Science.gov

Sample records for 1-year interval mri

  1. MRI as outcome measure in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy: 1-year follow-up of 45 patients.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Grete; Dahlqvist, Julia R; Vissing, Christoffer R; Heje, Karen; Thomsen, Carsten; Vissing, John

    2017-03-01

    There is no effective treatment available for facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy type 1 (FSHD1), but emerging therapies are under way that call for a better understanding of natural history in this condition. In this prospective, longitudinal study, we used quantitative MRI to assess yearly disease progression in patients with FSHD1. Ambulatory patients with confirmed diagnosis of FSHD1 (25/20 men/women, age 20-75 years, FSHD score: 0-12) were tested with 359-560-day interval between tests. Using the MRI Dixon technique, muscle fat replacement was evaluated in paraspinal, thigh, and calf muscles. Changes were compared with those in FSHD score, muscle strength (hand-held dynamometry), 6-minute-walk-distance, 14-step-stair-test, and 5-time-sit-to-stand-test. Composite absolute fat fraction of all assessed muscles increased by 0.036 (CI 0.026-0.046, P < 0.001), with increases in all measured muscle groups. The clinical severity FSHD score worsened (10%, P < 0.05), muscle strength decreased over the hip (8%), neck (8%), and back (17%) (P < 0.05), but other strength measures, 6-minute-walk-distance, 5-times-sit-to-stand-test, and 14-step-stair-test were unchanged. Changes in muscle strength, FSHD score, and fat fraction did not correlate. This first study to systemically monitor quantitative fat replacement longitudinally in FSHD1 shows that MRI provides an objective measure of disease progression, often before changes can be appreciated in strength and functional tests. The study indicates that quantitative MRI can be a helpful end-point in follow-up and therapeutic trials of patients with FSHD1.

  2. Automated mapping of hippocampal atrophy in 1-year repeat MRI data from 490 subjects with Alzheimer’s disease, mild cognitive impairment, and elderly controls

    PubMed Central

    Morra, Jonathan H.; Tu, Zhuowen; Apostolova, Liana G.; Green, Amity E.; Avedissian, Christina; Madsen, Sarah K.; Parikshak, Neelroop; Toga, Arthur W.; Jack, Clifford R.; Schuff, Norbert; Weiner, Michael W.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2009-01-01

    As one of the earliest structures to degenerate in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the hippocampus is the target of many studies of factors that influence rates of brain degeneration in the elderly. In one of the largest brain mapping studies to date, we mapped the 3D profile of hippocampal degeneration over time in 490 subjects scanned twice with brain MRI over a 1-year interval (980 scans). We examined baseline and 1-year follow-up scans of 97 AD subjects (49 males/48 females), 148 healthy control subjects (75 males/73 females), and 245 subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI; 160 males/85 females). We used our previously validated automated segmentation method, based on AdaBoost, to create 3D hippocampal surface models in all 980 scans. Hippocampal volume loss rates increased with worsening diagnosis (normal=0.66%/year; MCI=3.12%/year; AD=5.59%/year), and correlated with both baseline and interval changes in Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores and global and sum-of-boxes Clinical Dementia Rating scale (CDR) scores. Surface-based statistical maps visualized a selective profile of ongoing atrophy in all three diagnostic groups. Healthy controls carrying the ApoE4 gene atrophied faster than non-carriers, while more educated controls atrophied more slowly; converters from MCI to AD showed faster atrophy than non-converters. Hippocampal loss rates can be rapidly mapped, and they track cognitive decline closely enough to be used as surrogate markers of Alzheimer’s disease in drug trials. They also reveal genetically greater atrophy in cognitively intact subjects. PMID:19041724

  3. Low Compliance in a Health-Conscience Spending Era Likely Helps Obviates the Need for 6 month BI-RADS 3 Breast MRI Follow-up After 1 year.

    PubMed

    Mosier, Andrew; Gupta, Esha; Ataya, Dana; Bhatt, Kavita; Rim, Alice

    2017-03-01

    The goal of our IRB-approved study was to assess if a follow-up MRI every 6 months for 2 years is the most appropriate short-interval follow-up schedule. 203 breast MRI exams were performed from October 2009 to January 2014 as part of a BI-RADS 3 follow-up representing 2.6% of all breast MRIs (7,822) performed. We performed a retrospective longitudinal medical records review of compliance; malignancy rate of BI-RADS 3 exams; and average time and number of breast MRIs necessary prior to definitive disposition. While 77.8% eventually returned, only 45.5% of patients were compliant with follow-up at or near 6 months (4.5-7.5 months). Of those who eventually returned, it took an average of 1.31 follow-up MRIs (95% CI: 1.20-1.43 exams) and 10.3 months (95% CI: 9.0-11.7 months) before definitive disposition. 93.5% of initial findings were dispositioned as benign after two follow-up MRI exams (malignancy rate: 0.98%). Our results lend support to the possibility that the follow-up interval for BI-RADS 3 breast MRIs could be lengthened to 12 months if additional follow-up MRIs are necessary after the first year of 6-month follow-up breast MRIs. Foremost, this appears to be a safe follow-up alternative since benign definitive disposition can usually be made in less than 1 year. Supplemental reasons include persistent low-patient compliance (as redemonstrated in our study) and the higher cost of breast MRI compared to mammogram/ultrasound follow-up. Finally, this paper's findings further support the suggested MRI follow-up interval in the newest BI-RADS atlas.

  4. Are early MRI findings correlated with long-lasting symptoms following whiplash injury? A prospective trial with 1-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Sorensen, Joan S.; Andersen, Hans; Keseler, Bjarne; Jensen, Troels S.; Bendix, Tom

    2008-01-01

    Neck pain is the cardinal symptom following whiplash injuries. The trauma mechanism could theoretically lead to both soft tissue and bone injury that could be visualised by means of MRI. From previous quite small trials it seems that MRI does not demonstrate significant tissue damage. Large prospectively followed cohorts are needed to identify possible clinically relevant MRI findings. The objective of this trial was to evaluate (1) the predictive value of cervical MRI after whiplash injuries and (2) the value of repeating MRI examinations after 3 months including sequences with flexion and extension of the cervical spine. Participants were included after rear-end or frontal car collisions. Patients with fractures or dislocations diagnosed by standard procedures at the emergency unit were not included. MRI scans of the cervical spine were performed at baseline and repeated after 3 months. Clinical follow-ups were performed after 3 and 12 months. Outcome parameters were neck pain, headache, neck disability and working ability. A total of 178 participants had a cervical MRI scan on average 13 days after the injury. Traumatic findings were observed in seven participants. Signs of disc degeneration were common and most frequent at the C5–6 and C6–7 levels. Findings were not associated with outcome after 3 or 12 months. The population had no considerable neck trouble prior to the whiplash injury and the non-traumatic findings represent findings to be expected in the background population. Trauma-related MRI findings are rare in a whiplash population screened for serious injuries in the emergency unit and not related to a specific symptomatology. Also, pre-existing degeneration is not associated with prognosis. PMID:18512085

  5. Postmortem interval alters the water relaxation and diffusion properties of rat nervous tissue--implications for MRI studies of human autopsy samples.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Timothy M; Flint, Jeremy J; Thelwall, Peter E; Stanisz, Greg J; Mareci, Thomas H; Yachnis, Anthony T; Blackband, Stephen J

    2009-02-01

    High-resolution imaging of human autopsy tissues may improve our understanding of in vivo MRI findings, but interpretation is complicated because samples are obtained by immersion fixation following a postmortem interval (PMI). This study tested the hypotheses that immersion fixation and PMI's from 0-24 h would alter the water relaxation and diffusion properties in rat cortical slice and spinal cord models of human nervous tissue. Diffusion data collected from rat cortical slices at multiple diffusion times (10-60 ms) and b-values (7-15,000 s/mm(2)) were analyzed using a two-compartment model with exchange. Rat spinal cords were characterized with standard diffusion tensor imaging (21 directions, b=1250 s/mm(2)). Switching from perfusion- to immersion-fixation at 0 h PMI altered most MRI properties of rat cortical slices and spinal cords, including a 22% decrease in fractional anisotropy (P<0.001). After 4 h PMI, cortical slice T(1) and T(2) increased 22% and 65% respectively (P<0.001), transmembrane water exchange decreased 23% (P<0.001) and intracellular proton fraction increased 25% (P=0.002). After 6 h PMI, spinal cord white matter fractional anisotropy had decreased 38% (P<0.001). MRI property changes were observed for PMIs up to 24 h. The MRI changes correlated with protease activity and histopathological signs of autolysis. Thus, immersion fixation and/or even short PMIs (4-6 h) altered the MRI properties of rat nervous tissue. This suggests comparisons between in vivo clinical MRI and MRI data from human autopsy tissues should be interpreted with caution.

  6. Social Development: 1 Year Olds

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Social Development: 1 Year Olds Page Content Article Body During his second year, your toddler will develop a very specific image of his social world, friends, and acquaintances. He ...

  7. Language Development: 1 Year Olds

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Language Development: 1 Year Olds Page Content Article Body ... assured, it’s not your imagination. He’s developing his language and comprehension skills right on schedule. This giant ...

  8. Heart MRI

    MedlinePlus

    Magnetic resonance imaging - cardiac; Magnetic resonance imaging - heart; Nuclear magnetic resonance - cardiac; NMR - cardiac; MRI of the heart; Cardiomyopathy - MRI; Heart failure - MRI; Congenital heart disease - MRI

  9. Increased BOLD activation in the left parahippocampal cortex after 1 year of medical school: an association with cumulative verbal memory learning.

    PubMed

    Bernier, Michaël; Gauvreau, Claudie; Theriault, Denis; Madrolle, Stéphanie; Lepage, Jean-François; Whittingstall, Kevin

    2016-01-06

    Although several studies have shown left-right hippocampus asymmetry during learning, it is unclear whether such asymmetry also exists for the parahippocampal cortex, a structure within the limbic system that is also involved in memory and learning. Using a common mental navigation task known to activate the bilateral parahippocampal cortex, this study aimed at determining how BOLD activation in these two areas changes after 1 year of medical school, a program characterized by intensive verbal learning. Fifteen first-year medical students participated in this study and underwent two sessions of functional MRI, at a 1-year interval. In the first session, we observed marginal differences between left and right parahippocampal cortex activity. However, 1 year later, left parahippocampal activation significantly increased (+4.7%), whereas the right remained stable. These results bring new information as to how intensive learning can modify regional metabolism in the human brain and how the left parahippocampal region is particularly important for cumulative verbal memory.

  10. Head MRI

    MedlinePlus

    ... the head; MRI - cranial; NMR - cranial; Cranial MRI; Brain MRI; MRI - brain; MRI - head ... the test, tell your provider if you have: Brain aneurysm clips An artificial heart valves Heart defibrillator ...

  11. Your Child's Development: 1 Year (12 Months)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Year-Old Your Child’s Development: 1 Year (12 Months) KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child’s Development: 1 Year (12 Months) A A A Your little one is now ... THIS TOPIC Your Child's Checkup: 1 Year (12 Months) Your Baby's Growth: 12 Months Your Baby's Hearing, ...

  12. Interval Training

    MedlinePlus

    ... before trying any type of interval training. Recent studies suggest, however, that interval training can be used safely for short periods even in individuals with heart disease. Also keep the risk of overuse injury in mind. If you rush into a strenuous workout before ...

  13. Stability of physical assessment of older drivers over 1 year.

    PubMed

    Smith, Andrew; Marshall, Shawn; Porter, Michelle; Ha, Linda; Bédard, Michel; Gélinas, Isabelle; Man-Son-Hing, Malcolm; Mazer, Barbara; Rapoport, Mark; Tuokko, Holly; Vrkljan, Brenda

    2013-12-01

    Older adults represent the fastest-growing population of drivers with a valid driver's licence. Also common in this age group are multiple chronic medical conditions that may have an effect on physical function and driving ability. Determining the reliability of physical measures used to assess older drivers' functional ability is important to identifying those who are safe to continue driving. Most previous reliability studies of clinical physical measures of health used test-retest intervals shorter than those between patient visits with a clinician. In the present study we examined a more clinically representative interval of 1 year to determine the stability of commonly used physical measures collected during the Candrive II prospective cohort study of older drivers. Reliability statistics indicate that the sequential finger-thumb opposition, rapid pace walk and the Pelli-Robson contrast sensitivity tests have adequate stability over 1 year. Poor stability was observed for the one-legged stance and Snellen visual acuity test. Several assessments with nominal data (Marottoli method [functional neck range of motion], whispered voice test, range of motion and strength testing) lacked sufficient variability to conduct reliability analyses; however, a lack of variability between test days suggests consistency over a 1-year time frame. Our results provide evidence that specific physical measures are stable in monitoring functional ability over the course of a year.

  14. MRI and low back pain

    MedlinePlus

    Backache - MRI; Low back pain - MRI; Lumbar pain - MRI; Back strain - MRI; Lumbar radiculopathy - MRI; Herniated intervertebral disk - MRI; Prolapsed intervertebral disk - MRI; Slipped disk - MRI; Ruptured ...

  15. Comparison of dynamic contrast enhanced MRI and Doppler ultrasound in the pre-operative assessment of the portal venous system.

    PubMed

    Naik, K S; Ward, J; Irving, H C; Robinson, P J

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCEMR) with Doppler ultrasound (US) in the assessment of portal venous anatomy and to analyse the causes of discrepancy. Over a 1 year period, 97 patients undergoing assessment prior to hepatic surgery underwent imaging of the liver and portal venous system using US with colour and spectral Doppler and MRI with axial T2 weighted spin echo (SE) and coronal oblique T1 weighted rapid gradient echo (GRE) imaging before and immediately after bolus injection of Gd-DTPA (0.1 mmol kg-1). When the US and MRI findings were discrepant, the images were reviewed by two observers and compared with surgical findings. US and DCEMR were concordant in 90 patients (portal vein patent in 80, occluded in 10). In three patients with cirrhosis and gross ascites the portal vein was reported as occluded on US and patent on MRI; surgery confirmed the MRI findings. In one patient the portal vein was patient on US but not on MRI, but there was a 3 week interval between the examinations. In three patients the portal vein was patent on US, but MRI detected occlusion of intrahepatic portal vein branches in two, and encasement of an intrahepatic branch in the third case. Spontaneous splenorenal shunts were seen in 15 patients only on MRI; varices were seen in 39 patients on MRI and in 22 patients on US. Both US and DCEMR contribute to the pre-operative assessment of the portal venous system. MRI provides additional information over US in assessing intrahepatic portal branches and detecting varices and splenorenal shunts, and is recommended for all surgical candidates and in patients with abnormal portal venous anatomy and equivocal US findings.

  16. Shoulder MRI

    MedlinePlus

    ... magnetic field of the MRI unit, metal and electronic items are not allowed in the exam room. ... tell the technologist if you have medical or electronic devices in your body. These objects may interfere ...

  17. Knee MRI

    MedlinePlus

    ... magnetic field of the MRI unit, metal and electronic items are not allowed in the exam room. ... tell the technologist if you have medical or electronic devices in your body. These objects may interfere ...

  18. Shoulder MRI

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the shoulder uses a powerful magnetic field, radio waves and a computer to produce detailed pictures of ... scans, MRI does not utilize ionizing radiation. Instead, radio waves redirect alignment of hydrogen atoms that naturally exist ...

  19. Knee MRI

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the knee uses a powerful magnetic field, radio waves and a computer to produce detailed pictures of ... scans, MRI does not utilize ionizing radiation. Instead, radio waves redirect alignment of hydrogen atoms that naturally exist ...

  20. MRI renaissance.

    PubMed

    Hensley, S

    1997-12-01

    A few years ago, magnetic resonance imaging was healthcare's version of a foreign sports car-flashy, expensive and impractical. Now, after years in the doldrums, sales of MRI systems are roaring back. An aging fleet of MRI scanners due for replacement and a hearty increase in doctors' use of the versatile imaging tools are combining to fuel the surge in demand, vendors and customers say.

  1. Portable MRI

    SciTech Connect

    Espy, Michelle A.

    2012-06-29

    This project proposes to: (1) provide the power of MRI to situations where it presently isn't available; (2) perform the engineering required to move from lab to a functional prototype; and (3) leverage significant existing infrastructure and capability in ultra-low field MRI. The reasons for doing this: (1) MRI is the most powerful tool for imaging soft-tissue (e.g. brain); (2) Billions don't have access due to cost or safety issues; (3) metal will heat/move in high magnetic fields; (4) Millions of cases of traumatic brain injury in US alone; (5) even more of non-traumatic brain injury; (6) (e.g. stroke, infection, chemical exposure); (7) Need for early diagnostic; (8) 'Signature' wound of recent conflicts; (9) 22% of injuries; (10) Implications for post-traumatic stress disorder; and (11) chronic traumatic encephalopathy.

  2. MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging)

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Procedures Medical Imaging MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... usually given through an IV in the arm. MRI Research Programs at FDA Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) ...

  3. MRI Safety during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z MRI Safety During Pregnancy Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) Illness ... during the exam? Contrast material MRI during pregnancy Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) If you are pregnant and your doctor ...

  4. Interval arithmetic in calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bairbekova, Gaziza; Mazakov, Talgat; Djomartova, Sholpan; Nugmanova, Salima

    2016-10-01

    Interval arithmetic is the mathematical structure, which for real intervals defines operations analogous to ordinary arithmetic ones. This field of mathematics is also called interval analysis or interval calculations. The given math model is convenient for investigating various applied objects: the quantities, the approximate values of which are known; the quantities obtained during calculations, the values of which are not exact because of rounding errors; random quantities. As a whole, the idea of interval calculations is the use of intervals as basic data objects. In this paper, we considered the definition of interval mathematics, investigated its properties, proved a theorem, and showed the efficiency of the new interval arithmetic. Besides, we briefly reviewed the works devoted to interval analysis and observed basic tendencies of development of integral analysis and interval calculations.

  5. Battlefield MRI

    DOE PAGES

    Espy, Michelle

    2015-06-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging is the best method for non-invasive imaging of soft tissue anatomy, saving countless lives each year. It is regarded as the gold standard for diagnosis of mild to moderate traumatic brain injuries. Furthermore, conventional MRI relies on very high, fixed strength magnetic fields (> 1.5 T) with parts-per-million homogeneity, which requires very large and expensive magnets.

  6. Sodium MRI.

    PubMed

    Ouwerkerk, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    Sodium ((23)Na) imaging has a place somewhere between (1)H-MRI and MR spectroscopy (MRS). Like MRS it potentially provides information on metabolic processes, but only one single resonance of ionic (23)Na is observed. Therefore pulse sequences do not need to code for a chemical shift dimension, allowing (23)Na images to be obtained at high resolutions as compared to MRS. In this chapter the biological significance of sodium in the brain will be discussed, as well as methods for observing it with (23)Na-MRI. Many vital cellular processes and interactions in excitable tissues depend on the maintenance of a low intracellular and high extracellular sodium concentration. Healthy cells maintain this concentration gradient at the cost of energy. Leaky cell membranes or an impaired energy metabolism immediately leads to an increase in cytosolic total tissue sodium. This makes sodium a biomarker for ischemia, cancer, excessive tissue activation, or tissue damage as might be caused by ablation therapy. Special techniques allow quantification of tissue sodium for the monitoring of disease or therapy in longitudinal studies or preferential observation of the intracellular component of the tissue sodium. New methods and high-field magnet technology provide new opportunities for (23)Na-MRI in clinical and biomedical research.

  7. Understanding Trends in Kidney Function 1 Year after Kidney Transplant in the United States.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yihung; Tilea, Anca; Gillespie, Brenda; Shahinian, Vahakn; Banerjee, Tanushree; Grubbs, Vanessa; Powe, Neil; Rios-Burrows, Nilka; Pavkov, Meda; Saran, Rajiv

    2017-03-07

    Lower eGFR 1 year after kidney transplant is associated with shorter allograft and patient survival. We examined how practice changes in the past decade correlated with time trends in average eGFR at 1 year after kidney transplant in the United States in a cohort of 189,944 patients who received a kidney transplant between 2001 and 2013. We calculated the average eGFR at 1 year after transplant for the recipient cohort of each year using the appropriate Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation depending on the prevailing methodology of creatinine measurement, and used linear regression to model the effects of practice changes on the national post-transplant eGFR trend. Between the 2001-2005 period and the 2011-2013 period, average 1-year post-transplant eGFR remained essentially unchanged, with differences of 1.34 (95% confidence interval, 1.03 to 1.65) ml/min per 1.73 m(2) and 0.66 (95% confidence interval, 0.32 to 1.01) ml/min per 1.73 m(2) among deceased and living donor kidney transplant recipients, respectively. Over time, the mean age of recipients increased and more marginal organs were used; adjusting for these trends unmasked a larger temporal improvement in post-transplant eGFR. However, changes in immunosuppression practice had a positive effect on average post-transplant eGFR and balanced out the negative effect of recipient/donor characteristics. In conclusion, average 1-year post-transplant eGFR remained stable, despite increasingly unfavorable attributes in recipients and donors. With an aging ESRD population and continued organ shortage, preservation of average post-transplant eGFR will require sustained improvement in immunosuppression and other aspects of post-transplant care.

  8. Steroid hormone levels in pregnancy and 1 year postpartum using isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Soldin, Offie P.; Guo, Tiedong; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Tractenberg, Rochelle E.; Hilakivi-Clarke, Leena; Soldin, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To establish normal, trimester-specific reference intervals for serum 17β-estradiol, progesterone (P), 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, cortisol, 11-deoxycortisol, androstenedione, DHEA, and DHEAS, measured simultaneously using isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry. Design Sequential cohort study. Patient(s) Healthy women undergoing a normal pregnancy (age, 25–38 years; mean, 30 years) attending a prenatal well clinic at gestation weeks 12, 22, and 32 and approximately 1 year postpartum. Main Outcome Measure(s) Trimester-specific reference intervals of endogenous steroid hormones analyzed using an isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometer equipped with an atmospheric pressure photoionization source with deuterium-labeled internal standards. Result(s) Serum estradiol, P, 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, and 11-deoxycortisol increased throughout pregnancy; cortisol increased up to the second trimester and then remained steady, while androstenedione increased by 80 percent by gestation week 12, then remained constant. Serum DHEA-S decreased by 50% by the third trimester. Conclusion(s) Trimester-specific reference intervals are reported for eight serum steroids. The ratios of individual serum hormone concentrations during pregnancy relative to their 1-year postpartum concentrations illustrate the expected normal trends of changes in hormone concentrations during pregnancy. PMID:16169406

  9. Choking first aid - infant under 1 year - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100221.htm Choking first aid - infant under 1 year - series—Part 1 To ... Loss of consciousness if blockage is not cleared FIRST AID 1. DO NOT perform these steps if the ...

  10. Choking first aid - adult or child over 1 year - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100222.htm Choking first aid - adult or child over 1 year - series—Part ... occur in as little as 4 minutes. Rapid first aid for choking can save a life. The universal ...

  11. Musical intervals in speech.

    PubMed

    Ross, Deborah; Choi, Jonathan; Purves, Dale

    2007-06-05

    Throughout history and across cultures, humans have created music using pitch intervals that divide octaves into the 12 tones of the chromatic scale. Why these specific intervals in music are preferred, however, is not known. In the present study, we analyzed a database of individually spoken English vowel phones to examine the hypothesis that musical intervals arise from the relationships of the formants in speech spectra that determine the perceptions of distinct vowels. Expressed as ratios, the frequency relationships of the first two formants in vowel phones represent all 12 intervals of the chromatic scale. Were the formants to fall outside the ranges found in the human voice, their relationships would generate either a less complete or a more dilute representation of these specific intervals. These results imply that human preference for the intervals of the chromatic scale arises from experience with the way speech formants modulate laryngeal harmonics to create different phonemes.

  12. Programming with Intervals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsakis, Nicholas D.; Gross, Thomas R.

    Intervals are a new, higher-level primitive for parallel programming with which programmers directly construct the program schedule. Programs using intervals can be statically analyzed to ensure that they do not deadlock or contain data races. In this paper, we demonstrate the flexibility of intervals by showing how to use them to emulate common parallel control-flow constructs like barriers and signals, as well as higher-level patterns such as bounded-buffer producer-consumer. We have implemented intervals as a publicly available library for Java and Scala.

  13. Fathers' Depression Related to Positive and Negative Parenting Behaviors With 1-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Matthew M.; Freed, Gary L.; Clark, Sarah J.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations between depression in fathers of 1-year-old children and specific positive and negative parenting behaviors discussed by pediatric providers at well-child visits. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional secondary analysis by using interview data from 1746 fathers of 1-year-old children in the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study. Positive parenting behaviors included fathers' reports of playing games, singing songs, and reading stories to their children ≥3 days in a typical week. Negative parenting behavior included fathers' reports of spanking their 1-year-old children in the previous month. Depression was assessed by using the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview Short Form. Weighted bivariate and multivariate analyses of parenting behaviors were performed while controlling for demographics and paternal substance abuse. RESULTS: Overall, 7% of fathers had depression. In bivariate analyses, depressed fathers were more likely than nondepressed fathers to report spanking their 1-year-old children in the previous month (41% compared with 13%; P < .01). In multivariate analyses, depressed fathers were less likely to report reading to their children ≥3 days in a typical week (adjusted odds ratio: 0.38 [95% confidence interval: 0.15–0.98]) and much more likely to report spanking (adjusted odds ratio: 3.92 [95% confidence interval: 1.23–12.5]). Seventy-seven percent of depressed fathers reported talking to their children's doctor in the previous year. CONCLUSIONS: Paternal depression is associated with parenting behaviors relevant to well-child visits. Pediatric providers should consider screening fathers for depression, discussing specific parenting behaviors (eg, reading to children and appropriate discipline), and referring for treatment if appropriate. PMID:21402627

  14. Interval estimations in metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mana, G.; Palmisano, C.

    2014-06-01

    This paper investigates interval estimation for a measurand that is known to be positive. Both the Neyman and Bayesian procedures are considered and the difference between the two, not always perceived, is discussed in detail. A solution is proposed to a paradox originated by the frequentist assessment of the long-run success rate of Bayesian intervals.

  15. Direct interval volume visualization.

    PubMed

    Ament, Marco; Weiskopf, Daniel; Carr, Hamish

    2010-01-01

    We extend direct volume rendering with a unified model for generalized isosurfaces, also called interval volumes, allowing a wider spectrum of visual classification. We generalize the concept of scale-invariant opacity—typical for isosurface rendering—to semi-transparent interval volumes. Scale-invariant rendering is independent of physical space dimensions and therefore directly facilitates the analysis of data characteristics. Our model represents sharp isosurfaces as limits of interval volumes and combines them with features of direct volume rendering. Our objective is accurate rendering, guaranteeing that all isosurfaces and interval volumes are visualized in a crack-free way with correct spatial ordering. We achieve simultaneous direct and interval volume rendering by extending preintegration and explicit peak finding with data-driven splitting of ray integration and hybrid computation in physical and data domains. Our algorithm is suitable for efficient parallel processing for interactive applications as demonstrated by our CUDA implementation.

  16. The Safe Dates program: 1-year follow-up results.

    PubMed Central

    Foshee, V A; Bauman, K E; Greene, W F; Koch, G G; Linder, G F; MacDougall, J E

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: An earlier report described desirable 1-month follow-up effects of the Safe Dates program on psychological, physical, and sexual dating violence. Mediators of the program-behavior relationship also were identified. The present report describes the 1-year follow-up effects of the Safe Dates program. METHODS: Fourteen schools were in the randomized experiment. Data were gathered by questionnaires in schools before program activities and 1 year after the program ended. RESULTS: The short-term behavioral effects had disappeared at 1 year, but effects on mediating variables such as dating violence norms, conflict management skills, and awareness of community services for dating violence were maintained. CONCLUSIONS: The findings are considered in the context of why program effects might have decayed and the possible role of boosters for effect maintenance. PMID:11029999

  17. Breast Cancer in the Elderly: Is MRI Helpful?

    PubMed

    Pilewskie, Melissa; Hirsch, Allison; Eaton, Anne; Stempel, Michelle; Gemignani, Mary L

    2015-01-01

    Appropriate use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in elderly breast cancer (BC) patients remains unclear; we sought to identify the indications and implications of MRI use in our elderly BC population. Women 70 years of age or older at first BC diagnosis with an MRI performed at our institution either perioperatively or in follow-up were included from a prospectively maintained database from 2000 to 2010. Univariate logistic regression was used to test associations with disease identified by MRI only (additional ipsilateral, contralateral, or new cancer) following perioperative MRI. 305 BCs were imaged in 286 patients. 133 were imaged with MRI in the perioperative setting alone, 88 had only follow-up MRIs after BC treatment, and 65 had both. Indications for perioperative MRI include: extent of disease evaluation (181; 91%); occult primary (10; 5%); high-risk screening (5; 3%); and abnormal physical exam with negative conventional imaging (2; 1%). Disease identified by MRI only for occult primary cases was 4/10 (40%; 95% confidence interval: 12.2-73.8%) and 14/181 (7.7%; 95% confidence interval: 4.3-12.6%) for perioperative MRIs performed for extent of disease evaluation. Analysis of imaging and tumor characteristics failed to find significant predictors of disease identified by MRI only. A total of 369 post-treatment follow-up MRIs were performed in 148 patients with a median of 2 MRIs per patient (range 1-8), with seven cases of disease identified by MRI only (1.9%; 95% confidence interval: 0.8-3.9%). MRI had the greatest benefit in women presenting with an occult primary cancer and minimal additional benefit in elderly patients with BC undergoing MRI imaging for extent of disease evaluation or in post-treatment surveillance.

  18. Otitis Media and Language Development at 1 Year of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Ina F.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Fifteen 1-year-olds without otitis media were compared to 12 babies who were otitis positive. No significant differences were detected on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development or the Sequenced Inventory of Communication Development (SICD) Receptive scale. However, the otitis-positive group exhibited lower SICD Expressive scores than the…

  19. Anxiety Sensitivity and Panic Attacks: A 1-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Wen; Zinbarg, Richard E.

    2007-01-01

    The hypothesis that anxiety sensitivity (AS) is a risk factor for panic genesis has obtained compelling support, but the clinical/practical importance of AS in panic genesis has been questioned. In addition, the association between panic experience and AS increase has not been clearly demonstrated. Through this 1-year longitudinal study among…

  20. Gait Asymmetries Persist 1 Year After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    White, Kathleen; Logerstedt, David; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Background: After anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR), motivation to return to previous levels of activity is high. Very few studies have used return-to-activity criteria to determine when to permit athletic play. Return-to-activity measures objectively evaluate functional limb symmetry; however, previous biomechanical studies have found gait deviations in these individuals that persist up to 2 years after surgery. Purpose: To evaluate gait biomechanics in a specific cohort of ACL patients 1 year after surgery and retrospectively compare individuals who pass return-to-activity criteria 6 months after surgery with those who fail. Study Design: Prospective analysis. Methods: A total of 40 athletes who participated regularly (>50 h/y) in cutting, jumping, and pivoting activities and who sustained an isolated, unilateral ACL rupture were included in this study. All participants underwent reconstruction by the same surgeon and received individualized postoperative rehabilitation. Performance-based and self-report data were measured 6 months after surgery to assess readiness to return to activity (90% outcome required to pass); 20 subjects passed return-to-activity criteria and 20 subjects did not. Motion analysis was performed 1 year after surgery, and knee flexion angles, moments, and excursions were measured during gait and evaluated for all subjects. Results: There was no limb × group interaction or effect of group for all measures. Decreased knee measures were seen on the involved limb compared with the uninvolved limb for all subjects, and failed subjects demonstrated larger differences between limbs. Conclusion: Patients continued to demonstrate biomechanical limb asymmetries 1 year after ACLR, regardless of performance-based measures at 6 months. Early return to activity did not ensure limb symmetry at 1 year. Clinical Relevance: Gait asymmetries were seen in all subjects 1 year after surgery regardless of status at 6 months. Potentially prolonging

  1. Pulmonary toxicity of cyclophosphamide: a 1-year study

    SciTech Connect

    Morse, C.C.; Sigler, C.; Lock, S.; Hakkinen, P.J.; Haschek, W.M.; Witschi, H.P.

    1985-01-01

    The development of cyclophosphamide-induced pulmonary lesions over a 1-year period was studied in mice. Male BALB/c mice received a single intraperitoneal injection of 100 mg/kg of cyclophosphamide. Within 3 weeks there were scattered foci of intraalveolar foamy macrophages. With time, these foci increased in size and, 1 year later, occupied large areas in all lung lobes. There was also diffuse interstitial fibrosis. Chemical determination done 3, 12, 24, and 52 weeks after cyclophosphamide showed that lungs of animals treated with cyclophosphamide had significantly more hydroxyproline per lung than controls. One year after cyclophosphamide pressure - volume curves measured in vivo were shifted down and to the right and total lung volumes were decreased. A single injection of cyclophosphamide produced an irreversible and progressive pulmonary lesion. 16 references, 5 figures, 3 tables.

  2. Secondary preventive medication persistence and adherence 1 year after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Olson, D.M.; Zhao, X.; Pan, W.; Zimmer, L.O.; Goldstein, L.B.; Alberts, M.J.; Fagan, S.C.; Fonarow, G.C.; Johnston, S.C.; Kidwell, C.; LaBresh, K.A.; Ovbiagele, B.; Schwamm, L.; Peterson, E.D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Data on long-term use of secondary prevention medications following stroke are limited. The Adherence eValuation After Ischemic stroke–Longitudinal (AVAIL) Registry assessed patient, provider, and system-level factors influencing continuation of prevention medications for 1 year following stroke hospitalization discharge. Methods: Patients with ischemic stroke or TIA discharged from 106 hospitals participating in the American Heart Association Get With The Guidelines–Stroke program were surveyed to determine their use of warfarin, antiplatelet, antihypertensive, lipid-lowering, and diabetes medications from discharge to 12 months. Reasons for stopping medications were ascertained. Persistence was defined as continuation of all secondary preventive medications prescribed at hospital discharge, and adherence as continuation of prescribed medications except those stopped according to health care provider instructions. Results: Of the 2,880 patients enrolled in AVAIL, 88.4% (2,457 patients) completed 1-year interviews. Of these, 65.9% were regimen persistent and 86.6% were regimen adherent. Independent predictors of 1-year medication persistence included fewer medications prescribed at discharge, having an adequate income, having an appointment with a primary care provider, and greater understanding of why medications were prescribed and their side effects. Independent predictors of adherence were similar to those for persistence. Conclusions: Although up to one-third of stroke patients discontinued one or more secondary prevention medications within 1 year of hospital discharge, self-discontinuation of these medications is uncommon. Several potentially modifiable patient, provider, and system-level factors associated with persistence and adherence may be targets for future interventions. PMID:21900638

  3. Sinus MRI scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... sinuses. The test is noninvasive. MRI uses powerful magnets and radio waves instead of radiation. Signals from ... in the eyes. Because the MRI contains a magnet, metal-containing objects such as pens, pocketknives, and ...

  4. Arm MRI scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... arm MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scan uses strong magnets to create pictures of the upper and lower ... in your eyes) Because the MRI contains strong magnets, metal objects are not allowed into the room ...

  5. MRI Safety during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... 20 to 40 minutes. top of page Contrast material For some MRI exams, a contrast material called gadolinium will need to be injected into a vein in the arm. While contrast material sometimes improves the MRI images, during pregnancy the ...

  6. Acquired childhood aphasia. Outcome 1 year after onset.

    PubMed

    Loonen, M C; van Dongen, H R

    1990-12-01

    The effects of the variables age at onset, cause, severity and bilaterality of lesion, and type of aphasia on course and outcome were investigated in a group of 28 aphasic children. Analysis of spontaneous speech and tests of auditory verbal comprehension were used to determine the presence of aphasia. The severity of the cerebral lesion was assessed using a rating scale for computed tomographic scans. Most of the children had not recovered completely 1 year after onset. Recovery was significantly different according to etiological categories. Complete recovery was seen in the majority of traumatic cases.

  7. Shock-wave therapy for tennis and golfer's elbow--1 year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Krischek, O; Hopf, C; Nafe, B; Rompe, J D

    1999-01-01

    Thirty patients with chronic medial epicondylitis were treated with low-energy shock waves. They received 500 impulses of 0.08 mJ/mm2 three times at weekly intervals. At 1 year follow-up examinations were performed. According to the Verhaar criteria, only seven patients reached excellent or good results. In eight cases a fair outcome was recorded, and in 14 patients the outcome was poor. Only six patients were satisfied with the treatment. The average relief of pain was 32%. These data were significantly worse than for identically treated patients with chronic tennis elbow. Thus, the question arises as to whether extracorporal shock-wave therapy is indicated in medial epicondylitis.

  8. Alternative diagnoses at paediatric appendicitis MRI.

    PubMed

    Moore, M M; Kulaylat, A N; Brian, J M; Khaku, A; Hulse, M A; Engbrecht, B W; Methratta, S T; Boal, D K B

    2015-08-01

    As the utilization of MRI in the assessment for paediatric appendicitis increases in clinical practice, it is important to recognize alternative diagnoses as the cause of abdominal pain. The purpose of this review is to share our institution's experience using MRI in the evaluation of 510 paediatric patients presenting with suspected appendicitis over a 30 month interval (July 2011 to December 2013). An alternative diagnosis was documented in 98/510 (19.2%) patients; adnexal pathology (6.3%, n = 32), enteritis-colitis (6.3%, n = 32), and mesenteric adenitis (2.2%, n = 11) comprised the majority of cases. These common entities and other less frequent illustrative cases obtained during our overall institutional experience with MRI for suspected appendicitis are reviewed.

  9. Accelerated Gastric Emptying but No Carbohydrate Malabsorption 1 Year After Gastric Bypass Surgery (GBP)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Gary; Agenor, Keesandra; Pizot, Justine; Kotler, Donald P.; Harel, Yaniv; Van Der Schueren, Bart J.; Quercia, Iliana; McGinty, James

    2013-01-01

    Background Following gastric bypass surgery (GBP), there is a post-prandial rise of incretin and satiety gut peptides. The mechanisms of enhanced incretin release in response to nutrients after GBP is not elucidated and may be in relation to altered nutrient transit time and/or malabsorption. Methods Seven morbidly obese subjects (BMI=44.5±2.8 kg/m2) were studied before and 1 year after GBP with a d-xylose test. After ingestion of 25 g of d-xylose in 200 mL of non-carbonated water, blood samples were collected at frequent time intervals to determine gastric emptying (time to appearance of d-xylose) and carbohydrate absorption using standard criteria. Results One year after GBP, subjects lost 45.0±9.7 kg and had a BMI of 27.1±4.7 kg/m2. Gastric emptying was more rapid after GBP. The mean time to appearance of d-xylose in serum decreased from 18.6±6.9 min prior to GBP to 7.9±2.7 min after GBP (p=0.006). There was no significant difference in absorption before (serum d-xylose concentrations=35.6±12.6 mg/dL at 60 min and 33.9±9.1 mg/dL at 180 min) or 1 year after GBP (serum d-xylose=31.5± 18.1 mg/dL at 60 min and 27.2±11.9 mg/dL at 180 min). Conclusions These data confirm the acceleration of gastric emptying for liquid and the absence of carbohydrate malabsorption 1 year after GBP. Rapid gastric emptying may play a role in incretin response after GBP and the resulting improved glucose homeostasis. PMID:22527599

  10. Serial magnetic resonance imaging of global and regional left ventricular remodeling during 1 year after acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, A P; Houlind, K; Pedersen, E M; Nielsen, T T; Egeblad, H

    2001-01-01

    Biplane long-axis cine MRI was performed in 51 patients 1, 13, 26, and 52 weeks after their first AMI. LV mass index (LVMI) was significantly increased 1 week after AMI (84.3 +/- 16.9 vs. 68.1 +/- 11.4 g/m(2) controls, n = 48, p < 0.001), presumably owing to edema of the infarcted myocardium. Six months after AMI, LVMI decreased to 76.5 +/- 16.4 g/m(2), but had again augmented after 1 year (81.8 +/- 17.3 g/m(2), p < 0.05), suggesting late, compensatory left ventricular hypertrophy. In patients treated with primary percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, LVMI decreased 5% over 1 year, while LVMI increased 10% in patients receiving thrombolysis (p < 0.05). In the entire population, the global increase in LVMI 1 year after AMI seemed to reflect global cavity dilatation with unchanged thickness of the vital myocardium. In conclusion, in patients receiving contemporary treatment, LV remodeling only partially complied with the classical patho-anatomical concept.

  11. Varicella paediatric hospitalisations in Belgium: a 1-year national survey

    PubMed Central

    Blumental, Sophie; Sabbe, Martine; Lepage, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Background Varicella universal vaccination (UV) has been implemented in many countries for several years. Nevertheless, varicella UV remains debated in Europe and few data are available on the real burden of infection. We assessed the burden of varicella in Belgium through analysis of hospitalised cases during a 1-year period. Methods Data on children admitted to hospital with varicella were collected through a national network from November 2011 to October 2012. Inclusion criteria were either acute varicella or related complications up to 3 weeks after the rash. Results Participation of 101 hospitals was obtained, covering 97.7% of the total paediatric beds in Belgium. 552 children were included with a median age of 2.1 years. Incidence of paediatric varicella hospitalisations reached 29.5/105 person-years, with the highest impact among those 0–4 years old (global incidence and odds of hospitalisation: 79/105 person-years and 1.6/100 varicella cases, respectively). Only 14% (79/552) of the cohort had an underlying chronic condition. 65% (357/552) of children had ≥1 complication justifying their admission, 49% were bacterial superinfections and 10% neurological disorders. Only a quarter of children (141/552) received acyclovir. Incidence of complicated hospitalised cases was 19/105 person-years. Paediatric intensive care unit admission and surgery were required in 4% and 3% of hospitalised cases, respectively. Mortality among Belgian paediatric population was 0.5/106 and fatality ratio 0.2% among our cohort. Conclusions Varicella demonstrated a substantial burden of disease in Belgian children, especially among the youngest. Our thorough nationwide study, run in a country without varicella UV, offers data to support varicella UV in Belgium. PMID:26130380

  12. Prognosis of stroke in the south of Greece: 1 year mortality, functional outcome and its determinants: the Arcadia Stroke Registry

    PubMed Central

    Vemmos, K; Bots, M; Tsibouris, P; Zis, V; Takis, C; Grobbee, D; Stamatelopoulos, S

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—For Greece, data on incidence of stroke, type of stroke, and prognosis of stroke is limited. Recently, results on incidence of stroke were published. Here 1 year mortality, functional outcome after a first ever stroke, and determinants of the prognosis are described.
METHODS—A population based registry was established in the Arcadia area, located in eastern central Peloponessos in southern Greece. Between 1 November 1993 and 31 October 1995, 555 patients with a first ever stroke were identified using information from death certificates, hospital records, public health centres and general practitioners. Extensive information on cardiovascular risk factors and stroke characteristics was obtained. After 1 year a modified Rankin score was determined in all surviving patients.
RESULTS—After 1 year of follow up, 204 (36.8%) patients died. The probability of survival 1 year after stroke was higher for cerebral infarction than for intracerebral haemorrhage; 67.8% (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 64-72) and 46.4% (35-57), respectively. Of the survivors, 68.9% had either no symptoms or symptoms that would not interfere with their capacity to look after themselves (Rankin score 0 to 2). Increasing age and low Glasgow coma scale score were the most powerful predictors of death within 1 year (p<0.01), whereas increasing age, atrial fibrillation, and low Glasgow coma scale score were the most important predictors of functional outcome 1 year after a stroke (p<0.01).
CONCLUSIONS—One year mortality from stroke in Greece is similar to that of other industrialised countries. The most important factors that affect the prognosis of a patient with a first ever stroke are increasing age, stroke severity, and atrial fibrillation.

 PMID:11032610

  13. Interval hypoxic training.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, L

    2001-01-01

    Interval hypoxic training (IHT) is a technique developed in the former Soviet Union, that consists of repeated exposures to 5-7 minutes of steady or progressive hypoxia, interrupted by equal periods of recovery. It has been proposed for training in sports, to acclimatize to high altitude, and to treat a variety of clinical conditions, spanning from coronary heart disease to Cesarean delivery. Some of these results may originate by the different effects of continuous vs. intermittent hypoxia (IH), which can be obtained by manipulating the repetition rate, the duration and the intensity of the hypoxic stimulus. The present article will attempt to examine some of the effects of IH, and, whenever possible, compare them to those of typical IHT. IH can modify oxygen transport and energy utilization, alter respiratory and blood pressure control mechanisms, induce permanent modifications in the cardiovascular system. IHT increases the hypoxic ventilatory response, increase red blood cell count and increase aerobic capacity. Some of these effects might be potentially beneficial in specific physiologic or pathologic conditions. At this stage, this technique appears interesting for its possible applications, but still largely to be explored for its mechanisms, potentials and limitations.

  14. Barriers to Care and 1-Year Mortality Among Newly Diagnosed HIV-Infected People in Durban, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Sharon M.; Giddy, Janet; Bogart, Laura M.; Chaisson, Christine E.; Ross, Douglas; Flash, Moses J. E.; Govender, Tessa; Walensky, Rochelle P.; Freedberg, Kenneth A.; Losina, Elena

    2017-01-01

    Background: Prompt entry into HIV care is often hindered by personal and structural barriers. Our objective was to evaluate the impact of self-perceived barriers to health care on 1-year mortality among newly diagnosed HIV-infected individuals in Durban, South Africa. Methods: Before HIV testing at 4 outpatient sites, adults (≥18 years) were surveyed regarding perceived barriers to care including (1) service delivery, (2) financial, (3) personal health perception, (4) logistical, and (5) structural. We assessed deaths via phone calls and the South African National Population Register. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazards models to determine the association between number of perceived barriers and death within 1 year. Results: One thousand eight hundred ninety-nine HIV-infected participants enrolled. Median age was 33 years (interquartile range: 27–41 years), 49% were females, and median CD4 count was 192/μL (interquartile range: 72–346/μL). One thousand fifty-seven participants (56%) reported no, 370 (20%) reported 1–3, and 460 (24%) reported >3 barriers to care. By 1 year, 250 [13%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 12% to 15%] participants died. Adjusting for age, sex, education, baseline CD4 count, distance to clinic, and tuberculosis status, participants with 1–3 barriers (adjusted hazard ratio: 1.49, 95% CI: 1.06 to 2.08) and >3 barriers (adjusted hazard ratio: 1.81, 95% CI: 1.35 to 2.43) had higher 1-year mortality risk compared with those without barriers. Conclusions: HIV-infected individuals in South Africa who reported perceived barriers to medical care at diagnosis were more likely to die within 1 year. Targeted structural interventions, such as extended clinic hours, travel vouchers, and streamlined clinic operations, may improve linkage to care and antiretroviral therapy initiation for these people. PMID:28060226

  15. MRI findings in aphasic status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Toledo, Manuel; Munuera, Josep; Sueiras, Maria; Rovira, Rosa; Alvarez-Sabín, José; Rovira, Alex

    2008-08-01

    Ictal-MRI studies including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI), and MR-angiography (MRA) in patients with aphasic status epilepticus (ASE) are lacking. In this report, we aim to describe the consequences of the ASE on DWIs and its impact on cerebral circulation. We retrospectively studied eight patients with ASE confirmed by ictal-EEG, who underwent ictal-MRI shortly after well-documented onset (mean time delay 3 h). ASE consisted in fluctuating aphasia, mostly associated with other subtle contralateral neurological signs such as hemiparesia, hemianopia, or slight clonic jerks. In MRI, six patients showed cortical temporoparietal hyperintensity in DWI and four of them had also ipsilateral pulvinar lesions. Five patients showed close spatial hyperperfusion areas matching the DWI lesions and an enhanced blow flow in the middle cerebral artery. Parenchymal lesions and hemodynamic abnormalities were not associated with seizure duration or severity in any case. The resolution of DWI lesions at follow-up MRI depended on the length of the MRIs interval. In patients with ASE, lesions on DWI in the temporo-parietal cortex and pulvinar nucleus combined with local hyperperfusion can be observed, even when they appear distant from the epileptic focus or the language areas.

  16. Minimax confidence intervals in geomagnetism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stark, Philip B.

    1992-01-01

    The present paper uses theory of Donoho (1989) to find lower bounds on the lengths of optimally short fixed-length confidence intervals (minimax confidence intervals) for Gauss coefficients of the field of degree 1-12 using the heat flow constraint. The bounds on optimal minimax intervals are about 40 percent shorter than Backus' intervals: no procedure for producing fixed-length confidence intervals, linear or nonlinear, can give intervals shorter than about 60 percent the length of Backus' in this problem. While both methods rigorously account for the fact that core field models are infinite-dimensional, the application of the techniques to the geomagnetic problem involves approximations and counterfactual assumptions about the data errors, and so these results are likely to be extremely optimistic estimates of the actual uncertainty in Gauss coefficients.

  17. Lumbar MRI scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... may need a lumbar MRI if you have: Low back pain that does not get better after treatment Leg ... spine Injury or trauma to the lower spine Low back pain and a history or signs of cancer Multiple ...

  18. MRI of the Breast

    MedlinePlus

    ... magnetic field of the MRI unit, metal and electronic items are not allowed in the exam room. ... tell the technologist if you have medical or electronic devices in your body. These objects may interfere ...

  19. MRI of the Prostate

    MedlinePlus

    ... magnetic field of the MRI unit, metal and electronic items are not allowed in the exam room. ... tell the technologist if you have medical or electronic devices in your body. These objects may interfere ...

  20. MRI of the Chest

    MedlinePlus

    ... magnetic field of the MRI unit, metal and electronic items are not allowed in the exam room. ... tell the technologist if you have medical or electronic devices in your body. These objects may interfere ...

  1. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

    MedlinePlus

    ... problems (in men)Path to improved healthIf your primary care doctor determines that you should have an MRI, ... may not apply to everyone. Talk to your family doctor to find out if this information applies to ...

  2. MRI of the Breast

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the breast uses a powerful magnetic field, radio waves and a computer to produce detailed pictures of ... scans, MRI does not utilize ionizing radiation. Instead, radio waves redirect alignment of hydrogen atoms that naturally exist ...

  3. Cervical MRI scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... magnetic resonance imaging) scan uses energy from strong magnets to create pictures of the part of the ... in your eyes) Because the MRI contains strong magnets, metal objects are not allowed into the room ...

  4. Leg MRI scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... resonance imaging) scan of the leg uses strong magnets to create pictures of the leg. This may ... in your eyes) Because the MRI contains strong magnets, metal objects are not allowed into the room ...

  5. Shoulder MRI scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... an imaging test that uses energy from powerful magnets and to create pictures of the shoulder area. ... in your eyes) Because the MRI contains strong magnets, metal objects are not allowed in the room ...

  6. Molecular fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Bartelle, Benjamin B.; Barandov, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Comprehensive analysis of brain function depends on understanding the dynamics of diverse neural signaling processes over large tissue volumes in intact animals and humans. Most existing approaches to measuring brain signaling suffer from limited tissue penetration, poor resolution, or lack of specificity for well-defined neural events. Here we discuss a new brain activity mapping method that overcomes some of these problems by combining MRI with contrast agents sensitive to neural signaling. The goal of this “molecular fMRI” approach is to permit noninvasive whole-brain neuroimaging with specificity and resolution approaching current optical neuroimaging methods. In this article, we describe the context and need for molecular fMRI as well as the state of the technology today. We explain how major types of MRI probes work and how they can be sensitized to neurobiological processes, such as neurotransmitter release, calcium signaling, and gene expression changes. We comment both on past work in the field and on challenges and promising avenues for future development. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Brain researchers currently have a choice between measuring neural activity using cellular-level recording techniques, such as electrophysiology and optical imaging, or whole-brain imaging methods, such as fMRI. Cellular level methods are precise but only address a small portion of mammalian brains; on the other hand, whole-brain neuroimaging techniques provide very little specificity for neural pathways or signaling components of interest. The molecular fMRI techniques we discuss have particular potential to combine the specificity of cellular-level measurements with the noninvasive whole-brain coverage of fMRI. On the other hand, molecular fMRI is only just getting off the ground. This article aims to offer a snapshot of the status and future prospects for development of molecular fMRI techniques. PMID:27076413

  7. Temporal binding of interval markers

    PubMed Central

    Derichs, Christina; Zimmermann, Eckart

    2016-01-01

    How we estimate the passage of time is an unsolved mystery in neuroscience. Illusions of subjective time provide an experimental access to this question. Here we show that time compression and expansion of visually marked intervals result from a binding of temporal interval markers. Interval markers whose onset signals were artificially weakened by briefly flashing a whole-field mask were bound in time towards markers with a strong onset signal. We explain temporal compression as the consequence of summing response distributions of weak and strong onset signals. Crucially, temporal binding occurred irrespective of the temporal order of weak and strong onset markers, thus ruling out processing latencies as an explanation for changes in interval duration judgments. If both interval markers were presented together with a mask or the mask was shown in the temporal interval center, no compression occurred. In a sequence of two intervals, masking the middle marker led to time compression for the first and time expansion for the second interval. All these results are consistent with a model view of temporal binding that serves a functional role by reducing uncertainty in the final estimate of interval duration. PMID:27958311

  8. Effect Sizes, Confidence Intervals, and Confidence Intervals for Effect Sizes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    The present article provides a primer on (a) effect sizes, (b) confidence intervals, and (c) confidence intervals for effect sizes. Additionally, various admonitions for reformed statistical practice are presented. For example, a very important implication of the realization that there are dozens of effect size statistics is that "authors must…

  9. MRI-guided brachytherapy

    PubMed Central

    Tanderup, Kari; Viswanathan, Akila; Kirisits, Christian; Frank, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    The application of MRI-guided brachytherapy has demonstrated significant growth during the last two decades. Clinical improvements in cervix cancer outcomes have been linked to the application of repeated MRI for identification of residual tumor volumes during radiotherapy. This has changed clinical practice in the direction of individualized dose administration, and mounting evidence of improved clinical outcome with regard to local control, overall survival as well as morbidity. MRI-guided prostate HDR and LDR brachytherapy has improved the accuracy of target and organs-at-risk (OAR) delineation, and the potential exists for improved dose prescription and reporting for the prostate gland and organs at risk. Furthermore, MRI-guided prostate brachytherapy has significant potential to identify prostate subvolumes and dominant lesions to allow for dose administration reflecting the differential risk of recurrence. MRI-guided brachytherapy involves advanced imaging, target concepts, and dose planning. The key issue for safe dissemination and implementation of high quality MRI-guided brachytherapy is establishment of qualified multidisciplinary teams and strategies for training and education. PMID:24931089

  10. Optogenetic Functional MRI

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Peter; Fang, Zhongnan; Liu, Jia; Lee, Jin Hyung

    2016-01-01

    The investigation of the functional connectivity of precise neural circuits across the entire intact brain can be achieved through optogenetic functional magnetic resonance imaging (ofMRI), which is a novel technique that combines the relatively high spatial resolution of high-field fMRI with the precision of optogenetic stimulation. Fiber optics that enable delivery of specific wavelengths of light deep into the brain in vivo are implanted into regions of interest in order to specifically stimulate targeted cell types that have been genetically induced to express light-sensitive trans-membrane conductance channels, called opsins. fMRI is used to provide a non-invasive method of determining the brain's global dynamic response to optogenetic stimulation of specific neural circuits through measurement of the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal, which provides an indirect measurement of neuronal activity. This protocol describes the construction of fiber optic implants, the implantation surgeries, the imaging with photostimulation and the data analysis required to successfully perform ofMRI. In summary, the precise stimulation and whole-brain monitoring ability of ofMRI are crucial factors in making ofMRI a powerful tool for the study of the connectomics of the brain in both healthy and diseased states. PMID:27167840

  11. Music Therapy Using Singing Training Improves Psychomotor Speed in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease: A Neuropsychological and fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Satoh, Masayuki; Yuba, Toru; Tabei, Ken-ichi; Okubo, Yukari; Kida, Hirotaka; Sakuma, Hajime; Tomimoto, Hidekazu

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims To investigate the effect of singing training on the cognitive function in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Methods Ten AD patients (mean age 78.1 years) participated in music therapy using singing training once a week for 6 months (music therapy group). Each session was performed with professional musicians using karaoke and a unique voice training method (the YUBA Method). Before and after the intervention period, each patient was assessed by neuropsychological batteries, and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed while the patients sang familiar songs with a karaoke device. As the control group, another 10 AD patients were recruited (mean age 77.0 years), and neuropsychological assessments were performed twice with an interval of 6 months. Results In the music therapy group, the time for completion of the Japanese Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices was significantly reduced (p = 0.026), and the results obtained from interviewing the patients' caregivers revealed a significant decrease in the Neuropsychiatric Inventory score (p = 0.042) and a prolongation of the patients' sleep time (p = 0.039). The fMRI study revealed increased activity in the right angular gyrus and the left lingual gyrus in the before-minus-after subtraction analysis of the music therapy intervention. Conclusion Music therapy intervention using singing training may be useful for dementia patients by improving the neural efficacy of cognitive processing. PMID:26483829

  12. Biparametric versus multiparametric MRI in the diagnosis of prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Logager, Vibeke; Baslev, Ingerd; Møller, Jakob M; Hansen, Rasmus Hvass; Thomsen, Henrik S

    2016-01-01

    Background Since multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mp-MRI) of the prostate exceeds 30 min, minimizing the evaluation time of significant (Gleason scores > 6) prostate cancer (PCa) would be beneficial. A reduced protocol might be sufficient for the diagnosis. Purpose To study whether a short unenhanced biparametric MRI (bp-MRI) matches mp-MRI in detecting significant PCa. Material and Methods A total of 204 men (median age, 65 years; mean ± SD, 64.1; range 45–75 years; median serum PSA level, 14 ng/mL; range, 2.2–120 ng/mL; median prostate volume, 60 mL; range, 23–263 mL) fulfilled the criteria for being enrolled. They underwent mp-MRI and prostate biopsy from January through June 2014. Of the included patients, 9.3% underwent prostatectomy, 90.7% had TRUS-bx, and 10.8 had MRI-targeted TRUS-bx. Two radiologists separately assessed the mp-MRI examination (T2-weighted [T2W] imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging [DWI], apparent diffusion coefficient map [ADC-map] and dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging [DCE]). Two months later, the bp-MRI version (T2W imaging, DWI, and ADC-map) was evaluated. Results Reader 1: Assessing mp-MRI: 0 false negatives, sensitivity of 1, and specificity 0.04. Assessing bp-MRI: four false negatives, sensitivity of 0.94, and specificity 0.15. Reader 2: Assessing mp-MRI: five false negatives, sensitivity of 0.93, and specificity 0.16. Assessing bp-MRI: three false negatives, sensitivity of 0.96, and specificity 0.15. Intra-reader agreement Cohen’s Kappa (κ) was 0.87 for reader 1 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.83–0.92) and 0.84 for reader 2 (95% CI 0.78–0.89). Conclusion Bp-MRI is as good as mp-MRI at detecting PCa. A large prospective study seems to be strongly warranted. PMID:27583170

  13. Automatic Error Analysis Using Intervals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothwell, E. J.; Cloud, M. J.

    2012-01-01

    A technique for automatic error analysis using interval mathematics is introduced. A comparison to standard error propagation methods shows that in cases involving complicated formulas, the interval approach gives comparable error estimates with much less effort. Several examples are considered, and numerical errors are computed using the INTLAB…

  14. Children's Discrimination of Melodic Intervals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schellenberg, E. Glenn; Trehub, Sandra E.

    1996-01-01

    Adults and children listened to tone sequences and were required to detect changes either from intervals with simple frequency ratios to intervals with complex ratios or vice versa. Adults performed better on changes from simple to complex ratios than on the reverse changes. Similar performance was observed for 6-year olds who had never taken…

  15. Interval Recognition in Minimal Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shatzkin, Merton

    1984-01-01

    Music majors were asked to identify interval when it was either preceded or followed by a tone moving in the same direction. Difficulties in interval recognition in context appear to be an effect not just of placement within the context or of tonality, but of particular combinations of these aspects. (RM)

  16. Teaching Confidence Intervals Using Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagtvedt, Reidar; Jones, Gregory Todd; Jones, Kari

    2008-01-01

    Confidence intervals are difficult to teach, in part because most students appear to believe they understand how to interpret them intuitively. They rarely do. To help them abandon their misconception and achieve understanding, we have developed a simulation tool that encourages experimentation with multiple confidence intervals derived from the…

  17. Explorations in Statistics: Confidence Intervals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran-Everett, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This third installment of "Explorations in Statistics" investigates confidence intervals. A confidence interval is a range that we expect, with some level of confidence, to include the true value of a population parameter…

  18. VARIABLE TIME-INTERVAL GENERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Gross, J.E.

    1959-10-31

    This patent relates to a pulse generator and more particularly to a time interval generator wherein the time interval between pulses is precisely determined. The variable time generator comprises two oscillators with one having a variable frequency output and the other a fixed frequency output. A frequency divider is connected to the variable oscillator for dividing its frequency by a selected factor and a counter is used for counting the periods of the fixed oscillator occurring during a cycle of the divided frequency of the variable oscillator. This defines the period of the variable oscillator in terms of that of the fixed oscillator. A circuit is provided for selecting as a time interval a predetermined number of periods of the variable oscillator. The output of the generator consists of a first pulse produced by a trigger circuit at the start of the time interval and a second pulse marking the end of the time interval produced by the same trigger circuit.

  19. The Role of Preoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the Assessment and Surgical Treatment of Interval and Screen-Detected Breast Cancer in Older Women.

    PubMed

    Goodrich, Martha E; Weiss, Julie; Onega, Tracy; Balch, Steve L; Buist, Diana S M; Kerlikowske, Karla; Henderson, Louise M; Hubbard, Rebecca A

    2016-11-01

    We describe the relationship between preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the utilization of additional imaging, biopsy, and primary surgical treatment for subgroups of women with interval versus screen-detected breast cancer. We determined the proportion of women receiving additional breast imaging or biopsy and type of primary surgical treatment, stratified by use of preoperative MRI, separately for both groups. Using Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BCSC) data, we identified a cohort of women age 66 and older with an interval or screen-detected breast cancer diagnosis between 2005 and 2010. Using logistic regression, we explored associations between primary surgical treatment type and preoperative MRI use for interval and screen-detected cancers. There were 204 women with an interval cancer and 1,254 with a screen-detected cancer. The interval cancer group was more likely to receive preoperative MRI (21% versus 13%). In both groups, women receiving MRI were more likely to receive additional imaging and/or biopsy. Receipt of MRI was not associated with increased odds of mastectomy (OR = 0.99, 95% CI: 0.67-1.50), while interval cancer diagnosis was associated with significantly higher odds of mastectomy (OR = 1.64, 95% CI: 1.11-2.42). Older women with interval cancer were more likely than women with a screen-detected cancer to have preoperative MRI, however, those with an interval cancer had 64% higher odds of mastectomy regardless of receipt of MRI. Given women with interval cancer are reported to have a worse prognosis, more research is needed to understand effectiveness of imaging modalities and treatment consequences within this group.

  20. Multidimensional diffusion MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topgaard, Daniel

    2017-02-01

    Principles from multidimensional NMR spectroscopy, and in particular solid-state NMR, have recently been transferred to the field of diffusion MRI, offering non-invasive characterization of heterogeneous anisotropic materials, such as the human brain, at an unprecedented level of detail. Here we revisit the basic physics of solid-state NMR and diffusion MRI to pinpoint the origin of the somewhat unexpected analogy between the two fields, and provide an overview of current diffusion MRI acquisition protocols and data analysis methods to quantify the composition of heterogeneous materials in terms of diffusion tensor distributions with size, shape, and orientation dimensions. While the most advanced methods allow estimation of the complete multidimensional distributions, simpler methods focus on various projections onto lower-dimensional spaces as well as determination of means and variances rather than actual distributions. Even the less advanced methods provide simple and intuitive scalar parameters that are directly related to microstructural features that can be observed in optical microscopy images, e.g. average cell eccentricity, variance of cell density, and orientational order - properties that are inextricably entangled in conventional diffusion MRI. Key to disentangling all these microstructural features is MRI signal acquisition combining isotropic and directional dimensions, just as in the field of multidimensional solid-state NMR from which most of the ideas for the new methods are derived.

  1. Radiotherapy Planning using MRI

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Maria A; Payne, Geoffrey S

    2016-01-01

    The use of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in Radiotherapy (RT) planning is rapidly expanding. We review the wide range of image contrast mechanisms available to MRI and the way they are exploited for RT planning. However a number of challenges are also considered: the requirements that MR images are acquired in the RT treatment position, that they are geometrically accurate, that effects of patient motion during the scan are minimised, that tissue markers are clearly demonstrated, that an estimate of electron density can be obtained. These issues are discussed in detail, prior to the consideration of a number of specific clinical applications. This is followed by a brief discussion on the development of real-time MRI-guided RT. PMID:26509844

  2. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the MRI table. A specially trained technician (or "tech") operates the MRI machine. He or she may ... can't stay still during MRI. Sometimes MRI techs sedate teens who have trouble relaxing inside the ...

  3. TIME-INTERVAL MEASURING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Gross, J.E.

    1958-04-15

    An electronic device for measuring the time interval between two control pulses is presented. The device incorporates part of a previous approach for time measurement, in that pulses from a constant-frequency oscillator are counted during the interval between the control pulses. To reduce the possible error in counting caused by the operation of the counter gating circuit at various points in the pulse cycle, the described device provides means for successively delaying the pulses for a fraction of the pulse period so that a final delay of one period is obtained and means for counting the pulses before and after each stage of delay during the time interval whereby a plurality of totals is obtained which may be averaged and multplied by the pulse period to obtain an accurate time- Interval measurement.

  4. Interval From Imaging to Treatment Delivery in the Radiation Surgery Age: How Long Is Too Long?

    SciTech Connect

    Seymour, Zachary A.; Fogh, Shannon E.; Westcott, Sarah K.; Braunstein, Steve; Larson, David A.; Barani, Igor J.; Nakamura, Jean; Sneed, Penny K.

    2015-09-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate workflow and patient outcomes related to frameless stereotactic radiation surgery (SRS) for brain metastases. Methods and Materials: We reviewed all treatment demographics, clinical outcomes, and workflow timing, including time from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT) simulation, insurance authorization, and consultation to the start of SRS for brain metastases. Results: A total of 82 patients with 151 brain metastases treated with SRS were evaluated. The median times from consultation, insurance authorization, CT simulation, and MRI for treatment planning were 15, 7, 6, and 11 days to SRS. Local freedom from progression (LFFP) was lower in metastases with MRI ≥14 days before treatment (P=.0003, log rank). The 6- and 12-month LFFP rate were 95% and 75% for metastasis with interval of <14 days from MRI to treatment compared to 56% and 34% for metastases with MRI ≥14 days before treatment. On multivariate analysis, LFFP remained significantly lower for lesions with MRI ≥14 days at SRS (P=.002, Cox proportional hazards; hazard ratio: 3.4, 95% confidence interval: 1.6-7.3). Conclusions: Delay from MRI to SRS treatment delivery for brain metastases appears to reduce local control. Future studies should monitor the timing from imaging acquisition to treatment delivery. Our experience suggests that the time from MRI to treatment should be <14 days.

  5. Getting an MRI (For Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Happens in the Operating Room? Getting an MRI (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting an MRI (Video) A A A en español Obtención de una resonancia magnética, RM (video) An MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scan creates detailed ...

  6. Radio-frequency ablation of small renal tumors: minimum follow up of 1 year

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Vipul; Thaly, Rahul; Shah, Ketul

    2007-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: With the increased utility of complex imaging modalities small renal tumors are being diagnosed with rising frequency. We performed radiofrequency ablation to treat tumors less than 4cm in size using a combination of temperature, impedance, ultrasound and laparoscopic guidance. In this article we reviewed the outcome of radiofrequency ablation of renal tumors at one year at our institution. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Over a three-year period 75 patients with a total of 93 renal tumors underwent radiofrequency ablation. Average patient age was 64.5 years with ASA of 2.9. Indications for nephron sparing were imperative in 33 (solitary kidney 21, renal insufficiency 12). Seventeen patients had significant co-morbidities with ASA score of 3 or more and were thought to be poor candidates for nephrectomy or partial nephrectomy. Five were Jehovah's Witness patients. Average tumor size was 3.2 cm (1.5-4.0). 60% of the tumors were exophytic and 40% deep. Radiofrequency ablation was performed via a transperitoneal approach using the single pronged 3cm Cool tip electrode (Radionics Inc). Tumor was isolated laparoscopically. Prior to ablation the lesions were biopsied. Ablation was performed using both laparoscopic and real-time ultrasound imaging of the boarders of the tumor. During ablation impedance and temperature monitoring was performed. For each tumor two separate ablations were performed at perpendicular angles, the first ablation was for 6 minutes and the second for 3 minutes. The center and periphery of the tumor was monitored to insure that the temperature rose above 70 degrees Celsius. Patients were followed at three-month intervals with triple phase CT scan or MRI to evaluate efficacy of the ablation. Our criteria for recurrent tumor were growth or enhancement of the lesion. RESULTS: Average operative time was 109 minutes with and average EBL of <25cc. Mean hospital stay was 1.4 days. At average follow up of 19.2 months (range 2-24), one lesion showed

  7. Biomimetic phantom for cardiac diffusion MRI

    PubMed Central

    Teh, Irvin; Zhou, Feng‐Lei; Hubbard Cristinacce, Penny L.; Parker, Geoffrey J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is increasingly used to characterize cardiac tissue microstructure, necessitating the use of physiologically relevant phantoms for methods development. Existing phantoms are generally simplistic and mostly simulate diffusion in the brain. Thus, there is a need for phantoms mimicking diffusion in cardiac tissue. Materials and Methods A biomimetic phantom composed of hollow microfibers generated using co‐electrospinning was developed to mimic myocardial diffusion properties and fiber and sheet orientations. Diffusion tensor imaging was carried out at monthly intervals over 4 months at 9.4T. 3D fiber tracking was performed using the phantom and compared with fiber tracking in an ex vivo rat heart. Results The mean apparent diffusion coefficient and fractional anisotropy of the phantom remained stable over the 4‐month period, with mean values of 7.53 ± 0.16 × 10‐4 mm2/s and 0.388 ± 0.007, respectively. Fiber tracking of the 1st and 3rd eigenvectors generated analogous results to the fiber and sheet‐normal direction respectively, found in the left ventricular myocardium. Conclusion A biomimetic phantom simulating diffusion in the heart was designed and built. This could aid development and validation of novel diffusion MRI methods for investigating cardiac microstructure, decrease the number of animals and patients needed for methods development, and improve quality control in longitudinal and multicenter cardiac diffusion MRI studies. J. MAGN. RESON. IMAGING 2016;43:594–600. PMID:26213152

  8. MRI-Based Assessment of Safe Margins in Tumor Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Bellanova, Laura; Schubert, Thomas; Cartiaux, Olivier; Lecouvet, Frédéric; Galant, Christine; Banse, Xavier; Docquier, Pierre-Louis

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. In surgical oncology, histological analysis of excised tumor specimen is the conventional method to assess the safety of the resection margins. We tested the feasibility of using MRI to assess the resection margins of freshly explanted tumor specimens in rats. Materials and Methods. Fourteen specimen of sarcoma were resected in rats and analysed both with MRI and histologically. Slicing of the specimen was identical for the two methods and corresponding slices were paired. 498 margins were measured in length and classified using the UICC classification (R0, R1, and R2). Results. The mean difference between the 498 margins measured both with histology and MRI was 0.3 mm (SD 1.0 mm). The agreement interval of the two measurement methods was [−1.7 mm; 2.2 mm]. In terms of the UICC classification, a strict correlation was observed between MRI- and histology-based classifications (κ = 0.84, P < 0.05). Discussion. This experimental study showed the feasibility to use MRI images of excised tumor specimen to assess the resection margins with the same degree of accuracy as the conventional histopathological analysis. When completed, MRI acquisition of resected tumors may alert the surgeon in case of inadequate margin and help advantageously the histopathological analysis. PMID:24701131

  9. Contrast agents for MRI.

    PubMed

    Shokrollahi, H

    2013-12-01

    Contrast agents are divided into two categories. The first one is paramagnetic compounds, including lanthanides like gadolinium, which mainly reduce the longitudinal (T1) relaxation property and result in a brighter signal. The second class consists of super-paramagnetic magnetic nanoparticles (SPMNPs) such as iron oxides, which have a strong effect on the transversal (T2) relaxation properties. SPMNPs have the potential to be utilized as excellent probes for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). For instance, clinically benign iron oxide and engineered ferrite nanoparticles provide a good MRI probing capability for clinical applications. Furthermore, the limited magnetic property and inability to escape from the reticuloendothelial system (RES) of the used nanoparticles impede their further advancement. Therefore, it is necessary to develop the engineered magnetic nanoparticle probes for the next-generation molecular MRI. Considering the importance of MRI in diagnosing diseases, this paper presents an overview of recent scientific achievements in the development of new synthetic SPMNP probes whereby the sensitive and target-specific observation of biological events at the molecular and cellular levels is feasible.

  10. High resolution time interval meter

    DOEpatents

    Martin, A.D.

    1986-05-09

    Method and apparatus are provided for measuring the time interval between two events to a higher resolution than reliability available from conventional circuits and component. An internal clock pulse is provided at a frequency compatible with conventional component operating frequencies for reliable operation. Lumped constant delay circuits are provided for generating outputs at delay intervals corresponding to the desired high resolution. An initiation START pulse is input to generate first high resolution data. A termination STOP pulse is input to generate second high resolution data. Internal counters count at the low frequency internal clock pulse rate between the START and STOP pulses. The first and second high resolution data are logically combined to directly provide high resolution data to one counter and correct the count in the low resolution counter to obtain a high resolution time interval measurement.

  11. Finding Nested Common Intervals Efficiently

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blin, Guillaume; Stoye, Jens

    In this paper, we study the problem of efficiently finding gene clusters formalized by nested common intervals between two genomes represented either as permutations or as sequences. Considering permutations, we give several algorithms whose running time depends on the size of the actual output rather than the output in the worst case. Indeed, we first provide a straightforward O(n 3) time algorithm for finding all nested common intervals. We reduce this complexity by providing an O(n 2) time algorithm computing an irredundant output. Finally, we show, by providing a third algorithm, that finding only the maximal nested common intervals can be done in linear time. Considering sequences, we provide solutions (modifications of previously defined algorithms and a new algorithm) for different variants of the problem, depending on the treatment one wants to apply to duplicated genes.

  12. Management and 1-year outcomes of patients with atrial fibrillation in the Middle East: Gulf survey of atrial fibrillation events.

    PubMed

    Zubaid, Mohammad; Rashed, Wafa A; Alsheikh-Ali, Alawi A; Al-Zakwani, Ibrahim; AlMahmeed, Wael; Shehab, Abdullah; Sulaiman, Kadhim; Qudaimi, Ahmed Al; Asaad, Nidal; Amin, Haitham

    2015-05-01

    We describe management and outcomes of patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF) in the Middle East. Consecutive patients with AF presenting to emergency departments (EDs) were prospectively enrolled. Among 1721 patients with nonvalvular AF, mean age was 59 ± 16 years and 44% were women. Comorbidities were common such as hypertension (59%), diabetes (33%), and coronary artery disease (33%). Warfarin was not prescribed to 40% of patients with Congestive heart failure, Hypertension, Age, Diabetes mellitus, Stroke/TIA2 score of ≥2. One-year rates of stroke/transient ischemic attack (TIA) and all-cause mortality were 4.2% and 15.3%, respectively. Warfarin use at hospital-ED discharge was independently associated with lower 1-year rate of stroke/TIA (odds ratio [OR], 0.38; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.17-0.85; P = .015) and all-cause mortality (OR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.32-0.83; P = .006). Prior history of heart failure and peripheral vascular disease was independent mortality predictors. Our patients are relatively young with significant cardiovascular risk. Their anticoagulation treatment is suboptimal, and 1-year all-cause mortality and stroke/TIA event rates are relatively high.

  13. High resolution time interval counter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Victor S.; Davis, Dick D.; Lombardi, Michael A.

    1995-01-01

    In recent years, we have developed two types of high resolution, multi-channel time interval counters. In the NIST two-way time transfer MODEM application, the counter is designed for operating primarily in the interrupt-driven mode, with 3 start channels and 3 stop channels. The intended start and stop signals are 1 PPS, although other frequencies can also be applied to start and stop the count. The time interval counters used in the NIST Frequency Measurement and Analysis System are implemented with 7 start channels and 7 stop channels. Four of the 7 start channels are devoted to the frequencies of 1 MHz, 5 MHz or 10 MHz, while triggering signals to all other start and stop channels can range from 1 PPS to 100 kHz. Time interval interpolation plays a key role in achieving the high resolution time interval measurements for both counters. With a 10 MHz time base, both counters demonstrate a single-shot resolution of better than 40 ps, and a stability of better than 5 x 10(exp -12) (sigma(sub chi)(tau)) after self test of 1000 seconds). The maximum rate of time interval measurements (with no dead time) is 1.0 kHz for the counter used in the MODEM application and is 2.0 kHz for the counter used in the Frequency Measurement and Analysis System. The counters are implemented as plug-in units for an AT-compatible personal computer. This configuration provides an efficient way of using a computer not only to control and operate the counters, but also to store and process measured data.

  14. Sodium MRI: Methods and applications

    PubMed Central

    Madelin, Guillaume; Lee, Jae-Seung; Regatte, Ravinder R.; Jerschow, Alexej

    2014-01-01

    Sodium NMR spectroscopy and MRI have become popular in recent years through the increased availability of high-field MRI scanners, advanced scanner hardware and improved methodology. Sodium MRI is being evaluated for stroke and tumor detection, for breast cancer studies, and for the assessment of osteoarthritis and muscle and kidney functions, to name just a few. In this article, we aim to present an up-to-date review of the theoretical background, the methodology, the challenges and limitations, and current and potential new applications of sodium MRI. PMID:24815363

  15. Disclusion time measurement studies: stability of disclusion time--a 1-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Kerstein, R

    1994-08-01

    Six of seven women were recalled after 1 year to remeasure their right- and left-side working disclusion times. Before the occlusal adjustment technique known as immediate complete anterior guidance development (ICAGD), these patients presented lengthy mean disclusion times (> 1.0 second) and multiple chronic myofascial pain dysfunction syndrome (MPDS) symptoms. After ICAGD, these patients presented with short mean disclusion times (< 0.7 second) and no chronic MPDS symptoms were observed. At 1-year follow-up, there was no statistical difference between present measurements of disclusion time and those of 1 year earlier. In addition, all six posttreatment patients demonstrated no observed chronic MPDS symptoms. However, the symptom of nocturnal bruxism appeared to recur with some chronic regularity. These results suggest that, for this population, disclusion time was stable over the 1-year period of observation, and the short disclusion time appears to allow normal daily muscle function with significantly lessened appearance of chronic myofacial pain dysfunction symptoms.

  16. Occupational exposure in MRI

    PubMed Central

    Mcrobbie, D W

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews occupational exposure in clinical MRI; it specifically considers units of exposure, basic physical interactions, health effects, guideline limits, dosimetry, results of exposure surveys, calculation of induced fields and the status of the European Physical Agents Directive. Electromagnetic field exposure in MRI from the static field B0, imaging gradients and radiofrequency transmission fields induces electric fields and currents in tissue, which are responsible for various acute sensory effects. The underlying theory and its application to the formulation of incident and induced field limits are presented. The recent International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) Bundesministerium für Arbeit und Soziales and Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers limits for incident field exposure are interpreted in a manner applicable to MRI. Field measurements show that exposure from movement within the B0 fringe field can exceed ICNIRP reference levels within 0.5 m of the bore entrance. Rate of change of field dB/dt from the imaging gradients is unlikely to exceed the new limits, although incident field limits can be exceeded for radiofrequency (RF) exposure within 0.2–0.5 m of the bore entrance. Dosimetric surveys of routine clinical practice show that staff are exposed to peak values of 42±24% of B0, with time-averaged exposures of 5.2±2.8 mT for magnets in the range 0.6–4 T. Exposure to time-varying fields arising from movement within the B0 fringe resulted in peak dB/dt of approximately 2 T s−1. Modelling of induced electric fields from the imaging gradients shows that ICNIRP-induced field limits are unlikely to be exceeded in most situations; however, movement through the static field may still present a problem. The likely application of the limits is discussed with respect to the reformulation of the European Union (EU) directive and its possible implications for MRI. PMID:22457400

  17. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and increased risk of 1-year all-cause and cardiac hospital readmissions in elderly patients admitted for acute heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Valbusa, Filippo; Bonapace, Stefano; Agnoletti, Davide; Scala, Luca; Grillo, Cristina; Arduini, Pietro; Turcato, Emanuela; Mantovani, Alessandro; Zoppini, Giacomo; Arcaro, Guido; Byrne, Christopher; Targher, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an emerging risk factor for heart failure (HF). Although some progress has been made in improving survival among patients admitted for HF, the rates of hospital readmissions and the related costs continue to rise dramatically. We sought to examine whether NAFLD and its severity (diagnosed at hospital admission) was independently associated with a higher risk of 1-year all-cause and cardiac re-hospitalization in patients admitted for acute HF. We studied 212 elderly patients who were consecutively admitted with acute HF to the Hospital of Negrar (Verona) over a 1-year period. Diagnosis of NAFLD was based on ultrasonography, whereas the severity of advanced NAFLD fibrosis was based on the fibrosis (FIB)-4 score and other non-invasive fibrosis scores. Patients with acute myocardial infarction, severe valvular heart diseases, end-stage renal disease, cancer, known liver diseases or decompensated cirrhosis were excluded. Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) for the associations between NAFLD and the outcome(s) of interest. The cumulative rate of 1-year all-cause re-hospitalizations was 46.7% (n = 99, mainly due to cardiac causes). Patients with NAFLD (n = 109; 51.4%) had remarkably higher 1-year all-cause and cardiac re-hospitalization rates compared with their counterparts without NAFLD. Both event rates were particularly increased in those with advanced NAFLD fibrosis. NAFLD was associated with a 5-fold increased risk of 1-year all-cause re-hospitalization (adjusted-hazard ratio 5.05, 95% confidence intervals 2.78–9.10, p<0.0001) after adjustment for established risk factors and potential confounders. Similar results were found for 1-year cardiac re-hospitalization (adjusted-hazard ratio 8.05, 95% confidence intervals 3.77–15.8, p<0.0001). In conclusion, NAFLD and its severity were strongly and independently associated with an increased risk of 1-year all-cause and cardiac re-hospitalization in elderly

  18. Correlates of 1-year incidence of urinary incontinence in older Latino adults enrolled in a community-based physical activity trial.

    PubMed

    Morrisroe, Shelby N; Rodriguez, Larissa V; Wang, Pin-Chieh; Smith, Ariana L; Trejo, Laura; Sarkisian, Catherine A

    2014-04-01

    The prevalence of urinary incontinence (UI) among older urban Latinos is high. Insight into etiologies of and contributing factors to the development of this condition is needed. This longitudinal cohort study identified correlates of 1-year incidence of UI in older community-dwelling Latino adults participating in a senior center-based physical activity trial in Los Angeles, California. Three hundred twenty-eight Latinos aged 60 to 93 participating in Caminemos, a randomized trial to increase walking, were studied. Participants completed an in-person survey and physical performance measures at baseline and 1 year. UI was measured using the International Consultation on Incontinence item: "How often do you leak urine?" Potential correlates of 1-year incidence of UI included sociodemographic, behavioral, medical, physical, and psychosocial characteristics. The overall incidence of UI at 1 year was 17.4%. Incident UI was associated with age, baseline activity of daily living impairment, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), mean steps per day, and depressive symptoms. Multivariate logistic regression models revealed that improvement in physical performance score (odds ratio (OR) = 0.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.50-0.95) and high baseline physical (OR = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.40-0.89) and mental (OR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.43-0.91) HRQoL were independently associated with lower rates of 1-year incident UI. An increase in depressive symptoms at 1 year (OR = 4.48, 95% CI = 1.02-19.68) was independently associated with a higher rate of incident UI. One-year UI incidence in this population of older urban Latino adults participating in a walking trial was high but was lower in those who improved their physical performance. Interventions aimed at improving physical performance may help prevent UI in older Latino adults.

  19. Mortality in primary angioplasty patients starting antiplatelet therapy with prehospital prasugrel or clopidogrel: a 1-year follow-up from the European MULTIPRAC Registry

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Patrick; Grieco, Niccolò; Ince, Hüseyin; Danchin, Nicolas; Ramos, Yvonne; Goedicke, Jochen; Clemmensen, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Aim MULTIPRAC was designed to provide insights into the use and outcomes associated with prehospital initiation of antiplatelet therapy with either prasugrel or clopidogrel in the context of primary percutaneous coronary intervention. After a previous report on efficacy and safety outcomes during hospitalization, we report here the 1-year follow-up data, including cardiovascular (CV) mortality. Methods and results MULTIPRAC is a multinational, prospective registry of patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) from 25 hospitals in nine countries, all of which had an established practice of prehospital start of dual antiplatelet therapy in place. The key outcome was CV death at 1 year. Among 2,036 patients followed-up through 1 year, 49 died (2.4%), 10 during the initial hospitalization and 39 within 1 year after hospital discharge. The primary analysis was based on the P2Y12-inhibitor, used from prehospital loading dose through hospital discharge. Prasugrel (n=824) was more commonly used than clopidogrel (n=425). The observed 1-year rates for CV death were 0.5% with prasugrel and 2.6% with clopidogrel. After adjustment for differences in baseline characteristics, treatment with prasugrel was associated with a significantly lower risk of CV death than treatment with clopidogrel (odds ratio 0.248; 95% confidence interval 0.06–0.89). Conclusion In STEMI patients from routine practice undergoing primary angioplasty, who were able to start oral antiplatelet therapy prehospital, treatment with prasugrel as compared to clopidogrel was associated with a lower risk of CV death at 1-year follow-up. PMID:27143908

  20. An Event Restriction Interval Theory of Tense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beamer, Brandon Robert

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation presents a novel theory of tense and tense-like constructions. It is named after a key theoretical component of the theory, the event restriction interval. In Event Restriction Interval (ERI) Theory, sentences are semantically evaluated relative to an index which contains two key intervals, the evaluation interval and the event…

  1. Cyclic generalized projection MRI.

    PubMed

    Sarty, Gordon E

    2015-04-01

    Progress in the development of portable MRI hinges on the ability to use lightweight magnets that have non-uniform magnetic fields. An image encoding method and mathematical procedure for recovering the image from the NMR signal from non-uniform magnets with closed isomagnetic contours is given. Individual frequencies in an NMR signal from an object in a non-uniform magnetic field give rise to integrals of the object along contours of constant magnetic field: generalized projections. With closed isomagnetic field contours a simple, cyclic, direct reconstruction of the image from the generalized projections is possible when the magnet and RF transmit coil are held fixed relative to the imaged object while the RF receive coil moves. Numerical simulations, using the Shepp and Logan mathematical phantom, were completed to show that the mathematical method works and to illustrate numerical limitations. The method is numerically verified and exact reconstruction demonstrated for discrete mathematical image phantoms. Correct knowledge of the RF receive field is necessary or severe image distortions will result. The cyclic mathematical reconstruction method presented here will be useful for portable MRI schemes that use non-uniform magnets with closed isomagnetic contours along with mechanically or electronically moving the RF receive coils.

  2. MRI atlas of ectopic endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Dallaudière, B; Salut, C; Hummel, V; Pouquet, M; Piver, P; Rouanet, J-P; Maubon, A

    2013-03-01

    Ectopic endometriosis is a common condition which is often underdiagnosed, where MRI can help make a diagnosis simply, non-invasively and without irradiation. However, imagery signs of it are enormously polymorphic with a wide range of possible locations. In this paper, we have tried to illustrate comprehensively all its MRI appearances depending on the different locations where it occurs.

  3. A 1-year randomized controlled trial of deferasirox vs deferoxamine for myocardial iron removal in β-thalassemia major (CORDELIA)

    PubMed Central

    Porter, John B.; Piga, Antonio; Lai, Yongrong; El-Beshlawy, Amal; Belhoul, Khawla M.; Elalfy, Mohsen; Yesilipek, Akif; Kilinç, Yurdanur; Lawniczek, Tomasz; Habr, Dany; Weisskopf, Marianne; Zhang, Yiyun; Aydinok, Yesim

    2014-01-01

    Randomized comparison data on the efficacy and safety of deferasirox for myocardial iron removal in transfusion dependent patients are lacking. CORDELIA was a prospective, randomized comparison of deferasirox (target dose 40 mg/kg per day) vs subcutaneous deferoxamine (50-60 mg/kg per day for 5-7 days/week) for myocardial iron removal in 197 β-thalassemia major patients with myocardial siderosis (T2* 6-20 milliseconds) and no signs of cardiac dysfunction (mean age, 19.8 years). Primary objective was to demonstrate noninferiority of deferasirox for myocardial iron removal, assessed by changes in myocardial T2* after 1 year using a per-protocol analysis. Geometric mean (Gmean) myocardial T2* improved with deferasirox from 11.2 milliseconds at baseline to 12.6 milliseconds at 1 year (Gmeans ratio, 1.12) and with deferoxamine (11.6 milliseconds to 12.3 milliseconds; Gmeans ratio, 1.07). The between-arm Gmeans ratio was 1.056 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.998, 1.133). The lower 95% CI boundary was greater than the prespecified margin of 0.9, establishing noninferiority of deferasirox vs deferoxamine (P = .057 for superiority of deferasirox). Left ventricular ejection fraction remained stable in both arms. Frequency of drug-related adverse events was comparable between deferasirox (35.4%) and deferoxamine (30.8%). CORDELIA demonstrated the noninferiority of deferasirox compared with deferoxamine for myocardial iron removal. This trial is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00600938. PMID:24385534

  4. High resolution time interval counter

    DOEpatents

    Condreva, K.J.

    1994-07-26

    A high resolution counter circuit measures the time interval between the occurrence of an initial and a subsequent electrical pulse to two nanoseconds resolution using an eight megahertz clock. The circuit includes a main counter for receiving electrical pulses and generating a binary word--a measure of the number of eight megahertz clock pulses occurring between the signals. A pair of first and second pulse stretchers receive the signal and generate a pair of output signals whose widths are approximately sixty-four times the time between the receipt of the signals by the respective pulse stretchers and the receipt by the respective pulse stretchers of a second subsequent clock pulse. Output signals are thereafter supplied to a pair of start and stop counters operable to generate a pair of binary output words representative of the measure of the width of the pulses to a resolution of two nanoseconds. Errors associated with the pulse stretchers are corrected by providing calibration data to both stretcher circuits, and recording start and stop counter values. Stretched initial and subsequent signals are combined with autocalibration data and supplied to an arithmetic logic unit to determine the time interval in nanoseconds between the pair of electrical pulses being measured. 3 figs.

  5. High resolution time interval counter

    DOEpatents

    Condreva, Kenneth J.

    1994-01-01

    A high resolution counter circuit measures the time interval between the occurrence of an initial and a subsequent electrical pulse to two nanoseconds resolution using an eight megahertz clock. The circuit includes a main counter for receiving electrical pulses and generating a binary word--a measure of the number of eight megahertz clock pulses occurring between the signals. A pair of first and second pulse stretchers receive the signal and generate a pair of output signals whose widths are approximately sixty-four times the time between the receipt of the signals by the respective pulse stretchers and the receipt by the respective pulse stretchers of a second subsequent clock pulse. Output signals are thereafter supplied to a pair of start and stop counters operable to generate a pair of binary output words representative of the measure of the width of the pulses to a resolution of two nanoseconds. Errors associated with the pulse stretchers are corrected by providing calibration data to both stretcher circuits, and recording start and stop counter values. Stretched initial and subsequent signals are combined with autocalibration data and supplied to an arithmetic logic unit to determine the time interval in nanoseconds between the pair of electrical pulses being measured.

  6. MRI findings in Hirayama disease.

    PubMed

    Raval, Monali; Kumari, Rima; Dung, Aldrin Anthony Dung; Guglani, Bhuvnesh; Gupta, Nitij; Gupta, Rohit

    2010-11-01

    The objective of the study was to study the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of Hirayama disease on a 3 Tesla MRI scanner. Nine patients with clinically suspected Hirayama disease were evaluated with neutral position, flexion, contrast-enhanced MRI and fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (FIESTA) sequences. The spectrum of MRI features was evaluated and correlated with the clinical and electromyography findings. MRI findings of localized lower cervical cord atrophy (C5-C7), abnormal curvature, asymmetric cord flattening, loss of attachment of the dorsal dural sac and subjacent laminae in the neutral position, anterior displacement of the dorsal dura on flexion and a prominent epidural space were revealed in all patients on conventional MRI as well as with the dynamic 3D-FIESTA sequence. Intramedullary hyperintensity was seen in four patients on conventional MRI and on the 3D-FIESTA sequence. Flow voids were seen in four patients on conventional MRI sequences and in all patients with the 3D-FIESTA sequence. Contrast enhancement of the epidural component was noted in all the five patients with thoracic extensions. The time taken for conventional and contrast-enhanced MRI was about 30-40 min, while that for the 3D-FIESTA sequence was 6 min. Neutral and flexion position MRI and the 3D-FIESTA sequence compliment each other in displaying the spectrum of findings in Hirayama disease. A flexion study should form an essential part of the screening protocol in patients with suspected Hirayama disease. Newer sequences such as the 3D-FIESTA may help in reducing imaging time and obviating the need for contrast.

  7. The interaction between constituent year and within-1-year effects in elite German youth basketball.

    PubMed

    Steingröver, C; Wattie, N; Baker, J; Helsen, W F; Schorer, J

    2016-03-19

    The current state of research on relative age effects in basketball shows an uneven picture. These mixed results might be caused by the interaction of constituent year and within-year effects. Our aim was to examine constituent and within-1-year effects in elite German youth basketball. The sample (n = 4400) included players competing in the JBBL (Under-16 first division) and the NBBL (Under-19 first division) from 2011/2012 until 2013/2014. A multi-way frequency analysis revealed an interaction of constituent year effects and within-1-year effects for the JBBL, χ(2) (6, 2590) = 12.76, P < 0.05. NBBL data showed significant constituent year effects, χ(2) (2, n = 1810) = 25.32, P < 0.01, and within-1-year effects for all three age bands but no interaction. The interaction between constituent year and within-1-year effects in the JBBL showed reduced within-1-year effects with increasing age. Once players enter the system in the JBBL, relatively younger players seem less likely to drop out of the system. Results offer new insight regarding how the regulations of this talent development system may influence athletes' opportunities to enter the system and their likelihood of staying at the highest levels of competition.

  8. Factors associated with postoperative complications and 1-year mortality after surgery for colorectal cancer in octogenarians and nonagenarians

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Wan; Kim, Ik Yong

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To identify the factors affecting 30-day postoperative complications and 1-year mortality after surgery for colorectal cancer in octogenarians and nonagenarians. Methods Between 2005 and 2014, a total of 204 consecutive patients aged ≥80 years who underwent major colorectal surgery were included. Results One hundred patients were male (49%) and 52 patients had American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score ≥3 (25%). Combined surgery was performed in 32 patients (16%). Postoperative complications within 30 days after surgery occurred in 54 patients (26%) and 30-day mortality occurred in five patients (2%). Independent risk factors affecting 30-day postoperative complications were older age (≥90 years, hazard ratio [HR] with 95% confidence interval [CI] =4.95 [1.69−14.47], P=0.004), an ASA score ≥3 (HR with 95% CI =4.19 [1.8−9.74], P=0.001), performance of combined surgery (HR with 95% CI =3.1 [1.13−8.46], P=0.028), lower hemoglobin level (<10 g/dL, HR with 95% CI =7.56 [3.07−18.63], P<0.001), and lower albumin level (<3.4 g/dL, HR with 95% CI =3.72 [1.43−9.69], P=0.007). An ASA score ≥3 (HR with 95% CI =2.72 [1.15−6.46], P=0.023), tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage IV (HR with 95% CI =3.47 [1.44−8.39], P=0.006), and occurrence of postoperative complications (HR with 95% CI =4.42 [1.39−14.09], P=0.012) were significant prognostic factors for 1-year mortality. Conclusion Patient-related factors (older age, higher ASA score, presence of anemia, and lower serum albumin) and procedure-related factors (performance of combined surgical procedure) increased postoperative complications. Avoidance of 30-day postoperative complications may decrease 1-year mortality. PMID:27279741

  9. Orders on Intervals Over Partially Ordered Sets: Extending Allen's Algebra and Interval Graph Results

    SciTech Connect

    Zapata, Francisco; Kreinovich, Vladik; Joslyn, Cliff A.; Hogan, Emilie A.

    2013-08-01

    To make a decision, we need to compare the values of quantities. In many practical situations, we know the values with interval uncertainty. In such situations, we need to compare intervals. Allen’s algebra describes all possible relations between intervals on the real line, and ordering relations between such intervals are well studied. In this paper, we extend this description to intervals in an arbitrary partially ordered set (poset). In particular, we explicitly describe ordering relations between intervals that generalize relation between points. As auxiliary results, we provide a logical interpretation of the relation between intervals, and extend the results about interval graphs to intervals over posets.

  10. Pigeons' Choices between Fixed-Interval and Random-Interval Schedules: Utility of Variability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrzejewski, Matthew E.; Cardinal, Claudia D.; Field, Douglas P.; Flannery, Barbara A.; Johnson, Michael; Bailey, Kathleen; Hineline, Philip N.

    2005-01-01

    Pigeons' choosing between fixed-interval and random-interval schedules of reinforcement was investigated in three experiments using a discrete-trial procedure. In all three experiments, the random-interval schedule was generated by sampling a probability distribution at an interval (and in multiples of the interval) equal to that of the…

  11. A new MRI grading system for chondromalacia patellae.

    PubMed

    Özgen, Ali; Taşdelen, Neslihan; Fırat, Zeynep

    2017-04-01

    Background Chondromalacia patellae is a very common disorder. Although magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is widely used to investigate patellar cartilage lesions, there is no descriptive MRI-based grading system for chondromalacia patellae. Purpose To propose a new MRI grading system for chondromalacia patellae with corresponding high resolution images which might be useful in precisely reporting and comparing knee examinations in routine daily practice and used in predicting natural course and clinical outcome of the patellar cartilage lesions. Material and Methods High resolution fat-saturated proton density (FS PD) images in the axial plane with corresponding T2 mapping images were reviewed. A detailed MRI grading system covering the deficiencies of the existing gradings has been set and presented on these images. Two experienced observers blinded to clinical data examined 44 knee MR images and evaluated patellar cartilage changes according to the proposed grading system. Inter- and intra-rater validity testing using kappa statistics were calculated. Results A descriptive and detailed grading system with corresponding FS PD and T2 mapping images has been presented. Inter-rater agreement was 0.80 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.71-0.89). Intra-rater agreements were 0.83 (95% CI, 0.74-0.91) for observer A and 0.79 (95% CI, 0.70-0.88) for observer B (k-values). Conclusion We present a new MRI grading system for chondromalacia patellae with corresponding images and good inter- and intra-rater agreement which might be useful in reporting and comparing knee MRI examinations in daily practice and may also have the potential for using more precisely predicting prognosis and clinical outcome of the patients.

  12. Economic evaluation and 1-year survival analysis of MARS in patients with alcoholic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Hessel, Franz P; Mitzner, Steffen R; Rief, Jana; Guellstorff, Britta; Steiner, Susanne; Wasem, Jürgen

    2003-01-01

    Objective of this study was to determine 1-year survival, costs and cost-effectiveness of the artificial liver support system Molecular Adsorbent Recirculating System (MARS) in patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) and an underlying alcoholic liver disease. In a case-control study, 13 patients treated with MARS were compared to 23 controls of similar age, sex and severity of disease. Inpatient hospital costs data were extracted from patients' files and hospital's internal costing. Patients and treating GPs were contacted, thus determining resource use and survival 1-year after treatment. Mean 1-year survival time in MARS group was 261 days and 148 days in controls. Kaplan-Meier analysis shows advantages of MARS patients (Logrank: P=0.057). Direct medical costs per patient for initial hospital stay and 1-year follow-up from a payer's perspective were Euro 18,792 for MARS patients and Euro 9638 for controls. The costs per life-year gained are Euro 29,719 (time horizon 1 year). From a societal perspective, the numbers are higher (costs per life-year gained: Euro 79,075), mainly because of the fact that there is no regular reimbursement of MARS and therefore intervention costs were not calculated from payer's perspective. A trade-off between medical benefit and higher costs has to be made, but 1-year results suggest an acceptable cost-effectiveness of MARS. Prolonging the time horizon and including indirect costs, which will be done in future research, would probably improve cost-effectiveness.

  13. Evaluation of the management of Hr-HPV+/PapTest- women: results at 1-year recall.

    PubMed

    Chiappetta, Caterina; Puggioni, Chiara; Lendaro, Eugenio; Cacciotti, Jessica; Zaralli, Roberto; Migliore, Giovanna; Bellardini, Paola; Petrozza, Vincenzo; Della Rocca, Carlo; Di Cristofano, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    With cervical cancer screening the choice of 1-year as a period of follow-up in positive high-risk HPV women without cytological lesions is still under discussion. We evaluated the management of these women and the role of HPV genotyping test. We did a cervical cancer screening study of women aged 35-64 with primary high-risk HPV test. Women positive for high-risk HPV with negative cytology were followed-up after 1 year. In this study we selected women with high-risk HPV+/PapTest- resulted high-risk HPV+ at recall and performed the PapTest and HPV genotyping test. The detection rate of squamous high grade (CIN2+) relative to the total screened cohort was 2.1‰, and it was 0.2‰ at the 1-year recall. The colposcopy performed in women referred at the 1-year recall accounted for 48.8% of the total (baseline + 1-year recall), and 84.3% of these women had no cytological lesions. The most frequent hr-HPV genotype detected was HPV16 and 66.7% of co-infections were due to HPV16 and HPV18. 54.5% of women presented a persistent infection at 1-year recall with the same HPV subtype, 50% of persistent infections was due to HPV16 and 16.7% of these were determined to be CIN2+ histological lesions. Our data show that it may be useful to extend the period of follow-up for women hr-HPV+/PapTest- so as to reduce the number of unnecessary colposcopies due to the transitory infections and that the genotyping test could help to identify the persistent infections in which HPV16 is involved.

  14. XEN Glaucoma Implant with Mitomycin C 1-Year Follow-Up: Result and Complications

    PubMed Central

    Bilgic, Alper; Eltanamly, Rasha

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate gel microstent (XEN, Aquesys, Inc) for treatment of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). Methods. In this prospective interventional study, 13 eyes with POAG underwent XEN implantation with subconjunctival mitomycin-C. Of those eyes, 3 were pseudophakic and 10 underwent simultaneous phacoemulsification and XEN. Patients had uncontrolled IOP, had intolerance to therapy, or had maximal therapy but undergoing cataract extraction. Follow-up visits included IOP, number of medications, vision, and complications and lasted for 1 year. Complete success was defined as IOP reduction ≥20% from preoperative baseline at 1 year without any glaucoma medications while partial success as IOP reduction of ≥20% at 1 year with medications. Results. IOP dropped from 16 ± 4 mmHg pre-op to 9 ± 5, 11 ± 6, 12 ± 5, 12 ± 4, and 12 ± 3 mmHg at 1 week, 1, 3, 6, and 12 months (p = 0.004, 0.026, 0.034, 0.01, and 0.01, Wilcoxon Signed Ranks) consecutively. BCVA (LogMAR) was 0.33 ± 0.34 and improved to 0.13 ± 0.11 at 1 year. Mean number of medications dropped from 1.9 ± 1 preoperatively to 0.3 ± 0.49 (p = 0.003) at 1 year. 42% of eyes achieved complete success and 66% qualified success. Complications included choroidal detachment in 2 eyes, and implant extrusion in 1 eye, and 2 eyes underwent trabeculectomy. Conclusion. XEN implant is an effective surgical treatment for POAG, with significant reduction in IOP and glaucoma medications at 1 year follow-up. PMID:28348884

  15. MRI of plants and foods.

    PubMed

    Van As, Henk; van Duynhoven, John

    2013-04-01

    The importance and prospects for MRI as applied to intact plants and to foods are presented in view of one of humanity's most pressing concerns, the sustainable and healthy feeding of a worldwide increasing population. Intact plants and foods have in common that their functionality is determined by complex multiple length scale architectures. Intact plants have an additional level of complexity since they are living systems which critically depend on transport and signalling processes between and within tissues and organs. The combination of recent cutting-edge technical advances and integration of MRI accessible parameters has the perspective to contribute to breakthroughs in understanding complex regulatory plant performance mechanisms. In food science and technology MRI allows for quantitative multi-length scale structural assessment of food systems, non-invasive monitoring of heat and mass transport during shelf-life and processing, and for a unique view on food properties under shear. These MRI applications are powerful enablers of rationally (re)designed food formulations and processes. Limitations and bottlenecks of the present plant and food MRI methods are mainly related to short T2 values and susceptibility artefacts originating from small air spaces in tissues/materials. We envisage cross-fertilisation of solutions to overcome these hurdles in MRI applications in plants and foods. For both application areas we witness a development where MRI is moving from highly specialised equipment to mobile and downscaled versions to be used by a broad user base in the field, greenhouse, food laboratory or factory.

  16. MRI in ocular drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Li, S. Kevin; Lizak, Martin J.; Jeong, Eun-Kee

    2008-01-01

    Conventional pharmacokinetic methods for studying ocular drug delivery are invasive and cannot be conveniently applied to humans. The advancement of MRI technology has provided new opportunities in ocular drug-delivery research. MRI provides a means to non-invasively and continuously monitor ocular drug-delivery systems with a contrast agent or compound labeled with a contrast agent. It is a useful technique in pharmacokinetic studies, evaluation of drug-delivery methods, and drug-delivery device testing. Although the current status of the technology presents some major challenges to pharmaceutical research using MRI, it has a lot of potential. In the past decade, MRI has been used to examine ocular drug delivery via the subconjunctival route, intravitreal injection, intrascleral injection to the suprachoroidal space, episcleral and intravitreal implants, periocular injections, and ocular iontophoresis. In this review, the advantages and limitations of MRI in the study of ocular drug delivery are discussed. Different MR contrast agents and MRI techniques for ocular drug-delivery research are compared. Ocular drug-delivery studies using MRI are reviewed. PMID:18186077

  17. Clinical and imaging predictors of 1-year and long-term mortality in light chain (AL) amyloidosis: a 5-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Migrino, Raymond Q; Harmann, Leanne; Christenson, Richard; Hari, Parameswaran

    2014-11-01

    Light chain amyloidosis (AL) involves multiorgan failure induced by amyloidogenic light chain proteins, and is associated with high mortality. We aimed to identify clinical, laboratory, and imaging parameters that would predict 1-year and long-term AL mortality. Forty-four biopsy-proven AL patients (61.5 ± 12 years, 20 females) underwent clinical evaluation including laboratory assays, echocardiography, and contrast cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR, n = 31) prior to chemotherapy. Patients were prospectively followed for median duration of 62.7 months (interquartile range 35.5 months). Clinical and laboratory parameters were compared between 1-year survivors and nonsurvivors. Univariate Kaplan-Meier survival plots were calculated followed by stepwise logistic regression analysis to assess independent predictors of long-term survival. Eighteen (40.9 %) patients died within 1 year and an additional 10 subjects died during long-term follow-up. Patients who expired within 1 year presented with more advanced class of heart failure, higher alkaline phosphatase and uric acid, lower limb lead voltage on electrocardiography, shorter left ventricular ejection time (ET) on echocardiography, and a higher proportion of late gadolinium enhancement on CMR. On multivariable analysis, only ET ≤240 ms on echocardiography (hazard ratio (HR) 5.07, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.83-14.1, P = 0.002) and New York Heart Association functional class II-IV presentation (HR 1.0058, 95 % CI 1.0014-1.0103, P = 0.01) were independent predictors of AL mortality. In conclusion, AL amyloidosis is associated with high 1-year and long-term mortality. Among clinical, laboratory, and imaging parameters tested, an echocardiographic finding of ET ≤240 ms has independent and additive prognostic value to clinical heart failure evaluation in determining long-term survival of AL patients. This result may be important in the early identification of patients at risk.

  18. MRI Meets MPI: a bimodal MPI-MRI tomograph.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Patrick; Lother, Steffen; Rückert, Martin A; Kullmann, Walter H; Jakob, Peter M; Fidler, Florian; Behr, Volker C

    2014-10-01

    While magnetic particle imaging (MPI) constitutes a novel biomedical imaging technique for tracking superparamagnetic nanoparticles in vivo, unlike magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), it cannot provide anatomical background information. Until now these two modalities have been performed in separate scanners and image co-registration has been hampered by the need to reposition the sample in both systems as similarly as possible. This paper presents a bimodal MPI-MRI-tomograph that combines both modalities in a single system.MPI and MRI images can thus be acquired without moving the sample or replacing any parts in the setup. The images acquired with the presented setup show excellent agreement between the localization of the nanoparticles in MPI and the MRI background data. A combination of two highly complementary imaging modalities has been achieved.

  19. Comparison of CT and MRI in Diagnosis of Laryngeal Carcinoma with Anterior Vocal Commissure Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jian-hui; Zhao, Jing; Li, Zeng-hong; Yang, Wei-qiang; Liu, Qi-hong; Yang, Zhi-yun; Liao, Bing; Li, Xiao-ling; Wang, Bin; Qin, Hao; Luo, Jie; Lv, Ke-xing; Wen, Wei-ping; Lei, Wen-bin

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the accuracy of CT and MRI in determining the invasion of thyroid cartilage by and the T staging of laryngeal carcinoma with anterior vocal commissure (AVC) involvement. A total of 26 cases of laryngeal carcinomas with AVC involvement from May 2012 to January 2014 underwent enhanced CT and MRI scan, out of whom 6 patients also underwent diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging(DWI). T staging and thyroid cartilage involvement were evaluated. All the surgical specimens underwent serial section and were reviewed by two senior pathologists independently. When compared with pathologic staging, the accuracy was 88.46% (23/26) of MRI scan (with a 95% confidence interval 37~77%) and 57.69% (15/26) of CT scan (with a 95% confidence interval 70~98%), respectively (P < 0.01). We also reported three cases who were misdiagnosed on CT or MRI about either the thyroid cartilage was involved or not, and one case of preliminary study of DWI. Compared to CT, MRI exhibited a higher accuracy rate on T staging of laryngeal carcinomas with AVC involvement. Combined utility of CT and MRI could help improve the accuracy of assessment of thyroid cartilage involvement and T staging of laryngeal carcinomas with AVC involvement. PMID:27480073

  20. MRI Technologies in Recent Human Brain Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Yuka

    The recent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technology and techniques used in human brain mapping are remarkable. They are getting, faster, stronger and better. The advanced MRI technologies and techniques include, but not to limited to, the magnetic resonance imaging at higher magnetic field strengths, diffusion tensor imaging, multimodal neuroimaging, and monkey functional MRI. In this article, these advanced MRI techniques are briefly overviewed.

  1. Min and Max Extreme Interval Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jance, Marsha L.; Thomopoulos, Nick T.

    2011-01-01

    The paper shows how to find the min and max extreme interval values for the exponential and triangular distributions from the min and max uniform extreme interval values. Tables are provided to show the min and max extreme interval values for the uniform, exponential, and triangular distributions for different probabilities and observation sizes.

  2. Familiarity-Frequency Ratings of Melodic Intervals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffries, Thomas B.

    1972-01-01

    Objective of this study was to determine subjects' reliability in rating randomly played ascending and descending melodic intervals within the octave on the basis of their familiarity with each type of interval and the frequency of their having experienced each type of interval in music. (Author/CB)

  3. An Analysis of 1-Year Impacts of Youth Transition Demonstration Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraker, Thomas M.; Luecking, Richard G.; Mamun, Arif A.; Martinez, John M.; Reed, Deborah S.; Wittenburg, David C.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the impacts of the Youth Transition Demonstration, an initiative of the Social Security Administration (SSA) to improve employment outcomes for youth with disabilities. Based on a random assignment design, the analysis uses data from a 1-year follow-up survey and SSA administrative records for 5,203 youth in six research…

  4. Latent Classes of Adolescent Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Predict Functioning and Disorder after 1 Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayer, Lynsay; Danielson, Carla Kmett; Amstadter, Ananda B.; Ruggiero, Ken; Saunders, Ben; Kilpatrick, Dean

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To identify latent classes of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in a national sample of adolescents, and to test their associations with PTSD and functional impairment 1 year later. Method: A total of 1,119 trauma-exposed youth aged 12 through 17 years (mean = 14.99 years, 51% female and 49% male) participating in the…

  5. Colles' fracture treated with non-bridging external fixation: a 1-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Andersen, J K; Høgh, A; Gantov, J; Vaesel, M T; Hansen, T Baek

    2009-08-01

    The results in 75 of 105 patients with Older type II/III (AO type A2.2, A3.1, A3.2) Colles' fractures, treated with non-bridging external fixation are presented. The mean age was 67.8 years, and all patients were followed prospectively for 12 months with radiological and functional assessment. No statistically significant loss of radial length, angulation or inclination was seen between the postoperative reduction and the 1-year follow-up examination. The clinical results after 1 year were 66 (88%) excellent/good, nine (12%) fair and 0 (0%) poor according to the modified Gartland and Werley score. Mean visual analogue scale pain score after 1 year was 0.8. In three patients (4%), re-displacement of the fracture occurred and was treated with plating. Non-bridging external fixation offers a reliable method of maintaining radiological reduction of Older type II/III fractures of the distal radius and gives a good functional outcome after 1 year.

  6. Verbal Labels Modulate Perceptual Object Processing in 1-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gliga, Teodora; Volein, Agnes; Csibra, Gergely

    2010-01-01

    Whether verbal labels help infants visually process and categorize objects is a contentious issue. Using electroencephalography, we investigated whether possessing familiar or novel labels for objects directly enhances 1-year-old children's neural processes underlying the perception of those objects. We found enhanced gamma-band (20-60 Hz)…

  7. The Stability and Structure of Career Decision-Making Profiles: A 1-Year Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gati, Itamar; Levin, Nimrod

    2012-01-01

    The Career Decision-Making Profile (CDMP) questionnaire is a multidimensional measure of the way individuals make career decisions, developed as an alternative to the single, most-dominant trait approach. Using a sample of freshmen students, the 2-week reliability (N = 273) and 1-year stability (N = 182) of the CDMP was tested for each of the 12…

  8. 29 CFR 2530.204-1 - Year of participation for benefit accrual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR MINIMUM STANDARDS FOR EMPLOYEE PENSION BENEFIT PLANS UNDER THE EMPLOYEE... BENEFIT PLANS Participation, Vesting and Benefit Accrual § 2530.204-1 Year of participation for benefit... requirements relating to benefit accrual under a defined benefit pension plan. Some of these requirements...

  9. Thai Adolescent Survivors 1 Year after the 2004 Tsunami: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuicomepee, Arunya; Romano, John L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the impact of the 2004 Asian tsunami on 400 Thai adolescents 1 year after the disaster. Quantitative analyses showed that youth behavior problems were positively associated with tsunami experiences and negatively associated with positive family functioning. Tsunami exposure, school connectedness, religious beliefs and…

  10. Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder: A 1-Year Open Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Tina R.; Axelson, David A.; Birmaher, Boris; Brent, David A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To describe an adapted version of dialectical behavior therapy for adolescents with bipolar disorder. Method: The dialectical behavior therapy intervention is delivered over 1 year and consists of two modalities: family skills training (conducted with individual family units) and individual therapy. The acute treatment period (6 months)…

  11. A Program To Promote Positive Body Image: A 1-Year Follow-Up Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McVey, Gail L.; Davis, Ron

    2002-01-01

    Evaluated the effectiveness of a program designed to promote body image satisfaction and prevent eating problems in young adolescent girls over a 1-year period. Found no program effect. Found instead, significant increases in body image satisfaction and decreases in eating problem scores over time for participants in both the prevention and…

  12. Outpatient treated burns in infants younger than 1 year in Helsinki during 2005-2009.

    PubMed

    Laitakari, Elina; Koljonen, Virve; Pyörälä, Sari; Rintala, Risto

    2014-05-01

    In general, voluminous data exists concerning burns in children, but the data focusing specially on children less than 1 year of age is sporadic. We therefore focused on examining the special features of burns in children less than 1 year of age. A retrospective study of all outpatient treated burn patients <1 year old at the Hospital for Children and Adolescents, Helsinki, Finland, from January 2005 to December 2009 was performed. During the 5-year period we identified 106 outpatient treated infants with burns, representing 15% of all pediatric burns during the study period. The majority was male and aged 9-12 months. Most of the burns occurred at home, and in most cases a caregiver was present in the injury room. Scalds were the most common type of injury followed by contact burns. The most common source of scald was from cups containing hot drink, and the most common source of contact burn was hot stoves or oven doors. Special attention needs to be targeted toward the prevention of burns in children less than 1 year of age. The majority of the injuries could have been prevented with more vigilance.

  13. Relationship between tongue strength and 1-year life expectancy in elderly people needing nursing care.

    PubMed

    Yajima, Yuri; Kikutani, Takeshi; Tamura, Fumiyo; Yoshida, Mitsuyoshi

    2017-01-05

    Tongue strength is a useful indicator of oral function and has been found to decrease with aging and reduced physical functioning. The present study aimed to assess the relationships of tongue strength with physical function, mental function, and nutritional status, and also between these factors and 1-year outcomes, to determine whether tongue strength is related to life expectancy in elderly people needing nursing care. The subjects were 140 elderly individuals requiring needing nursing care (49 men and 91 women; ≥65 years). The investigated items included sex, age, activities of daily living (ADL), comorbidity, cognitive function, nutritional status, eating function, occlusal support, and tongue strength. Furthermore, a follow-up study was conducted 1 year later, and factors related to death were identified. The mean tongue strength of the total 140 subjects was 20.3 ± 8.6 kPa. Tongue strength was assessed relative to each of the investigated items, using the t test and one-way analysis of variance. Tongue strength was significantly related to ADL, comorbidity, cognitive function, calf circumference, food intake, and occlusal support. Fifteen subjects were found to have died at the 1-year follow-up study. We assessed the relationships of 1-year outcomes with each of the factors examined, and 1-year outcomes were found to be significantly related to ADL and tongue strength.

  14. [Standartization of MRI studies in multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Bryukhov, V V; Krotenkova, I A; Morozova, S N; Krotenkova, M V

    2016-01-01

    The use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with multiple sclerosis has markedly increased in recent years. The main task of the MRI studies after the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis is to assess the dynamics of MRI for determining disease progression and monitoring the efficacy of therapy. In this regard, it is very important to obtain the most identical baseline and follow-up MRI that is possible when a single standard protocol is used. This article presents the protocol of brain MRI and spinal cord MRI and interpretation of MRI studies in patients with multiple sclerosis.

  15. Arteriovenous fistula complication following MRI

    PubMed Central

    Kirkman, Danielle; Junglee, Naushad; Mullins, Paul; Macdonald, Jamie Hugo

    2012-01-01

    Health professionals should be aware of medical procedures that cause vascular access complications. This case describes a haemodialysis patient who experienced pain, swelling and bruising over a radiocephalic fistula following MRI. Exactly the same signs and symptoms were evident following a second scan performed 3 months later. Plausible explanations include a radio frequency-induced electrical current being formed at the arteriovenous fistula, or varying gradients of the MRI sequence stimulating peripheral nerves, leading to a site of increased tissue stimulation. Of note, a juxta-anastomotic venous stenosis was confirmed by fistulogram 4 days after the second scan, although whether this access failure was due to the MRI scan per se could not be ascertained. Nevertheless, these previously undocumented observations suggest that careful patient and fistula monitoring is required when completing MRI scans in those with an arteriovenous fistula. PMID:22927271

  16. MRI of the Musculoskeletal System

    MedlinePlus

    ... magnetic field of the MRI unit, metal and electronic items are not allowed in the exam room. ... tell the technologist if you have medical or electronic devices in your body. These objects may interfere ...

  17. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Spine

    MedlinePlus

    ... magnetic field of the MRI unit, metal and electronic items are not allowed in the exam room. ... tell the technologist if you have medical or electronic devices in your body. These objects may interfere ...

  18. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    MedlinePlus

    ... magnetic field of the MRI unit, metal and electronic items are not allowed in the exam room. ... tell the technologist if you have medical or electronic devices in your body. These objects may interfere ...

  19. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... radiation. Instead, MRI uses a powerful magnetic field, radio waves, rapidly changing magnetic fields, and a computer to ... in most of the body's tissues. The applied radio waves then cause these protons to produce signals that ...

  20. A tonsillolith seen on MRI.

    PubMed

    el-Sherif, I; Shembesh, F M

    1997-01-01

    A case of a large tonsillolith visualized by magnetic resonance imaging is presented. Although otolaryngologists are well aware of this entity, few radiologists are. The importance of distinguishing tonsilloliths from other structures by MRI is discussed.

  1. Spiritual absence and 1-year mortality after hematopoietic stem cell transplant.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Deidre B; Christian, Lisa M; Patidar, Seema; Bishop, Michelle M; Dodd, Stacy M; Athanason, Rebecca; Wingard, John R; Reddy, Vijay S

    2010-08-01

    Religiosity and spirituality have been associated with better survival in large epidemiologic studies. This study examined the relationship between spiritual absence and 1-year all-cause mortality in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. Depression and problematic compliance were examined as possible mediators of a significant spiritual absence-mortality relationship. Eighty-five adults (mean = 46.85 years old, SD = 11.90 years) undergoing evaluation for allogeneic HSCT had routine psychologie evaluation prior to HSCT admission. The Millon Behavioral Medicine Diagnostic was used to assess spiritual absence, depression, and problematic compliance, the psychosocial predictors of interest. Patient status at 1 year and survival time in days were abstracted from medical records. Cox regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between the psychosocial factors of interest and mortality after adjusting for relevant biobehavioral factors. Twenty-nine percent (n = 25) of participants died within 1 year of HSCT. After covarying for disease type, individuals with the highest spiritual absence and problematic compliance scores were significantly more likely to die 1-year post-HSCT (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.49, P = .043 and HR = 3.74, P = .029, respectively), particularly secondary to infection, sepsis, or graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) (HR = 4.56, P = .01 and HR = 5.61, P = .014), relative to those without elevations on these scales. Depression was not associated with 1-year mortality, and problematic compliance did not mediate the relationship between spiritual absence and mortality. These preliminary results suggest that both spiritual absence and problematic compliance may be associated with poorer survival following HSCT. Future research should examine these relations in a larger sample using a more comprehensive assessment of spirituality.

  2. Endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty with 1-year follow-up: factors predictive of success

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Nava, G.; Galvao, M.; Bautista-Castaño, I.; Fernandez-Corbelle, J. P.; Trell, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Bariatric endoscopy has emerged as an aid in the nonsurgical treatment of obesity. The objective of this study is to critically provide the results and follow-up of endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty 1 year after the procedure. Patients and methods: Prospective single-center follow-up study of 25 patients (5 men, 20 women) who underwent flexible endoscopic suturing for endoluminal gastric volume reduction. A multidisciplinary team provided post-procedure care. Patient outcomes were recorded at 1 year after the procedure. Linear regression analysis was done to evaluate the variables associated with best results at 1 year of follow-up. Results: Mean body mass index (BMI) was 38.5 ± 4.6 kg/m2 (range 30 – 47) and mean age 44.5 ± 8.2 years (range 29 – 60). At 1 year, 22 patients continued with the follow-up (2 dropped out at 6 months and 1 at 3 months). There were no major intra-procedural, early, or delayed adverse events. Mean BMI loss was 7.3 ± 4.2 kg/m2, and mean percentage of total body weight loss was 18.7 ± 10.7 at 1 year. In the linear regression analysis, adjusted by initial BMI, variables associated with %TBWL involved the frequency of nutritional (β = 0.563, P = 0.014) and psychological contacts (β = 0.727, P = 0.025). The number of nutritional and psychological contacts were predictive of good weight loss results. Conclusions: Endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty is a feasible, reproducible, and effective procedure to treat obesity. Nutritional and psychological interaction are predictive of success. PMID:26878054

  3. Effect of Peritoneal Dialysis Modality on the 1-Year Rate of Decline of Residual Renal Function

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chan Ho; Oh, Hyung Jung; Lee, Mi Jung; Kwon, Young Eun; Kim, Yung Ly; Nam, Ki Heon; Park, Kyoung Sook; An, Seong Yeong; Ko, Kwang Il; Koo, Hyang Mo; Doh, Fa Mee; Han, Seung Hyeok; Yoo, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Beom Seok; Kang, Shin-Wook

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The effect of different peritoneal dialysis (PD) modalities on the decline in residual renal function (RRF) is unclear due to inconsistencies among studies. In particular, the effect of automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) modalities [continuous cyclic peritoneal dialysis (CCPD) and nightly intermittent peritoneal dialysis (NIPD)] on RRF has not been examined in a large cohort. Materials and Methods We conducted a single-center retrospective study to investigate the association between PD modalities and decline in RRF in 142 incident PD patients [34 on CCPD, 36 on NIPD, and 72 on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD)]. RRF was measured within 2 months from PD start and at 1 year after PD initiation. Results The RRF at 1 year after PD initiation was 1.98±2.20 mL/min/1.73 m2 in CCPD patients and 3.63±3.67 mL/min/1.73 m2 in NIPD patients, which were moderately lower than 4.23±3.51 mL/min/1.73 m2 in CAPD patients (p=0.064). Moreover, there was no significant difference in the 1-year rate of decline of RRF between CCPD and NIPD patients, although APD patients had a faster 1-year RRF decline rate than CAPD patients (CCPD and NIPD vs. CAPD: -45.68 and -36.69 vs. 1.17%/year, p=0.045). APD was associated with a more rapid decline in RRF in patients with end-stage renal disease undergoing PD, although multivariate analysis attenuated the significance of this finding (β=-31.50; 95% CI, -63.61 to 0.62; p=0.052). Conclusion Our results suggest that CAPD might be more helpful than APD for preserving RRF during the first year of dialysis therapy, although there was no significant difference in the 1-year rate of decline of RRF between the two APD modalities. PMID:24339299

  4. Interpregnancy interval and obstetrical complications.

    PubMed

    Shachar, Bat Zion; Lyell, Deirdre J

    2012-09-01

    Obstetricians are often presented with questions regarding the optimal interpregnancy interval (IPI). Short IPI has been associated with adverse perinatal and maternal outcomes, ranging from preterm birth and low birth weight to neonatal and maternal morbidity and mortality. Long IPI has in turn been associated with increased risk for preeclampsia and labor dystocia. In this review, we discuss the data regarding these associations along with recent studies revealing associations of short IPI with birth defects, schizophrenia, and autism. The optimal IPI may vary for different subgroups. We discuss the consequences of short IPI in women with a prior cesarean section, in particular the increased risk for uterine rupture and the considerations regarding a trial of labor in this subgroup. We review studies examining the interaction between short IPI and advanced maternal age and discuss the risk-benefit assessment for these women. Finally, we turn our attention to women after a stillbirth or an abortion, who often desire to conceive again with minimal delay. We discuss studies speaking in favor of a shorter IPI in this group. The accumulated data allow for the reevaluation of current IPI recommendations and management guidelines for women in general and among subpopulations with special circumstances. In particular, we suggest lowering the current minimal IPI recommendation to only 18 months (vs 24 months according to the latest World Health Organization recommendations), with even shorter recommended minimal IPI for women of advanced age and those who conceive after a spontaneous or induced abortion.

  5. Potential Clinical Applications for Spinal Functional MRI

    PubMed Central

    Kornelsen, Jennifer; Mackey, Sean

    2010-01-01

    Functional MRI (fMRI) of the spinal cord is a noninvasive technique for obtaining information regarding spinal cord neuronal function. This article provides a brief overview of recent developments in spinal cord fMRI and outlines potential applications, as well as the limitations that must be overcome, for using spinal fMRI in the clinic. This technique is currently used for research purposes, but significant potential exists for spinal fMRI to become an important clinical tool. PMID:17504642

  6. Prognostic role of D-dimer for in-hospital and 1-year mortality in exacerbations of COPD

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Guoping; Wu, Yankui; Zhou, Yumin; Wu, Zelong; Wei, Liping; Li, Yuqun; Peng, GongYong; Liang, Weiqiang; Ran, Pixin

    2016-01-01

    Background and objective Serum D-dimer is elevated in respiratory disease. The objective of our study was to investigate the effect of D-dimer on in-hospital and 1-year mortality after acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). Methods Upon admission, we measured 343 AECOPD patients’ serum D-dimer levels and arterial blood gas analysis, and recorded their clinical characteristics. The level of D-dimer that discriminated survivors and non-survivors was determined using a receiver operator curve (ROC). The risk factors for in-hospital mortality were identified through univariate analysis and multiple logistic regression analyses. To evaluate the predictive role of D-dimer for 1-year mortality, univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were performed. Results In all, 28 patients died, and 315 patients survived in the in-hospital period. The group of dead patients had lower pH levels (7.35±0.11 vs 7.39±0.05, P<0.0001), higher D-dimer, arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2), C-reactive protein (CRP), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels (D-dimer 2,244.9±2,310.7 vs 768.2±1,078.4 µg/L, P<0.0001; PaCO2: 58.8±29.7 vs 46.1±27.0 mmHg, P=0.018; CRP: 81.5±66, P=0.001; BUN: 10.20±6.87 vs 6.15±3.15 mmol/L, P<0.0001), and lower hemoglobin levels (118.6±29.4 vs 128.3±18.2 g/L, P=0.001). The areas under the ROC curves of D-dimer for in-hospital death were 0.748 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.641–0.854). D-dimer ≥985 ng/L was a risk factor for in-hospital mortality (relative risk =6.51; 95% CI 3.06–13.83). Multivariate logistic regression analysis also showed that D-dimer ≥985 ng/L and heart failure were independent risk factors for in-hospital mortality. Both univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses showed that D-dimer ≥985 ng/L was an independent risk factor for 1-year death (hazard ratio (HR) 3.48, 95% CI 2.07–5.85 for the univariate analysis; and HR 1.96, 95% CI 1.05–3.65 for the multivariate analysis

  7. [Recent advances in newborn MRI].

    PubMed

    Morel, B; Hornoy, P; Husson, B; Bloch, I; Adamsbaum, C

    2014-07-01

    The accurate morphological exploration of the brain is a major challenge in neonatology that advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can now provide. MRI is the gold standard if an hypoxic ischemic pathology is suspected in a full term neonate. In prematures, the specific role of MRI remains to be defined, secondary to US in any case. We present a state of the art of hardware and software technical developments in MRI. The increase in magnetic field strength (3 tesla) and the emergence of new MRI sequences provide access to new information. They both have positive and negative consequences on the daily clinical data acquisition use. The semiology of brain imaging in full term newborns and prematures is more extensive and complex and thereby more difficult to interpret. The segmentation of different brain structures in the newborn, even very premature, is now available. It is now possible to dissociate the cortex and basal ganglia from the cerebral white matter, to calculate the volume of anatomical structures, which improves the morphometric quantification and the understanding of the normal and abnormal brain development. MRI is a powerful tool to analyze the neonatal brain. The relevance of the diagnostic contribution requires an adaptation of the parameters of the sequences to acquire and of the image processing methods.

  8. Diffusion MRI in the heart

    PubMed Central

    Mekkaoui, Choukri; Reese, Timothy G.; Jackowski, Marcel P.; Bhat, Himanshu

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion MRI provides unique information on the structure, organization, and integrity of the myocardium without the need for exogenous contrast agents. Diffusion MRI in the heart, however, has proven technically challenging because of the intrinsic non‐rigid deformation during the cardiac cycle, displacement of the myocardium due to respiratory motion, signal inhomogeneity within the thorax, and short transverse relaxation times. Recently developed accelerated diffusion‐weighted MR acquisition sequences combined with advanced post‐processing techniques have improved the accuracy and efficiency of diffusion MRI in the myocardium. In this review, we describe the solutions and approaches that have been developed to enable diffusion MRI of the heart in vivo, including a dual‐gated stimulated echo approach, a velocity‐ (M 1) or an acceleration‐ (M 2) compensated pulsed gradient spin echo approach, and the use of principal component analysis filtering. The structure of the myocardium and the application of these techniques in ischemic heart disease are also briefly reviewed. The advent of clinical MR systems with stronger gradients will likely facilitate the translation of cardiac diffusion MRI into clinical use. The addition of diffusion MRI to the well‐established set of cardiovascular imaging techniques should lead to new and complementary approaches for the diagnosis and evaluation of patients with heart disease. © 2015 The Authors. NMR in Biomedicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26484848

  9. Oahu Solar Measurement Grid (1-Year Archive): 1-Second Solar Irradiance; Oahu, Hawaii (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Sengupta, M.; Andreas, A.

    2010-03-16

    Seventeen measurement stations in the south western region of the island of Oahu collected data at 1-second intervals over the course of a year. The sensors are located in a 1-kilometer grid and the information then can be used to predict what PV outputs might be at 1-second intervals for medium-sized and large PV systems. This DOE-funded study by NREL supports the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI), a multifaceted program to substantially increase the use of renewable energy in Hawaii.

  10. Three-dimensional assessment of mandibular advancement 1 year after surgery

    PubMed Central

    de Assis Ribeiro Carvalho, Felipe; Cevidanes, Lucia Helena Soares; Motta, Alexandre Trindade Simões da; de Oliveira Almeida, Marco Antonio; Phillips, Ceib

    2010-01-01

    Introduction This prospective observational study evaluated changes in the 3-dimensional position and remodeling of the mandibular rami, condyles, and chin at splint removal and 1 year after mandibular advancement surgery. Methods Presurgery, splint removal (4–6 weeks postsurgery), and 1-year postsurgery cone-beam computed tomography scans of 27 subjects were used. Superimposition on the cranial base was used to assess positional or remodeling changes in the anatomic regions of interest. Surface distance displacements were visually displayed and quantified by 3-dimensional color maps. A 1-sample t test was used to assess the average postsurgical changes of each region of interest. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Results After antero-inferior chin displacement with surgery (mean, 6.81 ± 3.2 mm at splint removal), the average 1-year post-surgery displacement was not statistically significant (P = 0.44). Postsurgical adaptations greater than 2 mm were observed in 48% of the patients: 16% with an additional anterior-inferior displacement of the chin of 2 to 4 mm, and 4% with ≥4 mm; 20% had postero-superior movement of 2 to 4 mm, and 8% had postero-superior movement of ≥4 mm. The condyles tended to move, on average, ≤2 mm supero-posteriorly with surgery, and this small positional displacement was maintained 1 year postsurgery (right condyle, P = 0.58; left, P = 0.88). The rami exhibited outward (lateral) movements with surgery, with greater displacement of the inferior part of the rami (≥2 mm in 65% of the subjects). This torque of the ramus with surgery was stable 1 year postsurgery. Conclusions Three-dimensional assessment of skeletal changes with mandibular advancement surgery shows that nearly half of the patients have >2 mm change in chin position from splint removal to the 1-year follow-up, with approximately equal chances of anterior and posterior movement. Torque of the rami usually occurs with mandibular advancement surgery. PMID:20381760

  11. Early Neuropsychological Tests as Correlates of Productivity 1 Year after Traumatic Brain Injury: A Preliminary Matched Case-Control Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryu, Won Hyung A.; Cullen, Nora K.; Bayley, Mark T.

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the relative strength of five neuropsychological tests in correlating with productivity 1 year after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Six moderate-to-severe TBI patients who returned to work at 1-year post-injury were matched with six controls who were unemployed after 1 year based on age, severity of injury, and Functional…

  12. Intervals in evolutionary algorithms for global optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Patil, R.B.

    1995-05-01

    Optimization is of central concern to a number of disciplines. Interval Arithmetic methods for global optimization provide us with (guaranteed) verified results. These methods are mainly restricted to the classes of objective functions that are twice differentiable and use a simple strategy of eliminating a splitting larger regions of search space in the global optimization process. An efficient approach that combines the efficient strategy from Interval Global Optimization Methods and robustness of the Evolutionary Algorithms is proposed. In the proposed approach, search begins with randomly created interval vectors with interval widths equal to the whole domain. Before the beginning of the evolutionary process, fitness of these interval parameter vectors is defined by evaluating the objective function at the center of the initial interval vectors. In the subsequent evolutionary process the local optimization process returns an estimate of the bounds of the objective function over the interval vectors. Though these bounds may not be correct at the beginning due to large interval widths and complicated function properties, the process of reducing interval widths over time and a selection approach similar to simulated annealing helps in estimating reasonably correct bounds as the population evolves. The interval parameter vectors at these estimated bounds (local optima) are then subjected to crossover and mutation operators. This evolutionary process continues for predetermined number of generations in the search of the global optimum.

  13. Cognitive and affective assessment in day care versus institutionalized elderly patients: a 1-year longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Maseda, Ana; Balo, Aránzazu; Lorenzo–López, Laura; Lodeiro–Fernández, Leire; Rodríguez–Villamil, José Luis; Millán–Calenti, José Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Cognitive decline and depression are two common mental health problems that may create a need for long-term care among the elderly. In the last decade, the percentage of older adults who receive health care in nursing homes, day care centers, or home support services has increased in Europe. The objectives of this descriptive and nonrandomized longitudinal study were to evaluate and to compare the cognitive and affective evolution of day care versus institutionalized older patients through a 1-year period, and to assess the presence of cognitive and affective impairment as a function of the care setting. Patients and methods Ninety-four patients were assessed at baseline, and 63 (67.0%) were reassessed 1 year later. Neuropsychological assessment included measures of cognitive performance (general cognitive status, visuospatial, and language abilities) and affective status (depressive symptoms). Results Our findings indicated that the majority of the participants (day care and institutionalized patients) had mild–moderate cognitive impairment at baseline, which significantly increased in both groups after 1-year follow-up. However, the rate of change in global cognitive function did not significantly differ between groups over time. Regarding language abilities, naming function maintained among day care patients in comparison with institutionalized patients, who showed worse performance at follow-up. As regards to affective status, results revealed that institutionalized patients had a significant reduction in depressive symptoms at follow-up, when compared to day care patients. Results also highlight the high frequency of cognitive impairment and depressive symptoms regardless of the care setting. Conclusion Our findings revealed a similar global cognitive decline rate between patients receiving day care services and those residing in a nursing home at the 1-year follow-up, and slightly different trajectories in other outcomes such as naming function and

  14. Corneal Aberrations, Contrast Sensitivity, and Light Distortion in Orthokeratology Patients: 1-Year Results

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the corneal higher-order aberrations (HOA), contrast sensitivity function (CSF), and light distortion (LD) in patients undergoing orthokeratology (OK). Methods. Twenty healthy subjects (mean age: 21.40 ± 8 years) with mean spherical equivalent refractive error M = −2.19 ± 0.97 D were evaluated at 1 day, 1 month, and 1 year after starting OK treatment. Monocular LD, photopic monocular CSF, and corneal HOA for 6 mm pupil size were measured. Results. LD showed an increase after the first night (p < 0.05) and recovery to baseline after 1 month, remaining stable after 1 year (p > 0.05). Spherical-like, coma-like, and secondary astigmatism HOA RMS increased significantly (p ≤ 0.022) from baseline to 1-month visit, remaining unchanged over the follow-up. Contrast sensitivity for medium frequencies (3.0, 4.24, and 6.00 cpd) was significantly correlated with LD parameters at baseline (r ≤ −0.529, p < 0.001). However, after 1 year of treatment, this correlation was only statistically significant for 12 cpd spatial frequency (r ≤ −0.565, p < 0.001). Spherical-like RMS for 6 mm pupil size correlated with irregularity of the LD (r = −0.420, p < 0.05) at the 1-year visit. Conclusion. LD experienced by OK patients recovers after one month of treatment and remains stable in the long term while optical aberrations remain significantly higher than baseline. PMID:27867660

  15. Project FLAVOR: 1-Year Outcomes of a Multicultural, School-Based Smoking Prevention Curriculum for Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Unger, Jennifer B; Chou, Chih-Ping; Palmer, Paula H; Ritt-Olson, Anamara; Gallaher, Peggy; Cen, Steven; Lichtman, Kara; Azen, Stanley; Johnson, C Anderson

    2004-02-01

    To evaluate a multicultural smoking prevention curriculum, 16 schools were randomized to receive the multicultural curriculum or a standard curriculum and program effects on 1-year smoking initiation among 1430 never smokers were assessed. Hispanic boys who received the multicultural curriculum were less likely to initiate smoking than were those who received the standard curriculum; effects were insignificant among other groups. The prevention effect among Hispanic boys is encouraging, but additional research is needed to improve prevention effects among other groups.

  16. Corneal Aberrations, Contrast Sensitivity, and Light Distortion in Orthokeratology Patients: 1-Year Results.

    PubMed

    Santolaria-Sanz, Elena; Cerviño, Alejandro; González-Méijome, José M

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the corneal higher-order aberrations (HOA), contrast sensitivity function (CSF), and light distortion (LD) in patients undergoing orthokeratology (OK). Methods. Twenty healthy subjects (mean age: 21.40 ± 8 years) with mean spherical equivalent refractive error M = -2.19 ± 0.97 D were evaluated at 1 day, 1 month, and 1 year after starting OK treatment. Monocular LD, photopic monocular CSF, and corneal HOA for 6 mm pupil size were measured. Results. LD showed an increase after the first night (p < 0.05) and recovery to baseline after 1 month, remaining stable after 1 year (p > 0.05). Spherical-like, coma-like, and secondary astigmatism HOA RMS increased significantly (p ≤ 0.022) from baseline to 1-month visit, remaining unchanged over the follow-up. Contrast sensitivity for medium frequencies (3.0, 4.24, and 6.00 cpd) was significantly correlated with LD parameters at baseline (r ≤ -0.529, p < 0.001). However, after 1 year of treatment, this correlation was only statistically significant for 12 cpd spatial frequency (r ≤ -0.565, p < 0.001). Spherical-like RMS for 6 mm pupil size correlated with irregularity of the LD (r = -0.420, p < 0.05) at the 1-year visit. Conclusion. LD experienced by OK patients recovers after one month of treatment and remains stable in the long term while optical aberrations remain significantly higher than baseline.

  17. Zonisamide for Weight Reduction in Obese Adults A 1-Year Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gadde, Kishore M.; Kopping, Mariko F.; Wagner, H. Ryan; Yonish, Gretchen M.; Allison, David B.; Bray, George A.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Background Obese individuals who have failed to achieve adequate weight loss with lifestyle changes have limited non-surgical therapeutic options. We evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of zonisamide, an antiepileptic drug, for enhancing weight loss in obese patients receiving diet and lifestyle guidance. Methods This was a 1-year randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted between January 2006 and September 2011 at Duke University Medical Center. Patients were 225 obese (mean [SD] body mass index 37.6 [4.9]) women (134 [59.6%]) and men (91 [40.4%]) without diabetes. Interventions were daily dosing with placebo (n=74), zonisamide 200 mg (n=76), orzonisamide 400 mg (n=75), in addition to diet and lifestyle counseling by a dietitian for 1 year. Primary outcome was change in body weight at 1-year. Results Of the 225 randomized patients, 218 (97%) provided 1-year follow-up assessments. Change(least-squares mean) in body weight was -4.0 kg (−3.7%; 95% CI, −5.8 kg to −2.3 kg) for placebo, −4.4 kg (−3.9%; −6.1 to −2.6, P=.79vs placebo) for zonisamide 200 mg, and −7.3 kg (−6.8%; −9.0 to −5.6, P=.009vs placebo) for zonisamide 400 mg. In the categorical analysis,23 (31%) on placebo, 26 (34%; P=.71) on zonisamide 200 mg, and 41 (55%; P=.007) onzonisamide 400 mg achieved ≥5% weight loss; for ≥10% weight loss, the corresponding numbers were 6 (8%), 17 (22%; P=.022), and 24 (32%; P=.001). Gastrointestinal, nervous system and psychiatric adverse events occurred at a higher incidence with zonisamide than with placebo. Conclusion Zonisamide 400 mg/d moderately enhanced weight loss achieved with diet and lifestyle counseling, but had a high incidence of adverse events. PMID:23147455

  18. How hot is too hot? Live-trapped gray wolf rectal temperatures and 1-year survival

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barber-Meyer, Shannon M.; Mech, L. David

    2014-01-01

    The ability of physically restrained and anesthetized wolves to thermoregulate is lessened and could lead to reduced survival, yet no information is available about this subject. Therefore, we analyzed rectal temperatures related to survival 1 year post-capture from 173 adult (non-pup) gray wolves (Canis lupus) captured in modified foot-hold traps for radiocollaring during June–August, 1988–2011, in the Superior National Forest of northeastern Minnesota, USA. The maximum observed rectal temperature (“maxtemp,” ° F, ° C) in each wolf during capture (x = 104.0, 40.0; SD = 2.0, 1.1; min. = 95.9, 35.5; max. = 108, 42.2) was not a significant predictor of survival to 1 year post-capture. Although no weather or morphometric variable was a significant predictor of maxtemps, wolves initially anesthetized with ketamine–xylazine rather than telazol®–xylazine averaged higher maxtemps. This information does not fully address possible effects of high body temperatures related to live-capture and handling of wolves, but it does provide a useful waypoint for future assessments of this relationship and a reassurance to wildlife practitioners that the maxtemps observed in our study did not appear to affect 1-year survival.

  19. Predictors of Relapse after Inpatient Opioid Detoxification during 1-Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Relapse rate after opioid detoxification is very high. We studied the possibility that predetoxification patient characteristics might predict relapse at follow-up and thus conducted this 1-year follow-up study to assess the predictors of relapse after inpatient opioid detoxification. Materials and Methods. We conducted this study in our tertiary care institute in India over two-year time period (1 Jan 2014 to 31 Dec 2015). Out of 581 patients admitted, 466 patients were considered for study. Results and Discussion. No significant difference was found between relapsed and nonrelapsed patients regarding sociodemographic profile; however substance abuse pattern and forensic history showed significant differences. Relapsed patients abused greater amount and used injections more commonly, as compared to nonrelapsed group. Longer duration of abuse was also a significant risk factor. Patients with past attempt of opioid detoxification and family history (parental or first degree) of alcohol abuse had decreased possibility of maintaining remission during 1-year follow-up. Relapsed patients were found to abuse their spouse or parents. Conclusion. Our study compared profiles of relapsed and nonrelapsed patients after inpatient detoxification and concluded predictors of relapse during 1-year follow-up period. Early identification of predictors of relapse and hence high risk patients might be helpful in designing more effective and focused treatment plan. PMID:27722007

  20. Troponin T in Prediction of Culprit Lesion Coronary Artery Disease and 1-Year Major Adverse Cerebral and Cardiovascular Events in Patients with Acute Stroke.

    PubMed

    Zeus, Tobias; Ketterer, Ulrike; Leuf, Daniela; Dannenberg, Lisa; Wagstaff, Rabea; Bönner, Florian; Gliem, Michael; Jander, Sebastian; Kelm, Malte; Polzin, Amin

    2016-06-01

    Troponin T (TnT) elevation above the 99th percentile upper reference limit (URL) is considered diagnostic of acute myocardial infarction (MI). Non-specific increases of TnT are frequent in acute stroke patients. However, in these patients, correct diagnosis of MI is crucial because the antithrombotic medications used to treat acute MI might be harmful and produce intracranial bleeding. In this study, we aimed to associate enhanced TnT levels defined by different cutoff values with occurrence of culprit lesion coronary artery disease (CAD) as well as 1-year major adverse cerebral and cardiovascular events (MACCEs). In this cohort study, we investigated 84 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke and concomitant MI. TnT levels were measured using a fourth-generation TnT assay. The incidence of culprit lesion CAD was determined by coronary angiography. MACCEs were recorded during 1-year follow-up. Culprit lesion CAD occurred in 55 % of patients, and 1-year MACCE in 37 %. TnT levels above the manufacturers' provided 99th URL (TnT > 0.01) were not associated with culprit lesion CAD (relative risk [RR], 1.3; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.96-1.8; P = 0.09). Slightly increased cutoff level (TnT > 0.03) increased specificity and was associated with culprit lesion CAD without decreasing sensitivity (RR, 1.5; 95 % CI 1.1-2.2; P = 0.021) and 1-year MACCE (RR, 1.7; 95 % CI 1.3-2.3; P < 0.001). Slightly increasement of the TnT cutoff level predicted MACCEs and is superior in prediction of culprit lesion CAD in stroke patients without being less sensitive. This finding has to be confirmed in large-scale clinical trials.

  1. Age-specific MRI templates for pediatric neuroimaging

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Carmen E.; Richards, John E.; Almli, C. Robert

    2012-01-01

    This study created a database of pediatric age-specific MRI brain templates for normalization and segmentation. Participants included children from 4.5 through 19.5 years, totaling 823 scans from 494 subjects. Open-source processing programs (FSL, SPM, ANTS) constructed head, brain and segmentation templates in 6 month intervals. The tissue classification (WM, GM, CSF) showed changes over age similar to previous reports. A volumetric analysis of age-related changes in WM and GM based on these templates showed expected increase/decrease pattern in GM and an increase in WM over the sampled ages. This database is available for use for neuroimaging studies (blindedforreview). PMID:22799759

  2. Capacitated max -Batching with Interval Graph Compatibilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nonner, Tim

    We consider the problem of partitioning interval graphs into cliques of bounded size. Each interval has a weight, and the weight of a clique is the maximum weight of any interval in the clique. This natural graph problem can be interpreted as a batch scheduling problem. Solving a long-standing open problem, we show NP-hardness, even if the bound on the clique sizes is constant. Moreover, we give a PTAS based on a novel dynamic programming technique for this case.

  3. Estimating Motion From MRI Data

    PubMed Central

    OZTURK, CENGIZHAN; DERBYSHIRE, J. ANDREW; MCVEIGH, ELLIOT R.

    2007-01-01

    Invited Paper Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an ideal imaging modality to measure blood flow and tissue motion. It provides excellent contrast between soft tissues, and images can be acquired at positions and orientations freely defined by the user. From a temporal sequence of MR images, boundaries and edges of tissues can be tracked by image processing techniques. Additionally, MRI permits the source of the image signal to be manipulated. For example, temporary magnetic tags displaying a pattern of variable brightness may be placed in the object using MR saturation techniques, giving the user a known pattern to detect for motion tracking. The MRI signal is a modulated complex quantity, being derived from a rotating magnetic field in the form of an induced current. Well-defined patterns can also be introduced into the phase of the magnetization, and could be thought of as generalized tags. If the phase of each pixel is preserved during image reconstruction, relative phase shifts can be used to directly encode displacement, velocity and acceleration. New methods for modeling motion fields from MRI have now found application in cardiovascular and other soft tissue imaging. In this review, we shall describe the methods used for encoding, imaging, and modeling motion fields with MRI. PMID:18958181

  4. Confidence Interval Procedures for Reliability Growth Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-06-01

    Plj2s tSAA - TECHNICAL RPORT NO. 197 CONFIDENCE INTERVAL PROCEDURES FOR RELIABILITY, GROWTH ANALYSIS LARRY H. CROW JUNE 1977 APPROVED FOR PUBLIC...dence Intervals for M(T). ¶-. fl [ ] 1 Siion IIS0III0N/AVAI Ale ITY ClOtS Next page is blank. So3 CONFIDENCE INTERVAL PROCIEDURIS• FOR RELTABILITY...and confidence interval procedures for the parameters B and P = X are presented in [l , [2], [4]. In the application of the Weibull process model to

  5. Prediction of Cognitive Decline in Healthy Older Adults using fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Woodard, John L.; Seidenberg, Michael; Nielson, Kristy A.; Smith, J. Carson; Antuono, Piero; Durgerian, Sally; Guidotti, Leslie; Zhang, Qi; Butts, Alissa; Hantke, Nathan; Lancaster, Melissa; Rao, Stephen M.

    2010-01-01

    Few studies have examined the extent to which structural and functional MRI, alone and in combination with genetic biomarkers, can predict future cognitive decline in asymptomatic elders. This prospective study evaluated individual and combined contributions of demographic information, genetic risk, hippocampal volume, and fMRI activation for predicting cognitive decline after an 18-month retest interval. Standardized neuropsychological testing, an fMRI scans semantic memory task (famous name discrimination), and structural MRI (sMRI) were performed on 78 healthy elders (73% female; mean age = 73 years, range = 65 to 88 years). Positive family history of dementia and presence of one or both apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 alleles occurred in 51.3% and 33.3% of the sample, respectively. Hippocampal volumes were traced from sMRI scans. At follow-up, all participants underwent a repeat neuropsychological examination. At 18 months, 27 participants (34.6%) declined by at least 1 SD on one of three neuropsychological measures. Using logistic regression, demographic variables (age, years of education, gender) and family history of dementia did not predict future cognitive decline. Greater fMRI activity, absence of an APOE ε4 allele, and larger hippocampal volume were associated with reduced likelihood of cognitive decline. The most effective combination of predictors involved fMRI brain activity and APOE ε4 status. Brain activity measured from task-activated fMRI, in combination with APOE ε4 status, was successful in identifying cognitively intact individuals at greatest risk for developing cognitive decline over a relatively brief time period. These results have implications for enriching prevention clinical trials designed to slow AD progression. PMID:20634590

  6. QT-Interval Duration and Mortality Rate

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yiyi; Post, Wendy S.; Dalal, Darshan; Blasco-Colmenares, Elena; Tomaselli, Gordon F.; Guallar, Eliseo

    2012-01-01

    Background Extreme prolongation or reduction of the QT interval predisposes patients to malignant ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death, but the association of variations in the QT interval within a reference range with mortality end points in the general population is unclear. Methods We included 7828 men and women from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Baseline QT interval was measured via standard 12-lead electrocardiographic readings. Mortality end points were assessed through December 31, 2006 (2291 deaths). Results After an average follow-up of 13.7 years, the association between QT interval and mortality end points was U-shaped. The multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios comparing participants at or above the 95th percentile of age-, sex-, race-, and R-R interval–corrected QT interval (≥439 milliseconds) with participants in the middle quintile (401 to <410 milliseconds) were 2.03 (95% confidence interval, 1.46-2.81) for total mortality, 2.55 (1.59-4.09) for mortality due to cardiovascular disease (CVD), 1.63 (0.96-2.75) for mortality due to coronary heart disease, and 1.65 (1.16-2.35) for non-CVD mortality. The corresponding hazard ratios comparing participants with a corrected QT interval below the fifth percentile (<377 milliseconds) with those in the middle quintile were 1.39 (95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.88) for total mortality, 1.35 (0.77-2.36) for CVD mortality, 1.02 (0.44-2.38) for coronary heart disease mortality, and 1.42 (0.97-2.08) for non-CVD mortality. Increased mortality also was observed with less extreme deviations of QT-interval duration. Similar, albeit weaker, associations also were observed with Bazett-corrected QT intervals. Conclusion Shortened and prolonged QT-interval durations, even within a reference range, are associated with increased mortality risk in the general population. PMID:22025428

  7. Efficacy of risedronate in men with primary and secondary osteoporosis: results of a 1-year study.

    PubMed

    Ringe, J D; Faber, H; Farahmand, P; Dorst, A

    2006-03-01

    Osteoporosis is prevalent in men with an estimated one in eight men older than 50 years suffering from osteoporotic fracture, and a higher mortality rate after fracture among men compared with women. There are few approved therapies for osteoporosis in men. This observational study assesses the efficacy and safety of risedronate in the treatment of men with primary and secondary osteoporosis. A single-center, open label, randomized, prospective 1-year study was conducted in men with primary or secondary osteoporosis. Patients were randomized to risedronate (risedronate 5 mg/day plus calcium 1,000 mg/day and vitamin D 800 IU/day) or control groups (alfacalcidol 1 mug/day plus calcium 500 mg/day or vitamin D 1,000 IU/day plus calcium 800 mg/day). Bone mineral density (BMD) measurements, X-rays of the spine, a medical history and physical exam, and patient self-assessments of back pain were performed at baseline and 12 months. Blinded semi-quantitative fracture assessment was conducted by a radiologist. A total of 316 men with osteoporosis were enrolled in the trial (risedronate, n=158; control, n=158). At 1 year lumbar spine BMD increased by 4.7% in the risedronate group versus an increase of 1.0% in the control group (P<0.001). Significant increases in BMD at the total hip and femoral neck were also observed with risedronate compared with the control group. The incidence of new vertebral fracture in the risedronate group was reduced by 60% versus the control group (P=0.028). Daily treatment with risedronate for 12 months significantly increased BMD at the lumbar spine, femoral neck and total hip and significantly reduced the incidence of new vertebral fractures. This is the first prospective, randomized, controlled trial to demonstrate a significant reduction in vertebral fractures in 1 year in men with primary or secondary osteoporosis.

  8. Environmental exposures and respiratory morbidity among very low birth weight infants at 1 year of life

    PubMed Central

    Halterman, J S; Lynch, K A; Conn, K M; Hernandez, T E; Perry, T T; Stevens, T P

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Preterm infants have a substantially increased risk of developing respiratory illnesses. The goal of this study was to consider the impact of modifiable postnatal exposures on respiratory morbidity among a cohort of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. Objectives (1) Assess the rates of respiratory morbidity and exposure to indoor respiratory triggers in a population of VLBW infants at 1 year; (2) determine the association between exposures and respiratory morbidity. Methods We enrolled 124 VLBW infants into a prospective cohort study. Parents were called at 1 year to assess respiratory outcomes and environmental exposures. We used bivariate and multivariate analyses to assess the relationship between environmental exposures and acute care for respiratory illnesses. Results At 1 year, 9% of infants had physician-diagnosed asthma, 47% required ≥1 acute visit and 11% required hospitalisation for respiratory illness. The majority of infants (82%) were exposed to at least one indoor respiratory trigger. Infants living with a smoker (61% vs 40%) and infants exposed to pests (62% vs 39%) were more likely than unexposed infants to require acute care for respiratory problems. In a multivariate regression controlling for demographics, birth weight, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and family history of asthma or allergies, both living with a smoker (OR 2.62; CI 1.09 to 6.29) and exposure to pests (OR 4.41; CI 1.22 to 15.94) were independently associated with the need for acute care for respiratory illnesses. Conclusions In this sample, respiratory morbidity and exposure to triggers were common. VLBW infants may benefit from interventions that decrease exposure to respiratory triggers. PMID:18703545

  9. For Diabetes Shared Savings Programs, 1 Year of Data Is Not Enough.

    PubMed

    VanArsdale, Lynne; Curran-Everett, Douglas; Haugen, Heather; Smith, Nancy; Atherly, Adam

    2017-04-01

    Fee-for-service payment models are moving toward pay-for-performance designs, many of which rely on shared savings for financial sustainability. Shared savings programs divide the cost savings between health care purchaser and provider based on provider performance. Often, these programs measure provider performance as the delivery of agreed-upon clinical practice guidelines that usually are represented as evidence-based medicine (EBM). Multiyear studies show a negative relationship between total cost and EBM, indicating that long-term shared savings can be substantial. This study explores expectations for the rewards in the first year of a shared savings program. It also indicates the effectiveness of using 1 year of claims to assess cost savings from evidence-based care, especially in a patient population with high turnover. This study analyzed 1956 adults with diabetes insured through Medicaid. Results of linear regression showed that the relationship between total cost of care and each element of evidence-based medical care during a 1-year period was positive (higher cost) or insignificant. The results indicate that diabetes EBM programs cannot expect to see significant cost savings if the evaluation lasts only 1 year or less. The study concludes that improvements in EBM incentive programs could come from investigating the length of time needed to realize cost savings from each element of diabetes EBM. Investigating other factors that could affect the expected amount of cost savings also would benefit these programs, especially factors derived from sources external to insurance program information such as the medical record and care management data.

  10. A comparison of emission calculations using different modeled indicators with 1-year online measurements.

    PubMed

    Lengers, Bernd; Schiefler, Inga; Büscher, Wolfgang

    2013-12-01

    The overall measurement of farm level greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in dairy production is not feasible, from either an engineering or administrative point of view. Instead, computational model systems are used to generate emission inventories, demanding a validation by measurement data. This paper tests the GHG calculation of the dairy farm-level optimization model DAIRYDYN, including methane (CH₄) from enteric fermentation and managed manure. The model involves four emission calculation procedures (indicators), differing in the aggregation level of relevant input variables. The corresponding emission factors used by the indicators range from default per cow (activity level) emissions up to emission factors based on feed intake, manure amount, and milk production intensity. For validation of the CH₄ accounting of the model, 1-year CH₄ measurements of an experimental free-stall dairy farm in Germany are compared to model simulation results. An advantage of this interdisciplinary study is given by the correspondence of the model parameterization and simulation horizon with the experimental farm's characteristics and measurement period. The results clarify that modeled emission inventories (2,898, 4,637, 4,247, and 3,600 kg CO₂-eq. cow(-1) year(-1)) lead to more or less good approximations of online measurements (average 3,845 kg CO₂-eq. cow(-1) year(-1) (±275 owing to manure management)) depending on the indicator utilized. The more farm-specific characteristics are used by the GHG indicator; the lower is the bias of the modeled emissions. Results underline that an accurate emission calculation procedure should capture differences in energy intake, owing to milk production intensity as well as manure storage time. Despite the differences between indicator estimates, the deviation of modeled GHGs using detailed indicators in DAIRYDYN from on-farm measurements is relatively low (between -6.4% and 10.5%), compared with findings from the literature.

  11. Predictors of fatigue over 1 year among people with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Treharne, G J; Lyons, A C; Hale, E D; Goodchild, C E; Booth, D A; Kitas, G D

    2008-08-01

    Fatigue is a systemic feeling of exhaustion that is a common symptom of many chronic illnesses, including the autoimmune inflammatory disease rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We examined predictors of levels of fatigue among people with RA using Leventhal's Common-Sense Model (CSM), which states that cognitive representations of an illness spur (or halt) people's efforts to cope and thereby influence outcomes of the illness. Our use of the CSM was designed in the light of evidence in the literature specific to fatigue in RA. Current fatigue was reported on a 100 mm visual analogue scale (with anchors "No fatigue" and "Unbearable fatigue") by 114 people (73.7% women) with RA at baseline and 1 year later. Baseline employment status, pain, impact of disability, sleep disruption frequency, depressed mood, perceptions of consequences, arthritis self-efficacy and attempts to cope by praying/hoping were also self-reported. Duration of RA and a haematological measure of systemic inflammation (erythrocyte sedimentation rate; ESR) were obtained from hospital records. Unexpectedly, RA duration did not predict fatigue after 1 year, although lower baseline inflammation did (controlling for baseline fatigue and other disease impact variables). This may be due to sampling flares of RA at baseline. Baseline perceptions that RA has severe consequences and is uncontrollable also predicted greater fatigue after 1 year but this relationship was not mediated by praying/hoping. Targeted psychological care to modify perceptions of severe consequences may therefore improve later fatigue for people with RA even when the condition is longstanding, but the mechanisms of any benefit require further investigation.

  12. Necessity and Opportunity: the 1-Year Master's ABA Program at Auburn University.

    PubMed

    Johnston, James M

    2016-05-01

    The Auburn University Master of Science program in Applied Behavior Analysis was designed to accommodate not only the requirements of the Behavior Analyst Certification Board for approved course sequences and practicum training, but unavoidable limitations in faculty and other resources. These limitations were incompatible with the more traditional 2-year curriculum model, so a 1-year program was designed that met the necessary conditions. This article describes the resulting academic and practicum curriculum, the key funding mechanisms that allowed the program to develop, and the opportunities and benefits that this model afforded.

  13. Fetal MRI: A pictorial essay

    PubMed Central

    Rathee, Sapna; Joshi, Priscilla; Kelkar, Abhimanyu; Seth, Nagesh

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonography (USG) is the primary method for antenatal fetal evaluation. However, fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has now become a valuable adjunct to USG in confirming/excluding suspected abnormalities and in the detection of additional abnormalities, thus changing the outcome of pregnancy and optimizing perinatal management. With the development of ultrafast sequences, fetal MRI has made remarkable progress in recent times. In this pictorial essay, we illustrate a spectrum of structural abnormalities affecting the central nervous system, thorax, genitourinary and gastrointestinal tract, as well as miscellaneous anomalies. Anomalies in twin gestations and placental abnormalities have also been included. PMID:27081224

  14. [MRI of the pineal gland].

    PubMed

    Langevad, Line; Madsen, Camilla Gøbel; Siebner, Hartwig; Garde, Ellen

    2014-11-10

    The pineal gland (CP) is located centrally in the brain and produces melatonin. Cysts and concrements are frequent findings on MRI but their significance is still unclear. The visualization of CP is difficult due to its location and surrounding structures and so far, no standardized method exists. New studies suggest a correlation between CP-morphology and melatonin secretion as well as a connection between melatonin, disturbed circadian rhythm, and the development of cancer and cardiovascular diseases, underlining the need for a standardized approach to CP on MRI.

  15. MRI EVALUATION OF KNEE CARTILAGE

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Marcelo Bordalo; Camanho, Gilberto Luís

    2015-01-01

    Through the ability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to characterize soft tissue noninvasively, it has become an excellent method for evaluating cartilage. The development of new and faster methods allowed increased resolution and contrast in evaluating chondral structure, with greater diagnostic accuracy. In addition, physiological techniques for cartilage assessment that can detect early changes before the appearance of cracks and erosion have been developed. In this updating article, the various techniques for chondral assessment using knee MRI will be discussed and demonstrated. PMID:27022562

  16. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): Brain (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... to 2-Year-Old Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): Brain KidsHealth > For Parents > Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): Brain ... child may be given headphones to listen to music or earplugs to block the noise, and will ...

  17. Interval and Contour Processing in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heaton, Pamela

    2005-01-01

    High functioning children with autism and age and intelligence matched controls participated in experiments testing perception of pitch intervals and musical contours. The finding from the interval study showed superior detection of pitch direction over small pitch distances in the autism group. On the test of contour discrimination no group…

  18. Interpretation of Confidence Interval Facing the Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrade, Luisa; Fernández, Felipe

    2016-01-01

    As literature has reported, it is usual that university students in statistics courses, and even statistics teachers, interpret the confidence level associated with a confidence interval as the probability that the parameter value will be between the lower and upper interval limits. To confront this misconception, class activities have been…

  19. SINGLE-INTERVAL GAS PERMEABILITY ESTIMATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Single-interval, steady-steady-state gas permeability testing requires estimation of pressure at a screened interval which in turn requires measurement of friction factors as a function of mass flow rate. Friction factors can be obtained by injecting air through a length of pipe...

  20. Biomathematics and Interval Analysis: A Prosperous Marriage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markov, S. M.

    2010-11-01

    In this survey paper we focus our attention on dynamical bio-systems involving uncertainties and the use of interval methods for the modelling study of such systems. The kind of envisioned uncertain systems are those described by a dynamical model with parameters bounded in intervals. We point out to a fruitful symbiosis between dynamical modelling in biology and computational methods of interval analysis. Both fields are presently in the stage of rapid development and can benefit from each other. We point out on recent studies in the field of interval arithmetic from a new perspective—the midpoint-radius arithmetic which explores the properties of error bounds and approximate numbers. The midpoint-radius approach provides a bridge between interval methods and the "uncertain but bounded" approach used for model estimation and identification. We briefly discuss certain recently obtained algebraic properties of errors and approximate numbers.

  1. Induction of Maturogenesis by Partial Pulpotomy: 1 Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Bacaksiz, A.; Alaçam, A.

    2013-01-01

    In cariously exposed immature permanent teeth, the treatment choice is controversial in pediatric dentistry. Radical root canal treatment usually appears to be the solution for these teeth. Even partial pulpotomy is a vital treatment for traumatically exposed immature permanent teeth; extending the borders of indication towards cariously exposed immature permanent teeth with reversible pulpitis may abolish the necessity of pulpectomy. This article describes the partial pulpotomy of a cariously affected immature permanent teeth and the follow-up for 1 year. A healthy 11-year-old male patient was referred to Gazi University Faculty of Dentistry Department of Pediatric Dentistry. The patient had reversible pulpitis symptoms on teeth numbered 45. At radiographic examination, immature apex and deep caries lesion were observed and partial pulpotomy was performed by using calcium hydroxide to maintain vitality of the pulp and allow continued development of root dentin expecting the root will attain full maturity. Clinical and radiographic follow-up demonstrated a vital pulp besides not only closure of the apex (apexogenesis), but also physiologic root development (maturogenesis) after 1 year. Partial pulpotomy is an optional treatment for cariously exposed immature permanent teeth for preserving vitality and physiological root development. PMID:24324899

  2. Parental spanking of 1-year-old children and subsequent child protective services involvement✩

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Shawna J.; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Berger, Lawrence M.

    2015-01-01

    The majority of U.S. parents spank their children, often beginning when their children are very young. We examined families (N=2,788) who participated in a longitudinal community-based study of new births in urban areas. Prospective analyses examined whether spanking by the child's mother, father, or mother's current partner when the child was 1-year-old was associated with household CPS involvement between age 1 and age 5. Results indicated that 30% of 1-year-olds were spanked at least once in the past month. Spanking at age 1 was associated with increased odds of subsequent CPS involvement (adjusted odds ratio=1.36, 95% CI [1.08, 1.71], p<.01). When compared to non-spanked children, there was a 33% greater probability of subsequent CPS involvement for children who were spanked at age 1. Given the undesirable consequences of spanking children and a lack of empirical evidence to suggest positive effects of physical punishment, professionals who work with families should counsel parents not to spank infants and toddlers. For optimal benefits, efforts to educate parents regarding alternative forms of discipline should begin during the child's first year of life. PMID:24602690

  3. Phase Fluctuations at Goldstone Derived from 1-Year Site Testing Interferometer Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nessel, James A.; Acosta, Roberto J.; Morabito, David D.

    2009-01-01

    A two-element site test interferometer has been deployed at the NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) tracking complex in Goldstone, California, since May 2007. The interferometer system consists of two offset-fed 1.2 m parabolic reflectors which monitor atmospheric-induced amplitude and phase fluctuations on an unmodulated beacon signal (20.199 GHz) broadcast from a geostationary satellite (Anik F2). The geometry of the satellite and the ground-based infrastructure imposes a 48.5 elevation angle with a separation distance of 256 m along an east-west baseline. The interferometer has been recording phase fluctuation data, to date, for 1 yr with an overall system availability of 95 percent. In this paper, we provide the cumulative distribution functions (CDFs) for 1 year of recorded data, including phase rms, spatial structure function exponent, and surface meteorological measurements: surface wind speed, relative humidity, temperature, barometric pressure, and rain rate. Correlation between surface measurements, phase rms, and amplitude rms at different time scales are discussed. For 1 year, phase fluctuations at the DSN site in Goldstone, are better than 23 for 90 percent of the time (at 48.5 elevation). This data will be used to determine the suitability of the Goldstone site as a location for the Next Generation Deep Space Network.

  4. Induction of maturogenesis by partial pulpotomy: 1 year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Bacaksiz, A; Alaçam, A

    2013-01-01

    In cariously exposed immature permanent teeth, the treatment choice is controversial in pediatric dentistry. Radical root canal treatment usually appears to be the solution for these teeth. Even partial pulpotomy is a vital treatment for traumatically exposed immature permanent teeth; extending the borders of indication towards cariously exposed immature permanent teeth with reversible pulpitis may abolish the necessity of pulpectomy. This article describes the partial pulpotomy of a cariously affected immature permanent teeth and the follow-up for 1 year. A healthy 11-year-old male patient was referred to Gazi University Faculty of Dentistry Department of Pediatric Dentistry. The patient had reversible pulpitis symptoms on teeth numbered 45. At radiographic examination, immature apex and deep caries lesion were observed and partial pulpotomy was performed by using calcium hydroxide to maintain vitality of the pulp and allow continued development of root dentin expecting the root will attain full maturity. Clinical and radiographic follow-up demonstrated a vital pulp besides not only closure of the apex (apexogenesis), but also physiologic root development (maturogenesis) after 1 year. Partial pulpotomy is an optional treatment for cariously exposed immature permanent teeth for preserving vitality and physiological root development.

  5. Parental spanking of 1-year-old children and subsequent child protective services involvement.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shawna J; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Berger, Lawrence M

    2014-05-01

    The majority of U.S. parents spank their children, often beginning when their children are very young. We examined families (N=2,788) who participated in a longitudinal community-based study of new births in urban areas. Prospective analyses examined whether spanking by the child's mother, father, or mother's current partner when the child was 1-year-old was associated with household CPS involvement between age 1 and age 5. Results indicated that 30% of 1-year-olds were spanked at least once in the past month. Spanking at age 1 was associated with increased odds of subsequent CPS involvement (adjusted odds ratio=1.36, 95% CI [1.08, 1.71], p<.01). When compared to non-spanked children, there was a 33% greater probability of subsequent CPS involvement for children who were spanked at age 1. Given the undesirable consequences of spanking children and a lack of empirical evidence to suggest positive effects of physical punishment, professionals who work with families should counsel parents not to spank infants and toddlers. For optimal benefits, efforts to educate parents regarding alternative forms of discipline should begin during the child's first year of life.

  6. Prediction of depression and anxiety 1 year after moderate-severe traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Demakis, George J; Hammond, Flora M; Knotts, Allison

    2010-07-01

    This study examined three scales of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Anxiety, Anxiety-Related Disorders, and Depression) in 88 participants 1 year after they suffered a moderate-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Participants were all enrolled in the federally funded Traumatic Brain Injury Model System project at Carolinas Rehabilitation. The following variables were assessed at the time of injury: age, sex, employment and marital status, and length of loss of consciousness. Disability status, using the Disability Rating Scale (DRS), was assessed at the time of discharge from the rehabilitation hospital. A series of three linear regression analyses found that these variables significantly predicted scores on the Anxiety and Anxiety-Related Disorders scales, which accounted for 14% and 17.7% of the variance, respectively. The variables did not significantly predict scores on the Depression scale. Within each regression analysis, DRS was consistently and negatively related to each PAI scale, such that greater disability was associated with better psychological functioning. Such seemingly paradoxical findings are discussed in terms of anosognosia or poor awareness of psychological functioning among those with greater disability 1 year after TBI.

  7. Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Adolescents With Bipolar Disorder: A 1-Year Open Trial

    PubMed Central

    GOLDSTEIN, TINA R.; AXELSON, DAVID A.; BIRMAHER, BORIS; BRENT, DAVID A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To describe an adapted version of dialectical behavior therapy for adolescents with bipolar disorder. Method The dialectical behavior therapy intervention is delivered over 1 year and consists of two modalities: family skills training (conducted with individual family units) and individual therapy. The acute treatment period (6 months) includes 24 weekly sessions; sessions alternate between the two treatment modalities. Continuation treatment consists of 12 additional sessions tapering in frequency through 1 year. We conducted an open pilot trial of the treatment, designed as an adjunct to pharmacological management, to establish feasibility and acceptability of the treatment for this population. Participants included 10 patients (mean age 15.8 ± 1.5 years, range 14–18) receiving treatment in an outpatient pediatric bipolar specialty clinic. Symptom severity and functioning were assessed quarterly by an independent evaluator. Consumer satisfaction was also assessed posttreatment. Results Feasibility and acceptability of the intervention were high, with 9 of 10 patients completing treatment, 90% of scheduled sessions attended, and high treatment satisfaction ratings. Patients exhibited significant improvement from pre- to posttreatment in suicidality, nonsuicidal self-injurious behavior, emotional dysregulation, and depressive symptoms. Conclusions Dialectical behavior therapy may offer promise as an approach to the psychosocial treatment of adolescent bipolar disorder. PMID:17581446

  8. Does antibiotic elution from PMMA beads deteriorate after 1-year shelf storage?

    PubMed

    Balsamo, Luke H; Whiddon, David R; Simpson, R Bruce

    2007-09-01

    Antibiotic-impregnated polymethylmethacrylate beads are widely used as an adjunct in the treatment of orthopaedic infections. Because there is no commercially available bead in the United States, surgeons must manufacture bead sets at the time of implantation. This can be time consuming and wasteful. We hypothesized antibiotic-impregnated beads would maintain consistent elution for up to 1 year after manufacturing and storage. Tobramycin-impregnated antibiotic beads were manufactured using a bead mold. The antibiotic was either hand-mixed into the polymethylmethacrylate powder (1.2 g/40 g) or came premixed from the factory (1 g/40 g). Packages of beads were gas-sterilized and stored at room temperature. Beads were tested at 0, 1, 2, 3, 6, and 12 months. Antibiotic levels in the eluent from each day of the month were measured. We were unable to detect any difference in the amount of antibiotic elution between beads tested immediately after manufacture and beads manufactured and stored for 6 or 12 months. Beads with hand-mixed antibiotics eluted higher levels of antibiotics than the beads prepared with factory-mixed antibiotics. We conclude antibiotic beads can be made, sterilized, and used after 1 year of storage with no deleterious effect on antibiotic elution characteristics.

  9. Impact of APOE4-CSF Aβ interaction on hippocampal volume loss over 1 year in MCI

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, G.C.; Insel, P.S.; Tosun, D.; Schuff, N.; Truran-Sacrey, D.; Raptentsetsang, S.T.; Thompson, P.M.; Reiman, E.M.; Jack, C.R.; Fox, N.C.; Jagust, W.J.; Harvey, D.J.; Beckett, L.A.; Gamst, A.; Aisen, P.S.; Petersen, R.C.; Weiner, M.W.

    2011-01-01

    Background The majority of studies relating amyloid pathology with brain volumes have been cross-sectional. Apolipoprotein E4 (APOE4), a genetic risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease (AD), is also associated with hippocampal volume loss. No studies have considered the effects of amyloid pathology and APOE4 together on longitudinal volume loss. Methods We evaluated whether an abnormal level of cerebrospinal fluid beta-amyloid (CSF Aβ) and APOE4 carrier status were independently associated with greater hippocampal volume loss over 1 year. We then assessed whether APOE4 status and CSF Aβ acted synergistically, testing the significance of an interaction term in the regression analysis. We included 297 participants: 77 cognitively normal (NC), 144 with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 76 with AD. Results An abnormal CSF Aβ level was found to be associated with greater hippocampal volume loss over 1 year in each group. APOE4 was associated with hippocampal volume loss only in the NC and MCI groups. APOE4 carriers with abnormal CSF Aβ in the MCI group acted synergistically to produce disproportionately greater volume loss than noncarriers. Conclusion Baseline CSF Aβ predicts progression of hippocampal volume loss. APOE4 carrier status amplifies the degree of neurodegeneration in MCI. Understanding the effect of interactions between genetic risk and amyloid pathology will be important in clinical trials and our understanding of the disease process. PMID:21889115

  10. Cognitive Predictors of Academic Achievement in Young Children 1 Year Following Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Fulton, John B.; Yeates, Keith Owen; Taylor, H. Gerry; Walz, Nicolay C.; Wade, Shari L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine cognitive predictors of academic achievement in young children with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and orthopedic injury (OI) shortly after injury and 1 year post-injury. Methods Participants included 3 to 6 year old children, 63 with TBI (46 with moderate TBI and 17 with severe TBI) and a comparison group of 80 children with OI. Academic achievement was assessed approximately 1 month and 12 months post injury, using three subtests from the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Achievement-Third Edition and the School Readiness Composite from the Bracken Basic Concepts Scale-Revised. General intellectual functioning, memory, and executive functions were measured at the initial assessment using standardized tests. Results Hierarchical linear regression was used to predict academic achievement at the initial and 1-year follow-up assessments. Memory and executive functions were significant predictors of academic achievement at both assessments, after controlling for group membership and demographic variables. Executive function remained a significant predictor of some outcomes after taking general intellectual functioning into account. Predictive relationships did not vary across the TBI and OI groups. Similar results were obtained when regression analyses were completed with only TBI participants using the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score as a predictor, although memory and executive functioning were somewhat less robust in predicting academic achievement than before. Conclusions Both memory and executive function predict academic achievement following TBI in preschool children, although some of the associations may be accounted for by general intellectual functioning. PMID:22563873

  11. Improved interval estimation of comparative treatment effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Krevelen, Ryne Christian

    Comparative experiments, in which subjects are randomized to one of two treatments, are performed often. There is no shortage of papers testing whether a treatment effect exists and providing confidence intervals for the magnitude of this effect. While it is well understood that the object and scope of inference for an experiment will depend on what assumptions are made, these entities are not always clearly presented. We have proposed one possible method, which is based on the ideas of Jerzy Neyman, that can be used for constructing confidence intervals in a comparative experiment. The resulting intervals, referred to as Neyman-type confidence intervals, can be applied in a wide range of cases. Special care is taken to note which assumptions are made and what object and scope of inference are being investigated. We have presented a notation that highlights which parts of a problem are being treated as random. This helps ensure the focus on the appropriate scope of inference. The Neyman-type confidence intervals are compared to possible alternatives in two different inference settings: one in which inference is made about the units in the sample and one in which inference is made about units in a fixed population. A third inference setting, one in which inference is made about a process distribution, is also discussed. It is stressed that certain assumptions underlying this third type of inference are unverifiable. When these assumptions are not met, the resulting confidence intervals may cover their intended target well below the desired rate. Through simulation, we demonstrate that the Neyman-type intervals have good coverage properties when inference is being made about a sample or a population. In some cases the alternative intervals are much wider than necessary on average. Therefore, we recommend that researchers consider using our Neyman-type confidence intervals when carrying out inference about a sample or a population as it may provide them with more

  12. Cervical Spine MRI in Abused Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Kenneth W.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    This study attempted to use cervical spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to detect cord injury in 12 dead children with head injury from child abuse. Eighty percent of children autopsied had small cervical spine hemorrhages; MRI did not identify them and did not identify cord injury in any child studied, indicating that MRI scans are probably…

  13. Remembering September 11th: the role of retention interval and rehearsal on flashbulb and event memory.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Lauren R

    2006-02-01

    Retention interval and rehearsal effects on flashbulb and event memory for 11th September 2001 (9/11) were examined. In Experiment 1, college students were assessed three times (Groups 1 and 2) or once (Group 3) over 11 weeks. In Experiment 2, three new groups assessed initially at 23 weeks (Group 4), 1 year (Group 5), or 2 years (Group 6) were compared at 1 year and at 2 years with subsamples of those assessed previously. No effects of retention interval length or rehearsal were found for flashbulb memory, which contained details at each assessment. Event memory, but not consistency, was detrimentally affected by long retention intervals, but improved with rehearsal. Recall was higher for the reception event than for the main events. Also, consistency from 1 day to 11 weeks, but not 1 year to 2 years, was higher for flashbulb memory than for event memory. Event recall was enhanced when respondents conceived of their memory as vivid, frozen, and encompassing a longer period of time. Positive correlations were found for event memory with confidence in accuracy and with rehearsal through discussion at 2 years.

  14. Influence of gradient acoustic noise on fMRI response in the human visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nanyin; Zhu, Xiao-Hong; Chen, Wei

    2005-08-01

    A paired-stimuli paradigm combined with fMRI was utilized to study the effect of gradient acoustic noise on fMRI response in the human primary visual cortex (V1) in terms of the auditory-visual cross-modal neural interaction. The gradient noise generated during the fMRI acquisition was used as the primary stimulus, and a single flashing light was used as the secondary stimulus. An interstimulus interval (ISI) separated the two. Six tasks were designed with different ISIs ranging from 50 to 700 ms. Both BOLD signal intensity and the number of activated pixels in V1 were analyzed and examined, and they showed a significant reduction when the gradient noise preceded the flashing light by approximately 300 ms. These results indicate that the gradient acoustic noise generated during fMRI acquisitions does interfere with neural behavior and the BOLD signal in the human visual cortex. This interference is modulated by the delay between the gradient noise and visual stimulation, and it can be studied quantitatively when the stimulation paradigm is designed appropriately. This study provides evidence of the auditory-visual interaction during fMRI studies, and the results should have an impact on fMRI applications.

  15. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    MedlinePlus

    ... provides detailed images of blood vessels in the brain—often without the need for contrast material. See the MRA page for more information. MRI can detect stroke at a very early stage by mapping the motion of water molecules in the tissue. ...

  16. Pretreatment clinical and psychosocial predictors of remission from depression after short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy and solution-focused therapy: a 1-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Marttunen, Mauri; Valikoski, Maarit; Lindfors, Olavi; Laaksonen, Maarit A; Knekt, Paul

    2008-03-01

    The mutual importance of different predictors of remission was studied in 163 outpatients with depression receiving either short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy or solution-focused therapy. After a 1-year follow-up, the percentage of remission significantly varied between sociodemographic subgroups and was dependent on severity of symptoms, personality disorder, and psychosocial factors but not on psychiatric history, previous psychiatric treatment, or type of therapy received. Simultaneous study showed that the most significant predictors were sense of coherence (based on Sense of Coherence Scale [SOCS]), symptom severity (based on Symptom Checklist-90 [SCL-90] Global Severity Index [GSI]), and education. The relative risks of remission between the lowest and highest quartiles of SOCS and SCL-90 GSI were 0.06 and 0.22 (95% confidence intervals = 0.01-0.35 and 0.05-0.97), respectively. In conclusion, several background factors, especially sense of coherence, predict remission.

  17. MRI bone oedema predicts eight year tendon function at the wrist but not the requirement for orthopaedic surgery in rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, S; Robinson, E; Yeoman, S; Stewart, N; Crabbe, J; Rouse, J; McQueen, F M

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate the role of early magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the wrist in predicting functional outcome in rheumatoid arthritis. Methods MRI scans of the dominant wrist were scored for synovitis, tendon inflammation, bone oedema, and erosion at first presentation (n = 42), at 1 year (n = 42), and at 6 years (n = 31). At 8 years, clinical reassessment (n = 28) was undertaken. Tendon function was graded 0–3 for movement, tendon sheath swelling, and pain on resistance at nine flexor and extensor tendons of the hand. Hand function was also assessed using the Sollerman grip test. The requirement for joint or tendon surgery by 8 years was determined by telephone survey in 39 of the original 42 patients. Results At 8 years, tendon function was highly correlated with hand function (Sollerman score, R = −0.51, p = 0.005) and global function (health assessment questionnaire score, R = 0.53, p = 0.004). Using a model incorporating baseline and 1 year MRI scores, the MRI bone oedema score was strongly predictive of tendon function at 8 years (χ22 = 15.3, p = 0.0005), as was the MRI bone erosion score (χ22 = 9.23, p = 0.01). Hand function was also predicted by the baseline MRI erosion score (p = 0.02). MRI variables did not predict the requirement for surgery, but patients who had surgery were more likely to show progression of MRI bone erosion scores between baseline and 1 year (p = 0.008). Conclusions Extensive MRI bone oedema and erosions at the wrist in early rheumatoid arthritis predict tendon dysfunction and impaired hand function in the medium term but not the requirement for joint or tendon surgery. PMID:16219706

  18. Can Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) and Diffusion-Weighted MRI (DW-MRI) Evaluate Inflammation Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jianguo; Zhang, Faming; Luan, Yun; Cao, Peng; Liu, Fei; He, Wenwen; Wang, Dehang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study was to investigate diagnosis efficacy of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) and diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) in Crohn's disease (CD). To find out the correlations between functional MRI parameters including Ktrans, Kep, Ve, Vp, and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) with a serologic biomarker. The relationships between pharmacokinetic parameters and ADC were also studied. Thirty-two patients with CD (22 men, 10 women; mean age: 30.5 years) and 18 healthy volunteers without any inflammatory disease (10 men, 8 women; mean age, 34.11 years) were enrolled into this approved prospective study. Pearson analysis was used to evaluate the correlation between Ktrans, Kep, Ve, Vp, and C-reactive protein (CRP), ADC, and CRP respectively. The diagnostic efficacy of the functional MRI parameters in terms of sensitivity and specificity were analyzed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses. Optimal cut-off values of each functional MRI parameters for differentiation of inflammatory from normal bowel were determined according to the Youden criterion. Mean value of Ktrans in the CD group was significantly higher than that of normal control group. Similar results were observed for Kep and Ve. On the contrary, the ADC value was lower in the CD group than that in the control group. Ktrans and Ve were shown to be correlated with CRP (r = 0.725, P < 0.001; r = 0.533, P = 0.002), meanwhile ADC showed negative correlation with CRP (r = −0.630, P < 0.001). There were negative correlations between the pharmacokinetic parameters and ADC, such as Ktrans to ADC (r = −0.856, P < 0.001), and Ve to ADC (r = −0.451, P = 0.01). The area under the curve (AUC) was 0.994 for Ktrans (P < 0.001), 0.905 for ADC (P < 0.001), 0.806 for Ve (P < 0.001), and 0.764 for Kep (P = 0.002). The cut-off point of the Ktrans was found to be 0.931 min–1. This value provided the best trade-off between

  19. Sampling Theory and Confidence Intervals for Effect Sizes: Using ESCI To Illustrate "Bouncing"; Confidence Intervals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du, Yunfei

    This paper discusses the impact of sampling error on the construction of confidence intervals around effect sizes. Sampling error affects the location and precision of confidence intervals. Meta-analytic resampling demonstrates that confidence intervals can haphazardly bounce around the true population parameter. Special software with graphical…

  20. Interval Estimates of Multivariate Effect Sizes: Coverage and Interval Width Estimates under Variance Heterogeneity and Nonnormality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Melinda R.; Hogarty, Kristine Y.; Ferron, John M.; Kromrey, Jeffrey D.

    2007-01-01

    Monte Carlo methods were used to examine techniques for constructing confidence intervals around multivariate effect sizes. Using interval inversion and bootstrapping methods, confidence intervals were constructed around the standard estimate of Mahalanobis distance (D[superscript 2]), two bias-adjusted estimates of D[superscript 2], and Huberty's…

  1. The microanalysis of fixed-interval responding

    PubMed Central

    Gentry, G. David; Weiss, Bernard; Laties, Victor G.

    1983-01-01

    The fixed-interval schedule of reinforcement is one of the more widely studied schedules in the experimental analysis of behavior and is also a common baseline for behavior pharmacology. Despite many intensive studies, the controlling variables and the pattern of behavior engendered are not well understood. The present study examined the microstructure and superstructure of the behavior engendered by a fixed-interval 5- and a fixed-interval 15-minute schedule of food reinforcement in the pigeon. Analysis of performance typical of fixed-interval responding indicated that the scalloped pattern does not result from smooth acceleration in responding, but, rather, from renewed pausing early in the interval. Individual interresponse-time (IRT) analyses provided no evidence of acceleration. There was a strong indication of alternation in shorter-longer IRTs, but these shorter-longer IRTs did not occur at random, reflecting instead a sequential dependency in successive IRTs. Furthermore, early in the interval there was a high relative frequency of short IRTs. Such a pattern of early pauses and short IRTs does not suggest behavior typical of reinforced responding as exemplified by the pattern found near the end of the interval. Thus, behavior from clearly scalloped performance can be classified into three states: postreinforcement pause, interim behavior, and terminal behavior. PMID:16812324

  2. Microanalysis of fixed-interval responding

    SciTech Connect

    Gentry, G.D.; Weiss, B.; Laties, V.G.

    1983-03-01

    The fixed-interval schedule of reinforcement is one of the more widely studied schedules in the experimental analysis of behavior and is also a common baseline for behavior pharmacology. Despite many intensive studies, the controlling variables and the pattern of behavior engendered are not well understood. The present study examined the microstructure and superstructure of the behavior engendered by a fixed-interval 5- and a fixed-interval 15-minute schedule of food reinforcement in the pigeon. Analysis of performance typical of fixed-interval responding indicated that the scalloped pattern does not result from smooth acceleration in responding, but, rather, from renewed pausing early in the interval. Individual interresponse-time (IRT) analyses provided no evidence of acceleration. There was a strong indication of alternation is shorter-longer IRTs, but these shorter-longer IRTs did not occur at random, reflecting instead a sequential dependency in successive IRTs. Furthermore, early in the interval there was a high relative frequency of short IRTs. Such a pattern of early pauses and short IRTs does not suggest behavior typical of reinforced responding as exemplified by the pattern found near the end of the interval. Thus, behavior from clearly scalloped performance can be classified into three states: postreinforcement pause, interim behavior, and terminal behavior. 31 references, 11 figures, 4 tables.

  3. Patient-centeredness and quality management in Dutch diabetes care organizations after a 1-year intervention

    PubMed Central

    Campmans-Kuijpers, Marjo JE; Lemmens, Lidwien C; Baan, Caroline A; Rutten, Guy EHM

    2016-01-01

    Background More focus on patient-centeredness in care for patients with type 2 diabetes requests increasing attention to diabetes quality management processes on patient-centeredness by managers in primary care groups and outpatient clinics. Although patient-centered care is ultimately determined by the quality of interactions between patients and clinicians at the practice level, it should be facilitated at organizational level too. This nationwide study aimed to assess the state of diabetes quality management on patient-centeredness at organizational level and its possibilities to improve after a tailored intervention. Methods This before–after study compares the quality management on patient-centeredness within Dutch diabetes care groups and outpatient clinics before and after a 1-year stepwise intervention. At baseline, managers of 51 diabetes primary care groups and 28 outpatient diabetes clinics completed a questionnaire about the organization’s quality management program. Patient-centeredness (0%–100%) was operationalized in six subdomains: facilitating self-management support, individualized care plan support, patients’ access to medical files, patient education policy, safeguarding patients’ interests, and formal patient involvement. The intervention consisted of feedback and benchmark and if requested a telephone call and/or a consultancy visit. After 1 year, the managers completed the questionnaire again. The 1-year changes were examined by dependent (non) parametric tests. Results Care groups improved significantly on patient-centeredness (from 47.1% to 53.3%; P=0.002), and on its subdomains “access to medical files” (from 42.0% to 49.4%), and “safeguarding patients’ interests” (from 58.1% to 66.2%). Outpatient clinics, which scored higher at baseline (66.7%) than care groups, did not improve on patient-centeredness (65.6%: P=0.54) or its subdomains. “Formal patient involvement” remained low in both care groups (23.2%) and

  4. Fast transfer of crossmodal time interval training.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lihan; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2014-06-01

    Sub-second time perception is essential for many important sensory and perceptual tasks including speech perception, motion perception, motor coordination, and crossmodal interaction. This study investigates to what extent the ability to discriminate sub-second time intervals acquired in one sensory modality can be transferred to another modality. To this end, we used perceptual classification of visual Ternus display (Ternus in Psychol Forsch 7:81-136, 1926) to implicitly measure participants' interval perception in pre- and posttests and implemented an intra- or crossmodal sub-second interval discrimination training protocol in between the tests. The Ternus display elicited either an "element motion" or a "group motion" percept, depending on the inter-stimulus interval between the two visual frames. The training protocol required participants to explicitly compare the interval length between a pair of visual, auditory, or tactile stimuli with a standard interval or to implicitly perceive the length of visual, auditory, or tactile intervals by completing a non-temporal task (discrimination of auditory pitch or tactile intensity). Results showed that after fast explicit training of interval discrimination (about 15 min), participants improved their ability to categorize the visual apparent motion in Ternus displays, although the training benefits were mild for visual timing training. However, the benefits were absent for implicit interval training protocols. This finding suggests that the timing ability in one modality can be rapidly acquired and used to improve timing-related performance in another modality and that there may exist a central clock for sub-second temporal processing, although modality-specific perceptual properties may constrain the functioning of this clock.

  5. The Total Interval of a Graph.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    definitions for all of these clases . A Husimi tree is a graph for which every block is a clique. A cactus is a graph for which every edge is in at most one...proportion of graphs with n vertices that we can represent with q(n) intervals is at most n-2 and this approaches zero as n gets large . Hence the...representations will have relatively few intervals of small depth and relatively many intervals of large depth. It is nevertheless often useful to restrict

  6. Advanced Interval Management: A Benefit Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timer, Sebastian; Peters, Mark

    2016-01-01

    This document is the final report for the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC)- sponsored task order 'Possible Benefits for Advanced Interval Management Operations.' Under this research project, Architecture Technology Corporation performed an analysis to determine the maximum potential benefit to be gained if specific Advanced Interval Management (AIM) operations were implemented in the National Airspace System (NAS). The motivation for this research is to guide NASA decision-making on which Interval Management (IM) applications offer the most potential benefit and warrant further research.

  7. Learned interval time facilitates associate memory retrieval

    PubMed Central

    van de Ven, Vincent; Kochs, Sarah; Smulders, Fren; De Weerd, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The extent to which time is represented in memory remains underinvestigated. We designed a time paired associate task (TPAT) in which participants implicitly learned cue–time–target associations between cue–target pairs and specific cue–target intervals. During subsequent memory testing, participants showed increased accuracy of identifying matching cue–target pairs if the time interval during testing matched the implicitly learned interval. A control experiment showed that participants had no explicit knowledge about the cue–time associations. We suggest that “elapsed time” can act as a temporal mnemonic associate that can facilitate retrieval of events associated in memory. PMID:28298554

  8. Diversion Alert: 1-Year Evaluation Across Northern New England, 2013–2014

    PubMed Central

    Desrosiers, Clare

    2016-01-01

    This report describes Diversion Alert, a unique online tool aimed at reducing misuse and diversion of prescription drugs, and reports the results of a 1-year evaluation of Diversion Alert’s impact in Maine. We used a quasi-experimental research design to compare survey data in Maine with those of neighboring states (New Hampshire and Vermont, 2013 and 2014). Compared with their counterparts in New Hampshire and Vermont who did not use Diversion Alert, prescribers and pharmacists in Maine who used Diversion Alert increased their communication with patients and other providers involved in their patients’ care, became aware of patients arrested for prescription drugs possession or diversion, used best practices associated with prevention or detection of addiction and diversion more frequently, and attributed positive changes in their prescribing practices to Diversion Alert. In combination with other state and federal programs, Diversion Alert may be an effective tool to help prevent the misuse of opioid medications. PMID:27880633

  9. Cognitive dysfunction at baseline predicts symptomatic 1-year outcome in first-episode schizophrenics.

    PubMed

    Moritz, S; Krausz, M; Gottwalz, E; Lambert, M; Perro, C; Ganzer, S; Naber, D

    2000-01-01

    The present study addresses the consequences of cognitive disturbances on symptomatic outcome. Fifty-three first-episode schizophrenics were reassessed (n = 32) 1 year after admission. Simple regression analyses revealed that several self-perceived cognitive deficits at baseline as measured with the Frankfurt Complaint Questionnaire significantly predicted increased Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale global scores at follow-up (p = 0.05 to p = 0.005). A stepwise regression analysis proved memory dysfunction to be the strongest predictor of symptomatic worsening (p = 0.005). It is suggested that the exploration and treatment of neuropsychological deficits in schizophrenia is of great clinical importance with regard to its impact on both functional and symptomatic outcome in schizophrenia.

  10. Whooping cough in South-East Romania: a 1-year study.

    PubMed

    Dinu, Sorin; Guillot, Sophie; Dragomirescu, Cristiana Cerasella; Brun, Delphine; Lazăr, Stefan; Vancea, Geta; Ionescu, Biatrice Mariana; Gherman, Mariana Felicia; Bjerkestrand, Andreea-Florina-Dana; Ungureanu, Vasilica; Guiso, Nicole; Damian, Maria

    2014-03-01

    The incidence of whooping cough in Romania is substantially underestimated, and, as noted by the health authorities, this is mostly due to the lack of both awareness and biological diagnosis. We conducted a 1-year study in Bucharest in order to assess the circulation of Bordetella pertussis, the main etiological agent of whooping cough. Fifty-one subjects suspected of whooping cough were enrolled. Culture, real-time PCR, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used for laboratory diagnosis. Whooping cough patients (63%) were distributed among all age groups, and most were unvaccinated, incompletely vaccinated, or had been vaccinated more than 5 years previously. Bordetella holmesii DNA was detected in 22% of the bordetellosis cases; these patients included adults; teenagers; and, surprisingly, young children. B. pertussis isolates were similar to the clinical isolates currently circulating elsewhere in Europe. One isolate does not express pertactin, an antigen included in some acellular pertussis vaccines.

  11. Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli in Daycare—A 1-Year Dynamic Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Hebbelstrup Jensen, Betina; Stensvold, Christen R.; Struve, Carsten; Olsen, Katharina E. P.; Scheutz, Flemming; Boisen, Nadia; Röser, Dennis; Andreassen, Bente U.; Nielsen, Henrik V.; Schønning, Kristian; Petersen, Andreas M.; Krogfelt, Karen A.

    2016-01-01

    Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) has been associated with persistent diarrhea, reduced growth acceleration, and failure to thrive in children living in developing countries and with childhood diarrhea in general in industrialized countries. The clinical implications of an EAEC carrier-status in children in industrialized countries warrants clarification. To investigate the pathological significance of an EAEC carrier-state in the industrialized countries, we designed a 1-year dynamic cohort study and performed follow-up every second month, where the study participants submitted a stool sample and answered a questionnaire regarding gastrointestinal symptoms and exposures. Exposures included foreign travel, consumption of antibiotics, and contact with a diseased animal. In the capital area of Denmark, a total of 179 children aged 0–6 years were followed in a cohort study, in the period between 2009 and 2013. This is the first investigation of the incidence and pathological significance of EAEC in Danish children attending daycare facilities. Conventional microbiological detection of enteric pathogens was performed at Statens Serum Institute, Copenhagen, Denmark, and at Hvidovre Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark. Parents completed questionnaires regarding gastrointestinal symptoms. The EAEC strains were further characterized by serotyping, phylogenetic analysis, and susceptibility testing. EAEC was detected in 25 (14%) of the children during the observational period of 1 year. One or more gastrointestinal symptoms were reported from 56% of the EAEC-positive children. Diarrhea was reported in six (24%) of the EAEC positive children, but no cases of weight loss, and general failure to thrive were observed. The EAEC strains detected comprised a large number of different serotypes, confirming the genetic heterogeneity of this pathotype. EAEC was highly prevalent (n = 25, 14%) in Danish children in daycare centers and was accompanied by gastrointestinal symptoms in

  12. Sustained sympathetic and blood pressure reduction 1 year after renal denervation in patients with resistant hypertension.

    PubMed

    Hering, Dagmara; Marusic, Petra; Walton, Antony S; Lambert, Elisabeth A; Krum, Henry; Narkiewicz, Krzysztof; Lambert, Gavin W; Esler, Murray D; Schlaich, Markus P

    2014-07-01

    Renal denervation (RDN) reduces muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and blood pressure (BP) in resistant hypertension. Although a persistent BP-lowering effect has been demonstrated, the long-term effect on MSNA remains elusive. We investigated whether RDN influences MSNA over time. Office BP and MSNA were obtained at baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months after RDN in 35 patients with resistant hypertension. Office BP averaged 166±22/88±19 mm Hg, despite the use of an average of 4.8±2.1 antihypertensive drugs. Baseline MSNA was 51±11 bursts/min ≈2- to 3-fold higher than the level observed in healthy controls. Mean office systolic and diastolic BP significantly decreased by -12.6±18.3/-6.5±9.2, -16.1±25.6/-8.6±12.9, and -21.2±29.1/-11.1±12.9 mm Hg (P<0.001 for both systolic BP and diastolic BP) with RDN at 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up, respectively. MSNA was reduced by -8±12, -6±12, and -6±11 bursts/min (P<0.01) at 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up. The reduction in MSNA was maintained, despite a progressive fall in BP over time. No such changes were observed in 7 control subjects at 6-month follow-up. These findings confirm previous reports on the favorable effects of RDN on elevated BP and demonstrate sustained reduction of central sympathetic outflow ≤1-year follow-up in patients with resistant hypertension and high baseline MSNA. These observations are compatible with the hypothesis of a substantial contribution of afferent renal nerve signaling to increased BP in resistant hypertension and argue against a relevant reinnervation at 1 year after procedure.

  13. Minimally invasive facet restoration implant for chronic lumbar zygapophysial pain: 1-year outcomes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The zygapophysial (facet) joint is the primary pain generator in one third of chronic low back pain cases. Current treatment options include temporarily palliative nonsurgical approaches, facet injections, radiofrequency denervation, and, rarely, lumbar arthrodesis. The purpose of this study was to assess the safety and effectiveness of a minimally invasive implant intended to restore facet joint function in patients with chronic lumbar facetogenic pain. Methods This prospective, multi-center feasibility study enrolled patients with confirmed lumbar facetogenic joint pain at 1 or 2 levels who underwent at least 6 months of unsuccessful nonoperative care. Patients received a minimally invasive implant (Glyder® Facet Restoration Device, Zyga Technology, Inc., Minnetonka, MN) intended to restore facet joint function while preserving the native anatomy. Main outcomes included back pain severity using a visual analogue scale, back-specific disability using the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), and adverse events adjudicated by an independent Clinical Events Committee. Results Of 40 enrolled patients, 37 patients received the facet restoration implant and 34 patients had complete 1-year follow-up data available. Over the 1-year follow-up period, back pain severity decreased 41% and ODI decreased 34%, on average. Freedom from a device- or procedure-related serious adverse event through 1 year was 84%. Implant migration was observed in 3 patients and implant expulsion from the facet joint occurred in 3 patients. In total, 2 (5.4%) patients underwent implant removal through 1 year post-treatment. Conclusions A minimally invasive facet restoration implant is a promising treatment option in select patients with chronic lumbar zygapophysial pain who have exhausted nonsurgical treatments, with therapeutic benefit persisting at 1 year follow-up. PMID:26628910

  14. The Effect of Clozapine on Hematological Indices: A 1-Year Follow-Up Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jimmy; Takeuchi, Hiroyoshi; Fervaha, Gagan; Powell, Valerie; Bhaloo, Amaal; Bies, Robert; Remington, Gary

    2015-10-01

    Clozapine is the antipsychotic of choice for treatment-resistant schizophrenia and is linked to a need for mandatory hematological monitoring. Besides agranulocytosis, other hematological aberrations have resulted in premature termination in some cases. Considering clozapine's role in immunomodulation, we proceeded to investigate the impact of clozapine on the following 3 main hematological cell lines: red blood cells, platelets, white blood cells (WBCs), and its differential counts. Data were extracted from patients initiated on clozapine between January 2009 and December 2010 at a single hospital. Patients with a preclozapine complete blood count, who were receiving clozapine during the 1-year follow-up period, were included in the present investigation. Counts of red blood cells, platelets, WBC, and its differential including neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils were extracted and trajectories plotted. One hundred one patients were included in this study and 66 remained on clozapine at the end of 1 year. There was a synchronized but transient increase in WBC, neutrophils, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils, and platelets beginning as early as the first week of clozapine treatment. There were no cases of agranulocytosis reported in this sample, and five developed neutropenia. A spike in neutrophils immediately preceded the onset of neutropenia in three of the five. The cumulative incidence rates were 48.9% for neutrophilia, 5.9% for eosinophilia, and 3% each for thrombocytosis and thrombocytopenia. Early hematological aberrations are visible across a range of cell lines, primarily of the myeloid lineage. These disturbances are transient and are probably related to clozapine's immunomodulatory properties. We do not suggest discontinuing clozapine as a consequence of the observed aberrations.

  15. Persistent problems 1 year after mild traumatic brain injury: a longitudinal population study in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Theadom, Alice; Parag, Varsha; Dowell, Tony; McPherson, Kathryn; Starkey, Nicola; Barker-Collo, Suzanne; Jones, Kelly; Ameratunga, Shanthi; Feigin, Valery L

    2016-01-01

    Background Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is a common problem in general practice settings, yet previous research does not take into account those who do not attend hospital after injury. This is important as there is evidence that effects may be far from mild. Aim To determine whether people sustain any persistent effects 1 year after mTBI, and to identify the predictors of health outcomes. Design and setting A community-based, longitudinal population study of an mTBI incidence cohort (n = 341) from a mixed urban and rural region (Hamilton and Waikato Districts) of the North Island of New Zealand (NZ). Method Adults (>16 years) completed assessments of cognitive functioning, global functioning, post-concussion symptoms, mood, and quality of life over the year after injury. Results Nearly half of participants (47.9%) reported experiencing four or more post-concussion symptoms 1 year post-injury. Additionally, 10.9% of participants revealed very low cognitive functioning. Levels of anxiety, depression, or reduced quality of life were comparable with the general population. Having at least one comorbidity, history of brain injury, living alone, non-white ethnic group, alcohol and medication use, and being female were significant predictors of poorer outcomes at 12 months. Conclusion Although some people make a spontaneous recovery after mTBI, nearly half continue to experience persistent symptoms linked to their injury. Monitoring of recovery from mTBI may be needed and interventions provided for those experiencing persistent difficulties. Demographic factors and medical history should be taken into account in treatment planning. PMID:26719482

  16. Perinatal dioxin exposure and the neurodevelopment of Vietnamese toddlers at 1 year of age.

    PubMed

    Pham, Tai The; Nishijo, Muneko; Nguyen, Anh Thi Nguyet; Tran, Nghi Ngoc; Van Hoang, Luong; Tran, Anh Hai; Nguyen, Trung Viet; Nishijo, Hisao

    2015-12-01

    Dioxin concentrations remain elevated in both the environment and in humans residing near former US Air Force bases in South Vietnam. This may potentially have adverse health effects, particularly on infant neurodevelopment. We followed 214 infants whose mothers resided in a dioxin-contaminated area in Da Nang, Vietnam, from birth until 1 year of age. Perinatal exposure to dioxins was estimated from toxic equivalent (TEQ) levels of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs-TEQ), and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TetraCDD) concentrations in breast milk. In infants, daily dioxin intake (DDI) was used as an index of postnatal exposure through breastfeeding. Neurodevelopment of toddlers was assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (Bayley-III). No significant differences in neurodevelopmental scores were exhibited for cognitive, language or motor functions between four exposure groups of PCDDs/Fs-TEQ or 2,3,7,8-TetraCDD. However, social-emotional scores were decreased in the high PCDDs/Fs-TEQ group and the high 2,3,7,8-TetraCDD group compared with those with mild exposure, after adjusting for confounding factors. Cognitive scores in the mild, moderate, and high DDI groups were significantly higher than those in low DDI group, but there were no differences in cognitive scores among the three higher DDI groups. These results suggest that perinatal exposure to dioxins may affect social-emotional development of 1-year-old toddlers, without diminishing global neurodevelopmental function.

  17. Identifying groups at risk for 1-year membership termination from a fitness center at enrollment.

    PubMed

    Hooker, Stephanie A; Ross, Kaile M; Ranby, Krista W; Masters, Kevin S; Peters, John C; Hill, James O

    2016-12-01

    The vast majority of Americans do not engage in adequate regular physical activity despite its well-known health benefits. Even when individuals attempt to become more active by joining a fitness center, estimates suggest that nearly half terminate their membership within the first 6 months. A better understanding of who is at risk for early membership termination upon joining may help researchers develop targeted interventions to improve the likelihood that individuals will successfully maintain memberships and physical activity. This study's purpose was to identify, based on a wellness assessment (WA) used in fitness centers, individuals at risk for fitness membership termination prior to 1-year. Center members (N = 441; Mage = 41.9, SD = 13.1; 74.4% female) completed a comprehensive WA of stress, life satisfaction, physical fitness, metabolic health, and sleep quality at the beginning of their memberships and were followed for one year. Latent class analyses utilized the WA to identify four groups: (a) healthy, (b) unhealthy, (c) poor psychological wellness, and (d) poor physical wellness. Participants in the poor psychological wellness group (OR = 2.24, p = 0.007) and the unhealthy group (OR = 2.40, p = 0.037) were significantly more likely to terminate their memberships at 1-year as compared to the healthy group. Participants with poor physical wellness visited the fitness center less frequently than healthy participants (p < 0.01). Results suggest that poor psychological wellness is a risk factor for terminating memberships, whereas poor physical wellness is not. Future studies should replicate these latent classes and develop targeted interventions to address psychological wellness as a method to improve fitness membership retention.

  18. Glomerular filtration rate in patients with atrial fibrillation and 1-year outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Boriani, Giuseppe; Laroche, Cécile; Diemberger, Igor; Popescu, Mircea Ioachim; Rasmussen, Lars Hvilsted; Petrescu, Lucian; Crijns, Harry J. G. M.; Tavazzi, Luigi; Maggioni, Aldo P.; Lip, Gregory Y. H.

    2016-01-01

    We assessed 1-year outcomes in patients with atrial fibrillation enrolled in the EurObservational Research Programme AF General Pilot Registry (EORP-AF), in relation to kidney function, as assessed by glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). In a cohort of 2398 patients (median age 69 years; 61% male), eGFR (ml/min/1.73 m2) calculated using the CKD-EPI formula was ≥80 in 35.1%, 50–79 in 47.2%, 30–49 in 13.9% and <30 in 3.7% of patients. In a logistic regression analysis, eGFR category was an independent predictor of stroke/TIA or death, with elevated odds ratios associated with severe to mild renal impairment, ie. eGFR < 30 ml/min/1.73 m2 [OR 3.641, 95% CI 1.572–8.433, p < 0.0001], 30–49 ml/min/1.73 m2 [OR 3.303, 95% CI 1.740–6.270, p = 0.0026] or 50–79 ml/min/1.73 m2 [OR 2.094, 95% CI 1.194–3.672, p = 0.0003]. The discriminant capability for the risk of death was tested among various eGFR calculation algorithms: the best was the Cockcroft-Gault equation adjusted for BSA, followed by Cockcroft-Gault equation, and CKD-EPI equation, while the worst was the MDRD equation. In conclusion in this prospective observational registry, renal function was a major determinant of adverse outcomes at 1 year, and even mild or moderate renal impairments were associated with an increased risk of stroke/TIA/death. PMID:27466080

  19. Safety and efficacy of nurse-controlled analgesia in patients less than 1 year of age

    PubMed Central

    Walia, Hina; Tumin, Dmitry; Wrona, Sharon; Martin, David; Bhalla, Tarun; Tobias, Joseph D

    2016-01-01

    Background The management of acute pain presents unique challenges in the younger pediatric population. Although patient-controlled devices are frequently used in patients ≥6 years of age, alternative modes of analgesic delivery are needed in infants. Objective To examine the safety and efficacy of nurse-controlled analgesia (NCA) in neonates less than 1 year of age. Methods Data from patients <1 year of age receiving NCA as ordered by the Acute Pain Service at our institution were collected over a 5-year period and reviewed retrospectively. The primary outcomes were activation of the institution’s Rapid Response Team (RRT) or Code Blue, signifying severe adverse events. Pain score after NCA initiation was a secondary outcome. Results Among 338 girls and 431 boys, the most common opioid used for NCA was fentanyl, followed by morphine and hydromorphone. There were 39 (5%) cases involving RRT or Code Blue activation, of which only one (Code Blue) was activated due to a complication of NCA (apnea). Multivariable logistic regression demonstrated morphine NCA to be associated with greater odds of RRT activation (OR=3.29, 95% CI=1.35, 8.03, P=0.009) compared to fentanyl NCA. There were no statistically significant differences in pain scores after NCA initiation across NCA agents. Conclusion NCA is safe in neonates and infants, with comparable efficacy demonstrated for the three agents used. The elevated incidence of RRT activation in patients receiving morphine suggests caution in its use and consideration of alternative agents in this population. PMID:27358574

  20. Evaluation of orthodontic treatment after 1 year of retention--a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Edman Tynelius, G; Bondemark, L; Lilja-Karlander, E

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to use a randomized controlled trial methodology to evaluate and compare three different retention methods. The capacity of the retention methods to retain orthodontic treatment results was in this first phase analysed on a short-term basis, i.e. after 1 year of retention. The subjects were recruited from adolescents undergoing fixed appliance treatment at an orthodontic clinic in the National Health Service (NHS) in Sweden between 2001 and 2007. Seventy-five patients (45 girls and 30 boys with a mean age of 14.4 years at the start of retention) were randomized into three retention systems; a vacuum-formed retainer in the maxilla and bonded canine-to-canine retainer in the mandible (group V-CTC), a vacuum-formed retainer in the maxilla combined with stripping of the 10 proximal surfaces of the lower mandibular anterior teeth (group V-S), and a prefabricated positioner covering the teeth in the maxilla and mandible (group P). The main outcome measures were: Little's irregularity index (LII), intercanine and intermolar width, arch length, overjet, and overbite. Registrations were made before orthodontic treatment, when the fixed orthodontic appliance was removed, and after 12 months in retention. Differences in means between groups were tested by one-way analysis of variance. After 1 year of retention, no clinically significant difference in retention capacity was found between the three retention methods. Small but significant differences (P < 0.05) were observed between the V-CTC and V-S groups regarding mandibular canine width, mandibular arch length, and overbite. In group P, two patients failed to co-operate.

  1. Validation of the 6-Month GRACE Score in Predicting 1-Year Mortality of Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome Admitted to the Arabian Gulf Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Thalib, Lukman; Furuya-Kanamori, Luis; AlHabib, Khalid F; Alfaleh, Hussam F; AlShamiri, Mostafa Q; Amin, Haitham; Al Suwaidi, Jassim; Sulaiman, Kadhim; Almahmeed, Wael; Alsheikh-Ali, Alawi A; Al-Motarreb, Ahmed; Doi, Suhail A R

    2017-03-01

    Acute coronary syndromes (ACS) are the most common cardiovascular diseases and are associated with a significant risk of mortality and morbidity. The Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) risk score postdischarge is a widely used ACS prediction model for risk of mortality (low, intermediate, and high); however, it has not yet been validated in patients from the Arabian Gulf. This prospective multicenter study (second Gulf Registry of Acute Coronary Events) provides detailed information of the GRACE risk score postdischarge in patients from the Arabian Gulf. Its prognostic utility was validated at 1-year follow-up in over 5000 patients with ACS from 65 hospitals in 6 Arabian Gulf countries (Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Oman, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen). Overall, the goodness of fit (Hosmer and Lemeshow statistic P value = .826), calibration, and discrimination (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.695; 95% confidence interval: 0.668-0.722) were good. The GRACE risk score postdischarge can be used to stratify 1 year mortality risk in the Arabian Gulf population; it does not require further calibration and has a good discriminatory ability.

  2. QuickBrain MRI for the detection of acute pediatric traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Sheridan, David C; Newgard, Craig D; Selden, Nathan R; Jafri, Mubeen A; Hansen, Matthew L

    2017-02-01

    OBJECTIVE The current gold-standard imaging modality for pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) is CT, but it confers risks associated with ionizing radiation. QuickBrain MRI (qbMRI) is a rapid brain MRI protocol that has been studied in the setting of hydrocephalus, but its ability to detect traumatic injuries is unknown. METHODS The authors performed a retrospective cohort study of pediatric patients with TBI who were undergoing evaluation at a single Level I trauma center between February 2010 and December 2013. Patients who underwent CT imaging of the head and qbMRI during their acute hospitalization were included. Images were reviewed independently by 2 neuroradiology fellows blinded to patient identifiers. Image review consisted of identifying traumatic mass lesions and their intracranial compartment and the presence or absence of midline shift. CT imaging was used as the reference against which qbMRI was measured. RESULTS A total of 54 patients met the inclusion criteria; the median patient age was 3.24 years, 65% were male, and 74% were noted to have a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 14 or greater. The sensitivity and specificity of qbMRI to detect any lesion were 85% (95% CI 73%-93%) and 100% (95% CI 61%-100%), respectively; the sensitivity increased to 100% (95% CI 89%-100%) for clinically important TBIs as previously defined. The mean interval between CT and qbMRI was 27.5 hours, and approximately half of the images were obtained within 12 hours. CONCLUSIONS In this retrospective pilot study, qbMRI demonstrated reasonable sensitivity and specificity for detecting a lesion or injury seen with neuroimaging (radiographic TBI) and clinically important acute pediatric TBI.

  3. Advances in Clinical PET/MRI Instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Herzog, Hans; Lerche, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    In 2010, the first whole-body PET/MRI scanners installed for clinical use were the sequential Philips PET/MRI with PMT-based, TOF-capable technology and the integrated simultaneous Siemens PET/MRI. Avalanche photodiodes as non-magneto-sensitive readout electronics allowed PET integrated within the MRI. The experiences with these scanners showed that improvements of software aspects, such as attenuation correction, were necessary and that efficient protocols combining optimally PET and MRI must be still developed. In 2014, General Electric issued an integrated PET/MRI with SiPM-based PET detectors, allowing TOF-PET. Looking at the MRI components of current PET/MR imaging systems, primary improvements come from sequences and new coils.

  4. Efficient Computation Of Confidence Intervals Of Parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Patrick C.

    1992-01-01

    Study focuses on obtaining efficient algorithm for estimation of confidence intervals of ML estimates. Four algorithms selected to solve associated constrained optimization problem. Hybrid algorithms, following search and gradient approaches, prove best.

  5. Application of Interval Analysis to Error Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-09-01

    We give simple examples of ways in which interval arithmetic can be used to alert instabilities in computer algorithms , roundoff error accumulation, and even the effects of hardware inadequacies. This paper is primarily tutorial. (Author)

  6. Intact Interval Timing in Circadian CLOCK Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Cordes, Sara; Gallistel, C. R.

    2008-01-01

    While progress has been made in determining the molecular basis for the circadian clock, the mechanism by which mammalian brains time intervals measured in seconds to minutes remains a mystery. An obvious question is whether the interval timing mechanism shares molecular machinery with the circadian timing mechanism. In the current study, we trained circadian CLOCK +/− and −/− mutant male mice in a peak-interval procedure with 10 and 20-s criteria. The mutant mice were more active than their wild-type littermates, but there were no reliable deficits in the accuracy or precision of their timing as compared with wild-type littermates. This suggests that expression of the CLOCK protein is not necessary for normal interval timing. PMID:18602902

  7. A robust measure of food web intervality

    PubMed Central

    Stouffer, Daniel B.; Camacho, Juan; Amaral, Luís A. Nunes

    2006-01-01

    Intervality of a food web is related to the number of trophic dimensions characterizing the niches in a community. We introduce here a mathematically robust measure for food web intervality. It has previously been noted that empirical food webs are not strictly interval; however, upon comparison to suitable null hypotheses, we conclude that empirical food webs actually do exhibit a strong bias toward contiguity of prey, that is, toward intervality. Further, our results strongly suggest that empirically observed species and their diets can be mapped onto a single dimension. This finding validates a critical assumption in the recently proposed static niche model and provides guidance for ongoing efforts to develop dynamic models of ecosystems. PMID:17146055

  8. Imaging of prostate cancer: a platform for 3D co-registration of in-vivo MRI ex-vivo MRI and pathology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orczyk, Clément; Mikheev, Artem; Rosenkrantz, Andrew; Melamed, Jonathan; Taneja, Samir S.; Rusinek, Henry

    2012-02-01

    Objectives: Multi-parametric MRI is emerging as a promising method for prostate cancer diagnosis. prognosis and treatment planning. However, the localization of in-vivo detected lesions and pathologic sites of cancer remains a significant challenge. To overcome this limitation we have developed and tested a system for co-registration of in-vivo MRI, ex-vivo MRI and histology. Materials and Methods: Three men diagnosed with localized prostate cancer (ages 54-72, PSA levels 5.1-7.7 ng/ml) were prospectively enrolled in this study. All patients underwent 3T multi-parametric MRI that included T2W, DCEMRI, and DWI prior to robotic-assisted prostatectomy. Ex-vivo multi-parametric MRI was performed on fresh prostate specimen. Excised prostates were then sliced at regular intervals and photographed both before and after fixation. Slices were perpendicular to the main axis of the posterior capsule, i.e., along the direction of the rectal wall. Guided by the location of the urethra, 2D digital images were assembled into 3D models. Cancer foci, extra-capsular extensions and zonal margins were delineated by the pathologist and included in 3D histology data. A locally-developed software was applied to register in-vivo, ex-vivo and histology using an over-determined set of anatomical landmarks placed in anterior fibro-muscular stroma, central. transition and peripheral zones. The mean root square distance across corresponding control points was used to assess co-registration error. Results: Two specimens were pT3a and one pT2b (negative margin) at pathology. The software successfully fused invivo MRI. ex-vivo MRI fresh specimen and histology using appropriate (rigid and affine) transformation models with mean square error of 1.59 mm. Coregistration accuracy was confirmed by multi-modality viewing using operator-guided variable transparency. Conclusion: The method enables successful co-registration of pre-operative MRI, ex-vivo MRI and pathology and it provides initial evidence

  9. Interval and contour processing in autism.

    PubMed

    Heaton, Pamela

    2005-12-01

    High functioning children with autism and age and intelligence matched controls participated in experiments testing perception of pitch intervals and musical contours. The finding from the interval study showed superior detection of pitch direction over small pitch distances in the autism group. On the test of contour discrimination no group differences emerged. These findings confirm earlier studies showing facilitated pitch processing and a preserved ability to represent small-scale musical structures in autism.

  10. Periodicity In The Intervals Between Primes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-02

    statistically strong periodicity is identified in the counting function giving the total number of intervals of a certain size. The nature of the periodic...positive intervals among the first n<=10^6 prime numbers as a probe of the global nature of the sequence of primes. A statistically strong periodicity is...Let x = x1, x2, . . . be an increasing sequence of real numbers which may be either finite or infinitely long. Throughout the following every bold

  11. Analysis of regression confidence intervals and Bayesian credible intervals for uncertainty quantification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Dan; Ye, Ming; Hill, Mary C.

    2012-09-01

    Confidence intervals based on classical regression theories augmented to include prior information and credible intervals based on Bayesian theories are conceptually different ways to quantify parametric and predictive uncertainties. Because both confidence and credible intervals are used in environmental modeling, we seek to understand their differences and similarities. This is of interest in part because calculating confidence intervals typically requires tens to thousands of model runs, while Bayesian credible intervals typically require tens of thousands to millions of model runs. Given multi-Gaussian distributed observation errors, our theoretical analysis shows that, for linear or linearized-nonlinear models, confidence and credible intervals are always numerically identical when consistent prior information is used. For nonlinear models, nonlinear confidence and credible intervals can be numerically identical if parameter confidence regions defined using the approximate likelihood method and parameter credible regions estimated using Markov chain Monte Carlo realizations are numerically identical and predictions are a smooth, monotonic function of the parameters. Both occur if intrinsic model nonlinearity is small. While the conditions of Gaussian errors and small intrinsic model nonlinearity are violated by many environmental models, heuristic tests using analytical and numerical models suggest that linear and nonlinear confidence intervals can be useful approximations of uncertainty even under significantly nonideal conditions. In the context of epistemic model error for a complex synthetic nonlinear groundwater problem, the linear and nonlinear confidence and credible intervals for individual models performed similarly enough to indicate that the computationally frugal confidence intervals can be useful in many circumstances. Experiences with these groundwater models are expected to be broadly applicable to many environmental models. We suggest that for

  12. Integration of DCE-MRI and DW-MRI Quantitative Parameters for Breast Lesion Classification

    PubMed Central

    Fusco, Roberta; Sansone, Mario; Filice, Salvatore; Granata, Vincenza; Catalano, Orlando; Amato, Daniela Maria; Di Bonito, Maurizio; D'Aiuto, Massimiliano; Capasso, Immacolata; Rinaldo, Massimo; Petrillo, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of an imaging protocol combining dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) and diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) in patients with suspicious breast lesions. Materials and Methods. A total of 31 breast lesions (15 malignant and 16 benign proved by histological examination) in 26 female patients were included in this study. For both DCE-MRI and DW-MRI model free and model based parameters were computed pixel by pixel on manually segmented ROIs. Statistical procedures included conventional linear analysis and more advanced techniques for classification of lesions in benign and malignant. Results. Our findings indicated no strong correlation between DCE-MRI and DW-MRI parameters. Results of classification analysis show that combining of DCE parameters or DW-MRI parameter, in comparison of single feature, does not yield a dramatic improvement of sensitivity and specificity of the two techniques alone. The best performance was obtained considering a full combination of all features. Moreover, the classification results combining all features are dominated by DCE-MRI features alone. Conclusion. The combination of DWI and DCE-MRI does not show a potential to dramatically increase the sensitivity and specificity of breast MRI. DCE-MRI alone gave the same performance as in combination with DW-MRI. PMID:26339597

  13. Probability Distribution for Flowing Interval Spacing

    SciTech Connect

    S. Kuzio

    2004-09-22

    Fracture spacing is a key hydrologic parameter in analyses of matrix diffusion. Although the individual fractures that transmit flow in the saturated zone (SZ) cannot be identified directly, it is possible to determine the fractured zones that transmit flow from flow meter survey observations. The fractured zones that transmit flow as identified through borehole flow meter surveys have been defined in this report as flowing intervals. The flowing interval spacing is measured between the midpoints of each flowing interval. The determination of flowing interval spacing is important because the flowing interval spacing parameter is a key hydrologic parameter in SZ transport modeling, which impacts the extent of matrix diffusion in the SZ volcanic matrix. The output of this report is input to the ''Saturated Zone Flow and Transport Model Abstraction'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170042]). Specifically, the analysis of data and development of a data distribution reported herein is used to develop the uncertainty distribution for the flowing interval spacing parameter for the SZ transport abstraction model. Figure 1-1 shows the relationship of this report to other model reports that also pertain to flow and transport in the SZ. Figure 1-1 also shows the flow of key information among the SZ reports. It should be noted that Figure 1-1 does not contain a complete representation of the data and parameter inputs and outputs of all SZ reports, nor does it show inputs external to this suite of SZ reports. Use of the developed flowing interval spacing probability distribution is subject to the limitations of the assumptions discussed in Sections 5 and 6 of this analysis report. The number of fractures in a flowing interval is not known. Therefore, the flowing intervals are assumed to be composed of one flowing zone in the transport simulations. This analysis may overestimate the flowing interval spacing because the number of fractures that contribute to a flowing interval cannot be

  14. Circadian variation of the QT interval in patients with sudden cardiac death after myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Yi, G; Guo, X H; Reardon, M; Gallagher, M M; Hnatkova, K; Camm, A J; Malik, M

    1998-04-15

    To evaluate the potential prognostic value of the circadian variation of QT intervals in predicting sudden cardiac death (SCD) in patients after myocardial infarction (MI), 15 pairs of post-MI patients (15 died suddenly within 1 year after MI [SCD victims] and 15 remained event-free [MI survivors]) were studied (mean age 60 +/- 8 years; 24 men and 6 women). The pairs were matched for age, gender, infarct site, presence of Q wave, left ventricular ejection fraction, thrombolytic and beta-blocker therapy. Fourteen normal subjects served as controls (mean age 55 +/- 9 years; 12 men). A 24-hour Holter electrocardiographic (ECG) recording was obtained from each subject. All recordings were analyzed using a Holter ECG analyser. QT, RR, and heart rate-corrected QT intervals (QTc) were automatically calculated by the analyzer, and hourly and 24-hour mean values of each measurement were derived from each recording. There was a pronounced circadian variation in the QT interval in parallel with the trend in the RR interval in normal subjects and in MI survivors. Circadian variation in both indexes was blunted in SCD victims. The QT interval was significantly longer at night than during the day in normal subjects (388 +/- 28 vs 355 +/- 21 ms, p = 0.001) and in MI survivors (358 +/- 25 vs 346 +/- 15 ms, p = 0.008), but not in SCD victims (357 +/- 32 vs 350 +/- 31 ms, p = 0.6). The 24-hour mean value of the QT interval in SCD victims did not differ significantly from that in normal subjects or MI survivors. The QT interval at night was significantly shorter in SCD victims than in normal subjects (357 +/- 32 vs 388 +/- 28 ms, p = 0.02), but daytime values were similar. The QT interval in SCD victims did not differ significantly from that of MI survivors at any time. The QTc interval exhibited a small circadian variation in normal subjects. This variation was abolished in SCD victims and MI survivors. The 24-hour mean value of QTc was significantly longer in SCD victims than in

  15. A 1-year, three-couple expedition as a crew analog for a Mars mission.

    PubMed

    Leon, Gloria R; Atlis, Mera M; Ones, Deniz S; Magor, Graeme

    2002-09-01

    This study assessed the intrapersonal and interpersonal functioning of a three-couple expedition group that included a 2 1/2-year-old child which was ice-locked on a boat in the High Arctic during a major portion of the expedition. Personality assessment indicated that team members were generally well adjusted, scoring relatively higher on well-being and achievement and relatively lower on stress reactivity. Weekly mood ratings showed that the group exhibited significantly higher positive than negative affect. Reported negative events were relatively most frequent at the beginning of the Arctic stay and toward the end of the darkness period and were lowest during the initial darkness interval. The period of darkness had both a salutary and negative impact. A highly important means of coping with stress was seeking emotional support from one's partner. Selection of couples with strong bonds with their partner appears to be one viable approach for crew selection for long-duration missions.

  16. Multimodal MRI of experimental stroke

    PubMed Central

    Duong, Timothy Q

    2014-01-01

    Stroke is the fourth leading cause of death and the leading cause of long-term disability in the United States. Brain imaging data from experimental stroke models and stroke patients have shown that there is often a gradual progression of potentially reversible ischemic injury toward infarction. Reestablishing tissue perfusion and/or treating with neuroprotective drugs in a timely fashion are expected to salvage some ischemic tissues. Diffusion-weighted imaging based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in which contrast is based on water motion can detect ischemic injury within minutes after onsets, whereas computed tomography and other imaging modalities fail to detect stroke injury for at least a few hours. Along with quantitative perfusion imaging, the perfusion-diffusion mismatch which approximates the ischemic penumbra could be imaged non-invasively. This review describes recent progresses in the development and application of multimodal MRI and image analysis techniques to study ischemic tissue at risk in experimental stroke in rats. PMID:24323751

  17. Vertebral Augmentation with Nitinol Endoprosthesis: Clinical Experience in 40 Patients with 1-Year Follow-up

    SciTech Connect

    Anselmetti, Giovanni Carlo; Manca, Antonio; Marcia, Stefano; Chiara, Gabriele; Marini, Stefano; Baroud, Gamal; Regge, Daniele; Montemurro, Filippo

    2013-05-08

    PurposeThis study was designed to assess the clinical outcomes of patients treated by vertebral augmentation with nitinol endoprosthesis (VNE) to treat painful vertebral compression fractures.MethodsForty patients with one or more painful osteoporotic VCF, confirmed by MRI and accompanied by back-pain unresponsive to a minimum 2 months of conservative medical treatment, underwent VNE at 42 levels. Preoperative and postoperative pain measured with Visual Analog Scale (VAS), disability measured by Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), and vertebral height restoration (measured with 2-dimensional reconstruction CT) were compared at last follow-up (average follow-up 15 months). Cement extravasation, subsequent fractures, and implant migration were recorded.ResultsLong-term follow-up was obtained in 38 of 40 patients. Both VAS and ODI significantly improved from a median of 8.0 (range 5–10) and 66 % (range 44–88 %) to 0.5 (range 0–8) and 6 % (range 6–66 %), respectively, at 1 year (p < 0.0001). Vertebral height measurements comparing time points increased in a statistically significant manner (ANOVA, p < 0.001). Overall cement extravasation rate was 9.5 %. Discal and venous leakage rates were 7.1 and 0 % respectively. No symptomatic extravasations occurred. Five of 38 (13.1 %) patients experienced new spontaneous, osteoporotic fractures. No device change or migration was observed.ConclusionsVNE is a safe and effective procedure that is able to provide long-lasting pain relief and durable vertebral height gain with a low rate of new fractures and cement leakages.

  18. Experience with cinacalcet in primary hyperparathyroidism: results after 1 year of treatment

    PubMed Central

    García-Martín, Antonia; Luque-Pazos, Alessandra

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the characteristics of patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) treated with cinacalcet and to evaluate its efficacy in reducing serum calcium and parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations after 1 year of treatment. Methods: The study included 20 patients with PHPT who had completed at least 12 months of treatment with cinacalcet (eight patients for refusal of parathyroidectomy, three for surgery not possible due to comorbidities and nine for progressive hypercalcemia prior to surgery). We recorded clinical and biochemical data at baseline, and after 3, 6 and 12 months of treatment. We also monitored adverse events. Cinacalcet was administered in increasing doses until normal serum calcium was reached or side effects preventing a further increase occurred. Results: After 3 months of treatment, serum calcium significantly decreased (11.73 ± 0.85 versus 10.71 ± 1.63 mg/dl, p < 0.001) and serum phosphorus significantly increased (2.41 ± 0.48 versus 2.63 ± 0.70 mg/dl, p = 0.004) while no significant change occurred in PTH (181.91 ± 102.37 versus 195.47 ± 111.71 pg/ml, p = 0.695). No further variation was observed after 6 months compared with 3 months of follow up. However, after 12 months of treatment, there was a significant decrease in PTH concentrations compared with baseline (181.91 ± 102.37 versus 152.47± 70.16 pg/ml, p = 0.028) as well as serum calcium (11.73 ± 0.85 versus 10.20± 0.95 mg/dl, p < 0.001); serum phosphorus significantly increased (2.41 ± 0.48 versus 2.71 ± 0.43 mg/dl, p = 0.01). Normocalcemia (S-Ca < 10.2 mg/dl) was achieved in 55% of patients. The medication was usually well tolerated (83.4%). Most common adverse events were nausea and vomiting, especially at the beginning of therapy. Conclusion: Cinacalcet rapidly reduced serum calcium in patients with PHPT and this reduction remained stable after 1 year of treatment. We also observed a decrease in PTH. Cinacalcet is an effective alternative in nonsurgical

  19. The Incremental Value of Contrast-Enhanced MRI in the Detection of Biopsy-Proven Local Recurrence of Prostate Cancer After Radical Prostatectomy: Effect of Reader Experience

    PubMed Central

    Wassberg, Cecilia; Akin, Oguz; Vargas, Hebert Alberto; Shukla-Dave, Amita; Zhang, Jingbo; Hricak, Hedvig

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study is to retrospectively assess the incremental value of contrast-enhanced MRI (CE-MRI) to T2-weighted MRI in the detection of postsurgical local recurrence of prostate cancer by readers of different experience levels, using biopsy as the reference standard. MATERIALS AND METHODS Fifty-two men with biochemical recurrence after prostatectomy underwent 1.5-T endorectal MRI with multiphase contrast-enhanced imaging and had biopsy within 3 months of MRI. Two radiologists (reader 1 had 1 year and reader 2 had 6 years of experience) independently reviewed each MRI study and classified the likelihood of recurrent cancer on a 5-point scale. Areas under receiver operating characteristic curves (Az) were calculated to assess readers’ diagnostic performance with T2-weighted MRI alone and combined with CE-MRI. Interobserver agreement was assessed using Cohen kappa statistics. RESULTS Thirty-three patients (63%) had biopsy-proven local recurrence of prostate cancer. With the addition of CE-MRI to T2-weighted imaging, the Az for cancer detection increased significantly for reader 1 (0.77 vs 0.85; p = 0.0435) but not for reader 2 (0.86 vs 0.88; p = 0.7294). The use of CE-MRI improved interobserver agreement from fair (κ = 0.39) to moderate (κ = 0.58). CONCLUSION CE-MRI increased interobserver agreement and offered incremental value to T2-weighted MRI in the detection of locally recurrent prostate cancer for the relatively inexperienced reader. PMID:22826397

  20. MRI-Based Classification Models in Prediction of Mild Cognitive Impairment and Dementia in Late-Life Depression

    PubMed Central

    Lebedeva, Aleksandra K.; Westman, Eric; Borza, Tom; Beyer, Mona K.; Engedal, Knut; Aarsland, Dag; Selbaek, Geir; Haberg, Asta K.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Late-life depression (LLD) is associated with development of different types of dementia. Identification of LLD patients, who will develop cognitive decline, i.e., the early stage of dementia would help to implement interventions earlier. The purpose of this study was to assess whether structural brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in LLD patients can predict mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia 1 year prior to the diagnosis. Methods: LLD patients underwent brain MRI at baseline and repeated clinical assessment after 1-year. Structural brain measurements were obtained using Freesurfer software (v. 5.1) from the T1W brain MRI images. MRI-based Random Forest classifier was used to discriminate between LLD who developed MCI or dementia after 1-year follow-up and cognitively stable LLD. Additionally, a previously established Random Forest model trained on 185 patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) vs. 225 cognitively normal elderly from the Alzheimer’s disease Neuroimaging Initiative was tested on the LLD data set (ADNI model). Results: MCI and dementia diagnoses were predicted in LLD patients with 76%/68%/84% accuracy/sensitivity/specificity. Adding the baseline Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores to the models improved accuracy/sensitivity/specificity to 81%/75%/86%. The best model predicted MCI status alone using MRI and baseline MMSE scores with accuracy/sensitivity/specificity of 89%/85%/90%. The most important region for all the models was right ventral diencephalon, including hypothalamus. Its volume correlated negatively with the number of depressive episodes. ADNI model trained on AD vs. Controls using SV could predict MCI-DEM patients with 67% accuracy. Conclusion: LDD patients developing MCI and dementia can be discriminated from LLD patients remaining cognitively stable with good accuracy based on baseline structural MRI alone. Baseline MMSE score improves prediction accuracy. Ventral diencephalon, including the hypothalamus

  1. MRI-Based Classification Models in Prediction of Mild Cognitive Impairment and Dementia in Late-Life Depression.

    PubMed

    Lebedeva, Aleksandra K; Westman, Eric; Borza, Tom; Beyer, Mona K; Engedal, Knut; Aarsland, Dag; Selbaek, Geir; Haberg, Asta K

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Late-life depression (LLD) is associated with development of different types of dementia. Identification of LLD patients, who will develop cognitive decline, i.e., the early stage of dementia would help to implement interventions earlier. The purpose of this study was to assess whether structural brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in LLD patients can predict mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia 1 year prior to the diagnosis. Methods: LLD patients underwent brain MRI at baseline and repeated clinical assessment after 1-year. Structural brain measurements were obtained using Freesurfer software (v. 5.1) from the T1W brain MRI images. MRI-based Random Forest classifier was used to discriminate between LLD who developed MCI or dementia after 1-year follow-up and cognitively stable LLD. Additionally, a previously established Random Forest model trained on 185 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) vs. 225 cognitively normal elderly from the Alzheimer's disease Neuroimaging Initiative was tested on the LLD data set (ADNI model). Results: MCI and dementia diagnoses were predicted in LLD patients with 76%/68%/84% accuracy/sensitivity/specificity. Adding the baseline Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores to the models improved accuracy/sensitivity/specificity to 81%/75%/86%. The best model predicted MCI status alone using MRI and baseline MMSE scores with accuracy/sensitivity/specificity of 89%/85%/90%. The most important region for all the models was right ventral diencephalon, including hypothalamus. Its volume correlated negatively with the number of depressive episodes. ADNI model trained on AD vs. Controls using SV could predict MCI-DEM patients with 67% accuracy. Conclusion: LDD patients developing MCI and dementia can be discriminated from LLD patients remaining cognitively stable with good accuracy based on baseline structural MRI alone. Baseline MMSE score improves prediction accuracy. Ventral diencephalon, including the hypothalamus

  2. Human trace fear conditioning: right-lateralized cortical activity supports trace-interval processes.

    PubMed

    Haritha, Abhishek T; Wood, Kimberly H; Ver Hoef, Lawrence W; Knight, David C

    2013-06-01

    Pavlovian conditioning requires the convergence and simultaneous activation of neural circuitry that supports conditioned stimulus (CS) and unconditioned stimulus (US) processes. However, in trace conditioning, the CS and US are separated by a period of time called the trace interval, and thus do not overlap. Therefore, determining brain regions that support associative learning by maintaining a CS representation during the trace interval is an important issue for conditioning research. Prior functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) research has identified brain regions that support trace-conditioning processes. However, relatively little is known about whether this activity is specific to the trace CS, the trace interval, or both periods of time. The present study was designed to disentangle the hemodynamic response produced by the trace CS from that associated with the trace interval, in order to identify learning-related activation during these distinct components of a trace-conditioning trial. Trace-conditioned activity was observed within dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (PFC), dorsolateral PFC, insula, inferior parietal lobule (IPL), and posterior cingulate (PCC). Each of these regions showed learning-related activity during the trace CS, while trace-interval activity was only observed within a subset of these areas (i.e., dorsomedial PFC, PCC, right dorsolateral PFC, right IPL, right superior/middle temporal gyrus, and bilateral insula). Trace-interval activity was greater in right than in left dorsolateral PFC, IPL, and superior/middle temporal gyrus. These findings indicate that components of the prefrontal, cingulate, insular, and parietal cortices support trace-interval processes, as well as suggesting that a right-lateralized fronto-parietal circuit may play a unique role in trace conditioning.

  3. Reproducibility of Brain Morphometry from Short-Term Repeat Clinical MRI Examinations: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hon-Man; Chen, Shan-Kai; Chen, Ya-Fang; Lee, Chung-Wei; Yeh, Lee-Ren

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To assess the inter session reproducibility of automatic segmented MRI-derived measures by FreeSurfer in a group of subjects with normal-appearing MR images. Materials and Methods After retrospectively reviewing a brain MRI database from our institute consisting of 14,758 adults, those subjects who had repeat scans and had no history of neurodegenerative disorders were selected for morphometry analysis using FreeSurfer. A total of 34 subjects were grouped by MRI scanner model. After automatic segmentation using FreeSurfer, label-wise comparison (involving area, thickness, and volume) was performed on all segmented results. An intraclass correlation coefficient was used to estimate the agreement between sessions. Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to assess the population mean rank differences across sessions. Mean-difference analysis was used to evaluate the difference intervals across scanners. Absolute percent difference was used to estimate the reproducibility errors across the MRI models. Kruskal-Wallis test was used to determine the across-scanner effect. Results The agreement in segmentation results for area, volume, and thickness measurements of all segmented anatomical labels was generally higher in Signa Excite and Verio models when compared with Sonata and TrioTim models. There were significant rank differences found across sessions in some labels of different measures. Smaller difference intervals in global volume measurements were noted on images acquired by Signa Excite and Verio models. For some brain regions, significant MRI model effects were observed on certain segmentation results. Conclusions Short-term scan-rescan reliability of automatic brain MRI morphometry is feasible in the clinical setting. However, since repeatability of software performance is contingent on the reproducibility of the scanner performance, the scanner performance must be calibrated before conducting such studies or before using such software for retrospective

  4. Feature extraction for MRI segmentation.

    PubMed

    Velthuizen, R P; Hall, L O; Clarke, L P

    1999-04-01

    Magnetic resonance images (MRIs) of the brain are segmented to measure the efficacy of treatment strategies for brain tumors. To date, no reproducible technique for measuring tumor size is available to the clinician, which hampers progress of the search for good treatment protocols. Many segmentation techniques have been proposed, but the representation (features) of the MRI data has received little attention. A genetic algorithm (GA) search was used to discover a feature set from multi-spectral MRI data. Segmentations were performed using the fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering technique. Seventeen MRI data sets from five patients were evaluated. The GA feature set produces a more accurate segmentation. The GA fitness function that achieves the best results is the Wilks's lambda statistic when applied to FCM clusters. Compared to linear discriminant analysis, which requires class labels, the same or better accuracy is obtained by the features constructed from a GA search without class labels, allowing fully operator independent segmentation. The GA approach therefore provides a better starting point for the measurement of the response of a brain tumor to treatment.

  5. Pre-treatment high-resolution rectal MRI and treatment response to neoadjuvant chemoradiation

    PubMed Central

    Chang, George J.; You, Y. Nancy; Park, In Ja; Kaur, Harmeet; Hu, Chung-Yuan; Rodriguez-Bigas, Miguel A.; Skibber, John M.; Ernst, Randy D.

    2012-01-01

    Background Use of rectal MRI evaluation of patients with rectal cancer for primary tumor staging and for identification for poor prognostic features is increasing. MR imaging permits precise delineation of tumor anatomy and assessment of mesorectal tumor penetration and radial margin risk. Objective To evaluate the ability of pre-treatment rectal MRI to classify tumor response to neoadjuvant chemoradiation. Design Retrospective, consecutive cohort study, central review. Setting Tertiary academic hospital. Patients 62 consecutive patients with locally advanced (stage cII-cIII)rectal cancer who underwent rectal cancer protocol high resolution MRI prior to surgery(12/09-3/11). Main Outcome Measures Probability of good (ypT0-2N0) vs. poor (≥ypT3N0) response as a function of mesorectal tumor depth, lymph node status, extramural vascular invasion, and grade assessed by uni- and multi-variate logistic regression. Results Tumor response was good in 25, 40.3% and poor in 37, 59.7%.Median interval from MRI to OP was 7.9weeks (IQR: 7.0–9.0). MRI tumor depth was <1 mm in 10 (16.9%), 1–5 mm in 30 (50.8%), and >5 mm in 21(33.9%). LN status was positive in 40 (61.5%) and vascular invasion was present in 16 (25.8%). Tumor response was associated with MRI tumor depth (P=0.001), MRI lymph nodes status (P=<0.001)and vascular invasion (P=0.009). Multivariate regression indicated >5mm MRI tumor depth (OR=0.08, 95% CI=0.01–0.93, p=0.04) and MRI LN positivity (OR=0.12, 95% CI=0.03–0.53, p=0.005) were less likely to achieve a good response to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Limitations Uncertain generalizability in centers with limited experience with MRI staging for rectal cancer. Conclusion MRI assessment of tumor depth and lymph node status in rectal cancer is associated to tumor response to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. These factors should therefore be considered for stratification of patients for novel treatment strategies reliant on pathologic response to treatment or for

  6. MRI Biomarkers in Oncology Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Abramson, Richard G.; Arlinghaus, Lori; Dula, Adrienne; Quarles, C. Chad; Stokes, Ashley; Weis, Jared; Whisenant, Jennifer; Chekmenev, Eduard Y.; Zhukov, Igor; Williams, Jason; Yankeelov, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques have the ability to quantitatively report various pathophysiological processes associated with cancer. These measures have been shown to provide complementary information to that typically obtained from standard morphologically based criteria (e.g., size) and, furthermore, have been shown to outperform sized based measures in certain applications. In this review, we discuss eight areas of quantitative MRI that are either currently employed in clinical trials, or are emerging as promising techniques for both diagnosing cancer as well as assessing—or even predicting—the response of cancer to various therapies. The currently employed methods include the response evaluation criteria in solid tumors (RECIST), dynamic susceptibility MRI (DSC-MRI), dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI), and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI). The emerging techniques covered are chemical exchange saturation transfer MRI (CEST-MRI), elastography, hyperpolarized MRI, and multi-parameter MRI. After a brief introduction to each technique, we present a small number of illustrative applications before noting the existing limitations of each method and what must be done to move each to more routine clinical application. PMID:26613873

  7. Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial of An Athletic Trainer-Directed Spit (Smokeless) Tobacco Intervention for Collegiate Baseball Athletes: Results After 1 Year

    PubMed Central

    Gansky, Stuart A; Ellison, James A; Rudy, Diane; Bergert, Ned; Letendre, Mark A; Nelson, Lisa; Kavanagh, Catherine; Walsh, Margaret M

    2005-01-01

    Context: Athletes in the United States are at high risk for using spit (smokeless) tobacco (ST) and incurring its associated adverse health effects. Objective: To examine whether an athletic trainer-directed ST intervention could decrease initiation and promote cessation of ST use among male collegiate baseball athletes. Design: Stratified, cluster-randomized controlled trial. Setting: Fifty-two California colleges. Patients or Other Participant(s): A total of 883 subjects in 27 intervention colleges and 702 subjects in 25 control colleges participated, as did 48 certified athletic trainers. Intervention(s): For college athletic trainers and associated dental professionals, a 3-hour video conference, and for collegiate athletes, an oral cancer screening with feedback and brief counseling during the preseason health screenings, athletic trainer support for cessation, and a peer-led educational baseball team meeting. Main Outcome Measure(s): The subjects' ST use over 1 year was assessed by self-report. At the end of the study, the certified athletic trainers were mailed a survey assessing their tobacco use and perceptions and behavior related to tobacco control in the athletic environment. We used multivariable logistic regression models for clustered responses (generalized estimating equations) to test the difference between groups in ST-use initiation and cessation and to identify significant overall predictors of noninitiation and cessation of ST use. Results: Of the 1585 athletes recruited, 1248 (78.7%) were followed up at 12 months. In addition, 48 of the 52 athletic trainers (92%) responded to the 1-year follow-up survey. The ST-use initiation (incidence) was 5.1% in intervention colleges and 8.4% in control colleges (generalized estimating equation odds ratio = 0.58, 95% confidence interval = 0.35–0.99). Predictors of ST noninitiation were low lifetime tobacco and monthly alcohol use (odds ratio = 1.98, 95% confidence interval = 1.40– 2.82) and athletic

  8. Hippocampal Neuron Number Is Unchanged 1 Year After Fractionated Whole-Brain Irradiation at Middle Age

    SciTech Connect

    Shi Lei Molina, Doris P.; Robbins, Michael E.; Wheeler, Kenneth T.; Brunso-Bechtold, Judy K.

    2008-06-01

    Purpose: To determine whether hippocampal neurons are lost 12 months after middle-aged rats received a fractionated course of whole-brain irradiation (WBI) that is expected to be biologically equivalent to the regimens used clinically in the treatment of brain tumors. Methods and Materials: Twelve-month-old Fischer 344 X Brown Norway male rats were divided into WBI and control (CON) groups (n = 6 per group). Anesthetized WBI rats received 45 Gy of {sup 137}Cs {gamma} rays delivered as 9 5-Gy fractions twice per week for 4.5 weeks. Control rats were anesthetized but not irradiated. Twelve months after WBI completion, all rats were anesthetized and perfused with paraformaldehyde, and hippocampal sections were immunostained with the neuron-specific antibody NeuN. Using unbiased stereology, total neuron number and the volume of the neuronal and neuropil layers were determined in the dentate gyrus, CA3, and CA1 subregions of hippocampus. Results: No differences in tissue integrity or neuron distribution were observed between the WBI and CON groups. Moreover, quantitative analysis demonstrated that neither total neuron number nor the volume of neuronal or neuropil layers differed between the two groups for any subregion. Conclusions: Impairment on a hippocampal-dependent learning and memory test occurs 1 year after fractionated WBI at middle age. The same WBI regimen, however, does not lead to a loss of neurons or a reduction in the volume of hippocampus.

  9. Hydrocephalus in children less than 1 year of age in northern Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    Salvador, Sérgio F.; Henriques, João Carlos; Munguambe, Missael; Vaz, Rui M. C.; Barros, Henrique P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In developed countries, the incidence of neonatal hydrocephalus ranges from 3 to 5 cases per 1000 live births, but little is known about the frequency of hydrocephalus in Africa. In Mozambique, there is no primary information related to this disorder, but using the above data, the expected incidence of neonatal hydrocephalus would range from 2900 to 4800 cases per year. Methods: This study is based on 122 children younger than 1 year with neonatal hydrocephalus, followed up between January 2010 and December 2012, their origin and treatment, and aims to evaluate difficulties with diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up in northern Mozambique. Results: Identified cases were mainly less than 6 months old (77%), with severe macrocephaly and the classic stigmata of this condition. A high rate of follow-up loss (44.3%) was detected, particularly among children from more distant locations. Our findings contrast with the expected 1000-1700 cases that would occur in the area during the study period, being considerably lower. Conclusions: Hydrocephalus is a serious problem in sub-Saharan Africa, whose effects can be minimized by a better organization of the health system in hydrocephalus prevention, referral, and follow-up. New management alternatives to provide treatment to more children with this disorder and reduction of the follow-up difficulties caused due to geographical reasons for the children undergoing treatment are essential. PMID:25593759

  10. The first simultaneous kidney-adrenal gland-pancreas transplantation: outcome at 1 year.

    PubMed

    Vouillarmet, J; Buron, F; Houzard, C; Carlier, M C; Chauvet, C; Brunet, M; Thivolet, C; Morelon, E; Badet, L

    2013-07-01

    Adrenal insufficiency is a rare but life-threatening disease. Replacement therapy sometimes fails to prevent an acute adrenal crisis and most often does not lead to restoration of well-being. We report here the 1-year outcome of the first simultaneous kidney-adrenal gland-pancreas transplantation in a 33-year-old patient with type 1 diabetes and concomitant autoimmune adrenal insufficiency. En bloc left adrenal gland and kidney grafts were anastomosed on the left iliac vessels in normal vascular conditions and the pancreas graft was anastomosed on the right iliac vessels. The immunosuppressive regimen was not modified by the addition of the adrenal gland. We observed no additional morbidity due to the adrenal gland transplantation, as there were no surgical complications. One-year kidney and pancreas graft functions were satisfactory (estimated glomerular filtration rate: 55 mL/min/1.73 m(2) and HbA1c: 4.8%). The adrenal graft functioned well at 12 months with a normalization of cortisol and aldosterone baseline levels. Functional imaging at 3 months showed good uptake of [(123) I]-metaiodobenzylguanidine by the adrenal graft. Transplantation of the adrenal gland en bloc with the left kidney appears to be a good therapeutic option in patients with adrenal insufficiency awaiting kidney or kidney-pancreas transplantation.

  11. Neurophysiological findings in patients 1 year after snake bite induced neurotoxicity in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Bell, D J; Wijegunasinghe, D; Samarakoon, S; Palipana, H; Gunasekera, S; de Silva, H A; Lalloo, D G; Ranawaka, U K; de Silva, H J

    2010-05-01

    Snake bite causes significant morbidity and mortality in Sri Lanka. Snake venoms contain neurotoxins that block neuromuscular junction transmission. Presynaptic neurotoxicity most commonly causes destruction of nerve terminals with recovery by regrowth, whilst postsynaptic neurotoxicity usually involves competition at the acetylcholine receptor. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there were long-term clinical or neurophysiological changes in snake bite survivors 1 year after their envenoming. Detailed neurophysiological tests and clinical examinations were performed on 26 snake bite victims who had presented with neurotoxicity 12 months previously, and their results were compared with controls recruited from the same communities. Significant differences were observed in some nerve conduction parameters in some snake bite victims compared with controls, predominantly in those thought to have elapid bites, including prolongation of sensory, motor and F-wave latencies and reduction of conduction velocities. There was no evidence of any residual deficits in neuromuscular junction transmission. These results suggest a possible demyelinating type polyneuropathy. None of the cases or controls had abnormalities on clinical examination. This is one of the few studies to report possible long-term neurological damage following systemic neurotoxicity after snake bite. The clinical significance of these neurophysiological abnormalities is uncertain and further studies are required to investigate whether the abnormalities persist and to see whether clinical consequences develop.

  12. Global distribution of deep convection reaching tropopause in 1 year GPM observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Nana; Liu, Chuntao

    2016-04-01

    To characterize and quantify tropopause-reaching deep convection, 1 year of Global Precipitation Mission (GPM) Ku band radar echoes are surveyed in relation to several reference levels derived from the ERA-Interim reanalysis data set. Consistent with the observations of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission over the tropics, the GPM has detected tropopause-reaching deep convection dominantly over tropical land, especially over Panama and Central Africa. At middle and high latitudes, tropopause-reaching convective storms are mainly found over land in the Northern Hemisphere during the summer. Compared to those in the tropics, convective cores at middle and high latitudes have relatively larger sizes at the tropopause, especially those over central North America. The zonal distributions of the occurrences of 15 dBZ and 20 dBZ radar echoes at the tropopause show two comparable maxima, one in the tropics and the other in northern middle-high latitudes. This implies that the convection penetrating the tropopause at northern middle-high latitudes is as frequent as those over the tropics. It is important to understand their role in the vertical transport of trace gases between the troposphere and the stratosphere.

  13. Latent transition models to study women's changing of dietary patterns from pregnancy to 1 year postpartum.

    PubMed

    Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Herring, Amy H; Siega-Riz, Anna-Maria

    2013-04-15

    Latent class models are useful for classifying subjects by dietary patterns. Our goals were to use latent transition models to identify dietary patterns during pregnancy and postpartum, to estimate the prevalence of these dietary patterns, and to model transition probabilities between dietary patterns as a function of covariates. Women who were enrolled in the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition Study (University of North Carolina, 2000-2005) were followed for 1 year postpartum, and their diets were assessed in the second trimester and at 3 and 12 months postpartum (n = 519, 484, and 374, respectively) by using a food frequency questionnaire. After adjusting for energy intake, parity, smoking status, race, and education, we identified 3 dietary patterns and named them "prudent," "health conscious Western," and "Western." Nulliparas were 2.9 and 2.1 times more likely to be in the "prudent" class than the "health conscious Western" or the "Western" class, respectively. The 3 dietary patterns were very stable, with the "health conscious Western" class being the least stable; the probability for staying in the same class was 0.74 and 0.87 at 3 and 12 months postpartum, respectively. Breastfeeding mothers were more likely than nonbreastfeeding mothers to switch dietary pattern class (P = 0.0286). Except for breastfeeding mothers, most women did not switch dietary patterns from pregnancy to postpartum.

  14. Attenuated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis functioning predicts accelerated pubertal development in girls 1 year later.

    PubMed

    Saxbe, Darby E; Negriff, Sonya; Susman, Elizabeth J; Trickett, Penelope K

    2015-08-01

    Accelerated pubertal development has been linked to adverse early environments and may heighten subsequent mental and physical health risks. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis functioning has been posited as a mechanism whereby stress may affect pubertal development, but the literature lacks prospective tests of this mechanism. The current study assessed 277 youth (M = 10.84 years, SD = 1.14), 138 boys and 139 girls, who reported on their pubertal development and underwent the Trier Social Stress Test for Children at baseline and returned to the laboratory approximately 1 year later (M = 1.12 years, range = 0.59-1.98 years). For girls, lower cortisol area under the curve (with respect to ground) at Time 1 predicted more advanced pubertal development at Time 2, controlling for Time 1 pubertal development. This association persisted after additional covariates including age, body mass index, race, and maltreatment history were introduced, and was driven by adrenal rather than gonadal development. Cortisol was not linked to boys' subsequent pubertal development, and no interaction by gender or by maltreatment appeared. These results suggest that attenuated cortisol, reported in other studies of children exposed to early adversity, may contribute to accelerated pubertal tempo in girls.

  15. Beyond Earth: Weaving Science and Indigenous Culture - A 1-year NSF Planning Grant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Timothy; Guy, M.; Baker Big-Back, C.; Froelich, K.

    2011-01-01

    We present results of a 1-year NSF planning grant called Beyond Earth. The project is designed to engage Native American, urban, and rural families in science learning while piloting curriculum development and implementation that incorporates both Native and Western epistemologies. Physical, earth, and space science content is juxtaposed with indigenous culture, stories, language and epistemology in after-school programs and teacher training. Project partners include the Dakota Science Center, Fort Berthold Community College, and Sitting Bull College. The Native American tribes represented in this initiative illustrate partnerships between the Dakota, Lakota, Nakota, Hidatsa, Mandan, and Arikara. Over the past year the primary project deliverables include a culturally responsive curriculum Beyond Earth Moon Module, teacher training workshops, a project website. The curriculum module introduces students to the moon's appearance, phases, and positions in the sky using the Night Sky Planetarium Experience Station to explore core concepts underlying moon phases and eclipses using the interactive Nature Experience Station before engaging in the culminating Mission Challenge in which they apply their knowledge to problem solving situations and projects. The Native Science and Western Science activities developed, planetarium explorations created, and website toolkit utilizations are presented.

  16. Results of 1 year of clinical experience with independent dose calculation software for VMAT fields

    PubMed Central

    Colodro, Juan Fernando Mata; Berna, Alfredo Serna; Puchades, Vicente Puchades; Amores, David Ramos; Baños, Miguel Alcaraz

    2014-01-01

    It is widely accepted that a redundant independent dose calculation (RIDC) must be included in any treatment planning verification procedure. Specifically, volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) technique implies a comprehensive quality assurance (QA) program in which RIDC should be included. In this paper, the results obtained in 1 year of clinical experience are presented. Eclipse from Varian is the treatment planning system (TPS), here in use. RIDC were performed with the commercial software; Diamond® (PTW) which is capable of calculating VMAT fields. Once the plan is clinically accepted, it is exported via Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) to RIDC, together with the body contour, and then a point dose calculation is performed, usually at the isocenter. A total of 459 plans were evaluated. The total average deviation was -0.3 ± 1.8% (one standard deviation (1SD)). For higher clearance the plans were grouped by location in: Prostate, pelvis, abdomen, chest, head and neck, brain, stereotactic radiosurgery, lung stereotactic body radiation therapy, and miscellaneous. The highest absolute deviation was -0.8 ± 1.5% corresponding to the prostate. A linear fit between doses calculated by RIDC and by TPS produced a correlation coefficient of 0.9991 and a slope of 1.0023. These results are very close to those obtained in the validation process. This agreement led us to consider this RIDC software as a valuable tool for QA in VMAT plans. PMID:25525309

  17. Results of 1 year of clinical experience with independent dose calculation software for VMAT fields.

    PubMed

    Colodro, Juan Fernando Mata; Berna, Alfredo Serna; Puchades, Vicente Puchades; Amores, David Ramos; Baños, Miguel Alcaraz

    2014-10-01

    It is widely accepted that a redundant independent dose calculation (RIDC) must be included in any treatment planning verification procedure. Specifically, volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) technique implies a comprehensive quality assurance (QA) program in which RIDC should be included. In this paper, the results obtained in 1 year of clinical experience are presented. Eclipse from Varian is the treatment planning system (TPS), here in use. RIDC were performed with the commercial software; Diamond(®) (PTW) which is capable of calculating VMAT fields. Once the plan is clinically accepted, it is exported via Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) to RIDC, together with the body contour, and then a point dose calculation is performed, usually at the isocenter. A total of 459 plans were evaluated. The total average deviation was -0.3 ± 1.8% (one standard deviation (1SD)). For higher clearance the plans were grouped by location in: Prostate, pelvis, abdomen, chest, head and neck, brain, stereotactic radiosurgery, lung stereotactic body radiation therapy, and miscellaneous. The highest absolute deviation was -0.8 ± 1.5% corresponding to the prostate. A linear fit between doses calculated by RIDC and by TPS produced a correlation coefficient of 0.9991 and a slope of 1.0023. These results are very close to those obtained in the validation process. This agreement led us to consider this RIDC software as a valuable tool for QA in VMAT plans.

  18. Efficacy and safety of tiotropium Respimat SMI in COPD in two 1-year randomized studies.

    PubMed

    Bateman, Eric; Singh, Dave; Smith, David; Disse, Bernd; Towse, Lesley; Massey, Dan; Blatchford, Jon; Pavia, Demetri; Hodder, Rick

    2010-08-09

    Two 1-year studies evaluated the long-term efficacy and safety of tiotropium 5 or 10 microg versus placebo, inhaled via the Respimat Soft Mist Inhaler (SMI). The two studies were combined and had 4 co-primary endpoints (trough FEV(1) response, Mahler Transition Dyspnea Index [TDI] and St George's Respiratory Questionnaire scores all at week 48, and COPD exacerbations per patient-year). A total of 1990 patients with COPD participated (mean FEV(1): 1.09 L). The mean trough FEV(1) response of tiotropium 5 or 10 microg relative to placebo was 127 or 150 mL, respectively (both P < 0.0001). The COPD exacerbation rate was significantly lower with tiotropium 5 microg (RR = 0.78; P = 0.002) and tiotropium 10 microg (RR = 0.73; P = 0.0008); the health-related quality of life and Mahler TDI co-primary endpoints were significantly improved with both doses (both P < 0.0001). Adverse events were generally balanced except anticholinergic class effects, which were more frequent with active treatment. Fatal events occurred in 2.4% (5 microg), 2.7% (10 microg), and 1.6% (placebo) of patients; these differences were not significant. Tiotropium Respimat SMI 5 microg demonstrated sustained improvements in patients with COPD relative to placebo and similar to the 10 microg dose but with a lower frequency of anticholinergic adverse events.

  19. Recovery of aphasia after stroke: a 1-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    El Hachioui, Hanane; Lingsma, Hester F; van de Sandt-Koenderman, Mieke E; Dippel, Diederik W J; Koudstaal, Peter J; Visch-Brink, Evy G

    2013-01-01

    Semantics, phonology, and syntax are essential elements of aphasia diagnosis and treatment. Until now, these linguistic components have not been specifically addressed in follow-up studies of aphasia recovery after stroke. The aim of this observational prospective follow-up study was to investigate semantic, phonological, and syntactic recovery in aphasic stroke patients. In addition, we investigated the recovery of verbal communication and of aphasia severity. We assessed 147 aphasic patients at 1, 2, and 6 weeks, 3 and 6 months, and 1 year after stroke with the ScreeLing, a screening test for detecting deficits on the three main linguistic components, the aphasia severity rating scale (ASRS), a measure of verbal communication, and the Token test, a measure of aphasia severity. We investigated the differences in scores between the six time points with mixed models. Semantics and syntax improved up to 6 weeks (p < 0.001) after stroke, and phonology up to 3 months (p ≤ 0.001). ASRS improved up to 6 months (p < 0.05) and the Token test up to 3 months (p < 0.001). We conclude that in aphasia after stroke, various linguistic components have a different recovery pattern, with phonology showing the longest period of recovery that paralleled aphasia severity, as measured with the Token test. The improvement of verbal communication continues after the stabilization of the recovery of the linguistic components.

  20. Ablation for atrial fibrillation during mitral valve surgery: 1-year results through continuous subcutaneous monitoring.

    PubMed

    Bogachev-Prokophiev, Alexandr; Zheleznev, Sergey; Romanov, Alexander; Pokushalov, Evgeny; Pivkin, Alexey; Corbucci, Giorgio; Karaskov, Alexander

    2012-07-01

    Continuous monitoring of cardiac rhythm may play an important role in measuring the true symptomatic/asymptomatic atrial fibrillation (AF) burden and improve the management of anti-arrhythmic and anti-thrombotic therapies. Forty-seven patients with mitral valve disease and longstanding persistent AF (LSPAF) underwent a left atrial maze procedure with bipolar radiofrequency and valve surgery. The follow-up data recorded by an implanted loop recorder were analysed after 3, 6 and 12 months. On discharge, 40 (85.1%) patients were in stable sinus rhythm, as documented by in-office electrocardiography (ECG), 4 (8.5%) were in pacemaker rhythm and 3 (6.4%) were in AF. One (2.1%) patient died after 7 months. On 12-month follow-up examination, 30 (65.2%) patients had an AF burden <0.5% and were classified as responders. Three (6.5%) of the 16 non-responders had atrial flutter and 13 (27.7%) had documented AF recurrences with an AF burden >0.5%. Two (4.3%) patients with AF recurrences were completely asymptomatic. Among the symptomatic events stored by the patients, only 27.6% was confirmed as genuine AF recurrences according to the concomitant ECG recorded by the implanted loop recorder. A concomitant bipolar maze procedure during mitral valve surgery is effective in treating AF, as proved by detailed 1-year continuous monitoring.

  1. Ablation for atrial fibrillation during mitral valve surgery: 1-year results through continuous subcutaneous monitoring†

    PubMed Central

    Bogachev-Prokophiev, Alexandr; Zheleznev, Sergey; Romanov, Alexander; Pokushalov, Evgeny; Pivkin, Alexey; Corbucci, Giorgio; Karaskov, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Continuous monitoring of cardiac rhythm may play an important role in measuring the true symptomatic/asymptomatic atrial fibrillation (AF) burden and improve the management of anti-arrhythmic and anti-thrombotic therapies. Forty-seven patients with mitral valve disease and longstanding persistent AF (LSPAF) underwent a left atrial maze procedure with bipolar radiofrequency and valve surgery. The follow-up data recorded by an implanted loop recorder were analysed after 3, 6 and 12 months. On discharge, 40 (85.1%) patients were in stable sinus rhythm, as documented by in-office electrocardiography (ECG), 4 (8.5%) were in pacemaker rhythm and 3 (6.4%) were in AF. One (2.1%) patient died after 7 months. On 12-month follow-up examination, 30 (65.2%) patients had an AF burden <0.5% and were classified as responders. Three (6.5%) of the 16 non-responders had atrial flutter and 13 (27.7%) had documented AF recurrences with an AF burden >0.5%. Two (4.3%) patients with AF recurrences were completely asymptomatic. Among the symptomatic events stored by the patients, only 27.6% was confirmed as genuine AF recurrences according to the concomitant ECG recorded by the implanted loop recorder. A concomitant bipolar maze procedure during mitral valve surgery is effective in treating AF, as proved by detailed 1-year continuous monitoring. PMID:22514258

  2. Sunspot Time Series: Passive and Active Intervals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zięba, S.; Nieckarz, Z.

    2014-07-01

    Solar activity slowly and irregularly decreases from the first spotless day (FSD) in the declining phase of the old sunspot cycle and systematically, but also in an irregular way, increases to the new cycle maximum after the last spotless day (LSD). The time interval between the first and the last spotless day can be called the passive interval (PI), while the time interval from the last spotless day to the first one after the new cycle maximum is the related active interval (AI). Minima of solar cycles are inside PIs, while maxima are inside AIs. In this article, we study the properties of passive and active intervals to determine the relation between them. We have found that some properties of PIs, and related AIs, differ significantly between two group of solar cycles; this has allowed us to classify Cycles 8 - 15 as passive cycles, and Cycles 17 - 23 as active ones. We conclude that the solar activity in the PI declining phase (a descending phase of the previous cycle) determines the strength of the approaching maximum in the case of active cycles, while the activity of the PI rising phase (a phase of the ongoing cycle early growth) determines the strength of passive cycles. This can have implications for solar dynamo models. Our approach indicates the important role of solar activity during the declining and the rising phases of the solar-cycle minimum.

  3. Multiparametric Breast MRI of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rahbar, Habib; Partridge, Savannah C.

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Breast MRI has increased in popularity over the past two decades due to evidence for its high sensitivity for cancer detection. Current clinical MRI approaches rely on the use of a dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE-MRI) acquisition that facilitates morphologic and semi-quantitative kinetic assessments of breast lesions. The use of more functional and quantitative parameters, such as pharmacokinetic features from high temporal resolution DCE-MRI, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) on diffusion weighted MRI, and choline concentrations on MR spectroscopy, hold promise to broaden the utility of MRI and improve its specificity. However, due to wide variations in approach among centers for measuring these parameters and the considerable technical challenges, robust multicenter data supporting their routine use is not yet available, limiting current applications of many of these tools to research purposes. PMID:26613883

  4. Moyamoya disease: diagnostic accuracy of MRI.

    PubMed

    Yamada, I; Suzuki, S; Matsushima, Y

    1995-07-01

    Our purpose was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of MRI in moyamoya disease. We studied 30 patients with this disease, comparing MRI and angiographic findings. The diagnostic value of MRI was evaluated for occlusive lesions, collateral vessels, and parenchymal lesions. In all patients bilateral occlusion or stenosis of the supraclinoid internal carotid artery and proximal anterior and middle cerebral arteries was clearly shown by MRI, and staging of the extent of occlusion agreed with angiographic staging in 44 (73%) of 60 arteries. MRI, particularly coronal images, clearly showed basal cerebral moyamoya vessels in 54 hemispheres, and 45 of a total of 71 large leptomeningeal and transdural collateral vessels were identified. MRI also showed parenchymal lesions in 48 (80%) hemispheres, and the extent of occlusion in the anterior and posterior circulations respectively correlated with white matter and cortical and/or subcortical infarcts.

  5. Brain development in preterm infants assessed using advanced MRI techniques.

    PubMed

    Tusor, Nora; Arichi, Tomoki; Counsell, Serena J; Edwards, A David

    2014-03-01

    Infants who are born preterm have a high incidence of neurocognitive and neurobehavioral abnormalities, which may be associated with impaired brain development. Advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) approaches, such as diffusion MRI (d-MRI) and functional MRI (fMRI), provide objective and reproducible measures of brain development. Indices derived from d-MRI can be used to provide quantitative measures of preterm brain injury. Although fMRI of the neonatal brain is currently a research tool, future studies combining d-MRI and fMRI have the potential to assess the structural and functional properties of the developing brain and its response to injury.

  6. Increased Cardiovascular Events and Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients: 1 Year Prospective Single Centre Study

    PubMed Central

    Ruscitti, Piero; Cipriani, Paola; Masedu, Francesco; Romano, Silvio; Berardicurti, Onorina; Liakouli, Vasiliki; Carubbi, Francesco; Di Benedetto, Paola; Alvaro, Saverio; Penco, Maria; Valenti, Marco; Giacomelli, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Several studies showed the close relationship between Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) and cerebro-cardiovascular events (CVEs) and subclinical atherosclerosis. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of CVEs and subclinical atherosclerosis during the course of RA and we evaluated the possible role of both traditional cardiovascular (CV) and disease related risk factors to predict the occurrence of new CVEs and the onset of subclinical atherosclerosis. Methods We designed a single centre, bias-adjusted, prospective, observational study to investigate, in a homogeneous subset of RA patients, the occurrence of new onset of CVEs and subclinical atherosclerosis. Statistical analyses were performed to evaluate the role of traditional CV and disease-related risk factors to predict the occurrence of new CVEs and subclinical atherosclerosis. Results We enrolled 347 RA patients prospectively followed for 12 months. An increased percentage of patients experienced CVEs, developed subclinical atherosclerosis and was affected by systemic arterial hypertension (SAH), type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome (MS), at the end of follow up. Our analysis showed that the insurgence of both SAH and MS, during the follow up, the older age, the CVE familiarity and the lack of clinical response, were associated with a significantly increased risk to experience CVEs and to develop subclinical atherosclerosis. Conclusions Our study quantifies the increased expected risk for CVEs in a cohort of RA patients prospectively followed for 1 year. The occurrence of both new CVEs and subclinical atherosclerosis in RA patients may be explained by inflammatory burden as well as traditional CV risk factors. PMID:28103312

  7. Enzyme Replacement Therapy in Mucopolysaccharidosis II Patients Under 1 Year of Age.

    PubMed

    Lampe, Christina; Atherton, Andrea; Burton, Barbara K; Descartes, Maria; Giugliani, Roberto; Horovitz, Dafne D G; Kyosen, Sandra O; Magalhães, Tatiana S P C; Martins, Ana Maria; Mendelsohn, Nancy J; Muenzer, Joseph; Smith, Laurie D

    2014-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) II, or Hunter syndrome, is a lysosomal storage disease characterized by multi-systemic involvement and a progressive clinical course. Enzyme replacement therapy with idursulfase has been approved in more than 50 countries worldwide; however, safety and efficacy data from clinical studies are currently only available for patients 1.4 years of age and older. Sibling case studies of infants with MPS I, II, and VI who initiated ERT in the first weeks or months of life have reported no new safety concerns and a more favorable clinical course for the sibling treated in infancy than for the later-treated sibling. Here we describe our experiences with a case series of eight MPS II patients for whom idursulfase treatment was initiated at under 1 year of age. The majority of the patients were diagnosed because of a family history of disease. All of the infants displayed abnormalities consistent with MPS II at diagnosis. The youngest age at treatment start was 10 days and the oldest was 6.5 months, with duration of treatment varying between 6 weeks and 5.5 years. No new safety concerns were observed, and none of the patients experienced an infusion-related reaction. All of the patients treated for more than 6 weeks showed improvements and/or stabilization of some somatic manifestations while on treatment. In some cases, caregivers made comparisons with other affected family members and reported that the early-treated patients experienced a less severe clinical course, although a lack of medical records for many family members precluded a rigorous comparison.

  8. Encouraging responses in sexual and relationship violence prevention: what program effects remain 1 year later?

    PubMed

    Moynihan, Mary M; Banyard, Victoria L; Cares, Alison C; Potter, Sharyn J; Williams, Linda M; Stapleton, Jane G

    2015-01-01

    Colleges and universities are high-risk settings for sexual and relationship violence. To address these problems, institutions of higher education have implemented prevention programs, many of which train students as potential bystanders who can step in to help diffuse risky situations, identify and challenge perpetrators, and assist victims. The impact of bystander sexual and relationship violence prevention programs on long-term behavior of bystanders has remained a key unanswered question for those who seek to offer the most effective programs as well as for policy makers. In this study, the researchers experimentally evaluated the effectiveness of the Bringing in the Bystander® in-person program. Participants were 948 1st-year college students of whom 47.8% were women and 85.2% identified as White (15% also identified as Hispanic in a separate question) between the ages of 18 and 24 at two universities (one a rural, primarily residential campus and the other an urban, highly commuter campus) in the northeastern United States. To date, this is the first study to have found positive behavior changes as long-lasting as 1 year following an educational workshop focusing on engaging bystanders in preventing sexual and relationship violence. Even so, many questions remain to be answered about prevention and intervention of this type. More prospective research is needed on bystander-focused prevention of these forms of violence to help understand and better predict the complicated relationships both between and among the attitudes and behaviors related to preventing sexual and relationship violence. In this regard, we make specific recommendations for designing and evaluating programs based on our findings relating to the importance of moderators, especially two key understudied ones, readiness to help and opportunity to intervene.

  9. Robot-assisted laparoscopic pyeloplasty: minimum 1-year follow-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Vipul; Thaly, Rahul; Shah, Ketul

    2007-02-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of robotic-assisted laparoscopic pyeloplasty. Laparoscopic pyeloplasty has been shown to have a success rate comparable to that of the open surgical approach. However, the steep learning curve has hindered its acceptance into mainstream urologic practice. The introduction of robotic assistance provides advantages that have the potential to facilitate precise dissection and intracorporeal suturing. Methods: A total of 50 patients underwent robotic-assisted laparoscopic dismembered pyeloplasty. A four-trocar technique was used. Most patients were discharged home on day 1, with stent removal at 3 weeks. Patency of the ureteropelvic junction was assessed in all patients with mercaptotriglycylglycine Lasix renograms at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months, then every 6 months for 1 year, and then yearly. Results: Each patient underwent a successful procedure without open conversion or transfusion. The average estimated blood loss was 40 ml. The operative time averaged 122 minutes (range 60 to 330) overall. Crossing vessels were present in 30% of the patients and were preserved in all cases. The time for the anastomosis averaged 20 minutes (range 10 to 100). Intraoperatively, no complications occurred. Postoperatively, the average hospital stay was 1.1 days. The stents were removed at an average of 20 days (range 14 to 28) postoperatively. The average follow-up was 11.7 months; at the last follow-up visit, each patient was doing well. Of the 50 patients, 48 underwent one or more renograms, demonstrating stable renal function, improved drainage, and no evidence of recurrent obstruction. Conclusions: Robotic-assisted laparoscopic pyeloplasty is a feasible technique for ureteropelvic junction reconstruction. The procedure provides a minimally invasive alternative with good short-term results.

  10. Aerosol source apportionment from 1-year measurements at the CESAR tower in Cabauw, the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlag, Patrick; Kiendler-Scharr, Astrid; Blom, Marcus Johannes; Canonaco, Francesco; Sebastiaan Henzing, Jeroen; Moerman, Marcel; Prévôt, André Stephan Henry; Holzinger, Rupert

    2016-07-01

    Intensive measurements of submicron aerosol particles and their chemical composition were performed with an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) at the Cabauw Experimental Site for Atmospheric Research (CESAR) in Cabauw, the Netherlands, sampling at 5 m height above ground. The campaign lasted nearly 1 year from July 2012 to June 2013 as part of the EU-FP7-ACTRIS project (Q-ACSM Network). Including equivalent black carbon an average particulate mass concentration of 9.50 µg m-3 was obtained during the whole campaign with dominant contributions from ammonium nitrate (45 %), organic aerosol (OA, 29 %), and ammonium sulfate (19 %). There were 12 exceedances of the World Health Organization (WHO) PM2.5 daily mean limit (25 µg m-3) observed at this rural site using PM1 instrumentation only. Ammonium nitrate and OA represented the largest contributors to total particulate matter during periods of exceedance. Source apportionment of OA was performed season-wise by positive matrix factorization (PMF) using the multilinear engine 2 (ME-2) controlled via the source finder (SoFi). Primary organic aerosols were attributed mainly to traffic (8-16 % contribution to total OA, averaged season-wise) and biomass burning (0-23 %). Secondary organic aerosols (SOAs, 61-84 %) dominated the organic fraction during the whole campaign, particularly on days with high mass loadings. A SOA factor which is attributed to humic-like substances (HULIS) was identified as a highly oxidized background aerosol in Cabauw. This shows the importance of atmospheric aging processes for aerosol concentration at this rural site. Due to the large secondary fraction, the reduction of particulate mass at this rural site is challenging on a local scale.

  11. Effectiveness of a multidisciplinary heart failure disease management programme on 1-year mortality: Prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Laborde-Castérot, Hervé; Agrinier, Nelly; Zannad, Faiez; Mebazaa, Alexandre; Rossignol, Patrick; Girerd, Nicolas; Alla, François; Thilly, Nathalie

    2016-09-01

    We performed a multicenter prospective observational cohort study (Epidémiologie et Pronostic de l'Insuffisance Cardiaque Aiguë en Lorraine, Epidemiology and Prognosis of Acute Heart Failure in Lorraine [EPICAL2]) to evaluate the effectiveness on mortality of a community-based multidisciplinary disease management programme (DMP) for heart failure (HF) patients.Between October 2011 and October 2012, 1816 patients, who were hospitalized for acute HF or who developed acute HF during a hospitalization, were included from 21 hospitals in a northeast region of France. At hospital admission, their mean age was 77.3 (standard deviation [SD] 11.6) years and mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 45.0 (SD 16.0)%. A subset of patients were enrolled in a multidimensional DMP for HF (n = 312, 17.2%), based on structured patient education, home monitoring visits by HF-trained nurses, and automatic alerts triggered by significant clinical and biological changes to the patient. The DMP involved general practitioners, nurses, and cardiologists collaborating via an individual web-based medical electronic record. The outcome was all-cause mortality from the 3rd to the 12th month after discharge. During the follow-up, a total of 377 (20.8%) patients died: 321 (21.3%) in the control group and 56 (17.9%) in the DMP group. In a propensity score analysis, DMP was associated with lower 1-year all-cause mortality (hazard ratio 0.65, 95% CI 0.46-0.92). Instrumental variable analysis gave similar results (hazard ratio 0.56, 0.27-1.16).In a real world setting, a multidimensional DMP for HF with structured patient education, home nurse monitoring, and appropriate physician alerts may improve survival when implemented after discharge from hospitalization due to worsening HF.

  12. Selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT): 1-year results in early and advanced open angle glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Schlote, Torsten; Kynigopoulos, Myron

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) in eyes with early and more advanced stages of open angle glaucoma within 1 year of follow-up. Retrospective chart review in a consecutive series of patients treated by SLT to reduce intraocular pressure (IOP) or decrease number of topical medications in cases of discomfort and allergy. The cup-to-disc ratio of the optic nerve and the GSS 2 (glaucoma staging system 2) was used to differentiate between early (group 1) and more advanced (group 2) stages of glaucoma. At the time of SLT treatment, no new signs of glaucoma progression were seen. Only the first treated eye of every patient was included in the analysis. In group 1 (early glaucoma), 27 eyes were included. IOP reduction <21 mmHg/>20 % of the preoperative IOP-value and reduction of medication were achieved in 17 eyes (62.96 %). Successful re-treatment was necessary in 2 eyes (7.4 %). In group 2 (advanced glaucoma), 44 eyes underwent SLT. In eight eyes (18.18 %), filtrating surgery was necessary after initial SLT. In the remaining 36 eyes, IOP reduction <21 mmHg/>20 % of the baseline IOP was achieved in 26 eyes (59.09 % of 44 eyes) and IOP reduction <18 mmHg/> 30 % of the baseline IOP in 22 eyes (50 % of 44 eyes). SLT was safe and effective in nearly 2/3 of early glaucoma patients and also in 50 % of advanced glaucoma patients using stronger criteria of success. Failure of SLT in advanced glaucoma should lead to immediate filtrating surgery, which seems not to be associated with higher risk of fibrosis.

  13. Impact of universal varicella vaccination on 1-year-olds in Uruguay: 1997–2005

    PubMed Central

    Quian, J; Rüttimann, R; Romero, C; Dall’Orso, P; Cerisola, A; Breuer, T; Greenberg, M; Verstraeten, T

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Varicella vaccination was introduced at the end of 1999 into the Uruguayan immunisation schedule for children aged 12 months. Varilrix (Oka strain; GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals) has been the only vaccine used since then and coverage has been estimated to exceed 90% since the start of the universal varicella vaccination programme. We assessed the impact of the Uruguayan varicella vaccination programme during 2005, 6 years after its introduction. Methods: Information on hospitalisations was collected from the main paediatric referral hospital and information on medical consultations for varicella was collected from two private health insurance systems in Montevideo. The proportion of hospitalisations due to varicella and the proportion of ambulatory visits for varicella since the introduction of the vaccine were compared between 1999 and 2005 and 1997 and 1999 in the following age groups: <1 year, 1–4 years, 5–9 years and 10–14 years. Results: By 2005, the proportion of hospitalisations due to varicella among children, was reduced by 81% overall and by 63%, 94%, 73% and 62% in the <1, 1–4, 5–9 and 10–14 years age groups, respectively. The incidence of ambulatory visits for varicella among children was reduced by 87% overall and by 80%, 97%, 81% and 65% in the <1, 1–4, 5–9 and 10–14 years age groups, respectively. Conclusions: The burden of varicella has decreased substantially in Uruguayan children since the introduction of the varicella vaccination, including those groups outside the recommended vaccination age. It is expected to decrease further as more cohorts of children are vaccinated and herd immunity increases. PMID:18456699

  14. PM2.5 chemical composition in five European Mediterranean cities: A 1-year study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salameh, Dalia; Detournay, Anais; Pey, Jorge; Pérez, Noemi; Liguori, Francesca; Saraga, Dikaia; Bove, Maria Chiara; Brotto, Paolo; Cassola, Federico; Massabò, Dario; Latella, Aurelio; Pillon, Silvia; Formenton, Gianni; Patti, Salvatore; Armengaud, Alexandre; Piga, Damien; Jaffrezo, Jean Luc; Bartzis, John; Tolis, Evangelos; Prati, Paolo; Querol, Xavier; Wortham, Henri; Marchand, Nicolas

    2015-03-01

    The seasonal and spatial characteristics of PM2.5 and its chemical composition in the Mediterranean Basin have been studied over a 1-year period (2011-2012) in five European Mediterranean cities: Barcelona (BCN), Marseille (MRS), Genoa (GEN), Venice (VEN), and Thessaloniki (THE). During the year under study, PM10 annual mean concentration ranged from 23 to 46 μg m- 3, while the respective PM2.5 ranged from 14 to 37 μg m- 3, with the highest concentrations observed in THE and VEN. Both cities presented an elevated number of exceedances of the PM10 daily limit value, as 32% and 20% of the days exceeded 50 μg m- 3, respectively. Similarly, exceedances of the WHO guidelines for daily PM2.5 concentrations (25 μg m- 3) were also more frequent in THE with 78% of the days during the period, followed by VEN with 39%. The lowest PM levels were measured in GEN. PM2.5 exhibited significant seasonal variability, with much higher winter concentrations for VEN and MRS, in fall for THE and in spring for BCN. PM2.5 chemical composition was markedly different even for similar PM2.5 levels. On annual average, PM2.5 was dominated by OM except in THE. OM contribution was higher in Marseille (42%), while mineral matter was the most abundant constituent in THE (32%). Moreover, PM2.5 relative mean composition during pollution episodes (PM2.5 > 25 μg m- 3) as well as the origins of the exceedances were also investigated. Results outline mainly the effect of NO3- being the most important driver and highlight the non-negligible impact of atmospheric mixing and aging processes during pollution episodes.

  15. Deep Sclerectomy With a New Nonabsorbable Uveoscleral Implant (Esnoper-Clip): 1-Year Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Parera-Arranz, Angels; Romera-Romera, Pau; Castellvi-Manent, Jordi; Sabala-Llopart, Antoni; de la Cámara-Hermoso, Julio

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To report the safety and the effectiveness of deep sclerectomy (DS) with a new nonabsorbable uveoscleral hema implant (Esnoper-Clip) designed to increase trabecular and uveoscleral outflow and to achieve higher intrascleral blebs. Materials and Methods: Twenty-seven eyes of 27 patients with open-angle glaucoma, who underwent DS with an Esnoper-Clip implant, were included in this study. All patients were followed up after 12 months. Results: A significant decrease in intraocular pressure was observed after surgery, changing from a preoperative mean of 26.6±5.2 mm Hg to a postoperative mean of 15.3±5 mm Hg (P<0.001) at 12 months. There was also a significant reduction in the number of glaucoma drugs needed, varying from 2.5 per patient to 0.3 (P<0.001) 1 year after surgery. The main intrascleral lake height and volume at 12 months was 0.7±0.1 mm and 3.9±1.3 mm3, respectively. No intraoperative complications occurred. The main postoperative complications were a positive Seidel test result at 24 hours in 2 eyes (7.4%), hyphema in 2 eyes (7.4%), and choroidal detachment in 1 eye (3.7%). All these complications resolved successfully. The need for additional mitomycin-C injections was recorded in 4 eyes (14.8%), twice in 2 of them. Twelve eyes (44.4%) underwent postsurgical Nd:YAG laser goniopuncture with a mean time between surgery and this procedure of 4.3 months. Mean intraocular pressure after Nd:YAG laser goniopuncture decreased from 19.2 to 15.5 mm Hg (P<0.001). Conclusion: DS with an uveoscleral hema implant (Esnoper-Clip) is a safe and effective technique for the management of open-angle glaucoma. PMID:25836660

  16. Intervality and coherence in complex networks.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-García, Virginia; Johnson, Samuel; Muñoz, Miguel A

    2016-06-01

    Food webs-networks of predators and prey-have long been known to exhibit "intervality": species can generally be ordered along a single axis in such a way that the prey of any given predator tend to lie on unbroken compact intervals. Although the meaning of this axis-usually identified with a "niche" dimension-has remained a mystery, it is assumed to lie at the basis of the highly non-trivial structure of food webs. With this in mind, most trophic network modelling has for decades been based on assigning species a niche value by hand. However, we argue here that intervality should not be considered the cause but rather a consequence of food-web structure. First, analysing a set of 46 empirical food webs, we find that they also exhibit predator intervality: the predators of any given species are as likely to be contiguous as the prey are, but in a different ordering. Furthermore, this property is not exclusive of trophic networks: several networks of genes, neurons, metabolites, cellular machines, airports, and words are found to be approximately as interval as food webs. We go on to show that a simple model of food-web assembly which does not make use of a niche axis can nevertheless generate significant intervality. Therefore, the niche dimension (in the sense used for food-web modelling) could in fact be the consequence of other, more fundamental structural traits. We conclude that a new approach to food-web modelling is required for a deeper understanding of ecosystem assembly, structure, and function, and propose that certain topological features thought to be specific of food webs are in fact common to many complex networks.

  17. Intervality and coherence in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domínguez-García, Virginia; Johnson, Samuel; Muñoz, Miguel A.

    2016-06-01

    Food webs—networks of predators and prey—have long been known to exhibit "intervality": species can generally be ordered along a single axis in such a way that the prey of any given predator tend to lie on unbroken compact intervals. Although the meaning of this axis—usually identified with a "niche" dimension—has remained a mystery, it is assumed to lie at the basis of the highly non-trivial structure of food webs. With this in mind, most trophic network modelling has for decades been based on assigning species a niche value by hand. However, we argue here that intervality should not be considered the cause but rather a consequence of food-web structure. First, analysing a set of 46 empirical food webs, we find that they also exhibit predator intervality: the predators of any given species are as likely to be contiguous as the prey are, but in a different ordering. Furthermore, this property is not exclusive of trophic networks: several networks of genes, neurons, metabolites, cellular machines, airports, and words are found to be approximately as interval as food webs. We go on to show that a simple model of food-web assembly which does not make use of a niche axis can nevertheless generate significant intervality. Therefore, the niche dimension (in the sense used for food-web modelling) could in fact be the consequence of other, more fundamental structural traits. We conclude that a new approach to food-web modelling is required for a deeper understanding of ecosystem assembly, structure, and function, and propose that certain topological features thought to be specific of food webs are in fact common to many complex networks.

  18. Interval Estimation of Seismic Hazard Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlecka-Sikora, Beata; Lasocki, Stanislaw

    2017-03-01

    The paper considers Poisson temporal occurrence of earthquakes and presents a way to integrate uncertainties of the estimates of mean activity rate and magnitude cumulative distribution function in the interval estimation of the most widely used seismic hazard functions, such as the exceedance probability and the mean return period. The proposed algorithm can be used either when the Gutenberg-Richter model of magnitude distribution is accepted or when the nonparametric estimation is in use. When the Gutenberg-Richter model of magnitude distribution is used the interval estimation of its parameters is based on the asymptotic normality of the maximum likelihood estimator. When the nonparametric kernel estimation of magnitude distribution is used, we propose the iterated bias corrected and accelerated method for interval estimation based on the smoothed bootstrap and second-order bootstrap samples. The changes resulted from the integrated approach in the interval estimation of the seismic hazard functions with respect to the approach, which neglects the uncertainty of the mean activity rate estimates have been studied using Monte Carlo simulations and two real dataset examples. The results indicate that the uncertainty of mean activity rate affects significantly the interval estimates of hazard functions only when the product of activity rate and the time period, for which the hazard is estimated, is no more than 5.0. When this product becomes greater than 5.0, the impact of the uncertainty of cumulative distribution function of magnitude dominates the impact of the uncertainty of mean activity rate in the aggregated uncertainty of the hazard functions. Following, the interval estimates with and without inclusion of the uncertainty of mean activity rate converge. The presented algorithm is generic and can be applied also to capture the propagation of uncertainty of estimates, which are parameters of a multiparameter function, onto this function.

  19. Integrated speech enhancement for functional MRI environment.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Nishank; Milani, Ali A; Panahi, Issa; Briggs, Richard

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated speech enhancement (SE) method for the noisy MRI environment. We show that the performance of SE system improves considerably when the speech signal dominated by MRI acoustic noise at very low SNR is enhanced in two successive stages using two-channel SE methods followed by a single-channel post processing SE algorithm. Actual MRI noisy speech data are used in our experiments showing the improved performance of the proposed SE method.

  20. Competitive advantage of PET/MRI.

    PubMed

    Jadvar, Hossein; Colletti, Patrick M

    2014-01-01

    Multimodality imaging has made great strides in the imaging evaluation of patients with a variety of diseases. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is now established as the imaging modality of choice in many clinical conditions, particularly in oncology. While the initial development of combined PET/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) was in the preclinical arena, hybrid PET/MR scanners are now available for clinical use. PET/MRI combines the unique features of MRI including excellent soft tissue contrast, diffusion-weighted imaging, dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging, fMRI and other specialized sequences as well as MR spectroscopy with the quantitative physiologic information that is provided by PET. Most evidence for the potential clinical utility of PET/MRI is based on studies performed with side-by-side comparison or software-fused MRI and PET images. Data on distinctive utility of hybrid PET/MRI are rapidly emerging. There are potential competitive advantages of PET/MRI over PET/CT. In general, PET/MRI may be preferred over PET/CT where the unique features of MRI provide more robust imaging evaluation in certain clinical settings. The exact role and potential utility of simultaneous data acquisition in specific research and clinical settings will need to be defined. It may be that simultaneous PET/MRI will be best suited for clinical situations that are disease-specific, organ-specific, related to diseases of the children or in those patients undergoing repeated imaging for whom cumulative radiation dose must be kept as low as reasonably achievable. PET/MRI also offers interesting opportunities for use of dual modality probes. Upon clear definition of clinical utility, other important and practical issues related to business operational model, clinical workflow and reimbursement will also be resolved.

  1. Computerized Interpretation of Dynamic Breast MRI

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    malignant and benign lesions. Keywords: Fuzzy c- means , breast cancer, contrast-enhanced MRI, tumor heterogeneity, computer-aided diag- nosis (CAD) 1...applications. tumor response to therapy[3]. Furthermore, breast MRI can In this paper, we present a fast fuzzy c- means (FCM) based be used for quantitative...use of a fuzzy c- means (FCM) algorithm for the assessment of 3-D tumor extent from contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance images (CE-MRI) of the breast

  2. MRI Scans - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resonance Imaging) (Arabic) العربية Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) 核磁共振成像(MRI) - 简体中文 (Chinese - Simplified) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chinese - Traditional (繁體中文) MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) 核磁共振成像( ...

  3. Cerebral vasomotor reactivity assessment using Transcranial Doppler and MRI with apnea test

    PubMed Central

    Herrera Campos, C.R.; Beltramini, G.C.; Avelar, W.M.; Lima, F.O.; Li, L.M.

    2016-01-01

    Differently from previous studies that used Transcranial Doppler (TCD) and functional MRI (fMRI) for cerebral vasomotor reactivity (CVR) assessment in patients with carotid stenosis (CS), we assessed CVR using an identical stimulus, the Breath-Holding Test (BHT). We included 15 patients with CS and 7 age-matched controls to verify whether fMRI responded differently to BHT between groups and to calculate the agreement rate between tests. For TCD, impaired CVR was defined when the mean percentage increase on middle cerebral artery velocities was ≤31% on 3 consecutive 30-s apnea intercalated by 4-min normal breathing intervals. For fMRI, the percent variation on blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal intensity in the lentiform nucleus (LN) ipsilateral to the CS (or both LNs for controls) from baseline breathing to apnea was measured. The Euclidian differences between the series of each subject and the series of controls and patients classified it into normal or impaired CVR. We found different percent variations on BOLD-signal intensities between groups (P=0.032). The agreement was good in Controls (85.7%; κ=0.69) and overall (77.3%; κ=0.54). We conclude that BHT was feasible for CVR assessment on fMRI and elicited different BOLD responses in patients and controls, with a good overall agreement between the tests. PMID:27783807

  4. Correlations between MRI findings and outcome of capsular distension in adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yun Hee; Park, Young Sook; Chang, Hyun Jung; Kim, Yeongmi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the association between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in patients with adhesive shoulder capsulitis and the therapeutic effect of capsular distension. [Subjects and Methods] We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 57 patients who underwent capsular distension therapy after a diagnosis of adhesive capsulitis with clinical and MRI scans. Axillary joint capsular thickness by MRI was graded as I (≤3.6 mm), II (3.7–4.2 mm), and III (≥4.3 mm). Subcoracoid fat obliteration of the rotator interval was graded subjectively as absent, partial, and complete. [Results] Capsular thickness and fat replacement were correlated with passive range of motion (PROM) and pain score on a visual analog scale (VAS) by analysis of variance with a Bonferroni correction before treatment and by analysis of covariance with a Bonferroni correction after treatment. Visual analog scale (VAS) for patients with all grades decreased significantly after treatment and passive range of motion (PROM) for patients with all grades improved. No difference was detected between grades. [Conclusion] Although MRI is useful to evaluate adhesive capsulitis, MRI findings of shoulder did not predict the prognosis after capsular distension treatment. PMID:27821938

  5. Opening the black box: imaging nanoparticle transport with MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phoenix, V.; Holmes, W. M.

    2009-12-01

    While most renown for its use in medicine, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has tremendous potential in the study of environmental processes. Its ability to non-invasively image inside materials that are opaque to other imaging methods (in particular light based techniques) is a particular strength. MRI has already been used, for example, to study fluid flow in rocks and image mass transport and biogeochemical processes in biofilms [1-4]. Here, we report of the use of MRI to image nanoparticle transport through porous geologic media (in this case packed gravel columns). Packed column experiments are key to understanding nanoparticulate transport in porous geologic media. Whilst highly informative, the data obtained can be a bulk average of a complex and heterogeneous array of interactions within the column. Natural environmental systems are often complex, displaying heterogeneity in geometry, hydrodynamics, geochemistry and microbiology throughout. MRI enables us to quantify better how this heterogeneity may influence nanoparticle transport and fate by enabling us to look inside the column and image the movement of nanoparticles within. To make the nanoparticle readily visible to MRI, it is labelled with a paramagnetic tag (commonly gadolinium). Indeed, a wide variety of off-the-shelf paramagnetically tagged nanoparticles and macromolecules are available, each with different properties enabling us to explore the impact of particle charge, size etc on their transport behaviour. In this preliminary study, packed columns of quartz or marble based gravels (approx 5 mm diameter) were first imaged to check their suitability for MR imaging. This was done as geologic material can contain sufficiently high concentrations of ferro- and paramagnetic ions to induce unwanted artefacts in the MR image. All gravels imaged (Rose quartz, Creswick quartz gravel and Ben Deulin white marble) produced minimal or no artefacts. A solution of the nanoparticle GadoCELLTrack (BioPAL), was

  6. MRI of nasopharyngeal adenoid hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Surov, Alexey; Ryl, Ina; Bartel-Friedrich, Sylvia; Wienke, Andreas; Kösling, Sabrina

    2016-10-01

    Nasopharyngeal adenoid hypertrophy (NAH) is a typical benign lesion. Due to involution, nasopharyngeal lymphatic tissue usually is not found in adults beyond the 30th to 40th year of life. However, occasionally NAH has been recognized after the 50th or 60th year. The aim of this study is to identify the frequency of NAH and to analyze its MRI findings in different age groups. From 2007 to 2011, 6693 MR investigations of the head were performed at our institution. MRI was obtained with a 1.5 T MRI device. NAH was identified in 18.0% of the patients. The frequency of NAH varied from 60.3% to 1.0% in the different age groups. The mean size of NAH was 23.2 ± 4.5 mm in cranio-caudal, 31.1 ± 5.2 mm in left-right, and 14.2 ± 4.1 mm in the anterior-posterior direction. The left-right and cranio-caudal sizes of NAH were largest in the 0-9 age group and decreased with age. On T1-w images most lesions (95.4%) were hypointense in comparison to the adjacent musculature. On T2-w fat-saturated images 82.4% of the lesions were hyperintense. After intravenous administration of contrast medium most lesions showed a slight enhancement (58.6%). Moderate enhancement was seen in 32.4% and a marked enhancement was identified in 9.0%. In the 0-9 age group most lesions showed a slight enhancement. Cysts within NAH were identified in 433 cases (35.9%). The frequency of cysts increased continuously with age, namely from 10.9% to 65.2%.

  7. Incidence and Burden of Pertussis Among Infants Less Than 1 Year of Age

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Carolyn K.; Krishnarajah, Girishanthy; Becker, Laura K.; Buikema, Ami; Tan, Tina Q.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Infant-specific pertussis data, especially among neonates, are limited and variable. This study (NCT01890850) provides overall and age-specific pertussis incidence and associated health care utilization and costs among commercially insured infants in the US. Methods: Nearly 1.2 million infants born from 2005 to 2010 with commercial health plan coverage were followed during their first 12 months of life. Pertussis cases were identified from medical claims (International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision, Clinical Modification code: 033.0, 033.9, 484.3), and incidence rates were calculated. Each pertussis case was then matched to 10 comparators, so pertussis-related health care utilization and costs before and after the index date could be assessed. Results: The overall pertussis incidence rate among infants <12 months of age was 117.7/100,000 person-years; infants 3 months of age had the highest incidence rate (247.7/100,000 person-years). Infants diagnosed with pertussis were significantly more likely to have prior diagnoses of upper respiratory infection, cough and wheezing-related illnesses than comparators (P < 0.001). Pertussis cases were more likely to be hospitalized within 14 days after the index date (31.8% vs. 0.5%; P < 0.001) and their adjusted health care costs during follow-up were 2.82 times higher than comparators (P < 0.001; 95% confidence interval: 2.08–3.81). The incremental cost of pertussis during the 12-month follow-up period averaged $8271 (P < 0.001). The average incremental cost varied substantially by age, ranging from $18,781 (P < 0.001) to $3772 (P = 0.02) among infants 1 month and 7–12 months of age, respectively. Conclusions: The health burden of pertussis, particularly in the youngest infants, remains substantial, highlighting the need to intensify efforts to protect this most vulnerable population. PMID:27902648

  8. An Empirical Method for Establishing Positional Confidence Intervals Tailored for Composite Interval Mapping of QTL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improved genetic resolution and availability of sequenced genomes have made positional cloning of moderate-effect QTL (quantitative trait loci) realistic in several systems, emphasizing the need for precise and accurate derivation of positional confidence intervals (CIs). Support interval (SI) meth...

  9. Healing of extraction sockets and augmented alveolar defects following 1-year treatment with bisphosphonate.

    PubMed

    Khojasteh, Arash; Behnia, Hossein; Morad, Golnaz; Dashti, Seyedeh Ghazaleh; Dehghan, Mohammad Mehdi; Shahab, Shahriyar; Abbas, Fatemeh Mashhadi

    2013-01-01

    To assess the effect of bisphosphonates on healing of extraction sockets and augmented alveolar defects, 12 adult female mongrel dogs were assigned to 2 experimental groups and a control group. The experimental groups received oral alendronate (ALN, 3.5 mg/kg/wk) or IV pamidronate (PAM, 1 mg/kg/wk) for 12 months. Animals were randomly tested for serum C-terminal telopeptide of collagen I (CTx). The right first and second premolars were extracted. After 8 weeks, extraction sites were evaluated for healing. Subsequently, 3-wall defects were created in ridges and filled with human mineralized cortical particulate bone. Two months post-augmentation, animals were sacrificed and mandibles were collected for cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and histomorphometric appraisal. The obtained data were compared using 1-way ANOVA test. CTx test results in both experimental groups were comparable (<10 pg/mL) but lower than that of the control group (minimum 159.2 pg/mL). Two months post-extraction, bone sequestra were noticed in extraction sites in BP-treated groups, involving the entire alveolar bone in the PAM group and the upper rim of the alveoli in the ALN group. Histologically, bone sequestra from the PAM group demonstrated empty osteocyte lacunae, while in the ALN group areas of necrotic bone along with evidence of active bone remodeling was distinguished. Eight weeks post-augmentation, the experimental groups showed no evidence of bone formation in the augmented area, while bone formation ratio was measured to be 18.32% in the control group. The mean amount of pixel intensity calculated from the CBCT images of the ALN, PAM, and control group was 113.69 ± 11.04, 124.94 ± 4.72, and 113.69 ± 6.63, respectively. Pixel intensity in PAM-treated group was significantly higher than both other groups. This study demonstrated that 1-year treatment with ALN/PAM was associated with impairment of post-extraction and post-augmentation bone healing in dogs.

  10. Maternal weight change between 1 and 2 years postpartum: the importance of 1 year weight retention.

    PubMed

    Lipsky, Leah M; Strawderman, Myla S; Olson, Christine M

    2012-07-01

    Pregnancy weight gain may lead to long-term increases in maternal BMI for some women. The objective of this study was to examine maternal body weight change 1y-2y postpartum, and to compare classifications of 2y weight retention with and without accounting for 1y-2y weight gain. Early pregnancy body weight (EPW, first trimester) was measured or imputed, and follow-up measures obtained before delivery, 1 year postpartum (1y) and 2 years postpartum (2y) in an observational cohort study of women seeking prenatal care in several counties in upstate New York (n = 413). Baseline height was measured; demographic and behavioral data were obtained from questionnaires and medical records. Associations of 1y-2y weight change (kg) and 1y-2y weight gain (≥2.25 kg) with anthropometric, socioeconomic, and behavioral variables were evaluated using linear and logistic regressions. While mean ± SE 1y-2y weight change was 0.009 ± 4.6 kg, 1y-2y weight gain (≥2.25 kg) was common (n = 108, 26%). Odds of weight gain 1y-2y were higher for overweight (OR(adj) = 2.63, CI(95%) = 1.43-4.82) and obese (OR(adj) = 2.93, CI(95%) = 1.62-5.27) women than for women with BMI <25. Two year weight retention (2y-EPW ≥2.25 kg) was misclassified in 38% (n = 37) of women when 1y-2y weight gain was ignored. One year weight retention (1YWR) (1y-EPW) was negatively related to 1y-2y weight change (β(adj) ± SE = -0.28 ± 0.04, P < 0.001) and weight gain (≥2.25 kg) (OR(adj) = 0.91, CI(95%) = 0.87-0.95). Relations between 1y weight retention and 1y-2y weight change were attenuated for women with higher early pregnancy BMI. Weight change 1y-2y was predicted primarily by an inverse relation with 1y weight retention. The high frequency of weight gain has important implications for classification of postpartum weight retention.

  11. Functional Imaging: CT and MRI

    PubMed Central

    van Beek, Edwin JR; Hoffman, Eric A

    2008-01-01

    Synopsis Numerous imaging techniques permit evaluation of regional pulmonary function. Contrast-enhanced CT methods now allow assessment of vasculature and lung perfusion. Techniques using spirometric controlled MDCT allow for quantification of presence and distribution of parenchymal and airway pathology, Xenon gas can be employed to assess regional ventilation of the lungs and rapid bolus injections of iodinated contrast agent can provide quantitative measure of regional parenchymal perfusion. Advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the lung include gadolinium-enhanced perfusion imaging and hyperpolarized helium imaging, which can allow imaging of pulmonary ventilation and .measurement of the size of emphysematous spaces. PMID:18267192

  12. MRI manifestations of bowler's thumb.

    PubMed

    Showalter, Martha F; Flemming, Donald J; Bernard, Stephanie A

    2011-01-01

    Bowler's thumb is a rare perineural fibrosis involving the ulnar digital nerve of the thumb. Affected patients present with pain, neuropathy, and mass lesion. The condition is caused by chronic repetitive impaction of the ulnar soft tissues of the thumb against the thumbhole of a bowling ball. In our case, MRI showed decreased signal intensity on both T1- and T2-weighted images surrounding an enlarged ulnar digital nerve of the thumb. The findings can be confused with giant-cell tumor of the tendon sheath or peripheral-nerve-sheath tumor.

  13. Happiness Scale Interval Study. Methodological Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalmijn, W. M.; Arends, L. R.; Veenhoven, R.

    2011-01-01

    The Happiness Scale Interval Study deals with survey questions on happiness, using verbal response options, such as "very happy" and "pretty happy". The aim is to estimate what degrees of happiness are denoted by such terms in different questions and languages. These degrees are expressed in numerical values on a continuous…

  14. Precise Interval Timer for Software Defined Radio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pozhidaev, Aleksey (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A precise digital fractional interval timer for software defined radios which vary their waveform on a packet-by-packet basis. The timer allows for variable length in the preamble of the RF packet and allows to adjust boundaries of the TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) Slots of the receiver of an SDR based on the reception of the RF packet of interest.

  15. 47 CFR 52.35 - Porting Intervals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Portability § 52.35 Porting Intervals. (a) All telecommunications carriers required by the Commission to port telephone numbers must complete a simple wireline-to-wireline or simple intermodal port request within one... p.m. local time for a simple port request to be eligible for activation at midnight on the same...

  16. 47 CFR 52.35 - Porting Intervals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Portability § 52.35 Porting Intervals. (a) All telecommunications carriers required by the Commission to port telephone numbers must complete a simple wireline-to-wireline or simple intermodal port request within one... p.m. local time for a simple port request to be eligible for activation at midnight on the same...

  17. 47 CFR 52.35 - Porting Intervals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Portability § 52.35 Porting Intervals. (a) All telecommunications carriers required by the Commission to port telephone numbers must complete a simple wireline-to-wireline or simple intermodal port request within one... p.m. local time for a simple port request to be eligible for activation at midnight on the same...

  18. 47 CFR 52.35 - Porting Intervals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Portability § 52.35 Porting Intervals. (a) All telecommunications carriers required by the Commission to port telephone numbers must complete a simple wireline-to-wireline or simple intermodal port request within one... p.m. local time for a simple port request to be eligible for activation at midnight on the same...

  19. 47 CFR 52.35 - Porting Intervals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Portability § 52.35 Porting Intervals. (a) All telecommunications carriers required by the Commission to port telephone numbers must complete a simple wireline-to-wireline or simple intermodal port request within one... p.m. local time for a simple port request to be eligible for activation at midnight on the same...

  20. Interval coding. II. Dendrite-dependent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Doiron, Brent; Oswald, Anne-Marie M; Maler, Leonard

    2007-04-01

    The rich temporal structure of neural spike trains provides multiple dimensions to code dynamic stimuli. Popular examples are spike trains from sensory cells where bursts and isolated spikes can serve distinct coding roles. In contrast to analyses of neural coding, the cellular mechanics of burst mechanisms are typically elucidated from the neural response to static input. Bridging the mechanics of bursting with coding of dynamic stimuli is an important step in establishing theories of neural coding. Electrosensory lateral line lobe (ELL) pyramidal neurons respond to static inputs with a complex dendrite-dependent burst mechanism. Here we show that in response to dynamic broadband stimuli, these bursts lack some of the electrophysiological characteristics observed in response to static inputs. A simple leaky integrate-and-fire (LIF)-style model with a dendrite-dependent depolarizing afterpotential (DAP) is sufficient to match both the output statistics and coding performance of experimental spike trains. We use this model to investigate a simplification of interval coding where the burst interspike interval (ISI) codes for the scale of a canonical upstroke rather than a multidimensional stimulus feature. Using this stimulus reduction, we compute a quantization of the burst ISIs and the upstroke scale to show that the mutual information rate of the interval code is maximized at a moderate DAP amplitude. The combination of a reduced description of ELL pyramidal cell bursting and a simplification of the interval code increases the generality of ELL burst codes to other sensory modalities.

  1. MEETING DATA QUALITY OBJECTIVES WITH INTERVAL INFORMATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Immunoassay test kits are promising technologies for measuring analytes under field conditions. Frequently, these field-test kits report the analyte concentrations as falling in an interval between minimum and maximum values. Many project managers use field-test kits only for scr...

  2. Confidence Trick: The Interpretation of Confidence Intervals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Colin

    2014-01-01

    The frequent misinterpretation of the nature of confidence intervals by students has been well documented. This article examines the problem as an aspect of the learning of mathematical definitions and considers the tension between parroting mathematically rigorous, but essentially uninternalized, statements on the one hand and expressing…

  3. Interval scanning photomicrography of microbial cell populations.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casida, L. E., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A single reproducible area of the preparation in a fixed focal plane is photographically scanned at intervals during incubation. The procedure can be used for evaluating the aerobic or anaerobic growth of many microbial cells simultaneously within a population. In addition, the microscope is not restricted to the viewing of any one microculture preparation, since the slide cultures are incubated separately from the microscope.

  4. Coefficient Alpha Bootstrap Confidence Interval under Nonnormality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla, Miguel A.; Divers, Jasmin; Newton, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Three different bootstrap methods for estimating confidence intervals (CIs) for coefficient alpha were investigated. In addition, the bootstrap methods were compared with the most promising coefficient alpha CI estimation methods reported in the literature. The CI methods were assessed through a Monte Carlo simulation utilizing conditions…

  5. Equidistant Intervals in Perspective Photographs and Paintings

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Human vision is extremely sensitive to equidistance of spatial intervals in the frontal plane. Thresholds for spatial equidistance have been extensively measured in bisecting tasks. Despite the vast number of studies, the informational basis for equidistance perception is unknown. There are three possible sources of information for spatial equidistance in pictures, namely, distances in the picture plane, in physical space, and visual space. For each source, equidistant intervals were computed for perspective photographs of walls and canals. Intervals appear equidistant if equidistance is defined in visual space. Equidistance was further investigated in paintings of perspective scenes. In appraisals of the perspective skill of painters, emphasis has been on accurate use of vanishing points. The current study investigated the skill of painters to depict equidistant intervals. Depicted rows of equidistant columns, tiles, tapestries, or trees were analyzed in 30 paintings and engravings. Computational analysis shows that from the middle ages until now, artists either represented equidistance in physical space or in a visual space of very limited depth. Among the painters and engravers who depict equidistance in a highly nonveridical visual space are renowned experts of linear perspective. PMID:27698983

  6. Coefficient Omega Bootstrap Confidence Intervals: Nonnormal Distributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla, Miguel A.; Divers, Jasmin

    2013-01-01

    The performance of the normal theory bootstrap (NTB), the percentile bootstrap (PB), and the bias-corrected and accelerated (BCa) bootstrap confidence intervals (CIs) for coefficient omega was assessed through a Monte Carlo simulation under conditions not previously investigated. Of particular interests were nonnormal Likert-type and binary items.…

  7. Physiological adjustments to intensive interval treadmill training

    PubMed Central

    Pyke, F. S.; Elliott, B. C.; Morton, A. R.; Roberts, A. D.

    1974-01-01

    During a one month training period, eight active men, aged 23-35 years, completed sixteen 30 minute sessions of high intensity interval (5 second work bouts at 16.9 km/hr up 20-25% grade alternated with 10 second rest intervals) treadmill work. In this training period, V̇O2, V̇E and blood lactate in a 10 minute run at 12.9 km/hr on a level treadmill were unchanged but heart rate during this work decreased by an average of 9 beats/min. During a 4 minute interval work effort at the training intensity, blood lactate accumulation decreased by 40.4%. In exhausting work, mean values of V̇O2, V̇E and blood lactate increased by 6.2%, 8.2% and 31.6% respectively. Maximal heart rate decreased by an average of 4 beats/min. The average work production of the men in the training sessions improved by 64.5% from 28,160 kgm to 43,685 kgm. No significant improvements were observed in either a short sprint or a stair climbing test which assessed the ability to generate mechanical power from alactacid anaerobic sources. It was concluded that the training regime is an effective method of producing a high total work output in competitive athletes and results in improvements in aerobic power, glycolytic capacity and ability to tolerate the short duration interval work encountered in many games.

  8. Toward Using Confidence Intervals to Compare Correlations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zou, Guang Yong

    2007-01-01

    Confidence intervals are widely accepted as a preferred way to present study results. They encompass significance tests and provide an estimate of the magnitude of the effect. However, comparisons of correlations still rely heavily on significance testing. The persistence of this practice is caused primarily by the lack of simple yet accurate…

  9. MRI Findings Do not Correlate with Outcome in Athletes with Chronic Groin Pain

    PubMed Central

    Daigeler, Adrien; Belyaev, Orlin; Pennekamp, Werner H.; Morrosch, Stephan; Köster, Odo; Uhl, Waldemar; Weyhe, Dirk

    2007-01-01

    This trial aimed to assess the value of MRI in the differential diagnosis of chronic groin pain in athletes, a condition caused by various pathologies, the most common being posterior abdominal wall deficiency, osteitis pubis and muscular imbalance. Nineteen subjects with clinically ruled-out hernia and recurrent episodes of exercise-triggered groin pain were assessed. Dynamic MRI was performed under Valsalva manoeuver and at rest within a training- free period and after training activity. Follow-up was performed after 4 years using a questionnaire and physical examination. An incipient hernia was seen in one case, Valsalva manoeuver provoked a visible bulging in 7 others (3 bilateral). Eight athletes showed symphysitis (accompanied by bulging in 3 cases). MRI visualized one hydrocele, one osteoma of the left femur, one enchondroma of the pubic bone, and one dilated left ureter without clinical symptoms or therapeutic relevance. MRI findings after training and during the training free period did not vary. Fifteen participants were available for a follow-up control examination 4 years later - one suffered from ongoing pain, eleven were free of symptoms and three had improvement. However, most of them improved only with changing or reducing training. There were four participants with a specific therapy of their MRI findings. MRI revealed a variety of pathological findings in athletes suffering from chronic groin pain, but it was not reliable enough in differentiating between diagnoses requiring conservative or operative treatment. The MRI examination within the training interval did not have an advantage to that within the training-free period. Further randomized prospective trials with a long follow-up should establish whether MRI findings could be of help in the choice between conservative and surgical treatment for chronic groin pain. Key pointsMRI findings after training and during the train free period did not vary.MRI revealed a variety of pathological findings

  10. Exact and Asymptotic Weighted Logrank Tests for Interval Censored Data: The interval R package

    PubMed Central

    Fay, Michael P.; Shaw, Pamela A.

    2014-01-01

    For right-censored data perhaps the most commonly used tests are weighted logrank tests, such as the logrank and Wilcoxon-type tests. In this paper we review several generalizations of those weighted logrank tests to interval-censored data and present an R package, interval, to implement many of them. The interval package depends on the perm package, also presented here, which performs exact and asymptotic linear permutation tests. The perm package performs many of the tests included in the already available coin package, and provides an independent validation of coin. We review analysis methods for interval-censored data, and we describe and show how to use the interval and perm packages. PMID:25285054

  11. A Robust Confidence Interval for Samples of Five Observations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-11-01

    A robust confidence interval using biweights for the case of five observations is proposed when the underlying distribution has somewhat heavier...probabilities, the intervals proposed are highly efficient, in terms of the expected length of the confidence interval . (Author)

  12. MRI: update on technology diffusion and acquisition.

    PubMed

    Hoppszallern, S; Hughes, C; Zimmerman, R A

    1991-04-01

    Over the past three years, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become accepted as a valuable diagnostic tool, and its applications continue to expand. During this time, the number of units installed in the United States doubled. By 1990 about 2,000 MRI units were in place in the United States and nearly 20 percent of the MRI-installed base was mobile, according to a research study conducted by the Hadley Hart Group (Chicago) and Drew Consultants, Inc. (Concord, MA). With the introduction of the prospective payment system, many hospitals were hesitant to spend limited capital on new technology, such as MRI. At the same time, freestanding diagnostic imaging centers were on the rise. Some hospitals and entrepreneurs who foresaw the potential of MRI in health care pioneered its use in the clinical setting. Hospitals began to examine new partnership arrangements and alternative forms of financing, so that they too could offer MRI services. By the end of 1988, the majority of hospitals offering MRI services did not own their own unit and about 40 percent of the hospitals offering MRI services were in a mobile configuration according to the Hadley Hart Group. While the technology has been diffused into 100-bed hospitals via mobile service vendors in some parts of the country, many medium-sized and large hospitals also have entered the MRI services market in this fashion. In the larger hospitals, the patient demand or need for the service often would justify acquisition of MRI, but the expense of the technology, and in many areas restrictive state health planning policies, modified purchase of MRI systems by hospitals. Mobile service vendors offered hospitals a way to startup MRI services in a limited fashion without a major capital expenditure and its associated risk. As hospitals gain experience with mobile MRI and achieve or exceed their early utilization projections, administrators are reevaluating the need to expand services to a full-time fixed site. Early fixed

  13. 4D flow imaging with MRI

    PubMed Central

    Stankovic, Zoran; Allen, Bradley D.; Garcia, Julio; Jarvis, Kelly B.

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an important tool for the clinical evaluation of patients with cardiovascular disease. Since its introduction in the late 1980s, 2-dimensional phase contrast MRI (2D PC-MRI) has become a routine part of standard-of-care cardiac MRI for the assessment of regional blood flow in the heart and great vessels. More recently, time-resolved PC-MRI with velocity encoding along all three flow directions and three-dimensional (3D) anatomic coverage (also termed ‘4D flow MRI’) has been developed and applied for the evaluation of cardiovascular hemodynamics in multiple regions of the human body. 4D flow MRI allows for the comprehensive evaluation of complex blood flow patterns by 3D blood flow visualization and flexible retrospective quantification of flow parameters. Recent technical developments, including the utilization of advanced parallel imaging techniques such as k-t GRAPPA, have resulted in reasonable overall scan times, e.g., 8-12 minutes for 4D flow MRI of the aorta and 10-20 minutes for whole heart coverage. As a result, the application of 4D flow MRI in a clinical setting has become more feasible, as documented by an increased number of recent reports on the utility of the technique for the assessment of cardiac and vascular hemodynamics in patient studies. A number of studies have demonstrated the potential of 4D flow MRI to provide an improved assessment of hemodynamics which might aid in the diagnosis and therapeutic management of cardiovascular diseases. The purpose of this review is to describe the methods used for 4D flow MRI acquisition, post-processing and data analysis. In addition, the article provides an overview of the clinical applications of 4D flow MRI and includes a review of applications in the heart, thoracic aorta and hepatic system. PMID:24834414

  14. MRI derived brain atrophy in PSP and MSA-P. Determining sample size to detect treatment effects.

    PubMed

    Paviour, Dominic C; Price, Shona L; Lees, Andrew J; Fox, Nick C

    2007-04-01

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and multiple system (MSA) atrophy are associated with progressive brain atrophy. Serial MRI can be applied in order to measure this change in brain volume and to calculate atrophy rates. We evaluated MRI derived whole brain and regional atrophy rates as potential markers of progression in PSP and the Parkinsonian variant of multiple system atrophy (MSA-P). 17 patients with PSP, 9 with MSA-P and 18 healthy controls underwent two MRI brain scans. MRI scans were registered, and brain and regional atrophy rates (midbrain, pons, cerebellum, third and lateral ventricles) measured. Sample sizes required to detect the effect of a proposed disease-modifying treatment were estimated. The effect of scan interval on the variance of the atrophy rates and sample size was assessed. Based on the calculated yearly rates of atrophy, for a drug effect equivalent to a 30% reduction in atrophy, fewer PSP subjects are required in each treatment arm when using midbrain rather than whole brain atrophy rates (183 cf. 499). Fewer MSA-P subjects are required, using pontine/cerebellar, rather than whole brain atrophy rates (164/129 cf. 794). A reduction in the variance of measured atrophy rates was observed with a longer scan interval. Regional rather than whole brain atrophy rates calculated from volumetric serial MRI brain scans in PSP and MSA-P provide a more practical and powerful means of monitoring disease progression in clinical trials.

  15. MRI

    MedlinePlus

    ... sweatpants and a t-shirt). Certain types of metal can cause blurry images. You will lie on ... placed artificial joints Vascular stents Worked with sheet metal in the past (you may need tests to ...

  16. Differential Characteristics of Kidney Transplant Recipients According to 1-Year Chronic Kidney Disease Stage 3a and Stage 3b Graft Function.

    PubMed

    Baek, Chung Hee; Kim, Hyosang; Yang, Won Seok; Han, Duck Jong; Park, Su-Kil

    2017-04-01

    The outcomes of transplantation have improved, but more than 50% of kidney transplantation (KT) recipients are still reported to have renal function of chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 3 at 1 year after KT. We reviewed all 1235 patients who received a KT in our institution between 2008 and 2012. Among these recipients, 77 and 289 cases were included in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at 1 year after KT 30-44 (CKD stage 3b) group and eGFR 45-59 (CKD stage 3a) group, respectively. Longer duration of dialysis (odds ratio [OR] = 1.007, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.000-1.014, P = 0.047), older donors (OR = 1.064, 95% CI, 1.031-1.098, P < 0.001), delayed graft function (OR = 3.601, 95% CI, 1.031-1.098, P < 0.001), BK virus infection (OR = 2.567, 95% CI, 1.242-5.305, P = 0.011), and pneumonia (OR = 4.451, 95% CI, 1.388-14.279, P = 0.012) were contributing factors to eGFR 30-44 mL/min. Especially, ureteral stricture occurred more frequently in eGFR 30-44 group of deceased donor KT. However, acute rejection was not a significant risk factor of lower eGFR. Graft survival was better in the eGFR 45-59 group. However, this difference was smaller in deceased donor KT. Infections and urologic complications are also important contributing factors of lower graft function in CKD stage 3. In addition, dividing CKD stage 3 into subgroups might be more useful in living donor kidney transplantation.

  17. Development of 1-year-old computational phantom and calculation of organ doses during CT scans using Monte Carlo simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Yuxi; Qiu, Rui; Gao, Linfeng; Ge, Chaoyong; Zheng, Junzheng; Xie, Wenzhang; Li, Junli

    2014-09-01

    With the rapidly growing number of CT examinations, the consequential radiation risk has aroused more and more attention. The average dose in each organ during CT scans can only be obtained by using Monte Carlo simulation with computational phantoms. Since children tend to have higher radiation sensitivity than adults, the radiation dose of pediatric CT examinations requires special attention and needs to be assessed accurately. So far, studies on organ doses from CT exposures for pediatric patients are still limited. In this work, a 1-year-old computational phantom was constructed. The body contour was obtained from the CT images of a 1-year-old physical phantom and the internal organs were deformed from an existing Chinese reference adult phantom. To ensure the organ locations in the 1-year-old computational phantom were consistent with those of the physical phantom, the organ locations in 1-year-old computational phantom were manually adjusted one by one, and the organ masses were adjusted to the corresponding Chinese reference values. Moreover, a CT scanner model was developed using the Monte Carlo technique and the 1-year-old computational phantom was applied to estimate organ doses derived from simulated CT exposures. As a result, a database including doses to 36 organs and tissues from 47 single axial scans was built. It has been verified by calculation that doses of axial scans are close to those of helical scans; therefore, this database could be applied to helical scans as well. Organ doses were calculated using the database and compared with those obtained from the measurements made in the physical phantom for helical scans. The differences between simulation and measurement were less than 25% for all organs. The result shows that the 1-year-old phantom developed in this work can be used to calculate organ doses in CT exposures, and the dose database provides a method for the estimation of 1-year-old patient doses in a variety of CT examinations.

  18. Development of 1-year-old computational phantom and calculation of organ doses during CT scans using Monte Carlo simulation.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yuxi; Qiu, Rui; Gao, Linfeng; Ge, Chaoyong; Zheng, Junzheng; Xie, Wenzhang; Li, Junli

    2014-09-21

    With the rapidly growing number of CT examinations, the consequential radiation risk has aroused more and more attention. The average dose in each organ during CT scans can only be obtained by using Monte Carlo simulation with computational phantoms. Since children tend to have higher radiation sensitivity than adults, the radiation dose of pediatric CT examinations requires special attention and needs to be assessed accurately. So far, studies on organ doses from CT exposures for pediatric patients are still limited. In this work, a 1-year-old computational phantom was constructed. The body contour was obtained from the CT images of a 1-year-old physical phantom and the internal organs were deformed from an existing Chinese reference adult phantom. To ensure the organ locations in the 1-year-old computational phantom were consistent with those of the physical phantom, the organ locations in 1-year-old computational phantom were manually adjusted one by one, and the organ masses were adjusted to the corresponding Chinese reference values. Moreover, a CT scanner model was developed using the Monte Carlo technique and the 1-year-old computational phantom was applied to estimate organ doses derived from simulated CT exposures. As a result, a database including doses to 36 organs and tissues from 47 single axial scans was built. It has been verified by calculation that doses of axial scans are close to those of helical scans; therefore, this database could be applied to helical scans as well. Organ doses were calculated using the database and compared with those obtained from the measurements made in the physical phantom for helical scans. The differences between simulation and measurement were less than 25% for all organs. The result shows that the 1-year-old phantom developed in this work can be used to calculate organ doses in CT exposures, and the dose database provides a method for the estimation of 1-year-old patient doses in a variety of CT examinations.

  19. Meningococcal Seroepidemiology 1 Year After the PsA-TT Mass Immunization Campaign in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Tall, Haoua; Yaro, Seydou; Kpoda, Hervé B. N.; Ouangraoua, Soumeya; Trotter, Caroline L.; Njanpop Lafourcade, Berthe-Marie; Findlow, Helen; Bai, Xilian; Martin, Catherine; Nwakamma, Ikenna; Ouedraogo, Jean Bosco; Gessner, Bradford D.; Borrow, Ray; Mueller, Judith E.

    2015-01-01

    Background. A group A meningococcal (MenA) conjugate vaccine, PsA-TT (MenAfriVac), was introduced in Burkina Faso via mass campaigns between September and December 2010, targeting the 1- to 29-year-old population. This study describes specific antibody titers in the general population 11 months later and compares them to preintroduction data obtained during 2008 using the same protocol. Methods. During October–November 2011, we recruited a representative sample of the population of urban Bobo-Dioulasso aged 6 months to 29 years, who underwent standardized interviews and blood draws. We assessed anti-MenA immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentrations (n = 200) and, using rabbit complement, serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) titers against 2 group A strains: reference strain F8238 (SBAref) (n = 562) and strain 3125 (SBA3125) (n = 200). Results. Among the 562 participants, 481 (86%) were aged ≥23 months and had been eligible for the PsA-TT campaign. Among them, vaccine coverage was 86.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 82.7%–89.9%). Prevalence of putatively protective antibodies among vaccine-eligible age groups was 97.3% (95% CI, 95.9%–98.7%) for SBAref titers ≥128, 83.6% (95% CI, 77.6%–89.7%) for SBA3125 ≥128, and 84.2% (95% CI, 78.7%–89.7%) for anti-MenA IgG ≥2 µg/mL. Compared to the population aged 23 months to 29 years during 2008, geometric mean titers of SBAref were 7.59-fold higher during 2011, 51.88-fold for SBA3125, and 10.56-fold for IgG. Conclusions. This study shows high seroprevalence against group A meningococci in Burkina Faso following MenAfriVac introduction. Follow-up surveys will provide evidence on the persistence of population-level immunity and the optimal vaccination strategy for long-term control of MenA meningitis in the African meningitis belt. PMID:26553686

  20. Physics of MRI: a primer.

    PubMed

    Plewes, Donald B; Kucharczyk, Walter

    2012-05-01

    This article is based on an introductory lecture given for the past many years during the "MR Physics and Techniques for Clinicians" course at the Annual Meeting of the ISMRM. This introduction is not intended to be a comprehensive overview of the field, as the subject of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) physics is large and complex. Rather, it is intended to lay a conceptual foundation by which magnetic resonance image formation can be understood from an intuitive perspective. The presentation is nonmathematical, relying on simple models that take the reader progressively from the basic spin physics of nuclei, through descriptions of how the magnetic resonance signal is generated and detected in an MRI scanner, the foundations of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation, and a discussion of the Fourier transform and its relation to MR image formation. The article continues with a discussion of how magnetic field gradients are used to facilitate spatial encoding and concludes with a development of basic pulse sequences and the factors defining image contrast.

  1. The perception of harmonic triads: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Fujisawa, Takashi X; Cook, Norman D

    2011-06-01

    We have undertaken an fMRI study of harmony perception in order to determine the relationship between the diatonic triads of Western harmony and brain activation. Subjects were 12 right-handed, male non-musicians. All stimuli consisted of two harmonic triads that did not contain dissonant intervals of 1 or 2 semitones, but differed between them by 0, ±1, ±2 or ±3 semitones and therefore differed in terms of their inherent stability (major and minor chords) or instability (diminished and augmented chords). These musical stimuli were chosen on the basis of a psychoacoustical model of triadic harmony that has previously been shown to explain the fundamental regularities of traditional harmony theory. The brain response to the chords could be distinguished within the right orbitofrontal cortex and cuneus/posterior cingulate gyrus. Moreover, the strongest hemodynamic responses were found for conditions of rising pitch leading from harmonic tension to modal resolution.

  2. Functional MRI using regularized parallel imaging acquisition.

    PubMed

    Lin, Fa-Hsuan; Huang, Teng-Yi; Chen, Nan-Kuei; Wang, Fu-Nien; Stufflebeam, Steven M; Belliveau, John W; Wald, Lawrence L; Kwong, Kenneth K

    2005-08-01

    Parallel MRI techniques reconstruct full-FOV images from undersampled k-space data by using the uncorrelated information from RF array coil elements. One disadvantage of parallel MRI is that the image signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is degraded because of the reduced data samples and the spatially correlated nature of multiple RF receivers. Regularization has been proposed to mitigate the SNR loss originating due to the latter reason. Since it is necessary to utilize static prior to regularization, the dynamic contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) in parallel MRI will be affected. In this paper we investigate the CNR of regularized sensitivity encoding (SENSE) acquisitions. We propose to implement regularized parallel MRI acquisitions in functional MRI (fMRI) experiments by incorporating the prior from combined segmented echo-planar imaging (EPI) acquisition into SENSE reconstructions. We investigated the impact of regularization on the CNR by performing parametric simulations at various BOLD contrasts, acceleration rates, and sizes of the active brain areas. As quantified by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, the simulations suggest that the detection power of SENSE fMRI can be improved by regularized reconstructions, compared to unregularized reconstructions. Human motor and visual fMRI data acquired at different field strengths and array coils also demonstrate that regularized SENSE improves the detection of functionally active brain regions.

  3. Functional MRI Using Regularized Parallel Imaging Acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Fa-Hsuan; Huang, Teng-Yi; Chen, Nan-Kuei; Wang, Fu-Nien; Stufflebeam, Steven M.; Belliveau, John W.; Wald, Lawrence L.; Kwong, Kenneth K.

    2013-01-01

    Parallel MRI techniques reconstruct full-FOV images from undersampled k-space data by using the uncorrelated information from RF array coil elements. One disadvantage of parallel MRI is that the image signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is degraded because of the reduced data samples and the spatially correlated nature of multiple RF receivers. Regularization has been proposed to mitigate the SNR loss originating due to the latter reason. Since it is necessary to utilize static prior to regularization, the dynamic contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) in parallel MRI will be affected. In this paper we investigate the CNR of regularized sensitivity encoding (SENSE) acquisitions. We propose to implement regularized parallel MRI acquisitions in functional MRI (fMRI) experiments by incorporating the prior from combined segmented echo-planar imaging (EPI) acquisition into SENSE reconstructions. We investigated the impact of regularization on the CNR by performing parametric simulations at various BOLD contrasts, acceleration rates, and sizes of the active brain areas. As quantified by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, the simulations suggest that the detection power of SENSE fMRI can be improved by regularized reconstructions, compared to unregularized reconstructions. Human motor and visual fMRI data acquired at different field strengths and array coils also demonstrate that regularized SENSE improves the detection of functionally active brain regions. PMID:16032694

  4. MRI endoscopy using intrinsically localized probes

    PubMed Central

    Sathyanarayana, Shashank; Bottomley, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is traditionally performed with fixed externally applied gradient magnetic fields and is hence intrinsically locked to the laboratory frame of reference (FoR). Here a method for high-resolution MRI that employs active, catheter-based, tiny internal probes that utilize the spatial properties of the probe itself for localization is proposed and demonstrated at 3 T. Because these properties are intrinsic to the probe, they move with it, transforming MRI from the laboratory FoR to the FoR of the device itself, analogous to an endoscope. The “MRI endoscope” can utilize loop coils and loopless antennas with modified sensitivity, in combination with adiabatic excitation by the device itself, to restrict the MRI sensitivity to a disk-shaped plane a few mm thick. Excitation with the MRI endoscope limits the eddy currents induced in the sample to an excited volume whose size is orders of magnitude below that excited by a conventional body MRI coil. Heat testing shows maximum local temperature increases of <1 °C during MRI, within regulatory guidelines. The method is demonstrated in a kiwifruit, in intact porcine and rabbit aortas, and in an atherosclerotic human iliac artery specimen, with in-plane resolution as small as 80 μm and 1.5–5 mm slice thickness. PMID:19378751

  5. Validation of Sodium MRI of Intervertebral Disc

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chenyang; McArdle, Erin; Fenty, Matthew; Witschey, Walter; Elliott, Mark; Sochor, Matthew; Reddy, Ravinder; Borthakur, Arijitt

    2009-01-01

    Study Design This study demonstrated the diagnostic potential of sodium MRI for non-invasive quantification of PG in the intervertebral discs. Objective To determine the existence of a linear correlation between intervertebral disc [Na] measured from sodium MRI and [PG] measurement from DMMB assay. Summary of Background Data Previous studies have shown the possibility of quantifying [Na] in vivo using sodium MRI, however none has shown a direct linear correlation between [Na] measured from sodium MRI and [PG]. Methods 3D sodium MRI images of bovine discs were acquired and converted into [Na] maps. Samples were systematically removed from the discs for DMMB assay. The removal locations were photographically recorded and applied to the [Na] maps to extract the [Na] measurements for comparison. In vivo sodium MRI scans were also carried out on a pair of symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects. Results The linear regression fit of [Na] versus [PG] data yielded a significant linear correlation coefficient of 0.71. The in vivo sodium MRI image of the symptomatic subject showed significant [Na] decrease when compared to that of the asymptomatic subject. Conclusion Sodium MRI's specificity for PG in the intervertebral discs makes it a promising diagnostic tool for the earlier phase of disc degeneration. PMID:20147881

  6. Pantopaque simulating thrombosed intracranial aneurysms on MRI

    SciTech Connect

    Lidov, M.W.; Silvers, A.R.; Mosesson, R.E.; Stollman, A.L.; Som, P.M.

    1996-03-01

    A patient is presented in whom iophendylate (Pantopaque) within the basal cisterns closely resembled the appearance on MRI of thrombosed aneurysms of the middle cerebral arteries. The sometimes subtle differences between the appearances on MRI of Pantopaque and aneurysmal clot are discussed to permit accurate diagnosis without resorting to more invasive diagnostic tests, such as cerebral angiography. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  7. Anencephaly: MRI findings and pathogenetic theories.

    PubMed

    Calzolari, Ferdinando; Gambi, Beatrice; Garani, Giampaolo; Tamisari, Lalla

    2004-12-01

    We describe the MRI appearances of an anencephalic newborn who survived for 13 h; particularities of this case are male gender and the absence of other associated malformations. Moreover, we discuss the pathogenetic theories of anencephaly, correlating MRI findings with embryological data. An exencephaly-anencephaly sequence due to amnion rupture is hypothesized.

  8. [Anatomic variants of Meckel's cave on MRI].

    PubMed

    Benoudiba, F; Hadj-Rabia, M; Iffenecker, C; Fuerxer, F; Bekkali, F; Francke, J P; Doyon, D

    1998-10-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) gives an accurate analysis of Meckel's cave variability. Images were acquired in 50 patients with several sections for anatomical comparison. Using several sections, MRI is a suitable method for better analysis of the trigeminal cistern. The most frequent findings are symmetrical trigeminal cisterns. Expansion of Meckel's cave or its disappearance has pathological significance.

  9. Increasing fMRI sampling rate improves Granger causality estimates.

    PubMed

    Lin, Fa-Hsuan; Ahveninen, Jyrki; Raij, Tommi; Witzel, Thomas; Chu, Ying-Hua; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P; Tsai, Kevin Wen-Kai; Kuo, Wen-Jui; Belliveau, John W

    2014-01-01

    Estimation of causal interactions between brain areas is necessary for elucidating large-scale functional brain networks underlying behavior and cognition. Granger causality analysis of time series data can quantitatively estimate directional information flow between brain regions. Here, we show that such estimates are significantly improved when the temporal sampling rate of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is increased 20-fold. Specifically, healthy volunteers performed a simple visuomotor task during blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) contrast based whole-head inverse imaging (InI). Granger causality analysis based on raw InI BOLD data sampled at 100-ms resolution detected the expected causal relations, whereas when the data were downsampled to the temporal resolution of 2 s typically used in echo-planar fMRI, the causality could not be detected. An additional control analysis, in which we SINC interpolated additional data points to the downsampled time series at 0.1-s intervals, confirmed that the improvements achieved with the real InI data were not explainable by the increased time-series length alone. We therefore conclude that the high-temporal resolution of InI improves the Granger causality connectivity analysis of the human brain.

  10. Shaping and timing gradient pulses to reduce MRI acoustic noise.

    PubMed

    Segbers, Marcel; Rizzo Sierra, Carlos V; Duifhuis, Hendrikus; Hoogduin, Johannes M

    2010-08-01

    A method to reduce the acoustic noise generated by gradient systems in MRI has been recently proposed; such a method is based on the linear response theory. Since the physical cause of MRI acoustic noise is the time derivative of the gradient current, a common trapezoid current shape produces an acoustic gradient coil response mainly during the rising and falling edge. In the falling edge, the coil acoustic response presents a 180 degrees phase difference compared to the rising edge. Therefore, by varying the width of the trapezoid and keeping the ramps constant, it is possible to suppress one selected frequency and its higher harmonics. This value is matched to one of the prominent resonance frequencies of the gradient coil system. The idea of cancelling a single frequency is extended to a second frequency, using two successive trapezoid-shaped pulses presented at a selected interval. Overall sound pressure level reduction of 6 and 10 dB is found for the two trapezoid shapes and a single pulse shape, respectively. The acoustically optimized pulse shape proposed is additionally tested in a simulated echo planar imaging readout train, obtaining a sound pressure level reduction of 12 dB for the best case.

  11. One-way ANOVA based on interval information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hesamian, Gholamreza

    2016-08-01

    This paper deals with extending the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) to the case where the observed data are represented by closed intervals rather than real numbers. In this approach, first a notion of interval random variable is introduced. Especially, a normal distribution with interval parameters is introduced to investigate hypotheses about the equality of interval means or test the homogeneity of interval variances assumption. Moreover, the least significant difference (LSD method) for investigating multiple comparison of interval means is developed when the null hypothesis about the equality of means is rejected. Then, at a given interval significance level, an index is applied to compare the interval test statistic and the related interval critical value as a criterion to accept or reject the null interval hypothesis of interest. Finally, the method of decision-making leads to some degrees to accept or reject the interval hypotheses. An applied example will be used to show the performance of this method.

  12. NMR, MRI, and spectroscopic MRI in inhomogeneous fields

    DOEpatents

    Demas, Vasiliki; Pines, Alexander; Martin, Rachel W; Franck, John; Reimer, Jeffrey A

    2013-12-24

    A method for locally creating effectively homogeneous or "clean" magnetic field gradients (of high uniformity) for imaging (with NMR, MRI, or spectroscopic MRI) both in in-situ and ex-situ systems with high degrees of inhomogeneous field strength. THe method of imaging comprises: a) providing a functional approximation of an inhomogeneous static magnetic field strength B.sub.0({right arrow over (r)}) at a spatial position {right arrow over (r)}; b) providing a temporal functional approximation of {right arrow over (G)}.sub.shim(t) with i basis functions and j variables for each basis function, resulting in v.sub.ij variables; c) providing a measured value .OMEGA., which is an temporally accumulated dephasing due to the inhomogeneities of B.sub.0({right arrow over(r)}); and d) minimizing a difference in the local dephasing angle .phi.({right arrow over (r)},t)=.gamma..intg..sub.0.sup.t{square root over (|{right arrow over (B)}.sub.1({right arrow over (r)},t')|.sup.2+({right arrow over (r)}{right arrow over (G)}.sub.shimG.sub.shim(t')+.parallel.{right arrow over (B)}.sub.0({right arrow over (r)}).parallel..DELTA..omega.({right arrow over (r)},t'/.gamma/).sup.2)}dt'-.OMEGA. by varying the v.sub.ij variables to form a set of minimized v.sub.ij variables. The method requires calibration of the static fields prior to minimization, but may thereafter be implemented without such calibration, may be used in open or closed systems, and potentially portable systems.

  13. The Rotator Interval of the Shoulder

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Rachel M.; Taylor, Dean; Verma, Nikhil N.; Romeo, Anthony A.; Mologne, Timothy S.; Provencher, Matthew T.

    2015-01-01

    Biomechanical studies have shown that repair or plication of rotator interval (RI) ligamentous and capsular structures decreases glenohumeral joint laxity in various directions. Clinical outcomes studies have reported successful outcomes after repair or plication of these structures in patients undergoing shoulder stabilization procedures. Recent studies describing arthroscopic techniques to address these structures have intensified the debate over the potential benefit of these procedures as well as highlighted the differences between open and arthroscopic RI procedures. The purposes of this study were to review the structures of the RI and their contribution to shoulder instability, to discuss the biomechanical and clinical effects of repair or plication of rotator interval structures, and to describe the various surgical techniques used for these procedures and outcomes. PMID:26779554

  14. Constraint-based Attribute and Interval Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jonsson, Ari; Frank, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we describe Constraint-based Attribute and Interval Planning (CAIP), a paradigm for representing and reasoning about plans. The paradigm enables the description of planning domains with time, resources, concurrent activities, mutual exclusions among sets of activities, disjunctive preconditions and conditional effects. We provide a theoretical foundation for the paradigm, based on temporal intervals and attributes. We then show how the plans are naturally expressed by networks of constraints, and show that the process of planning maps directly to dynamic constraint reasoning. In addition, we de ne compatibilities, a compact mechanism for describing planning domains. We describe how this framework can incorporate the use of constraint reasoning technology to improve planning. Finally, we describe EUROPA, an implementation of the CAIP framework.

  15. Using interval logic for order assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Z.

    1994-12-31

    Temporal logic, in particular, interval logic has been used to represent genome maps and to assist genome map constructions. However, interval logic itself appears to be limited in its expressive power because genome mapping requires various information such as partial order, distance and local orientation. In this paper, we first propose an integrated formalism based on a spatial-temporal logic where the concepts of metric information, local orientation and uncertainty are merged. Then, we present and discuss a deductive and object-oriented data model based on this formalism for a genetic deductive database, and the inference rules required. The formalism supports the maintenance of coarser knowledge of unordered, partially ordered and completely ordered genetic data in a relational hierarchy. We believe that this integrated formalism also provides a formal basis for designing a declarative query language.

  16. Reliable prediction intervals with regression neural networks.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, Harris; Haralambous, Haris

    2011-10-01

    This paper proposes an extension to conventional regression neural networks (NNs) for replacing the point predictions they produce with prediction intervals that satisfy a required level of confidence. Our approach follows a novel machine learning framework, called Conformal Prediction (CP), for assigning reliable confidence measures to predictions without assuming anything more than that the data are independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.). We evaluate the proposed method on four benchmark datasets and on the problem of predicting Total Electron Content (TEC), which is an important parameter in trans-ionospheric links; for the latter we use a dataset of more than 60000 TEC measurements collected over a period of 11 years. Our experimental results show that the prediction intervals produced by our method are both well calibrated and tight enough to be useful in practice.

  17. Efficient computation of parameter confidence intervals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Patrick C.

    1987-01-01

    An important step in system identification of aircraft is the estimation of stability and control derivatives from flight data along with an assessment of parameter accuracy. When the maximum likelihood estimation technique is used, parameter accuracy is commonly assessed by the Cramer-Rao lower bound. It is known, however, that in some cases the lower bound can be substantially different from the parameter variance. Under these circumstances the Cramer-Rao bounds may be misleading as an accuracy measure. This paper discusses the confidence interval estimation problem based on likelihood ratios, which offers a more general estimate of the error bounds. Four approaches are considered for computing confidence intervals of maximum likelihood parameter estimates. Each approach is applied to real flight data and compared.

  18. Partitioned-Interval Quantum Optical Communications Receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilnrotter, Victor A.

    2013-01-01

    The proposed quantum receiver in this innovation partitions each binary signal interval into two unequal segments: a short "pre-measurement" segment in the beginning of the symbol interval used to make an initial guess with better probability than 50/50 guessing, and a much longer segment used to make the high-sensitivity signal detection via field-cancellation and photon-counting detection. It was found that by assigning as little as 10% of the total signal energy to the pre-measurement segment, the initial 50/50 guess can be improved to about 70/30, using the best available measurements such as classical coherent or "optimized Kennedy" detection.

  19. Quantifying chaotic dynamics from interspike intervals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlov, A. N.; Pavlova, O. N.; Mohammad, Y. K.; Shihalov, G. M.

    2015-03-01

    We address the problem of characterization of chaotic dynamics at the input of a threshold device described by an integrate-and-fire (IF) or a threshold crossing (TC) model from the output sequences of interspike intervals (ISIs). We consider the conditions under which quite short sequences of spiking events provide correct identification of the dynamical regime characterized by the single positive Lyapunov exponent (LE). We discuss features of detecting the second LE for both types of the considered models of events generation.

  20. Temporal control mechanism in equaled interval tapping.

    PubMed

    Yamada, M

    1996-05-01

    Subjects who were at intermediate levels of musical performance made equaled interval tapping in several tempos. The temporal fluctuation for the tapping was observed and analysed. The power spectrum of the fluctuation showed a critical phenomenon at around a frequency which corresponds to the period of 20 taps, for all tempos and all subjects, i.e., the slope of the spectrum was flat or had a positive value in the high frequency region above the critical frequency but it increased as the frequency decreased in the low frequency region below the critical frequency. Moreover, auto-regressive models and Akaike's information criterion were introduced to determine the critical tap number. The order of the best auto-regressive model for the temporal fluctuation data was distributed around 20 taps. These results show that the memory capacity of 20 taps governs the control of equaled interval tapping. To interpret the critical phenomenon of 20 taps with the memory capacity of the short term memory, the so called magic number seven, a simple chunking assumption was introduced; subjects might have unconsciously chunked every three taps during the tapping. If the chunking assumption is true, when subjects consciously chunk every seven taps, the memory capacity of taps should shift to about 50 taps. To test if the assumption is true or not, subjects made a three-beat rhythm tapping and a seven-beat rhythm tapping with equaled intervals. As a result, the memory capacity for these accented tappings were also estimated as 20 taps. This suggests that the critical phenomenon cannot be explained by the chunking assumption and the magic number seven, rather this finding suggests that there exists a memory capacity of 20 taps and this is used for equaled interval tapping.

  1. Fluctuations of healthy and unhealthy heartbeat intervals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Boon Leong; Toda, Mikito

    2013-04-01

    We show that the RR-interval fluctuations, defined as the difference between successive natural-logarithm of the RR interval, for healthy, congestive-heart-failure (CHF) and atrial-fibrillation (AF) subjects are well modeled by non-Gaussian stable distributions. Our results suggest that healthy or unhealthy RR-interval fluctuation can generally be modeled as a sum of a large number of independent physiological effects which are identically distributed with infinite variance. Furthermore, we show for the first time that one indicator —the scale parameter of the stable distribution— is sufficient to robustly distinguish the three groups of subjects. The scale parameters for healthy subjects are smaller than those for AF subjects but larger than those for CHF subjects —this ordering suggests that the scale parameter could be used to objectively quantify the severity of CHF and AF over time and also serve as an early warning signal for a healthy person when it approaches either boundary of the healthy range.

  2. New Madrid seismic zone recurrence intervals

    SciTech Connect

    Schweig, E.S. Center for Earthquake Research and Information, Memphis, TN ); Ellis, M.A. )

    1993-03-01

    Frequency-magnitude relations in the New Madrid seismic zone suggest that great earthquakes should occur every 700--1,200 yrs, implying relatively high strain rates. These estimates are supported by some geological and GPS results. Recurrence intervals of this order should have produced about 50 km of strike-slip offset since Miocene time. No subsurface evidence for such large displacements is known within the seismic zone. Moreover, the irregular fault pattern forming a compressive step that one sees today is not compatible with large displacements. There are at least three possible interpretations of the observations of short recurrence intervals and high strain rates, but apparently youthful fault geometry and lack of major post-Miocene deformation. One is that the seismological and geodetic evidence are misleading. A second possibility is that activity in the region is cyclic. That is, the geological and geodetic observations that suggest relatively short recurrence intervals reflect a time of high, but geologically temporary, pore-fluid pressure. Zoback and Zoback have suggested such a model for intraplate seismicity in general. Alternatively, the New Madrid seismic zone is geologically young feature that has been active for only the last few tens of thousands of years. In support of this, observe an irregular fault geometry associated with a unstable compressive step, a series of en echelon and discontinuous lineaments that may define the position of a youthful linking fault, and the general absence of significant post-Eocene faulting or topography.

  3. Influence of the psychological state of relatives on the quality of life of patients at 1 year after transplantation.

    PubMed

    Pérez-San-Gregorio, M A; Martín-Rodríguez, A; Pérez-Bernal, J

    2008-11-01

    We analyzed the influence of the psychological state of relatives on the quality of life of patients at 1 year after transplantation. We selected 2 groups: 94 transplant patients (47.9% liver, 40.4% kidney, and 11.7% heart) of mean age 49.42 years (SD, 11.21 years) and their close relatives (n = 94). All participants were assessed at 1 year after transplantation, using a Psychological Survey (both groups); the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the Quality of Life Questionnaire (transplant patients); and the Leeds Scales for the Self-Assessment of Anxiety and Depression (relatives). The results revealed that transplant patients whose relatives had more symptoms of anxiety and depression at 1 year after transplantation showed a decreased quality of life.

  4. Characteristics of young children with persistent conduct problems 1 year after treatment with the Incredible Years program.

    PubMed

    Drugli, May Britt; Fossum, Sturla; Larsson, Bo; Morch, Willy-Tore

    2010-07-01

    In the present study, predictors of persistent conduct problems among children aged 4-8 years were investigated in a randomized controlled trial 1 year after treatment with the Incredible Years parent training program (PT), or combined parent training and child treatment (PT + CT). Data were collected before and after treatment and at a 1-year follow-up. Pre-treatment child characteristics predicting persistent conduct problems in the child at the 1-year follow-up were high levels of internalizing and aggression problems as reported by mothers. The only family characteristic predicting persistence of child conduct problems was having contacts with child protection services. Clinicians and researchers need to closely monitor and identify children with conduct problems not responding to parent training programs. These individuals and their families are likely to need further support.

  5. Baseline-Corrected QT (QTc) Interval Is Associated with Prolongation of QTc during Severe Hypoglycemia in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Seon-Ah; Yun, Jae-Seung; Lim, Tae-Seok; Kang, Yoon-Goo; Lee, Kang-Min; Song, Ki-Ho; Yoo, Ki-Dong; Park, Yong-Moon; Ko, Seung-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Background We investigated an association between baseline heart rate-corrected QT (QTc) interval before severe hypoglycemia (SH) and prolongation of QTc interval during SH in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods Between January 2004 and June 2014, 208 patients with T2DM, who visited the emergency department because of SH and underwent standard 12-lead electrocardiography within the 6-month period before SH were consecutively enrolled. The QTc interval was analyzed during the incidence of SH, and 6 months before and after SH. QTc intervals of 450 ms or longer in men and 460 ms or longer in women were considered abnormally prolonged. Results The mean age and diabetes duration were 68.1±12.1 and 14.1±10.1 years, respectively. The mean QTc intervals at baseline and SH episodes were 433±33 and 460±33 ms, respectively (P<0.001). One hundred and fourteen patients (54.8%) had a prolonged QTc interval during SH. There was a significant decrease in the prolonged QTc interval within 6 months after SH (QTc interval prolongation during SH vs. after recovery, 54.8% vs. 33.8%, P<0.001). The prolonged QTc interval was significantly associated with baseline QTc interval prolongation (odds ratio, 2.92; 95% confidence interval, 1.22 to 6.96; P=0.016) after adjusting for multiple confounders. Conclusion A prolonged QTc interval at baseline was significantly associated with prolongation of the QTc interval during SH in patients with T2DM, suggesting the necessity of QTc interval monitoring and attention to those with a prolonged QTc interval to prevent SH. PMID:27766792

  6. Activity-induced manganese-dependent MRI (AIM-MRI) and functional MRI in awake rabbits during somatosensory stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Matthew P.; Weiss, Craig; Procissi, Daniel; Wang, Lei; Disterhoft, John F.

    2015-01-01

    Activity-induced manganese-dependent MRI (AIM-MRI) is a powerful tool to track system-wide neural activity using high resolution, quantitative T1-weighted MRI in animal models and has significant advantages for investigating neural activity over other modalities including BOLD fMRI. With AIM-MRI, Mn2+ ions enter neurons via voltage-gated calcium channels preferentially active during the time of experimental exposure. A broad range of AIM-MRI studies using different species studying different phenomena have been performed, but few of these studies provide a systematic evaluation of the factors influencing the detection of Mn2+ such as dosage and the temporal characteristics of Mn2+ uptake. We identified an optimal dose of Mn2+ (25 mg/kg, s.c.) in order to characterize the time-course of Mn2+ accumulation in active neural regions in the rabbit. T1-weighted MRI and functional MRI were collected 0–3, 6–9, and 24–27 h post-Mn2+ injection while the vibrissae on the right side were vibrated. Significant BOLD activation in the left somatosensory (SS) cortex and left ventral posteromedial (VPM) thalamic nucleus was detected during whisker vibration. T1-weighted signal intensities were extracted from these regions, their corresponding contralateral regions and the visual cortex (to serve as controls). A significant elevation in T1-weighted signal intensity in the left SS cortex (relative to right)was evident 6–9 and 24–27 h post-Mn2+ injection while the left VPM thalamus showed a significant enhancement (relative to the right) only during the 24–27 h session. Visual cortex showed no hemispheric difference at any timepoint. Our results suggest that studies employing AIM-MRI would benefit by conducting experimental manipulations 6–24 h after subcutaneous MnCl2 injections to optimize the concentration of contrast agent in the regions active during the exposure. PMID:26589332

  7. Comparison of Reconstruction Intervals in Routine ECG-Pulsed 64-Row-MSCT Coronary Angiography in Frequency Controlled Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Frydrychowicz, Alex Pache, Gregor; Saueressig, Ulrich; Foell, Daniela; Kotter, Elmar; Langer, Mathias; Bley, Thorsten A.

    2007-02-15

    Purpose. In light of the increasing use and acceptance of multislice computed tomography (MSCT) coronary angiography it was the purpose of this study to compare reconstruction intervals used in a routine ECG-pulsed MSCT coronary artery angiography setting with frequency controlled patients. Methods. Examinations were performed on a Siemens Somatom Sensation 64 scanner with a total of 110 ml of contrast agent and ECG pulsing (interval from 40% to 70%) after oral application of a {beta}-blocker if the heart rate was higher than 65 bpm. All human subjects were referred for the evaluation of suspected coronary artery disease. Coronary artery segments were evaluated by two experienced radiologists in a consensus reading. A ranking of diagnostic image quality (from 1 (no evaluation possible) to 5 (excellent image quality)) was statistically evaluated by Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test. Results. In 45 patients (30 male, 15 female, age 63.8 {+-} 12.1 years) we detected a significant advantage of the 60% reconstruction interval over 40%, 50%, and 70% (for each p < 0.05). In cases of sudden arrhythmia or movement during the scan, additional reconstruction intervals within the ECG-pulsed reconstruction intervals remained necessary for diagnosis. Conclusion. In a routine diagnostic setting with frequency controlled patients and ECG pulsing the 60% reconstruction interval can be considered superior for the initial diagnosis in 64-row multislice computed tomography coronary angiography. However, further information can be derived from various reconstruction intervals such as 40% and 70%.

  8. Portable MRI developed at Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect

    Espy, Michelle

    2015-04-22

    Scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory are developing an ultra-low-field Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) system that could be low-power and lightweight enough for forward deployment on the battlefield and to field hospitals in the World's poorest regions. "MRI technology is a powerful medical diagnostic tool," said Michelle Espy, the Battlefield MRI (bMRI) project leader, "ideally suited for imaging soft-tissue injury, particularly to the brain." But hospital-based MRI devices are big and expensive, and require considerable infrastructure, such as large quantities of cryogens like liquid nitrogen and helium, and they typically use a large amount of energy. "Standard MRI machines just can't go everywhere," said Espy. "Soldiers wounded in battle usually have to be flown to a large hospital and people in emerging nations just don't have access to MRI at all. We've been in contact with doctors who routinely work in the Third World and report that MRI would be extremely valuable in treating pediatric encephalopathy, and other serious diseases in children." So the Los Alamos team started thinking about a way to make an MRI device that could be relatively easy to transport, set up, and use in an unconventional setting. Conventional MRI machines use very large magnetic fields that align the protons in water molecules to then create magnetic resonance signals, which are detected by the machine and turned into images. The large magnetic fields create exceptionally detailed images, but they are difficult and expensive to make. Espy and her team wanted to see if images of sufficient quality could be made with ultra-low-magnetic fields, similar in strength to the Earth's magnetic field. To achieve images at such low fields they use exquisitely sensitive detectors called Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices, or SQUIDs. SQUIDs are among the most sensitive magnetic field detectors available, so interference with the signal is the primary stumbling block. "SQUIDs are

  9. Portable MRI developed at Los Alamos

    ScienceCinema

    Espy, Michelle

    2016-07-12

    Scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory are developing an ultra-low-field Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) system that could be low-power and lightweight enough for forward deployment on the battlefield and to field hospitals in the World's poorest regions. "MRI technology is a powerful medical diagnostic tool," said Michelle Espy, the Battlefield MRI (bMRI) project leader, "ideally suited for imaging soft-tissue injury, particularly to the brain." But hospital-based MRI devices are big and expensive, and require considerable infrastructure, such as large quantities of cryogens like liquid nitrogen and helium, and they typically use a large amount of energy. "Standard MRI machines just can't go everywhere," said Espy. "Soldiers wounded in battle usually have to be flown to a large hospital and people in emerging nations just don't have access to MRI at all. We've been in contact with doctors who routinely work in the Third World and report that MRI would be extremely valuable in treating pediatric encephalopathy, and other serious diseases in children." So the Los Alamos team started thinking about a way to make an MRI device that could be relatively easy to transport, set up, and use in an unconventional setting. Conventional MRI machines use very large magnetic fields that align the protons in water molecules to then create magnetic resonance signals, which are detected by the machine and turned into images. The large magnetic fields create exceptionally detailed images, but they are difficult and expensive to make. Espy and her team wanted to see if images of sufficient quality could be made with ultra-low-magnetic fields, similar in strength to the Earth's magnetic field. To achieve images at such low fields they use exquisitely sensitive detectors called Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices, or SQUIDs. SQUIDs are among the most sensitive magnetic field detectors available, so interference with the signal is the primary stumbling block. "SQUIDs are

  10. Techniques for Fast Stereoscopic MRI

    PubMed Central

    Guttman, Michael A.; McVeigh, Elliot R.

    2007-01-01

    Stereoscopic MRI can impart 3D perception with only two image acquisitions. This economy over standard multiplanar 3D volume renderings allows faster frame rates, which are needed for real-time imaging applications. Real-time 3D perception may enhance the appreciation of complex anatomical structures, and may improve hand-eye coordination while manipulating a medical device during an image-guided interventional procedure. To this goal, a system is being developed to acquire and display stereoscopic MR images in real-time. A clinically used, fast gradient-recalled echo-train sequence has been modified to produce stereo image pairs. Features have been added for depth cueing, view sharing, and bulk signal suppression. A workstation was attached to a clinical MR scanner for fast data extraction, image reconstruction and stereoscopic image display. PMID:11477636

  11. Combined PET/MRI scanner

    DOEpatents

    Schlyer, David; Woody, Craig L.; Rooney, William; Vaska, Paul; Stoll, Sean; Pratte, Jean-Francois; O'Connor, Paul

    2007-10-23

    A combined PET/MRI scanner generally includes a magnet for producing a magnetic field suitable for magnetic resonance imaging, a radiofrequency (RF) coil disposed within the magnetic field produced by the magnet and a ring tomograph disposed within the magnetic field produced by the magnet. The ring tomograph includes a scintillator layer for outputting at least one photon in response to an annihilation event, a detection array coupled to the scintillator layer for detecting the at least one photon outputted by the scintillator layer and for outputting a detection signal in response to the detected photon and a front-end electronic array coupled to the detection array for receiving the detection signal, wherein the front-end array has a preamplifier and a shaper network for conditioning the detection signal.

  12. Negative MRI versus real disease.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, D A

    1996-01-01

    A 76-year-old diabetic woman presented with progressive binocular vertical diplopia and right eye pain. Examination revealed a pupil-involving partial right third cranial nerve palsy, with development of anisocoria over the course of several hours. MRI of the brain showed no mass lesion. MRA, even with retrospective review of the images, failed to clearly identify a 1 cm right posterior communicating artery aneurysm detected by subsequent conventional cerebral angiography. While MRA has been reported to be highly sensitive in cerebral aneurysm detection at some centers, other investigators have indicated less favorable data. Standardized protocols for data acquisition and meticulous attention to proper post-processing and image interpretation are essential if MRA is to supplant invasive arteriography. Currently, conventional (x-ray) angiography remains the gold standard for aneurysm detection, while MRA possesses excellent potential in this regard.

  13. Massively Parallel MRI Detector Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Keil, Boris; Wald, Lawrence L

    2013-01-01

    Originally proposed as a method to increase sensitivity by extending the locally high-sensitivity of small surface coil elements to larger areas, the term parallel imaging now includes the use of array coils to perform image encoding. This methodology has impacted clinical imaging to the point where many examinations are performed with an array comprising multiple smaller surface coil elements as the detector of the MR signal. This article reviews the theoretical and experimental basis for the trend towards higher channel counts relying on insights gained from modeling and experimental studies as well as the theoretical analysis of the so-called “ultimate” SNR and g-factor. We also review the methods for optimally combining array data and changes in RF methodology needed to construct massively parallel MRI detector arrays and show some examples of state-of-the-art for highly accelerated imaging with the resulting highly parallel arrays. PMID:23453758

  14. Feature space analysis of MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamid; Windham, Joe P.; Peck, Donald J.

    1997-04-01

    This paper presents development and performance evaluation of an MRI feature space method. The method is useful for: identification of tissue types; segmentation of tissues; and quantitative measurements on tissues, to obtain information that can be used in decision making (diagnosis, treatment planning, and evaluation of treatment). The steps of the work accomplished are as follows: (1) Four T2-weighted and two T1-weighted images (before and after injection of Gadolinium) were acquired for ten tumor patients. (2) Images were analyed by two image analysts according to the following algorithm. The intracranial brain tissues were segmented from the scalp and background. The additive noise was suppressed using a multi-dimensional non-linear edge- preserving filter which preserves partial volume information on average. Image nonuniformities were corrected using a modified lowpass filtering approach. The resulting images were used to generate and visualize an optimal feature space. Cluster centers were identified on the feature space. Then images were segmented into normal tissues and different zones of the tumor. (3) Biopsy samples were extracted from each patient and were subsequently analyzed by the pathology laboratory. (4) Image analysis results were compared to each other and to the biopsy results. Pre- and post-surgery feature spaces were also compared. The proposed algorithm made it possible to visualize the MRI feature space and to segment the image. In all cases, the operators were able to find clusters for normal and abnormal tissues. Also, clusters for different zones of the tumor were found. Based on the clusters marked for each zone, the method successfully segmented the image into normal tissues (white matter, gray matter, and CSF) and different zones of the lesion (tumor, cyst, edema, radiation necrosis, necrotic core, and infiltrated tumor). The results agreed with those obtained from the biopsy samples. Comparison of pre- to post-surgery and radiation

  15. Intra voxel analysis in MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambrosanio, Michele; Baselice, Fabio; Ferraioli, Giampaolo; Pascazio, Vito

    2014-03-01

    A new application of Compressive Sensing (CS) in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) field is presented. In particular, first results of the Intra Voxel Analysis (IVA) technique are reported. The idea is to exploit CS peculiarities in order to distinguish different contributions inside the same resolution cell, instead of reconstructing images from not fully sampled k-space acquisition. Applied to MRI field, this means the possibility of estimating the presence of different tissues inside the same voxel, i.e. in one pixel of the obtained image. In other words, the method is the first attempt, as far as we know, of achieving Spectroscopy-like results starting from each pixel of MR images. In particular, tissues are distinguished each others by evaluating their spin-spin relaxation times. Within this manuscript, first results on clinical dataset, in particular a phantom made by aqueous solution and oil and an occipital brain lesion corresponding to a metastatic breast cancer nodule, are reported. Considering the phantom dataset, in particular focusing on the slice where the separation between water and oil occurs, the methodology is able to distinguish the two components with different spin-spin relaxation times. With respect to clinical dataset,focusing on a voxel of the lesion area, the approach is able to detect the presence of two tissues, namely the healthy and the cancer related ones, while in other location outside the lesion only the healthy tissue is detected. Of course, these are the first results of the proposed methodology, further studies on different types of clinical datasets are required in order to widely validate the approach. Although few datasets have been considered, results seem both interesting and promising.

  16. In vivo quantification of magnetically labelled cells by MRI relaxometry.

    PubMed

    Gimenez, Ulysse; Lajous, Hélène; El Atifi, Michèle; Bidart, Marie; Auboiroux, Vincent; Fries, Pascal Henry; Berger, François; Lahrech, Hana

    2016-11-01

    Cellular MRI, which visualizes magnetically labelled cells (cells*), is an active research field for in vivo cell therapy and tracking. The simultaneous relaxation rate measurements (R2 *, R2 , R1 ) are the basis of a quantitative cellular MRI method proposed here. U937 cells were labelled with Molday ION Rhodamine B, a bi-functional superparamagnetic and fluorescent nanoparticle (U937*). U937* viability and proliferation were not affected in vitro. In vitro relaxometry was performed in a cell concentration range of [2.5 × 10(4) -10(8) ] cells/mL. These measurements show the existence of complementary cell concentration intervals where these rates vary linearly. The juxtaposition of these intervals delineates a wide cell concentration range over which one of the relaxation rates in a voxel of an in vivo image can be converted into an absolute cell concentration. The linear regime was found at high concentrations for R1 in the range of [10(6) - 2 × 10(8) ] cells/mL, at intermediate concentrations for R2 in [2.5 × 10(5) - 5 × 10(7) ] cells/mL and at low concentrations for R2 * in [8 × 10(4) - 5 × 10(6) ] cells/mL. In vivo relaxometry was performed in a longitudinal study, with labelled U937 cells injected into a U87 glioma mouse model. Using in vitro data, maps of in vivo U937* concentrations were obtained by converting one of the in vivo relaxation rates to cell concentration maps. MRI results were compared with the corresponding optical images of the same brains, showing the usefulness of our method to accurately follow therapeutic cell biodistribution in a longitudinal study. Results also demonstrate that the method quantifies a large range of magnetically labelled cells*. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. A practice-based study on stepwise excavation of deep carious lesions in permanent teeth: a 1-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Bjørndal, L; Thylstrup, A

    1998-04-01

    This study reports results from a practice-based study in which deep carious lesions were treated by general dental practitioners using stepwise excavation. The material comprised 94 teeth with deep carious lesions which the clinicians considered would result in pulp perforation if treated by a single and terminal excavation. At the first visit excavation of the peripheral dentine was completed. The outermost part of the central and necrotic dentine was gently removed with a sharp excavator. Standardized assessments of the dentine colour and consistency were made before application of a calcium hydroxide-containing base material and temporary filling. The final excavation was completed after a treatment interval ranging from 2 to 19 months, with a median of 6 months. Reassessments of the dentine colour and consistency were made before complete removal of demineralized dentine. The central dentine was significantly browner and less softened after the sealing period. After removal of the dark-brownish dentine during the final excavation, the colour and consistency of the exposed central dentine was found to resemble that of the completely excavated peripheral dentine. Only five cases resulted in pulp perforation during the final excavation. The high success rate of teeth surviving the final treatment without pulp exposure after 1 year of observation shows that it was possible for dentists in general practice to administer and manage the treatment of deep carious lesions, a process which may prolong tooth survival compared with conventional endodontic techniques.

  18. Low-Cost High-Performance MRI

    PubMed Central

    Sarracanie, Mathieu; LaPierre, Cristen D.; Salameh, Najat; Waddington, David E. J.; Witzel, Thomas; Rosen, Matthew S.

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is unparalleled in its ability to visualize anatomical structure and function non-invasively with high spatial and temporal resolution. Yet to overcome the low sensitivity inherent in inductive detection of weakly polarized nuclear spins, the vast majority of clinical MRI scanners employ superconducting magnets producing very high magnetic fields. Commonly found at 1.5–3 tesla (T), these powerful magnets are massive and have very strict infrastructure demands that preclude operation in many environments. MRI scanners are costly to purchase, site, and maintain, with the purchase price approaching $1 M per tesla (T) of magnetic field. We present here a remarkably simple, non-cryogenic approach to high-performance human MRI at ultra-low magnetic field, whereby modern under-sampling strategies are combined with fully-refocused dynamic spin control using steady-state free precession techniques. At 6.5 mT (more than 450 times lower than clinical MRI scanners) we demonstrate (2.5 × 3.5 × 8.5) mm3 imaging resolution in the living human brain using a simple, open-geometry electromagnet, with 3D image acquisition over the entire brain in 6 minutes. We contend that these practical ultra-low magnetic field implementations of MRI (<10 mT) will complement traditional MRI, providing clinically relevant images and setting new standards for affordable (<$50,000) and robust portable devices. PMID:26469756

  19. Visualizing electromagnetic fields in metals by MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrashekar, Chandrika Sefcikova; Shellikeri, Annadanesh; Chandrashekar, S.; Taylor, Erika A.; Taylor, Deanne M.

    2017-02-01

    Based upon Maxwell's equations, it has long been established that oscillating electromagnetic (EM) fields incident upon a metal surface, decay exponentially inside the conductor, leading to a virtual absence of EM fields at sufficient depths. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) utilizes radiofrequency (r.f.) EM fields to produce images. Here we present a visualization of a virtual EM vacuum inside a bulk metal strip by MRI, amongst several findings. At its simplest, an MRI image is an intensity map of density variations across voxels (pixels) of identical size (=Δ x Δ y Δ z ). By contrast in bulk metal MRI, we uncover that despite uniform density, intensity variations arise from differing effective elemental volumes (voxels) from different parts of the bulk metal. Further, we furnish chemical shift imaging (CSI) results that discriminate different faces (surfaces) of a metal block according to their distinct nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shifts, which holds much promise for monitoring surface chemical reactions noninvasively. Bulk metals are ubiquitous, and MRI is a premier noninvasive diagnostic tool. Combining the two, the emerging field of bulk metal MRI can be expected to grow in importance. The findings here may impact further development of bulk metal MRI and CSI.

  20. MRI visualisation by digitally reconstructed radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrurier, Antoine; Bönsch, Andrea; Lau, Robert; Deserno, Thomas M.

    2015-03-01

    Visualising volumetric medical images such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) clients is often achieved by image browsing in sagittal, coronal or axial views or three-dimensional (3D) rendering. This latter technique requires fine thresholding for MRI. On the other hand, computing virtual radiograph images, also referred to as digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRR), provides in a single two-dimensional (2D) image a complete overview of the 3D data. It appears therefore as a powerful alternative for MRI visualisation and preview in PACS. This study describes a method to compute DRR from T1-weighted MRI. After segmentation of the background, a histogram distribution analysis is performed and each foreground MRI voxel is labeled as one of three tissues: cortical bone, also known as principal absorber of the X-rays, muscle and fat. An intensity level is attributed to each voxel according to the Hounsfield scale, linearly related to the X-ray attenuation coefficient. Each DRR pixel is computed as the accumulation of the new intensities of the MRI dataset along the corresponding X-ray. The method has been tested on 16 T1-weighted MRI sets. Anterior-posterior and lateral DRR have been computed with reasonable qualities and avoiding any manual tissue segmentations. This proof-of-concept holds for research application for use in clinical PACS.

  1. Recommendations for Real-Time Speech MRI

    PubMed Central

    Lingala, Sajan Goud; Sutton, Brad P.; Miquel, Marc E.; Nayak, Krishna S.

    2016-01-01

    Real-time magnetic resonance imaging (RT-MRI) is being increasingly used for speech and vocal production research studies. Several imaging protocols have emerged based on advances in RT-MRI acquisition, reconstruction, and audio-processing methods. This review summarizes the state-of-the-art, discusses technical considerations, and provides specific guidance for new groups entering this field. We provide recommendations for performing RT-MRI of the upper airway. This is a consensus statement stemming from the ISMRM-endorsed Speech MRI summit held in Los Angeles, February 2014. A major unmet need identified at the summit was the need for consensus on protocols that can be easily adapted by researchers equipped with conventional MRI systems. To this end, we provide a discussion of tradeoffs in RT-MRI in terms of acquisition requirements, a priori assumptions, artifacts, computational load, and performance for different speech tasks. We provide four recommended protocols and identify appropriate acquisition and reconstruction tools. We list pointers to open-source software that facilitate implementation. We conclude by discussing current open challenges in the methodological aspects of RT-MRI of speech. PMID:26174802

  2. Low-Cost High-Performance MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarracanie, Mathieu; Lapierre, Cristen D.; Salameh, Najat; Waddington, David E. J.; Witzel, Thomas; Rosen, Matthew S.

    2015-10-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is unparalleled in its ability to visualize anatomical structure and function non-invasively with high spatial and temporal resolution. Yet to overcome the low sensitivity inherent in inductive detection of weakly polarized nuclear spins, the vast majority of clinical MRI scanners employ superconducting magnets producing very high magnetic fields. Commonly found at 1.5-3 tesla (T), these powerful magnets are massive and have very strict infrastructure demands that preclude operation in many environments. MRI scanners are costly to purchase, site, and maintain, with the purchase price approaching $1 M per tesla (T) of magnetic field. We present here a remarkably simple, non-cryogenic approach to high-performance human MRI at ultra-low magnetic field, whereby modern under-sampling strategies are combined with fully-refocused dynamic spin control using steady-state free precession techniques. At 6.5 mT (more than 450 times lower than clinical MRI scanners) we demonstrate (2.5 × 3.5 × 8.5) mm3 imaging resolution in the living human brain using a simple, open-geometry electromagnet, with 3D image acquisition over the entire brain in 6 minutes. We contend that these practical ultra-low magnetic field implementations of MRI (<10 mT) will complement traditional MRI, providing clinically relevant images and setting new standards for affordable (<$50,000) and robust portable devices.

  3. Acute interval exercise intensity does not affect appetite and nutrient preferences in overweight and obese males.

    PubMed

    Alkahtani, Shaea A; Byrne, Nuala M; Hills, Andrew P; King, Neil A

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of two different intensities of acute interval exercise on food preferences and appetite sensations in overweight and obese men. Twelve overweight/obese males (age=29.0±4.1 years; BMI =29.1±2.4 kg/m2) completed three exercise sessions: an initial graded exercise test, and two interval cycling sessions: moderate-(MIIT) and high-intensity (HIIT) interval exercise sessions on separate days in a counterbalanced order. The MIIT session involved cycling for 5-minute repetitions of alternate workloads 20% below and 20% above maximal fat oxidation. The HIIT session consisted of cycling for alternate bouts of 15 seconds at 85% VO2max and 15 seconds unloaded recovery. Appetite sensations and food preferences were measured immediately before and after the exercise sessions using the Visual Analogue Scale and the Liking & Wanting experimental procedure. Results indicated that liking significantly increased and wanting significantly decreased in all food categories after both MIIT and HIIT. There were no differences between MIIT and HIIT on the effect on appetite sensations and Liking & Wanting. In conclusion, manipulating the intensity of acute interval exercise did not affect appetite and nutrient preferences.

  4. Influence of dental materials on dental MRI

    PubMed Central

    Tymofiyeva, O; Vaegler, S; Rottner, K; Boldt, J; Hopfgartner, AJ; Proff, PC; Richter, E-J; Jakob, PM

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the potential influence of standard dental materials on dental MRI (dMRI) by estimating the magnetic susceptibility with the help of the MRI-based geometric distortion method and to classify the materials from the standpoint of dMRI. Methods: A series of standard dental materials was studied on a 1.5 T MRI system using spin echo and gradient echo pulse sequences and their magnetic susceptibility was estimated using the geometric method. Measurements on samples of dental materials were supported by in vivo examples obtained in dedicated dMRI procedures. Results: The tested materials showed a range of distortion degrees. The following materials were classified as fully compatible materials that can be present even in the tooth of interest: the resin-based sealer AH Plus® (Dentsply, Maillefer, Germany), glass ionomer cement, gutta-percha, zirconium dioxide and composites from one of the tested manufacturers. Interestingly, composites provided by the other manufacturer caused relatively strong distortions and were therefore classified as compatible I, along with amalgam, gold alloy, gold–ceramic crowns, titanium alloy and NiTi orthodontic wires. Materials, the magnetic susceptibility of which differed from that of water by more than 200 ppm, were classified as non-compatible materials that should not be present in the patient’s mouth for any dMRI applications. They included stainless steel orthodontic appliances and CoCr. Conclusions: A classification of the materials that complies with the standard grouping of materials according to their magnetic susceptibility was proposed and adopted for the purposes of dMRI. The proposed classification can serve as a guideline in future dMRI research. PMID:23610088

  5. A Novel MRI Marker for Prostate Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, Steven J. Stafford, R. Jason; Bankson, James A.; Li Chun; Swanson, David A.; Kudchadker, Rajat J.; Martirosyan, Karen S.

    2008-05-01

    Purpose: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the optimal imaging modality for the prostate and surrounding critical organ structures. However, on MRI, the titanium radioactive seeds used for brachytherapy appear as black holes (negative contrast) and cannot be accurately localized. We sought to develop an encapsulated contrast agent marker (ECAM) with high-signal intensity on MRI to permit accurate localization of radioactive seeds with MRI during and after prostate brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: We investigated several agents with paramagnetic and superparamagnetic properties. The agents were injected into titanium, acrylic, and glass seeds, which were linked together in various combinations and imaged with MRI. The agent with the greatest T1-weighted signal was tested further in a canine prostate and agarose phantom. Studies were performed on a 1.5-T clinical MRI scanner. Results: The cobalt-chloride complex contrast (C4) agent with stoichiometry (CoCl{sub 2}){sub 0.8}(C{sub 2}H{sub 5}NO{sub 2}){sub 0.2} had the greatest T1-weighted signal (positive contrast) with a relaxivity ratio >1 (r{sub 2}/r{sub 1} = 1.21 {+-} 0.29). Acrylic-titanium and glass-titanium seed strands were clearly visualized with the encapsulated contrast agent marker. Conclusion: We have developed a novel ECAM that permits positive identification of the radioactive seeds used for prostate brachytherapy on MRI. Preclinical in vitro phantom studies and in vivo canine studies are needed to further optimize MRI sequencing techniques to facilitate MRI-based dosimetry.

  6. Synthetic quantitative MRI through relaxometry modelling

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Siawoosh; Weiskopf, Nikolaus

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Quantitative MRI (qMRI) provides standardized measures of specific physical parameters that are sensitive to the underlying tissue microstructure and are a first step towards achieving maps of biologically relevant metrics through in vivo histology using MRI. Recently proposed models have described the interdependence of qMRI parameters. Combining such models with the concept of image synthesis points towards a novel approach to synthetic qMRI, in which maps of fundamentally different physical properties are constructed through the use of biophysical models. In this study, the utility of synthetic qMRI is investigated within the context of a recently proposed linear relaxometry model. Two neuroimaging applications are considered. In the first, artefact‐free quantitative maps are synthesized from motion‐corrupted data by exploiting the over‐determined nature of the relaxometry model and the fact that the artefact is inconsistent across the data. In the second application, a map of magnetization transfer (MT) saturation is synthesized without the need to acquire an MT‐weighted volume, which directly leads to a reduction in the specific absorption rate of the acquisition. This feature would be particularly important for ultra‐high field applications. The synthetic MT map is shown to provide improved segmentation of deep grey matter structures, relative to segmentation using T 1‐weighted images or R 1 maps. The proposed approach of synthetic qMRI shows promise for maximizing the extraction of high quality information related to tissue microstructure from qMRI protocols and furthering our understanding of the interrelation of these qMRI parameters. PMID:27753154

  7. Genetic evaluation of weaning weight and probability of lambing at 1 year of age in Targhee lambs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to investigate genetic control of 120-day weaning weight and the probability of lambing at 1 year of age in Targhee ewe lambs. Records of 5,967 ewe lambs born from 1989 to 2012 and first exposed to rams for breeding at approximately 7 months of age were analyzed. Reco...

  8. Risperidone in Children with Disruptive Behavior Disorders and Subaverage Intelligence: A 1-Year, Open-Label Study of 504 Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croonenberghs, Jan; Fegert, Joerg M.; Findling, Robert L.; de Smedt, Goedele; van Dongen, Stefan

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine the long-term safety and effectiveness of risperidone for severe disruptive behaviors in children. Method: A multisite, 1-year, open-label study of patients aged 5 to 14 years with disruptive behaviors and subaverage intelligence was conducted. Results: Seventy-three percent of the 504 patients enrolled completed the study.…

  9. [The pharyngeal viral flora in dystrophic infants 0 to 1 years of age with acute respiratory diseases].

    PubMed

    Pârvu, C; Isaia, G; Moldovan, D; Mârşanu, M; Lăzărescu, P; Sîntimbreanu, C; Mârşanu, A

    1989-01-01

    Pharyngeal viral flora was studied in 0-1-year-old dystrophic children with acute infections of the upper respiratory tract and with interstitial pneumopathy. Influence of the dystrophic factor on the qualitative and quantitative aspects of the viral flora is discussed.

  10. 41 CFR 302-11.22 - May the 1-year time limitation be extended by my agency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true May the 1-year time... Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES RESIDENCE TRANSACTION ALLOWANCES 11-ALLOWANCES FOR EXPENSES INCURRED IN CONNECTION WITH RESIDENCE TRANSACTIONS General Rules Time Limitations § 302-11.22...

  11. 41 CFR 302-11.22 - May the 1-year time limitation be extended by my agency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false May the 1-year time... Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES RESIDENCE TRANSACTION ALLOWANCES 11-ALLOWANCES FOR EXPENSES INCURRED IN CONNECTION WITH RESIDENCE TRANSACTIONS General Rules Time Limitations § 302-11.22...

  12. 41 CFR 302-11.22 - May the 1-year time limitation be extended by my agency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false May the 1-year time... Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES RESIDENCE TRANSACTION ALLOWANCES 11-ALLOWANCES FOR EXPENSES INCURRED IN CONNECTION WITH RESIDENCE TRANSACTIONS General Rules Time Limitations § 302-11.22...

  13. Decrease in Television Viewing Predicts Lower Body Mass Index at 1-Year Follow-Up in Adolescents, but Not Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Simone A.; Mitchell, Nathan R.; Hannan, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine associations between television viewing, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, eating out, physical activity, and body weight change over 1 year. Design: Secondary data analysis from randomized intervention trial. Setting: Households in the community. Participants: Adults (n = 153) and adolescents (n = 72) from the same…

  14. Improving Academic Performance of School-Age Children by Physical Activity in the Classroom: 1-Year Program Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullender-Wijnsma, Marijke J.; Hartman, Esther; de Greeff, Johannes W.; Bosker, Roel J.; Doolaard, Simone; Visscher, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Background: An intervention was designed that combined physical activity with learning activities. It was based upon evidence for positive effects of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) on academic achievement. The aim of this study was to describe the program implementation and effects on academic achievement after 1?year. Methods:…

  15. Children's Spoken Word Recognition and Contributions to Phonological Awareness and Nonword Repetition: A 1-Year Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metsala, Jamie L.; Stavrinos, Despina; Walley, Amanda C.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined effects of lexical factors on children's spoken word recognition across a 1-year time span, and contributions to phonological awareness and nonword repetition. Across the year, children identified words based on less input on a speech-gating task. For word repetition, older children improved for the most familiar words. There…

  16. Endovascular treatment of a bleeding secondary aorto-enteric fistula. A case report with 1-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Brountzos, Elias N; Vasdekis, Spyros; Kostopanagiotou, Georgia; Danias, Nikolaos; Alexopoulou, Efthymia; Petropoulou, Konstantina; Gouliamos, Athanasios; Perros, Georgios

    2007-01-01

    We report a patient with life-threatening gastrointestinal bleeding caused by a secondary aorto-enteric fistula. Because the patient had several comorbid conditions, we succesfully stopped the bleeding by endovascular placement of a bifurcated aortic stent-graft. The patient developed periaortic infection 4 months later, but he was managed with antibiotics. The patient is well 1 year after the procedure.

  17. Variability in Measures of Health and Health Behavior among Emerging Adults 1 Year after High School According to College Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons-Morton, Bruce; Haynie, Denise; O'Brien, Fearghal; Lipsky, Leah; Bible, Joe; Liu, Danping

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To examine changes in health behaviors among US emerging adults 1 year after high school. Participants: The national sample of participants (N = 1,927), including those attending 4-year college/university (n = 884), 2-year colleges/technical schools (n = 588), and no college (n = 455), participated in annual spring surveys 2013-2014.…

  18. Treatment of bisphosphonate related osteonecrosis following root canal therapy at the 1-year follow-up: report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Kaptan, Figen; Kazandag, Meric Karapinar; Iseri, Ufuk

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this report was to use topical gaseous ozone as an adjunct to conventional treatment methods and to describe the multidisciplinary management of bisphosphonate associated bone necrosis, which developed following endodontic treatment. No complaints were noted by the patients at their 1-year follow-up and the treatment showed favorable prognosis. PMID:24353427

  19. Disparities in the Use of Screening Breast MRI in Community Practice by Race, Ethnicity and Socioeconomic Status

    PubMed Central

    Haas, Jennifer S.; Hill, Deirdre A.; Wellman, Robert D; Hubbard, Rebecca A; Lee, Christoph I.; Wernli, Karen J.; Stout, Natasha K.; Tosteson, Anna N.A.; Henderson, Louise M.; Alford-Teaster, Jennifer; Onega, Tracy

    2015-01-01

    Background Uptake of breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) coupled with breast cancer risk assessment offers the opportunity to tailor the benefits and harms of screening strategies for women with differing cancer risks. Despite the potential benefits, there is also concern for worsening population-based health disparities. Methods Among 316,172 women aged 35-69 years from five Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium registries (2007-2012), we examined 617,723 negative screening mammograms and 1,047 screening MRIs. We examined the relative risks (RRs) of MRI use by women with <20% lifetime breast cancer risk and RR in the absence of MRI use by women with ≥20% lifetime risk. Results Among women with <20% lifetime risk, non-Hispanic white women were 62% more likely than non-white women to receive a MRI (95% confidence interval 1.32-1.98). Of these women, those with some college or technical school were 43% more likely and those who had at least a college degree were 132% more likely to receive an MRI compared to those with a high school education or less. Among women with ≥20% lifetime risk, there was no statistically significant difference in use of screening MRI by race or ethnicity, but high-risk women with a high school education or less were less likely to receive screening MRI than women who had graduated from college (RR 0.40; 95% CI 0.25-0.63). Conclusions Uptake of screening breast MRI into clinical practice has the potential to worsen population-based health disparities. Policies, beyond health insurance coverage, should ensure that use of this screening modality reflects evidence-based guidelines. PMID:26709819

  20. MRI findings in pediatric patients with scurvy.

    PubMed

    Gulko, Edwin; Collins, Lee K; Murphy, Robyn C; Thornhill, Beverly A; Taragin, Benjamin H

    2015-02-01

    In modern times scurvy is a rarely encountered disease caused by ascorbic acid (vitamin C) deficiency. However, sporadic cases of scurvy persist, particularly within the pediatric population. Recent individual case reports highlight an increased incidence of scurvy among patients with autism or developmental delay, with isolated case reports detailing the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of scurvy in these pediatric populations. We present the MRI findings of scurvy in four patients with autism or developmental delay, and review the literature on MRI findings in pediatric patients with scurvy. Despite its rarity, the radiologist must consider scurvy in a pediatric patient with a restricted diet presenting with arthralgia or myalgia.

  1. Maximum entropy spherical deconvolution for diffusion MRI.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Daniel C

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes a maximum entropy method for spherical deconvolution. Spherical deconvolution arises in various inverse problems. This paper uses the method to reconstruct the distribution of microstructural fibre orientations from diffusion MRI measurements. Analysis shows that the PASMRI algorithm, one of the most accurate diffusion MRI reconstruction algorithms in the literature, is a special case of the maximum entropy spherical deconvolution. Experiments compare the new method to linear spherical deconvolution, used previously in diffusion MRI, and to the PASMRI algorithm. The new method compares favourably both in simulation and on standard brain-scan data.

  2. Developments in boron magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

    SciTech Connect

    Schweizer, M.

    1995-11-01

    This report summarizes progress during the past year on maturing Boron-11 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methodology for noninvasive determination of BNCT agents (BSH) spatially in time. Three major areas are excerpted: (1) Boron-11 MRI of BSH distributions in a canine intracranial tumor model and the first human glioblastoma patient, (2) whole body Boron-11 MRI of BSH pharmacokinetics in a rat flank tumor model, and (3) penetration of gadolinium salts through the BBB as a function of tumor growth in the canine brain.

  3. [Normal confidence interval for a summary measure].

    PubMed

    Bernard, P M

    2000-10-01

    This paper proposes an approach for calculating the normal confidence interval of a weighted summary measure which requires a particular continuous transformation for its variance estimation. By using the transformation properties and applying the delta method, the variance of transformed measure is easily expressed in terms of the transformed specific measure variances and the squared weights. The confidence limits of the summary measure are easily deduced by inverse transformation of those of transformed measure. The method is illustrated by applying it to some well known epidemiological measures. It seems appropriate for application in stratified analysis context where size allows normal approximation.

  4. Feedback functions for variable-interval reinforcement

    PubMed Central

    Nevin, John A.; Baum, William M.

    1980-01-01

    On a given variable-interval schedule, the average obtained rate of reinforcement depends on the average rate of responding. An expression for this feedback effect is derived from the assumptions that free-operant responding occurs in bursts with a constant tempo, alternating with periods of engagement in other activities; that the durations of bursts and other activities are exponentially distributed; and that the rates of initiating and terminating bursts are inversely related. The expression provides a satisfactory account of the data of three experiments. PMID:16812187

  5. Asymptotic Theory for Nonparametric Confidence Intervals.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-01

    distributions. Ann. Math Statist. 14, 56-62. 24. ROY, S.N. and POTTHOFF, R.F. (1958). Confidence bounds on vector analogues of the "ratio of the mean" and...fl c,~_________ 14L TITLE feed &MV) S. TYPE or REPORT a PeftOo COVx:REC Asympeocic Theory for Nonaparuetric Technical Report Confidence Intevals 6...S..C-0S78 UNCLASSIFIED TŗU *uuuuumuuumhhhhmhhhm_4 ASYMPTOTIC THEORY FOR NONPARAMETRIC CONFIDENCE INTERVALS by Peter W. Glynn TECHNICAL REPORT NO. 63

  6. Assessment of Correlation Between MRI and Arthroscopic Pathologic Findings in the Shoulder Joint

    PubMed Central

    Momenzadeh, Omid R; Gerami, Mohamad H; Sefidbakht, Sepideh; Dehghani, Sakineh

    2015-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study was to determine the diagnostic value of magnetic resonance imaging for shoulder joint pathologies and then compare the results with arthroscopy, the standard for joint diagnosis. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 80 patients with shoulder joint disorders, who underwent final arthroscopy, were studied. Based on patients’ medical history and physical examinations, shoulder MRI was requested if paraclinical investigations were. If non-surgical therapies failed, arthroscopy of the affected shoulder was done and the same structures were inspected. Subsequently, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values (PPV) and (NPV) of MRI were determined by arthroscopy comparisons. Results: The highest sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV were found in MRI pathology reports that included: Hill-Sach lesion (0.910), infraspinatus tendon (0.985), supraspinatus tendon (0.930), and biceps tendon (0.954), respectively. Rotator interval (0.250), biceps labrum complex (0.805), subscapularis tendon (0.538) and anterior labrum lesions (0.604) had the lowest sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV, respectively. Conclusion: The results showed that MRI can be a useful tool in ruling out possible abnormalities in the shoulder and to give clues to the most probable diagnosis. Although knowing some practical skills in order to successfully perform the procedure and experience of the radiologist with suitable feedback by surgeon is necessary. PMID:26550595

  7. Sprint vs. interval training in football.

    PubMed

    Ferrari Bravo, D; Impellizzeri, F M; Rampinini, E; Castagna, C; Bishop, D; Wisloff, U

    2008-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of high-intensity aerobic interval and repeated-sprint ability (RSA) training on aerobic and anaerobic physiological variables in male football players. Forty-two participants were randomly assigned to either the interval training group (ITG, 4 x 4 min running at 90 - 95 % of HRmax; n = 21) or repeated-sprint training group (RSG, 3 x 6 maximal shuttle sprints of 40 m; n = 21). The following outcomes were measured at baseline and after 7 weeks of training: maximum oxygen uptake, respiratory compensation point, football-specific endurance (Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test, YYIRT), 10-m sprint time, jump height and power, and RSA. Significant group x time interaction was found for YYIRT (p = 0.003) with RSG showing greater improvement (from 1917 +/- 439 to 2455 +/- 488 m) than ITG (from 1846 +/- 329 to 2077 +/- 300 m). Similarly, a significant interaction was found in RSA mean time (p = 0.006) with only the RSG group showing an improvement after training (from 7.53 +/- 0.21 to 7.37 +/- 0.17 s). No other group x time interactions were found. Significant pre-post changes were found for absolute and relative maximum oxygen uptake and respiratory compensation point (p < 0.05). These findings suggest that the RSA training protocol used in this study can be an effective training strategy for inducing aerobic and football-specific training adaptations.

  8. Neurocomputational Models of Interval and Pattern Timing

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, Nicholas F.; Buonomano, Dean V.

    2016-01-01

    Most of the computations and tasks performed by the brain require the ability to tell time, and process and generate temporal patterns. Thus, there is a diverse set of neural mechanisms in place to allow the brain to tell time across a wide range of scales: from interaural delays on the order of microseconds to circadian rhythms and beyond. Temporal processing is most sophisticated on the scale of tens of milliseconds to a few seconds, because it is within this range that the brain must recognize and produce complex temporal patterns—such as those that characterize speech and music. Most models of timing, however, have focused primarily on simple intervals and durations, thus it is not clear whether they will generalize to complex pattern-based temporal tasks. Here, we review neurobiologically based models of timing in the subsecond range, focusing on whether they generalize to tasks that require placing consecutive intervals in the context of an overall pattern, that is, pattern timing. PMID:27790629

  9. [Severe craniocerebral injuries with a lucid interval].

    PubMed

    Vilalta, J; Rubio, E; Castaño, C H; Guitart, J M; Bosch, J

    1993-02-01

    Some variables were analyzed in 35 patients with severe cranioencephalic injuries following a lucid interval according to mortality. The variables analyzed were: age of less than 40 years, interval of time accident-admission (TAA), admission-operation (TAO), level of consciousness (Glasgow scale), associated extracranial lesions, type of intracranial lesion, and tomodensitometric signs of intracranial hypertension. The only variables demonstrating significant statistical differences (p < 0.05) were the level of consciousness (Glasgow scale < 6 points) and the presence of subdural hematoma. Twelve (70.5%) patients who died had less than 6 on the Glasgow scale and in contrast only 5 (27.7%) of the living. Eleven (64.7%) of the group who died and 4 (22.2%) of the living had subdural hematoma. These data suggest that the level of consciousness and the type of lesion are determining factors of the mortality in this type of patients. Early detection and energic treatment of secondary lesions contribute to prognostic improvement of cranioencephalic injuries.

  10. MRI of neuronal plasticity in rodent models.

    PubMed

    Pelled, Galit

    2011-01-01

    Modifications in the behavior and architecture of neuronal networks are well documented to occur in association with learning and memory, as well as following injury. These plasticity mechanisms are crucial to ensure adequate processing of stimuli, and they also dictate the degree of recovery following peripheral or central nervous system injury. Nevertheless, the underlying neuronal mechanisms that determine the degree of plasticity of neuronal pathways are not fully understood. Recent developments in animal-dedicated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners and related hardware afford a high spatial and temporal resolution, making functional MRI and manganese-enhanced MRI emerging tools for studying reorganization of neuronal pathways in rodent models. Many of the observed changes in neuronal functions in rodent's brains following injury discussed here agree with clinical human fMRI findings. This demonstrates that animal model imaging can have a significant clinical impact in the neuronal plasticity and rehabilitation arenas.

  11. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): Brain (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... cause a problem near a strong magnetic field. Electronic devices aren't permitted in the MRI room. ... child may be given headphones to listen to music or earplugs to block the noise, and will ...

  12. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... such as eyeglasses, jewelry, belts, or credit cards. Electronic devices are not permitted in the MRI room. ... child may be given headphones to listen to music or earplugs to block the noise and will ...

  13. MRI of the Body (Chest, Abdomen, Pelvis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... magnetic field of the MRI unit, metal and electronic items are not allowed in the exam room. ... tell the technologist if you have medical or electronic devices in your body. These objects may interfere ...

  14. Ultrasound- and MRI-Guided Prostate Biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... scans, MRI does not utilize ionizing radiation. Instead, radio waves redirect alignment of hydrogen atoms that naturally exist ... of the body being imaged, send and receive radio waves, producing signals that are detected by the coils. ...

  15. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): Dynamic Pelvic Floor

    MedlinePlus

    ... noninvasive test that uses a powerful magnetic field, radio waves and a computer to produce detailed pictures of ... scans, MRI does not utilize ionizing radiation. Instead, radio waves redirect alignment of hydrogen atoms that naturally exist ...

  16. Functional lung imaging using hyperpolarized gas MRI.

    PubMed

    Fain, Sean B; Korosec, Frank R; Holmes, James H; O'Halloran, Rafael; Sorkness, Ronald L; Grist, Thomas M

    2007-05-01

    The noninvasive assessment of lung function using imaging is increasingly of interest for the study of lung diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma. Hyperpolarized gas MRI (HP MRI) has demonstrated the ability to detect changes in ventilation, perfusion, and lung microstructure that appear to be associated with both normal lung development and disease progression. The physical characteristics of HP gases and their application to MRI are presented with an emphasis on current applications. Clinical investigations using HP MRI to study asthma, COPD, cystic fibrosis, pediatric chronic lung disease, and lung transplant are reviewed. Recent advances in polarization, pulse sequence development for imaging with Xe-129, and prototype low magnetic field systems dedicated to lung imaging are highlighted as areas of future development for this rapidly evolving technology.

  17. Gray matter myelination of 1555 human brains using partial volume corrected MRI images

    PubMed Central

    Shafee, Rebecca; Buckner, Randy L.; Fischl, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    The myelin content of the cortex changes over the human lifetime and aberrant cortical myelination is associated with diseases such as schizophrenia and multiple sclerosis. Recently magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques have shown potential in differentiating between myeloarchitectonically distinct cortical regions in vivo. Here we introduce a new algorithm for correcting partial volume effects present in mm-scale MRI images which was used to investigate the myelination pattern of the cerebral cortex in 1555 clinically normal subjects using the ratio of T1-weighted (T1w) and T2-weighted (T2w) MRI images. A significant linear cross-sectional age increase in T1w/T2w estimated myelin was detected across an 18 to 35 year age span (highest value of ~ 1%/year compared to mean T1w/T2w myelin value at 18 years). The cortex was divided at mid-thickness and the value of T1w/T2w myelin calculated for the inner and the outer layers separately. The increase in T1w/T2w estimated myelin occurs predominantly in the inner layer for most cortical regions. The ratio of the inner and outer layer T1w/T12w myelin was further validated using high-resolution in vivo MRI scans and also a high-resolution MRI scan of a postmortem brain. Additionally, the relationships between cortical thickness, curvature and T1w/T2w estimated myelin were found to be significant, although the relationships varied across the cortex. We discuss these observations as well as limitations of using the T1w/T2w ratio as an estimate of cortical myelin. PMID:25449739

  18. Recent Advances in MRI of Articular Cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Gold, Garry E.; Chen, Christina A.; Koo, Seungbum; Hargreaves, Brian A.; Bangerter, Neal K.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE MRI is the most accurate noninvasive method available to diagnose disorders of articular cartilage. Conventional 2D and 3D approaches show changes in cartilage morphology. Faster 3D imaging methods with isotropic resolution can be reformatted into arbitrary planes for improved detection and visualization of pathology. Unique contrast mechanisms allow us to probe cartilage physiology and detect changes in cartilage macromolecules. CONCLUSION MRI has great promise as a noninvasive comprehensive tool for cartilage evaluation. PMID:19696274

  19. MRI-powered Actuators for Robotic Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Vartholomeos, Panagiotis; Qin, Lei; Dupont, Pierre E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a novel actuation technology for robotically assisted MRI-guided interventional procedures. Compact and wireless, the actuators are both powered and controlled by the MRI scanner. The design concept and performance limits are described and derived analytically. Simulation and experiments in a clinical MR scanner are used to validate the analysis and to demonstrate the capability of the approach for needle biopsies. The concepts of actuator locking mechanisms and multi-axis control are also introduced. PMID:22287082

  20. The PRESTO technique for fMRI

    PubMed Central

    van Gelderen, P.; Duyn, J.H.; Ramsey, N.F.; Liu, G.; Moonen, C.T.W.

    2012-01-01

    In the early days of BOLD fMRI, the acquisition of T2* weighted data was greatly facilitated by rapid scan techniques such as EPI. The latter, however, was only available on a few MRI systems that were equipped with specialized hardware that allowed rapid switching of the imaging gradients. For this reason, soon after the invention of fMRI, the scan technique PRESTO was developed to make rapid T2* weighted scanning available on standard clinical scanning. This method combined echo shifting, which allows for echo times longer than the sequence repetition time, with acquisition of multiple k-space lines per excitation. These two concepts were combined in order to achieve a method fast enough for fMRI, while maintaining a sufficiently long echo time for optimal contrast. PRESTO has been primarily used for 3D scanning, which minimized the contribution of large vessels due to inflow effects. Although PRESTO is still being used today, its appeal has lessened somewhat due to increased gradient performance of modern MRI scanners. Compared to 2D EPI, PRESTO may have somewhat reduced temporal stability, which is a disadvantage for fMRI that may not outweigh the advantage of reduced inflow effects provided by 3D scanning. In this overview, the history of the development of the PRESTO is presented, followed by a qualitative comparison with EPI. PMID:22245350

  1. Emerging MRI methods in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Borrero, Camilo G; Mountz, James M; Mountz, John D

    2011-02-01

    New MRI techniques have been developed to assess not only the static anatomy of synovial hyperplasia, bone changes and cartilage degradation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but also the activity of the physiological events that cause these changes. This enables an estimation of the rate of change in the synovium, bone and cartilage as a result of disease activity or in response to therapy. Typical MRI signs of RA in the pre-erosive phase include synovitis, bone marrow edema and subchondral cyst formation. Synovitis can be assessed by T2-weighted imaging, dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI or diffusion tensor imaging. Bone marrow edema can be detected on fluid-sensitive sequences such as short-tau inversion recovery or T2-weighted fast-spin echo sequences. Detection of small bone erosions in the early erosive phase using T1-weighted MRI has sensitivity comparable to CT. Numerous MRI techniques have been developed for quantitative assessment of potentially pathologic changes in cartilage composition that occur before frank morphologic changes. In this Review, we summarize the advances and new directions in the field of MRI, with an emphasis on their current state of development and application in RA.

  2. Diffusion MRI and its role in neuropsychology

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Bryon A; Lim, Kelvin O; Hemmy, Laura; Camchong, Jazmin

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging (dMRI) is a popular method used by neuroscientists to uncover unique information about the structural connections within the brain. dMRI is a non-invasive imaging methodology in which image contrast is based on the diffusion of water molecules in tissue. While applicable to many tissues in the body, this review focuses exclusively on the use of dMRI to examine white matter in the brain. In this review, we begin with a definition of diffusion and how diffusion is measured with MRI. Next we introduce the diffusion tensor model, the predominant model used in dMRI. We then describe acquisition issues related to acquisition parameters and scanner hardware and software. Sources of artifacts are then discussed, followed by a brief review of analysis approaches. We provide an overview of the limitations of the traditional diffusion tensor model, and highlight several more sophisticated non-tensor models that better describe the complex architecture of the brain’s white matter. We then touch on reliability and validity issues of diffusion measurements. Finally, we describe examples of ways in which dMRI has been applied to studies of brain disorders and how identified alterations relate to symptomatology and cognition. PMID:26255305

  3. Diffusion MRI and its Role in Neuropsychology.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Bryon A; Lim, Kelvin O; Hemmy, Laura; Camchong, Jazmin

    2015-09-01

    Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging (dMRI) is a popular method used by neuroscientists to uncover unique information about the structural connections within the brain. dMRI is a non-invasive imaging methodology in which image contrast is based on the diffusion of water molecules in tissue. While applicable to many tissues in the body, this review focuses exclusively on the use of dMRI to examine white matter in the brain. In this review, we begin with a definition of diffusion and how diffusion is measured with MRI. Next we introduce the diffusion tensor model, the predominant model used in dMRI. We then describe acquisition issues related to acquisition parameters and scanner hardware and software. Sources of artifacts are then discussed, followed by a brief review of analysis approaches. We provide an overview of the limitations of the traditional diffusion tensor model, and highlight several more sophisticated non-tensor models that better describe the complex architecture of the brain's white matter. We then touch on reliability and validity issues of diffusion measurements. Finally, we describe examples of ways in which dMRI has been applied to studies of brain disorders and how identified alterations relate to symptomatology and cognition.

  4. Advanced flow MRI: emerging techniques and applications.

    PubMed

    Markl, M; Schnell, S; Wu, C; Bollache, E; Jarvis, K; Barker, A J; Robinson, J D; Rigsby, C K

    2016-08-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques provide non-invasive and non-ionising methods for the highly accurate anatomical depiction of the heart and vessels throughout the cardiac cycle. In addition, the intrinsic sensitivity of MRI to motion offers the unique ability to acquire spatially registered blood flow simultaneously with the morphological data, within a single measurement. In clinical routine, flow MRI is typically accomplished using methods that resolve two spatial dimensions in individual planes and encode the time-resolved velocity in one principal direction, typically oriented perpendicular to the two-dimensional (2D) section. This review describes recently developed advanced MRI flow techniques, which allow for more comprehensive evaluation of blood flow characteristics, such as real-time flow imaging, 2D multiple-venc phase contrast MRI, four-dimensional (4D) flow MRI, quantification of complex haemodynamic properties, and highly accelerated flow imaging. Emerging techniques and novel applications are explored. In addition, applications of these new techniques for the improved evaluation of cardiovascular (aorta, pulmonary arteries, congenital heart disease, atrial fibrillation, coronary arteries) as well as cerebrovascular disease (intra-cranial arteries and veins) are presented.

  5. Toward correlating functional MRI and EEG sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Manbir; Khosla, Deepak

    1996-04-01

    Though excellent spatial resolution (on the order of 1 mm) is obtainable in functional MRI (fMRI), its temporal resolution is limited to about 1 second by hemodynamics. On the other hand, magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG) provide millisecond temporal resolution but a relatively crude (on the order of 1 cm) spatial resolution to localized sources. Thus, techniques that could combine the high temporal resolution of MEG or EEG with the high spatial resolution of fMRI would be of great significance in imaging the spatiotemporal distribution of neuronal activation. With the ultimate objective of combining fMRI and EEG activation studies, we have conducted experiments to determine how pixels activated in fMRI correlate with underlying EEG sources in a given subject during visual stimulation. Results of a three-subject study suggest good correlation between the center-of-gravity of activated pixels seen in fMRI and the center-of-gravity of regions localized through EEG measurements.

  6. Temporal constraints of behavioral inhibition: relevance of inter-stimulus interval in a Go-Nogo task.

    PubMed

    Zamorano, Francisco; Billeke, Pablo; Hurtado, José M; López, Vladimir; Carrasco, Ximena; Ossandón, Tomás; Aboitiz, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    The capacity to inhibit prepotent and automatic responses is crucial for proper cognitive and social development, and inhibitory impairments have been considered to be key for some neuropsychiatric conditions. One of the most used paradigms to analyze inhibitory processes is the Go-Nogo task (GNG). This task has been widely used in psychophysical and cognitive EEG studies, and more recently in paradigms using fMRI. However, a technical limitation is that the time resolution of fMRI is poorer than that of the EEG technique. In order to compensate for these temporal constraints, it has become common practice in the fMRI field to use longer inter-stimulus intervals (ISI) than those used in EEG protocols. Despite the noticeable temporal differences between these two techniques, it is currently assumed that both approaches assess similar inhibitory processes. We performed an EEG study using a GNG task with both short ISI (fast-condition, FC, as in EEG protocols) and long ISI (slow-condition, SC, as in fMRI protocols). We found that in the FC there was a stronger Nogo-N2 effect than in the SC. Moreover, in the FC, but not in the SC, the number of preceding Go trials correlated positively with the Nogo-P3 amplitude and with the Go trial reaction time; and negatively with commission errors. In addition, we found significant topographical differences for the Go-P3 elicited in FC and SC, which is interpreted in terms of different neurotransmitter dynamics. Taken together, our results provide evidence that frequency of stimulus presentation in the GNG task strongly modulates the behavioral response and the evoked EEG activity. Therefore, it is likely that short-ISI EEG protocols and long-ISI fMRI protocols do not assess equivalent inhibitory processes.

  7. Temporal Constraints of Behavioral Inhibition: Relevance of Inter-stimulus Interval in a Go-Nogo Task

    PubMed Central

    Zamorano, Francisco; Billeke, Pablo; Hurtado, José M.; López, Vladimir; Carrasco, Ximena; Ossandón, Tomás; Aboitiz, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    The capacity to inhibit prepotent and automatic responses is crucial for proper cognitive and social development, and inhibitory impairments have been considered to be key for some neuropsychiatric conditions. One of the most used paradigms to analyze inhibitory processes is the Go-Nogo task (GNG). This task has been widely used in psychophysical and cognitive EEG studies, and more recently in paradigms using fMRI. However, a technical limitation is that the time resolution of fMRI is poorer than that of the EEG technique. In order to compensate for these temporal constraints, it has become common practice in the fMRI field to use longer inter-stimulus intervals (ISI) than those used in EEG protocols. Despite the noticeable temporal differences between these two techniques, it is currently assumed that both approaches assess similar inhibitory processes. We performed an EEG study using a GNG task with both short ISI (fast-condition, FC, as in EEG protocols) and long ISI (slow-condition, SC, as in fMRI protocols). We found that in the FC there was a stronger Nogo-N2 effect than in the SC. Moreover, in the FC, but not in the SC, the number of preceding Go trials correlated positively with the Nogo-P3 amplitude and with the Go trial reaction time; and negatively with commission errors. In addition, we found significant topographical differences for the Go-P3 elicited in FC and SC, which is interpreted in terms of different neurotransmitter dynamics. Taken together, our results provide evidence that frequency of stimulus presentation in the GNG task strongly modulates the behavioral response and the evoked EEG activity. Therefore, it is likely that short-ISI EEG protocols and long-ISI fMRI protocols do not assess equivalent inhibitory processes. PMID:24489875

  8. Physiological Responses to High-Intensity Interval Exercise Differing in Interval Duration.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Wesley J; Sawyer, Brandon J; Jarrett, Catherine L; Bhammar, Dharini M; Gaesser, Glenn A

    2015-12-01

    We determined the oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2), heart rate (HR), and blood lactate responses to 2 high-intensity interval exercise protocols differing in interval length. On separate days, 14 recreationally active males performed a 4 × 4 (four 4-minute intervals at 90-95% HRpeak, separated by 3-minute recovery at 50 W) and 16 × 1 (sixteen 1-minute intervals at 90-95% HRpeak, separated by 1-minute recovery at 50 W) protocol on a cycle ergometer. The 4 × 4 elicited a higher mean V[Combining Dot Above]O2 (2.44 ± 0.4 vs. 2.36 ± 0.4 L·min) and "peak" V[Combining Dot Above]O2 (90-99% vs. 76-85% V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak) and HR (95-98% HRpeak vs. 81-95% HRpeak) during the high-intensity intervals. Average power maintained was higher for the 16 × 1 (241 ± 45 vs. 204 ± 37 W), and recovery interval V[Combining Dot Above]O2 and HR were higher during the 16 × 1. No differences were observed for blood lactate concentrations at the midpoint (12.1 ± 2.2 vs. 10.8 ± 3.1 mmol·L) and end (10.6 ± 1.5 vs. 10.6 ± 2.4 mmol·L) of the protocols or ratings of perceived exertion (7.0 ± 1.6 vs. 7.0 ± 1.4) and Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale scores (91 ± 15 vs. 93 ± 12). Despite a 4-fold difference in interval duration that produced greater between-interval transitions in V[Combining Dot Above]O2 and HR and slightly higher mean V[Combining Dot Above]O2 during the 4 × 4, mean HR during each protocol was the same, and both protocols were rated similarly for perceived exertion and enjoyment. The major difference was that power output had to be reduced during the 4 × 4 protocol to maintain the desired HR.

  9. An Empirical Method for Establishing Positional Confidence Intervals Tailored for Composite Interval Mapping of QTL

    PubMed Central

    Love, Tanzy M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Improved genetic resolution and availability of sequenced genomes have made positional cloning of moderate-effect QTL realistic in several systems, emphasizing the need for precise and accurate derivation of positional confidence intervals (CIs) for QTL. Support interval (SI) methods based on the shape of the QTL likelihood curve have proven adequate for standard interval mapping, but have not been shown to be appropriate for use with composite interval mapping (CIM), which is one of the most commonly used QTL mapping methods. Results Based on a non-parametric confidence interval (NPCI) method designed for use with the Haley-Knott regression method for mapping QTL, a CIM-specific method (CIM-NPCI) was developed to appropriately account for the selection of background markers during analysis of bootstrap-resampled data sets. Coverage probabilities and interval widths resulting from use of the NPCI, SI, and CIM-NPCI methods were compared in a series of simulations analyzed via CIM, wherein four genetic effects were simulated in chromosomal regions with distinct marker densities while heritability was fixed at 0.6 for a population of 200 isolines. CIM-NPCIs consistently capture the simulated QTL across these conditions while slightly narrower SIs and NPCIs fail at unacceptably high rates, especially in genomic regions where marker density is high, which is increasingly common for real studies. The effects of a known CIM bias toward locating QTL peaks at markers were also investigated for each marker density case. Evaluation of sub-simulations that varied according to the positions of simulated effects relative to the nearest markers showed that the CIM-NPCI method overcomes this bias, offering an explanation for the improved coverage probabilities when marker densities are high. Conclusions Extensive simulation studies herein demonstrate that the QTL confidence interval methods typically used to positionally evaluate CIM results can be dramatically improved

  10. Segmentation propagation for the automated quantification of ventricle volume from serial MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linguraru, Marius George; Butman, John A.

    2009-02-01

    Accurate ventricle volume estimates could potentially improve the understanding and diagnosis of communicating hydrocephalus. Postoperative communicating hydrocephalus has been recognized in patients with brain tumors where the changes in ventricle volume can be difficult to identify, particularly over short time intervals. Because of the complex alterations of brain morphology in these patients, the segmentation of brain ventricles is challenging. Our method evaluates ventricle size from serial brain MRI examinations; we (i) combined serial images to increase SNR, (ii) automatically segmented this image to generate a ventricle template using fast marching methods and geodesic active contours, and (iii) propagated the segmentation using deformable registration of the original MRI datasets. By applying this deformation to the ventricle template, serial volume estimates were obtained in a robust manner from routine clinical images (0.93 overlap) and their variation analyzed.

  11. MRI atlas of the brain

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, W.G. ); Bydder, G. )

    1990-01-01

    Since most radiologists will start from a basic of familiarity with pathophysiology of disease and a knowledge of cross-sectional imaging (at least in the transaxial plane), they are in a good position to recognize and diagnose many of the abnormalities we can currently see with CT. The appearance of these lesions on MRI is the basis for the majority of the images in this book. Chapters on Tumors, Infarcts and Ischemia, Demyelination and Infection. Hydrocephalus, and Pediatrics feature multiple images displaying the MR appearance of many common lesions with minimal associated text. Instead of focusing on pathophysiology, attention is directed to the variable appearance of these disease states using various MR imaging techniques. Although the MR contrast agent, Gadolinium-DTPA, has similar behavior (physiologically) to meglumine diatrizoate in CT, the MR techniques which result in optimal visualization of enhancing lesions are nonintuitive and are discussed. Similarly, the appearance of flowing blood and CSF and hemorrhage does not follow easily from a pre-existing CT base, therefore additional text has been devoted to these subjects.

  12. Gradient-Modulated PETRA MRI.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Naoharu; Goerke, Ute; Wang, Luning; Ellermann, Jutta; Metzger, Gregory J; Garwood, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Image blurring due to off-resonance and fast T 2(*) signal decay is a common issue in radial ultrashort echo time MRI sequences. One solution is to use a higher readout bandwidth, but this may be impractical for some techniques like pointwise encoding time reduction with radial acquisition (PETRA), which is a hybrid method of zero echo time and single point imaging techniques. Specifically, PETRA has severe specific absorption rate (SAR) and radiofrequency (RF) pulse peak power limitations when using higher bandwidths in human measurements. In this study, we introduce gradient modulation (GM) to PETRA to reduce image blurring artifacts while keeping SAR and RF peak power low. Tolerance of GM-PETRA to image blurring was evaluated in simulations and experiments by comparing with the conventional PETRA technique. We performed inner ear imaging of a healthy subject at 7T. GM-PETRA showed significantly less image blurring due to off-resonance and fast T2(*) signal decay compared to PETRA. In in vivo imaging, GM-PETRA nicely captured complex structures of the inner ear such as the cochlea and semicircular canals. Gradient modulation can improve the PETRA image quality and mitigate SAR and RF peak power limitations without special hardware modification in clinical scanners.

  13. The effect of high-intensity aerobic interval training on postinfarction left ventricular remodelling

    PubMed Central

    Godfrey, Richard; Theologou, Thomas; Dellegrottaglie, Santo; Binukrishnan, Sukumaran; Wright, Jay; Whyte, Gregory; Ellison, Georgina

    2013-01-01

    This is the third in a series of case studies on an individual with normal coronaries who sustained an idiopathic acute myocardial infarction . Bilateral pulmonary emboli almost 2 years post-myocardial infarction (MI) revealed coagulopathy as the cause. The original MI resulted in 16% myocardial scar tissue. An increasing number of patients are surviving MI, hence the burden for healthcare often shifts to heart failure. Accumulating evidence suggests high-intensity aerobic interval exercise (AHIT) is efficacious in improving cardiac function in health and disease. However, its impact on MI scar has never been assessed. Accordingly, the 50-year-old subject of this case study undertook 60 weeks of regular AHIT. Successive cardiac MRI results demonstrate, for the first time, a decrease in MI scar with exercise and, alongside mounting evidence of high efficacy and low risk, suggests AHIT may be increasingly important in future prevention and reversing of disease and or amelioration of symptoms. PMID:23413285

  14. Epigenetic Analysis of Neurocognitive Development at 1 year of Age in a Community-Based Pregnancy Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Laura E.; Palmer, Frederick B.; Graff, J. Carolyn; Sutter, Thomas R.; Mozhui, Khyobeni; Hovinga, Collin A.; Thomas, Fridtjof; Park, Vicki; Tylavsky, Frances A.; Adkins, Ronald M.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple studies show that molecular genetic changes and epigenetic modifications affect the risk of cognitive disability or impairment. However, the role of epigenetic variation in cognitive development of neurotypical young children remains largely unknown. Using data from a prospective, community-based study of mother-infant pairs, we investigated the association of DNA methylation patterns in neonatal umbilical cord blood with cognitive and language development at 1 year of age. No CpG loci achieved genome-wide significance, although a small number of weakly suggestive associations with Bayley-III Receptive Communication scales were noted. While umbilical cord blood is a convenient resource for genetic analyses of birth outcomes, our results do not provide conclusive evidence that its use for DNA methylation profiling yields epigenetic markers that are directly related to postnatal neurocognitive outcomes at 1 year of age. PMID:24452678

  15. A primer on confidence intervals in psychopharmacology.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Chittaranjan

    2015-02-01

    Research papers and research summaries frequently present results in the form of data accompanied by 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Not all students and clinicians know how to interpret CIs. This article provides a nontechnical, nonmathematical discussion on how to understand and glean information from CIs; all explanations are accompanied by simple examples. A statistically accurate explanation about CIs is also provided. CIs are differentiated from standard deviations, standard errors, and confidence levels. The interpretation of narrow and wide CIs is discussed. Factors that influence the width of a CI are listed. Explanations are provided for how CIs can be used to assess statistical significance. The significance of overlapping and nonoverlapping CIs is considered. It is concluded that CIs are far more informative than, say, mere P values when drawing conclusions about a result.

  16. How do I interpret a confidence interval?

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Sheila F; Yi, Qi Long

    2016-07-01

    A 95% confidence interval (CI) of the mean is a range with an upper and lower number calculated from a sample. Because the true population mean is unknown, this range describes possible values that the mean could be. If multiple samples were drawn from the same population and a 95% CI calculated for each sample, we would expect the population mean to be found within 95% of these CIs. CIs are sensitive to variability in the population (spread of values) and sample size. When used to compare the means of two or more treatment groups, a CI shows the magnitude of a difference between groups. This is helpful in understanding both the statistical significance and the clinical significance of a treatment. In this article we describe the basic principles of CIs and their interpretation.

  17. Cognitive functions over the course of 1 year in multiple sclerosis patients treated with disease modifying therapies

    PubMed Central

    Utz, Kathrin S.; Lee, De-Hyung; Lämmer, Alexandra; Waschbisch, Anne; Linker, Ralf A.; Schenk, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) are applied to delay or prevent disease progression in multiple sclerosis (MS). While this has mostly been proven for physical symptoms, available studies regarding long-term effects of DMTs on cognitive functions are rare and sometimes inconsistent due to methodological shortcomings. Particularly in the case of fingolimod, comprehensive data on cognitive functions are not yet available. Therefore, we set out to reliably assess cognitive functions in patients with relapsing–remitting MS (RRMS) treated with DMTs over 1 year. Methods: Cognitive functions were assessed with eight tests at three timepoints: baseline, 6-month follow up and 12-month follow up. First, we investigated whether the stability of cognitive functions (i.e. not falling below the 5% cut-off in more than one test) over 1 year in RRMS patients (n = 41) corresponds to the stability in healthy individuals (n = 40) of a previous study. Second, we compared the percentage of declined and improved patients in the different tests. Third, we compared patients treated with fingolimod (n = 22) with patients treated with natalizumab (n = 11) with regard to cognitive stability. Fourth, based on the patient data, the Reliable Change Index was applied to compute cut-offs for reliable cognitive change. Results: Approximately 75% of RRMS patients treated with DMTs remained stable over the course of 1 year. The Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) and the Spatial Recall Test (SPART), produced improvements in 12.5% and 30.6%, respectively, probably due to practice effects. Patients treated with fingolimod did not differ from patients treated with natalizumab with regard to cognitive stability. Conclusions: Cognitive functions remain relatively stable under DMT treatment over 1 year, irrespective of the type of medication. Furthermore, the tests PASAT and SPART should be interpreted cautiously in studies examining performance changes over time. The provided RCI

  18. Prevalence, Course, Incidence, and 1-Year Prediction of Deliberate Self-Harm and Suicide Attempts in Early Norwegian School Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsson, Bo; Sund, Anne Mari

    2008-01-01

    In this survey of early Norwegian school adolescents, the prevalence, course, and incidence of self-harm behavior with or without suicide intent were examined, in addition to predictors of self-harm for a 1-year follow-up period. Lifetime prevalence rates of self-harm without suicide intent and suicide attempts were 2.9% and 3.0%, respectively,…

  19. Effectiveness of MR Angiography for the Primary Diagnosis of Acute Pulmonary Embolism: Clinical Outcomes at 3 Months and 1 Year

    PubMed Central

    Schiebler, Mark L.; Nagle, Scott K.; François, Christopher J.; Repplinger, Michael D.; Hamedani, Azita G.; Vigen, Karl K.; Yarlagadda, Rajkumar; Grist, Thomas M.; Reeder, Scott B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine the effectiveness of MR angiography for pulmonary embolism (MRA-PE) in symptomatic patients. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed all patients whom were evaluated for possible pulmonary embolism (PE) using MRA-PE. A 3-month and 1-year from MRA-PE electronic medical record (EMR) review was performed. Evidence for venous thromboembolism (VTE) (or death from PE) within the year of follow-up was the outcome surrogate for this study. Results There were 190 MRA-PE exams performed with 97.4% (185/190) of diagnostic quality. There were 148 patients (120 F: 28 M) that had both a diagnostic MRA-PE exam and 1 complete year of EMR follow-up. There were 167 patients (137 F: 30 M) with 3 months or greater follow-up. We found 83% (139/167) and 81% (120/148) MRA-PE exams negative for PE at 3 months and 1 year, respectively. Positive exams for PE were seen in 14% (23/167). During the 1-year follow-up period, five patients (false negative) were diagnosed with DVT (5/148 = 3.4 %), and one of these patients also experienced a non–life-threatening PE. The negative predictive value (NPV) for MRA-PE was 97% (92–99; 95% CI) at 3 months and 96% (90–98; 95% CI) with 1 year of follow-up. Conclusion The NPV of MRA-PE, when used for the primary diagnosis of pulmonary embolism in symptomatic patients, were found to be similar to the published values for CTA-PE. In addition, the technical success rate and safety of MRA-PE were excellent. PMID:23553735

  20. Strength and hypertrophy responses to constant and decreasing rest intervals in trained men using creatine supplementation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The purpose of the current study was to compare strength and hypertrophy responses to resistance training programs that instituted constant rest intervals (CI) and decreasing rest intervals (DI) between sets over the course of eight weeks by trained men who supplemented with creatine monohydrate (CR). Methods Twenty-two recreationally trained men were randomly assigned to a CI group (n = 11; 22.3 ± 1 years; 77.7 ± 5.4 kg; 180 ± 2.2 cm) or a DI group (n = 11; 22 ± 2.5 years; 75.8 ± 4.9 kg; 178.8 ± 3.4 cm). Subjects in both groups supplemented with CR; the only difference between groups was the rest interval instituted between sets; the CI group used 2 minutes rest intervals between sets and exercises for the entire 8-weeks of training, while the DI group started with a 2 minute rest interval the first two weeks; after which the rest interval between sets was decreased 15 seconds per week (i.e. 2 minutes decreasing to 30 seconds between sets). Pre- and post-intervention maximal strength for the free weight back squat and bench press exercises and isokinetic peak torque were assessed for the knee extensors and flexors. Additionally, muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) of the right thigh and upper arm was measured using magnetic resonance imaging. Results Both groups demonstrated significant increases in back squat and bench press maximal strength, knee extensor and flexor isokinetic peak torque, and upper arm and right thigh CSA from pre- to post-training (p ≤ 0.0001); however, there were no significant differences between groups for any of these variables. The total volume for the bench press and back squat were significantly greater for CI group versus the DI group. Conclusions We report that the combination of CR supplementation and resistance training can increase muscular strength, isokinetic peak torque, and muscle CSA, irrespective of the rest interval length between sets. Because the volume of training was greater for the CI group versus the

  1. The anatomy and time course of semantic priming investigated by fMRI and ERPs.

    PubMed

    Rossell, Susan L; Price, Cathy J; Nobre, A Christina

    2003-01-01

    We combined complementary non-invasive brain imaging techniques with behavioural measures to investigate the anatomy and time course of brain activity associated with semantic priming in a lexical-decision task. Participants viewed pairs of stimuli, and decided whether the second item was a real word or not. There were two variables, the semantic relationship between the prime and the target (related or unrelated) and the interval between the onset of prime and target (200 or 1000 ms), to vary the degree of semantic expectancy that was possible during task performance. Behavioural results replicated the well-established finding that identification of the target is facilitated by a preceding semantically related prime. Event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (efMRI) identified two brain areas involved in the semantic-priming effect. Activity in the anterior medial temporal cortex was diminished when target words were primed by semantically related words, suggesting involvement of this brain region during active semantic association or integration. In contrast, activity in the left supramarginal gyrus in the temporal-parietal junction was enhanced for target words primed by semantically related words. Brain areas influenced by the interval between prime and target words, and by the interaction between word interval and semantic priming were also identified. A parallel experiment using event-related potentials (ERPs) unveiled a striking difference in the time course of semantic priming as a function of expectancy. In line with previous reports, the primary effect of semantic priming on ERPs was the attenuation of the N400 component, in both short- and long-interval conditions. However, the priming effect started significantly earlier in the long-interval condition. Activity in the anterior medial temporal cortex has previously been shown to contribute to the N400 component, a finding that links the priming results obtained with efMRI and ERP methods.

  2. Clinical Evaluation of Stereotactic Target Localization Using 3-Tesla MRI for Radiosurgery Planning

    SciTech Connect

    MacFadden, Derek; Zhang Beibei; Brock, Kristy K.; Hodaie, Mojgan; Laperriere, Normand; Schwartz, Michael; Tsao, May; Stainsby, Jeffrey; Lockwood, Gina; Mikulis, David; Menard, Cynthia

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: Increasing the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) field strength can improve image resolution and quality, but concerns remain regarding the influence on geometric fidelity. The objectives of the present study were to spatially investigate the effect of 3-Tesla (3T) MRI on clinical target localization for stereotactic radiosurgery. Methods and Materials: A total of 39 patients were enrolled in a research ethics board-approved prospective clinical trial. Imaging (1.5T and 3T MRI and computed tomography) was performed after stereotactic frame placement. Stereotactic target localization at 1.5T vs. 3T was retrospectively analyzed in a representative cohort of patients with tumor (n = 4) and functional (n = 5) radiosurgical targets. The spatial congruency of the tumor gross target volumes was determined by the mean discrepancy between the average gross target volume surfaces at 1.5T and 3T. Reproducibility was assessed by the displacement from an averaged surface and volume congruency. Spatial congruency and the reproducibility of functional radiosurgical targets was determined by comparing the mean and standard deviation of the isocenter coordinates. Results: Overall, the mean absolute discrepancy across all patients was 0.67 mm (95% confidence interval, 0.51-0.83), significantly <1 mm (p < .010). No differences were found in the overall interuser target volume congruence (mean, 84% for 1.5T vs. 84% for 3T, p > .4), and the gross target volume surface mean displacements were similar within and between users. The overall average isocenter coordinate discrepancy for the functional targets at 1.5T and 3T was 0.33 mm (95% confidence interval, 0.20-0.48), with no patient-specific differences between the mean values (p >.2) or standard deviations (p >.1). Conclusion: Our results have provided clinically relevant evidence supporting the spatial validity of 3T MRI for use in stereotactic radiosurgery under the imaging conditions used.

  3. Identifying high-school dance students who will develop an eating disorder: a 1-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Mei-Chih Meg; Fang, David; Chang, Chin-Hao; Lee, Ming-Been

    2013-10-30

    This study examined the changes in eating disorder (ED) status over 1 year and identified risk factors for EDs among female dance students. In 2003, all students enrolled in each of the nation's 12 high schools with gifted dance programs participated in a two-phase survey. The same participants were invited to take part in a follow-up survey 1 year later. In all, 583 persons completed the phase 1 questionnaire survey, and 245 persons completed interviews twice at baseline and follow-up. Thirty-five females had a newly developed ED, and less than half of the ED cases found at baseline had recovered at follow-up. Being a grade 12 student carried a reduced risk of EDs, whereas higher baseline scores on the Bulimic Investigatory Test Edinburgh (BITE) increased risks of developing an ED after 1 year. A 10-item BITE questionnaire validly identified girl dance students who would develop EDs later in high school. EDs were more commonly developed during middle adolescence, and we suggest that prevention work against EDs begin in this period among the dance student population. The brief screening questionnaire might help detect intervention targets of a prevention program among adolescent dance students.

  4. A longitudinal, event-related potential pilot study of adult obsessive-compulsive disorder with 1-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Yamamuro, Kazuhiko; Okada, Koji; Kishimoto, Naoko; Ota, Toyosaku; Iida, Junzo; Kishimoto, Toshifumi

    2016-01-01

    Aim Earlier brain imaging research studies have suggested that brain abnormalities in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) normalize as clinical symptoms improve. However, although many studies have investigated event-related potentials (ERPs) in patients with OCD compared with healthy control subjects, it is currently unknown whether ERP changes reflect pharmacological and psychotherapeutic effects. As such, the current study examined the neurocognitive components of OCD to elucidate the pathophysiological abnormalities involved in the disorder, including the frontal-subcortical circuits. Methods The Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale was used to evaluate 14 adult patients with OCD. The present study also included ten age-, sex-, and IQ-matched controls. The P300 and mismatch negativity (MMN) components during an auditory oddball task at baseline for both groups and after 1 year of treatment for patients with OCD were measured. Results Compared with controls, P300 amplitude was attenuated in the OCD group at Cz and C4 at baseline. Pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy treatment for 1 year reduced OCD symptomology. P300 amplitude after 1 year of treatment was significantly increased, indicating normalization compared with baseline at Fz, Cz, C3, and C4. We found no differences in P300 latency, MMN amplitude, or MMN latency between baseline and after one year of treatment. Conclusion ERPs may be a useful tool for evaluating pharmacological and cognitive behavioral therapy in adult patients with OCD. PMID:27713631

  5. "MRI Stealth" robot for prostate interventions.

    PubMed

    Stoianovici, Dan; Song, Danny; Petrisor, Doru; Ursu, Daniel; Mazilu, Dumitru; Muntener, Michael; Mutener, Michael; Schar, Michael; Patriciu, Alexandru

    2007-01-01

    The paper reports an important achievement in MRI instrumentation, a pneumatic, fully actuated robot located within the scanner alongside the patient and operating under remote control based on the images. Previous MRI robots commonly used piezoelectric actuation limiting their compatibility. Pneumatics is an ideal choice for MRI compatibility because it is decoupled from electromagnetism, but pneumatic actuators were hardly controllable. This achievement was possible due to a recent technology breakthrough, the invention of a new type of pneumatic motor, PneuStep 1, designed for the robot reported here with uncompromised MRI compatibility, high-precision, and medical safety. MrBot is one of the "MRI stealth" robots today (the second is described in this issue by Zangos et al.). Both of these systems are also multi-imager compatible, being able to operate with the imager of choice or cross-imaging modalities. For MRI compatibility the robot is exclusively constructed of nonmagnetic and dielectric materials such as plastics, ceramics, crystals, rubbers and is electricity free. Light-based encoding is used for feedback, so that all electric components are distally located outside the imager's room. MRI robots are modern, digital medical instruments in line with advanced imaging equipment and methods. These allow for accessing patients within closed bore scanners and performing interventions under direct (in scanner) imaging feedback. MRI robots could allow e.g. to biopsy small lesions imaged with cutting edge cancer imaging methods, or precisely deploy localized therapy at cancer foci. Our robot is the first to show the feasibility of fully automated in-scanner interventions. It is customized for the prostate and operates transperineally for needle interventions. It can accommodate various needle drivers for different percutaneous procedures such as biopsy, thermal ablations, or brachytherapy. The first needle driver is customized for fully automated low

  6. Does the interval of screening endoscopy affect survival in gastric cancer patients?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jieun; Kim, Su Mi; Ha, Man Ho; Seo, Jeong Eun; Choi, Min-Gew; Lee, Jun Ho; Sohn, Tae Sung; Kim, Sung; Jung, Sin-Ho; Bae, Jae Moon

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Gastric cancer remains the second most common cancer in Korea; however, its mortality has decreased due to earlier diagnosis. In Korea, screening endoscopy has been performed nationwide since 1999. The aim of this study was to elucidate the benefit of screening endoscopy on actual survival in gastric cancer patients and to determine the optimal interval of screening endoscopy. We analyzed 1651 patients diagnosed with gastric adenocarcinoma who underwent surgical treatment between June 2008 and December 2014. Patients were divided into 4 groups according to the interval of screening endoscopy prior to their gastric cancer diagnosis. (Group I = within 1 year, Group II = >1 but <2 years, Group III = more than 2 years, Group IV = no prior endoscopic examination). Patient demographics, clinicopathologic characteristics, and postoperative surgical outcomes including overall survival were compared. The 5-year gastric cancer-specific survival rates of groups I and II were significantly higher than groups III and IV (90.9% vs 85.4%, P = 0.002, respectively). Multivariate analysis showed that screening interval was an independent factor for the diagnosis of advanced gastric cancer. The risk of advanced gastric cancer decreased in group I (odds ratio: 0.515, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.369–0.719; P < 0.001) and group II (odds ratio: 0.678, 95% CI 0.517–0.889, P = 0.005). Screening endoscopy was helpful in increasing the survival of gastric cancer patients. A 2-year endoscopic screening interval is suitable to detect early-stage gastric cancer. PMID:27930534

  7. Confidence Intervals Make a Difference: Effects of Showing Confidence Intervals on Inferential Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoekstra, Rink; Johnson, Addie; Kiers, Henk A. L.

    2012-01-01

    The use of confidence intervals (CIs) as an addition or as an alternative to null hypothesis significance testing (NHST) has been promoted as a means to make researchers more aware of the uncertainty that is inherent in statistical inference. Little is known, however, about whether presenting results via CIs affects how readers judge the…

  8. Interval Estimation of the Population Squared Multiple Correlation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pohlmann, John T.; Moore, James F.

    1977-01-01

    A technique is presented which applies the Neyman theory of confidence intervals to interval estimation of the squared multiple correlation coefficient. A computer program is presented which can be used to apply the technique. (Author/JKS)

  9. Radiation induced currents in MRI RF coils: application to linac/MRI integration

    PubMed Central

    Burke, B; Fallone, B G; Rathee, S

    2010-01-01

    The integration of medical linear accelerators (linac) with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems is advancing the current state of image-guided radiotherapy. The MRI in these integrated units will provide real-time, accurate tumor locations for radiotherapy treatment, thus decreasing geometric margins around tumors and reducing normal tissue damage. In the real-time operation of these integrated systems, the radiofrequency (RF) coils of MRI will be irradiated with radiation pulses from the linac. The effect of pulsed radiation on MRI radio frequency (RF) coils is not known and must be studied. The instantaneous radiation induced current (RIC) in two different MRI RF coils were measured and presented. The frequency spectra of the induced currents were calculated. Some basic characterization of the RIC was also done: isolation of the RF coil component responsible for RIC, dependence of RIC on dose rate, and effect of wax buildup placed on coil on RIC. Both the time and frequency characteristics of the RIC were seen to vary with the MRI RF coil used. The copper windings of the RF coils were isolated as the main source of RIC. A linear dependence on dose rate was seen. The RIC was decreased with wax buildup, suggesting an electronic disequilibrium as the cause of RIC. This study shows a measurable RIC present in MRI RF coils. This unwanted current could be possibly detrimental to the signal to noise ratio in MRI and produce image artifacts. PMID:20071754

  10. Performance of the MRI-based virtual bone biopsy in the distal radius: serial reproducibility and reliability of structural and mechanical parameters in women representative of osteoporosis study populations.

    PubMed

    Lam, Shing Chun Benny; Wald, Michael J; Rajapakse, Chamith S; Liu, Yinxiao; Saha, Punam K; Wehrli, Felix W

    2011-10-01

    Serial reproducibility and reliability critically determine sensitivity to detect changes in response to intervention and provide a basis for sample size estimates. Here, we evaluated the performance of the MRI-based virtual bone biopsy in terms of 26 structural and mechanical parameters in the distal radius of 20 women in the age range of 50 to 75 years (mean=62.0 years, S.D.=8.1 years), representative of typical study populations in drug intervention trials and fracture studies. Subjects were examined three times at average intervals of 20.2 days (S.D.=14.5 days) by MRI at 1.5 T field strength at a voxel size of 137×137×410 μm(3). Methods involved prospective and retrospective 3D image registration and auto-focus motion correction. Analyses were performed from a central 5×5×5 mm(3) cuboid subvolume and trabecular volume consisting of a 13 mm axial slab encompassing the entire medullary cavity. Whole-volume axial stiffness and sub-regional Young's and shear moduli were computed by finite-element analysis. Whole-volume-derived aggregate mean coefficient of variation of all structural parameters was 4.4% (range 1.8% to 7.7%) and 4.0% for axial stiffness; corresponding data in the subvolume were 6.5% (range 1.6% to 13.0%) for structural, and 5.5% (range 4.6% to 6.5%) for mechanical parameters. Aggregate ICC was 0.976 (range 0.947 to 0.986) and 0.992 for whole-volume-derived structural parameters and axial stiffness, and 0.946 (range 0.752 to 0.991) and 0.974 (range 0.965 to 0.978) for subvolume-derived structural and mechanical parameters, respectively. The strongest predictors of whole-volume axial stiffness were BV/TV, junction density, skeleton density and Tb.N (R(2) 0.79-0.87). The same parameters were also highly predictive of sub-regional axial modulus (R(2) 0.88-0.91). The data suggest that the method is suited for longitudinal assessment of the response to therapy. The underlying technology is portable and should be compatible with all general

  11. Multichannel Compressive Sensing MRI Using Noiselet Encoding

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Kamlesh; Egan, Gary; Zhang, Jingxin

    2015-01-01

    The incoherence between measurement and sparsifying transform matrices and the restricted isometry property (RIP) of measurement matrix are two of the key factors in determining the performance of compressive sensing (CS). In CS-MRI, the randomly under-sampled Fourier matrix is used as the measurement matrix and the wavelet transform is usually used as sparsifying transform matrix. However, the incoherence between the randomly under-sampled Fourier matrix and the wavelet matrix is not optimal, which can deteriorate the performance of CS-MRI. Using the mathematical result that noiselets are maximally incoherent with wavelets, this paper introduces the noiselet unitary bases as the measurement matrix to improve the incoherence and RIP in CS-MRI. Based on an empirical RIP analysis that compares the multichannel noiselet and multichannel Fourier measurement matrices in CS-MRI, we propose a multichannel compressive sensing (MCS) framework to take the advantage of multichannel data acquisition used in MRI scanners. Simulations are presented in the MCS framework to compare the performance of noiselet encoding reconstructions and Fourier encoding reconstructions at different acceleration factors. The comparisons indicate that multichannel noiselet measurement matrix has better RIP than that of its Fourier counterpart, and that noiselet encoded MCS-MRI outperforms Fourier encoded MCS-MRI in preserving image resolution and can achieve higher acceleration factors. To demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed noiselet encoding scheme, a pulse sequences with tailored spatially selective RF excitation pulses was designed and implemented on a 3T scanner to acquire the data in the noiselet domain from a phantom and a human brain. The results indicate that noislet encoding preserves image resolution better than Fouirer encoding. PMID:25965548

  12. Multichannel compressive sensing MRI using noiselet encoding.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Kamlesh; Egan, Gary; Zhang, Jingxin

    2015-01-01

    The incoherence between measurement and sparsifying transform matrices and the restricted isometry property (RIP) of measurement matrix are two of the key factors in determining the performance of compressive sensing (CS). In CS-MRI, the randomly under-sampled Fourier matrix is used as the measurement matrix and the wavelet transform is usually used as sparsifying transform matrix. However, the incoherence between the randomly under-sampled Fourier matrix and the wavelet matrix is not optimal, which can deteriorate the performance of CS-MRI. Using the mathematical result that noiselets are maximally incoherent with wavelets, this paper introduces the noiselet unitary bases as the measurement matrix to improve the incoherence and RIP in CS-MRI. Based on an empirical RIP analysis that compares the multichannel noiselet and multichannel Fourier measurement matrices in CS-MRI, we propose a multichannel compressive sensing (MCS) framework to take the advantage of multichannel data acquisition used in MRI scanners. Simulations are presented in the MCS framework to compare the performance of noiselet encoding reconstructions and Fourier encoding reconstructions at different acceleration factors. The comparisons indicate that multichannel noiselet measurement matrix has better RIP than that of its Fourier counterpart, and that noiselet encoded MCS-MRI outperforms Fourier encoded MCS-MRI in preserving image resolution and can achieve higher acceleration factors. To demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed noiselet encoding scheme, a pulse sequences with tailored spatially selective RF excitation pulses was designed and implemented on a 3T scanner to acquire the data in the noiselet domain from a phantom and a human brain. The results indicate that noislet encoding preserves image resolution better than Fouirer encoding.

  13. Sodium MRI in human heart: a review.

    PubMed

    Bottomley, Paul A

    2016-02-01

    This paper offers a critical review of the properties, methods and potential clinical application of sodium ((23)Na) MRI in human heart. Because the tissue sodium concentration (TSC) in heart is about ~40 µmol/g wet weight, and the (23)Na gyromagnetic ratio and sensitivity are respectively about one-quarter and one-11th of that of hydrogen ((1)H), the signal-to-noise ratio of (23)Na MRI in the heart is about one-6000th of that of conventional cardiac (1)H MRI. In addition, as a quadrupolar nucleus, (23)Na exhibits ultra-short and multi-component relaxation behavior (T1 ~ 30 ms; T2 ~ 0.5-4 ms and 12-20 ms), which requires fast, specialized, ultra-short echo-time MRI sequences, especially for quantifying TSC. Cardiac (23)Na MRI studies from 1.5 to 7 T measure a volume-weighted sum of intra- and extra-cellular components present at cytosolic concentrations of 10-15 mM and 135-150 mM in healthy tissue, respectively, at a spatial resolution of about 0.1-1 ml in 10 min or so. Currently, intra- and extra-cellular sodium cannot be unambiguously resolved without the use of potentially toxic shift reagents. Nevertheless, increases in TSC attributable to an influx of intra-cellular sodium and/or increased extra-cellular volume have been demonstrated in human myocardial infarction consistent with prior animal studies, and arguably might also be seen in future studies of ischemia and cardiomyopathies--especially those involving defects in sodium transport. While technical implementation remains a hurdle, a central question for clinical use is whether cardiac (23)Na MRI can deliver useful information unobtainable by other more convenient methods, including (1)H MRI.

  14. Overestimation of the second time interval replaces time-shrinking when the difference between two adjacent time intervals increases.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Yoshitaka; Hasuo, Emi; Yamashita, Miki; Haraguchi, Yuki

    2014-01-01

    When the onsets of three successive sound bursts mark two adjacent time intervals, the second time interval can be underestimated when it is physically longer than the first time interval by up to 100 ms. This illusion, time-shrinking, is very stable when the first time interval is 200 ms or shorter (Nakajima et al., 2004, Perception, 33). Time-shrinking had been considered a kind of perceptual assimilation to make the first and the second time interval more similar to each other. Here we investigated whether the underestimation of the second time interval was replaced by an overestimation if the physical difference between the neighboring time intervals was too large for the assimilation to take place; this was a typical situation in which a perceptual contrast could be expected. Three experiments to measure the overestimation/underestimation of the second time interval by the method of adjustment were conducted. The first time interval was varied from 40 to 280 ms, and such overestimations indeed took place when the first time interval was 80-280 ms. The overestimations were robust when the second time interval was longer than the first time interval by 240 ms or more, and the magnitude of the overestimation was larger than 100 ms in some conditions. Thus, a perceptual contrast to replace time-shrinking was established. An additional experiment indicated that this contrast did not affect the perception of the first time interval substantially: The contrast in the present conditions seemed unilateral.

  15. Risk assessment of aggressive behavior in Chinese patients with schizophrenia by fMRI and COMT gene

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xiaoli; Jin, Jun; Tang, Yi; Cao, Jinbo; Huang, Junjie

    2017-01-01

    Background Blood–oxygen-level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-fMRI) maps cerebral activity by the hemodynamic response. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene is involved in the metabolism of dopamine. It is reported that both of these can be used to assess the aggression risk in patients with schizophrenia. However, these methods to assess the aggression risk patients with schizophrenia have not been established in China. Therefore, we deliver here a systematic review and meta-analysis based on the studies dealing with Chinese patients. Method Nine fMRI studies and 12 gene studies were included. The data of each study were extracted and summarized. Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were estimated on allele, dominant, and recessive models. Publication bias was evaluated by Begg’s funnel plot. Results Positive BOLD-fMRI values in the lower central neural system (CNS) and negative values in the high-level CNS were observed in the patients with aggression risk. A strong association was derived from the recessive gene model of COMT polymorphism rs4680 and risk in aggression behavior (odds ratio =2.10). No significant publication bias was identified. Conclusion Aggression behavior in patients with schizophrenia can be indicated by positive BOLD-fMRI values in the lower CNS and negative values in the high-level CNS and by a recessive gene model in COMT polymorphism rs4680. A combined test of fMRI and COMT gene could increase the predictive value. PMID:28223811

  16. Comparison of semantic and episodic memory BOLD fMRI activation in predicting cognitive decline in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Hantke, Nathan; Nielson, Kristy A.; Woodard, John L.; Guidotti Breting, Leslie M.; Butts, Alissa; Seidenberg, Michael; Smith, J. Carson; Durgerian, Sally; Lancaster, Melissa; Matthews, Monica; Sugarman, Michael A.; Rao, Stephen M.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that task-activated fMRI can predict future cognitive decline among healthy older adults. The present fMRI study examined the relative sensitivity of semantic memory (SM) versus episodic memory (EM) activation tasks for predicting cognitive decline. Seventy-eight cognitively intact elders underwent neuropsychological testing at entry and after an 18-month interval, with participants classified as cognitively “Stable” or “Declining” based on ≥1.0 SD decline in performance. Baseline fMRI scanning involved SM (famous name discrimination) and EM (name recognition) tasks. SM and EM fMRI activation, along with APOE ε4 status, served as predictors of cognitive outcome using a logistic regression analysis. Twenty-seven (34.6%) participants were classified as Declining and 51 (65.4%) as Stable. APOE ε4 status alone significantly predicted cognitive decline (R2 = .106; C index = .642). Addition of SM activation significantly improved prediction accuracy (R2 = .285; C index = .787), whereas the addition of EM did not (R2 = .212; C index = .711). In combination with APOE status, SM task activation predicts future cognitive decline better than EM activation. These results have implications for use of fMRI in prevention clinical trials involving the identification of persons at-risk for age-associated memory loss and Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:23199565

  17. Assessing the spatiotemporal evolution of neuronal activation with single-trial event-related potentials and functional MRI.

    PubMed

    Eichele, Tom; Specht, Karsten; Moosmann, Matthias; Jongsma, Marijtje L A; Quiroga, Rodrigo Quian; Nordby, Helge; Hugdahl, Kenneth

    2005-12-06

    The brain acts as an integrated information processing system, which methods in cognitive neuroscience have so far depicted in a fragmented fashion. Here, we propose a simple and robust way to integrate functional MRI (fMRI) with single trial event-related potentials (ERP) to provide a more complete spatiotemporal characterization of evoked responses in the human brain. The idea behind the approach is to find brain regions whose fMRI responses can be predicted by paradigm-induced amplitude modulations of simultaneously acquired single trial ERPs. The method was used to study a variant of a two-stimulus auditory target detection (odd-ball) paradigm that manipulated predictability through alternations of stimulus sequences with random or regular target-to-target intervals. In addition to electrophysiologic and hemodynamic evoked responses to auditory targets per se, single-trial modulations were expressed during the latencies of the P2 (170-ms), N2 (200-ms), and P3 (320-ms) components and predicted spatially separated fMRI activation patterns. These spatiotemporal matches, i.e., the prediction of hemodynamic activation by time-variant information from single trial ERPs, permit inferences about regional responses using fMRI with the temporal resolution provided by electrophysiology.

  18. Crossed cerebellar diaschisis after stroke identified noninvasively with cerebral blood flow-weighted arterial spin labeling MRI

    PubMed Central

    Strother, Megan K.; Buckingham, Cari; Faraco, Carlos C.; Arteaga, Daniel; Lu, Pengcheng; Xu, Yaomin; Donahue, Manus J.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Crossed cerebellar diaschisis (CCD) is most commonly investigated using hemodynamic PET and SPECT imaging. However, noninvasive MRI offers advantages of improved spatial resolution, allowing hemodynamic changes to be compared directly with structural findings and without concerns related to ionizing radiation exposure. The aim of this study was to evaluate relationships between CCD identified from cerebral blood flow (CBF)-weighted arterial spin labeling (ASL) MRI with cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR)-weighted blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) MRI, Wallerian degeneration, clinical motor impairment, and corticospinal tract involvement. Methods Subjects (n=74) enrolled in an ongoing observational stroke trial underwent CBF-weighted ASL and hypercapnic CVR-weighted BOLD MRI. Hemispheric asymmetry indices for basal cerebellar CBF, cerebellar CVR, and cerebral peduncular area were compared between subjects with unilateral supratentorial infarcts (n=18) and control subjects without infarcts (n=16). CCD required (1) supratentorial infarct and (2) asymmetric cerebellar CBF (>95% confidence interval relative to controls). Results In CCD subjects (n=9), CVR (p=0.04) and cerebral peduncular area (p < 0.01) were significantly asymmetric compared to controls. Compared to infarct subjects not meeting CCD criteria (n=9), CCD subjects had no difference in corticospinal tract location for infarct (p=1.0) or motor impairment (p=0.08). Conclusions CCD correlated with cerebellar CVR asymmetry and Wallerian degeneration. These findings suggest that noninvasive MRI may be a useful alternative to PET or SPECT to study structural correlates and clinical consequences of CCD following supratentorial stroke. PMID:26724658

  19. Integration of EEG/MEG with MRI and fMRI in Functional Neuroimaging

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhongming; Ding, Lei; He, Bin

    2007-01-01

    EEG and MEG are important functional neuroimaging modalities for studying the temporal dynamics of neural activities and interactions, but the accurate localization of neural activities still remains a challenging problem. Combining EEG/MEG with MRI or/and functional MRI (fMRI) holds promise to significantly increase the spatial resolution of electromagnetic source imaging, and at the same time, allows tracing the rapid neural processes and information pathways within the brain, which cannot be achieved using these modalities in isolation. In this paper, we review some recent progresses in multimodal neuroimaging, with special emphasis on the integration of EEG, MEG with MRI and fMRI. Some examples are shown to illustrate the importance of the combined source analysis in clinical and experimental studies. PMID:16898658

  20. Application of Sequential Interval Estimation to Adaptive Mastery Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Yuan-chin Ivan

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we apply sequential one-sided confidence interval estimation procedures with beta-protection to adaptive mastery testing. The procedures of fixed-width and fixed proportional accuracy confidence interval estimation can be viewed as extensions of one-sided confidence interval procedures. It can be shown that the adaptive mastery…

  1. About Hemispheric Differences in the Processing of Temporal Intervals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grondin, S.; Girard, C.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify differences between cerebral hemispheres for processing temporal intervals ranging from .9 to 1.4s. The intervals to be judged were marked by series of brief visual signals located in the left or the right visual field. Series of three (two standards and one comparison) or five intervals (four…

  2. A METHOD OF DETERMINING A CONFIDENCE INTERVAL FOR AVAILABILITY

    DTIC Science & Technology

    This report presents a method of determining a confidence interval for availability when it is estimated from the mean time between equipment...for a confidence interval for availability. An example is included to demonstrate the procedure of placing a confidence interval about the estimated availability.

  3. Prehospital Emergency Medical Services Departure Interval: Does Patient Age Matter?

    PubMed

    Schnegg, Bruno; Pasquier, Mathieu; Carron, Pierre-Nicolas; Yersin, Bertrand; Dami, Fabrice

    2016-12-01

    Introduction The concept of response time with minimal interval is intimately related to the practice of emergency medicine. The factors influencing this time interval are poorly understood. Problem In a process of improvement of response time, the impact of the patient's age on ambulance departure intervals was investigated.

  4. Monitoring brain tumor response to therapy using MRI segmentation.

    PubMed

    Vaidyanathan, M; Clarke, L P; Hall, L O; Heidtman, C; Velthuizen, R; Gosche, K; Phuphanich, S; Wagner, H; Greenberg, H; Silbiger, M L

    1997-01-01

    The performance evaluation of a semi-supervised fuzzy c-means (SFCM) clustering method for monitoring brain tumor volume changes during the course of routine clinical radiation-therapeutic and chemo-therapeutic regimens is presented. The tumor volume determined using the SFCM method was compared with the volume estimates obtained using three other methods: (a) a k nearest neighbor (kNN) classifier, b) a grey level thresholding and seed growing (ISG-SG) method and c) a manual pixel labeling (GT) method for ground truth estimation. The SFCM and kNN methods are applied to the multispectral, contrast enhanced T1, proton density, and T2 weighted, magnetic resonance images (MRI) whereas the ISG-SG and GT methods are applied only to the contrast enhanced T1 weighted image. Estimations of tumor volume were made on eight patient cases with follow-up MRI scans performed over a 32 week interval during treatment. The tumor cases studied include one meningioma, two brain metastases and five gliomas. Comparisons with manually labeled ground truth estimations showed that there is a limited agreement between the segmentation methods for absolute tumor volume measurements when using images of patients after treatment. The average intraobserver reproducibility for the SFCM, kNN and ISG-SG methods was found to be 5.8%, 6.6% and 8.9%, respectively. The average of the interobserver reproducibility of these methods was found to be 5.5%, 6.5% and 11.4%, respectively. For the measurement of relative change of tumor volume as required for the response assessment, the multi-spectral methods kNN and SFCM are therefore preferred over the seedgrowing method.

  5. Diffusion-Weighted MRI for Nodal Staging of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Impact on Radiotherapy Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Dirix, Piet; Vandecaveye, Vincent; De Keyzer, Frederik; Op de beeck, Katya; Poorten, Vincent Vander; Delaere, Pierre; Verbeken, Eric; Hermans, Robert; Nuyts, Sandra

    2010-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the use of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) for nodal staging and its impact on radiotherapy (RT) planning. Methods and Materials: Twenty-two patients with locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma underwent contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT), as well as MRI (with routine and DW sequences) prior to neck dissection. After topographic correlation, lymph nodes were evaluated microscopically with prekeratin immunostaining. Pathology results were correlated with imaging findings and an RT planning study was performed for these surgically treated patients. One set of target volumes was based on conventional imaging only, and another set was based on the corresponding DW-MRI images. A third reference set was contoured based solely on pathology results. Results: A sensitivity of 89% and a specificity of 97% per lymph node were found for DW-MRI. Nodal staging agreement between imaging and pathology was significantly stronger for DW-MRI (kappa = 0.97; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.84-1.00) than for conventional imaging (kappa = 0.56; 95% CI, 0.16-0.96; p = 0.019, by McNemar's test). For both imaging modalities, the absolute differences between RT volumes and those obtained by pathology were calculated. Using an exact paired Wilcoxon test, the observed difference was significantly larger for conventional imaging than for DW-MRI for nodal gross tumor volume (p = 0.0013), as well as for nodal clinical target volume (p = 0.0415) delineation. Conclusions: These results suggest that DW-MRI is superior to conventional imaging for preradiotherapy nodal staging of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, and provides a potential impact on organsparing and tumor control.

  6. Rabies vaccination compliance following introduction of the triennial vaccination interval--the Texas experience.

    PubMed

    Rogers, C L

    2011-06-01

    In 2003 the Texas Board of Health approved a modification to the Texas Administrative Code that permitted pet owners to have their dogs (Canis familiaris) and cats (Felis catus) vaccinated against rabies every 3 years, provided a triennial vaccine was used. The change had been opposed by hundreds in the veterinary community, some concerned that its implementation would be followed by a decrease in rabies vaccination rates. To determine if this decrease had occurred, rabies vaccination rates for 4 years before and after migration to the 3-year vaccination interval were examined. Data for dogs and cats, ≥ 4 months of age, were collected from the Texas Department of Health Rabies Incident Report database. Each animal's record included its current rabies vaccination status. The number of animals that were currently vaccinated against rabies was tallied and the percent vaccinated was calculated. From 1999 through 2002, 46% of dogs were vaccinated against rabies. From 2004 through 2007, 56% of dogs were vaccinated against rabies. From 1999 to 2002, 18% of cats were vaccinated against rabies. From 2004 to 2007, 30% of cats were vaccinated against rabies. There has been a significant increase in the numbers of dogs (P < 0.001), and cats (P < 0.001), vaccinated against rabies since the introduction of the triennial vaccination interval. This observational study documents the positive changes in rabies vaccination rates following migration from a 1-year to 3-year vaccination interval.

  7. High-intensity interval training: Modulating interval duration in overweight/obese men

    PubMed Central

    Smith-Ryan, Abbie E.; Melvin, Malia N.; Wingfield, Hailee L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is a time-efficient strategy shown to induce various cardiovascular and metabolic adaptations. Little is known about the optimal tolerable combination of intensity and volume necessary for adaptations, especially in clinical populations. Objectives In a randomized controlled pilot design, we evaluated the effects of two types of interval training protocols, varying in intensity and interval duration, on clinical outcomes in overweight/obese men. Methods Twenty-five men [body mass index (BMI) > 25 kg·m2] completed baseline body composition measures: fat mass (FM), lean mass (LM) and percent body fat (%BF) and fasting blood glucose, lipids and insulin (IN). A graded exercise cycling test was completed for peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) and power output (PO). Participants were randomly assigned to high-intensity short interval (1MIN-HIIT), high-intensity interval (2MIN-HIIT) or control groups. 1MIN-HIIT and 2MIN-HIIT completed 3 weeks of cycling interval training, 3 days/week, consisting of either 10 × 1 min bouts at 90% PO with 1 min rests (1MIN-HIIT) or 5 × 2 min bouts with 1 min rests at undulating intensities (80%–100%) (2MIN-HIIT). Results There were no significant training effects on FM (Δ1.06 ± 1.25 kg) or %BF (Δ1.13% ± 1.88%), compared to CON. Increases in LM were not significant but increased by 1.7 kg and 2.1 kg for 1MIN and 2MIN-HIIT groups, respectively. Increases in VO2peak were also not significant for 1MIN (3.4 ml·kg−1·min−1) or 2MIN groups (2.7 ml·kg−1·min−1). IN sensitivity (HOMA-IR) improved for both training groups (Δ −2.78 ± 3.48 units; p < 0.05) compared to CON. Conclusion HIIT may be an effective short-term strategy to improve cardiorespiratory fitness and IN sensitivity in overweight males. PMID:25913937

  8. Biomedical Applications of Sodium MRI In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Madelin, Guillaume; Regatte, Ravinder R.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we present an up-to-date overview of the potential biomedical applications of sodium MRI in vivo. Sodium MRI is a subject of increasing interest in translational imaging research as it can give some direct and quantitative biochemical information on the tissue viability, cell integrity and function, and therefore not only help the diagnosis but also the prognosis of diseases and treatment outcomes. It has already been applied in vivo in most of human tissues, such as brain for stroke or tumor detection and therapeutic response, in breast cancer, in articular cartilage, in muscle and in kidney, and it was shown in some studies that it could provide very useful new information not available through standard proton MRI. However, this technique is still very challenging due to the low detectable sodium signal in biological tissue with MRI and hardware/software limitations of the clinical scanners. The article is divided in three parts: (1) the role of sodium in biological tissues, (2) a short review on sodium magnetic resonance, and (3) a review of some studies on sodium MRI on different organs/diseases to date. PMID:23722972

  9. Dental MRI using wireless intraoral coils

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig, Ute; Eisenbeiss, Anne-Katrin; Scheifele, Christian; Nelson, Katja; Bock, Michael; Hennig, Jürgen; von Elverfeldt, Dominik; Herdt, Olga; Flügge, Tabea; Hövener, Jan-Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Currently, the gold standard for dental imaging is projection radiography or cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). These methods are fast and cost-efficient, but exhibit poor soft tissue contrast and expose the patient to ionizing radiation (X-rays). The need for an alternative imaging modality e.g. for soft tissue management has stimulated a rising interest in dental magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) which provides superior soft tissue contrast. Compared to X-ray imaging, however, so far the spatial resolution of MRI is lower and the scan time is longer. In this contribution, we describe wireless, inductively-coupled intraoral coils whose local sensitivity enables high resolution MRI of dental soft tissue. In comparison to CBCT, a similar image quality with complementary contrast was obtained ex vivo. In-vivo, a voxel size of the order of 250∙250∙500 μm3 was achieved in 4 min only. Compared to dental MRI acquired with clinical equipment, the quality of the images was superior in the sensitive volume of the coils and is expected to improve the planning of interventions and monitoring thereafter. This method may enable a more accurate dental diagnosis and avoid unnecessary interventions, improving patient welfare and bringing MRI a step closer to becoming a radiation-free alternative for dental imaging. PMID:27021387

  10. Dental MRI using wireless intraoral coils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, Ute; Eisenbeiss, Anne-Katrin; Scheifele, Christian; Nelson, Katja; Bock, Michael; Hennig, Jürgen; von Elverfeldt, Dominik; Herdt, Olga; Flügge, Tabea; Hövener, Jan-Bernd

    2016-03-01

    Currently, the gold standard for dental imaging is projection radiography or cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). These methods are fast and cost-efficient, but exhibit poor soft tissue contrast and expose the patient to ionizing radiation (X-rays). The need for an alternative imaging modality e.g. for soft tissue management has stimulated a rising interest in dental magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) which provides superior soft tissue contrast. Compared to X-ray imaging, however, so far the spatial resolution of MRI is lower and the scan time is longer. In this contribution, we describe wireless, inductively-coupled intraoral coils whose local sensitivity enables high resolution MRI of dental soft tissue. In comparison to CBCT, a similar image quality with complementary contrast was obtained ex vivo. In-vivo, a voxel size of the order of 250•250•500 μm3 was achieved in 4 min only. Compared to dental MRI acquired with clinical equipment, the quality of the images was superior in the sensitive volume of the coils and is expected to improve the planning of interventions and monitoring thereafter. This method may enable a more accurate dental diagnosis and avoid unnecessary interventions, improving patient welfare and bringing MRI a step closer to becoming a radiation-free alternative for dental imaging.

  11. Transition from Collisionless to Collisional MRI

    SciTech Connect

    Prateek Sharma; Gregory W. Hammett; Eliot Quataert

    2003-07-24

    Recent calculations by Quataert et al. (2002) found that the growth rates of the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in a collisionless plasma can differ significantly from those calculated using MHD. This can be important in hot accretion flows around compact objects. In this paper, we study the transition from the collisionless kinetic regime to the collisional MHD regime, mapping out the dependence of the MRI growth rate on collisionality. A kinetic closure scheme for a magnetized plasma is used that includes the effect of collisions via a BGK operator. The transition to MHD occurs as the mean free path becomes short compared to the parallel wavelength 2*/k(sub)||. In the weak magnetic field regime where the Alfven and MRI frequencies w are small compared to the sound wave frequency k(sub)||c(sub)0, the dynamics are still effectively collisionless even if omega << v, so long as the collision frequency v << k(sub)||c(sub)0; for an accretion flow this requires n less than or approximately equal to *(square root of b). The low collisionality regime not only modifies the MRI growth rate, but also introduces collisionless Landau or Barnes damping of long wavelength modes, which may be important for the nonlinear saturation of the MRI.

  12. Functional MRI applications in epilepsy surgery.

    PubMed

    Beers, Craig A; Federico, Paolo

    2012-05-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a non-invasive neuroimaging technique that has grown rapidly in popularity over the past decade. It is already prevalent in psychology, cognitive and basic neuroscience research and is being used increasingly as a tool for clinical decision-making in epilepsy. It has been used to determine language location and laterality in patients, sometimes eliminating the need for invasive tests. fMRI can been used pre-surgically to guide resection margins, preserving eloquent cortex. Other fMRI paradigms assessing memory, visual and somatosensory systems have limited clinical applications currently, but show great promise. Simultaneous recording of electroencephalogram (EEG) and fMRI has also provided insights into the networks underlying seizure generation and is increasingly being used in epilepsy centres. In this review, we present some of the current clinical applications for fMRI in the pre-surgical assessment of epilepsy patients, and examine a number of new techniques that may soon become clinically relevant.

  13. Low field SQUID MRI devices, components and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penanen, Konstantin I. (Inventor); Eom, Byeong H (Inventor); Hahn, Inseob (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Low field SQUID MRI devices, components and methods are disclosed. They include a portable low field (SQUID)-based MRI instrument and a portable low field SQUID-based MRI system to be operated under a bed where a subject is adapted to be located. Also disclosed is a method of distributing wires on an image encoding coil system adapted to be used with an NMR or MRI device for analyzing a sample or subject and a second order superconducting gradiometer adapted to be used with a low field SQUID-based MRI device as a sensing component for an MRI signal related to a subject or sample.

  14. Low field SQUID MRI devices, components and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penanen, Konstantin I. (Inventor); Eom, Byeong H. (Inventor); Hahn, Inseob (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Low field SQUID MRI devices, components and methods are disclosed. They include a portable low field (SQUID)-based MRI instrument and a portable low field SQUID-based MRI system to be operated under a bed where a subject is adapted to be located. Also disclosed is a method of distributing wires on an image encoding coil system adapted to be used with an NMR or MRI device for analyzing a sample or subject and a second order superconducting gradiometer adapted to be used with a low field SQUID-based MRI device as a sensing component for an MRI signal related to a subject or sample.

  15. Low Field Squid MRI Devices, Components and Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penanen, Konstantin I. (Inventor); Eom, Byeong H. (Inventor); Hahn, Inseob (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Low field SQUID MRI devices, components and methods are disclosed. They include a portable low field (SQUID)-based MRI instrument and a portable low field SQUID-based MRI system to be operated under a bed where a subject is adapted to be located. Also disclosed is a method of distributing wires on an image encoding coil system adapted to be used with an NMR or MRI device for analyzing a sample or subject and a second order superconducting gradiometer adapted to be used with a low field SQUID-based MRI device as a sensing component for an MRI signal related to a subject or sample.

  16. Low Field Squid MRI Devices, Components and Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penanen, Konstantin I. (Inventor); Eom, Byeong H. (Inventor); Hahn, Inseob (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Low field SQUID MRI devices, components and methods are disclosed. They include a portable low field (SQUID)-based MRI instrument and a portable low field SQUID-based MRI system to be operated under a bed where a subject is adapted to be located. Also disclosed is a method of distributing wires on an image encoding coil system adapted to be used with an NMR or MRI device for analyzing a sample or subject and a second order superconducting gradiometer adapted to be used with a low field SQUID-based MRI device as a sensing component for an MRI signal related to a subject or sample.

  17. The Use of MRI Modeling to Enhance Osteochondral Transfer in Segmental Kienböck's Disease.

    PubMed

    Barber, Lauren; Koff, Matthew F; Virtue, Patrick; Lipman, Joseph P; Hotchkiss, Robert J; Potter, Hollis G

    2012-04-01

    Kienböck's disease, defined as avascular necrosis of the lunate, is a relatively rare condition with a poorly understood etiology. Conservative and invasive treatments for Kienböck's disease exist, including wrist immobilization, surgical joint-leveling procedures, vascularized bone grafting, proximal row carpectomy, and total wrist arthrodesis. Staging Kienböck's disease using radiography assumes near complete avascularity of the lunate. The staging distinguishes only the "state of collapse" in an ordinal classification scheme and does not allow localization or indicate partial involvement of the lunate, which the image contrast from MRI may provide. In this short communication, we report the treatment of a patient's Kienböck's disease by combining MRI with mathematical modeling to optimize the congruency between the curvature of donor and recipient sites of an autologous osteoarticular plug transfer. Follow-up MRI and radiographs at 1 year postoperatively demonstrated gradual graft incorporation and bone healing. The purpose of this study was to describe the feasibility of a novel surgical technique. The results indicate that donor site selection for autologous osteoarticular transfer using a quantitative evaluation of articular surface curvature may be beneficial for optimizing the likelihood for restoring the radius of curvature and thus joint articulation following cartilage repair.

  18. Statistical Coding and Decoding of Heartbeat Intervals

    PubMed Central

    Lucena, Fausto; Barros, Allan Kardec; Príncipe, José C.; Ohnishi, Noboru

    2011-01-01

    The heart integrates neuroregulatory messages into specific bands of frequency, such that the overall amplitude spectrum of the cardiac output reflects the variations of the autonomic nervous system. This modulatory mechanism seems to be well adjusted to the unpredictability of the cardiac demand, maintaining a proper cardiac regulation. A longstanding theory holds that biological organisms facing an ever-changing environment are likely to evolve adaptive mechanisms to extract essential features in order to adjust their behavior. The key question, however, has been to understand how the neural circuitry self-organizes these feature detectors to select behaviorally relevant information. Previous studies in computational perception suggest that a neural population enhances information that is important for survival by minimizing the statistical redundancy of the stimuli. Herein we investigate whether the cardiac system makes use of a redundancy reduction strategy to regulate the cardiac rhythm. Based on a network of neural filters optimized to code heartbeat intervals, we learn a population code that maximizes the information across the neural ensemble. The emerging population code displays filter tuning proprieties whose characteristics explain diverse aspects of the autonomic cardiac regulation, such as the compromise between fast and slow cardiac responses. We show that the filters yield responses that are quantitatively similar to observed heart rate responses during direct sympathetic or parasympathetic nerve stimulation. Our findings suggest that the heart decodes autonomic stimuli according to information theory principles analogous to how perceptual cues are encoded by sensory systems. PMID:21694763

  19. A survey of Australian haematology reference intervals.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Leanne; Hall, Sara; Badrick, Tony

    2014-10-01

    This study was designed to create a snapshot of Australian haematology reference intervals (RIs) in use, in particular red cell parameters. We present an analysis of survey results conducted across Australian laboratories between November 2012 and January 2013.All Australian laboratories enrolled in the Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia Quality Assurance Program (RCPA QAP) were invited to participate in the December 2012 Survey Monkey survey, with a response from 85 laboratories (17%) received. The scope included laboratory demographics (location, size/throughput, and network), RIs in use for the full blood count and selected derived parameters, their frequency of revision, source and statistical approach for derivation. Further questions related to uncertainty of measurement, pregnancy values, paediatric/adult cut-off, haematology profiles reported and the use of extended parameters.There is more consistency with some upper and lower limits than others, and wide ranges for reported uncertainty of measurement (UM). There is no apparent consistency with RIs used for particular instruments and technologies. When laboratories change their RIs, most obtain them from a text book, paper or another laboratory and have difficulty in determining the source. If they do determine their own, most don't have a standard operating procedure and calculations are not consistent in terms of sample size and statistical methods used.We have presented evidence of the wide variations in RIs used in Australian laboratories and that arguably these do not differ significantly from each other. The paediatric age cut-off requires standardisation.

  20. An Investigation of Interval Management Displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swieringa, Kurt A.; Wilson, Sara R.; Shay, Rick

    2015-01-01

    NASA's first Air Traffic Management (ATM) Technology Demonstration (ATD-1) was created to transition the most mature ATM technologies from the laboratory to the National Airspace System. One selected technology is Interval Management (IM), which uses onboard aircraft automation to compute speeds that help the flight crew achieve and maintain precise spacing behind a preceding aircraft. Since ATD-1 focuses on a near-term environment, the ATD-1 flight demonstration prototype requires radio voice communication to issue an IM clearance. Retrofit IM displays will enable pilots to both enter information into the IM avionics and monitor IM operation. These displays could consist of an interface to enter data from an IM clearance and also an auxiliary display that presents critical information in the primary field-of-view. A human-in-the-loop experiment was conducted to examine usability and acceptability of retrofit IM displays, which flight crews found acceptable. Results also indicate the need for salient alerting when new speeds are generated and the desire to have a primary field of view display available that can display text and graphic trend indicators.

  1. Interval bisection in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Orduña, Vladimir; Hong, Enrique; Bouzas, Arturo

    2007-01-10

    An interval bisection procedure was used to study time discrimination in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), which have been proposed as an animal model for the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); Wistar Kyoto and Wistar rats were used as comparison groups. In this procedure, after subjects learn to make one response (S) following a short duration stimulus, and another (L) following a long duration stimulus, stimuli of intermediate durations are presented, and the percentage of L is calculated for each duration. A logistic function is fitted to these data, and different parameters that describe the time discrimination process are obtained. Four conditions, with different short and long durations (1-4, 2-8, 3-12, 4-16s) were used. The results indicate that time discrimination is not altered in SHR, given that no difference in any of the parameters obtained were significant. Given that temporal processing has been proposed as a fundamental factor in the development of the main symptoms of ADHD, and that deficits in time discrimination have been found in individuals with that disorder, the present results suggest the necessity of exploring time perception in SHR with other procedures and sensory modalities, in order to assess its validity as an animal model of ADHD.

  2. Risk of Recurrent Helicobacter pylori Infection 1 Year After Initial Eradication Therapy in 7 Latin American Communities

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Douglas R.; Torres, Javier; Sexton, Rachael; Herrero, Rolando; Salazar-Martínez, Eduardo; Robert Greenberg, E.; Bravo, Luis Eduardo; Dominguez, Ricardo L.; Ferreccio, Catterina; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo C.; Meza-Montenegro, Maria Mercedes; Peña, Edgar M.; Peña, Rodolfo; Correa, Pelayo; Martínez, María Elena; Chey, William D.; Valdivieso, Manuel; Anderson, Garnet L.; Goodman, Gary E.; Crowley, John J.; Baker, Laurence H.

    2013-01-01

    Importance The long-term effectiveness of Helicobacter pylori eradication programs for preventing gastric cancer will depend on recurrence risk and individual and community factors. Objective To estimate risk of H pylori recurrence and assess factors associated with successful eradication 1 year after treatment. Design, Setting, and Participants Cohort analysis of 1463 randomized trial participants aged 21 to 65 years from 7 Latin American communities, who were treated for H pylori and observed between September 2009 and July 2011. Interventions Randomization to 1 of 3 treatment groups: 14-day lansoprazole, amoxicillin, and clarithromycin (triple therapy); 5-day lansoprazole and amoxicillin followed by 5-day lansoprazole, clarithromycin, and metronidazole (sequential); or 5-day lansoprazole, amoxicillin, clarithromycin, and metronidazole (concomitant). Participants with a positive (13) C-urea breath test (UBT) 6 to 8 weeks posttreatment were offered voluntary re-treatment with 14-day bismuth-based quadruple therapy. Measurements Recurrent infection after a negative posttreatment UBT and factors associated with successful eradication at 1-year follow-up. Results Among participants with UBT-negative results who had a 1-year follow-up UBT (n=1091), 125 tested UBT positive, a recurrence risk of 11.5% (95% CI, 9.6%–13.5%). Recurrence was significantly associated with study site (P=.03), nonadherence to initial therapy (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.94; 95% CI, 1.31–6.13; P=.01), and children in the household (AOR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.01–1.35 per child; P=.03). Of the 281 with positive posttreatment UBT results, 138 completed re-treatment, of whom 93 tested UBT negative at 1 year. Among the 1340 who had a 1-year UBT, 80.4% (95% CI, 76.4%–83.9%), 79.8% (95% CI, 75.8%–83.5%), and 77.8% (95% CI, 73.6%–81.6%) had UBT-negative results in the triple, sequential, and concomitant groups, respectively (P=.61), with 79.3% overall effectiveness (95% CI, 77.1%–81.5%). In a

  3. Effect of the INSIGHT Responsive Parenting Intervention on Rapid Infant Weight Gain and Overweight Status at Age 1 Year

    PubMed Central

    Savage, Jennifer S.; Birch, Leann L.; Marini, Michele; Anzman-Frasca, Stephanie; Paul, Ian M.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Rapid infant weight gain is associated with later obesity, but interventions to prevent rapid infant growth and reduce risk for overweight status in infancy are lacking. OBJECTIVE To examine the effect of a responsive parenting (RP) intervention on infant weight gain between birth and 28 weeks and overweight status at age 1 year. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS The Intervention Nurses Start Infants Growing on Healthy Trajectories (INSIGHT) study is an ongoing randomized clinical trial comparing an RP intervention designed to prevent childhood obesity with a safety control. The study includes primiparous mother-newborn dyads (n = 291) and was conducted at the Penn State Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, Pennsylvania, in addition to home visits. Enrollment was initiated in January 2012, and evaluable population analyses for this study were conducted between April 2015 and November 2015. INTERVENTIONS At 2 weeks post partum, initial intervention materials appropriate to the assigned treatment group were mailed to the participant’s home. Research nurses conducted home visits at 3 weeks, 16 weeks, 28 weeks, and 40 weeks, and a research center visit occurred at 1 year. The Intervention Nurses Start Infants Growing on Healthy Trajectories curriculum included messages about infant feeding, sleep hygiene, active social play, emotion regulation, and growth record education. The control group received a developmentally appropriate home safety intervention also delivered by nurse home visitors. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Conditional weight gain from birth to 28 weeks was calculated. General linear models examined intervention effect on conditional weight gain. The intervention’s effect on infant weight-for-length percentiles was tested using analysis of variance. Logistic regression compared the odds of overweight status (weight for length ≥95th percentile) at 1 year as a function of conditional weight gain. RESULTS Of the mothers included in the

  4. RR-Interval variance of electrocardiogram for atrial fibrillation detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuryani, N.; Solikhah, M.; Nugoho, A. S.; Afdala, A.; Anzihory, E.

    2016-11-01

    Atrial fibrillation is a serious heart problem originated from the upper chamber of the heart. The common indication of atrial fibrillation is irregularity of R peak-to-R-peak time interval, which is shortly called RR interval. The irregularity could be represented using variance or spread of RR interval. This article presents a system to detect atrial fibrillation using variances. Using clinical data of patients with atrial fibrillation attack, it is shown that the variance of electrocardiographic RR interval are higher during atrial fibrillation, compared to the normal one. Utilizing a simple detection technique and variances of RR intervals, we find a good performance of atrial fibrillation detection.

  5. Correction of MRI-induced geometric distortions in whole-body small animal PET-MRI

    SciTech Connect

    Frohwein, Lynn J. Schäfers, Klaus P.; Hoerr, Verena; Faber, Cornelius

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: The fusion of positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data can be a challenging task in whole-body PET-MRI. The quality of the registration between these two modalities in large field-of-views (FOV) is often degraded by geometric distortions of the MRI data. The distortions at the edges of large FOVs mainly originate from MRI gradient nonlinearities. This work describes a method to measure and correct for these kind of geometric distortions in small animal MRI scanners to improve the registration accuracy of PET and MRI data. Methods: The authors have developed a geometric phantom which allows the measurement of geometric distortions in all spatial axes via control points. These control points are detected semiautomatically in both PET and MRI data with a subpixel accuracy. The spatial transformation between PET and MRI data is determined with these control points via 3D thin-plate splines (3D TPS). The transformation derived from the 3D TPS is finally applied to real MRI mouse data, which were acquired with the same scan parameters used in the phantom data acquisitions. Additionally, the influence of the phantom material on the homogeneity of the magnetic field is determined via field mapping. Results: The spatial shift according to the magnetic field homogeneity caused by the phantom material was determined to a mean of 0.1 mm. The results of the correction show that distortion with a maximum error of 4 mm could be reduced to less than 1 mm with the proposed correction method. Furthermore, the control point-based registration of PET and MRI data showed improved congruence after correction. Conclusions: The developed phantom has been shown to have no considerable negative effect on the homogeneity of the magnetic field. The proposed method yields an appropriate correction of the measured MRI distortion and is able to improve the PET and MRI registration. Furthermore, the method is applicable to whole-body small animal

  6. Predictors of Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI) and work status after 1 year in patients with subacromial shoulder pain

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Shoulder pain is a common complaint in primary health care and has an unfavourable outcome in many patients. The objectives were to identify predictors for pain and disability (SPADI) and work status in patients with subacromial shoulder pain. Methods Secondary analyses of data from a randomized clinical controlled trial were performed. Outcome measures were the absolute values of the combined Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI) and work status 1 year after treatment with supervised exercises (SE) or radial extracorporeal shockwave therapy (rESWT). Predictors of outcome were investigated using multiple linear regression (SPADI) and logistic regression (work status). Results 104 patients were included. Low education (≤ 12 years), previous shoulder pain, and a high baseline SPADI score predicted poor results with these variables explaining 29.9% of the variance in SPADI score at 1 year. Low education and poor self-reported health status predicted a work status of "not working": Odds Ratio, OR = 4.3(95% CI (1.3 to 14.9)), p = 0.02 for education, and OR = 1.06 (95% CI (1.0 to 1.1)), p = 0.001 for self-reported health status, respectively. Adjustments for age, gender, and treatment group were performed, but did not change the results. Conclusion Education was the most consistent predictor of pain and disability, and work status at 1 year follow-up. Also, baseline SPADI score, previous shoulder pain and self-reported health status predicted outcome. Trial registration Clinical trials NCT00653081 PMID:20863369

  7. Individual, physical and psychological risk factors for neck pain in Australian office workers: a 1-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Hush, Julia M; Michaleff, Zoe; Maher, Christopher G; Refshauge, Kathryn

    2009-10-01

    Neck pain is more prevalent in office workers than in the general community. To date, findings from prospective studies that investigated causal relationships between putative risk factors and the onset of neck pain in this population have been limited by high loss to follow-up. The aim of this research was to prospectively evaluate a range of risk factors for neck pain in office workers, using validated and reliable objective measures as well as attain an estimate of 1-year incidence. We assembled a cohort of 53 office workers without neck pain and measured individual, physical, workplace and psychological factors at baseline. We followed participants for 1 year to measure the incidence of neck pain. We achieved 100% participant follow-up. Cox regression analysis was applied to examine the relationship between the putative risk factors and the cumulative incidence of neck pain. The 1-year incidence proportion of neck pain in Australian office workers was estimated in this study to be 0.49 (95% CI 0.36-0.62). Predictors of neck pain with moderate to large effect sizes were female gender (HR: 3.07; 95% CI: 1.18-7.99) and high psychological stress (HR: 1.64; 95% CI: 0.66-4.07). Protective factors included increased mobility of the cervical spine (HR: 0.44; 95% CI: 0.19-1.05) and frequent exercise (HR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.27-1.51). These results reveal that neck pain is common in Australian office workers and that there are risk factors that are potentially modifiable.

  8. Impact of Different Childhood Adversities on 1-Year Outcomes of Psychotic Disorder in the Genetics and Psychosis Study.

    PubMed

    Trotta, Antonella; Murray, Robin M; David, Anthony S; Kolliakou, Anna; O'Connor, Jennifer; Di Forti, Marta; Dazzan, Paola; Mondelli, Valeria; Morgan, Craig; Fisher, Helen L

    2016-03-01

    While the role of childhood adversity in increasing the risk of psychosis has been extensively investigated, it is not clear what the impact of early adverse experiences is on the outcomes of psychotic disorders. Therefore, we investigated associations between childhood adversity and 1-year outcomes in 285 first-presentation psychosis patients. Exposure to childhood adversity prior to 17 years of age was assessed using the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire. Data on illness course, symptom remission, length of psychiatric hospitalization, compliance with medication, employment, and relationship status were extracted from clinical records for the year following first contact with mental health services for psychosis. Seventy-one percent of patients reported exposure to at least 1 type of childhood adversity (physical abuse, sexual abuse, parental separation, parental death, disrupted family arrangements, or being taken into care). No robust associations were found between childhood adversity and illness course or remission. However, childhood physical abuse was associated with almost 3-fold increased odds of not being in a relationship at 1-year follow-up compared to patients who did not report such adverse experiences. There was also evidence of a significant association between parental separation in childhood and longer admissions to psychiatric wards during 1-year follow-up and 2-fold increased odds of noncompliance with medication compared to those not separated from their parents. Therefore, our findings suggest that there may be some specificity in the impact of childhood adversity on service use and social functioning among psychosis patients over the first year following presentation to mental health services.

  9. Probable transmission of Yersinia enterocolitica from a pet dog with diarrhoea to a 1-year-old infant

    PubMed Central

    Hetem, D J; Pekelharing, M; Thijsen, S F T

    2013-01-01

    We report a highly probable case of transmission of a Yersinia enterocolitica from a pet puppy dog, adopted from a Spanish asylum, to a 1-year-old girl. After several weeks of diarrhoea, a PCR detecting enteropathogenic bacteria was performed on the faeces, revealing Y enterocolitica. Following cultures yielded a Y enterocolitica biotype 4, serotype O:3 in the faeces of the girl as well as puppy dog. Despite antibiotic treatment, symptoms and shedding of the organism in the faeces endured during a 2 month period. PMID:23955982

  10. Effect of a fish oil diet on asthma: results of a 1-year double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Dry, J; Vincent, D

    1991-01-01

    Airway inflammation is a major component of asthma. Food intake of N-3 fatty acids (FA) is associated with a low incidence of inflammatory diseases, such as asthma. We treated 12 asthmatic patients with FA and report the positive results of this 1-year double-blind study. A positive effect on forced expiratory volume in 1 s was observed after the 9 month of treatment. Our results are in favor of the use of FA, but have to be confirmed by other studies.

  11. Lateral cephalometric analysis for treatment planning in orthodontics based on MRI compared with radiographs: A feasibility study in children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Lazo Gonzalez, Eduardo; Hilgenfeld, Tim; Kickingereder, Philipp; Bendszus, Martin; Heiland, Sabine; Ozga, Ann-Kathrin; Sommer, Andreas; Lux, Christopher J.; Zingler, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Objective The objective of this prospective study was to evaluate whether magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is equivalent to lateral cephalometric radiographs (LCR, “gold standard”) in cephalometric analysis. Methods The applied MRI technique was optimized for short scanning time, high resolution, high contrast and geometric accuracy. Prior to orthodontic treatment, 20 patients (mean age ± SD, 13.95 years ± 5.34) received MRI and LCR. MRI datasets were postprocessed into lateral cephalograms. Cephalometric analysis was performed twice by two independent observers for both modalities with an interval of 4 weeks. Eight bilateral and 10 midsagittal landmarks were identified, and 24 widely used measurements (14 angles, 10 distances) were calculated. Statistical analysis was performed by using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), Bland-Altman analysis and two one-sided tests (TOST) within the predefined equivalence margin of ± 2°/mm. Results Geometric accuracy of the MRI technique was confirmed by phantom measurements. Mean intraobserver ICC were 0.977/0.975 for MRI and 0.975/0.961 for LCR. Average interobserver ICC were 0.980 for MRI and 0.929 for LCR. Bland-Altman analysis showed high levels of agreement between the two modalities, bias range (mean ± SD) was -0.66 to 0.61 mm (0.06 ± 0.44) for distances and -1.33 to 1.14° (0.06 ± 0.71) for angles. Except for the interincisal angle (p = 0.17) all measurements were statistically equivalent (p < 0.05). Conclusions This study demonstrates feasibility of orthodontic treatment planning without radiation exposure based on MRI. High-resolution isotropic MRI datasets can be transformed into lateral cephalograms allowing reliable measurements as applied in orthodontic routine with high concordance to the corresponding measurements on LCR. PMID:28334054

  12. Dissimilar Physiological and Perceptual Responses Between Sprint Interval Training and High-Intensity Interval Training.

    PubMed

    Wood, Kimberly M; Olive, Brittany; LaValle, Kaylyn; Thompson, Heather; Greer, Kevin; Astorino, Todd A

    2016-01-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) and sprint interval training (SIT) elicit similar cardiovascular and metabolic adaptations vs. endurance training. No study, however, has investigated acute physiological changes during HIIT vs. SIT. This study compared acute changes in heart rate (HR), blood lactate concentration (BLa), oxygen uptake (VO2), affect, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) during HIIT and SIT. Active adults (4 women and 8 men, age = 24.2 ± 6.2 years) initially performed a VO2max test to determine workload for both sessions on the cycle ergometer, whose order was randomized. Sprint interval training consisted of 8 bouts of 30 seconds of all-out cycling at 130% of maximum Watts (Wmax). High-intensity interval training consisted of eight 60-second bouts at 85% Wmax. Heart rate, VO2, BLa, affect, and RPE were continuously assessed throughout exercise. Repeated-measures analysis of variance revealed a significant difference between HIIT and SIT for VO2 (p < 0.001), HR (p < 0.001), RPE (p = 0.03), and BLa (p = 0.049). Conversely, there was no significant difference between regimens for affect (p = 0.12). Energy expenditure was significantly higher (p = 0.02) in HIIT (209.3 ± 40.3 kcal) vs. SIT (193.5 ± 39.6 kcal). During HIIT, subjects burned significantly more calories and reported lower perceived exertion than SIT. The higher VO2 and lower BLa in HIIT vs. SIT reflected dissimilar metabolic perturbation between regimens, which may elicit unique long-term adaptations. If an individual is seeking to burn slightly more calories, maintain a higher oxygen uptake, and perceive less exertion during exercise, HIIT is the recommended routine.

  13. WE-B-BRD-00: MRI for Radiation Oncology

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-15

    The use of MRI in radiation therapy is rapidly increasing. Applications vary from the MRI simulator, to the MRI fused with CT, and to the integrated MRI+RT system. Compared with the standard MRI QA, a broader scope of QA features has to be defined in order to maximize the benefits of using MRI in radiation therapy. These QA features include geometric fidelity, image registration, motion management, cross-system alignment, and hardware interference. Advanced MRI techniques require a specific type of QA, as they are being widely used in radiation therapy planning, dose calculations, post-implant dosimetry, and prognoses. A vigorous and adaptive QA program is crucial to defining the responsibility of the entire radiation therapy group and detecting deviations from the performance of high-quality treatment. As a drastic departure from CT simulation, MRI simulation requires changes in the work flow of treatment planning and image guidance. MRI guided radiotherapy platforms are being developed and commercialized to take the advantage of the advance in knowledge, technology and clinical experience. This symposium will from an educational perspective discuss the scope and specific issues related to MRI guided radiotherapy. Learning Objectives: Understand the difference between a standard and a radiotherapy-specific MRI QA program. Understand the effects of MRI artifacts (geometric distortion and motion) on radiotherapy. Understand advanced MRI techniques (ultrashort echo, fast MRI including dynamic MRI and 4DMRI, diffusion, perfusion, and MRS) and related QA. Understand the methods to prepare MRI for treatment planning (electron density assignment, multimodality image registration, segmentation and motion management). Current status of MRI guided treatment platforms. Dr. Jihong Wang has a research grant with Elekta-MRL project. Dr. Ke Sheng receives research grants from Varian Medical systems.

  14. Monkey cortex through fMRI glasses.

    PubMed

    Vanduffel, Wim; Zhu, Qi; Orban, Guy A

    2014-08-06

    In 1998 several groups reported the feasibility of fMRI experiments in monkeys, with the goal to bridge the gap between invasive nonhuman primate studies and human functional imaging. These studies yielded critical insights in the neuronal underpinnings of the BOLD signal. Furthermore, the technology has been successful in guiding electrophysiological recordings and identifying focal perturbation targets. Finally, invaluable information was obtained concerning human brain evolution. We here provide a comprehensive overview of awake monkey fMRI studies mainly confined to the visual system. We review the latest insights about the topographic organization of monkey visual cortex and discuss the spatial relationships between retinotopy and category- and feature-selective clusters. We briefly discuss the functional layout of parietal and frontal cortex and continue with a summary of some fascinating functional and effective connectivity studies. Finally, we review recent comparative fMRI experiments and speculate about the future of nonhuman primate imaging.

  15. Motion correction in MRI of the brain

    PubMed Central

    Godenschweger, F; Kägebein, U; Stucht, D; Yarach, U; Sciarra, A; Yakupov, R; Lüsebrink, F; Schulze, P; Speck, O

    2016-01-01

    Subject motion in MRI is a relevant problem in the daily clinical routine as well as in scientific studies. Since the beginning of clinical use of MRI, many research groups have developed methods to suppress or correct motion artefacts. This review focuses on rigid body motion correction of head and brain MRI and its application in diagnosis and research. It explains the sources and types of motion and related artefacts, classifies and describes existing techniques for motion detection, compensation and correction and lists established and experimental approaches. Retrospective motion correction modifies the MR image data during the reconstruction, while prospective motion correction performs an adaptive update of the data acquisition. Differences, benefits and drawbacks of different motion correction methods are discussed. PMID:26864183

  16. Plasma MRI Experiments at UW-Madison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flanagan, K.; Clark, M.; Desangles, V.; Siller, R.; Wallace, J.; Weisberg, D.; Forest, C. B.

    2015-11-01

    Experiments for driving Keplerian-like flow profiles on both the Plasma Couette Experiment Upgrade (PCX-U) and the Wisconsin Plasma Astrophysics Laboratory (WiPAL) user facility are described. Instead of driving flow at the boundaries, as is typical in many liquid metal Couette experiments, a global drive is implemented. A large radial current is drawn across a small axial field generating torque across the whole profile. This global electrically driven flow is capable of producing profiles similar to Keplerian flow. PCX-U has been purposely constructed for MRI experiments, while similar experiments on the WiPAL device show the versatility of the user facility and provide a larger plasma volume. Numerical calculations show the predicted parameter spaces for exciting the MRI in these plasmas and the equilibrium flow profiles expected. In both devices, relevant MRI parameters appear to be within reach of typical operating characteristics.

  17. Motion correction in MRI of the brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godenschweger, F.; Kägebein, U.; Stucht, D.; Yarach, U.; Sciarra, A.; Yakupov, R.; Lüsebrink, F.; Schulze, P.; Speck, O.

    2016-03-01

    Subject motion in MRI is a relevant problem in the daily clinical routine as well as in scientific studies. Since the beginning of clinical use of MRI, many research groups have developed methods to suppress or correct motion artefacts. This review focuses on rigid body motion correction of head and brain MRI and its application in diagnosis and research. It explains the sources and types of motion and related artefacts, classifies and describes existing techniques for motion detection, compensation and correction and lists established and experimental approaches. Retrospective motion correction modifies the MR image data during the reconstruction, while prospective motion correction performs an adaptive update of the data acquisition. Differences, benefits and drawbacks of different motion correction methods are discussed.

  18. Segmentation of human brain using structural MRI.

    PubMed

    Helms, Gunther

    2016-04-01

    Segmentation of human brain using structural MRI is a key step of processing in imaging neuroscience. The methods have undergone a rapid development in the past two decades and are now widely available. This non-technical review aims at providing an overview and basic understanding of the most common software. Starting with the basis of structural MRI contrast in brain and imaging protocols, the concepts of voxel-based and surface-based segmentation are discussed. Special emphasis is given to the typical contrast features and morphological constraints of cortical and sub-cortical grey matter. In addition to the use for voxel-based morphometry, basic applications in quantitative MRI, cortical thickness estimations, and atrophy measurements as well as assignment of cortical regions and deep brain nuclei are briefly discussed. Finally, some fields for clinical applications are given.

  19. Uterine cirsoid aneurysm: MRI and MRA

    SciTech Connect

    Joja, Ikuo; Asakawa, Mari; Motoyama, Kazumi

    1996-03-01

    Uterine cirsoid aneurysm is uncommon. It is important to make a diagnosis of this disease preoperatively, because repeated curettages may induce life-threatening massive genital bleeding. We present a case of a 51-year-old woman with uterine cirsoid aneurysm in whom MRI and MRA were very useful for the preoperative diagnosis. The radiologic appearances on ultrasonography, CT, conventional SE MRI, MRA, dynamic MRI, and pelvic angiography are presented. Conventional SE T1-weighted and T2-weighted images demonstrated multiple flow voids in the uterus and bilateral adnexal regions. MRA demonstrated a cluster of distinct, tortuous, and coiled vascular channels in the pelvis. MRA could obtain images almost equal to angiography and was considered to be an excellent noninvasive imaging technique for the diagnosis of uterine cirsoid aneurysm. 28 refs., 7 figs

  20. Convection-enhanced delivery improves MRI visualization of basal ganglia for stereotactic surgery.

    PubMed

    Bond, Aaron E; Dallapiazza, Robert F; Lopes, M Beatriz; Elias, W Jeffrey

    2016-11-01

    OBJECTIVE Stereotactic deep brain stimulation surgery is most commonly performed while patients are awake. This allows for intraoperative clinical assessment and electrophysiological target verification, thereby promoting favorable outcomes with few side effects. Intraoperative CT and MRI have challenged this concept of clinical treatment validation. Image-guided surgery is capable of delivering electrodes precisely to a planned, stereotactic target; however, these methods can be limited by low anatomical resolution even with sophisticated MRI modalities. The authors are developing a novel method using convection-enhanced delivery to safely manipulate the extracellular space surrounding common anatomical targets for surgery. By altering the extracellular content of deep subcortical structures and their associated white matter tracts, the MRI visualization of the basal ganglia can be improved to better define the anatomy. This technique could greatly improve the accuracy and success of stereotactic surgery, potentially eliminating the reliance on awake surgery. METHODS Observations were made in the clinical setting where vasogenic and cytotoxic edema improved the MRI visualization of the basal ganglia. These findings were replicated in the experimental setting using an FDA-approved intracerebral catheter that was stereotactically inserted into the thalamus or basal ganglia of 7 swine. Five swine were infused with normal saline, and 2 were infused with autologous CSF. Flow rates varied between 1 μl/min to 6 μl/min to achieve convective distributions. Concurrent MRI was performed at 15-minute intervals to monitor the volume of infusion and observe the imaging changes of the deep subcortical structures. The animals were then clinically observed, and necropsy was performed within 48 hours, 1 week, or 1 month for histological analysis. RESULTS In all animals, the white matter tracts became hyperintense on T2-weighted imaging as compared with basal ganglia nuclei

  1. Phantom-based investigation of nonrigid registration constraints in mapping fMRI to anatomical MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Studholme, Colin; Constable, R. Todd; Duncan, James S.

    2000-06-01

    In previous work we have introduced an approach to improving the registration of EPI fMRI data with anatomical MRI by accounting for differences in magnetic field induced geometric distortion in the two types of MRI acquisition. In particular we began to explore the use of imaging physics based constraints in a non-rigid multi-modality registration algorithm. In this paper we present phantom based experimental work examining the behavior of different non-rigid registration constraints compared to a field map acquisition of the MRI distortion. This acquisition provides a pixel by pixel 'ground truth' estimate of the displacement field within the EPI data. In our registration based approach we employ a B-spline based estimate of the relative geometric distortion with a multi-grid optimization scheme. We maximize the normalized mutual information between the two types of MRI scans to estimate the B-Spline parameters. Using the field map estimates as a gold standard, registration estimates using no additional geometric constraints are compared to those using the spin echo based signal conservation. We also examine the use of logarithmic EPI values in the criteria to provide additional sensitivity in areas of low signal. Results indicate that registration of EPI to conventional MRI incorporating a spin echo distortion model can provide comparable estimates of geometric distortion to those from field mapping data without the need for significant additional acquisitions during each fMRI sequence.

  2. High Prevalence of Superior Labral Tears Diagnosed by MRI in Middle-Aged Patients With Asymptomatic Shoulders

    PubMed Central

    Schwartzberg, Randy; Reuss, Bryan L.; Burkhart, Bradd G.; Butterfield, Matt; Wu, James Y.; McLean, Kevin W.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The incidence of superior labral surgery has increased in the past decade in the United States, and a contributing factor could be an increased rate of superior labral tears diagnosed with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Prior MRI studies of the asymptomatic shoulder have focused on rotator cuff pathology or pathology in a narrow and specific group of athletes. Labral abnormalities have not previously been thoroughly evaluated in asymptomatic middle-aged individuals. Purpose: To evaluate the prevalence of superior labral tears diagnosed by MRI in the asymptomatic shoulders of middle-aged people (age range, 45-60 years). Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: A total of 53 asymptomatic adults (age range, 45-60 years) with no history of surgery or injury to either shoulder were included in the study. Physical examinations of all shoulders were performed. Noncontrast MRI (1.5 T) was performed in 1 randomly determined shoulder of each subject. Two fellowship-trained musculoskeletal radiologists who were blinded to the purpose of the study and ages of the subjects evaluated each MRI. Results: Radiologists interpreted the MRIs as consistent with superior labral tears in 55% and 72% of the cohort. Comparison of the radiological evaluations of the superior labra were moderate (κ = 0.410, P = .033). There were no differences in readings for superior labral tear regarding age (P = .87), sex (P = .41), whether the dominant shoulder underwent MRI (P = .99), whether the subject worked a physical job (P = .08), or whether the subject participated in overhead sports for a period of 1 year (P = .62). Conclusion: Superior labral tears are diagnosed with high frequency using MRI in 45- to 60-year-old individuals with asymptomatic shoulders. These shoulder MRI findings in middle-aged populations emphasize the need for supporting clinical judgment when making treatment decisions for this patient population. Clinical Relevance: To avoid

  3. Consecutive Case Series of Healed Single-Molar Sites Immediately Restored with Wide-Diameter Implants: A 1-Year Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Cherfane, Pierre; Sojod, Bouchra

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. To evaluate outcomes of wide-diameter (6 mm) implants immediately provisionalized with cement-retained single crowns in posterior molar sites. Materials and Methods. Forty-eight consecutive patients received a total of 53 moderately rough-surface, 6 mm diameter implants in healed sites. All implants were immediately provisionalized with a cement-retained provisional crown. Final prosthesis with cement-retained porcelain fused to metal crowns was delivered 3–6 months later. Patients were followed up for 1 year. Outcome measures were implant failures and success rate, complications, marginal bone levels, bone level changes, papilla index, bleeding on probing, and inflammation. Results. One patient was lost to follow-up. At one year, the implant survival and success rate were 98.1%. The mean marginal bone loss after 1 year was −0.17 ± 1.84 mm. Ideal papilla score was recorded at 83.8% of the sites. More than 95.6% of the sites showed no bleeding or inflammation. No procedure-related or device-related adverse events were reported. Conclusion. Wide-diameter (6 mm) implants can safely and successfully replace single posterior molars. Longer follow-up studies are necessary to evaluate the long-term success of these implants. PMID:27195008

  4. Residential treatment for homeless female veterans with psychiatric and substance use disorders: effect on 1-year clinical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Harpaz-Rotem, Ilan; Rosenheck, Robert A; Desai, Rani

    2011-01-01

    Limited evidence shows that time-limited residential treatment (RT) is beneficial for homeless people with serious mental illness. The Department of Veterans Affairs has established 11 specialty programs for homeless female veterans. We present data comparing 1-year clinical outcomes in a group of veterans who did and did not receive at least 30 days of RT. Clients of the Homeless Women Veterans Programs were invited to participate in a follow-up study. They were interviewed every 3 months for 1 year. Those who received at least 30 days of RT in the 3 months after program entry (RT group) were compared with other program participants (no or <30 days RT [NRT] group) on measures of community functioning, psychiatric symptoms, and drug and alcohol use during the follow-up. The RT group had better outcomes on employment, social support, housing status, and psychiatric symptoms. They also had significantly increased use of drugs and alcohol compared with the NRT group. Data suggest that RT may have a beneficial effect on mental health outcomes in homeless women. This study, in conjunction with others, suggests that provision of stable housing may be an important element of recovery for homeless women with psychiatric problems, excluding substance use.

  5. Working Memory Deficit as a Risk Factor for Severe Apathy in Schizophrenia: A 1-Year Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Raffard, Stéphane; Gutierrez, Laure-Anne; Yazbek, Hanan; Larue, Aurore; Boulenger, Jean-Philippe; Lançon, Christophe; Benoit, Michel; Faget, Catherine; Norton, Joanna; Capdevielle, Delphine

    2016-05-01

    Apathy, described as impaired motivation and goal-directed behavior, is a common yet often overlooked multidimensional psychopathological state in schizophrenia. Its underlying cognitive processes remain largely unexplored. Data was drawn from a longitudinal hospital study of patients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia; 137 (82.5%) participated at the 1-month follow-up and 81 (59.1%) at the 1-year follow-up. Apathy was assessed with the Lille Apathy Rating Scale, validated in French and in schizophrenia. Severe apathy, overall (total score > -13) and on 4 previously identified distinct dimensions, was considered. Episodic verbal learning was assessed with the California Verbal Learning Test, executive functioning with the Trail Making Test, the Six Element Test and the Stop Signal Paradigm and working memory with the Letter-Number Sequencing Test. After controlling for confounding variables, only episodic verbal learning was associated with severe overall apathy in the cross-sectional study. At 1 year, working memory was associated with an increased risk of severe overall apathy, adjusting for baseline apathy. Using a dimensional approach to apathy, specific types of cognition were found to be associated with specific dimensions of apathy. Our findings confirm the need for a multidimensional approach of negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Moreover, cognitive functioning could be a risk factor for developing severe apathy. Cognitive remediation may thus be a useful non-pharmacological intervention for treating apathy in schizophrenia patients.

  6. Bone mineral density at diagnosis of celiac disease and after 1 year of gluten-free diet.

    PubMed

    Pantaleoni, Stefano; Luchino, Massimo; Adriani, Alessandro; Pellicano, Rinaldo; Stradella, Davide; Ribaldone, Davide Giuseppe; Sapone, Nicoletta; Isaia, Gian Carlo; Di Stefano, Marco; Astegiano, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Atypical or silent celiac disease may go undiagnosed for many years and can frequently lead to loss of bone mineral density, with evolution to osteopenia or osteoporosis. The prevalence of the latter conditions, in case of new diagnosis of celiac disease, has been evaluated in many studies but, due to the variability of epidemiologic data and patient features, the results are contradictory. The aim of this study was to evaluate bone mineral density by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in 175 consecutive celiac patients at time of diagnosis (169 per-protocol, 23 males, 146 females; average age 38.9 years). Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was repeated after 1 year of gluten-free diet in those with T-score value <-1 at diagnosis. Stratification of patients according to sex and age showed a higher prevalence of low bone mineral density in men older than 30 years and in women of all ages. A 1-year gluten-free diet led to a significant improvement in lumbar spine and femoral neck mean T-score value. We propose that dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry should be performed at diagnosis of celiac disease in all women and in male aged >30 years, taking into account each risk factor in single patients.

  7. Use of the AngioSculpt scoring balloon for infrapopliteal lesions in patients with critical limb ischemia: 1-year outcome.

    PubMed

    Bosiers, Marc; Deloose, Koen; Cagiannos, Catherine; Verbist, Jürgen; Peeters, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    The AngioSculpt Scoring Balloon Catheter (AngioScore, Inc., Fremont, CA) is composed of a semicompliant balloon encircled by three nitinol spiral struts providing targeted lesion scoring on balloon inflation. Between April 2005 and April 2006, procedural and follow-up data on 31 patients (mean age 76 years; 54.8% males) endovascularly treated for severe infrapopliteal disease were collected. The AngioSculpt catheter was used to treat 36 complex, tibioperoneal, atherosclerotic lesions. All patients had symptomatic critical limb ischemia (Rutherford 4-5) and single-vessel runoff to the ankle. Complication-free survival at 1 month was the safety end point, whereas primary patency and limb salvage were the efficacy end points evaluated at 1 year. The AngioSculpt balloon was successfully inflated in all 36 target lesions. Eleven patients (35.5%) required additional stenting for minor dissections or suboptimal stenosis reduction. The 1-month complication-free survival was 96.8%. One-year survival, primary patency, and limb salvage rates were 83.9 +/- 6.6%, 61.0 +/- 9.3%, and 86.3 +/- 6.4%, respectively. The 1-year data show the AngioSculpt Scoring Balloon Catheter to be an effective and safe treatment for infrapopliteal, atherosclerotic lesions in patients with critical limb ischemia. However, more patients, a longer follow-up, and randomized studies comparing it with conventional balloon angioplasty and stenting in the infrapopliteal region are required.

  8. Cognitive function, social functioning and quality of life in first-episode psychosis: A 1-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Popolo, Raffaele; Vinci, Giancarlo; Balbi, Andrea

    2010-03-01

    Abstract Objective. The majority of patients with schizophrenia have cognitive deficits early in the disease. We evaluated the relationship between cognitive function, social functioning and quality of life in patients with first-episode psychosis. Methods. This was a longitudinal study in 15 patients aged 18-30 years who had recently experienced a first psychotic episode and were treated with the atypical antipsychotic aripiprazole, cognitive-behavioural therapy, psycho-educational sessions, family supportive sessions and social interventions. Patients were evaluated at baseline and after 1 year. Cognitive assessment included attention, memory, language skills and problem solving. Social functioning, quality of life, and psychopathological evaluation were performed with validated tools. Results. At baseline, patients had a severe impairment of social functioning and a low quality of life, while a specific pattern of cognitive functions was not identified. After 1-year, we observed a significant improvement in social functioning and quality of life, without a significant decrease in cognitive function. Conclusion. Contrary to previous findings, we found that social functioning and quality of life are related, but independent of cognitive impairment. The use of antipsychotic agents that do not interefere with cognitive function plus psychological assistance is a valuable treatment approach in patients with first-episode schizophrenia.

  9. MRI of knee ligament injury and reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Farshad-Amacker, Nadja A; Potter, Hollis G

    2013-10-01

    Knee ligament instability may lead to meniscal and chondral damage, resulting in early osteoarthritis. Due to its superior soft tissue contrast and avoidance of harmful ionizing radiation, MRI has become the most important imaging modality for early recognition of structural defects of the knee joint. This review aims to the understanding of MRI appearances of knee ligament structures associated with knee instability, and to review the common patterns of altered knee mechanics that lead to ligament failure. Normal anatomy of the knee ligaments, pathologic conditions, and postsurgical appearances of the anterior cruciate ligament, posterior cruciate ligament, medial collateral ligament, and posterolateral corner are described.

  10. Stem Cell Therapy: MRI Guidance and Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Kraitchman, Dara L.; Gilson, Wesley D.; Lorenz, Christine H.

    2011-01-01

    With the recent advances in magnetic resonance (MR) labeling of cellular therapeutics, it is natural that interventional MRI techniques for targeting would be developed. This review provides an overview of the current methods of stem cell labeling and the challenges that are created with respect to interventional MRI administration. In particular, stem cell therapies will require specialized, MR-compatible devices as well as integration of graphical user interfaces with pulse sequences designed for interactive, real-time delivery in many organs. Specific applications that are being developed will be reviewed as well as strategies for future translation to the clinical realm. PMID:18219684

  11. Practical MRI atlas of neonatal brain development

    SciTech Connect

    Barkovich, A.J.; Truwit, C.L.

    1990-01-01

    This book is an anatomical reference for cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies in neonates and infants. It contains 122 clear, sharp MRI scans and drawings showing changes in the normal appearance of the brain and skull during development. Sections of the atlas depict the major processes of maturation: brain myelination, development of the corpus callosum, development of the cranial bone marrow, and iron deposition in the brain. High-quality scans illustrate how these changes appear on magnetic resonance images during various stages of development.

  12. Mesentery neurilemmoma: CT, MRI and angiographic findings.

    PubMed

    Lao, Wilson T; Yang, Shih-Hung; Chen, Chi-Long; Chan, Wing P

    2011-01-01

    Mesenteric neurilemmoma is extremely rare. We present a case of a 45-year-old man with mesenteric neurilemmoma, with CT, MRI and angiographic findings. The patient was healthy and had had no symptoms previously. CT and MRI images revealed a 2.2-cm well-defined, soft-tissue mass adjacent to the posterior border of the left lobe of the liver. The tumor mass displayed a heterogenous low signal on T2-weighted image and peripheral enhancement after gadolinium administration. Angiography showed a hypervascular mass beneath the tail of pancreas, which was supplied by small branches of middle splenic artery. Histopathology revealed a mesentery neurilemmoma composed of spindle tumor cells.

  13. In vitro MRI of brain development.

    PubMed

    Rados, Marko; Judas, Milos; Kostović, Ivica

    2006-02-01

    In this review, we demonstrate the developmental appearance, structural features, and reorganization of transient cerebral zones and structures in the human fetal brain using a correlative histological and MRI analysis. The analysis of postmortem aldehyde-fixed specimens (age range: 10 postovulatory weeks to term) revealed that, at 10 postovulatory weeks, the cerebral wall already has a trilaminar appearance and consists of: (1) a ventricular zone of high cell-packing density; (2) an intermediate zone; (3) the cortical plate (in a stage of primary consolidation) with high MRI signal intensity. The anlage of the hippocampus is present as a prominent bulging in the thin limbic telencephalon. The early fetal telencephalon impar also contains the first commissural fibers and fornix bundles in the septal area. The ganglionic eminence is clearly visible as an expanded continuation of the proliferative ventricular zone. The basal ganglia showed an initial aggregation of cells. The most massive fiber system is in the hemispheric stalk, which is in continuity with thalamocortical fibers. During the mid-fetal period (15-22 postovulatory weeks), the typical fetal lamination pattern develops and the cerebral wall consists of the following zones: (a) a marginal zone (visible on MRI exclusively in the hippocampus); (b) the cortical plate with high cell-packing density and high MRI signal intensity; (c) the subplate zone, which is the most prominent zone rich in extracellular matrix and with a very low MRI signal intensity; (d) the intermediate zone (fetal "white matter"); (e) the subventricular zone; (f) the periventricular fiber-rich zone; (g) the ventricular zone. The ganglionic eminence is still a very prominent structure with an intense proliferative activity. During the next period (22-26 postovulatory weeks), there is the developmental peak of transient MRI features, caused by the high content of hydrophyllic extracellular matrix in the subplate zone and the accumulation

  14. Antiviral efficacy of disinfectant solution MRI-1.

    PubMed

    Skinner, G R; Billstrom, M; Randall, S; Buchan, A; Davies, J; Ahmad, A

    1998-01-01

    Disinfectant MRI-1 was prepared by dissolution of non-ionic and ionic detergent in ethanol. The disinfectant inactivated extracellular and intracellular enveloped and non-enveloped viruses including herpes viruses, influenza A and human immunodeficiency disease virus in suspension or on surfaces by pre-exposure or post-exposure to the disinfectant; in addition, cells were disabled as potential hosts for viral infection using concentrations of MRI-1 which were 50-fold less than the operative concentration for disinfection. There was no evidence of in vitro mutagenicity using Salmonella typhimurium or sensitization or other adverse effect in a guinea pig model or in human subjects.

  15. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): Lumbar Spine (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... If You Have Questions en español Resonancia magnética: columna lumbar What It Is Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) ... MORE ON THIS TOPIC Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): Cervical Spine Lumbar Puncture (Spinal Tap) Magnetic Resonance Imaging ( ...

  16. PET/MRI and PET/MRI/SISCOM coregistration in the presurgical evaluation of refractory focal epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Fernández, S; Donaire, A; Serès, E; Setoain, X; Bargalló, N; Falcón, C; Sanmartí, F; Maestro, I; Rumià, J; Pintor, L; Boget, T; Aparicio, J; Carreño, M

    2015-03-01

    We aimed to investigate the usefulness of coregistration of positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings (PET/MRI) and of coregistration of PET/MRI with subtraction ictal single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) coregistered to MRI (SISCOM) (PET/MRI/SISCOM) in localizing the potential epileptogenic zone in patients with drug-resistant epilepsy. We prospectively included 35 consecutive patients with refractory focal epilepsy whose presurgical evaluation included a PET study. Separately acquired PET and structural MRI images were coregistered for each patient. When possible, ictal SPECT and SISCOM were obtained and coregistered with PET/MRI. The potential location of the epileptogenic zone determined by neuroimaging was compared with the seizure onset zone determined by long-term video-EEG monitoring and with invasive EEG studies in patients who were implanted. Structural MRI showed no lesions in 15 patients. In these patients, PET/MRI coregistration showed a hypometabolic area in 12 (80%) patients that was concordant with seizure onset zone on EEG in 9. In 7 patients without MRI lesions, PET/MRI detected a hypometabolism that was undetected on PET alone. SISCOM, obtained in 25 patients, showed an area of hyperperfusion concordant with the seizure onset zone on EEG in 7 (58%) of the 12 of these patients who had normal MRI findings. SISCOM hyperperfusion was less extensive than PET hypometabolism. A total of 19 patients underwent surgery; 11 of these underwent invasive-EEG monitoring and the seizure onset zone was concordant with PET/MRI in all cases. PET/MRI/SISCOM coregistration, performed in 4 of these patients, was concordant in 3 (75%). After epilepsy surgery, 13 (68%) patients are seizure-free after a mean follow-up of 4.5 years. PET/MRI and PET/MRI/SISCOM coregistration are useful for determining the potential epileptogenic zone and thus for planning invasive EEG studies and surgery more precisely, especially in

  17. Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI of Cervical Cancers: Temporal Percentile Screening of Contrast Enhancement Identifies Parameters for Prediction of Chemoradioresistance

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, Erlend K.F.; Hole, Knut Hakon; Lund, Kjersti V.; Sundfor, Kolbein; Kristensen, Gunnar B.; Lyng, Heidi; Malinen, Eirik

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To systematically screen the tumor contrast enhancement of locally advanced cervical cancers to assess the prognostic value of two descriptive parameters derived from dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). Methods and Materials: This study included a prospectively collected cohort of 81 patients who underwent DCE-MRI with gadopentetate dimeglumine before chemoradiotherapy. The following descriptive DCE-MRI parameters were extracted voxel by voxel and presented as histograms for each time point in the dynamic series: normalized relative signal increase (nRSI) and normalized area under the curve (nAUC). The first to 100th percentiles of the histograms were included in a log-rank survival test, resulting in p value and relative risk maps of all percentile-time intervals for each DCE-MRI parameter. The maps were used to evaluate the robustness of the individual percentile-time pairs and to construct prognostic parameters. Clinical endpoints were locoregional control and progression-free survival. The study was approved by the institutional ethics committee. Results: The p value maps of nRSI and nAUC showed a large continuous region of percentile-time pairs that were significantly associated with locoregional control (p < 0.05). These parameters had prognostic impact independent of tumor stage, volume, and lymph node status on multivariate analysis. Only a small percentile-time interval of nRSI was associated with progression-free survival. Conclusions: The percentile-time screening identified DCE-MRI parameters that predict long-term locoregional control after chemoradiotherapy of cervical cancer.

  18. Alternative Confidence Interval Methods Used in the Diagnostic Accuracy Studies.

    PubMed

    Erdoğan, Semra; Gülhan, Orekıcı Temel

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim. It is necessary to decide whether the newly improved methods are better than the standard or reference test or not. To decide whether the new diagnostics test is better than the gold standard test/imperfect standard test, the differences of estimated sensitivity/specificity are calculated with the help of information obtained from samples. However, to generalize this value to the population, it should be given with the confidence intervals. The aim of this study is to evaluate the confidence interval methods developed for the differences between the two dependent sensitivity/specificity values on a clinical application. Materials and Methods. In this study, confidence interval methods like Asymptotic Intervals, Conditional Intervals, Unconditional Interval, Score Intervals, and Nonparametric Methods Based on Relative Effects Intervals are used. Besides, as clinical application, data used in diagnostics study by Dickel et al. (2010) has been taken as a sample. Results. The results belonging to the alternative confidence interval methods for Nickel Sulfate, Potassium Dichromate, and Lanolin Alcohol are given as a table. Conclusion. While preferring the confidence interval methods, the researchers have to consider whether the case to be compared is single ratio or dependent binary ratio differences, the correlation coefficient between the rates in two dependent ratios and the sample sizes.

  19. Tuning for temporal interval in human apparent motion detection.

    PubMed

    Bours, Roger J E; Stuur, Sanne; Lankheet, Martin J M

    2007-01-08

    Detection of apparent motion in random dot patterns requires correlation across time and space. It has been difficult to study the temporal requirements for the correlation step because motion detection also depends on temporal filtering preceding correlation and on integration at the next levels. To specifically study tuning for temporal interval in the correlation step, we performed an experiment in which prefiltering and postintegration were held constant and in which we used a motion stimulus containing coherent motion for a single interval value only. The stimulus consisted of a sparse random dot pattern in which each dot was presented in two frames only, separated by a specified interval. On each frame, half of the dots were refreshed and the other half was a displaced reincarnation of the pattern generated one or several frames earlier. Motion energy statistics in such a stimulus do not vary from frame to frame, and the directional bias in spatiotemporal correlations is similar for different interval settings. We measured coherence thresholds for left-right direction discrimination by varying motion coherence levels in a Quest staircase procedure, as a function of both step size and interval. Results show that highest sensitivity was found for an interval of 17-42 ms, irrespective of viewing distance. The falloff at longer intervals was much sharper than previously described. Tuning for temporal interval was largely, but not completely, independent of step size. The optimal temporal interval slightly decreased with increasing step size. Similarly, the optimal step size decreased with increasing temporal interval.

  20. PET MRI Coregistration in Intractable Epilepsy and Gray Matter Heterotopia.

    PubMed

    Seniaray, Nikhil; Jain, Anuj

    2017-03-01

    A 25-year-old woman with intractable seizures underwent FDG PET/MRI for seizure focus localization. MRI demonstrated bilateral carpetlike nodular subependymal gray matter and asymmetrical focal dilatation in the right temporal horn. PET/MRI showed increased FDG within subependymal gray matter with significant hypometabolism in right anterior temporal lobe. EEG and ictal semiology confirmed the right temporal seizure origin. This case highlights the importance of identification of gray matter heterotopia on FDG PET/MRI.