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Sample records for 1-spot overnight urine

  1. Daily salt intake estimated by overnight urine collections indicates a high cardiovascular disease risk in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Yokokawa, Hirohide; Yuasa, Motoyuki; Nedsuwan, Supalert; Moolphate, Saiyud; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Kitajima, Tsutomu; Minematsu, Kazuo; Tanimura, Susumu; Marui, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional study (February 2012 to March 2013) was conducted to estimate daily salt intake and basic characteristics among 793 community-dwelling participants at high risk of cardiovascular disease (Framingham risk score >15%), who had visited diabetes or hypertension clinics at health centres in the Muang district, Chiang Rai, Thailand. We performed descriptive analysis of baseline data and used an automated analyser to estimate the average of 24-hour salt intake estimated from 3 days overnight urine collection. Participants were divided into two groups based on median estimated daily salt intake. Mean age and proportion of males were 65.2 years and 37.6% in the higher salt intake group (>=10.0 g/day, n=362), and 67.5 years and 42.7% in the lower salt intake group (<10.0 g/day, n=431), respectively (p=0.01, p<0.01). The higher salt intake group comprised more patients with a family history of hypertension, antihypertensive drug use, less ideal body mass index (18.5-24.9), higher exercise frequency (>=2 times weekly) and lower awareness of high salt intake. Among higher salt intake participants, those with lower awareness of high salt intake were younger and more often had a family history of hypertension, relative to those with more awareness. Our data indicated that families often share lifestyles involving high salt intake, and discrepancies between actual salt intake and awareness of high salt intake may represent a need for salt reduction intervention aiming at family level. Awareness of actual salt intake should be improved for each family. PMID:26965760

  2. Overnight Scentsation Rose Plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    International Flavors and Fragrances Inc., Dr. Braja Mookherjee with the Overnight Scentsation rose plant after its flight aboard NASA's shuttle mission STS-95 for experimentation on scent in microgravity.

  3. Do environmental variables influence overnight weight loss of yearling steers in semiarid rangelands?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to measure the weight gains of free-ranging livestock, animals are frequently corralled and confined overnight prior to weighing. Animals may take several days to recover from this overnight loss in weight associated with dehydration and excretion of urine and feces. Quantitative estimates ...

  4. The Overnight Scentsation Rose Plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    International Flavors and Fragrances Inc., is a company that creates and manufactures flavors, fragrances and aroma chemicals. The Overnight Scentsation rose plant will be housed aboard NASA's shuttle flight STS-95 in a specially-designed structure under ultraviolet lights. The flowering plant was brought to Cape Canaveral from its home at IFF's greenhouse in Union Beach, New Jersey.

  5. 46 CFR 177.710 - Overnight accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Overnight accommodations. 177.710 Section 177.710 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Crew Spaces § 177.710 Overnight accommodations....

  6. 46 CFR 177.810 - Overnight accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Overnight accommodations. 177.810 Section 177.810... TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Passenger Accommodations § 177.810 Overnight accommodations. (a) A.... Each berth must measure at least 1,880 millimeters (74 inches) by 610 millimeters (24 inches) and...

  7. Overnight Changes Recorded by Phoenix Conductivity Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This graph presents simplified data from overnight measurements by the Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander from noon of the mission's 70th Martian day, or sol, to noon the following sol (Aug. 5 to Aug. 6, 2008).

    The graph shows that water disappeared from the atmosphere overnight, at the same time that electrical measurements detected changes consistent with addition of water to the soil.

    Water in soil appears to increase overnight, when water in the atmosphere disappears.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  8. A mechanical model of overnight hair curling.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Hang; Chen, Xi

    2015-09-01

    Based on the observation of overnight hair curling procedure, we establish a mechanical model to describe the temporary wave formation of straight hair (initial curvature is zero), which incorporates the contact between hair and hair roller. Systematic studies are carried out to explore the effects of radius ratio between hair and hair roller, hair's average axial strain, creep time, Poisson's ratio and gravity on the curl retention. The variation of curl retention with respect to time obtained from our numerical model is validated by a simple theoretical model and by overnight curling experiments on hair samples. The results of simulation show that overnight hair curling is suitable to create a wavy hairstyle within about 7 hours, while the combined usage with hair fixatives enables a wavy hairstyle with desired curvature that lasts for a day or more. PMID:26338501

  9. Negative reinforcement impairs overnight memory consolidation.

    PubMed

    Stamm, Andrew W; Nguyen, Nam D; Seicol, Benjamin J; Fagan, Abigail; Oh, Angela; Drumm, Michael; Lundt, Maureen; Stickgold, Robert; Wamsley, Erin J

    2014-11-01

    Post-learning sleep is beneficial for human memory. However, it may be that not all memories benefit equally from sleep. Here, we manipulated a spatial learning task using monetary reward and performance feedback, asking whether enhancing the salience of the task would augment overnight memory consolidation and alter its incorporation into dreaming. Contrary to our hypothesis, we found that the addition of reward impaired overnight consolidation of spatial memory. Our findings seemingly contradict prior reports that enhancing the reward value of learned information augments sleep-dependent memory processing. Given that the reward followed a negative reinforcement paradigm, consolidation may have been impaired via a stress-related mechanism. PMID:25320351

  10. Immunoelectrophoresis - urine

    MedlinePlus

    Immunoglobulin electrophoresis - urine; Gamma globulin electrophoresis - urine; Urine immunoglobulin electrophoresis; IEP - urine ... is used to measure the amounts of various immunoglobulins in urine. Most often, it is done after ...

  11. Negative Reinforcement Impairs Overnight Memory Consolidation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamm, Andrew W.; Nguyen, Nam D.; Seicol, Benjamin J.; Fagan, Abigail; Oh, Angela; Drumm, Michael; Lundt, Maureen; Stickgold, Robert; Wamsley, Erin J.

    2014-01-01

    Post-learning sleep is beneficial for human memory. However, it may be that not all memories benefit equally from sleep. Here, we manipulated a spatial learning task using monetary reward and performance feedback, asking whether enhancing the salience of the task would augment overnight memory consolidation and alter its incorporation into…

  12. Porphyrins - urine

    MedlinePlus

    ... results may be due to: Liver cancer Hepatitis Lead poisoning Porphyria (several types) Alternative Names Urine uroporphyrin; Urine ... More Delta-ALA urine test Enzyme Hemoglobin Hepatitis Lead poisoning Liver cancer - hepatocellular carcinoma PBG urine test Porphyria ...

  13. Continuous overnight observation of human premolar eruption.

    PubMed

    Risinger, R K; Proffit, W R

    1996-01-01

    Such observation was made possible by transmitting the image of a mobile ceramic ruling on the erupting maxillary second premolar to a video-microscope via a coaxial fibreoptic cable. The cable was inserted into a reference bar secured to the adjacent first molar and first premolar. The image of the ruling was superimposed with the image from a surveillance camera focused on the patient and continuously recorded on video-tape along with the participant's blood pressure, pulse rate, electromyographic activity and occlusal contact sounds. Overnight data from 12 individuals clearly revealed a circadian rhythm in eruption during the prefunctional spurt. On average, the maxillary second premolar erupted 41 microns during an 11-h overnight observation, with almost all the eruption occurring in the late evening from 8 p.m. to 1 a.m. After 1 a.m., eruption typically ceased, with a tendency for intrusion to occur until 7 a.m. Sleep increased the rate of eruption during the late evening, but did not influence the eruption rate during the early morning. Haemodynamic changes, including blood pressure and pulse rate, did not have a significant impact on the rhythm of eruption. The observed eruption rhythm is most probably caused by changing hormone levels and their effect on the periodontal ligament. The late-evening eruption of human premolars coincides with the late-evening secretion of growth hormone and thyroid hormone typically found in humans. PMID:9022915

  14. Urine odor

    MedlinePlus

    Urine odor refers to the smell from your urine. Urine odor varies. Most of the time, urine does not ... Most changes in urine odor are not a sign of disease and go away in time. Some foods and medicines, including vitamins, may affect your ...

  15. Urine culture

    MedlinePlus

    Culture and sensitivity - urine ... when urinating. You also may have a urine culture after you have been treated for an infection. ... when bacteria or yeast are found in the culture. This likely means that you have a urinary ...

  16. The overnight effect on the Taiwan stock market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Kuo-Ting; Lih, Jiann-Shing; Ko, Jing-Yuan

    2012-12-01

    This study examines statistical regularities among three components of stocks and indices: daytime (trading hour) return, overnight (off-hour session) return, and total (close-to-close) return. Owing to the fact that the Taiwan Stock Exchange (TWSE) has the longest non-trading periods among major markets, the TWSE is selected to explore the correlation among the three components and compare it with major markets such as the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) and the National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotation (NASDAQ). Analysis results indicate a negative cross correlation between the sign of daytime return and the sign of overnight return; possibly explaining why most stocks feature a negative cross correlation between daytime return and overnight return [F. Wang, S.-J. Shieh, S. Havlin, H.E. Stanley, Statistical analysis of the overnight and daytime return, Phys. Rev. E 79 (2009) 056109]. Additionally, the cross correlation between the magnitude of returns is analyzed. According to those results, a larger magnitude of overnight return implies a higher probability that the sign of the following daytime return is the opposite of the sign of overnight return. Namely, the predictability of daytime return might be improved when a stock undergoes a large magnitude of overnight return. Furthermore, the cross correlations of 29 indices of worldwide markets are discussed.

  17. Immunoelectrophoresis - urine

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the urine can result from: Amyloidosis Leukemia Multiple myeloma Kidney disorders such as IgA nephropathy or IgM ... CLL) IgA nephropathy Immunoelectrophoresis - blood Macroglobulinemia of Waldenstrom Multiple myeloma Protein electrophoresis - urine Protein urine test Urinalysis Update ...

  18. Immunofixation - urine

    MedlinePlus

    ... need to supply a clean-catch (midstream) urine sample. Clean the area around where urine leaves the body. Men or boys should wipe the head of the penis. Women or girls should wash the area between the lips of the vagina with soapy water and rinse well. Allow a small amount to ...

  19. Calcium - urine

    MedlinePlus

    ... into the urine, which causes calcium kidney stones Sarcoidosis Taking too much calcium Too much production of ... Milk-alkali syndrome Proximal renal tubular acidosis Rickets Sarcoidosis Vitamin D Update Date 5/3/2015 Updated ...

  20. Frequent Urination

    MedlinePlus

    ... leader Partner Spotlight Become a partner World Prematurity Day Your support helps babies We are determined to ... very strong. After birth For the first few days after delivery, you may urinate even more often ...

  1. Urination Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which Ones & When? Smart School Lunches Emmy-Nominated Video "Cerebral Palsy: Shannon's Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Urination ...

  2. Calcium - urine

    MedlinePlus

    ... best treatment for the most common type of kidney stone , which is made of calcium. This type of ... the kidneys into the urine, which causes calcium kidney stones Sarcoidosis Taking too much calcium Too much production ...

  3. Bilirubin - urine

    MedlinePlus

    ... or gallbladder Considerations Bilirubin can break down in light. That is why babies with jaundice are sometimes placed under blue fluorescent lamps. Alternative Names Conjugated bilirubin - urine; Direct bilirubin - ...

  4. Urine Preservative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M. (Inventor); Nillen, Jeannie (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    Disclosed is CPG, a combination of a chlorhexidine salt (such as chlorhexidine digluconate, chlorhexidine diacetate, or chlorhexidine dichloride) and n-propyl gallate that can be used at ambient temperatures as a urine preservative.

  5. Overnight shift work: factors contributing to diagnostic discrepancies.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Tarek N; Loehfelm, Thomas; Khosa, Faisal; Rohatgi, Saurabh; Johnson, Jamlik-Omari

    2016-02-01

    The aims of the study are to identify factors contributing to preliminary interpretive discrepancies on overnight radiology resident shifts and apply this data in the context of known literature to draw parallels to attending overnight shift work schedules. Residents in one university-based training program provided preliminary interpretations of 18,488 overnight (11 pm–8 am) studies at a level 1 trauma center between July 1, 2013 and December 31, 2014. As part of their normal workflow and feedback, attendings scored the reports as major discrepancy, minor discrepancy, agree, and agree--good job. We retrospectively obtained the preliminary interpretation scores for each study. Total relative value units (RVUs) per shift were calculated as an indicator of overnight workload. The dataset was supplemented with information on trainee level, number of consecutive nights on night float, hour, modality, and per-shift RVU. The data were analyzed with proportional logistic regression and Fisher's exact test. There were 233 major discrepancies (1.26 %). Trainee level (senior vs. junior residents; 1.08 vs. 1.38 %; p < 0.05) and modality were significantly associated with performance. Increased workload affected more junior residents' performance, with R3 residents performing significantly worse on busier nights. Hour of the night was not significantly associated with performance, but there was a trend toward best performance at 2 am, with subsequent decreased accuracy throughout the remaining shift hours. Improved performance occurred after the first six night float shifts, presumably as residents acclimated to a night schedule. As overnight shift work schedules increase in popularity for residents and attendings, focused attention to factors impacting interpretative accuracy is warranted. PMID:26475281

  6. Ketones urine test

    MedlinePlus

    Ketone bodies - urine; Urine ketones; Ketoacidosis - urine ketones test; Diabetic ketoacidosis - urine ketones test ... Urine ketones are usually measured as a "spot test." This is available in a test kit that ...

  7. Urine 24-hour volume

    MedlinePlus

    ... in a day, such as: Creatinine Sodium Potassium Nitrogen Protein This test may also be done if ... disease Potassium urine test Sodium urine test Urea nitrogen urine test Urination - excessive amount Urine output - decreased ...

  8. Pink urine.

    PubMed

    Verhoeven, E; Capron, A; Hantson, P

    2014-11-01

    A 55-year-old man was admitted after a suspected hypnotic overdose of valerian extracts. In addition to altered consciousness, the first clinical symptoms included not only diffuse rash on the face, trunk, and limbs, but also an inspiratory dyspnea with a marked hypoxemia. A major laryngeal edema was noted during orotracheal intubation. After correction of hypoxemia, the patient became agitated and propofol was administered by continuous infusion. In addition, the patient passed pink urine staining the urine collection bag. The presence of an unidentified toxic substance was suspected. PMID:25233954

  9. Urine culture - catheterized specimen

    MedlinePlus

    Culture - urine - catheterized specimen; Urine culture - catheterization; Catheterized urine specimen culture ... urinary tract infections may be found in the culture. This is called a contaminant. You may not ...

  10. Urine - abnormal color

    MedlinePlus

    ... straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine may be cloudy, dark, or blood-colored. Causes Abnormal urine color may ... red blood cells, or mucus in the urine. Dark brown but clear urine is a sign of ...

  11. Overnight Therapy? The Role of Sleep in Emotional Brain Processing

    PubMed Central

    van der Helm, Els; Walker, Matthew P.

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive neuroscience continues to build meaningful connections between affective behavior and human brain function. Within the biological sciences, a similar renaissance has taken place, focusing on the role of sleep in various neurocognitive processes, and most recently, the interaction between sleep and emotional regulation. In this review, we survey an array of diverse findings across basic and clinical research domains, resulting in a convergent view of sleep-dependent emotional brain processing. Based on the unique neurobiology of sleep, we outline a model describing the overnight modulation of affective neural systems and the (re)processing of recent emotional experiences, both of which appear to redress the appropriate next-day reactivity of limbic and associated autonomic networks. Furthermore, a REM sleep hypothesis of emotional-memory processing is proposed, the implications of which may provide brain-based insights into the association between sleep abnormalities and the initiation and maintenance of mood disturbances. PMID:19702380

  12. Urinal Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurd, Randy; Hacking, Kip; Haymore, Benjamin; Truscott, Tadd; Splash Lab Team

    2013-11-01

    In response to harsh and repeated criticisms from our mothers and several failed relationships with women, we present the splash dynamics of a simulated human male urine stream impacting rigid and free surfaces. Our study aims to reduce undesired splashing that may result from lavatory usage. Experiments are performed at a pressure and flow rate that would be expected from healthy male subjects. For a rigid surface, the effects of stream breakup and surface impact angle on lateral and vertical droplet ejection distances are measured using high-speed photography and image processing. For free surface impact, the effects of velocity and fluid depth on droplet ejection distances are measured. Guided by our results, techniques for splash reduction are proposed.

  13. Urine specific gravity test

    MedlinePlus

    Urine specific gravity is a laboratory test that shows the concentration of all chemical particles in the urine. ... changes to will tell the provider the specific gravity of your urine. The dipstick test gives only ...

  14. Osmolality urine test

    MedlinePlus

    ... and urine concentration. Osmolality is a more exact measurement of urine concentration than the urine specific gravity ... slightly among different laboratories. Some labs use different measurements or test different samples. Talk to your provider ...

  15. Urination - difficulty with flow

    MedlinePlus

    ... at night? Has the force of your urine flow decreased? Do you have dribbling or leaking urine? ... conditions or surgeries that could affect your urine flow? What medicines do you take? Tests that may ...

  16. Urine Protein and Urine Protein to Creatinine Ratio

    MedlinePlus

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Urine Protein and Urine Protein to Creatinine Ratio Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: 24-Hour Urine Protein; Urine Total Protein; Urine Protein to Creatinine Ratio; ...

  17. Nectin-1 spots regulate the branching of olfactory mitral cell dendrites.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Takeshi; Inoue, Takahito; Maruo, Tomohiko; Rikitake, Yoshiyuki; Ieki, Nao; Mandai, Kenji; Kimura, Kazushi; Kayahara, Tetsuro; Wang, Shujie; Itoh, Yu; Sai, Kousyoku; Mori, Masahiro; Mori, Kensaku; Takai, Yoshimi; Mizoguchi, Akira

    2015-09-01

    Olfactory mitral cells extend lateral secondary dendrites that contact the lateral secondary and apical primary dendrites of other mitral cells in the external plexiform layer (EPL) of the olfactory bulb. The lateral dendrites further contact granule cell dendrites, forming dendrodendritic reciprocal synapses in the EPL. These dendritic structures are critical for odor information processing, but it remains unknown how they are formed. We recently showed that the immunoglobulin-like cell adhesion molecule nectin-1 constitutes a novel adhesion apparatus at the contacts between mitral cell lateral dendrites, between mitral cell lateral and apical dendrites, and between mitral cell lateral dendrites and granule cell dendritic spine necks in the deep sub-lamina of the EPL of the developing mouse olfactory bulb and named them nectin-1 spots. We investigated here the role of the nectin-1 spots in the formation of dendritic structures in the EPL of the mouse olfactory bulb. We showed that in cultured nectin-1-knockout mitral cells, the number of branching points of mitral cell dendrites was reduced compared to that in the control cells. In the deep sub-lamina of the EPL in the nectin-1-knockout olfactory bulb, the number of branching points of mitral cell lateral dendrites and the number of dendrodendritic reciprocal synapses were reduced compared to those in the control olfactory bulb. These results indicate that the nectin-1 spots regulate the branching of mitral cell dendrites in the deep sub-lamina of the EPL and suggest that the nectin-1 spots are required for odor information processing in the olfactory bulb. PMID:26169026

  18. Urine drug screen

    MedlinePlus

    Drug screen -- urine ... detect the presence of illegal and some prescription drugs in your urine. Their presence indicates that you recently used these drugs. Some drugs may remain in your system for ...

  19. Leukocyte esterase urine test

    MedlinePlus

    ... the urine. This may mean you have a urinary tract infection . If this test is positive, the urine should ... Results Mean An abnormal result indicates a possible urinary tract infection. Alternative Names WBC esterase Images Male urinary system ...

  20. Urination - difficulty with flow

    MedlinePlus

    ... can take to care for yourself include: Keep track of your urination patterns and bring the report ... Medical Professional Call your provider if you notice urinary hesitancy, dribbling, or a weak urine stream. Call ...

  1. RBC urine test

    MedlinePlus

    Red blood cells in urine; Hematuria test; Urine - red blood cells ... A normal result is 4 red blood cells per high power field (RBC/HPF) or less when the sample is examined under a microscope. The example above ...

  2. Uric acid urine test

    MedlinePlus

    The uric acid urine test measures the level of uric acid in urine. Uric acid level can also be checked using a blood ... help determine the cause of a high uric acid level in the blood. It may also be ...

  3. 24-hour urine protein

    MedlinePlus

    ... of fluid (dehydration) Any type of x-ray exam with dye (contrast material) within 3 days before the urine test Fluid from the vagina that gets into the urine Severe emotional stress Strenuous exercise Urinary tract infection

  4. Urine 24-hour volume

    MedlinePlus

    ... test results: Dehydration Any type of x-ray exam with dye (contrast material) within 3 days before the urine test Fluid from the vagina that gets into the urine Emotional stress Heavy exercise Urinary tract infection

  5. Urea nitrogen urine test

    MedlinePlus

    A 24-hour urine sample is often needed. You will need to collect your urine over 24 hours . Your health care provider will tell you how to do this. Follow instructions exactly to ensure accurate results.

  6. Cytology exam of urine

    MedlinePlus

    ... The urine sample can also be collected during cystoscopy . During this procedure, your provider uses a thin, ... discomfort with a clean catch urine specimen. During cystoscopy, there may be slight discomfort when the scope ...

  7. Urine concentration test

    MedlinePlus

    A urine concentration test measures the ability of the kidneys to conserve or excrete water. ... Increased urine concentration may be due to different conditions, such as: Heart failure Loss of body fluids (dehydration) from diarrhea or ...

  8. Urine drainage bags

    MedlinePlus

    ... catheter and urine drainage bag because you have urinary incontinence (leakage), urinary retention (not being able to urinate), ... wall repair Inflatable artificial sphincter Radical prostatectomy Stress urinary incontinence Urge incontinence Urinary incontinence Urinary incontinence - injectable implant ...

  9. PBG urine test

    MedlinePlus

    ... tested in the lab. This is called a random urine sample. If needed, your health care provider ... For a random urine sample, a negative test result is considered normal. If the test is done on a 24-hour ...

  10. Urine specific gravity test

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003587.htm Urine specific gravity test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Urine specific gravity is a laboratory test that shows the concentration ...

  11. Urine sample (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... catch" urine sample is performed by collecting the sample of urine in midstream. Men or boys should wipe clean the head of the penis. Women or girls need to wash the area between the lips of the vagina with soapy water and rinse well. A small amount of urine ...

  12. Quantification of chromatographic effects of vitamin B supplementation in urine and implications for hydration assessment.

    PubMed

    Kenefick, Robert W; Heavens, K R; Dennis, W E; Caruso, E M; Guerriere, K I; Charkoudian, N; Cheuvront, S N

    2015-07-15

    Changes in body water elicit reflex adjustments at the kidney, thus maintaining fluid volume homeostasis. These renal adjustments change the concentration and color of urine, variables that can, in turn, be used as biomarkers of hydration status. It has been suggested that vitamin supplementation alters urine color; it is unclear whether any such alteration would confound hydration assessment via colorimetric evaluation. We tested the hypothesis that overnight vitamin B2 and/or B12 supplementation alters urine color as a marker of hydration status. Thirty healthy volunteers were monitored during a 3-day euhydrated baseline, confirmed via first morning nude body mass, urine specific gravity, and urine osmolality. Volunteers then randomly received B2 (n = 10), B12 (n = 10), or B2 + B12 (n = 10) at ∼200 × recommended dietary allowance. Euhydration was verified on trial days (two of the following: body mass ± 1.0% of the mean of visits 1-3, urine specific gravity < 1.02, urine osmolality < 700 mmol/kg). Vitamin purity and urinary B2 concentration ([B2]) and [B12] were quantified via ultraperformance liquid chromatography. Two independent observers assessed urine color using an eight-point standardized color chart. Following supplementation, urinary [B2] was elevated; however, urine color was not different between nonsupplemented and supplemented trials. For example, in the B2 trial, urinary [B2] increased from 8.6 × 10(4) ± 7.7 × 10(4) to 5.7 × 10(6) ± 5.3 × 10(6) nmol/l (P < 0.05), and urine color went from 4 ± 1 to 5 ± 1 (P > 0.05). Both conditions met the euhydrated color classification. We conclude that a large overnight dose of vitamins B2 and B12 does not confound assessment of euhydrated status via urine color. PMID:25977447

  13. An Overnight Success?: Usage Patterns and Demographics of Academic Library Patrons during the Overnight Period from 11 p.m.-8 a.m.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Mark; Hodges, Chris

    2014-01-01

    During the Fall 2013 semester East Carolina University's main library piloted 24/5 hours of operation by opening on Sunday morning and not closing until Friday night. This article details the planning and execution of the pilot program, as well the findings from the data collected during the overnight period by people-counting cameras and a…

  14. Urine pH test

    MedlinePlus

    A urine pH test measures the level of acid in urine. ... pH - urine ... meat products, or cheese can decrease your urine pH. ... to check for changes in your urine acid levels. It may be done to ... more effective when urine is acidic or non-acidic (alkaline).

  15. Purple Urine Bag Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Abubacker, Naufal Rizwan Taraganar; Jayaraman, Senthil Manikandan Thirumanilayur; R, Kannan; Sivanesan, Magesh Kumar; Mathew, Renu

    2015-08-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) is a rare disorder seen in elderly persons, wherein the urinary bag and the tubing turn in to purple colour. It is usually seen in patients who are on urinary catheters for a long time. Purple coloured urine occurs due to the accumulation of indigo and indirubin, which are the end products of tryptophan metabolism due to the action of sulfatases and phosphatases formed by bacteria like Providencia, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Klebsiella etc. We present this interesting phenomenon of purple urine in a young male who was on prolonged urinary catheterization. The urine culture was positive for Providencia and constipation was an added risk factor for the purple urine. The urinary catheter and tubing was changed along with a course of antibiotics which lead to the normalization of the urine colour. PMID:26435987

  16. Effects of overnight fasting on working memory-related brain network: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Chechko, Natalia; Vocke, Sebastian; Habel, Ute; Toygar, Timur; Kuckartz, Lisa; Berthold-Losleben, Mark; Laoutidis, Zacharias G; Orfanos, Stelios; Wassenberg, Annette; Karges, Wölfram; Schneider, Frank; Kohn, Nils

    2015-03-01

    Glucose metabolism serves as the central source of energy for the human brain. Little is known about the effects of blood glucose level (BGL) on higher-order cognitive functions within a physiological range (e.g., after overnight fasting). In this randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind study, we assessed the impact of overnight fasting (14 h) on brain activation during a working memory task. We sought to mimic BGLs that occur naturally in healthy humans after overnight fasting. After standardized periods of food restriction, 40 (20 male) healthy participants were randomly assigned to receive either glucagon to balance the BGL or placebo (NaCl). A parametric fMRI paradigm, including 2-back and 0-back tasks, was used. Subclinically low BGL following overnight fasting was found to be linked to reduced involvement of the bilateral dorsal midline thalamus and the bilateral basal ganglia, suggesting high sensitivity of those regions to minimal changes in BGLs. Our results indicate that overnight fasting leads to physiologically low levels of glucose, impacting brain activation during working memory tasks even when there are no differences in cognitive performance. PMID:25393934

  17. 17-Ketosteroids urine test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 34. Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Metyrapone (cortisol) - 24-hour urine. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, eds. Laboratory Tests and Diagnostic Procedures . ...

  18. The Urinal Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kranakis, Evangelos; Krizanc, Danny

    A man walks into a men's room and observes n empty urinals. Which urinal should he pick so as to maximize his chances of maintaining privacy, i.e., minimize the chance that someone will occupy a urinal beside him? In this paper, we attempt to answer this question under a variety of models for standard men's room behavior. Our results suggest that for the most part one should probably choose the urinal furthest from the door (with some interesting exceptions). We also suggest a number of variations on the problem that lead to many open problems.

  19. Urine Pretreat Injection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    A new method of introducing the OXONE (Registered Trademark) Monopersulfate Compound for urine pretreat into a two-phase urine/air flow stream has been successfully tested and evaluated. The feasibility of this innovative method has been established for purposes of providing a simple, convenient, and safe method of handling a chemical pretreat required for urine processing in a microgravity space environment. Also, the Oxone portion of the urine pretreat has demonstrated the following advantages during real time collection of 750 pounds of urine in a Space Station design two-phase urine Fan/Separator: Eliminated urine precipitate buildup on internal hardware and plumbing; Minimized odor from collected urine; and Virtually eliminated airborne bacteria. The urine pretreat, as presently defined for the Space Station program for proper downstream processing of urine, is a two-part chemical treatment of 5.0 grams of Oxone and 2.3 ml of H2SO4 per liter of urine. This study program and test demonstrated only the addition of the proper ratio of Oxone into the urine collection system upstream of the Fan/Separator. This program was divided into the following three major tasks: (1) A trade study, to define and recommend the type of Oxone injection method to pursue further; (2) The design and fabrication of the selected method; and (3) A test program using high fidelity hardware and fresh urine to demonstrate the method feasibility. The trade study was conducted which included defining several methods for injecting Oxone in different forms into a urine system. Oxone was considered in a liquid, solid, paste and powered form. The trade study and the resulting recommendation were presented at a trade study review held at Hamilton Standard on 24-25 October 94. An agreement was reached at the meeting to continue the solid tablet in a bag concept which included a series of tablets suspended in the urine/air flow stream. These Oxone tablets would slowly dissolve at a controlled rate

  20. Urine concentration test

    MedlinePlus

    ... or osmolality, your provider will send your urine sample to a lab. If needed, your provider may ask you to collect your urine at home over 24 hours . Your provider will tell you how to do this. Follow instructions exactly so that the results are accurate.

  1. Osmolality urine - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... midstream) urine sample. To obtain a clean-catch sample, men or boys should wipe clean the head of the penis. Women or girls need to wash the area between the lips of the vagina with soapy water and rinse well. As you start to urinate, ...

  2. Glucose urine test

    MedlinePlus

    ... with a color-sensitive pad. The color the dipstick changes to tells the provider the level of glucose in your urine. If needed, your provider may ask you to collect your urine at home over 24 hours . Your provider will tell you how to do ...

  3. Urine Monitoring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feedback, Daniel L.; Cibuzar, Branelle R.

    2009-01-01

    The Urine Monitoring System (UMS) is a system designed to collect an individual crewmember's void, gently separate urine from air, accurately measure void volume, allow for void sample acquisition, and discharge remaining urine into the Waste Collector Subsystem (WCS) onboard the International Space Station. The Urine Monitoring System (UMS) is a successor design to the existing Space Shuttle system and will resolve anomalies such as: liquid carry-over, inaccurate void volume measurements, and cross contamination in void samples. The crew will perform an evaluation of airflow at the ISS UMS urinal hose interface, a calibration evaluation, and a full user interface evaluation. o The UMS can be used to facilitate non-invasive methods for monitoring crew health, evaluation of countermeasures, and implementation of a variety of biomedical research protocols on future exploration missions.

  4. Urine collection device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michaud, R. B. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A urine collection device for females is described. It is comprised of a collection element defining a urine collection chamber and an inlet opening into the chamber and is adapted to be disposed in surrounding relation to the urethral opening of the user. A drainage conduit is connected to the collection element in communication with the chamber whereby the chamber and conduit together comprise a urine flow pathway for carrying urine generally away from the inlet. A first body of wicking material is mounted adjacent the collection element and extends at least partially into the flow pathway. The device preferably also comprise a vaginal insert element including a seal portion for preventing the entry of urine into the vagina.

  5. [Urine analysis in pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Schlembach, D

    2006-09-01

    Beside prevention routine antenatal care involves screening examinations for early diagnosis and therapy of pregnancy associated complications. Antenatal care guidelines recommend physical and especially vaginal examination, ultrasonographic evaluation, laboratory examinations, but also urine analysis. The commonly used urine analysis by dipstick can provide information on urinary tract infections, glucosuria and proteinuria. While the estimation of glucosuria has been found to be of no use for the detection of gestational diabetes and therefore is not recommended as a screening method for this disorder, urine analysis by dipstick or culture for bacteriuria or urinary tract infection followed by an antibiotic treatment is able to reduce maternal and neonatal complications. The most important role for urine analysis is the detection of proteinuria by routine dipstick examination and the quantification of proteinuria by 24 hour urin sampling in women with hypertensive disorders in pregnancy, especially in preeclampsia. PMID:17048173

  6. EVALUATION OF CHROMOMYCIN A3 ASSAY IN HUMAN SPERM AFTER SIMULATED OVERNIGHT SHIPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    EVALUATION OF CHROMOMYCIN A3ASSAY IN HUMAN SPERM AFTER SIMULATED OVERNIGHT SHIPMENT.
    SC Jeffay1, R Morris Buus1, LF Strader1, AF Olshan2, DP Evenson3, SD Perreault1. 1US EPA/ORD, RTP, NC;2UNC-CH, Chapel Hill, NC;3SDSU, Brookings, SD.

    Semen collection kits that allow ...

  7. Psychosocial outcomes of a summer overnight recreational experience for children with heart disease.

    PubMed

    Bultas, Margaret W; Steurer, Lisa M; Balakas, Karen; Brooks, Charlotte; Fields, Heidi

    2015-12-01

    Children with chronic heart disease (CHD) are often turned away from recreational summer overnight experiences because of complicated medical histories and medication regimens. The purpose of this qualitative study was to evaluate the psychosocial impact of a five-day overnight recreational experience for children with CHD and their parents. Thirty-six children with CHD between the age of 8 and 15 years and their parents participated in the study. Data were collected from the children using photovoice interviews. Parent data were collected using a post camp survey. Results included the following external outcome themes: inclusion in a peer group and the importance of friendship, fun, and safety. Internal or personal outcome themes included counselor as a role model, increased self-confidence, and the realization of life's possibilities. Parent themes included increased child independence, increased child confidence, and child feelings of normalcy related to belonging to a peer group. Findings from this study can be used to encourage families of children with CHD to allow participation in a well-supervised overnight recreational experience. Such an experience can foster the child's overall development, provide peer group support, and reduce parent anxiety about overnight separation from the child. PMID:24951544

  8. Effects of Model Performances on Music Skill Acquisition and Overnight Memory Consolidation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cash, Carla D.; Allen, Sarah E.; Simmons, Amy L.; Duke, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the extent to which the presentation of an auditory model prior to learning a novel melody affects performance during active practice and the overnight consolidation of procedural memory. During evening training sessions, 32 nonpianist musicians practiced a 13-note keyboard melody with their left…

  9. EVALUATION OF SPERM CHROMATIN STRUCTURE ASSAY (SCSA REGISTERED TRADEMARK) IN HUMAN SPERM AFTER SIMULATED OVERNIGHT SHIPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Home semen collection kits allow men to collect a sample at their convenience and send it via overnight mail to the laboratory. Benefits of this approach include facilitated sample collection from different geographic locations, minimized variability through analysis by a central...

  10. Nonhazardous Urine Pretreatment Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akse, James R.; Holtsnider, John T.

    2012-01-01

    A method combines solid phase acidification with two non-toxic biocides to prevent ammonia volatilization and microbial proliferation. The safe, non-oxidizing biocide combination consists of a quaternary amine and a food preservative. This combination has exhibited excellent stabilization of both acidified and unacidified urine. During pretreatment tests, composite urine collected from donors was challenged with a microorganism known to proliferate in urine, and then was processed using the nonhazardous urine pre-treatment method. The challenge microorganisms included Escherichia coli, a common gram-negative bacteria; Enterococcus faecalis, a ureolytic gram-positive bacteria; Candida albicans, a yeast commonly found in urine; and Aspergillus niger, a problematic mold that resists urine pre-treatment. Urine processed in this manner remained microbially stable for over 57 days. Such effective urine stabilization was achieved using non-toxic, non-oxidizing biocides at higher pH (3.6 to 5.8) than previous methods in use or projected for use aboard the International Space Station (ISS). ISS urine pretreatment methods employ strong oxidants including ozone and hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)), a carcinogenic material, under very acidic conditions (pH = 1.8 to 2.4). The method described here offers a much more benign chemical environment than previous pretreatment methods, and will lower equivalent system mass (ESM) by reducing containment volume and mass, system complexity, and crew time needed to handle pre-treatment chemicals. The biocides, being non-oxidizing, minimize the potential for chemical reactions with urine constituents to produce volatile, airborne contaminants such as cyanogen chloride. Additionally, the biocides are active under significantly less acidic conditions than those used in the current system, thereby reducing the degree of required acidification. A simple flow-through solid phase acidification (SPA) bed is employed to overcome the natural buffering

  11. Crew Factors in Flight Operations 7: Psychophysiological Responses to Overnight Cargo Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gander, Philippa H.; Gregory, Kevin B.; Connell, Linda J.; Miller, Donna L.; Graeber, R. Curtis; Rosekind, Mark R.

    1996-01-01

    To document the psychophysiological effects of flying overnight cargo operations, 41 B-727 crew members (average age 38 yr) were monitored before, during, and after one of two typical 8-day trip patterns. During daytime layovers, the average sleep episode was 3 hr (41%) shorter than nighttime sleeps and was rated as lighter, less restorative, and poorer overall. Sleep was frequently split into several episodes and totaled 1.2 hr less per 24 hr than on pretrip days. Each trip pattern included a night off, which was an effective countermeasure against the accumulating sleep debt. The organization of sleep during daytime layovers reflected the interaction of duty timing with circadian physiology. The circadian temperature rhythm did not adapt completely to the inverted wake-rest schedule on duty days, being delayed by about 3 hr. Highest subjective fatigue and lowest activation occurred around the time of the temperature minimum. On duty days, reports of headaches increased by 400%, of congested nose by 200%, and of burning eyes by 900%. Crew members also reported eating more snacks. Compared with daytime short-haul air-transport operations, the overnight cargo trips included fewer duty and flight hours, and had longer layovers. Overnight cargo crews also averaged 5.4 yr younger than their daytime short-haul counterparts. On trips, both groups lost a comparable amount of sleep per 24 hr, but the overnight cargo crews had shorter individual sleep episodes and more broken sleep. These data clearly demonstrate that overnight cargo operations, like other night work, involve physiological disruption not found in comparable daytime operations.

  12. Alkylresorcinol metabolites in urine and plasma as potential biomarkers of rye and wheat fiber consumption in prostate cancer patients and controls.

    PubMed

    Meija, Laila; Krams, Indriķis; Cauce, Vinita; Samaletdin, Adile; Söderholm, Paivi; Meija, Raimonds; Lārmane, Līga; Lejnieks, Aivars; Lietuvietis, Vilnis; Adlercreutz, Herman

    2015-01-01

    Alkylresorcinols (ARs) are phytochemicals mainly associated with rye/wheat bran. Plasma ARs and their plasma and urine metabolites are considered as biomarkers for whole-grain rye/wheat intake. However ARs metabolite day and night variations have not been studied in prostate cancer patients yet. We investigated ARs metabolites 3, 5-dihydroxy-benzoic acid (DHBA), and 3-(3, 5-dihydroxyphenyl)-1-propanoic acid (DHPPA) in urine and plasma in prostate cancer patients and in control group. DHPPA in 12-h overnight urine correlated with the intake of rye bread and bread fiber across short time periods (3 days). Plasma DHPPA concentration was significantly greater in the prostate cancer group than in the control group. DHPPA and DHBA excretion was significantly higher in the overnight urine than in day urine in the prostate cancer group but not in the control group. DHPPA concentration in plasma in the prostate cancer group did not depend on the intake of rye bread in the previous day, suggesting an impaired metabolism of ARs metabolites in the prostate cancer group. The results of this study suggest DHPPA in 12-h overnight urine as a biomarker to estimate the intake of rye bread and bread fiber. PMID:25608053

  13. Protein electrophoresis - urine

    MedlinePlus

    ... nephropathy Kidney failure Multiple myeloma Nephrotic syndrome Acute urinary tract infection Risks There are no risks associated with this ... Primary amyloidosis Protein in diet Protein urine test Urinary tract infection - adults Update Date 5/29/2014 Updated by: ...

  14. Frequent or urgent urination

    MedlinePlus

    ... urinate. Causes Common causes of these symptoms are: Urinary tract infection (UTI) Enlarged prostate in middle-aged and older ... Urogynecology. Physiology of micturition, voiding dysfunction, urinary incontinence, urinary tract infections, and painful bladder syndrome. In: Lentz GM, Lobo ...

  15. Urine Tests (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... a doctor suspects that a child has a urinary tract infection (UTI) or a health problem that can cause ... to-Creatinine Ratio Kidney Diseases in Childhood Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections and Related Conditions Urinary Tract Infections Urine Test: ...

  16. Maple syrup urine disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... People with this condition cannot break down the amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine. This leads to a ... be done to check for this disorder: Plasma amino acid test Urine organic acid test Genetic testing There ...

  17. Urinating more at night

    MedlinePlus

    ... you to urinate more often during the night. Caffeine and alcohol after dinner can also lead to ... or urinary tract Drinking a lot of alcohol, caffeine, or other fluids before bedtime Enlarged prostate gland ( ...

  18. Citric acid urine test

    MedlinePlus

    ... used to diagnose renal tubular acidosis and evaluate kidney stone disease. ... tubular acidosis and a tendency to form calcium kidney stones. The following may decrease urine citric acid levels: ...

  19. PBG urine test

    MedlinePlus

    Porphobilinogen test ... temporarily stop taking medicines that may affect the test results. Be sure to tell your provider about ... This test involves only normal urination, and there is no discomfort.

  20. Leucine aminopeptidase - urine

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003617.htm Leucine aminopeptidase - urine To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Leucine aminopeptidase is a type of protein called an ...

  1. 24-hour urine protein

    MedlinePlus

    ... a blockage of blood vessels, or other causes Multiple myeloma Healthy people may have higher than normal urine ... Distal Hemolytic anemia Macroglobulinemia of Waldenstrom Microalbuminuria test Multiple myeloma Nephrotic syndrome Proximal Wilson disease Update Date 11/ ...

  2. Traveling Overnight

    MedlinePlus

    ... someone to help you at the airport, train station, or bus station. • Keep important documents with you in a safe ... she were a child. • Respect the person’s personal space, and don’t get too close. • Make eye ...

  3. Overnight Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Nancy N.; Stahl, Robert J.

    1981-01-01

    Outlines objectives for an elementary science camping program and summarizes general operational procedures. Campsite activities related to such topics as microorganisms, eye and sight, nature trails, bees, carpentry, and astronomy are described. (DS)

  4. Hantavirus Infections among Overnight Visitors to Yosemite National Park, California, USA, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Núñez, Jonathan J.; Fritz, Curtis L.; Knust, Barbara; Buttke, Danielle; Enge, Barryett; Novak, Mark G.; Kramer, Vicki; Osadebe, Lynda; Messenger, Sharon; Albariño, César G.; Ströher, Ute; Niemela, Michael; Amman, Brian R.; Wong, David; Manning, Craig R.; Nichol, Stuart T.; Rollin, Pierre E.; Xia, Dongxiang; Watt, James P.

    2014-01-01

    In summer 2012, an outbreak of hantavirus infections occurred among overnight visitors to Yosemite National Park in California, USA. An investigation encompassing clinical, epidemiologic, laboratory, and environmental factors identified 10 cases among residents of 3 states. Eight case-patients experienced hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, of whom 5 required intensive care with ventilatory support and 3 died. Staying overnight in a signature tent cabin (9 case-patients) was significantly associated with becoming infected with hantavirus (p<0.001). Rodent nests and tunnels were observed in the foam insulation of the cabin walls. Rodent trapping in the implicated area resulted in high trap success rate (51%), and antibodies reactive to Sin Nombre virus were detected in 10 (14%) of 73 captured deer mice. All signature tent cabins were closed and subsequently dismantled. Continuous public awareness and rodent control and exclusion are key measures in minimizing the risk for hantavirus infection in areas inhabited by deer mice. PMID:24565589

  5. Hantavirus infections among overnight visitors to Yosemite National Park, California, USA, 2012.

    PubMed

    Núñez, Jonathan J; Fritz, Curtis L; Knust, Barbara; Buttke, Danielle; Enge, Barryett; Novak, Mark G; Kramer, Vicki; Osadebe, Lynda; Messenger, Sharon; Albariño, César G; Ströher, Ute; Niemela, Michael; Amman, Brian R; Wong, David; Manning, Craig R; Nichol, Stuart T; Rollin, Pierre E; Xia, Dongxiang; Watt, James P; Vugia, Duc J

    2014-03-01

    In summer 2012, an outbreak of hantavirus infections occurred among overnight visitors to Yosemite National Park in California, USA. An investigation encompassing clinical, epidemiologic, laboratory, and environmental factors identified 10 cases among residents of 3 states. Eight case-patients experienced hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, of whom 5 required intensive care with ventilatory support and 3 died. Staying overnight in a signature tent cabin (9 case-patients) was significantly associated with becoming infected with hantavirus (p<0.001). Rodent nests and tunnels were observed in the foam insulation of the cabin walls. Rodent trapping in the implicated area resulted in high trap success rate (51%), and antibodies reactive to Sin Nombre virus were detected in 10 (14%) of 73 captured deer mice. All signature tent cabins were closed and subsequently dismantled. Continuous public awareness and rodent control and exclusion are key measures in minimizing the risk for hantavirus infection in areas inhabited by deer mice. PMID:24565589

  6. Overnight S100B in Parkinson's Disease: A glimpse into sleep-related neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, D Z; Schönwald, S V; Schumacher-Schuh, A F; Braga, C W; Souza, D O; Oses, J P; Donis, K C; Rieder, C R

    2015-11-01

    Calcium-binding protein B (S100B), a primary product of astrocytes, is a proposed marker of Parkinson's Disease (PD) pathophysiology, diagnosis and progression. However, it has also been implicated in sleep disruption, which is very common in PD. To explore the relationship between S100B, disease severity, sleep symptoms and polysomnography (PSG) findings, overnight changes in serum S100B levels were investigated for the first time in PD. 17 fully treated, non-demented, moderately advanced PD patients underwent PSG and clinical assessment of sleep symptoms. Serum S100B samples were collected immediately before and after the PSG. Results are shown as median [interquartile range]. Night and morning S100B levels were similar, but uncorrelated (rs=-0.277, p=0.28). Morning S100B levels, as opposed to night levels, positively correlated with the Unified Parkinson's Disease rating scale (UPDRS) subsections I and II (rs=0.547, p=0.023; rs=0.542, p=0.025). Compared to those with overnight S100B reduction, patients with overnight S100B elevation had higher H&Y scores (2.5 [0.87] vs. 2 [0.25], p=0.035) and worse total Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Parkinson's Disease Sleep Scores (10 [3.2] vs. 8 [4.5], p=0.037; 92.9 [39] vs. 131.4 [28], p=0.034). Correlation between morning S100B levels and total UPDRS score was strengthened after controlling for total PSQI score (rs=0.531, p=0.034; partial rs=0.699, p=0.004, respectively). Overnight S100B variation and morning S100B were associated with PD severity and perceived sleep disruption. S100B is proposed as a putative biomarker for sleep-related neuroinflammation in PD. Noradrenergic-astrocytic dysfunction is hypothesized as a possible mechanism underlying these findings. PMID:26453767

  7. A single bout of exercise activates skeletal muscle satellite cells during subsequent overnight recovery.

    PubMed

    Snijders, Tim; Verdijk, Lex B; Beelen, Milou; McKay, Bryon R; Parise, Gianni; Kadi, Fawzi; van Loon, Luc J C

    2012-06-01

    Skeletal muscle satellite cell (SC) content has been reported to increase following a single bout of exercise. Data on muscle fibre type-specific SC content and/or SC activation status are presently lacking. The objective of the study was to determine the impact of a single bout of exercise on muscle fibre type-specific SC content and activation status following subsequent overnight recovery. Eight healthy men (age, 20 ± 1 years) performed a single bout of combined endurance- and resistance-type exercise. Muscle biopsies were collected before and immediately after exercise, and following 9 h of postexercise, overnight recovery. Muscle fibre type-specific SC and myonuclear content and SC activation status were determined by immunohistochemical analyses. Satellite cell activation status was assessed by immunohistochemical staining for both Delta-like homologue 1 (DLK1) and Ki-67. Muscle fibre size and fibre area per nucleus were greater in type II compared with type I muscle fibres (P < 0.05). At baseline, no differences were observed in the percentage of SCs staining positive for DLK1 and/or Ki67 between fibre types. No significant changes were observed in SC content following 9 h of postexercise, overnight recovery; however, the percentage of DLK1-positive SCs increased significantly during overnight recovery, from 22 ± 5 to 41 ± 5% and from 24 ± 6 to 51 ± 9% in the type I and II muscle fibres, respectively. No changes were observed in the percentage of Ki-67-positive SCs. A single bout of exercise activates both type I and II skeletal muscle fibre SCs within a single night of postexercise recovery, preceding the subsequent increase in SC content. PMID:22327327

  8. Overnight consolidation promotes generalization across talkers in the identification of nonnative speech sounds.

    PubMed

    Earle, F Sayako; Myers, Emily B

    2015-01-01

    This investigation explored the generalization of phonetic learning across talkers following training on a nonnative (Hindi dental and retroflex) contrast. Participants were trained in two groups, either in the morning or in the evening. Discrimination and identification performance was assessed in the trained talker and an untrained talker three times over 24 h following training. Results suggest that overnight consolidation promotes generalization across talkers in identification, but not necessarily discrimination, of nonnative speech sounds. PMID:25618106

  9. Overnight consolidation promotes generalization across talkers in the identification of nonnative speech sounds

    PubMed Central

    Earle, F. Sayako; Myers, Emily B.

    2015-01-01

    This investigation explored the generalization of phonetic learning across talkers following training on a nonnative (Hindi dental and retroflex) contrast. Participants were trained in two groups, either in the morning or in the evening. Discrimination and identification performance was assessed in the trained talker and an untrained talker three times over 24 h following training. Results suggest that overnight consolidation promotes generalization across talkers in identification, but not necessarily discrimination, of nonnative speech sounds. PMID:25618106

  10. Behavioral changes in female Asian elephants when given access to an outdoor yard overnight.

    PubMed

    Powell, David M; Vitale, Cathy

    2016-07-01

    A study was conducted at the Bronx Zoo to determine whether providing elephants with access to an outdoor corral at night had any significant effects on behavior, use of space, and use of a sand corral. Activity budgets for three female Asian elephants were compared when the subjects were housed indoors overnight and when they were given access to an outdoor yard overnight. Observations were recorded via infrared video cameras between the hours of 1900 and 0700 during the months of July-September. Two of the three elephants showed a significant preference for spending time outdoors, whereas, the third elephant spent most of her time indoors. Standing and play behavior increased when the elephants had outdoor access while lying down and feeding behavior decreased. Swaying behavior decreased significantly when the elephants had access to the outdoor yard. The elephants made very little use of a sand-floor stall regardless of whether or not they had access to outdoors. The results of this study, suggest that having access to alternate areas overnight can promote well-being by reducing repetitive behavior and allowing animals to express their preferences for different locations. The relative importance of choice alone vs. the behavioral opportunities provided by choice options for zoo animals is discussed. Zoo Biol. 35:298-303, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27128882

  11. The Human Urine Metabolome

    PubMed Central

    Bouatra, Souhaila; Aziat, Farid; Mandal, Rupasri; Guo, An Chi; Wilson, Michael R.; Knox, Craig; Bjorndahl, Trent C.; Krishnamurthy, Ramanarayan; Saleem, Fozia; Liu, Philip; Dame, Zerihun T.; Poelzer, Jenna; Huynh, Jessica; Yallou, Faizath S.; Psychogios, Nick; Dong, Edison; Bogumil, Ralf; Roehring, Cornelia; Wishart, David S.

    2013-01-01

    Urine has long been a “favored” biofluid among metabolomics researchers. It is sterile, easy-to-obtain in large volumes, largely free from interfering proteins or lipids and chemically complex. However, this chemical complexity has also made urine a particularly difficult substrate to fully understand. As a biological waste material, urine typically contains metabolic breakdown products from a wide range of foods, drinks, drugs, environmental contaminants, endogenous waste metabolites and bacterial by-products. Many of these compounds are poorly characterized and poorly understood. In an effort to improve our understanding of this biofluid we have undertaken a comprehensive, quantitative, metabolome-wide characterization of human urine. This involved both computer-aided literature mining and comprehensive, quantitative experimental assessment/validation. The experimental portion employed NMR spectroscopy, gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), direct flow injection mass spectrometry (DFI/LC-MS/MS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) experiments performed on multiple human urine samples. This multi-platform metabolomic analysis allowed us to identify 445 and quantify 378 unique urine metabolites or metabolite species. The different analytical platforms were able to identify (quantify) a total of: 209 (209) by NMR, 179 (85) by GC-MS, 127 (127) by DFI/LC-MS/MS, 40 (40) by ICP-MS and 10 (10) by HPLC. Our use of multiple metabolomics platforms and technologies allowed us to identify several previously unknown urine metabolites and to substantially enhance the level of metabolome coverage. It also allowed us to critically assess the relative strengths and weaknesses of different platforms or technologies. The literature review led to the identification and annotation of another 2206 urinary compounds and was used to help guide the subsequent experimental studies. An online database containing

  12. Cocaine metabolite (benzoylecgonine) in hair and urine of drug users.

    PubMed

    Martinez, F; Poet, T S; Pillai, R; Erickson, J; Estrada, A L; Watson, R R

    1993-01-01

    Two methods of drug detection, urinalysis and hair analysis, were compared with respect to the efficiency of identification of drug use in a population of men living on the Arizona-Mexico border. The standard curve of cannabinoids in urine was linear to 20 ng/mL. The GC/MS levels for all cannabinoids combined in urine were very similar to that obtained by radioimmunoassay (RIA), 91% concordance. Similar results were obtained from samples analyzed dually for the cocaine metabolite benzoylecgonine (BE) after spiking. As determined by RIA of urine, 74% of the subjects were positive for cannabinoids. The majority were in the range of 100-1000 ng/mg creatinine. The pattern of excretion of THC metabolites with respect to the verbally reported time of first use was fairly normal, with the peak rate of elimination 13-24 hours following the last reported use. Washed hair samples were extracted by overnight acid hydrolysis. Urine samples and neutralized hair extracts were analyzed for cocaine and BE by RIA. Of the hair samples, 55% contained cocaine/BE, as compared with only 4.3% of the urine samples. Most hair samples contained cocaine/BE in the range of 25-100 ng/sample (100 mg hair). All hair samples testing negative for cocaine/BE by RIA also tested negative by GC/MS, and four samples containing the highest amounts of cocaine and BE by RIA were similarly found to contain the highest amounts by GC/MS. Hair analysis, therefore, gives a wider window of detection of drug use than does urinalysis and shows merit in the confirmation of cocaine use in small clinical research studies. PMID:8336486

  13. Blood in the Urine (Hematuria)

    MedlinePlus

    ... process starts in the kidneys , which remove excess fluids and waste from the blood and turn them into urine. The urine then flows through tubes called ureters into the bladder, where it's stored ...

  14. Outcomes of Operations Performed by Attending Surgeons after Overnight Trauma Shifts

    PubMed Central

    Sharpe, John P; Weinberg, Jordan A; Magnotti, Louis J; Nouer, Simonne S; Yoo, Wonsuk; Zarzaur, Ben L; Cullinan, Darren R; Hendrick, Leah E; Fabian, Timothy C; Croce, Martin A

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND To date, work-hour restrictions have not been imposed on attending surgeons in the United States. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of working an overnight trauma shift on outcomes of general surgery operations performed the next day by the post-call attending physician. STUDY DESIGN Consecutive patients over a 3.5-year period undergoing elective general surgical procedures were reviewed. Procedures were limited to hernia repairs (inguinal and ventral), cholecystectomies, and intestinal operations. Any operations that were performed the day after the attending surgeon had taken an overnight trauma shift were considered post-call (PC) cases; all other cases were considered nonpost-call (NP). Outcomes from the PC operations were compared with those from the NP operations. RESULTS There were 869 patients identified; 132 operations were performed PC and 737 were NP. The majority of operations included hernia repairs (46%), followed by cholecystectomies (35%), and intestinal procedures (19%). Overall, the PC operations did not differ from the NP operations with respect to complication rate (13.7% vs 13.5%, p = 0.93) or readmission within 30 days (5% vs 6%, p = 0.84). Additionally, multivariable logistic regression failed to identify an association between PC operations and the development of adverse outcomes. Follow-up was obtained for an average of 3 months. CONCLUSIONS Performance of general surgery operations the day after an overnight in-hospital trauma shift did not affect complication rates or readmission rates. At this time, there is no compelling evidence to mandate work-hour restrictions for attending general surgeons. PMID:23313541

  15. Prolonged respiratory illness after single overnight continuous positive airway pressure humidification: endotoxin as the suspect.

    PubMed

    Raymond, Lawrence W; Barkley, John E; Langley, Ricky; Sautter, Robert

    2009-12-01

    A patient developed a prolonged respiratory illness after a single overnight use of tap water to humidify air supplied by a constant positive airway pressure (CPAP) device, which she had previously used for six years without difficulty. During those years, she used only distilled water for this purpose, as instructed by her sleep specialist. Analysis of the well water supplying her home showed no microorganisms, metals or other analytes likely to have caused her illness, but endotoxin was found at concentrations well above that recommended by the U.S. Pharmacopeia, as a maximum in water which may be inhaled as an aerosol. PMID:20016436

  16. Electrolytic pretreatment of urine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Electrolysis has been under evaluation for several years as a process to pretreat urine for ultimate recovery of potable water in manned spacecraft applications. The conclusions that were drawn from this investigation are the following: (1) A platinum alloy containing 10 percent rhodium has been shown to be an effective, corrosion-resistant anode material for the electrolytic pretreatment of urine. Black platinum has been found to be suitable as a cathode material. (2) The mechanism of the reactions occurring during the electrolysis of urine is two-stage: (a) a total Kjeldahl nitrogen and total organic carbon (TOC) removal in the first stage is the result of electrochemical oxidation of urea to CO2, H2O, and ammonia followed by chloride interaction to produce N2 from ammonia, (b) after the urea has been essentially removed and the chloride ions have no more ammonia to interact with, the chloride ions start to oxidize to higher valence states, thus producing perchlorates. (3) Formation of perchlorates can be suppressed by high/low current operation, elevated temperature, and pH adjustment. (4) UV-radiation showed promise in assisting electrolytic TOC removal in beaker tests, but was not substantiated in limited single cell testing. This may have been due to non-optimum configurations of the single cell test rig and the light source.

  17. Accuracy evaluation of blood glucose monitoring systems in children on overnight closed-loop control.

    PubMed

    DeSalvo, Daniel J; Shanmugham, Satya; Ly, Trang T; Wilson, Darrell M; Buckingham, Bruce A

    2014-09-01

    This pilot study evaluated the difference in accuracy between the Bayer Contour® Next (CN) and HemoCue® (HC) glucose monitoring systems in children with type 1 diabetes participating in overnight closed-loop studies. Subjects aged 10-18 years old were admitted to a clinical research center and glucose values were obtained every 30 minutes overnight. Glucose values were measured using whole blood samples for CN and HC readings and results were compared to Yellow Springs Instrument (YSI) reference values obtained with plasma from the same sample. System accuracy was compared using mean absolute relative difference (MARD) and International Organization for Standardization (ISO) accuracy standards. A total of 28 subjects were enrolled in the study. Glucose measurements were evaluated at 457 time points. CN performed better than HC with an average MARD of 3.13% compared to 10.73% for HC (P < .001). With a limited sample size, CN met ISO criteria (2003 and 2013) at all glucose ranges while HC did not. CN performed very well, and would make an excellent meter for future closed-loop studies outside of a research center. PMID:24876427

  18. Arteriovenous differences across human adipose and forearm tissues after overnight fast.

    PubMed

    Coppack, S W; Frayn, K N; Humphreys, S M; Whyte, P L; Hockaday, T D

    1990-04-01

    Measurements of arteriovenous differences across subcutaneous abdominal tissue (mainly adipose) and deep forearm tissue (mainly muscle) were made on 25 occasions in normal subjects after an overnight fast. Adipose tissue was shown to be strongly lipolytic (releasing nonesterified fatty acids and glycerol), to clear circulating triacylglycerol, glucose, ketone bodies and acetate, and to produce lactate. Uptake of circulating carbohydrate and ketones was sufficient to account for only 51% of the adipose tissue oxygen consumption, implying that adipose tissue utilizes fuel(s) stored within it. The mean fractional re-esterification rate of fatty acids in adipose tissue was 13% to 19%. Arteriovenous differences were converted to fluxes of carbon atoms to compare the movements of different fuels. (Amino acids were not included in these calculations.) Adipose tissue after an overnight fast was a net exporter of carbon, whereas in resting muscle the uptake of carbon atoms from circulating carbohydrate and lipid fuels approximately balanced the CO2 production. Fatty acids were the main form in which carbon left adipose tissue, and the main source of carbon atoms entering the resting forearm. PMID:2109165

  19. Relative density of urine: methods and clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Pradella, M; Dorizzi, R M; Rigolin, F

    1988-01-01

    The physical properties and chemical composition of urine are highly variable and are determined in large measure by the quantity and the type of food consumed. The specific gravity is the ratio of the density to that of water, and it is dependent on the number and weight of solute particles and on the temperature of the sample. The weight of solute particles is constituted mainly of urea (73%), chloride (5.4%), sodium (5.1%), potassium (2.4%), phosphate (2.0%), uric acid (1.7%), and sulfate (1.3%). Nevertheless, urine osmolality depends only on the number of solute particles. The renal production of maximally concentrated urine and formation of dilute urine may be reduced to two basic elements: (1) generation and maintenance of a renal medullary solute concentration hypertonic to plasma and (2) a mechanism for osmotic equilibration between the inner medulla and the collecting duct fluid. The interaction of the renal medullary countercurrent system, circulating levels of antidiuretic hormone, and thirst regulates water metabolism. Renin, aldosterone, prostaglandins, and kinins also play a role. Clinical estimation of the concentrating and diluting capacity can be performed by relatively simple provocative tests. However, urinary specific gravity after taking no fluids for 12 h overnight should be 1.025 or more, so that the second urine in the morning is a useful sample for screening purposes. Many preservation procedures affect specific gravity measurements. The concentration of solids (or water) in urine can be measured by weighing, hydrometer, refractometry, surface tension, osmolality, a reagent strip, or oscillations of a capillary tube. These measurements are interrelated, not identical. Urinary density measurement is useful to assess the disorders of water balance and to discriminate between prerenal azotemia and acute tubular necrosis. The water balance regulates the serum sodium concentration, therefore disorders are revealed by hypo- and hypernatremia. The

  20. Advances in Urine Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Becker, Gavin J; Garigali, Giuseppe; Fogazzi, Giovanni B

    2016-06-01

    Urine microscopy is an important tool for the diagnosis and management of several conditions affecting the kidneys and urinary tract. In this review, we describe the automated instruments, based either on flow cytometry or digitized microscopy, that are currently in use in large clinical laboratories. These tools allow the examination of large numbers of samples in short periods. We also discuss manual urinary microscopy commonly performed by nephrologists, which we encourage. After discussing the advantages of phase contrast microscopy over bright field microscopy, we describe the advancements of urine microscopy in various clinical conditions. These include persistent isolated microscopic hematuria (which can be classified as glomerular or nonglomerular on the basis of urinary erythrocyte morphology), drug- and toxin-related cystalluria (which can be a clue for the diagnosis of acute kidney injury associated with intrarenal crystal precipitation), and some inherited conditions (eg, adenine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency, which is associated with 2,8-dihydroxyadenine crystalluria, and Fabry disease, which is characterized by unique urinary lamellated fatty particles). Finally, we describe the utility of identifying "decoy cells" and atypical malignant cells, which can be easily done with phase contrast microscopy in unfixed samples. PMID:26806004

  1. Detection of mutagenic activity in the urine of rodents treated with p-Rosaniline

    SciTech Connect

    Lawlor, T.E.; Haworth, S.R.; Lilja, H.S.; Cameron, T.P.; Dunkel, V.C.

    1987-01-01

    p-Rosaniline was fed to male and female Fischer 344 rats and B6C3F1 mice at doses of 1000 and 2000 ppm for male rats and 500 and 1000 ppm for female rats and mice of both sexes. Urine was collected overnight at 1-wk intervals over a 4-wk treatment period and frozen until its use in the mutagenicity assay. The neat urine was tested in triplicate without S-9 on Salmonella tester strains TA98, TA100, TA1535, and TA1537 at 0.75, 0.5, 0.2, and 0.05 ml per plate. When sufficient urine was available, samples were tested at TA100 in the presence of S-9. Either urine samples were pretreated for 18 hr at 37/sup 0/C with ..beta..-glucuronidase, or the deconjugating enzyme was added to the top agar at the time of plating in the mutagenicity assay (non-pretreatment). Direct-acting mutagenic activity was detected on TA98 in the urine from male mice, but only when using the non-pretreatment deconjugation method. No direct-acting mutagenic activity was detected in the urine of male and female rats and female mice; however, in the presence of S-9, mutagenic activity was observed in the urine of male rats and in the urine of male and female mice regardless of the deconjugation method used. The non-pretreatment method was superior for detecting direct acting mutagenic activity, and the pretreatment method was superior for detecting mutagenic activity requiring metabolic activation by S-9.

  2. A cross-sectional study of the association between overnight call and irritable bowel syndrome in medical students

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Malcolm; Roth, Lee; McWilliam, Morgan; Thompson, Kim; Chande, Nilesh

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Shift work has been associated with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), which includes gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal pain, constipation and diarrhea. Overnight call shifts also lead to a disruption of the endogenous circadian rhythm. HYPOTHESIS: Medical students who perform intermittent overnight call shifts will demonstrate a higher prevalence of IBS symptoms when compared with medical students who perform no overnight call shifts. METHODS: First- and second-year (preclinical) medical students have no overnight call requirements, whereas third- and fourth-year medical (clerkship) students do have overnight call requirements. All medical students at the Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry (London, Ontario) were invited to complete an anonymous, web-based survey or an identical paper copy that included demographic data, the Rome III questionnaire and the IBS-Quality of Life measure (IBS-QOL). The prevalence of IBS symptoms and quality of life secondary to those symptoms were determined. RESULTS: Data were available for 247 medical students (110 pre-clinical students, 118 clerkship students and 19 excluded surveys). There was no significant difference in the presence of IBS between preclinical and clerkship students (21 of 110 [19.1%] versus 26 of 118 [22.0%]; P=0.58). The were no significant differences in mean (± SD) IBS-QOL score of those with IBS between preclinical (43.5±8.3) and clerkship students (45.7±13.8) (P=0.53). CONCLUSIONS: Participation in overnight call was not associated with the development of IBS or a lower quality of life secondary to IBS in medical students. PMID:22590702

  3. Some historical aspects of urinals and urine receptacles.

    PubMed

    Mattelaer, J J

    1999-06-01

    In the history of mankind the first receptacles for urine were made and employed for diagnostic purposes and developed over centuries to a sophisticated matula. In ancient Greek and Roman history, chamber pots existed and urine was collected to bleach sheets, but it was only in the late medieval and renaissance times that a real urine receptacle or urinal for daily use was developed. We give a short description of the materials used, including clay, pewter, copper, and silver, but more sophisticated receptacles made of china, such as the bourdaloue, and of glass, such as the Kuttrolf, were also developed for use during long church ceremonies. Less known are the wooden "pipes" from Turkestan, used to keep babies dry. In the long history of mankind, urinals sometimes became very original objects. PMID:10418087

  4. Hematuria (Blood in the Urine)

    MedlinePlus

    ... tract is the body’s drainage system for removing wastes and extra water. The urinary tract includes two kidneys, two ureters, ... 1 to 2 quarts of urine, composed of wastes and extra water. The urine flows from the kidneys to the ...

  5. Flight Schedule and the Circadian Clock Influence on Sleep Loss During Overnight Cargo Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gander, Philippa H.; Gregory, Kevin B.; Rosekind, Mark R.; Shafto, Michael G. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Thirty-four flight crew members were monitored before, during, and after two 8-day overnight cargo duty patterns which involved multiple flights at night crossing no more than one time zone per 24 h. Rectal temperature, heart rate, and wrist activity were recorded every 2 min. Sleep quantity and quality, and nap timing, were noted in a logbook. To reduce the masking effects of physical activity on temperature, 0.28 C was added to each subject's raw temperature data whenever he reported being asleep. For both masked and unmasked data, daily temperature minima were estimated from the multiple complex demodulated waveform. The temperature minima did not show a progressive adaptation to night duty, which was interrupted by a night off after 5 nights on one trip pattern and after 3 nights on the other. On duty days, the average temperature minimum delayed by about 3 h, occurring near the end of the duty period. Daytime sleep episodes averaged 2.9 h shorter than nighttime sleep episodes, and were rated as lighter, less restorative, and poorer overall. Fifty-three percent of subjects slept more than once per 24 h while they were on night duty, compared to 17% when able to sleep at night. The total sleep per 24 h on duty days averaged 1.2 h less than pretrip. Twenty-nine percent of subjects lost more than 2 h of sleep per 24 h across the 8-day duty patterns. After night duty, subjects awoke around 1400 local time, even when they had slept 2-3 h less than a normal nocturnal sleep episode. Consequently, the duration of morning sleep episodes was correlated with the off-duty time (multiple r(sup 2)=0.44, F=37.23, p less than 0.0001). Anecdotally, crew members complained of being unable to sleep longer and not feeling well-rested. These wakeups were clustered 6 h after the temperature minimum, which suggests that they may have been a response to the circadian wakeup signal. Daytime layovers in which crew members were able to sleep again in the evening ended later (0200

  6. Overnight Pulse Oximetry for Evaluation of Sleep Apnea among Children with Trisomy 21

    PubMed Central

    Coverstone, Andrea M.; Bird, Merielle; Sicard, Melissa; Tao, Yu; Grange, Dorothy K.; Cleveland, Claudia; Molter, David; Kemp, James S.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: For children with trisomy 21, polysomnography at age 4 to assess obstructive sleep disordered breathing (OSDB) is the standard of care. Oximetry alone has been used to screen for disease among children without trisomy 21. This study evaluates the potential usefulness of oximetry scoring in diagnosing OSDB among children with trisomy 21. Methods: A McGill oximetry score from 1 to 4 was derived from a full overnight PSG done on 119 consecutive pediatric subjects with trisomy 21. Most were referred to the sleep laboratory because of suspicion for OSDB. Oximetry scorers were blinded to the child's full PSG and clinical course. Results of the complete PSG were then compared to oximetry scores. Results: Obstructive apnea-hypopnea index (OAHI) was ≥ 2.5 for 50% of all subjects. Fifty-nine subjects (49.6%) had McGill Score 1 (“inconclusive”); median OAHI was 1.0 (IQR 0.4–3.3). McGill Score was 2 for 43 subjects (36.1%); median OAHI was 4.5 (IQR 1.3-8.8). Seventeen subjects (14.3%) had McGill Scores of 3 or 4; median OAHI was 16.1 (IQR 9.3–45.5, range 2.1 to 101.1). Ten percent of subjects had a considerable number of central events (≥ 2.5 respiratory events/h but OAHI < 2.5), including 7 with McGill Score 2. Conclusions: In a retrospective cohort of children with trisomy 21, McGill oximetry scores of 3 or 4 reliably identified patients with marked OSDB. The possibility of central apneas causing hypoxemia must be considered in those with McGill Score 2. With these caveats, oximetry screening should be considered when developing streamlined protocols for early intervention to treat OSDB in this population. Citation: Coverstone AM, Bird M, Sicard M, Tao Y, Grange DK, Cleveland C, Molter D, Kemp JS. Overnight pulse oximetry for evaluation of sleep apnea among children with trisomy 21. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(12):1309-1315. PMID:25325597

  7. [Pastel in the urine bag].

    PubMed

    Cantaloube, Lucie; Lebaudy, Cécile; Hermabessière, Sophie; Rolland, Yves

    2012-03-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome is a relatively unknown phenomenon in which the urine bag and the collector of chronically catheterized patients turn purple or blue. It affects predominantly women, and is mainly reported in elderly patients. The mechanism seems to be related to the appearance in the urine of two compounds that have been identified as indigo (blue) and indirubin (red) which bind to the urine bag and the collector. Several associated factors are usually mentioned such as constipation, alkaline urine, bed rest, institutionalization or cognitive impairment. They are risk factor of this phenomenon. On the other hand, an infection or a urinary bacterial colonization is necessary and high bacterial counts seem to be the critical step in the development of the purple urine bag syndrome. We report on two cases of purple urine bag syndrome observed in two patients being treated in a long-term care unit. Both of whom were diagnosed with indwelling urinary bacterial colonization, with Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa respectively. PMID:22414392

  8. Overnight Closed-Loop Insulin Delivery in Young People With Type 1 Diabetes: A Free-Living, Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hovorka, Roman; Elleri, Daniela; Thabit, Hood; Allen, Janet M.; Leelarathna, Lalantha; El-Khairi, Ranna; Kumareswaran, Kavita; Caldwell, Karen; Calhoun, Peter; Kollman, Craig; Murphy, Helen R.; Acerini, Carlo L.; Wilinska, Malgorzata E.; Nodale, Marianna; Dunger, David B.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate feasibility, safety, and efficacy of overnight closed-loop insulin delivery in free-living youth with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Overnight closed loop was evaluated at home by 16 pump-treated adolescents with type 1 diabetes aged 12–18 years. Over a 3-week period, overnight insulin delivery was directed by a closed-loop system, and on another 3-week period sensor-augmented therapy was applied. The order of interventions was random. The primary end point was time when adjusted sensor glucose was between 3.9 and 8.0 mmol/L from 2300 to 0700 h. RESULTS Closed loop was constantly applied over at least 4 h on 269 nights (80%); sensor data were collected over at least 4 h on 282 control nights (84%). Closed loop increased time spent with glucose in target by a median 15% (interquartile range −9 to 43; P < 0.001). Mean overnight glucose was reduced by a mean 14 (SD 58) mg/dL (P < 0.001). Time when glucose was <70 mg/dL was low in both groups, but nights with glucose <63 mg/dL for at least 20 min were less frequent during closed loop (10 vs. 17%; P = 0.01). Despite lower total daily insulin doses by a median 2.3 (interquartile range −4.7 to 9.3) units (P = 0.009), overall 24-h glucose was reduced by a mean 9 (SD 41) mg/dL (P = 0.006) during closed loop. CONCLUSIONS Unsupervised home use of overnight closed loop in adolescents with type 1 diabetes is safe and feasible. Glucose control was improved during the day and night with fewer episodes of nocturnal hypoglycemia. PMID:24757227

  9. Corneal deswelling following overnight wear of rigid and hydrogel contact lenses.

    PubMed

    Holden, B A; Sweeney, D F; La Hood, D; Kenyon, E

    1988-01-01

    The edema response over a 24-hour sleep/wake cycle of ten subjects wearing a rigid gas-permeable (RGP) lens in one eye and a hydrogel lens in the other was evaluated. Lenses that result in equivalent amounts of overnight edema were selected. There was no significant difference in the rates of deswelling during the initial hour. However, at three and five hours after eye opening, the amount of residual edema was greater in the eye wearing the hydrogel lens. We suggest that when an RGP lens provides the same closed-eye level of oxygen as a hydrogel lens, the greater tear exchange of the RGP lens will result in a greater open-eye oxygen supply, leading to less daytime edema. This suggests that the more complete deswelling we observed with RGP lenses can be attributed to a lower stimulus to open-eye swelling. Biomicroscopy, subjective vision, and patient comfort were also rated on waking and ten hours after eye opening. On eye opening there was significantly more back-surface debris (P = 0.01) with the RGP lenses. Patients wearing RGPs rated comfort as poorer and vision as better but only the latter attained statistical significance. PMID:3162866

  10. Development of an overnight rapid bovine identification test (ORBIT) for field use.

    PubMed

    Mageau, R P; Cutrufelli, M E; Schwab, B; Johnston, R W

    1984-01-01

    An Overnight Rapid Bovine Identification Test (ORBIT) has been developed as a serological screen test for species verification of raw, whole tissue, bovine meat products. The test, an agar-gel immunodiffusion technique, uses stabilized reagent paper discs and prepared agar plates that have a printed template for correct placement of test components. This test is reliable, practical, economical, and easily performed in the field, such as at a meat import inspection station. The only nonbovine species found to react in the test are the bovine-related species of American bison (buffalo) and water buffalo (from Australia); however, these rare-occurring species do not present a problem for the intended application of the test. Stability of all test components, when stored in a refrigerator, is excellent for at least 1 year. The nature and stability of the test make it suitable for commercial development into test kits which should be highly practical and economical for wide availability and application of this procedure to meat inspection programs concerned with species verification. PMID:6438051

  11. 46 CFR 116.730 - Crew accommodations on vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (65 feet) in length with overnight accommodations for more than 49 passengers. 116.730 Section 116.730... ARRANGEMENT Crew Spaces § 116.730 Crew accommodations on vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length... more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight accommodations for more than 49...

  12. 46 CFR 116.730 - Crew accommodations on vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (65 feet) in length with overnight accommodations for more than 49 passengers. 116.730 Section 116.730... ARRANGEMENT Crew Spaces § 116.730 Crew accommodations on vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length... more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight accommodations for more than 49...

  13. 46 CFR 116.730 - Crew accommodations on vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (65 feet) in length with overnight accommodations for more than 49 passengers. 116.730 Section 116.730... ARRANGEMENT Crew Spaces § 116.730 Crew accommodations on vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length... more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight accommodations for more than 49...

  14. 46 CFR 116.730 - Crew accommodations on vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (65 feet) in length with overnight accommodations for more than 49 passengers. 116.730 Section 116.730... ARRANGEMENT Crew Spaces § 116.730 Crew accommodations on vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length... more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight accommodations for more than 49...

  15. 46 CFR 116.730 - Crew accommodations on vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (65 feet) in length with overnight accommodations for more than 49 passengers. 116.730 Section 116.730... ARRANGEMENT Crew Spaces § 116.730 Crew accommodations on vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length... more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight accommodations for more than 49...

  16. Urine collection apparatus. [feminine hygiene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michaud, R. B. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A urine collection device for females comprises an interface body with an interface surface for engagement with the user's body. The interface body comprises a forward portion defining a urine-receiving bore which has an inlet in the interface surface adapted to be disposed in surrounding relation to the urethral opening of the user. The interface body also has a rear portion integrally adjoining the forward portion and a non-invasive vaginal seal on the interface surface for sealing the vagina of the user from communication with the urine-receiving bore. An absorbent pad is removably supported on the interface body and extends laterally therefrom. A garment for supporting the urine collection is also disclosed.

  17. Treating urine by Spirulina platensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chenliang; Liu, Hong; Li, Ming; Yu, Chengying; Yu, Gurevich

    In this paper Spirulina platensis with relatively high nutrition was cultivated to treat human urine. Batch culture showed that the consumption of N in human urine could reach to 99%, and the consumption of P was more than 99.9%, and 1.05 g biomass was obtained by treating 12.5 ml synthetic human urine; continuous culture showed that S. platensis could consume N, Cl, K and S in human urine effectively, and the consumption could reach to 99.9%, 75.0%, 83.7% and 96.0%, respectively, and the consumption of P was over 99.9%, which is very important to increase the closure and safety of the bioregenerative life support system (BLSS).

  18. A urine volume measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poppendiek, H. F.; Mouritzen, G.; Sabin, C. M.

    1972-01-01

    An improved urine volume measurement system for use in the unusual environment of manned space flight is reported. The system utilizes a low time-constant thermal flowmeter. The time integral of the transient response of the flowmeter gives the urine volume during a void as it occurs. In addition, the two phase flows through the flowmeter present no problem. Developments of the thermal flowmeter and a verification of the predicted performance characteristics are summarized.

  19. Uncertainties of Mayak urine data

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Guthrie; Vostrotin, Vadim; Vvdensky, Vladimir

    2008-01-01

    For internal dose calculations for the Mayak worker epidemiological study, quantitative estimates of uncertainty of the urine measurements are necessary. Some of the data consist of measurements of 24h urine excretion on successive days (e.g. 3 or 4 days). In a recent publication, dose calculations were done where the uncertainty of the urine measurements was estimated starting from the statistical standard deviation of these replicate mesurements. This approach is straightforward and accurate when the number of replicate measurements is large, however, a Monte Carlo study showed it to be problematic for the actual number of replicate measurements (median from 3 to 4). Also, it is sometimes important to characterize the uncertainty of a single urine measurement. Therefore this alternate method has been developed. A method of parameterizing the uncertainty of Mayak urine bioassay measmements is described. The Poisson lognormal model is assumed and data from 63 cases (1099 urine measurements in all) are used to empirically determine the lognormal normalization uncertainty, given the measurement uncertainties obtained from count quantities. The natural logarithm of the geometric standard deviation of the normalization uncertainty is found to be in the range 0.31 to 0.35 including a measurement component estimated to be 0.2.

  20. 28 CFR 550.41 - Urine surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Urine surveillance. 550.41 Section 550.41... Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract CTCs) § 550.41 Urine surveillance. A program of urine testing for drug use shall be established in contract CTCs. (a)...

  1. 28 CFR 550.41 - Urine surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Urine surveillance. 550.41 Section 550.41... Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract CTCs) § 550.41 Urine surveillance. A program of urine testing for drug use shall be established in contract CTCs. (a)...

  2. 28 CFR 550.41 - Urine surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Urine surveillance. 550.41 Section 550.41... Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract CTCs) § 550.41 Urine surveillance. A program of urine testing for drug use shall be established in contract CTCs. (a)...

  3. 28 CFR 550.41 - Urine surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Urine surveillance. 550.41 Section 550.41... Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract CTCs) § 550.41 Urine surveillance. A program of urine testing for drug use shall be established in contract CTCs. (a)...

  4. Preoperative overnight parenteral nutrition (TPN) improves skeletal muscle protein metabolism indicated by microarray algorithm analyses in a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Iresjö, Britt-Marie; Engström, Cecilia; Lundholm, Kent

    2016-06-01

    Loss of muscle mass is associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. Uncertainties of treatment efficiency by short-term artificial nutrition remain, specifically improvement of protein balance in skeletal muscles. In this study, algorithmic microarray analysis was applied to map cellular changes related to muscle protein metabolism in human skeletal muscle tissue during provision of overnight preoperative total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Twenty-two patients (11/group) scheduled for upper GI surgery due to malignant or benign disease received a continuous peripheral all-in-one TPN infusion (30 kcal/kg/day, 0.16 gN/kg/day) or saline infusion for 12 h prior operation. Biopsies from the rectus abdominis muscle were taken at the start of operation for isolation of muscle RNA RNA expression microarray analyses were performed with Agilent Sureprint G3, 8 × 60K arrays using one-color labeling. 447 mRNAs were differently expressed between study and control patients (P < 0.1). mRNAs related to ribosomal biogenesis, mRNA processing, and translation were upregulated during overnight nutrition; particularly anabolic signaling S6K1 (P < 0.01-0.1). Transcripts of genes associated with lysosomal degradation showed consistently lower expression during TPN while mRNAs for ubiquitin-mediated degradation of proteins as well as transcripts related to intracellular signaling pathways, PI3 kinase/MAPkinase, were either increased or decreased. In conclusion, muscle mRNA alterations during overnight standard TPN infusions at constant rate altered mRNAs associated with mTOR signaling; increased initiation of protein translation; and suppressed autophagy/lysosomal degradation of proteins. This indicates that overnight preoperative parenteral nutrition is effective to promote muscle protein metabolism. PMID:27273879

  5. Nectin-1 spots as a novel adhesion apparatus that tethers mitral cell lateral dendrites in a dendritic meshwork structure of the developing mouse olfactory bulb.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Takahito; Fujiwara, Takeshi; Rikitake, Yoshiyuki; Maruo, Tomohiko; Mandai, Kenji; Kimura, Kazushi; Kayahara, Tetsuro; Wang, Shujie; Itoh, Yu; Sai, Kousyoku; Mori, Masahiro; Mori, Kensaku; Mizoguchi, Akira; Takai, Yoshimi

    2015-08-15

    Mitral cells project lateral dendrites that contact the lateral and primary dendrites of other mitral cells and granule cell dendrites in the external plexiform layer (EPL) of the olfactory bulb. These dendritic structures are critical for odor information processing, but it remains unknown how they are formed. In immunofluorescence microscopy, the immunofluorescence signal for the cell adhesion molecule nectin-1 was concentrated on mitral cell lateral dendrites in the EPL of the developing mouse olfactory bulb. In electron microscopy, the immunogold particles for nectin-1 were symmetrically localized on the plasma membranes at the contacts between mitral cell lateral dendrites, which showed bilateral darkening without dense cytoskeletal undercoats characteristic of puncta adherentia junctions. We named the contacts where the immunogold particles for nectin-1 were symmetrically accumulated "nectin-1 spots." The nectin-1 spots were 0.21 μm in length on average and the distance between the plasma membranes was 20.8 nm on average. In 3D reconstruction of serial sections, clusters of the nectin-1 spots formed a disc-like structure. In the mitral cell lateral dendrites of nectin-1-knockout mice, the immunogold particles for nectin-1 were undetectable and the plasma membrane darkening was electron-microscopically normalized, but the plasma membranes were partly separated from each other. The nectin-1 spots were further identified between mitral cell lateral and primary dendrites and between mitral cell lateral dendrites and granule cell dendritic spine necks. These results indicate that the nectin-1 spots constitute a novel adhesion apparatus that tethers mitral cell dendrites in a dendritic meshwork structure of the developing mouse olfactory bulb. PMID:25967681

  6. Creating a urine black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurd, Randy; Pan, Zhao; Meritt, Andrew; Belden, Jesse; Truscott, Tadd

    2015-11-01

    Since the mid-nineteenth century, both enlisted and fashion-conscious owners of khaki trousers have been plagued by undesired speckle patterns resulting from splash-back while urinating. In recent years, industrial designers and hygiene-driven entrepreneurs have sought to limit this splashing by creating urinal inserts, with the effectiveness of their inventions varying drastically. From this large assortment of inserts, designs consisting of macroscopic pillar arrays seem to be the most effective splash suppressers. Interestingly this design partially mimics the geometry of the water capturing moss Syntrichia caninervis, which exhibits a notable ability to suppress splash and quickly absorb water from impacting rain droplets. With this natural splash suppressor in mind, we search for the ideal urine black hole by performing experiments of simulated urine streams (water droplet streams) impacting macroscopic pillar arrays with varying parameters including pillar height and spacing, draining and material properties. We propose improved urinal insert designs based on our experimental data in hopes of reducing potential embarrassment inherent in wearing khakis.

  7. Short-Term Effects of Overnight Orthokeratology on Corneal Epithelial Permeability and Biomechanical Properties

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Thao N.; Green, Harry M.; Zhou, Yixiu; Pitts, Julie; Kitamata-Wong, Britney; Lee, Sophia; Wang, Shiyin L.; Lin, Meng C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the effects of 30 nights of overnight orthokeratology (OOK) on corneal epithelial permeability (Pdc) and corneal biomechanical properties. Methods. BE Retainer and Paragon CRT lenses were used. Visits were scheduled approximately 4 hours after awakening at baseline and after 1, 5, 10, 14, and 30 days of treatment. Pdc was measured at baseline and at day 30, whereas corneal biomechanical properties and visual acuities (VAs) were measured at all visits. Results. Thirty-nine neophytes and soft contact lens wearers completed the study. There was no difference in Pdc between baseline (ln[Pdc] [95% confidence interval (CI)] = −2.65 [−2.80 to −2.50]) and day 30 (ln[Pdc][CI] = −2.68 [−2.85 to −2.50]) (P = 0.88). Corneal hysteresis (CH) and corneal resistance factor (CRF) reduced significantly from baseline (CH [CI] = 10.89 [10.59–11.19] mm Hg and CRF [CI] = 10.35 [9.99–10.72] mm Hg) to day 30 (CH [CI] = 10.59 [10.31–10.87] mm Hg and CRF [CI] = 9.58 [9.26–9.89] mm Hg) (P = 0.001 for CH and P < 0.001 for CRF). Posttreatment VA did not reach baseline targets, and the difference was worse with low-contrast letters. Asian individuals (n = 18) had significantly worse VA than non-Asian individuals (n = 21) under most conditions through day 5, and the difference extended through day 14 with low-contrast letters under mesopic conditions. The percentage of participants who achieved 20/20 uncorrected was 17% Asian and 40% non-Asian individuals after day 1 and reached 69% Asian and 83% non-Asian individuals at day 30. Conclusions. Thirty nights of OOK did not alter Pdc when measured 4 hours after awakening. OOK caused CH and CRF to decrease, but the changes were not clinically significant compared with diseased and postsurgical cases. Asian individuals, who had lower baseline CH in this study, responded slower to OOK based on early uncorrected VA and overrefraction measurements. PMID:23652492

  8. Arousal Responses during Overnight Polysomnography and their Reproducibility in Healthy Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Azarbarzin, Ali; Ostrowski, Michele; Younes, Magdy; Keenan, Brendan T.; Pack, Allan I.; Staley, Bethany; Kuna, Samuel T.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Arousal intensity and heart rate (HR) response to arousal during polysomnography (PSG) vary considerably between patients with sleep disorders. Our objective was to determine the range of these arousal characteristics in healthy young adults and whether they are consistent on repeated testing. Design: Post hoc analysis of 56 preexisting PSG files recorded from 28 healthy adults on 2 consecutive nights. Setting: Academic medical center and Research and Development Laboratory (YRT Limited, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada). Participants: Twenty-eight healthy young adults. Interventions: None. Measurements and Results: Arousals were identified using an automatic system followed by manual editing. The intensity of arousals was scaled (between 0 and 9) using an automatic algorithm based on the change in the electroencephalography (EEG) signals' wavelet characteristics. 4,751 arousals in 28 pairs of PSGs (night 1 and night 2) were scaled. HR responses (ΔHR) to all arousals were determined and averaged at each arousal scale per file. Overall average arousal intensity ranged 3.0–7.1 in different subjects, and average ΔHR ranged 1.9–18.3 beats.min−1. Heart rate response at a given arousal intensity, expressed as ΔHR at a moderate arousal scale of 5.0 (ΔHR5), ranged 4.1–18.1 beats.min−1. There was a strong correlation between arousal intensity and ΔHR within each subject. More importantly, there were excellent intraclass correlations (ICC) between night 1 and night 2 results for all three variables (ICC = 0.72 for average intensity, 0.92 for average ΔHR4, and 0.91 for ΔHR5). Conclusions: Average arousal intensity and heart rate response to arousal are highly variable among healthy young adults and stable within individuals. Citation: Azarbarzin A, Ostrowski M, Younes M, Keenan BT, Pack AI, Staley B, Kuna ST. Arousal responses during overnight polysomnography and their reproducibility in healthy young adults. SLEEP 2015;38(8):1313–1321. PMID

  9. Chemical measurement of urine volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    Chemical method of measuring volume of urine samples using lithium chloride dilution technique, does not interfere with analysis, is faster, and more accurate than standard volumetric of specific gravity/weight techniques. Adaptation of procedure to urinalysis could prove generally practical for hospital mineral balance and catechoamine determinations.

  10. Lean mass influences overnight changes in hydration, blood pressure and strength in community-dwelling older women.

    PubMed

    Benton, Melissa J; Schlairet, Maura C

    2016-10-01

    We evaluated the hypothesis that greater lean mass promotes better overnight hydration, improved postural blood pressure and greater strength. Thirty women, aged 71 ± 0.9 years (mean ± SE), completed one measurement in a euhydrated state and another the following morning after an overnight fast. Measurements included hydration, lean mass, orthostatic blood pressure and strength. Participants were grouped by fat-free mass index (FFMI), with cut-points defined as low (< 15.0 kg/m(2)) and normal (≥ 15.0 kg/m(2)). Women with normal FFMI had significantly greater hydration (p < 0.01), lean mass (p < 0.001) and upper body strength (p < 0.05), while those with low FFMI had more unstable blood pressure. On day 1, women with low FFMI experienced significant postural systolic blood pressure changes from sitting to standing (-11.3 ± 4.0 mmHg, p < 0.05). On day 2, they experienced significant systolic changes from lying to sitting (-8.0 ± 2.2 mmHg, p < 0.01) and sitting to standing (-14.9 ± 5.5 mmHg, p < 0.05), and diastolic changes from lying to sitting (-8.9 ± 2.8 mmHg, p < 0.05). In conclusion, overnight fluid shifts in older women with low lean mass result in unstable postural blood pressure and loss of strength that increases the risk for early morning falls. PMID:27104659

  11. Metabonomic fingerprints of fasting plasma and spot urine reveal human pre-diabetic metabolic traits

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xinjie; Fritsche, Jens; Wang, Jiangshan; Chen, Jing; Rittig, Kilian; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Fritsche, Andreas; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Schleicher, Erwin D.

    2010-01-01

    Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) which precedes overt type 2 diabetes (T2DM) for decades is associated with multiple metabolic alterations in insulin sensitive tissues. In an UPLC-qTOF-mass spectrometry-driven non-targeted metabonomics approach we investigated plasma as well as spot urine of 51 non-diabetic, overnight fasted individuals aiming to separate subjects with IGT from controls thereby identify pathways affected by the pre-diabetic metabolic state. We could clearly demonstrate that normal glucose tolerant (NGT) and IGT subjects clustered in two distinct groups independent of the investigated metabonome. These findings reflect considerable differences in individual metabolite fingerprints, both in plasma and urine. Pre-diabetes associated alterations in fatty acid-, tryptophan-, uric acid-, bile acid-, and lysophosphatidylcholine-metabolism, as well as the TCA cycle were identified. Of note, individuals with IGT also showed decreased levels of gut flora-associated metabolites namely hippuric acid, methylxanthine, methyluric acid, and 3-hydroxyhippuric acid. The findings of our non-targeted UPLC-qTOF-MS metabonomics analysis in plasma and spot urine of individuals with IGT vs NGT offers novel insights into the metabolic alterations occurring in the long, asymptomatic period preceding the manifestation of T2DM thereby giving prospects for new intervention targets. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11306-010-0203-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20676218

  12. Pharmacokinetics of oral 6-mercaptopurine: relationship between plasma levels and urine excretion of parent drug.

    PubMed

    Endresen, L; Lie, S O; Storm-Mathisen, I; Rugstad, H E; Stokke, O

    1990-05-01

    Plasma levels and cumulative urine excretion of 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) were measured using a specific and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic assay in seven children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) as well as in one healthy volunteer. The dose of 6-MP varied in the range of 25-75 mg/m2 of body surface area and was administered with a standard breakfast. A 4- to 11-fold variation between individuals was found in the pharmacokinetic parameters: peak concentration, time to reach peak, area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC), and fraction of dose excreted in the urine. Three repeated determinations in one individual revealed that AUC also varied more than sixfold following an overnight fast. In three individuals, the reducing agents glutathione (10 mg/kg) and ascorbic acid (15 mg/kg) were coadministered with 6-MP to evaluate their possible role in the protection of 6-MP from oxidation and degradation in the intestinal lumen. No consistent effect was observed, however, on the AUCs of either of these agents. A clear relationship was found between AUCs and the 24-h urinary excretion of unchanged drug (r = 0.9381), indicating that determinations of 6-MP in the urine may replace the painful procedure of repeated blood sampling. Further studies are necessary to determine the factors contributing to the unpredictable plasma levels following oral doses of 6-MP and to determine the value of pharmacokinetic monitoring in ALL patients. PMID:2349605

  13. A specialized program for children with developmental disabilities within a "typical" overnight summer camp: Camp Ramah's Tikvah Program.

    PubMed

    Blas, Howard I

    2007-10-01

    The Tikvah Program is an overnight camping program at Camp Ramah in New England that serves campers with a range of developmental disabilities. The program has evolved over its 37-year history and includes a camping program, vocational training program, and inclusion program. Select graduates are hired by the camp for summer employment. The Tikvah Program offers a model for serving campers with special needs within a larger "typical" summer camp. Although serving the needs of such campers offers unique challenges, the presence of such a program in a regular summer camp offers tremendous opportunities and benefits for campers with special needs and more typically developing campers. PMID:17823062

  14. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Urination Changes

    MedlinePlus

    ... nurse if you have any of these changes: l A strong urge to urinate more often l Urine that is cloudy, or is a different ... such as orange, red, green, or dark yellow l Urine that has a strong smell l Trouble ...

  15. Getting a Urine Test (For Kids)

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Help White House Lunch Recipes Getting a Urine Test (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a Urine Test (Video) Print A A A Text Size en ... cup, but docs learn a lot from urine tests. Obviously, this test doesn't hurt. And if ...

  16. On-Demand Urine Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farquharson, Stuart; Inscore, Frank; Shende, Chetan

    2010-01-01

    A lab-on-a-chip was developed that is capable of extracting biochemical indicators from urine samples and generating their surface-enhanced Raman spectra (SERS) so that the indicators can be quantified and identified. The development was motivated by the need to monitor and assess the effects of extended weightlessness, which include space motion sickness and loss of bone and muscle mass. The results may lead to developments of effective exercise programs and drug regimes that would maintain astronaut health. The analyzer containing the lab-on-a- chip includes materials to extract 3- methylhistidine (a muscle-loss indicator) and Risedronate (a bone-loss indicator) from the urine sample and detect them at the required concentrations using a Raman analyzer. The lab-on- a-chip has both an extractive material and a SERS-active material. The analyzer could be used to monitor the onset of diseases, such as osteoporosis.

  17. Randomized clinical trial of multimodal physiotherapy treatment compared to overnight lidocaine ointment in women with provoked vestibulodynia: Design and methods.

    PubMed

    Morin, Mélanie; Dumoulin, Chantale; Bergeron, Sophie; Mayrand, Marie-Hélène; Khalifé, Samir; Waddell, Guy; Dubois, Marie-France

    2016-01-01

    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is a highly prevalent and debilitating condition yet its management relies mainly on non-empirically validated interventions. Among the many causes of PVD, there is growing evidence that pelvic floor muscle (PFM) dysfunctions play an important role in its pathophysiology. Multimodal physiotherapy, which addresses these dysfunctions, is judged by experts to be highly effective and is recommended as a first-line treatment. However, the effectiveness of this promising intervention has been evaluated through only two small uncontrolled trials. The proposed bi-center, single-blind, parallel group, randomized controlled trial (RCT) aims to evaluate the efficacy of multimodal physiotherapy and compare it to a frequently used first-line treatment, topical overnight application of lidocaine, in women with PVD. A total of 212 women diagnosed with PVD according to a standardized protocol were eligible for the study and were randomly assigned to either multimodal physiotherapy or lidocaine treatment for 10weeks. The primary outcome measure is pain during intercourse (assessed with a numerical rating scale). Secondary measures include sexual function, pain quality, psychological factors (including pain catastrophizing, anxiety, depression and fear of pain), PFM morphology and function, and patients' global impression of change. Assessments are made at baseline, post-treatment and at the 6-month follow-up. This manuscript presents and discusses the rationale, design and methodology of the first RCT investigating physiotherapy in comparison to a commonly prescribed first-line treatment, overnight topical lidocaine, for women with PVD. PMID:26600287

  18. The Overnight Effect of Dietary Energy Balance on Postprandial Plasma Free Amino Acid (PFAA) Profiles in Japanese Adult Men

    PubMed Central

    Nishioka, Manabu; Imaizumi, Akira; Ando, Toshihiko; Tochikubo, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    The plasma free amino acid (PFAA) profile is affected by various nutritional conditions, such as the dietary energy balance. Regarding the clinical use of PFAA profiling, it is of concern that differences in food ingestion patterns may generate systematic errors in a plasma amino acid profile and constitute a confounding factor in assessment. In this study, the overnight impact of the dietary energy balance on the postprandial plasma amino acid profile was investigated to elucidate in particular the effects of high protein meals typical in Japanese cuisine. We conducted diet-controlled, crossover trials in eleven healthy male volunteers aged 40–61 y. They consumed either a normal meal (meal N) or high protein meal (meal H) at dinner. Forearm venous blood was collected, and plasma amino acid concentrations were measured before dinner and the next morning. We found that a high protein meal in the evening that contained 40% energy would significantly increase the PFAA concentration the next morning, even more than 12 hours after the meal. Among amino acids, the most significant difference was observed in the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and in some urea-cycle related compounds. If the subject consumed the high protein diet at dinner, the PFAA profile after overnight fasting might be still affected by the meal even 12 hours after the meal, suggesting that the PFAA profile does not reflect the subject's health condition, but rather the acute effect of high protein ingestion. PMID:23667542

  19. Effects of Arginine Supplementation on Amino Acid Profiles in Blood and Tissues in Fed and Overnight-Fasted Rats.

    PubMed

    Holecek, Milan; Sispera, Ludek

    2016-01-01

    Chronic arginine intake is believed to have favorable effects on the body. However, it might be hypothesized that excessive consumption of an individual amino acid exerts adverse effects on distribution and metabolism of other amino acids. We evaluated the effect of chronic intake of arginine on amino acid concentrations in blood plasma, liver, kidneys, and soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles. Rats were fed a standard diet or a high-arginine diet (HAD) for two months. Half of the animals in each group were sacrificed in the fed state, and the other half after fasting overnight. HAD increased blood plasma concentrations of urea, creatinine, arginine, and ornithine and decreased most other amino acids. Arginine and ornithine also increased in muscles and kidneys; an increase of lysine was observed in both muscle types. Methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, asparagine, glycine, serine, and taurine decreased in most tissues of HAD fed animals. Most of the effects of HAD disappeared after overnight fasting. It is concluded that (i) enhanced dietary arginine intake alters distribution of almost all amino acids; and (ii) to attain a better assessment of the effects of various nutritional interventions, an appropriate number of biochemical measurements must be performed in both postprandial and postabsorptive states. PMID:27070638

  20. Effects of Arginine Supplementation on Amino Acid Profiles in Blood and Tissues in Fed and Overnight-Fasted Rats

    PubMed Central

    Holecek, Milan; Sispera, Ludek

    2016-01-01

    Chronic arginine intake is believed to have favorable effects on the body. However, it might be hypothesized that excessive consumption of an individual amino acid exerts adverse effects on distribution and metabolism of other amino acids. We evaluated the effect of chronic intake of arginine on amino acid concentrations in blood plasma, liver, kidneys, and soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles. Rats were fed a standard diet or a high-arginine diet (HAD) for two months. Half of the animals in each group were sacrificed in the fed state, and the other half after fasting overnight. HAD increased blood plasma concentrations of urea, creatinine, arginine, and ornithine and decreased most other amino acids. Arginine and ornithine also increased in muscles and kidneys; an increase of lysine was observed in both muscle types. Methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, asparagine, glycine, serine, and taurine decreased in most tissues of HAD fed animals. Most of the effects of HAD disappeared after overnight fasting. It is concluded that (i) enhanced dietary arginine intake alters distribution of almost all amino acids; and (ii) to attain a better assessment of the effects of various nutritional interventions, an appropriate number of biochemical measurements must be performed in both postprandial and postabsorptive states. PMID:27070638

  1. Urine Bag as a Modern Day Matula

    PubMed Central

    Viswanathan, Stalin

    2013-01-01

    Since time immemorial uroscopic analysis has been a staple of diagnostic medicine. It received prominence during the middle ages with the introduction of the matula. Urinary discoloration is generally due to changes in urochrome concentration associated with the presence of other endogenous or exogenous pigments. Observation of urine colors has received less attention due to the advances made in urinalysis. A gamut of urine colors can be seen in urine bags of hospitalized patients that may give clue to presence of infections, medications, poisons, and hemolysis. Although worrisome to the patient, urine discoloration is mostly benign and resolves with removal of the offending agent. Twelve urine bags with discolored urine (and their predisposing causes) have been shown as examples. Urine colors (blue-green, yellow, orange, pink, red, brown, black, white, and purple) and their etiologies have been reviewed following a literature search in these databases: Pubmed, EBSCO, Science Direct, Proquest, Google Scholar, Springer, and Ovid. PMID:24959539

  2. Effects of overnight sleep restriction on brain chemistry and mood in women with unipolar depression and healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    Bernier, Denise; Bartha, Robert; Devarajan, Sivakumaran; MacMaster, Frank P.; Schmidt, Matthias H.; Rusak, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    Background Partial or total overnight sleep deprivation produces immediate mood improvement in about 50% of patients with depression, but not in healthy controls. Our objectives were to compare the neurochemical changes that accompanied partial overnight sleep deprivation in healthy and depressed participants, and to compare baseline neurochemical profiles and overnight neurochemical changes between those depressed participants who did and did not respond to sleep loss with mood improvement. Methods We studied 2 brain regions (left dorsal prefrontal area and pons) in 12 women with unipolar depression and in 15 healthy women using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy acquired at 1.5 T. The scans took place at baseline and 24 hours later after a night with sleep restricted to a maximum of 2.5 hours (22:30–01:00). We assessed 3 neurochemical signals (referenced to internal water): N-acetylaspartate (NAA), choline compounds (Cho) and creatine-plus-phosphocreatine (tCr). Results In both groups combined, sleep restriction caused a 20.1% decrease in pontine tCr (F1–16 = 5.07, p = 0.039, Cohen’s d = 0.54) and an 11.3% increase in prefrontal Cho (F1–21 = 5.24, p = 0.033, Cohen’s d = 0.46). Follow-up tests revealed that prefrontal Cho increases were significant only among depressed participants (17.9% increase, t9 = −3.35, p = 0.008, Cohen’s d = 1.06). Five depressed patients showed at least 30% improvement in mood, whereas 6 showed no change or worsening in mood after sleep restriction. Baseline pontine Cho levels distinguished subsequent responders from nonresponders to sleep restriction among depressed participants (z = 2.61, p = 0.008). Limitations A limitation of this study is the relatively small sample size. Conclusion Sleep restriction altered levels of pontine tCr and prefrontal Cho in both groups combined, suggesting effects on phospholipid and creatine metabolism. Baseline levels of pontine Cho were linked to subsequent mood responses to sleep loss

  3. A history of urine microscopy.

    PubMed

    Cameron, J Stewart

    2015-11-01

    The naked-eye appearance of the urine must have been studied by shamans and healers since the Stone Age, and an elaborate interpretation of so-called Uroscopy began around 600 AD as a form of divination. A 1000 years later, the first primitive monocular and compound microscopes appeared in the Netherlands, and along with many other objects and liquids, urine was studied from around 1680 onwards as the enlightenment evolved. However, the crude early instruments did not permit fine study because of chromatic and linear/spherical blurring. Only after complex multi-glass lenses which avoided these problems had been made and used in the 1820s in London by Lister, and in Paris by Chevalier and Amici, could urinary microscopy become a practical, clinically useful tool in the 1830s. Clinical urinary microscopy was pioneered by Rayer and his pupils in Paris (especially Vigla), in the late 1830s, and spread to UK and Germany in the 1840s, with detailed descriptions and interpretations of cells and formed elements of the urinary sediment by Nasse, Henle, Robinson and Golding Bird. Classes were held, most notably by Donné in Paris. After another 50 years, optical microscopy had reached its apogee, with magnifications of over 1000 times obtainable free of aberration, using immersion techniques. Atlases of the urinary sediment were published in all major European countries and in the US. Polarised light and phase contrast was used also after 1900 to study urine, and by the early 20th century, photomicroscopy (pioneered by Donné and Daguerre 50 years previously, but then ignored) became usual for teaching and recording. In the 1940s electron microscopy began, followed by detection of specific proteins and cells using immunofluorescent antibodies. All this had been using handheld methodology. Around 1980, machine-assisted observations began, and have dominated progress since. PMID:26079823

  4. Portable obstructive sleep apnea screening system using overnight ECG and a PDA-based wireless transmission system.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kang-Ming

    2009-05-01

    Sleep disorders such as obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are now regarded as an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. The increasing demands for home-based sleep monitoring have prompted studies to develop devices that monitor sleep using fewer sensors. This paper proposes an electrocardiogram (ECG)-based sleep monitoring system that uses a personal digital assistant to display signals and a wireless transmission system. An OSA detection algorithm based only on the overnight-ECG-derived heart-rate-variability low-frequency component (0.02-0.04 Hz) exhibited detection sensitivity of 68.97% and specificity of 100%. This system could meet the future demands of home-based sleep monitoring and thereby reduce the current considerable burdens on hospital sleep centers. PMID:19441954

  5. Effects of early and late rest breaks during training on overnight memory consolidation of a keyboard melody.

    PubMed

    Duke, Robert A; Allen, Sarah E; Cash, Carla D; Simmons, Amy L

    2009-07-01

    In two experiments, we tested the extent to which overnight procedural memory consolidation is affected by extended rest breaks during training. In the first experiment, nonmusicians practiced a 5-element keypress sequence with their nondominant hand in 12 30-s practice intervals separated by 30-s pauses. In the second experiment, nonpianist musicians practiced a 13-note keyboard melody using the same procedures. In both experiments, approximately one-third of the subjects took a 5-min break after the first three blocks of practice; another third took a break after nine blocks of practice; the remaining participants did not take an extended break. All were trained in the evening and were retested the following morning. Participants in both experiments made dramatic improvements over the course of the training and retest sessions, and participants who took an extended rest break early in practice made the largest gains in performance between the end of training and the beginning of retest. PMID:19673774

  6. Overnight Glucose Control With an Automated, Unified Safety System in Children and Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes at Diabetes Camp

    PubMed Central

    Ly, Trang T.; Breton, Marc D.; Keith-Hynes, Patrick; De Salvo, Daniel; Clinton, Paula; Benassi, Kari; Mize, Benton; Chernavvsky, Daniel; Place, Jéróme; Wilson, Darrell M.; Kovatchev, Boris P.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the safety and efficacy of an automated unified safety system (USS) in providing overnight closed-loop (OCL) control in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes attending diabetes summer camps. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The Diabetes Assistant (DIAS) USS used the Dexcom G4 Platinum glucose sensor (Dexcom) and t:slim insulin pump (Tandem Diabetes Care). An initial inpatient study was completed for 12 participants to evaluate safety. For the main camp study, 20 participants with type 1 diabetes were randomized to either OCL or sensor-augmented therapy (control conditions) per night over the course of a 5- to 6-day diabetes camp. RESULTS Subjects completed 54 OCL nights and 52 control nights. On an intention-to-treat basis, with glucose data analyzed regardless of system status, the median percent time in range, from 70–150 mg/dL, was 62% (29, 87) for OCL nights versus 55% (25, 80) for sensor-augmented pump therapy (P = 0.233). A per-protocol analysis allowed for assessment of algorithm performance. The median percent time in range, from 70–150 mg/dL, was 73% (50, 89) for OCL nights (n = 41) versus 52% (24, 83) for control conditions (n = 39) (P = 0.037). There was less time spent in the hypoglycemic range <50, <60, and <70 mg/dL during OCL compared with the control period (P = 0.019, P = 0.009, and P = 0.023, respectively). CONCLUSIONS The DIAS USS algorithm is effective in improving time spent in range as well as reducing nocturnal hypoglycemia during the overnight period in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes in a diabetes camp setting. PMID:24879841

  7. Whole-body fat oxidation increases more by prior exercise than overnight fasting in elite endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Andersson Hall, Ulrika; Edin, Fredrik; Pedersen, Anders; Madsen, Klavs

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare whole-body fat oxidation kinetics after prior exercise with overnight fasting in elite endurance athletes. Thirteen highly trained athletes (9 men and 4 women; maximal oxygen uptake: 66 ± 1 mL·min(-1)·kg(-1)) performed 3 identical submaximal incremental tests on a cycle ergometer using a cross-over design. A control test (CON) was performed 3 h after a standardized breakfast, a fasting test (FAST) 12 h after a standardized evening meal, and a postexercise test (EXER) after standardized breakfast, endurance exercise, and 2 h fasting recovery. The test consisted of 3 min each at 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, and 80% of maximal oxygen uptake and fat oxidation rates were measured through indirect calorimetry. During CON, maximal fat oxidation rate was 0.51 ± 0.04 g·min(-1) compared with 0.69 ± 0.04 g·min(-1) in FAST (P < 0.01), and 0.89 ± 0.05 g·min(-1) in EXER (P < 0.01). Across all intensities, EXER was significantly higher than FAST and FAST was higher than CON (P < 0.01). Blood insulin levels were lower and free fatty acid and cortisol levels were higher at the start of EXER compared with CON and FAST (P < 0.05). Plasma nuclear magnetic resonance-metabolomics showed similar changes in both EXER and FAST, including increased levels of fatty acids and succinate. In conclusion, prior exercise significantly increases whole-body fat oxidation during submaximal exercise compared with overnight fasting. Already high rates of maximal fat oxidation in elite endurance athletes were increased by approximately 75% after prior exercise and fasting recovery. PMID:26988766

  8. 10 CFR 429.31 - Urinals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Urinals. 429.31 Section 429.31 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION CERTIFICATION, COMPLIANCE, AND ENFORCEMENT FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS AND COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.31 Urinals. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for testing....

  9. 10 CFR 429.31 - Urinals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Urinals. 429.31 Section 429.31 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION CERTIFICATION, COMPLIANCE, AND ENFORCEMENT FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS AND COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.31 Urinals. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for testing....

  10. 10 CFR 429.31 - Urinals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Urinals. 429.31 Section 429.31 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION CERTIFICATION, COMPLIANCE, AND ENFORCEMENT FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS AND COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.31 Urinals. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for testing....

  11. Radioscintigraphic demonstration of unsuspected urine extravasation

    SciTech Connect

    Bocchini, T.; Williams, W.; Patton, D.

    1989-06-01

    Three cases of unsuspected urine extravasation first detected by radionuclide scintigraphy are presented with subsequent confirmation by CT and, retrograde pyelograms. A renal study done to rule out acute transplant rejection demonstrates gallbladder uptake which was initially thought to be consistent with urine extravasation.

  12. Measurement of Menadione in urine by HPLC

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Menadione may be an important metabolite of vitamin K that is excreted in urine. A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with a C30 column, fluorescence detection and post-column zinc reduction was developed to measure menadione in urine. The mobile phase was composed of 95% methanol...

  13. 28 CFR 550.41 - Urine surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Urine surveillance. 550.41 Section 550.41 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract CTCs) § 550.41...

  14. [The Bourdaloue urinal in all its forms].

    PubMed

    Mathieu, F

    1996-01-01

    The author draws the attention of his urologist as well as nonurologist colleagues to the "Bourdaloue" urinal describing its dual aspect of a utilitarian and artistic object. A rapid study situates it in its particular historical context and in the more general context of urine collection bottles. PMID:8924944

  15. Family with intermittent maple syrup urine disease

    PubMed Central

    Valman, H. B.; Patrick, A. D.; Seakins, J. W. T.; Platt, J. W.; Gompertz, D.

    1973-01-01

    A family is described in which the 3 children presented with episodes of severe metabolic acidosis secondary to minor infections. 2 of them died, and 1 of these was severely retarded. The sole surviving child is 6 years old and is normal with respect to physical and mental development. Gas chromatography of the urine obtained during episodes of ketoacidosis showed the keto and hydroxy acids characteristic of maple syrup urine disease, and thin layer chromatography of the plasma and urine showed greatly increased concentrations of the branched chain amino acids. The urine and plasma of the surviving child was chromatographically normal between episodes. The leucocyte branched chain keto acid decarboxylase activity in this patient and her father was reduced. The range of features in this family with intermittent maple syrup urine disease illustrates the necessity for prompt and careful investigation of metabolic acidosis of unknown aetiology. PMID:4693464

  16. Quantitation of proteinuria by spot urine sampling.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Indira; Kirubakaran, Chellam; Markandeyulu; Selvakumar

    2004-07-01

    Few studies have shown that calculation of protein/creatinine ratio in a spot urine sample correlates well with the 24-hour urine collection. A study was conducted to compare the accuracy of a spot urinary protein/creatinine ratio (P/C ratio) and urinary dipstick (albustix) with the 24-hour urine protein (24-HUP). Fifty samples from 26 patients were collected. This included a 24-hour urine sample followed by the next voided spot sample. The protein/creatinine ratio was calculated and dipstick (albustix) was performed on the spot sample. This was compared with the 24-hour urine protein excretion. The correlation between the three samples was statistically highly significant (p=<0.001) for all levels of proteinuria. The normal value of protein/creatinine ratio in Indian children was also estimated on 100 normal children attending the OPD and was calculated to be 0.053 (S.E of mean±0.003). PMID:23105455

  17. Comparison of the effects of acute exercise after overnight fasting and breakfast on energy substrate and hormone levels in obese men

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Woon; Lee, Sang Hoon; Choi, Kyu Hwan; Kim, Dong Hyun; Han, Tae Kyung

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] We compared the effects of acute aerobic exercise following overnight fasting and breakfast on energy substrate and hormone levels in obese male college students. [Subjects and Methods] This crossover study recruited 10 obese male college students with a body mass index >25 kg/m2 or >20% body fat. One week post-recruitment, the subjects exercised in the morning after an overnight fast. At 2 weeks, they exercised post-breakfast. Energy substrate (glucose, free fatty acid) and metabolic hormone (insulin, growth hormone, and cortisol) levels were measured immediately before and after exercise and at 60 min post-exercise. [Results] We observed interaction effects between the measurement time and exercise treatment for glucose; significant differences between measurement times and between exercise treatments for free fatty acids; interaction effects between the measurement time and exercise treatment for insulin and significant differences in the measurement time; significance differences between measurement times and between exercise treatments for growth hormone; and significant differences between measurement times and between exercise treatments for cortisol. [Conclusion] Morning exercise following an overnight fast can be more effective in reducing body fat than post-prandial exercise. However, increased cortisol levels following exercise after overnight fasting may negatively affect long-term weight loss in obese men. PMID:26180350

  18. Comparison of the effects of acute exercise after overnight fasting and breakfast on energy substrate and hormone levels in obese men.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Woon; Lee, Sang Hoon; Choi, Kyu Hwan; Kim, Dong Hyun; Han, Tae Kyung

    2015-06-01

    [Purpose] We compared the effects of acute aerobic exercise following overnight fasting and breakfast on energy substrate and hormone levels in obese male college students. [Subjects and Methods] This crossover study recruited 10 obese male college students with a body mass index >25 kg/m(2) or >20% body fat. One week post-recruitment, the subjects exercised in the morning after an overnight fast. At 2 weeks, they exercised post-breakfast. Energy substrate (glucose, free fatty acid) and metabolic hormone (insulin, growth hormone, and cortisol) levels were measured immediately before and after exercise and at 60 min post-exercise. [Results] We observed interaction effects between the measurement time and exercise treatment for glucose; significant differences between measurement times and between exercise treatments for free fatty acids; interaction effects between the measurement time and exercise treatment for insulin and significant differences in the measurement time; significance differences between measurement times and between exercise treatments for growth hormone; and significant differences between measurement times and between exercise treatments for cortisol. [Conclusion] Morning exercise following an overnight fast can be more effective in reducing body fat than post-prandial exercise. However, increased cortisol levels following exercise after overnight fasting may negatively affect long-term weight loss in obese men. PMID:26180350

  19. Relations of Parenting Quality, Interparental Conflict, and Overnights with Mental Health Problems of Children in Divorcing Families with High Legal Conflict

    PubMed Central

    Sandler, Irwin N.; Wheeler, Lorey A.; Braver, Sanford L.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the associations between child mental health problems and the quality of maternal and paternal parenting, and how these associations were moderated by three contextual factors, quality of parenting by the other parent, interparental conflict, and the number of overnights parents had with the child. Data for the current study come from a sample of divorcing families who are in high legal conflict over developing or maintaining a parenting plan following divorce. Analyses revealed that the associations between child mental health problems and positive maternal and paternal parenting were moderated by the quality of parenting provided by the other parent and by the number of overnights children spent with parents, but not by the level of interparental conflict. When both parenting by the other parent and number of overnights were considered in the same model, only number of overnights moderated the relations between parenting and child behavior problems. The results support the proposition that the well-being of children in high conflict divorcing families is better when they spend adequate time with at least one parent who provides high quality parenting. PMID:24098960

  20. Urine tested positive for ethyl glucuronide and ethyl sulphate after the consumption of "non-alcoholic" beer.

    PubMed

    Thierauf, Annette; Gnann, Heike; Wohlfarth, Ariane; Auwärter, Volker; Perdekamp, Markus Grosse; Buttler, Klaus-Juergen; Wurst, Friedrich M; Weinmann, Wolfgang

    2010-10-10

    In abstinence maintenance programs, for reissuing the driving licence and in workplace monitoring programs abstinence from ethanol and its proof are demanded. Various monitoring programs that mainly use ethyl glucuronide (EtG) as alcohol consumption marker have been established. To abstain from ethanol, but not from the taste of alcoholic beverages, in particular non-alcoholic beer has become more and more popular. In Germany, these "alcohol-free" beverages may still have an ethanol content of up to 0.5vol.% without the duty of declaration. Due to severe negative consequences resulting from positive EtG tests, a drinking experiment with 2.5L of non-alcoholic beer per person was performed to address the question of measurable concentrations of the direct metabolites EtG and EtS (ethyl sulphate) in urine and blood. Both alcohol consumption markers - determined by LC-MS/MS - were found in high concentrations: maximum concentrations in urine found in three volunteers were EtG 0.30-0.87mg/L and EtS 0.04-0.07mg/L, i.e., above the often applied cut-off value for the proof of abstinence of 0.1mg EtG/L. In the urine samples of one further volunteer, EtG and EtS concentrations cumulated over-night and reached up to 14.1mg/L EtG and 16.1mg/L EtS in the next morning's urine. Ethanol concentrations in blood and urine samples were negative (determined by HS-GC-FID and by an ADH-based method). PMID:20457499

  1. Impact of Denture Cleaning Method and Overnight Storage Condition on Denture Biofilm Mass and Composition: A Cross-Over Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Duyck, Joke; Vandamme, Katleen; Krausch-Hofmann, Stefanie; Boon, Lies; De Keersmaecker, Katrien; Jalon, Eline; Teughels, Wim

    2016-01-01

    Background Appropriate oral hygiene is required to maintain oral health in denture wearers. This study aims to compare the role of denture cleaning methods in combination with overnight storage conditions on biofilm mass and composition on acrylic removable dentures. Methods In a cross-over randomized controlled trial in 13 older people, 4 conditions with 2 different mechanical cleaning methods and 2 overnight storage conditions were considered: (i) brushing and immersion in water without a cleansing tablet, (ii) brushing and immersion in water with a cleansing tablet, (iii) ultrasonic cleaning and immersion in water without a cleansing tablet, and (iv) ultrasonic cleaning and immersion in water with a cleansing tablet. Each test condition was performed for 5 consecutive days, preceded by a 2-days wash-out period. Biofilm samples were taken at baseline (control) and at the end of each test period from a standardized region. Total and individual levels of selected oral bacteria (n = 20), and of Candida albicans were identified using the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technique. Denture biofilm coverage was scored using an analogue denture plaque score. Paired t-tests and Wilcoxon-signed rank tests were used to compare the test conditions. The level of significance was set at α< 5%. Results Overnight denture storage in water with a cleansing tablet significantly reduced the total bacterial count (p<0.01). The difference in total bacterial level between the two mechanical cleaning methods was not statistically significant. No significant effect was observed on the amount of Candida albicans nor on the analogue plaque scores. Conclusions The use of cleansing tablets during overnight denture storage in addition to mechanical denture cleaning did not affect Candida albicans count, but reduced the total bacterial count on acrylic removable dentures compared to overnight storage in water. This effect was more pronounced when combined with ultrasonic cleaning compared to

  2. Alcohol and the regulation of energy balance: overnight effects on diet-induced thermogenesis and fuel storage.

    PubMed

    Murgatroyd, P R; Van De Ven, M L; Goldberg, G R; Prentice, A M

    1996-01-01

    The effect of alcohol on overnight energy expenditure and substrate disposal was studied in eleven subjects (five men, six women) using whole-body indirect calorimetry for 15.5 h after test meals. Three test meals were studied in random order with at least 48 h between treatments: control, 50% of maintenance energy needs provided as 14, 40 and 46% energy from protein, fat and carbohydrate respectively; alcohol addition, control plus 23% energy as alcohol; alcohol substitution, control with alcohol replacing 23% of carbohydrate energy. ANOVA revealed no significant sex effects. Alcohol-induced thermogenesis dissipated only 15 (SD 14)% of the alcohol energy. Alcohol addition had no significant effect on protein or carbohydrate oxidation but fat oxidation was suppressed (P < 0.0005) to an extent equivalent to storing 74 (SD 51)% of the alcohol energy as fat. Alcohol substitution reduced carbohydrate oxidation (P < 0.009) to an equivalent of 42 (SD 41)% and also spared fat (P < 0.005) to an equivalent of 59 (SD 37)% of the alcohol energy. It is concluded that alcohol has no special thermogenic capacity, and that its energy can be accounted for in a similar way to carbohydrate. PMID:8785189

  3. Effects of overnight captivity on antioxidant capacity and clinical chemistry of wild southern hairy-nosed wombats (Lasiorhinus latifrons).

    PubMed

    Debrincat, Steven; Taggart, David; Rich, Brian; Beveridge, Ian; Boardman, Wayne; Dibben, Ron

    2014-09-01

    An animal's antioxidant capacity is measured by its ability to quench reactive oxygen species (ROS). During everyday metabolism, antioxidants and ROS are in equilibrium with one another. In times of stress, an animal produces more ROS and therefore uses its antioxidant capacity more readily in order to maintain this equilibrium. When the production of ROS exceeds the antioxidant capacity, an animal will experience extensive oxidative stress, which can ultimately affect that animal's health. During experimental study of wild animals, it is often necessary to capture them for a short period of time. In order to obtain a measurement of the effects of short-term captivity on oxidative capacity in wild animals, a population of southern hairy-nosed wombats (Lasiorhinus latifrons) in Swan Reach, South Australia (34.57 degrees S, 139.60 degrees E), was studied. To assess the variation in antioxidant capacity, two assays, the ferric reducing ability of plasma and the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, were performed. A third assay, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, was used to measure the effects of ROS. Measurements of the specific antioxidants uric acid, ascorbic acid, retinol, alpha-tocopherol, and superoxide dismutase were also performed. The biochemical parameters albumin, total protein, cholinesterase, creatinine, and urea were measured as indicators for health. Results showed a significant reduction in antioxidant capacity during the overnight period of captivity. PMID:25314812

  4. The relationship between cadmium in kidney and cadmium in urine and blood in an environmentally exposed population

    SciTech Connect

    Akerstrom, Magnus; Barregard, Lars; Lundh, Thomas; Sallsten, Gerd

    2013-05-01

    Introduction: Cadmium (Cd) is toxic to the kidney and a major part of the body burden occurs here. Cd in urine (U-Cd) and blood (B-Cd) are widely-used biomarkers for assessing Cd exposure or body burden. However, empirical general population data on the relationship between Cd in kidney (K-Cd), urine, and blood are scarce. Our objectives were to determine the relationship between cadmium in kidney, urine, and blood, and calculate the elimination half-time of Cd from the kidney. Methods: Kidney cortex biopsies, urine, and blood samples were collected from 109 living kidney donors. Cd concentrations were determined and the relationships between K-Cd, U-Cd, and B-Cd were investigated in regression models. The half-time of K-Cd was estimated from the elimination constant. Results: There was a strong association between K-Cd and U-Cd adjusted for creatinine (r{sub p} = 0.70, p < 0.001), while the association with B-Cd was weaker (r{sub p} = 0.44, p < 0.001). The relationship between K-Cd and U-Cd was nonlinear, with slower elimination of Cd at high K-Cd. Estimates of the K-Cd half-time varied between 18 and 44 years. A K-Cd of 25 μg/g corresponds to U-Cd of 0.42 μg/g creatinine in overnight urine (U-Cd/K-Cd ratio: about 1:60). Multivariate models showed Cd in blood and urinary albumin as determinants for U-Cd excretion. Discussion: In healthy individuals with low-level Cd exposure, there was a strong correlation between Cd in kidney and urine, especially after adjustment for creatinine. Urinary Cd was also affected by Cd in blood and urinary albumin. Previous estimates of the U-Cd/K-Cd ratio may underestimate K-Cd at low U-Cd. - Highlights: ► The first study of the relation between Cd in kidney, blood and urine at low U-Cd ► Simultaneous samples were collected from healthy kidney donors. ► There was a nonlinear relationship between cadmium in kidney and urine. ► Estimates of the kidney cadmium half-time were 18–44 years, depending on model used. ► Previous

  5. Impact of enzymatic and alkaline hydrolysis on CBD concentration in urine.

    PubMed

    Bergamaschi, Mateus M; Barnes, Allan; Queiroz, Regina H C; Hurd, Yasmin L; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2013-05-01

    A sensitive and specific analytical method for cannabidiol (CBD) in urine was needed to define urinary CBD pharmacokinetics after controlled CBD administration, and to confirm compliance with CBD medications including Sativex-a cannabis plant extract containing 1:1 ∆(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and CBD. Non-psychoactive CBD has a wide range of therapeutic applications and may also influence psychotropic smoked cannabis effects. Few methods exist for the quantification of CBD excretion in urine, and no data are available for phase II metabolism of CBD to CBD-glucuronide or CBD-sulfate. We optimized the hydrolysis of CBD-glucuronide and/or -sulfate, and developed and validated a GC-MS method for urinary CBD quantification. Solid-phase extraction isolated and concentrated analytes prior to GC-MS. Method validation included overnight hydrolysis (16 h) at 37 °C with 2,500 units β-glucuronidase from Red Abalone. Calibration curves were fit by linear least squares regression with 1/x (2) weighting with linear ranges (r(2) > 0.990) of 2.5-100 ng/mL for non-hydrolyzed CBD and 2.5-500 ng/mL for enzyme-hydrolyzed CBD. Bias was 88.7-105.3 %, imprecision 1.4-6.4 % CV and extraction efficiency 82.5-92.7 % (no hydrolysis) and 34.3-47.0 % (enzyme hydrolysis). Enzyme-hydrolyzed urine specimens exhibited more than a 250-fold CBD concentration increase compared to alkaline and non-hydrolyzed specimens. This method can be applied for urinary CBD quantification and further pharmacokinetics characterization following controlled CBD administration. PMID:23494274

  6. Levetiracetam: Probably Associated Diurnal Frequent Urination.

    PubMed

    Ju, Jun; Zou, Li-Ping; Shi, Xiu-Yu; Hu, Lin-Yan; Pang, Ling-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Diurnal frequent urination is a common condition in elementary school children who are especially at risk for associated somatic and behavioral problems. Levetiracetam (LEV) is a broad-spectrum antiepileptic drug that has been used in both partial and generalized seizures and less commonly adverse effects including psychiatric and behavioral problems. Diurnal frequent urination is not a well-known adverse effect of LEV. Here, we reported 2 pediatric cases with epilepsy that developed diurnal frequent urination after LEV administration. Case 1 was a 6-year-old male patient who presented urinary frequency and urgency in the daytime since the third day after LEV was given as adjunctive therapy. Symptoms increased accompanied by the raised dosage of LEV. Laboratory tests and auxiliary examinations did not found evidence of organic disease. Diurnal frequent urination due to LEV was suspected, and then the drug was discontinued. As expected, his frequency of urination returned to normal levels. Another 13-year-old female patient got similar clinical manifestations after oral LEV monotherapy and the symptoms became aggravated while in stress state. Since the most common causes of frequent micturition had been ruled out, the patient was considered to be diagnosed with LEV-associated psychogenic frequent urination. The dosage of LEV was reduced to one-third, and the frequency of urination was reduced by 60%. Both patients got the Naranjo score of 6, which indicated that LEV was a "probable" cause of diurnal frequent urination. Although a definite causal link between LEV and diurnal urinary frequency in the 2 cases remains to be established, we argue that diurnal frequent urination associated with LEV deserves clinician's attention. PMID:26938751

  7. Correlation of Urine Biomarkers: Microalbuminuria and Spot Urine Protein among Diabetic Patients. Application of Spot Urine Protein in Diabetic Kidney Disease, Nephropathy, Proteinuria Estimation, Diagnosing and Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Kamran M A

    2015-01-01

    Current study has invented a new method for utilizing spot urine protein among diabetic patients. There have been various efforts and strategies in research internationally to detect, diagnose and monitor nephropathy/DKD. Although 24-hour urine studies are gold standard, however, there exist some controversies about microalbuminuria and spot urine protein. The current study was designed to utilize spot urine protein among diabetic patients and to find its association with routine dipstick urine test for albumin, and microalbuminuria. The study demonstrated significant association of spot urine protein with urine dipstick albumin, and has demonstrated increasing spot urine protein with increasing albumin in urine (p-value < 0.0001). This study also demonstrated significantly higher levels of spot urine protein between the groups with nephropathy/DKD as compared to those without nephropathy/DKD (p-value < 0.0001). Similarly, spot urine protein and spot urine protein/creatinine were also significantly associated with microalbumin and microalbumin/creatinine in urine. Significant regression models for spot urine protein and microalbuminuria were also developed and proposed to detect and estimate microalbumin in urine while utilizing spot urine protein (< 0.0001). Synthesized regression equations and models can be used confidently to detect, rule out and monitor proteinuria and DKD. ROC curves were utilized to detect spot urine protein cutoff points for nephropathy and DKD with high specificity and sensitivity. Some important patents were also discussed in the paper regarding albuminuria/proteinuria detection and management. Current study has demonstrated and concluded, for the first time, that there exists a significant association of spot urine protein with routine dipstick albumin in urine and microalbuminuria. It is also essential to detect early, monitor and manage proteinuria, hypertension and dyslipidemia with good glycemic control to prevent diabetes

  8. Overnight Social Isolation in Pigs Decreases Salivary Cortisol but Does Not Impair Spatial Learning and Memory or Performance in a Decision-Making Task.

    PubMed

    van der Staay, F Josef; Schoonderwoerd, Annelieke J; Stadhouders, Bo; Nordquist, Rebecca E

    2015-01-01

    Pigs in modern farming practice may be exposed to a number of stressors, including social stressors such as mixing or isolation. This may potentially affect both cognitive abilities and stress physiology of the animals. We tested the hypothesis that overnight social isolation in pigs impairs performance in a cognitive holeboard (HB) task (Experiment 1) and the Pig Gambling Task (PGT) (Experiment 2), a decision-making task inspired by the Iowa Gambling Task. In addition, we tested the effect of overnight social isolation on salivary cortisol levels. A within-subjects approach was used in which performance in the two behavioral tasks and cortisol levels were first determined during normal social housing, followed by performance and cortisol levels after experiencing stress induced by overnight social isolation. A total of 19 female pigs with a birth weight closest to their respective litter average was selected from 10 different litters and placed in two pens after weaning. Following habituation, pigs were trained in the HB task, starting at 10 weeks of age. Then, the pigs were isolated overnight, five individuals per night, at 15, 16, and 17 weeks of age. Between these three isolations, social housing and training in the HB continued. Starting 6 weeks after the end of the HB experiment, at approximately 23 weeks of age, the pigs were trained in the PGT. The effects of overnight social isolation on performance in this task were assessed once, when the pigs were 25 weeks old. Salivary cortisol was measured from samples collected 15 min after the start of isolation and at the end of the isolation period and compared to baseline values collected before the start of social isolation. Our results did not confirm the hypothesis that isolation impaired HB performance and decision-making in the PGT. Unexpectedly, overnight social isolation decreased cortisol levels below baseline values, an effect that was not associated with changes in performance of the

  9. Overnight Social Isolation in Pigs Decreases Salivary Cortisol but Does Not Impair Spatial Learning and Memory or Performance in a Decision-Making Task

    PubMed Central

    van der Staay, F. Josef; Schoonderwoerd, Annelieke J.; Stadhouders, Bo; Nordquist, Rebecca E.

    2016-01-01

    Pigs in modern farming practice may be exposed to a number of stressors, including social stressors such as mixing or isolation. This may potentially affect both cognitive abilities and stress physiology of the animals. We tested the hypothesis that overnight social isolation in pigs impairs performance in a cognitive holeboard (HB) task (Experiment 1) and the Pig Gambling Task (PGT) (Experiment 2), a decision-making task inspired by the Iowa Gambling Task. In addition, we tested the effect of overnight social isolation on salivary cortisol levels. A within-subjects approach was used in which performance in the two behavioral tasks and cortisol levels were first determined during normal social housing, followed by performance and cortisol levels after experiencing stress induced by overnight social isolation. A total of 19 female pigs with a birth weight closest to their respective litter average was selected from 10 different litters and placed in two pens after weaning. Following habituation, pigs were trained in the HB task, starting at 10 weeks of age. Then, the pigs were isolated overnight, five individuals per night, at 15, 16, and 17 weeks of age. Between these three isolations, social housing and training in the HB continued. Starting 6 weeks after the end of the HB experiment, at approximately 23 weeks of age, the pigs were trained in the PGT. The effects of overnight social isolation on performance in this task were assessed once, when the pigs were 25 weeks old. Salivary cortisol was measured from samples collected 15 min after the start of isolation and at the end of the isolation period and compared to baseline values collected before the start of social isolation. Our results did not confirm the hypothesis that isolation impaired HB performance and decision-making in the PGT. Unexpectedly, overnight social isolation decreased cortisol levels below baseline values, an effect that was not associated with changes in performance of the

  10. Vitamin A in the urine of carnivores.

    PubMed

    Schweigert, F J; Thomann, E; Zucker, H

    1991-01-01

    Vitamin A levels (retinol equivalents) in the urine of canines were between 423 ng/ml (dog) and 6304 ng/ml (silver fox). Neither vitamin A nor vitamin E was found in the urine of herbivores, omnivorous and rodents. No vitamin A but low levels of vitamin E were detected in cats. Vitamin A in the urine was present as retinol and retinyl esters (basically retinyl palmitate/oleate). The total excretion of vitamin A represented 15 to 63% of the daily uptake in dogs, while less than 4% of vitamin E was excreted. Results after precipitation and ultracentrifugation indicate that similar carrier proteins may exist for retinol, retinyl esters and alpha-tocopherol in the urine. The biological significance of this phenomenon is discussed with regard to the high concentrations of retinyl esters in the blood plasma of carnivores bound to lipoproteins. PMID:1917346

  11. Purple Urine Bag Syndrome- An Alarming Situation

    PubMed Central

    Faridi, M S; Mibang, Naloh; Shantajit, N; Somarendra, Khumukchum

    2016-01-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) is an uncommon condition that occurs mainly in chronically catheterized patient and associated with urinary tract infection. It is characterised by purple discolouration of urine bag which leads to significant stress and anxiety to patient, care takers and health workers, so awareness regarding this condition is of utmost importance. In our report, an old gentleman with Benign Prostate Hyperplasia (BPH) on per urethral catheter (PUC) with past history of recurrent urinary tract infection developed burning micturition of urine with purple discoloration of urine bag. After proper antibiotic and catheter changed, discoloration subsided. In India, as life expectancy and geriatric care is improving, more patients are on PUC for various diseases. So, the incidence of PUBS will increase and awareness is required about the condition and its management. PMID:27042522

  12. Measurement of mercury in human urine.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, D M; Clarke, A D

    1970-03-01

    Four methods of determining the concentration of mercury in human urine have been studied. A simple method suitable for general laboratory use is recommended and the requirements for accurate results are defined. The method employs mild oxidation with permanganate and HS(2)O(4) followed by dithizone extraction and measurement of absorbance at 485 nm and 620 nm.No mercury was detected in any of 74 urines from unexposed laboratory controls and hospital patients. A random urine sample seems adequate for the investigation of clinical or industrial mercury poisoning. Two individuals, free of symptoms, but subjected to moderate exposure, excreted 3.0-9.7 mug of mercury per 100 ml of urine. After the administration of an organic mercurial to two volunteers, urinary excretion was rapid and virtually complete within 48 hours. PMID:5423951

  13. Purple Urine Bag Syndrome- An Alarming Situation.

    PubMed

    Faridi, M S; Rahman, Md Jawaid; Mibang, Naloh; Shantajit, N; Somarendra, Khumukchum

    2016-02-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) is an uncommon condition that occurs mainly in chronically catheterized patient and associated with urinary tract infection. It is characterised by purple discolouration of urine bag which leads to significant stress and anxiety to patient, care takers and health workers, so awareness regarding this condition is of utmost importance. In our report, an old gentleman with Benign Prostate Hyperplasia (BPH) on per urethral catheter (PUC) with past history of recurrent urinary tract infection developed burning micturition of urine with purple discoloration of urine bag. After proper antibiotic and catheter changed, discoloration subsided. In India, as life expectancy and geriatric care is improving, more patients are on PUC for various diseases. So, the incidence of PUBS will increase and awareness is required about the condition and its management. PMID:27042522

  14. Chemical Method of Urine Volume Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrack, P.

    1967-01-01

    A system has been developed and qualified as flight hardware for the measurement of micturition volumes voided by crewmen during Gemini missions. This Chemical Urine Volume Measurement System (CUVMS) is used for obtaining samples of each micturition for post-flight volume determination and laboratory analysis for chemical constituents of physiological interest. The system is versatile with respect to volumes measured, with a capacity beyond the largest micturition expected to be encountered, and with respect to mission duration of inherently indefinite length. The urine sample is used for the measurement of total micturition volume by a tracer dilution technique, in which a fixed, predetermined amount of tritiated water is introduced and mixed into the voided urine, and the resulting concentration of the tracer in the sample is determined with a liquid scintillation spectrometer. The tracer employed does not interfere with the analysis for the chemical constituents of the urine. The CUVMS hardware consists of a four-way selector valve in which an automatically operated tracer metering pump is incorporated, a collection/mixing bag, and tracer storage accumulators. The assembled system interfaces with a urine receiver at the selector valve inlet, sample bags which connect to the side of the selector valve, and a flexible hose which carries the excess urine to the overboard drain connection. Results of testing have demonstrated system volume measurement accuracy within the specification limits of +/-5%, and operating reliability suitable for system use aboard the GT-7 mission, in which it was first used.

  15. 46 CFR 122.282 - Logbook for vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight accommodations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Logbook for vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet... Voyage Records § 122.282 Logbook for vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight..., the owner, managing operator, or master of a vessel of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length...

  16. 46 CFR 122.282 - Logbook for vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight accommodations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Logbook for vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet... Voyage Records § 122.282 Logbook for vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight..., the owner, managing operator, or master of a vessel of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length...

  17. 46 CFR 122.282 - Logbook for vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight accommodations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Logbook for vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet... Voyage Records § 122.282 Logbook for vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight..., the owner, managing operator, or master of a vessel of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length...

  18. 46 CFR 122.282 - Logbook for vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight accommodations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Logbook for vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet... Voyage Records § 122.282 Logbook for vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight..., the owner, managing operator, or master of a vessel of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length...

  19. 46 CFR 122.282 - Logbook for vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight accommodations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Logbook for vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet... Voyage Records § 122.282 Logbook for vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight..., the owner, managing operator, or master of a vessel of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length...

  20. Overnight storage of blood in ACD tubes at 4{degrees}C increases NK cell fraction in peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Da-Woon; Jang, Youn-Young; Shin, Myung-Geun; Shin, Jong-Hee; Suh, Soon-Pal; Ryang, Dong-Wook; Yoon, Meesun; Lee, Je-Jung; Kim, Sang-Ki; Cho, Duck

    2013-01-01

    A considerable variabilility in the effects of sample handling on NK cytotoxicity has been observed. Using flow cytometry, NK cytotoxicity assays and lymphocyte subset analysis of Ficoll-Hypaque-separated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from whole blood stored under various conditions were performed. The NK cytotoxicity of samples in heparin tubes stored overnight at 4 and 22°C, as well as at 22°C in acid citrate dextrose (ACD) tubes, was lower than that of a fresh sample. However, the NK cytotoxicity of samples in an ACD tube stored at 4°C was similar to that of a fresh sample. Based on lymphocyte subset analysis, samples in an ACD tube stored at 4°C showed a lower percentage of CD3+ T cells and a higher percentage of CD16/56+ NK cells compared to samples stored under other conditions. The NK cytotoxicity of fresh samples and samples in ACD tubes stored in a Styrofoam cooler box did not differ significantly; however, the differences were inconsistent. Overnight storage of peripheral blood in ACD tubes at 4°C is optimum for retention of NK cytotoxicity, the level of which is similar to that of fresh blood. This may be associated with an increased NK-cell fraction in Ficoll-Hypaque-separated PBMCs after overnight storage. PMID:23884220

  1. Artificial Pancreas Using a Personalized Rule-Based Controller Achieves Overnight Normoglycemia in Patients with Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Rigla, Mercedes; García-Sáez, Gema; Rodríguez-Herrero, Agustín; Pons, Belén; Subías, David; García-García, Fernando; Gallach, Maria; Aguilar, Montserrat; Pérez-Gandía, Carmen; Gómez, Enrique J.; Caixàs, Assumpta; Hernando, M. Elena

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective: This study assessed the efficacy of a closed-loop (CL) system consisting of a predictive rule-based algorithm (pRBA) on achieving nocturnal and postprandial normoglycemia in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). The algorithm is personalized for each patient's data using two different strategies to control nocturnal and postprandial periods. Research Design and Methods: We performed a randomized crossover clinical study in which 10 T1DM patients treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) spent two nonconsecutive nights in the research facility: one with their usual CSII pattern (open-loop [OL]) and one controlled by the pRBA (CL). The CL period lasted from 10 p.m. to 10 a.m., including overnight control, and control of breakfast. Venous samples for blood glucose (BG) measurement were collected every 20 min. Results: Time spent in normoglycemia (BG, 3.9–8.0 mmol/L) during the nocturnal period (12 a.m.–8 a.m.), expressed as median (interquartile range), increased from 66.6% (8.3–75%) with OL to 95.8% (73–100%) using the CL algorithm (P<0.05). Median time in hypoglycemia (BG, <3.9 mmol/L) was reduced from 4.2% (0–21%) in the OL night to 0.0% (0.0–0.0%) in the CL night (P<0.05). Nine hypoglycemic events (<3.9 mmol/L) were recorded with OL compared with one using CL. The postprandial glycemic excursion was not lower when the CL system was used in comparison with conventional preprandial bolus: time in target (3.9–10.0 mmol/L) 58.3% (29.1–87.5%) versus 50.0% (50–100%). Conclusions: A highly precise personalized pRBA obtains nocturnal normoglycemia, without significant hypoglycemia, in T1DM patients. There appears to be no clear benefit of CL over prandial bolus on the postprandial glycemia. PMID:24152323

  2. Eszopiclone Improves Overnight Polysomnography and Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Titration: A Prospective, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lettieri, Christopher J.; Quast, Timothy N.; Eliasson, Arn H.; Andrada, Teotimo

    2008-01-01

    for polysomnography and the need to improve efficiency, the routine use of nonbenzodiazepines as premedication for polysomnography should be considered. Citation: Lettieri CJ; Quast TN; Eliasson AH; Andrada T. Eszopiclone improves overnight polysomnography and continuous positive airway pressure titration: a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. SLEEP 2008;31(9):1310-1316. PMID:18788656

  3. Urine Proteome Biomarkers in Kidney Diseases. I. Limits, Perspectives, and First Focus on Normal Urine

    PubMed Central

    Santucci, Laura; Bruschi, Maurizio; Candiano, Giovanni; Lugani, Francesca; Petretto, Andrea; Bonanni, Alice; Ghiggeri, Gian Marco

    2016-01-01

    Urine proteome is a potential source of information in renal diseases, and it is considered a natural area of investigation for biomarkers. Technology developments have markedly increased the power analysis on urinary proteins, and it is time to confront methodologies and results of major studies on the topics. This is a first part of a series of reviews that will focus on the urine proteome as a site for detecting biomarkers of renal diseases; the theme of the first review concerns methodological aspects applied to normal urine. Main issues are techniques for urine pretreatment, separation of exosomes, use of combinatorial peptide ligand libraries, mass spectrometry approaches, and analysis of data sets. Available studies show important differences, suggesting a major confounding effect of the technologies utilized for analysis. The objective is to obtain consensus about which approaches should be utilized for studying urine proteome in renal diseases. PMID:26997865

  4. Cancer detection by native fluorescence of urine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masilamani, Vadivel; Vijmasi, Trinka; Al Salhi, Mohammad; Govindaraj, Kanagaraj; Vijaya-Raghavan, Ayanam Parthasarathy; Antonisamy, Belavendra

    2010-09-01

    Because cancer is a dreaded disease, a number of techniques such as biomarker evaluation, mammograms, colposcopy, and computed tomography scan are currently employed for early diagnosis. Many of these are specific to a particular site, invasive, and often expensive. Hence, there is a definite need for a simple, generic, noninvasive protocol for cancer detection, comparable to blood and urine tests for diabetes. Our objective is to show the results of a novel study in the diagnosis of several cancer types from the native or intrinsic fluorescence of urine. We use fluorescence emission spectra (FES) and stokes shift spectra (SSS) to analyze the native fluorescence of the first voided urine samples of healthy controls (N=100) and those of cancer patients (N=50) of different etiology. We show that flavoproteins and porphyrins released into urine can act as generic biomarkers of cancer with a specificity of 92%, a sensitivity of 76%, and an overall accuracy of 86.7%. We employ FES and SSS for rapid and cost-effective quantification of certain intrinsic biomarkers in urine for screening and diagnosis of most common cancer types with an overall accuracy of 86.7%.

  5. Color recognition system for urine analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Lianqing; Wang, Zicai; Lin, Qian; Dong, Mingli

    2010-08-01

    In order to increase the speed of photoelectric conversion, a linear CCD is applied as the photoelectric converter instead of the traditional photodiode. A white LED is used as the light source of the system. The color information of the urine test strip is transferred into the CCD through a reflecting optical system. It is then converted to digital signals by an A/D converter. The test results of urine analysis are obtained by a data processing system. An ARM microprocessor is selected as the CPU of the system and a CPLD is employed to provide a driving timing for the CCD drive and the A/D converter. Active HDL7.2 and Verilog HDL are used to simulate the driving timing of the CPLD. Experimental results show that the correctness rate of the test results is better than 90%. The system satisfies the requirements of the color information collection of urine analyzer.

  6. [Impulse galvanization in postoperative urination disorders].

    PubMed

    Kölbl, H; Riss, P

    1988-03-01

    In this study we examined the therapeutic effect of impulse-galvanization in patients with voiding difficulties after anterior vaginal repair. Patients (n = 56/79) revealing residual urine until the sixth postoperative day were studied. Considering the onset of the first spontaneous micturition and the lack of residual urine no significant difference was found in the group undergoing impulse-galvanization (n = 19) compared to a group without therapy (n = 37). By adjuvant treatment with alpha-sympathicolytics, spasmolytics or tranquilizers patients with impulse-galvanization and the comparative group were found to be without residual urine 11.2 and 13 days after surgery, respectively (p less than 0.001). PMID:3259522

  7. [Urease activity of bacteria in urine].

    PubMed

    Arai, Y; Takeuchi, H; Tomoyoshi, T; Tatewaki, K

    1989-02-01

    Urea splitting bacteria are related to the formation of struvite or apatite. We investigated the urease activity of bacteria by two methods; the direct measurement of urease activity of viable bacteria and sonicated bacteria from amounts of ammonia by the indophenol method, and the measurement of urease activity by alkalization of infected urine. Proteus mirabilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa had moderate activity of urease, and Morganella morganii and Staphylococcus epidermidis had the most powerful activity. P. mirabilis caused the strongest alkalization in infected urine. PMID:2500012

  8. Investigation of Urination Disorder in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li-Mei; Zhang, Xu-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Background: Urination disorders are common in Parkinson's disease (PD) and respond poorly to medication. This study aimed to analyze the risk factors for urination disorders in PD. Methods: Ninety-one patients with PD (aged 34–83 years old) were recruited. Patients were assessed with the Unified PD Rating Scale (UPDRS), Hoehn and Yahr stage, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD), and Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA). Micturition number was recorded, and Type B ultrasound was used to evaluate residual urine. Statistics was performed using binary logistic regression, bivariate correlations, and Chi-square and t-tests. Results: Of 91 patients, urinary dysfunction occurred in 55.0%. Among these, 49.5% suffered with nocturia, 47.3% with pollakiuria. Nocturia number had a positive linear relationship with HAMA score (odds ratio [OR] = 0.340, P = 0.001), HAMD score (OR = 0.323, P = 0.002), duration of L-dopa medication (OR = 0.328, P = 0.001), dose of L-dopa (OR = 0.273, P = 0.009), UPDRS-II (OR = 0.402, P = 0.000), UPDRS-III score (OR = 0.291, P = 0.005), and PSQI score (OR = 0.249, P = 0.017). Micturition number over 24 h was positively associated with HAMA (OR = 0.303, P = 0.004) and UPDRS-II scores (OR = 0.306, P = 0.003). Of patients with residual urine, 79.3% had a volume of residual urine <50 ml. Residual urine was present in 44.4% of the patients with nocturia, 46.5% of the patients with pollakiuria, and 80.0% of the patients with dysuria. More men than women had residual urine (35.2% male vs. 13.3% female; P = 0.002). Conclusions: Nocturia and pollakiuria were common micturition symptoms in our participants with PD. Nocturia was associated with depression, anxiety, sleep problems, and severity of PD. Pollakiuria was associated with anxiety and severity of PD. Male patients were more prone to residual urine and pollakiuria. PMID:26521789

  9. [Purple urine bag syndrome: a case report].

    PubMed

    Lazimy, Yaël; Delotte, Jérôme; Machiavello, Jean-Christophe; Lallement, Michel; Imbenotte, Michel; Bongain, André

    2007-06-01

    The authors report a case of dark purple urine in a woman with bowel obstruction and bilateral percutaneous nephrostomy urinary diversion for 30 years. This colour was due to the presence of high urinary concentrations of 3-indoxyl sulphate due to the enzymatic activity of Providencia rettgeri. A favourable course was observed in response to antibiotics. PMID:17634003

  10. CHROMagar Orientation Medium Reduces Urine Culture Workload

    PubMed Central

    Manickam, Kanchana; Karlowsky, James A.; Adam, Heather; Lagacé-Wiens, Philippe R. S.; Rendina, Assunta; Pang, Paulette; Murray, Brenda-Lee

    2013-01-01

    Microbiology laboratories continually strive to streamline and improve their urine culture algorithms because of the high volumes of urine specimens they receive and the modest numbers of those specimens that are ultimately considered clinically significant. In the current study, we quantitatively measured the impact of the introduction of CHROMagar Orientation (CO) medium into routine use in two hospital laboratories and compared it to conventional culture on blood and MacConkey agars. Based on data extracted from our Laboratory Information System from 2006 to 2011, the use of CO medium resulted in a 28% reduction in workload for additional procedures such as Gram stains, subcultures, identification panels, agglutination tests, and biochemical tests. The average number of workload units (one workload unit equals 1 min of hands-on labor) per urine specimen was significantly reduced (P < 0.0001; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.5326 to 1.047) from 2.67 in 2006 (preimplementation of CO medium) to 1.88 in 2011 (postimplementation of CO medium). We conclude that the use of CO medium streamlined the urine culture process and increased bench throughput by reducing both workload and turnaround time in our laboratories. PMID:23363839

  11. Ophthalmoplegia in Maple Syrup Urine Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zee, David S.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Reported is the case of a female infant whose early symptom of ophthalmoplegia (paralysis of one or more motor nerves in the eye) led to eventual diagnosis and treatment for maple syrup urine disease, a condition in which early dietary restrictions can prevent severe mental retardation and neurologic disability. (DB)

  12. Presence of endogenous prednisolone in human urine.

    PubMed

    Fidani, Marco; Gamberini, Maria C; Pompa, Giuseppe; Mungiguerra, Francesca; Casati, Alessio; Arioli, Francesco

    2013-02-01

    The possibility of an endogenous presence of the glucocorticoid prednisolone has already been demonstrated in bovine and horse urine, with the aim of clarifying its origin in this matrix, which is used by official agencies for the control of illicit treatments. From this point of view, the endogenous nature of prednisolone could be a major topic in doping control of both amateur and professional human athletes. A study was therefore made on 34 human volunteers (13 males and 21 females; aged 22-62) to detect the presence of prednisolone in their urine by HPLC-MS(3). One of the volunteers underwent vernal allergy treatment with betamethasone for two subsequent years. An investigation was carried out with the aim of verifying if the suppression, and the circadian rhythm, of cortisol urinary levels could also apply to prednisolone. The results of the study show that prednisolone was present in the urine of all 34 volunteers, with a concentration very close to 100-times lower that of cortisol, with no dependence on gender. The same ratio (1/100) was observed in the prednisolone and cortisol levels detected during the 24h together with the suppression of prednisolone by betamethasone treatment. These data demonstrate the endogenous nature of low concentrations of prednisolone in human urine, and motivate further studies about the biosynthetic pathways of this corticosteroid and its relationship with stress in humans, as already described in cows. PMID:23182764

  13. Automated detection of bacteria in urine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleig, A. J.; Picciolo, G. L.; Chappelle, E. W.; Kelbaugh, B. N.

    1972-01-01

    A method for detecting the presence of bacteria in urine was developed which utilizes the bioluminescent reaction of adenosine triphosphate with luciferin and luciferase derived from the tails of fireflies. The method was derived from work on extraterrestrial life detection. A device was developed which completely automates the assay process.

  14. Urine sample collection protocols for bioassay samples

    SciTech Connect

    MacLellan, J.A.; McFadden, K.M.

    1992-11-01

    In vitro radiobioassay analyses are used to measure the amount of radioactive material excreted by personnel exposed to the potential intake of radioactive material. The analytical results are then used with various metabolic models to estimate the amount of radioactive material in the subject`s body and the original intake of radioactive material. Proper application of these metabolic models requires knowledge of the excretion period. It is normal practice to design the bioassay program based on a 24-hour excretion sample. The Hanford bioassay program simulates a total 24-hour urine excretion sample with urine collection periods lasting from one-half hour before retiring to one-half hour after rising on two consecutive days. Urine passed during the specified periods is collected in three 1-L bottles. Because the daily excretion volume given in Publication 23 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP 1975, p. 354) for Reference Man is 1.4 L, it was proposed to use only two 1-L bottles as a cost-saving measure. This raised the broader question of what should be the design capacity of a 24-hour urine sample kit.

  15. Urine sample collection protocols for bioassay samples

    SciTech Connect

    MacLellan, J.A.; McFadden, K.M.

    1992-11-01

    In vitro radiobioassay analyses are used to measure the amount of radioactive material excreted by personnel exposed to the potential intake of radioactive material. The analytical results are then used with various metabolic models to estimate the amount of radioactive material in the subject's body and the original intake of radioactive material. Proper application of these metabolic models requires knowledge of the excretion period. It is normal practice to design the bioassay program based on a 24-hour excretion sample. The Hanford bioassay program simulates a total 24-hour urine excretion sample with urine collection periods lasting from one-half hour before retiring to one-half hour after rising on two consecutive days. Urine passed during the specified periods is collected in three 1-L bottles. Because the daily excretion volume given in Publication 23 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP 1975, p. 354) for Reference Man is 1.4 L, it was proposed to use only two 1-L bottles as a cost-saving measure. This raised the broader question of what should be the design capacity of a 24-hour urine sample kit.

  16. Detection of chrysotile asbestos in workers urine

    SciTech Connect

    Finn, M.B.; Hallenbeck, W.H.

    1985-03-01

    Urinary asbestos concentrations were evaluated as an indicator of occupational exposure to chrysotile asbestos via inhalation and ingestion. Detection of asbestos in the urine represents the first step in developing a biological indicator of exposure. Such an indicator could be used to supplement exposure data from workplace air sampling. A biological indicator would be particularly valuable in evaluating workers with intermittent airborne asbestos exposures and in determining if airborne exposure results in penetration of asbestos through the lung or gastro-intestinal tract. Transmission electron microscopy was selected as the most sensitive technique for identification of all sizes of asbestos fibers which might appear in the urine. The levels of chrysotile asbestos detected in the urine of five workers were significantly greater than the asbestos concentrations in matched field blanks. Also, the workers urinary asbestos levels were significantly greater than the concentrations found in the control group. Finally, the levels of chrysotile asbestos detected in the urine of two of six controls were significantly greater than those in matched field blanks. Although the project was not specifically designed to correlate urinary and airborne asbestos concentrations, preliminary data indicated that a correlation did not exist between these factors.

  17. Mutagenicity studies with urine concentrates from coke plant workers

    SciTech Connect

    Moeller, M.; Dybing, E.

    1980-01-01

    Urine from coke plant workers, collected before and after work, were tested for the content of mutagenic substances in the Salmonella test system. Urine extracts from exposed smokers showed mutagenic activity, whereas urine from exposed nonsmokers did not. The mutagenicity of exposed smoker's urine was not significantly different from that of urine from nonexposed smokers. Mutagenicity of smokers' urine was only evident in the presence of a rat liver metabolic activation system. The addition of beta-glucuronidase did not enhance the mutagenic effect. The facts that coke plant workers are exposed to very high levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and that there is no observed enhanced mutagenicity of their urine indicate that the mutagenicity observed with urine from smokers is not due to conventional PAH.

  18. Urine Test: Microalbumin-to-Creatinine Ratio (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the urine specimen. A urine collection bag with adhesive tape on one end might instead be used ... Infants may occasionally experience skin irritation from the adhesive tape on the collection bag. If a catheterized ...

  19. Protein-Based Urine Test Predicts Kidney Transplant Outcomes

    MedlinePlus

    ... News Releases News Release Thursday, August 22, 2013 Protein-based urine test predicts kidney transplant outcomes NIH- ... supporting development of noninvasive tests. Levels of a protein in the urine of kidney transplant recipients can ...

  20. COLLECTING URINE SAMPLES FROM YOUNG CHILDREN FOR PESTICIDE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    To estimate pesticide exposure for young children wearing diapers, a method for collecting urine samples for analysis of pesticide metabolites is needed. To find a practical method, two possibilities were investigated: (1) analysis of expressed urine from cotton diaper inserts ...

  1. New Prostate Technique May Help Men's Nighttime Urination

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_158125.html New Prostate Technique May Help Men's Nighttime Urination Procedure partially blocks blood flow to ... night to urinate is a common problem among men who have an enlarged prostate, but an innovative ...

  2. Trialling urine diversion in Australia: technical and social learnings.

    PubMed

    Abeysuriya, Kumi; Fam, Dena; Mitchell, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses a urine diversion (UD) trial implemented within the institutional setting of the University of Technology Sydney that sought to identify key issues for public UD and reuse systems at scale in the Australian urban context. The trial was novel in its transdisciplinary action research approach, that included consideration of urine diverting toilets (UDTs) as socio-technical systems where interactions between users' practices and perceptions and the performance of the technology were explored. While the study explored a broad range of issues that included urine transport, reuse, and regulations, amongst others, the boundary of the work presented in this paper is the practicalities of UD practice within public urban buildings. Urine volume per urinal use, an important metric for sizing tanks for collecting urine from waterless urinal systems in commercial buildings, was also estimated. The project concluded that current UDTs are unsuitable to public/commercial spaces, but waterless urinals have a key role. PMID:24292466

  3. The selection of female urinals: results of a multicentre evaluation.

    PubMed

    Fader, M; Pettersson, L; Dean, G; Brooks, R; Cottenden, A

    Female urinals are designed to enable women to empty their bladders while not on the toilet and are therefore potentially useful in preventing incontinence. However, there is little published information to guide product selection. Therefore, an evaluation of these products was undertaken by the Continence Products Evaluation Network (funded by the Medical Devices Agency). All 13 reusable female urinals available in the UK in March 1997 were evaluated. Each urinal was evaluated by 28-32 community-based women. Preliminarily, each subject tested all urinals by trying to place them in one or two of their preferred positions, to establish if the urinals were suitable for full testing. Each of the urinals that were selected for full testing were then used for 1 week each. During this week the subjects kept a diary to record leakage or spillage when using the urinal. At the end of the week a product evaluation form was filled in to record product performance. The results from full testing indicate that all urinals were successful for some subjects. However, some urinals were found to be successful for all four main positions (e.g. Petal Female Urinal) while others were successful mainly in one or two positions (e.g. Bridge Saddle Pan and Subaseal). Many urinals were successful in the standing/crouching and sitting on the edge (of chair or bed) positions, while comparatively few urinals were successful in the lying position. It was found that the chances of finding a suitable urinal increased with levels of independence. This means that subjects with higher levels of dependency found fewer urinals to be suitable for their needs when used without assistance. The results of this evaluation provide guidance for product selection. However, it is recommended that continence specialists keep samples of the full range of female urinals to enable women to experiment with urinals in order to find one that best suits their needs. PMID:10711014

  4. ECLSS Sustaining Compatibility Testing on Urine Processor Assembly Nonmetallic Materials for Reformulation of Pretreated Urine Solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingard, C. D.

    2015-01-01

    On International Space Station (ISS), the Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) converts human urine and flush water into potable water. The urine is acid-pretreated primarily to control microbial growth. In recent years, the sulfuric acid (H2SO4) pretreatment was believed to be largely responsible for producing salt crystals capable of plugging filters in UPA components and significantly reducing the percentage of water recovery from urine. In 2012, ISS management decided to change the acid pretreatment for urine from sulfuric to phosphoric with the goal of eliminating or minimizing formation of salt crystals. In 2013-2014, as part of the qualification of the phosphoric acid (H3PO4) formulation, samples of 12 nonmetallic materials used in UPA components were immersed for up to one year in pretreated urine and brine solutions made with the new H3PO4 formulation. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) was used to measure modulus (stiffness) of the immersed samples compared to virgin control samples. Such compatibility data obtained by DMA for the H3PO4-based solutions were compared to DMA data obtained for the H2SO4-based solutions in 2002-2003.

  5. 28 CFR 550.42 - Procedures for urine surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Procedures for urine surveillance. 550.42... DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract CTCs) § 550.42 Procedures for urine surveillance. (a) Contractor authorized personnel of the same sex as...

  6. 10 CFR 26.113 - Splitting the urine specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...-specimen methods of collection. (b) If the urine specimen is to be split into two specimen bottles, hereinafter referred to as Bottle A and Bottle B, the collector shall take the following steps: (1) The... urine specimen. The collector shall pour 30 mL of urine into Bottle A and a minimum of 15 mL of...

  7. 10 CFR 26.113 - Splitting the urine specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...-specimen methods of collection. (b) If the urine specimen is to be split into two specimen bottles, hereinafter referred to as Bottle A and Bottle B, the collector shall take the following steps: (1) The... urine specimen. The collector shall pour 30 mL of urine into Bottle A and a minimum of 15 mL of...

  8. 9 CFR 311.37 - Odors, foreign and urine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Odors, foreign and urine. 311.37..., foreign and urine. (a) Carcasses which give off a pronounced odor of medicinal, chemical, or other foreign substance shall be condemned. (b) Carcasses which give off a pronounced urine odor shall be condemned....

  9. 9 CFR 311.37 - Odors, foreign and urine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Odors, foreign and urine. 311.37..., foreign and urine. (a) Carcasses which give off a pronounced odor of medicinal, chemical, or other foreign substance shall be condemned. (b) Carcasses which give off a pronounced urine odor shall be condemned....

  10. 9 CFR 311.37 - Odors, foreign and urine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Odors, foreign and urine. 311.37..., foreign and urine. (a) Carcasses which give off a pronounced odor of medicinal, chemical, or other foreign substance shall be condemned. (b) Carcasses which give off a pronounced urine odor shall be condemned....

  11. 9 CFR 311.37 - Odors, foreign and urine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Odors, foreign and urine. 311.37..., foreign and urine. (a) Carcasses which give off a pronounced odor of medicinal, chemical, or other foreign substance shall be condemned. (b) Carcasses which give off a pronounced urine odor shall be condemned....

  12. 9 CFR 311.37 - Odors, foreign and urine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Odors, foreign and urine. 311.37..., foreign and urine. (a) Carcasses which give off a pronounced odor of medicinal, chemical, or other foreign substance shall be condemned. (b) Carcasses which give off a pronounced urine odor shall be condemned....

  13. Gravimetric method for the dynamic measurement of urine flow.

    PubMed

    Steele, J E; Skarlatos, S; Brand, P H; Metting, P J; Britton, S L

    1993-10-01

    The rate of urine formation is a primary index of renal function, but no techniques are currently available to accurately measure low rates of urine flow on a continuous basis, such as are normally found in rats. We developed a gravimetric method for the dynamic measurement of urine flow in anesthetized rats. Catheters were inserted directly into the ureters close to the renal pelves, and a siphon was created to collect all of the urine formed as rapidly as it was produced. Urine flow was determined by measuring the weight of the urine using a direct-reading analytical balance interfaced to a computer. Basal urine flow was measured at 2-sec intervals for 30 to 60 min. The dynamic response of urine flow to a rapid decrease in arterial pressure produced by a bolus intravenous injection of acetylcholine (0.5 micrograms) was also measured. Intrinsic drift, evaporative losses, and the responsiveness of the system to several fixed pump flows in the low physiologic range were evaluated in vitro. The gravimetric method described was able to continuously measure basal urine flows that averaged 37.3 +/- 12.4 microliters/min. Error due to drift and evaporation was negligible, totaling less than 1% of the measured urine flow. Acetylcholine-induced declines in arterial pressure were followed within 8 sec by a decline in urine flow. These data demonstrate that this new gravimetric method provides a simple, inexpensive, dynamic measurement of urine flow in the microliter/min range. PMID:8372099

  14. Concentrations of isoflavones in plasma and urine of post-menopausal women chronically ingesting high quantities of soy isoflavones.

    PubMed

    Mathey, J; Lamothe, V; Coxam, V; Potier, M; Sauvant, P; Bennetau-Pelissero, C

    2006-06-01

    Soy food or food supplements based on soy containing isoflavones (Isos) are increasingly available in Western countries. However, the variability of Isos levels in urine and plasma in humans during chronic ingestion is poorly documented. Nevertheless, this is the way these compounds will most probably be used in the future, especially if the soy-based supplements market goes on increasing. Here, glycosilated Isos in an enriched extract of Prevastein equal to 100 mg of equivalent Isos aglycone was given daily to 27 post-menopausal women for 30 days and to 12 post-menopausal women for 60 days. Volunteers were given Prevastein in a cereal bar (25 mg Isos) and in a yoghurt (25 mg Isos) both at breakfast and dinner. Plasma samples were collected after overnight fasting. Urine samples were aliquots of a 24 h collection checked on volume and creatinin excretion levels. Genistein, daidzein and equol were measured at day 0 and every 15 days afterwards, using original specific ELISAs. Constant levels were reached from the 15th day. About 59.2% of the volunteers were significant equol producers in the first experiment and 58.3% in the second. A large variability in plasma and urine levels was observed among post-menopausal women consuming 100 mg Isos per day, although remaining relatively stable in each individual subject. This could partly account for the controversial effects of Isos recorded so far in clinical studies. So Isos plasma levels would have to be assayed during chronic exposures, and could help to better understand the large variability of the effects classically observed in clinical studies. ELISA techniques could be easily exported to analytical laboratories to help physicians and nutritionists with their prescriptions. PMID:16513315

  15. Life cycle comparison of centralized wastewater treatment and urine source separation with struvite precipitation: Focus on urine nutrient management.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Stephanie K L; Boyer, Treavor H

    2015-08-01

    Alternative approaches to wastewater management including urine source separation have the potential to simultaneously improve multiple aspects of wastewater treatment, including reduced use of potable water for waste conveyance and improved contaminant removal, especially nutrients. In order to pursue such radical changes, system-level evaluations of urine source separation in community contexts are required. The focus of this life cycle assessment (LCA) is managing nutrients from urine produced in a residential setting with urine source separation and struvite precipitation, as compared with a centralized wastewater treatment approach. The life cycle impacts evaluated in this study pertain to construction of the urine source separation system and operation of drinking water treatment, decentralized urine treatment, and centralized wastewater treatment. System boundaries include fertilizer offsets resulting from the production of urine based struvite fertilizer. As calculated by the Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and Other Environmental Impacts (TRACI), urine source separation with MgO addition for subsequent struvite precipitation with high P recovery (Scenario B) has the smallest environmental cost relative to existing centralized wastewater treatment (Scenario A) and urine source separation with MgO and Na3PO4 addition for subsequent struvite precipitation with concurrent high P and N recovery (Scenario C). Preliminary economic evaluations show that the three urine management scenarios are relatively equal on a monetary basis (<13% difference). The impacts of each urine management scenario are most sensitive to the assumed urine composition, the selected urine storage time, and the assumed electricity required to treat influent urine and toilet water used to convey urine at the centralized wastewater treatment plant. The importance of full nutrient recovery from urine in combination with the substantial chemical inputs required for N recovery

  16. Urine protein concentration estimation for biomarker discovery.

    PubMed

    Mistry, Hiten D; Bramham, Kate; Weston, Andrew J; Ward, Malcolm A; Thompson, Andrew J; Chappell, Lucy C

    2013-10-01

    Recent advances have been made in the study of urinary proteomics as a diagnostic tool for renal disease and pre-eclampsia which requires accurate measurement of urinary protein. We compared different protein assays (Bicinchoninic acid (BCA), Lowry and Bradford) against the 'gold standard' amino-acid assay in urine from 43 women (8 non-pregnant, 34 pregnant, including 8 with pre-eclampsia). BCA assay was superior to both Lowry and Bradford assays (Bland Altman bias: 0.08) compared to amino-acid assay, which performed particularly poorly at higher protein concentrations. These data highlight the need to use amino-acid or BCA assays for unprocessed urine protein estimation. PMID:26103798

  17. Theories and controversies on urine formation.

    PubMed

    Timio, Mario; Saronio, Paolo; Capodicasa, Enrico; Timio, Francesca

    2003-01-01

    The theories of urine formation developed in the wake of progressing scientific knowledge in renal anatomy and physiology. From the philosophical theories which for a long time swung between vitalism and mechanism, the "scientific revolution" gave a great impulse to morpho/functional unit of kidney. Bowman's secretory hypothesis, as an expression of the vitalistic based theory, describes for the first time many features of the nephron and its blood supply. New insight into the inevitable errors of Bowman led Ludwig to develop the filtration-reabsorption theory, which based its scientific approach on the emerging physics and chemistry theories. The Heidenhain's secretory hypothesis which does not admit the physical filtration in Ludwig's sense, nor the hydrostatic pressure of the blood, even though incomplete and in some part without unequivocal experimental evidence, adds a fragment to the right theory of the urine formation and heralds the modern approach to the renal function of the 20th century. PMID:14736027

  18. Psychopathology and Urine Toxicology in Methadone Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sadek, Gamal; Cernovsky, Zack; Chiu, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Several studies reported high rates of psychiatric commorbidity among methadone patients. We examined the relationships of measures of psychopathology to outcomes of screening urine tests for cocaine, opiates, and benzodiazepines in a sample of 56 methadone patients. They also completed the Symptom Check List-90-Revised (SCL-90-R). The highest scales in the SCL-90-R profile of our patients were those indicating somatic discomfort, anger, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, and also obsessive-compulsive disorder symptoms (scores above the 39th percentile). The only significant correlations between urine tests and SCL-90-R psychopathology were those involving benzodiazepines: patients with urine tests positive for benzodiazepines had lower social self-confidence (r=0.48), were more obsessive-compulsive (r=0.44), reported a higher level of anger (r=0.41), of phobic tendencies (r=40), of anxiety (r=0.39), and of paranoid tendencies (r=0.38), and also reported more frequent psychotic symptoms (r=0.43). PMID:26266026

  19. Measurement of Menadione in Urine by HPLC

    PubMed Central

    Rajabi, Ala Al; Peterson, James; Choi, Sang Woon; Suttie, John; Barakat, Susan; Booth, Sarah L

    2010-01-01

    Menadione is a metabolite of vitamin K that is excreted in urine. A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method using a C30 column, post-column zinc reduction and fluorescence detection was developed to measure urinary menadione. The mobile phase was composed of 95% methanol with 0.55% aqueous solution and 5% DI H2O. Menaquinone-2 (MK-2) was used as an internal standard. The standard calibration curve was linear with a correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.999 for both menadione and MK-2. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) was 0.3 pmole menadione/mL urine. Sample preparation involved hydrolysis of menadiol conjugates and oxidizing the released menadiol to menadione. Using this method, urinary menadione was shown to increase in response to 3 years of phylloquinone supplementation. This HPLC method is a sensitive and reproducible way to detect menadione in urine. Research support: USDA ARS Cooperative Agreement 58-1950-7-707. PMID:20719580

  20. Alterations of microbiota in urine from women with interstitial cystitis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Interstitial Cystitis (IC) is a chronic inflammatory condition of the bladder with unknown etiology. The aim of this study was to characterize the microbial community present in the urine from IC female patients by 454 high throughput sequencing of the 16S variable regions V1V2 and V6. The taxonomical composition, richness and diversity of the IC microbiota were determined and compared to the microbial profile of asymptomatic healthy female (HF) urine. Results The composition and distribution of bacterial sequences differed between the urine microbiota of IC patients and HFs. Reduced sequence richness and diversity were found in IC patient urine, and a significant difference in the community structure of IC urine in relation to HF urine was observed. More than 90% of the IC sequence reads were identified as belonging to the bacterial genus Lactobacillus, a marked increase compared to 60% in HF urine. Conclusion The 16S rDNA sequence data demonstrates a shift in the composition of the bacterial community in IC urine. The reduced microbial diversity and richness is accompanied by a higher abundance of the bacterial genus Lactobacillus, compared to HF urine. This study demonstrates that high throughput sequencing analysis of urine microbiota in IC patients is a powerful tool towards a better understanding of this enigmatic disease. PMID:22974186

  1. Production of slow-released nitrogen fertilizer from urine.

    PubMed

    Ito, Ryusei; Takahashi, Eri; Funamizu, Naoyuki

    2013-01-01

    Human excreta, especially urine is rich in nitrogen that can be utilized for agricultural purposes, while the slow-release fertilizer allows effective utilization of nutrients in agricultural production. The direct formation of slow-release fertilizer--methylene urea--from urine was being proposed in this study. The experiments were tried to prove formation of methylene urea from human urine, and to investigate the effect of pH and salt concentration on the reaction rate. The synthetic urine and real urine were used for the urea source of the reaction. As a result, the precipitates were prepared from synthetic urine, while the small molecule fractions generated then they grew into precipitate. The nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared spectroscopy, element analyses showed the precipitates in synthetic urine were the same compound found in the urea solution, which was methylene urea. The reaction rate was high at low pH value. The reaction rate in the buffer solution was lower than the synthetic urine at the same pH, because some salts may work as a catalyst. The urea concentration reduction rate in real urine showed the same trend with synthetic urine at the same pH, while the precipitation was quite similar to methylene urea. PMID:24527645

  2. Host Cytokine Responses Induced after Overnight Stimulation with Novel M. tuberculosis Infection Phase-Dependent Antigens Show Promise as Diagnostic Candidates for TB Disease

    PubMed Central

    Essone, Paulin N.; Chegou, Novel N.; Loxton, Andre G.; Stanley, Kim; Kriel, Magdalena; van der Spuy, Gian; Franken, Kees L.; Ottenhoff, Tom H.; Walzl, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    Background We previously identified Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) antigen-induced host markers that showed promise as TB diagnostic candidates in 7-day whole blood culture supernatants. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the utility of these markers further, and cross-compare results with short-term antigen stimulated and unstimulated culture supernatants. Methods We recruited 15 culture confirmed TB cases and 15 non-TB cases from a high-TB endemic community in Cape Town, South Africa into a pilot case-control study from an on-going larger study. Blood samples collected from study participants were stimulated with 4 M.tb antigens that were previously identified as promising (ESAT6/CFP10 (early secreted), Rv2029c (latency), Rv2032 (latency) and Rv2389c (rpf)) in a 7-day or overnight culture assay. Supernatants were also collected form the standard QuantiFERON In Tube (QFT-IT) test. The levels of 26 host markers were evaluated in the three culture supernatants using the Luminex platform. Results The unstimulated levels of CRP, Serum amyloid P (SAP) and serum amyloid A (SAA) and ESAT-6/CFP-10 specific IP-10 and SAA were amongst the best discriminatory markers in all 3 assays, ascertaining TB with AUC of 72–84%. Four-marker models accurately classified up to 92%, 100% and 100% of study participants in the overnight, 7-day and Quantiferon culture supernatants, respectively, after leave-one-out cross validation. Conclusion Unstimulated and antigen-specific levels of CRP, SAA, IP-10, MMP-2 and sCD40L hold promise as diagnostic candidates for TB disease in short-term stimulation assays. Larger studies are required to validate these findings but the data suggest that antigen-specific cytokine production and in particular mutimarker biosignatures might contribute to future diagnostic strategies. PMID:25025278

  3. Done that: short-term repetition related modulations of motor cortex activity as a stable signature for overnight motor memory consolidation.

    PubMed

    Gabitov, Ella; Manor, David; Karni, Avi

    2014-12-01

    An almost universally accepted tacit expectation is that learning and memory consolidation processes must be reflected in the average brain activity in brain areas relevant to task performance. Motor cortex (M1) plasticity has been implicated in motor skill acquisition and its consolidation. Nevertheless, no consistent pattern of changes in the average signal, related to motor learning or motor memory consolidation following a single session of training, has emerged from imaging studies. Here we show that the pattern and magnitude of short-term brain activity modulations in response to task repetition, in M1, may provide a robust signature for effective motor memory consolidation processes. We studied participants during the paced performance of a finger-to-thumb opposition sequence (FOS), intensively trained a day earlier, and a similarly constructed untrained FOS. In addition to within-session "on-line" gains, most participants expressed delayed, consolidation-phase gains in the performance of the trained FOS. The execution of the trained FOS induced repetition enhancements in the contralateral M1 and bilaterally in the medial-temporal lobes, offsetting novelty-related repetition suppression effects. Moreover, the M1 modulations were positively correlated with the magnitude of each participant's overnight delayed gains but not with absolute performance levels. Our results suggest that short-term enhancements of brain signals upon task repetition reflect the effectiveness of overnight motor memory consolidation. We propose that procedural memory consolidation processes may affect the excitation-inhibition balance within cortical representations of the trained movements; this new balance is better reflected in repetition effects than in the average level of evoked neural activity. PMID:24893741

  4. Ethyl glucuronide concentrations in oral fluid, blood, and urine after volunteers drank 0.5 and 1.0 g/kg doses of ethanol.

    PubMed

    Høiseth, Gudrun; Yttredal, Borghild; Karinen, Ritva; Gjerde, Hallvard; Mørland, Jørg; Christophersen, Asbjørg

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the concentrations of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in oral fluid, blood, and urine after healthy volunteers drank two doses of ethanol, 0.5 (n = 11) and 1.0 g/kg (n = 10), after an overnight fast. Samples of oral fluid, blood, and urine were collected before drinking started and at 1.5, 3.5, 5.5, 8.5, 11.5, and 24 h post-dosing. Following ingestion of low dose of ethanol, the Cmax for EtG was 0.36 mg/L (range 0.28-0.41 mg/L) in blood and 69.8 mg/L (range 47.1-96.5 mg/L) in urine. In oral fluid, the concentrations were < 1% of those in blood, and only three subjects exceeded the limit of quantification for EtG in oral fluid. After ingestion of the high dose of ethanol, the Cmax for EtG was 1.06 mg/L (range 0.8-1.22 mg/L) in blood, 159.9 mg/L (range 97.2-225.5 mg/L) in urine, and 0.032 mg/L (range 0.013-0.059 mg/L) in oral fluid. The median oral fluid/blood ratio was 0.029 (range 0.012-0.054) for EtG. The detection time for EtG was median 11.5 h (range 3.5-11.5 h) in oral fluid. According to this, the detection time for EtG in oral fluid is therefore only a few hours longer than for ethanol itself and represents limited additional value. PMID:20663284

  5. Urine oligosaccharide pattern in patients with hyperprolactinaemia.

    PubMed

    Ekman, Bertil; Wahlberg, Jeanette; Landberg, Eva

    2015-11-01

    Free milk-type oligosaccharides are produced during pregnancy and lactation and may have an impact on several cells in the immune system. Our aim was to investigate if patients with isolated hyperprolactinaemia, not related to pregnancy, also have increased synthesis and urinary excretion of milk-type oligosaccharides and to compare the excretion pattern with that found during pregnancy. Urine samples were collected as morning sample from 18 patients with hyperprolactinaemia, 13 healthy controls with normal prolactin levels and four pregnant women. After purification, lactose and free oligosaccharides were analysed and quantified by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection. The identity of peaks was confirmed by exoglycosidase treatment and comparison with oligosaccharide standards. Prolactin was measured in serum collected between 09 and 11 a.m. by a standardized immunochemical method. Patients with hyperprolactinaemia had higher urinary excretion of lactose than normoprolactinemic controls and urinary lactose correlated positively to prolactin levels (r = 0.51, p < 0.05). Increased levels of the fucosylated oligosaccharides 2-fucosyl lactose and lacto-di-fucotetraose were found in urine from three and two patients, respectively. The acidic oligosaccharide 3-sialyl lactose was found in high amount in urine from two patients with prolactin of >10,000 mU/l. However, pregnant women in their third trimester had the highest concentration of all these oligosaccharides and excretion increased during pregnancy. This study is first to show that both lactose and certain fucosylated and sialylated milk-type oligosaccharides are increased in some patients with hyperprolactinaemia. It remains to elucidate the functional importance of these findings. PMID:26275984

  6. Tryptophan glycoconjugates in food and human urine.

    PubMed Central

    Gutsche, B; Grun, C; Scheutzow, D; Herderich, M

    1999-01-01

    Evaluating the formation of tryptophan glycoconjugates other than well-established Amadori rearrangement products, HPLC-tandem MS (MS/MS) analysis of human urine collected from several healthy individuals proved the presence of one distinct tryptophan C-glycosyl compound [Horiuchi, Yonekawa, Iwahara, Kanno, Kurihara and Fujise (1994) J. Biochem. (Tokyo) 115, 362-366]. After isolation, unambiguous identification of this novel tryptophan metabolite as 2-(alpha-mannopyranosyl)-l-tryptophan was achieved by tandem MS combined with NMR spectroscopy including homonuclear COSY, heteronuclear multiple-bond connectivity and (1)H-detected heteronuclear multiple-quantum coherence experiments. Remarkably, a thorough evaluation of vicinal proton-proton coupling constants in different solvents and nuclear Overhauser effect experiments demonstrate the predominant axial orientation of the hydroxymethyl group of the hexopyranosyl residue. Likewise this spatial arrangement indicates that the respective alpha-anomeric C-mannosylhexopyranose is preferentially adopting a (1)C(4) conformation in acidic methanol. Whereas only one distinct tryptophan mannoconjugate could be observed in human urine, HPLC-MS/MS analysis of food samples for the first time led to the identification of numerous N(1)-(beta-d-hexopyranosyl)-l-tryptophan, 2-(beta-d-hexopyranosyl)-l-tryptophan and 1-(1,2,3,4,5-pentahyd- roxypent-1-yl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline-3-carboxylic acid derivatives derived from the condensation of tryptophan with aldohexoses. Taking into consideration the significant differences between profiles and configurations of tryptophan glycoconjugates originating from dietary sources and human urine, C-2 mannosylation of tryptophan residues [de Beer, Vliegenthart, Loeffler and Hofsteenge (1995) Biochemistry 34, 11785-11789] represents a novel enzymic pathway in tryptophan metabolism in humans. PMID:10493906

  7. Ethical considerations in urine drug testing.

    PubMed

    Passik, Steven D; Kirsh, Kenneth L

    2011-01-01

    Recent passage of a House Bill in the state of Washington led to a commentary on whether mandates for urine drug testing of pain patients represented a breach of the Fourth and Fourteenth Amendment rights of patients. Issues over true consent to such tests and potential view of warrantless searches were discussed. The authors address these concerns in a broader context of risk management and stratification efforts, along with discussion about the need for a tailored approach in this arena and consideration of cost burden for such tests. Finally, the argument is made that social justice issues need to be considered (along with issues of autonomy, beneficence, and nonmaleficence). PMID:21810007

  8. Reduced gravity fecal collector seat and urinal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, J. W. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A waste collection system for use in a reduced gravity including a seat having an opening centrally located with a pair of opposed depressed valleys on opposite sides of said opening for accommodating the ischial tuberosities of a user. The seat has contoured surfaces for providing support of the user's body and includes a prominent ridge towards the rear, which provides forward-aft positioning cue to the user. A curved recess is provided adjacent the forward portion of the seat for accommodating a tubular urinal having an enlarged open mouth.

  9. Urine Is Not Sterile: Use of Enhanced Urine Culture Techniques To Detect Resident Bacterial Flora in the Adult Female Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Hilt, Evann E.; McKinley, Kathleen; Pearce, Meghan M.; Rosenfeld, Amy B.; Zilliox, Michael J.; Mueller, Elizabeth R.; Brubaker, Linda; Gai, Xiaowu; Wolfe, Alan J.

    2014-01-01

    Our previous study showed that bacterial genomes can be identified using 16S rRNA sequencing in urine specimens of both symptomatic and asymptomatic patients who are culture negative according to standard urine culture protocols. In the present study, we used a modified culture protocol that included plating larger volumes of urine, incubation under varied atmospheric conditions, and prolonged incubation times to demonstrate that many of the organisms identified in urine by 16S rRNA gene sequencing are, in fact, cultivable using an expanded quantitative urine culture (EQUC) protocol. Sixty-five urine specimens (from 41 patients with overactive bladder and 24 controls) were examined using both the standard and EQUC culture techniques. Fifty-two of the 65 urine samples (80%) grew bacterial species using EQUC, while the majority of these (48/52 [92%]) were reported as no growth at 103 CFU/ml by the clinical microbiology laboratory using the standard urine culture protocol. Thirty-five different genera and 85 different species were identified by EQUC. The most prevalent genera isolated were Lactobacillus (15%), followed by Corynebacterium (14.2%), Streptococcus (11.9%), Actinomyces (6.9%), and Staphylococcus (6.9%). Other genera commonly isolated include Aerococcus, Gardnerella, Bifidobacterium, and Actinobaculum. Our current study demonstrates that urine contains communities of living bacteria that comprise a resident female urine microbiota. PMID:24371246

  10. Zero-gravity open-type urine receptacle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Girala, A. S.

    1972-01-01

    The development of the zero-gravity open-type urine receptacle used in the Apollo command module is described. This type receptacle eliminates the need for a cuff-type urine collector or for the penis to circumferentially contact the receptacle in order to urinate. This device may be used in a gravity environment, varying from zero gravity to earth gravity, such as may be experienced in a space station or space base.

  11. Water recovery by catalytic treatment of urine vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budininkas, P.; Quattrone, P. D.; Leban, M. I.

    1980-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to demonstrate the feasibility of water recovery on a man-rated scale by the catalytic processing of untreated urine vapor. For this purpose, two catalytic systems, one capable of processing an air stream containing low urine vapor concentrations and another to process streams with high urine vapor concentrations, were designed, constructed, and tested to establish the quality of the recovered water.

  12. Chemotherapeutic potential of cow urine: A review

    PubMed Central

    Randhawa, Gurpreet Kaur; Sharma, Rajiv

    2015-01-01

    In the grim scenario where presently about 70% of pathogenic bacteria are resistant to at least one of the drugs for the treatment, cue is to be taken from traditional/indigenous medicine to tackle it urgently. The Indian traditional knowledge emanates from ayurveda, where Bos indicus is placed at a high pedestal for numerous uses of its various products. Urine is one of the products of a cow with many benefits and without toxicity. Various studies have found good antimicrobial activity of cow’s urine (CU) comparable with standard drugs such as ofloxacin, cefpodoxime, and gentamycin, against a vast number of pathogenic bacteria, more so against Gram-positive than negative bacteria. Interestingly antimicrobial activity has also been found against some resistant strains such as multidrug-resistant (MDR) Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Antimicrobial action is enhanced still further by it being an immune-enhancer and bioenhancer of some antibiotic drugs. Antifungal activity was comparable to amphotericin B. CU also has anthelmintic and antineoplastic action. CU has, in addition, antioxidant properties, and it can prevent the damage to DNA caused by the environmental stress. In the management of infectious diseases, CU can be used alone or as an adjunctive to prevent the development of resistance and enhance the effect of standard antibiotics. PMID:26401404

  13. Urine-activated paper batteries for biosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bang Lee, Ki

    2005-09-01

    The first urine-activated laminated paper batteries have been demonstrated and reported in this paper. A simple and cheap fabrication process for the paper batteries has been developed which is compatible with the existing plastic laminating technologies or plastic molding technologies. In this battery, a magnesium (Mg) layer and copper chloride (CuCl) in the filter paper are used as the anode and the cathode, respectively. A stack consisting of a Mg layer, CuCl-doped filter paper and a copper (Cu) layer sandwiched between two plastic layers is laminated into the paper batteries by passing through the heating roller at 120 °C. The paper battery is tested and it can deliver a power greater than 1.5 mW. In addition, these urine-activated laminated paper batteries could be integrated with bioMEMS devices such as home-based health test kits providing a power source for the electronic circuit. A portion of this paper was presented at The 4th International Workshop on Micro and Nanotechnology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications (PowerMEMS 2004), 28 30 November, 2004, Kyoto, Japan.

  14. Development testing of a shuttle urine collection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Flight tests conducted in December 1973 demonstrated the ability of an unisexual urine collection subsystem to function in a zero-g environment. The urinal, which could be adjusted with three degrees of freedom, accommodated 16 female test subjects with a wide range of stature, as well as five male test subjects. The urinal was in intimate contact with the female and was contoured to form an effective air seal at the periphery. When positioned 2-4 inches forward, the urinal could be used for male collection and contact was not required.

  15. Challenges in urine bioanalytical assays: overcoming nonspecific binding.

    PubMed

    Ji, Allena Ji; Jiang, Zhiping; Livson, Yuliya; Davis, Jennifer Ann; Chu, Jasper Xuegong; Weng, Naidong

    2010-09-01

    Dr Allena Ji is the Director of Bioanalytical Services, XenoBiotic Laboratories, Inc., NJ, USA. She has worked in the bioanalytical field for many years and accumulated rich experience in LC-MS/MS method development, method validation and sample analysis under GLP compliance in large pharmaceutical company and contract laboratory settings. In the past 10 years, Allena worked at Pfizer (Legacy of Wyeth) and investigated many small-molecule drug candidates for their nonspecific binding in urine assays. Nonspecific binding of compounds results in a severe underestimation of the compounds' concentrations and poor precision and accuracy in urine bioanalytical assays. To overcome nonspecific binding in urine assays, Allena and her colleagues developed a series of practical approaches for urine method development. By adding an appropriate anti-adsorptive agent at its optimum concentration to the urine collection containers, the nonspecific binding can be blocked. Urine assays have much higher hurdles than plasma assays due to nonspecific binding and variability of urine pH, salt concentration, volume and solubility of drug(s) in urine. A simple and systematic approach for urine method development is emphasized in this paper. Nonspecific binding is a very serious issue in bioanalytical urine assays where a compound(s) adsorbs to the container wall. The adsorption happens frequently in urine assays because urine lacks proteins and lipids that can bind to the analytes or solubilize lipophilic analytes. Therefore, urine bioanalytical assays tend to suffer from analyte losses more often than plasma assays. In the past decade, there have been many methods described to overcome nonspecific adsorption in urine assays based on individual analyte characteristics. However, a common and simple method development approach for various analytes has not been discussed and summarized. In this article we demonstrate, discuss and summarize a common approach to urine method development with

  16. Litomosoides sigmodontis: a jird urine metabolome study.

    PubMed

    Globisch, Daniel; Specht, Sabine; Pfarr, Kenneth M; Eubanks, Lisa M; Hoerauf, Achim; Janda, Kim D

    2015-12-15

    The neglected tropical disease onchocerciasis affects more than 35 million people worldwide with over 95% in Africa. Disease infection initiates from the filarial parasitic nematode Onchocerca volvulus, which is transmitted by the blackfly vector Simulium sp. carrying infectious L3 larvae. New treatments and diagnostics are required to eradicate this parasitic disease. Herein, we describe that a previously discovered biomarker for onchocerciasis, N-acetyltyramine-O-glucuronide (NATOG) is also present in urine samples of jirds infected with the onchocerciasis model nematode Litomosoides sigmodontis. Increased NATOG values paralleled a progressing infection and demonstrated that quantification of NATOG in this rodent model can be utilized to track its infectivity. Moreover, our findings suggest how NATOG monitoring may be used for evaluating potential drug candidates. PMID:26573416

  17. 28 CFR 550.42 - Procedures for urine surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... supervision during this two-hour period. (c) Center staff shall have each positive urine test validated to substantiate the positive result. Center staff shall file a disciplinary report if the inmate's urine test... collection, recording, mailing, or processing of the test results. (b) If an inmate fails to provide a...

  18. 28 CFR 550.42 - Procedures for urine surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... supervision during this two-hour period. (c) Center staff shall have each positive urine test validated to substantiate the positive result. Center staff shall file a disciplinary report if the inmate's urine test... collection, recording, mailing, or processing of the test results. (b) If an inmate fails to provide a...

  19. 28 CFR 550.42 - Procedures for urine surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... supervision during this two-hour period. (c) Center staff shall have each positive urine test validated to substantiate the positive result. Center staff shall file a disciplinary report if the inmate's urine test... collection, recording, mailing, or processing of the test results. (b) If an inmate fails to provide a...

  20. DNA stability of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in urine.

    PubMed

    Le Guern, Rémi; Miaux, Brigitte; Pischedda, Patricia; Herwegh, Stéphanie; Courcol, René

    2016-07-01

    We evaluated the DNA stability of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in 55 urine samples. Crossing threshold (Ct) values were highly similar after 3 to 14 days at room temperature (+0.002, P = 0.99). Consequently, it does not seem necessary to transfer urine specimens into a transport medium in less than 24 hours as recommended by manufacturers. PMID:27130478

  1. Radioimmunoassay of free light chains of immunoglobulins in urine

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, E.L.; Gowland, E.; Ward, I.D.; Scarffe, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    Radioimmunoassays for kappa and lambda light chains of immunoglobulins in urine are described. The assays, which involve antisera to free light chains, were sufficiently sensitive to measure the light chains in unconcentrated urine from healthy subjects. The usefulness of the assays in clinical practice is illustrated by measurements of light chain excretion by patients, including serial studies on patients undergoing treatment for myeloma.

  2. 28 CFR 550.42 - Procedures for urine surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedures for urine surveillance. 550.42 Section 550.42 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract...

  3. NEW COLUMN SEPARATION METHOD FOR EMERGENCY URINE SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S; Brian Culligan, B

    2007-08-28

    The Savannah River Site Environmental Bioassay Lab participated in the 2007 NRIP Emergency Response program administered by the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) in May, 2007. A new rapid column separation method was applied directly to the NRIP 2007 emergency urine samples, with only minimal sample preparation to reduce preparation time. Calcium phosphate precipitation, previously used to pre-concentrate actinides and Sr-90 in NRIP 2006 urine and water samples, was not used for the NRIP 2007 urine samples. Instead, the raw urine was acidified and passed directly through the stacked resin columns (TEVA+TRU+SR Resins) to separate the actinides and strontium from the NRIP urine samples more quickly. This improvement reduced sample preparation time for the NRIP 2007 emergency urine analyses significantly. This approach works well for small volume urine samples expected during an emergency response event. Based on initial feedback from NIST, the SRS Environmental Bioassay Lab had the most rapid analysis times for actinides and strontium-90 analyses for NRIP 2007 urine samples.

  4. 10 CFR 26.105 - Preparing for urine collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Preparing for urine collection. 26.105 Section 26.105 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.105 Preparing for urine collection. (a) The collector shall ask the donor to remove any unnecessary...

  5. 10 CFR 26.107 - Collecting a urine specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Collecting a urine specimen. 26.107 Section 26.107 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.107 Collecting a urine specimen. (a) The collector shall direct the donor to go into the room or stall used...

  6. 10 CFR 26.107 - Collecting a urine specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Collecting a urine specimen. 26.107 Section 26.107 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.107 Collecting a urine specimen. (a) The collector shall direct the donor to go into the room or stall used...

  7. 10 CFR 26.109 - Urine specimen quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Urine specimen quantity. 26.109 Section 26.109 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.109 Urine specimen quantity. (a) Licensees and other entities who are subject to this subpart shall establish...

  8. 10 CFR 26.109 - Urine specimen quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Urine specimen quantity. 26.109 Section 26.109 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.109 Urine specimen quantity. (a) Licensees and other entities who are subject to this subpart shall establish...

  9. 10 CFR 26.105 - Preparing for urine collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Preparing for urine collection. 26.105 Section 26.105 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.105 Preparing for urine collection. (a) The collector shall ask the donor to remove any unnecessary...

  10. 10 CFR 26.113 - Splitting the urine specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Splitting the urine specimen. 26.113 Section 26.113 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.113 Splitting the urine specimen. (a) Licensees and other entities may, but are not required to, use...

  11. 10 CFR 26.105 - Preparing for urine collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Preparing for urine collection. 26.105 Section 26.105 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.105 Preparing for urine collection. (a) The collector shall ask the donor to remove any unnecessary...

  12. 10 CFR 26.109 - Urine specimen quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Urine specimen quantity. 26.109 Section 26.109 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.109 Urine specimen quantity. (a) Licensees and other entities who are subject to this subpart shall establish...

  13. 10 CFR 26.105 - Preparing for urine collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preparing for urine collection. 26.105 Section 26.105 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.105 Preparing for urine collection. (a) The collector shall ask the donor to remove any unnecessary...

  14. 10 CFR 26.107 - Collecting a urine specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Collecting a urine specimen. 26.107 Section 26.107 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.107 Collecting a urine specimen. (a) The collector shall direct the donor to go into the room or stall used...

  15. 10 CFR 26.113 - Splitting the urine specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Splitting the urine specimen. 26.113 Section 26.113 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.113 Splitting the urine specimen. (a) Licensees and other entities may, but are not required to, use...

  16. 10 CFR 26.107 - Collecting a urine specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Collecting a urine specimen. 26.107 Section 26.107 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.107 Collecting a urine specimen. (a) The collector shall direct the donor to go into the room or stall used...

  17. 10 CFR 26.109 - Urine specimen quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Urine specimen quantity. 26.109 Section 26.109 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.109 Urine specimen quantity. (a) Licensees and other entities who are subject to this subpart shall establish...

  18. 10 CFR 26.109 - Urine specimen quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Urine specimen quantity. 26.109 Section 26.109 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.109 Urine specimen quantity. (a) Licensees and other entities who are subject to this subpart shall establish...

  19. 10 CFR 26.105 - Preparing for urine collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Preparing for urine collection. 26.105 Section 26.105 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.105 Preparing for urine collection. (a) The collector shall ask the donor to remove any unnecessary...

  20. 10 CFR 26.107 - Collecting a urine specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Collecting a urine specimen. 26.107 Section 26.107 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.107 Collecting a urine specimen. (a) The collector shall direct the donor to go into the room or stall used...

  1. 10 CFR 26.113 - Splitting the urine specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Splitting the urine specimen. 26.113 Section 26.113 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.113 Splitting the urine specimen. (a) Licensees and other entities may, but are not required to, use...

  2. Automated biowaste sampling system urine subsystem operating model, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogal, G. L.; Mangialardi, J. K.; Rosen, F.

    1973-01-01

    The urine subsystem automatically provides for the collection, volume sensing, and sampling of urine from six subjects during space flight. Verification of the subsystem design was a primary objective of the current effort which was accomplished thru the detail design, fabrication, and verification testing of an operating model of the subsystem.

  3. 21 CFR 876.5250 - Urine collector and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Urine collector and accessories. 876.5250 Section 876.5250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5250 Urine collector and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

  4. Carcinoma of the scrotum associated with rubber urinals. Case report.

    PubMed

    Grundy, D; Jones, A C; Powley, P H

    1993-09-01

    A paraplegic patient, who had worn a rubber urinal in close contact with the scrotum for over 40 years, developed carcinoma of the scrotum. It is likely that this is a previously unsuspected example of chemical carcinogenesis, and in view of this, we believe that the use of rubber urinals should be discontinued. PMID:8247605

  5. USE OF DISPOSABLE DIAPERS TO COLLECT URINE IN EXPOSURE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Large studies of children's health as it relates to exposures to chemicals in the environment often require measurements of biomarkers of chemical exposures or effects in urine samples. But collection of urine samples from infants and toddlers is difficult. For large exposure s...

  6. 21 CFR 876.5250 - Urine collector and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Urine collector and accessories. 876.5250 Section 876.5250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5250 Urine collector and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

  7. Application of electrolysis for detoxification of an antineoplastic in urine.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Toyohide; Hirose, Jun; Sano, Kouichi; Kato, Ryuji; Ijiri, Yoshio; Takiuchi, Hiroya; Tanaka, Kazuhiko; Goto, Emi; Tamai, Hiroshi; Nakano, Takashi

    2012-04-01

    Antineoplastics in excreta from patients have been considered to be one of the origins of cytotoxic, carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic contaminants in surface water. Recent studies have demonstrated that antineoplastics in clinical wastewater can be detoxified by electrolysis. In this study, to develop a method for the detoxification of antineoplastics in excreta, methotrexate solution in the presence of human urine was electrolyzed and evaluated. We found that urine inhibits detoxification by electrolysis; however, this inhibition decreased by diluting urine. In urine samples, the concentrations of active chlorine generated by anodic oxidation from 0.9% NaCl solution for inactivation of antineoplastics increased in dilution-dependent and time-dependent manner. These results indicate that electrolysis with platinum-based iridium oxide composite electrode is a possible method for the detoxification of a certain antineoplastic in urine. PMID:22154144

  8. Forgotten hardware: how to urinate in a spacesuit.

    PubMed

    Hollins, Hunter

    2013-06-01

    On May 5, 1961, astronaut Alan Shepard became the first American to fly in space. Although National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) had discounted the need for him to urinate, Shepard did, in his spacesuit, short circuiting his electronic biosensors. With the development of the pressure suit needed for high-altitude and space flight during the 1950s, technicians had developed the means for urine collection. However, cultural mores, combined with a lack of interagency communication, and the technical difficulties of spaceflight made human waste collection a difficult task. Despite the difficulties, technicians at NASA created a successful urine collection device that John Glenn wore on the first Mercury orbital flight on February 20, 1962. With minor modifications, male astronauts used this system to collect urine until the Space Shuttle program. John Glenn's urine collection device is at the National Air and Space Museum and has been on view to the public since 1976. PMID:23728129

  9. Introducing a hand-held urinal service in secondary care.

    PubMed

    Pomfret, Ian; Vickerman, Julie; Tonge, Pauline

    Chorley & South Ribble Primary Care Trust's multiprofessional continence service was established in 2000 (Pomfret, 2001). An integral part of this service development was the creation of a community-based, hand-held urinal library. There are 28 female hand-held urinals available in the UK and many more for males. Some of the urinals are available on prescription and others have to be purchased by the patient. The urinal library allows patients in the community to use the urinals before they are prescribed or buy them, because it is only by using them that they will know that the product will be suitable. The service is proving to be hugely successful. PMID:15895500

  10. Urine Output Changes During Postcardiac Arrest Therapeutic Hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Raper, Jaron D; Wang, Henry E

    2013-12-01

    While commonly described, no studies have characterized cold-induced diuresis or rewarm anti-diuresis occurring during the delivery of therapeutic hypothermia (TH). We sought to determine urine output changes during the provision of postcardiac arrest TH. We analyzed clinical data on patients receiving postcardiac arrest TH at an urban tertiary care center. TH measures included cooling by cold intravenous fluid, external ice packs, and a commercial external temperature management system. TH treatment was divided into phases: (1) induction, (2) maintenance, (3) rewarm, and (4) post-rewarm. The primary outcome measure was the mean urine output rate (mL/hour). We compared urine output rates between TH phases using a Generalized Estimating Equations model, defining urine output rate (mL/hour) as the dependent variable and TH phase (induction, maintenance, rewarm, and post-rewarm) as the primary exposure variable. We adjusted for age, sex, initial ECG rhythm, location of arrest, shock, acute kidney injury, rate of intravenous fluid input, and body mass index. Complete urine output data were available on 33 patients. Mean urine output rates during induction, maintenance, rewarm, and post-rewarm phases were 157 mL/hour (95% CI: 104-210), 103 mL/hour (95% CI: 82-125), 70 mL/hour (95% CI: 51-88), and 91 mL/hour (95% CI: 65-117), respectively. Compared with the post-rewarm phase, adjusted urine output was higher during the TH induction phase (output rate difference +51 mL/hour; 95% CI: 3-99). Adjusted urine output during the maintenance and rewarm phases did not differ from the post-rewarm phase. In this preliminary study, we observed modest increases in urine output during TH induction. We did not observe urine output changes during TH maintenance or rewarming. PMID:24380030

  11. Halogenated Anesthetics Determination in Urine by SPME/GC/MS and Urine Levels Relationship Evaluation with Surgical Theatres Contamination

    PubMed Central

    Indelicato, Serena; Tranchina, Ernesto; Arcadipane, Concetta; Giambartino, Filippo

    2014-01-01

    In this work, a new sensitive analytical method has been developed and evaluated for the determination of the most commonly used gaseous anesthetics, desflurane, sevoflurane, and this latter's hepatic metabolite hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP) in the urine. In addition, an evaluation of anesthetics exposition on the urine levels of a small population of surgical operators has been performed and results are briefly discussed. PMID:24719778

  12. Dipstick Spot urine pH does not accurately represent 24 hour urine PH measured by an electrode

    PubMed Central

    Omar, Mohamed; Sarkissian, Carl; Jianbo, Li; Calle, Juan; Monga, Manoj

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives To determine whether spot urine pH measured by dipstick is an accurate representation of 24 hours urine pH measured by an electrode. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed urine pH results of patients who presented to the urology stone clinic. For each patient we recorded the most recent pH result measured by dipstick from a spot urine sample that preceded the result of a 24-hour urine pH measured by the use of a pH electrode. Patients were excluded if there was a change in medications or dietary recommendations or if the two samples were more than 4 months apart. A difference of more than 0.5 pH was considered an inaccurate result. Results A total 600 patients were retrospectively reviewed for the pH results. The mean difference in pH between spot urine value and the 24 hours collection values was 0.52±0.45 pH. Higher pH was associated with lower accuracy (p<0.001). The accuracy of spot urine samples to predict 24-hour pH values of <5.5 was 68.9%, 68.2% for 5.5 to 6.5 and 35% for >6.5. Samples taken more than 75 days apart had only 49% the accuracy of more recent samples (p<0.002). The overall accuracy is lower than 80% (p<0.001). Influence of diurnal variation was not significant (p=0.588). Conclusions Spot urine pH by dipstick is not an accurate method for evaluation of the patients with urolithiasis. Patients with alkaline urine are more prone to error with reliance on spot urine pH. PMID:27286119

  13. How To Eliminate Narcissism Overnight

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition appears likely to eliminate the diagnosis of narcissistic personality disorder. There are significant problems with the discriminant validity of the current narcissistic personality disorder critiera set; furthermore, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition's narrow focus on “grandiosity” probably contributes to the wide disparity between low narcissistic personality disorder prevalence rates in epidemiological studies and high rates of narcissistic personality disorder in clinical practice. Nevertheless, the best course of action may be to refine the narcissistic personality disorder criteria, followed by careful field testing and a search for biomarkers, rather than wholesale elimination of the narcissistic personality disorder category. The construct of “malignant narcissism” is also worthy of more intense empirical investigation. PMID:21468294

  14. Invited commentary: Quantifying salt in urine--a complex solution.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Ian H; Kestenbaum, Bryan

    2013-06-01

    Reduction of dietary sodium intake has been identified as a priority to reduce the worldwide burden of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Dietary sodium intake is most precisely ascertained by using timed urine collection. Casual urine sodium measurements are relatively easy to perform, but their relationship to timed urine sodium measurements is unclear. In this issue of the Journal, Brown et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2013;177(11):1180-1192) report the development and validation of equations to estimate 24-hour urine sodium excretion from casual urine samples. Their study included a large number of participants on 2 continents, a well-collected gold standard, separate discovery and validation samples, and relevant covariates. The resulting equations represent the best available methods to estimate dietary sodium intake from casual urine samples. However, the study is limited by evidence of a suboptimal model fit, restriction to people 20-59 years of age in North America and Europe, and exclusion and adjustment that further limit external validity. In addition, individual-level correlations of estimated and measured 24-hour urine sodium excretion were modest. Properly applied, the results will facilitate tracking of dietary sodium intake within populations over time and identification of communities for which dietary sodium restriction is most likely to be beneficial. Further work is needed to extend estimation to additional populations and improve individual-level assessment. PMID:23673248

  15. Development of a Targeted Urine Proteome Assay for Kidney Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Cantley, Lloyd G.; Colangelo, Christopher M.; Stone, Kathryn L.; Chung, Lisa; Belcher, Justin; Abbott, Thomas; Cantley, Jennifer L.; Williams, Kenneth R.; Parikh, Chirag R.

    2016-01-01

    Human urine is the least invasive and most readily available bio fluid whose proteome has been shown to change in response to disease or drug treatment. Urine is thus very amenable to quantitative proteomics and is a logical sample choice for identifying protein biomarkers for kidney diseases. In this study potential biomarkers were identified initially by using a multi-proteomics workflow to compare urine proteomes of kidney transplant patients who exhibited immediate versus delayed graft function. To comprehensively interrogate the urine proteome two “bottom up”, mass spectrometric-based discovery approaches, iTRAQ and Label Free Quantitation (LFQ), were complemented by Differential Fluorescence Gel Electrophoresis (DIGE) analyses of intact urine proteins from kidney transplant recipients who received a deceased donor kidney. Differentially expressed proteins in the two patient groups were identified, and corresponding stable isotope–labeled internal peptide standard (SIS) peptides were synthesized for scheduled multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). The Targeted Urine Proteome Assay (TUPA) was then developed by identifying those peptides for which there were at least 2 transitions for which interference in a urine matrix across 156 MRM runs was less than 30%. This resulted in a final assay that monitors 224 peptides corresponding to 167 quantifiable proteins. PMID:26220717

  16. Use of diluted urine for cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Jaatinen, Sanna; Lakaniemi, Aino-Maija; Rintala, Jukka

    2016-05-01

    Our aim was to study the biomass growth of microalga Chlorella vulgaris using diluted human urine as a sole nutrient source. Batch cultivations (21 days) were conducted in five different urine dilutions (1:25-1:300), in 1:100-diluted urine as such and with added trace elements, and as a reference, in artificial growth medium. The highest biomass density was obtained in 1:100-diluted urine with and without additional trace elements (0.73 and 0.60 g L(-1), respectively). Similar biomass growth trends and densities were obtained with 1:25- and 1:300-diluted urine (0.52 vs. 0.48 gVSS L(-1)) indicating that urine at dilution 1:25 can be used to cultivate microalgal based biomass. Interestingly, even 1:300-diluted urine contained sufficiently nutrients and trace elements to support biomass growth. Biomass production was similar despite pH-variation from < 5 to 9 in different incubations indicating robustness of the biomass growth. Ammonium formation did not inhibit overall biomass growth. At the beginning of cultivation, the majority of the biomass consisted of living algal cells, while towards the end, their share decreased and the estimated share of bacteria and cell debris increased. PMID:26508358

  17. Urine Pretreatment Configuration and Test Results for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Stanley G.; Hutchens, Cindy F.; Rethke, Donald W.; Swartley, Vernon L.; Marsh, Robert W.

    1998-01-01

    Pretreatment of urine using Oxone and sulfuric acid is baselined in the International Space Station (ISS) waste water reclamation system to control odors, fix urea and control microbial growth. In addition, pretreatment is recommended for long term flight use of urine collection and two phase separation to reduce or eliminate fouling of the associated hardware and plumbing with urine precipitates. This is important for ISS application because the amount of maintenance time for cleaning and repairing hardware must be minimized. This paper describes the development of a chemical pretreatment system based on solid tablet shapes which are positioned in the urine collection hose and are dissolved by the intrained urine at the proper ratio of pretreatment to urine. Building upon the prior success of the developed and tested solid Oxone tablet a trade study was completed to confirm if a similar approach, or alternative, would be appropriate for the sulfuric acid injection method. In addition, a recommended handling and packaging approach of the solid tablets for long term, safe and convenient use on ISS was addressed. Consequently, the solid tablet concept with suitable packaging was identified as the Urine Pretreat / Prefilter Assembly (UPPA). Testing of the UPPA configuration confirmed the disolution rates and ratios required by ISS were achieved. This testing included laboratory controlled methods as well as a 'real world' test evaluation that occurred during the 150 day Stage 10 Water Recovery Test (WRT) conducted at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  18. Contextual chemosensory urine signaling in an African cichlid fish

    PubMed Central

    Maruska, Karen P.; Fernald, Russell D.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Chemosensory signaling is crucial for communication in many fish species, but little is known about how signalers modulate chemical output in response to sensory information and social context. Here, we tested the hypothesis that dominant male African cichlid fish (Astatotilapia burtoni) use urine signals during social interactions, and demonstrate that this signaling depends on social context (reproductive; territorial) and on available sensory information (visual cues; full interaction). We injected males with dye to visualize urine pulses and exposed them to full sensory information or visual cues alone of four types: (1) dominant male; (2) gravid (reproductively receptive) females; (3) mouth-brooding (non-receptive) females; or (4) control (no fish). We found that males released urine sooner and increased their urination frequency when visually exposed to gravid females as compared with mouth-brooding females and or no-fish controls. While males could distinguish female reproductive states using visual cues alone, courtship behavior rates were ∼10-fold higher when they fully interacted with gravid females compared with receiving visual cues alone. Males also increased their urination and territorial behaviors when exposed to another male, suggesting that chemical signals may convey information on dominance status. These data support the hypothesis that dominant males use urine as a chemical signal and adjust the frequency of their urine output based on contextual information. PMID:22162854

  19. Pychotropic medications in the treatment of feline urine spraying.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Barabara Sherman

    2007-01-01

    Urine spraying (urine marking) is one of the most prevalent feline behavior disorders and a common reason for veterinarian consultation. Although urine spraying is a normal feline communication signal, it is unacceptable behavior for house cats, and, if untreated can lead to relinquishment, relegation outside, or even euthanasia. Urine spraying is associated with a medical disorder in up to 25% of cats that present for treatment; hence all cats that spray should undego clinical examination by a veterinarian to rule out physical causes before a psychogenic cause can be presumed. Behavioral treatment involves litter box management and medication. A variety of psychotropic medications have proven safe and effective for the long-term treatment of psychogenic feline urine spraying, but only if they are prescribed appropriately, monitored judiciously, and coupled therapeutically with environmental management. The goal of such therapy is to reduce the incidence of urine marking to a level acceptable to the owner. Compounding pharmacists perform an essential function in modifying doses of manufactured anxiolytic and antidepressant medications for use in cats whose spraying is psychogenic in origin. In this article, the case is reported of a cat successfully treated with psychotropic medication to reduce the incidence of urine marking, and medications compounded for that purpose are briefly reviewed. The role of the compounding pharmacist in ensuring the success of treatment is also discussed. PMID:23974483

  20. Enantiomeric analysis of the five major monohydroxylated metabolites of methaqualone in human urine by chiral capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Prost, F; Thormann, W

    2001-09-01

    Methaqualone (MQ; 2-methyl-3-o-tolylquinazolin-4(3H)-one) is a hypnotic and anticonvulsive drug in which the rotation about the nitrogen-to-aryl bond between the planar 2-methyl-quinazolin-4(3H)-one structure and the o-tolyl moiety is sterically hindered at body temperature. MQ and its five major monohydroxylated metabolites found in urine, 4'-hydroxymethaqualone (4'OH-MQ), 2'-hydroxymethaqualone (2'-OH-MQ), 3'-hydroxymethaqualone (3'OH-MQ), 2-hydroxymethaqualone (2OH-MQ) and 6-hydroxymethaqualone (6OH-MQ), are thus chiral substances whose enantiomers are shown to be separable by chiral capillary electrophoresis at pH 2.1 in the presence of 50 mM (2-hydroxypropyl)-beta-cyclodextrin (OHP-beta-CD). Other neutral derivatives of beta-CD, namely (2-hydroxypropyl)-gamma-CD, (2,3,6-trimethyl)-beta-CD, and (2,6-di-O-methyl)-beta-CD were found to be able to resolve the enantiomers of some but not all of these six components. With OHP-beta-CD, simultaneous analysis of the enantiomers of MQ and its five metabolites is hampered by the difficulty in separating MQ and 4'OH-MQ, the major urinary metabolite. A two-step solid phase extraction process is shown to permit discrimination between these two compounds and thus analysis of MQ enantiomers in unhydrolyzed urines that were collected overnight after administration of 250 mg of racemic MQ. Furthermore, analysis of liquid/liquid or solid-phase extracts of enzymatically hydrolyzed urines reveals the distribution of the enantiomers of the five hydroxymetabolites of MQ and, for the first time, insight into the stereoselectivity of the MQ metabolism. The major metabolite, 4'OH-MQ, is shown to be excreted almost exclusively as single enantiomer. The two urinary enantiomers of 6OH-MQ are present at about equal amounts, whereas unequal amounts are noted for the enantiomers of 3'OH-MQ, 2OH-MQ, and 2'OH-MQ. PMID:11589290

  1. Impact of urine concentration adjustment method on associations between urine metals and estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) in adolescents

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, Virginia M.; Vargas, Gonzalo García; Silbergeld, Ellen K.; Rothenberg, Stephen J.; Fadrowski, Jeffrey J.; Rubio-Andrade, Marisela; Parsons, Patrick J.; Steuerwald, Amy J.; and others

    2014-07-15

    Positive associations between urine toxicant levels and measures of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) have been reported recently in a range of populations. The explanation for these associations, in a direction opposite that of traditional nephrotoxicity, is uncertain. Variation in associations by urine concentration adjustment approach has also been observed. Associations of urine cadmium, thallium and uranium in models of serum creatinine- and cystatin-C-based estimated GFR (eGFR) were examined using multiple linear regression in a cross-sectional study of adolescents residing near a lead smelter complex. Urine concentration adjustment approaches compared included urine creatinine, urine osmolality and no adjustment. Median age, blood lead and urine cadmium, thallium and uranium were 13.9 years, 4.0 μg/dL, 0.22, 0.27 and 0.04 g/g creatinine, respectively, in 512 adolescents. Urine cadmium and thallium were positively associated with serum creatinine-based eGFR only when urine creatinine was used to adjust for urine concentration (β coefficient=3.1 mL/min/1.73 m{sup 2}; 95% confidence interval=1.4, 4.8 per each doubling of urine cadmium). Weaker positive associations, also only with urine creatinine adjustment, were observed between these metals and serum cystatin-C-based eGFR and between urine uranium and serum creatinine-based eGFR. Additional research using non-creatinine-based methods of adjustment for urine concentration is necessary. - Highlights: • Positive associations between urine metals and creatinine-based eGFR are unexpected. • Optimal approach to urine concentration adjustment for urine biomarkers uncertain. • We compared urine concentration adjustment methods. • Positive associations observed only with urine creatinine adjustment. • Additional research using non-creatinine-based methods of adjustment needed.

  2. Pholcodine interference in the immunoassay for opiates in urine.

    PubMed

    Svenneby, G; Wedege, E; Karlsen, R L

    1983-01-01

    The excretion in urine after single oral therapeutic doses of morphine derivatives was analysed with radioimmunoassay (RIA) and homogeneous enzyme immunoassay (EMIT) for opiates. In contrast to the rapid excretion of ethylmorphine and codeine, pholcodine showed positive results for opiates 2-6 weeks after intake when the urines were analysed with the RIA-method. When analysed with the EMIT-method, positive results were obtained for pholcodine for approximately 10 days. As pholcodine is a common component in cough mixtures, its prolonged excretion could represent a hazard in interpreting the results from drug analyses of urines. PMID:6347841

  3. Chemical enhancement of footwear impressions in urine on fabric.

    PubMed

    Farrugia, Kevin J; Bandey, Helen; Bleay, Steve; NicDaéid, Niamh

    2012-01-10

    A range of chemical techniques were utilised for the enhancement of footwear impressions deposited on a variety of fabric types of different colours with urine as a contaminant. A semi-automated stamping device was used to deliver test impressions at a set force to minimise the variability between impressions; multiple impressions were produced and enhanced by each reagent to determine the repeatability of the enhancement. Urine samples from different donors were analysed using a spectrofluorophotometer revealing differences between individuals. Results indicated that the enhancement of footwear impressions in urine was possible using amino acid staining techniques whereas protein stains failed to achieve successful enhancement. PMID:21813253

  4. Chemical composition of rainbow trout urine following acute hypoxic stress

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunn, Joseph B.

    1969-01-01

    Rainbow trout (Salmo gairdnerii) were anesthetized with MS-222, catheterized, and introduced into urine collecting chambers. Twenty-four hours after introduction, a 4-hour accumulation of urine was collected to serve as the control. Water flow to the chambers was then discontinued for 30 minutes during which the oxygen content of the water exiting in the chamber dropped from 4.9 to 2.8 mg/l. Following this hypoxic stress fresh water was restored and accumulated urine samples were taken for analysis at 1, 4, and 20 hours post-hypoxic stress. Rainbow trout excrete abnormally high concentrations of Na, K, Mg, Cl, and inorganic PO4 following hypoxia.

  5. Aluminium in the blood and urine of industrially exposed workers.

    PubMed Central

    Sjögren, B; Lundberg, I; Lidums, V

    1983-01-01

    Blood and urine aluminium concentrations were studied in industrially exposed workers using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Welders and workers making aluminium powder and aluminium sulphate had higher concentrations in blood and urine than non-exposed referents. Workers in the electrolytic production of aluminium had higher urine but not blood concentrations than the referents. Thus aluminium was found to be absorbed by all industrially exposed workers. Blood concentrations were lower than those presumably associated with aluminium induced encephalopathy in patients receiving dialysis. PMID:6871119

  6. Metabolites of cannabidiol identified in human urine.

    PubMed

    Harvey, D J; Mechoulam, R

    1990-03-01

    1. Urine from a dystonic patient treated with cannabidiol (CBD) was examined by g.l.c.-mass spectrometry for CBD metabolites. Metabolites were identified as their trimethylsilyl (TMS), [2H9]TMS, and methyl ester/TMS derivatives and as the TMS derivatives of the product of lithium aluminium deuteride reduction. 2. Thirty-three metabolites were identified in addition to unmetabolized CBD, and a further four metabolites were partially characterized. 3. The major metabolic route was hydroxylation and oxidation at C-7 followed by further hydroxylation in the pentyl and propenyl groups to give 1"-, 2"-, 3"-, 4"- and 10-hydroxy derivatives of CBD-7-oic acid. Other metabolites, mainly acids, were formed by beta-oxidation and related biotransformations from the pentyl side-chain and these were also hydroxylated at C-6 or C-7. The major oxidized metabolite was CBD-7-oic acid containing a hydroxyethyl side-chain. 4. Two 8,9-dihydroxy compounds, presumably derived from the corresponding epoxide were identified. 5. Also present were several cyclized cannabinoids including delta-6- and delta-1-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabinol. 6. This is the first metabolic study of CBD in humans; most observed metabolic routes were typical of those found for CBD and related cannabinoids in other species. PMID:2336840

  7. The effects of urine concentration, and cushion centrifugation to remove urine, on the quality of cool-stored stallion sperm.

    PubMed

    Voge, Jared; Varner, Dickson D; Blanchard, Terry L; Meschini, Marika; Turner, Carly; Teague, Sheila R; Brinsko, Steven P; Love, Charles C

    2016-09-15

    Urine-contaminated stallion semen is a clinical problem due to a variety of causes. The effect of the level of urine contamination on the longevity of sperm quality has not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of urine concentration level (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40%) and cushioned centrifugation and resuspension of the sperm pellet in fresh extender, on measures of sperm quality, immediately after semen collection (T0), after 1 hour of storage at room temperature (T1), and after 24 hours of cooled storage (T24). In general, most sperm quality measures declined with increasing urine concentration starting at T0. Cushioned centrifugation (CC), but not simple dilution, generally maintained sperm quality at T24 as compared with T1. At T24, total sperm motility was higher in all urine-contaminated CC samples compared with uncentrifuged samples (P < 0.05); sperm viability was lower in CC than uncentrifuged at a urine concentration of 20%, but higher at 30% and 40% (P < 0.05); and DNA quality was decreased (higher % cells outside the main population) in all urine concentrations (P < 0.05). Immediate extension in semen extender, followed by cushioned centrifugation and resuspension of the sperm pellet in fresh extender, provided the best option for preserving sperm quality of urospermic semen. PMID:27349135

  8. Overnight improvements in two REM sleep-sensitive tasks are associated with both REM and NREM sleep changes, sleep spindle features, and awakenings for dream recall.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, T; O'Reilly, C; Carr, M; Dumel, G; Godin, I; Solomonova, E; Lara-Carrasco, J; Blanchette-Carrière, C; Paquette, T

    2015-07-01

    Memory consolidation is associated with sleep physiology but the contribution of specific sleep stages remains controversial. To clarify the contribution of REM sleep, participants were administered two REM sleep-sensitive tasks to determine if associated changes occurred only in REM sleep. Twenty-two participants (7 men) were administered the Corsi Block Tapping and Tower of Hanoi tasks prior to and again after a night of sleep. Task improvers and non-improvers were compared for sleep structure, sleep spindles, and dream recall. Control participants (N = 15) completed the tasks twice during the day without intervening sleep. Overnight Corsi Block improvement was associated with more REM sleep whereas Tower of Hanoi improvement was associated with more N2 sleep. Corsi Block improvement correlated positively with %REM sleep and Tower of Hanoi improvement with %N2 sleep. Post-hoc analyses suggest Tower of Hanoi effects-but not Corsi Block effects-are due to trait differences. Sleep spindle density was associated with Tower of Hanoi improvement whereas spindle amplitude correlated with Corsi Block improvement. Number of REM awakenings for dream reporting (but not dream recall per se) was associated with Corsi Block, but not Tower of Hanoi, improvement but was confounded with REM sleep time. This non-replication of one of 2 REM-sensitive task effects challenges both 'dual-process' and 'sequential' or 'sleep organization' models of sleep-dependent learning and points rather to capacity limitations on REM sleep. Experimental awakenings for sampling dream mentation may not perturb sleep-dependent learning effects; they may even enhance them. PMID:25291630

  9. Impact of overnight traffic noise on sleep quality, sleepiness, and vigilant attention in long-haul truck drivers: Results of a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Popp, Roland FJ; Maier, Stefanie; Rothe, Siegfried; Zulley, Jürgen; Crönlein, Tatjana; Wetter, Thomas C; Rupprecht, Rainer; Hajak, Göran

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the impact of traffic noise along the motorway on sleep quality, sleepiness, and vigilant attention in long-haul truck drivers. This was a randomized, crossover, within-subject controlled study. Healthy long-haul truck drivers spent 6 consecutive nights in a real truck berth with full sleep laboratory equipment. During 3 nights, subjects were exposed to replayed traffic noise alongside motorways, whereas the other 3 nights were without traffic noise. Polysomnography was recorded during the nights and numerous sleepiness tests and vigilance examinations were performed during the following standardized working day. Outcome measures were compared between noisy and silent nights using the paired Wilcoxon test. Ten healthy long-haul truck drivers with a mean age of 36.3 ± 7.3 years completed the study as planned. On noisy nights, subjects had greater latencies to the rapid eye movement (REM) phase (90 ± 32 min vs 69 ± 16 min, P = 0.074) and higher percentages of sleep stage 1 (13.7 ± 5.5% vs 11.2 ± 4.4%; P = 0.059). Subjects also rated their sleep quality as having been better during nights without noise (28.1 ± 3.7 vs 30.3 ± 6.2, P = 0.092). The impact of these differences on daytime sleepiness and vigilance was rather low; however, mean Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) scores measured during the course of the following day were higher on six out of eight occasions after noisy nights. The effects of overnight traffic noise on sleep quality are detectable but unlikely to have any major impact on the vigilant attention and driving performance of long haul-truck drivers with low nocturnal noise sensitivity. This might not be true for subgroups prone to sleeping disorders. PMID:26572698

  10. Overnight Polysomnographic Characteristics and Oxygen Saturation of Healthy Infants, 1 to 18 Months of Age, Born and Residing At High Altitude (2,640 Meters)

    PubMed Central

    Bazurto-Zapata, María A.; Gozal, David; González-García, Mauricio; Durán-Cantolla, Joaquín; Torres-Duque, Carlos A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Approximately 8% of the world population resides above 1,600 m, with about 10 million people living above 2,500 m in Colombia. However, reference values for polysomnography (PSG) and oxygen saturation (Spo2) of children < 2 years old residing at high altitude are currently unavailable. METHODS: Healthy infants aged 1 to 18 months born and residing at high altitude (Bogotá: 2,640 m) underwent overnight PSG. Four age groups were defined: group 1, < 45 days; group 2, 3 to 4 months; group 3, 6 to 7 months; and group 4, 10 to 18 months. Of 122 children enrolled, 50 had three consecutive PSG tests and were analyzed as a longitudinal subcohort. RESULTS: A total of 281 PSG tests were performed in 122 infants (56% girls): group 1, 106 PSG tests; group 2, 89 PSG tests; group 3, 61 PSG tests; and group 4, 25 PSG tests. Active sleep diminished and quiet sleep increased with maturation. Apnea-hypopnea indexes (total, central, and obstructive) were highest in group 1 (21.4, 12.4, and 6.8/h total sleep time, respectively) and diminished with age (P < .001). Mean Spo2 during waking and sleep increased with age (P < .001). Nadir Spo2 values during respiratory events were lower in younger infants. Longitudinal assessments of 50 infants confirmed the temporal trends described for the cross-sectional dataset. CONCLUSIONS: Healthy infants (≤ 18 months old) born and residing at high altitude show preserved sleep architecture but higher apnea-hypopnea indexes and more prominent desaturation with respiratory events than do those living at low altitude. The current study findings can be used as reference values for infants at high altitude. PMID:25811138

  11. Impact of urine concentration adjustment method on associations between urine metals and estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) in adolescents☆

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Virginia M.; Vargas, Gonzalo García; Silbergeld, Ellen K.; Rothenberg, Stephen J.; Fadrowski, Jeffrey J.; Rubio-Andrade, Marisela; Parsons, Patrick J.; Steuerwald, Amy J.; Navas-Acien, Ana; Guallar, Eliseo

    2014-01-01

    Positive associations between urine toxicant levels and measures of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) have been reported recently in a range of populations. The explanation for these associations, in a direction opposite that of traditional nephrotoxicity, is uncertain. Variation in associations by urine concentration adjustment approach has also been observed. Associations of urine cadmium, thallium and uranium in models of serum creatinine- and cystatin-C-based estimated GFR (eGFR) were examined using multiple linear regression in a cross-sectional study of adolescents residing near a lead smelter complex. Urine concentration adjustment approaches compared included urine creatinine, urine osmolality and no adjustment. Median age, blood lead and urine cadmium, thallium and uranium were 13.9 years, 4.0 μg/dL, 0.22, 0.27 and 0.04 g/g creatinine, respectively, in 512 adolescents. Urine cadmium and thallium were positively associated with serum creatinine-based eGFR only when urine creatinine was used to adjust for urine concentration (β coefficient=3.1 mL/min/1.73 m2; 95% confidence interval=1.4, 4.8 per each doubling of urine cadmium). Weaker positive associations, also only with urine creatinine adjustment, were observed between these metals and serum cystatin-C-based eGFR and between urine uranium and serum creatinine-based eGFR. Additional research using non-creatinine-based methods of adjustment for urine concentration is necessary. PMID:24815335

  12. Development of online NIR urine analyzing system based on AOTF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Feng; Sun, Zhendong; Li, Xiaoxia

    2006-09-01

    In this paper, some key techniques on development of on-line MR urine analyzing system based on AOTF (Acousto - Optics Tunable Filter) are introduced. Problems about designing the optical system including collimation of incident light and working distance (the shortest distance for separating incident light and diffracted light) are analyzed and researched. DDS (Direct Digital Synthesizer) controlled by microprocessor is used to realize the wavelength scan. The experiment results show that this MR urine analyzing system based on. AOTF has 10000 - 4000cm -1 wavelength range and O.3ms wavelength transfer rate. Compare with the conventional Fourier Transform NIP. spectrophotometer for analyzing multi-components in urine, this system features low cost, small volume and on-line measurement function. Unscrambler software (multivariate statistical software by CAMO Inc. Norway) is selected as the software for processing the data. This system can realize on line quantitative analysis of protein, urea and creatinine in urine.

  13. Urine pretreatment for waste water processing systems. [for space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winkler, H. E.; Verostko, C. E.; Dehner, G. F.

    1983-01-01

    Recovery of high quality water from urine is an essential part of life support on a Space Station to avoid costly launch and resupply penalties. Water can be effectively recovered from urine by distillation following pretreatment by a chemical agent to inhibit microorganism contamination and fix volatile ammonia constituents. This paper presents the results of laboratory investigations of several pretreatment chemicals which were tested at several concentration levels in combination with sulfuric acid in urine. The optimum pretreatment formulation was then evaluated with urine in the Hamilton Standard Thermoelectric Integrated Membrane Evaporation Subsystem (TIMES). Over 2600 hours of test time was accumulated. Results of these laboratory and system tests are presented in this paper.

  14. Purple urine bag syndrome in an elderly patient from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Mondragón-Cardona, Alvaro; Jiménez-Canizales, Carlos Eduardo; Alzate-Carvajal, Verónica; Bastidas-Rivera, Fabricio; Sepúlveda-Arias, Juan Carlos

    2015-07-01

    A 71-year-old woman in a nursing home, with indwelling urinary catheter, bedridden, presented with a purple urine collector bag. The purple urine bag syndrome is a rare condition associated with the metabolism of tryptophan by overgrowth of intestinal bacteria. The purple color is formed by a combination of indigo and indirubin produced as a result of phosphatase and sulfatase enzymatic activity of bacteria on indoxyl sulfate, under alkaline pH of the urine. We present the second case of this syndrome reported in Colombia detailing the management of this rare syndrome associated with urinary tract infection. Several conditions should be considered in the differential diagnose of diseases that cause discoloration of the urine. PMID:26230133

  15. Pure human urine is a good fertiliser for cucumbers.

    PubMed

    Heinonen-Tanski, Helvi; Sjöblom, Annalena; Fabritius, Helena; Karinen, Päivi

    2007-01-01

    Human urine obtained from separating toilets was tested as a fertiliser for cultivation of outdoor cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) in a Nordic climate. The urine used contained high amounts of nitrogen with some phosphorus and potassium, but numbers of enteric microorganisms were low even though urine had not been preserved before sampling. The cucumber yield after urine fertilisation was similar or slightly better than the yield obtained from control rows fertilised with commercial mineral fertiliser. None of the cucumbers contained any enteric microorganisms (coliforms, enterococci, coliphages and clostridia). In the taste assessment, 11 out of 20 persons could recognise which cucumber of three cucumbers was different but they did not prefer one over the other cucumber samples, since all of them were assessed as equally good. PMID:16413181

  16. The Hydrodynamics of Urination: to drip or jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Jonathan; Yang, Patricia; Choo, Jerome; Hu, David

    2013-11-01

    The release of waste products is fundamental to all life. How are fluids released from the body quickly and efficiently? In a combined experimental and theoretical investigation, we elucidate the hydrodynamics of urination across five orders of magnitude in animal mass. Using high-speed videography and flow-rate measurement at the Atlanta Zoo, we report discrete regimes for urination style. We observe dripping by small mammals such as rats and jetting by large mammals such as elephants. We discover urination duration is independent of animal size among animals that use jetting. We rationalize urination styles, along with the constant-time scaling, by consideration of the relative magnitudes of the driving forces, gravity and bladder pressure, and the corresponding viscous losses within the urethra. This study may give insight into why certain animals are more prone to diseases of the urinary tract, and how the urinary system evolved under the laws of fluid mechanics.

  17. A simple artificial urine for the growth of urinary pathogens.

    PubMed

    Brooks, T; Keevil, C W

    1997-03-01

    A simple artificial urine medium (AUM) has been developed which provides conditions similar to that found in human urine. AUM solidified with agar enabled the recovery of a wide range of urease-positive and -negative urinary pathogens. Liquid AUM supported growth at concentrations of up to 10(8) cfu ml-1, as found in normal urine. Reproducible, steady-state growth also occurred over many generations in continuous culture. AUM was capable of forming crystals and encrustations resembling those found in natural urinary tract infections. The medium is a suitable replacement for normal urine for use in a wide range of experiments modelling the growth and attachment of urinary pathogens in the clinical environment. PMID:9080700

  18. 21 CFR 876.5250 - Urine collector and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... catheter, which includes the urinary drainage collection kit and the closed urine drainage system and..., urosheath type incontinence device, and the paste-on device for incontinence. (b) Classification—(1)...

  19. 21 CFR 876.5250 - Urine collector and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... catheter, which includes the urinary drainage collection kit and the closed urine drainage system and..., urosheath type incontinence device, and the paste-on device for incontinence. (b) Classification—(1)...

  20. 21 CFR 876.5250 - Urine collector and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... catheter, which includes the urinary drainage collection kit and the closed urine drainage system and..., urosheath type incontinence device, and the paste-on device for incontinence. (b) Classification—(1)...

  1. Microdetermination of urea in urine using p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde /PDAB/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geiger, P. J.

    1969-01-01

    Adaptation of the p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde method for determining urea concentration in urine is an improved micromechanical method. Accuracy and precision are satisfactory. This method avoids extra steps of deproteinizing or removing normal urinary chromogens.

  2. Toenail, Blood and Urine as Biomarkers of Manganese Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Laohaudomchok, Wisanti; Lin, Xihong; Herrick, Robert F.; Fang, Shona C.; Cavallari, Jennifer M.; Christiani, David C.; Weisskopf, Marc G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective This study examined the correlation between manganese exposure and manganese concentrations in different biomarkers. Methods Air measurement data and work histories were used to determine manganese exposure over a workshift and cumulative exposure. Toenail samples (n=49), as well as blood and urine before (n=27) and after (urine, n=26; blood, n=24) a workshift were collected. Results Toenail manganese, adjusted for age and dietary manganese, was significantly correlated with cumulative exposure in months 7-9, 10-12, and 7-12 before toenail clipping date, but not months 1-6. Manganese exposure over a work shift was not correlated with changes in blood nor urine manganese. Conclusions Toenails appeared to be a valid measure of cumulative manganese exposure 7 to 12 months earlier. Neither change in blood nor urine manganese appeared to be suitable indicators of exposure over a typical workshift. PMID:21494156

  3. Extracellular Nucleic Acids in Urine: Sources, Structure, Diagnostic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Bryzgunova, O. E.; Laktionov, P. P.

    2015-01-01

    Cell-free nucleic acids (cfNA) may reach the urine through cell necrosis or apoptosis, active secretion of nucleic acids by healthy and tumor cells of the urinary tract, and transport of circulating nucleic acids (cir- NA) from the blood into primary urine. Even though urinary DNA and RNA are fragmented, they can be used to detect marker sequences. MicroRNAs are also of interest as diagnostic probes. The stability of cfNA in the urine is determined by their structure and packaging into supramolecular complexes and by nuclease activity in the urine. This review summarizes current data on the sources of urinary cfNA, their structural features, diagnostic potential and factors affecting their stability. PMID:26483959

  4. New activity-based funding model for Australian private sector overnight rehabilitation cases: the rehabilitation Australian National Sub-Acute and Non-Acute Patient (AN-SNAP) model.

    PubMed

    Hanning, Brian; Predl, Nicolle

    2015-09-01

    Traditional overnight rehabilitation payment models in the private sector are not based on a rigorous classification system and vary greatly between contracts with no consideration of patient complexity. The payment rates are not based on relative cost and the length-of-stay (LOS) point at which a reduced rate applies (step downs) varies markedly. The rehabilitation Australian National Sub-Acute and Non-Acute Patient (AN-SNAP) model (RAM), which has been in place for over 2 years in some private hospitals, bases payment on a rigorous classification system, relative cost and industry LOS. RAM is in the process of being rolled out more widely. This paper compares and contrasts RAM with traditional overnight rehabilitation payment models. It considers the advantages of RAM for hospitals and Australian Health Service Alliance. It also considers payment model changes in the context of maintaining industry consistency with Electronic Claims Lodgement and Information Processing System Environment (ECLIPSE) and health reform generally. PMID:25725655

  5. Using human urine as food for cyanobacteria in LSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalacheva, Galina; Gribovskaya, Iliada; Kolmakova, Angela

    In biological LSS: human, higher plants, algae, united by common cycle of matter, native human urine is the most problematic substance for using in inter-link exchange. It contains urea, ammonium compounds and up to 10 g/l of NaCl. Each of the mentioned components is toxic for growing higher plants. As for inferior plants, experiments showed that cyanobacteria of genus Spirulina platensis and similar genus Oscillatoria deflexa can grow at NaCl concentrations up to 20 g/l and NH4Cl concentrations up to 800 mg/l. These cyanobacteria can be used in LSS as a photosynthesizing link. Besides, S. platensis is edible for humans and fish. To use urine as food for algae, it is necessary to remove urea and organics. All previously used methods for urine treatment aimed at urea destruction: heating to 300oC, ultraviolet exposure, freezing, oxidation on reactor with hydrogen peroxide, had no effect. We used the following method of urine treatment: urine evaporation till dry residue, subsequent combustion in muffle furnace at 450-500oC and creation of ash water extract of the same volume as the initial urine. Comparison of standard Zarrouk's solution for S. platensis and O. deflexa with the water extract of urine ash showed that the concentrations of K, Ca, Mg, P, S were similar. Successful experiments were made with O. deflexa that were grown on nutrient solution made of the water extract of urine ash with 10 g/l of NaHCO3 and 2 g/l of NaNO3. The sources of intersystem production of HCO3 and NO3 were shown, and the biochemical composition of the investigated algae species, including mineral composition, protein, carbohydrate, amino acid, lipid and vitamin content were studied.

  6. Silver nanoparticle assisted urine sugar determination using thermal lens spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Lincy; John, Jisha; George, Nibu A.; Kurian, Achamma

    2014-11-01

    Nanotechnology plays a vital role in the development of biosensors by enhancing their sensitivity and performance. In this paper, we report a novel urine sugar sensing method that makes use of the unique properties of silver-nanofluids in combination with the laser induced photothermal lens technique. The thermal lens signal decreases with increase in sugar levels in urine samples, which may be attributed to the enhanced interaction of glucose and conduction electrons of silver-nanoparticles, thereby changing the surface plasmon energy.

  7. Comparison of Urine and Oral Fluid for Workplace Drug Testing

    PubMed Central

    Casolin, Armand

    2016-01-01

    Aims To determine the relative detection rates of urine versus oral fluid testing in a safety sensitive industry and the correlation with diagnosed substance use disorders and possible impairment at work. Methods The trial involved 1,500 paired urine and oral fluid tests performed in accordance with Australian Standard/New Zealand Standard (AS/NZS) 4308:2008 and AS 4760:2006. Workers who returned a positive test were screened for substance use disorders, as defined by DSM-5, and for possible impairment at work following that particular episode of substance use. Results Substances were detected in 3.7% (n = 56) of urine samples and 0.5% (n = 8) of oral fluid samples (p < 0.0001). One worker (0.07%) had a substance detected on oral fluid alone versus 49 workers (3.3%) who had substances detected on urine alone. Twelve workers returned a positive result, defined as being consistent with the use of an illicit drug or a controlled substance without a clinical indication and prescription. Nine workers tested positive on urine alone, one on oral fluid alone and two on both (p = 0.0114). Of note, 6/11 workers who tested positive on urine had possible impairment at work and 2/11 had a substance use disorder versus 2/3 and 0/3, respectively, who tested positive on oral fluid. Conclusions Urine drug testing performed in accordance with AS/NZS 4308:2008 is more likely to detect overall substance use and illicit drug use than oral fluid testing conducted in accordance with AS 4760:2006. Urine testing performed in accordance with AS/NZS 4308:2008 may also be more likely to detect workers with possible impairment at work and substance use disorders than oral fluid testing performed in accordance with AS 4760:2006. PMID:27344042

  8. Uranium internal exposure evaluation based on urine assay data

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, J.N.P.

    1984-09-01

    The difficulties in assessing internal exposures to uranium from urine assay data are described. A simplified application of the ICRP-30 and ICRP Lung Model concepts to the estimation of uranium intake is presented. A discussion follows on the development of a computer code utilizing the ICRP-30-based uranium elimination model with the existing urine assay information. The calculated uranium exposures from 1949 through 1983 are discussed. 13 references, 1 table.

  9. Homogentisic acid interference in routine urine creatinine determination.

    PubMed

    Loken, Perry R; Magera, Mark J; Introne, Wendy; Tortorelli, Silvia; Gavrilov, Dimitar; Oglesbee, Devin; Rinaldo, Piero; Matern, Dietrich; Raymond, Kimiyo

    2010-05-01

    We report the artifactual elevation of homogentisic acid (HGA) in urine from alkaptonuric patients after replacing the creatinine method (Jaffe reaction) in our laboratory with an automated enzymatic method. Samples with elevated HGA by GC-MS had lower creatinine values as determined by the enzymatic method than by the Jaffe reaction. The low creatinine values were due to interference by HGA in the enzymatic method. The enzymatic method is unsuitable for creatinine determination in urine of patients with alkaptonuria. PMID:20138792

  10. Electrochemically driven extraction and recovery of ammonia from human urine.

    PubMed

    Luther, Amanda K; Desloover, Joachim; Fennell, Donna E; Rabaey, Korneel

    2015-12-15

    Human urine contains high concentrations of nitrogen, contributing about 75% of the nitrogen in municipal wastewaters yet only 1% of the volume. Source separation of urine produces an ideal waste stream for nitrogen and phosphorus recovery, reducing downstream costs of nutrient treatment at wastewater treatment facilities. We examined the efficiency and feasibility of ammonia extraction and recovery from synthetic and undiluted human urine using an electrochemical cell (EC). EC processing of synthetic urine produced an ammonium flux of 384 ± 8 g N m(-2) d(-1) with a 61 ± 1% current efficiency at an energy input of 12 kWh kg(-1) N removed. EC processing of real urine displayed similar performance, with an average ammonium flux of 275 ± 5 g N m(-2) d(-1) sustained over 10 days with 55 ± 1% current efficiency for ammonia and at an energy input of 13 kWh kg(-1) N removed. With the incorporation of an ammonia stripping and absorption unit into the real urine system, 57 ± 0.5% of the total nitrogen was recovered as ammonium sulfate. A system configuration additionally incorporating stripping of the influent headspace increased total nitrogen recovery to 79% but led to reduced performance of the EC as the urine ammonium concentration decrease. Direct stripping of ammonia (NH3) from urine with no chemical addition achieved only 12% total nitrogen recovery at hydraulic retention times comparable with the EC systems. Our results demonstrate that ammonia can be extracted via electrochemical means at reasonable energy inputs of approximately 12 kWh kg(-1) N. Considering also that the hydrogen generated is worth 4.3 kWh kg(-1) N, the net electrical input for extraction becomes approximately 8 kWh kg(-1) N if the hydrogen can be used. Critical for further development will be the inclusion of a passive means for ammonia stripping to reduce additional energy inputs. PMID:26453942

  11. Phenylbutyrate therapy for maple syrup urine disease

    PubMed Central

    Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola; Lanpher, Brendan; Erez, Ayelet; Ananieva, Elitsa A.; Islam, Mohammad; Marini, Juan C.; Sun, Qin; Yu, Chunli; Hegde, Madhuri; Li, Jun; Wynn, R. Max; Chuang, David T.; Hutson, Susan; Lee, Brendan

    2011-01-01

    Therapy with sodium phenylacetate/benzoate or sodium phenylbutyrate in urea cycle disorder patients has been associated with a selective reduction in branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) in spite of adequate dietary protein intake. Based on this clinical observation, we investigated the potential of phenylbutyrate treatment to lower BCAA and their corresponding α-keto acids (BCKA) in patients with classic and variant late-onset forms of maple syrup urine disease (MSUD). We also performed in vitro and in vivo experiments to elucidate the mechanism for this effect. We found that BCAA and BCKA are both significantly reduced following phenylbutyrate therapy in control subjects and in patients with late-onset, intermediate MSUD. In vitro treatment with phenylbutyrate of control fibroblasts and lymphoblasts resulted in an increase in the residual enzyme activity, while treatment of MSUD cells resulted in the variable response which did not simply predict the biochemical response in the patients. In vivo phenylbutyrate increases the proportion of active hepatic enzyme and unphosphorylated form over the inactive phosphorylated form of the E1α subunit of the branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase complex (BCKDC). Using recombinant enzymes, we show that phenylbutyrate prevents phosphorylation of E1α by inhibition of the BCKDC kinase to activate BCKDC overall activity, providing a molecular explanation for the effect of phenylbutyrate in a subset of MSUD patients. Phenylbutyrate treatment may be a valuable treatment for reducing the plasma levels of neurotoxic BCAA and their corresponding BCKA in a subset of MSUD patients and studies of its long-term efficacy are indicated. PMID:21098507

  12. Analysis of urine from pooled urinals - a novel method for the detection of novel psychoactive substances.

    PubMed

    Archer, J R H; Hudson, S; Wood, D M; Dargan, P I

    2013-06-01

    Current data on the epidemiology of recreational drug use is largely based on population and self-population surveys of drug use. In addition, increasingly, particularly for novel psychoactive substances, data collected from web monitoring systems is used to collect information on early trends in the use of NPS and the drugs available to users. All of these indicators rely on users self-report of the drug(s) that they are using, or more accurately the drugs that they perceive they are using. Numerous recent studies have demonstrated significant variation in the content of both classical recreational drugs and novel psychoactive substances. The technique of waste-water analysis has allowed estimation of population level use of a number of established recreational drugs such as cocaine and MDMA. However this technique is limited for novel psychoactive substances because of limitations in the knowledge of the stability and metabolism of these compounds. Our group has developed a technique that involves the collection and analysis of pooled-urine from standalone portable urinals and demonstrated that this technique can be used to detect the use of both classical, established recreational drugs and novel psychoactive substances. We discuss this technique in this paper and the ways in which this can be further developed to allow detection of use of new NPS and trends in use of these substances over time and across geographical regions. PMID:24308525

  13. Mining the human urine proteome for monitoring renal transplant injury.

    PubMed

    Sigdel, Tara K; Gao, Yuqian; He, Jintang; Wang, Anyou; Nicora, Carrie D; Fillmore, Thomas L; Shi, Tujin; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo; Smith, Richard D; Qian, Wei-Jun; Salvatierra, Oscar; Camp, David G; Sarwal, Minnie M

    2016-06-01

    The human urinary proteome provides an assessment of kidney injury with specific biomarkers for different kidney injury phenotypes. In an effort to fully map and decipher changes in the urine proteome and peptidome after kidney transplantation, renal allograft biopsy matched urine samples were collected from 396 kidney transplant recipients. Centralized and blinded histology data from paired graft biopsies was used to classify urine samples into diagnostic categories of acute rejection, chronic allograft nephropathy, BK virus nephritis, and stable graft. A total of 245 urine samples were analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry using isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantitation (iTRAQ) reagents. From a group of over 900 proteins identified in transplant injury, a set of 131 peptides were assessed by selected reaction monitoring for their significance in accurately segregating organ injury causation and pathology in an independent cohort of 151 urine samples. Ultimately, a minimal set of 35 proteins were identified for their ability to segregate the 3 major transplant injury clinical groups, comprising the final panel of 11 urinary peptides for acute rejection (93% area under the curve [AUC]), 12 urinary peptides for chronic allograft nephropathy (99% AUC), and 12 urinary peptides for BK virus nephritis (83% AUC). Thus, urinary proteome discovery and targeted validation can identify urine protein panels for rapid and noninvasive differentiation of different causes of kidney transplant injury, without the requirement of an invasive biopsy. PMID:27165815

  14. Determination of Strontium-90 in urine by extraction without ashing

    SciTech Connect

    Scasnar, V.

    1984-03-01

    Urine is a complex matrix. Any analytical separation that attempts to isolate an almost insignificant mass of material from urine must be capable of overcoming the high variability of sample composition. The urine is usually ashed to destroy all organic constituents to reduce the complexity of the sample. This step is time- and labor-consuming. In the method proposed no ashing of urine sample is necessary. Accordingly, radiostrontium can be directly extracted from urine after cesium has been extracted, when a proper amount of PEG 300 is added. This paper demonstrates that PEG strongly increases the extraction of microamounts of strontium into nitrobenzene, when the univalent hydrophobic anion of dicarbolide-H/sup +/ was used. The magnitude of the synergistic effect > 10/sup 3/ creates good conditions for the extraction of strontium after previous extraction of cesium. Since both radionuclides are most significant components of fission mixture and the extraction of other fission and activated radionuclides using dicarbolide-H/sup +/ appears to be low, the conditions for a selective and quantitative separation of radiostrontium from contaminated urine were investigated in this work. Dicarbolide-H/sup +/ with high stability constant of its complex anion, fully dissociated and stable also in a high acidic media, together with PEG of mean relative molecular mass 300 was used for this purpose.

  15. The role of urine toxicology in chronic opioid analgesic therapy.

    PubMed

    Compton, Peggy

    2007-12-01

    The current trend of treating chronic nonmalignant pain with opioid therapy means that pain management nurses are increasingly involved in the care of patients who are prescribed and using potent opioid analgesics on a daily basis. Although demonstrated to be quite effective in certain patients, sanctioned access to these medications brings with it risks for abuse, addiction, and diversion. Urine toxicology analysis is a valuable, yet underutilized, tool to monitor patterns of medication use and potential use of illicit drugs to evaluate the effect of these on health outcomes. This review provides a guide for the use of urine toxicology in the nursing management of chronic pain patients on opioid therapy, detailing the information provided by urine toxicology analysis, the benefits and limitations of urine drug testing, principles of sample collection, and correct interpretation of findings. It is emphasized that the results of urine toxicology analysis should never be used in isolation to identify abuse, addiction, or diversion, and that patterns of medication and other drug use should always be evaluated with respect to evidence of improved functionality. Nurses involved in the care of patients with chronic pain are encouraged to consider urine toxicology analysis as an integral component in care plan for those on chronic opioid therapy, and to knowledgeably implement and interpret this powerful tool in the practice of pain care. PMID:18036504

  16. Urine oxalate biological variation in patients with primary hyperoxaluria.

    PubMed

    Clifford-Mobley, Oliver; Sjögren, Anna; Lindner, Elisabeth; Rumsby, Gill

    2016-08-01

    Hyperoxaluria is a well-recognised risk factor for urolithiasis and patients with primary hyperoxaluria (PH) gradually build up calcium oxalate deposits leading to chronic kidney disease. Efforts to improve treatment for PH have focused on reducing urine oxalate excretion and thus decreasing lithogenesis. To determine the efficacy of treatments designed to alter a biochemical parameter it is necessary to know the biological and analytical variation of that parameter. In this study, we estimated the intra-individual biological variation of urine oxalate excretion in patients with PH, and from this determined what would constitute a significant change in the form of a reference change value (RCV). Each patient collected four 24-h urines on consecutive weeks. The intra-individual biological variation of oxalate excretion calculated from these samples ranged from 0 to 36 % with a mean of 14 %. The corresponding RCVs were 4-84 % with a mean of 32 %. This result implies that, on average, a reduction of almost one-third in urine oxalate excretion is required to prove an effect from treatment. The wide range of biological variation between individuals may reflect other, as yet unknown, determinants of oxaluria in PH, as well as inaccuracies in urine collection. The data suggest that it is more appropriate to use individual RCVs established prior to treatment to determine its efficacy: a relatively small fall in urine oxalate excretion may be outside the biological variation of some patients but not of others. PMID:26857252

  17. Quantitation of products from riboflavin in rat urine

    SciTech Connect

    Chastain, J.L.; McCormick, D.B.

    1986-03-05

    When (2-/sup 14/C) riboflavin is injected i.p. into rats, the excreted vitamin in urine and feces has been shown to be the intact vitamin with trace amounts of lumichrome and lumiflavin. Recent findings with /sup 14/C-riboflavin fed to rats indicated higher levels of riboflavin catabolites in urine, e.g., 7- and 8-carboxylumichromes. The authors have determined catabolites in urine from male rats fed 0, 2, and 6 ..mu..g riboflavin/g diet/day for six weeks. Two rats from each group were placed weekly in metabolic cages, and urine was collected for 24 hours. On the fourth week, a third animal from each group received an i.p. injection of /sup 14/C-riboflavin and the urine was collected for 48 hours. Urine samples were extracted with phenol for flavin components and with chloroform for derivatives of lumichrome and lumiflavin. Riboflavin was the predominant flavin excreted by all diet groups with trace amounts of coenzymes and 7- and 8-hydroxymethylriboflavin. Riboflavin accounted for 85% of all the radioactivity recovered from the deficient and sufficient rats and 90% in rats fed excess. Lumichrome-type compounds including carboxylumichromes accounted for only a few % of recovered radioactivity. Thus, these components are primarily a product of intestinal microfloral degradation rather than significant tissue catabolites of riboflavin.

  18. Ethylglucuronide determination in urine and hair from alcohol withdrawal patients.

    PubMed

    Concheiro, Marta; Cruz, Angelines; Mon, Marisol; de Castro, Ana; Quintela, Oscar; Lorenzo, Angeles; López-Rivadulla, Manuel

    2009-04-01

    Two methods for the determination of ethylglucuronide (EtG) in urine and in hair have been developed by liquid chromatography- tandem mass spectrometry. These two methods were fully validated, including linearity (0.25-100 microg/mL in urine; 0.05-5 ng/mg in hair; r(2) > 0.99, n = 5), limits of detection (0.1 microg/mL in urine, 0.025 ng/mg in hair) and quantitation (lowest level of the calibration curve), extraction efficiency (> 55%), within-day and between-day imprecision and bias (CV and mean relative error < 15%), matrix effect, and relative ion intensity. These methods have been applied to 541 urine samples and 17 hair specimens collected from 156 alcohol withdrawal patients. The determination of ethanol versus EtG in urine was compared, and also the convenience of EtG determination in hair. EtG in urine and in hair proved to be a powerful tool for monitoring abstinence in these patients. PMID:19371464

  19. ABSENCE OF MUTAGENICITY IN THE URINE OF AUTOPSY SERVICE WORKERS EXPOSED TO FORMALDEHYDE: FACTORS INFLUENCING MUTAGENICITY TESTING OF URINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study examined the effect of exposure to autopsy workers to formaldehyde using urinary mutagenicity testing with Salmonella typhimurium. A matched control group was also studied. Additional studies including the recovery of histidine from urine samples, the determination of h...

  20. 49 CFR 40.45 - What form is used to document a DOT urine collection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What form is used to document a DOT urine... in DOT Urine Collections § 40.45 What form is used to document a DOT urine collection? (a) The Federal Drug Testing Custody and Control Form (CCF) must be used to document every urine...

  1. RESUMPTION OF POSTPARTUM LUTEAL FUNCTION OF PRIMIPAROUS, SUCKLED BEEF COWS EXPOSED CONTINUOUSLY TO BULL URINE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We tested the hypotheses that interval from urine exposure to resumption of luteal activity and proportions of cows that resume luteal activity by the end of the urine-exposure period do not differ between cows exposed to mature bull urine or steer urine. Thirty-eight Angus x Hereford cows, four mat...

  2. A Comprehensive Investigation toward the Indicative Proteins of Bladder Cancer in Urine: From Surveying Cell Secretomes to Verifying Urine Proteins.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jiao; Ren, Yan; Hou, Guixue; Wen, Bo; Xian, Feng; Chen, Zhen; Cui, Ping; Xie, Yingying; Zi, Jin; Lin, Liang; Wu, Song; Li, Zesong; Wu, Lin; Lou, Xiaomin; Liu, Siqi

    2016-07-01

    Urine is an ideal material to study the cancer-related protein biomarkers in bladder, whereas exploration to these candidates is confronting technique challenges. Herein, we propose a comprehensive strategy of searching the urine proteins related with bladder cancer. The strategy consists of three core combinations, screening the biomarker candidates in the secreted proteins derived from the bladder cancer cell lines and verifying them in patient urines, defining the differential proteins through two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) and isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) coupled with LC-MS/MS, and implementing quantitative proteomics of profiling and targeting analysis. With proteomic survey, a total of 700 proteins were found with their abundance of secreted proteins in cancer cell lines different from normal, while 87 proteins were identified in the urine samples. The multiple reaction monitoring (MRM)-based quantification was adapted in verifying the bladder cancer related proteins in individual urine samples, resulting in 10 differential urine proteins linked with the cancer. Of these candidates, receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed that the combination of CO3 and LDHB was more sensitive as the cancer indicator than other groups. The discovery of the bladder cancer indicators through our strategy has paved an avenue to further biomarker validation. PMID:27265680

  3. Self-Renewal and Differentiation Capacity of Urine-Derived Stem Cells after Urine Preservation for 24 Hours

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yingai; Bharadwaj, Shantaram; Leng, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Xiaobo; Liu, Hong; Atala, Anthony; Zhang, Yuanyuan

    2013-01-01

    Despite successful approaches to preserve organs, tissues, and isolated cells, the maintenance of stem cell viability and function in body fluids during storage for cell distribution and transportation remains unexplored. The aim of this study was to characterize urine-derived stem cells (USCs) after optimal preservation of urine specimens for up to 24 hours. A total of 415 urine specimens were collected from 12 healthy men (age range 20–54 years old). About 6×104 cells shed off from the urinary tract system in 24 hours. At least 100 USC clones were obtained from the stored urine specimens after 24 hours and maintained similar biological features to fresh USCs. The stored USCs had a “rice grain” shape in primary culture, and expressed mesenchymal stem cell surface markers, high telomerase activity, and normal karyotypes. Importantly, the preserved cells retained bipotent differentiation capacity. Differentiated USCs expressed myogenic specific proteins and contractile function when exposed to myogenic differentiation medium, and they expressed urothelial cell-specific markers and barrier function when exposed to urothelial differentiation medium. These data demonstrated that up to 75% of fresh USCs can be safely persevered in urine for 24 hours and that these cells stored in urine retain their original stem cell properties, indicating that preserved USCs could be available for potential use in cell-based therapy or clinical diagnosis. PMID:23349776

  4. The effect of urine storage on antiviral and antibiotic compounds in the liquid phase of source-separated urine.

    PubMed

    Jaatinen, Sanna T; Palmroth, Marja R T; Rintala, Jukka A; Tuhkanen, Tuula A

    2016-09-01

    The behaviour of pharmaceuticals related to the human immunodeficiency virus treatment was studied in the liquid phase of source-separated urine during six-month storage at 20°C. Six months is the recommended time for hygienization and use of urine as fertilizer. Compounds were spiked in urine as concentrations calculated to appear in urine. Assays were performed with separate compounds and as therapeutic groups of antivirals, antibiotics and anti-tuberculotics. In addition, urine was amended either with faeces or urease inhibitor. The pharmaceutical concentrations were monitored from filtered samples with solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography. The concentration reductions of the studied compounds as such or with amendments ranged from less than 1% to more than 99% after six-month storage. The reductions without amendments were 41.9-99% for anti-tuberculotics; <52% for antivirals (except with 3TC 75.6%) and <50% for antibiotics. In assays with amendments, the reductions were all <50%. Faeces amendment resulted in similar or lower reduction than without it even though bacterial activity should have increased. The urease inhibitor prevented ureolysis and pH rise but did not affect pharmaceutical removal. In conclusion, removal during storage might not be enough to reduce risks associated with the studied pharmaceuticals, in which case other feasible treatment practises or urine utilization means should be considered. PMID:26804243

  5. Microanalyzer for Biomonitoring of Lead (Pb) in Blood and Urine

    SciTech Connect

    Yantasee, Wassana; Timchalk, Chuck; Lin, Yuehe

    2007-01-01

    Biomonitoring of lead (Pb) in blood and urine enables quantitative evaluation of human occupational and environmental exposures to Pb. The state-of-the-art ICP-MS instruments analyze metals in laboratories, resulting in lengthy turn around time, and are expensive. In response to the growing need for metal analyzer for on-site, real-time monitoring of trace metals in individuals, we developed a portable microanalyzer based on flow-injection/adsorptive stripping voltammetry and used it to analyze Pb in rat blood and urine. Fouling of electrodes by proteins often prevents the effective use of electrochemical sensors in biological matrices. Minimization of such fouling was accomplished with the suitable sample pretreatment and the turbulent flowing of Pb contained blood and urine onto the glassy electrode inside the microanalyzer, which resulted in no apparent electrode fouling even when the samples contained 50% urine or 10% blood by volume. There was no matrix effect on the voltammetric Pb signals even when the samples contained 10% blood or 10% urine. The microanalyzer offered linear concentration range relevant to Pb exposure levels in human (0-20 ppb in 10%-blood samples, 0-50 ppb in 50%-urine samples). The device had excellent sensitivity and reproducibility; Pb detection limits were 0.54 ppb and 0.42 ppb, and % RSDs were 4.9 and 2.4 in 50%-urine and 10%-blood samples, respectively. It offered a high throughput (3 min per sample) and had economical use of samples (60 ?L per measurement), making the collection of blood being less invasive especially to children, and had low reagent consumption (1 ?g of Hg per measurement), thus minimizing the health concerns of mercury use. Being miniaturized in size, the microanalyzer is portable and field-deployable. Thus, it has a great potential to be the next-generation analyzer for biomonitoring of toxic metals.

  6. Optimizing Urine Processing Protocols for Protein and Metabolite Detection

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Nazema Y; DuBois, Laura G; St John-Williams, Lisa; Will, Thompson J; Grenier, Carole; Burke, Emily; Fraser, Matthew O; Amundsen, Cindy L; Murphy, Susan K

    2016-01-01

    Background In urine, factors such as timing of voids, and duration at room temperature (RT) may affect the quality of recovered protein and metabolite data. Additives may aid with detection, but can add more complexity in sample collection or analysis. We aimed to identify the optimal urine processing protocol for clinically-obtained urine samples that allows for the highest protein and metabolite yields with minimal degradation. Methods Healthy women provided multiple urine samples during the same day. Women collected their first morning (1st AM) void and another “random void”. Random voids were aliquotted with: 1) no additive; 2) boric acid (BA); 3) protease inhibitor (PI); or 4) both BA + PI. Of these aliquots, some were immediately stored at 4°C, and some were left at RT for 4 hours. Proteins and individual metabolites were quantified, normalized to creatinine concentrations, and compared across processing conditions. Sample pools corresponding to each processing condition were analyzed using mass spectrometry to assess protein degradation. Results Ten Caucasian women between 35-65 years of age provided paired 1st morning and random voided urine samples. Normalized protein concentrations were slightly higher in 1st AM compared to random “spot” voids. The addition of BA did not significantly change proteins, while PI significantly improved normalized protein concentrations, regardless of whether samples were immediately cooled or left at RT for 4 hours. In pooled samples, there were minimal differences in protein degradation under the various conditions we tested. In metabolite analyses, there were significant differences in individual amino acids based on the timing of the void. Conclusions For comparative translational research using urine, information about void timing should be collected and standardized. For urine samples processed in the same day, BA does not appear to be necessary while the addition of PI enhances protein yields, regardless of 4

  7. Quantitative Analysis of 3′-Hydroxynorcotinine in Human Urine

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyaya, Pramod

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Based on previous metabolism studies carried out in patas monkeys, we hypothesized that urinary 3′-hydroxynorcotinine could be a specific biomarker for uptake and metabolism of the carcinogen N′-nitrosonornicotine in people who use tobacco products. Methods: We developed a method for quantitation of 3′-hydroxynorcotinine in human urine. [Pyrrolidinone-13C4]3′-hydroxynorcotinine was added to urine as an internal standard, the samples were treated with β-glucuronidase, partially purified by solid supported liquid extraction and quantified by liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization–tandem mass spectrometry. Results: The method was accurate (average accuracy = 102%) and precise (coefficient of variation = 5.6%) in the range of measurement. 3′-Hydroxynorcotinine was detected in 48 urine samples from smokers (mean 393±287 pmol/ml urine) and 12 samples from individuals who had stopped smoking and were using the nicotine patch (mean 658±491 pmol/ml urine), but not in any of 10 samples from nonsmokers. Conclusions: Since the amounts of 3′-hydroxynorcotinine found in smokers’ urine were approximately 50 times greater than the anticipated daily dose of N′-nitrosonornicotine, we concluded that it is a metabolite of nicotine or one of its metabolites, comprising perhaps 1% of nicotine intake in smokers. Therefore, it would not be suitable as a specific biomarker for uptake and metabolism of N′-nitrosonornicotine. Since 3′-hydroxynorcotinine has never been previously reported as a constituent of human urine, further studies are required to determine its source and mode of formation. PMID:25324430

  8. [Determination of dimethylbenzoic acid isomers in urine by gas chromatography].

    PubMed

    Kostrzewski, P; Wiaderna-Brycht, A; Czerski, B

    1994-01-01

    Trimethylobenzene (TMB) is a main ingredient of many organic solvents used in industry. In Farbasol (Polish trade name of the solvent) TMB occurs as a mixture of three isomers: pseudocumene (1, 2, 4-TMB) 30%; mesitylene (1, 3, 5-TMB) 15%; hemimellitene (1,2,3-TMB) 5%. As it is known in human organism, TMB is metabolized mainly to dimethylbenzoic (DMBA) and dimethylhippuric (DMHA) acids, and some authors suggest, that the acids excreted in urine can be biological indicators of exposure to TMB. This study was aimed at developing the method of determination of DMBA isomers in urine. Biological material was hydrolyzed with sodium hydroxide and next extracted with diethyl ether. DMBA concentration in urine was determined by gas chromatography using a variant of quantitative analysis with internal standard (5-methyl-2-isopropylphenol, thymol). Analytical parameters of the developed method of determination of DMBA isomers in urine such as linearity, precision, reproducibility, stability (192 days, when urine samples stored at-18 degrees C), detectability limit (400 micrograms/dm3) have been fully compatible with the requirements of biological monitoring. In order to confirm the presence of DMBA isomers in urine, four volunteers were exposed (8 hours) to Farbasol in toxicological chamber. The TMB concentration in the air, determined by means of gas chromatograph (HP 5890), amounted to 100 mg/m3 (MAC value in Poland). In urine samples collected 2,3-; 2,4-; 2,5-; 2,6-; 3,4-; 3,5-dimethylbenzoic acids were identified by means of GC/MSD.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8170375

  9. Urine as a biological specimen for forensic analysis of alcohol and variability in the urine-to-blood relationship.

    PubMed

    Jones, Alan W

    2006-01-01

    This article concerns the use of urine as a biological specimen for determination of alcohol in clinical and forensic toxicology and discusses factors that might influence variability in the urine/blood concentration ratio of alcohol. A large number of human drinking experiments were conducted to determine the time course of urine-alcohol concentrations (UAC) in relation to blood-alcohol concentrations (BAC). The UAC and BAC curves were shifted in time and the BAC curve always began to decrease before the UAC started to decline. During the early absorption phase the UAC/BAC ratio was less than unity, whereas in the late absorption/distribution period the ratio was between 1.0-1.2. On reaching the post-absorptive phase, the UAC always exceeded BAC and UAC/BAC ratios averaged 1.3-1.4, increasing appreciably as BAC decreased towards zero. Alcohol-induced diuresis was most pronounced during the rising portion of the BAC curve and near to the peak value. After about 2 hours post-drinking, the production rate of urine diminished to the pre-drinking rate of about 0.5-1 mL/min. Drinking water during the post-absorptive phase of the alcohol curve produced dilute urine, as reflected in lower creatinine content and osmolality, although the concentration of ethanol remained unchanged. After subjects drank a moderate dose of ethanol (0.54-0.85 g/kg) about 2% of the dose was recoverable in the urine after 7 hours. Ethyl glucuronide, a minor metabolite of ethanol, was measured in urine samples from drunk drivers. The UAC/BAC ratio of ethanol in drunk drivers did not depend on the creatinine content of the urine and therefore the relative dilution of the specimens. When alcohol-free urine was spiked with glucose and infected with the yeast species Candida albicans, ethanol was produced by fermentation after approximately 24 hours storage at room temperature. This post-sampling synthesis of ethanol was prevented by sodium fluoride (1% weight by volume) in the urine tubes or by

  10. Dynamic Assessment of Functional Lipidomic Analysis in Human Urine.

    PubMed

    Rockwell, Hannah E; Gao, Fei; Chen, Emily Y; McDaniel, Justice; Sarangarajan, Rangaprasad; Narain, Niven R; Kiebish, Michael A

    2016-07-01

    The development of enabling mass spectrometry platforms for the quantification of diverse lipid species in human urine is of paramount importance for understanding metabolic homeostasis in normal and pathophysiological conditions. Urine represents a non-invasive biofluid that can capture distinct differences in an individual's physiological status. However, currently there is a lack of quantitative workflows to engage in high throughput lipidomic analysis. This study describes the development of a MS/MS(ALL) shotgun lipidomic workflow and a micro liquid chromatography-high resolution tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) workflow for urine structural and mediator lipid analysis, respectively. This workflow was deployed to understand biofluid sample handling and collection, extraction efficiency, and natural human variation over time. Utilization of 0.5 mL of urine for structural lipidomic analysis resulted in reproducible quantification of more than 600 lipid molecular species from over 20 lipid classes. Analysis of 1 mL of urine routinely quantified in excess of 55 mediator lipid metabolites comprised of octadecanoids, eicosanoids, and docosanoids generated by lipoxygenase, cyclooxygenase, and cytochrome P450 activities. In summary, the high-throughput functional lipidomics workflow described in this study demonstrates an impressive robustness and reproducibility that can be utilized for population health and precision medicine applications. PMID:27038173

  11. The Recovery of Water and Nitrogen from Urine in BLSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Beizhen; Liu, Hong; Deng, Shengda

    The recycle and reuse of the wastewater is one of the main factors for realizing a higher closure degree of bioregenerative life support system (BLSS), and the treatment and recovery of the crew’s urine are the most difficult and critical issues. Urine contains a lot of water and high concentrations of urea and salts. Water can be used for the irrigation of the plants in BLSS, and the nitrogen is also the necessary nutrient for plant growth. Therefore, if the nitrogen could be recycled simultaneously while desalting the urine, the substance circulation and the closure of BLSS could be improved significantly. In this study, two-step method was conducted to treat the urine and recycle the water and nitrogen. The urea was hydrolyzed firstly, and then the water vapor and ammonia gas were cooled and collected by using reduced pressure distillation in alkaline condition. High temperature acidification and urease processing methods were studied during the urea hydrolysis step. The treatment conditions of both methods were optimized and the degrees of hydrolysis were compared. This investigation may provide a reference for the establishment of the urine recycle in BLSS.

  12. Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Intranasal Scopolamine in Plasma Saliva and Urine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, L.; Tam, V. H.; Chow, D. S. L.; Putcha, L.

    2015-01-01

    An intranasal gel dosage formulation of scopolamine (INSCOP) was developed for the treatment of Space Motion Sickness (SMS). The bioavailability and pharmacokinetics (PK) were evaluated under IND (Investigational New Drug) guidelines. The aim of the project was to develop a PK model that can predict the relationships among plasma, saliva and urinary scopolamine concentrations using data collected from the IND clinical trial protocol with INSCOP. Twelve healthy human subjects were administered at three dose levels (0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mg) of INSCOP. Serial blood, saliva and urine samples were collected between 5 min to 24 h after dosing and scopolamine concentrations were measured by using a validated LC-MS-MS assay. PK compartmental models, using actual dosing and sampling time, were established using Phoenix (version 1.2). Model selection was based on a likelihood ratio test on the difference of criteria (-2LL (i.e. log-likelihood ratio test)) and comparison of the quality of fit plots. The results: Predictable correlations among scopolamine concentrations in compartments of plasma, saliva and urine were established, and for the first time the model satisfactorily predicted the population and individual PK of INSCOP in plasma, saliva and urine. The model can be utilized to predict the INSCOP plasma concentration by saliva and urine data, and it will be useful for monitoring the PK of scopolamine in space and other remote environments using non-invasive sampling of saliva and/or urine.

  13. A prototype urine collection device for female aircrew

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bisson, Roger U.; Delger, Karlyna L.

    1993-01-01

    Women are gaining increased access to small military cockpits. This shift has stimulated the search for practical urine containment and disposal methods for female aircrew. There are no external urine collection devices (UCD) for women that are comfortable, convenient, and leak free. We describe a prototype UCD that begins to meet this need. Materials used to make custom aviator masks were adapted to mold a perineal mask. First, a perineal cast (negative) was used to make a mold (positive). Next, a perineal mask made of wax was formed to fit the positive mold. Finally, a soft, pliable perineal mask was fabricated using the wax model as a guide. The prototype was tested for comfort, fit, and leakage. In the sitting position, less than 5 cc of urine leakage occurred with each 600 cc of urine collected. Comfort was mostly satisfactory, but ambulation was limited and the outlet design could lead to kinking and obstruction. We concluded that a perineal mask may serve as a comfortable and functional external UCD acceptable for use by females in confined environments. Changes are needed to improve comfort, fit, and urine drainage. Integration into cockpits, pressure suits, chemical defense gear, and environments where access to relief facilities is restricted is planned.

  14. Development of Urine Receptacle Assembly for the Crew Exploration Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cibuzar, Branelle Rae; Thomas, Evan; Peterson, Laurie; Goforth, Johanna

    2008-01-01

    The Urine Receptacle Assembly (URA) initially was developed for Apollo as a primary means of urine collection. The aluminum housing with stainless steel honeycomb insert provided all male crewmembers with a non-invasive means of micturating into a urine capturing device and then venting to space. The performance of the URA was a substantial improvement over previous devices but its performance was not well understood. The Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) program is exploring the URA as a contingency liquid waste management system for the vehicle. URA improvements are required to meet CEV requirements, including: consumables minimization, flow performance, acceptable hygiene standards, crew comfort, and female crewmember capability. This paper presents the results of a historical review of URA performance during the Apollo program, recent URA performance tests on the reduced gravity aircraft flight under varying flow conditions, and a proposed development plan for the URA to meet CEV needs.

  15. Urine sample used for congenital toxoplasmosis diagnosis by PCR.

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes, I; Rodriguez, M; Domingo, C J; del Castillo, F; Juncosa, T; Alvar, J

    1996-01-01

    The diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in congenitally infected infants can be difficult; serology is unreliable, and diagnosis must be based on the combination of symptomatology and direct demonstration of the parasite. Four infants suspected of having Toxoplasma gondii infection were studied by serological analysis, tissue culture, and PCR determination. T. gondii was isolated from the urine of one patient. The parasite was detected by PCR in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid of three infants and in the urine in all patients. Because nested PCR proved to be a sensitive, relatively rapid, and specific method and because it can be applied to a variety of different clinical samples, PCR can be a valuable technique for the identification of T. gondii infections in children. The present study indicates that PCR examination of urine, a fluid never before used for diagnosis in this age group, may be valuable in diagnosing cases of congenital toxoplasmosis. PMID:8880481

  16. Development Status of the International Space Station Urine Processor Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holder, Donald W.; Hutchens, Cindy F.

    2003-01-01

    NASA, Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is developing a Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) for the International Space Station (ISS). The UPA uses Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) technology to reclaim water from pre-treated urine. This water is further processed by the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) to potable quality standards for use on the ISS. NASA has developed this technology over the last 25-30 years. Over this history, many technical issues were solved with thousands of hours of ground testing that demonstrate the ability of the UPA technology to reclaim water from urine. In recent years, NASA MSFC has been responsible for taking the UPA technology to "flight design" maturity. This paper will give a brief overview of the UPA design and a status of the major design and development efforts completed recently to mature the UPA to a flight level.

  17. Fluorescence anisotropy characterization of urine in the diagnosis of cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajasekaran, Ramu; Brindha, Elumalai; Sivabalan, Shanmugam; Aruna, Prakasa Rao; Koteeswaran, Dornadula; Ganesan, Singaravelu

    2016-03-01

    Cervical cancer is considered as the second most commonly occurring malignancy among women, next to breast cancer. It is well known that most of the cancer patients diagnosed with advanced stages and there is a pressing need for improved methods to detect cancer at its initial stages. Many techniques have been adopted for the diagnosis of cervical cancer. Among these, fluorescence polarization spectroscopy is a complementary technique of fluorescence spectroscopy which helps us to elucidate the spectral characteristics which highly depend on pH, viscosity and local environment. Since urine has many metabolites and the measurement of native fluorescence of urine, in principle, able to provide an indication of a number of health conditions, attempts were made to study fluorescence anisotropic characterization of the human urine of cervical cancer patients and normal subjects. Significant differences were observed between the anisotropic and polarization values of cancer subjects and normal subjects.

  18. Fluorescence And Alternative Methods In Urine Drug Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Naresh C.

    1988-04-01

    Drug abuse has become-one of the most compelling realities _ ot contemporary society. It has penetrated every segment ot our population: trom schools to sports and trom organized crime to board rooms . Drugs in tie w9rkplace allegedly cost government agencies and business millions ot dollars each year in increased absenteeism,. poor work performance, thefts,accidents andwastedtime. The President's Commission on Organized Crime and the federal government are in tavor ot urine drug testing. In fact many employers are now resorting to urine drug testing on current and prospective employees. This presep.tation discusses different laboratory methods used in urine drug.testing, including immunoassays, fluorescence polarization, thin layer chromatography, high pressure liquid chromatography, gas chromatography and gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry.

  19. Urine naloxone concentration at different phases of buprenorphine maintenance treatment.

    PubMed

    Heikman, Pertti; Häkkinen, Margareeta; Gergov, Merja; Ojanperä, Ilkka

    2014-03-01

    In spite of the benefits of buprenorphine-naloxone co-formulation (BNX) in opioid maintenance treatment, the naloxone component has not prevented parenteral use of BNX. Current laboratory methods are not sufficient to differentiate between therapeutic and illicit use of buprenorphine, and little is known about urine naloxone concentrations. Measurement of urine naloxone, together with buprenorphine and norbuprenorphine, might help to determine the naloxone source and administration route. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for this purpose. Naloxone, buprenorphine, and norbuprenorphine total concentrations were measured in urine samples from opioid-dependent patients before and during stable and unstable phases of maintenance treatment with BNX. The limit of quantification in urine was 1.0 µg/L for naloxone, buprenorphine and norbuprenorphine. Before treatment, all samples contained buprenorphine but the median naloxone concentration was 0 µg/L. During the maintenance treatment with BNX all urine samples were positive for naloxone, buprenorphine and norbuprenorphine. The naloxone concentration at a stable phase of treatment (median 60 µg/L, range 5-200 µg/L) was not different from the naloxone concentration at an unstable phase (70 µg/L, 10-1700 µg/L). Applying an upper limit of 200 µg/L to the sample, the median naloxone/buprenorphine ratio was higher in the high than in the low naloxone concentration group (0.9 vs 0.3, respectively). This study suggests that naloxone in urine can act as an indicator of compliance with BNX. Parenteral use of BNX was associated with a high naloxone/buprenorphine ratio. Negative naloxone with positive buprenorphine suggests the use/abuse of buprenorphine alone. PMID:23512803

  20. Determination of struvite crystallization mechanisms in urine using turbidity measurement.

    PubMed

    Triger, Aurélien; Pic, Jean-Stéphane; Cabassud, Corinne

    2012-11-15

    Sanitation improvement in developing countries could be achieved through wastewater treatment processes. Nowadays alternative concepts such as urine separate collection are being developed. These processes would be an efficient way to reduce pollution of wastewater while recovering nutrients, especially phosphorus, which are lost in current wastewater treatment methods. The precipitation of struvite (MgNH(4)PO(4)∙6H(2)O) from urine is an efficient process yielding more than 98% phosphorus recovery with very high reaction rates. The work presented here aims to determine the kinetics and mechanisms of struvite precipitation in order to supply data for the design of efficient urine treatment processes. A methodology coupling the resolution of the population balance equation to turbidity measurement was developed, and batch experiments with synthetic and real urine were performed. The main mechanisms of struvite crystallization were identified as crystal growth and nucleation. A satisfactory approximation of the volumetric crystal size distribution was obtained. The study has shown the low influence on the crystallization process of natural organic matter contained in real urine. It has also highlighted the impact of operational parameters. Mixing conditions can create segregation and attrition which influence the nucleation rate, resulting in a change in crystals number, size, and thus final crystal size distribution (CSD). Moreover urine storage conditions can impact urea hydrolysis and lead to spontaneous struvite precipitation in the stock solution also influencing the final CSD. A few limits of the applied methodology and of the proposed modelling, due to these phenomena and to the turbidity measurement, are also discussed. PMID:22975737

  1. Urine Metabolite Profiles Predictive of Human Kidney Allograft Status.

    PubMed

    Suhre, Karsten; Schwartz, Joseph E; Sharma, Vijay K; Chen, Qiuying; Lee, John R; Muthukumar, Thangamani; Dadhania, Darshana M; Ding, Ruchuang; Ikle, David N; Bridges, Nancy D; Williams, Nikki M; Kastenmüller, Gabi; Karoly, Edward D; Mohney, Robert P; Abecassis, Michael; Friedewald, John; Knechtle, Stuart J; Becker, Yolanda T; Samstein, Benjamin; Shaked, Abraham; Gross, Steven S; Suthanthiran, Manikkam

    2016-02-01

    Noninvasive diagnosis and prognostication of acute cellular rejection in the kidney allograft may help realize the full benefits of kidney transplantation. To investigate whether urine metabolites predict kidney allograft status, we determined levels of 749 metabolites in 1516 urine samples from 241 kidney graft recipients enrolled in the prospective multicenter Clinical Trials in Organ Transplantation-04 study. A metabolite signature of the ratio of 3-sialyllactose to xanthosine in biopsy specimen-matched urine supernatants best discriminated acute cellular rejection biopsy specimens from specimens without rejection. For clinical application, we developed a high-throughput mass spectrometry-based assay that enabled absolute and rapid quantification of the 3-sialyllactose-to-xanthosine ratio in urine samples. A composite signature of ratios of 3-sialyllactose to xanthosine and quinolinate to X-16397 and our previously reported urinary cell mRNA signature of 18S ribosomal RNA, CD3ε mRNA, and interferon-inducible protein-10 mRNA outperformed the metabolite signatures and the mRNA signature. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve for the composite metabolite-mRNA signature was 0.93, and the signature was diagnostic of acute cellular rejection with a specificity of 84% and a sensitivity of 90%. The composite signature, developed using solely biopsy specimen-matched urine samples, predicted future acute cellular rejection when applied to pristine samples taken days to weeks before biopsy. We conclude that metabolite profiling of urine offers a noninvasive means of diagnosing and prognosticating acute cellular rejection in the human kidney allograft, and that the combined metabolite and mRNA signature is diagnostic and prognostic of acute cellular rejection with very high accuracy. PMID:26047788

  2. Rapid determination of 226Ra in emergency urine samples

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Maxwell, Sherrod L.; Culligan, Brian K.; Hutchison, Jay B.; Utsey, Robin C.; McAlister, Daniel R.

    2014-02-27

    A new method has been developed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) that can be used for the rapid determination of 226Ra in emergency urine samples following a radiological incident. If a radiological dispersive device event or a nuclear accident occurs, there will be an urgent need for rapid analyses of radionuclides in urine samples to ensure the safety of the public. Large numbers of urine samples will have to be analyzed very quickly. This new SRNL method was applied to 100 mL urine aliquots, however this method can be applied to smaller or larger sample aliquots as needed.more » The method was optimized for rapid turnaround times; urine samples may be prepared for counting in <3 h. A rapid calcium phosphate precipitation method was used to pre-concentrate 226Ra from the urine sample matrix, followed by removal of calcium by cation exchange separation. A stacked elution method using DGA Resin was used to purify the 226Ra during the cation exchange elution step. This approach combines the cation resin elution step with the simultaneous purification of 226Ra with DGA Resin, saving time. 133Ba was used instead of 225Ra as tracer to allow immediate counting; however, 225Ra can still be used as an option. The rapid purification of 226Ra to remove interferences using DGA Resin was compared with a slightly longer Ln Resin approach. A final barium sulfate micro-precipitation step was used with isopropanol present to reduce solubility; producing alpha spectrometry sources with peaks typically <40 keV FWHM (full width half max). This new rapid method is fast, has very high tracer yield (>90 %), and removes interferences effectively. The sample preparation method can also be adapted to ICP-MS measurement of 226Ra, with rapid removal of isobaric interferences.« less

  3. Global potential of phosphorus recovery from human urine and feces.

    PubMed

    Mihelcic, James R; Fry, Lauren M; Shaw, Ryan

    2011-08-01

    This study geospatially quantifies the mass of an essential fertilizer element, phosphorus, available from human urine and feces, globally, regionally, and by specific country. The analysis is performed over two population scenarios (2009 and 2050). This important material flow is related to the presence of improved sanitation facilities and also considers the global trend of urbanization. Results show that in 2009 the phosphorus available from urine is approximately 1.68 million metric tons (with similar mass available from feces). If collected, the phosphorus available from urine and feces could account for 22% of the total global phosphorus demand. In 2050 the available phosphorus from urine that is associated with population increases only will increase to 2.16 million metric tons (with similar mass available from feces). The available phosphorus from urine and feces produced in urban settings is currently approximately 0.88 million metric tons and will increase with population growth to over 1.5 million metric tons by 2050. Results point to the large potential source of human-derived phosphorus in developing regions like Africa and Asia that have a large population currently unserved by improved sanitation facilities. These regions have great potential to implement urine diversion and reuse and composting or recovery of biosolids, because innovative technologies can be integrated with improvements in sanitation coverage. In contrast, other regions with extensive sanitation coverage like Europe and North America need to determine how to retrofit existing sanitation technology combined that is combined with human behavioral changes to recover phosphorus and other valuable nutrients. PMID:21429554

  4. Smartphone based point-of-care detector of urine albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cmiel, Vratislav; Svoboda, Ondrej; Koscova, Pavlina; Provaznik, Ivo

    2016-03-01

    Albumin plays an important role in human body. Its changed level in urine may indicate serious kidney disorders. We present a new point-of-care solution for sensitive detection of urine albumin - the miniature optical adapter for iPhone with in-built optical filters and a sample slot. The adapter exploits smart-phone flash to generate excitation light and camera to measure the level of emitted light. Albumin Blue 580 is used as albumin reagent. The proposed light-weight adapter can be produced at low cost using a 3D printer. Thus, the miniaturized detector is easy to use out of lab.

  5. The International Space Station Urine Monitoring System (UMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feeback, Daniel L.; Cibuzar, Branelle R.; Milstead, Jeffery R.; Pietrzyk,, Robert A.; Clark, Mark S.F.

    2009-01-01

    A device capable of making in-flight volume measurements of single void urine samples, the Urine Monitoring System (UMS), was developed and flown on seven U.S. Space Shuttle missions. This device provided volume data for each urine void from multiple crewmembers and allowed samples of each to be taken and returned to Earth for post-flight analysis. There were a number of design flaws in the original instrument including the presence of liquid carry-over producing invalid "actual" micturition volumes and cross-contamination between successive users from residual urine in "dead" spots". Additionally, high or low volume voids could not be accurately measured, the on-orbit calibration and nominal use sequence was time intensive, and the unit had to be returned and disassembled to retrieve the volume data. These problems have been resolved in a new version, the International Space Station (ISS) UMS, that has been designed to provide real-time in-flight volume data with accuracy and precision equivalent to measurements made on Earth and the ability to provide urine samples that are unadulterated by the device. Originally conceived to be interfaced with a U.S.-built Waste Collection System (WCS), the unit now has been modified to interface with the Russian-supplied Sanitary Hygiene Device (ASY). The ISS UMS provides significant advantages over the current method of collecting urine samples into Urine Collection Devices (UCDs), from which samples are removed and returned to Earth for analyses. A significant future advantage of the UMS is that it can provide an interface to analytical instrumentation that will allow real-time measurement of urine bioanalytes allowing monitoring of crewmember health status during flight and the ability to provide medical interventions based on the results of these measurements. Currently, the ISS UMS is scheduled to launch along with Node-3 on STS-130 (20A) in December 2009. UMS will be installed and scientific/functional verification

  6. Urine sampling and collection system optimization and testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogal, G. L.; Geating, J. A.; Koesterer, M. G.

    1975-01-01

    A Urine Sampling and Collection System (USCS) engineering model was developed to provide for the automatic collection, volume sensing and sampling of urine from each micturition. The purpose of the engineering model was to demonstrate verification of the system concept. The objective of the optimization and testing program was to update the engineering model, to provide additional performance features and to conduct system testing to determine operational problems. Optimization tasks were defined as modifications to minimize system fluid residual and addition of thermoelectric cooling.

  7. Urine Culture in Uncomplicated UTI: Interpretation and Significance.

    PubMed

    Stapleton, Ann E

    2016-05-01

    Acute uncomplicated urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common clinical problem, accounting for millions of outpatient visits in the USA annually. Although routinely obtaining urine cultures in UTI is not recommended, there are circumstances in which obtaining a pre-therapy culture may be warranted or chosen by clinicians, such as when indicated by the need for careful antimicrobial stewardship. This review focuses on understanding reasons for obtaining a pre-therapy culture, methods of collection, and appropriately interpreting urine culture data. PMID:26971335

  8. [Purple urine bag syndrome in two institutionalised patients].

    PubMed

    Iglesias Barreira, Rebeca; Albiñana Pérez, M Sandra; Rodríguez Penín, Isaura; Bilbao Salcedo, José

    2013-01-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) is an uncommon but particularly striking phenomenon characterised by a chemical reaction involving the urine, plastic and certain enzymes from some sulphatase- and phosphatase-producing bacteria, including Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli and Morganella morganii, amongst others. Following this reaction, the catheter and the bag may be stained red, blue or purple. This phenomenon tends to occur in patients with multiple pathology and with urinary catheters, as part of a urinary tract infection. We describe two clinical cases of PUBS in institutionalised patients with permanent urinary catheters. PMID:23199817

  9. Optimization for Peptide Sample Preparation for Urine Peptidomics

    SciTech Connect

    Sigdel, Tara K.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Hsieh, Szu-Chuan; Dai, Hong; Qian, Weijun; Camp, David G.; Sarwal, Minnie M.

    2014-02-25

    Analysis of native or endogenous peptides in biofluids can provide valuable insights into disease mechanisms. Furthermore, the detected peptides may also have utility as potential biomarkers for non-invasive monitoring of human diseases. The non-invasive nature of urine collection and the abundance of peptides in the urine makes analysis by high-throughput ‘peptidomics’ methods , an attractive approach for investigating the pathogenesis of renal disease. However, urine peptidomics methodologies can be problematic with regards to difficulties associated with sample preparation. The urine matrix can provide significant background interference in making the analytical measurements that it hampers both the identification of peptides and the depth of the peptidomics read when utilizing LC-MS based peptidome analysis. We report on a novel adaptation of the standard solid phase extraction (SPE) method to a modified SPE (mSPE) approach for improved peptide yield and analysis sensitivity with LC-MS based peptidomics in terms of time, cost, clogging of the LC-MS column, peptide yield, peptide quality, and number of peptides identified by each method. Expense and time requirements were comparable for both SPE and mSPE, but more interfering contaminants from the urine matrix were evident in the SPE preparations (e.g., clogging of the LC-MS columns, yellowish background coloration of prepared samples due to retained urobilin, lower peptide yields) when compared to the mSPE method. When we compared data from technical replicates of 4 runs, the mSPE method provided significantly improved efficiencies for the preparation of samples from urine (e.g., mSPE peptide identification 82% versus 18% with SPE; p = 8.92E-05). Additionally, peptide identifications, when applying the mSPE method, highlighted the biology of differential activation of urine peptidases during acute renal transplant rejection with distinct laddering of specific peptides, which was obscured for most proteins

  10. Spectrophotometric determination of sparfloxacin in pharmaceutical formulations and urine samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jan, M. R.; Shah, J.; Inayatullah

    2010-07-01

    A simple and sensitive spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of sparfloxacin in bulk and pharmaceutical formulations, and in artificial urine. Sparfloxacin was oxidized into a red colored product using ammonium monovanadate in acidic media. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of sparfloxacin in different pharmaceutical formulations (tablets) and in a spiked urine sample. The influence of commonly used excipients on the determination of sparfloxacin was studied. Percentage recoveries in the range of 98.0 ± 0.14 % to 100.0 ± 0.20 % were obtained. The observed data have been evaluated statistically which showed high accuracy and precision.

  11. Radionuclide analyses of urine samples: results of an intercomparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalheimer, A. R.; Beyer, D.; Günther, E. W.; Henrichs, K.

    1996-02-01

    The measurement of radioactivity concentrations in urine samples is an important tool for monitoring possible radionuclide intakes by occupationally exposed workers, especially for radionuclides emitting alpha or beta radiation. Quality assurance requires systematic intercomparisons involving all laboratories responsible for these measurements. Such analyses were performed by the German—Swiss Radiation Protection Association. The main purpose of these measurements was the specification of criteria for the acceptance of laboratories by radiation protection authorities. This contribution presents some measurement results of Th-nat, 90Sr, and 241Am in urine and discusses the implications for internal dosimetry.

  12. Gas chromatographic determination of pentachlorophenol in human blood and urine

    SciTech Connect

    Atuma, S.S.; Okor, D.I.

    1985-09-01

    The extraction, identification and quantification of pentachlorophenol (PCP) in human blood and urine are of great importance for monitoring human exposure to this environmental chemical. Although reports abound in the literature on PCP residues, toxicity and environmental fate, there is hardly any information on its existence in the developing tropical countries, particularly in Nigeria. There is therefore the need to survey the status of PCP in Nigerian environment with a view to establishing the potential health hazards resulting from its bioaccumulation. This paper reports a preliminary survey of the residue levels of PCP in human blood and urine of the general population in Bendel State of Nigeria.

  13. An emergency bioassay method for (210)Po in urine.

    PubMed

    Guérin, Nicolas; Dai, Xiongxin

    2015-09-01

    A rapid method was developed to efficiently measure (210)Po in urine samples in an emergency situation. Polonium-210 in small urine samples (10 mL) was spontaneously deposited on a stainless steel disc in 1 M HCl at room temperature for 4 h in a polyethylene bottle. The metallic disc was then counted for 4 h by alpha spectrometry. The developed method allowed the preparation of large sample batch in a short time. The method meets the requirements for an emergency bioassay procedure. PMID:26115206

  14. A computerised real-time measurement system to locate the position of the urine stream in designing urine collection devices for women.

    PubMed

    Xu, Y; Macaulay, M C; Jowitt, F A; Clarke-O'Neill, S R; Fader, M J; van den Heuvel, E A; Cottenden, A M

    2008-05-01

    A computerised real-time measurement system has been developed and tested for locating the position of the urine stream into a handheld urinal and onto a body-worn pad using arrays of resistive or optical sensors. Experimental data indicates that urine streams were usually scattered over quite a large cross-sectional area (typically 30mm in the anterior/posterior direction) at the point of entry into handheld urinals. However, a correctly placed aperture of length 90mm would have successfully received all the urine from the total of 36 clinical experiments run with seven women. Similarly, experiments to determine the initial position of the urine stream onto body-worn pads indicated that a target area of length 120mm would have received the initial stream of urine from all 54 clinical experiments with 18 women. These data have been used to help with the design of a handheld urinal and a body-worn urine collection interface (the latter using the body-worn pad data) to be used in two variants of a new urine collection device for women (NICMS). Although both resistive and optical sensors provided useful data, the reliability of optical sensors was often compromised by droplets of urine splashing onto light sources or detectors. Future work should focus on protecting them from splashing. PMID:17643336

  15. 76 FR 52644 - Faucets, Showerheads, Water Closets and Urinals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... Federal Regulations in a final rule issued by DOE on March 18, 1998. 63 FR 13308. Because more than five... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Faucets, Showerheads, Water Closets and Urinals AGENCY... respect to any State regulation concerning the water use or water efficiency of faucets,...

  16. Urine excretion strategy for stem cell-generated embryonic kidneys

    PubMed Central

    Yokote, Shinya; Matsunari, Hitomi; Iwai, Satomi; Yamanaka, Shuichiro; Uchikura, Ayuko; Fujimoto, Eisuke; Matsumoto, Kei; Nagashima, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Eiji; Yokoo, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    There have been several recent attempts to generate, de novo, a functional whole kidney from stem cells using the organogenic niche or blastocyst complementation methods. However, none of these attempts succeeded in constructing a urinary excretion pathway for the stem cell-generated embryonic kidney. First, we transplanted metanephroi from cloned pig fetuses into gilts; the metanephroi grew to about 3 cm and produced urine, although hydronephrosis eventually was observed because of the lack of an excretion pathway. Second, we demonstrated the construction of urine excretion pathways in rats. Rat metanephroi or metanephroi with bladders (developed from cloacas) were transplanted into host rats. Histopathologic analysis showed that tubular lumina dilation and interstitial fibrosis were reduced in kidneys developed from cloacal transplants compared with metanephroi transplantation. Then we connected the host animal’s ureter to the cloacal-developed bladder, a technique we called the “stepwise peristaltic ureter” (SWPU) system. The application of the SWPU system avoided hydronephrosis and permitted the cloacas to differentiate well, with cloacal urine being excreted persistently through the recipient ureter. Finally, we demonstrated a viable preclinical application of the SWPU system in cloned pigs. The SWPU system also inhibited hydronephrosis in the pig study. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing that the SWPU system may resolve two important problems in the generation of kidneys from stem cells: construction of a urine excretion pathway and continued growth of the newly generated kidney. PMID:26392557

  17. Successful Use of the Nocturnal Urine Alarm for Diurnal Enuresis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friman, Patrick C.; Vollmer, Dennis

    1995-01-01

    A urine alarm, typically used to treat nocturnal enuresis, was effectively used to treat diurnal enuresis in a 15-year-old female with depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and conduct disorder. The study indicated that the alarm eliminated wetting in both treatment phases and that continence was maintained at three-month and…

  18. Excretion of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy Infectivity in Urine

    PubMed Central

    Gregori, Luisa; Kovacs, Gabor G.; Alexeeva, Irina; Budka, Herbert

    2008-01-01

    The route of transmission of most naturally acquired transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) infections remains speculative. To investigate urine as a potential source of TSE exposure, we used a sensitive method for detection and quantitation of TSE infectivity. Pooled urine collected from 22 hamsters showing clinical signs of 263K scrapie contained 3.8 ± 0.9 infectious doses/mL of infectivity. Titration of homogenates of kidneys and urinary bladders from the same animals gave concentrations 20,000-fold greater. Histologic and immunohistochemical examination of these same tissues showed no indications of inflammatory or other pathologic changes except for occasional deposits of disease-associated prion protein in kidneys. Although the source of TSE infectivity in urine remains unresolved, these results establish that TSE infectivity is excreted in urine and may thereby play a role in the horizontal transmission of natural TSEs. The results also indicate potential risk for TSE transmission from human urine–derived hormones and other medicines. PMID:18760007

  19. The optical nature of methylsuccinic acid in human urine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeitman, B.; Lawless, J. G.

    1975-01-01

    Methylsuccinic acid was isolated from human urine, derivatized as the di-S-(+)-2-butyl ester, and analyzed using a gas chromatographic system capable of separating the enantiomers of the derivative. The R-(+)-isomer was found to be present. Methylsuccinic acid is potentially important as a criterion for abiogenicity, having been obtained as a racemic mixture from sources known to be abiotic.

  20. Direct colorimetric method for determination of organophosphates in human urine.

    PubMed

    Namera, A; Utsumi, Y; Yashiki, M; Ohtani, M; Imamura, T; Kojima, T

    2000-01-20

    A simple and sensitive method for determination of organophosphorus pesticides in human urine was developed by detecting the color complexes which resulted from reactions of organophosphorus pesticides and 4-(4-nitrobenzyl)pyridine (NBP) in urine. Based on studies of reaction conditions, e.g. reaction temperature and time, and reagent concentration, a colorimetric method was established. A 0.1-ml volume of NBP (45% in acetone) was added to a 1.0-ml volume of a urine sample, and the mixture was heated at 100 degrees C for 20 min. After cooling, 0.1 ml of tetraethylenepentamine was added. The organophosphorus pesticides showed a characteristic purplish blue color and the coloring complexes which were produced were stable for several hours. Furthermore, these complexes could be determined spectrophotometrically. The detection limits were 0.10-10 microg/ml in urine. The required time for analysis was approximately 30 min for one sample. Comparing the result of the proposed method with those of the GC-MS method, the results were similar for the 12 poisoning cases studied. Thus, the proposed method is useful for detection of these pesticides in critical care practices. PMID:10612713

  1. Advances in understanding the urine-concentrating mechanism.

    PubMed

    Sands, Jeff M; Layton, Harold E

    2014-01-01

    The renal medulla produces concentrated urine through the generation of an osmotic gradient that progressively increases from the cortico-medullary boundary to the inner medullary tip. In the outer medulla, the osmolality gradient arises principally from vigorous active transport of NaCl, without accompanying water, from the thick ascending limbs of short- and long-looped nephrons. In the inner medulla, the source of the osmotic gradient has not been identified. Recently, there have been important advances in our understanding of key components of the urine-concentrating mechanism, including (a) better understanding of the regulation of water, urea, and sodium transport proteins; (b) better resolution of the anatomical relationships in the medulla; and (c) improvements in mathematical modeling of the urine-concentrating mechanism. Continued experimental investigation of signaling pathways regulating transepithelial transport, both in normal animals and in knockout mice, and incorporation of the resulting information into mathematical simulations may help to more fully elucidate the mechanism for concentrating urine in the inner medulla. PMID:24245944

  2. DETERMINATION OF RACTOPAMINE IN CATTLE AND SHEEP URINE USING BIOSENSOR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A biosensor method, using the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) principle, was developed for the determination of ractopamine in cattle and sheep urine. A monoclonal antibody was used to compete with ractopamine in the sample and ractopamine immobilized on the sensor chip. Addition of bovine serum a...

  3. Hair: A Diagnostic Tool to Complement Blood Serum and Urine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maugh, Thomas H., II

    1978-01-01

    Trace elements and some drugs can be identified in hair and it seems likely that other organic chemicals will be identifiable in the future. Since hair is so easily collected, stored, and analyzed it promises to be an ideal complement to serum and urine analysis as a diagnostic tool. (BB)

  4. Effects of human urine on aggregation of calcium oxalate crystals.

    PubMed

    Springmann, K E; Drach, G W; Gottung, B; Randolph, A D

    1986-01-01

    The importance of aggregation in calcium oxalate urolithiasis, although not fully understood, has long been postulated. Previous investigators of calcium oxalate crystal aggregation have applied static crystallization rather than continuous flow techniques to their studies. We describe the use of a Couette agglomerator in series with our previously reported continuous flow mixed suspension-mixed product removal crystallization system. We compared synthetic urine controls with 5 per cent volume-in-volume human urine additions from normal persons or patients with calcium oxalate stones. There was no significant difference in nucleation, linear crystal growth rate or total crystal mass between normal persons and those with stones. Control nucleation rate was significantly higher than in either human urine addition group. Comparison of aggregator particle size distributions revealed significant differences in aggregation among the control, normal and stone groups. We concluded that urine inhibitors to aggregation are somewhat deficient in patients with stones, resulting in the generation of larger particle masses or eventually stones. PMID:3941471

  5. Urine excretion strategy for stem cell-generated embryonic kidneys.

    PubMed

    Yokote, Shinya; Matsunari, Hitomi; Iwai, Satomi; Yamanaka, Shuichiro; Uchikura, Ayuko; Fujimoto, Eisuke; Matsumoto, Kei; Nagashima, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Eiji; Yokoo, Takashi

    2015-10-20

    There have been several recent attempts to generate, de novo, a functional whole kidney from stem cells using the organogenic niche or blastocyst complementation methods. However, none of these attempts succeeded in constructing a urinary excretion pathway for the stem cell-generated embryonic kidney. First, we transplanted metanephroi from cloned pig fetuses into gilts; the metanephroi grew to about 3 cm and produced urine, although hydronephrosis eventually was observed because of the lack of an excretion pathway. Second, we demonstrated the construction of urine excretion pathways in rats. Rat metanephroi or metanephroi with bladders (developed from cloacas) were transplanted into host rats. Histopathologic analysis showed that tubular lumina dilation and interstitial fibrosis were reduced in kidneys developed from cloacal transplants compared with metanephroi transplantation. Then we connected the host animal's ureter to the cloacal-developed bladder, a technique we called the "stepwise peristaltic ureter" (SWPU) system. The application of the SWPU system avoided hydronephrosis and permitted the cloacas to differentiate well, with cloacal urine being excreted persistently through the recipient ureter. Finally, we demonstrated a viable preclinical application of the SWPU system in cloned pigs. The SWPU system also inhibited hydronephrosis in the pig study. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing that the SWPU system may resolve two important problems in the generation of kidneys from stem cells: construction of a urine excretion pathway and continued growth of the newly generated kidney. PMID:26392557

  6. Forgotten Hardware: How to Urinate in a Spacesuit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollins, Hunter

    2013-01-01

    On May 5, 1961, astronaut Alan Shepard became the first American to fly in space. Although National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) had discounted the need for him to urinate, Shepard did, in his spacesuit, short circuiting his electronic biosensors. With the development of the pressure suit needed for high-altitude and space flight…

  7. Sheath flow SERS for chemical profiling in urine.

    PubMed

    Riordan, Colleen M; Jacobs, Kevin T; Negri, Pierre; Schultz, Zachary D

    2016-06-23

    The molecular specificity and sensitivity of surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) makes it an attractive method for biomedical diagnostics. Here we present results demonstrating the utility and complications for SERS characterization in urine. The chemical fingerprint characteristics of Raman spectra suggest its use as a label free diagnostic; however, the complex composition of biological fluids presents a tremendous challenge. In particular, the limited number of surface sites and competing absorption tend to mask the presence of analytes in solution, particularly when the solution contains multiple analytes. To address these problems and characterize biological fluids we have demonstrated a sheath-flow interface for SERS detection. This sheath-flow SERS interface uses hydrodynamic focusing to confine analyte molecules eluting out of a column onto a planar SERS substrate where the molecules are detected by their intrinsic SERS signal. In this report we compare the direct detection of benzoylecgonine in urine using DSERS with chemical profiling by capillary zone electrophoresis and sheath-flow SERS detection. The SERS spectrum from the observed migration peaks can identify benzoylecgonine and other distinct spectra are also observed, suggesting improved chemical diagnostics in urine. With over 2000 reported compounds in urine, identification of each of the detected species is an enormous task. Nonetheless, these samples provide a benchmark to establish the potential clinical utility of sheath-flow SERS detection. PMID:27034996

  8. Urine marking in male common voles: does behavioural activity matter?

    PubMed

    Lantová, Petra; Brixová, Lenka; Lanta, Vojtěch

    2012-06-01

    Rodent urine provides animals with a large amount of information, from the identity of the animal through its physical condition to social status. Many studies therefore focus on rodent urine-marking behaviour and use marking frequency as an indicator of social status or competitive ability. However, marking, like many other aspects of rodent behaviour, may be affected by individual behavioural activity, a factor that has not been examined so far. We therefore studied a relationship between male urine-marking in reaction to another male's marks (standard opponent) and individual personality profile, characterised by behavioural activity in an open field test (OFT). The marking appeared to be consistent and specific for particular individuals as there was a significant positive relationship between individual markings in two different phases of the experiment. The linkage between behavioural activity in the OFT and urine-marking frequency was non-linear (quadratic), which suggested that males with intermediate activity marked more intensively than males from the extremes of the behavioural spectra. The relationship between the opponent's and the tested males' markings was positive, however, we found no statistically significant evidence that the voles would attempt to overmark the opponent. Marking thus seems to have more of a self-advertising than a competitive function in the common vole. Further, as high marking activity is under strong intra- or intersexual selection, the result might suggest a stabilising selection of the personality trait described as behavioural activity in our study. PMID:22285890

  9. Proteomic analysis of the urine of Dirofilaria immitis infected dogs.

    PubMed

    Hormaeche, Marta; Carretón, Elena; González-Miguel, Javier; Gussoni, Stefania; Montoya-Alonso, José Alberto; Simón, Fernando; Morchón, Rodrigo

    2014-06-16

    Canine cardiopulmonary dirofilariosis caused by Dirofilaria immitis habitually develops as a chronic disease affecting pulmonary arteries, lung parenchyma and heart. Other organs like kidneys can also be involved. Renal pathology is a consequence of glomerulonephritis whose main sign is proteinuria. The aim of the present work is to identify proteins excreted in the urine of D. immitis infected dogs showing proteinuria, and the possible contribution of their loss to heartworm disease. Proteinuria is higher in microfilaremic (mf+) than in amicrofilaremic (mf-) dogs. Using bidimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry 9 different proteins from Canis lupus familiaris in the urine of both mf- and mf+ dogs were identified (serotransferrin isoform 6, serum albumin precursor, albumin, immunoglobulin gamma heavy chain D, apolipoprotein A-I, immunoglobulin lambda-like polypeptide 5-like, arginine esterase precursor, inmunoglobulin gamma heavy chain B and hemoglobin subunit alpha). Furthermore, 3 additional proteins were identified only in the urine of mf+ dogs, corresponding to dog fibrinogen alpha chain and immunoglobulin gamma heavy chain A and actin 2 homologous to a protein of Brugia malayi. The loss of these proteins and other in the urine of D. immitis infected dogs could affect the general condition of parasitized dogs through the interference in the cholesterol metabolism and O₂ transport, among other mechanisms. PMID:24566125

  10. Sysmex UF-1000i performance for screening yeasts in urine.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Fernández, José; Riazzo, Cristina; Sanbonmatsu, Sara; de Dios Luna, Juan; Sorlózano, Antonio; Miranda, Consuelo; Navarro, José María

    2014-04-01

    We tested the capacity of the Sysmex UF-1000i system to detect yeasts in urine by screening a total of 22 132 urine samples received for culture in our microbiology laboratory during 1 year. We also analyzed different dilutions of previously filtered urine inoculated with a strain of Candida albicans. With clinical samples, a single cut-off point of 50 yeast-like cells (YLCs)/μL detected candiduria ≥10 000 colony forming units (CFU)/mL and >100 000 CFU/mL with a sensitivity of 87.3%/95.4%, a specificity of 97%, a negative predictive value of 95.9%, and a positive predictive value of 9.3%/5.7%. With the simulated samples, a linear relationship was observed between the dilution factor and the number of cells detected by UF-1000i. This instrument appears to be able to reliably rule out candiduria of a magnitude of at least 10 000 CFU/mL and facilitate urine sample screening, thereby providing fast results. The Sysmex UF1000i system can be adapted for candiduria screening by the use of an appropriate YLCs/μL cut-off point that takes account of the prevalence of candiduria in the population. PMID:23919730

  11. The effect of uncomplicated potassium depletion on urine acidification

    PubMed Central

    Tannen, Richard L.

    1970-01-01

    Studies were performed on normal human subjects to determine the effects of potassium depletion on urine acidification. Depletion was induced by ingestion of a low potassium diet either alone or in combination with a potassium-binding resin, and the response of each subject to an acute ammonium chloride load in the potassium-depleted state was compared to his normal response. Urine pH was significantly higher during potassium deficiency if sufficient potassium depletion had been induced. No differences in blood acid-base parameters, urinary flow rate, or urinary fixed buffer excretion rate were found to account for this change; however, the increase in urine pH was accompanied by a concomitant increase in net acid and ammonium excretion. It is proposed that these changes during potassium depletion reflect an increase in ammonia diffusion into the urine, presumably as a result of increased renal ammonia production. In addition, it is speculated that changes in ammonia metabolism may be a physiologic control mechanism for potassium conservation. PMID:5443182

  12. [Fitting a male sheath urinal while respecting the patient's intimacy].

    PubMed

    Derville, Sandrine; Cellard Du Sordet, Paul; Breuzard, Magali; Béguin, Anne-Marie; Malaquin-Pavan, Evelyne

    2015-04-01

    The fitting of a male sheath urinal directly concerns the patient's area of sexual intimacy. The modesty of the patient and caregiver as they interact is tested, leading to discomfort or clumsiness which can provoke a feeling of intrusion. Preparing this care procedure favours the adherence of both parties. PMID:26043631

  13. INDUCTION OF REGULATED HYPOTHERMIA IN MICE BY URINE ADMINISTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the first experiment, mice were placed in a temperature gradient and were permitted to select their preferred ambient temperature (Ta). fter one hour, the animals were removed from the gradient, injected with mouse urine at doses of 0, 6, 12, or 18 ml/kg (i.p.) and were placed...

  14. Struvite precipitation thermodynamics in source-separated urine.

    PubMed

    Ronteltap, Mariska; Maurer, Max; Gujer, Willi

    2007-03-01

    Struvite (MgNH(4)PO(4).6H(2)O) precipitation eliminates phosphate efficiently from urine, a small but highly concentrated stream in the total flux of domestic wastewater. Precipitation experiments with hydrolysed urine evaluated the solubility product of struvite. The stored and fully hydrolysed urine had an ionic strength of between 0.33 and 0.56M and required the estimation of activity coefficients. From our data, we identified the Davies approximation with the two constants A=0.509 and B=0.3 as agreeing best with our laboratory results. The standard solubility product K(s)(0)=f(1)[NH4(+)]f(2)[Mg2+]f(3)[PO(4)(3-)] ([ ]=concentration of the species; f(x)=corresponding activity coefficient) of struvite in urine was found to be 10(-13.26+/-0.057) at 25 degrees C and the enthalpy of struvite formation DeltaH was 22.6(+/-1.1) kJmol(-1). The equilibrium calculations required the following dissolved complexes: [MgCO(3)](aq), [MgHCO(3)](+), [MgPO(4)](-), [NH4HPO4and [NaHPO(4)](-) and to a lesser extent [MgSO(4)](aq) and [NH(4)SO(4)](-). Organic complexes do not seem to influence the solubility product substantially. For practical purposes, a conditional solubility product K(s)(cond)=[Mg(aq)].[NH(4)(+)+NH(3)].[P(ortho)]=10(-7.57)M(3) was derived to calculate struvite solubility in urine at 25 degrees C, pH=9.0 and ionic strength I=0.4M directly from measured concentrations. PMID:17258264

  15. Performance of Copan WASP for Routine Urine Microbiology

    PubMed Central

    Quiblier, Chantal; Jetter, Marion; Rominski, Mark; Mouttet, Forouhar; Böttger, Erik C.; Keller, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    This study compared a manual workup of urine clinical samples with fully automated WASPLab processing. As a first step, two different inocula (1 and 10 μl) and different streaking patterns were compared using WASP and InoqulA BT instrumentation. Significantly more single colonies were produced with the10-μl inoculum than with the 1-μl inoculum, and automated streaking yielded significantly more single colonies than manual streaking on whole plates (P < 0.001). In a second step, 379 clinical urine samples were evaluated using WASP and the manual workup. Average numbers of detected morphologies, recovered species, and CFUs per milliliter of all 379 urine samples showed excellent agreement between WASPLab and the manual workup. The percentage of urine samples clinically categorized as positive or negative did not differ between the automated and manual workflow, but within the positive samples, automated processing by WASPLab resulted in the detection of more potential pathogens. In summary, the present study demonstrates that (i) the streaking pattern, i.e., primarily the number of zigzags/length of streaking lines, is critical for optimizing the number of single colonies yielded from primary cultures of urine samples; (ii) automated streaking by the WASP instrument is superior to manual streaking regarding the number of single colonies yielded (for 32.2% of the samples); and (iii) automated streaking leads to higher numbers of detected morphologies (for 47.5% of the samples), species (for 17.4% of the samples), and pathogens (for 3.4% of the samples). The results of this study point to an improved quality of microbiological analyses and laboratory reports when using automated sample processing by WASP and WASPLab. PMID:26677255

  16. International Space Station Urine Monitoring System Functional Integration and Science Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cibuzar, Branelle R.; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to microgravity during human spaceflight is required to be defined and understood as the human exploration of space requires longer duration missions. It is known that long term exposure to microgravity causes bone loss. Urine voids are capable of measuring the calcium and other metabolic byproducts in a constituent s urine. The International Space Station (ISS) Urine Monitoring System (UMS) is an automated urine collection device designed to collect urine, separate the urine and air, measure the void volume, and allow for syringe sampling. Accurate measuring and minimal cross contamination is essential to determine bone loss and the effectiveness of countermeasures. The ISS UMS provides minimal cross contamination (<0.7 ml urine) and has volume accuracy of +/-2% between 100 to 1000 ml urine voids.

  17. International Space Station Urine Monitoring System Functional Integration and Science Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Branelle R.; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Exposure to microgravity during human spaceflight is required to be defined and understood as the human exploration of space requires longer duration missions. It is known that long term exposure to microgravity causes bone loss. Urine voids are capable of measuring the calcium and other metabolic byproducts in a constituent s urine. The International Space Station (ISS) Urine Monitoring System (UMS) is an automated urine collection device designed to collect urine, separate the urine and air, measure the void volume, and allow for syringe sampling. Accurate measuring and minimal cross contamination is essential to determine bone loss and the effectiveness of countermeasures. The ISS UMS provides minimal cross contamination (<0.7 ml urine) and has volume accuracy of +/-2% between 100 to 1000 ml urine voids.

  18. URINE SOURCE SEPARATION AND TREATMENT: NUTRIENT RECOVERY USING LOW-COST MATERIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Successful completion of this P3 Project will achieve the following expected outputs: identification of low-cost materials that can effectively recover ammonium, phosphate, and potassium from urine; material balance calculations for different urine separation and treatment scheme...

  19. The effect of material and flushing water type on urine scale formation.

    PubMed

    Hashemi, Shervin; Han, Mooyoung; Kim, Tschungil

    2015-01-01

    One of the important challenges with current sanitation practices is pipe blockage in urinals caused by urine scale formation. Urinal material and flushing water type are the two most important factors affecting scale formation. This paper examines the scale formation process on different materials which are commonly used in urinal manufacturing and exposed to different urine-based aqua cultures. This study shows that urine scale formation is the greatest for carbon steel material, and the least for PVC. Additionally, material exposure to the urine-rainwater mixture resulted in the smallest amount of scale formation. Based on these results, two new methods for improving sanitation practices are proposed: (1) using PVC as production material for urinals and pipelines; and (2) using rainwater for flushing systems. PMID:26606097

  20. Managing Radiation Therapy Side Effects: What to Do about Changes When You Urinate

    MedlinePlus

    ... C ancer I nstitute Managing Radiation Therapy Side Effects What to do about changes when you urinate “ ... drinking enough each day. Managing Radiation Therapy Side Effects: Changes when you urinate Ask about drinks or ...

  1. Nitrous Oxide Fluxes, Soil Oxygen, and Dentrification Potential from Urine and Non-urine Treated Soil Under Different Irrigation Frequencies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite increased use of irrigation to improve forage quality and quantity for grazing cattle (Bos taurus), few studies have assessed how irrigation practices influence nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from urine-impacted soils. In particular, irrigation effects on soil oxygen (O2) availability, one of...

  2. Nitrous Oxide Fluxes, Soil Oxygen, and Denitrification Potential of Urine- and Non-Urine-Treated Soil under Different Irrigation Frequencies.

    PubMed

    Owens, Jen; Clough, Tim J; Laubach, Johannes; Hunt, John E; Venterea, Rodney T; Phillips, Rebecca L

    2016-07-01

    Despite increased use of irrigation to improve forage quality and quantity for grazing cattle ( Linnaeus), there is a lack of data that assess how irrigation practices influence nitrous oxide (NO) emissions from urine-affected soils. Irrigation effects on soil oxygen (O) availability, a primary controller of NO fluxes, is poorly understood. It was hypothesized that increased irrigation frequency would result in lower NO emissions by increasing soil moisture and decreasing soil O concentrations. This would favor more NO reduction to dinitrogen (N). We examined effects of high (3-d) versus low (6-d) irrigation frequency with and without bovine urine addition to pasture. Nitrous oxide fluxes were measured daily for 35 d. Soil O, temperature, and water content were continuously measured at multiple depths. Inorganic nitrogen, organic carbon, and soil pH were measured at 6-d intervals. Measurements of denitrification enzyme activity with and without acetylene inhibition were used to infer the NO/(NO + N) ratio. The NO/(NO + N) ratio was lower under high- compared with low-frequency irrigation, suggesting greater potential for NO reduction to N with more frequent irrigation. Although NO fluxes were increased by urine addition, they were not affected by irrigation frequency. Soil O decreased temporarily after urine deposition, but O dynamics did not explain NO dynamics. Relative soil gas diffusivity (/) was a better predictor of NO fluxes than O concentration. On a free-draining soil, increasing irrigation frequency while providing the same total water volume did not enhance NO emissions under ruminant urine patches in a grazed pasture. PMID:27380064

  3. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION OF URINE SAMPLES (SOP-2.14)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This SOP describes the method for collecting urine samples from the study participants (children and their primary caregivers). Urine samples will be approximate 48-hr collections, collected as spot urine samples accumulated over the 48-hr sampling period. If the household or da...

  4. 49 CFR 40.31 - Who may collect urine specimens for DOT drug testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Who may collect urine specimens for DOT drug... TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Urine Collection Personnel § 40.31 Who may collect urine specimens for DOT drug testing? (a) Collectors meeting the requirements of this subpart are...

  5. 49 CFR 40.49 - What materials are used to collect urine specimens?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What materials are used to collect urine specimens? 40.49 Section 40.49 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR... in DOT Urine Collections § 40.49 What materials are used to collect urine specimens? For each...

  6. 49 CFR 40.49 - What materials are used to collect urine specimens?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What materials are used to collect urine specimens? 40.49 Section 40.49 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR... in DOT Urine Collections § 40.49 What materials are used to collect urine specimens? For each...

  7. 49 CFR 40.51 - What materials are used to send urine specimens to the laboratory?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What materials are used to send urine specimens to the laboratory? 40.51 Section 40.51 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation... and Supplies Used in DOT Urine Collections § 40.51 What materials are used to send urine specimens...

  8. 49 CFR 40.51 - What materials are used to send urine specimens to the laboratory?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What materials are used to send urine specimens to the laboratory? 40.51 Section 40.51 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation... and Supplies Used in DOT Urine Collections § 40.51 What materials are used to send urine specimens...

  9. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 40 - DOT Standards for Urine Collection Kits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false DOT Standards for Urine Collection Kits A Appendix... WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Pt. 40, App. A Appendix A to Part 40—DOT Standards for Urine..., large enough to easily catch and hold at least 55 mL of urine voided from the body. b. Must...

  10. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 40 - DOT Standards for Urine Collection Kits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false DOT Standards for Urine Collection Kits A Appendix... WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Pt. 40, App. A Appendix A to Part 40—DOT Standards for Urine..., large enough to easily catch and hold at least 55 mL of urine voided from the body. b. Must...

  11. 21 CFR 876.1800 - Urine flow or volume measuring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Urine flow or volume measuring system. 876.1800... volume measuring system. (a) Identification. A urine flow or volume measuring system is a device that measures directly or indirectly the volume or flow of urine from a patient, either during the course...

  12. 21 CFR 876.1800 - Urine flow or volume measuring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Urine flow or volume measuring system. 876.1800... volume measuring system. (a) Identification. A urine flow or volume measuring system is a device that measures directly or indirectly the volume or flow of urine from a patient, either during the course...

  13. 21 CFR 876.1800 - Urine flow or volume measuring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Urine flow or volume measuring system. 876.1800... volume measuring system. (a) Identification. A urine flow or volume measuring system is a device that measures directly or indirectly the volume or flow of urine from a patient, either during the course...

  14. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 40 - DOT Standards for Urine Collection Kits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false DOT Standards for Urine Collection Kits A Appendix... WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Pt. 40, App. A Appendix A to Part 40—DOT Standards for Urine..., large enough to easily catch and hold at least 55 mL of urine voided from the body. b. Must...

  15. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 40 - DOT Standards for Urine Collection Kits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false DOT Standards for Urine Collection Kits A Appendix... WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Pt. 40, App. A Appendix A to Part 40—DOT Standards for Urine..., large enough to easily catch and hold at least 55 mL of urine voided from the body. b. Must...

  16. 21 CFR 876.1800 - Urine flow or volume measuring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Urine flow or volume measuring system. 876.1800... volume measuring system. (a) Identification. A urine flow or volume measuring system is a device that measures directly or indirectly the volume or flow of urine from a patient, either during the course...

  17. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 40 - DOT Standards for Urine Collection Kits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false DOT Standards for Urine Collection Kits A Appendix... WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Pt. 40, App. A Appendix A to Part 40—DOT Standards for Urine..., large enough to easily catch and hold at least 55 mL of urine voided from the body. b. Must...

  18. 21 CFR 876.1800 - Urine flow or volume measuring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Urine flow or volume measuring system. 876.1800... volume measuring system. (a) Identification. A urine flow or volume measuring system is a device that measures directly or indirectly the volume or flow of urine from a patient, either during the course...

  19. Biological monitoring of nitroglycerin exposure by urine analysis.

    PubMed

    Akrill, Peter; Guiver, Robert; Cocker, John

    2002-08-01

    Historically biological monitoring to assess exposure has been difficult due to the rapid half-life of NG. However, the recent development of a method to assess NG and its metabolites (glycerol dinitrates, GDNs) in urine has made biological monitoring more feasible. The data reported here result from samples taken from three sites using NG. Two of the sites are munitions manufacturing sites and the other site is a pharmaceutical manufacturing site. The range of urinary GDN concentrations found in the samples at the two munitions sites were 0.9-18, and 0-4.7 micromol/mol creatinine, and at the pharmaceutical site were 0-0.9 micromol/mol creatinine). The presence of nitroglycols in the urine of workers despite the use of personal protective equipment and local exhaust ventilation shows the usefulness of biological monitoring to assess the efficacy of any controls in place and the potential of dermal absorption of NG. PMID:12191888

  20. Method comparison for 241Am emergency urine bioassay.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunsheng; Sadi, Baki; Benkhedda, Karima; St-Amant, Nadereh; Moodie, Gerry; Ko, Raymond; Dinardo, Anthony; Kramer, Gary

    2010-10-01

    241Am is one of the high-risk radionuclides that might be used in a terrorist attack. 241Am in urine bioassay can identify the contaminated individuals who need immediate medical intervention and decontamination. This paper compares three methods for the measurement of 241Am in urine, namely liquid scintillation counting (LSC), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and gamma spectrometry (GS), at two levels, 20 and 2 Bq l(-1). All three methods satisfied the ANSI N13.30 radio-bioassay criteria for accuracy and repeatability. ICP-MS offered the best sensitivity and fastest sample turnaround; however, the ICP-MS system used in this work may not be available in many bioassay laboratories. LSC and GS are more commonly available instruments. GS requires minimal or no sample preparation, which makes it a good candidate method. Moreover, the sample throughput can be significantly improved if the GS and LSC methods are automated. PMID:20573683

  1. The hydrogen sulfide metabolite trimethylsulfonium is found in human urine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lajin, Bassam; Francesconi, Kevin A.

    2016-06-01

    Hydrogen sulfide is the third and most recently discovered gaseous signaling molecule following nitric oxide and carbon monoxide, playing important roles both in normal physiological conditions and disease progression. The trimethylsulfonium ion (TMS) can result from successive methylation reactions of hydrogen sulfide. No report exists so far about the presence or quantities of TMS in human urine. We developed a method for determining TMS in urine using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-QQQ), and applied the method to establish the urinary levels of TMS in a group of human volunteers. The measured urinary levels of TMS were in the nanomolar range, which is commensurate with the steady-state tissue concentrations of hydrogen sulfide previously reported in the literature. The developed method can be used in future studies for the quantification of urinary TMS as a potential biomarker for hydrogen sulfide body pools.

  2. Crystallization processes derived from the interaction of urine and dolostone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cámara, Beatriz; Alvarez de Buergo, Monica; Fort, Rafael

    2015-04-01

    The increase in the number of pets (mostly dogs), homeless people and the more recent open-air drinking sessions organized by young people in historical centers of European cities, derive on the augmentation of urinations on stone façades of the built cultural heritage. Up to now this process has been considered only under an undesirable aesthetical point of view and the insalubrious conditions it creates, together with the cleaning costs that the local governments have to assume. This study aims to confirm urine as a real source of soluble salts that can trigger the decay of building materials, especially of those of built cultural heritage of the historical centers of the cities, which are suffering the new social scenario described above. For this purpose, an experimental setup was designed and performed in the laboratory to simulate this process. 5 cm side cubic specimens of dolostone were subjected to 100 testing cycles of urine absorption by capillarity. The necessary amount of urine was collected by donors and stored following clinical protocol conditions. Each cycle consisted of imbibitions of the specimens in 3 mm high urine sheet for 3 hours, drying at 40°C in an oven for 20 hours and 1 hour cooling in a dessicator. At the end of the 100 cycles, small pieces of the specimens were cut, observed and analyzed with the aid of an environmental scanning electron microscope, which presents the advantage of no sample preparation. The sampled pieces were selected considering there were different sections in height in the specimens: a) a bottom section that corresponds to the section that has been immersed in the urine solution (3 mm); b) an interface section, immediately above the immersed area, which is the area most affected by the urine capillarity process, characterized by a strong yellowish color; c) the section that we have named as section of influence, which is subjected to the capillary absorption, although not so strongly than the interface section

  3. [Elimination of N,N-dimethyltryptamine by urine].

    PubMed

    Spatz, N; Spatz, H; Mesones Arroyo, H L; Rosan, T; Brengio, F

    1993-09-01

    N,N-dimethiltryptamine (DMT) in urine has been quantified on an 83-psychiatric patient sample. Sample covered patients who had sometimes been administered neuroleptic drugs as well as patients with some particular symptomatology associated to psychotic disorders such as hallucinations, delusions, perception disorders, etc. 43.3% (36 cases) evidenced an abnormally high DMT in urine (0.9-13.5 mcg/24 h). Higher values were more frequently found in both schizophrenic patients, and non-schizophrenic patients with either hallucinations, delusions, anorexia or bulimia. Most patients with DMT normal values (< 0.5 mcg/24 h) presented either mental retardation, cerebral atrophy or dysrhythmias. A very good correlation was found between urinary DMT abnormally high values, and patients' improvement after such patients had been treated with neuroleptic drugs. PMID:7905222

  4. Liver cancer diagnosis by fluorescence spectra of blood and urine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AlSalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Al Mehmadi, Abdulaziz Mayuof; Abdoo, Aiman; Masilamani, Vadivel

    2011-11-01

    Liver cancer or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a serious malady with only 10% survival rate. HCC incidence and mortality both are highest in China. This disease is detected and diagnosed by ultra sound, CT or MRI scans which are quite expensive. Also the discrimination between cirrhosis and HCC are poor by this imaging technique. The conventional tissue biopsy is quite invasive and painful. In this context, in the new diagnostic procedure presented in this paper, all the three liver malfunctions, particularly liver cancer, could be detected and discriminated by the spectral feature of blood and urine with accuracy about 80%. All that we need are 5 ml of blood and 5 ml of urine. Hence this inexpensive non invasive, optical technique will have significant impact in screening, diagnosis and also prognosis of HCC in large segment of people in the populous Asian countries.

  5. Liver cancer diagnosis by fluorescence spectra of blood and urine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AlSalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Al Mehmadi, Abdulaziz Mayuof; Abdoo, Aiman; Masilamani, Vadivel

    2012-03-01

    Liver cancer or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a serious malady with only 10% survival rate. HCC incidence and mortality both are highest in China. This disease is detected and diagnosed by ultra sound, CT or MRI scans which are quite expensive. Also the discrimination between cirrhosis and HCC are poor by this imaging technique. The conventional tissue biopsy is quite invasive and painful. In this context, in the new diagnostic procedure presented in this paper, all the three liver malfunctions, particularly liver cancer, could be detected and discriminated by the spectral feature of blood and urine with accuracy about 80%. All that we need are 5 ml of blood and 5 ml of urine. Hence this inexpensive non invasive, optical technique will have significant impact in screening, diagnosis and also prognosis of HCC in large segment of people in the populous Asian countries.

  6. Characterization of a trypsin inhibitor from equine urine.

    PubMed

    Veeraragavan, K; Singh, K; Wachter, E; Hochstrasser, K

    1992-03-01

    A trypsin inhibitor was isolated from pregnant mares' urine by adsorption on bentonite and elution with aqueous pyridine followed by batch DEAE-cellulose treatment and column chromatography. Final purification to an electrophoretically homogenous glycoprotein was achieved by gel permeation chromatography. This equine urinary trypsin inhibitor (E-UTI) is acid- and heat-stable, has a molecular weight of 22 to 23 kDa, an isoelectric point of 4.55, forms a 1:1 molar complex with trypsin and has serine as its N-terminal amino acid. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of this protein is almost identical with that of EI-14, the inhibitor obtained from horse serum by tryptic treatment, except for two extra amino acid residues, Ser-Lys- on the N-terminal end of E-UTI. In its isoelectric point E-UTI differs from EI-14 and the inhibitor from human urine. PMID:1627153

  7. Serum and Urine Biomarkers for Human Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Pastore, A. L.; Palleschi, G.; Silvestri, L.; Moschese, D.; Ricci, S.; Petrozza, V.; Carbone, A.; Di Carlo, A.

    2015-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) diagnosis is mostly achieved incidentally by imaging provided for unrelated clinical reasons. The surgical management of localized tumors has reported excellent results. The therapy of advanced RCC has evolved considerably over recent years with the widespread use of the so-called “targeted therapies.” The identification of molecular markers in body fluids (e.g., sera and urine), which can be used for screening, diagnosis, follow-up, and monitoring of drug-based therapy in RCC patients, is one of the most ambitious challenges in oncologic research. Although there are some promising reports about potential biomarkers in sera, there is limited available data regarding urine markers for RCC. The following review reports some of the most promising biomarkers identified in the biological fluids of RCC patients. PMID:25922552

  8. Partial characterization of endogenous digoxinlike substance in human urine

    SciTech Connect

    Vinge, E.; Ekman, R.

    1988-01-01

    Urinary samples were collected from individuals not taking cardiac glycosides. Aliquots of 30 ml were passed through preparative octadecylsilane-bonded phase columns and eluted in fractions by stepwise increasing concentrations of acetonitrile. Eluted fractions were analysed for their contents of endogenous digoxinlike substance (EDLS) by radioimmunoassay of digoxin and by a bioassay of cardiac glycosides, which measures the uptake of rubidium (/sup 86/Rb) by erythrocytes as an index of Na+, K+-ATPase activity. In both assays, digoxinlike activity was found in several fractions, but the highest values were consistently measured in the fractions eluted with 40% acetonitrile. Greater amounts of EDLS were recovered from the urine of pregnant women than from the urine of men and nonpregnant women.

  9. Isolation of multiple novel paramyxoviruses from pteropid bat urine.

    PubMed

    Barr, Jennifer; Smith, Craig; Smith, Ina; de Jong, Carol; Todd, Shawn; Melville, Debra; Broos, Alice; Crameri, Sandra; Haining, Jessica; Marsh, Glenn; Crameri, Gary; Field, Hume; Wang, Lin-Fa

    2015-01-01

    Bats have been found to harbour a number of new emerging viruses with zoonotic potential, and there has been a great deal of interest in identifying novel bat pathogens to determine the risk to human and animal health. Many groups have identified novel viruses in bats by detection of viral nucleic acid; however, virus isolation is still a challenge, and there are few reports of viral isolates from bats. In recent years, our group has developed optimized procedures for virus isolation from bat urine, including the use of primary bat cells. In previous reports, we have described the isolation of Hendra virus, Menangle virus and Cedar virus in Queensland, Australia. Here, we report the isolation of four additional novel bat paramyxoviruses from urine collected from beneath pteropid bat (flying fox) colonies in Queensland and New South Wales during 2009-2011. PMID:25228492

  10. Identification of phenothiazine antihistamines and their metabolites in urine.

    PubMed

    Maurer, H; Pfleger, K

    1988-01-01

    Identification of the phenothiazine antihistamines alimemazine, dimetotiazine, isothipendyl, mequitazine, oxomemazine, promethazine, thiethylperazine, triflupromazine and their metabolites in urine is described. After acid hydrolysis of the conjugates, extraction and acetylation the urine samples were analysed by computerized gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Using ion chromatography with the selective ions m/z 58, 72, 100, 114, 124, 128, 141, and 199 the possible presence of phenothiazine antihistamines and/or their metabolites was indicated. The identity of positive signals in the reconstructed ion chromatograms was confirmed by a visual or computerized comparison of the stored full mass spectra with the reference spectra. The ion chromatograms, reference mass spectra and gas chromatographic retention indices (OV-101) are documented. The procedure presented is integrated in a general screening procedure (general unknown analysis) for several groups of drugs. PMID:2904251

  11. [Urinary Tract Infections - Current Innovations in Urine Diagnostics].

    PubMed

    Bonkat, G; Seifert, H-H; Halla, A; Bachmann, A

    2016-05-01

    Urine culture (UC) confirms the diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI) and is still considered the diagnostic 'gold standard' for pathogen identification, quantification and resistance testing. However, up to 80% of samples will not yield bacterial growth. Different techniques are currently approved for resistance testing. However, all of them are culture based and have the disadvantage of being very slow. In the field of urology, the development of drug resistance of uropathogens complicates the optimal administration of antimicrobial agents not only in the treatment, but also in the prevention of UTI before endourological and open surgical procedures. In this context, rapid identification of microbiological agents, including timely antimicrobial resistance testing (ART) is desirable. This overview presents alternative techniques (flow cytometry, PCR-based techniques, MALDI-TOF MS and microcalorimetry) to urine culture and discusses their advantages and disadvantages. PMID:27096941

  12. The hydrogen sulfide metabolite trimethylsulfonium is found in human urine.

    PubMed

    Lajin, Bassam; Francesconi, Kevin A

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide is the third and most recently discovered gaseous signaling molecule following nitric oxide and carbon monoxide, playing important roles both in normal physiological conditions and disease progression. The trimethylsulfonium ion (TMS) can result from successive methylation reactions of hydrogen sulfide. No report exists so far about the presence or quantities of TMS in human urine. We developed a method for determining TMS in urine using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-QQQ), and applied the method to establish the urinary levels of TMS in a group of human volunteers. The measured urinary levels of TMS were in the nanomolar range, which is commensurate with the steady-state tissue concentrations of hydrogen sulfide previously reported in the literature. The developed method can be used in future studies for the quantification of urinary TMS as a potential biomarker for hydrogen sulfide body pools. PMID:27247020

  13. The hydrogen sulfide metabolite trimethylsulfonium is found in human urine

    PubMed Central

    Lajin, Bassam; Francesconi, Kevin A.

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide is the third and most recently discovered gaseous signaling molecule following nitric oxide and carbon monoxide, playing important roles both in normal physiological conditions and disease progression. The trimethylsulfonium ion (TMS) can result from successive methylation reactions of hydrogen sulfide. No report exists so far about the presence or quantities of TMS in human urine. We developed a method for determining TMS in urine using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-QQQ), and applied the method to establish the urinary levels of TMS in a group of human volunteers. The measured urinary levels of TMS were in the nanomolar range, which is commensurate with the steady-state tissue concentrations of hydrogen sulfide previously reported in the literature. The developed method can be used in future studies for the quantification of urinary TMS as a potential biomarker for hydrogen sulfide body pools. PMID:27247020

  14. Automated homogeneous immunoassay analysis of cotinine in urine.

    PubMed

    Niedbala, R Sam; Haley, Nancy; Kardos, Stephanie; Kardos, Keith

    2002-04-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the performance comparison of a homogeneous enzyme immunoassay (EIA) designed to detect cotinine in urine and carbon monoxide (CO) breath measurements to determine smoking status. The clinical comparison was done using urine and breath specimens from 218 volunteers. Urine samples were analyzed by immunoassay and confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Breath carbon monoxide was determined by a commercial analyzer. Using cutoffs of 10 ppm for CO and 500 ng/mL for urinary cotinine, the relative sensitivity/specificity was 93.6%/74.0%. The positive predictive value was 86.8%, and the negative predictive value was 86.5%. However, comparison of the EIA to GC-MS showed a sensitivity/specificity of 96.2%/98.4% and a positive predictive value of 99.3%. The EIA was also evaluated non-clinically for precision, stability, recovery, and interferences. In addition, the non-clinical evaluation demonstrated coefficients of variation from 0.37 to 1.09% across cotinine concentrations ranging from 0 to 5000 ng/mL. The assay was found to be highly specific for cotinine and cross-reacted to a limited degree with 3-hydroxycotinine. Finally, multiple freeze-thaw cycles of urines containing cotinine showed no degradation of the drug in the specimen when tested in the EIA. Thus, the EIA tested is a rapid, lab-based test that can reliably determine cotinine levels and their relation to smoking status. PMID:11991533

  15. Discolored Ureteral Stents: Findings in Urinalysis and Urine Culture

    PubMed Central

    Kawahara, Takashi; Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Ito, Hiroki; Terao, Hideyuki; Uemura, Hiroji; Kubota, Yoshinobu; Matsuzaki, Junichi

    2015-01-01

    Objective Discolored ureteral stents are sometimes encountered in daily clinical practice; however, the mechanism(s) underlying the development of discolored ureteral stents remain unknown. In this study, we retrospectively analyzed the characteristics of discolored ureteral stents based on the results of a urinalysis and urine culture. Materials & Methods We identified a total of 26 patients with discolored ureteral stents and compared the findings in the urinalyses and urine culture in 21 discolored versus 45 non-colored ureteral stents. Results The median and mean (±SD) duration of stenting time was 78.0 and 81.3 (± 21.3) days for the discolored ureteral stents and 69.0 and 74.9 (± 19.8) days for the non-colored ureteral stents, respectively (P = 0.25). The discolored ureteral stents were associated with a higher mean urine pH than the non-colored ureteral stents (mean: 6.4 vs 6.0, P< 0.05). There were no significant differences between the two groups in the RBC (P = 0.51) and WBC (P = 0.35) counts in the urinalyses. In addition, the rate of a positive culture in the patients with discolored stents [20 of 21 (95.2%)] was significantly (P <0.01) higher than that observed in the patients with non-colored ureteral stents [33 of 45 (73.3%)]. Conclusions In this study, the subjects with discolored ureteral stents showed a significantly higher likelihood of having a positive urine culture and also demonstrated higher pH values in the urinalyses. However, no clear cut-off point to predict discoloration was indicated. PMID:25849790

  16. [Spectrophotometric evaluation of N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase in urine].

    PubMed

    Potere, C; Di Cosmo, C; Riario-Sforza, G; Di Silverio, F; Albertazzi, A; Cappelli, P

    1982-01-01

    A spectrophotometric method for the assay of N-Acetyl-beta-Glucosaminidase activity in human undiluted urines is described. The application of this method is recommended for its sensitivity (2,6 X 10(-4)M) and its rapid performance, because it represents a good alternative to current methods and essentially to the fluorimetric technique with which it has a significant statistical correlation. Estimates of normal individuals aged between 1-70 years are reported. PMID:7168631

  17. Determination of actinides in urine and fecal samples

    SciTech Connect

    McKibbin, T.T.

    1992-12-31

    A method of determining the radioactivity of specific actinides that are carried in urine or fecal sample material is disclosed. The samples are ashed in a muffle furnace, dissolved in an acid, and then treated in a series of steps of reduction, oxidation, dissolution, and precipitation, including a unique step of passing a solution through a chloride form anion exchange resin for separation of uranium and plutonium from americium.

  18. RAPID SEPARATION METHOD FOR EMERGENCY WATER AND URINE SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S.; Culligan, B.

    2008-08-27

    The Savannah River Site Environmental Bioassay Lab participated in the 2008 NRIP Emergency Response program administered by the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) in May, 2008. A new rapid column separation method was used for analysis of actinides and {sup 90}Sr the NRIP 2008 emergency water and urine samples. Significant method improvements were applied to reduce analytical times. As a result, much faster analysis times were achieved, less than 3 hours for determination of {sup 90}Sr and 3-4 hours for actinides. This represents a 25%-33% improvement in analysis times from NRIP 2007 and a {approx}100% improvement compared to NRIP 2006 report times. Column flow rates were increased by a factor of two, with no significant adverse impact on the method performance. Larger sample aliquots, shorter count times, faster cerium fluoride microprecipitation and streamlined calcium phosphate precipitation were also employed. Based on initial feedback from NIST, the SRS Environmental Bioassay Lab had the most rapid analysis times for actinides and {sup 90}Sr analyses for NRIP 2008 emergency urine samples. High levels of potential matrix interferences may be present in emergency samples and rugged methods are essential. Extremely high levels of {sup 210}Po were found to have an adverse effect on the uranium results for the NRIP-08 urine samples, while uranium results for NRIP-08 water samples were not affected. This problem, which was not observed for NRIP-06 or NRIP-07 urine samples, was resolved by using an enhanced {sup 210}Po removal step, which will be described.

  19. Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Intranasal Scopolamine in Plasma Saliva and Urine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, L.; Chow, D. S. L.; Tam, V.; Putcha, L.

    2014-01-01

    An intranasal gel formulation of scopolamine (INSCOP) was developed for the treatment of Space Motion Sickness. The bioavailability and pharmacokinetics (PK) were evaluated under the Food and Drug Administration guidelines for clinical trials for an Investigative New Drug (IND). The aim of this project was to develop a PK model that can predict the relationship between plasma, saliva and urinary scopolamine concentrations using data collected from the IND clinical trial with INSCOP. METHODS: Twelve healthy human subjects were administered three dose levels (0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mg) of INSCOP. Serial blood, saliva and urine samples were collected between 5 min to 24 h after dosing and scopolamine concentrations measured by using a validated LC-MS-MS assay. Pharmacokinetic Compartmental models, using actual dosing and sampling times, were built using Phoenix (version 1.2). Model discrimination was performed, by minimizing the Akaike Information Criteria (AIC), maximizing the coefficient of determination (r²) and by comparison of the quality of fit plots. RESULTS: The best structural model to describe scopolamine disposition after INSCOP administration (minimal AIC =907.2) consisted of one compartment for plasma, saliva and urine respectively that were inter-connected with different rate constants. The estimated values of PK parameters were compiled in Table 1. The model fitting exercises revealed a nonlinear PK for scopolamine between plasma and saliva compartments for K21, Vmax and Km. CONCLUSION: PK model for INSCOP was developed and for the first time it satisfactorily predicted the PK of scopolamine in plasma, saliva and urine after INSCOP administration. Using non-linear PK yielded the best structural model to describe scopolamine disposition between plasma and saliva compartments, and inclusion of non-linear PK resulted in a significant improved model fitting. The model can be utilized to predict scopolamine plasma concentration using saliva and/or urine data that

  20. Determination of actinides in urine and fecal samples

    DOEpatents

    McKibbin, Terry T.

    1993-01-01

    A method of determining the radioactivity of specific actinides that are carried in urine or fecal sample material is disclosed. The samples are ashed in a muffle furnace, dissolved in an acid, and then treated in a series of steps of reduction, oxidation, dissolution, and precipitation, including a unique step of passing a solution through a chloride form anion exchange resin for separation of uranium and plutonium from americium.

  1. Biomarkers of Exposure to Triclocarban in Urine and Serum

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Xiaoyun; Zhou, Xiaoliu; Furr, Johnathan; Ahn, Ki Chang; Hammock, Bruce D.; Gray, Earl L.; Calafat, Antonia M.

    2012-01-01

    3, 4, 4’- Trichlorocarbanilide (triclocarban, TCC) is widely used as an antimicrobial agent in a variety of consumer and personal care products. TCC is considered a potential endocrine disruptor, but its potential toxic effects in humans are still largely unknown. Because of its widespread uses, the potential for human exposure to TCC is high. In order to identify adequate exposure biomarkers of TCC, we investigated the metabolic profile of TCC in adult female Sprague Dawley rats after administering TCC once (500 mg/kg body weight) by oral gavage. Urine was collected 0–24 hours before dosing, and 0–24 hours and 24–48 hours after dosing. Serum was collected at necropsy 48 h after dosing. We identified several metabolites of TCC in urine and serum by on-line solid phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatography- mass spectrometry. We unambiguously identified two major oxidative metabolites of TCC, 3’-hydroxy-TCC and 2’-hydroxy-TCC, by comparing their chromatographic behavior and mass spectral fragmentation patterns with those of authentic standards. By contrast, compared to these oxidative metabolites, we detected very low levels of TCC in the urine or serum. Taken together these data suggest that in rats, oxidation of TCC is a major metabolic pathway. We also measured TCC and its oxidative metabolites in 50 urine and 16 serum samples collected from adults in the United States. The results suggest differences in the metabolic profile of TCC in rats and in humans; oxidation appears to be a minor metabolic pathway in humans. Total (free plus conjugated) TCC could serve as a potential biomarker for human exposure to TCC. PMID:21635932

  2. Current methods for the measurement of growth hormone in urine.

    PubMed

    Hourd, P; Edwards, R

    1994-02-01

    Since the development of sensitive immunoassay procedures for the measurement of GH in urine, a urinary GH determination has been proposed as an alternative way of assessing pituitary GH secretion. Whilst studies on the clinical application of these assays have been difficult to correlate, for the reasons described, it is clear that an estimation of urinary GH has a useful role in clinical and physiological studies in both children and adults. PMID:8137512

  3. Bisphenol A concentrations in maternal breast milk and infant urine

    PubMed Central

    Mendonca, K.; Hauser, R.; Calafat, A.M.; Arbuckle, T.E.; Duty, S.M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The present report describes the distribution of breast milk and urinary free and total bisphenol A (BPA) concentrations, from 27 post-partum women and their 31 infants, and explores the influence of age, sex, and nutritional source on infant BPA urinary concentration. Methods Both free (unconjugated) and total (free plus conjugated) BPA concentrations from women’s breast milk samples and infants’ urine samples were measured by online solid-phase extraction coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography–isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry. Descriptive statistics and non-parametric tests of group comparisons were conducted. Results Total BPA was detected in 93% of urine samples in this healthy infant population aged 3–15 months who were without known environmental exposure to BPA (interquartile range [IQR]=1.2 – 4.4 μg/L). Similarly, 75% of the mothers’ breast milk samples had detectable concentrations of total BPA (IQR=0.4 – 1.4 μg/L). The magnitude and frequency of detection of free BPA in the children’s urine and the mothers’ breast milk were much lower than the total concentrations. Conclusions Total BPA was detected in 93% of this healthy infant population aged 3–15 months who are without known environmental exposure to BPA. Neither free nor total BPA urinary concentrations differed significantly by infant’s sex or by nutritional source (breast milk and/or formula) while age group was of borderline significance. There were no significant correlations between free or total BPA concentrations in mothers’ breast milk and their infants’ urine. PMID:23212895

  4. Determination of actinides in urine and fecal samples

    DOEpatents

    McKibbin, T.T.

    1993-03-02

    A method of determining the radioactivity of specific actinides that are carried in urine or fecal sample material is disclosed. The samples are ashed in a muffle furnace, dissolved in an acid, and then treated in a series of steps of reduction, oxidation, dissolution, and precipitation, including a unique step of passing a solution through a chloride form anion exchange resin for separation of uranium and plutonium from americium.

  5. Metformin improves urine concentration in rodents with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus

    PubMed Central

    Efe, Orhan; Klein, Janet D.; LaRocque, Lauren M.; Ren, Huiwen; Sands, Jeff M.

    2016-01-01

    Urine concentration is regulated by vasopressin. Congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is caused by vasopressin type 2 receptor (V2R) mutations. We studied whether metformin could improve urine concentration in rodent models of congenital NDI by stimulating AMPK. To block the V2R in rats, tolvaptan (10 mg/kg/d) was given by oral gavage with or without metformin (800 mg/ kg/d). Control rats received vehicle with or without metformin. Tamoxifen-induced V2R KO mice were given metformin (600 mg/kg) or vehicle twice daily. Urine osmolality in tolvaptan-treated rats (1,303 ± 126 mOsM) was restored to control levels by metformin (2,335 ± 273 mOsM) within 3 days and was sustained for up to 10 days. Metformin increased protein abundance of inner medullary urea transporter UT-A1 by 61% and aquaporin 2 (AQP2) by 44% in tolvaptan-treated rats, and immunohistochemistry showed increased membrane accumulation of AQP2 with acute and chronic AMPK stimulation. Outer medullary Na+-K+-2Cl− cotransporter 2 (NKCC2) abundance increased (117%) with AMPK stimulation in control rats but not in V2R-blocked rats. Metformin increased V2R KO mouse urine osmolality within 3 hours, and the increase persisted for up to 12 hours. Metformin increased AQP2 in the V2R KO mice similar to the tolvaptan-treated rats. These results indicate that AMPK activators, such as metformin, might provide a promising treatment for congenital NDI. PMID:27478876

  6. [Isolation frequency of the Mycobacterium genus in urine samples].

    PubMed

    Mederos, Lilian M; Sardiñas, Misleidis; García, Grechen; Martínez, María Rosarys; Reyes, Angélica; Díaz, Raúl

    2015-10-01

    Kidney infections caused by Mycobacterium genus are torpid and chronic evolution. In this study were analyzed 177 urine samples (included 110 from HIV patients) received between January 2006 and July 2014 in the National Reference Laboratory of Tuberculosis at Tropical Medicine Institute "Pedro Kourí" (IPK). The results were 17 isolates Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and 30 isolates of nontuberculous mycobacteria were detected. This study confirms the diagnostic importance of these infections especially in HIV/AIDS patients. PMID:26633121

  7. Antifungal susceptibilities of Candida species isolated from urine culture.

    PubMed

    Toka Özer, Türkan; Durmaz, Süleyman; Yula, Erkan

    2016-09-01

    Candida spp. are the most common opportunistic mycosis worldwide. Although Candida albicans is the most common cause of urinary tract infections, the frequency of non-albicans Candida species is increasing with common use of antifungal in the prophylaxis and treatment. This may lead to difficulties in treatment. Antifungal tests should be applied with identification of species for effective treatment. In this study, identification of Candida species isolated from urine culture and investigation of susceptibility of these strains to amphotericin B, flucytosine, fluconazole, voriconazole was aimed. In this study, 58 Candida strains isolated from urine cultures at Osmaniye State Hospital between January 2012 and April 2013 were included. Urine culture and antifungal susceptibility tests were applied. Incidence rate of Candida spp. was determined as C. albicans (56.9%), Candida glabrata (20.6%), Candida tropicalis (10.3%), Candida parapsilosis (7%), Candida krusei (3.4%), Candida kefyr (1.8%). Most of the isolates were susceptible to amphotericin B, flucytosine, fluconazole, voriconazole. Twenty three (39.7%) Candida strains were isolated from internal medical branches and Intensive Care Unit and 12 (20.6%) from the Surgical Medical Branches. C. albicans and C. glabrata species were isolated most frequently as a candiduria factor in this hospital between January 2012 and April 2013. The analysis of antifungal susceptibility profile shows no significant resistance to antifungals. PMID:27452427

  8. RAPID ANALYSIS OF EMERGENCY URINE AND WATER SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S

    2007-02-26

    There is a need for fast, reliable methods for the determination of actinides and Sr-89/90 analysis on environmental and bioassay samples in response to an emergency radiological incident. The SRS (Savannah River Site) Environmental Bioassay Laboratory participated in the National Institute of Standards and Technology Radiochemistry Intercomparison Program (NRIP-06) and analyzed water and urine samples within 8 hours of receipt. The SRS Environmental Laboratory was the only lab that participated in the program that analyzed these samples for both actinides and Sr-89/90 within the requested 8 hour turnaround time. A new, rapid actinide and strontium 89/90 separation method was used for both urine and water samples. This method uses stacked TEVA Resin{reg_sign}, TRU Resin{reg_sign} and Sr-Resin{reg_sign} cartridges from Eichrom Technologies (Darien, IL, USA) that allows the rapid separation of plutonium (Pu), neptunium (Np), uranium (U), and americium (Am), curium (Cm) and thorium (Th) using a single multi-stage column combined with alpha spectrometry. By using vacuum box cartridge technology and stacked cartridges with rapid flow rates, sample preparation time was minimized. This paper discusses the technology and conditions employed for both water and urine samples and presents the SRS performance data on the NRIP-06 samples.

  9. Method for actinides and Sr-90 determination in urine samples.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, A; Navarro, N

    1996-01-01

    The primary goal of radiation protection in decommissioning and decontamination of the old nuclear facilities of the CIEMAT is to monitor and minimize exposure of personnel. Monitoring programs include determination of actinides and 90Sr in biological samples. A technique for the sequential measurement of low levels of 239Pu, 241Am and 90Sr in urine samples has been developed. The method involves coprecipitation of these radionuclides as phosphates from bulk urine sample. Separation of Plutonium is carried out using a conventional anion exchange technique. Americium and strontium isolations are achieved sequentially by chromatographic extraction (Tru.Spec and Sr.Spec columns) from the load and rinse solutions coming from the anion exchange column. Plutonium and Americium measurements are performed by alpha spectrometry. The mean recovery obtained is 80% and the detection limit for 24 h urine sample (1.41) is 0.6 mBq L-1. 90Sr determination is made by liquid scintillation counting. The detection limit in this case is 1.1 E-01 Bq/L. PMID:8976042

  10. Programmable probiotics for detection of cancer in urine

    PubMed Central

    Danino, Tal; Prindle, Arthur; Kwong, Gabriel A.; Skalak, Matthew; Li, Howard; Allen, Kaitlin; Hasty, Jeff; Bhatia, Sangeeta N.

    2015-01-01

    Rapid advances in the forward engineering of genetic circuitry in living cells has positioned synthetic biology as a potential means to solve numerous biomedical problems, including disease diagnosis and therapy. One challenge in exploiting synthetic biology for translational applications is to engineer microbes that are well tolerated by patients and seamlessly integrate with existing clinical methods. We use the safe and widely used probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 to develop an orally administered diagnostic that can noninvasively indicate the presence of liver metastasis by producing easily detectable signals in urine. Our microbial diagnostic generated a high-contrast urine signal through selective expansion in liver metastases (106-fold enrichment) and high expression of a lacZ reporter maintained by engineering a stable plasmid system. The lacZ reporter cleaves a substrate to produce a small molecule that can be detected in urine. E. coli Nissle 1917 robustly colonized tumor tissue in rodent models of liver metastasis after oral delivery but did not colonize healthy organs or fibrotic liver tissue. We saw no deleterious health effects on the mice for more than 12 months after oral delivery. Our results demonstrate that probiotics can be programmed to safely and selectively deliver synthetic gene circuits to diseased tissue microenvironments in vivo. PMID:26019220

  11. Determination of ethylene thiourea in urine by HPLC-DAD.

    PubMed

    El Balkhi, Souleiman; Sandouk, Pierre; Galliot-Guilley, Martine

    2005-01-01

    Ethylene thiourea (ETU) is a metabolite of ethylenebisdithiocarbamates (EBDCs); it is the best indicator of exposure to these fungicides. Therefore, high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode-array detection (HPLC-DAD) was optimized and validated for the determination of ETU in human urines. Urine samples were extracted by solid-phase extraction using Extrelut and analyzed using HPLC-DAD set at 231 nm. The analyses were carried out using a mobile phase of 0.01 M phosphate buffer (pH 4.5) on a C18 Uptisphere NEC-5-20, 250- x 4.6-mm x 5-microm column. The internal standard used was 4-pyridinecarboxylic acid hydrazide. The method was successfully validated in compliance with requirements set by the International Committee on Harmonization 1996. The lower limit of quantitation was at 1 microg/L, and the linearity was studied from 1 to 100 microg/L. There were 272 urine samples collected from farmers exposed to EBDCs in different regions in France analyzed in this study. PMID:15975251

  12. Duration of urination does not change with body size

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Patricia J.; Pham, Jonathan; Choo, Jerome; Hu, David L.

    2014-01-01

    Many urological studies rely on models of animals, such as rats and pigs, but their relation to the human urinary system is poorly understood. Here, we elucidate the hydrodynamics of urination across five orders of magnitude in body mass. Using high-speed videography and flow-rate measurement obtained at Zoo Atlanta, we discover that all mammals above 3 kg in weight empty their bladders over nearly constant duration of 21 ± 13 s. This feat is possible, because larger animals have longer urethras and thus, higher gravitational force and higher flow speed. Smaller mammals are challenged during urination by high viscous and capillary forces that limit their urine to single drops. Our findings reveal that the urethra is a flow-enhancing device, enabling the urinary system to be scaled up by a factor of 3,600 in volume without compromising its function. This study may help to diagnose urinary problems in animals as well as inspire the design of scalable hydrodynamic systems based on those in nature. PMID:24969420

  13. Fluid Structural Analysis of Urine Flow in a Stented Ureter

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Blanco, J. Carlos; Martínez-Reina, F. Javier; Cruz, Domingo; Pagador, J. Blas; Sánchez-Margallo, Francisco M.; Soria, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Many urologists are currently studying new designs of ureteral stents to improve the quality of their operations and the subsequent recovery of the patient. In order to help during this design process, many computational models have been developed to simulate the behaviour of different biological tissues and provide a realistic computational environment to evaluate the stents. However, due to the high complexity of the involved tissues, they usually introduce simplifications to make these models less computationally demanding. In this study, the interaction between urine flow and a double-J stented ureter with a simplified geometry has been analysed. The Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) of urine and the ureteral wall was studied using three models for the solid domain: Mooney-Rivlin, Yeoh, and Ogden. The ureter was assumed to be quasi-incompressible and isotropic. Data obtained in previous studies from ex vivo and in vivo mechanical characterization of different ureters were used to fit the mentioned models. The results show that the interaction between the stented ureter and urine is negligible. Therefore, we can conclude that this type of models does not need to include the FSI and could be solved quite accurately assuming that the ureter is a rigid body and, thus, using the more simple Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) approach. PMID:27127535

  14. Impaired Urine Dilution Capability in HIV Stable Patients

    PubMed Central

    Belloso, Waldo H.; de Paz Sierra, Mariana; Navarro, Matilde; Sanchez, Marisa L.; Perelsztein, Ariel G.; Musso, Carlos G.

    2014-01-01

    Renal disease is a well-recognized complication among patients with HIV infection. Viral infection itself and the use of some antiretroviral drugs contribute to this condition. The thick ascending limb of Henle's loop (TALH) is the tubule segment where free water clearance is generated, determining along with glomerular filtration rate the kidney's ability to dilute urine. Objective. We analyzed the function of the proximal tubule and TALH in patients with HIV infection receiving or not tenofovir-containing antiretroviral treatment in comparison with healthy seronegative controls, by applying a tubular physiological test, hyposaline infusion test (Chaimowitz' test). Material & Methods. Chaimowitz' test was performed on 20 HIV positive volunteers who had normal renal functional parameters. The control group included 10 healthy volunteers. Results. After the test, both HIV groups had a significant reduction of serum sodium and osmolarity compared with the control group. Free water clearance was lower and urine osmolarity was higher in both HIV+ groups. Proximal tubular function was normal in both studied groups. Conclusion. The present study documented that proximal tubule sodium reabsorption was preserved while free water clearance and maximal urine dilution capability were reduced in stable HIV patients treated or not with tenofovir. PMID:24800076

  15. Investigating consumer attitudes towards the new technology of urine separation.

    PubMed

    Pahl-Wostl, C; Schönborn, A; Willi, N; Muncke, J; Larsen, T A

    2003-01-01

    The technology of urine separation and the recycling of anthropogenic nutrients as fertilizer in agriculture are considered as major innovations to improve the sustainability of today's urban wastewater management. The acceptance of consumers will be key for the introduction of the new technology. Citizens will have to make important decisions in their role as tenants and owners of houses and as consumers buying products fertilized with urine. Consumer attitudes towards the new technology were explored in a number of citizen focus groups in Switzerland. Focus groups are deliberate, moderated group discussions with informed citizens on a certain topic. The information was provided by a computer based information system specifically designed for this purpose. The acceptance of individual citizens for the new technology proved to be quite high. The majority of the citizens expressed their willingness to move into an apartment with NoMix toilets and to buy food fertilized with urine. However, they were not willing to accept additional financial costs or efforts. Arguments related to long-term sustainability (closing nutrient cycles) were of less importance than arguments that relate directly to the effects of micropollutants on human and ecosystem health. For the introduction of the new technology on a wide scale it will thus be crucial to explore the fate and effects of micropollutants. PMID:12926621

  16. Cytomegalovirus in urine: detection of viral DNA by sandwich hybridization.

    PubMed

    Virtanen, M; Syvänen, A C; Oram, J; Söderlund, H; Ranki, M

    1984-12-01

    A cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific sandwich hybridization test was constructed by using two adjacent BamHI DNA fragments of CMV DNA as reagents. The fragments were cloned into two different vectors. One of the recombinants was attached to the filter, and the other was the labeled probe. When present in the sample, CMV DNA mediated labeling of the filter by hybridizing to both the filter-bound DNA and the probe. The sandwich hybridization test was applied for the detection of CMV DNA from urine. DNA was released from virus by 2% Sarkosyl, concentrated by 2-butanol extraction and isopropanol precipitation, denatured, and finally subjected to the sandwich hybridization test. As a result, 70 to 90% of the original viral DNA could be recovered and demonstrated by the quantitative hybridization reaction. Urine could be stored at room temperature in Sarkosyl for at least 2 days without affecting the detectability of CMV. The clinical applicability of the test was evaluated by studying urine samples from four infants excreting CMV. Sandwich hybridization demonstrated the presence of CMV DNA in all of the specimens. These contained originally 10(5) to 10(8) CMV DNA molecules per ml. PMID:6097598

  17. Programmable probiotics for detection of cancer in urine.

    PubMed

    Danino, Tal; Prindle, Arthur; Kwong, Gabriel A; Skalak, Matthew; Li, Howard; Allen, Kaitlin; Hasty, Jeff; Bhatia, Sangeeta N

    2015-05-27

    Rapid advances in the forward engineering of genetic circuitry in living cells has positioned synthetic biology as a potential means to solve numerous biomedical problems, including disease diagnosis and therapy. One challenge in exploiting synthetic biology for translational applications is to engineer microbes that are well tolerated by patients and seamlessly integrate with existing clinical methods. We use the safe and widely used probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 to develop an orally administered diagnostic that can noninvasively indicate the presence of liver metastasis by producing easily detectable signals in urine. Our microbial diagnostic generated a high-contrast urine signal through selective expansion in liver metastases (10(6)-fold enrichment) and high expression of a lacZ reporter maintained by engineering a stable plasmid system. The lacZ reporter cleaves a substrate to produce a small molecule that can be detected in urine. E. coli Nissle 1917 robustly colonized tumor tissue in rodent models of liver metastasis after oral delivery but did not colonize healthy organs or fibrotic liver tissue. We saw no deleterious health effects on the mice for more than 12 months after oral delivery. Our results demonstrate that probiotics can be programmed to safely and selectively deliver synthetic gene circuits to diseased tissue microenvironments in vivo. PMID:26019220

  18. Urine Pretreatment History and Perspective in NASA Human Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Molly; Adam, Niklas; Chambers, Antja; Broyan, James

    2015-01-01

    Urine pretreatment is a technology that may seem to have small mass impacts in future spaceflight missions, but can have significant impacts on reliability, life, and performance of the rest of the wastewater management and recovery systems. NASA has experience with several different urine pretreatment systems, including those flow on the space shuttle, evaluated for NASA waste collection systems or used in Russian commodes on ISS, or developed by NASA or industry as alternatives. Each has had unique requirements for shelf life, operational life, and the life or conditions of the stored, treated urine. Each was evaluated under different test conditions depending on mission, and depending on testing experience developed over NASA's history. Those that were flown led to further lessons learned about hardware compatibility and control. As NASA looks forward to human spaceflight missions beyond low Earth orbit, these techniques need to be evaluated in new light. Based on published design reference missions, candidate requirements can be derived for future systems. Initial comparisons between these requirements and previous performance or test results can be performed. In many cases these comparisons reveal data gaps. Successful previous performance is not enough to address current needs.

  19. Heteroatom-doped highly porous carbon from human urine

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhari, Nitin Kaduba; Song, Min Young; Yu, Jong-Sung

    2014-01-01

    Human urine, otherwise potentially polluting waste, is an universal unused resource in organic form disposed by the human body. We present for the first time “proof of concept” of a convenient, perhaps economically beneficial, and innovative template-free route to synthesize highly porous carbon containing heteroatoms such as N, S, Si, and P from human urine waste as a single precursor for carbon and multiple heteroatoms. High porosity is created through removal of inherently-present salt particles in as-prepared “Urine Carbon” (URC), and multiple heteroatoms are naturally doped into the carbon, making it unnecessary to employ troublesome expensive pore-generating templates as well as extra costly heteroatom-containing organic precursors. Additionally, isolation of rock salts is an extra bonus of present work. The technique is simple, but successful, offering naturally doped conductive hierarchical porous URC, which leads to superior electrocatalytic ORR activity comparable to state of the art Pt/C catalyst along with much improved durability and methanol tolerance, demonstrating that the URC can be a promising alternative to costly Pt-based electrocatalyst for ORR. The ORR activity can be addressed in terms of heteroatom doping, surface properties and electrical conductivity of the carbon framework. PMID:24909133

  20. The behaviour of pharmaceuticals and heavy metals during struvite precipitation in urine.

    PubMed

    Ronteltap, Mariska; Maurer, Max; Gujer, Willi

    2007-05-01

    Separating urine from wastewater at the source reduces the costs of extensive wastewater treatment. Recovering the nutrients from urine and reusing them for agricultural purposes adds resource saving to the benefits. Phosphate can be recovered in the form of struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate). In this paper, the behaviour of pharmaceuticals and heavy metals during the precipitation of struvite in urine is studied. When precipitating struvite in urine spiked with hormones and non-ionic, acidic and basic pharmaceuticals, the hormones and pharmaceuticals remain in solution for more than 98%. For heavy metals, initial experiments were performed to study metal solubility in urine. Solubility is shown to be affected by the chemical conditions of stored and therefore hydrolysed urine. Thermodynamic modelling reveals low or very low equilibrium solute concentrations for cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni) and lead (Pb). Experiments confirmed Cd, Cu and Pb carbonate and hydroxide precipitation upon metal addition in stored urine with a reaction half-life of ca. 7 days. For all metals considered, the maximum specific metal concentrations per gram phosphate or nitrogen showed to be typically several orders of magnitudes lower in urine than in commercially available fertilizers and manure. Heavy metals in struvite precipitated from normal stored urine could not be detected. Phosphate recovery from urine over struvite precipitation is shown to render a product free from most organic micropollutants and containing only a fraction of the already low amounts of heavy metals in urine. PMID:17368503

  1. Fiber loop ringdown glucose sensors: initial tests in human diabetic urines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaya, Malik; Wang, Chuji

    2014-06-01

    Fiber loop ringdown technique has shown promise in biomedical applications in recent studies. In the present work, fiber loop ringdown sensors using the evanescent field as the sensing mechanism have been fabricated and tested in actual human urines for the first time. In order to evaluate the sensors' performance, the sensors were comparatively tested in healthy human urines, synthetic urine solutions, and diabetic urines. Due to different features or chemical compositions of each urine sample, the sensors experience different optical losses, equivalently, different ringdown times. The comparative results show that evanescent field-fiber loop ringdown glucose sensors can discriminate the three different urine samples by displaying different ringdown times. The evanescent field-fiber loop ringdown glucose sensors had fast response, good reproducibility, and high sensitivity. The promising results imply that the evanescent field-fiber loop ringdown sensors have potential for near real-time detection of diabetic urines.

  2. Aversive responses of white-tailed deer,Odocoileus virginianus, to predator urines.

    PubMed

    Swihart, R K; Pignatello, J J; Mattina, M J

    1991-04-01

    We tested whether predator odors could reduce winter browsing of woody plants by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Urine from bobcats (Lyra rufus) and coyotes (Canis latrans) significantly reduced browsing of Japanese yews (Taxus cuspidata), and repellency was enhanced when urine was reapplied weekly as a topical spray. Urine of cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) and humans did not reduce damage, suggesting that deer do not respond aversively to odors of nonpredatory mammals or occasional predators with which they lack a long evolutionary association. Bobcat and coyote urine were more effective in tests conducted with eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis), which is less palatable to white-tailed deer than Japanese yew. A dichloromethane extract of bobcat urine was as effective as unextracted urine in reducing damage to hemlocks. Testing of the organic components of bobcat urine, particularly the volatile components, may enable identification of the compounds responsible for the repellency we observed. PMID:24258921

  3. Recovery of intravenously infused chromium EDTA and lithium sulphate in the urine of cattle and their use as markers to measure urine volume.

    PubMed

    Bowen, M K; Poppi, D P; McLennan, S R

    2009-04-01

    A series of metabolism experiments investigated the recovery of continuous-, intravenously infused chromium complexed with ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid (CrEDTA) and lithium sulphate in the urine of cattle with a view to using the markers to estimate urine and metabolite output in grazing cattle. The recovery of Cr in urine from these infusions was similar (90%) in metabolism trials when cattle consumed three very contrasting diets: high-grain formulated pellet, lucerne hay (Medicago sativa) or low-quality native grass hay (predominantly Heteropogon contortus). By contrast, Li recovery in urine averaged 46.3 ± 0.40% and 72.6 ± 0.43% for native pasture and lucerne hays, respectively, but was not constant across days. There was negligible transfer of Cr from CrEDTA in blood serum to the rumen or faeces, whereas appreciable quantities of infused Li were found in both. The ratio of urine volume estimated by spot samples and marker dilution of Cr, to urine volume measured gravimetrically, was 1.05. In grazing studies using rumen-fistulated (RF) steers grazing seven different tropical and temperate grass and legume pastures, the ratio of concentrations of purine derivatives (PD) to Cr in spot samples of urine was shown to vary diurnally in the range of 49% to 157% of the average 24 h value. This finding indicated the need for regular sampling of urine to achieve an accurate average value for the PD : Cr ratio in urine for use in estimating urinary PD excretion and hence microbial protein production in the rumen. It was concluded that continuous, intravenous infusion of CrEDTA resulted in a constant recovery of Cr in the urine of cattle across diets and, provided an intensive sampling regime was followed to account for diurnal variation, it would be suitable as a marker to estimate urine volume and urinary output of PD in grazing cattle. PMID:22444379

  4. Methods for analysis of citrinin in human blood and urine.

    PubMed

    Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Muñoz, Katherine; Degen, Gisela H

    2013-06-01

    Citrinin (CIT), produced by several Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Monascus species, has been detected as contaminant in feeds, grains, and other food commodities. CIT can co-occur with ochratoxin A (OTA), a mycotoxin also known for its nephrotoxicity, and this raises concern regarding possible combined effects. But, in contrast to OTA, data on CIT contamination in foods for human consumption are scarce, and CIT biomonitoring has not been conducted so far due a lack of suitable methods for human specimen. Thus, it was the aim of the present study to develop sensitive methods for the analysis of CIT in human blood and urine to investigate human exposure. To this end, we assessed different methods of sample preparation and instrumental analysis for these matrices. Clean-up of blood plasma by protein precipitation followed by LC-MS/MS-based analysis allowed robust detection of CIT (LOD 0.07 ng/mL, LOQ 0.15 ng/mL). For urine, sample clean-up by an immunoaffinity column (CitriTest(®)) proved to be clearly superior to SPE with RP(18) material for subsequent analysis by LC-MS/MS. For CIT and its metabolite dihydrocitrinone (HO-CIT), the LOD and LOQ determined by external calibration curves in matrix were 0.02 and 0.05 ng/mL for CIT, and those for HO-CIT were 0.05 and 0.1 ng/mL urine. The newly developed method was applied in a small pilot study: CIT was present in all plasma samples from 8 German adults, at concentrations ranging from 0.11 to 0.26 ng/mL. The molar (nM) concentrations of CIT are similar to those measured for OTA in these samples as a result of dietary mycotoxin intake. CIT was detected in 8/10 urines (from 4 adults and 6 infants) in a range of 0.16-0.79 ng/mL, and HO-CIT was present in 5/10 samples at similar concentrations. Thus, CIT is excreted in urine as parent compound and also as metabolite. These first results in humans point to the need for further studies on CIT exposure. PMID:23354378

  5. Overnight urinary uric acid: creatinine ratio for detection of sleep hypoxemia. Validation study in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and obstructive sleep apnea before and after treatment with nasal continuous positive airway pressure.

    PubMed

    Braghiroli, A; Sacco, C; Erbetta, M; Ruga, V; Donner, C F

    1993-07-01

    During hypoxia ATP degradation to uric acid is increased in animal models and humans. To assess the reliability of an overnight increase in uric acid excretion as a marker of nocturnal hypoxemia, we selected 10 normal volunteers (7 males and 3 females), 29 COPD patients (26 males and 3 females), and 49 subjects with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) (43 males and 6 females). The patients underwent standard polysomnography, which was repeated in 14 subjects with nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), and were subdivided into two groups: Group D included desaturating subjects who spent at least 1 h at SaO2 < 90% and 15 min below 85%, and Group ND were nondesaturating subjects. The overnight change in the uric acid:creatinine ratio (delta UA:Cr) was negative in normal subjects (-27.5 +/- 9.1 [mean +/- SD]) and ND groups: -19.7 +/- 14.3 in COPD, -16.1 +/- 13.0 in OSA. In both COPD and OSA Group D, the ratio was usually positive: delta UA:Cr was 17.9 +/- 31.4 in Group D COPD (p < 0.001 versus ND) and 10.1 +/- 30.7 in Group D OSA (p < 0.001 versus ND and versus normal subjects) despite 4 of 15 false negative results in COPD and 8 of 20 in OSA. CPAP effective treatment induced a marked reduction ((p = 0.0024) in delta UA:Cr, leading to a negative value. We conclude that delta UA:Cr seems to be a promising index of significant nocturnal tissue hypoxia, with good specificity but poor sensitivity (about 30% false negative), which might be useful for the long-term follow-up of outpatients on nasal CPAP with a positive ratio at baseline. PMID:8317794

  6. 49 CFR 40.41 - Where does a urine collection for a DOT drug test take place?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Where does a urine collection for a DOT drug test... in DOT Urine Collections § 40.41 Where does a urine collection for a DOT drug test take place? (a) A urine collection for a DOT drug test must take place in a collection site meeting the requirements...

  7. Phosphate recovery using hybrid anion exchange: applications to source-separated urine and combined wastewater streams.

    PubMed

    O'Neal, Jeremy A; Boyer, Treavor H

    2013-09-15

    There is increasing interest in recovering phosphorus (P) from various wastewater streams for beneficial use as fertilizer and to minimize environmental impacts of excess P on receiving waters. One such example is P recovery from human urine, which has a high concentration of phosphate (200-800 mg P/L) and accounts for a small volume (≈ 1%) of total wastewater flow. Accordingly, the goal of this study was to evaluate the potential to recover P from source-separated and combined wastewater streams that included undiluted human urine, urine diluted with tap water, greywater, mixture of urine and greywater, anaerobic digester supernatant, and secondary wastewater effluent. A hybrid anion exchange (HAIX) resin containing hydrous ferric oxide was used to recover P because of its selectivity for phosphate and the option to precipitate P minerals in the waste regeneration solution. The P recovery potential was fresh urine > hydrolyzed urine > greywater > biological wastewater effluent > anaerobic digester supernatant. The maximum loading of P on HAIX resin was fresh urine > hydrolyzed urine > anaerobic digester supernatant ≈ greywater > biological wastewater effluent. Results indicated that the sorption capacity of HAIX resin for phosphate and the total P recovery potential were greater for source-separated urine than the combined wastewater streams of secondary wastewater effluent and anaerobic digester supernatant. Dilution of urine with tap water decreased the phosphate loading on HAIX resin. The results of this work advance the current understanding of nutrient recovery from complex wastewater streams by sorption processes. PMID:23866131

  8. An exploratory study on seawater-catalysed urine phosphorus recovery (SUPR).

    PubMed

    Dai, Ji; Tang, Wen-Tao; Zheng, Yi-Se; Mackey, Hamish R; Chui, Ho Kwong; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Chen, Guang-Hao

    2014-12-01

    Phosphorus (P) is a crucial and non-renewable resource, while it is excessively discharged via sewage, significant amounts originating from human urine. Recovery of P from source-separated urine presents an opportunity not only to recover this precious resource but also to improve downstream sewage treatment works. This paper proposes a simple and economic method to recover urine derived P by using seawater as a low-cost precipitant to form struvite, as Hong Kong has practised seawater toilet flushing as an alternative water resource since 1958. Chemical reactions, process conditions and precipitate composition for P precipitation in urine have been investigated to develop this new urine P recovery approach. This study concluded that ureolysis extent in a urine-seawater mixture determines the reaction pH that in turn influences the P recovery efficiency significantly; 98% of urine P can precipitate with seawater within 10 min when 40-75% of the urea in urine is ureolysed; the urine to seawater ratio alters the composition of the precipitates. The P content in the precipitates was found to be more than 9% when the urine fraction was 40% or higher. Magnesium ammonium phosphate (MAP) was confirmed to be the predominant component of the precipitates. PMID:25189478

  9. Urine Free Light Chains as a Novel Biomarker of Acute Kidney Allograft Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rubin; Li, Min; Chouhan, Kanwaljit K.; Simon, Eric E.; Hamm, L. Lee; Batuman, Vecihil

    2015-01-01

    Background We evaluated urine free light chains (FLC) as a potential biomarker for acute kidney allograft injury (AKAI). Methods Urine κ and λ FLC were compared with urine β-2 microglobulin (β2-M), RBP, KIM-1, NGAL and microalbuminuria (MAB) in biopsy-confirmed acute rejection (AR) and ATN. Healthy volunteers (Normal) and transplant recipients with normal allograft function (Control) were used as references. Results Compared to Control or Normal group (N=15), urine FLC, MAB and RBP were higher in ATN (N=29) and AR (N=41) groups (p<0.05). There was no difference in KIM-1, NGAL or β2-M between 4 groups. In AR group, urine κFLC demonstrated the highest predictive value with sensitivity of 95.12% and specificity of 87.5% (p<0.0001). Urine κFLC also performed best with a sensitivity of 96.55% and specificity of 93.33% (p<0.0001) in ATN group. The AUC by ROC analysis is greatest in urine RBP (100%) and FLC (99%), and lowest in KIM-1 (53.5%), then NGAL (71.5%) in AR group. The AUC is also greatest in urine FLC (100%) and RBP (99%), and lowest in urine KIM-1 (55.6%) and NGAL (69.9%) in ATN group. Conclusions Urine FLC appears sensitive for both AR and ATN, and it may be a novel AKAI biomarker. PMID:24304377

  10. Calcium Stone Growth in Urine from Cystic Fibrosis Patients and Healthy Controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McSorley, Anita; Jones, Andrew M.; Webb, A. Kevin; Rao, P. Nagaraj; Kavanagh, John P.

    2007-04-01

    Cystic fibrosis patients have an increased risk of renal stone disease. There is some evidence that this may be related to a different excretory pattern of stone risk factors, but an alternative hypothesis, that the urine of cystic fibrosis patients is deficient in urinary inhibitors of crystallization and stone formation has not been tested. Here we have grown calcium stones, in vitro, in the presence of urine from healthy controls and compared this with growth in the presence of urine from cystic fibrosis patients. A stone farm was used to grow twelve calcium stones simultaneously, firstly in artificial urine for about 200 hours and then in 90% whole human urine for another 500 hours. Six of the stones received urine from healthy controls and six received urine from adult cystic fibrosis patients. There were no significant differences in stone mass at any of the key time points or in the overall growth pattern (p>0.05) between stones destined for, or treated with, urine from CF patients and the controls. Human urine greatly inhibited stone growth in vitro but there was no difference in the growth rate in urine from healthy controls and CF patients. This refutes the hypothesis that a tendency for a higher prevalence of urinary stones in CF patients is related to a deficiency in inhibitory activity.

  11. The urine specific gravity dipstick: a useful tool to increase fluid intake in stone forming patients.

    PubMed

    McCormack, M; Dessureault, J; Guitard, M

    1991-12-01

    High fluid intake is the only preventive dietary measure that can be recommended to all patients with stones. However, the efficacy of dietary advice given to patients is unknown. We compared the impact of dietary advice to increase hydration (group 1, 57 patients) and of no dietary advice (group 2, 83 patients) on 24-hour urine volume. No significant difference was noted between groups 1 (1,624 ml.) and 2 (1,732 ml.). We then determined if urine specific gravity dipsticks could help patients increase the 24-hour urine volume. A correlation between 24-hour urine volume and mean urine specific gravity was performed on 263 randomly chosen patients. There was an inverse relationship between urine specific gravity and 24-hour urine volume with a correlation coefficient of 0.522 (y = 1.0207 - 0.00374x). Most patients (81.6%) with 24-hour urine volumes of less than 2.1 had a urine specific gravity of more than 1.010. The use of specific gravity dipsticks was evaluated as a tool to help 24 patients increase the 24-hour urine volume. The 24-hour urine volume increased significantly (p less than 0.05, paired Student's t test) in patients after feedback from specific gravity dipsticks when they were instructed to keep the urine specific gravity at or less than 1.010 (average 24-hour urine volume increased 192%). We conclude that dietary advice may be insufficient to modify fluid intake habits in stone patients. However, modifications of fluid intake habits may be improved by feedback from specific gravity dipsticks. PMID:1942321

  12. Performance of Fasting Plasma Glucose and Postprandial Urine Glucose in Screening for Diabetes in Chinese High-risk Population

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Bing-Quan; Lu, Yang; He, Jia-Jia; Wu, Tong-Zhi; Xie, Zuo-Ling; Lei, Cheng-Hao; Zhou, Yi; Han, Jing; Bian, Mei-Qi; You, Hong; Mei, De-Xian; Sun, Zi-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Background: The conventional approaches to diabetes screening are potentially limited by poor compliance and laboratory demand. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and postprandial urine glucose (PUG) in screening for diabetes in Chinese high-risk population. Methods: Nine hundred and nine subjects with high-risk factors of diabetes underwent oral glucose tolerance test after an overnight fast. FPG, hemoglobin A1c, 2-h plasma glucose (2 h-PG), and 2 h-PUG were evaluated. Diabetes and prediabetes were defined by the American Diabetes Association criteria. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of 2 h-PUG, and the optimal cut-off determined to provide the largest Youden index. Spearman correlation was used for relationship analysis. Results: Among 909 subjects, 33.4% (304/909) of subjects had prediabetes, and 17.2% (156/909) had diabetes. The 2 h-PUG was positively related to FPG and 2 h-PG (r = 0.428 and 0.551, respectively, both P < 0.001). For estimation of 2 h-PG ≥ 7.8 mmol/L and 2 h-PG ≥ 11.1 mmol/L using 2 h-PUG, the area under the ROC curve were 0.772 (95% confidence interval [CI ]: 0.738–0.806) and 0.885 (95% CI: 0.850–0.921), respectively. The corresponding optimal cut-offs for 2 h-PUG were 5.6 mmol/L and 7.5 mmol/L, respectively. Compared with FPG alone, FPG combined with 2 h-PUG had a higher sensitivity for detecting glucose abnormalities (84.1% vs. 73.7%, P < 0.001) and diabetes (82.7% vs. 48.1%, P < 0.001). Conclusion: FPG combined with 2 h-PUG substantially improves the sensitivity in detecting prediabetes and diabetes relative to FPG alone, and may represent an efficient layperson-oriented diabetes screening method. PMID:26668139

  13. The bacteriological examination of urine: a computer-aided study

    PubMed Central

    Meers, P. D.

    1974-01-01

    For 6 months details of every patient who had his or her urine sent to a laboratory for bacteriological examination and the result of such examination were entered on a computer-card. A total of 15,606 cards were completed with information in code recording the sex and age of a patient, the origin of the request, the presence or absence in the urine of an excess of protein or cells, the culture result and the name of any significant organism isolated together with its sensitivity to various antimicrobial drugs. This information was interrelated in a computer, and in some cases the resulting numerical details were expressed as rates so as to eliminate the effect of uneven sex and age distribution. In this way the occurrence of urinary tract infection and the type of infecting organism in persons of either sex at various ages was examined according to whether the patient was in hospital or general practice. The sensitivity pattern of each type of significant organism isolated was established according to its source. The association between patients of either sex and various ages who had, or did not have, bacteriologically evident infections and the presence in their urine of an inflammatory exudate was investigated. Finally, the capacity of each type of infecting organism to produce such an exudate was estimated. It was shown that hospital and general practice experience of urinary tract infections differed widely, with regard both to the age and sex distribution of those suffering from it, and to the causative organisms concerned and their sensitivities to antimicrobial drugs. It is suggested that these differences were so great that conclusions drawn from any study of this subject conducted in one of the two areas cannot be applied to the other, and that those derived from a mixture of the two will vary according to the relative sizes of each of the components. PMID:4595089

  14. Effect-based detection of synthetic glucocorticoids in bovine urine.

    PubMed

    Pitardi, Danilo; Cini, Barbara; Paleologo, Maurizio; Brouwer, Abraham; Behnisch, Peter; van der Linden, Sander; Vincenti, Marco; Capra, Pierluigi; Gili, Marilena; Pezzolato, Marzia; Meloni, Daniela; Bozzetta, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Challenges to testing for the illicit use of anabolic substances in meat-producing animals stem from the production of new synthetic compounds and the administration of low-dose cocktails to circumvent detection by the surveillance schemes of European Union member states. This work evaluated for the first time GR-CALUX, a highly sensitive reporter gene assay, as a screening tool for the detection of synthetic glucocorticoids in bovine urine. In order to verify the effect of natural corticosteroids on the method, the bioassay was tested first using blank urine samples collected at the farm and the slaughterhouse. Next, the dose-response curves were measured for the most commonly used synthetic glucocorticoids. The bioassay's ability to detect them in spiked and incurred samples of bovine urine was then evaluated. Finally, its performance was compared against a commercially available ELISA kit ordinarily used in screening activities. GR-CALUX performance did not appear to be influenced by physiological levels of endogenous corticosteroids in the farm samples, whereas an increase in these hormones might invalidate the analysis in samples obtained at the slaughterhouse. Using pure compounds, GR-CALUX showed a high sensitivity toward the synthetic glucocorticosteroids tested in order of relative potencies: flumethasone ≫ dexamethasone > betamethasone > methylprednisolone > prednisolone. As expected, the bioassay failed to detect the prohormone prednisone. The results obtained from analysis of the spiked and incurred specimens reproduced those of the blank samples and the pure compounds. GR-CALUX is a promising screening tool for the detection of illicit treatments in meat-producing bovines. Its ability to detect the most commonly used synthetic glucocorticoids was comparable with the ELISA test. Importantly, it appeared to be less susceptible to matrix effects than ELISA. PMID:25569131

  15. Albumin testing in urine using a smart-phone

    PubMed Central

    Coskun, Ahmet F.; Nagi, Richie; Sadeghi, Kayvon; Phillips, Stephen; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate a digital sensing platform, termed Albumin Tester, running on a smart-phone that images and automatically analyses fluorescent assays confined within disposable test tubes for sensitive and specific detection of albumin in urine. This light-weight and compact Albumin Tester attachment, weighing approximately 148 grams, is mechanically installed on the existing camera unit of a smart-phone, where test and control tubes are inserted from the side and are excited by a battery powered laser diode. This excitation beam, after probing the sample of interest located within the test tube, interacts with the control tube, and the resulting fluorescent emission is collected perpendicular to the direction of the excitation, where the cellphone camera captures the images of the fluorescent tubes through the use of an external plastic lens that is inserted between the sample and the camera lens. The acquired fluorescent images of the sample and control tubes are digitally processed within one second through an Android application running on the same cellphone for quantification of albumin concentration in urine specimen of interest. Using a simple sample preparation approach which takes ~ 5 minutes per test (including the incubation time), we experimentally confirmed the detection limit of our sensing platform as 5–10 μg/mL (which is more than 3 times lower than clinically accepted normal range) in buffer as well as urine samples. This automated albumin testing tool running on a smart-phone could be useful for early diagnosis of kidney disease or for monitoring of chronic patients, especially those suffering from diabetes, hypertension, and/or cardiovascular diseases. PMID:23995895

  16. Albumin testing in urine using a smart-phone.

    PubMed

    Coskun, Ahmet F; Nagi, Richie; Sadeghi, Kayvon; Phillips, Stephen; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2013-11-01

    We demonstrate a digital sensing platform, termed Albumin Tester, running on a smart-phone that images and automatically analyses fluorescent assays confined within disposable test tubes for sensitive and specific detection of albumin in urine. This light-weight and compact Albumin Tester attachment, weighing approximately 148 grams, is mechanically installed on the existing camera unit of a smart-phone, where test and control tubes are inserted from the side and are excited by a battery powered laser diode. This excitation beam, after probing the sample of interest located within the test tube, interacts with the control tube, and the resulting fluorescent emission is collected perpendicular to the direction of the excitation, where the cellphone camera captures the images of the fluorescent tubes through the use of an external plastic lens that is inserted between the sample and the camera lens. The acquired fluorescent images of the sample and control tubes are digitally processed within one second through an Android application running on the same cellphone for quantification of albumin concentration in the urine specimen of interest. Using a simple sample preparation approach which takes ~5 min per test (including the incubation time), we experimentally confirmed the detection limit of our sensing platform as 5-10 μg mL(-1) (which is more than 3 times lower than the clinically accepted normal range) in buffer as well as urine samples. This automated albumin testing tool running on a smart-phone could be useful for early diagnosis of kidney disease or for monitoring of chronic patients, especially those suffering from diabetes, hypertension, and/or cardiovascular diseases. PMID:23995895

  17. Allergic to all medicines and red coloured urine.

    PubMed

    Basu, Debasish; Painuly, Nitesh; Sahoo, Manoj

    2008-01-01

    Dermatitis artefacta is a disorder in which the skin is the target of self-inflicted injury. We report a case of dermatitis artefacta, in which the patient developed skin lesions, after taking each and every medication. Additionally he also had red coloured urine after taking certain group of medications, which, on further investigations, was found to be associated with glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. This case illustrates the presence of factitious dermatitis and physical co-morbidity simultaneously, which was missed before psychiatric referral. Every symptom in a patient with a factitious disorder should not be labelled as feigned without a proper workup. PMID:19086137

  18. Salivary and urine theophylline levels in management of childhood asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Goldsworthy, S J; Kemp, M; Warner, J O

    1981-01-01

    It is not possible to predict the plasma theophylline levels that can be achieved using slow-release aminophylline based on body weight or surface area. Improvement in FEV1 is directly related to increasing serum theophylline level, justifying the need for measuring levels in order to optimize therapy. As repeated venesection in children is unpleasant we have studied a simple method using saliva. Simultaneous blood and salivary theophylline levels correlated sufficiently well for salivary levels to be used for monitoring purposes. Urine levels did not correlate as well, but could be used for checking compliance. PMID:7252957

  19. [Micelle-mediated extraction for concentrating conjugated bilirubin in urine].

    PubMed

    Matsudo, T; Saitoh, T; Matsubara, C

    2001-02-01

    An extraction method based on the phase separation of aqueous micellar solutions of n-octyl-beta-D-thioglucoside (OTG) was applied to the concentrating conjugated bilirubin in urine. The analyte in sample solutions could be efficiently concentrated into a small volume of surfactant-rich phase, while hydrophilic matrix components including urinary protein, ascorbic acid, and saccharide remained in the aqueous phase. The concentrated OTG negligibly affected the diazo reaction and the subsequent spectrophotometric detection. Conjugated bilirubin was successfully determined in the concentration range from 0.05 microgram/ml to 5 micrograms/ml with a 96-well microplate reader absorption spectrophotometer. PMID:11218735

  20. [Determining thorium level in urine with its preliminary chromatographic extraction].

    PubMed

    Kononykina, N N; Astafurov, V I; Zablotskaia, I D; Popov, V I

    1990-01-01

    The contributors propose a radiometric technique of detecting thorium in urine. The technique is based on a prior concentrating of the nuclide on phosphate residues, with its further separation in extraction-chromatographic vessel filled with diethylhexylphosphorus acid, and reextraction with oxalic acid. Measurements were made in the hard scintillator layer at 90 percent effectiveness. Thorium chemical output was at 85 +/- 3 percent, sensitivity at 5 mBk for a sample. If the sample contained an equal quantity of uranium, the percentage of cleaning thorium from uranium was 100. The proposed technique is economical, simple to perform, and is designed for natural thorium content measurements in human organism. PMID:2086364

  1. Morbid attraction to leopard urine in Toxoplasma-infected chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Poirotte, Clémence; Kappeler, Peter M; Ngoubangoye, Barthelemy; Bourgeois, Stéphanie; Moussodji, Maick; Charpentier, Marie J E

    2016-02-01

    Parasites are sometimes capable of inducing phenotypic changes in their hosts to improve transmission [1]. Toxoplasma gondii, a protozoan that infects a broad range of warm-blooded species, is one example that supports the so-called 'parasite manipulation hypothesis': it induces modifications in rodents' olfactory preferences, converting an innate aversion for cat odor into attraction and probably favoring trophic transmission to feline species, its only definitive hosts [2]. In humans, T. gondii induces behavioral modifications such as personality changes, prolonged reaction times and decreased long-term concentration [3]. However, modern humans are not suitable intermediate hosts because they are no longer preyed upon by felines. Consequently, behavioral modifications in infected people are generally assumed to be side effects of toxoplasmosis or residual manipulation traits that evolved in appropriate intermediate hosts. An alternative hypothesis, however, states that these changes result from parasite manipulative abilities that evolved when human ancestors were still under significant feline predation [3,4]. As such, T. gondii also alters olfactory preferences in humans; infected men rate cat urine, but not tiger urine, as pleasant while non-infected men do not [5]. To unravel the origin of Toxoplasma-induced modifications in humans, we performed olfactory tests on a living primate still predated by a feline species. We found in our closest relative, the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes troglodytes), that Toxoplasma-infected (TI) animals lost their innate aversion towards the urine of leopards (Panthera pardus), their only natural predator. By contrast, we observed no clear difference in the response of TI and Toxoplasma-non-infected (TN) animals towards urine collected from other definitive feline hosts that chimpanzees do not encounter in nature. Although the adaptive value of parasitically induced behavior should be assessed carefully, we suggest that the

  2. Determination of antimicrobial susceptibilities on infected urines without isolation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Picciolo, G. L.; Chappelle, E. W.; Deming, J. W.; Shrock, C. G.; Vellend, H.; Barza, M. J.; Weinstein, L. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A method is described for the quick determination of the susceptibilities of various unidentified bacteria contained in an aqueous physiological fluid sample, particularly urine, to one or more antibiotics. A bacterial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) assay is carried out after the elimination of non-bacterial ATP to determine whether an infection exists. If an infection does exist, a portion of the sample is further processed, including subjecting parts of the portion to one or more antibiotics. Growth of the bacteria in the parts are determined, again by an ATP assay, to determine whether the unidentified bacteria in the sample are susceptible to the antibiotic or antibiotics under test.

  3. Bioanalysis of urine samples after manipulation by oxidizing chemicals: technical considerations.

    PubMed

    Fu, Shanlin; Luong, Susan; Pham, Annie; Charlton, Nathan; Kuzhiumparambil, Unnikrishnan

    2014-06-01

    Drug testing programs are established to help achieve a drug-free work environment, promote fair competition in sport, facilitate harm minimization and rehabilitation programs, better manage patient care by clinicians and service law enforcement authorities. Urine remains the most popular and appropriate testing matrix for such purposes. However, urine is prone to adulteration, where chemicals, especially oxidizing chemicals, are purposely added to the collected urine specimens to produce a false-negative test result. This article will describe the effect of various popular oxidizing adulterants on urine drug test results, the countermeasures taken by laboratories in dealing with adulterated urine samples and the prospect of developing more robust and economical methods to combat urine adulteration in the future. PMID:25046053

  4. A unilateral purple urine bag syndrome in a patient with bilateral nephrostomy tubes.

    PubMed

    Karim, Adil; Abed, Firas; Bachuwa, Ghassan

    2015-01-01

    A change in the colour of urine is always of clinical significance, and a source of concern for the patient and his physician. Among the different urine colours observed, purple is the least common. Although purple discolouration of a catheter and a urine bag is an uncommon finding, it was reported in the literature as early as 1978, by Barlow and Dickson. We present a unique case of purple urine bag syndrome in a patient with bilateral nephrostomy tubes (NT) and associated urine bags (UB) with only the left nephrostomy tube and urine bag exhibiting the purple colour, which resolved with a course of appropriate antibiotics eradicating the causative bacterial pathogen, and change of NT and UB. PMID:26701992

  5. Four-man rated dual catalyst system for the recovery of water from urine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budininkas, P.

    1978-01-01

    The catalytic system was integrated with a 4-man rated urine wick evaporator. During operation, urine vapor produced by the wick-evaporator was treated in the catalytic system to remove ammonia and volatile hydrocarbons, and water was recovered by condensation in a water cooled condenser. The system operated completely automatically and required no manual adjustments, except periodic supply of urine and removal of the recovered water. Although the system was designed for treating 0.325 kg urine per hour, this rate could be achieved only with a fresh wick, then gradually decreased as the wick became saturated with urine solids. The average urine treatment rates achieved during each of the three endurance tests were 0.137, 0.217, and 0.235 kg/hr. The quality of the recovered water meets drinking water standards, with the exception of a generally low pH.

  6. The Utilization of Urine Processing for the Advancement of Life Support Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grossi-Soyster, Elysse; Hogan, John; Flynn, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The success of long-duration missions will depend on resource recovery and the self-sustainability of life support technologies. Current technologies used on the International Space Station (ISS) utilize chemical and mechanical processes, such as filtration, to recover potable water from urine produced by crewmembers. Such technologies have significantly reduced the need for water resupply through closed-loop resource recovery and recycling. Harvesting the important components of urine requires selectivity, whether through the use of membranes or other physical barriers, or by chemical or biological processes. Given the chemical composition of urine, the downstream benefits of urine processing for resource recovery will be critical for many aspects of life support, such as food production and the synthesis of biofuels. This paper discusses the beneficial components of urine and their potential applications, and the challenges associated with using urine for nutrient recycling for space application.

  7. Defining urine output criterion for acute kidney injury in critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    Macedo, Etienne; Malhotra, Rakesh; Claure-Del Granado, Rolando; Fedullo, Peter; Mehta, Ravindra L.

    2011-01-01

    Background. The widespread use of RIFLE and AKIN classification systems for acute kidney injury (AKI) diagnosis and staging has established the association between AKI severity and adverse outcomes. However, as a result of the difficulties in measuring and recording the urine output every hour, a few prospective studies have validated the urine output criterion as stated in these classification systems. We assessed hourly urine output in ICU patients using an automated and accurate device to determine if changes in urine flow and volume could be a sensitive marker of AKI. Additionally, we assessed various definitions of oliguria to determine whether measurement of urine output using a fixed 6-h interval that matches nurses’ shifts would be equivalent to the current standard for AKI diagnosis and staging. Methods. Hourly urine output was recorded continuously using a digital monitor in a medical ICU. Serum creatinine measurements were done at least once per 24 h. We assessed changes in urine output by four different definitions of oliguria. Patients with no AKI by either criterion were compared with patients diagnosed exclusively by the urine output criterion, exclusively by serum creatinine criterion and by both criteria. Results. Fifty-five percent of patients had an episode of oliguria during the ICU stay. There was no significant difference assessing urine output every hour or the total urine volume in a 6-h period for the detection of episodes of oliguria. Twenty-one patients (28%) were diagnosed as AKI using the serum creatinine criterion, whereas additional 24 (32%) were identified by the urine output criterion. Conclusions. Episodes of oliguria occur frequently in ICU patients and identify a higher percentage of AKI patients compared to serum creatinine criterion. Alterations in urine flow may be a sensitive marker of renal dysfunction and need to be validated in larger cohorts. PMID:20562094

  8. A practical approach to using spot urine protein/creatinine ratios for assessing proteinuria in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Marnoch, Catherine A; Larson, Lucia; Weitzen, Sherry; Phipps, Maureen G; Sung, C James; Powrie, Raymond O

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study is to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the spot urine protein/creatinine ratio compared with the 24-hour urine protein in pregnancy. Study Design: In this prospective cohort study of inpatient pregnant women, the protein/creatinine ratio and dipstick protein were assessed from a single urine sample collected at the start of the 24-hour urine. Both tests were compared with the 24-hour urine protein for correlation and test characteristics. Results: In the 196 specimens analysed, we found a strong correlation between the spot urine protein/creatinine ratio and 24-hour urine protein (r 2 = 0.78, P < 0.01). A protein/creatinine ratio <0.1 ruled out significant proteinuria (≥300 mg/day) with sensitivity and negative predictive value 100%. A protein/creatinine ratio ≥0.4 detected significant proteinuria (specificity and positive predictive value of 100%). A protein/creatinine ratio ≥4.6 had a specificity and positive predictive value of 100% for detecting severe proteinuria (≥5000 mg/day). Urine dipsticks correlated poorly with the 24-hour urine protein (r 2 = 0.40, P = 0.826). Nineteen percent of dipsticks reading nil or trace were false-negative results. Conclusion: The spot urine protein/creatinine ratio correlated well with the 24-hour urine protein and performed better than the urine dipsticks. Significant proteinuria in pregnancy was excluded if the protein/creatinine ratio was <0.1 and identified when it was ≥0.4.

  9. The Clinical Urine Culture: Enhanced Techniques Improve Detection of Clinically Relevant Microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Price, Travis K; Dune, Tanaka; Hilt, Evann E; Thomas-White, Krystal J; Kliethermes, Stephanie; Brincat, Cynthia; Brubaker, Linda; Wolfe, Alan J; Mueller, Elizabeth R; Schreckenberger, Paul C

    2016-05-01

    Enhanced quantitative urine culture (EQUC) detects live microorganisms in the vast majority of urine specimens reported as "no growth" by the standard urine culture protocol. Here, we evaluated an expanded set of EQUC conditions (expanded-spectrum EQUC) to identify an optimal version that provides a more complete description of uropathogens in women experiencing urinary tract infection (UTI)-like symptoms. One hundred fifty adult urogynecology patient-participants were characterized using a self-completed validated UTI symptom assessment (UTISA) questionnaire and asked "Do you feel you have a UTI?" Women responding negatively were recruited into the no-UTI cohort, while women responding affirmatively were recruited into the UTI cohort; the latter cohort was reassessed with the UTISA questionnaire 3 to 7 days later. Baseline catheterized urine samples were plated using both standard urine culture and expanded-spectrum EQUC protocols: standard urine culture inoculated at 1 μl onto 2 agars incubated aerobically; expanded-spectrum EQUC inoculated at three different volumes of urine onto 7 combinations of agars and environments. Compared to expanded-spectrum EQUC, standard urine culture missed 67% of uropathogens overall and 50% in participants with severe urinary symptoms. Thirty-six percent of participants with missed uropathogens reported no symptom resolution after treatment by standard urine culture results. Optimal detection of uropathogens could be achieved using the following: 100 μl of urine plated onto blood (blood agar plate [BAP]), colistin-nalidixic acid (CNA), and MacConkey agars in 5% CO2 for 48 h. This streamlined EQUC protocol achieved 84% uropathogen detection relative to 33% detection by standard urine culture. The streamlined EQUC protocol improves detection of uropathogens that are likely relevant for symptomatic women, giving clinicians the opportunity to receive additional information not currently reported using standard urine culture

  10. [Methods of urine analysis for creatinine after long period of storage].

    PubMed

    Pishak, V P; Iarmol'chuk, S G

    2001-01-01

    Our investigations showed that n-cresol (4-methylphenol) stabilized urine and preserves urinal creatinine as long as for 50-d storage at room temperature. This antimicrobial biochemical stabilizer is the core of a novel method of delayed creatinine quantification in urine. It can be useful in metabolic investigations of cosmonauts and nuclear submarine crews, members of alpine, desert, deep-water, Arctic and Antarctic expeditions and in many other cases when samples cannot be analyzed immediately. PMID:11385990

  11. The human urine virome in association with urinary tract infections

    PubMed Central

    Santiago-Rodriguez, Tasha M.; Ly, Melissa; Bonilla, Natasha; Pride, David T.

    2014-01-01

    While once believed to represent a sterile environment, the human urinary tract harbors a unique cellular microbiota. We sought to determine whether the human urinary tract also is home to viral communities whose membership might reflect urinary tract health status. We recruited and sampled urine from 20 subjects, 10 subjects with urinary tract infections (UTIs) and 10 without UTIs, and found viral communities in the urine of each subject group. Most of the identifiable viruses were bacteriophage, but eukaryotic viruses also were identified in all subjects. We found reads from human papillomaviruses (HPVs) in 95% of the subjects studied, but none were found to be high-risk genotypes that are associated with cervical and rectal cancers. We verified the presence of some HPV genotypes by quantitative PCR. Some of the HPV genotypes identified were homologous to relatively novel and uncharacterized viruses that previously have been detected on skin in association with cancerous lesions, while others may be associated with anal and genital warts. On a community level, there was no association between the membership or diversity of viral communities based on urinary tract health status. While more data are still needed, detection of HPVs as members of the human urinary virome using viral metagenomics represents a non-invasive technique that could augment current screening techniques to detect low-risk HPVs in the genitourinary tracts of humans. PMID:25667584

  12. Optimization of screening for radioactivity in urine by liquid scintillation.

    SciTech Connect

    Shanks, Sonoya Toyoko; Reese, Robert P.; Preston, Rose T.

    2007-08-01

    Numerous events have or could have resulted in the inadvertent uptake of radionuclides by fairly large populations. Should a population receive an uptake, valuable information could be obtained by using liquid scintillation counting (LSC) techniques to quickly screen urine from a sample of the affected population. This study investigates such LSC parameters as discrimination, quench, volume, and count time to yield guidelines for analyzing urine in an emergency situation. Through analyzing variations of the volume and their relationships to the minimum detectable activity (MDA), the optimum ratio of sample size to scintillating chemical cocktail was found to be 1:3. Using this optimum volume size, the alpha MDA varied from 2100 pCi/L for a 30-second count time to 35 pCi/L for a 1000-minute count time. The typical count time used by the Sandia National Laboratories Radiation Protection Sample Diagnostics program is 30 minutes, which yields an alpha MDA of 200 pCi/L. Because MDA is inversely proportional to the square root of the count time, count time can be reduced in an emergency situation to achieve the desired MDA or response time. Note that approximately 25% of the response time is used to prepare the samples and complete the associated paperwork. It was also found that if the nuclide of interest is an unknown, pregenerated discriminator settings and efficiency calibrations can be used to produce an activity value within a factor of two, which is acceptable for a screening method.

  13. Photodynamic diagnosis of bladder cancer in ex vivo urine cytology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, C. Y.; Ng, B. K.; Razul, S. Gulam; Olivo, Malini C.; Lau, Weber K. O.; Tan, P. H.; Chin, William

    2006-02-01

    Bladder cancer is the fourth common malignant disease worldwide, accounting for 4% of all cancer cases. In Singapore, it is the ninth most common form of cancer. The high mortality rate can be reduced by early treatment following precancerous screening. Currently, the gold standard for screening bladder tumors is histological examination of biopsy specimen, which is both invasive and time-consuming. In this study ex vivo urine fluorescence cytology is investigated to offer a timely and biopsy-free means for detecting bladder cancers. Sediments in patients' urine samples were extracted and incubated with a novel photosensitizer, hypericin. Laser confocal microscopy was used to capture the fluorescence images at an excitation wavelength of 488 nm. Images were subsequently processed to single out the exfoliated bladder cells from the other cells based on the cellular size. Intensity histogram of each targeted cell was plotted and feature vectors, derived from the histogram moments, were used to represent each sample. A difference in the distribution of the feature vectors of normal and low-grade cancerous bladder cells was observed. Diagnostic algorithm for discriminating between normal and low-grade cancerous cells is elucidated in this paper. This study suggests that the fluorescence intensity profiles of hypericin in bladder cells can potentially provide an automated quantitative means of early bladder cancer diagnosis.

  14. Lower intestinal modification of ureteral urine in hydrated house sparrows.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, D L; Braun, E J

    1986-01-01

    The ureters of birds empty into the posterior portion of the lower intestine, thereby providing the possibility for modification of ureteral urine by this latter organ. We have used in vivo perfusion to measure the transport of Na+, K+, and water across the lower intestine (colon and coprodaeum) of anesthetized house sparrows (Passer domesticus). Na+ was reabsorbed from (Vmax = approximately 22 mu eq . cm-2 . h-1, Km = approximately 69 meq/l) and K+ was secreted (at variable rates) into all saline perfusion fluids. The osmotic permeability of the intestinal epithelium was 0.39 microliter . cm-2 . h-1 . mosM-1 in the mucosal-to-serosal direction and 0.43 microliter . cm-2 . h-1 . mosM-1 in the serosal-to-mucosal direction. At isosmotic perfusion, Na+-linked water transport occurred at a rate of 1.7 microliter/mu eq Na+. In hydrated house sparrows the composition of ureteral urine (osmolarity = 351 mosM, Na+ = 86.5 meq/l, K+ = 60.5 meq/l) was significantly modified by transport in the lower intestine (voided fluid osmolarity = 344 mosM, Na+ = 60 meq/l, K+ = 90 meq/l). Interspecific comparisons of lower intestinal resorptive surface area and transport parameters at the level of the tissue, organ, and whole animal reveal no consistent pattern of adaptation related to habitat. PMID:3942257

  15. Urine Nested Polymerase Chain Reaction in Neonatal Septicemia.

    PubMed

    Das, B K; Suri, Shipra; Nath, Gopal; Prasad, Rajniti

    2015-08-01

    This cross-sectional study was done to evaluate diagnostic efficacy of urine nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using broad-range 16SrDNA PCR-based amplification, followed by restriction analysis and sequencing in neonatal septicemia. The study included 50 babies; 48% had vaginal delivery, 46% were preterm, 20% had a history of prolonged rupture of membranes and 56% were low birth weight (≤2500 g). Clinical presentations were lethargy (96%), respiratory distress (80%) and bleeding diathesis (16%). Absolute neutrophil count <1800/mm(3) was observed in 60%, and positive C-reactive protein in 46%. Thirty neonates had positive blood culture, and Klebsiella pneumoniae (22%) was the predominant organism. Nested urine PCR was positive in 38 (76%) and detected bacterial DNA in 8 neonates with negative blood cultures. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of nested PCR were 100, 60, 78.9, 100 and 84%, respectively, compared with blood culture. Nested PCR can detect most bacteria in single assay and identify unusual and unexpected causal agents. PMID:26130622

  16. Tandem DART™ MS Methods for Methadone Analysis in Unprocessed Urine.

    PubMed

    Beck, Rachel; Carter, Patrick; Shonsey, Erin; Graves, David

    2016-03-01

    Current methods of methadone analysis in untreated urine are traditionally limited to enzyme immunoassays (EIA) while confirmation techniques require specimen processing (i.e., sample clean-up) before analyzing by gas or liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS or LC-MS-MS). EIA and traditional confirmation techniques can be costly and, at times inefficient. As an alternative approach, we present Direct Analysis in Real Time (DART™) coupled with both time-of-flight and triple quadrupole linear ion trap (Q-TRAP™) mass spectrometers for screening and confirming methadone in untreated urine specimens. These approaches require neither expensive kits nor sample clean-up for analysis. More importantly, the total combined analysis time for both screening and confirmation methods was <5 min per sample; in contrast to the 3-5 day process required by traditional EIA, GC-MS and LC-MS-MS techniques. To examine the fundamental protocol and its applicability for routine drug screening, studies were performed that included limits of detection, precision, selectivity and specificity, sample recovery and stability and method robustness. The methods described in this report were determined to be highly specific and selective; allowing for detection of methadone at 250 ng/mL, consistent with cutoffs for current EIA techniques (300 ng/mL). The results reported here demonstrate the DART™ MS platform provides rapid and selective methadone analysis and the potential for providing savings of both time and resources compared with current analysis procedures. PMID:26590378

  17. Struvite precipitation from urine - Influencing factors on particle size.

    PubMed

    Ronteltap, Mariska; Maurer, Max; Hausherr, Rainer; Gujer, Willi

    2010-03-01

    Struvite crystallisation is a fast and reliable phosphorus removal and recovery process for concentrated waste streams - such as hydrolysed human urine. In order to optimise P-elimination efficiency, it is beneficial to obtain larger particle sizes: they are easier to separate and less prone to wash-out than smaller particles. This paper presents the results of a study on the effect of process parameters on particle size in a single step struvite precipitation. Crystals formed in batch experiments with real hydrolysed urine were shown to have an average size of >90 microm at pH 9 and 20 degrees C. This is reduced to 45 microm when changing stirrer type. Particle size increases with lower supersaturation. The results showed that under otherwise constant conditions, particle size decreases with lower temperature and has a minimum between pH 9 and 10. Deviating trends are observed at pH <8. Struvite formation in a CSTR (continuously stirred tank reactor) process was shown to be a reliable stable process that does not require any pH control. A method based on conductivity measurement is presented to estimate ionic strength, which is needed for equilibrium calculations. PMID:20116825

  18. Calcium oxalates grown in human urine under different batch conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walton, R. C.; Kavanagh, J. P.; Heywood, B. R.; Rao, P. N.

    2005-11-01

    Calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystallisation in solution is often studied as it is the major crystalline phase in kidney stones, and as such contributes to a large proportion of pathological mineralisation. A variety of different methods are used to produce CaOx in urine, particularly with the goal of investigating mineral/organic interactions. Interpretation of growth phenomena in these studies often neglects the methodological differences, which are not always trivial. CaOx was grown simultaneously from a single pool of urine using six different protocols comparable to those found in the literature. The variations between the CaOx populations generated was great, with CaOx trihydrate detected as the most common hydromorph in two of the methods used, even though it is usually discounted in stone research. Crystal morphologies, density, particle size and surface area varied in all the methods tested, and a common technique used to remove organic matter from the crystal surface resulted in total phase transformation in one of the crystal populations. In conclusion, inter-assay comparisons of CaOx product are likely to be meaningless unless strict protocols are adhered to. Results indicate that certain crystalline properties considered relevant to stone formation may actually be a symptom of the experimental conditions.

  19. Urine metabolomics in rats after administration of ketamine

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Congcong; Zhang, Meiling; Ma, Jianshe; Hu, Lufeng; Wang, Xianqin; Lin, Guanyang

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we developed a urine metabonomic method, based on gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS), to evaluate the effect of ketamine on rats. Pattern recognition analysis, including both principal component analysis and partial least squares discriminate analysis revealed that ketamine (50 mg/kg) induced metabolic perturbations. Compared with the control group, at day 7, the level of alanine, butanoic acid, glutamine, butanedioic, trimethylsiloxy, L-aspartic acid, D-glucose, cholesterol, acetamide, and oleic acid of the ketamine group was increased, while the level of 2,3,4-trihydroxybutyric acid, benzeneacetic acid, threitol, ribitol, xylitol, and glycine decreased. At day 14, the level of alanine, ethanedioic acid, L-proline, glycerol, tetradecanoic acid, l-serine, l-phenylalanine, L-aspartic acid, d-glucose, cholesterol, heptadecanoic acid, and acetamide in rat urine of the ketamine group was increased, while the 2,3,4-trihydroxybutyric acid, benzeneacetic acid, d-ribose, threitol, ribitol, glycine, pyrazine, and oleic acid levels decreased. Our results indicate that metabonomic methods based on GC-MS may be useful to elucidate ketamine abuse, through the exploration of biomarkers. PMID:25678776

  20. The influence of social and endocrine factors on urine-marking by captive wolves (Canis lupus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Asa, C.S.; Mech, L.D.; Seal, U.S.; Plotka, E.D.

    1990-01-01

    Although serum hormones varied seasonally in all adult animals, only dominant male and female wolves urine-marked. Serum testosterone and urine-marking rates, which increased during the fall/winter breeding season, were positively correlated in both male and female dominant wolves. Estradiol, which increased in conjunction with proestrus and estrus, was not correlated with female urine-marking. These findings suggest that hormonal influence on urine-marking in the wolf is modulated by social factors and contrast with those for both domestic dogs and coyotes, two other members of the genus Canis.

  1. Removal of ammonia from urine vapor by a dual-catalyst system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budininkas, P.

    1977-01-01

    The feasibility of removing ammonia from urine vapor by a low-temperature dual-catalyst system has been demonstrated. The process is based on the catalytic oxidation of ammonia to a mixture of nitrogen, nitrous oxide, and water, followed by a catalytic decomposition of the nitrous oxide into its elements. Potential ammonia oxidation and nitrous oxide decomposition catalysts were first screened with artificial gas mixtures, then tested with the actual urine vapor produced by boiling untreated urine. A suitable dual-catalyst bed arrangement was found that achieved the removal of ammonia and also organic carbon, and recovered water of good quality from urine vapor.

  2. Comparison between microscopical examination of unstained deposits of urine and quantitative culture.

    PubMed

    Littlewood, J M; Jacobs, S I; Ramsden, C H

    1977-11-01

    Side-room examination of fresh samples of urine was compared with the results of surface viable bacterial counts. Examination of centrifuged deposits of urine for bacterial content was shown to compare very well with subsequent culture results. 87% of infected urines were detected, and only 6% of noninfected urines were wrongly identified. Evaluation of the uncentrifuged samples was less easy. There was poor agreement between the naked eye appearance, the presence of protein, and the pus cell count and the ultimate laboratory bacterial count. Microscopy of urinary sediments after centrifuging is recommended to assist in the rapid diagnosis of urinary tract infections particularly in young children. PMID:339849

  3. Mutagenicity in Salmonella of hazardous wastes and urine from rats fed these wastes

    SciTech Connect

    DeMarini, D.M.; Inmon, J.P.; Simmons, J.E.; Berman, E.; Pasley, T.C.

    1987-01-01

    15 hazardous industrial-waste samples were evaluated for mutagenicity in the Salmonella plate-incorporation assay using strains TA98 and TA100 in the presence and absence of Aroclor 1254-induced rat liver S9. Dichloromethane/methanol extracts of the crude wastes were also evaluated. 7 of the crude wastes were mutagenic, but only 2 of the extracts of these 7 wastes were mutagenic; extracts of 2 additional wastes also were mutagenic. In addition, 10 of the crude wastes were administered by gavage to F-344 rats, and 24-h urine samples were collected. Of the 10 raw urines evaluated, 3 were mutagenic in strain TA98 in the presence of S9 and beta-glucuronidase. The 3 crude wastes that produced these 3 mutagenic urines were, themselves, mutagenic. Adequate volumes of 6 of the 10 raw urines were available for extraction/concentration. These 6 urines were incubated with beta-glucuronidase and eluted through Sep-Pak C18 columns; the methanol eluates of 3 of the urines were mutagenic, and these were the same 3 whose raw urines also were mutagenic. In general, the C18/methanol extraction procedure reduced the cytotoxicity and increased the mutagenic potency of the urines. To the authors knowledge, this is the first report of the mutagenicity of urine from rodents exposed to hazardous wastes.

  4. A New Method to Make 24-Hour Urine Collection More Convenient: A Validity Study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives. This study proposes a novel urine collection device that can divide each urine collection into 20 parts and store and cool just one part. The aim of the current study is to compare measured biomarkers from the proposed urine collection device to those of conventional 24-hour sampling method. We also hypothesized that the new method would significantly increase patients' adherence to the timed urine collection. Methods. Two 24-hour urine samples with the conventional method and with the new automated urine collection device that uses just one-twentieth of each void were obtained from 40 healthy volunteers. Urine parameters including volume, creatinine, and protein levels were compared between the two methods and the agreement of two measurements for each subject was reported through Bland-Altman plots. Results. Our results confirmed that for all three variables, there is a positive correlation (P < 0.001) between the two measurements and high degree of agreement could be seen in Bland-Altman plots. Moreover, more subjects reported the new method as “more convenient” for 24-hour urine collection. Conclusions. Our results clearly indicate that a fixed proportion of each void may significantly reduce the urine volume in timed collections and this, in turn, may increase subjects' adherence to this difficult sampling. PMID:24963405

  5. The fascinating story of urine examination: From uroscopy to the era of microscopy and beyond.

    PubMed

    Magiorkinis, Emmanouil; Diamantis, Aristidis

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to present the evolution of ideas on the examination of urine from antiquity till our days. A thorough study of texts, medical books from antiquity till twentieth century along with a thorough review of the available literature in PubMed was conducted. The first observation on urine examination can be traced back to the Babylonian and Sumerian texts. Almost all physicians in antiquity including Hippocrates referred to the value of urine examination in the diagnosis and prognosis of diseases. The construction of first compound microscope lead to the examination of urine sediment and the development of Urine Cytology which was revolutionized during the twentieth century with the studies of important cytologists such as George Papanicolaou, Geoffrey Krabbe, and Leopold Koss. The introduction of molecular tests in the diagnosis of urothelial cancer inaugurated a new era in the study of urine cytology. The history of urine examination spans a period of 6,000 years. The application of microscope in the examination of urine sediment during the nineteenth century established urine analysis as an important diagnostic tool in clinical practice. PMID:26392002

  6. NMR Chemical Shift Ranges of Urine Metabolites in Various Organic Solvents.

    PubMed

    Görling, Benjamin; Bräse, Stefan; Luy, Burkhard

    2016-01-01

    Signal stability is essential for reliable multivariate data analysis. Urine samples show strong variance in signal positions due to inter patient differences. Here we study the exchange of the solvent of a defined urine matrix and how it affects signal and integral stability of the urinary metabolites by NMR spectroscopy. The exchange solvents were methanol, acetonitrile, dimethyl sulfoxide, chloroform, acetone, dichloromethane, and dimethyl formamide. Some of these solvents showed promising results with a single batch of urine. To evaluate further differences between urine samples, various acid, base, and salt solutions were added in a defined way mimicking to some extent inter human differences. Corresponding chemical shift changes were monitored. PMID:27598217

  7. Proteomic analysis of a podocyte vesicle-enriched fraction from human normal and pathological urine samples.

    PubMed

    Lescuyer, Pierre; Pernin, Agnès; Hainard, Alexandre; Bigeire, Caty; Burgess, Jennifer A; Zimmermann-Ivol, Catherine; Sanchez, Jean-Charles; Schifferli, Jürg A; Hochstrasser, Denis F; Moll, Solange

    2008-07-01

    Podocytes (glomerular visceral epithelial cells) release vesicles into urine. Podocyte vesicle-enriched fractions from normal and pathological human urine samples were prepared for proteomic analysis. An immunoadsorption method was applied and enrichment of podocyte vesicles was assessed. We identified 76 unique proteins. One protein, serum paraoxonase/arylesterase 1 (PON-1), was newly identified in normal human urine sample. We confirmed this result and showed PON-1 expression in normal human kidney. These results demonstrated the potential for using the urine samples enriched in podocyte vesicles as a starting material in studies aimed at discovery of biomarkers for diseases. PMID:21136901

  8. Steady state fluorescence spectroscopic characterization of normal and diabetic urine at selective excitation wavelength 280 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kesavan, Anjana; Pachaiappan, Rekha; Aruna, Prakasa Rao; Ganesan, Singaravelu

    2016-03-01

    Urine is considered diagnostically important for tits native fluorophores and they vary in their distribution, concentration and physiochemical properties, depending upon the metabolic condition of the subject. In this study, we have made an attempt, to characterize the urine of normal subject and diabetic patients under medication by native fluorescence spectroscopy at 280 nm excitation. Further, the fluorescence data were analyzed employing the multivariate statistical method linear discriminant analysis (LDA) using leave one out cross validation method. The results were promising in discriminating diabetic urine from that of normal urine. This study in future may be extended to check the feasibility in ruling out the coexisting disorders such as cancer.

  9. Measurement of the glucose concentration in human urine with optical refractometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Rui-Yang; Hsu, Cheng-Chih; Meng, Ching-Tang; Cheng, Chih-Ching; Liao, Yu-Ching

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, a new type of human urine glucose measurement system is proposed. We measured the phase variation of human urine with/without glucose-urine mixture (to simulate diabetes mellitus). We were able to achieve high resolution with the proposed method. The relation curve between the phase difference and glucose concentration can be estimated, and the glucose concentration of a urine sample can be determined by using this relation curve. The proposed method showed that theoretical resolution is approximated of 1.47 mg/dl.

  10. Toilet compost and human urine used in agriculture: fertilizer value assessment and effect on cultivated soil properties.

    PubMed

    Sangare, D; Sou Dakoure, M; Hijikata, N; Lahmar, R; Yacouba, H; Coulibaly, L; Funamizu, N

    2015-01-01

    Toilet compost (TC) and human urine are among natural fertilizers, which raise interest due to their double advantages to combine sanitation and nutrient recovery. However, combination of urine and TC is not so spread probably because the best ratio (urine/TC) is still an issue and urine effect on soil chemical properties remains poorly documented. This study aims to determine the best ratio of urine and TC in okra cultivation, by targeting higher fertilization effect combined with lower impact on soil chemical properties. Based on Nitrogen requirement of okra, seven treatments were compared: (T0) no fertilizer, (T1) chemical fertilizer (NPK: 14-23-14), (T2) 100% urine, (T3) 100% TC, (T4) ratio of 75% urine+25% TC, (T5) 50% urine+50% TC and (T6) 25% urine+75% TC. Results indicated that T4 (75% urine+25% TC) gave the highest plant height and yield. In contrast, T2 (100% urine) gave the lowest results among all treatments, indicating toxicity effects on plant growth and associated final yield. Such toxicity is confirmed by soil chemical properties at T2 with soil acidification and significant increase in soil salinity. In contrast, application of urine together with TC mitigates soil acidification and salinity, highlighting the efficiency of urine and TC combination on soil chemical properties. However, further investigation is necessary to refine better urine/TC ratio for okra production. PMID:25371046

  11. Student support and perceptions of urine source separation in a university community.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Stephanie K L; Boyer, Treavor H

    2016-09-01

    Urine source separation, i.e., the collection and treatment of human urine as a separate waste stream, has the potential to improve many aspects of water resource management and wastewater treatment. However, social considerations must be taken into consideration for successful implementation of this alternative wastewater system. This work evaluated the perceptions of urine source separation held by students living on-campus at a major university in the Southeastern region of the United States. Perceptions were evaluated in the context of the Theory of Planned Behavior. The survey population represents one group within a community type (universities) that is expected to be an excellent testbed for urine source separation. Overall, respondents reported high levels of support for urine source separation after watching a video on expected benefits and risks, e.g., 84% indicated that they would vote in favor of urine source separation in residence halls. Support was less apparent when measured by willingness to pay, as 33% of respondents were unwilling to pay for the implementation of urine source separation and 40% were only willing to pay $1 to $10 per semester. Water conservation was largely identified as the most important benefit of urine source separation and there was little concern reported about the use of urine-based fertilizers. Statistical analyses showed that one's environmental attitude, environmental behavior, perceptions of support within the university community, and belief that student opinions have an impact on university decision makers were significantly correlated with one's support for urine source separation. This work helps identify community characteristics that lend themselves to acceptance of urine source separation, such as those related to environmental attitudes/behaviors and perceptions of behavioral control and subjective norm. Critical aspects of these alternative wastewater systems that require attention in order to foster public

  12. Development of an In-line Urine Monitoring System for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broyan, James Lee, Jr.; Cibuzar, Branelle R.

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to microgravity during space flight causes bone loss when calcium and other metabolic by-products are excreted in urine voids. Frequent and accurate measurement of urine void volume and constituents is thus essential in determining crew bone loss and the effectiveness of the countermeasures that are taken to minimize this loss. Earlier space shuttle Urine Monitoring System (UMS) technology was unable to accurately measure urine void volumes due to the cross-contamination that took place between users, as well as to fluid system instabilities. Crew urine voids are currently collected manually in a flexible plastic bag that contains a known tracer quantity. A crew member must completely mix the contents of this bag before withdrawing a representative syringe sample for later ground analysis. The existing bag system accuracy is therefore highly dependent on mixing technique. The International Space Station (ISS) UMS has been developed as an automated device that collects urine from the Waste and Hygiene Compartment (WHC) urinal funnel interface, separates the urine, measures void volume, and allows for syringe sampling. After the ISS UMS has been used by a crew member, it delivers urine to the WHC for normal processing. The UMS plumbing is then flushed with a small volume of water. The current ISS UMS design incorporates an innovative rotary separator that minimizes foaming, consequently greatly reducing cross-contamination among urine voids (less than 0.5 mL urine) while also providing accurate volume measurements (less than 2 percent error for 100 to 1,000 mL void volumes). ISS UMS performance has been validated through extensive ground tests and reduced-gravity aircraft flights. The locker-sized ISS UMS is currently undergoing a design modification that will permit it to interface with the ISS Node 3 WHC Russian toilet (ACY) hardware. The operating principles, characteristics, and results of this design modification are outlined here.

  13. Development of an Inline Urine Monitoring System for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broyan, James Lee, Jr.; Cibuzar, Banelle R.

    2008-01-01

    Human exposure to microgravity during spaceflight causes bone loss. Calcium and other metabolic byproducts are excreted in urine voids. Frequent and accurate measurement of urine void volume and constituents is essential to determining crew bone loss and the effectiveness of countermeasures. Previous US Space Shuttle (SS) Urine Monitoring System (UMS) technology was unable to accurately measure urine void volumes due to cross contamination between users and fluid system instabilities. Currently, urine voids must be collected manually in a flexible plastic bag containing a known tracer quantity. The crew member must completely mix the bag then withdraw a representative syringe sample for later ground analysis. The current bag system accuracy is highly dependent on mixing technique. The International Space Station (ISS) UMS has been developed as an automated device that collects urine from the Waste and Hygiene Compartment (WHC) urinal funnel interface, separates the urine, measures the void volume, and allows for syringe sampling. After operations, the ISS UMS delivers the urine to the WHC for normal processing then flushes its plumbing with a small water volume. The current ISS UMS design incorporates an innovative rotary separator that minimizes foaming, greatly reduces cross contamination between urine voids (< 0.5 ml urine), and provides accurate volume measurements (< +/- 2% error for 100 to 1000 ml void volumes). The system performance has been validated with extensive ground tests and reduced gravity aircraft flights. The lockersized ISS UMS is currently being modified to interface with the ISS Node 3 WHC Russian ACY hardware. The operation principles, characteristics, and results are outlined in the paper.

  14. Towards the Detection of Prostate Cancer in Urine: A Critical Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Truong, Matthew; Yang, Bing; Jarrard, David

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Prostate specific antigen (PSA) and digital rectal exam (DRE) have low specificity for the detection of prostate cancer (PCa) and poorly predict the presence of aggressive disease. Urine is readily available, non-invasive, and represents a promising source of biomarkers for early detection and prediction of PCa prognosis. The goal of this review is to identify promising biomarkers for urine-based PCa, examine trends, and outline potential pitfalls. Methods Pubmed® and Web of Science® database searches of peer-reviewed literature on urine-based testing in PCa were performed. Original studies on this subject, as well as a small number of reviews, were analyzed including the strengths and weaknesses. We provide a comprehensive review of urine-based testing for PCa that covers the technical aspects including the methodology of urine collection, as well as recent developments in biomarkers spanning the fields of genomics, epigenetics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics. Results The process of urine collection is subject to variability, which may result in conflicting clinical results. Detecting PCa in urine is technically feasible as demonstrated by numerous “proof-of principle” studies, but few markers have been validated in multiple large sample sets. Biomarker development using urine has been accelerating in recent years, with numerous studies identifying DNA, RNA, protein, and metabolite-based biomarkers in the urine. Advanced clinical studies have identified PCA3 and TMPRSS2:ERG fusion transcripts as promising RNA markers for cancer detection and possibly prognosis. DNA methylation analysis of multiple genes improves specificity, and represents a promising platform for the development of clinical-grade assays. Conclusions Urine-based testing is non-invasive and represents a rich source of novel biomarkers for PCa. Although urine demonstrates promise in detecting cancer, the ability to identify aggressive subsets of PCa needs further

  15. Elevated interleukin-8 levels in the urine of patients with urinary tract infections.

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Y C; Mukaida, N; Ishiyama, S; Tokue, A; Kawai, T; Matsushima, K; Kasahara, T

    1993-01-01

    Pyuria is one of the main features of urinary tract infections (UTI). Nevertheless, the mechanism of polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) recruitment into the urine remains to be investigated. We examined whether interleukin-8 (IL-8), a potent neutrophil chemoattractant and activator, was involved in pyuria seen in UTI. Of 113 patients, 112 had elevated levels of IL-8 in their urine (1,078.0 +/- 181.5 pg/ml), regardless of whether they had an upper or lower UTI; this was in contrast to undetectable levels (less than 16 pg/ml) in the urine of all of the 20 normal individuals and 74 control patients without UTI. A concomitant study revealed increases in urine IL-6, but not IL-1 beta, and tumor necrosis factor alpha levels in patients with UTI. In addition to gram-negative bacteria, a wide spectrum of microorganisms was capable of inducing IL-8 production in urine. Local production of IL-8 in the urinary tract was suggested by a urine IL-8 level that was higher than the paired serum IL-8 level. The urine IL-8 level correlated with the number of PMN in the urine, and an average of half of the chemotactic activity in urine from patients with UTI could be abrogated by anti-IL-8 antibody treatment in vitro. Furthermore, urine IL-8 purified from patients was bioactive and showed multiple forms on immunoblotting analysis. This is the first documentation of IL-8 in the urine of patients with UTI, and these results imply that IL-8 is involved in inducing PMN migration into the urinary tract. Images PMID:8454332

  16. Detection of depleted uranium in urine of veterans from the 1991 Gulf War.

    PubMed

    Gwiazda, R H; Squibb, K; McDiarmid, M; Smith, D

    2004-01-01

    American soldiers involved in "friendly fire" accidents during the 1991 Gulf War were injured with depleted-uranium-containing fragments or possibly exposed to depleted uranium via other routes such as inhalation, ingestion, and/or wound contamination. To evaluate the presence of depleted uranium in these soldiers eight years later, the uranium concentration and depleted uranium content of urine samples were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in (a) depleted uranium exposed soldiers with embedded shrapnel, (b) depleted uranium exposed soldiers with no shrapnel, and (c) a reference group of deployed soldiers not involved in the friendly fire incidents. Uranium isotopic ratios measured in many urine samples injected directly into the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer and analyzed at a mass resolution m/delta m of 300 appeared enriched in 235U with respect to natural abundance (0.72%) due to the presence of an interference of a polyatomic molecule of mass 234.81 amu that was resolved at a mass resolution m/delta m of 4,000. The 235U abundance measured on uranium separated from these urines by anion exchange chromatography was clearly natural or depleted. Urine uranium concentrations of soldiers with shrapnel were higher than those of the two other groups, and 16 out of 17 soldiers with shrapnel had detectable depleted uranium in their urine. In depleted uranium exposed soldiers with no shrapnel, depleted uranium was detected in urine samples of 10 out of 28 soldiers. The median uranium concentration of urines with depleted uranium from soldiers without shrapnel was significantly higher than in urines with no depleted uranium, though substantial overlap in urine uranium concentrations existed between the two groups. Accordingly, assessment of depleted uranium exposure using urine must rely on uranium isotopic analyses, since urine uranium concentration is not an unequivocal indicator of depleted uranium presence in soldiers with no

  17. Excretion of arsenic in urine as a function of exposure to arsenic in drinking water.

    PubMed Central

    Calderon, R L; Hudgens, E; Le, X C; Schreinemachers, D; Thomas, D J

    1999-01-01

    Urinary arsenic (As) concentrations were evaluated as a biomarker of exposure in a U.S. population chronically exposed to inorganic As (InAs) in their drinking water. Ninety-six individuals who consumed drinking water with As concentrations of 8-620 microg/L provided first morning urine voids for up to 5 consecutive days. The study population was 56% male, and 44% was younger than 18 years of age. On one day of the study period, all voided urines were collected over a 24-hr period. Arsenic intake from drinking water was estimated from daily food diaries. Comparison between the concentration of As in individual urine voids with that in the 24-hr urine collection indicated that the concentration of As in urine was stable throughout the day. Comparison of the concentration of As in each first morning urine void over the 5-day study period indicated that there was little day-to-day variation in the concentration of As in urine. The concentration of As in drinking water was a better predictor of the concentration of As in urine than was the estimated intake of As from drinking water. The concentration of As in urine did not vary by gender. An age-dependent difference in the concentration of As in urine may be attributed to the higher As dosage rate per unit body weight in children than in adults. These findings suggest that the analysis of a small number of urine samples may be adequate to estimate an individual's exposure to InAs from drinking water and that the determination of the concentration of InAs in a drinking water supply may be a useful surrogate for estimating exposure to this metalloid. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:10417365

  18. Comparison of Plasma and Urine Biomarker Performance in Acute Kidney Injury

    PubMed Central

    Schley, Gunnar; Köberle, Carmen; Manuilova, Ekaterina; Rutz, Sandra; Forster, Christian; Weyand, Michael; Formentini, Ivan; Kientsch-Engel, Rosemarie; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Willam, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    Background New renal biomarkers measured in urine promise to increase specificity for risk stratification and early diagnosis of acute kidney injury (AKI) but concomitantly may be altered by urine concentration effects and chronic renal insufficiency. This study therefore directly compared the performance of AKI biomarkers in urine and plasma. Methods This single-center, prospective cohort study included 110 unselected adults undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass between 2009 and 2010. Plasma and/or urine concentrations of creatinine, cystatin C, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP), kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM1), and albumin as well as 15 additional biomarkers in plasma and urine were measured during the perioperative period. The primary outcome was AKI defined by AKIN serum creatinine criteria within 72 hours after surgery. Results Biomarkers in plasma showed markedly better discriminative performance for preoperative risk stratification and early postoperative (within 24h after surgery) detection of AKI than urine biomarkers. Discriminative power of urine biomarkers improved when concentrations were normalized to urinary creatinine, but urine biomarkers had still lower AUC values than plasma biomarkers. Best diagnostic performance 4h after surgery had plasma NGAL (AUC 0.83), cystatin C (0.76), MIG (0.74), and L-FAPB (0.73). Combinations of multiple biomarkers did not improve their diagnostic power. Preoperative clinical scoring systems (EuroSCORE and Cleveland Clinic Foundation Score) predicted the risk for AKI (AUC 0.76 and 0.71) and were not inferior to biomarkers. Preexisting chronic kidney disease limited the diagnostic performance of both plasma and urine biomarkers. Conclusions In our cohort plasma biomarkers had higher discriminative power for risk stratification and early diagnosis of AKI than urine biomarkers. For preoperative risk stratification of AKI clinical models showed

  19. Age-dependent change in urine proteome of healthy individuals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrokhotov, Igor; Liudmila Pastushkova, MRS.; Larina, Irina; Kononikhin, Alexey

    It was analyzed the protein composition of urine samples obtained from twenty Russian cosmonauts and thirty-eight healthy volunteers, that have been selected for the experiments simulating the physiological effects of microgravity. The special sample preparation was performed, followed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry of the minor proteins was performed on a nano-HPLC Agilent 1100 system (Agilent Technologies Inc., USA) in combination with a LTQ-FT Ultra mass spectrometer (Thermo Electron, Germany). List of masses derived peptides and they fragments have used for search and identification of proteins by database IPI-human (international index of protein) using the program Mascot (MS version 2.0.04 , UK) according to the following criteria: 1 - enzyme-trypsin; 2 - peptide tol. ± 5 ppm; 3 - MS / MS tol. 0.5Da. From list of proteins obtained as a result Mascot-search it was selected only those proteins that were identified based on 2 or more peptides with the rating more than 24. Analysis of the list of proteins was performed using software developed in the laboratory of VA Ivanisenko (ICG SB RAS) Age of healthy individuals was ranged from 18 to 54 years. Depending on the age, the data were divided into three groups: those relating to the group of persons under 25 years (youth and mature age 1), 25-40 years (mature age 2) and 40-54 years (mature age 3) It was detected reliable changes in the number of proteins among groups depending of the age. It was found that the minimum number of different proteins were detected in the urine of the group of young patients (under 25 years old) , and the maximum - was observed in the group of middle-aged persons (25 to 40 years). When the proteins were compared according to their molecular mass it was revealed that in the older group (40-54 years ) there is noticeably smaller percentage of high molecular weight proteins than in groups of young and middle aged persons. Thus

  20. The concept of the urine test and specific reaction of the urine in various diseases according to Enrico Cauchi - member of the medical council of Malta (1933).

    PubMed

    Ricciardi, Carlo Alberto; Ricciardi, Elisabetta; Visconti, Luca; Lacquaniti, Antonio; Savica, Vincenzo; Santoro, Domenico; Buemi, Michele; Ricciardi, Biagio

    2016-02-01

    The Study of urine from the outset has always aroused the interest of scientists and physicians all over the world, from ancient Greeks and Romans to Hindus , Hulcos in Mexico, Australian native etc. The urine in such case was considered not only as a waste product but also as a therapeutic product. In the late XIX century scientific knowledge had already identified the function of substances that favor the increase of urinary output, and physicians over the centuries have always tried to analyze urine in various ways. In Cauchis work in 1933 all chemistry and pathophysiological knowledge of the time was condensed. Cauchi signed the preface as Member of the medical council of Malta. He was a medical doctor of the early20thcentury, He wrote about the physiopathology of urine ranging from chemical and physical behavior, to the analysis of sediments and the special reactions of the urine in various pathologies. In particular Cauchi emphasizes the main diseases of the time combines the behavior of the reaction of urine as a diagnostic and prognostic instrument, stressing the importance of the urine test and describing the method used for analysis at the time. The analyses of the text in the issue seems to belong to archaic medicine, and it is difficult to think today, that what was presented as very up-to-date- science at that time, took place only 80 years ago. Reading the full original text with today experience we are led to consider the increasing importance that scientific community gave in the past, and still gives to urine test. PMID:26913892