available literature in PubMed was conducted. The first observation on urine examination can be traced back to the Babylonian and Sumerian texts. Almost all physicians in antiquity including Hippocrates referred to the value of urine examination in the diagnosis and prognosis of diseases. The construction of first compound microscope lead to the examination of urine sediment and the development of Urine Cytology which was revolutionized during the twentieth century with the studies of important cytologists such as George Papanicolaou, Geoffrey Krabbe, and Leopold Koss. The introduction of molecular tests in the diagnosis of urothelial cancer inaugurated a new era in the study of urine cytology. The history of urine examination spans a period of 6,000 years. The application of microscope in the examination of urine sediment during the nineteenth century established urine analysis as an important diagnostic tool in clinical practice.

  13. Urine collected from diapers can be used for 2-D PAGE in infants and young children.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Mary Jayne; Griffin, Angela; Su, Ruifeng; Merchant, Michael; Klein, Jon

    2009-08-01

    Urinary proteomic profiling has potential to identify candidate biomarkers of renal injury in infants provided an adequate urine sample can be obtained. Although diapers are used to obtain urine for clinical evaluation, their use for proteomic analysis has not been investigated. We therefore performed feasibility studies on the use of diaper-extracted urine for 2-D PAGE. Pediatric waste urine (2-20 mL) was applied to gel-containing, non-gel and cotton-gauze diapers and then mechanically expressed. Urine volume and total protein were measured pre- and post-extraction. Proteins were separated via 2-D PAGE following application of urine (20-40 mL) to each matrix. 2-D PAGE was also performed on clinical specimens collected using each diaper type. Differences in the adsorption and retention of urine volume and protein were noted between matrices. Non-gel and cotton-gauze diapers provided the best protein/volume recovery and the lowest interference with the Bradford assay. 2-D PAGE was also successfully completed using urine samples from both cotton fiber matrices. Conversely, samples from low-gel diapers demonstrated poor protein separation and reproducibility. Diapers containing cotton-fiber matrices appear adequate for 2-D PAGE. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of resolved proteins using replicate, high-resolution gels will be required, however, before diaper-extracted urine can be applied in proteomic profiling.

  14. NMR Chemical Shift Ranges of Urine Metabolites in Various Organic Solvents.

    PubMed

    Görling, Benjamin; Bräse, Stefan; Luy, Burkhard

    2016-09-02

    Signal stability is essential for reliable multivariate data analysis. Urine samples show strong variance in signal positions due to inter patient differences. Here we study the exchange of the solvent of a defined urine matrix and how it affects signal and integral stability of the urinary metabolites by NMR spectroscopy. The exchange solvents were methanol, acetonitrile, dimethyl sulfoxide, chloroform, acetone, dichloromethane, and dimethyl formamide. Some of these solvents showed promising results with a single batch of urine. To evaluate further differences between urine samples, various acid, base, and salt solutions were added in a defined way mimicking to some extent inter human differences. Corresponding chemical shift changes were monitored.

  15. High fluid intake increases urine free cortisol excretion in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Mericq, M V; Cutler, G B

    1998-02-01

    To test the hypothesis that increased fluid intake increases the urine free cortisol, we prescribed 5 liters of fluid intake per day or a normal fluid intake according to a randomized cross-over design in six normal volunteers. Each period lasted 5 days, with a 2-day washout period of normal fluid intake between the two periods. Urine free cortisol, 17-hydroxycorticosteroids, and creatinine were measured daily during each study period, and the average value over each 5-day period was calculated for each subject. High fluid intake caused a significant increase in the mean urine free cortisol [126 +/- 33 (SD) vs. 77 +/- 18 micrograms/day, P < 0.005]. The frequency of urine free cortisol results that exceeded the upper normal limit of 95 micrograms/day was also much higher during high fluid intake (23/30 vs. 6/30, P < 0.005). By contrast, urine 17-hydroxycorticosteroids (high fluid vs. normal fluid: 5.3 +/- 1.5 vs. 5.0 +/- 1.7 mg/day, respectively, P = not significant) and urine creatinine (1.51 +/- 0.48 vs. 1.45 +/- 0.37 g/day, P = not significant) did not differ between the two study periods. We conclude that high fluid intake (5 liters/day) increases free cortisol excretion without an increase in urine 17-hydroxycorticosteroids. Thus, mild to moderate increases in urine cortisol excretion may not indicate hypercortisolism in individuals who have a high fluid intake and urine volume.

  16. Urine Bacterial Community Convergence through Fertilizer Production: Storage, Pasteurization, and Struvite Precipitation.

    PubMed

    Lahr, Rebecca H; Goetsch, Heather E; Haig, Sarah J; Noe-Hays, Abraham; Love, Nancy G; Aga, Diana S; Bott, Charles B; Foxman, Betsy; Jimenez, Jose; Luo, Ting; Nace, Kim; Ramadugu, Kirtana; Wigginton, Krista R

    2016-11-01

    Source-separated human urine was collected from six public events to study the impact of urine processing and storage on bacterial community composition and viability. Illumina 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed a complex community of bacteria in fresh urine that differed across collection events. Despite the harsh chemical conditions of stored urine (pH > 9 and total ammonia nitrogen > 4000 mg N/L), bacteria consistently grew to 5 ± 2 × 10(8) cells/mL. Storing hydrolyzed urine for any amount of time significantly reduced the number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) to 130 ± 70, increased Pielou evenness to 0.60 ± 0.06, and produced communities dominated by Clostridiales and Lactobacillales. After 80 days of storage, all six urine samples from different starting materials converged to these characteristics. Urine pasteurization or struvite precipitation did not change the microbial community, even when pasteurized urine was stored for an additional 70 days. Pasteurization decreased metabolic activity by 50 ± 10% and additional storage after pasteurization did not lead to recovery of metabolic activity. Urine-derived fertilizers consistently contained 16S rRNA genes belonging to Tissierella, Erysipelothrix, Atopostipes, Bacteroides, and many Clostridiales OTUs; additional experiments must determine whether pathogenic species are present, responsible for observed metabolic activity, or regrow when applied.

  17. Removal of ammonia from urine vapor by a dual-catalyst system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budininkas, P.

    1977-01-01

    The feasibility of removing ammonia from urine vapor by a low-temperature dual-catalyst system has been demonstrated. The process is based on the catalytic oxidation of ammonia to a mixture of nitrogen, nitrous oxide, and water, followed by a catalytic decomposition of the nitrous oxide into its elements. Potential ammonia oxidation and nitrous oxide decomposition catalysts were first screened with artificial gas mixtures, then tested with the actual urine vapor produced by boiling untreated urine. A suitable dual-catalyst bed arrangement was found that achieved the removal of ammonia and also organic carbon, and recovered water of good quality from urine vapor.

  18. Steady state fluorescence spectroscopic characterization of normal and diabetic urine at selective excitation wavelength 280 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kesavan, Anjana; Pachaiappan, Rekha; Aruna, Prakasa Rao; Ganesan, Singaravelu

    2016-03-01

    Urine is considered diagnostically important for tits native fluorophores and they vary in their distribution, concentration and physiochemical properties, depending upon the metabolic condition of the subject. In this study, we have made an attempt, to characterize the urine of normal subject and diabetic patients under medication by native fluorescence spectroscopy at 280 nm excitation. Further, the fluorescence data were analyzed employing the multivariate statistical method linear discriminant analysis (LDA) using leave one out cross validation method. The results were promising in discriminating diabetic urine from that of normal urine. This study in future may be extended to check the feasibility in ruling out the coexisting disorders such as cancer.

  19. Measurement of the glucose concentration in human urine with optical refractometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Rui-Yang; Hsu, Cheng-Chih; Meng, Ching-Tang; Cheng, Chih-Ching; Liao, Yu-Ching

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, a new type of human urine glucose measurement system is proposed. We measured the phase variation of human urine with/without glucose-urine mixture (to simulate diabetes mellitus). We were able to achieve high resolution with the proposed method. The relation curve between the phase difference and glucose concentration can be estimated, and the glucose concentration of a urine sample can be determined by using this relation curve. The proposed method showed that theoretical resolution is approximated of 1.47 mg/dl.

  20. The influence of social and endocrine factors on urine-marking by captive wolves (Canis lupus).

    PubMed

    Asa, C S; Mech, L D; Seal, U S; Plotka, E D

    1990-12-01

    Although serum hormones varied seasonally in all adult animals, only dominant male and female wolves urine-marked. Serum testosterone and urine-marking rates, which increased during the fall/winter breeding season, were positively correlated in both male and female dominant wolves. Estradiol, which increased in conjunction with proestrus and estrus, was not correlated with female urine-marking. These findings suggest that hormonal influence on urine-marking in the wolf is modulated by social factors and contrast with those for both domestic dogs and coyotes, two other members of the genus Canis.