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Sample records for 1-year local control

  1. Early Neuropsychological Tests as Correlates of Productivity 1 Year after Traumatic Brain Injury: A Preliminary Matched Case-Control Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryu, Won Hyung A.; Cullen, Nora K.; Bayley, Mark T.

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the relative strength of five neuropsychological tests in correlating with productivity 1 year after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Six moderate-to-severe TBI patients who returned to work at 1-year post-injury were matched with six controls who were unemployed after 1 year based on age, severity of injury, and Functional…

  2. Zonisamide for Weight Reduction in Obese Adults A 1-Year Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gadde, Kishore M.; Kopping, Mariko F.; Wagner, H. Ryan; Yonish, Gretchen M.; Allison, David B.; Bray, George A.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Background Obese individuals who have failed to achieve adequate weight loss with lifestyle changes have limited non-surgical therapeutic options. We evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of zonisamide, an antiepileptic drug, for enhancing weight loss in obese patients receiving diet and lifestyle guidance. Methods This was a 1-year randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted between January 2006 and September 2011 at Duke University Medical Center. Patients were 225 obese (mean [SD] body mass index 37.6 [4.9]) women (134 [59.6%]) and men (91 [40.4%]) without diabetes. Interventions were daily dosing with placebo (n=74), zonisamide 200 mg (n=76), orzonisamide 400 mg (n=75), in addition to diet and lifestyle counseling by a dietitian for 1 year. Primary outcome was change in body weight at 1-year. Results Of the 225 randomized patients, 218 (97%) provided 1-year follow-up assessments. Change(least-squares mean) in body weight was -4.0 kg (−3.7%; 95% CI, −5.8 kg to −2.3 kg) for placebo, −4.4 kg (−3.9%; −6.1 to −2.6, P=.79vs placebo) for zonisamide 200 mg, and −7.3 kg (−6.8%; −9.0 to −5.6, P=.009vs placebo) for zonisamide 400 mg. In the categorical analysis,23 (31%) on placebo, 26 (34%; P=.71) on zonisamide 200 mg, and 41 (55%; P=.007) onzonisamide 400 mg achieved ≥5% weight loss; for ≥10% weight loss, the corresponding numbers were 6 (8%), 17 (22%; P=.022), and 24 (32%; P=.001). Gastrointestinal, nervous system and psychiatric adverse events occurred at a higher incidence with zonisamide than with placebo. Conclusion Zonisamide 400 mg/d moderately enhanced weight loss achieved with diet and lifestyle counseling, but had a high incidence of adverse events. PMID:23147455

  3. Safety and efficacy of nurse-controlled analgesia in patients less than 1 year of age

    PubMed Central

    Walia, Hina; Tumin, Dmitry; Wrona, Sharon; Martin, David; Bhalla, Tarun; Tobias, Joseph D

    2016-01-01

    Background The management of acute pain presents unique challenges in the younger pediatric population. Although patient-controlled devices are frequently used in patients ≥6 years of age, alternative modes of analgesic delivery are needed in infants. Objective To examine the safety and efficacy of nurse-controlled analgesia (NCA) in neonates less than 1 year of age. Methods Data from patients <1 year of age receiving NCA as ordered by the Acute Pain Service at our institution were collected over a 5-year period and reviewed retrospectively. The primary outcomes were activation of the institution’s Rapid Response Team (RRT) or Code Blue, signifying severe adverse events. Pain score after NCA initiation was a secondary outcome. Results Among 338 girls and 431 boys, the most common opioid used for NCA was fentanyl, followed by morphine and hydromorphone. There were 39 (5%) cases involving RRT or Code Blue activation, of which only one (Code Blue) was activated due to a complication of NCA (apnea). Multivariable logistic regression demonstrated morphine NCA to be associated with greater odds of RRT activation (OR=3.29, 95% CI=1.35, 8.03, P=0.009) compared to fentanyl NCA. There were no statistically significant differences in pain scores after NCA initiation across NCA agents. Conclusion NCA is safe in neonates and infants, with comparable efficacy demonstrated for the three agents used. The elevated incidence of RRT activation in patients receiving morphine suggests caution in its use and consideration of alternative agents in this population. PMID:27358574

  4. Evaluation of orthodontic treatment after 1 year of retention--a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Edman Tynelius, G; Bondemark, L; Lilja-Karlander, E

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to use a randomized controlled trial methodology to evaluate and compare three different retention methods. The capacity of the retention methods to retain orthodontic treatment results was in this first phase analysed on a short-term basis, i.e. after 1 year of retention. The subjects were recruited from adolescents undergoing fixed appliance treatment at an orthodontic clinic in the National Health Service (NHS) in Sweden between 2001 and 2007. Seventy-five patients (45 girls and 30 boys with a mean age of 14.4 years at the start of retention) were randomized into three retention systems; a vacuum-formed retainer in the maxilla and bonded canine-to-canine retainer in the mandible (group V-CTC), a vacuum-formed retainer in the maxilla combined with stripping of the 10 proximal surfaces of the lower mandibular anterior teeth (group V-S), and a prefabricated positioner covering the teeth in the maxilla and mandible (group P). The main outcome measures were: Little's irregularity index (LII), intercanine and intermolar width, arch length, overjet, and overbite. Registrations were made before orthodontic treatment, when the fixed orthodontic appliance was removed, and after 12 months in retention. Differences in means between groups were tested by one-way analysis of variance. After 1 year of retention, no clinically significant difference in retention capacity was found between the three retention methods. Small but significant differences (P < 0.05) were observed between the V-CTC and V-S groups regarding mandibular canine width, mandibular arch length, and overbite. In group P, two patients failed to co-operate.

  5. Local control stations

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, W.S.; Higgins, J.C.; Wachtel, J.A.

    1993-05-01

    This paper describes research concerning the effects of human engineering design at local control stations (i.e., operator interfaces located outside the control room) on human performance and plant safety. The research considered both multifunction panels (e.g. remote shutdown panels) as well as single-function interfaces (e.g., valves, breakers, gauges, etc.). Changes in performance shaping factors associated with variations in human engineering at LCSs were estimated based on expert opinion. By means of a scaling procedure, these estimates were used to modify the human error probabilities in a PRA model, which was then employed to generate estimates of plant risk and scoping-level value/impact ratios for various human engineering upgrades. Recent documentation of human engineering deficiencies at single-function LCSs was also reviewed, and an assessment of the current status of LCSs with respect to human engineering was conducted.

  6. Randomized Controlled Trial of the Focus Parent Training for Toddlers with Autism: 1-Year Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oosterling, Iris; Visser, Janne; Swinkels, Sophie; Rommelse, Nanda; Donders, Rogier; Woudenberg, Tim; Roos, Sascha; van der Gaag, Rutger Jan; Buitelaar, Jan

    2010-01-01

    This randomized controlled trial compared results obtained after 12 months of nonintensive parent training plus care-as-usual and care-as-usual alone. The training focused on stimulating joint attention and language skills and was based on the intervention described by Drew et al. (Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatr 11:266-272, 2002). Seventy-five…

  7. Aging in Sweden: local variation, local control.

    PubMed

    Davey, Adam; Malmberg, Bo; Sundström, Gerdt

    2014-08-01

    Aging in Sweden has been uniquely shaped by its history-most notably the long tradition of locally controlled services for older adults. We considered how local variations and local control shape the experience of aging in Sweden and organized the paper into 3 sections. First, we examine aging in Sweden along demography, economy, and housing. Next, we trace the origins and development of the Swedish welfare state to consider formal supports (service provision) and informal supports (caregiving and receipt of care). Finally, we direct researchers to additional data resources for understanding aging in Sweden in greater depth. Sweden was one of the first countries to experience rapid population aging. Quality of life for a majority of older Swedes is high. Local control permits a flexible and adaptive set of services and programs, where emphasis is placed on improving the quality and targeting of services that have already reached a plateau as a function of population and expenditures.

  8. Randomized controlled trial of the focus parent training for toddlers with autism: 1-year outcome.

    PubMed

    Oosterling, Iris; Visser, Janne; Swinkels, Sophie; Rommelse, Nanda; Donders, Rogier; Woudenberg, Tim; Roos, Sascha; van der Gaag, Rutger Jan; Buitelaar, Jan

    2010-12-01

    This randomized controlled trial compared results obtained after 12 months of nonintensive parent training plus care-as-usual and care-as-usual alone. The training focused on stimulating joint attention and language skills and was based on the intervention described by Drew et al. (Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatr 11:266-272, 2002). Seventy-five toddlers with autism spectrum disorder (65 autism, 10 PDD-NOS, mean age = 34.4 months, SD = 6.2) were enrolled. Analyses were conducted on a final sample of 67 children (lost to follow-up = 8). No significant intervention effects were found for any of the primary (language), secondary (global clinical improvement), or mediating (child engagement, early precursors of social communication, or parental skills) outcome variables, suggesting that the 'Focus parent training' was not of additional value to the more general care-as-usual.

  9. Diet in 1-year-old farm and control children and allergy development: results from the FARMFLORA birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    Jonsson, Karin; Green, My; Barman, Malin; Sjöberg, Agneta; Brekke, Hilde K.; Wold, Agnes E.; Sandberg, Ann-Sofie

    2016-01-01

    Background A farming environment confers strong protection against allergy development. We have previously shown that farming mothers consume more full-fat dairy than control mothers, who instead consume more low-fat dairy, margarine, and oils; margarine and oil intake was associated with increased risk of allergy development in their children. Objectives The aims of this study were to investigate the differences in diet between children in farming and control families at 1 year of age, to investigate the relation between the diets of the mothers and their children, and to relate the children's diet to allergy development. Design The diet of 1-year-old children from dairy farming families (n=28) and from control families in the same rural area (n=37) was assessed by 24-h dietary recalls, followed by 24-h food diaries. Allergy was diagnosed by pediatricians at 3 years of age using strict predefined criteria. Results Farm children had a higher intake of farm milk, whole cream, cholesterol, saturated fat, and fat in total and tended to eat more butter, while controls consumed more carbohydrates and poultry and tended to eat more margarine. Farm children also had higher intakes of homemade porridge/gruel, oily fish, and iodine. The intake of butter and whole milk in children and mothers correlated significantly in farm families but not in controls. A weak negative association was found between seafood intake and allergy development, while allergy was positively associated with the intake of pork as well as zinc in the control group; these intakes also correlated with each other. Conclusions Consistent with mothers in farming families, the children consumed more full-fat dairy and saturated fat than did controls, but this could not be linked to the low risk of allergy in the farming group. Seafood intake might protect against allergy development, in accordance with earlier findings. PMID:27534847

  10. Community Control of Local Radio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Peter M.

    This study was designed to determine to what extent local communities control the local radio which serves them, by what formal mechanisms their control is secured, and the underlying assumptions and goals which govern the practice of the professionals who have charge of the facilities. Two British radio stations, BBC Radio Bristol and the…

  11. 1-year follow-up of neurofeedback treatment in adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Bongers, Ilja L.; Popma, Arne; Janssen, Tieme W.P.; van Nieuwenhuizen, Chijs

    2016-01-01

    Background Estimates of the effectiveness of neurofeedback as a treatment for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are mixed. Aims To investigate the long-term additional effects of neurofeedback (NFB) compared with treatment as usual (TAU) for adolescents with ADHD. Method Using a multicentre parallel-randomised controlled trial design, 60 adolescents with a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of ADHD receiving NFB+TAU (n=41) or TAU (n=19) were followed up. Neurofeedback treatment consisted of approximately 37 sessions of theta/sensorimotor rhythm (SMR)-training on the vertex (Cz). Outcome measures included behavioural self-reports and neurocognitive measures. Allocation to the conditions was unmasked. Results At 1-year follow-up, inattention as reported by adolescents was decreased (range ηp2=0.23–0.36, P<0.01) and performance on neurocognitive tasks was faster (range ηp2=0.20–0.67, P<0.005) irrespective of treatment group. Conclusions Overall, NFB+TAU was as effective as TAU. Given the absence of robust additional effects of neurofeedback in the current study, results do not support the use of theta/SMR neurofeedback as a treatment for adolescents with ADHD and comorbid disorders in clinical practice. Declaration of interest None. Copyright and usage © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) licence. PMID:27703763

  12. Effects of lifestyle intervention and meal replacement on glycaemic and body-weight control in Chinese subjects with impaired glucose regulation: a 1-year randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dan-Feng; Sun, Jian-Qin; Chen, Min; Chen, Yan-Qiu; Xie, Hua; Sun, Wei-Jia; Lin, Yi-Fan; Jiang, Jing-Jing; Sun, Wei; Chen, Ai-Fang; Tang, Qian-Ru

    2013-02-14

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the impact of a lifestyle intervention programme, combined with a daily low-glycaemic index meal replacement, on body-weight and glycaemic control in subjects with impaired glucose regulation (IGR). Subjects with IGR were randomly assigned to an intervention group (n 46) and a control group (n 42). Both groups received health counselling at baseline. The intervention group also received a daily meal replacement and intensive lifestyle intervention to promote healthy eating habits during the first 3 months of the study, and follow-up visits performed monthly until the end of the 1-year study. Outcome measurements included changes in plasma glucose, glycated Hb (HbA1c), plasma lipids, body weight, blood pressure and body composition (such as body fat mass and visceral fat area). The results showed that body-weight loss after 1 year was significant in the intervention group compared with the control group (-1·8 (SEM 0·35) v. -0·6 (SEM 0·40) 2·5 kg, P<0·05). The 2 h plasma glucose concentration decreased 1·24 mmol/l in the intervention group and increased 0·85 mmol/l in the control group (P<0·05) compared with their baseline, respectively. A 5 kg body-weight loss at 1 year was associated with a decrease of 1·49 mmol/l in 2 h plasma glucose (P<0·01). The incidence of normal glucose regulation (NGR) in the two groups was significantly different (P=0·001). In conclusion, the combination of regular contact, lifestyle advice and meal replacement is beneficial in promoting IGR to NGR.

  13. A 1-year randomized controlled trial of deferasirox vs deferoxamine for myocardial iron removal in β-thalassemia major (CORDELIA)

    PubMed Central

    Porter, John B.; Piga, Antonio; Lai, Yongrong; El-Beshlawy, Amal; Belhoul, Khawla M.; Elalfy, Mohsen; Yesilipek, Akif; Kilinç, Yurdanur; Lawniczek, Tomasz; Habr, Dany; Weisskopf, Marianne; Zhang, Yiyun; Aydinok, Yesim

    2014-01-01

    Randomized comparison data on the efficacy and safety of deferasirox for myocardial iron removal in transfusion dependent patients are lacking. CORDELIA was a prospective, randomized comparison of deferasirox (target dose 40 mg/kg per day) vs subcutaneous deferoxamine (50-60 mg/kg per day for 5-7 days/week) for myocardial iron removal in 197 β-thalassemia major patients with myocardial siderosis (T2* 6-20 milliseconds) and no signs of cardiac dysfunction (mean age, 19.8 years). Primary objective was to demonstrate noninferiority of deferasirox for myocardial iron removal, assessed by changes in myocardial T2* after 1 year using a per-protocol analysis. Geometric mean (Gmean) myocardial T2* improved with deferasirox from 11.2 milliseconds at baseline to 12.6 milliseconds at 1 year (Gmeans ratio, 1.12) and with deferoxamine (11.6 milliseconds to 12.3 milliseconds; Gmeans ratio, 1.07). The between-arm Gmeans ratio was 1.056 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.998, 1.133). The lower 95% CI boundary was greater than the prespecified margin of 0.9, establishing noninferiority of deferasirox vs deferoxamine (P = .057 for superiority of deferasirox). Left ventricular ejection fraction remained stable in both arms. Frequency of drug-related adverse events was comparable between deferasirox (35.4%) and deferoxamine (30.8%). CORDELIA demonstrated the noninferiority of deferasirox compared with deferoxamine for myocardial iron removal. This trial is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00600938. PMID:24385534

  14. Bactercline®-coated implants: Clinical results up to 1 year after loading from a controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Carinci, Francesco; Grecchi, Emma; Bignozzi, Carlo Alberto; Murmura, Giovanna; Piattelli, Adriano; Scarano, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Background: Titanium dioxide exists in three different crystal lattices, anatase, rutile, and brookite. Anatase coating releases, under ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, free radicals such as ·OH, O2-, HO2-, and H2O2. This potent oxidizing power characteristically results in the lysis of bacteria and other organic substances. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bone response to implants made of titanium alloy or coated with a new combination of anatase and Bactercline® product. Materials and Methods: In the period between July 2009 and June 2010, 26 patients (10 females and 16 males; median age 51 ± 11 years, min. 27 years, max. 72 years) were operated and 62 implants were inserted. Lost fixtures and peri-implant bone resorption were considered as predictors of clinical outcomes. Pearson χ2-test was used. Prosthesis and implant failures, any complications after loading, and peri-implant marginal bone-level changes were assessed by a masked assessor. All patients were followed up to 1 year after loading. Results: No implant was lost. Average bone resorption around implant was 0.33 mm (both for 25 standard and 37 Bactercline-coated implants), and thus no statistical difference was detected. Conclusion: These results shown that no adverse effects on osseo-integration were present. PMID:23814572

  15. Local Control of Blood Flow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifford, Philip S.

    2011-01-01

    Organ blood flow is determined by perfusion pressure and vasomotor tone in the resistance vessels of the organ. Local factors that regulate vasomotor tone include myogenic and metabolic autoregulation, flow-mediated and conducted responses, and vasoactive substances released from red blood cells. The relative importance of each of these factors…

  16. Attitude Control by Localized Outgassing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elleman, D. D.; Wang, T. G.; Croonquist, A.

    1983-01-01

    Attitude control of levitated object achieved by using laser to vaporize selectively sublimate coating. Laser heats material that will sublime or outgas. To obtain torque reaction force vector from subliming material must not pass through center-of-mass of object. Laser provides beam suitable for controlling objects in noncontact manufacturing processes in acoustic levitation chambers.

  17. Automated mapping of hippocampal atrophy in 1-year repeat MRI data from 490 subjects with Alzheimer’s disease, mild cognitive impairment, and elderly controls

    PubMed Central

    Morra, Jonathan H.; Tu, Zhuowen; Apostolova, Liana G.; Green, Amity E.; Avedissian, Christina; Madsen, Sarah K.; Parikshak, Neelroop; Toga, Arthur W.; Jack, Clifford R.; Schuff, Norbert; Weiner, Michael W.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2009-01-01

    As one of the earliest structures to degenerate in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the hippocampus is the target of many studies of factors that influence rates of brain degeneration in the elderly. In one of the largest brain mapping studies to date, we mapped the 3D profile of hippocampal degeneration over time in 490 subjects scanned twice with brain MRI over a 1-year interval (980 scans). We examined baseline and 1-year follow-up scans of 97 AD subjects (49 males/48 females), 148 healthy control subjects (75 males/73 females), and 245 subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI; 160 males/85 females). We used our previously validated automated segmentation method, based on AdaBoost, to create 3D hippocampal surface models in all 980 scans. Hippocampal volume loss rates increased with worsening diagnosis (normal=0.66%/year; MCI=3.12%/year; AD=5.59%/year), and correlated with both baseline and interval changes in Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores and global and sum-of-boxes Clinical Dementia Rating scale (CDR) scores. Surface-based statistical maps visualized a selective profile of ongoing atrophy in all three diagnostic groups. Healthy controls carrying the ApoE4 gene atrophied faster than non-carriers, while more educated controls atrophied more slowly; converters from MCI to AD showed faster atrophy than non-converters. Hippocampal loss rates can be rapidly mapped, and they track cognitive decline closely enough to be used as surrogate markers of Alzheimer’s disease in drug trials. They also reveal genetically greater atrophy in cognitively intact subjects. PMID:19041724

  18. Local control approach to ultrafast electron transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vindel-Zandbergen, Patricia; Meier, Christoph; Sola, Ignacio R.

    2016-10-01

    We study ultrafast electron transfer between separated nuclei using local control theory. By imposing electron ionization and electron transport through the continuum, different local control formulations are used to increase the yield of retrapping the electron at the desired nuclei. The control mechanism is based on impulsive de-excitation. Both symmetric and asymmetric nuclear arrangements are analyzed, as well as the role of the nuclear motion.

  19. Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial of An Athletic Trainer-Directed Spit (Smokeless) Tobacco Intervention for Collegiate Baseball Athletes: Results After 1 Year

    PubMed Central

    Gansky, Stuart A; Ellison, James A; Rudy, Diane; Bergert, Ned; Letendre, Mark A; Nelson, Lisa; Kavanagh, Catherine; Walsh, Margaret M

    2005-01-01

    Context: Athletes in the United States are at high risk for using spit (smokeless) tobacco (ST) and incurring its associated adverse health effects. Objective: To examine whether an athletic trainer-directed ST intervention could decrease initiation and promote cessation of ST use among male collegiate baseball athletes. Design: Stratified, cluster-randomized controlled trial. Setting: Fifty-two California colleges. Patients or Other Participant(s): A total of 883 subjects in 27 intervention colleges and 702 subjects in 25 control colleges participated, as did 48 certified athletic trainers. Intervention(s): For college athletic trainers and associated dental professionals, a 3-hour video conference, and for collegiate athletes, an oral cancer screening with feedback and brief counseling during the preseason health screenings, athletic trainer support for cessation, and a peer-led educational baseball team meeting. Main Outcome Measure(s): The subjects' ST use over 1 year was assessed by self-report. At the end of the study, the certified athletic trainers were mailed a survey assessing their tobacco use and perceptions and behavior related to tobacco control in the athletic environment. We used multivariable logistic regression models for clustered responses (generalized estimating equations) to test the difference between groups in ST-use initiation and cessation and to identify significant overall predictors of noninitiation and cessation of ST use. Results: Of the 1585 athletes recruited, 1248 (78.7%) were followed up at 12 months. In addition, 48 of the 52 athletic trainers (92%) responded to the 1-year follow-up survey. The ST-use initiation (incidence) was 5.1% in intervention colleges and 8.4% in control colleges (generalized estimating equation odds ratio = 0.58, 95% confidence interval = 0.35–0.99). Predictors of ST noninitiation were low lifetime tobacco and monthly alcohol use (odds ratio = 1.98, 95% confidence interval = 1.40– 2.82) and athletic

  20. Effectiveness of Comprehensive Health Education Combining Lifestyle Education and Hot Spa Bathing for Male White-Collar Employees: A Randomized Controlled Trial with 1-Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Kamioka, Hiroharu; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Okada, Shinpei; Kitayuguchi, Jun; Kamada, Masamitsu; Honda, Takuya; Matsui, Yuzuru; Mutoh, Yoshiteru

    2009-01-01

    Background Physical activity is known to prevent obesity and metabolic syndrome in middle-aged and elderly people; however, the effectiveness of a comprehensive health education program for male white-collar employees is uncertain. Methods Forty-three men volunteered to participate in this study and were randomly assigned into 2 groups. The intervention group participated in a 2-hour program comprising comprehensive health education and hot spa bathing, offered once every 2 weeks, in addition to individualized programs once a week, for 24 weeks. The control group received only general health guidance. We compared their lifestyle characteristics and physical and mental health criteria at baseline, immediately after the intervention, and 1 year after the end of the intervention. Results Rates of adherence to individualized programs were 60.0 ± 27.2% and 30.5 ± 29.6% at the end of the intervention and at 1 year after the end of the intervention, respectively. Significant (P < 0.05) interaction of criteria was observed for cluster of differentiation 4+ (CD4+) cells and the ratio of cluster of differentiation 4+ to 8+ (CD4/8) cells, which were used to represent the participants' immunological function. We divided the intervention group into 2 subgroups on the basis of their attendance. Among the resulting 3 groups, significant interaction of criteria was observed for CD4+ and CD4/8 cells. In addition, the high attendance group had the highest CD4+ count and CD4/8 ratio. Conclusions Participants who attended classes and/or performed the supplementary individualized programs tended to maintain their immunological function and to experience a decrease in body fat percentage. However, few effects were noted in participants with poor adherence, even in the intervention group. PMID:19687610

  1. Modifiable risk factors control and its relationship with 1 year outcomes after coronary artery bypass surgery: insights from the REACH registry

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Rajendra H.; Bhatt, Deepak L.; Steg, Ph. Gabriel; Goto, Shinya; Hirsch, Alan T.; Liau, Chiau-Suong; Röther, Joachim; Wilson, Peter W.F.; Richard, Alain-Jean; Eagle, Kim A.; Ohman, E. Magnus

    2008-01-01

    Aims To evaluate the influence of achieving secondary prevention target treatment goals for cardiovascular (CV) risk factors on clinical outcomes in patients with prior coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG). Methods and results Accordingly, we analysed treatment to target goals in patients with prior CABG and atherothrombotic disease or known risk factors (diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, smoking, obesity) enrolled in the global REduction in Atherothrombosis for Continued Health (REACH) Registry, and their association with 1 year outcomes. A total of 13 907 of 68 236 patients (20.4%) in REACH had a history of prior CABG, and 1 year outcomes data were available for 13 207 of these. At baseline <25, 25–<50, 50–<75, and ≥75% risk factors were at goal in 3.7, 12.9, 31.7, and 51.7% of patients, respectively. One-year composite rates of CV death, non-fatal MI, non-fatal stroke were inversely related to the proportion of risk factors at goal at baseline (age, gender, and region adjusted rates 6.1, 5.6, 5.2, and 4.3% of patients with <25, 25–<50, 50–<75, and >75% risk factors at goal, respectively; P for trend 0.059). Conclusion Risk-factor control varied greatly in CABG patients. Although CABG patients are frequently treated with appropriate therapies, these treatments fail to achieve an adequate level of prevention in many. This failure was associated with a trend for worse age-, gender-, and region-adjusted clinical outcomes. Thus, perhaps secondary prevention after CABG needs to focus on more comprehensive modification of risk factors to target goals in the hope of preventing subsequent CV events, and represents an opportunity to improve CV health. PMID:18996953

  2. Control methods for localization of nonlinear waves.

    PubMed

    Porubov, Alexey; Andrievsky, Boris

    2017-03-06

    A general form of a distributed feedback control algorithm based on the speed-gradient method is developed. The goal of the control is to achieve nonlinear wave localization. It is shown by example of the sine-Gordon equation that the generation and further stable propagation of a localized wave solution of a single nonlinear partial differential equation may be obtained independently of the initial conditions. The developed algorithm is extended to coupled nonlinear partial differential equations to obtain consistent localized wave solutions at rather arbitrary initial conditions.This article is part of the themed issue 'Horizons of cybernetical physics'.

  3. Control methods for localization of nonlinear waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porubov, Alexey; Andrievsky, Boris

    2017-03-01

    A general form of a distributed feedback control algorithm based on the speed-gradient method is developed. The goal of the control is to achieve nonlinear wave localization. It is shown by example of the sine-Gordon equation that the generation and further stable propagation of a localized wave solution of a single nonlinear partial differential equation may be obtained independently of the initial conditions. The developed algorithm is extended to coupled nonlinear partial differential equations to obtain consistent localized wave solutions at rather arbitrary initial conditions. This article is part of the themed issue 'Horizons of cybernetical physics'.

  4. Quality of Vitamin K Antagonist Control and 1-Year Outcomes in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation: A Global Perspective from the GARFIELD-AF Registry

    PubMed Central

    Haas, Sylvia; ten Cate, Hugo; Accetta, Gabriele; Angchaisuksiri, Pantep; Bassand, Jean-Pierre; Camm, A. John; Corbalan, Ramon; Darius, Harald; Fitzmaurice, David A.; Goldhaber, Samuel Z.; Goto, Shinya; Jacobson, Barry; Kayani, Gloria; Mantovani, Lorenzo G.; Misselwitz, Frank; Pieper, Karen; Schellong, Sebastian M.; Stepinska, Janina; Turpie, Alexander G. G.; van Eickels, Martin; Kakkar, Ajay K.

    2016-01-01

    Aims Vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) need to be individually dosed. International guidelines recommend a target range of international normalised ratio (INR) of 2.0–3.0 for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation (AF). We analysed the time in this therapeutic range (TTR) of VKA-treated patients with newly diagnosed AF in the ongoing, global, observational registry GARFIELD-AF. Taking TTR as a measure of the quality of patient management, we analysed its relationship with 1-year outcomes, including stroke/systemic embolism (SE), major bleeding, and all-cause mortality. Methods and Results TTR was calculated for 9934 patients using 136,082 INR measurements during 1-year follow-up. The mean TTR was 55.0%; values were similar for different VKAs. 5851 (58.9%) patients had TTR<65%; 4083 (41.1%) TTR≥65%. The proportion of patients with TTR≥65% varied from 16.7% in Asia to 49.4% in Europe. There was a 2.6-fold increase in the risk of stroke/SE, 1.5-fold increase in the risk of major bleeding, and 2.4-fold increase in the risk of all-cause mortality with TTR<65% versus ≥65% after adjusting for potential confounders. The population attributable fraction, i.e. the proportion of events attributable to suboptimal anticoagulation among VKA users, was 47.7% for stroke/SE, 16.7% for major bleeding, and 45.4% for all-cause mortality. In patients with TTR<65%, the risk of first stroke/SE was highest in the first 4 months and decreased thereafter (test for trend, p = 0.021). In these patients, the risk of first major bleed declined during follow-up (p = 0.005), whereas in patients with TTR≥65%, the risk increased over time (p = 0.027). Conclusion A large proportion of patients with AF had poor VKA control and these patients had higher risks of stroke/SE, major bleeding, and all-cause mortality. Our data suggest that there is room for improvement of VKA control in routine clinical practice and that this could substantially reduce adverse outcomes. Trial Registration Clinical

  5. Control of coupled localized nonlinear wave solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porubov, A. V.; Antonov, I. D.

    2017-01-01

    A method of forced localization of non-linear wave by a feedback control is developed for coupled equations accounting for non-linear dynamic processes in complex lattices. It is shown, that the control of the shape and velocity of the wave function of macro-strain allows to achieve localization of the shape of the function describing variations of defects in the lattice. Moreover, change of the sign of the amplitude of the last wave may be achieved by variation of the parameters of the control function but independent of the initial conditions.

  6. Local position control: A new concept for control of manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Frederick A.

    1988-01-01

    Resolved motion rate control is currently one of the most frequently used methods of manipulator control. It is currently used in the Space Shuttle remote manipulator system (RMS) and in prosthetic devices. Position control is predominately used in locating the end-effector of an industrial manipulator along a path with prescribed timing. In industrial applications, resolved motion rate control is inappropriate since position error accumulates. This is due to velocity being the control variable. In some applications this property is an advantage rather than a disadvantage. It may be more important for motion to end as soon as the input command is removed rather than reduce the position error to zero. Local position control is a new concept for manipulator control which retains the important properties of resolved motion rate control, but reduces the drift. Local position control can be considered to be a generalization of resolved position and resolved rate control. It places both control schemes on a common mathematical basis.

  7. Local feedback control of light honeycomb panels.

    PubMed

    Hong, Chinsuk; Elliott, Stephen J

    2007-01-01

    This paper summarizes theoretical and experimental work on the feedback control of sound radiation from honeycomb panels using piezoceramic actuators. It is motivated by the problem of sound transmission in aircraft, specifically the active control of trim panels. Trim panels are generally honeycomb structures designed to meet the design requirement of low weight and high stiffness. They are resiliently mounted to the fuselage for the passive reduction of noise transmission. Local coupling of the closely spaced sensor and actuator was observed experimentally and modeled using a single degree of freedom system. The effect of the local coupling was to roll off the response between the actuator and sensor at high frequencies, so that a feedback control system can have high gain margins. Unfortunately, only relatively poor global performance is then achieved because of localization of reduction around the actuator. This localization prompts the investigation of a multichannel active control system. Globalized reduction was predicted using a model of 12-channel direct velocity feedback control. The multichannel system, however, does not appear to yield a significant improvement in the performance because of decreased gain margin.

  8. Early Choline Levels From 3-Tesla MR Spectroscopy After Exclusive Radiation Therapy in Patients With Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer are Predictive of Plasmatic Levels of PSA at 1 Year

    SciTech Connect

    Crehange, Gilles; Maingon, Philippe; Gauthier, Melanie; Parfait, Sebastien; Cochet, Alexandre; Mirjolet, Celine; Bonnetain, Franck; Cormier, Luc; Brunotte, Francois; Walker, Paul

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To investigate the time course response of prostate metabolism to irradiation using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) at 3-month intervals and its impact on biochemical control. Methods and Materials: Between January 2008 and April 2010, 24 patients with localized prostate cancer were prospectively enrolled in the Evaluation of the Response to Irradiation with MR Spectroscopy (ERIS) trial. All the patients had been treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy with or without long-term adjuvant hormonal therapy (LTHT) and underwent 3-T MRS and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) assays at baseline and every 3 months thereafter up to 12 months. Results: After radiation, the mean normalized citrate level (citrate/water) decreased significantly over time, both in the peripheral zone (PZ) (p = 0.0034) and in the entire prostate (p = 0.0008), whereas no significant change was observed in mean normalized choline levels (choline/water) in the PZ (p = 0.84) and in the entire prostate (p = 0.95). At 6 months after radiation, the mean choline level was significantly lower in the PZ for patients with a PSA value of {<=}0.5 ng/mL at 12 months (4.9 {+-} 1.7 vs. 7.1 {+-} 1.5, p = 0.0378). Similar results were observed at 12 months in the PZ (6.2 {+-} 2.3 vs. 11.4 {+-} 4.1, p = 0.0117 for choline level and 3.4 {+-} 0.7 vs. 16.1 {+-} 6.1, p = 0.0054 for citrate level) and also in the entire prostate (6.2 {+-} 1.9 vs. 10.4 {+-} 3.2, p = 0.014 for choline level and 3.0 {+-} 0.8 vs. 13.3 {+-} 4.7, p = 0.0054 for citrate level). For patients receiving LTHT, there was no correlation between choline or citrate levels and PSA value, either at baseline or at follow-up. Conclusions: Low normalized choline in the PZ, 6 months after radiation, predicts which patients attained a PSA {<=}0.5 ng/mL at 1 year. Further analyses with longer follow-up times are warranted to determine whether or not these new biomarkers can conclusively predict the early radiation response and the

  9. Local control theory applied to molecular photoassociation.

    PubMed

    Marquetand, Philipp; Engel, Volker

    2007-08-28

    Local control theory (LCT) is employed to achieve molecular photoassociation with shaped laser pulses. Within LCT, the control fields are constructed from the response of the system to the perturbation which makes them accessible to a straightforward interpretation. This is shown regarding the ground-state collision of H+F and H+I atoms. Different objectives are defined, which aim at the formation of vibrational cold or hot associated molecules, respectively. Results are presented for s-wave scattering, where the rotational degree of freedom is ignored and also for full scale calculations including rotations, in order to describe more realistic conditions.

  10. Virtual Reality–Enhanced Cognitive–Behavioral Therapy for Morbid Obesity: A Randomized Controlled Study with 1 Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Cesa, Gian Luca; Bacchetta, Monica; Castelnuovo, Gianluca; Conti, Sara; Gaggioli, Andrea; Mantovani, Fabrizia; Molinari, Enrico; Cárdenas-López, Georgina; Riva, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Abstract It is well known that obesity has a multifactorial etiology, including biological, environmental, and psychological causes. For this reason, obesity treatment requires a more integrated approach than the standard behavioral treatment based on dietary and physical activity only. To test the long-term efficacy of an enhanced cognitive–behavioral therapy (CBT) of obesity, including a virtual reality (VR) module aimed at both unlocking the negative memory of the body and to modify its behavioral and emotional correlates, 163 female morbidly obese inpatients (body mass index >40) were randomly assigned to three conditions: a standard behavioral inpatient program (SBP), SBP plus standard CBT, and SBP plus VR-enhanced CBT. Patients' weight, eating behavior, and body dissatisfaction were measured at the start and upon completion of the inpatient program. Weight was assessed also at 1 year follow-up. All measures improved significantly at discharge from the inpatient program, and no significant difference was found among the conditions. However, odds ratios showed that patients in the VR condition had a greater probability of maintaining or improving weight loss at 1 year follow-up than SBP patients had (48% vs. 11%, p = 0.004) and, to a lesser extent, than CBT patients had (48% vs. 29%, p = 0.08). Indeed, only the VR-enhanced CBT was effective in further improving weight loss at 1 year follow-up. On the contrary, participants who received only the inpatient program regained back, on average, most of the weight they had lost. Findings support the hypothesis that a VR module addressing the locked negative memory of the body may enhance the long-term efficacy of standard CBT. PMID:26430819

  11. Virtual Reality-Enhanced Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Morbid Obesity: A Randomized Controlled Study with 1 Year Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Manzoni, Gian Mauro; Cesa, Gian Luca; Bacchetta, Monica; Castelnuovo, Gianluca; Conti, Sara; Gaggioli, Andrea; Mantovani, Fabrizia; Molinari, Enrico; Cárdenas-López, Georgina; Riva, Giuseppe

    2016-02-01

    It is well known that obesity has a multifactorial etiology, including biological, environmental, and psychological causes. For this reason, obesity treatment requires a more integrated approach than the standard behavioral treatment based on dietary and physical activity only. To test the long-term efficacy of an enhanced cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) of obesity, including a virtual reality (VR) module aimed at both unlocking the negative memory of the body and to modify its behavioral and emotional correlates, 163 female morbidly obese inpatients (body mass index >40) were randomly assigned to three conditions: a standard behavioral inpatient program (SBP), SBP plus standard CBT, and SBP plus VR-enhanced CBT. Patients' weight, eating behavior, and body dissatisfaction were measured at the start and upon completion of the inpatient program. Weight was assessed also at 1 year follow-up. All measures improved significantly at discharge from the inpatient program, and no significant difference was found among the conditions. However, odds ratios showed that patients in the VR condition had a greater probability of maintaining or improving weight loss at 1 year follow-up than SBP patients had (48% vs. 11%, p = 0.004) and, to a lesser extent, than CBT patients had (48% vs. 29%, p = 0.08). Indeed, only the VR-enhanced CBT was effective in further improving weight loss at 1 year follow-up. On the contrary, participants who received only the inpatient program regained back, on average, most of the weight they had lost. Findings support the hypothesis that a VR module addressing the locked negative memory of the body may enhance the long-term efficacy of standard CBT.

  12. Social Development: 1 Year Olds

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Social Development: 1 Year Olds Page Content Article Body During his second year, your toddler will develop a very specific image of his social world, friends, and acquaintances. He ...

  13. Local Geometrical Machinery for Complexity and Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivancevic, Vladimir G.; Reid, Darryn J.

    2015-11-01

    In this Chapter, we present local geometrical machinery for studying complexity and control, consisting of dynamics on Kähler manifolds, which combine three geometrical structures-Riemannian, symplectic and complex (Hermitian)-in a mutually compatible way. In other words, every Kähler manifold is simultaneously Riemannian, symplectic and complex (Hermitian). It is well known that Riemannian manifolds represent the stage on which Lagrangian dynamics is set, symplectic manifolds represent the stage for Hamiltonian dynamics, and complex (Hermitian) varieties comprise the stage for quantum dynamics. Therefore, Kähler manifolds represent the richest dynamical stage available where Lagrangian, Hamiltonian, and quantum dynamics all dance together.

  14. FTY720 versus MMF with cyclosporine in de novo renal transplantation: a 1-year, randomized controlled trial in Europe and Australasia.

    PubMed

    Salvadori, M; Budde, K; Charpentier, B; Klempnauer, J; Nashan, B; Pallardo, L M; Eris, J; Schena, F P; Eisenberger, U; Rostaing, L; Hmissi, A; Aradhye, S

    2006-12-01

    FTY720 is a novel immunomodulator investigated in de novo renal transplantation and other therapeutic areas including multiple sclerosis. This 1-year multicenter, randomized, phase III study in 668 de novo renal transplant patients compared FTY720 2.5 mg plus full-dose cyclosporine (FDC) or FTY720 5.0 mg plus reduced-dose cyclosporine (RDC), with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) plus FDC. The primary efficacy endpoint was the composite incidence of first treated biopsy-proven acute rejection (BPAR), graft loss, death or premature study discontinuation at month 12. Primary efficacy with FTY720 2.5 mg and MMF (32.4% and 30.2%; p = NS), plus mortality and BPAR incidence, were comparable. Patients receiving FTY720 5.0 mg plus RDC were discontinued from treatment due to increased risk of acute rejection (primary endpoint incidence 47.3%). FTY720 was associated with lower creatinine clearance (month 12: 53.1, 56.0 vs. 65.1 mL/min; p < 0.001) and more macular edema cases (2.2% and 1.3% vs. 0%), whereas cytomegalovirus infections were higher with MMF (6.2% and 10.6% vs. 18.1% p < 0.0001 and p = 0.0139, respectively). FTY720 2.5 mg provided comparable rejection prophylaxis over 12 months versus MMF; however, FTY720 5.0 mg did not support a 50% reduction in cyclosporine exposure. The cause of macular edema cases and lower creatinine clearance with FTY720 in de novo transplantation needs further investigation.

  15. Language Development: 1 Year Olds

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Language Development: 1 Year Olds Page Content Article Body ... assured, it’s not your imagination. He’s developing his language and comprehension skills right on schedule. This giant ...

  16. State Aid, Voter Power and Local Control in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zak, Itai; Glasman, Naftaly S.

    1979-01-01

    Not only did voter power contribute meaningfully to local control behavior regardless of the exact shape of the relations between state aid and local control, but the hypothesized inverse relationship between state aid and local control did not receive support. Journal availability: see EA 511 898. (Author/IRT)

  17. On controllability of thermocapillary instability by local temperature control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiomi, Junichiro

    Thermally nonequilibrium liquid processing and experiments in microgravity or microscale of-ten suffer from dominant thermocapillary convection and its instability. While the instability can be utilized to promote mixing, there are certainly situations where it is desirable to atten-uate the fluid motion. Here, we theoretically investigate the possibility to control the unstable thermocapillary convection by taking a simple model system, i.e. a liquid-filled open cavity. The system is closely related to the liquid bridge and annular systems, which have been investi-gated extensively over the last few decades, being motivated by the crystal growth application. Such system is suitable for flow control target since they usually have strong mode selectivity, and hence, the observability and controllability can be satisfied by small number of controllers. In addition, since the convection is driven by the temperature distribution at the free surface, the entire flow field can be influenced by perturbing the scalar quantity (temperature). Fur-thermore, the relatively slow timescales of the phenomena (e.g. compared with turbulent flow) allow us to apply advanced real-time control laws. The author and coworkers have demon-strated the possibility of stabilizing the convective instability by applying mode-selective linear and weakly nonlinear feedback control schemes with only a few pairs of local temperature sen-sors and actuators (heaters) [1]. In this work, with an aim to develop a practical control scheme that is applicable to various degrees of nonlinearity and number of modes, an optimal control problem has been formulated. Based on the reduced toy model of the open cavity system [2] with 6 oscillatory modes, the linear optimal control was applied with only 2 actuators. The performance of the control was quantified for different strengths of nonlinearity. Dependences of the control performance on the actuator position and size were also investigated. The result shows

  18. Weight loss among female health care workers- a 1-year workplace based randomized controlled trial in the FINALE-health study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Weight management constitutes a substantial problem particularly among groups of low socio-economic status. Interventions at work places may be a solution, but high quality worksite interventions documenting prolonged weight loss are lacking. This paper presents results of an intervention aimed to achieve a 12 months weight loss among overweight health care workers. Methods Ninety-eight overweight female health care workers were randomized into an intervention or a reference group. The intervention consisted of diet, physical exercise and cognitive behavioral training during working hours 1 hour/week. The reference group was offered monthly oral presentations. Several anthropometric measures, blood pressure, cardiorespiratory fitness, maximal muscle strength, and musculoskeletal pain were measured before and after the 12-months intervention period. Data were analyzed by intention-to-treat analysis. Results The intervention group significantly reduced body weight by 6 kg (p < 0.001), BMI by 2.2 (p < 0.001) and body fat percentage by 2.8 (p < 0.001). There were no statistical reductions in the control group, resulting in significant differences between the two groups over time. Conclusions The intervention generated substantial reductions in body weight, BMI and body fat percentage among overweight female health care workers over 12 months. The positive results support the workplace as an efficient arena for weight loss among overweight females. Trial registration NCT01015716. PMID:22871173

  19. Remote Control of Gene Function by Local Translation

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Hosung; Gkogkas, Christos G.; Sonenberg, Nahum; Holt, Christine E.

    2014-01-01

    The subcellular position of a protein is a key determinant of its function. Mounting evidence indicates that RNA localization, where specific mRNAs are transported subcellularly and subsequently translated in response to localized signals, is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism to control protein localization. On-site synthesis confers novel signaling properties to a protein and helps to maintain local proteome homeostasis. Local translation plays particularly important roles in distal neuronal compartments, and dysregulated RNA localization and translation cause defects in neuronal wiring and survival. Here, we discuss key findings in this area and possible implications of this adaptable and swift mechanism for spatial control of gene function. PMID:24679524

  20. Local control network and internetwork ISO-OSI reference model

    SciTech Connect

    Damsker, D.

    1983-05-01

    The paper describes a new local control network architecture. The new control network is totally distributed and redundantly hardware and software structured, based on a bus configuration and on CSMA/CD media access control. The architecture of the control structure and of the data communications structure for both Local Network and Internetwork is discussed in comparison with ISO-OSI and Local Area Network IEEE Standard 802 (Draft) Reference Models. A previous paper dealt with the physical implementation of this concept. The present paper is more software structure oriented.

  1. Segmented nanowires displaying locally controllable properties

    DOEpatents

    Sutter, Eli Anguelova; Sutter, Peter Werner

    2013-03-05

    Vapor-liquid-solid growth of nanowires is tailored to achieve complex one-dimensional material geometries using phase diagrams determined for nanoscale materials. Segmented one-dimensional nanowires having constant composition display locally variable electronic band structures that are determined by the diameter of the nanowires. The unique electrical and optical properties of the segmented nanowires are exploited to form electronic and optoelectronic devices. Using gold-germanium as a model system, in situ transmission electron microscopy establishes, for nanometer-sized Au--Ge alloy drops at the tips of Ge nanowires (NWs), the parts of the phase diagram that determine their temperature-dependent equilibrium composition. The nanoscale phase diagram is then used to determine the exchange of material between the NW and the drop. The phase diagram for the nanoscale drop deviates significantly from that of the bulk alloy.

  2. Local Energy Monitoring and Control Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-28

    reducing total operating cost and enabling the system to run more efficiently and thus use less energy. (j) Enthalpy Control Through the use, when...efficient, of outside air instead of conditioned air a building may be cooled without the use of a mechanical cooling system. (see (a)) (k) Enthalpy ...outdoor and return air DB temperature or can be a more com- ... plex system based on the total heat or enthalpy of the supply air. Single zone single

  3. Analytical study of spatiotemporal chaos control by applying local injections

    PubMed

    Gang; Jinghua; Jihua; Xiangming; Yugui; Hu

    2000-09-01

    Spatiotemporal chaos control by applying local feedback injections is investigated analytically. The influence of gradient force on the controllability is investigated. It is shown that as the gradient force of the system is larger than a critical value, local control can reach very high efficiency to drive the turbulent system of infinite size to a regular target state by using a single control signal. The complex Ginzburg-Landau equation is used as a model to confirm the above analysis, and a four-wave-mixing mode is revealed to determine the dynamical behavior of the controlled system at the onset of instability.

  4. Golden Years? Further Education Colleges under Local Authority Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Robin

    2008-01-01

    Fifteen years ago further education (FE) colleges in England were removed from local education authority (LEA) control and re-formed as "FE corporations". Now, it is proposed that, from 2010, local authorities will become re-involved in the running of FE. Given such a prospect, this article takes the opportunity to look back at colleges…

  5. Effect of local controlled heat on transdermal delivery of nicotine.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Kristian Kjær; Rousing, Mark Lillelund; Jensen, Carina; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Gazerani, Parisa

    2011-09-30

    Skin permeability and local blood perfusion are important factors for transdermal drug delivery. Application of heat is expected to enhance microcirculation and local perfusion and/or blood vessel permeability, thus facilitating drug transfer to the systemic circulation. In addition, heating prior to or during topical application of a drug may facilitate skin penetration, increase kinetic energy, and facilitate drug absorption. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether application of controlled local heat would enhance transdermal delivery from the nicotine patch mounted on the upper arm of ten healthy non-smoking male Caucasian subjects. Local skin perfusion was monitored using Laser Doppler Imaging (LDI) at baseline (32 °C) and following application of local controlled heat (43 °C) on the upper arm, where the patch was placed. The residue of the nicotine patches was then examined by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) to indicate the uptake of nicotine from the patch due to the local controlled heat. Controlled heat application (43°C) caused significant cutaneous hyperaemia (up to 9 folds increase in skin perfusion) with an increase in nicotine uptake (up to 13 folds). The method was well tolerated without causing any pain or discomfort. These data suggest that controlled heat application, which is a simple, non-invasive method, can significantly enhance local skin perfusion and drug uptake from patches.

  6. Your Child's Development: 1 Year (12 Months)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Year-Old Your Child’s Development: 1 Year (12 Months) KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child’s Development: 1 Year (12 Months) A A A Your little one is now ... THIS TOPIC Your Child's Checkup: 1 Year (12 Months) Your Baby's Growth: 12 Months Your Baby's Hearing, ...

  7. [A Case of Pure Type Mucinous Carcinoma Recurrence after Local Control].

    PubMed

    Enomoto, Katsuhisa; Sakurai, Kenichi; Amano, Sadao

    2015-11-01

    The patient was a 44-year-old woman. Mastectomy and sentinel lymph node biopsy had been performed for carcinoma of the left breast approximately 1 year previously. The diagnosis was mucinous carcinoma, T3N0M0, stage ⅡB, ER(+), PgR(+), HER2 score 0, Ki-67 20%. Hormone therapy was administered postoperatively. Four months after the surgery, left axilla lymphadenopathy was observed. Chemotherapy with EC and nab-PTX was started for the postoperative lymph node recurrence. To achieve local control, axillary lymphadenectomy was performed within 1 year postoperatively, and 1 metastatic lesion in the lymph nodes was observed. Hormone therapy was started sequentially, with no subsequent recurrence or metastasis. Mucinous carcinomas are classified as a breast cancer subtype. Mixed type, including breast ductal carcinoma, form a large proportion of mucinous carcinomas and the therapy for breast ductal carcinoma is usually administered in such cases. Conversely, pure type mucinous carcinomas rarely show metastasis and have a good prognosis. In this case, however, metastasis was noted and chemotherapy was not completely effective, and local control was achieved with surgical resection.

  8. Notions of local controllability and optimal feedforward control for quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarti, Raj

    2011-05-01

    Local controllability is an essential concept for regulation and control of time-varying nonlinear dynamical systems; in the classical control logic it is at the foundation of neighboring optimal feedback and feedforward control. We introduce notions of local controllability suited to feedforward control of classical input disturbances in bilinear quantum systems evolving on projective spaces and Lie groups. Tests for local controllability based on a Gramian matrix analogous to the nonlinear local controllability Gramian, which allow assessment of which trajectories can be regulated by perturbative feedforward in the presence of classical input noise, are presented. These notions explicitly incorporate system bilinearity and the geometry of quantum states into the definition of local controllability of quantum systems. Associated feedforward strategies are described.

  9. Radiation, hormonotherapy, survival and local control in prostatic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cellini, N; Luzi, S; Morganti, A G; Smaniotto, D; Niespolo, R M; Valentini, V

    1998-01-01

    The combination of concomitant external beam radiotherapy (ERT) and neoadjuvant hormonotherapy was shown to be able to significantly improve local control and disease-free survival in locally advanced prostatic carcinoma. (RTOG study 8610). Aim of this analysis was to assess the clinical results observed in a population of patients undergoing this combined treatment and, more particularly, to examine the prognostic impact of local control. 84 patients (T2: 47%, T3: 49.4%, T4: 3.6%) underwent concomitant ERT (dose to pelvic volume: 45 Gy; mean dose to prostatic volume: 65 Gy) and neoadjuvant hormonotherapy (flutamide: 250 mg three times/daily for 30 days; LH-RH analogue: 1 oral dose every 28 days starting 2 months prior to radiotherapy and for its whole duration). With a median follow-up of 36 months, 3.6% of patients were deceased; hematogenous metastases and local disease progression were recorded in 16.7% and 4.8% of patients, respectively. Local disease progression was shown to be significantly correlated with the incidence of metastases. In fact, the actuarial incidence of metastases at 5 years was 100% and 27% in patients with and without local recurrence (p = 0.0043) respectively. Overall, metastases-free local and biochemical recurrence-free survival was 89.2%, 66.5%, 85.0% and 41.9% respectively. At univariate analysis (logrank) the clinical stage (T) was shown to be significantly correlated with the incidence of metastases (p = .0004) and local progression (p < .0001). In conclusion, this study has confirmed the low rate of local progression with the combination of hormonotherapy and radiotherapy and the significant correlation of local control with the incidence of hematogenous metastases.

  10. Controlled release for local delivery of drugs: barriers and models.

    PubMed

    Weiser, Jennifer R; Saltzman, W Mark

    2014-09-28

    Controlled release systems are an effective means for local drug delivery. In local drug delivery, the major goal is to supply therapeutic levels of a drug agent at a physical site in the body for a prolonged period. A second goal is to reduce systemic toxicities, by avoiding the delivery of agents to non-target tissues remote from the site. Understanding the dynamics of drug transport in the vicinity of a local drug delivery device is helpful in achieving both of these goals. Here, we provide an overview of controlled release systems for local delivery and we review mathematical models of drug transport in tissue, which describe the local penetration of drugs into tissue and illustrate the factors - such as diffusion, convection, and elimination - that control drug dispersion and its ultimate fate. This review highlights the important role of controlled release science in development of reliable methods for local delivery, as well as the barriers to accomplishing effective delivery in the brain, blood vessels, mucosal epithelia, and the skin.

  11. Limits of localized control in extended nonlinear systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handel, Andreas

    We investigate the limits of localized linear control in spatially extended, nonlinear systems. Spatially extended, nonlinear systems can be found in virtually every field of engineering and science. An important category of such systems are fluid flows. Fluid flows play an important role in many commercial applications, for instance in the chemical, pharmaceutical and food-processing industries. Other important fluid flows include air- or water flows around cars, planes or ships. In all these systems, it is highly desirable to control the flow of the respective fluid. For instance control of the air flow around an airplane or car leads to better fuel-economy and reduced noise production. Usually, it is impossible to apply control everywhere. Consider an airplane: It would not be feasibly to cover the whole body of the plane with control units. Instead, one can place the control units at localized regions, such as points along the edge of the wings, spaced as far apart from each other as possible. These considerations lead to an important question: For a given system, what is the minimum number of localized controllers that still ensures successful control? Too few controllers will not achieve control, while using too many leads to unnecessary expenses and wastes resources. To answer this question, we study localized control in a class of model equations. These model equations are good representations of many real fluid flows. Using these equations, we show how one can design localized control that renders the system stable. We study the properties of the control and derive several expressions that allow us to determine the limits of successful control. We show how the number of controllers that are needed for successful control depends on the size and type of the system, as well as the way control is implemented. We find that especially the nonlinearities and the amount of noise present in the system play a crucial role. This analysis allows us to determine under

  12. Stabilizing hierarchical compensation for locally controlled large flexible structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Das, B.; Balas, M.

    1989-01-01

    A two-level hierarchical control strategy is proposed for large flexible space structures. The lower level consists of a set of local controllers. The higher level is a stabilizing compensator to account for any instabilities caused by controller-structure interaction with unmodeled dynamics. The advantage of this hierarchical strategy is that the lower level can be designed to meet the performance requirements, and the higher level can be designed independently to produce overall stability.

  13. Temperature control of microheaters for localized carbon nanotube synthesis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jingyu; Xu, Ting; Miao, Jianmin

    2011-12-01

    The temperatures of microheater devices for the localized growth of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were brought under control to a great extent by providing the appropriate electric load (direct current or voltage) to the microheater circuit. The electrical-thermal coupled field simulations show that high temperatures only appear in very local areas under certain electric load. The infrared image of the produced microheater device agrees well with the simulation results. By applying the selected current to the fabricated microheater device and providing the mixed reaction gases, long, dense, and vertically well aligned CNT bundles were successfully grown very locally on the substrate. The control of temperatures paves the way to the localized growth of CNTs with good compatibility with CMOS process, and thus facilitating the direct integration of CNTs into future micro/nano electronics as interconnects. What's more, the method will also excite more in depth investigations on the applications of microheaters in many other fields.

  14. Towards AC-induced optimum control of dynamical localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revuelta, F.; Chacón, R.; Borondo, F.

    2015-05-01

    It is shown that dynamical localization (quantum suppression of classical diffusion) in the context of ultracold atoms in periodically shaken optical lattices subjected to time-periodic modulations having equidistant zeros depends on the impulse transmitted by the external modulation over half-period rather than on the modulation amplitude. This result provides a useful principle for optimally controlling dynamical localization in general periodic systems, which is capable of experimental realization.

  15. Knowledge-based control for robot self-localization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Bonnie Kathleen Holte

    1993-01-01

    Autonomous robot systems are being proposed for a variety of missions including the Mars rover/sample return mission. Prior to any other mission objectives being met, an autonomous robot must be able to determine its own location. This will be especially challenging because location sensors like GPS, which are available on Earth, will not be useful, nor will INS sensors because their drift is too large. Another approach to self-localization is required. In this paper, we describe a novel approach to localization by applying a problem solving methodology. The term 'problem solving' implies a computational technique based on logical representational and control steps. In this research, these steps are derived from observing experts solving localization problems. The objective is not specifically to simulate human expertise but rather to apply its techniques where appropriate for computational systems. In doing this, we describe a model for solving the problem and a system built on that model, called localization control and logic expert (LOCALE), which is a demonstration of concept for the approach and the model. The results of this work represent the first successful solution to high-level control aspects of the localization problem.

  16. Esthetic outcomes in relation to implant-abutment interface design following a standardized treatment protocol in a multicenter randomized controlled trial--a cohort of 12 cases at 1-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Michael K; Scheyer, Todd; Ho, Daniel K; Stanford, Clark M; Feine, Jocelyne S; Cooper, Lyndon F

    2015-01-01

    The design of an implant-abutment interface may have an impact on the peri-implant soft tissue esthetics. In an ongoing randomized controlled trial (RCT) with 141 participants, the authors evaluated the peri-implant tissue responses around three different implant-abutment interface designs used to replace single teeth in the esthetic zone. The aim of this report is to describe the treatment protocol utilized in this ongoing RCT by (1) demonstrating in detail a clinical case treated under this protocol and (2) reporting peri-implant soft tissue responses in a cohort of 12 representative cases from the RCT at 1-year follow-up. Male and female adults requiring single implants in the anterior maxilla were enrolled in the RCT according to the study protocol. Five months following any required extraction and/or socket bone grafting/ridge augmentation, one of the following three implant-abutment interfaces was placed and immediately provisionalized: (1) conical interface (CI; OsseoSpeed, Dentsply Implants), n = 4; (2) flat-to-flat interface (FI; NobelSpeedy Replace, Nobel Biocare), n = 4; or (3) platform-switch interface (PS; NanoTite Certain Prevail, Biomet 3i), n = 4. Twelve weeks later, definitive crowns were delivered. Throughout the treatment, peri-implant buccal gingival zenith height and mesial/distal papilla height were measured on stereotactic device photographs, and pink esthetic scores (PES) were determined. The demographics of the participants in each of the three implant-abutment interface groups were very similar. All 12 study sites had ideal ridge form with a minimum width of 5.5 mm following implant site development performed according to the described treatment protocol. Using this treatment protocol for single-tooth replacement in the anterior maxilla, the clinicians were able to obtain esthetic peri-implant soft tissue outcomes with all three types of implant-abutment interface designs at 1-year follow-up as shown by the Canfield data and PES. The

  17. Approximations to and local properties of diffusions with discontinuous controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kushner, H. J.

    1974-01-01

    The paper discusses several properties of control systems defined by stochastic differential equations, which are defined by the method of Girsanov, using a transformation of measures, and where the controls are discontinuous. Uniqueness of the multivariate distributions of the process is proved, and it is shown that the process is a limit, in a natural sense, of a certain discrete time approximation. Other questions, concerning the effects on the distributions of the paths, and of the cost of approximating the control by a smooth control and concerning local properties of the solution, are discussed.

  18. Predictors of Individual Tumor Local Control After Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Brain Metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Garsa, Adam A.; Badiyan, Shahed N.; DeWees, Todd; Simpson, Joseph R.; Huang, Jiayi; Drzymala, Robert E.; Barani, Igor J.; Dowling, Joshua L.; Rich, Keith M.; Chicoine, Michael R.; Kim, Albert H.; Leuthardt, Eric C.; Robinson, Clifford G.

    2014-10-01

    Purpose: To evaluate local control rates and predictors of individual tumor local control for brain metastases from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Methods and Materials: Between June 1998 and May 2011, 401 brain metastases in 228 patients were treated with Gamma Knife single-fraction SRS. Local failure was defined as an increase in lesion size after SRS. Local control was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. The Cox proportional hazards model was used for univariate and multivariate analysis. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to identify an optimal cutpoint for conformality index relative to local control. A P value <.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Median age was 60 years (range, 27-84 years). There were 66 cerebellar metastases (16%) and 335 supratentorial metastases (84%). The median prescription dose was 20 Gy (range, 14-24 Gy). Median overall survival from time of SRS was 12.1 months. The estimated local control at 12 months was 74%. On multivariate analysis, cerebellar location (hazard ratio [HR] 1.94, P=.009), larger tumor volume (HR 1.09, P<.001), and lower conformality (HR 0.700, P=.044) were significant independent predictors of local failure. Conformality index cutpoints of 1.4-1.9 were predictive of local control, whereas a cutpoint of 1.75 was the most predictive (P=.001). The adjusted Kaplan-Meier 1-year local control for conformality index ≥1.75 was 84% versus 69% for conformality index <1.75, controlling for tumor volume and location. The 1-year adjusted local control for cerebellar lesions was 60%, compared with 77% for supratentorial lesions, controlling for tumor volume and conformality index. Conclusions: Cerebellar tumor location, lower conformality index, and larger tumor volume were significant independent predictors of local failure after SRS for brain metastases from NSCLC. These results warrant further investigation in a prospective

  19. Supporting tobacco control: stimulating local newspaper coverage with a technical assistance website for local coalitions.

    PubMed

    Buller, David B; Bettinghaus, Erwin P; Helme, Donald; Young, Walter F; Borland, Ron; Maloy, Julie A; Cutter, Gary R; Andersen, Peter A; Walther, Joseph B

    2011-11-01

    A large and growing literature confirms that well-designed web-based programs can be effective in preventing or treating several chronic diseases. This study examined how the Internet can deliver information and train community activists and specifically tested the effects of web-based technical assistance on local tobacco control coalitions' efforts to use media advocacy to advance their agendas. The authors compared a highly interactive, Enhanced website (intervention) to a noninteractive, Basic text-based website (comparison) in Colorado communities. A total of 24 tobacco control coalitions led by local county health departments and nursing services were enrolled in the project and randomly assigned to use either the intervention or comparison website. A total of 73 local daily and weekly newspapers were identified in the service areas of 23 of the 24 coalitions. A posttest assessment of newspaper coverage was conducted to locate all newspaper articles with tobacco control information published between January 1 and April 9, 2004, the last 3 months of the intervention. Although there was no evidence of a treatment effect on the frequency of newspaper articles on tobacco-related issues, there was, however, evidence that newspapers in counties where the coalition had access to the Enhanced website printed more stories focused on local/regional issues and more anti-tobacco local/regional stories than in the counties where coalitions had access to the Basic website. Coalitions can improve their influence on local media for community tobacco control when high-quality online technical assistance, training, and resources are available to them.

  20. A Preliminary Analysis of California's New Local Control Funding Formula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Rebecca; Sands, Janelle

    2016-01-01

    California recently overhauled its K-12 public education finance system. Enacted in 2013, the Local Control Funding Formula (LCFF) replaced California's 40-year-old funding formula. The LCFF increases district officials' fiscal flexibility; provides more resources to districts serving larger proportions of low-income, English learner (EL), and…

  1. Local Control and Self-Determination: The San Juan Case.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garman, Keats; Jack, Donald

    Rapidly increasing Navajo enrollment in San Juan County, Utah, public schools in the 1960's forced the rural school district to improve educational services to a sizable Navajo population while attempting to preserve local control in the face of changing Indian self-determination policy. The district implemented a Curriculum Development Center, a…

  2. Locally oriented potential field for controlling multi-robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero, Roseli A. F.; Prestes, Edson; Idiart, Marco A. P.; Faria, Gedson

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we present an extension of the boundary value problem path planner (BVP PP) to control multiple robots in a robot soccer scenario. This extension is called Locally Oriented Potential Field (LOPF) and computes a potential field from the numerical solution of a BVP using local relaxations in different patches of the solution space. This permits that a single solution of the BVP endows distinct robots with different behaviors in a team. We present the steps to implement LOPF as well as several results obtained in simulation.

  3. Active vibroacoustic control with multiple local feedback loops.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Stephen J; Gardonio, Paolo; Sors, Thomas C; Brennan, Michael J

    2002-02-01

    When multiple actuators and sensors are used to control the vibration of a panel, or its sound radiation, they are usually positioned so that they couple into specific modes and are all connected together with a centralized control system. This paper investigates the physical effects of having a regular array of actuator and sensor pairs that are connected only by local feedback loops. An array of 4 x 4 force actuators and velocity sensors is first simulated, for which such a decentralized controller can be shown to be unconditionally stable. Significant reductions in both the kinetic energy of the panel and in its radiated sound power can be obtained for an optimal value of feedback gain, although higher values of feedback gain can induce extra resonances in the system and degrade the performance. A more practical transducer pair, consisting of a piezoelectric actuator and velocity sensor, is also investigated and the simulations suggest that a decentralized controller with this arrangement is also stable over a wide range of feedback gains. The resulting reductions in kinetic energy and sound power are not as great as with the force actuators, due to the extra resonances being more prominent and at lower frequencies, but are still worthwhile. This suggests that an array of independent modular systems, each of which included an actuator, a sensor, and a local feedback control loop, could be a simple and robust method of controlling broadband sound transmission when integrated into a panel.

  4. Controlling Androgen receptor nuclear localization by dendrimer conjugates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haoyu

    Androgen Receptor (AR) antagonists, such as bicalutamide and flutamide have been used widely in the treatment of prostate cancer. Although initial treatment is effective, prostate cancer cells often acquire antiandrogen resistance with prolonged treatment. AR over-expression and AR mutations contribute to the development of antiandrogen resistant cancer. Second generation antiandrogens such as enzalutamide are more effective and show reduced AR nuclear localization. In this study, derivatives of PAN52, a small molecule antiandrogen previously developed in our lab, were conjugated to the surface of generation 4 and generation 6 PAMAM dendrimers to obtain antiandrogen PAMAM dendrimer conjugates (APDC). APDCs readily enter cells and associate with AR in the cytoplasm. Due to their large size and positive charge, they can not enter the nucleus, thus retaining AR in the cytoplasm. In addition, APDCs are effective in decreasing AR mediated transcription and cell proliferation. APDC is the first AR antagonists that inhibit DHT-induced nuclear localization of AR. By inhibiting AR nuclear localization, APDC represents a new class of antiandrogens that offer an alternative approach to addressing antiandrogen-resistant prostate cancer. Lysine post-translational modification of AR Nuclear Localization Sequence (NLS) has great impact on AR cellular localization. It is of interest to understand which modifications modulate AR translocation into the nucleus. In this study, we prepared dendrimer-based acetyltransferase mimetic (DATM), DATM is able to catalytically acetylate AR in CWR22Rv1 cells, which will be a useful tool for studying AR modification effect on AR cellular localization. Derivatives of DATM, which transfer other chemical groups to AR, can be prepared similarly, and with more dendrimer based AR modification tools prepared in future, we will be able to understand and control AR cellular localization through AR modification.

  5. Kinetochore localization of spindle checkpoint proteins: who controls whom?

    PubMed

    Vigneron, Suzanne; Prieto, Susana; Bernis, Cyril; Labbé, Jean-Claude; Castro, Anna; Lorca, Thierry

    2004-10-01

    The spindle checkpoint prevents anaphase onset until all the chromosomes have successfully attached to the spindle microtubules. The mechanisms by which unattached kinetochores trigger and transmit a primary signal are poorly understood, although it seems to be dependent at least in part, on the kinetochore localization of the different checkpoint components. By using protein immunodepletion and mRNA translation in Xenopus egg extracts, we have studied the hierarchic sequence and the interdependent network that governs protein recruitment at the kinetochore in the spindle checkpoint pathway. Our results show that the first regulatory step of this cascade is defined by Aurora B/INCENP complex. Aurora B/INCENP controls the activation of a second regulatory level by inducing at the kinetochore the localization of Mps1, Bub1, Bub3, and CENP-E. This localization, in turn, promotes the recruitment to the kinetochore of Mad1/Mad2, Cdc20, and the anaphase promoting complex (APC). Unlike Aurora B/INCENP, Mps1, Bub1, and CENP-E, the downstream checkpoint protein Mad1 does not regulate the kinetochore localization of either Cdc20 or APC. Similarly, Cdc20 and APC do not require each other to be localized at these chromosome structures. Thus, at the last step of the spindle checkpoint cascade, Mad1/Mad2, Cdc20, and APC are recruited at the kinetochores independently from each other.

  6. PRMT1-mediated arginine methylation controls ATXN2L localization

    SciTech Connect

    Kaehler, Christian; Guenther, Anika; Uhlich, Anja; Krobitsch, Sylvia

    2015-05-15

    Arginine methylation is a posttranslational modification that is of importance in diverse cellular processes. Recent proteomic mass spectrometry studies reported arginine methylation of ataxin-2-like (ATXN2L), the paralog of ataxin-2, a protein that is implicated in the neurodegenerative disorder spinocerebellar ataxia type 2. Here, we investigated the methylation state of ATXN2L and its significance for ATXN2L localization. We first confirmed that ATXN2L is asymmetrically dimethylated in vivo, and observed that the nuclear localization of ATXN2L is altered under methylation inhibition. We further discovered that ATXN2L associates with the protein arginine-N-methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1). Finally, we showed that neither mutation of the arginine–glycine-rich motifs of ATXN2L nor methylation inhibition alters ATXN2L localization to stress granules, suggesting that methylation of ATXN2L is probably not mandatory. - Highlights: • ATXN2L is asymmetrically dimethylated in vivo. • ATXN2L interacts with PRMT1 under normal and stress conditions. • PRMT1-mediated dimethylation of ATXN2L controls its nuclear localization. • ATXN2L localization to stress granules appears independent of its methylation state.

  7. Descending and Local Network Interactions Control Adaptive Locomotion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-04

    sensilla act through local reflexes to increase motor activity, thereby providing the added force needed to push the insect up and over the object...developed, in our previous AFOSR grant, a hardware model based upon neural circuitry that had been documented in stick insects (Ekeberg et al., 2004; Rutter...control network for every joint of every leg of the model insect . This simulation based upon all known and implied thoracic connections was developed

  8. RHIC local orbit control and power supply resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Satogata, T.

    2009-12-01

    Slow global orbit correction at store, running every 30-60 minutes, has been in place since RHIC Run-8. This correction should include tight orbit drift tolerances at the interaction point and collimators, as these are locations where orbit drift of a few hundred microns is observable in backgrounds and luminosity. Future improvements in low beta optics will only lower these tolerances. runfy09 attempts to control the collimator orbit with local three-bumps after global orbit corrections appeared to be limited by corrector power supply resolution. This paper evaluates orbit control in the context of existing corrector power supply resolution, and makes recommendations for planned RHIC operations scenarios.

  9. Local thermal control of the human cutaneous circulation.

    PubMed

    Johnson, John M; Kellogg, Dean L

    2010-10-01

    The level of skin blood flow is subject to both reflex thermoregulatory control and influences from the direct effects of warming and cooling the skin. The effects of local changes in temperature are capable of maximally vasoconstricting or vasodilating the skin. They are brought about by a combination of mechanisms involving endothelial, adrenergic, and sensory systems. Local warming initiates a transient vasodilation through an axon reflex, succeeded by a plateau phase due largely to nitric oxide. Both phases are supported by sympathetic transmitters. The plateau phase is followed by the die-away phenomenon, a slow reversal of the vasodilation that is dependent on intact sympathetic vasoconstrictor nerves. The vasoconstriction with local skin cooling is brought about, in part, by a postsynaptic upregulation of α(2c)-adrenoceptors and, in part, by inhibition of the nitric oxide system at at least two points. There is also an early vasodilator response to local cooling, dependent on the rate of cooling. The mechanism for that transient vasodilation is not known, but it is inhibited by intact sympathetic vasoconstrictor nerve function and by intact sensory nerve function.

  10. Local control of reactive power by distributed photovoltaic generators

    SciTech Connect

    Chertkov, Michael; Turitsyn, Konstantin; Sulc, Petr; Backhaus, Scott

    2010-01-01

    High penetration levels of distributed photovoltaic (PV) generation on an electrical distribution circuit may severely degrade power quality due to voltage sags and swells caused by rapidly varying PV generation during cloud transients coupled with the slow response of existing utility compensation and regulation equipment. Although not permitted under current standards for interconnection of distributed generation, fast-reacting, VAR-capable PV inverters may provide the necessary reactive power injection or consumption to maintain voltage regulation under difficult transient conditions. As side benefit, the control of reactive power injection at each PV inverter provides an opportunity and a new tool for distribution utilities to optimize the performance of distribution circuits, e.g. by minimizing thermal losses. We suggest a local control scheme that dispatches reactive power from each PV inverter based on local instantaneous measurements of the real and reactive components of the consumed power and the real power generated by the PVs. Using one adjustable parameter per circuit, we balance the requirements on power quality and desire to minimize thermal losses. Numerical analysis of two exemplary systems, with comparable total PV generation albeit a different spatial distribution, show how to adjust the optimization parameter depending on the goal. Overall, this local scheme shows excellent performance; it's capable of guaranteeing acceptable power quality and achieving significant saving in thermal losses in various situations even when the renewable generation in excess of the circuit own load, i.e. feeding power back to the higher-level system.

  11. Technologies for Controlled, Local Delivery of siRNA

    PubMed Central

    Sarett, Samantha M.; Nelson, Christopher E.; Duvall, Craig L.

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of RNAi in the late 1990s unlocked a new realm of therapeutic possibilities by enabling potent and specific silencing of theoretically any desired genetic target. Better elucidation of the mechanism of action, the impact of chemical modifications that stabilize and reduce nonspecific effects of siRNA molecules, and the key design considerations for effective delivery systems has spurred progress toward developing clinically-successful siRNA therapies. A logical aim for initial siRNA translation is local therapies, as delivering siRNA directly to its site of action helps to ensure that a sufficient dose reaches the target tissue, lessens the potential for off-target side effects, and circumvents the substantial systemic delivery barriers. While topical siRNA delivery has progressed into numerous clinical trials, an enormous opportunity also exists to develop sustained-release, local delivery systems that enable both spatial and temporal control of gene silencing. This review focuses on material platforms that establish both localized and controlled gene silencing, with emphasis on the systems that show most promise for clinical translation. PMID:26476177

  12. Torso RTK controls Capicua degradation by changing its subcellular localization

    PubMed Central

    Grimm, Oliver; Zini, Victoria Sanchez; Kim, Yoosik; Casanova, Jordi; Shvartsman, Stanislav Y.; Wieschaus, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The transcriptional repressor Capicua (Cic) controls multiple aspects of Drosophila embryogenesis and has been implicated in vertebrate development and human diseases. Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) can antagonize Cic-dependent gene repression, but the mechanisms responsible for this effect are not fully understood. Based on genetic and imaging studies in the early Drosophila embryo, we found that Torso RTK signaling can increase the rate of Cic degradation by changing its subcellular localization. We propose that Cic is degraded predominantly in the cytoplasm and show that Torso reduces the stability of Cic by controlling the rates of its nucleocytoplasmic transport. This model accounts for the experimentally observed spatiotemporal dynamics of Cic in the early embryo and might explain RTK-dependent control of Cic in other developmental contexts. PMID:23048183

  13. Quality of local control for simple sewer networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolechkina, Alla; van Nooijen, Ronald

    2016-04-01

    Combined sewer networks, where both foul water and storm water are transported through the same system, tend to develop into complex networks due to expansion of towns and villages. The transport capacity of these systems is always limited, so occasional controlled spills into surface water, combined sewer overflows (CSO), are part of the normal operating procedure. Occasionally the ideas and rules present in the original design are not respected when the system is extended to cover a larger area. One way to deal with this problem is to implement central control. Another is to add pipes and hardware to bring the extended system into line with the original rules and ideas. We show that for a design rule often followed in the Netherlands, local control does quite well as long as the rule is respected and there are no large variations in precipitation intensity over the area covered by the system.

  14. Highly tunable local gate controlled complementary graphene device performing as inverter and voltage controlled resistor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Wonjae; Riikonen, Juha; Li, Changfeng; Chen, Ya; Lipsanen, Harri

    2013-10-04

    Using single-layer CVD graphene, a complementary field effect transistor (FET) device is fabricated on the top of separated back-gates. The local back-gate control of the transistors, which operate with low bias at room temperature, enables highly tunable device characteristics due to separate control over electrostatic doping of the channels. Local back-gating allows control of the doping level independently of the supply voltage, which enables device operation with very low VDD. Controllable characteristics also allow the compensation of variation in the unintentional doping typically observed in CVD graphene. Moreover, both p-n and n-p configurations of FETs can be achieved by electrostatic doping using the local back-gate. Therefore, the device operation can also be switched from inverter to voltage controlled resistor, opening new possibilities in using graphene in logic circuitry.

  15. Excellent Local Control Rates and Distinctive Patterns of Failure in Myxoid Liposarcoma Treated With Conservation Surgery and Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Guadagnolo, B. Ashleigh Zagars, Gunar K.; Ballo, Matthew T.; Patel, Shreyaskumar R.; Lewis, Valerae O.; Benjamin, Robert S.; Pollock, Raphael E.

    2008-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the local control rates and patterns of metastatic relapse in patients with localized myxoid liposarcoma treated with conservation surgery and radiotherapy (RT). Patients and Methods: Between 1960 and 2003, 127 patients with non-metastatic myxoid liposarcoma were treated with conservation surgery and RT at our institution. The median patient age was 39 years (range, 14-79 years). Of the 127 patients, 46% underwent preoperative RT (median dose, 50 Gy) and 54% underwent postoperative RT (median dose, 60 Gy). Also, 28% received doxorubicin-based chemotherapy as a part of their treatment. Results: The median follow-up was 9.1 years. The overall survival rate at 5 and 10 years was 87% and 79%, respectively. The corresponding disease-free survival rates were 81% and 73%. The local control rate at {>=}5 years was 97%. The actuarial rate of distant metastases at 5 and 10 years was 15% and 24%, respectively. Of the 27 patients who developed distant metastases, 48% did so in the retroperitoneum, 22% in other extrapulmonary soft tissues, 22% in the lung, 15% in bone, and 4% in the liver. Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that RT and conservation surgery for localized myxoid liposarcoma provide excellent local control. Distant metastatic relapse tended to occur in the retroperitoneum and other nonpulmonary soft tissues. Therefore, staging and surveillance imaging should include the abdomen and pelvis, as well as the thorax, for patients with localized myxoid liposarcoma.

  16. Localization of the Brainstem GABAergic Neurons Controlling Paradoxical (REM) Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Bérod, Anne; Goutagny, Romain; Léger, Lucienne; Ravassard, Pascal; Clément, Olivier; Hanriot, Lucie; Fort, Patrice; Luppi, Pierre-Hervé

    2009-01-01

    Paradoxical sleep (PS) is a state characterized by cortical activation, rapid eye movements and muscle atonia. Fifty years after its discovery, the neuronal network responsible for the genesis of PS has been only partially identified. We recently proposed that GABAergic neurons would have a pivotal role in that network. To localize these GABAergic neurons, we combined immunohistochemical detection of Fos with non-radioactive in situ hybridization of GAD67 mRNA (GABA synthesis enzyme) in control rats, rats deprived of PS for 72 h and rats allowed to recover after such deprivation. Here we show that GABAergic neurons gating PS (PS-off neurons) are principally located in the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG) and the dorsal part of the deep mesencephalic reticular nucleus immediately ventral to it (dDpMe). Furthermore, iontophoretic application of muscimol for 20 min in this area in head-restrained rats induced a strong and significant increase in PS quantities compared to saline. In addition, we found a large number of GABAergic PS-on neurons in the vlPAG/dDPMe region and the medullary reticular nuclei known to generate muscle atonia during PS. Finally, we showed that PS-on neurons triggering PS localized in the SLD are not GABAergic. Altogether, our results indicate that multiple populations of PS-on GABAergic neurons are distributed in the brainstem while only one population of PS-off GABAergic neurons localized in the vlPAG/dDpMe region exist. From these results, we propose a revised model for PS control in which GABAergic PS-on and PS-off neurons localized in the vlPAG/dDPMe region play leading roles. PMID:19169414

  17. Typing Local Control and State Using Flow Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guha, Arjun; Saftoiu, Claudiu; Krishnamurthi, Shriram

    Programs written in scripting languages employ idioms that confound conventional type systems. In this paper, we highlight one important set of related idioms: the use of local control and state to reason informally about types. To address these idioms, we formalize run-time tags and their relationship to types, and use these to present a novel strategy to integrate typing with flow analysis in a modular way. We demonstrate that in our separation of typing and flow analysis, each component remains conventional, their composition is simple, but the result can handle these idioms better than either one alone.

  18. A 1-year, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of ziprasidone 40, 80 and 160 mg/day in chronic schizophrenia: the Ziprasidone Extended Use in Schizophrenia (ZEUS) study.

    PubMed

    Arato, M; O'Connor, R; Meltzer, H Y

    2002-09-01

    We evaluated relapse in patients with stable, chronic schizophrenia over a 1-year period; inpatients were randomized to ziprasidone 40 mg/day (n = 72), 80 mg/day (n = 68), 160 mg/day (n = 67) or placebo (n = 71). The probability of relapse (Kaplan-Meier) at 1 year was significantly lower in the ziprasidone 40, 80, and 160 mg/day groups (43%, 35% and 36%, respectively) compared to placebo (77%; P = 0.002, P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively). In those patients who remained on treatment for at least 6 months, only 9% subsequently relapsed on ziprasidone compared to 42% on placebo (P = 0.001). All three doses of ziprasidone were significantly superior to placebo on Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) efficacy variables (all P < 0.05). Ziprasidone was associated with a significantly greater mean improvement in the PANSS negative symptom subscale compared to placebo (P < 0.05). Discontinuation due to adverse events was similar with ziprasidone and placebo. Ziprasidone treatment was indistinguishable from placebo in assessments of movement disorders and was not associated with weight gain or cardiovascular abnormalities. These results demonstrate that ziprasidone was effective in reducing the frequency of relapse and was associated with long-term improvement in negative symptoms. Ziprasidone was well tolerated in this population of patients with chronic, stable schizophrenia.

  19. Spherical loudspeaker array for local active control of sound.

    PubMed

    Rafaely, Boaz

    2009-05-01

    Active control of sound has been employed to reduce noise levels around listeners' head using destructive interference from noise-canceling sound sources. Recently, spherical loudspeaker arrays have been studied as multiple-channel sound sources, capable of generating sound fields with high complexity. In this paper, the potential use of a spherical loudspeaker array for local active control of sound is investigated. A theoretical analysis of the primary and secondary sound fields around a spherical sound source reveals that the natural quiet zones for the spherical source have a shell-shape. Using numerical optimization, quiet zones with other shapes are designed, showing potential for quiet zones with extents that are significantly larger than the well-known limit of a tenth of a wavelength for monopole sources. The paper presents several simulation examples showing quiet zones in various configurations.

  20. Controlled generation of intrinsic localized modes in microelectromechanical cantilever arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qingfei; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Dietz, David

    2010-12-01

    We propose a scheme to induce intrinsic localized modes (ILMs) at an arbitrary site in microelectromechanical cantilever arrays. The idea is to locate the particular cantilever beam in the array that one wishes to drive to an oscillating state with significantly higher amplitude than the average and then apply small adjustments to the electrical signal that drives the whole array system. Our scheme is thus a global closed-loop control strategy. We argue that the dynamical mechanism on which our global driving scheme relies is spatiotemporal chaos and we develop a detailed analysis based on the standard averaging method in nonlinear dynamics to understand the working of our control scheme. We also develop a Markov model to characterize the transient time required for inducing ILMs.

  1. Control of local immunity by airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Weitnauer, M; Mijošek, V; Dalpke, A H

    2016-03-01

    The lung is ventilated by thousand liters of air per day. Inevitably, the respiratory system comes into contact with airborne microbial compounds, most of them harmless contaminants. Airway epithelial cells are known to have innate sensor functions, thus being able to detect microbial danger. To avoid chronic inflammation, the pulmonary system has developed specific means to control local immune responses. Even though airway epithelial cells can act as proinflammatory promoters, we propose that under homeostatic conditions airway epithelial cells are important modulators of immune responses in the lung. In this review, we discuss epithelial cell regulatory functions that control reactivity of professional immune cells within the microenvironment of the airways and how these mechanisms are altered in pulmonary diseases. Regulation by epithelial cells can be divided into two mechanisms: (1) mediators regulate epithelial cells' innate sensitivity in cis and (2) factors are produced that limit reactivity of immune cells in trans.

  2. Controlling a microdisk laser by local refractive index perturbation

    SciTech Connect

    Liew, Seng Fatt; Redding, Brandon; Cao, Hui; Ge, Li; Solomon, Glenn S.

    2016-02-01

    We demonstrate a simple yet effective approach of controlling lasing in a semiconductor microdisk by photo-thermal effect. A continuous wave green laser beam, focused onto the microdisk perimeter, can enhance or suppress lasing in different cavity modes, depending on the position of the focused beam. Its main effect is a local modification of the refractive index of the disk, which results in an increase in the power slope of some lasing modes and a decrease of others. The boundary roughness breaks the rotational symmetry of a circular disk, allowing the lasing process to be tuned by varying the green beam position. Using the same approach, we can also fine tune the relative intensity of a quasi-degenerate pair of lasing modes. Such post-fabrication control, enabled by an additional laser beam, is flexible and reversible, thus enhancing the functionality of semiconductor microdisk lasers.

  3. Local problems, local solutions: improving tuberculosis control at the district level in Malawi.

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, P. M.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the causes of a low cure rate at the district level of a tuberculosis (TB) control programme and to formulate, implement, and evaluate an intervention to improve the situation. METHODS: The study setting was Mzuzu (population 60,000), where the annual smear-positive pulmonary TB incidence was 160 per 100,000 and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seroprevalence was 67% among TB patients. There is one TB treatment unit, but several other organizations are involved with TB control. An examination of case-holding activities was carried out, potential areas for improvement were identified, and interventions performed. FINDINGS: In 1990-91, the cure rate was 24% among smear-positive cases (29% among survivors to end of treatment). Problems identified included a fragmented TB control programme; inadequate training and supervision; suboptimal recording of patients' addresses; and nonadherence to national TB control programme protocols. These problems were addressed, and in 1992-93 the cure rate rose to 68% (relative risk (RR) = 2.85 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.63, 4.96)) and to 92% among survivors to the end of treatment (RR = 3.12 (95% CI = 1.84, 5.29)). High cure rates are therefore achievable despite high HIV prevalence. CONCLUSIONS: Simple, inexpensive, local programmatic interventions can dramatically improve TB case holding. This study demonstrates the need for evaluation, training, and supervision at all levels of the programme. PMID:11242817

  4. Pain control via opioid analgesic-local anesthetic loaded IPNs.

    PubMed

    Keskin, Dilek Sendil; Wise, Donald L; Hasirci, Vasif

    2004-01-01

    Relief of chronic pain is an important clinical problem requiring special care and approaches. The present study was designed for the construction of a controlled release system for local application of analgesics (hydromorphone (HM), morphine (M), and codeine (C)) and a local anesthetic, bupivacaine (BP). An interpenetrating network (IPN) drug release system was prepared by using a biocompatible, biodegradable copolyester, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) and another biocompatible but synthetic, nondegradable polymer, poly (2- hydroxyethyl methacrylate), (PHEMA). In situ release kinetics of the IPN system was first order for BP but could not be fitted to any known equation for the other drugs. Complete release from the IPNs occurred within a considerably short time (24 h for 80 % of the drugs) most probably due to the significant hydrophilicity of PHEMA. In order to slow down the release rate these IPNs were coated with PHBV. Release from these coated IPNs (cIPN) resulted in rates that could be described by Higuchi's equations. In vivo measurement of antinociceptive efficacy was carried out in rats with tail flick and paw-withdrawal tests after inducing chronic pain created by sciatic nerve ligation at the right side. Control groups received placebo implants. In vivo studies showed potent, prolonged (2-3 days) antinociception at the site of injury (right paw) for strong opioids (HM and M) and about 2 days for the weak opioid (C) and local anesthetic (BP). In all cases the release rate was found to be as important as the antinociceptive potency. The weakest opioid analgesic of those evaluated (C) had a higher first day antinociception than its stronger counterpart M, probably due to its higher initial concentration that was expected from its faster release rate in the in situ experiments.

  5. Evaluating the effectiveness of localized control strategies to curtail chikungunya

    PubMed Central

    Ndeffo-Mbah, Martial L.; Durham, David P.; Skrip, Laura A.; Nsoesie, Elaine O.; Brownstein, John S.; Fish, Durland; Galvani, Alison P.

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya, a re-emerging arbovirus transmitted to humans by Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes, causes debilitating disease characterized by an acute febrile phase and chronic joint pain. Chikungunya has recently spread to the island of St. Martin and subsequently throughout the Americas. The disease is now affecting 42 countries and territories throughout the Americas. While chikungunya is mainly a tropical disease, the recent introduction and subsequent spread of Ae. albopictus into temperate regions has increased the threat of chikungunya outbreaks beyond the tropics. Given that there are currently no vaccines or treatments for chikungunya, vector control remains the primary measure to curtail transmission. To investigate the effectiveness of a containment strategy that combines disease surveillance, localized vector control and transmission reduction measures, we developed a model of chikungunya transmission dynamics within a large residential neighborhood, explicitly accounting for human and mosquito movement. Our findings indicate that prompt targeted vector control efforts combined with measures to reduce transmission from symptomatic cases to mosquitoes may be highly effective approaches for controlling outbreaks of chikungunya, provided that sufficient detection of chikungunya cases can be achieved. PMID:27045523

  6. Flutter of wings involving a locally distributed flexible control surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mozaffari-Jovin, S.; Firouz-Abadi, R. D.; Roshanian, J.

    2015-11-01

    This paper undertakes to facilitate appraisal of aeroelastic interaction of a locally distributed, flap-type control surface with aircraft wings operating in a subsonic potential flow field. The extended Hamilton's principle serves as a framework to ascertain the Euler-Lagrange equations for coupled bending-torsional-flap vibration. An analytical solution to this boundary-value problem is then accomplished by assumed modes and the extended Galerkin's method. The developed aeroelastic model considers both the inherent flexibility of the control surface displaced on the wing and the inertial coupling between these two flexible bodies. The structural deformations also obey the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory, along with the Kelvin-Voigt viscoelastic constitutive law. Meanwhile, the unsteady thin-airfoil and strip theories are the tools of producing the three-dimensional airloads. The origin of aerodynamic instability undergoes analysis in light of the oscillatory loads as well as the loads owing to arbitrary motions. After successful verification of the model, a systematic flutter survey was conducted on the theoretical effects of various control surface parameters. The results obtained demonstrate that the flapping modes and parameters of the control surface can significantly impact the flutter characteristics of the wings, which leads to a series of pertinent conclusions.

  7. Interaction Between Strategic and Local Traffic Flow Controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grabbe, Son; Sridhar, Banavar; Mukherjee, Avijit; Morando, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    The loosely coordinated sets of traffic flow management initiatives that are operationally implemented at the national- and local-levels have the potential to under, over, and inconsistently control flights. This study is designed to explore these interactions through fast-time simulations with an emphasis on identifying inequitable situations in which flights receive multiple uncoordinated delays. Two operationally derived scenarios were considered in which flights arriving into the Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport were first controlled at the national-level, either with a Ground Delay Program or a playbook reroute. These flights were subsequently controlled at the local level. The Traffic Management Advisor assigned them arrival scheduling delays. For the Ground Delay Program scenarios, between 51% and 53% of all arrivals experience both pre-departure delays from the Ground Delay Program and arrival scheduling delays from the Traffic Management Advisor. Of the subset of flights that received multiple delays, between 5.7% and 6.4% of the internal departures were first assigned a pre-departure delay by the Ground Delay Program, followed by a second pre-departure delay as a result of the arrival scheduling. For the playbook reroute scenario, Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport arrivals were first assigned pre-departure reroutes based on the MW_2_DALLAS playbook plan, and were subsequently assigned arrival scheduling delays by the Traffic Management Advisor. Since the airport was operating well below capacity when the playbook reroute was in effect, only 7% of the arrivals were observed to receive both rerouting and arrival scheduling delays. Findings from these initial experiments confirm field observations that Ground Delay Programs operated in conjunction with arrival scheduling can result in inequitable situations in which flights receive multiple uncoordinated delays.

  8. Cell Cycle Programs of Gene Expression Control Morphogenetic Protein Localization

    PubMed Central

    Lord, Matthew; Yang, Melody C.; Mischke, Michelle; Chant, John

    2000-01-01

    Genomic studies in yeast have revealed that one eighth of genes are cell cycle regulated in their expression. Almost without exception, the significance of cell cycle periodic gene expression has not been tested. Given that many such genes are critical to cellular morphogenesis, we wanted to examine the importance of periodic gene expression to this process. The expression profiles of two genes required for the axial pattern of cell division, BUD3 and BUD10/AXL2/SRO4, are strongly cell cycle regulated. BUD3 is expressed close to the onset of mitosis. BUD10 is expressed in late G1. Through promotor-swap experiments, the expression profile of each gene was altered and the consequences examined. We found that an S/G2 pulse of BUD3 expression controls the timing of Bud3p localization, but that this timing is not critical to Bud3p function. In contrast, a G1 pulse of BUD10 expression plays a direct role in Bud10p localization and function. Bud10p, a membrane protein, relies on the polarized secretory machinery specific to G1 to be delivered to its proper location. Such a secretion-based targeting mechanism for membrane proteins provides cells with flexibility in remodeling their architecture or evolving new forms. PMID:11134078

  9. Impulse-induced localized control of chaos in starlike networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chacón, Ricardo; Palmero, Faustino; Cuevas-Maraver, Jesús

    2016-06-01

    Locally decreasing the impulse transmitted by periodic pulses is shown to be a reliable method of taming chaos in starlike networks of dissipative nonlinear oscillators, leading to both synchronous periodic states and equilibria (oscillation death). Specifically, the paradigmatic model of damped kicked rotators is studied in which it is assumed that when the rotators are driven synchronously, i.e., all driving pulses transmit the same impulse, the networks display chaotic dynamics. It is found that the taming effect of decreasing the impulse transmitted by the pulses acting on particular nodes strongly depends on their number and degree of connectivity. A theoretical analysis is given explaining the basic physical mechanism as well as the main features of the chaos-control scenario.

  10. Impulse-induced localized control of chaos in starlike networks.

    PubMed

    Chacón, Ricardo; Palmero, Faustino; Cuevas-Maraver, Jesús

    2016-06-01

    Locally decreasing the impulse transmitted by periodic pulses is shown to be a reliable method of taming chaos in starlike networks of dissipative nonlinear oscillators, leading to both synchronous periodic states and equilibria (oscillation death). Specifically, the paradigmatic model of damped kicked rotators is studied in which it is assumed that when the rotators are driven synchronously, i.e., all driving pulses transmit the same impulse, the networks display chaotic dynamics. It is found that the taming effect of decreasing the impulse transmitted by the pulses acting on particular nodes strongly depends on their number and degree of connectivity. A theoretical analysis is given explaining the basic physical mechanism as well as the main features of the chaos-control scenario.

  11. Endocrine and Local Control of the Primate Corpus Luteum

    PubMed Central

    Stouffer, Richard L.; Bishop, Cecily V.; Bogan, Randy L.; Xu, Fuhua; Hennebold, Jon D.

    2014-01-01

    The primate corpus luteum is a transient endocrine gland that differentiates from the ovulatory follicle midway through the ovarian (menstrual) cycle. Its formation and limited lifespan is critical for fertility, as luteal-derived progesterone is the essential steroid hormone required for embryo implantation and maintenance of intra-uterine pregnancy until the placenta develops. It is well-established that LH and the LH-like hormone, CG, are the vital luteotropic hormones during the menstrual cycle and early pregnancy, respectively. Recent advances, particularly through genome analyses and cellular studies, increased our understanding of various local factors and cellular processes associated with the development, maintenance and repression of the corpus luteum. These include paracrine or autocrine factors associated with angiogenesis (e.g., VEGF), and that mediate LH/CG actions (e.g., progesterone), or counteract luteotropic effects (i.e., local luteolysis; e.g., PGF2α). However, areas of mystery and controversy remain, particularly regarding the signals and events that initiate luteal regression in the non-fecund cycle. Novel approaches capable of gene “knockdown” or amplification”, in vivo as well as in vitro, should identify novel or underappreciated gene products that are regulated by or modulate LH/CG actions to control the functional lifespan of the primate corpus luteum. Further advances in our understanding of luteal physiology will help to improve or control fertility for purposes ranging from preservation of endangered primate species to designing novel ovary-based contraceptives and treating ovarian disorders in women. R01 HD020869, R01 HD042000, U54 HD018185, U54 HD055744, P51 OD011092, T32 HD007133, Bayer Schering Pharma AG. PMID:24287034

  12. Multicomponent physical exercise with simultaneous cognitive training to enhance dual-task walking of older adults: a secondary analysis of a 6-month randomized controlled trial with 1-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Eggenberger, Patrick; Theill, Nathan; Holenstein, Stefan; Schumacher, Vera; de Bruin, Eling D

    2015-01-01

    Background About one-third of people older than 65 years fall at least once a year. Physical exercise has been previously demonstrated to improve gait, enhance physical fitness, and prevent falls. Nonetheless, the addition of cognitive training components may potentially increase these effects, since cognitive impairment is related to gait irregularities and fall risk. We hypothesized that simultaneous cognitive–physical training would lead to greater improvements in dual-task (DT) gait compared to exclusive physical training. Methods Elderly persons older than 70 years and without cognitive impairment were randomly assigned to the following groups: 1) virtual reality video game dancing (DANCE), 2) treadmill walking with simultaneous verbal memory training (MEMORY), or 3) treadmill walking (PHYS). Each program was complemented with strength and balance exercises. Two 1-hour training sessions per week over 6 months were applied. Gait variables, functional fitness (Short Physical Performance Battery, 6-minute walk), and fall frequencies were assessed at baseline, after 3 months and 6 months, and at 1-year follow-up. Multiple regression analyses with planned comparisons were carried out. Results Eighty-nine participants were randomized to three groups initially; 71 completed the training and 47 were available at 1-year follow-up. DANCE/MEMORY showed a significant advantage compared to PHYS in DT costs of step time variability at fast walking (P=0.044). Training-specific gait adaptations were found on comparing DANCE and MEMORY: DANCE reduced step time at fast walking (P=0.007) and MEMORY reduced gait variability in DT and DT costs at preferred walking speed (both trend P=0.062). Global linear time effects showed improved gait (P<0.05), functional fitness (P<0.05), and reduced fall frequency (−77%, P<0.001). Only single-task fast walking, gait variability at preferred walking speed, and Short Physical Performance Battery were reduced at follow-up (all P<0.05 or

  13. Ribbon Ion Beam with Controlled Directionality and Local Reactive Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biloiu, Costel; Gilchrist, Glen; Kontos, Alex; Basame, Solomon; Rockwell, Tyler; Campbell, Chris; Daniels, Kevin; Allen, Ernest; Wallace, Jay; Ballou, Jon; Hertel, Richard; Chen, Tsung-Liang; Liang, Shurong; Singh, Vikram

    2016-09-01

    A plasma processing technology designed for etch of 3D semiconductor structures is presented. The technology is characterized by controllable ion directionality and local reactive chemistry and it is based on proprietary Applied Materials - Varian Semiconductor Equipment ribbon ion beam architecture. It uses a combination of inert gas ion beam and injection of reactive chemical species at the Point-of-Use (PoU), i.e., at the wafer surface. The ion source uses an inductively coupled plasma source and a diode-type extraction optics. A beam shaping electrode allows extraction of two symmetrical ribbon-like beamlets. The ion beam has in situ controllable ion angular distribution in both mean angle and angular spread. The beam has a uniform distribution of beam current and angles over a waist exceeding 300 mm, allowing full wafer processing in one pass. Chemical compounds are delivered at PoU through linear shower heads. The reactive chemical compound delivered in this fashion maintains its molecular integrity. This result in protection of the trench side walls from deposition of etch residue and facilitates formation of volatile byproducts. The technology was used successfully for mitigation of Magnetic Tunel Junction etch residue. Other applications were this technology differentiate from present technologies are contact liner etch, Co recess, and 1D hole elongation.

  14. A fuzzy controller with nonlinear control rules is the sum of a global nonlinear controller and a local nonlinear PI-like controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ying, Hao

    1993-01-01

    The fuzzy controllers studied in this paper are the ones that employ N trapezoidal-shaped members for input fuzzy sets, Zadeh fuzzy logic and a centroid defuzzification algorithm for output fuzzy set. The author analytically proves that the structure of the fuzzy controllers is the sum of a global nonlinear controller and a local nonlinear proportional-integral-like controller. If N approaches infinity, the global controller becomes a nonlinear controller while the local controller disappears. If linear control rules are used, the global controller becomes a global two-dimensional multilevel relay which approaches a global linear proportional-integral (PI) controller as N approaches infinity.

  15. Controlled localized buckling responses of orthodontic arch wires.

    PubMed

    Nikolai, R J; Chung, A Y

    1999-09-01

    The orthodontic arch wire is often activated locally, in transverse bending and/or longitudinal torsion, to engage an individual malaligned tooth. Arch wires with substantial flexibilities and elastic ranges in bending are available. Several clinical reports of distal displacements of molars with appliances activated by locally buckling the arch wire have appeared in the recent published literature. This article contains an explanation of buckling or "column" action and the postbuckling response of a wire, and a report of the results of a controlled, in-vitro study of a sample of 256 wire segments subjected to activation-deactivation, buckling-postbuckling-unbuckling cycles. Continuous force-displacement diagrams were obtained from mechanical tests run at oral temperature. Four orthodontics-relevant, mechanical characteristics were quantified from each diagram, and each specimen was subjected to posttest evaluation for inelastic behavior. Although the deformation of the buckled wire is, in fact, bending, the force-displacement diagrams obtained differed substantially from their familiar counterparts generated in transverse bending. Judging from the force magnitudes induced as the deactivation half-cycles commenced as well as the deactivation rates, not all of the 8 wires seem to be clinically suitable for activation initiated by buckling. Magnitudes of springback were substantial from activations as large as 6 mm, and only 2 of the 8 wires exhibited full deactivations less than 80% of their activating displacements. This relatively new mode of arch wire activation that enables delivery to the dentition of mesiodistal pushing forces has substantial potential for clinical application from several biomechanical standpoints.

  16. Local control stations: Human engineering issues and insights

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, W.S.; Higgins, J.C.; O`Hara, J.M.

    1994-09-01

    The objective of this research project was to evaluate current human engineering at local control stations (LCSs) in nuclear power plants, and to identify good human engineering practices relevant to the design of these operator interfaces. General literature and reports of operating experience were reviewed to determine the extent and type of human engineering deficiencies at LCSs in nuclear power plants. In-plant assessments were made of human engineering at single-function as well as multifunction LCSs. Besides confirming the existence of human engineering deficiencies at LCSs, the in-plant assessments provided information about the human engineering upgrades that have been made at nuclear power plants. Upgrades were typically the result of any of three influences regulatory activity, broad industry initiatives such as INPO, and specific in-plant programs (e.g. activities related to training). It is concluded that the quality of LCSs is quite variable and might be improved if there were greater awareness of good practices and existing human engineering guidance relevant to these operator interfaces, which is available from a variety of sources. To make such human engineering guidance more readily accessible, guidelines were compiled from such sources and included in the report as an appendix.

  17. Local modulation of steroid action: rapid control of enzymatic activity

    PubMed Central

    Charlier, Thierry D.; Cornil, Charlotte A.; Patte-Mensah, Christine; Meyer, Laurence; Mensah-Nyagan, A. Guy; Balthazart, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Estrogens can induce rapid, short-lived physiological and behavioral responses, in addition to their slow, but long-term, effects at the transcriptional level. To be functionally relevant, these effects should be associated with rapid modulations of estrogens concentrations. 17β-estradiol is synthesized by the enzyme aromatase, using testosterone as a substrate, but can also be degraded into catechol-estrogens via hydroxylation by the same enzyme, leading to an increase or decrease in estrogens concentration, respectively. The first evidence that aromatase activity (AA) can be rapidly modulated came from experiments performed in Japanese quail hypothalamus homogenates. This rapid modulation is triggered by calcium-dependent phosphorylations and was confirmed in other tissues and species. The mechanisms controlling the phosphorylation status, the targeted amino acid residues and the reversibility seem to vary depending of the tissues and is discussed in this review. We currently do not know whether the phosphorylation of the same amino acid affects both aromatase and/or hydroxylase activities or whether these residues are different. These processes provide a new general mechanism by which local estrogen concentration can be rapidly altered in the brain and other tissues. PMID:25852459

  18. Pulmonary toxicity of cyclophosphamide: a 1-year study

    SciTech Connect

    Morse, C.C.; Sigler, C.; Lock, S.; Hakkinen, P.J.; Haschek, W.M.; Witschi, H.P.

    1985-01-01

    The development of cyclophosphamide-induced pulmonary lesions over a 1-year period was studied in mice. Male BALB/c mice received a single intraperitoneal injection of 100 mg/kg of cyclophosphamide. Within 3 weeks there were scattered foci of intraalveolar foamy macrophages. With time, these foci increased in size and, 1 year later, occupied large areas in all lung lobes. There was also diffuse interstitial fibrosis. Chemical determination done 3, 12, 24, and 52 weeks after cyclophosphamide showed that lungs of animals treated with cyclophosphamide had significantly more hydroxyproline per lung than controls. One year after cyclophosphamide pressure - volume curves measured in vivo were shifted down and to the right and total lung volumes were decreased. A single injection of cyclophosphamide produced an irreversible and progressive pulmonary lesion. 16 references, 5 figures, 3 tables.

  19. Local effects of structure formation and control in self-organizing systems. II

    SciTech Connect

    Chugaev, V.I.

    1995-09-01

    This theoretical problem focuses on stability, controllability, and adaptation methods in nonlinear distributed dissipative systems subject to external local changes of diffusion coefficients. The control directly affect the main equations describing the controlled system, and it is applied in the form of a local change in the field of diffusion coefficients of the reactive system at the control point.

  20. Racial Isolation, Poverty, and the Limits of Local Control in Oakland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noguera, Pedro A.

    2004-01-01

    Historically, schools in the United States have been governed at the local level by elected school boards, and finances have been raised primarily through local property taxes. While local control theoretically allows for greater responsiveness to local concerns, it does not take into account the vast inequality among and between communities in…

  1. Improvement in Growth After 1 Year of Growth Hormone Therapy in Well-Nourished Infants with Growth Retardation Secondary to Chronic Renal Failure: Results of a Multicenter, Controlled, Randomized, Open Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, M. Llanos; Neto, Arlete; Ariceta, Gema; Vara, Julia; Alonso, Angel; Bueno, Alberto; Afonso, Alberto Caldas; Correia, António Jorge; Muley, Rafael; Barrios, Vicente; Gómez, Carlos; Argente, Jesús

    2010-01-01

    Background and objectives: Our aim was to evaluate the growth-promoting effect of growth hormone (GH) treatment in infants with chronic renal failure (CRF) and persistent growth retardation despite adequate nutritional and metabolic management. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: The study design included randomized, parallel groups in an open, multicenter trial comparing GH (0.33 mg/kg per wk) with nontreatment with GH during 12 months. Sixteen infants who had growth retardation, were aged 12 ± 3 months, had CRF (GFR ≤60 ml/min per 1.73 m2), and had adequate nutritional intake and good metabolic control were recruited from eight pediatric nephrology departments from Spain and Portugal. Main outcome measures were body length, body weight, bone age, biochemical and hormonal analyses, renal function, bone mass, and adverse effects. Results: Length gain in infants who were treated with GH was statistically greater (P < 0.05) than that of nontreated children (14.5 versus 9.5 cm/yr; SD score 1.43 versus −0.11). The GH-induced stimulation of growth was associated with no undesirable effects on bone maturation, renal failure progression, or metabolic control. In addition, GH treatment improved forearm bone mass and increased serum concentrations of total and free IGF-I and IGF-binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3), whereas IGF-II, IGFBP-1, IGFBP-2, GH-binding protein, ghrelin, and leptin were not modified. Conclusions: Infants with CRF and growth retardation despite good metabolic and nutritional control benefit from GH treatment without adverse effects during 12 months of therapy. PMID:20522533

  2. California's First Year with Local Control Finance and Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menefee-Libey, David J.; Kerchner, Charles Taylor

    2015-01-01

    In 2013, Governor Jerry Brown and the California legislature radically restructured the state's school funding system and accountability systems with a weighted student formula and a mandated local planning process in each district. The new law substitutes local politics and grassroots agency for state-driven mandates and compliance reviews. While…

  3. Arterial identity of endothelial cells is controlled by local cues.

    PubMed

    Othman-Hassan, K; Patel, K; Papoutsi, M; Rodriguez-Niedenführ, M; Christ, B; Wilting, J

    2001-09-15

    The ephrins and their Eph receptors comprise the largest family of receptor tyrosine kinases. Studies on mice have revealed an important function of ephrin-B2 and Eph-B4 for the development of the arterial and venous vasculature, respectively, but the mechanisms regulating their expression have not been studied yet. We have cloned a chick ephrin-B2 cDNA probe. Expression was observed in endothelial cells of extra- and intraembryonic arteries and arterioles in all embryos studied from day 2 (stage 10 HH, before perfusion of the vessels) to day 16. Additionally, expression was found in the somites and neural tube in early stages, and later also in the smooth muscle cells of the aorta, parts of the Müllerian duct, dosal neural tube, and joints of the limbs. We isolated endothelial cells from the internal carotid artery and the vena cava of 14-day-old quail embryos and grafted them separately into day-3 chick embryos. Reincubation was performed until day 6 and the quail endothelial cells were identified with the QH1 antibody. The grafted arterial and venous endothelial cells expressed ephrin-B2 when they integrated into the lining of arteries. Cells that were not integrated into vessels, or into vessels other than arteries, were ephrin-B2-negative. The studies show that the expression of the arterial marker ephrin-B2 is controlled by local cues in arterial vessels of older embryos. Physical forces or the media smooth muscle cells may be involved in this process.

  4. Interface Shape Control Using Localized Heating during Bridgman Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volz, M. P.; Mazuruk, K.; Aggarwal, M. D.; Croll, A.

    2008-01-01

    Numerical calculations were performed to assess the effect of localized radial heating on the melt-crystal interface shape during vertical Bridgman growth. System parameters examined include the ampoule, melt and crystal thermal conductivities, the magnitude and width of localized heating, and the latent heat of crystallization. Concave interface shapes, typical of semiconductor systems, could be flattened or made convex with localized heating. Although localized heating caused shallower thermal gradients ahead of the interface, the magnitude of the localized heating required for convexity was less than that which resulted in a thermal inversion ahead of the interface. A convex interface shape was most readily achieved with ampoules of lower thermal conductivity. Increasing melt convection tended to flatten the interface, but the amount of radial heating required to achieve a convex interface was essentially independent of the convection intensity.

  5. The Parkinson-Control study: a 1-year randomized, double-blind trial comparing piribedil (150 mg/day) with bromocriptine (25 mg/day) in early combination with levodopa in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Castro-Caldas, Alexandre; Delwaide, Paul; Jost, Wolfgang; Merello, Marcelo; Williams, Adrian; Lamberti, Paolo; Aguilar, Miguel; Del Signore, Susanna; Cesaro, Pierre

    2006-04-01

    Dopamine agonists have been recommended as early treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD), alone or combined with levodopa. Piribedil is a non-ergot selective D(2)/D(3) agonist with alpha(2) antagonist properties shown to be effective in the treatment of PD. This 12-month international, randomized, double-blind trial aimed to assess the efficacy of piribedil 150 mg versus bromocriptine 25 mg, in early combination with levodopa in Stage I to III PD patients. Motor efficacy was assessed using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS III, Items 18-31) as improvement from baseline. Response rate was defined as a 30% improvement. Among the 425 randomly assigned patients, 178 were also included in a substudy on cognitive follow-up evaluated by a dysexecutive syndrome oriented battery. A relevant improvement in UPDRS III over the 12-month study duration was observed both in the piribedil and bromocriptine groups (-7.9 +/- 9.7 points from baseline versus -8.0 +/- 9.5; not significant [n.s.]) with a response rate of 58.4% and 55.3% (n.s.), respectively. Piribedil and bromocriptine resulted in similar improvement on all UPDRS III subscores. Piribedil patients required less levodopa dose increase than those on bromocriptine. Cognitive performance remained generally unchanged in both groups, with a significant effect of piribedil limited to the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. An overall good tolerability of piribedil was observed. Early combination of piribedil 150 mg with levodopa resulted in significant long-term improvement of all motor symptoms in PD patients insufficiently controlled by levodopa alone. Taking into account both efficacy and acceptability in the long-term, piribedil proved in this bromocriptine controlled study to be an effective and safe treatment for PD.

  6. Controlling chaos with localized heterogeneous forces in oscillator chains.

    PubMed

    Chacón, Ricardo

    2006-10-01

    The effects of decreasing the impulse transmitted by localized periodic pulses on the chaotic behavior of homogeneous chains of coupled nonlinear oscillators are studied. It is assumed that when the oscillators are driven synchronously, i.e., all driving pulses transmit the same impulse, the chains display chaotic dynamics. It is shown that decreasing the impulse transmitted by the pulses of the two free end oscillators results in regularization with the whole array exhibiting frequency synchronization, irrespective of the chain size. A maximum level of amplitude desynchrony as the pulses of the two end oscillators narrow is typically found, which is explained as the result of two competing universal mechanisms: desynchronization induced by localized heterogeneous pulses and oscillation death of the complete chain induced by drastic decreasing of the impulse transmitted by such localized pulses. These findings demonstrate that decreasing the impulse transmitted by localized external forces can suppress chaos and lead to frequency-locked states in networks of dissipative systems.

  7. Incidence of urinary retention during treatment with single tablet combinations of solifenacin+tamsulosin OCAS™ for up to 1 year in adult men with both storage and voiding LUTS: A subanalysis of the NEPTUNE/NEPTUNE II randomized controlled studies

    PubMed Central

    Drake, Marcus J.; Oelke, Matthias; Snijder, Robert; Klaver, Monique; Traudtner, Klaudia; van Charldorp, Karin; Bongaerts, Dominique; Van Kerrebroeck, Philip

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The emergence of urinary retention (UR), specifically acute urinary retention (AUR), has been a concern when treating men with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) with antimuscarinic drugs. Materials and methods In NEPTUNE (12-week, double-blind), men (≥45 years) with LUTS were randomized to receive tamsulosin oral-controlled absorption system (TOCAS) 0.4 mg, fixed-dose combination (FDC) of solifenacin (Soli) 6 mg + TOCAS 0.4 mg, FDC Soli 9 mg + TOCAS 0.4 mg, or placebo. In NEPTUNE II (40-week, open-label extension of NEPTUNE), continuing patients received 4-week FDC Soli 6 mg + TOCAS, then FDC Soli 6 mg or 9 mg + TOCAS for the remainder of the study, switchable every 3 months. Results Across both studies, 1208 men received ≥1 dose of FDC Soli 6 mg or 9 mg + TOCAS for up to 52 weeks; 1199 men completed NEPTUNE and 1066 received ≥1 dose in NEPTUNE II. In total, 13 men (1.1%; 95% CI, 0.6%–1.8%) reported a UR event while receiving FDC, eight of which were AUR (0.7%; 95% CI, 0.3%–1.3%, incidence 7/1000 man-years). Six men reported UR events while taking Soli 6 mg + TOCAS (three AUR), and seven men reported a UR event while taking Soli 9 mg + TOCAS (five AUR). One man developed AUR while taking TOCAS alone and four reported UR (three AUR) during placebo run-in. Most AUR/UR events occurred within 4 months of treatment initiation. Conclusions FDC Soli and TOCAS was associated with a low rate of UR and AUR in men with LUTS. PMID:28166296

  8. Controlling local order of athermal self-propelled particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dougan, Niamh; Crowther, Peter; Royall, C. Patrick; Turci, Francesco

    2016-12-01

    We consider a model of self-propelled dynamics for athermal active particles, where the non-equilibrium active forces are modelled by a Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process. In the limit of no-driving force, the model reduces to the passive, Brownian dynamics of an atomistic glass forming fluid, the Wahnström binary mixture. The Wahnström mixture is known to show strong correlations between the emergence of slow dynamics and the formation of locally favoured structures based on icosahedra. Here, we study how the non-equilibrium driving affects the local structure of the system, and find that it strongly promotes icosahedral order. The states rich in local icosahedral order correspond to configurations of very low potential energy, suggesting that the non-equilibrium dynamics in the self propelled model can be effectively exploited to explore the potential energy surface of the binary mixture and have access to states that are difficult to attain using passive dynamics.

  9. How does mass loading impact local versus global control on dayside reconnection?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, B.; Brambles, O. J.; Wiltberger, M.; Lotko, W.; Ouellette, J. E.; Lyon, J. G.

    2016-03-01

    This paper investigates the effects of magnetospheric mass loading on the control of dayside magnetic reconnection using global magnetospheric simulations. The study iys motivated by a recent debate on whether the integrated dayside magnetic reconnection rate is solely controlled by local processes (local-control theory) or global merging processes (global-control theory). The local-control theory suggests that the integrated dayside reconnection rate is controlled by the local plasma parameters. The global-control theory argues that the integrated rate is determined by the net force acting on the flow in the magnetosheath rather than the local microphysics. Controlled numerical simulations using idealized ionospheric outflow specifications suggest a possible mixed-control theory, that is, (1) a small amount of mass loading at the dayside magnetopause only redistributes local reconnection rate without a significant change in the integrated reconnection rate and (2) a large amount of mass loading reduces both local reconnection rates and the integrated reconnection rate on the dayside. The transition between global-control- and local-control-dominated regimes depends on (but not limited to) the source region, the amount, the location, and the spatial extension of the mass loading at the dayside magnetopause.

  10. Thailand Momentum on Policy and Practice in Local Legislation on Dengue Vector Control

    PubMed Central

    Bhumiratana, Adisak; Intarapuk, Apiradee; Chujun, Suriyo; Kaewwaen, Wuthichai; Sorosjinda-Nunthawarasilp, Prapa; Koyadun, Surachart

    2014-01-01

    Over a past decade, an administrative decentralization model, adopted for local administration development in Thailand, is replacing the prior centralized (top-down) command system. The change offers challenges to local governmental agencies and other public health agencies at all the ministerial, regional, and provincial levels. A public health regulatory and legislative framework for dengue vector control by local governmental agencies is a national topic of interest because dengue control program has been integrated into healthcare services at the provincial level and also has been given priority in health plans of local governmental agencies. The enabling environments of local administrations are unique, so this critical review focuses on the authority of local governmental agencies responsible for disease prevention and control and on the functioning of local legislation with respect to dengue vector control and practices. PMID:24799896

  11. Local Measurement of Fuel Energy Deposition and Heat Transfer Environment During Fuel Lifetime Using Controlled Calorimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Don W. Miller; Andrew Kauffmann; Eric Kreidler; Dongxu Li; Hanying Liu; Daniel Mills; Thomas D. Radcliff; Joseph Talnagi

    2001-12-31

    A comprehensive description of the accomplishments of the DOE grant titled, ''Local Measurement of Fuel Energy Deposition and Heat Transfer Environment During Fuel Lifetime using Controlled Calorimetry''.

  12. Adjuvant Radiation Therapy Improves Local Control After Surgical Resection in Patients With Localized Adrenocortical Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Sabolch, Aaron; Else, Tobias; Griffith, Kent A.; Ben-Josef, Edgar; Williams, Andrew; Miller, Barbra S.; Worden, Francis; Jolly, Shruti

    2015-06-01

    Purpose: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignancy known for high rates of local recurrence, though the benefit of postoperative radiation therapy (RT) has not been established. In this study of grossly resected ACC, we compare local control of patients treated with surgery followed by adjuvant RT to a matched cohort treated with surgery alone. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively identified patients with localized disease who underwent R0 or R1 resection followed by adjuvant RT. Only patients treated with RT at our institution were included. Matching to surgical controls was on the basis of stage, surgical margin status, tumor grade, and adjuvant mitotane. Results: From 1991 to 2011, 360 ACC patients were evaluated for ACC at the University of Michigan (Ann Arbor, MI). Twenty patients with localized disease received postoperative adjuvant RT. These were matched to 20 controls. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups with regard to stage, margins, grade, or mitotane. Median RT dose was 55 Gy (range, 45-60 Gy). Median follow-up was 34 months. Local recurrence occurred in 1 patient treated with RT, compared with 12 patients not treated with RT (P=.0005; hazard ratio [HR] 12.59; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.62-97.88). However, recurrence-free survival was no different between the groups (P=.17; HR 1.52; 95% CI 0.67-3.45). Overall survival was also not significantly different (P=.13; HR 1.97; 95% CI 0.57-6.77), with 4 deaths in the RT group compared with 9 in the control group. Conclusions: Postoperative RT significantly improved local control compared with the use of surgery alone in this case-matched cohort analysis of grossly resected ACC patients. Although this retrospective series represents the largest study to date on adjuvant RT for ACC, its findings need to be prospectively confirmed.

  13. Local Anesthesia Versus Local Anesthesia and Conscious Sedation for Inguinal Hernioplasty: Protocol of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Toppin, Patrick J; Reid, Marvin; Plummer, Joseph M; Roberts, Patrick O; Harding-Goldson, Hyacinth; McFarlane, Michael E

    2017-01-01

    Background Conscious sedation is regularly used in ambulatory surgery to improve patient outcomes, in particular patient satisfaction. Reports suggest that the addition of conscious sedation to local anesthesia for inguinal hernioplasty is safe and effective in improving patient satisfaction. No previous randomized controlled trial has assessed the benefit of conscious sedation in this regard. Objective To determine whether the addition of conscious sedation to local anesthesia improves patient satisfaction with inguinal hernioplasty. Methods This trial is designed as a single-center, randomized, placebo-controlled, blinded trial of 148 patients. Adult patients diagnosed with a reducible, unilateral inguinal hernia eligible for hernioplasty using local anesthesia will be recruited. The intervention will be the use of intravenous midazolam for conscious sedation. Normal saline will be used as placebo in the control group. The primary outcome will be patient satisfaction, measured using the validated Iowa Satisfaction with Anesthesia Scale. Secondary outcomes will include intra- and postoperative pain, operative time, volumes of sedative agent and local anesthetic used, time to discharge, early and late complications, and postoperative functional status. Results To date, 171 patients have been recruited. Surgery has been performed on 149 patients, meeting the sample size requirements. Follow-up assessments are still ongoing. Trial completion is expected in August 2017. Conclusions This randomized controlled trial is the first to assess the effectiveness of conscious sedation in improving patient satisfaction with inguinal hernioplasty using local anesthesia. If the results demonstrate improved patient satisfaction with conscious sedation, this would support routine incorporation of conscious sedation in local inguinal hernioplasty and potentially influence national and international hernia surgery guidelines. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02444260; https

  14. Local Government Planning Tool to Calculate Institutional and Engineering Control Costs for Brownfield Properties

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This cost calculator is designed as a guide for municipal or local governments to assist in calculating their expected costs of implementing and conducting long-term stewardship of institutional controls and engineering controls at brownfield properties.

  15. Local geology controlled the feasibility of vitrifying Iron Age buildings

    PubMed Central

    Wadsworth, Fabian B.; Heap, Michael J.; Damby, David E.; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Najorka, Jens; Vasseur, Jérémie; Fahrner, Dominik; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2017-01-01

    During European prehistory, hilltop enclosures made from polydisperse particle-and-block stone walling were exposed to temperatures sufficient to partially melt the constituent stonework, leading to the preservation of glassy walls called ‘vitrified forts’. During vitrification, the granular wall rocks partially melt, sinter viscously and densify, reducing inter-particle porosity. This process is strongly dependent on the solidus temperature, the particle sizes, the temperature-dependence of the viscosity of the evolving liquid phase, as well as the distribution and longevity of heat. Examination of the sintering behaviour of 45 European examples reveals that it is the raw building material that governs the vitrification efficiency. As Iron Age forts were commonly constructed from local stone, we conclude that local geology directly influenced the degree to which buildings were vitrified in the Iron Age. Additionally, we find that vitrification is accompanied by a bulk material strengthening of the aggregates of small sizes, and a partial weakening of larger blocks. We discuss these findings in the context of the debate surrounding the motive of the wall-builders. We conclude that if wall stability by bulk strengthening was the desired effect, then vitrification represents an Iron Age technology that failed to be effective in regions of refractory local geology. PMID:28079121

  16. Local geology controlled the feasibility of vitrifying Iron Age buildings.

    PubMed

    Wadsworth, Fabian B; Heap, Michael J; Damby, David E; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Najorka, Jens; Vasseur, Jérémie; Fahrner, Dominik; Dingwell, Donald B

    2017-01-12

    During European prehistory, hilltop enclosures made from polydisperse particle-and-block stone walling were exposed to temperatures sufficient to partially melt the constituent stonework, leading to the preservation of glassy walls called 'vitrified forts'. During vitrification, the granular wall rocks partially melt, sinter viscously and densify, reducing inter-particle porosity. This process is strongly dependent on the solidus temperature, the particle sizes, the temperature-dependence of the viscosity of the evolving liquid phase, as well as the distribution and longevity of heat. Examination of the sintering behaviour of 45 European examples reveals that it is the raw building material that governs the vitrification efficiency. As Iron Age forts were commonly constructed from local stone, we conclude that local geology directly influenced the degree to which buildings were vitrified in the Iron Age. Additionally, we find that vitrification is accompanied by a bulk material strengthening of the aggregates of small sizes, and a partial weakening of larger blocks. We discuss these findings in the context of the debate surrounding the motive of the wall-builders. We conclude that if wall stability by bulk strengthening was the desired effect, then vitrification represents an Iron Age technology that failed to be effective in regions of refractory local geology.

  17. Local geology controlled the feasibility of vitrifying Iron Age buildings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fabian B Wadsworth,; Michael J Heap,; Damby, David; Kai-Uwe Hess,; Jens Najorka,; Jérémie Vasseur,; Dominik Fahrner,; Donald B Dingwell,

    2017-01-01

    During European prehistory, hilltop enclosures made from polydisperse particle-and-block stone walling were exposed to temperatures sufficient to partially melt the constituent stonework, leading to the preservation of glassy walls called ‘vitrified forts’. During vitrification, the granular wall rocks partially melt, sinter viscously and densify, reducing inter-particle porosity. This process is strongly dependent on the solidus temperature, the particle sizes, the temperature-dependence of the viscosity of the evolving liquid phase, as well as the distribution and longevity of heat. Examination of the sintering behaviour of 45 European examples reveals that it is the raw building material that governs the vitrification efficiency. As Iron Age forts were commonly constructed from local stone, we conclude that local geology directly influenced the degree to which buildings were vitrified in the Iron Age. Additionally, we find that vitrification is accompanied by a bulk material strengthening of the aggregates of small sizes, and a partial weakening of larger blocks. We discuss these findings in the context of the debate surrounding the motive of the wall-builders. We conclude that if wall stability by bulk strengthening was the desired effect, then vitrification represents an Iron Age technology that failed to be effective in regions of refractory local geology.

  18. Local control of osteogenic sarcoma by radiation and chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Caceres, E.; Zaharia, M.; Valdivia, S.; Misad, O.; de la Flor, J.; Tejada, F.; Zubrod, G.

    1984-01-01

    Sixteen patients with osteogenic sarcoma of limbs were treated with high dose methotrexate followed by leucovorin rescue, adriamycin and radiotherapy to the primary tumor. A post-treatment surgical biopsy was performed in 15 of the 16 patients. In 12 of 15 patients (80%), the follow-up biopsy was negative for active tumor. Complications of treatment were myelosuppression (16 cases), moist desquamation (13 cases), soft tissue necrosis (2 cases) local infection (2 cases), fibrosis (9 cases) and bone fracture (4 cases). The mean survival time in this group of patients was 712 days.

  19. Control synthesis of continuous-time T-S fuzzy systems with local nonlinear models.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jiuxiang; Wang, Youyi; Yang, Guang-Hong

    2009-10-01

    This paper is concerned with the problem of designing fuzzy controllers for a class of nonlinear dynamic systems. The considered nonlinear systems are described by T-S fuzzy models with nonlinear local models, and the fuzzy models have fewer fuzzy rules than conventional T-S fuzzy models with local linear models. A new fuzzy control scheme with local nonlinear feedbacks is proposed, and the corresponding control synthesis conditions are given in terms of solutions to a set of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). In contrast to the existing methods for fuzzy control synthesis, the new proposed control design method is based on fewer fuzzy rules and less computational burden. Moreover, the local nonlinear feedback laws in the new fuzzy controllers are also helpful in achieving good control effects. Numerical examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  20. Wettability controls slow immiscible displacement through local interfacial instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Michael; Brinkmann, Martin; Seemann, Ralf; Hiller, Thomas; Sanchez de La Lama, Marta; Herminghaus, Stephan

    2016-11-01

    Immiscible fluid displacement with average front velocities in the capillary-dominated regime is studied in a transparent Hele-Shaw cell with cylindrical posts. Employing various combinations of fluids and wall materials allows us to cover a range of advancing contact angles 46∘≤θa≤180∘ of the invading fluid in our experiments. In parallel, we study the displacement process in particle-based simulations that account for wall wettability. Considering the same arrangement of posts in experiments and simulation, we find a consistent crossover between stable interfacial displacement at θa≲80∘ and capillary fingering at high contact angles θa≳120∘ . The position of the crossover is quantified through the evolution of the interface length and the final saturation of the displaced fluid. A statistical analysis of the local displacement processes demonstrates that the shape evolution of the fluid front is governed by local instabilities as proposed by Cieplak and Robbins for a quasistatic interfacial displacement [Cieplak and Robbins, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 2042 (1988), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.60.2042]. The regime of stable front advances coincides with a corresponding region of contact angles where cooperative interfacial instabilities prevail. Capillary fingering, however, is observed only for large θa, where noncooperative instabilities dominate the invasion process.

  1. What controls the local time extent of flux transfer events?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milan, S. E.; Imber, S. M.; Carter, J. A.; Walach, M.-T.; Hubert, B.

    2016-02-01

    Flux transfer events (FTEs) are the manifestation of bursty and/or patchy magnetic reconnection at the magnetopause. We compare two sequences of the ionospheric signatures of flux transfer events observed in global auroral imagery and coherent ionospheric radar measurements. Both sequences were observed during very similar seasonal and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions, though with differing solar wind speed. A key observation is that the signatures differed considerably in their local time extent. The two periods are 26 August 1998, when the IMF had components BZ≈-10 nT and BY≈9 nT and the solar wind speed was VX≈650 km s-1, and 31 August 2005, IMF BZ≈-7 nT, BY≈17 nT, and VX≈380 km s-1. In the first case, the reconnection rate was estimated to be near 160 kV, and the FTE signatures extended across at least 7 h of magnetic local time (MLT) of the dayside polar cap boundary. In the second, a reconnection rate close to 80 kV was estimated, and the FTEs had a MLT extent of roughly 2 h. We discuss the ramifications of these differences for solar wind-magnetosphere coupling.

  2. A procedure concept for local reflex control of grasping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiorini, Paolo; Chang, Jeffrey

    1989-01-01

    An architecture is proposed for the control of robotic devices, and in particular of anthropomorphic hands, characterized by a hierarchical structure in which every level of the architecture contains data and control function with varying degree of abstraction. Bottom levels of the hierarchy interface directly with sensors and actuators, and process raw data and motor commands. Higher levels perform more symbolic types of tasks, such as application of boolean rules and general planning operations. Layers implementation has to be consistent with the type of operation and its requirements for real time control. It is proposed to implement the rule level with a Boolean Artificial Neural Network characterized by a response time sufficient for producing reflex corrective action at the actuator level.

  3. Stable and metastable nanowires displaying locally controllable properties

    DOEpatents

    Sutter, Eli Anguelova; Sutter, Peter Werner

    2014-11-18

    Vapor-liquid-solid growth of nanowires is tailored to achieve complex one-dimensional material geometries using phase diagrams determined for nanoscale materials. Segmented one-dimensional nanowires having constant composition display locally variable electronic band structures that are determined by the diameter of the nanowires. The unique electrical and optical properties of the segmented nanowires are exploited to form electronic and optoelectronic devices. Using gold-germanium as a model system, in situ transmission electron microscopy establishes, for nanometer-sized Au--Ge alloy drops at the tips of Ge nanowires (NWs), the parts of the phase diagram that determine their temperature-dependent equilibrium composition. The nanoscale phase diagram is then used to determine the exchange of material between the NW and the drop. The phase diagram for the nanoscale drop deviates significantly from that of the bulk alloy.

  4. Micro-environmental control for efficient local cooling

    DOE PAGES

    Kong, Meng; Dang, Thong Q.; Zhang, Jianshun; ...

    2017-06-01

    Micro-environment is hereby defined as the air space and environment around a person that directly impacts his/her thermal sensation. Most existing HVAC systems condition the air of the entire room including the unoccupied space, which leaves a big potential to save energy. This study aims at evaluating the performance of three existing air terminal devices (ATDs) to locally remove enough heat from the micro-environment to manage the thermal balance so as not to sacrifice thermal comfort when the ambient unoccupied space temperature is increased by 2.2 °C from 23.9 °C to 26.1 °C in the summer to reduce the externalmore » cooling load. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed, validated by full-scale chamber tests and applied to evaluate different configurations of the ATDs for local cooling. Results show that the predicted performance agreed well with the measurements, and the selected ATD, with only 50 W cooling power, was always able to remove a sufficient amount of heat from the microenvironment in a room of raised temperature, when the manikin was moved inside a semicircle movement range. The cooling performance of the jet was increased more by increasing the supply air flow rate than reducing the supply temperature and was highly dependent on the shooting angle. Finally, the heat flux from the manikin surface is very sensitive to the surface temperature and furniture placement, and proper specification of the surface temperature is crucial for the CFD simulation to match the measured results.« less

  5. [Eutrophication control in local area by physic-ecological engineering].

    PubMed

    Li, Qiu-Hua; Xia, Pin-Hua; Wu, Hong; Lin, Tao; Zhang, You-Chun; Li, Cun-Xiong; Chen, Li-Li; Yang, Fan

    2012-07-01

    An integrated physical and ecological engineering experiment for ecological remediation was performed at the Maixi River bay in Baihua Reservoir Guizhou Province, China. The results show that eutrophic parameters, such as total nitrogen, total phosphorus, chlorophyll a and chemical oxygen demand from the experimental site (enclosed water) were significantly lower than those of the reference site. The largest differences between the sites were 0.61 mg x L(-1), 0.041 mg x L(-1), 23.06 microg x L(-1), 8.4 mg x L(-1) respectively; experimental site transparency was > 1.50 m which was significantly higher than that of the reference site. The eutrophic index of the experimental site was oligo-trophic and mid-trophic, while the control site was mid-trophic state and eutrophic state. Phytoplankton abundance was 2 125.5 x 10(4) cells x L(-1) in June, 2011 at the control site,but phytoplankton abundance was lower at the experimental site with 33 x 10(4) cells x L(-1). Cyanobacteria dominated phytoplankton biomass at both sites, however the experimental site consisted of a higher proportion of diatoms and dinoflagellates. After more than one year of operation, the ecological engineering technology effectively controlled the occurrence of algae blooms, changed phytoplankton community structure, and controlled the negative impacts of eutrophication. Integrating physical and ecological engineering technology could improve water quality for reservoirs on the Guizhou plateau.

  6. Controllable injector for local flux entry into superconducting films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmo, D.; Colauto, F.; de Andrade, A. M. H.; Oliveira, A. A. M.; Ortiz, W. A.; Johansen, T. H.

    2016-09-01

    A superconducting flux injector (SFI) has been designed to allow for controlled injections of magnetic flux into a superconducting film from a predefined location along the edge. The SFI is activated by an external current pulse, here chosen to be 200 ms long, and it is demonstrated on films of Nb that the amount of injected flux is controlled by the pulse height. Examples of injections at two different temperatures where the flux enters by stimulated flux-flow and by triggered thermomagnetic avalanches are presented. The boundary between the two types of injection is determined and discussed. The SFI opens up for active use of phenomena which up to now have been considered hazardous for a safe operation of superconducting devices.

  7. Controllable injector for local flux entry into superconducting films

    SciTech Connect

    Carmo, D.; Colauto, F.; de Andrade, A. M. H.; Oliveira, A. A. M.; Ortiz, W. A.; Johansen, T. H.

    2016-07-21

    A superconducting flux injector (SFI) has been designed to allow for controlled injections of magnetic flux into a superconducting film from a predefined location along the edge. The SFI is activated by an external current pulse, here chosen to be 200 ms long, and it is demonstrated on films of Nb that the amount of injected flux is controlled by the pulse height. Examples of injections at two different temperatures where the flux enters by stimulated flux-flow and by triggered thermomagnetic avalanches are presented. The boundary between the two types of injection is determined and discussed. The SFI opens up for active use of phenomena which up to now have been considered hazardous for a safe operation of superconducting devices.

  8. Reversible control of current across lipid membranes by local heating

    PubMed Central

    Urban, Patrick; Kirchner, Silke R.; Mühlbauer, Christian; Lohmüller, Theobald; Feldmann, Jochen

    2016-01-01

    Lipid membranes are almost impermeable for charged molecules and ions that can pass the membrane barrier only with the help of specialized transport proteins. Here, we report how temperature manipulation at the nanoscale can be employed to reversibly control the electrical resistance and the amount of current that flows through a bilayer membrane with pA resolution. For this experiment, heating is achieved by irradiating gold nanoparticles that are attached to the bilayer membrane with laser light at their plasmon resonance frequency. We found that controlling the temperature on the nanoscale renders it possible to reproducibly regulate the current across a phospholipid membrane and the membrane of living cells in absence of any ion channels. PMID:26940847

  9. Radiotherapy alone for local tumour control in esthesioneuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Benfari, G; Fusconi, M; Ciofalo, A; Gallo, A; Altissimi, G; Celani, T; De Vincentiis, M

    2008-12-01

    Esthesioneuroblastoma is an uncommon tumour. Due to its low incidence, this neoplasm is difficult to evaluate and its treatment remains a matter of debate. Although the role of post-operative radiation is relatively well-defined, little is reported regarding the role of radiotherapy as the only treatment modality. A retrospective analysis of the literature has been conducted. With reference to the treatment of esthesioneuroblastoma, 55 patients submitted only to radiotherapy have been selected from publications of internationally indexed literature between 1979 and 2006. According to the Kadish classification, 6 patients were in stage A, 12 in stage B, and 37 in stage C. Response to therapy for each stage was assessed. There was no evidence of disease in: 6/6 stage A patients with a median follow-up period of 103.6 months, 7/12 stage B patients with a median followup period of 120 months, and 7/37 stage C patients with a median follow-up period of 77.3 months. A total of 27 patients died due to tumour-related causes and 5 due to intercurrent disease, while 3 patients were alive with disease (local recurrence and cervical lymph node metastasis). In conclusion, esthesioneuroblastoma is a malignant tumour which grows both locoregionally and distantly. For this reason, despite the satisfying results regarding response to radiotherapy alone in stage A patients, irradiation should be used only in early lesions arising below the cribriform plate, whereas all other cases require aggressive and multimodal therapy.

  10. Renal anemia control in Lithuania: influence of local conditions and local guidelines.

    PubMed

    Ziginskiene, Edita; Kuzminskis, Vytautas; Petruliene, Kristina; Vaiciuniene, Ruta; Stankuviene, Asta; Bumblyte, Inga Arune

    2013-01-01

    Erythropoietin stimulating agents had a long haul in Lithuania--we had no epoetin till 1994 and there was no intravenous iron in 2001-2004. The aim of this study was to assess the changes of renal anemia control in hemodialysis patients from early independence of Lithuania till nowadays and to evaluate the link of anemia with hospitalization rates and survival and hemoglobin variability in association with mortality. In December of each year since 1996 all hemodialysis centers have been visited and data has been collected using special questionnaires. The history of renal anemia control in Lithuania was complicated; however, a significant improvement was achieved: 54.7% of hemodialysis patients reached the target hemoglobin; all patients have a possibility of treatment with epoetin and intravenous iron. The involuntary experiment with an intravenous iron occurred in Lithuania because of economic reasons and confirmed the significant role of intravenous iron in the management of renal anemia. Hemoglobin below 100 g/L was associated with a 2.5-fold increase in relative risk of death and 1.7-fold increase in relative risk of hospitalization in Lithuanian hemodialysis patients. Although hemoglobin variability was common in Lithuanian hemodialysis patients, we did not find the association between hemoglobin variability and all-cause mortality in our study.

  11. Participatory health impact assessment for the development of local government regulation on hazard control

    SciTech Connect

    Inmuong, Uraiwan; Rithmak, Panee; Srisookwatana, Soomol; Traithin, Nathathai; Maisuporn, Pornpun

    2011-07-15

    The Thai Public Health Act 1992 required the Thai local governments to issue respective regulations to take control of any possible health-hazard related activities, both from commercial and noncommercial sources. Since 1999, there has been centrally decentralized of power to a new form of local government establishment, namely Sub-district Administrative Organization (SAO). The SAO is asmall-scale local governing structure while its legitimate function is for community services, including control of health impact related activities. Most elected SAO administrators and officers are new and less experience with any of public health code of practice, particularly on health-hazard control. This action research attempted to introduce and apply a participatory health impact assessment (HIA) tool for the development of SAO health-hazard control regulation. The study sites were at Ban Meang and Kok See SAOs, Khon Kaen Province, Thailand, while all intervention activities conducted during May 2005-April 2006. A set of cooperative activities between researchers and community representatives were planned and organized by; surveying and identifying place and service base locally causing local environmental health problems, organizing community participatory workshops for drafting and proposing the health-hazard control regulation, and appropriate practices for health-hazard controlling measures. This action research eventually could successfully enable the SAO administrators and officers understanding of local environmental-related health problem, as well as development of imposed health-hazard control regulation for local community.

  12. Molecular Designs for Controlling the Local Environments around Metal Ions

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Sarah A.; Borovik, A.S.

    2015-01-01

    CONSPECTUS The functions of metal complexes are directly linked to the local environment in which they are housed; modifications to the local environment (or secondary coordination sphere) are known to produce changes in key properties of the metal centers that can affect reactivity. Non-covalent interactions are the most common and influential forces that regulate the properties of secondary coordination spheres, which leads to complexities in structure that are often difficult to achieve in synthetic systems. Using key architectural features from the active sites of metalloproteins as inspiration, we have developed molecular systems that enforce intramolecular hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) around a metal center via incorporation of H-bond donors and acceptors into rigid ligand scaffolds. We have utilized these molecular species to probe mechanistic aspects of biological dioxygen activation and water oxidation. This Account describes the stabilization and characterization of unusual M–oxo and heterobimetallic complexes. These types of species have been implicated in a range of oxidative processes in biology but are often difficult to study because of their inherent reactivity. Our H-bonding ligand systems allowed us to prepare an FeIII–oxo species directly from the activation of O2 that was subsequently oxidized to form a monomeric FeIV–oxo species with an S = 2 spin state, similar to those species proposed as key intermediates in non-heme monooxygenases. We also demonstrated that a single MnIII–oxo center that was prepared from water could be converted to a high spin MnV–oxo species via stepwise oxidation—a process that mimics the oxidative charging of the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of photosystem II. Current mechanisms for photosynthetic O–O bond formation invoke a MnIV–oxyl species rather than the isoelectronic MnV–oxo system as the key oxidant based on computational studies. However, there is no experimental information to support the existence

  13. Molecular designs for controlling the local environments around metal ions.

    PubMed

    Cook, Sarah A; Borovik, A S

    2015-08-18

    The functions of metal complexes are directly linked to the local environment in which they are housed; modifications to the local environment (or secondary coordination sphere) are known to produce changes in key properties of the metal centers that can affect reactivity. Noncovalent interactions are the most common and influential forces that regulate the properties of secondary coordination spheres, which leads to complexities in structure that are often difficult to achieve in synthetic systems. Using key architectural features from the active sites of metalloproteins as inspiration, we have developed molecular systems that enforce intramolecular hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) around a metal center via incorporation of H-bond donors and acceptors into rigid ligand scaffolds. We have utilized these molecular species to probe mechanistic aspects of biological dioxygen activation and water oxidation. This Account describes the stabilization and characterization of unusual M-oxo and heterobimetallic complexes. These types of species have been implicated in a range of oxidative processes in biology but are often difficult to study because of their inherent reactivity. Our H-bonding ligand systems allowed us to prepare an Fe(III)-oxo species directly from the activation of O2 that was subsequently oxidized to form a monomeric Fe(IV)-oxo species with an S = 2 spin state, similar to those species proposed as key intermediates in non-heme monooxygenases. We also demonstrated that a single Mn(III)-oxo center that was prepared from water could be converted to a high-spin Mn(V)-oxo species via stepwise oxidation, a process that mimics the oxidative charging of the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of photosystem II. Current mechanisms for photosynthetic O-O bond formation invoke a Mn(IV)-oxyl species rather than the isoelectronic Mn(V)-oxo system as the key oxidant based on computational studies. However, there is no experimental information to support the existence of a Mn

  14. Multi-platform RF emitter localization using extremum seeking control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Issa, Huthaifa; Ordóñez, Raúl

    2013-05-01

    In recent years there has been growing interest in Ad-hoc and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) for a variety of indoor applications. Thus, recent developments in communications and RF technology have enabled system concept formulations and designs for low-cost radar systems using state-of-the-art software radio modules. Position-Adaptive radar concepts have been formulated and investigated at the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) within the past few years. Adopting a position-adaptive approach to the design of distributed radar systems shows potential for the development of future radar systems that function under new and challenging environments that contain large clutter discretes and require co-functionality within multi-signal RF environments. In this paper, we present the simulation performance analysis on the application aspect. We apply Extremum Seeking Control (ESC) schemes by using the swarm seeking problem, where the goal is to design a control law for each individual sensor that can minimize the error metric by adapting the sensor positions in real-time based on cross-path loss exponents estimates between sensors, thereby minimizing the unknown estimation error. As a result we achieved source seeking and collision avoidance of the entire group of the sensor positions.

  15. PADF electromagnetic source localization using extremum seeking control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Issa, Huthaifa A.; Ordóñez, Raúl

    2014-10-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are a significant technology attracting considerable research interest. Recent advances in wireless communications and electronics have enabled the development of low-cost, low-power and multi-functional sensors that are small in size and communicate over short distances. Most WSN applications require knowing or measuring locations of thousands of sensors accurately. For example, sensing data without knowing the sensor location is often meaningless. Locations of sensor nodes are fundamental to providing location stamps, locating and tracking objects, forming clusters, and facilitating routing. This research focused on the modeling and implementation of distributed, mobile radar sensor networks. In particular, we worked on the problem of Position-Adaptive Direction Finding (PADF), to determine the location of a non- collaborative transmitter, possibly hidden within a structure, by using a team of cooperative intelligent sensor networks. Position-Adaptive radar concepts have been formulated and investigated at the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) within the past few years. In this paper, we present the simulation performance analysis on the application aspect. We apply Extremum Seeking Control (ESC) schemes by using the swarm seeking problem, where the goal is to design a control law for each individual sensor that can minimize the error metric by adapting the sensor positions in real-time, thereby minimizing the unknown estimation error. As a result we achieved source seeking and collision avoidance of the entire group of the sensor positions.

  16. Controlled Release System for Localized and Sustained Drug Delivery Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Lidia Betsabe

    Current controlled release formulations has many drawbacks such as excess of initial burst release, low drug efficiency, non-degradability of the system and low reproducibility. The present project aims to offer an alternative by developing a technique to prepare uniform, biodegradable particles ( ˜19 mum ) that can sustainably release a drug for a specific period of time. Chitosan is a natural polysaccharide that has many characteristics to be used for biomedical applications. In the last two decades, there have been a considerable number of studies affirming that chitosan could be used for pharmaceutical applications. However, chitosan suffers from inherent weaknesses such as low mechanical stability and dissolution of the system in acidic media. In the present study, chitosan microparticles were prepared by emulsification process. The model drug chosen was acetylsalicylic acid as it is a small and challenging molecule. The maximum loading capacity obtained for the microparticles was approximately 96%. The parameters for the preparation of uniform particles with a narrow size distribution were identified in a triangular phase diagram. Moreover, chitosan particles were successfully coated with thin layers of poly lactic-coglycolic acid (PLGA) and poly lactic acid (PLA). The performance of different layerswas tested for in vitro drug release and degradation studies. Additionally, the degradability of the system was evaluated by measuring the weight loss of the system when exposed to enzyme and without enzyme. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) were used to characterize the controlled release system. Additionally, the in vitro drug release was monitored by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry (UV-Vis) and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The results obtained from this project showed that it is

  17. Prevalence of Escherichia coli strains with localized, diffuse, and aggregative adherence to HeLa cells in infants with diarrhea and matched controls.

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, T A; Blake, P A; Trabulsi, L R

    1989-01-01

    To determine the possible role of Escherichia coli strains with three different patterns of adherence to HeLa cells in causing diarrhea in infants in São Paulo, Brazil, we studied stool specimens from 100 infants up to 1 year of age with acute diarrheal illnesses and 100 age-matched control infants without recent diarrhea. E. coli with localized adherence to HeLa cells was much more common in patients (23%) than in controls (2%) (P less than 0.0001) and was detected more frequently than rotavirus (19%) was in patients, even though the study was conducted during the coldest months of the year. Most (80%) of the E. coli colonies with localized adherence were of traditional enteropathogenic E. coli serotypes. Little difference was found between patients and controls in the rate of isolation of E. coli with diffuse adherence (31 and 32%, respectively) or aggregative adherence (10 and 8%, respectively). A genetic probe used to detect a plasmid-mediated adhesin which confers expression of localized adherence proved to be 100% sensitive and 99.9% specific in detecting E. coli with localized adherence to HeLa cells. Although E. coli strains with localized adherence have now been shown to be enteric pathogens in several parts of the world, the role of strains showing diffuse adherence and aggregative adherence is still uncertain. PMID:2563383

  18. Prospective Study of Local Control and Late Radiation Toxicity After Intraoperative Radiation Therapy Boost for Early Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, David W.; Marvelde, Luc te; Chua, Boon H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To report the local recurrence rate and late toxicity of intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) boost to the tumor bed using the Intrabeam System followed by external-beam whole-breast irradiation (WBI) in women with early-stage breast cancer in a prospective single-institution study. Methods and Materials: Women with breast cancer ≤3 cm were recruited between February 2003 and May 2005. After breast-conserving surgery, a single dose of 5 Gy IORT boost was delivered using 50-kV x-rays to a depth of 10 mm from the applicator surface. This was followed by WBI to a total dose of 50 Gy in 25 fractions. Patients were reviewed at regular, predefined intervals. Late toxicities were recorded using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Late Radiation Morbidity Scoring systems. Results: Fifty-five patients completed both IORT boost and external-beam WBI. Median follow-up was 3.3 years (range, 1.4-4.1 years). There was no reported locoregional recurrence or death. One patient developed distant metastases. Grade 2 and 3 subcutaneous fibrosis was detected in 29 (53%) and 8 patients (15%), respectively. Conclusions: The use of IORT as a tumor bed boost using kV x-rays in breast-conserving therapy was associated with good local control but a clinically significant rate of grade 2 and 3 subcutaneous fibrosis.

  19. Two Years of California's Local Control Funding Formula: Time to Reaffirm the Grand Vision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koppich, Julia E.; Humphrey, Daniel C.; Marsh, Julie A.

    2015-01-01

    California ended 40 years of reliance on categorical funding for schools when Governor Jerry Brown signed the Local Control Funding Formula (LCFF) into law on July 1, 2013. LCFF intends to enhance services for high-needs students through new flexibility, targeted student funding, and local accountability. Two years into LCFF implementation,…

  20. The Long Goodbye: How Local Authorities Lost Control of Further Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Robin

    2009-01-01

    Following the 1992 Further and Higher Education Act, local education authorities (LEAs) lost control of further education in England. Now, after spending almost two decades out in the cold, from 2010, local authorities are set to become re-involved in the further education system. Given this, this paper takes the opportunity to look back on the…

  1. Infectious disease and health systems modelling for local decision making to control neglected tropical diseases

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Most neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) have complex life cycles and are challenging to control. The “2020 goals” of control and elimination as a public health programme for a number of NTDs are the subject of significant international efforts and investments. Beyond 2020 there will be a drive to maintain these gains and to push for true local elimination of transmission. However, these diseases are affected by variations in vectors, human demography, access to water and sanitation, access to interventions and local health systems. We therefore argue that there will be a need to develop local quantitative expertise to support elimination efforts. If available now, quantitative analyses would provide updated estimates of the burden of disease, assist in the design of locally appropriate control programmes, estimate the effectiveness of current interventions and support ‘real-time’ updates to local operations. Such quantitative tools are increasingly available at an international scale for NTDs, but are rarely tailored to local scenarios. Localised expertise not only provides an opportunity for more relevant analyses, but also has a greater chance of developing positive feedback between data collection and analysis by demonstrating the value of data. This is essential as rational program design relies on good quality data collection. It is also likely that if such infrastructure is provided for NTDs there will be an additional impact on the health system more broadly. Locally tailored quantitative analyses can help achieve sustainable and effective control of NTDs, but also underpin the development of local health care systems. PMID:28281704

  2. Local Control Following Permanent Prostate Brachytherapy: Effect of High Biologically Effective Dose on Biopsy Results and Oncologic Outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, Nelson N.; Stock, Richard G.; Cesaretti, Jamie A.; Unger, Pam

    2010-02-01

    Purpose: To determine factors that influence local control and systemic relapse in patients undergoing permanent prostate brachytherapy (PPB). Methods and Materials: A total of 584 patients receiving PPB alone or PPB with external beam radiation therapy (19.5%) agreed to undergo prostate biopsy (PB) at 2 years postimplantion and yearly if results were positive or if the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level increased. Short-term hormone therapy was used with 280 (47.9%) patients. Radiation doses were converted to biologically effective doses (BED) (using alpha/beta = 2). Comparisons were made by chi-square analysis and linear regression. Survival was determined by the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: The median PSA concentration was 7.1 ng/ml, and the median follow-up period was 7.1 years. PB results were positive for 48/584 (8.2%) patients. Positive biopsy results by BED group were as follows: 22/121 (18.2%) patients received a BED of <=150 Gy; 15/244 (6.1%) patients received >150 to 200 Gy; and 6/193 (3.1%; p < 0.001) patients received >200 Gy. Significant associations of positive PB results by risk group were low-risk group BED (p = 0.019), intermediate-risk group hormone therapy (p = 0.011) and BED (p = 0.040), and high-risk group BED (p = 0.004). Biochemical freedom from failure rate at 7 years was 82.7%. Biochemical freedom from failure rate by PB result was 84.7% for negative results vs. 59.2% for positive results (p < 0.001). Cox regression analysis revealed significant associations with BED (p = 0.038) and PB results (p = 0.002) in low-risk patients, with BED (p = 0.003) in intermediate-risk patients, and with Gleason score (p = 0.006), PSA level (p < 0.001), and PB result (p = 0.038) in high-risk patients. Fifty-three (9.1%) patients died, of which eight deaths were due to prostate cancer. Cause-specific survival was 99.2% for negative PB results vs. 87.6% for positive PB results (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Higher radiation doses are required to achieve local

  3. Tuning the local temperature during feedback controlled electromigration in gold nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang, An; Hou, Shimin Liao, Jianhui

    2014-06-02

    Feedback controlled electromigration (FCE) in metallic nanowires has been widely used for various purposes. However, the control of the local temperature during FCE remains a challenge. Here, we report that the environment temperature can be used as a knob to tune the local temperature during FCE in gold nanowires. FCE was performed in gold nanowires at various environment temperatures ranging from 4.2 K to 300 K. We find that the dissipated power normalized by the cross section area of the nano constriction is linearly proportional to the environment temperature. Interestingly, the estimated local maximum temperature parabolically depends on the environment temperature. A minimum in the local temperature can be reached if an appropriate environment temperature is chosen. Our findings are well supported by the finite element simulation. Moreover, the data indicates the coupling between FCE triggering current density and local temperature.

  4. Control of quantum localization and classical diffusion in laser-kicked molecular rotors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitter, M.; Milner, V.

    2017-01-01

    We experimentally study a system of quantum kicked rotors—an ensemble of diatomic molecules exposed to a periodic sequence of ultrashort laser pulses. In the regime where the underlying classical dynamics is chaotic, we investigate the quantum phenomenon of dynamical localization by means of state-resolved coherent Raman spectroscopy. We examine the dependence of the exponentially localized angular momentum distribution and of the total rotational energy on the time period between the pulses and their amplitude. The former parameter is shown to provide control over the localization center, whereas the latter one controls the localization length. Similar control of the center and width of a nonlocalized rotational distribution is demonstrated in the limit of classical diffusion, established by adding noise to the periodic pulse sequence.

  5. Organization of nosocomial infection control measures and local networks for infectious disease control in middle-scale hospitals in Japan.

    PubMed

    Mori-Yoshikawa, Namiko; Ohmagari, Norio; Kirikae, Teruo

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess nosocomial infection control measures at middle-scale hospitals throughout Japan. Of the 823 hospitals participating in this questionnaire-based survey, more than half of the middle-scale hospitals have implemented nosocomial infection control measures, including infection surveillance or infection control rounds, while acknowledging a shortage of infection control staff. These hospitals most frequently consulted public health centers to obtain information and advice. Improved nosocomial infection control in middle-scale hospitals requires sufficient staffing and a local network, with active participation by public health centers.

  6. Puzzling Plans and Budgets: Making Sense of California's Second Year Local Control and Accountability Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Theresa

    2016-01-01

    On July 1, 2013, Gov. Jerry Brown signed California's landmark Local Control Funding Formula (LCFF) into law. In addition to providing districts with greater control over how to spend funds, LCFF marked a tremendous opportunity for educational equity. The new funding law gave districts additional resources, called supplemental and concentration…

  7. 21 CFR 1240.30 - Measures in the event of inadequate local control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Measures in the event of inadequate local control. 1240.30 Section 1240.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... CONTROL OF COMMUNICABLE DISEASES Administrative Procedures § 1240.30 Measures in the event of...

  8. 21 CFR 1240.30 - Measures in the event of inadequate local control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Measures in the event of inadequate local control. 1240.30 Section 1240.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... CONTROL OF COMMUNICABLE DISEASES Administrative Procedures § 1240.30 Measures in the event of...

  9. 21 CFR 1240.30 - Measures in the event of inadequate local control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Measures in the event of inadequate local control. 1240.30 Section 1240.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... CONTROL OF COMMUNICABLE DISEASES Administrative Procedures § 1240.30 Measures in the event of...

  10. 21 CFR 1240.30 - Measures in the event of inadequate local control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Measures in the event of inadequate local control. 1240.30 Section 1240.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... CONTROL OF COMMUNICABLE DISEASES Administrative Procedures § 1240.30 Measures in the event of...

  11. Excellent Local Control From Radiation Therapy for High-Risk Neuroblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Gatcombe, Heather G.; Marcus, R.B.; Katzenstein, Howard M.; Tighiouart, Mourad; Esiashvili, Natia

    2009-08-01

    Purpose: Local recurrence has been demonstrated in previous studies to be one of the obstacles to cure in neuroblastoma. Radiation therapy indications, optimal dose, and technique are still evolving. Here we report our experience of high-risk neuroblastoma patients who received local radiation therapy as part of their cancer management. Methods and Materials: We conducted a retrospective study of 34 high-risk neuroblastoma patients who received radiation therapy to local sites of disease from March 2001 until February 2007 at our institution as part of their multimodality therapy. Results: At a median follow-up of 33.6 months, 6 patients died of disease, 7 patients were alive with disease, and 21 patients were in clinical remission. Eleven patients relapsed, all distantly. Two patients failed locally in addition to distant sites. Both of these patients had persistent gross disease after induction chemotherapy and surgery. Our 3-year local control, event-free survival, overall survival were 94%, 66%, and 86%, respectively. Conclusion: Patients with high-risk neuroblastoma in our series achieved excellent local control. Doses of 21-24 Gy to the primary tumor site appear to be adequate for local control for patients in the setting of minimal residual disease after induction chemotherapy and surgery. Patients with significant residual disease may benefit from radiation dose escalation, and this should be evaluated in a prospective clinical trial.

  12. Barriers to adopting and implementing local-level tobacco control policies.

    PubMed

    Satterlund, Travis D; Cassady, Diana; Treiber, Jeanette; Lemp, Cathy

    2011-08-01

    Although California communities have been relatively successful in adopting and implementing a wide range of local tobacco control policies, the process has not been without its setbacks and barriers. Little is known about local policy adoption, and this paper examines these processes related to adopting and implementing outdoor smoke-free policies, focusing on the major barriers faced by local-level tobacco control organizations in this process. Ninety-six projects funded by the California Tobacco Control Program submitted final evaluation reports pertaining to an outdoor smoking objective, and the reports from these projects were analyzed. The barriers were grouped in three primary areas: politically polarizing barriers, organizational barriers, and local political orientation. The barriers identified in this study underscore the need for an organized action plan in adopting local tobacco policy. The authors also suggest potential strategies to offset the barriers, including: (1) having a "champion" who helps to carry an objective forward; (2) tapping into a pool of youth volunteers; (3) collecting and using local data as a persuasive tool; (4) educating the community in smoke-free policy efforts; (5) working strategically within the local political climate; and (6) demonstrating to policymakers the constituent support for proposed policy.

  13. Local knowledge, science, and institutional change: the case of desertification control in Northern China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lihua

    2015-03-01

    This article studies the influence of local knowledge on the impact of science on institutional change in ecological and environmental management. Based on an empirical study on desertification control in 12 counties in north China, the study found the following major results: (1) although there was a cubic relationship between the extent and effect of local knowledge, local knowledge significantly influenced the impact of science on institutional change; (2) local knowledge took effect mainly through affecting formal laws and regulations, major actors, and methods of desertification control in institutional change but had no significant impact on the types of property rights; and (3) local knowledge enhanced the impact of science on the results of desertification control through affecting the impact of science on institutional change. These findings provide a reference for researchers, policy makers, and practitioners, both in China and in other regions of the world, to further explore the influence of local knowledge on the impact of science on institutional change and the roles of local knowledge or knowledge in institutional change and governance.

  14. Local Knowledge, Science, and Institutional Change: The Case of Desertification Control in Northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lihua

    2015-03-01

    This article studies the influence of local knowledge on the impact of science on institutional change in ecological and environmental management. Based on an empirical study on desertification control in 12 counties in north China, the study found the following major results: (1) although there was a cubic relationship between the extent and effect of local knowledge, local knowledge significantly influenced the impact of science on institutional change; (2) local knowledge took effect mainly through affecting formal laws and regulations, major actors, and methods of desertification control in institutional change but had no significant impact on the types of property rights; and (3) local knowledge enhanced the impact of science on the results of desertification control through affecting the impact of science on institutional change. These findings provide a reference for researchers, policy makers, and practitioners, both in China and in other regions of the world, to further explore the influence of local knowledge on the impact of science on institutional change and the roles of local knowledge or knowledge in institutional change and governance.

  15. Explaining variation in gun control policy advocacy tactics among local organizations.

    PubMed

    Zakocs, Ronda C; Earp, Jo Anne L

    2003-06-01

    The goal of this study was to determine how well four organizational characteristics (structure, resources, motivation, or political capacity) explained local organizations' use of a variety of advocacy tactics aimed at promoting state gun control laws. In 1998, 679 local organizations were identified as potentially active on state gun control issues; a questionnaire was mailed to each group's leader. Seventy-nine percent (n = 538) responded to the survey, with 81% (n = 207) of eligible organizations completing questionnaires. The four organizational characteristics explained approximately half the variation in local groups' use of a wide range of advocacy tactics. Organizations with stronger motivation to address the gun control issue and greater political capacity engaged in more diverse gun control advocacy tactics; the authors found organizational structure and resources unlikely to be related. Leaders of advocacy organizations should consider ways to encourage members' motivations on the issue while fostering greater capacity for political action.

  16. The influence of diabetic peripheral neuropathy on local postural muscle and central sensory feedback balance control.

    PubMed

    Toosizadeh, Nima; Mohler, Jane; Armstrong, David G; Talal, Talal K; Najafi, Bijan

    2015-01-01

    Poor balance control and increased fall risk have been reported in people with diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). Traditional body sway measures are unable to describe underlying postural control mechanism. In the current study, we used stabilogram diffusion analysis to examine the mechanism under which balance is altered in DPN patients under local-control (postural muscle control) and central-control (postural control using sensory cueing). DPN patients and healthy age-matched adults over 55 years performed two 15-second Romberg balance trials. Center of gravity sway was measured using a motion tracker system based on wearable inertial sensors, and used to derive body sway and local/central control balance parameters. Eighteen DPN patients (age = 65.4±7.6 years; BMI = 29.3±5.3 kg/m2) and 18 age-matched healthy controls (age = 69.8±2.9; BMI = 27.0±4.1 kg/m2) with no major mobility disorder were recruited. The rate of sway within local-control was significantly higher in the DPN group by 49% (healthy local-controlslope = 1.23±1.06×10-2 cm2/sec, P<0.01), which suggests a compromised local-control balance behavior in DPN patients. Unlike local-control, the rate of sway within central-control was 60% smaller in the DPN group (healthy central-controlslope-Log = 0.39±0.23, P<0.02), which suggests an adaptation mechanism to reduce the overall body sway in DPN patients. Interestingly, significant negative correlations were observed between central-control rate of sway with neuropathy severity (rPearson = 0.65-085, P<0.05) and the history of diabetes (rPearson = 0.58-071, P<0.05). Results suggest that in the lack of sensory feedback cueing, DPN participants were highly unstable compared to controls. However, as soon as they perceived the magnitude of sway using sensory feedback, they chose a high rigid postural control strategy, probably due to high concerns for fall, which may increase the energy cost during extended period of standing; the adaptation mechanism

  17. Choking first aid - infant under 1 year - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100221.htm Choking first aid - infant under 1 year - series—Part 1 To ... Loss of consciousness if blockage is not cleared FIRST AID 1. DO NOT perform these steps if the ...

  18. Choking first aid - adult or child over 1 year - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100222.htm Choking first aid - adult or child over 1 year - series—Part ... occur in as little as 4 minutes. Rapid first aid for choking can save a life. The universal ...

  19. Direct subwavelength imaging and control of near-field localization in individual silver nanocubes

    SciTech Connect

    Mårsell, Erik; Svärd, Robin; Miranda, Miguel; Guo, Chen; Harth, Anne; Lorek, Eleonora; Mauritsson, Johan; Arnold, Cord L.; L'Huillier, Anne; Mikkelsen, Anders; Losquin, Arthur; Xu, Hongxing

    2015-11-16

    We demonstrate the control of near-field localization within individual silver nanocubes through photoemission electron microscopy combined with broadband, few-cycle laser pulses. We find that the near-field is concentrated at the corners of the cubes, and that it can be efficiently localized to different individual corners depending on the polarization of the incoming light. The experimental results are confirmed by finite-difference time-domain simulations, which also provide an intuitive picture of polarization dependent near-field localization in nanocubes.

  20. Carcinoma of the tonsil: the effect of dose-time-volume factors on local control

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, P.G.; Beale, F.A.; Cummings, B.J.; Harwood, A.R.; Keane, T.J.; Payne, D.G.; Rider, W.D.

    1985-04-01

    Between 1970 and 1979, 372 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil were treated with primary irradiation therapy, with salvage surgery for failures. The median age was 60 years and the male to female ratio was 2:1. All patients received external beam radiation which was supplemented in 68 patients with a radioactive implant for disease into adjacent tongue. The overall survival for all patients was 38% at 5 years and 54% when corrected for intercurrent disease. Local control was 87% for T1 lesions, 68% for T2 lesions and 50% for T3 lesions. Regional control was 96% for NO, 67% for N1 and 37% for N2-3. A detailed dose-time-volume analysis revealed that increasing volume improved local control in T1 and T2 lesions. Increasing the dose in the range of 5000 to 6500 rad had no significant effect on primary control in any stage of disease. The addition of a radioactive implant did not increase local control if disease extended into the tongue. This study demonstrates the significance of adequate treatment volume in local control for carcinoma of the tonsil. No significant dose response was found and subsequent surgery was not compromised when a moderate dose of radiation was used.

  1. Distributed model predictive control for constrained nonlinear systems with decoupled local dynamics.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Meng; Ding, Baocang

    2015-03-01

    This paper considers the distributed model predictive control (MPC) of nonlinear large-scale systems with dynamically decoupled subsystems. According to the coupled state in the overall cost function of centralized MPC, the neighbors are confirmed and fixed for each subsystem, and the overall objective function is disassembled into each local optimization. In order to guarantee the closed-loop stability of distributed MPC algorithm, the overall compatibility constraint for centralized MPC algorithm is decomposed into each local controller. The communication between each subsystem and its neighbors is relatively low, only the current states before optimization and the optimized input variables after optimization are being transferred. For each local controller, the quasi-infinite horizon MPC algorithm is adopted, and the global closed-loop system is proven to be exponentially stable.

  2. Output feedback fuzzy controller design with local nonlinear feedback laws for discrete-time nonlinear systems.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jiuxiang; Wang, Youyi; Yang, Guang-Hong

    2010-12-01

    This paper considers the output feedback control problem for nonlinear discrete-time systems, which are represented by a type of fuzzy systems with local nonlinear models. By using the estimations of the states and nonlinear functions in local models, sufficient conditions for designing observer-based controllers are given for discrete-time nonlinear systems. First, a separation property, i.e., the controller and the observer can be independently designed, is proved for the class of fuzzy systems. Second, a two-step procedure with cone complementarity linearization algorithms is also developed for solving the H( ∞) dynamic output feedback (DOF) control problem. Moreover, for the case where the nonlinear functions in local submodels are measurable, a convex condition for designing H(∞) controllers is given by a new DOF control scheme. In contrast to the existing methods, the new methods can design output feedback controllers with fewer fuzzy rules as well as less computational burden, which is helpful for controller designs and implementations. Lastly, numerical examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  3. 'A potential fifth column': conflicts and struggles for control in the context of local NHS privatization.

    PubMed

    Aldred, Rachel

    2009-09-01

    This article uses case study data to discuss how a new procurement policy (Local Improvement Finance Trust, or LIFT) in English primary care may affect general practitioners' control over their work. LIFT, a series of 51 public-private partnerships, will enable over the medium term a shift towards the corporate ownership of surgeries and the creation of polyclinics or 'onestop-shops'. In this article, I explore the struggles over work autonomy and control within these new LIFT structures, as expressed by clinicians and managers in meetings and in research interviews. More generally, I consider how the findings inform debates over the changing position of professionals within increasingly financialized 'local health economies'.

  4. Desmoid tumors: local control and patterns of relapse following radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Leibel, S.A.; Wara, W.M.; Hill, D.R.; Bovill, E.G. Jr.; De Lorimier, A.A.; Beckstead, J.H.; Phillips, T.L.

    1983-08-01

    Desmoid tumors are benign neoplasms, arising from musculoaponeurotic tissues, which tend to be locally infiltrative, resulting in a high rate of local recurrence following surgical resection. Nineteen patients with desmoid tumors underwent radiation therapy at the University of California, San Francisco, between 1970 and 1980. Fifteen patients were referred with local recurrence following one or more surgical resections. Three patients were referred for initial radiation therapy with unresectable tumors, and one patient received planned postoperative irradiation following subtotal tumor resection. At the time of treatment, 8 patients had nonresectable disease measuring greater than 10 cm. The majority of patients were treated to a tumor dose of 50 to 55 Gy at 1.6 to 1.8 Gy per fraction. With a median follow-up of 8 years, 13 patients remained free of recurrent disease following radiation therapy. Local control was not related to the amount of disease present at the time of treatment. Of the 6 patients who developed recurrent disease, only 1 patient had a true in-field recurrence. Four patients recurred at the margin of the radiation field 1 to 5 years following therapy. Moderate dose radiation therapy to desmoid tumors can result in lasting local control when surgical resection is not possible. Post operative radiation can improve the rate of local control for patients with a high risk of recurrence. As desmoid tumors tend to be locally infiltrative, fields must be very generous to prevent marginal recurrence. Systemic chemotherapy offers an alternative to ablative surgery in the event of local failure following radiation therapy.

  5. Telerobot local-remote control architecture for space flight program applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, Wayne; Backes, Paul; Steele, Robert; Long, Mark; Bon, Bruce; Beahan, John

    1993-01-01

    The JPL Supervisory Telerobotics (STELER) Laboratory has developed and demonstrated a unique local-remote robot control architecture which enables management of intermittent communication bus latencies and delays such as those expected for ground-remote operation of Space Station robotic systems via the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) communication platform. The current work at JPL in this area has focused on enhancing the technologies and transferring the control architecture to hardware and software environments which are more compatible with projected ground and space operational environments. At the local site, the operator updates the remote worksite model using stereo video and a model overlay/fitting algorithm which outputs the location and orientation of the object in free space. That information is relayed to the robot User Macro Interface (UMI) to enable programming of the robot control macros. This capability runs on a single Silicon Graphics Inc. machine. The operator can employ either manual teleoperation, shared control, or supervised autonomous control to manipulate the intended object. The remote site controller, called the Modular Telerobot Task Execution System (MOTES), runs in a multi-processor VME environment and performs the task sequencing, task execution, trajectory generation, closed loop force/torque control, task parameter monitoring, and reflex action. This paper describes the new STELER architecture implementation, and also documents the results of the recent autonomous docking task execution using the local site and MOTES.

  6. Quantification of local and global benefits from air pollution control in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Mckinley, Galen; Zuk, Miriam; Höjer, Morten; Avalos, Montserrat; González, Isabel; Iniestra, Rodolfo; Laguna, Israel; Martínez, Miguel A; Osnaya, Patricia; Reynales, Luz M; Valdés, Raydel; Martínez, Julia

    2005-04-01

    Complex sociopolitical, economic, and geographical realities cause the 20 million residents of Mexico City to suffer from some of the worst air pollution conditions in the world. Greenhouse gas emissions from the city are also substantial, and opportunities for joint local-global air pollution control are being sought. Although a plethora of measures to improve local air quality and reduce greenhouse gas emissions have been proposed for Mexico City, resources are not available for implementation of all proposed controls and thus prioritization must occur. Yet policy makers often do not conduct comprehensive quantitative analyses to inform these decisions. We reanalyze a subset of currently proposed control measures, and derive cost and health benefit estimates that are directly comparable. This study illustrates that improved quantitative analysis can change implementation prioritization for air pollution and greenhouse gas control measures in Mexico City.

  7. Stability of localized solutions in a subcritically unstable pattern-forming system under a global delayed control.

    PubMed

    Rubinstein, B Y; Nepomnyashchy, A A; Golovin, A A

    2007-04-01

    The formation of spatially localized patterns in a system with subcritical instability under feedback control with delay is investigated within the framework of globally controlled Ginzburg-Landau equation. It is shown that feedback control can stabilize spatially localized solutions. With the increase of delay, these solutions undergo oscillatory instability that, for large enough control strength, results in the formation of localized oscillating pulses. With further increase of the delay the solution blows up.

  8. Supervisory autonomous local-remote control system design: Near-term and far-term applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, Wayne; Backes, Paul

    1993-01-01

    The JPL Supervisory Telerobotics Laboratory (STELER) has developed a unique local-remote robot control architecture which enables management of intermittent bus latencies and communication delays such as those expected for ground-remote operation of Space Station robotic systems via the TDRSS communication platform. At the local site, the operator updates the work site world model using stereo video feedback and a model overlay/fitting algorithm which outputs the location and orientation of the object in free space. That information is relayed to the robot User Macro Interface (UMI) to enable programming of the robot control macros. The operator can then employ either manual teleoperation, shared control, or supervised autonomous control to manipulate the object under any degree of time-delay. The remote site performs the closed loop force/torque control, task monitoring, and reflex action. This paper describes the STELER local-remote robot control system, and further describes the near-term planned Space Station applications, along with potential far-term applications such as telescience, autonomous docking, and Lunar/Mars rovers.

  9. Community-Based School Finance and Accountability: A New Era for Local Control in Education Policy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasquez Heilig, Julian; Ward, Derrick R.; Weisman, Eric; Cole, Heather

    2014-01-01

    Top-down accountability policies have arguably had very limited impact over the past 20 years. Education stakeholders are now contemplating new forms of bottom-up accountability. In 2013, policymakers in California enacted a community-based approach that creates the Local Control Funding Formula (LCFF) process for school finance to increase…

  10. Local Control Funding Formula in California: How to Monitor Progress and Learn from a Grand Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Bruce; Tobben, Laura

    2014-01-01

    The Local Control Funding Formula (LCFF) was enacted by the California legislature in June 2013 and fundamentally changes the distribution of education dollars to districts. The legislation simplifies the formula for sending money to districts and now takes into account the higher costs of educating certain groups of students, specifically those…

  11. A Closer Look at "Local Control": Communities, Commodities, and the Collapse of the Coast.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gramling, Robert; Freudenburg, William R.

    1990-01-01

    External boom-bust forces may be so great as to overwhelm even well-prepared communities. In two oil-dependent coastal Louisiana parishes, over 90 percent of variation in total employment, 1970-88, was explained by commodity-related variables completely outside local community control. Contains 53 references. (Author/SV)

  12. 42 CFR 70.2 - Measures in the event of inadequate local control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Measures in the event of inadequate local control. 70.2 Section 70.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES QUARANTINE, INSPECTION, LICENSING INTERSTATE QUARANTINE § 70.2 Measures in the event of inadequate...

  13. 42 CFR 70.2 - Measures in the event of inadequate local control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Measures in the event of inadequate local control. 70.2 Section 70.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES QUARANTINE, INSPECTION, LICENSING INTERSTATE QUARANTINE § 70.2 Measures in the event of inadequate...

  14. Local Control in the Era of Accountability: A Case Study of Wisconsin PreK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graue, M. Elizabeth; Wilinski, Bethany; Nocera, Amato

    2016-01-01

    The opposing principles of local control and increased standardization are a prominent tension in the United States' education system. Since at least the early 1990s, this tension has taken shape around the accountability movement, defined by educational reforms that hold schools, teachers, and students accountable for performance on new…

  15. New Accountability in California through Local Control Funding Reforms: The Promise and the Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Affeldt, John T.

    2015-01-01

    California is in the midst of the nation's most significant current overhaul of a state school funding and accountability system. This paper examines the state's recent reforms enacted through the Local Control Funding Formula (LCFF) against the new accountability framework articulated by Linda Darling-Hammond, Gene Wilhoit, and Linda Pittenger in…

  16. Industry/Government Teleconference on Pollution Control. Proceedings National Telecast and Local Panel Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Manufacturers, New York, NY.

    Proceedings of the closed-circuit Teleconference on Pollution Control conducted by the National Association of Manufacturers on May 26, 1971 are supplied in this compendium. Edited transcripts are provided for the national programs and local panel sessions. Seeking to bring business and government together for cooperative problem solving, the…

  17. Assessing local planning to control groundwater depletion: California as a microcosm of global issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Rebecca L.

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater pumping has caused excessive groundwater depletion around the world, yet regulating pumping remains a profound challenge. California uses more groundwater than any other U.S. state, and serves as a microcosm of the adverse effects of pumping felt worldwide—land subsidence, impaired water quality, and damaged ecosystems, all against the looming threat of climate change. The state largely entrusts the control of depletion to the local level. This study uses internationally accepted water resources planning theories systematically to investigate three key aspects of controlling groundwater depletion in California, with an emphasis on local-level action: (a) making decisions and engaging stakeholders; (b) monitoring groundwater; and (c) using mandatory, fee-based and voluntary approaches to control groundwater depletion (e.g., pumping restrictions, pumping fees, and education about water conservation, respectively). The methodology used is the social science-derived technique of content analysis, which involves using a coding scheme to record these three elements in local rules and plans, and State legislation, then analyzing patterns and trends. The study finds that Californian local groundwater managers rarely use, or plan to use, mandatory and fee-based measures to control groundwater depletion. Most use only voluntary approaches or infrastructure to attempt to reduce depletion, regardless of whether they have more severe groundwater problems, or problems which are more likely to have irreversible adverse effects. The study suggests legal reforms to the local groundwater planning system, drawing upon its empirical findings. Considering the content of these recommendations may also benefit other jurisdictions that use a local groundwater management planning paradigm.

  18. The Safe Dates program: 1-year follow-up results.

    PubMed Central

    Foshee, V A; Bauman, K E; Greene, W F; Koch, G G; Linder, G F; MacDougall, J E

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: An earlier report described desirable 1-month follow-up effects of the Safe Dates program on psychological, physical, and sexual dating violence. Mediators of the program-behavior relationship also were identified. The present report describes the 1-year follow-up effects of the Safe Dates program. METHODS: Fourteen schools were in the randomized experiment. Data were gathered by questionnaires in schools before program activities and 1 year after the program ended. RESULTS: The short-term behavioral effects had disappeared at 1 year, but effects on mediating variables such as dating violence norms, conflict management skills, and awareness of community services for dating violence were maintained. CONCLUSIONS: The findings are considered in the context of why program effects might have decayed and the possible role of boosters for effect maintenance. PMID:11029999

  19. The Effect of Local Violence on Children’s Attention and Impulse Control

    PubMed Central

    Tirado-Strayer, Nicole; Papachristos, Andrew V.; Raver, C. Cybele

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We examined whether the burden of violence in a child’s community environment alters the child’s behavior and functioning in the classroom setting. Methods. To identify the effects of local violence, we exploited variation in the timing of local homicides, based on data from the Chicago Police Department, relative to the timing of interview assessments conducted as part of a randomized controlled trial conducted with preschoolers in Head Start programs from 2004–2006, the Chicago School Readiness Project. We compared children’s scores when exposed to recent local violence with scores when no recent violence had occurred to identify causal effects. Results. When children were assessed within a week of a homicide that occurred near their home, they exhibited lower levels of attention and impulse control and lower preacademic skills. The analysis showed strong positive effects of local violence on parental distress, providing suggestive evidence that parental responses may be a likely pathway by which local violence affects young children. Conclusions. Exposure to homicide generates acute psychological distress among caregivers and impairs children’s self-regulatory behavior and cognitive functioning. PMID:23078491

  20. Investigation of spherical loudspeaker arrays for local active control of sound.

    PubMed

    Peleg, Tomer; Rafaely, Boaz

    2011-10-01

    Active control of sound can be employed globally to reduce noise levels in an entire enclosure, or locally around a listener's head. Recently, spherical loudspeaker arrays have been studied as multiple-channel sources for local active control of sound, presenting the fundamental theory and several active control configurations. In this paper, important aspects of using a spherical loudspeaker array for local active control of sound are further investigated. First, the feasibility of creating sphere-shaped quiet zones away from the source is studied both theoretically and numerically, showing that these quiet zones are associated with sound amplification and poor system robustness. To mitigate the latter, the design of shell-shaped quiet zones around the source is investigated. A combination of two spherical sources is then studied with the aim of enlarging the quiet zone. The two sources are employed to generate quiet zones that surround a rigid sphere, investigating the application of active control around a listener's head. A significant improvement in performance is demonstrated in this case over a conventional headrest-type system that uses two monopole secondary sources. Finally, several simulations are presented to support the theoretical work and to demonstrate the performance and limitations of the system.

  1. Memo interacts with c-Src to control Estrogen Receptor alpha sub-cellular localization.

    PubMed

    Frei, Anna; MacDonald, Gwen; Lund, Ingrid; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke; Hynes, Nancy E; Nalvarte, Ivan

    2016-08-30

    Understanding the complex interaction between growth factor and steroid hormone signaling pathways in breast cancer is key to identifying suitable therapeutic strategies to avoid progression and therapy resistance. The interaction between these two pathways is of paramount importance for the development of endocrine resistance. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms behind their crosstalk are still largely obscure. We previously reported that Memo is a small redox-active protein that controls heregulin-mediated migration of breast cancer cells. Here we report that Memo sits at the intersection between heregulin and estrogen signaling, and that Memo controls Estrogen Receptor alpha (ERα) sub-cellular localization, phosphorylation, and function downstream of heregulin and estrogen in breast cancer cells. Memo facilitates ERα and c-Src interaction, ERα Y537 phosphorylation, and has the ability to control ERα extra-nuclear localization. Thus, we identify Memo as an important key mediator between the heregulin and estrogen signaling pathways, which affects both breast cancer cell migration and proliferation.

  2. Economic evaluation and 1-year survival analysis of MARS in patients with alcoholic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Hessel, Franz P; Mitzner, Steffen R; Rief, Jana; Guellstorff, Britta; Steiner, Susanne; Wasem, Jürgen

    2003-01-01

    Objective of this study was to determine 1-year survival, costs and cost-effectiveness of the artificial liver support system Molecular Adsorbent Recirculating System (MARS) in patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) and an underlying alcoholic liver disease. In a case-control study, 13 patients treated with MARS were compared to 23 controls of similar age, sex and severity of disease. Inpatient hospital costs data were extracted from patients' files and hospital's internal costing. Patients and treating GPs were contacted, thus determining resource use and survival 1-year after treatment. Mean 1-year survival time in MARS group was 261 days and 148 days in controls. Kaplan-Meier analysis shows advantages of MARS patients (Logrank: P=0.057). Direct medical costs per patient for initial hospital stay and 1-year follow-up from a payer's perspective were Euro 18,792 for MARS patients and Euro 9638 for controls. The costs per life-year gained are Euro 29,719 (time horizon 1 year). From a societal perspective, the numbers are higher (costs per life-year gained: Euro 79,075), mainly because of the fact that there is no regular reimbursement of MARS and therefore intervention costs were not calculated from payer's perspective. A trade-off between medical benefit and higher costs has to be made, but 1-year results suggest an acceptable cost-effectiveness of MARS. Prolonging the time horizon and including indirect costs, which will be done in future research, would probably improve cost-effectiveness.

  3. Durable control of locally recurrent renal cell carcinoma using stereotactic body radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Maclean, Jillian; Breau, Rodney H; Scheida, Nicola; Malone, Shawn

    2014-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is generally poorly responsive to conventional radiation doses, and patients with inoperable local recurrence have limited therapeutic options. Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is an increasingly available technology that allows delivery of a radiation schedule providing doses far more biologically effective against cancer cells than conventional radiotherapy. We present a case where durable disease control was achieved using SBRT in a patient with inoperable locally recurrent RCC who presented 18 years from original nephrectomy. The patient remains asymptomatic with no evidence of active disease 30 months following SBRT. This case highlights the need to reconsider the role of therapies with continuing advances in technology. PMID:25199199

  4. Otitis Media and Language Development at 1 Year of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Ina F.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Fifteen 1-year-olds without otitis media were compared to 12 babies who were otitis positive. No significant differences were detected on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development or the Sequenced Inventory of Communication Development (SICD) Receptive scale. However, the otitis-positive group exhibited lower SICD Expressive scores than the…

  5. Anxiety Sensitivity and Panic Attacks: A 1-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Wen; Zinbarg, Richard E.

    2007-01-01

    The hypothesis that anxiety sensitivity (AS) is a risk factor for panic genesis has obtained compelling support, but the clinical/practical importance of AS in panic genesis has been questioned. In addition, the association between panic experience and AS increase has not been clearly demonstrated. Through this 1-year longitudinal study among…

  6. Gait Asymmetries Persist 1 Year After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    White, Kathleen; Logerstedt, David; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Background: After anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR), motivation to return to previous levels of activity is high. Very few studies have used return-to-activity criteria to determine when to permit athletic play. Return-to-activity measures objectively evaluate functional limb symmetry; however, previous biomechanical studies have found gait deviations in these individuals that persist up to 2 years after surgery. Purpose: To evaluate gait biomechanics in a specific cohort of ACL patients 1 year after surgery and retrospectively compare individuals who pass return-to-activity criteria 6 months after surgery with those who fail. Study Design: Prospective analysis. Methods: A total of 40 athletes who participated regularly (>50 h/y) in cutting, jumping, and pivoting activities and who sustained an isolated, unilateral ACL rupture were included in this study. All participants underwent reconstruction by the same surgeon and received individualized postoperative rehabilitation. Performance-based and self-report data were measured 6 months after surgery to assess readiness to return to activity (90% outcome required to pass); 20 subjects passed return-to-activity criteria and 20 subjects did not. Motion analysis was performed 1 year after surgery, and knee flexion angles, moments, and excursions were measured during gait and evaluated for all subjects. Results: There was no limb × group interaction or effect of group for all measures. Decreased knee measures were seen on the involved limb compared with the uninvolved limb for all subjects, and failed subjects demonstrated larger differences between limbs. Conclusion: Patients continued to demonstrate biomechanical limb asymmetries 1 year after ACLR, regardless of performance-based measures at 6 months. Early return to activity did not ensure limb symmetry at 1 year. Clinical Relevance: Gait asymmetries were seen in all subjects 1 year after surgery regardless of status at 6 months. Potentially prolonging

  7. Investigating local controls on soil moisture temporal stability using an inverse modeling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogena, Heye; Qu, Wei; Huisman, Sander; Vereecken, Harry

    2013-04-01

    A better understanding of the temporal stability of soil moisture and its relation to local and nonlocal controls is a major challenge in modern hydrology. Both local controls, such as soil and vegetation properties, and non-local controls, such as topography and climate variability, affect soil moisture dynamics. Wireless sensor networks are becoming more readily available, which opens up opportunities to investigate spatial and temporal variability of soil moisture with unprecedented resolution. In this study, we employed the wireless sensor network SoilNet developed by the Forschungszentrum Jülich to investigate soil moisture variability of a grassland headwater catchment in Western Germany within the framework of the TERENO initiative. In particular, we investigated the effect of soil hydraulic parameters on the temporal stability of soil moisture. For this, the HYDRUS-1D code coupled with a global optimizer (DREAM) was used to inversely estimate Mualem-van Genuchten parameters from soil moisture observations at three depths under natural (transient) boundary conditions for 83 locations in the headwater catchment. On the basis of the optimized parameter sets, we then evaluated to which extent the variability in soil hydraulic conductivity, pore size distribution, air entry suction and soil depth between these 83 locations controlled the temporal stability of soil moisture, which was independently determined from the observed soil moisture data. It was found that the saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) was the most significant attribute to explain temporal stability of soil moisture as expressed by the mean relative difference (MRD).

  8. Stability and collapse of localized solutions of the controlled three-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedele, R.; Jovanović, D.; Eliasson, B.; de Nicola, S.; Shukla, P. K.

    2010-03-01

    On the basis of recent investigations, a newly developed analytical procedure is used for constructing a wide class of localized solutions of the controlled three-dimensional (3D) Gross-Pitaevskii equation (GPE) that governs the dynamics of Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) in the presence of a spatio-temporally varying external potential. The controlled 3D GPE is decomposed into a two-dimensional (2D) linear Schrödinger equation (called the `transverse equation’) and a one-dimensional (1D) nonlinear Schrödinger equation (called the `longitudinal equation’), constrained by a variational condition for the controlling potential. The latter corresponds to the requirement for the minimization of the control operation in the transverse plane. Then, the above class of localized solutions are constructed as the product of the solutions of the transverse and longitudinal equations. A consistency condition between the transverse and longitudinal solutions yields a relationship between the transverse and longitudinal restoring forces produced by the external trapping potential well through a `controlling parameter’ (i.e. the average, with respect to the transverse profile, of the nonlinear inter-atomic interaction term of the GPE). It is found that the longitudinal profile supports localized solutions in the form of bright, dark or grey solitons with time-dependent amplitudes, widths and centroids. The related longitudinal phase is varying in space and time with time-dependent curvature radius and wavenumber. In turn, all the above parameters (i.e. amplitudes, widths, centroids, curvature radius and wavenumbers) can be easily expressed in terms of the controlling parameter. It is also found that the transverse profile has the form of Hermite-Gauss functions (depending on the transverse coordinates), and the explicit spatio-temporal dependence of the controlling potential is self-consistently determined. On the basis of these exact 3D analytical solutions, a stability

  9. Control of epidemic spreading on complex networks by local traffic dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Han-Xin; Wang, Wen-Xu; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Xie, Yan-Bo; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2011-10-01

    Despite extensive work on traffic dynamics and epidemic spreading on complex networks, the interplay between these two types of dynamical processes has not received adequate attention. We study the effect of local-routing-based traffic dynamics on epidemic spreading. For the case of unbounded node-delivery capacity, where the traffic is free of congestion, we obtain analytic and numerical results indicating that the epidemic threshold can be maximized by an optimal routing protocol. This means that epidemic spreading can be effectively controlled by local traffic dynamics. For the case of bounded delivery capacity, numerical results and qualitative arguments suggest that traffic congestion can suppress epidemic spreading. Our results provide quantitative insight into the nontrivial role of traffic dynamics associated with a local-routing scheme in the epidemic spreading.

  10. Spatial control of chemical processes on nanostructures through nano-localized water heating

    PubMed Central

    Jack, Calum; Karimullah, Affar S.; Tullius, Ryan; Khorashad, Larousse Khosravi; Rodier, Marion; Fitzpatrick, Brian; Barron, Laurence D.; Gadegaard, Nikolaj; Lapthorn, Adrian J.; Rotello, Vincent M.; Cooke, Graeme; Govorov, Alexander O.; Kadodwala, Malcolm

    2016-01-01

    Optimal performance of nanophotonic devices, including sensors and solar cells, requires maximizing the interaction between light and matter. This efficiency is optimized when active moieties are localized in areas where electromagnetic (EM) fields are confined. Confinement of matter in these ‘hotspots' has previously been accomplished through inefficient ‘top-down' methods. Here we report a rapid ‘bottom-up' approach to functionalize selective regions of plasmonic nanostructures that uses nano-localized heating of the surrounding water induced by pulsed laser irradiation. This localized heating is exploited in a chemical protection/deprotection strategy to allow selective regions of a nanostructure to be chemically modified. As an exemplar, we use the strategy to enhance the biosensing capabilities of a chiral plasmonic substrate. This novel spatially selective functionalization strategy provides new opportunities for efficient high-throughput control of chemistry on the nanoscale over macroscopic areas for device fabrication. PMID:26961708

  11. Spatial control of chemical processes on nanostructures through nano-localized water heating.

    PubMed

    Jack, Calum; Karimullah, Affar S; Tullius, Ryan; Khorashad, Larousse Khosravi; Rodier, Marion; Fitzpatrick, Brian; Barron, Laurence D; Gadegaard, Nikolaj; Lapthorn, Adrian J; Rotello, Vincent M; Cooke, Graeme; Govorov, Alexander O; Kadodwala, Malcolm

    2016-03-10

    Optimal performance of nanophotonic devices, including sensors and solar cells, requires maximizing the interaction between light and matter. This efficiency is optimized when active moieties are localized in areas where electromagnetic (EM) fields are confined. Confinement of matter in these 'hotspots' has previously been accomplished through inefficient 'top-down' methods. Here we report a rapid 'bottom-up' approach to functionalize selective regions of plasmonic nanostructures that uses nano-localized heating of the surrounding water induced by pulsed laser irradiation. This localized heating is exploited in a chemical protection/deprotection strategy to allow selective regions of a nanostructure to be chemically modified. As an exemplar, we use the strategy to enhance the biosensing capabilities of a chiral plasmonic substrate. This novel spatially selective functionalization strategy provides new opportunities for efficient high-throughput control of chemistry on the nanoscale over macroscopic areas for device fabrication.

  12. Spatial control of chemical processes on nanostructures through nano-localized water heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jack, Calum; Karimullah, Affar S.; Tullius, Ryan; Khorashad, Larousse Khosravi; Rodier, Marion; Fitzpatrick, Brian; Barron, Laurence D.; Gadegaard, Nikolaj; Lapthorn, Adrian J.; Rotello, Vincent M.; Cooke, Graeme; Govorov, Alexander O.; Kadodwala, Malcolm

    2016-03-01

    Optimal performance of nanophotonic devices, including sensors and solar cells, requires maximizing the interaction between light and matter. This efficiency is optimized when active moieties are localized in areas where electromagnetic (EM) fields are confined. Confinement of matter in these `hotspots' has previously been accomplished through inefficient `top-down' methods. Here we report a rapid `bottom-up' approach to functionalize selective regions of plasmonic nanostructures that uses nano-localized heating of the surrounding water induced by pulsed laser irradiation. This localized heating is exploited in a chemical protection/deprotection strategy to allow selective regions of a nanostructure to be chemically modified. As an exemplar, we use the strategy to enhance the biosensing capabilities of a chiral plasmonic substrate. This novel spatially selective functionalization strategy provides new opportunities for efficient high-throughput control of chemistry on the nanoscale over macroscopic areas for device fabrication.

  13. Two-dimensional sub-half-wavelength atom localization via controlled spontaneous emission.

    PubMed

    Wan, Ren-Gang; Zhang, Tong-Yi

    2011-12-05

    We propose a scheme for two-dimensional (2D) atom localization based on the controlled spontaneous emission, in which the atom interacts with two orthogonal standing-wave fields. Due to the spatially dependent atom-field interaction, the position probability distribution of the atom can be directly determined by measuring the resulting spontaneously emission spectrum. The phase sensitive property of the atomic system leads to quenching of the spontaneous emission in some regions of the standing-waves, which significantly reduces the uncertainty in the position measurement of the atom. We find that the frequency measurement of the emitted light localizes the atom in half-wavelength domain. Especially the probability of finding the atom at a particular position can reach 100% when a photon with certain frequency is detected. By increasing the Rabi frequencies of the driving fields, such 2D sub-half-wavelength atom localization can acquire high spatial resolution.

  14. Control of epidemic spreading on complex networks by local traffic dynamics.

    PubMed

    Yang, Han-Xin; Wang, Wen-Xu; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Xie, Yan-Bo; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2011-10-01

    Despite extensive work on traffic dynamics and epidemic spreading on complex networks, the interplay between these two types of dynamical processes has not received adequate attention. We study the effect of local-routing-based traffic dynamics on epidemic spreading. For the case of unbounded node-delivery capacity, where the traffic is free of congestion, we obtain analytic and numerical results indicating that the epidemic threshold can be maximized by an optimal routing protocol. This means that epidemic spreading can be effectively controlled by local traffic dynamics. For the case of bounded delivery capacity, numerical results and qualitative arguments suggest that traffic congestion can suppress epidemic spreading. Our results provide quantitative insight into the nontrivial role of traffic dynamics associated with a local-routing scheme in the epidemic spreading.

  15. Estimating the Impacts of Local Policy Innovation: The Synthetic Control Method Applied to Tropical Deforestation.

    PubMed

    Sills, Erin O; Herrera, Diego; Kirkpatrick, A Justin; Brandão, Amintas; Dickson, Rebecca; Hall, Simon; Pattanayak, Subhrendu; Shoch, David; Vedoveto, Mariana; Young, Luisa; Pfaff, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Quasi-experimental methods increasingly are used to evaluate the impacts of conservation interventions by generating credible estimates of counterfactual baselines. These methods generally require large samples for statistical comparisons, presenting a challenge for evaluating innovative policies implemented within a few pioneering jurisdictions. Single jurisdictions often are studied using comparative methods, which rely on analysts' selection of best case comparisons. The synthetic control method (SCM) offers one systematic and transparent way to select cases for comparison, from a sizeable pool, by focusing upon similarity in outcomes before the intervention. We explain SCM, then apply it to one local initiative to limit deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. The municipality of Paragominas launched a multi-pronged local initiative in 2008 to maintain low deforestation while restoring economic production. This was a response to having been placed, due to high deforestation, on a federal "blacklist" that increased enforcement of forest regulations and restricted access to credit and output markets. The local initiative included mapping and monitoring of rural land plus promotion of economic alternatives compatible with low deforestation. The key motivation for the program may have been to reduce the costs of blacklisting. However its stated purpose was to limit deforestation, and thus we apply SCM to estimate what deforestation would have been in a (counterfactual) scenario of no local initiative. We obtain a plausible estimate, in that deforestation patterns before the intervention were similar in Paragominas and the synthetic control, which suggests that after several years, the initiative did lower deforestation (significantly below the synthetic control in 2012). This demonstrates that SCM can yield helpful land-use counterfactuals for single units, with opportunities to integrate local and expert knowledge and to test innovations and permutations on policies

  16. Estimating the Impacts of Local Policy Innovation: The Synthetic Control Method Applied to Tropical Deforestation

    PubMed Central

    Sills, Erin O.; Herrera, Diego; Kirkpatrick, A. Justin; Brandão, Amintas; Dickson, Rebecca; Hall, Simon; Pattanayak, Subhrendu; Shoch, David; Vedoveto, Mariana; Young, Luisa; Pfaff, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Quasi-experimental methods increasingly are used to evaluate the impacts of conservation interventions by generating credible estimates of counterfactual baselines. These methods generally require large samples for statistical comparisons, presenting a challenge for evaluating innovative policies implemented within a few pioneering jurisdictions. Single jurisdictions often are studied using comparative methods, which rely on analysts’ selection of best case comparisons. The synthetic control method (SCM) offers one systematic and transparent way to select cases for comparison, from a sizeable pool, by focusing upon similarity in outcomes before the intervention. We explain SCM, then apply it to one local initiative to limit deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. The municipality of Paragominas launched a multi-pronged local initiative in 2008 to maintain low deforestation while restoring economic production. This was a response to having been placed, due to high deforestation, on a federal “blacklist” that increased enforcement of forest regulations and restricted access to credit and output markets. The local initiative included mapping and monitoring of rural land plus promotion of economic alternatives compatible with low deforestation. The key motivation for the program may have been to reduce the costs of blacklisting. However its stated purpose was to limit deforestation, and thus we apply SCM to estimate what deforestation would have been in a (counterfactual) scenario of no local initiative. We obtain a plausible estimate, in that deforestation patterns before the intervention were similar in Paragominas and the synthetic control, which suggests that after several years, the initiative did lower deforestation (significantly below the synthetic control in 2012). This demonstrates that SCM can yield helpful land-use counterfactuals for single units, with opportunities to integrate local and expert knowledge and to test innovations and permutations on

  17. Local Control Strategy: Simple Analyses of Air Pollution Data Can Reveal Heterogeneity in Longevity Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Obenchain, Robert L; Young, S Stanley

    2017-02-23

    Claims from observational studies that use traditional model specification searches often fail to replicate, partially because the available data tend to be biased. There is an urgent need for an alternative statistical analysis strategy, that is not only simple and easily understood but also is more likely to give reliable insights when the available data have not been designed and balanced. The alternative strategy known as local control first generates local, nonparametric effect-size estimates (fair treatment comparisons) and only then asks whether the observed variation in these local estimates can be predicted from potential confounding factors. Here, we illustrate application of local control to a historical air pollution data set describing a "natural experiment" initiated by the federal Clean Air Act Amendments of 1970. Our reanalysis reveals subgroup heterogeneity in the effects of air quality regulation on elderly longevity (one size does not fit all), and we show that this heterogeneity is largely explained by socioeconomic and environmental confounders other than air quality.

  18. Control of Local Intracellular Calcium Concentration with Dynamic-Clamp Controlled 2-Photon Uncaging

    PubMed Central

    Idoux, Erwin; Mertz, Jerome

    2011-01-01

    The variations of the intracellular concentration of calcium ion ([Ca2+]i) are at the heart of intracellular signaling, and their imaging is therefore of enormous interest. However, passive [Ca2+]i imaging provides no control over these variations, meaning that a full exploration of the functional consequences of [Ca2+]i changes is difficult to attain. The tools designed so far to modify [Ca2+]i, even qualitatively, suffer drawbacks that undermine their widespread use. Here, we describe an electro-optical technique to quantitatively set [Ca2+]i, in real time and with sub-cellular resolution, using two-photon Ca2+ uncaging and dynamic-clamp. We experimentally demonstrate, on neurons from acute olfactory bulb slices of Long Evans rats, various capabilities of this technique previously difficult to achieve, such as the independent control of the membrane potential and [Ca2+]i variations, the functional knocking-in of user-defined virtual voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels, and the standardization of [Ca2+]i patterns across different cells. Our goal is to lay the groundwork for this technique and establish it as a new and versatile tool for the study of cell signaling. PMID:22216105

  19. Dissociating local and global levels of perceptuo-motor control in masked priming.

    PubMed

    Schlaghecken, Friederike; Bowman, Howard; Eimer, Martin

    2006-06-01

    Masked prime stimuli presented near the threshold of conscious awareness affect responses to subsequent targets. The direction of these priming effects depends on the interval between masked prime and target. With short intervals, benefits for compatible trials (primes and targets mapped to the same response) and costs for incompatible trials are observed. This pattern reverses with longer intervals. We argue (a) that these effects reflect the initial activation and subsequent self-inhibition of the primed response, and the corresponding inhibition and subsequent disinhibition of the nonprimed response, and (b) that they are generated at dissociable local (within response channels) and global (between channels) levels of motor control. In two experiments, global-level priming effects were modulated by changing the number of response alternatives, whereas local-level effects remained unaffected. These experiments suggest that low-level motor control mechanisms can be successfully decomposed into separable subcomponents, operating at different levels within the motor system.

  20. Prototyping the E-ELT M1 local control system communication infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argomedo, J.; Kornweibel, N.; Grudzien, T.; Dimmler, M.; Andolfato, L.; Barriga, P.

    2016-08-01

    The primary mirror of the E-ELT is composed of 798 hexagonal segments of about 1.45 meters across. Each segment can be moved in piston and tip-tilt using three position actuators. Inductive edge sensors are used to provide feedback for global reconstruction of the mirror shape. The E-ELT M1 Local Control System will provide a deterministic infrastructure for collecting edge sensor and actuators readings and distribute the new position actuators references while at the same time providing failure detection, isolation and notification, synchronization, monitoring and configuration management. The present paper describes the prototyping activities carried out to verify the feasibility of the E-ELT M1 local control system communication architecture design and assess its performance and potential limitations.

  1. Local Voltage Control in Distribution Networks: A Game-Theoretic Perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Xinyang; Tian, Jie; Chen, Lijun; Dall'Anese, Emiliano

    2016-11-21

    Inverter-based voltage regulation is gaining importance to alleviate emerging reliability and power-quality concerns related to distribution systems with high penetration of photovoltaic (PV) systems. This paper seeks contribution in the domain of reactive power compensation by establishing stability of local Volt/VAr controllers. In lieu of the approximate linear surrogate used in the existing work, the paper establishes existence and uniqueness of an equilibrium point using nonlinear AC power flow model. Key to this end is to consider a nonlinear dynamical system with non-incremental local Volt/VAr control, cast the Volt/VAr dynamics as a game, and leverage the fixed-point theorem as well as pertinent contraction mapping argument. Numerical examples are provided to complement the analytical results.

  2. Local Voltage Control in Distribution Networks: A Game-Theoretic Perspective: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Xinyang; Tian, Jie; Chen, Lijun; Dall'Anese, Emiliano

    2016-09-01

    Inverter-based voltage regulation is gaining importance to alleviate emerging reliability and power-quality concerns related to distribution systems with high penetration of photovoltaic (PV) systems. This paper seeks contribution in the domain of reactive power compensation by establishing stability of local Volt/VAr controllers. In lieu of the approximate linear surrogate used in the existing work, the paper establishes existence and uniqueness of an equilibrium point using nonlinear AC power flow model. Key to this end is to consider a nonlinear dynamical system with non-incremental local Volt/VAr control, cast the Volt/VAr dynamics as a game, and leverage the fixed-point theorem as well as pertinent contraction mapping argument. Numerical examples are provided to complement the analytical results.

  3. Kinetochore Localization of Spindle Checkpoint Proteins: Who Controls Whom?D⃞

    PubMed Central

    Vigneron, Suzanne; Prieto, Susana; Bernis, Cyril; Labbé, Jean-Claude; Castro, Anna; Lorca, Thierry

    2004-01-01

    The spindle checkpoint prevents anaphase onset until all the chromosomes have successfully attached to the spindle microtubules. The mechanisms by which unattached kinetochores trigger and transmit a primary signal are poorly understood, although it seems to be dependent at least in part, on the kinetochore localization of the different checkpoint components. By using protein immunodepletion and mRNA translation in Xenopus egg extracts, we have studied the hierarchic sequence and the interdependent network that governs protein recruitment at the kinetochore in the spindle checkpoint pathway. Our results show that the first regulatory step of this cascade is defined by Aurora B/INCENP complex. Aurora B/INCENP controls the activation of a second regulatory level by inducing at the kinetochore the localization of Mps1, Bub1, Bub3, and CENP-E. This localization, in turn, promotes the recruitment to the kinetochore of Mad1/Mad2, Cdc20, and the anaphase promoting complex (APC). Unlike Aurora B/INCENP, Mps1, Bub1, and CENP-E, the downstream checkpoint protein Mad1 does not regulate the kinetochore localization of either Cdc20 or APC. Similarly, Cdc20 and APC do not require each other to be localized at these chromosome structures. Thus, at the last step of the spindle checkpoint cascade, Mad1/Mad2, Cdc20, and APC are recruited at the kinetochores independently from each other. PMID:15269280

  4. Attenuating microwave radiation by absorption through controlled nanoparticle localization in PC/PVDF blends.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Sourav; Kar, Goutam Prasanna; Bose, Suryasarathi

    2015-11-07

    Nanoscale ordering in a polymer blend structure is indispensable to obtain materials with tailored properties. It was established here that controlling the arrangement of nanoparticles, with different characteristics, in co-continuous PC/PVDF (polycarbonate/poly(vinylidene fluoride)) blends can result in outstanding microwave absorption (ca. 90%). An excellent reflection loss (RL) of ca. -71 dB was obtained for a model blend structure wherein the conducting (multiwall carbon nanotubes, MWNTs) and the magnetic inclusions (Fe3O4) are localized in PVDF and the dielectric inclusion (barium titanate, BT) is in PC. The MWNTs were modified using polyaniline, which facilitates better charge transport in the blends. Furthermore, by introducing surface active groups on BT nanoparticles and changing the macroscopic processing conditions, the localization of BT nanoparticles can be tailored, otherwise BT nanoparticles would localize in the preferred phase (PVDF). In this study, we have shown that by ordered arrangement of nanoparticles, the incoming EM radiation can be attenuated. For instance, when PANI-MWNTs were localized in PVDF, the shielding was mainly through reflection. Now by localizing the conducting inclusion and the magnetic lossy materials in PVDF and the dielectric materials in PC, an outstanding shielding effectiveness of ca. -37 dB was achieved where shielding was mainly through absorption (ca. 90%). Thus, this study clearly demonstrates that lightweight microwave absorbers can be designed using polymer blends as a tool.

  5. The Local Control Funding Formula: An Opportunity for Early Childhood & Low-Income Students. Increasing Resources for Early Childhood through the Local Control Funding Formula: A Guide for Early Childhood Advocates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children Now, 2016

    2016-01-01

    According to the new Local Control Funding Formula (LCFF) law, most school districts in the state are responsible for using LCFF funds to improve outcomes for low-income students. Each district has created a Local Control Accountability Plan (LCAP), the funding plan for LCFF. The LCAP is reviewed and revised annually by each district. Early…

  6. The Local Control Funding Formula: An Opportunity for Early Childhood & Dual Language Learners. Increasing Resources for Early Childhood through the Local Control Funding Formula: A Guide for Early Childhood Advocates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children Now, 2016

    2016-01-01

    According to the new Local Control Funding Formula (LCFF) law, most school districts in the state are responsible for using LCFF funds to improve outcomes for English language learners, also known as dual language learners. Each district has created a Local Control Accountability Plan (LCAP), the funding plan for LCFF. The LCAP is reviewed and…

  7. The Local Control Funding Formula: An Opportunity for Early Childhood & Children in Foster Care. Increasing Resources for Early Childhood through the Local Control Funding Formula: A Guide for Early Childhood Advocates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children Now, 2016

    2016-01-01

    According to the new Local Control Funding Formula (LCFF) law, most school districts in California are responsible for using LCFF funds to improve outcomes for children in the foster care system. Each district has created a Local Control Accountability Plan (LCAP), the expenditure plan for LCFF. The LCAP is reviewed and revised annually by each…

  8. Adrenoceptor and local modulator control of cutaneous blood flow in thermal stress.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Michael; Rivers, Tanya; Oliveria, Seth; Texeira, Paul; Raman, Erik

    2002-03-01

    Blood flow to the skin is controlled by body temperatures in two ways: core and mean skin temperature combine in the central nervous system to form a reflex mechanism that controls the frequency of activity in sympathetic nerves to the cutaneous blood vessels; and local mechanisms independent of reflex effects control contractile response to the sympathetic transmitter norepinephrine (NE) at different temperatures. Cutaneous vessels differ in responsiveness to NE across temperatures: in limbs and tails, the superficial vessels constrict more strongly to NE when cooled, while the deep vessels show weaker responses to NE when cooled. This allows the limb to dissipate heat when warm and to conserve heat when cool. The mechanism for this difference in thermal response of deep and superficial vessels is not completely known, but may relate to differences in the adrenoceptors on which NE acts, and/or to the actions of locally produced substances that modulate the responses to NE in different ways at different temperatures. This paper discusses the alpha1- and alpha2-adrenoceptors involved in contraction of deep and superficial cutaneous vessels and also describes the roles of the local modulator nitric oxide, which interacts with adrenoceptors to affect cutaneous blood flow.

  9. Secondary preventive medication persistence and adherence 1 year after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Olson, D.M.; Zhao, X.; Pan, W.; Zimmer, L.O.; Goldstein, L.B.; Alberts, M.J.; Fagan, S.C.; Fonarow, G.C.; Johnston, S.C.; Kidwell, C.; LaBresh, K.A.; Ovbiagele, B.; Schwamm, L.; Peterson, E.D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Data on long-term use of secondary prevention medications following stroke are limited. The Adherence eValuation After Ischemic stroke–Longitudinal (AVAIL) Registry assessed patient, provider, and system-level factors influencing continuation of prevention medications for 1 year following stroke hospitalization discharge. Methods: Patients with ischemic stroke or TIA discharged from 106 hospitals participating in the American Heart Association Get With The Guidelines–Stroke program were surveyed to determine their use of warfarin, antiplatelet, antihypertensive, lipid-lowering, and diabetes medications from discharge to 12 months. Reasons for stopping medications were ascertained. Persistence was defined as continuation of all secondary preventive medications prescribed at hospital discharge, and adherence as continuation of prescribed medications except those stopped according to health care provider instructions. Results: Of the 2,880 patients enrolled in AVAIL, 88.4% (2,457 patients) completed 1-year interviews. Of these, 65.9% were regimen persistent and 86.6% were regimen adherent. Independent predictors of 1-year medication persistence included fewer medications prescribed at discharge, having an adequate income, having an appointment with a primary care provider, and greater understanding of why medications were prescribed and their side effects. Independent predictors of adherence were similar to those for persistence. Conclusions: Although up to one-third of stroke patients discontinued one or more secondary prevention medications within 1 year of hospital discharge, self-discontinuation of these medications is uncommon. Several potentially modifiable patient, provider, and system-level factors associated with persistence and adherence may be targets for future interventions. PMID:21900638

  10. Electric-field control of magnetic domain wall motion and local magnetization reversal

    PubMed Central

    Lahtinen, Tuomas H. E.; Franke, Kévin J. A.; van Dijken, Sebastiaan

    2012-01-01

    Spintronic devices currently rely on magnetic switching or controlled motion of domain walls by an external magnetic field or spin-polarized current. Achieving the same degree of magnetic controllability using an electric field has potential advantages including enhanced functionality and low power consumption. Here we report on an approach to electrically control local magnetic properties, including the writing and erasure of regular ferromagnetic domain patterns and the motion of magnetic domain walls, in CoFe-BaTiO3 heterostructures. Our method is based on recurrent strain transfer from ferroelastic domains in ferroelectric media to continuous magnetostrictive films with negligible magnetocrystalline anisotropy. Optical polarization microscopy of both ferromagnetic and ferroelectric domain structures reveals that domain correlations and strong inter-ferroic domain wall pinning persist in an applied electric field. This leads to an unprecedented electric controllability over the ferromagnetic microstructure, an accomplishment that produces giant magnetoelectric coupling effects and opens the way to electric-field driven spintronics. PMID:22355770

  11. Stability of physical assessment of older drivers over 1 year.

    PubMed

    Smith, Andrew; Marshall, Shawn; Porter, Michelle; Ha, Linda; Bédard, Michel; Gélinas, Isabelle; Man-Son-Hing, Malcolm; Mazer, Barbara; Rapoport, Mark; Tuokko, Holly; Vrkljan, Brenda

    2013-12-01

    Older adults represent the fastest-growing population of drivers with a valid driver's licence. Also common in this age group are multiple chronic medical conditions that may have an effect on physical function and driving ability. Determining the reliability of physical measures used to assess older drivers' functional ability is important to identifying those who are safe to continue driving. Most previous reliability studies of clinical physical measures of health used test-retest intervals shorter than those between patient visits with a clinician. In the present study we examined a more clinically representative interval of 1 year to determine the stability of commonly used physical measures collected during the Candrive II prospective cohort study of older drivers. Reliability statistics indicate that the sequential finger-thumb opposition, rapid pace walk and the Pelli-Robson contrast sensitivity tests have adequate stability over 1 year. Poor stability was observed for the one-legged stance and Snellen visual acuity test. Several assessments with nominal data (Marottoli method [functional neck range of motion], whispered voice test, range of motion and strength testing) lacked sufficient variability to conduct reliability analyses; however, a lack of variability between test days suggests consistency over a 1-year time frame. Our results provide evidence that specific physical measures are stable in monitoring functional ability over the course of a year.

  12. Localizing Effects of Leptin on Upper Airway and Respiratory Control during Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Qiaoling; Pho, Huy; Kirkness, Jason; Ladenheim, Ellen E.; Bi, Sheng; Moran, Timothy H.; Fuller, David D.; Schwartz, Alan R.; Polotsky, Vsevolod Y.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Obesity hypoventilation and obstructive sleep apnea are common complications of obesity linked to defects in respiratory pump and upper airway neural control. Leptin-deficient ob/ob mice have impaired ventilatory control and inspiratory flow limitation during sleep, which are both reversed with leptin. We aimed to localize central nervous system (CNS) site(s) of leptin action on respiratory and upper airway neuroventilatory control. Methods: We localized the effect of leptin to medulla versus hypothalamus by administering intracerbroventricular leptin (10 μg/2 μL) versus vehicle to the lateral (n = 14) versus fourth ventricle (n = 11) of ob/ob mice followed by polysomnographic recording. Analyses were stratified for effects on respiratory (nonflow-limited breaths) and upper airway (inspiratory flow limitation) functions. CNS loci were identified by (1) leptin-induced signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) phosphorylation and (2) projections of respiratory and upper airway motoneurons with a retrograde transsynaptic tracer (pseudorabies virus). Results: Both routes of leptin administration increased minute ventilation during nonflow-limited breathing in sleep. Phrenic motoneurons were synaptically coupled to the nucleus of the solitary tract, which also showed STAT3 phosphorylation, but not to the hypothalamus. Inspiratory flow limitation and obstructive hypopneas were attenuated by leptin administration to the lateral but not to the fourth cerebral ventricle. Upper airway motoneurons were synaptically coupled with the dorsomedial hypothalamus, which exhibited STAT3 phosphorylation. Conclusions: Leptin relieves upper airway obstruction in sleep apnea by activating the forebrain, possibly in the dorsomedial hypothalamus. In contrast, leptin upregulates ventilatory control through hindbrain sites of action, possibly in the nucleus of the solitary tract. Citation: Yao Q, Pho H, Kirkness J, Ladenheim EE, Bi S, Moran TH, Fuller DD

  13. External Beam Radiation Therapy Enhances Local Control in Pigmented Villonodular Synovitis

    SciTech Connect

    Horoschak, Melissa; Tran, Phuoc T. Bachireddy, Pavan; West, Robert B.; Mohler, David; Beaulieu, Christopher F.; Kapp, Daniel S.; Donaldson, Sarah S.

    2009-09-01

    Purpose: Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is a rare proliferative disorder of the synovium with locally aggressive behavior. We reviewed our experience using radiation therapy in the treatment of PVNS. Materials and Methods: Seventeen patients with 18 sites of PVNS were treated with radiation between 1993 and 2007. Cases were retrospectively reviewed for patient information, treatment parameters, complications, and outcome. Seven sites were primary presentations and 11 were recurrent with an average of 2.5 prior surgical interventions. The most common location was the knee joint (67%). Cytoreductive surgery was performed before radiation therapy in 16/18 sites with all having proven or suspected residual disease. Radiation was delivered using 4-15 MV photons with an average total dose 34 Gy (range, 20-36 Gy). Seventeen of 18 sites (94%) had postradiotherapy imaging. Results: With average follow-up of 46 months (range, 8-181 months), initial local control was achieved in 75% (12/16) of the sites with prior cytoreductive surgery (mean time to recurrence, 38 months). Ultimate local control was 100% after repeat resection (mean follow-up, 61 months). Two additional sites without prior cytoreductive surgery showed growth after radiotherapy (mean time to documented growth, 10.5 months). Seventeen of the 18 involved joints (94%) were scored as excellent or good PVNS-related function, one site (5%) as fair function, and no site with poor function. No patient required amputation; and there were no Grade 3/4 treatment-related complications. Conclusion: Postoperative external beam radiation is effective in preventing disease recurrence and should be offered following maximal cytoreduction to enhance local control in PVNS.

  14. An evaluation of a local exhaust ventilation control system for a foundry casting-cleaning operation.

    PubMed

    Gressel, M G

    1997-05-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a local exhaust ventilation system for a foundry casting-cleaning operation in which a worker cleaned gray iron castings using a variety of handheld chipping and grinding tools. The operation originally had an exhaust system consisting only of an exhaust duct terminating approximately 1 m (3 ft) above the floor and 2 m (6 ft) from the casting-cleaning workstation. An earlier evaluation of this original control system found time-weighted average exposures to respirable silica ranging from 124 to 160 micrograms/m3. The local exhaust ventilation system evaluated in this present study consisted of a downdraft booth outfitted with a turntable for manipulating the castings. The modified local exhaust ventilation system was installed at this facility and connected to the existing plant exhaust ventilation system through the original ductwork. A direct-reading instrument was used to measure the operator's respirable aerosol exposure concentrations during a single day both before and after the installation of the new workstation. The same worker was sampled both times. The operator's activities were recorded on videotape so that the exposures associated with the various tools could be determined. While day-to-day variability could not be accounted for, depending on the type of tool used the local exhaust ventilation system reduced exposures by 59 to 79% during casting cleaning by the sampled worker when compared with the original configuration. These reductions were statistically significant.

  15. Localized slip controlled by dehydration embrittlement of partly serpentinized dunites, Leka Ophiolite Complex, Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunkel, Kristina G.; Austrheim, Håkon; Renard, François; Cordonnier, Benoit; Jamtveit, Bjørn

    2017-04-01

    Dehydration of partly or completely serpentinized ultramafic rocks can increase the pore fluid pressure and induce brittle failure, a process referred to as dehydration embrittlement. However the extents of strain localization and unstable frictional sliding during deserpentinization are still under debate. In the layered ultramafic sections of the Leka Ophiolite Complex in the Central Norwegian Caledonides, prograde metamorphism of serpentinite veins led to local fluid production and to the growth of Mg-rich and coarse-grained olivine with abundant magnetite inclusions and δ18O values 1.0- 1.5 ‰ below the host rock. Embrittlement associated with the dehydration caused faulting along highly localized (<10 μm-wide) slip planes near the centers of the original serpentinite veins and pulverization of wall rock olivine. These features along with an earthquake-like size distribution of fault offsets suggest unstable frictional sliding rather than slower creep. Structural heterogeneities in the form of serpentinite veins clearly have first-order controls on strain localization and frictional sliding during dehydration. As most of the oceanic lithosphere is incompletely serpentinized, heterogeneities represented by a non-uniform distribution of serpentinite are common and may increase the likelihood that dehydration embrittlement triggers earthquakes.

  16. Blind RSSD-Based Indoor Localization with Confidence Calibration and Energy Control

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Tengyue; Lin, Shouying; Li, Shuyuan

    2016-01-01

    Indoor localization based on wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is an important field of research with numerous applications, such as elderly care, miner security, and smart buildings. In this paper, we present a localization method based on the received signal strength difference (RSSD) to determine a target on a map with unknown transmission information. To increase the accuracy of localization, we propose a confidence value for each anchor node to indicate its credibility for participating in the estimation. An automatic calibration device is designed to help acquire the values. The acceleration sensor and unscented Kalman filter (UKF) are also introduced to reduce the influence of measuring noise in the application. Energy control is another key point in WSN systems and may prolong the lifetime of the system. Thus, a quadtree structure is constructed to describe the region correlation between neighboring areas, and the unnecessary anchor nodes can be detected and set to sleep to save energy. The localization system is implemented on real-time Texas Instruments CC2430 and CC2431 embedded platforms, and the experimental results indicate that these mechanisms achieve a high accuracy and low energy cost. PMID:27258272

  17. Positive and negative regulation of a SNARE protein by control of intracellular localization.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Hideki; de los Santos, Pablo; Neiman, Aaron M

    2004-04-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the developmentally regulated Soluble N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) protein Spo20p mediates the fusion of vesicles with the prospore membrane, which is required for the formation of spores. Spo20p is subject to both positive and negative regulation by separate sequences in its aminoterminal domain. We report that the positive activity is conferred by a short, amphipathic helix that is sufficient to confer plasma membrane or prospore membrane localization to green fluorescent protein. In vitro, this helix binds to acidic phospholipids, and mutations that reduce or eliminate phospholipid binding in vitro inactivate Spo20p in vivo. Genetic manipulation of phospholipid pools indicates that the likely in vivo ligand of this domain is phosphatidic acid. The inhibitory activity is a nuclear targeting signal, which confers nuclear localization in vegetative cells and in cells entering meiosis. However, as cells initiate spore formation, fusions containing the inhibitory domain exit the nucleus and localize to the nascent prospore membrane. Thus, the SNARE Spo20p is both positively and negatively regulated by control of its intracellular localization.

  18. Blind RSSD-Based Indoor Localization with Confidence Calibration and Energy Control.

    PubMed

    Zou, Tengyue; Lin, Shouying; Li, Shuyuan

    2016-05-31

    Indoor localization based on wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is an important field of research with numerous applications, such as elderly care, miner security, and smart buildings. In this paper, we present a localization method based on the received signal strength difference (RSSD) to determine a target on a map with unknown transmission information. To increase the accuracy of localization, we propose a confidence value for each anchor node to indicate its credibility for participating in the estimation. An automatic calibration device is designed to help acquire the values. The acceleration sensor and unscented Kalman filter (UKF) are also introduced to reduce the influence of measuring noise in the application. Energy control is another key point in WSN systems and may prolong the lifetime of the system. Thus, a quadtree structure is constructed to describe the region correlation between neighboring areas, and the unnecessary anchor nodes can be detected and set to sleep to save energy. The localization system is implemented on real-time Texas Instruments CC2430 and CC2431 embedded platforms, and the experimental results indicate that these mechanisms achieve a high accuracy and low energy cost.

  19. Renin dynamics in adipose tissue: adipose tissue control of local renin concentrations.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Jason D; Krueth, Stacy B; Bernlohr, David A; Katz, Stephen A

    2009-02-01

    The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been implicated in a variety of adipose tissue functions, including tissue growth, differentiation, metabolism, and inflammation. Although expression of all components necessary for a locally derived adipose tissue RAS has been demonstrated within adipose tissue, independence of local adipose RAS component concentrations from corresponding plasma RAS fluctuations has not been addressed. To analyze this, we varied in vivo rat plasma concentrations of two RAS components, renin and angiotensinogen (AGT), to determine the influence of their plasma concentrations on adipose and cardiac tissue levels in both perfused (plasma removed) and nonperfused samples. Variation of plasma RAS components was accomplished by four treatment groups: normal, DOCA salt, bilateral nephrectomy, and losartan. Adipose and cardiac tissue AGT concentrations correlated positively with plasma values. Perfusion of adipose tissue decreased AGT concentrations by 11.1%, indicating that adipose tissue AGT was in equilibrium with plasma. Cardiac tissue renin levels positively correlated with plasma renin concentration for all treatments. In contrast, adipose tissue renin levels did not correlate with plasma renin, with the exception of extremely high plasma renin concentrations achieved in the losartan-treated group. These results suggest that adipose tissue may control its own local renin concentration independently of plasma renin as a potential mechanism for maintaining a functional local adipose RAS.

  20. Springtime cloud properties in the Taiwan Strait: synoptic controls and local processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kueh, Mien-Tze; Lin, Pay-Liam

    2014-05-01

    This paper examines the springtime cloud properties in the Taiwan Strait (TS), with emphases on their dependence on synoptic controls and local processes, using a suite of in situ and remote sensing observations. Cloud properties in the TS are inferred from a combination of MODIS and in situ observations and further classified into two synoptic conditions: continental cold air surge and frontal system. The study reveals a predominance of synoptic-scale controls in regulating the cloud properties in the TS. The sensitivity of clouds to the local thermodynamic mechanisms as well as the underlying surface conditions is fundamentally dependent on synoptic-scale flow patterns. The springtime clouds over the TS are commonly a mixture of stratocumulus and alto clouds. More precisely, there is a preponderance of stratocumulus over the strait. A preferential occupancy of stratiform alto clouds is recognized during cold air surge, whereas vertical development of cloud layers (mostly the stratocumulus) is commonly observed with frontal passage. The most distinct difference between the local clouds formation associated with the two synoptic conditions is the suppression of very low cloud and fog along with cold air surge. Stratus clouds and fog are present within the northward prefrontal airflow from warmer to colder water sites, along with an increase in stability relating to lower altitudes of boundary layer clouds. Although the rainfall occurrences are about the same for both synoptic conditions, the frontal rain amounts are larger on average.

  1. Control of Nitrous Oxide Exposure in Dental Operatories Using Local Exhaust Ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, David E.; Middendorf, Paul J.

    1986-01-01

    An experimental portable local exhaust ventilation system was installed in three dental operatories where nitrous oxide was used routinely. Standard methods of exhaust ventilation design used in industry to control exposures to toxic airborne substances were applied to the dental operatory setting. The concentration of nitrous oxide in the dentists' breathing zones was measured before and after installation to determine the efficiency of the system in reducing occupational exposures. Results indicate that placement of the exhaust opening and exhaust air flow rate are important in determining the degree of control achieved. After the system had been installed in one operatory, peak exposures declined from over 600 parts per million (ppm) to less than 70 ppm: the time-weighted average exposure was below the NIOSH recommended level of 25 ppm. A permanently installed local exhaust ventilation system modeled after the portable one used in this pilot study may be feasible for most operatories and should not interfere with dental procedures. The results suggest that nitrous oxide exposures can be greatly reduced if dental operatories are equipped with local exhaust ventilation. ImagesFig. 4Fig. 7 PMID:3465259

  2. Plasmon-assisted local temperature control to pattern individual semiconductor nanowires and carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Cao, Linyou; Barsic, David N; Guichard, Alex R; Brongersma, Mark L

    2007-11-01

    We demonstrate a new versatile strategy to rapidly heat and cool subdiffraction-limited volumes of material with a focused light beam. The local temperature rise is obtained by exploiting the unique optical properties of metallic nanostructures that facilitate efficient light-to-heat conversion through the excitation of surface plasmons (collective electron oscillations). By locally heating nanoscale metallic catalysts, growth of semiconductor nanowires and carbon nanotubes can be initiated and controlled at arbitrarily prespecified locations and down to the single nanostructure level in a room-temperature chamber. This local heating strategy can be orders of magnitude (>10(5)) more energy efficient than conventional chemical vapor deposition (CVD) tools in which an entire chamber/substrate is heated. For these reasons, it has great potential for use in process- and energy-efficient assembly of nanowires into complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) compatible device architectures. In general, the high degree of spatial and temporal control over nanoscale thermal environments afforded by this method inspires new pathways for manipulating a range of important thermally stimulated processes and the development of novel photothermal devices.

  3. Radio-chemotherapy for bladder cancer: Contribution of chemotherapy on local control

    PubMed Central

    Plataniotis, George A; Dale, Roger G

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to review the magnitude of contribution of chemotherapy (CT) in the local control of muscle invasive bladder carcinoma in the studies where a combined radio-chemotherapy (RCT) was used (how much higher local control rates are obtained with RCT compared to RT alone). Studies on radiotherapy (RT) and combined RCT, neo-adjuvant, concurrent, adjuvant or combinations, reported after 1990 were reviewed. The mean complete response (CR) rates were significantly higher for the RCT studies compared to RT-alone studies: 75.9% vs 64.4% (Wilcoxon rank-sum test, P = 0.001). Eleven of the included RCT studies involved 2-3 cycles of neo-adjuvant CT, in addition to concurrent RCT. The RCT studies included the one-phase type (where a full dose of RCT was given and then assessment of response and cystectomy for non-responders followed) and the two-phase types (where an assessment of response was undertaken after an initial RCT course, followed 6 wk later by a consolidation RCT for those patients with a CR). CR rates between the two subgroups of RCT studies were 79.6% (one phase) vs 71.6% (two-phase) (P = 0.015). The average achievable tumour control rates, with an acceptable rate of side effects have been around 70%, which may represent a plateau. Further increase in CR response rates demands for new chemotherapeutic agents, targeted therapies, or modified fractionation in various combinations. Quantification of RT and CT contribution to local control using radiobiological modelling in trial designs would enhance the potential for both improved outcomes and the estimation of the potential gain. PMID:24003352

  4. Local phase control for a planar array of fiber laser amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffanic, Patrick; Johannes, Benjamin T.; Sison, Claudia A.; Hughes, Gary B.; Lubin, Philip; Meinhold, Peter; Suen, Jonathan; O'Neill, Hugh; Kangas, Miikka; Brashears, Travis; Zhang, Qicheng; Griswold, Janelle; Riley, Jordan; Motta, Caio

    2015-09-01

    Arrays of phase-locked lasers have been developed for numerous directed-energy applications. Phased-array designs are capable of producing higher beam intensity than similar sized multi-beam emitters, and also allow beam steering and beam profile manipulation. In phased-array designs, individual emitter phases must be controllable, based on suitable feedback. Most current control schemes sample individual emitter phases, such as with an array-wide beam splitter, and compare to a master phase reference. Reliance on a global beam splitter limits scalability to larger array sizes due to lack of design modularity. This paper describes a conceptual design and control scheme that relies only on feedback from the array structure itself. A modular and scalable geometry is based on individual hexagonal frames for each emitter; each frame cell consists of a conventional lens mounted in front of the fiber tip. A rigid phase tap structure physically connects two adjacent emitter frame cells. A target sensor is mounted on top of the phase tap, representing the local alignment datum. Optical sensors measure the relative position of the phase tap and target sensor. The tap senses the exit phase of both emitters relative to the target normal plane, providing information to the phase controller for each emitter. As elements are added to the array, relative local position data between adjacent phase taps allows accurate prediction of the relative global position of emitters across the array, providing additional constraints to the phase controllers. The approach is scalable for target distance and number of emitters without loss of control.

  5. Acquired childhood aphasia. Outcome 1 year after onset.

    PubMed

    Loonen, M C; van Dongen, H R

    1990-12-01

    The effects of the variables age at onset, cause, severity and bilaterality of lesion, and type of aphasia on course and outcome were investigated in a group of 28 aphasic children. Analysis of spontaneous speech and tests of auditory verbal comprehension were used to determine the presence of aphasia. The severity of the cerebral lesion was assessed using a rating scale for computed tomographic scans. Most of the children had not recovered completely 1 year after onset. Recovery was significantly different according to etiological categories. Complete recovery was seen in the majority of traumatic cases.

  6. High-precision atom localization via controllable spontaneous emission in a cycle-configuration atomic system.

    PubMed

    Ding, Chunling; Li, Jiahua; Yu, Rong; Hao, Xiangying; Wu, Ying

    2012-03-26

    A scheme for realizing two-dimensional (2D) atom localization is proposed based on controllable spontaneous emission in a coherently driven cycle-configuration atomic system. As the spatial-position-dependent atom-field interaction, the frequency of the spontaneously emitted photon carries the information about the position of the atom. Therefore, by detecting the emitted photon one could obtain the position information available, and then we demonstrate high-precision and high-resolution 2D atom localization induced by the quantum interference between the multiple spontaneous decay channels. Moreover, we can achieve 100% probability of finding the atom at an expected position by choosing appropriate system parameters under certain conditions.

  7. Bovine serum albumin nanoparticles as controlled release carrier for local drug delivery to the inner ear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhan; Yu, Min; Zhang, Zhibao; Hong, Ge; Xiong, Qingqing

    2014-07-01

    Nanoparticles have attracted increasing attention for local drug delivery to the inner ear recently. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) nanoparticles were prepared by desolvation method followed by glutaraldehyde fixation or heat denaturation. The nanoparticles were spherical in shape with an average diameter of 492 nm. The heat-denatured nanoparticles had good cytocompatibility. The nanoparticles could adhere on and penetrate through the round window membrane of guinea pigs. The nanoparticles were analyzed as drug carriers to investigate the loading capacity and release behaviors. Rhodamine B was used as a model drug in this paper. Rhodamine B-loaded nanoparticles showed a controlled release profile and could be deposited on the osseous spiral lamina. We considered that the bovine serum albumin nanoparticles may have potential applications in the field of local drug delivery in the treatment of inner ear disorders.

  8. Electrochemotherapy increases local control after incomplete excision of a recurring penile fibrosarcoma in a stallion

    PubMed Central

    Spugnini, E.P.; Bolaffio, C.; Scacco, L.; Baldi, A.

    2016-01-01

    An eleven-year-old stallion was referred for adjuvant treatment of an incompletely excised, recurring penile fibrosarcoma. The horse was bright, alert and responsive with a 15 x 12 cm ulcerated lesion on the ventral side of the penis. The lesion was the tumor bed of an incompletely excised fibrosarcoma. After complete staging procedures, the owner elected to treat the horse with electrochemotherapy (ECT) using cisplatin as chemotherapy agent. Two sessions of ECT were performed at two-week intervals using local cisplatin followed by trains of biphasic electric pulses applied using different electrodes until complete coverage of the area was achieved. The treatment was well tolerated, and the patient is still disease free after 12 months. ECT resulted in improved local control and should be considered among the available adjuvant treatments in equines carrying soft tissue tumors. PMID:27995080

  9. Aerosol source apportionment from 1-year measurements at the CESAR tower in Cabauw, the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlag, Patrick; Kiendler-Scharr, Astrid; Blom, Marcus Johannes; Canonaco, Francesco; Sebastiaan Henzing, Jeroen; Moerman, Marcel; Prévôt, André Stephan Henry; Holzinger, Rupert

    2016-07-01

    Intensive measurements of submicron aerosol particles and their chemical composition were performed with an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) at the Cabauw Experimental Site for Atmospheric Research (CESAR) in Cabauw, the Netherlands, sampling at 5 m height above ground. The campaign lasted nearly 1 year from July 2012 to June 2013 as part of the EU-FP7-ACTRIS project (Q-ACSM Network). Including equivalent black carbon an average particulate mass concentration of 9.50 µg m-3 was obtained during the whole campaign with dominant contributions from ammonium nitrate (45 %), organic aerosol (OA, 29 %), and ammonium sulfate (19 %). There were 12 exceedances of the World Health Organization (WHO) PM2.5 daily mean limit (25 µg m-3) observed at this rural site using PM1 instrumentation only. Ammonium nitrate and OA represented the largest contributors to total particulate matter during periods of exceedance. Source apportionment of OA was performed season-wise by positive matrix factorization (PMF) using the multilinear engine 2 (ME-2) controlled via the source finder (SoFi). Primary organic aerosols were attributed mainly to traffic (8-16 % contribution to total OA, averaged season-wise) and biomass burning (0-23 %). Secondary organic aerosols (SOAs, 61-84 %) dominated the organic fraction during the whole campaign, particularly on days with high mass loadings. A SOA factor which is attributed to humic-like substances (HULIS) was identified as a highly oxidized background aerosol in Cabauw. This shows the importance of atmospheric aging processes for aerosol concentration at this rural site. Due to the large secondary fraction, the reduction of particulate mass at this rural site is challenging on a local scale.

  10. Local Control After Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Head-and-Neck Rhabdomyosarcoma

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, Amarinthia E.; Okcu, M. Fatih; Chintagumpala, Murali; Paulino, Arnold C.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the patterns of failure in patients treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for head-and-neck rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS). Methods and Materials: Between 1998 and 2005, 19 patients with a diagnosis of head-and-neck RMS received IMRT at The Methodist Hospital. There were 11 male and 8 female patients, with a median age of 6 years at time of irradiation. Tumor location was parameningeal in 7, orbital in 6, and other head-and-neck RMS in 6. Chemotherapy was given to all patients, with vincristine, actinomycin D, and cyclophosphamide being the most common regimen (n = 18). The median prescribed dose was 5040 cGy. The clinical target volume included the gross tumor volume with a 1.5-cm margin. The median duration of follow-up for surviving patients was 56 months. Results: The 4-year overall survival and local control rates were 76% and 92.9%, respectively. One patient developed a local failure in the high-dose region of the radiation field; there were no marginal failures. Distant metastasis was seen in 4 patients. Overall survival was 42.9% for parameningeal sites and 100% for other sites (p < 0.01). Late toxicities were seen in 7 patients. Two secondary malignancies occurred in 1 child with embryonal RMS of the face and a p53 mutation. Conclusions: Local control was excellent in patients receiving IMRT for head-and-neck RMS. Patterns of local failure reveal no marginal failures in this group of patients.

  11. Identifying and avoiding singularity-induced local traps over control landscapes of spin chain systems.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qiuyang; Pelczer, István; Riviello, Gregory; Wu, Re-Bing; Rabitz, Herschel

    2015-11-28

    The wide success of quantum optimal control in experiments and simulations is attributed to the properties of the control landscape, defined by the objective value as a functional of the controls. Prior analysis has shown that on satisfaction of some underlying assumptions, the landscapes are free of suboptimal traps that could halt the search for a global optimum with gradient-based algorithms. However, violation of one particular assumption can give rise to a so-called singular control, possibly bringing about local traps on the corresponding landscapes in some particular situations. This paper theoretically and experimentally demonstrates the existence of singular traps on the landscape in linear spin-1/2 chains with Ising couplings between nearest neighbors and with certain field components set to zero. The results in a two-spin example show how a trap influences the search trajectories passing by it, and how to avoid encountering such traps in practice by choosing sufficiently strong initial control fields. The findings are also discussed in the context of the generally observed success of quantum control.

  12. Vision-Based Steering Control, Speed Assistance and Localization for Inner-City Vehicles

    PubMed Central

    Olivares-Mendez, Miguel Angel; Sanchez-Lopez, Jose Luis; Jimenez, Felipe; Campoy, Pascual; Sajadi-Alamdari, Seyed Amin; Voos, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Autonomous route following with road vehicles has gained popularity in the last few decades. In order to provide highly automated driver assistance systems, different types and combinations of sensors have been presented in the literature. However, most of these approaches apply quite sophisticated and expensive sensors, and hence, the development of a cost-efficient solution still remains a challenging problem. This work proposes the use of a single monocular camera sensor for an automatic steering control, speed assistance for the driver and localization of the vehicle on a road. Herein, we assume that the vehicle is mainly traveling along a predefined path, such as in public transport. A computer vision approach is presented to detect a line painted on the road, which defines the path to follow. Visual markers with a special design painted on the road provide information to localize the vehicle and to assist in its speed control. Furthermore, a vision-based control system, which keeps the vehicle on the predefined path under inner-city speed constraints, is also presented. Real driving tests with a commercial car on a closed circuit finally prove the applicability of the derived approach. In these tests, the car reached a maximum speed of 48 km/h and successfully traveled a distance of 7 km without the intervention of a human driver and any interruption. PMID:26978365

  13. Global aspirations, local realities: the role of social science research in controlling neglected tropical diseases.

    PubMed

    Bardosh, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) are both drivers and manifestations of poverty and social inequality. Increased advocacy efforts since the mid-2000s have led to ambitious new control and elimination targets set for 2020 by the World Health Organisation. While these global aspirations represent significant policy momentum, there are multifaceted challenges in controlling infectious diseases in resource-poor local contexts that need to be acknowledged, understood and engaged. However a number of recent publications have emphasised the "neglected" status of applied social science research on NTDs. In light of the 2020 targets, this paper explores the social science/NTD literature and unpacks some of the ways in which social inquiry can help support effective and sustainable interventions. Five priority areas are discussed, including on policy processes, health systems capacity, compliance and resistance to interventions, education and behaviour change, and community participation. The paper shows that despite the multifaceted value of having anthropological and sociological perspectives integrated into NTD programmes, contemporary efforts underutilise this potential. This is reflective of the dominance of top-down information flows and technocratic approaches in global health. To counter this tendency, social research needs to be more than an afterthought; integrating social inquiry into the planning, monitoring and evaluating process will help ensure that flexibility and adaptability to local realities are built into interventions. More emphasis on social science perspectives can also help link NTD control to broader social determinants of health, especially important given the major social and economic inequalities that continue to underpin transmission in endemic countries.

  14. Vision-Based Steering Control, Speed Assistance and Localization for Inner-City Vehicles.

    PubMed

    Olivares-Mendez, Miguel Angel; Sanchez-Lopez, Jose Luis; Jimenez, Felipe; Campoy, Pascual; Sajadi-Alamdari, Seyed Amin; Voos, Holger

    2016-03-11

    Autonomous route following with road vehicles has gained popularity in the last few decades. In order to provide highly automated driver assistance systems, different types and combinations of sensors have been presented in the literature. However, most of these approaches apply quite sophisticated and expensive sensors, and hence, the development of a cost-efficient solution still remains a challenging problem. This work proposes the use of a single monocular camera sensor for an automatic steering control, speed assistance for the driver and localization of the vehicle on a road. Herein, we assume that the vehicle is mainly traveling along a predefined path, such as in public transport. A computer vision approach is presented to detect a line painted on the road, which defines the path to follow. Visual markers with a special design painted on the road provide information to localize the vehicle and to assist in its speed control. Furthermore, a vision-based control system, which keeps the vehicle on the predefined path under inner-city speed constraints, is also presented. Real driving tests with a commercial car on a closed circuit finally prove the applicability of the derived approach. In these tests, the car reached a maximum speed of 48 km/h and successfully traveled a distance of 7 km without the intervention of a human driver and any interruption.

  15. Locally optimal control under unknown dynamics with learnt cost function: application to industrial robot positioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guérin, Joris; Gibaru, Olivier; Thiery, Stéphane; Nyiri, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Recent methods of Reinforcement Learning have enabled to solve difficult, high dimensional, robotic tasks under unknown dynamics using iterative Linear Quadratic Gaussian control theory. These algorithms are based on building a local time-varying linear model of the dynamics from data gathered through interaction with the environment. In such tasks, the cost function is often expressed directly in terms of the state and control variables so that it can be locally quadratized to run the algorithm. If the cost is expressed in terms of other variables, a model is required to compute the cost function from the variables manipulated. We propose a method to learn the cost function directly from the data, in the same way as for the dynamics. This way, the cost function can be defined in terms of any measurable quantity and thus can be chosen more appropriately for the task to be carried out. With our method, any sensor information can be used to design the cost function. We demonstrate the efficiency of this method through simulating, with the V-REP software, the learning of a Cartesian positioning task on several industrial robots with different characteristics. The robots are controlled in joint space and no model is provided a priori. Our results are compared with another model free technique, consisting in writing the cost function as a state variable.

  16. Focused ultrasound treatment of VX2 tumors controlled by local harmonic motion.

    PubMed

    Curiel, Laura; Huang, Yuexi; Vykhodtseva, Natalia; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2009-06-07

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using localized harmonic motion (LHM) to monitor and control focused ultrasound surgery (FUS) in VX2 tumors in vivo. FUS exposures were performed on 13 VX2 tumors implanted in nine rabbits. The same transducer induced coagulation and generated a localized oscillatory motion by periodically varying the radiation force. A separate diagnostic ultrasound transducer tracked motion by cross-correlating echo signals at different instances. A threshold in motion amplitude was instituted to cease exposure. Coagulation was confirmed by T2-weighted MR images, thermal dose obtained through MR thermometry and histological examinations. For tumor locations achieving coagulation, the LHM amplitude was 9% (p = 0.04) to 57% (p < 0.0001) lower than that before exposure. Control was successful for 74 (69%) out of 108 cases, with 52 (48%) reaching the threshold and achieving coagulation and 22 (21%) never reaching threshold nor coagulating. For the 34 (31%) unsuccessful exposures, 16 (15%) never reached the threshold but coagulation occurred, and 18 (16%) reached threshold without coagulation confirmed. Noise or radio-frequency signal changes explained motion over- or underestimation in 24 (22%) cases; the remaining 10 (9%) had other causes of error. The control was generally successful, but sudden change or noise in the acquired echo signal caused failure. Coagulation after exposure could be validated by comparing amplitudes before and after exposure.

  17. Evaluation of Public Service Advertising Messages with Local and Non-Local Source Attribution: A Controlled Laboratory Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Jerry R.; Gagnard, Alice

    A study was conducted to examine message evaluations of selected public service advertisements (PSAs) by a young adult population and to test whether local and nonlocal source attribution would influence those evaluations. In addition, the study investigated the extent to which audience characteristics such as fatalism (the degree to which a…

  18. Simultaneous control of emission localization and two-photon absorption efficiency in dissymmetrical chromophores

    SciTech Connect

    Tretiak, Sergei

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to demonstrate that combined spectral tuning of fluorescence and two-photon absorption (TPA) properties of multipolar chromophores can be achieved by introduction of slight electronic chemical dissymmetry. In that perspective, two novel series of structurally related chromophores have been designed and studied: a first series based on rod-like quadrupolar chromophores bearing different electron-donating (D) end groups and a second series based on three-branched octupolar chromophores built from a trigonal donating moiety and bearing various acceptor (A) peripheral groups. The influence of the electronic dissymmetry is investigated by combined experimental and theoretical studies of the linear and nonlinear optical properties of dissymmetric chromophores compared to their symmetrical counterparts. In both types of systems (i.e. quadrupoles and octupoles) experiments and theory reveal that excitation is essentially delocalized and that excitation involves synchronized charge redistribution between the different D and A moieties within the multipolar structure (i.e. concerted intramolecular charge transfer). In contrast, the emission stems only from a particular dipolar subunit bearing the strongest D or A moieties due to fast excitation localization after excitation prior to emission. Hence control of emission characteristics (polarization and emission spectrum) in addition to localization can be achieved by controlled introduction of electronic dissymmetry (i.e. replacement of one of the D or A end-groups by a slightly stronger D{prime} or A{prime} units). Interestingly dissymmetrical functionalization of both quadrupolar and octupolar compounds does not lead to significant loss in TPA responses and can even be beneficial due to the spectral broadening and peak position tuning that it allows. This study thus reveals an original molecular engineering route strategy allowing major TPA enhancement in multipolar structures due to concerted

  19. Local control rates with five-fraction stereotactic body radiotherapy for oligometastatic cancer to the lung

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yuhchyau; Hare, Mary Z.; Usuki, Kenneth Y.; Zhang, Hong; Lundquist, Thomas; Joyce, Neil; Schell, Michael C.; Milano, Michael T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To report our institutional experience with five fractions of daily 8-12 Gy stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for the treatment of oligometastatic cancer to the lung. Methods Thirty-four consecutive patients with oligometastatic cancers to the lung were treated with image-guided SBRT between 2008 and 2011. Patient age ranged from 38 to 81 years. There were 17 males and 17 females. Lung metastases were from the following primary cancer types: colon cancer (n=13 patients), head and neck cancer (n=6), breast cancer (n=4), melanoma (n=4), sarcoma (n=4) and renal cell carcinoma (n=3). The median prescription dose was 50 Gy in five fractions (range, 40-60 Gy) to the isocenter, with the 80% isodose line encompassing the planning target volume (PTV) [defined as gross tumor volume (GTV) + 7-11 mm volumetric expansion]. The follow-up interval ranged from 2.4-54 months, with a median of 16.7 months. Results The 1-, 2-, and 3-year patient local control (LC) rates for all patients were 93%, 88%, and 80% respectively. The 1-, 2-, and 3-year overall survival (OS) rates were 62%, 44%, and 23% respectively. The 1- and 2-year patient LC rates were 95% and 88% for tumor size 1-2 cm (n=25), and 86% for tumor size 2-3 cm (n=7). The majority (n=4) of local failures occurred within 12 months. No patient experienced local failure after 12 months except for one patient with colon cancer whose tumors progressed locally at 26 months. All five patients with local recurrences had colorectal cancer. Statistical analyses showed that age, gender, previous chemotherapy, previous surgery or radiation had no significant effect on LC rates. No patient was reported to have any symptomatic pneumonitis at any time point. Conclusions SBRT for oligometastatic disease to the lung using 8-12 Gy daily fractions over five treatments resulted in excellent 1- and 2-year LC rates. Most local failures occurred within the first 12 months, with five local failures associated with colorectal cancer

  20. Externally controlled local magnetic field in a conducting mesoscopic ring coupled to a quantum wire

    SciTech Connect

    Maiti, Santanu K.

    2015-01-14

    In the present work, the possibility of regulating local magnetic field in a quantum ring is investigated theoretically. The ring is coupled to a quantum wire and subjected to an in-plane electric field. Under a finite bias voltage across the wire a net circulating current is established in the ring which produces a strong magnetic field at its centre. This magnetic field can be tuned externally in a wide range by regulating the in-plane electric field, and thus, our present system can be utilized to control magnetic field at a specific region. The feasibility of this quantum system in designing spin-based quantum devices is also analyzed.

  1. Control of rolled edge based on the discrete local error figuring technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Hang; Li, Shengyi; Song, Ci

    2016-10-01

    Computer Controlled Optical Surfacing (CCOS) is an important technology for manufacturing optical aspheric mirrors. Edge effect of small tool manufacturing restricts the machining precision and efficiency of CCOS technology. Edge effect is mainly caused by the polish tool cannot move to the very edge of workpiece and the change of pressure distribution when the tool move to the edge of workpiece. This article corrects the rolled edge effect of CCOS by different dimensions of polishing tool combination process and incorporated with the locality residual error trace contour path planning. Provide feasibility for the rolled edge by different dimensions of polishing tool combination process.

  2. What is the effect of local controls on the temporal stability of soil water contents?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, G.; Pachepsky, Y. A.; Vereecken, H.; Vanderlinden, K.; Hardelauf, H.; Herbst, M.

    2012-04-01

    Temporal stability of soil water content (TS SWC) reflects the spatio-temporal organization of SWC. Factors and their interactions that control this organization, are not completely understood and have not been quantified yet. It is understood that these factors should be classified into groups of local and non-local controls. This work is a first attempt to evaluate the effects of soil properties at a certain location as local controls Time series of SWC were generated by running water flow simulations with the HYDRUS6 code. Bare and grassed sandy loam, loam and clay soils were represented by sets of 100 independent soil columns. Within each set, values of saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) were generated randomly assuming for the standard deviation of the scaling factor of ln Ks a value ranging from 0.1 to 1.0. Weather conditions were the same for all of the soil columns. SWC at depths of 0.05 and 0.60 m, and the average water content of the top 1 m were analyzed. The temporal stability was characterized by calculating the mean relative differences (MRD) of soil water content. MRD distributions from simulations, developed from the log-normal distribution of Ks, agreed well with the experimental studies found in the literature. Generally, Ks was the leading variable to define the MRD rank for a specific location. Higher MRD corresponded to the lowest values of Ks when a single textural class was considered. Higher MRD were found in the finer texture when mixtures of textural classes were considered and similar values of Ks were compared. The relationships between the spread of the MRD distributions and the scaling factor of ln Ks were nonlinear. Variation in MRD was higher in coarser textures than in finer ones and more variability was seen in the topsoil than in the subsoil. Established vegetation decreased variability of MRD in the root zone and increased variability below. The dependence of MRD on Ks opens the possibility of using SWC sensor networks to

  3. Micro bubble condensation in micro channel controlled by local electrical field method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohata, Shunsuke; Kawai, Akira

    2009-12-01

    Micro bubbles in several tens micrometer diameter can act as effective structural elements of micro devices. In this study, the micro device employing the bubble motion is characterized. It has been experimentally revealed that bubble motion in micro channel is trapped at the channel branches. The local electrodes are set at a part of micro channel in order to control the bubble motion. Negatively charged bubble surface is received a certain force due to Coulomb's effect. This study will provide effective information to bioscience, medical science and agriculture engineering.

  4. Correlation of a hypoxia based tumor control model with observed local control rates in nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated with chemoradiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Avanzo, Michele; Stancanello, Joseph; Franchin, Giovanni; Sartor, Giovanna; Jena, Rajesh; Drigo, Annalisa; Dassie, Andrea; Gigante, Marco; Capra, Elvira

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: To extend the application of current radiation therapy (RT) based tumor control probability (TCP) models of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) to include the effects of hypoxia and chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Methods: A TCP model is described based on the linear-quadratic model modified to account for repopulation, chemotherapy, heterogeneity of dose to the tumor, and hypoxia. Sensitivity analysis was performed to determine which parameters exert the greatest influence on the uncertainty of modeled TCP. On the basis of the sensitivity analysis, the values of specific radiobiological parameters were set to nominal values reported in the literature for NPC or head and neck tumors. The remaining radiobiological parameters were determined by fitting TCP to clinical local control data from published randomized studies using both RT and CRT. Validation of the model was performed by comparison of estimated TCP and average overall local control rate (LCR) for 45 patients treated at the institution with conventional linear-accelerator-based or helical tomotherapy based intensity-modulated RT and neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Results: Sensitivity analysis demonstrates that the model is most sensitive to the radiosensitivity term {alpha} and the dose per fraction. The estimated values of {alpha} and OER from data fitting were 0.396 Gy{sup -1} and 1.417. The model estimate of TCP (average 90.9%, range 26.9%-99.2%) showed good correlation with the LCR (86.7%). Conclusions: The model implemented in this work provides clinicians with a useful tool to predict the success rate of treatment, optimize treatment plans, and compare the effects of multimodality therapy.

  5. Bending Two-Dimensional Materials To Control Charge Localization and Fermi-Level Shift.

    PubMed

    Yu, Liping; Ruzsinszky, Adrienn; Perdew, John P

    2016-04-13

    High-performance electronics requires the fine control of semiconductor conductivity. In atomically thin two-dimensional (2D) materials, traditional doping technique for controlling carrier concentration and carrier type may cause crystal damage and significant mobility reduction. Contact engineering for tuning carrier injection and extraction and carrier type may suffer from strong Fermi-level pinning. Here, using first-principles calculations, we predict that mechanical bending, as a unique attribute of thin 2D materials, can be used to control conductivity and Fermi-level shift. We find that bending can control the charge localization of top valence bands in both MoS2 and phosphorene nanoribbons. The donor-like in-gap edge-states of armchair MoS2 ribbon and their associated Fermi-level pinning can be removed by bending. A bending-controllable new in-gap state and accompanying direct-indirect gap transition are predicted in armchair phosphorene nanoribbon. We demonstrate that such emergent bending effects are realizable. The bending stiffness as well as the effective thickness of 2D materials are also derived from first principles. Our results are of fundamental and technological relevance and open new routes for designing functional 2D materials for applications in which flexuosity is essential.

  6. Local tumor control after {sup 106}Ru brachytherapy of choroidal melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Damato, Bertil . E-mail: Bertil@damato.co.uk; Patel, Imran; Campbell, Ian R.; Mayles, Helen M.; Errington, R. Douglas

    2005-10-01

    Purpose To report on local tumor control after {sup 106}Ru brachytherapy for choroidal melanoma. Methods and Materials A total of 458 patients with choroidal melanoma were treated at a single institution between January 1993 and December 2001. The tumors had a median longest basal dimension of 10.6 mm and a median height of 3.2 mm. The brachytherapy was administered using a 15- or 20-mm plaque. For posterior tumors, the plaque was positioned eccentrically with its posterior edge aligned with the posterior tumor margin to reduce the radiation dose to the optic disk and fovea. A minimal scleral dose sufficient to cause visible choroidal atrophy provided a permanent ophthalmoscopic record of the distribution of choroidal irradiation. If radiotherapy to the posterior tumor was uncertain, adjunctive transpupillary thermotherapy was administered 6 months postoperatively. Results The actuarial rates of tumor recurrence were 1%, 2%, and 3% at 2, 5, and 7 years, respectively. Local tumor recurrence correlated with the longest basal tumor dimension (Cox univariate analysis, p = 0.02, risk ratio 1.41, 95% confidence interval 1.06-1.88). Seven of the nine eyes with recurrent tumor were salvaged with additional conservative therapy. Conclusion The low rate of local tumor recurrence suggests that ruthenium plaque radiotherapy is effective with good case selection and if special measures are taken to ensure that the plaque is positioned correctly.

  7. Control of vertebrate core planar cell polarity protein localization and dynamics by Prickle 2

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Mitchell T.; Wallingford, John B.

    2015-01-01

    Planar cell polarity (PCP) is a ubiquitous property of animal tissues and is essential for morphogenesis and homeostasis. In most cases, this fundamental property is governed by a deeply conserved set of ‘core PCP’ proteins, which includes the transmembrane proteins Van Gogh-like (Vangl) and Frizzled (Fzd), as well as the cytoplasmic effectors Prickle (Pk) and Dishevelled (Dvl). Asymmetric localization of these proteins is thought to be central to their function, and understanding the dynamics of these proteins is an important challenge in developmental biology. Among the processes that are organized by the core PCP proteins is the directional beating of cilia, such as those in the vertebrate node, airway and brain. Here, we exploit the live imaging capabilities of Xenopus to chart the progressive asymmetric localization of fluorescent reporters of Dvl1, Pk2 and Vangl1 in a planar polarized ciliated epithelium. Using this system, we also characterize the influence of Pk2 on the asymmetric dynamics of Vangl1 at the cell cortex, and we define regions of Pk2 that control its own localization and those impacting Vangl1. Finally, our data reveal a striking uncoupling of Vangl1 and Dvl1 asymmetry. This study advances our understanding of conserved PCP protein functions and also establishes a rapid, tractable platform to facilitate future in vivo studies of vertebrate PCP protein dynamics. PMID:26293301

  8. Solid-state nanopore localization by controlled breakdown of selectively thinned membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlsen, Autumn T.; Briggs, Kyle; Hall, Adam R.; Tabard-Cossa, Vincent

    2017-02-01

    We demonstrate precise positioning of nanopores fabricated by controlled breakdown (CBD) on solid-state membranes by spatially varying the electric field strength with localized membrane thinning. We show 100 × 100 nm2 precision in standard SiN x membranes (30–100 nm thick) after selective thinning by as little as 25% with a helium ion beam. Control over nanopore position is achieved through the strong dependence of the electric field-driven CBD mechanism on membrane thickness. Confinement of pore formation to the thinned region of the membrane is confirmed by TEM imaging and by analysis of DNA translocations. These results enhance the functionality of CBD as a fabrication approach and enable the production of advanced nanopore devices for single-molecule sensing applications.

  9. Edge plasma control by a local island divertor in the Compact Helical System

    SciTech Connect

    Komori, A.; Ohyabu, N.; Masuzaki, S.

    1997-12-31

    A local island divertor (LID) experiment was performed on the Compact Helical System (CHS) to demonstrate the principle of the LID. It was clearly demonstrated that the particle flow is controlled by adding a resonant perturbation field to the CHS magnetic configuration, and is guided to the back of an m/n = 1/1 island which is created by the perturbation field. The particles recycled there were pumped out with a pumping rate in the range from a few percent to about 10%. As a result, the line averaged core density was reduced by a factor of about 2 in comparison with non-LID discharges at the same gas puffing rate. In addition to the demonstration of these fundamental divertor functions, a modest improvement of energy confinement was observed, which could be attributed to the edge plasma control by the LID.

  10. Clinically Apparent Internal Mammary Nodal Metastasis in Patients With Advanced Breast Cancer: Incidence and Local Control

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Yujing; Oh, Julia L.; Whitman, Gary J.

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: To investigate the incidence and local control of internal mammary lymph node metastases (IMN+) in patients with clinical N2 or N3 locally advanced breast cancer. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 809 breast cancer patients diagnosed with advanced nodal disease (clinical N2-3) who received radiation treatment at our institution from January 2000 December 2006. Patients were considered IMN+ on the basis of imaging studies. Results: We identified 112 of 809 patients who presented with IMN+ disease (13.8%) detected on ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography/CT (PET/CT), and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies. All 112 patients with IMN+ disease received anthracycline and taxane-based chemotherapy. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT) resulted in a complete response (CR) on imaging studies of IMN disease in 72.1% of patients. Excluding 16 patients with progressive disease, 96 patients received adjuvant radiation to the breast or the chest wall and the regional lymphatics including the IMN chain with a median dose of 60 Gy if the internal mammary lymph nodes normalized after chemotherapy and 66 Gy if they did not. The median follow-up of surviving patients was 41 months (8-118 months). For the 96 patients able to complete curative therapy, the actuarial 5-year IMN control rate, locoregional control, overall survival, and disease-free survival were 89%, 80%, 76%, and 56%. Conclusion: Over ten percent of patients with advanced nodal disease will have IMN metastases on imaging studies. Multimodality therapy including IMN irradiation achieves excellent rates of control in the IMN region and a DFS of more than 50% after curative treatment.

  11. Tectonic control of Triassic sedimentation in southern New Brunswick: Local and regional implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadon, G. C.; Middleton, G. V.

    1984-10-01

    Both regional and local tectonics controlled the sediment distribution in the Fundy half-graben during the Triassic. Locally, alluvial fans built out into the basin from the western boundary fault along what is now the south shore of New Brunswick. The alluvial fan red beds of the Honeycomb Point Formation are covered by fluvial conglomerates of the Quaco Formation, which in turn are buried by a resurgence of alluvial fan deposition represented by the Echo Cove Formation. Pollen recovered from the upper part of the Echo Cove Formation indicates that, regionally, the system of Triassic-Jurassic grabens along the eastern seaboard is composed of two separate graben systems; one stretching from South Carolina to Connecticut, the other from the Gulf of Maine to the southern Grand Banks. Initial graben formation began at the southern end of each system, followed by successive grabens opening toward the north. The areal distribution of both graben systems appears to have been controlled by four large transform-fault systems from the Middle Triassic through the Jurassic. The age and overall distribution of sediments within the Fundy Basin confirm the existence of a hot spot along the Kelvin Seamount chain and refines determination of the position and timing of the initial rifting that led to the formation of the present Atlantic Ocean.

  12. An optimal local active noise control method based on stochastic finite element models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Airaksinen, T.; Toivanen, J.

    2013-12-01

    A new method is presented to obtain a local active noise control that is optimal in stochastic environment. The method uses numerical acoustical modeling that is performed in the frequency domain by using a sequence of finite element discretizations of the Helmholtz equation. The stochasticity of domain geometry and primary noise source is considered. Reference signals from an array of microphones are mapped to secondary loudspeakers, by an off-line optimized linear mapping. The frequency dependent linear mapping is optimized to minimize the expected value of error in a quiet zone, which is approximated by the numerical model and can be interpreted as a stochastic virtual microphone. A least squares formulation leads to a quadratic optimization problem. The presented active noise control method gives robust and efficient noise attenuation, which is demonstrated by a numerical study in a passenger car cabin. The numerical results demonstrate that a significant, stable local noise attenuation of 20-32 dB can be obtained at lower frequencies (<500 Hz) by two microphones, and 8-36 dB attenuation at frequencies up to 1000 Hz, when 8 microphones are used.

  13. SN-38-loaded nanofiber matrices for local control of pediatric solid tumors after subtotal resection surgery.

    PubMed

    Monterrubio, Carles; Pascual-Pasto, Guillem; Cano, Francisco; Vila-Ubach, Monica; Manzanares, Alejandro; Schaiquevich, Paula; Tornero, Jose A; Sosnik, Alejandro; Mora, Jaume; Carcaboso, Angel M

    2016-02-01

    In addition to surgery, local tumor control in pediatric oncology requires new treatments as an alternative to radiotherapy. SN-38 is an anticancer drug with proved activity against several pediatric solid tumors including neuroblastoma, rhabdomyosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma. Taking advantage of the extremely low aqueous solubility of SN-38, we have developed a novel drug delivery system (DDS) consisting of matrices made of poly(lactic acid) electrospun polymer nanofibers loaded with SN-38 microcrystals for local release in difficult-to-treat pediatric solid tumors. To model the clinical scenario, we conducted extensive preclinical experiments to characterize the biodistribution of the released SN-38 using microdialysis sampling in vivo. We observed that the drug achieves high concentrations in the virtual space of the surgical bed and penetrates a maximum distance of 2 mm within the tumor bulk. Subsequently, we developed a model of subtotal tumor resection in clinically relevant pediatric patient-derived xenografts and used such models to provide evidence of the activity of the SN-38 DDS to inhibit tumor regrowth. We propose that this novel DDS could represent a potential future strategy to avoid harmful radiation therapy as a primary tumor control together with surgery.

  14. Improved local control for advanced oropharyngeal carcinoma following twice daily radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.C.

    1985-12-01

    This paper presents the results of treatment on 99 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx irradiated by the twice-a-day radiation therapy program at the Massachusetts General Hospital. The program consisted of 1.6 Gy per fraction, two fractions per day with 4 hours between fractions, for 12 days, 5 days a week. After 38.4 Gy, the patients were given a 2 week break and then resumed twice-a-day radiation therapy for a total of 64 Gy and occasionally 67.2 Gy. Fifty-two patients had carcinoma of the faucial tonsil and 47 patients had carcinoma of the base of the tongue. For the entire group of patients, the 36 month actuarial local control rate was 58%, and for the T1-2 and T3-4 lesions, the rates were 77% and 48% respectively. In comparison with patients treated by once-a-day radiation therapy for a few years immediately prior to the twice-a-day program, the local control rates were improved to a statistically significant level. Likewise, the results as compared to those published in the literature were no worse and perhaps superior to those of patients treated by the once-a-day schedule.

  15. Control of in vivo microvessel ingrowth by modulation of biomaterial local architecture and chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, Joan E.; Baker, Aaron B.; Golledge, Stephen

    2002-04-01

    We developed a method for controlling local architecture and chemistry simultaneously in biomaterial implants to control microvessel ingrowth in vivo. Porous polypropylene disks (5 mm in diameter and 40 um thick) were plasma-coated with a fluoropolymer and then laser-drilled with 50-*m-diameter holes through their thickness. We then oxidized the disks to create hydroxyl functionality on the exposed polypropylene (inside the holes). Acrylamide was grafted to the hydroxyl groups through polymerization in the presence of activating ceric ions. Staining with toluidine blue O demonstrated that grafting occurred only inside the holes. We used the Hoffman degradation reaction to convert the amide groups of acrylamide to amine groups, and then we used ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether to attach biomolecules of interest inside the holes: secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) peptide Lys-Gly-His-Lys (KGHK; angiogenic), thrombospondin-2 (TSP; antiangiogenic), or albumin (rat; neutral). In vivo testing in a rat subcutaneous dorsum model for a 3-week interval demonstrated a greater vessel surface area (p = 0.032) and a greater number of vessels (p = 0.043) in tissue local to the holes with KGHKimmobilized disks than with TSP-immobilized disks. However, differences between KGHK-immobilized and albuminimmobilized disks were less significant (p = 0.120 and p = 0.289 for the vessel surface area and number of vessels, respectively). The developed methods have potential applications in biomaterial design applications for which selective neovascularization is desired.

  16. Control of myofibroblast differentiation by microtubule dynamics through a regulated localization of mDia2.

    PubMed

    Sandbo, Nathan; Ngam, Caitlyn; Torr, Elizabeth; Kregel, Steve; Kach, Jacob; Dulin, Nickolai

    2013-05-31

    Myofibroblast differentiation plays a critical role in wound healing and in the pathogenesis of fibrosis. We have previously shown that myofibroblast differentiation is mediated by the activity of serum response factor (SRF), which is tightly controlled by the actin polymerization state. In this study, we investigated the role of the microtubule cytoskeleton in modulating myofibroblast phenotype. Treatment of human lung fibroblasts with the microtubule-destabilizing agent, colchicine, resulted in a formation of numerous stress fibers and expression of myofibroblast differentiation marker proteins. These effects of colchicine were independent of Smad signaling but were mediated by Rho signaling and SRF, as they were attenuated by the Rho kinase inhibitor, Y27632, or by the SRF inhibitor, CCG-1423. TGF-β-induced myofibroblast differentiation was not accompanied by gross changes in the microtubule polymerization state. However, microtubule stabilization by paclitaxel attenuated TGF-β-induced myofibroblast differentiation. Paclitaxel had no effect on TGF-β-induced Smad activation and Smad-dependent gene transcription but inhibited actin polymerization, nuclear accumulation of megakaryoblastic leukemia-1 protein, and SRF activation. The microtubule-associated formin, mDIA2, localized to actin stress fibers upon treatment with TGF-β, and paclitaxel prevented this localization. Treatment with the formin inhibitor, SMI formin homology 2 domain, inhibited stress fiber formation and myofibroblast differentiation induced by TGF-β, without affecting Smad-phosphorylation or microtubule polymerization. Together, these data suggest that (a) TGF-β promotes association of mDia2 with actin stress fibers, which further drives stress fiber formation and myofibroblast differentiation, and (b) microtubule polymerization state controls myofibroblast differentiation through the regulation of mDia2 localization.

  17. DISCHARGE IMPROVEMENT THROUGH CONTROL OF NEOCLASSICAL TEARING MODES BY LOCALIZED ECCD IN DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    PRATER,R; LAHAYE,RJ; LOHR,J; LUCE,TC; PETTY,CC; FERRON,JR; HUMPHREYS,DA; STRAIT,EJ; PERKINS,FW; HARVEY,RW

    2002-10-01

    A271 DISCHARGE IMPROVEMENT THROUGH CONTROL OF NEOCLASSICAL TEARING MODES BY LOCALIZED ECCD IN DIII-D. Neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs) are MHD modes which can limit the performance of high beta discharges in tokamaks, in some cases leading to a major disruption. The destabilizing effect which results in NTM growth is a helical decrease in the bootstrap current caused by a local reduction of the plasma pressure gradient by seed magnetic islands. The NTM is particularly well suited to control since the mode is linearly stable although nonlinearly unstable, so if the island amplitude can be decreased below a threshold size the mode will decay and vanish. One means of shrinking the island is the replacement of the missing bootstrap current by a localized current generated by electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD). This method has been applied to the m=3/n=2 neoclassical tearing mode in DIII-D, in H-mode plasmas with ongoing ELMs and sawteeth, both of which generate seed islands periodically. In the case of the 3/2 mode, full suppression was obtained robustly by applying about 1.5 MW of ECCD very near the rational surface of the mode. When the mode first appears in the plasma the stored energy decreases by 20%, but after the mode is stabilized by the ECCD the beta may be raised above the initial threshold pressure by 20% by additional neutral beam heating, thereby generating an improvement in the limiting beta of nearly a factor 2. An innovative automated search algorithm was implemented to find and retain the optimum location for the ECCD in the presence of the mode.

  18. Local Recurrence After Complete Clinical Response and Watch and Wait in Rectal Cancer After Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation: Impact of Salvage Therapy on Local Disease Control

    SciTech Connect

    Habr-Gama, Angelita; Gama-Rodrigues, Joaquim; São Julião, Guilherme P.; Proscurshim, Igor; Sabbagh, Charles; Lynn, Patricio B.; Perez, Rodrigo O.

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: To review the risk of local recurrence and impact of salvage therapy after Watch and Wait for rectal cancer with complete clinical response (cCR) after chemoradiation therapy (CRT). Methods and Materials: Patients with cT2-4N0-2M0 distal rectal cancer treated with CRT (50.4-54 Gy + 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy) and cCR at 8 weeks were included. Patients with cCR were enrolled in a strict follow-up program with no immediate surgery (Watch and Wait). Local recurrence-free survival was compared while taking into account Watch and Wait strategy alone and Watch and Wait plus salvage. Results: 90 of 183 patients experienced cCR at initial assessment after CRT (49%). When early tumor regrowths (up to and including the initial 12 months of follow-up) and late recurrences were considered together, 28 patients (31%) experienced local recurrence (median follow-up time, 60 months). Of those, 26 patients underwent salvage therapy, and 2 patients were not amenable to salvage. In 4 patients, local re-recurrence developed after Watch and Wait plus salvage. The overall salvage rate for local recurrence was 93%. Local recurrence-free survival at 5 years was 69% (all local recurrences) and 94% (after salvage procedures). Thirteen patients (14%) experienced systemic recurrence. The 5-year cancer-specific overall survival and disease-free survival for all patients (including all recurrences) were 91% and 68%, respectively. Conclusions: Local recurrence may develop in 31% of patients with initial cCR when early regrowths (≤12 months) and late recurrences are grouped together. More than half of these recurrences develop within 12 months of follow-up. Salvage therapy is possible in ≥90% of recurrences, leading to 94% local disease control, with 78% organ preservation.

  19. Morphogenetic fields in embryogenesis, regeneration, and cancer: Non-local control of complex patterning

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Establishment of shape during embryonic development, and the maintenance of shape against injury or tumorigenesis, requires constant coordination of cell behaviors toward the patterning needs of the host organism. Molecular cell biology and genetics have made great strides in understanding the mechanisms that regulate cell function. However, generalized rational control of shape is still largely beyond our current capabilities. Significant instructive signals function at long range to provide positional information and other cues to regulate organism-wide systems properties like anatomical polarity and size control. Is complex morphogenesis best understood as the emergent property of local cell interactions, or as the outcome of a computational process that is guided by a physically-encoded map or template of the final goal state? Here I review recent data and molecular mechanisms relevant to morphogenetic fields: large-scale systems of physical properties that have been proposed to store patterning information during embryogenesis, regenerative repair, and cancer suppression that ultimately controls anatomy. Placing special emphasis on the role of endogenous bioelectric signals as an important component of the morphogenetic field, I speculate on novel approaches for the computational modeling and control of these fields with applications to synthetic biology, regenerative medicine, and evolutionary developmental biology. PMID:22542702

  20. Local-field effects and nanostructuring for controlling optical properties and enabling novel optical phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolgaleva, Ksenia

    My Ph. D. thesis is devoted to the investigation of the methods of controlling and improving the linear and nonlinear optical properties of materials. Within my studies, two approaches are considered: nanostructuring and invoking local-field effects. These broad topics involve various projects that I have undertaken during my Ph. D. research. The first project is on composite laser gain media. It involves both nanostructuring and using local-field effects to control the basic laser parameters, such as the radiative lifetime, small-signal gain and absorption, and the saturation intensity. While being involved in this project, I have performed both theoretical and experimental studies of laser characteristics of composite materials. In particular, I have developed simple theoretical models for calculating the effective linear susceptibilities of layered and Maxwell Garnett composite materials with a gain resonance in one of their components. The analysis of the results given by the models suggests that local-field effects provide considerable freedom in controlling the optical properties of composite laser gain media. I have also experimentally measured the radiative lifetime of Nd:YAG nanopowder suspended in different liquids to extract information regarding local-field effects. The second project is devoted to the investigation of a not-well-known phenomenon that local-field effects can induce, which is microscopic cascading in nonlinear optics. This project involves the theoretical prediction of local-field-induced microscopic cascading effect in the fifth-order nonlinear response and its first experimental observation. This effect has been mostly overlooked or underestimated, but could prove useful in quantum optics. I have shown that, under certain conditions, the microscopic cascaded contribution can be a dominant effect in high-order nonlinearities. The third project is about characterization of laser performance of a new dye, oligofluorene, embedded into

  1. State preemption of local tobacco control policies restricting smoking, advertising, and youth access--United States, 2000-2010.

    PubMed

    2011-08-26

    Preemptive state tobacco control legislation prohibits localities from enacting tobacco control laws that are more stringent than state law. State preemption provisions can preclude any type of local tobacco control policy. The three broad types of state preemption tracked by CDC include preemption of local policies that restrict 1) smoking in workplaces and public places, 2) tobacco advertising, and 3) youth access to tobacco products. A Healthy People 2020 objective (TU-16) calls for eliminating state laws that preempt any type of local tobacco control law. A previous study reported that the number of states that preempt local smoking restrictions in one or more of three settings (government worksites, private-sector worksites, and restaurants) has decreased substantially in recent years. To measure progress toward achieving Healthy People 2020 objectives, this study expands on the previous analysis to track changes in state laws that preempt local advertising and youth access restrictions and to examine policy changes from December 31, 2000, to December 31, 2010. This new analysis found that, in contrast with the substantial progress achieved during the past decade in reducing the number of states that preempt local smoking restrictions, no progress has been made in reducing the number of states that preempt local advertising restrictions and youth access restrictions. Increased progress in removing state preemption provisions will be needed to achieve the relevant Healthy People 2020 objective.

  2. Randomised controlled trial of local corticosteroid injections for de Quervain's tenosynovitis in general practice

    PubMed Central

    Peters-Veluthamaningal, Cyriac; Winters, Jan C; Groenier, Klaas H; Meyboom-deJong, Betty

    2009-01-01

    Background De Quervain's tenosynovitis is a stenosing tenosynovitis of the first dorsal compartment of the wrist and leads to wrist pain and to impaired function of the wrist and hand. It can be treated by splinting, local corticosteroid injection and operation. In this study effectiveness of local corticosteroid injections for de Quervain's tenosynovitis provided by general practitioners was assessed. Methods Participants with de Quervain's tenosynovitis were recruited by general practitioners. Short-term outcomes (one week after injections) were assessed in a randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Long-term effectiveness was evaluated in an open prospective cohort-study of steroid responders during a follow-up period of 12 months. Participants were randomised to one or two local injections of 1 ml of triamcinolonacetonide (TCA) or 1 ml of NaCl 0.9% (placebo). Non-responders to NaCl were treated with additional TCA injections. Main outcomes were immediate treatment response, severity of pain, improvement as perceived by participant and functional disability using sub items hand and finger function of the Dutch Arthritis Impact Measurement Scale (Dutch AIMS-2-HFF). Results 11 general practitioners included 21 wrists in 21 patients. The TCA-group had better results for short-term outcomes treatment response (78% vs. 25%; p = 0.015), perceived improvement (78% vs. 33%; p = 0.047) and severity of pain (4.27 vs. 1.33; p = 0.031) but not for the Dutch-AIMS-HFF (2.71 vs. 1.92; p = 0.112). Absolute risk reduction for the main outcome short-term treatment response was 0.55 (95% CI: 0.34, 0.76) with a number needed to treat of 2 (95% CI: 1, 3). In the cohort of steroid responders (n = 12) the beneficial effects of steroid injections were sustained during the follow-up of 12 months regarding severity of pain (p = 0.67) and scores of Dutch AIMS-2-HFF (p = 0.36), but not for patient perceived improvement (p = 0.02). No adverse events were observed during the 12 months of follow

  3. Selection with inbreeding control in simulated young bull schemes for local dairy cattle breeds.

    PubMed

    Gandini, G; Stella, A; Del Corvo, M; Jansen, G B

    2014-03-01

    Local breeds are rarely subject to modern selection techniques; however, selection programs will be required if local breeds are to remain a viable livelihood option for farmers. Selection in small populations needs to take into account accurate inbreeding control. Optimum contribution selection (OCS) is efficient in controlling inbreeding and maximizes genetic gain. The current paper investigates genetic progress in simulated dairy cattle populations from 500 to 6,000 cows undergoing young bull selection schemes with OCS compared with truncation selection (TS) at an annual inbreeding rate of 0.003. Selection is carried out for a dairy trait with a base heritability of 0.3. A young bull selection scheme was used because of its simplicity in implementation. With TS, annual genetic gain from 0.111 standard deviation units with 500 cows increases rapidly to 0.145 standard deviation units with 4,000 cows. Then, genetic gain increases more slowly up to 6,000 cows. At the same inbreeding rate, OCS produces higher genetic progress than TS. Differences in genetic gain between OCS and TS vary from to 2 to 6.3%. Genetic gain is also improved by increasing the number of years that males can be used as sires of sires. When comparing OCS versus TS at different heritabilities, we observe an advantage of OCS only at high heritability, up to 8% with heritability of 0.9. By increasing the constraint on inbreeding, the difference of genetic gain between the 2 selection methods increases in favor of OCS, and the advantage at the inbreeding rate of 0.001 per generation is 6 times more than at the inbreeding rate of 0.003. Opportunities exist for selection even in dairy cattle populations of a few hundred females. In any case, selection in local breeds will most often require specific investments in infrastructure and manpower, including systems for accurate data recording and selection skills and the presence of artificial insemination and breeders organizations. A cost

  4. Tracking Control of Mobile Robots Localized via Chained Fusion of Discrete and Continuous Epipolar Geometry, IMU and Odometry.

    PubMed

    Tick, David; Satici, Aykut C; Shen, Jinglin; Gans, Nicholas

    2013-08-01

    This paper presents a novel navigation and control system for autonomous mobile robots that includes path planning, localization, and control. A unique vision-based pose and velocity estimation scheme utilizing both the continuous and discrete forms of the Euclidean homography matrix is fused with inertial and optical encoder measurements to estimate the pose, orientation, and velocity of the robot and ensure accurate localization and control signals. A depth estimation system is integrated in order to overcome the loss of scale inherent in vision-based estimation. A path following control system is introduced that is capable of guiding the robot along a designated curve. Stability analysis is provided for the control system and experimental results are presented that prove the combined localization and control system performs with high accuracy.

  5. Local population structure of Plasmodium: impact on malaria control and elimination

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Regardless of the growing interest in detecting population structures in malarial parasites, there have been limited discussions on how to use this concept in control programmes. In such context, the effects of the parasite population structures will depend on interventions’ spatial or temporal scales. This investigation explores the problem of identifying genetic markers, in this case microsatellites, to unveil Plasmodium genetic structures that could affect decisions in the context of elimination. The study was performed in a low-transmission area, which offers a good proxy to better understand problems associated with surveillance at the final stages of malaria elimination. Methods Plasmodium vivax samples collected in Tumeremo, Venezuela, between March 2003 and November 2004 were analysed. Since Plasmodium falciparum also circulates in many low endemic areas, P. falciparum samples from the same locality and time period were included for comparison. Plasmodium vivax samples were assayed for an original set of 25 microsatellites and P. falciparum samples were assayed for 12 microsatellites. Results Not all microsatellite loci assayed offered reliable local data. A complex temporal-cluster dynamics is found in both P. vivax and P. falciparum. Such dynamics affect the numbers and the type of microsatellites required for identifying individual parasites or parasite clusters when performing cross-sectional studies. The minimum number of microsatellites required to differentiate circulating P. vivax clusters differs from the minimum number of hyper-variable microsatellites required to distinguish individuals within these clusters. Regardless the extended number of microsatellites used in P. vivax, it was not possible to separate all individual infections. Conclusions Molecular surveillance has great potential; however, it requires preliminary local studies in order to properly interpret the emerging patterns in the context of elimination. Clonal

  6. Efficacy of risedronate in men with primary and secondary osteoporosis: results of a 1-year study.

    PubMed

    Ringe, J D; Faber, H; Farahmand, P; Dorst, A

    2006-03-01

    Osteoporosis is prevalent in men with an estimated one in eight men older than 50 years suffering from osteoporotic fracture, and a higher mortality rate after fracture among men compared with women. There are few approved therapies for osteoporosis in men. This observational study assesses the efficacy and safety of risedronate in the treatment of men with primary and secondary osteoporosis. A single-center, open label, randomized, prospective 1-year study was conducted in men with primary or secondary osteoporosis. Patients were randomized to risedronate (risedronate 5 mg/day plus calcium 1,000 mg/day and vitamin D 800 IU/day) or control groups (alfacalcidol 1 mug/day plus calcium 500 mg/day or vitamin D 1,000 IU/day plus calcium 800 mg/day). Bone mineral density (BMD) measurements, X-rays of the spine, a medical history and physical exam, and patient self-assessments of back pain were performed at baseline and 12 months. Blinded semi-quantitative fracture assessment was conducted by a radiologist. A total of 316 men with osteoporosis were enrolled in the trial (risedronate, n=158; control, n=158). At 1 year lumbar spine BMD increased by 4.7% in the risedronate group versus an increase of 1.0% in the control group (P<0.001). Significant increases in BMD at the total hip and femoral neck were also observed with risedronate compared with the control group. The incidence of new vertebral fracture in the risedronate group was reduced by 60% versus the control group (P=0.028). Daily treatment with risedronate for 12 months significantly increased BMD at the lumbar spine, femoral neck and total hip and significantly reduced the incidence of new vertebral fractures. This is the first prospective, randomized, controlled trial to demonstrate a significant reduction in vertebral fractures in 1 year in men with primary or secondary osteoporosis.

  7. Industry Speed Bumps on Local Tobacco Control in Japan? The Case of Hyogo

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Keiko; Mori, Nagisa; Kashiwabara, Mina; Yasuda, Sakiko; Horie, Rumi; Yamato, Hiroshi; Garçon, Loic; Armada, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite being a signatory since 2004, Japan has not yet fully implemented Article 8 of the World Health Organization’s Framework Convention on Tobacco Control regarding 100% protection against exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS). The Japanese government still recognizes designated smoking rooms (DSRs) in public space as a valid control measure. Furthermore, subnational initiatives for tobacco control in Japan are of limited effectiveness. Through an analysis of the Hyogo initiative in 2012, we identified key barriers to the achievement of a smoke-free environment. Methods Using a descriptive case-study approach, we analyzed the smoke-free policy development process. The information was obtained from meeting minutes and other gray literature, such as public records, well as key informant interviews. Results Hyogo Prefecture established a committee to propose measures against SHS, and most committee members agreed with establishing completely smoke-free environments. However, the hospitality sector representatives opposed regulation, and tobacco companies were allowed to make a presentation to the committee. Further, political power shifted against completely smoke-free environments in the context of upcoming local elections, which was an obvious barrier to effective regulation. Throughout the approving process, advocacy by civil society for stronger regulation was weak. Eventually, the ordinance approved by the Prefectural Assembly was even weaker than the committee proposal and included wide exemptions. Conclusions The analysis of Hyogo’s SHS control initiative shed light on three factors that present challenges to implementing tobacco control regulations in Japan, from which other countries can also draw lessons: incomplete national legislation, the weakness of advocacy by the civil society, and the interference of the tobacco industry. PMID:26155758

  8. Drifts and Environmental Disturbances in Atomic Clock Subsystems: Quantifying Local Oscillator, Control Loop, & Ion Resonance Interactions.

    PubMed

    Enzer, Daphna G; Diener, William A; Murphy, David W; Rao, Shanti R; Tjoelker, Robert L

    2016-12-19

    Linear ion trap frequency standards are among the most stable continuously-operating frequency references and clocks. Depending on the application, they have been operated with a variety of Local Oscillators (LO) including quartz Ultra-Stable Oscillators (USO), Hydrogen-masers, and Cryogenic Sapphire Oscillators. The short, intermediate, and long term stability of the frequency output is a complicated function of the fundamental performances, the time dependence of environmental disturbances, the atomic interrogation algorithm, the implemented control loop, and the environmental sensitivity of the LO and atomic system components. For applications that require moving these references out of controlled lab-spaces and into less stable environments such as field-work or space-flight, a deeper understanding is needed of how disturbances at different time-scales impact the various subsystems of the clock and ultimately the output stability. In this paper, we analyze which perturbations have an impact and to what degree. We also report on a computational model of a control loop which keeps the microwave source locked to the ion resonance. This model is shown to agree with laboratory measurements of how well the feedback removes various disturbances and also with a useful analytic approach we developed for predicting these impacts.

  9. LOCAL CASE-CONTROL SAMPLING: EFFICIENT SUBSAMPLING IN IMBALANCED DATA SETS

    PubMed Central

    Fithian, William; Hastie, Trevor

    2014-01-01

    For classification problems with significant class imbalance, subsampling can reduce computational costs at the price of inflated variance in estimating model parameters. We propose a method for subsampling efficiently for logistic regression by adjusting the class balance locally in feature space via an accept–reject scheme. Our method generalizes standard case-control sampling, using a pilot estimate to preferentially select examples whose responses are conditionally rare given their features. The biased subsampling is corrected by a post-hoc analytic adjustment to the parameters. The method is simple and requires one parallelizable scan over the full data set. Standard case-control sampling is inconsistent under model misspecification for the population risk-minimizing coefficients θ*. By contrast, our estimator is consistent for θ* provided that the pilot estimate is. Moreover, under correct specification and with a consistent, independent pilot estimate, our estimator has exactly twice the asymptotic variance of the full-sample MLE—even if the selected subsample comprises a miniscule fraction of the full data set, as happens when the original data are severely imbalanced. The factor of two improves to 1+1c if we multiply the baseline acceptance probabilities by c > 1 (and weight points with acceptance probability greater than 1), taking roughly 1+c2 times as many data points into the subsample. Experiments on simulated and real data show that our method can substantially outperform standard case-control subsampling. PMID:25492979

  10. A Comparison of Dose Metrics to Predict Local Tumor Control for Photofrin-mediated Photodynamic Therapy.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Haixia; Kim, Michele M; Penjweini, Rozhin; Finlay, Jarod C; Busch, Theresa M; Wang, Tianhao; Guo, Wensheng; Cengel, Keith A; Simone, Charles B; Glatstein, Eli; Zhu, Timothy C

    2017-01-13

    This preclinical study examines light fluence, photodynamic therapy (PDT) dose and "apparent reacted singlet oxygen," [(1) O2 ]rx , to predict local control rate (LCR) for Photofrin-mediated PDT of radiation-induced fibrosarcoma (RIF) tumors. Mice bearing RIF tumors were treated with in-air fluences (50-250 J cm(-2) ) and in-air fluence rates (50-150 mW cm(-2) ) at Photofrin dosages of 5 and 15 mg kg(-1) and a drug-light interval of 24 h using a 630-nm, 1-cm-diameter collimated laser. A macroscopic model was used to calculate [(1) O2 ]rx and PDT dose based on in vivo explicit dosimetry of the drug concentration, light fluence and tissue optical properties. PDT dose and [(1) O2 ]rx were defined as a temporal integral of drug concentration and fluence rate, and singlet oxygen concentration consumed divided by the singlet oxygen lifetime, respectively. LCR was stratified for different dose metrics for 74 mice (66 + 8 control). Complete tumor control at 14 days was observed for [(1) O2 ]rx ≥ 1.1 mm or PDT dose ≥1200 μm J cm(-2) but cannot be predicted with fluence alone. LCR increases with increasing [(1) O2 ]rx and PDT dose but is not well correlated with fluence. Comparing dosimetric quantities, [(1) O2 ]rx outperformed both PDT dose and fluence in predicting tumor response and correlating with LCR.

  11. Local control of information flow in segmental and ascending collaterals of single afferents.

    PubMed

    Lomelí, J; Quevedo, J; Linares, P; Rudomin, P

    1998-10-08

    In the vertebrate spinal cord, the activation of GABA(gamma-amino-butyric acid)-releasing interneurons that synapse with intraspinal terminals of sensory fibres leading into the central nervous system (afferent fibres) produces primary afferent depolarization and presynaptic inhibition. It is not known to what extent these presynaptic mechanisms allow a selective control of information transmitted through specific sets of intraspinal branches of individual afferents. Here we study the local nature of the presynaptic control by measuring primary afferent depolarization simultaneously in two intraspinal collaterals of the same muscle spindle afferent. One of these collaterals ends at the L6-L7 segmental level in the intermediate nucleus, and the other ascends to segment L3 within Clarke's column, the site of origin of spinocerebellar neurons. Our results indicate that there are central mechanisms that are able to affect independently the synaptic effectiveness of segmental and ascending collaterals of individual muscle spindle afferents. Focal control of presynaptic inhibition thus allows the intraspinal branches of afferent fibres to function as a dynamic assembly that can be fractionated to convey information to selected neuronal targets. This may be a mechanism by which different spinal postsynaptic targets that are coupled by sensory input from a common source could be uncoupled.

  12. Preliminary survey report: control technology for brake lining at Northwest Local School District, Cincinnati, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, T.C.; McGlothlin, J.D.; Godbey, F.W.; Sheehy, J.W.; O'Brien, D.M.

    1986-05-01

    A walk-through survey of control technology for reducing asbestos exposure during maintenance and repair of vehicular brakes was conducted at Northwest Local School District, Cincinnati, Ohio in January, 1986. The primary method for controlling and collecting dust during brake servicing was a wet-washing technique and good work practices, ensuring that exposure to hazardous physical or chemical agents was reduced or eliminated. Also available was an enclosed-type brake assembly cleaner designed to be connected to the shop air and a vacuum system. The brake assembly cleaner did not have a viewing port to examine the area being cleaned. The operator had to remove the unit to inspect the cleaned area potentially exposing himself to any dust remaining on the brake shoes or hub. The unit itself was a potential dust source as it was designed to fit 16-inch wheels and did not form a tight seal on the smaller 15-inch wheels of the newer buses. The authors conclude that the wet wash technique is an excellent method for controlling asbestos emissions during brake maintenance. The vacuum brake-assembly cleaner is inadequate and potentially hazardous. An in-depth survey of the wet technique is recommended.

  13. Localized control of light-matter interactions by using nanoscale asymmetric TiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Shifeng; Matsuoka, Tomoyo; Shimotsuma, Yasuhiko; Sakakura, Masaaki; Nishi, Masayuki; Hong, Zhanglian; Qiu, Jianrong; Hirao, Kazuyuki; Miura, Kiyotaka

    2012-11-01

    This paper reports an asymmetry structure-mediated route for highly localized control of light-matter interactions by using tapered TiO2. We demonstrate for the first time that the growth habit of Ag nanostructures on tapered TiO2 can be tuned by controllable photolysis. Site-selective anchoring of Ag nanoparticles or nanowires on tapered TiO2 can be achieved by simply changing the external light. We further show that the obtained tapered TiO2-Ag hetero-nanostructures present excellent light-trapping ability over a wide range of wavelengths which is considered to originate from the unique synergistic effects of graded waveguiding and plasmonic light trapping. This improved photon-management capability renders the prepared substrate a very promising candidate for optical sensing application. For this purpose, an enhanced sensitivity for trace detection is confirmed. These findings open up promising avenues for tailoring of light-matter interactions which are of special interest for studying controllable photolysis activation processes and diverse applications such as nanostructure growth, trace detection, photocatalysis and solar cells.

  14. Tele-Autonomous control involving contact. Final Report Thesis; [object localization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shao, Lejun; Volz, Richard A.; Conway, Lynn; Walker, Michael W.

    1990-01-01

    Object localization and its application in tele-autonomous systems are studied. Two object localization algorithms are presented together with the methods of extracting several important types of object features. The first algorithm is based on line-segment to line-segment matching. Line range sensors are used to extract line-segment features from an object. The extracted features are matched to corresponding model features to compute the location of the object. The inputs of the second algorithm are not limited only to the line features. Featured points (point to point matching) and featured unit direction vectors (vector to vector matching) can also be used as the inputs of the algorithm, and there is no upper limit on the number of the features inputed. The algorithm will allow the use of redundant features to find a better solution. The algorithm uses dual number quaternions to represent the position and orientation of an object and uses the least squares optimization method to find an optimal solution for the object's location. The advantage of using this representation is that the method solves for the location estimation by minimizing a single cost function associated with the sum of the orientation and position errors and thus has a better performance on the estimation, both in accuracy and speed, than that of other similar algorithms. The difficulties when the operator is controlling a remote robot to perform manipulation tasks are also discussed. The main problems facing the operator are time delays on the signal transmission and the uncertainties of the remote environment. How object localization techniques can be used together with other techniques such as predictor display and time desynchronization to help to overcome these difficulties are then discussed.

  15. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Evaluation After Initial Chemotherapy and Radiation Therapy Predicts Local Control in Rhabdomyosarcoma

    SciTech Connect

    Dharmarajan, Kavita V.; Wexler, Leonard H.; Gavane, Somali; Fox, Josef J.; Schoder, Heiko; Tom, Ashlyn K.; Price, Alison N.; Meyers, Paul A.; Wolden, Suzanne L.

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) is already an integral part of staging in rhabdomyosarcoma. We investigated whether primary-site treatment response characterized by serial PET imaging at specific time points can be correlated with local control. Patients and Methods: We retrospectively examined 94 patients with rhabdomyosarcoma who received initial chemotherapy 15 weeks (median) before radiotherapy and underwent baseline, preradiation, and postradiation PET. Baseline PET standardized uptake values (SUVmax) and the presence or absence of abnormal uptake (termed PET-positive or PET-negative) both before and after radiation were examined for the primary site. Local relapse-free survival (LRFS) was calculated according to baseline SUVmax, PET-positive status, and PET-negative status by the Kaplan-Meier method, and comparisons were tested with the log-rank test. Results: The median patient age was 11 years. With 3-year median follow-up, LRFS was improved among postradiation PET-negative vs PET-positive patients: 94% vs 75%, P=.02. By contrast, on baseline PET, LRFS was not significantly different for primary-site SUVmax {<=}7 vs >7 (median), although the findings suggested a trend toward improved LRFS: 96% for SUVmax {<=}7 vs 79% for SUVmax >7, P=.08. Preradiation PET also suggested a statistically insignificant trend toward improved LRFS for PET-negative (97%) vs PET-positive (81%) patients (P=.06). Conclusion: Negative postradiation PET predicted improved LRFS. Notably, 77% of patients with persistent postradiation uptake did not experience local failure, suggesting that these patients could be closely followed up rather than immediately referred for intervention. Negative baseline and preradiation PET findings suggested statistically insignificant trends toward improved LRFS. Additional study may further understanding of relationships between PET findings at these time points and outcome in rhabdomyosarcoma.

  16. Improvement in thickness uniformity of thick SOI by numerically controlled local wet etching.

    PubMed

    Yamamura, Kazuya; Ueda, Kazuaki; Hosoda, Mao; Zettsu, Nobuyuki

    2011-04-01

    Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers are promising semiconductor materials for high-speed LSIs, low-power-consumption electric devices and micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS). The thickness distribution of an SOI causes the variation of threshold voltage in electronic devices manufactured on the SOI wafer. The thickness distribution of a thin SOI, which is manufactured by applying a smart cut technique, is comparatively uniform. On the other hand, a thick SOI has a large thickness distribution because a bonded wafer is thinned by conventional grinding and polishing. For a thick SOI wafer with a thickness of 1 microm, it is required that the tolerance of thickness variation is less than 50 nm. However, improving the thickness uniformity of a thick SOI layer to a tolerance of +/- 5% is difficult by conventional machining because of the fundamental limitations of these techniques. We have developed numerically controlled local wet etching (NC-LWE) technique as a novel deterministic subaperture figuring and finishing technique, which utilizes a localized chemical reaction between the etchant and the surface of the workpiece. We demonstrated an improvement in the thickness distribution of a thick SOI by NC-LWE using an HF/HNO3 mixture, and thickness variation improved from 480 nm to 200 nm within a diameter of 170 mm.

  17. High Accuracy Passive Magnetic Field-Based Localization for Feedback Control Using Principal Component Analysis.

    PubMed

    Foong, Shaohui; Sun, Zhenglong

    2016-08-12

    In this paper, a novel magnetic field-based sensing system employing statistically optimized concurrent multiple sensor outputs for precise field-position association and localization is presented. This method capitalizes on the independence between simultaneous spatial field measurements at multiple locations to induce unique correspondences between field and position. This single-source-multi-sensor configuration is able to achieve accurate and precise localization and tracking of translational motion without contact over large travel distances for feedback control. Principal component analysis (PCA) is used as a pseudo-linear filter to optimally reduce the dimensions of the multi-sensor output space for computationally efficient field-position mapping with artificial neural networks (ANNs). Numerical simulations are employed to investigate the effects of geometric parameters and Gaussian noise corruption on PCA assisted ANN mapping performance. Using a 9-sensor network, the sensing accuracy and closed-loop tracking performance of the proposed optimal field-based sensing system is experimentally evaluated on a linear actuator with a significantly more expensive optical encoder as a comparison.

  18. EGFR controls IQGAP basolateral membrane localization and mitotic spindle orientation during epithelial morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Bañón-Rodríguez, Inmaculada; Gálvez-Santisteban, Manuel; Vergarajauregui, Silvia; Bosch, Minerva; Borreguero-Pascual, Arantxa; Martín-Belmonte, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Establishing the correct orientation of the mitotic spindle is an essential step in epithelial cell division in order to ensure that epithelial tubules form correctly during organ development and regeneration. While recent findings have identified some of the molecular mechanisms that underlie spindle orientation, many aspects of this process remain poorly understood. Here, we have used the 3D-MDCK model system to demonstrate a key role for a newly identified protein complex formed by IQGAP1 and the epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) in controlling the orientation of the mitotic spindle. IQGAP1 is a scaffolding protein that regulates many cellular pathways, from cell-cell adhesion to microtubule organization, and its localization in the basolateral membrane ensures correct spindle orientation. Through its IQ motifs, IQGAP1 binds to EGFR, which is responsible for maintaining IQGAP1 in the basolateral membrane domain. Silencing IQGAP1, or disrupting the basolateral localization of either IQGAP1 or EGFR, results in a non-polarized distribution of NuMA, mitotic spindle misorientation and defects in single lumen formation. PMID:24421325

  19. Esthesioneuroblastoma: Good Local Control of Disease by Endoscopic and Endoscope Assisted Approach. Is it Possible?

    PubMed

    Mohindra, Satyawati; Dhingra, Shruti; Mohindra, Sandeep; Kumar, Narendra; Gupta, Bhumika

    2014-09-01

    To present a short report on nine patients of esthesioneuroblastoma, managed endoscopically or endoscope assisted. To describe the technique and discuss the results at an average of 36.7 months of follow up. A retrospective study in a tertiary care centre. The present communication describes a series of 9 cases harbouring esthesioneuroblastoma, 6 managed endoscopically and 3 endoscope assisted between January 2005 and December 2009. All the nine patients remained free of disease at the primary site by endoscopic and radiological evaluation on an average of 36.7 months of follow up. One of the patients developed cutaneous and systemic metastasis for which she received chemotherapy and another one died during post-operative period due to unrelated causes. None of the patients showed recurrence or residual disease locally. Endoscopic and endoscope assisted approach provides a cosmetically better and surgically comparable outcome for local control of disease in early stages of esthesioneuroblastoma in expert hands without significant complications.

  20. High Accuracy Passive Magnetic Field-Based Localization for Feedback Control Using Principal Component Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Foong, Shaohui; Sun, Zhenglong

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a novel magnetic field-based sensing system employing statistically optimized concurrent multiple sensor outputs for precise field-position association and localization is presented. This method capitalizes on the independence between simultaneous spatial field measurements at multiple locations to induce unique correspondences between field and position. This single-source-multi-sensor configuration is able to achieve accurate and precise localization and tracking of translational motion without contact over large travel distances for feedback control. Principal component analysis (PCA) is used as a pseudo-linear filter to optimally reduce the dimensions of the multi-sensor output space for computationally efficient field-position mapping with artificial neural networks (ANNs). Numerical simulations are employed to investigate the effects of geometric parameters and Gaussian noise corruption on PCA assisted ANN mapping performance. Using a 9-sensor network, the sensing accuracy and closed-loop tracking performance of the proposed optimal field-based sensing system is experimentally evaluated on a linear actuator with a significantly more expensive optical encoder as a comparison. PMID:27529253

  1. Control of swimming in the hydrozoan jellyfish Aequorea victoria: subumbrellar organization and local inhibition.

    PubMed

    Satterlie, Richard A

    2008-11-01

    The subumbrella of the hydrozoan jellyfish Aequorea victoria (previously classified as Aequorea aequorea) is divided by numerous radial canals and attached gonads, so the subumbrellar musculature is partitioned into subumbrellar segments. The ectoderm of each segment includes two types of muscle: smooth muscle with a radial orientation, used for local (feeding and righting) and widespread (protective) radial responses, and striated muscle with a circular orientation which produces swim contractions. Two subumbrellar nerve nets were found, one of which stained with a commercial antibody produced against the bioactive peptide FMRFamide. Circular muscle cells produce a single, long-duration action potential with each swim, triggered by a single junctional potential. In addition, the circular cells are electrically coupled so full contractions require both electrotonic depolarization from adjacent cells and synaptic input from a subumbrellar nerve net. The radial cells, which form a layer superficial to the circular cells, are also activated by a subumbrellar nerve net, and produce short-duration action potentials. The radial muscle cells are electrically coupled to one another. No coupling exists between the two muscle layers. Spread of excitation between adjacent segments is decremental, and nerve net-activated junctional potentials disappear during local inhibition of swimming (such as with a radial response). Variable swim contractions are controlled by a combination of synaptic input from the motor network of the inner nerve ring, synaptic input from a subumbrellar nerve net, and electrotonic depolarization from adjacent, active muscle cells.

  2. Signatures of Many-Body Localization in a Controlled Open Quantum System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lüschen, Henrik P.; Bordia, Pranjal; Hodgman, Sean S.; Schreiber, Michael; Sarkar, Saubhik; Daley, Andrew J.; Fischer, Mark H.; Altman, Ehud; Bloch, Immanuel; Schneider, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    In the presence of disorder, an interacting closed quantum system can undergo many-body localization (MBL) and fail to thermalize. However, over long times, even weak couplings to any thermal environment will necessarily thermalize the system and erase all signatures of MBL. This presents a challenge for experimental investigations of MBL since no realistic system can ever be fully closed. In this work, we experimentally explore the thermalization dynamics of a localized system in the presence of controlled dissipation. Specifically, we find that photon scattering results in a stretched exponential decay of an initial density pattern with a rate that depends linearly on the scattering rate. We find that the resulting susceptibility increases significantly close to the phase transition point. In this regime, which is inaccessible to current numerical studies, we also find a strong dependence on interactions. Our work provides a basis for systematic studies of MBL in open systems and opens a route towards extrapolation of closed-system properties from experiments.

  3. Dystrobrevin controls neurotransmitter release and muscle Ca2+ transients by localizing BK channels in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bojun; Liu, Ping; Zhan, Haiying; Wang, Zhao-Wen

    2011-01-01

    Dystrobrevin is a major component of a dystrophin-associated protein complex (DAPC). It is widely expressed in mammalian tissues including the nervous system, where it is localized to the presynaptic nerve terminal with unknown function. In a genetic screen for suppressors of a lethargic phenotype caused by a gain-of-function (gf) isoform of SLO-1 in C. elegans, we isolated multiple loss-of-function (lf) mutants of the dystrobrevin gene dyb-1. dyb-1(lf) phenocopied slo-1(lf), causing increased neurotransmitter release at the neuromuscular junction, increased frequency of Ca2+ transients in body-wall muscle, and abnormal locomotion behavior. Neuron- and muscle-specific rescue experiments suggest that DYB-1 is required for SLO-1 function in both neurons and muscle cells. DYB-1 colocalized with SLO-1 at presynaptic sites in neurons and dense body regions in muscle cells, and dyb-1(lf) caused SLO-1 mislocalization in both types of cells without altering SLO-1 protein level. The neuronal phenotypes of dyb-1(lf) were partially rescued by mouse α-dystrobrevin-1 (αDB1). These observations revealed novel functions of the BK channel in regulating muscle Ca2+ transients, and of dystrobrevin in controlling neurotransmitter release and muscle Ca2+ transients by localizing the BK channel. PMID:22131396

  4. Public Health, Law, and Local Control: Destruction of the US Chemical Weapons Stockpile

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, Michael R.

    2003-01-01

    Destruction of US chemical weapons has begun at one of the 8 sites in the continental United States, was completed on Johnston Island in the Pacific Ocean, and is scheduled to begin in at least 3 other locations during the upcoming year. About 25% of the stockpile and 38% of the munitions had been destroyed as of December 31, 2002. However, the program has become controversial with regard to choice of technology, emergency management, and cost. This controversy is in large part due to efforts by some state and local governments and activist groups to play a more central role in a decisionmaking process that was once fully controlled by the US Army. PMID:12893599

  5. Analogy electromagnetism-acoustics: Validation and application to local impedance active control for sound absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolas, L.; Furstoss, M.; Galland, M. A.

    1998-10-01

    An analogy between electromagnetism and acoustics is presented in 2D. The propagation of sound in presence of absorbing material is modeled using an open boundary microwave package. Validation is performed through analytical and experimental results. Application to local impedance active control for free field sound absorption is finally described. Une analogie entre acoustique et électromagnétisme est présentée en 2D, afin de modéliser la propagation d'ondes acoustiques, en présence de matériau absorbant et à l'aide d'un logiciel de micro-ondes en domaine ouvert. Cette analogie est validée par des résultats analytiques et expérimentaux. Une application au contrôle actif de l'impédance acoustique de surface de matériaux poreux est finalement décrite.

  6. Public health, law, and local control: destruction of the US chemical weapons stockpile.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Michael R

    2003-08-01

    Destruction of US chemical weapons has begun at one of the 8 sites in the continental United States, was completed on Johnston Island in the Pacific Ocean, and is scheduled to begin in at least 3 other locations during the upcoming year. About 25% of the stockpile and 38% of the munitions had been destroyed as of December 31, 2002. However, the program has become controversial with regard to choice of technology, emergency management, and cost. This controversy is in large part due to efforts by some state and local governments and activist groups to play a more central role in a decision making process that was once fully controlled by the US Army.

  7. Local Intermolecular Order Controls Photoinduced Charge Separation at Donor/Acceptor Interfaces in Organic Semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Feier, Hilary M.; Reid, Obadiah G.; Pace, Natalie A.; Park, Jaehong; Bergkamp, Jesse J.; Sellinger, Alan; Gust, Devens; Rumbles, Garry

    2016-03-23

    How free charge is generated at organic donor-acceptor interfaces is an important question, as the binding energy of the lowest energy (localized) charge transfer states should be too high for the electron and hole to escape each other. Recently, it has been proposed that delocalization of the electronic states participating in charge transfer is crucial, and aggregated or otherwise locally ordered structures of the donor or the acceptor are the precondition for this electronic characteristic. The effect of intermolecular aggregation of both the polymer donor and fullerene acceptor on charge separation is studied. In the first case, the dilute electron acceptor triethylsilylhydroxy-1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-octabutoxyphthalocyaninatosilicon(IV) (SiPc) is used to eliminate the influence of acceptor aggregation, and control polymer order through side-chain regioregularity, comparing charge generation in 96% regioregular (RR-) poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) with its regiorandom (RRa-) counterpart. In the second case, ordered phases in the polymer are eliminated by using RRa-P3HT, and phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) is used as the acceptor, varying its concentration to control aggregation. Time-resolved microwave conductivity, time-resolved photoluminescence, and transient absorption spectroscopy measurements show that while ultrafast charge transfer occurs in all samples, long-lived charge carriers are only produced in films with intermolecular aggregates of either RR-P3HT or PC61BM, and that polymer aggregates are just as effective in this regard as those of fullerenes.

  8. Control of a shock wave-boundary layer interaction using localized arc filament plasma actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Nathan Joseph

    Supersonic flight is currently possible, but expensive. Inexpensive supersonic travel will require increased efficiency of high-speed air entrainment, an integral part of air-breathing propulsion systems. Although mixed compression inlet geometry can significantly improve entrainment efficiency, numerous Shock Wave-Boundary Layer Interactions (SWBLIs) are generated in this configuration. The boundary layer must therefore develop through multiple regions of adverse pressure gradient, causing it to thicken, and, in severe cases, separate. The associated increase in unsteadiness can have adverse effects on downstream engine hardware. The most severe consequence of these interactions is the increased aerodynamic blockage generated by the thickened boundary layer. If the increase is sufficient, it can choke the flow, causing inlet unstart, and resulting in a loss of thrust and high transient forces on the engine, airframe, and aircraft occupants. The potentially severe consequences associated with SWBLIs require flow control to ensure proper operation. Traditionally, boundary layer bleed has been used to control the interaction. Although this method is effective, it has inherent efficiency penalties. Localized Arc Filament Plasma Actuators (LAFPAs) are designed to generate perturbations for flow control. Natural flow instabilities act to amplify certain perturbations, allowing the LAFPAs to control the flow with minimal power input. LAFPAs also have the flexibility to maintain control over a variety of operating conditions. This work seeks to examine the effectiveness of LAFPAs as a separation control method for an oblique, impinging SWBLI. The low frequency unsteadiness in the reflected shock was thought to be the natural manifestation of a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in the shear layer above the separation region. The LAFPAs were therefore placed upstream of the interaction to allow their perturbations to convect to the receptivity region (near the shear layer origin

  9. Salvage brachytherapy in prostate local recurrence after radiation therapy: predicting factors for control and toxicity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate efficacy and toxicity after salvage brachytherapy (BT) in prostate local recurrence after radiation therapy. Methods and materials Between 1993 and 2007, we retrospectively analyzed 56 consecutively patients (pts) undergoing salvage brachytherapy. After local biopsy-proven recurrence, pts received 145 Gy LDR-BT (37 pts, 66%) or HDR-BT (19 pts, 34%) in different dose levels according to biological equivalent doses (BED2 Gy). By the time of salvage BT, only 15 pts (27%) received ADT. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify predictors of biochemical control and toxicities. Acute and late genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal (GI) toxicities were graded using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCv3.0). Results Median follow-up after salvage BT was 48 months. The 5-year FFbF was 77%. HDR and LDR late grade 3 GU toxicities were observed in 21% and 24%. Late grade 3 GI toxicities were observed in 2% (HDR) and 2.7% (LDR). On univariate analysis, pre-salvage prostate-specific antigen (PSA) > 10 ng/ml (p = 0.004), interval to relapse after initial treatment < 24 months (p = 0.004) and salvage HDR-BT doses BED2 Gy level < 227 Gy (p = 0.012) were significant in predicting biochemical failure. On Cox multivariate analysis, pre-salvage PSA, and time to relapse were significant in predicting biochemical failure. HDR-BT BED2 Gy (α/β 1.5 Gy) levels ≥ 227 (p = 0.013), and ADT (p = 0.049) were significant in predicting grade ≥ 2 urinary toxicity. Conclusions Prostate BT is an effective salvage modality in some selected prostate local recurrence patients after radiation therapy. Even, we provide some potential predictors of biochemical control and toxicity for prostate salvage BT, further investigation is recommended. PMID:24885287

  10. The design of the local monitor and control system of SKA dishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schillirò, F.; Baldini, V.; Becciani, U.; Cirami, R.; Costa, A.; Ingallinera, A.; Marassi, A.; Nicotra, G.; Nocita, C.; Riggi, S.; Trigilio, C.

    2016-08-01

    The Square Kilometer Array (SKA) project aims at building the world's largest radio observatory to observe the sky with unprecedented sensitivity and collecting area. In the first phase of the project (SKA1), an array of dishes, SKA1-MID, will be built in South Africa. It will consist of 133 15m-dishes, which will include the MeerKAT array, for the 0.350-20 GHz frequency band observations. Each antenna will be provided with a local monitor and control system (LMC), enabling operations both to the Telescope Manager remote system, and to the engineers and maintenance staff; it provides different environment for the telescope control (positioning, pointing, observational bands), metadata collection for monitoring and database storaging, operational modes and functional states management for all the telescope capabilities. In this paper we present the LMC software architecture designed for the detailed design phase (DD), where we describe functional and physical interfaces with monitored and controlled sub-elements, and highlight the data flow between each LMC modules and its sub-element controllers from one side, and Telescope Manager on the other side. We also describe the complete Product Breakdown Structure (PBS) created in order to optimize resources allocation in terms of calculus and memory, able to perform required task for each element according to the proper requirements. Among them, time response and system reliability are the most important, considering the complexity of SKA dish network and its isolated placement. Performances obtained by software implementation using TANGO framework will be discussed, matching them with technical requirements derived by SKA science drivers.

  11. Varicella paediatric hospitalisations in Belgium: a 1-year national survey

    PubMed Central

    Blumental, Sophie; Sabbe, Martine; Lepage, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Background Varicella universal vaccination (UV) has been implemented in many countries for several years. Nevertheless, varicella UV remains debated in Europe and few data are available on the real burden of infection. We assessed the burden of varicella in Belgium through analysis of hospitalised cases during a 1-year period. Methods Data on children admitted to hospital with varicella were collected through a national network from November 2011 to October 2012. Inclusion criteria were either acute varicella or related complications up to 3 weeks after the rash. Results Participation of 101 hospitals was obtained, covering 97.7% of the total paediatric beds in Belgium. 552 children were included with a median age of 2.1 years. Incidence of paediatric varicella hospitalisations reached 29.5/105 person-years, with the highest impact among those 0–4 years old (global incidence and odds of hospitalisation: 79/105 person-years and 1.6/100 varicella cases, respectively). Only 14% (79/552) of the cohort had an underlying chronic condition. 65% (357/552) of children had ≥1 complication justifying their admission, 49% were bacterial superinfections and 10% neurological disorders. Only a quarter of children (141/552) received acyclovir. Incidence of complicated hospitalised cases was 19/105 person-years. Paediatric intensive care unit admission and surgery were required in 4% and 3% of hospitalised cases, respectively. Mortality among Belgian paediatric population was 0.5/106 and fatality ratio 0.2% among our cohort. Conclusions Varicella demonstrated a substantial burden of disease in Belgian children, especially among the youngest. Our thorough nationwide study, run in a country without varicella UV, offers data to support varicella UV in Belgium. PMID:26130380

  12. Autologous whole blood versus corticosteroid local injection in treatment of plantar fasciitis: A randomized, controlled multicenter clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Karimzadeh, Afshin; Raeissadat, Seyed Ahmad; Erfani Fam, Saleh; Sedighipour, Leyla; Babaei-Ghazani, Arash

    2017-03-01

    Plantar fasciitis is the most common cause of heel pain. Local injection modalities are among treatment options in patients with resistant pain. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of local autologous whole blood compared with corticosteroid local injection in treatment of plantar fasciitis. In this randomized controlled multicenter study, 36 patients with chronic plantar fasciitis were recruited. Patients were allocated randomly into three treatment groups: local autologous blood, local corticosteroid injection, and control groups receiving no injection. Patients were assessed with visual analog scale (VAS), pressure pain threshold (PPT), and plantar fasciitis pain/disability scale (PFPS) before treatment, as well as 4 and 12 weeks post therapy. Variables of pain and function improved significantly in both corticosteroid and autologous blood groups compared to control group. At 4 weeks following treatment, patients in corticosteroid group had significantly lower levels of pain than patients in autologous blood and control groups (higher PPT level, lower PFPS, and VAS). After 12 weeks of treatment, both corticosteroid and autologous blood groups had lower average levels of pain than control group. The corticosteroid group showed an early sharp and then more gradual improvement in pain scores, but autologous blood group had a steady gradual drop in pain. Autologous whole blood and corticosteroid local injection can both be considered as effective methods in the treatment of chronic plantar fasciitis. These treatments decrease pain and significantly improve function compared to no treatment.

  13. Holocene fire activity in the Carpathian region: regional climate vs. local controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florescu, Gabriela; Feurdean, Angelica

    2015-04-01

    Introduction. Fire drives significant changes in ecosystem structure and function, diversity, species evolution, biomass dynamics and atmospheric composition. Palaeodata and model-based studies have pointed towards a strong connection between fire activity, climate, vegetation and people. Nevertheless, the relative importance of these factors appears to be strongly variable and a better understanding of these factors and their interaction needs a thorough investigation over multiple spatial (local to global) and temporal (years to millennia) scales. In this respect, sedimentary charcoal, associated with other proxies of climate, vegetation and human impact, represents a powerful tool of investigating changes in past fire activity, especially in regions with scarce fire dataset such as the CE Europe. Aim. To increase the spatial and temporal coverage of charcoal records and facilitate a more critical examination of the patterns, drivers and consequences of biomass burning over multiple spatial and temporal scales in CE Europe, we have investigated 6 fossil sequences in the Carpathian region (northern Romania). These are located in different geographical settings, in terms of elevation, vegetation composition, topography and land-use. Specific questions are: i) determine trends in timing and magnitude of fire activity, as well as similarities and differences between elevations; ii) disentangle the importance of regional from local controls in fire activity; iii) evaluate ecological consequences of fire on landscape composition, structure and diversity. Methods. We first determine the recent trends in fire activity (the last 150 years) from charcoal data and compare them with instrumental records of temperature, precipitation, site history and topography for a better understanding of the relationship between sedimentary charcoal and historical fire activity. We then statistically quantify centennial to millennial trends in fire activity (frequency, magnitude) based on

  14. Surgical model-view-controller simulation software framework for local and collaborative applications

    PubMed Central

    Sankaranarayanan, Ganesh; Halic, Tansel; Arikatla, Venkata Sreekanth; Lu, Zhonghua; De, Suvranu

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Surgical simulations require haptic interactions and collaboration in a shared virtual environment. A software framework for decoupled surgical simulation based on a multi-controller and multi-viewer model-view-controller (MVC) pattern was developed and tested. Methods A software framework for multimodal virtual environments was designed, supporting both visual interactions and haptic feedback while providing developers with an integration tool for heterogeneous architectures maintaining high performance, simplicity of implementation, and straightforward extension. The framework uses decoupled simulation with updates of over 1,000 Hz for haptics and accommodates networked simulation with delays of over 1,000 ms without performance penalty. Results The simulation software framework was implemented and was used to support the design of virtual reality-based surgery simulation systems. The framework supports the high level of complexity of such applications and the fast response required for interaction with haptics. The efficacy of the framework was tested by implementation of a minimally invasive surgery simulator. Conclusion A decoupled simulation approach can be implemented as a framework to handle simultaneous processes of the system at the various frame rates each process requires. The framework was successfully used to develop collaborative virtual environments (VEs) involving geographically distributed users connected through a network, with the results comparable to VEs for local users. PMID:20714933

  15. Wireless implantable chip with integrated nitinol-based pump for radio-controlled local drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Fong, Jeffrey; Xiao, Zhiming; Takahata, Kenichi

    2015-02-21

    We demonstrate an active, implantable drug delivery device embedded with a microfluidic pump that is driven by a radio-controlled actuator for temporal drug delivery. The polyimide-packaged 10 × 10 × 2 mm(3) chip contains a micromachined pump chamber and check valves of Parylene C to force the release of the drug from a 76 μL reservoir by wirelessly activating the actuator using external radio-frequency (RF) electromagnetic fields. The rectangular-shaped spiral-coil actuator based on nitinol, a biocompatible shape-memory alloy, is developed to perform cantilever-like actuation for pumping operation. The nitinol-coil actuator itself forms a passive 185 MHz resonant circuit that serves as a self-heat source activated via RF power transfer to enable frequency-selective actuation and pumping. Experimental wireless operation of fabricated prototypes shows successful release of test agents from the devices placed in liquid and excited by radiating tuned RF fields with an output power of 1.1 W. These tests reveal a single release volume of 219 nL, suggesting a device's capacity of ~350 individual ejections of drug from its reservoir. The thermal behavior of the activated device is also reported in detail. This proof-of-concept prototype validates the effectiveness of wireless RF pumping for fully controlled, long-lasting drug delivery, a key step towards enabling patient-tailored, targeted local drug delivery through highly miniaturized implants.

  16. Local application of hyaluronan gel in conjunction with periodontal surgery: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Fawzy El-Sayed, Karim M; Dahaba, Moushira A; Aboul-Ela, Shadw; Darhous, Mona S

    2012-08-01

    Hyaluronic acid application has been proven to be beneficial in a number of medical disciplines. The aim of the current study was to clinically evaluate the effect of local application of hyaluronan gel in conjunction with periodontal surgery. Fourteen patients with chronic periodontitis having four interproximal intrabony defects (≥3 mm) with probing depth values >5 mm were included in this split-mouth study. Following initial nonsurgical periodontal therapy and re-evaluation, defects were randomly assigned to be treated with modified Widman flap (MWF) surgery in conjunction with either 0.8% hyaluronan gel (test) or placebo gel (control) application. Clinical attachment level (CAL), probing depth (PD), gingival recession (GR), plaque index (PI), and bleeding on probing (BOP) values were taken at baseline and 3 and 6 months. Differences between test and control sites were evaluated using a Wilcoxon signed-rank and a McNemar test. A Friedman and a Cochran test were used to test equal ranks over time. Statistically significant differences were noted for CAL and GR (P < 0.05) in favor of the test sites. No significant differences were found regarding PD, BOP, or PI values (P > 0.05). Hyaluronan gel application in conjunction with periodontal surgery appears to result in significant improvement of CAL and in a reduction in GR. Hyaluronan gel application appears to improve the clinical outcome of MWF surgery.

  17. The use of stereotactic body radiation therapy for local control of glomangiomatosis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Horne, Zachary D; Karam, Sana D; Rashid, Abdul; Snider, J W; Lax, Allison; Ozdemirli, Metin; Harter, K W

    2013-01-01

    The vast majority of glomangiomas are small, benign neoplasms that can occur anywhere in the body but typically arise in the subcutaneous tissues of the extremities and are capable of causing extreme pain. Typically, these lesions are managed surgically with excellent rates of tumor control. On occasion, patients present with a variant of the glomangioma tumor consisting of numerous or recurrent nodules, a condition classified as glomangiomatosis. The authors present a case report of a young patient with multiply recurrent painful glomangiomas of the left foot, who was ultimately diagnosed with glomangiomatosis pedis. After multiple surgeries and surgical consultations, no surgery other than amputation was recommended. Therefore, the patient sought consultation with regard to stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). In the absence of other options, and based on its effectiveness in treating glomus tumors of the head and neck which display similar natural history and histologic features, SBRT was offered. The patient underwent SBRT to the largest of his remaining tumors with excellent local control and significant reduction in pain at two and a half years follow-up.

  18. Local Infiltration Analgesia reduces pain and hospital stay after primary TKA: randomized controlled double blind trial.

    PubMed

    Vaishya, Raju; Wani, Ajaz Majeed; Vijay, Vipul

    2015-12-01

    Postoperative analgesia following Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA) with the use of parenteral opioids or epidural analgesia can be associated with important side effects. Good perioperative analgesia facilitates faster rehabilitation, improves patient satisfaction, and may reduce the hospital stay. We investigated the analgesic effect of a locally injected mixture of drugs, in a double blinded RCT in 80 primary TKA. They were randomized either to receive a periarticular mixture of drugs containing bupivacaine, ketorolac, morphine, and adrenalline or to receive normal saline. Visual analog scores (VAS) for pain (at rest and during activity) and for patient satisfaction and range of motion were recorded postoperatively. The patients who had received the periarticular injection used significantly less the Patient Controlled Analgesia (PCA) after the surgery as compared to the control group. In addition, they had lower VAS for pain during rest and activity and higher visual analog scores for patient satisfaction 72 hours postoperatively. No major complication related to the drugs was observed. Intraoperative periarticular injection with multimodal drugs following TKA can significantly reduce the postoperative pain and hence the requirements for PCA and hospital stay, with no apparent risks.

  19. TOR signaling regulates planarian stem cells and controls localized and organismal growth.

    PubMed

    Peiris, T Harshani; Weckerle, Frank; Ozamoto, Elyse; Ramirez, Daniel; Davidian, Devon; García-Ojeda, Marcos E; Oviedo, Néstor J

    2012-04-01

    Target of Rapamycin (TOR) controls an evolutionarily conserved signaling pathway that modulates cellular growth and division by sensing levels of nutrients, energy and stress. As such, TOR signaling is a crucial component of tissues and organs that translates systemic signals into cellular behavior. The ubiquitous nature of TOR signaling, together with the difficulty of analyzing tissue during cellular turnover and repair, have limited our understanding of how this kinase operates throughout the body. Here, we use the planarian model system to address TOR regulation at the organismal level. The planarian TOR homolog (Smed-TOR) is ubiquitously expressed, including stem cells (neoblasts) and differentiated tissues. Inhibition of TOR with RNA interference severely restricts cell proliferation, allowing the study of neoblasts with restricted proliferative capacity during regeneration and systemic cell turnover. Strikingly, TOR signaling is required for neoblast response to amputation and localized growth (blastema). However, in the absence of TOR signaling, regeneration takes place only within differentiated tissues. In addition, TOR is essential for maintaining the balance between cell division and cell death, and its dysfunction leads to tissue degeneration and lack of organismal growth in the presence of nutrients. Finally, TOR function is likely to be mediated through TOR Complex 1 as its disruption recapitulates signs of the TOR phenotype. Our data reveal novel roles for TOR signaling in controlling adult stem cells at a systemic level and suggest a new paradigm for studying TOR function during physiological turnover and regeneration.

  20. Local electrical control of magnetic order and orientation by ferroelastic domain arrangements just above room temperature

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, L. C.; Cherifi, R. O.; Ivanovskaya, V.; Zobelli, A.; Infante, I. C.; Jacquet, E.; Guiblin, N.; Ünal, A. A.; Kronast, F.; Dkhil, B.; Barthélémy, A.; Bibes, M.; Valencia, S.

    2015-01-01

    Ferroic materials (ferromagnetic, ferroelectric, ferroelastic) usually divide into domains with different orientations of their order parameter. Coupling between different ferroic systems creates new functionalities, for instance the electrical control of macroscopic magnetic properties including magnetization and coercive field. Here we show that ferroelastic domains can be used to control both magnetic order and magnetization direction at the nanoscale with a voltage. We use element-specific X-ray imaging to map the magnetic domains as a function of temperature and voltage in epitaxial FeRh on ferroelastic BaTiO3. Exploiting the nanoscale phase-separation of FeRh, we locally interconvert between ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic states with a small electric field just above room temperature. Imaging and ab initio calculations show the antiferromagnetic phase of FeRh is favoured by compressive strain on c-oriented BaTiO3 domains, and the resultant magnetoelectric coupling is larger and more reversible than previously reported from macroscopic measurements. Our results emphasize the importance of nanoscale ferroic domain structure and the promise of first-order transition materials to achieve enhanced coupling in artificial multiferroics. PMID:25969926

  1. [The activity of local health units in agriculture: promotion, prevention, control].

    PubMed

    Angotzi, G; Ariano, E; Quercia, A

    2010-01-01

    Agriculture shows an high proportion of injuries, mostly by machineries and instruments, and the highest proportion between fatal and total injuries. The Conference of Regions has adopted the National Agriculture and Forestry Prevention Plan, in application of the "Pact for health and safety in workplaces". The plan gives priority to actions improving the safety of agricultural machines, specially if more frequently involved in serious and fatal injuries. Goal is to achieve an homogenous intervention standard all over in the country, composed by a mix of information, support and control, addressed to farms and agricultural machines traders. Public prevention organizations of Local Health Units moreover will record homogenously the happen modality of fatal and serious accidents, will collaborate in joining prevention objectives with Rural Develop Plans and in drawing up good practices. At another level in some regions have been developed prevention activities for other risk factors: definition of exposition profiles of pesticides, development of professionally exposed workers formation, control of buildings and cattle breeding, medical and epidemiological periodic survey of employees.

  2. Hybrid Tip-Enhanced Nanospectroscopy and Nanoimaging of Monolayer WSe2 with Local Strain Control.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyoung-Duck; Khatib, Omar; Kravtsov, Vasily; Clark, Genevieve; Xu, Xiaodong; Raschke, Markus B

    2016-04-13

    Many classes of two-dimensional (2D) materials have emerged as potential platforms for novel electronic and optical devices. However, their physical properties are strongly influenced by nanoscale heterogeneities in the form of edges, twin boundaries, and nucleation sites. Using combined tip-enhanced Raman scattering and photoluminescence (PL) nanospectroscopy and nanoimaging, we study the associated effects on the excitonic properties in monolayer WSe2 grown by physical vapor deposition. With ∼15 nm spatial resolution, we resolve nanoscale correlations of PL spectral intensity and shifts with crystal edges and internal twin boundaries associated with the expected exciton diffusion length. Through an active atomic force tip interaction we can control the crystal strain on the nanoscale and tune the local bandgap in reversible (up to 24 meV shift) and irreversible (up to 48 meV shift) fashion. This allows us to distinguish the effect of strain from the dominant influence of defects on the PL modification at the different structural heterogeneities. Hybrid nano-optical spectroscopy and imaging with nanomechanical strain control thus enables the systematic study of the coupling of structural and mechanical degrees of freedom to the nanoscale electronic and optical properties in layered 2D materials.

  3. Disturbance observer based fault estimation and dynamic output feedback fault tolerant control for fuzzy systems with local nonlinear models.

    PubMed

    Han, Jian; Zhang, Huaguang; Wang, Yingchun; Liu, Yang

    2015-11-01

    This paper addresses the problems of fault estimation (FE) and fault tolerant control (FTC) for fuzzy systems with local nonlinear models, external disturbances, sensor and actuator faults, simultaneously. Disturbance observer (DO) and FE observer are designed, simultaneously. Compared with the existing results, the proposed observer is with a wider application range. Using the estimation information, a novel fuzzy dynamic output feedback fault tolerant controller (DOFFTC) is designed. The controller can be used for the fuzzy systems with unmeasurable local nonlinear models, mismatched input disturbances, and measurement output affecting by sensor faults and disturbances. At last, the simulation shows the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  4. Floodplain ecohydrology: Climatic, anthropogenic, and local physical controls on partitioning of water sources to riparian trees

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Michael Bliss; Sargeant, Christopher I; Piégay, Hervé; Riquier, Jérémie; Wilson, Rob J S; Evans, Cristina M

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal and annual partitioning of water within river floodplains has important implications for ecohydrologic links between the water cycle and tree growth. Climatic and hydrologic shifts alter water distribution between floodplain storage reservoirs (e.g., vadose, phreatic), affecting water availability to tree roots. Water partitioning is also dependent on the physical conditions that control tree rooting depth (e.g., gravel layers that impede root growth), the sources of contributing water, the rate of water drainage, and water residence times within particular storage reservoirs. We employ instrumental climate records alongside oxygen isotopes within tree rings and regional source waters, as well as topographic data and soil depth measurements, to infer the water sources used over several decades by two co-occurring tree species within a riparian floodplain along the Rhône River in France. We find that water partitioning to riparian trees is influenced by annual (wet versus dry years) and seasonal (spring snowmelt versus spring rainfall) fluctuations in climate. This influence depends strongly on local (tree level) conditions including floodplain surface elevation and subsurface gravel layer elevation. The latter represents the upper limit of the phreatic zone and therefore controls access to shallow groundwater. The difference between them, the thickness of the vadose zone, controls total soil moisture retention capacity. These factors thus modulate the climatic influence on tree ring isotopes. Additionally, we identified growth signatures and tree ring isotope changes associated with recent restoration of minimum streamflows in the Rhône, which made new phreatic water sources available to some trees in otherwise dry years. Key Points Water shifts due to climatic fluctuations between floodplain storage reservoirs Anthropogenic changes to hydrology directly impact water available to trees Ecohydrologic approaches to integration of hydrology afford new

  5. Floodplain ecohydrology: Climatic, anthropogenic, and local physical controls on partitioning of water sources to riparian trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, Michael Bliss; Sargeant, Christopher I.; Piégay, Hervé; Riquier, Jérémie; Wilson, Rob J. S.; Evans, Cristina M.

    2014-05-01

    Seasonal and annual partitioning of water within river floodplains has important implications for ecohydrologic links between the water cycle and tree growth. Climatic and hydrologic shifts alter water distribution between floodplain storage reservoirs (e.g., vadose, phreatic), affecting water availability to tree roots. Water partitioning is also dependent on the physical conditions that control tree rooting depth (e.g., gravel layers that impede root growth), the sources of contributing water, the rate of water drainage, and water residence times within particular storage reservoirs. We employ instrumental climate records alongside oxygen isotopes within tree rings and regional source waters, as well as topographic data and soil depth measurements, to infer the water sources used over several decades by two co-occurring tree species within a riparian floodplain along the Rhône River in France. We find that water partitioning to riparian trees is influenced by annual (wet versus dry years) and seasonal (spring snowmelt versus spring rainfall) fluctuations in climate. This influence depends strongly on local (tree level) conditions including floodplain surface elevation and subsurface gravel layer elevation. The latter represents the upper limit of the phreatic zone and therefore controls access to shallow groundwater. The difference between them, the thickness of the vadose zone, controls total soil moisture retention capacity. These factors thus modulate the climatic influence on tree ring isotopes. Additionally, we identified growth signatures and tree ring isotope changes associated with recent restoration of minimum streamflows in the Rhône, which made new phreatic water sources available to some trees in otherwise dry years.

  6. Floodplain ecohydrology: Climatic, anthropogenic, and local physical controls on partitioning of water sources to riparian trees.

    PubMed

    Singer, Michael Bliss; Sargeant, Christopher I; Piégay, Hervé; Riquier, Jérémie; Wilson, Rob J S; Evans, Cristina M

    2014-05-01

    Seasonal and annual partitioning of water within river floodplains has important implications for ecohydrologic links between the water cycle and tree growth. Climatic and hydrologic shifts alter water distribution between floodplain storage reservoirs (e.g., vadose, phreatic), affecting water availability to tree roots. Water partitioning is also dependent on the physical conditions that control tree rooting depth (e.g., gravel layers that impede root growth), the sources of contributing water, the rate of water drainage, and water residence times within particular storage reservoirs. We employ instrumental climate records alongside oxygen isotopes within tree rings and regional source waters, as well as topographic data and soil depth measurements, to infer the water sources used over several decades by two co-occurring tree species within a riparian floodplain along the Rhône River in France. We find that water partitioning to riparian trees is influenced by annual (wet versus dry years) and seasonal (spring snowmelt versus spring rainfall) fluctuations in climate. This influence depends strongly on local (tree level) conditions including floodplain surface elevation and subsurface gravel layer elevation. The latter represents the upper limit of the phreatic zone and therefore controls access to shallow groundwater. The difference between them, the thickness of the vadose zone, controls total soil moisture retention capacity. These factors thus modulate the climatic influence on tree ring isotopes. Additionally, we identified growth signatures and tree ring isotope changes associated with recent restoration of minimum streamflows in the Rhône, which made new phreatic water sources available to some trees in otherwise dry years.

  7. Clinical and Radiographic Evaluation of Immediate Loaded Dental Implants With Local Application of Melatonin: A Preliminary Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    El-Gammal, Mona Y; Salem, Ahmed S; Anees, Mohamed M; Tawfik, Mohamed A

    2016-04-01

    Immediate loading of dental implants in situations where low bone density exist, such as the posterior maxillary region, became possible recently after the introduction of biomimetic agents. This 1-year preliminary clinical trial was carried out to clinically and radiographically evaluate immediate-loaded 1-piece implants with local application of melatonin in the osteotomy site as a biomimetic material. 14 patients with missing maxillary premolars were randomized to receive 14 implants of 1-piece type that were subjected to immediate loading after 2 weeks of initial placement. Group I included 7 implants with acid-etched surface while group II included 7 implants with acid-etched surface combined with local application of melatonin gel at the osteotomy site. Patients were recalled for follow up at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after loading. All implants were considered successful after 12 months of follow-up. Significant difference (P < 0.05) was found between both groups at 1 month of implant loading when considering the implant stability. At 1 and 3 months there were significant differences in the marginal bone level between the 2 groups. These results suggest that the local application of melatonin at the osteotomy site is associated with good stability and minimal bone resorption. However, more studies for longer follow-up periods are required to confirm the effect of melatonin hormone on osseointegration of dental implants.

  8. Fathers' Depression Related to Positive and Negative Parenting Behaviors With 1-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Matthew M.; Freed, Gary L.; Clark, Sarah J.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations between depression in fathers of 1-year-old children and specific positive and negative parenting behaviors discussed by pediatric providers at well-child visits. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional secondary analysis by using interview data from 1746 fathers of 1-year-old children in the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study. Positive parenting behaviors included fathers' reports of playing games, singing songs, and reading stories to their children ≥3 days in a typical week. Negative parenting behavior included fathers' reports of spanking their 1-year-old children in the previous month. Depression was assessed by using the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview Short Form. Weighted bivariate and multivariate analyses of parenting behaviors were performed while controlling for demographics and paternal substance abuse. RESULTS: Overall, 7% of fathers had depression. In bivariate analyses, depressed fathers were more likely than nondepressed fathers to report spanking their 1-year-old children in the previous month (41% compared with 13%; P < .01). In multivariate analyses, depressed fathers were less likely to report reading to their children ≥3 days in a typical week (adjusted odds ratio: 0.38 [95% confidence interval: 0.15–0.98]) and much more likely to report spanking (adjusted odds ratio: 3.92 [95% confidence interval: 1.23–12.5]). Seventy-seven percent of depressed fathers reported talking to their children's doctor in the previous year. CONCLUSIONS: Paternal depression is associated with parenting behaviors relevant to well-child visits. Pediatric providers should consider screening fathers for depression, discussing specific parenting behaviors (eg, reading to children and appropriate discipline), and referring for treatment if appropriate. PMID:21402627

  9. Local Control Model of Excitation–Contraction Coupling in Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Michael D.; Pizarro, Gonzalo; Ríos, Eduardo

    1997-01-01

    This is a quantitative model of control of Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum in skeletal muscle, based on dual control of release channels (ryanodine receptors), primarily by voltage, secondarily by Ca2+ (Ríos, E., and G. Pizarro. 1988. NIPS. 3:223–227). Channels are positioned in a double row array of between 10 and 60 channels, where exactly half face voltage sensors (dihydropyridine receptors) in the transverse (t) tubule membrane (Block, B.A., T. Imagawa, K.P. Campbell, and C. Franzini-Armstrong. 1988. J. Cell Biol. 107:2587–2600). We calculate the flux of Ca2+ release upon different patterns of pulsed t-tubule depolarization by explicit stochastic simulation of the states of all channels in the array. Channels are initially opened by voltage sensors, according to an allosteric prescription (Ríos, E., M. Karhanek, J. Ma, A. González. 1993. J. Gen. Physiol. 102:449–482). Ca2+ permeating the open channels, diffusing in the junctional gap space, and interacting with fixed and mobile buffers produces defined and changing distributions of Ca2+ concentration. These concentrations interact with activating and inactivating channel sites to determine the propagation of activation and inactivation within the array. The model satisfactorily simulates several whole-cell observations, including kinetics and voltage dependence of release flux, the “paradox of control,” whereby Ca2+-activated release remains under voltage control, and, most surprisingly, the “quantal” aspects of activation and inactivation (Pizarro, G., N. Shirokova, A. Tsugorka, and E. Ríos. 1997. J. Physiol. 501:289–303). Additionally, the model produces discrete events of activation that resemble Ca2+ sparks (Cheng, H., M.B. Cannell, and W.J. Lederer. 1993. Science (Wash. DC). 262:740–744). All these properties result from the intersection of stochastic channel properties, control by local Ca2+, and, most importantly, the one dimensional geometry of the array and its

  10. The enteric nervous system and gastrointestinal innervation: integrated local and central control.

    PubMed

    Furness, John B; Callaghan, Brid P; Rivera, Leni R; Cho, Hyun-Jung

    2014-01-01

    The digestive system is innervated through its connections with the central nervous system (CNS) and by the enteric nervous system (ENS) within the wall of the gastrointestinal tract. The ENS works in concert with CNS reflex and command centers and with neural pathways that pass through sympathetic ganglia to control digestive function. There is bidirectional information flow between the ENS and CNS and between the ENS and sympathetic prevertebral ganglia.The ENS in human contains 200-600 million neurons, distributed in many thousands of small ganglia, the great majority of which are found in two plexuses, the myenteric and submucosal plexuses. The myenteric plexus forms a continuous network that extends from the upper esophagus to the internal anal sphincter. Submucosal ganglia and connecting fiber bundles form plexuses in the small and large intestines, but not in the stomach and esophagus. The connections between the ENS and CNS are carried by the vagus and pelvic nerves and sympathetic pathways. Neurons also project from the ENS to prevertebral ganglia, the gallbladder, pancreas and trachea.The relative roles of the ENS and CNS differ considerably along the digestive tract. Movements of the striated muscle esophagus are determined by neural pattern generators in the CNS. Likewise the CNS has a major role in monitoring the state of the stomach and, in turn, controlling its contractile activity and acid secretion, through vago-vagal reflexes. In contrast, the ENS in the small intestine and colon contains full reflex circuits, including sensory neurons, interneurons and several classes of motor neuron, through which muscle activity, transmucosal fluid fluxes, local blood flow and other functions are controlled. The CNS has control of defecation, via the defecation centers in the lumbosacral spinal cord. The importance of the ENS is emphasized by the life-threatening effects of some ENS neuropathies. By contrast, removal of vagal or sympathetic connections with the

  11. MRI-compatible transurethral ultrasound system for the treatment of localized prostate cancer using rotational control.

    PubMed

    Chopra, Rajiv; Baker, Nicole; Choy, Vanessa; Boyes, Aaron; Tang, Kee; Bradwell, David; Bronskill, Michael J

    2008-04-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided transurethral ultrasound therapy is a potential minimally invasive treatment for localized prostate cancer offering precise targeting of tissue within the gland, short treatment times, and the capability to quantify the spatial heating pattern delivered during therapy. A significant challenge in MRI-guided ultrasound therapy is the design and construction of MRI-compatible equipment capable of operation in a closed-bore MR imager. We describe a prototype system developed for MRI-guided transurethral ultrasound therapy and characterize the performance of the different components including the heating applicator design, rotational motor, and radio frequency electronics. The ultrasound heating applicator described in this study incorporates a planar transducer and is capable of producing high intensity ultrasound energy in a localized region of tissue. Results demonstrated that the heating applicator exhibits excellent MRI-compatibility, enabling precise MR temperature measurements to be acquired as close as 6 mm from the device. Simultaneous imaging and rotational motion was also possible during treatment using a motor based on piezoelectric actuators. Heating experiments performed in both phantoms and in a canine model with the prototype system verified the capability to perform simultaneous MR imaging and therapy delivery with this system. Real-time control over therapy using MR temperature measurements acquired during heating can be implemented to achieve precise patterns of thermal damage within the prostate gland. The technical feasibility of using the system developed in this study for MRI-guided transurethral ultrasound therapy in a closed-bore MR imager has been demonstrated.

  12. Local governments and civil society lead breakthrough for tobacco control: lessons from Chandigarh and Chennai.

    PubMed

    Kashiwabara, Mina; Arul, Rathinum; Goswami, Hemant; Narain, Jai P; Armada, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Smoke-free legislation is gaining popularity; however, it must accompany effective implementation to protect people from secondhand smoke (SHS) which causes 600,000 deaths annually. Increasing numbers of smoke-free cities in the world indicate that municipalities have an important role in promoting smoke-free environments. The objectives were to describe the local initiative to promote smoke-free environments and identify the key factors that contributed to the process. Observations were based on a case study on the municipal smoke-free initiatives in Chandigarh and Chennai, India. India adopted the Cigarette and Other Tobacco Products Act in 2003, the first national tobacco control law including smoke-free provisions. In an effort to enforce the Act at the local level, a civil society organization in Chandigarh initiated activities urging the city to support the implementation of the provisions of the Act which led to the initiation of city-wide law enforcement. After the smoke-free declaration of Chandigarh in 2007, Chennai also initiated a smoke-free intervention led by civil society in 2008, following the strategies used in Chandigarh. These experiences resonate with other cases in Asian cities, such as Jakarta, Davao, and Kanagawa as well as cities in other areas of the world including Mexico City, New York City, Mecca and Medina. The cases of Chandigarh and Chennai demonstrate that civil society can make a great contribution to the enforcement of smoke-free laws in cities, and that cities can learn from their peers to protect people from SHS.

  13. A Localized Complex of Two Protein Oligomers Controls the Orientation of Cell Polarity

    PubMed Central

    Lasker, Keren; Ahrens, Daniel G.; Eckart, Michael R.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Signaling hubs at bacterial cell poles establish cell polarity in the absence of membrane-bound compartments. In the asymmetrically dividing bacterium Caulobacter crescentus, cell polarity stems from the cell cycle-regulated localization and turnover of signaling protein complexes in these hubs, and yet the mechanisms that establish the identity of the two cell poles have not been established. Here, we recapitulate the tripartite assembly of a cell fate signaling complex that forms during the G1-S transition. Using in vivo and in vitro analyses of dynamic polar protein complex formation, we show that a polymeric cell polarity protein, SpmX, serves as a direct bridge between the PopZ polymeric network and the cell fate-directing DivJ histidine kinase. We demonstrate the direct binding between these three proteins and show that a polar microdomain spontaneously assembles when the three proteins are coexpressed heterologously in an Escherichia coli test system. The relative copy numbers of these proteins are essential for complex formation, as overexpression of SpmX in Caulobacter reorganizes the polarity of the cell, generating ectopic cell poles containing PopZ and DivJ. Hierarchical formation of higher-order SpmX oligomers nucleates new PopZ microdomain assemblies at the incipient lateral cell poles, driving localized outgrowth. By comparison to self-assembling protein networks and polar cell growth mechanisms in other bacterial species, we suggest that the cooligomeric PopZ-SpmX protein complex in Caulobacter illustrates a paradigm for coupling cell cycle progression to the controlled geometry of cell pole establishment. PMID:28246363

  14. Regional and local networks of horizontal control, Cerro Prieto geothermal area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Massey, B.L.

    1979-01-01

    The Cerro Prieto geothermal area in the Mexicali Valley 30 km southeast of Mexicali, Baja California, is probably deforming due to (1) the extraction of large volumes of steam and hot water, and (2) active tectonism. Two networks of precise horizontal control were established in Mexicali Valley by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1977 - 1978 to measure both types of movement as they occur. These networks consisted of (1) a regional trilateration net brought into the mountain ranges west of the geothermal area from survey stations on an existing U.S. Geological Survey crustal-strain network north of the international border, and (2) a local net tied to stations in the regional net and encompassing the area of present and planned geothermal production. Survey lines in this net were selected to span areas of probable ground-surface movements in and around the geothermal area. Electronic distance measuring (EDM) instruments, operating with a modulated laser beam, were used to measure the distances between stations in both networks. The regional net was run using a highly precise long-range EDM instrument, helicopters for transportation of men and equipment to inaccessible stations on mountain peaks, and a fixed wing airplane flying along the line of sight. Precision of measurements with this complex long-range system approached 0-2 ppm of line length. The local net was measured with a medium-range EDM instrument requiring minimal ancillary equipment. Precision of measurements with this less complex system approached 3 ppm for the shorter line lengths. The detection and analysis of ground-surface movements resulting from tectonic strains or induced by geothermal fluid withdrawal is dependent on subsequent resurveys of these networks. ?? 1979.

  15. Ductal Carcinoma in Situ-The Influence of the Radiotherapy Boost on Local Control

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Philip; Lambert, Christine; Agnihotram, Ramanakumar V.; David, Marc; Duclos, Marie; Freeman, Carolyn R.

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: Local recurrence (LR) of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is reduced by whole-breast irradiation after breast-conserving surgery (BCS). However, the benefit of adding a radiotherapy boost to the surgical cavity for DCIS is unclear. We sought to determine the impact of the boost on LR in patients with DCIS treated at the McGill University Health Centre. Methods and Materials: A total of 220 consecutive cases of DCIS treated with BCS and radiotherapy between January 2000 and December 2006 were reviewed. Of the patients, 36% received a radiotherapy boost to the surgical cavity. Median follow-up was 46 months for the boost and no-boost groups. Kaplan-Meier survival analyses and Cox regression analyses were performed. Results: Compared with the no-boost group, patients in the boost group more frequently had positive and <0.1-cm margins (48% vs. 8%) (p < 0.0001) and more frequently were in higher-risk categories as defined by the Van Nuys Prognostic (VNP) index (p = 0.006). Despite being at higher risk for LR, none (0/79) of the patients who received a boost experienced LR, whereas 8 of 141 patients who did not receive a boost experienced an in-breast LR (log-rank p = 0.03). Univariate analysis of prognostic factors (age, tumor size, margin status, histological grade, necrosis, and VNP risk category) revealed only the presence of necrosis to significantly correlate with LR (log-rank p = 0.003). The whole-breast irradiation dose and fractionation schedule did not affect LR rate. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the use of a radiotherapy boost improves local control in DCIS and may outweigh the poor prognostic effect of necrosis.

  16. Mechanical anisotropy control on strain localization in upper mantle shear zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herwegh, Marco; Mercolli, Ivan; Linckens, Jolien; Müntener, Othmar

    2016-05-01

    Mantle rocks at oceanic spreading centers reveal dramatic rheological changes from partially molten to solid-state ductile to brittle deformation with progressive cooling. Using the crustal-scale Wadi al Wasit mantle shear zone (SZ, Semail ophiolite, Oman), we monitor such changes based on quantitative field and microstructural investigations combined with petrological and geochemical analyses. The spatial distribution of magmatic dikes and high strain zones gives important information on the location of magmatic and tectonic activity. In the SZ, dikes derived from primitive melts (websterites) are distributed over the entire SZ but are more abundant in the center; dikes from more evolved, plagioclase saturated melts (gabbronorites) are restricted to the SZ center. Accordingly, harzburgite deformation fabrics show a transition from protomylonite (1100°C), mylonite (900-800°C) to ultramylonite (<700°C) and a serpentine foliation (<500°C) from the SZ rim to the center. The spatial correlation between solid-state deformation fabrics and magmatic features indicates progressive strain localization in the SZ on the cooling path. Three stages can be discriminated: (i) Cycles of melt injection (dunite channels and websterite dikes) and solid-state deformation (protomylonites-mylonites; 1100-900°C), (ii) dominant solid-state deformation in harzburgite mylonites (900-800°C) with some last melt injections (gabbronorites) and ultramylonites (<700°C), and (iii) infiltration of seawater inducing a serpentine foliation (<500°C) followed by cataclasis during obduction. The change of these processes in space and time indicates that early dike-related ridge-parallel deformation controls the onset of the entire strain localization history promoting nucleation sites for different strain weakening processes as a consequence of changing physicochemical conditions.

  17. An adaptive PID like controller using mix locally recurrent neural network for robotic manipulator with variable payload.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Richa; Kumar, Vikas; Gaur, Prerna; Mittal, A P

    2016-05-01

    Being complex, non-linear and coupled system, the robotic manipulator cannot be effectively controlled using classical proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller. To enhance the effectiveness of the conventional PID controller for the nonlinear and uncertain systems, gains of the PID controller should be conservatively tuned and should adapt to the process parameter variations. In this work, a mix locally recurrent neural network (MLRNN) architecture is investigated to mimic a conventional PID controller which consists of at most three hidden nodes which act as proportional, integral and derivative node. The gains of the mix locally recurrent neural network based PID (MLRNNPID) controller scheme are initialized with a newly developed cuckoo search algorithm (CSA) based optimization method rather than assuming randomly. A sequential learning based least square algorithm is then investigated for the on-line adaptation of the gains of MLRNNPID controller. The performance of the proposed controller scheme is tested against the plant parameters uncertainties and external disturbances for both links of the two link robotic manipulator with variable payload (TL-RMWVP). The stability of the proposed controller is analyzed using Lyapunov stability criteria. A performance comparison is carried out among MLRNNPID controller, CSA optimized NNPID (OPTNNPID) controller and CSA optimized conventional PID (OPTPID) controller in order to establish the effectiveness of the MLRNNPID controller.

  18. Local Nordic tobacco interests collaborated with multinational companies to maintain a united front and undermine tobacco control policies

    PubMed Central

    Hiilamo, Heikki; Glantz, Stanton A

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyse how local tobacco companies in the Nordic countries, individually and through National Manufacturers’ Associations, cooperated with British American Tobacco and Philip Morris in denying the health hazards of smoking and undermining tobacco control. Methods Analysis of tobacco control policies in the Nordic countries and tobacco industry documents. Results Nordic countries were early adopters of tobacco control policies. The multinational tobacco companies recognised this fact and mobilised to oppose these policies, in part because of fear that they would set unfavourable precedents. Since at least 1972, the Nordic tobacco companies were well informed about and willing to participate in the multinational companies activities to obscure the health dangers of smoking and secondhand smoke and to oppose tobacco control policies. Cooperation between multinational companies, Nordic national manufacturer associations and local companies ensured a united front on smoking and health issues in the Nordic area that was consistent with the positions that the multinational companies were taking. This cooperation delayed smoke-free laws and undermined other tobacco control measures. Conclusions Local tobacco companies worked with multinational companies to undermine tobacco control in distant and small Nordic markets because of concern that pioneering policies initiated in Nordic countries would spread to bigger market areas. Claims by the local Nordic companies that they were not actively involved with the multinationals are not supported by the facts. These results also demonstrate that the industry appreciates the global importance of both positive and negative public health precedents in tobacco control. PMID:22199013

  19. Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Patterns of Failure and Predictors of Local Control

    SciTech Connect

    Daly, Megan E.; Le, Quynh-Thu; Kozak, Margaret M.; Maxim, Peter G.; Murphy, James D.; Hsu, Annie; Loo, Billy W.; Kaplan, Michael J.; Fischbein, Nancy J.; Chang, Daniel T.

    2011-08-01

    Purpose: Few studies have evaluated the use of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral cavity (OC). We report clinical outcomes and failure patterns for these patients. Methods and Materials: Between October 2002 and June 2009, 37 patients with newly diagnosed SCC of the OC underwent postoperative (30) or definitive (7) IMRT. Twenty-five patients (66%) received systemic therapy. The median follow-up was 38 months (range, 10-87 months). The median interval from surgery to RT was 5.9 weeks (range, 2.1-10.7 weeks). Results: Thirteen patients experienced local-regional failure at a median of 8.1 months (range, 2.4-31.9 months), and 2 additional patients experienced local recurrence between surgery and RT. Seven local failures occurred in-field (one with simultaneous nodal and distant disease) and two at the margin. Four regional failures occurred, two in-field and two out-of-field, one with synchronous metastases. Six patients experienced distant failure. The 3-year actuarial estimates of local control, local-regional control, freedom from distant metastasis, and overall survival were 67%, 53%, 81%, and 60% among postoperative patients, respectively, and 60%, 60%, 71%, and 57% among definitive patients. Four patients developed Grade {>=}2 chronic toxicity. Increased surgery to RT interval predicted for decreased LRC (p = 0.04). Conclusions: Local-regional control for SCC of the OC treated with IMRT with or without surgery remains unsatisfactory. Definitive and postoperative IMRT have favorable toxicity profiles. A surgery-to-RT interval of <6 weeks improves local-regional control. The predominant failure pattern was local, suggesting that both improvements in target delineation and radiosensitization and/or dose escalation are needed.

  20. Numerical simulation on edge localized mode control capability of resonant magnetic perturbation in the KSTAR tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Doohyun; Han, Hyunsun; Kim, Ki Min; Park, Jong Kyu; Jeon, Young Mu; Na, Yong-Su; Hong, Sang Hee

    2010-09-01

    Numerical simulations are carried out to investigate the applicability of resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) to KSTAR plasmas for a possible control of edge localized mode (ELM) to suppress or mitigate its damages to divertor materials. For the verification of the feasibility of RMP application, magnetic island configurations, resonant normal fields, magnetic island widths and Chirikov parameters are calculated for two types of KSTAR operation scenarios: steady state and hybrid. Field error correction (FEC) coils in KSTAR are considered to produce externally perturbed magnetic fields for RMP, and the directions of coil currents determine the toroidal mode n and the parity (even or odd). The RMP configurations are described by vacuum superposition of the equilibrium magnetic fields and the perturbed ones induced by FEC coils. The numerical simulations for n = 2 toroidal mode in both operation scenarios show that when the pitches of the equilibrium and perturbed magnetic fields are well aligned, magnetic islands are formed for a series of m poloidal modes and the adjacent islands are overlapped to generate a stochastic layer in the edge region. Even parity turns out to be more effective in making the magnetic islands overlapped to become stochastic field lines in the steady-state operation, while odd parity in the hybrid operation. The formation of the stochastic layer is verified by the calculated Chirikov parameters, which also give basic information on the current requirement of FEC coils. Additionally, lobe structures of stochastic field lines are found in the edge region extended to the divertor plate in the hybrid scenario. Based on the standard vacuum criteria for RMP, the simulation results indicate that the FEC coils will be feasible for control of ELMs and mitigation of divertor heat load by RMP in both steady-state and hybrid operation scenarios.

  1. Oral midazolam reduces cortisol levels during local anaesthesia in children: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Heloisa Sousa; Corrêa-Faria, Patrícia; Silva, Tarcília Aparecida; Paiva, Saul Martins; Costa, Paulo Sérgio Sucasas; Batista, Aline Carvalho; Costa, Luciane Rezende

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about whether midazolam sedation can reduce salivary cortisol levels and consequently influence children's behaviour during dental treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of midazolam sedation on salivary cortisol and its correlation with children's behaviour during restorative dental treatment. Eighteen healthy children, aged two to five years, were randomly assigned to two dental treatment appointments, both with physical restraint: oral midazolam 1 mg/kg (MS) and placebo (PS). An observer assessed the children's behaviour (videos) using the Ohio State University Behavioral Rating Scale (OSUBRS). The children's saliva was collected just after waking up, on arrival at the dental school, 25 minutes after local anaesthesia, and 25 minutes after the end of the procedure. Salivary cortisol levels were determined using the enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay. The data were analysed by bivariate tests and multivariate analysis of variance (5% level). Salivary cortisol levels were lower in the MS group than in the PS group at the time of anaesthesia (p = 0.004), but did not vary during the appointment within sedation (p = 0.319) or placebo (p = 0.080) groups. Children's behaviour was negative most of the time and did not differ between MS and PS; however, the behaviour (OSUBRS) did not correlate with salivary cortisol levels. Oral midazolam is able to control salivary cortisol levels during dental treatment of pre-schoolers, which might not lead to better clinical behaviour.

  2. Insulin controls subcellular localization and multisite phosphorylation of the phosphatidic acid phosphatase, lipin 1.

    PubMed

    Harris, Thurl E; Huffman, Todd A; Chi, An; Shabanowitz, Jeffrey; Hunt, Donald F; Kumar, Anil; Lawrence, John C

    2007-01-05

    Brain, liver, kidney, heart, and skeletal muscle from fatty liver dystrophy (fld/fld) mice, which do not express lipin 1 (lipin), contained much less Mg(2+)-dependent phosphatidic acid phosphatase (PAP) activity than tissues from wild type mice. Lipin harboring the fld(2j) (Gly(84) --> Arg) mutation exhibited relatively little PAP activity. These results indicate that lipin is a major PAP in vivo and that the loss of PAP activity contributes to the fld phenotype. PAP activity was readily detected in immune complexes of lipin from 3T3-L1 adipocytes, where the protein was found both as a microsomal form and a soluble, more highly phosphorylated, form. Fifteen phosphorylation sites were identified by mass spectrometric analyses. Insulin increased the phosphorylation of multiple sites and promoted a gel shift that was due in part to phosphorylation of Ser(106). In contrast, epinephrine and oleic acid promoted dephosphorylation of lipin. The PAP-specific activity of lipin was not affected by the hormones or by dephosphorylation of lipin with protein phosphatase 1. However, the ratio of soluble to microsomal lipin was markedly increased in response to insulin and decreased in response to epinephrine and oleic acid. The results suggest that insulin and epinephrine control lipin primarily by changing localization rather than intrinsic PAP activity.

  3. [Using skin graft for local control in stage IV breast cancer to improve quality of life].

    PubMed

    Suetsugu, Hiromi

    2014-11-01

    A 59-year-old woman was hospitalized in June 2012 for Stage IV bilateral breast cancer, axillary lymph-node metastasis, metastatic lung tumor, metastatic bone tumor, right carcinomatous pleuritis, and right-eye choroidal metastasis. Treatment for improvement of symptoms included steroids, continuous subcutaneous infusion of morphine hydrochloride, and thoracic drainage. Chemotherapy with zoledronic acid+TC therapy was administered, with only a small residual primary lesion of the right breast. Interstitial pneumonia caused by the chemotherapy occurred and the volume occupied, it was continued treatment is difficult. In October 2013, she experienced right axillary lymph node metastases, and progress of the right breast cancer, with pain and bleeding from the right breast tumor. Therefore, for the purpose of improving quality of life, Bt+Ax was administered in October 2013, but since the resected part of the right breast included an approximately 10 cm dermal infiltration, a preserved subcutaneous vascular network (PSVN) skin graft was performed using healthy skin. The patient recovered well, the pain and bleeding disappeared, and the patient was discharged following surgery. PSVN skin graft for the purpose of local control was useful in this case.

  4. Domain-wall pinning by local control of anisotropy in Pt/Co/Pt strips.

    PubMed

    Franken, J H; Hoeijmakers, M; Lavrijsen, R; Swagten, H J M

    2012-01-18

    We theoretically and experimentally analyze the pinning of a magnetic domain wall (DW) at engineered anisotropy variations in Pt/Co/Pt strips with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. An analytical model is derived showing that a step in the anisotropy acts as an energy barrier for the DW. Quantitative measurements are performed showing that the anisotropy can be controlled by focused ion beam irradiation with Ga ions. This tool is used to experimentally study the field-induced switching of nanostrips which are locally irradiated. The boundary of the irradiated area indeed acts as a pinning barrier for the domain wall and the pinning strength increases with the anisotropy difference. Varying the thickness of the Co layer provides an additional way to tune the anisotropy, and it is shown that a thinner Co layer gives a higher starting anisotropy thereby allowing tunable DW pinning in a wider range of fields. Finally, we demonstrate that not only the anisotropy itself, but also the width of the anisotropy barrier can be tuned on the length scale of the domain wall.

  5. Study of flow control by localized volume heating in hypersonic boundary layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, M. A.; Kloker, M. J.; Kirilovskiy, S. V.; Polivanov, P. A.; Sidorenko, A. A.; Maslov, A. A.

    2014-12-01

    Boundary-layer flow control is a prerequisite for a safe and efficient operation of future hypersonic transport systems. Here, the influence of an electric discharge—modeled by a heat-source term in the energy equation—on laminar boundary-layer flows over a flat plate with zero pressure gradient at Mach 3, 5, and 7 is investigated numerically. The aim was to appraise the potential of electro-gasdynamic devices for an application as turbulence generators in the super- and hypersonic flow regime. The results with localized heat-source elements in boundary layers are compared to cases with roughness elements serving as classical passive trips. The numerical simulations are performed using the commercial code ANSYS FLUENT (by ITAM) and the high-order finite-difference DNS code NS3D (by IAG), the latter allowing for the detailed analysis of laminar flow instability. For the investigated setups with steady heating, transition to turbulence is not observed, due to the Reynolds-number lowering effect of heating.

  6. Local Control of Perivascular Malignant Liver Lesions Using Percutaneous Irreversible Electroporation: Initial Experiences

    SciTech Connect

    Eller, Achim Schmid, Axel; Schmidt, Joachim; May, Matthias Brand, Michael Saake, Marc Uder, Michael Lell, Michael

    2015-02-15

    PurposeThis study was designed to assess efficacy and safety in the treatment of perivascular malignant liver lesions using percutaneous, computed tomography (CT)-guided irreversible electroporation (IRE).MethodsFourteen patients (mean age 58 ± 11 years) with 18 malignant liver lesions were consecutively enrolled in this study. IRE was performed in patients not eligible for surgery and lesions abutting large vessels or bile ducts. Follow-up exams were performed using multislice-CT (MS-CT) or MRI.ResultsMedium lesion diameter was 20 ± 5 mm. Ten of 14 (71 %) were successfully treated with no local recurrence to date (mean follow-up 388 ± 160 days). One case left initial tumor control unclear and additional RFA was performed 4 weeks after IRE. Complications occurred in 4 of 14 (29 %) cases. In one case, intervention was terminated and abdominal bleeding required laparotomy. In two cases, a postinterventional hematothorax required intervention. In another case, abdominal bleeding could be managed conservatively. No complications related to the bile ducts occurred.ConclusionsPercutaneous IRE seems to be effective in perivascular lesions but is associated with a higher complication rate compared with thermoablative techniques.

  7. Analysis of Local Control in Patients Receiving IMRT for Resected Pancreatic Cancers

    SciTech Connect

    Yovino, Susannah; Maidment, Bert W.; Herman, Joseph M.; Pandya, Naimish; Goloubeva, Olga; Wolfgang, Chris; Schulick, Richard; Laheru, Daniel; Hanna, Nader; Alexander, Richard; Regine, William F.

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is increasingly incorporated into therapy for pancreatic cancer. A concern regarding this technique is the potential for geographic miss and decreased local control. We analyzed patterns of first failure among patients treated with IMRT for resected pancreatic cancer. Methods and Materials: Seventy-one patients who underwent resection and adjuvant chemoradiation for pancreas cancer are included in this report. IMRT was used for all to a median dose of 50.4 Gy. Concurrent chemotherapy was 5-FU-based in 72% of patients and gemcitabine-based in 28%. Results: At median follow-up of 24 months, 49/71 patients (69%) had failed. The predominant failure pattern was distant metastases in 35/71 patients (49%). The most common site of metastases was the liver. Fourteen patients (19%) developed locoregional failure in the tumor bed alone in 5 patients, regional nodes in 4 patients, and concurrently with metastases in 5 patients. Median overall survival (OS) was 25 months. On univariate analysis, nodal status, margin status, postoperative CA 19-9 level, and weight loss during treatment were predictive for OS. On multivariate analysis, higher postoperative CA19-9 levels predicted for worse OS on a continuous basis (p < 0.01). A trend to worse OS was seen among patients with more weight loss during therapy (p = 0.06). Patients with positive nodes and positive margins also had significantly worse OS (HR for death 2.8, 95% CI 1.1-7.5; HR for death 2.6, 95% CI 1.1-6.2, respectively). Grade 3-4 nausea and vomiting was seen in 8% of patients. Late complication of small bowel obstruction occurred in 4 (6%) patients. Conclusions: This is the first comprehensive report of patterns of failure among patients treated with adjuvant IMRT for pancreas cancer. IMRT was not associated with an increase in local recurrences in our cohort. These data support the use of IMRT in the recently activated EORTC/US Intergroup/RTOG 0848 adjuvant pancreas

  8. A Localized Complex of Two Protein Oligomers Controls the Orientation of Cell Polarity.

    PubMed

    Perez, Adam M; Mann, Thomas H; Lasker, Keren; Ahrens, Daniel G; Eckart, Michael R; Shapiro, Lucy

    2017-02-28

    Signaling hubs at bacterial cell poles establish cell polarity in the absence of membrane-bound compartments. In the asymmetrically dividing bacterium Caulobacter crescentus, cell polarity stems from the cell cycle-regulated localization and turnover of signaling protein complexes in these hubs, and yet the mechanisms that establish the identity of the two cell poles have not been established. Here, we recapitulate the tripartite assembly of a cell fate signaling complex that forms during the G1-S transition. Using in vivo and in vitro analyses of dynamic polar protein complex formation, we show that a polymeric cell polarity protein, SpmX, serves as a direct bridge between the PopZ polymeric network and the cell fate-directing DivJ histidine kinase. We demonstrate the direct binding between these three proteins and show that a polar microdomain spontaneously assembles when the three proteins are coexpressed heterologously in an Escherichia coli test system. The relative copy numbers of these proteins are essential for complex formation, as overexpression of SpmX in Caulobacter reorganizes the polarity of the cell, generating ectopic cell poles containing PopZ and DivJ. Hierarchical formation of higher-order SpmX oligomers nucleates new PopZ microdomain assemblies at the incipient lateral cell poles, driving localized outgrowth. By comparison to self-assembling protein networks and polar cell growth mechanisms in other bacterial species, we suggest that the cooligomeric PopZ-SpmX protein complex in Caulobacter illustrates a paradigm for coupling cell cycle progression to the controlled geometry of cell pole establishment.IMPORTANCE Lacking internal membrane-bound compartments, bacteria achieve subcellular organization by establishing self-assembling protein-based microdomains. The asymmetrically dividing bacterium Caulobacter crescentus uses one such microdomain to link cell cycle progression to morphogenesis, but the mechanism for the generation of this

  9. Candle Flames in Microgravity: USML-1 Results - 1 Year Later

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, H. D.; Dietrich, D. L.; Tien, J. S.

    1994-01-01

    We report on the sustained behavior of a candle flame in microgravity determined in the glovebox facility aboard the First United States Microgravity Labomtofy. In a quiescent, microgmvjfy environment, diffusive transport becomes the dominant mode of heat and mass transfer; whether the diffusive transport rate is fast enough to sustain low-gravity candle flames in air was unknown to this series of about 70 tests. After an initial transient in which soot is observed, the microgravity candle flame in air becomes and remains hemispherical and blue (apparently soot-Ne) with a large flame standoff distance. Near flame extinction, spontaneous flame oscillations are regularly observed; these are explained as a flashback of flame through a premixed combustible gas followed by a retreat owed to flame quenching. The frequency of oscillations can be related to diffusive transport rates, and not to residual buoyant convective flow. The fact that the flame tip is the last point of the flame to survive suggests that it is the location of maximum fuel reactivity; this is unlike normal gravity, where the location of maximum fuel reactivity is the flame base. The flame color, size, and shape behaved in a quasi-steady manner; the finite size of the glovebox, combined with the restricted passages of the candlebox, inhibited the observation of true steady-state burning. Nonetheless, through calculations, and inference from the series of shuttle tests, if is concluded that a candle can burn indefinitely in a large enough ambient of air in microgravity. After igniting one candle, a second candle in close pximity could not be lit. This may be due to wax coating the wick and/or local oxygen depletion around the second, unlit candle. Post-mission testing suggests that simultaneous ignition may overcome these behaviors and enable both candles to be ignited.

  10. Pain and efficacy rating of a microprocessor-controlled metered injection system for local anaesthesia in minor hand surgery.

    PubMed

    Nimigan, André S; Gan, Bing Siang

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. Little attention has been given to syringe design and local anaesthetic administration methods. A microprocessor-controlled anaesthetic delivery device has become available that may minimize discomfort during injection. The purpose of this study was to document the pain experience associated with the use of this system and to compare it with use of a conventional syringe. Methods. A prospective, randomized clinical trial was designed. 40 patients undergoing carpal tunnel release were block randomized according to sex into a two groups: a traditional syringe group and a microprocessor-controlled device group. The primary outcome measure was surgical pain and local anaesthetic administration pain. Secondary outcomes included volume of anaesthetic used and injection time. Results. Analysis showed that equivalent anaesthesia was achieved in the microprocessor-controlled group despite using a significantly lower volume of local anaesthetic (P = .0002). This same group, however, has significantly longer injection times (P < .0001). Pain during the injection process or during surgery was not different between the two groups. Conclusions. This RCT comparing traditional and microprocessor controlled methods of administering local anaesthetic showed similar levels of discomfort in both groups. While the microprocessor-controlled group used less volume, the total time for the administration was significantly greater.

  11. Layer-controlled stylolite growth and the creation and destruction of local seals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koehn, Daniel; Pataki Rood, Daisy; Beaudoin, Nicolas; Aleksans, Janis; Bons, Paul; Gomez-Rivas, Enrique

    2015-04-01

    is destroyed. Stage one represents the nucleation of the stylolite in the layer and its initial growth until it reaches the boundaries of the layer. Typically the initial roughness development leads to a local variation of the position of the stylolite interface with respect to the upper or lower boundary of the layer. Stage two is represented by successive fast growth that is controlled by the pinning layer and the stylolite develops pronounced teeth. Stage three happens in cases where the layer disappears because it is also slowly dissolving. Once the layer is gone stylolite growth basically stops except for local variations in shape and rounding of teeth edges. The developing geometries influence the sealing capacity of stylolites significantly: collection of slow dissolving material in the stylolite does produce a potential seal, offset of a sealing layer due to pinning effects of that layer and the development of teeth can destroy the seal because of leakage across teeth sides and the destruction of a pinning layer due to dissolution destroys the seal completely.

  12. State versus Local Control of Elementary Education (Finance). Bulletin, 1915, No. 22. Whole Number 649

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDowell, Theodore L.

    1915-01-01

    The relation that should exist between central and local authorities has long been a favorite theme for persons interested in various theories of government. Many arguments have been produced, some based upon fact and others upon opinion, as to the relative merits of centralized and localized plans of government. In the field of education, as in…

  13. Locally linearized longitudinal and lateral-directional aerodynamic stability and control derivaties for the X-29A aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budd, G. D.

    1984-01-01

    The locally linearized longitudinal and lateral-directional aerodynamic stability and control derivatives for the X-29A aircraft were calculated for altitudes ranging from sea level to 50,000 ft, Mach numbers from 0.2 to 1.5, and angles of attack from -5 deg to 25 deg. Several other parameters were also calculated, including aerodynamic force and moment coefficients, control face position, normal acceleration, static margin, and reference angle of attack.

  14. Squamous-cell carcinoma of the tongue: preoperative interstitial radium and external irradiation. Part 1. Local and regional control

    SciTech Connect

    Vermund, I.; Brennhovd, I.O.; Kaalhus, O.; Poppe, E.

    1984-05-01

    Results of therapy in 300 patients with squamous-cell carcinoma of the anterior two-thirds of the tongue are presented in terms of control of the primary tumor (local) and metastases to the lymph nodes in the neck (regional). Correlation between clinical stage and control was good. Different methods of treatment were analyzed separately for various stages of disease and compared with results from other institutions. Possible methods of improving treatment are discussed.

  15. Cancer control and complications of salvage local therapy after failure of radiotherapy for prostate cancer: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Parekh, Arti; Graham, Powell L; Nguyen, Paul L

    2013-07-01

    The National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines currently endorse salvage local therapy as a reasonable alternative to observation or androgen-deprivation therapy for select men with a biopsy-proven local recurrence after definitive radiation for prostate cancer. Patients being considered for salvage therapy should have had localized disease at presentation, a prostate-specific antigen < 10 at recurrence, a life expectancy >10 years at recurrence, and a negative metastatic workup. In this systematic review, we synthesize the current literature describing the oncologic efficacy and toxicity profile of salvage brachytherapy, prostatectomy, cryotherapy, and high-intensity focused ultrasound. We found 5-year biochemical control rates to be similar across treatments, in the range of 52%-56%, although patient selection and definition of failure was variable. Toxicity profiles were also distinct between local salvage modalities.

  16. Quantifying the impact of participation in local tobacco control groups on the psychological empowerment of involved youth.

    PubMed

    Holden, Debra J; Crankshaw, Erik; Nimsch, Christian; Hinnant, Laurie W; Hund, Lisa

    2004-10-01

    A core component of Legacy's Statewide Youth Movement Against Tobacco Use is the ability of state and local initiatives to empower youth to effect change in their communities. The authors' conceptual framework proposes that youth empowerment is an outcome of the process by which youths become active participants in local efforts. Youths are proposed to attain specific skills (e.g., assertiveness, advocacy), attitudes (e.g., domain-specific self-efficacy, perceived sociopolitical control, participatory competence), and knowledge of relevant resources. All are proposed outcomes of their individual participation in these local efforts. Data collected in fall 2002 through a tested survey instrument designed to obtain data on key components of empowerment are presented. Regression modeling was used to examine the extent to which characteristics of empowerment are an outcome of individual participation in these groups. A summary of lessons learned pertaining to effectively measuring empowerment and enhancing the empowerment process through local initiatives is provided.

  17. Genetic evaluation of weaning weight and probability of lambing at 1 year of age in Targhee lambs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to investigate genetic control of 120-day weaning weight and the probability of lambing at 1 year of age in Targhee ewe lambs. Records of 5,967 ewe lambs born from 1989 to 2012 and first exposed to rams for breeding at approximately 7 months of age were analyzed. Reco...

  18. Localized and Controlled Delivery of Nitric Oxide to the Conventional Outflow Pathway via Enzyme Biocatalysis: Toward Therapy for Glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Chandrawati, Rona; Chang, Jason Y H; Reina-Torres, Ester; Jumeaux, Coline; Sherwood, Joseph M; Stamer, W Daniel; Zelikin, Alexander N; Overby, Darryl R; Stevens, Molly M

    2017-02-21

    Nitric oxide (NO) is able to lower intraocular pressure (IOP); however, its therapeutic effects on outflow physiology are location- and dose-dependent. An NO delivery platform that directly targets the resistance-generating region of the conventional outflow pathway and locally liberates a controlled dose of NO is reported. An increase in outflow facility (decrease in IOP) is demonstrated in a mouse model.

  19. Environmental exposures and respiratory morbidity among very low birth weight infants at 1 year of life

    PubMed Central

    Halterman, J S; Lynch, K A; Conn, K M; Hernandez, T E; Perry, T T; Stevens, T P

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Preterm infants have a substantially increased risk of developing respiratory illnesses. The goal of this study was to consider the impact of modifiable postnatal exposures on respiratory morbidity among a cohort of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. Objectives (1) Assess the rates of respiratory morbidity and exposure to indoor respiratory triggers in a population of VLBW infants at 1 year; (2) determine the association between exposures and respiratory morbidity. Methods We enrolled 124 VLBW infants into a prospective cohort study. Parents were called at 1 year to assess respiratory outcomes and environmental exposures. We used bivariate and multivariate analyses to assess the relationship between environmental exposures and acute care for respiratory illnesses. Results At 1 year, 9% of infants had physician-diagnosed asthma, 47% required ≥1 acute visit and 11% required hospitalisation for respiratory illness. The majority of infants (82%) were exposed to at least one indoor respiratory trigger. Infants living with a smoker (61% vs 40%) and infants exposed to pests (62% vs 39%) were more likely than unexposed infants to require acute care for respiratory problems. In a multivariate regression controlling for demographics, birth weight, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and family history of asthma or allergies, both living with a smoker (OR 2.62; CI 1.09 to 6.29) and exposure to pests (OR 4.41; CI 1.22 to 15.94) were independently associated with the need for acute care for respiratory illnesses. Conclusions In this sample, respiratory morbidity and exposure to triggers were common. VLBW infants may benefit from interventions that decrease exposure to respiratory triggers. PMID:18703545

  20. Predictors of fatigue over 1 year among people with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Treharne, G J; Lyons, A C; Hale, E D; Goodchild, C E; Booth, D A; Kitas, G D

    2008-08-01

    Fatigue is a systemic feeling of exhaustion that is a common symptom of many chronic illnesses, including the autoimmune inflammatory disease rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We examined predictors of levels of fatigue among people with RA using Leventhal's Common-Sense Model (CSM), which states that cognitive representations of an illness spur (or halt) people's efforts to cope and thereby influence outcomes of the illness. Our use of the CSM was designed in the light of evidence in the literature specific to fatigue in RA. Current fatigue was reported on a 100 mm visual analogue scale (with anchors "No fatigue" and "Unbearable fatigue") by 114 people (73.7% women) with RA at baseline and 1 year later. Baseline employment status, pain, impact of disability, sleep disruption frequency, depressed mood, perceptions of consequences, arthritis self-efficacy and attempts to cope by praying/hoping were also self-reported. Duration of RA and a haematological measure of systemic inflammation (erythrocyte sedimentation rate; ESR) were obtained from hospital records. Unexpectedly, RA duration did not predict fatigue after 1 year, although lower baseline inflammation did (controlling for baseline fatigue and other disease impact variables). This may be due to sampling flares of RA at baseline. Baseline perceptions that RA has severe consequences and is uncontrollable also predicted greater fatigue after 1 year but this relationship was not mediated by praying/hoping. Targeted psychological care to modify perceptions of severe consequences may therefore improve later fatigue for people with RA even when the condition is longstanding, but the mechanisms of any benefit require further investigation.

  1. Exceptional Isotopic Variability in Stream Waters of the Central Andes: Large-Scale or Local Controls?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorella, R. P.; Poulsen, C. J.; Ehlers, T. A.; Jeffery, M. L.; Pillco Zola, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    Modern precipitation on the Altiplano in central South America shows large seasonal and interannual variability and is dominated by seasonal convection during austral summer. The stable isotopic compositions of oxygen and hydrogen in precipitation and surface waters may be useful in diagnosing atmospheric processes over the Altiplano as they reflect the atmospheric history of the water vapor forming precipitation. Few data exist about the spatial and temporal isotopic variability of precipitation or surface water in the region, however, and therefore, the controls governing isotope distribution over the Altiplano are poorly understood. Samples of stream water were collected from small catchments on the Altiplano and along two elevation transects on the eastern cordillera of the Andes (at 17°30' and 21°15'S) between April 2009 and April 2012. As precipitation over the Altiplano is highly seasonal and the environment is otherwise arid, the isotopic signature of these streams is thought integrate the composition of rainy season precipitation. We limit our analysis to ephemeral streams with no groundwater component. Sampled waters show high spatial and interannual isotopic variability. As expected, stream water becomes increasingly depleted with increased elevation along a transect, but the isotopic lapse rates along the two transects are different and show high interannual variability. The average isotopic lapse rate for the northern transect was 1.09‰/km, but varied from 0.79‰/km in 2010 to 1.36‰/km in 2011 (only collected 2010-2012), while the average isotopic lapse rate for the southern transect was 1.74‰/km and varied between 1.50‰/km in 2010 and 1.92‰/km in 2009. Across the Altiplano itself, stream water varies by over 10‰ (δ18O) within a single season (2011), and by over 13‰ across the entire collection period. The high spatial variability of the stream water isotopic composition on the Altiplano suggests that simple Rayleigh fractionation is

  2. Control of brain development and homeostasis by local and systemic insulin signalling.

    PubMed

    Liu, J; Spéder, P; Brand, A H

    2014-09-01

    Insulin and insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) are important regulators of growth and metabolism. In both vertebrates and invertebrates, insulin/IGFs are made available to various organs, including the brain, through two routes: the circulating systemic insulin/IGFs act on distant organs via endocrine signalling, whereas insulin/IGF ligands released by local tissues act in a paracrine or autocrine fashion. Although the mechanisms governing the secretion and action of systemic insulin/IGF have been the focus of extensive investigation, the significance of locally derived insulin/IGF has only more recently come to the fore. Local insulin/IGF signalling is particularly important for the development and homeostasis of the central nervous system, which is insulated from the systemic environment by the blood-brain barrier. Local insulin/IGF signalling from glial cells, the blood-brain barrier and the cerebrospinal fluid has emerged as a potent regulator of neurogenesis. This review will address the main sources of local insulin/IGF and how they affect neurogenesis during development. In addition, we describe how local insulin/IGF signalling couples neural stem cell proliferation with systemic energy state in Drosophila and in mammals.

  3. Composite polymer systems with control of local substrate elasticity and their effect on cytoskeletal and morphological characteristics of adherent cells.

    PubMed

    Chou, Szu-Yuan; Cheng, Chao-Min; LeDuc, Philip R

    2009-06-01

    At the interface between extracellular substrates and biological materials, substrate elasticity strongly influences cell morphology and function. The associated biological ramifications comprise a diversity of critical responses including apoptosis, differentiation, and motility, which can affect medical devices such as stents. The interactions of the extracellular environment with the substrate are also affected by local properties wherein cells sense and respond to different physical inputs. To investigate the effects of having localized elasticity control of substrate microenvironments on cell response, we have developed a method to control material interface interactions with cells by dictating local substrate elasticity. This system is created by generating a composite material system with alternating, linear regions of polymers that have distinct stiffness characteristics. This approach was used to examine cytoskeletal and morphological changes in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts with emphasis on both local and global properties, noting that cells sense and respond to distinct material elasticities. Isolated cells sense and respond to these local differences in substrate elasticity by extending processes along the interface. Also, cells grown on softer elastic regions at higher densities (in contact with each other) have a higher projected area than isolated cells. Furthermore, when using chemical agents such as cytochalasin-D to disrupt the actin cytoskeleton, there is a significant increase in projected area for cells cultured on softer elastic regions This method has the potential to promote understanding of biomaterial-affected responses in a diversity of areas including morphogenesis, mechanotransduction, stents, and stem cell differentiation.

  4. Stretching and Controlled Motion of Single-Stranded DNA in Locally-Heated Solid-State Nanopores

    PubMed Central

    Belkin, Maxim; Maffeo, Christopher; Wells, David B.

    2013-01-01

    Practical applications of solid-state nanopores for DNA detection and sequencing require the electrophoretic motion of DNA through the nanopores to be precisely controlled. Controlling the motion of single-stranded DNA presents a particular challenge, in part because of the multitude of conformations that a DNA strand can adopt in a nanopore. Through continuum, coarse-grained and atomistic modeling, we demonstrate that local heating of the nanopore volume can be used to alter the electrophoretic mobility and conformation of single-stranded DNA. In the nanopore systems considered, the temperature near the nanopore is modulated via a nanometer-size heater element that can be radiatively switched on and off. The local enhancement of temperature produces considerable stretching of the DNA fragment confined within the nanopore. Such stretching is reversible, so that the conformation of DNA can be toggled between compact (local heating is off) and extended (local heating is on) states. The effective thermophoretic force acting on single-stranded DNA in the vicinity of the nanopore is found to be sufficiently large (4–8 pN) to affect such changes in the DNA conformation. The local heating of the nanopore volume is observed to promote single-file translocation of DNA strands at transmembrane biases as low as 10 mV, which opens new avenues for using solid-state nanopores for detection and sequencing of DNA. PMID:23876013

  5. Global versus local optimality in feedback-controlled qubit purification: new insights from minimizing Rényi entropies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teo, Colin; Combes, Joshua; Wiseman, Howard M.

    2014-10-01

    It was first shown by Jacobs, in 2003, that the process of qubit state purification by continuous measurement of one observable can be enhanced, on average, by unitary feedback control. Here, we quantify this by the reduction in any one of the family of Rényi entropies {{S}α }, with 0\\lt α \\lt ∞ , at some terminal time, revealing the rich structure of stochastic quantum control even for this simple problem. We generalize Jacobs’ original argument, which was for the (unique) impurity measure with a linear evolution map under his protocol, by replacing linearity with convexity, thereby making it applicable to Rényi entropies {{S}α } for α in a finite interval about one. Even with this generalization, Jacobs’ argument fails to identify the surprising fact, which we prove by Bellman's principle of dynamic programming, that his protocol is globally optimal for all Rényi entropies whose decrease is locally maximized by that protocol. Also surprisingly, even though there is a range of Rényi entropies whose decrease is always locally maximized by the null-control protocol, that null-control protocol cannot be shown to be globally optimal in any instance. These results highlight the non-intuitive relation between local and global optimality in stochastic quantum control.

  6. Cognitive Predictors of Academic Achievement in Young Children 1 Year Following Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Fulton, John B.; Yeates, Keith Owen; Taylor, H. Gerry; Walz, Nicolay C.; Wade, Shari L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine cognitive predictors of academic achievement in young children with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and orthopedic injury (OI) shortly after injury and 1 year post-injury. Methods Participants included 3 to 6 year old children, 63 with TBI (46 with moderate TBI and 17 with severe TBI) and a comparison group of 80 children with OI. Academic achievement was assessed approximately 1 month and 12 months post injury, using three subtests from the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Achievement-Third Edition and the School Readiness Composite from the Bracken Basic Concepts Scale-Revised. General intellectual functioning, memory, and executive functions were measured at the initial assessment using standardized tests. Results Hierarchical linear regression was used to predict academic achievement at the initial and 1-year follow-up assessments. Memory and executive functions were significant predictors of academic achievement at both assessments, after controlling for group membership and demographic variables. Executive function remained a significant predictor of some outcomes after taking general intellectual functioning into account. Predictive relationships did not vary across the TBI and OI groups. Similar results were obtained when regression analyses were completed with only TBI participants using the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score as a predictor, although memory and executive functioning were somewhat less robust in predicting academic achievement than before. Conclusions Both memory and executive function predict academic achievement following TBI in preschool children, although some of the associations may be accounted for by general intellectual functioning. PMID:22563873

  7. Characteristics of young children with persistent conduct problems 1 year after treatment with the Incredible Years program.

    PubMed

    Drugli, May Britt; Fossum, Sturla; Larsson, Bo; Morch, Willy-Tore

    2010-07-01

    In the present study, predictors of persistent conduct problems among children aged 4-8 years were investigated in a randomized controlled trial 1 year after treatment with the Incredible Years parent training program (PT), or combined parent training and child treatment (PT + CT). Data were collected before and after treatment and at a 1-year follow-up. Pre-treatment child characteristics predicting persistent conduct problems in the child at the 1-year follow-up were high levels of internalizing and aggression problems as reported by mothers. The only family characteristic predicting persistence of child conduct problems was having contacts with child protection services. Clinicians and researchers need to closely monitor and identify children with conduct problems not responding to parent training programs. These individuals and their families are likely to need further support.

  8. Local control theory using trajectory surface hopping and linear-response time-dependent density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Curchod, Basile F E; Penfold, Thomas J; Rothlisberger, Ursula; Tavernelli, Ivano

    2013-01-01

    The implementation of local control theory using nonadiabatic molecular dynamics within the framework of linear-response time-dependent density functional theory is discussed. The method is applied to study the photoexcitation of lithium fluoride, for which we demonstrate that this approach can efficiently generate a pulse, on-the-fly, able to control the population transfer between two selected electronic states. Analysis of the computed control pulse yields insights into the photophysics of the process identifying the relevant frequencies associated to the curvature of the initial and final state potential energy curves and their energy differences. The limitations inherent to the use of the trajectory surface hopping approach are also discussed.

  9. Algorithms for the Control of NTM by Localized ECRH. Principles and Requirements of the Real Time Diagnostic and Control System

    SciTech Connect

    D' Antona, G.; Cirant, S.; Farina, D.; Gandini, F.; Lazzaro, E.; Treuterer, W.; Manini, A.

    2008-03-12

    The diagnostics requirements for the control of NTM instabilities is outlined stressing the importance of correctly managing the estimate uncertainty by the control system. A methodology for the Bayesian assimilation of model predictions and observations is outlined together with an example of application.

  10. Activity-Dependent Palmitoylation Controls SynDIG1 Stability, Localization, and Function

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Inderpreet; Yarov-Yarovoy, Vladimir; Kirk, Lyndsey M.; Plambeck, Kristopher E.; Barragan, Eden V.; Ontiveros, Eric S.

    2016-01-01

    Synapses are specialized contacts between neurons. Synapse differentiation-induced gene I (SynDIG1) plays a critical role during synapse development to regulate AMPA receptor (AMPAR) and PSD-95 content at excitatory synapses. Palmitoylation regulates the localization and function of many synaptic proteins, including AMPARs and PSD-95. Here we show that SynDIG1 is palmitoylated, and investigate the effects of palmitoylation on SynDIG1 stability and localization. Structural modeling of SynDIG1 suggests that the membrane-associated region forms a three-helical bundle with two cysteine residues located at positions 191 and 192 in the juxta-transmembrane region exposed to the cytoplasm. Site-directed mutagenesis reveals that C191 and C192 are palmitoylated in heterologous cells and positively regulates dendritic targeting in neurons. Like PSD-95, activity blockade in a rat hippocampal slice culture increases SynDIG1 palmitoylation, which is consistent with our prior demonstration that SynDIG1 localization at synapses increases upon activity blockade. These data demonstrate that palmitoylation of SynDIG1 is regulated by neuronal activity, and plays a critical role in regulating its stability and subcellular localization, and thereby its function. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Palmitoylation is a reversible post-translation modification that has recently been recognized as playing a critical role in the localization and function of many synaptic proteins. Here we show that activity-dependent palmitoylation of the atypical AMPA receptor auxiliary transmembrane protein SynDIG1 regulates its stability and localization at synapses to regulate function and synaptic strength. PMID:27445135

  11. Relative Biological Effectiveness of Carbon Ions for Local Tumor Control of a Radioresistant Prostate Carcinoma in the Rat

    SciTech Connect

    Peschke, Peter; Karger, Christian P.; Scholz, Michael; Debus, Juergen; Huber, Peter E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To study the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of carbon ion beams relative to X-rays for local tumor control in a syngeneic rat prostate tumor (Dunning subline R3327-AT1). Methods and Materials: A total of 198 animals with tumors in the distal thigh were treated with increasing single and split doses of either {sup 12}C ions or photons using a 20-mm spread-out Bragg peak. Endpoints of the study were local control (no tumor recurrence within 300 days) and volumetric changes after irradiation. The resulting values for D{sub 50} (dose at 50% tumor control probability) were used to determine RBE values. Results: The D{sub 50} values for single doses were 32.9 {+-} 0.9 Gy for {sup 12}C ions and 75.7 {+-} 1.6 Gy for photons. The respective values for split doses were 38.0 {+-} 2.3 Gy and 90.6 {+-} 2.3 Gy. The corresponding RBE values were 2.30 {+-} 0.08 for single and 2.38 {+-} 0.16 for split doses. The most prominent side effects were dry and moist desquamation of the skin, which disappeared within weeks. Conclusion: The study confirmed the effectiveness of carbon ion therapy for severely radioresistant tumors. For 1- and 2-fraction photon and {sup 12}C ion radiation, we have established individual D{sub 50} values for local tumor control as well as related RBE values.

  12. Transcatheter Arterial Embolization for Controlling Severe Bleeding From Recurrent Locally-Advanced Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Aksoy, Şefika; Akçe, Bülent; Kılıçkesmez, Özgür; Gürsü, Rıza Umar; Çakır, Mehmet Semih; Nazlı, Mehmet Ali; Aren, Acar

    2016-01-01

    One of the rare but most challenging issues in the management of the locally-advanced breast cancer (LABC) is life-threatening bleeding from the fungating and/or ulcerating focus (foci) of these tumors. Breast surgeons may need the assistance of interventional radiologists to solve this urgent condition if surgery cannot provide sufficient benefit. Herein, we report a case of recurrent locally-advanced breast cancer that presented with sudden severe bleeding, which was stopped by an interventional radiologist via transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE). In addition, we evaluate the role of interventional radiology in patients with breast cancer who present with bleeding from the breast by reviewing the relevant literature.

  13. On the Impact of Localization and Density Control Algorithms in Target Tracking Applications for Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Andre N.; Souza, Efren L.; Nakamura, Fabiola G.; Nakamura, Eduardo F.; Rodrigues, Joel J. P. C.

    2012-01-01

    Target tracking is an important application of wireless sensor networks. The networks' ability to locate and track an object is directed linked to the nodes' ability to locate themselves. Consequently, localization systems are essential for target tracking applications. In addition, sensor networks are often deployed in remote or hostile environments. Therefore, density control algorithms are used to increase network lifetime while maintaining its sensing capabilities. In this work, we analyze the impact of localization algorithms (RPE and DPE) and density control algorithms (GAF, A3 and OGDC) on target tracking applications. We adapt the density control algorithms to address the k-coverage problem. In addition, we analyze the impact of network density, residual integration with density control, and k-coverage on both target tracking accuracy and network lifetime. Our results show that DPE is a better choice for target tracking applications than RPE. Moreover, among the evaluated density control algorithms, OGDC is the best option among the three. Although the choice of the density control algorithm has little impact on the tracking precision, OGDC outperforms GAF and A3 in terms of tracking time. PMID:22969329

  14. On the impact of localization and density control algorithms in target tracking applications for wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Campos, Andre N; Souza, Efren L; Nakamura, Fabiola G; Nakamura, Eduardo F; Rodrigues, Joel J P C

    2012-01-01

    Target tracking is an important application of wireless sensor networks. The networks' ability to locate and track an object is directed linked to the nodes' ability to locate themselves. Consequently, localization systems are essential for target tracking applications. In addition, sensor networks are often deployed in remote or hostile environments. Therefore, density control algorithms are used to increase network lifetime while maintaining its sensing capabilities. In this work, we analyze the impact of localization algorithms (RPE and DPE) and density control algorithms (GAF, A3 and OGDC) on target tracking applications. We adapt the density control algorithms to address the k-coverage problem. In addition, we analyze the impact of network density, residual integration with density control, and k-coverage on both target tracking accuracy and network lifetime. Our results show that DPE is a better choice for target tracking applications than RPE. Moreover, among the evaluated density control algorithms, OGDC is the best option among the three. Although the choice of the density control algorithm has little impact on the tracking precision, OGDC outperforms GAF and A3 in terms of tracking time.

  15. Sustained sympathetic and blood pressure reduction 1 year after renal denervation in patients with resistant hypertension.

    PubMed

    Hering, Dagmara; Marusic, Petra; Walton, Antony S; Lambert, Elisabeth A; Krum, Henry; Narkiewicz, Krzysztof; Lambert, Gavin W; Esler, Murray D; Schlaich, Markus P

    2014-07-01

    Renal denervation (RDN) reduces muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and blood pressure (BP) in resistant hypertension. Although a persistent BP-lowering effect has been demonstrated, the long-term effect on MSNA remains elusive. We investigated whether RDN influences MSNA over time. Office BP and MSNA were obtained at baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months after RDN in 35 patients with resistant hypertension. Office BP averaged 166±22/88±19 mm Hg, despite the use of an average of 4.8±2.1 antihypertensive drugs. Baseline MSNA was 51±11 bursts/min ≈2- to 3-fold higher than the level observed in healthy controls. Mean office systolic and diastolic BP significantly decreased by -12.6±18.3/-6.5±9.2, -16.1±25.6/-8.6±12.9, and -21.2±29.1/-11.1±12.9 mm Hg (P<0.001 for both systolic BP and diastolic BP) with RDN at 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up, respectively. MSNA was reduced by -8±12, -6±12, and -6±11 bursts/min (P<0.01) at 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up. The reduction in MSNA was maintained, despite a progressive fall in BP over time. No such changes were observed in 7 control subjects at 6-month follow-up. These findings confirm previous reports on the favorable effects of RDN on elevated BP and demonstrate sustained reduction of central sympathetic outflow ≤1-year follow-up in patients with resistant hypertension and high baseline MSNA. These observations are compatible with the hypothesis of a substantial contribution of afferent renal nerve signaling to increased BP in resistant hypertension and argue against a relevant reinnervation at 1 year after procedure.

  16. Dissecting local circuits: parvalbumin interneurons underlie broad feedback control of olfactory bulb output.

    PubMed

    Miyamichi, Kazunari; Shlomai-Fuchs, Yael; Shu, Marvin; Weissbourd, Brandon C; Luo, Liqun; Mizrahi, Adi

    2013-12-04

    In the mouse olfactory bulb, information from sensory neurons is extensively processed by local interneurons before being transmitted to the olfactory cortex by mitral and tufted (M/T) cells. The precise function of these local networks remains elusive because of the vast heterogeneity of interneurons, their diverse physiological properties, and their complex synaptic connectivity. Here we identified the parvalbumin interneurons (PVNs) as a prominent component of the M/T presynaptic landscape by using an improved rabies-based transsynaptic tracing method for local circuits. In vivo two-photon-targeted patch recording revealed that PVNs have exceptionally broad olfactory receptive fields and exhibit largely excitatory and persistent odor responses. Transsynaptic tracing indicated that PVNs receive direct input from widely distributed M/T cells. Both the anatomical and functional extent of this M/T→PVN→M/T circuit contrasts with the narrowly confined M/T→granule cell→M/T circuit, suggesting that olfactory information is processed by multiple local circuits operating at distinct spatial scales.

  17. Local Pursuit as a Bio-Inspired Computational Optimal Control Tool

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    15] S.I. Roumeliotis and G.A. Bekey. Distributed multi- robot localization. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation, 18(5):781–795, 2002. [16...Wagner, M. Lindenbaum, and A.M. Bruckstein. Distributed covering by ant-robots using evaporating traces. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation, 15(5):918– 933, 1999. 10

  18. A Local Pursuit Strategy for Bio-Inspired Optimal Control with Partially-Constrained Final State

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    Roumeliotis and G.A. Bekey. Distributed multi- robot localization. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation, 18(5):781–795, 2002. [14] C. Shao and D...robots using evaporating traces. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation, 15(5):918– 933, 1999. [17] H. Yamaguchi and J.W. Burdick. Asymptotic

  19. Local Quality Work in an Age of Accountability--Between Autonomy and Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergh, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses a specific part of the actions taken to improve the quality of Swedish education, namely the expectations formulated in national policy documents for the quality work that local authorities, schools and teachers are supposed to undertake. For the empirical analysis of how these expectations have changed over the last two…

  20. Village Alcohol Control and the Local Option Law. A Report to the Alaska State Legislature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lonner, Thomas D.; Duff, J. Kenneth

    This is a report on Alaska's "local option law" which allows villages to choose one of the following four options on alcohol availability in their communities: (1) the sale of alcoholic beverages is prohibited unless sold under a community liquor license; (2) the sale of alcoholic beverages is limited to one of several types of retail…

  1. Selective and localized radiofrequency heating of skin and fat by controlling surface distributions of the applied voltage: analytical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Lozano, Joel; Vacas-Jacques, Paulino; Anderson, R. Rox; Franco, Walfre

    2012-11-01

    At low frequencies (hundreds of kHz to a few MHz), local energy absorption is proportional to the conductivity of tissue and the intensity of the internal electric field. At 1 MHz, the electric conductivity ratio between skin and fat is approximately 10; hence, skin would heat more provided the intensity of the electric field is similar in both tissues. It follows that selective and localized heat deposition is only feasible by varying electric fields locally. In this study, we vary local intensities of the internal electric field in skin, fat and muscle by altering its direction through modifying surface distributions of the applied voltage. In addition, we assess the long-term effects of these variations on tissue thermal transport. To this end, analytical solutions of the electric and bioheat equations were obtained using a regular perturbation method. For voltage distributions given by second- and eight-degree functions, the power absorption in fat is much greater than in skin by the electrode center while the opposite is true by the electrode edge. For a sinusoidal function, the absorption in fat varies laterally from greater to lower than in skin, and then this trend repeats from the center to the edge of the electrode. Consequently, zones of thermal confinement selectively develop in the fat layer. Generalizing these functions by parametrization, it is shown that radiofrequency (RF) heating of layered tissues can be selective and precisely localized by controlling the spatial decay, extent and repetition of the surface distribution of the applied voltage. The clinical relevance of our study is to provide a simple, non-invasive method to spatially control the heat deposition in layered tissues. By knowing and controlling the internal electric field, different therapeutic strategies can be developed and implemented.

  2. Local control of squamous cell carcinoma of the mobile tongue: an experience of different modalities

    SciTech Connect

    Kondo, M.; Hashimoto, S.; Dokiya, T.; Inuyama, Y.; Murakami, Y.; Nagai, T.; Asanami, S.; Fukutake, K.

    1986-05-01

    From 1966 through 1983, 163 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the mobile tongue were treated. Fifty-two patients were staged as T1N0, 77 as T2N0, 14 as T2N+, 8 as T3N0, 7 as T3N+, and 5 as T4. The follow-ups were complete. Treatment modalities varied considerably during that period, because of increasing difficulty to use radioactive sources by regulations. All T3N+ and T4 patients died shortly after treatment. Five year absolute survivals for the T1N0, T2N0, T2N+, and T3N0 patients were 87%, 60%, 27% and 63%, respectively. Local recurrence free survivals at 5 years for the T1N0, T2N0, T2N+, and T3N0 patients were 72, 48, 58, and 88%, respectively. Local recurrence free survivals seemed to be better with Ra-226 needling +/- external irradiation (EXT) than other modalities. Because many patients with local recurrence were salvaged, ultimate local-disease-free survivals should also be considered. They were 96 and 70% at 5 years for the T1N0 patients treated with Ra-226 +/- EXT, and with surgery +/- EXT, respectively; the corresponding figures for the T2N0 patients were 83 and 64%. For these reasons, Ra-226 needling may be preferable to other modalities as initial treatment. Although cervical failures did not develop after 2 years of treatment, late local recurrences were rather common, even after 5 years. Long-term follow-up is mandatory for the management of the patients, and analyzing and comparing the results.

  3. Engineering light-inducible nuclear localization signals for precise spatiotemporal control of protein dynamics in living cells

    PubMed Central

    Niopek, Dominik; Benzinger, Dirk; Roensch, Julia; Draebing, Thomas; Wehler, Pierre; Eils, Roland; Di Ventura, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    The function of many eukaryotic proteins is regulated by highly dynamic changes in their nucleocytoplasmic distribution. The ability to precisely and reversibly control nuclear translocation would, therefore, allow dissecting and engineering cellular networks. Here we develop a genetically encoded, light-inducible nuclear localization signal (LINuS) based on the LOV2 domain of Avena sativa phototropin 1. LINuS is a small, versatile tag, customizable for different proteins and cell types. LINuS-mediated nuclear import is fast and reversible, and can be tuned at different levels, for instance, by introducing mutations that alter AsLOV2 domain photo-caging properties or by selecting nuclear localization signals (NLSs) of various strengths. We demonstrate the utility of LINuS in mammalian cells by controlling gene expression and entry into mitosis with blue light. PMID:25019686

  4. Local Control Theory in Trajectory Surface Hopping Dynamics Applied to the Excited-State Proton Transfer of 4-Hydroxyacridine.

    PubMed

    Curchod, Basile F E; Penfold, Thomas J; Rothlisberger, Ursula; Tavernelli, Ivano

    2015-07-20

    The application of local control theory combined with nonadiabatic ab initio molecular dynamics to study the photoinduced intramolecular proton transfer reaction in 4-hydroxyacridine was investigated. All calculations were performed within the framework of linear-response time-dependent density functional theory. The computed pulses revealed important information about the underlying excited-state nuclear dynamics highlighting the involvement of collective vibrational modes that would normally be neglected in a study performed on model systems constrained to a subset of the full configuration space. This study emphasizes the strengths of local control theory for the design of pulses that can trigger chemical reactions associated with the population of a given molecular excited state. In addition, analysis of the generated pulses can help to shed new light on the photophysics and photochemistry of complex molecular systems.

  5. Engineering light-inducible nuclear localization signals for precise spatiotemporal control of protein dynamics in living cells.

    PubMed

    Niopek, Dominik; Benzinger, Dirk; Roensch, Julia; Draebing, Thomas; Wehler, Pierre; Eils, Roland; Di Ventura, Barbara

    2014-07-14

    The function of many eukaryotic proteins is regulated by highly dynamic changes in their nucleocytoplasmic distribution. The ability to precisely and reversibly control nuclear translocation would, therefore, allow dissecting and engineering cellular networks. Here we develop a genetically encoded, light-inducible nuclear localization signal (LINuS) based on the LOV2 domain of Avena sativa phototropin 1. LINuS is a small, versatile tag, customizable for different proteins and cell types. LINuS-mediated nuclear import is fast and reversible, and can be tuned at different levels, for instance, by introducing mutations that alter AsLOV2 domain photo-caging properties or by selecting nuclear localization signals (NLSs) of various strengths. We demonstrate the utility of LINuS in mammalian cells by controlling gene expression and entry into mitosis with blue light.

  6. Local SAR, Global SAR, and Power-Constrained Large-Flip-Angle Pulses with Optimal Control and Virtual Observation Points

    PubMed Central

    Vinding, Mads S.; Guérin, Bastien; Vosegaard, Thomas; Nielsen, Niels Chr.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To present a constrained optimal-control (OC) framework for designing large-flip-angle parallel-transmit (pTx) pulses satisfying hardware peak-power as well as regulatory local and global specific-absorption-rate (SAR) limits. The application is 2D and 3D spatial-selective 90° and 180° pulses. Theory and Methods The OC gradient-ascent-pulse-engineering method with exact gradients and the limited-memory Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno method is proposed. Local SAR is constrained by the virtual-observation-points method. Two numerical models facilitated the optimizations, a torso at 3 T and a head at 7 T, both in eight-channel pTx coils and acceleration-factors up to 4. Results The proposed approach yielded excellent flip-angle distributions. Enforcing the local-SAR constraint, as opposed to peak power alone, reduced the local SAR 7 and 5-fold with the 2D torso excitation and inversion pulse, respectively. The root-mean-square errors of the magnetization profiles increased less than 5% with the acceleration factor of 4. Conclusion A local and global SAR, and peak-power constrained OC large-flip-angle pTx pulse design was presented, and numerically validated for 2D and 3D spatial-selective 90° and 180° pulses at 3 T and 7 T. PMID:26715084

  7. Percutaneous Image-Guided Cryoablation of Head & Neck Tumors for Local Control, Preservation of Functional Status, and Pain Relief

    PubMed Central

    Guenette, Jeffrey P.; Tuncali, Kemal; Himes, Nathan; Shyn, Paul B.; Lee, Thomas C.

    2016-01-01

    We report 9 consecutive percutaneous image-guided cryoablation procedures of head and neck tumors in 7 patients (4 males, 3 females; mean age 68 years, range 50-78). Entire tumor ablation for local control or regional ablation for pain relief or functional status preservation was achieved in 8 of 9 procedures. One patient experienced intraprocedural bradycardia while another developed a neopharyngeal abscess. There were no deaths, permanent neurological or functional deficits, vascular complications, or adverse cosmetic sequelae. PMID:27845860

  8. Local control of light polarization with low-temperature fiber optics.

    PubMed

    Mack, A H; Riordon, J; Dean, C R; Talbot, R; Gervais, G

    2007-06-01

    A fiber-optic-based polarization control system that uses a backreflection measurement scheme at low temperatures has been developed. This provides a stringent test of the light polarization state at the output of the fiber, allowing for determination and control of the degree of circular polarization; i.e., it can generate linear, right, or left circular polarization with cryogenic fibers. This polarization controller is paving the way toward the control and manipulation of nuclear spins in semiconductors via the optical Overhauser effect and could be used, for example, for the purpose of quantum information processing with the large nuclear spins of GaAs.

  9. SNAP-Tag-Reactive Lipid Anchors Enable Targeted and Spatiotemporally Controlled Localization of Proteins to Phospholipid Membranes.

    PubMed

    Rudd, Andrew K; Valls Cuevas, Joan M; Devaraj, Neal K

    2015-04-22

    The natural mechanisms that direct proteins to membranes are typically complex, requiring multiple steps and accessory components. It would be advantageous to develop simplified methods to direct proteins of interest to phospholipid membranes in a single step. Here we report a modular method for membrane localization of proteins by using chemically modified phospholipid anchors capable of covalent attachment to O(6)-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (SNAP-tag) fusion proteins. To our knowledge, this is the first use of SNAP-tag reactions to modify benzylguanine-functionalized lipid membranes. We demonstrate that photocaged lipid precursors enable light-triggered spatial and temporal control over protein localization. The anchoring system is compatible with cell-free expression, allowing for genetic targeting of proteins to lipid membranes of giant unilamellar vesicles. This technique can be used to control membrane curvature effects, similar to what has been previously observed with certain membrane-bound proteins. This work addresses a current need in synthetic biology for simplified and robust methods to control membrane localization of expressed proteins and shows promise as a general tool for protein targeting to lipid vesicles and cellular membranes.

  10. Local control for identifying subgroups of interest in observational research: persistence of treatment for major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Faries, Douglas E; Chen, Yi; Lipkovich, Ilya; Zagar, Anthony; Liu, Xianchen; Obenchain, Robert L

    2013-09-01

    Caregivers are regularly faced with decisions between competing treatments. Large observational health care databases provide a golden opportunity for research on heterogeneity in patient response to guide caregiver decisions, due to their sample size, diverse populations, and real-world setting. Local control is a promising tool for using observational data to detect patient subgroups with differential response on one treatment relative to another. While standard data mining approaches find subgroups with optimal responses for a particular population, detecting subgroups that reveal treatment differences while also adjusting for confounding in observational data is challenging. Local control utilizes unsupervised clustering to form non-parametric patient-level counterfactual treatment differences and displays them as an observed distribution of effect-size estimates. Classification and regression trees (CART) then find the factors that drive the greatest outcome differentiation between treatments. In this manuscript, we demonstrate the use of this two-step strategy using local control plus CART to identify depression patients most (least) likely to benefit from treatment with duloxetine relative to extended-release venlafaxine. Prior medication costs and age were found to be factors most associated with differential outcome, with prior medication costs remaining as an important factor after sensitivity analyses using a second dataset.

  11. A single bout of meditation biases cognitive control but not attentional focusing: Evidence from the global-local task.

    PubMed

    Colzato, Lorenza S; van der Wel, Pauline; Sellaro, Roberta; Hommel, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies show that a single bout of meditation can impact information processing. We were interested to see whether this impact extends to attentional focusing and the top-down control over irrelevant information. Healthy adults underwent brief single bouts of either focused attention meditation (FAM), which is assumed to increase top-down control, or open monitoring meditation (OMM), which is assumed to weaken top-down control, before performing a global-local task. While the size of the global-precedence effect (reflecting attentional focusing) was unaffected by type of meditation, the congruency effect (indicating the failure to suppress task-irrelevant information) was considerably larger after OMM than after FAM. Our findings suggest that engaging in particular kinds of meditation creates particular cognitive-control states that bias the individual processing style toward either goal-persistence or cognitive flexibility.

  12. Know your neighbor: Microbiota and host epithelial cells interact locally to control intestinal function and physiology.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Felix; Bäckhed, Fredrik

    2016-05-01

    Interactions between the host and its associated microbiota differ spatially and the local cross talk determines organ function and physiology. Animals and their organs are not uniform but contain several functional and cellular compartments and gradients. In the intestinal tract, different parts of the gut carry out different functions, tissue structure varies accordingly, epithelial cells are differentially distributed and gradients exist for several physicochemical parameters such as nutrients, pH, or oxygen. Consequently, the microbiota composition also differs along the length of the gut, but also between lumen and mucosa of the same intestinal segment, and even along the crypt-villus axis in the epithelium. Thus, host-microbiota interactions are highly site-specific and the local cross talk determines intestinal function and physiology. Here we review recent advances in our understanding of site-specific host-microbiota interactions and discuss their functional relevance for host physiology.

  13. Dlg5 Regulates Dendritic Spine Formation and Synaptogenesis by Controlling Subcellular N-Cadherin Localization

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shih-Hsiu J.; Celic, Ivana; Choi, Se-Young; Riccomagno, Martin; Wang, Qiang; Sun, Lu O.; Mitchell, Sarah P.; Vasioukhin, Valera; Huganir, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    Most excitatory synapses in the mammalian brain are formed on dendritic spines, and spine density has a profound impact on synaptic transmission, integration, and plasticity. Membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) proteins are intracellular scaffolding proteins with well established roles in synapse function. However, whether MAGUK proteins are required for the formation of dendritic spines in vivo is unclear. We isolated a novel disc large-5 (Dlg5) allele in mice, Dlg5LP, which harbors a missense mutation in the DLG5 SH3 domain, greatly attenuating its ability to interact with the DLG5 GUK domain. We show here that DLG5 is a MAGUK protein that regulates spine formation, synaptogenesis, and synaptic transmission in cortical neurons. DLG5 regulates synaptogenesis by enhancing the cell surface localization of N-cadherin, revealing a key molecular mechanism for regulating the subcellular localization of this cell adhesion molecule during synaptogenesis. PMID:25232112

  14. Single amino acid substitution in Plasmodium yoelii erythrocyte ligand determines its localization and controls parasite virulence

    PubMed Central

    Otsuki, Hitoshi; Kaneko, Osamu; Thongkukiatkul, Amporn; Tachibana, Mayumi; Iriko, Hideyuki; Takeo, Satoru; Tsuboi, Takafumi; Torii, Motomi

    2009-01-01

    The major virulence determinant of the rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium yoelii, has remained unresolved since the discovery of the lethal line in the 1970s. Because virulence in this parasite correlates with the ability to invade different types of erythrocytes, we evaluated the potential role of the parasite erythrocyte binding ligand, PyEBL. We found 1 amino acid substitution in a domain responsible for intracellular trafficking between the lethal and nonlethal parasite lines and, furthermore, that the intracellular localization of PyEBL was distinct between these lines. Genetic modification showed that this substitution was responsible not only for PyEBL localization but also the erythrocyte-type invasion preference of the parasite and subsequently its virulence in mice. This previously unrecognized mechanism for altering an invasion phenotype indicates that subtle alterations of a malaria parasite ligand can dramatically affect host–pathogen interactions and malaria virulence. PMID:19346470

  15. Gold Nanoparticles with Externally Controlled, Reversible Shifts of Local Surface Plasmon Resonance Bands

    PubMed Central

    Yavuz, Mustafa S.; Jensen, Gary C.; Penaloza, David P.; Seery, Thomas A. P.; Pendergraph, Samuel A.; Rusling, James F.; Sotzing, Gregory A.

    2010-01-01

    We have achieved reversible tunability of local surface plasmon resonance in conjugated polymer functionalized gold nanoparticles. This property was facilitated by the preparation of 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) containing polynorbornene brushes on gold nanoparticles via surface-initiated ring-opening metathesis polymerization. Reversible tuning of the surface plasmon band was achieved by electrochemically switching the EDOT polymer between its reduced and oxidized states. PMID:19839619

  16. Source parameters controlling the generation and propagation of potential local tsunamis along the cascadia margin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geist, E.; Yoshioka, S.

    1996-01-01

    The largest uncertainty in assessing hazards from local tsunamis along the Cascadia margin is estimating the possible earthquake source parameters. We investigate which source parameters exert the largest influence on tsunami generation and determine how each parameter affects the amplitude of the local tsunami. The following source parameters were analyzed: (1) type of faulting characteristic of the Cascadia subduction zone, (2) amount of slip during rupture, (3) slip orientation, (4) duration of rupture, (5) physical properties of the accretionary wedge, and (6) influence of secondary faulting. The effect of each of these source parameters on the quasi-static displacement of the ocean floor is determined by using elastic three-dimensional, finite-element models. The propagation of the resulting tsunami is modeled both near the coastline using the two-dimensional (x-t) Peregrine equations that includes the effects of dispersion and near the source using the three-dimensional (x-y-t) linear long-wave equations. The source parameters that have the largest influence on local tsunami excitation are the shallowness of rupture and the amount of slip. In addition, the orientation of slip has a large effect on the directivity of the tsunami, especially for shallow dipping faults, which consequently has a direct influence on the length of coastline inundated by the tsunami. Duration of rupture, physical properties of the accretionary wedge, and secondary faulting all affect the excitation of tsunamis but to a lesser extent than the shallowness of rupture and the amount and orientation of slip. Assessment of the severity of the local tsunami hazard should take into account that relatively large tsunamis can be generated from anomalous 'tsunami earthquakes' that rupture within the accretionary wedge in comparison to interplate thrust earthquakes of similar magnitude. ?? 1996 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  17. Cooperative Control of UAVs for Localization of Intermittently Emitting Mobile Targets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-01

    precision ( GDOP ) conditions, the angle-rate algorithm renders improved localization results than the ones obtained using the triangulation technique, as...we will show in Section V. The following two factors make large GDOP conditions likely to occur in our problem of interest: 1) Each sensor is mounted...term in the error calculations, since the along-range error cor- responds to the semimajor axis of the error probable, and for large GDOP , our error is

  18. Fc receptor endocytosis is controlled by a cytoplasmic domain determinant that actively prevents coated pit localization

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    Macrophages and B-lymphocytes express two major isoforms of Fc receptor (FcRII-B2 and FcRII-B1) that exhibit distinct capacities for endocytosis. This difference in function reflects the presence of an in- frame insertion of 47 amino acids in the cytoplasmic domain of the lymphocyte isoform (FcRII-B1) due to alternative mRNA splicing. By expressing wild type and mutant FcRII cDNAs in fibroblasts, we have now examined the mechanism by which the insertion acts to prevent coated pit localization and endocytosis. We first identified the region of the FcRII-B2 cytoplasmic domain that is required for rapid internalization. Using a biochemical assay for endocytosis and an immuno-EM assay to determine coated pit localization directly, we found that the distal half of the cytoplasmic domain, particularly a region including residues 18-31, as needed for coated pit-mediated endocytosis. Elimination of the tyrosine residues at position 26 and 43, separately or together, had little effect on coated pit localization and a partial effect on endocytosis of ligand. Since the FcRII-B1 insertion occurs in the membrane-proximal region of the cytoplasmic domain (residue 6) not required for internalization, it is unlikely to act by physically disrupting the coated pit localization determinant. In fact, the insertion was found to prevent endocytosis irrespective of its position in the cytoplasmic tail and appeared to selectively exclude the receptor from coated regions. Moreover, receptors bearing the insertion exhibited a temperature- and ligand-dependent association with a detergent-insoluble fraction and with actin filaments, perhaps in part explaining the inability of FcRII-B1 to enter coated pits. PMID:1734021

  19. EPA Summaries and Reports on Several State and Local PM Control Measures

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A sample of existing control measures and their effectiveness, along with recommendations for improvement, can help states develop better control measures for reducing PM2.5 in order to attain 2012 PM2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS).

  20. 42 CFR 70.2 - Measures in the event of inadequate local control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... 70.2 Section 70.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... control. Whenever the Director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention determines that the...) are insufficient to prevent the spread of any of the communicable diseases from such State...

  1. Cell Cycle Constraints and Environmental Control of Local DNA Hypomethylation in α-Proteobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Giancarlo; Frandi, Antonio; Patrignani, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Heritable DNA methylation imprints are ubiquitous and underlie genetic variability from bacteria to humans. In microbial genomes, DNA methylation has been implicated in gene transcription, DNA replication and repair, nucleoid segregation, transposition and virulence of pathogenic strains. Despite the importance of local (hypo)methylation at specific loci, how and when these patterns are established during the cell cycle remains poorly characterized. Taking advantage of the small genomes and the synchronizability of α-proteobacteria, we discovered that conserved determinants of the cell cycle transcriptional circuitry establish specific hypomethylation patterns in the cell cycle model system Caulobacter crescentus. We used genome-wide methyl-N6-adenine (m6A-) analyses by restriction-enzyme-cleavage sequencing (REC-Seq) and single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing to show that MucR, a transcriptional regulator that represses virulence and cell cycle genes in S-phase but no longer in G1-phase, occludes 5’-GANTC-3’ sequence motifs that are methylated by the DNA adenine methyltransferase CcrM. Constitutive expression of CcrM or heterologous methylases in at least two different α-proteobacteria homogenizes m6A patterns even when MucR is present and affects promoter activity. Environmental stress (phosphate limitation) can override and reconfigure local hypomethylation patterns imposed by the cell cycle circuitry that dictate when and where local hypomethylation is instated. PMID:27997543

  2. Control of cell division and the spatial localization of assembled gene products in Caulobacter crescentus

    SciTech Connect

    Nathan, P.D.

    1988-01-01

    Experiments are described that examine the role of penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) in the regulation of cell division in Caulobacter crescentus; and the spatial localization of methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins (MCPs) in C. crescentus swarmer and predivisional cells. In the analysis of PBP function, in vivo and in vitro assays are used to directly label C. crescentus PBPs with (/sup 3/H) penicillin G in wild type strain CB15, in a series of conditional cell division mutants and in new temperature sensitive cephalosporin C resistant mutants PC8002 and PC8003. 14 PBPs are characterized and a high molecular weight PBP (PBP 1B) that is required for cell division is identified. PBP 1B competes for ..beta..-lactams that induce filament formation and may be a high affinity binding protein. A second high molecular weight PBP (PBP 1C) is also associated with defective cell division. The examination of PBP patterns in synchronous swarmer cells reveals that the in vivo activity of PBP 1B and PBP 1C increases at the time that the cell division pathway is initiated. None of the PBPs, however, appear to be differentially localized in the C. crescentus cell. In the analysis of MCP localization, in vivo and in vitro assays are used to directly label C. crescentus MCPs with methyl-/sup 3/H. MCPs are examined in flagellated and non-flagellated vesicles prepared from cells by immunoaffinity chromatography.

  3. Nuclear localization of platelet-activating factor receptor controls retinal neovascularization

    PubMed Central

    K Bhosle, Vikrant; Rivera, José Carlos; Zhou, Tianwei (Ellen); Omri, Samy; Sanchez, Melanie; Hamel, David; Zhu, Tang; Rouget, Raphael; Rabea, Areej Al; Hou, Xin; Lahaie, Isabelle; Ribeiro-da-Silva, Alfredo; Chemtob, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is a pleiotropic phospholipid with proinflammatory, procoagulant and angiogenic actions on the vasculature. We and others have reported the presence of PAF receptor (Ptafr) at intracellular sites such as the nucleus. However, mechanisms of localization and physiologic functions of intracellular Ptafr remain poorly understood. We hereby identify the importance of C-terminal motif of the receptor and uncover novel roles of Rab11a GTPase and importin-5 in nuclear translocation of Ptafr in primary human retinal microvascular endothelial cells. Nuclear localization of Ptafr is independent of exogenous PAF stimulation as well as intracellular PAF biosynthesis. Moreover, nuclear Ptafr is responsible for the upregulation of unique set of growth factors, including vascular endothelial growth factor, in vitro and ex vivo. We further corroborate the intracrine PAF signaling, resulting in angiogenesis in vivo, using Ptafr antagonists with distinct plasma membrane permeability. Collectively, our findings show that nuclear Ptafr translocates in an agonist-independent manner, and distinctive functions of Ptafr based on its cellular localization point to another dimension needed for pharmacologic selectivity of drugs. PMID:27462464

  4. Using Local Perturbations To Manipulate and Control Pointer States in Quantum Dot Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akis, Richard; Speyer, Gil; Ferry, David; Brunner, Roland

    2012-02-01

    Recently, scanning gate microscopy (SGM) was used to image scarred wave functions in an open InAs quantum dot[1]. The SGM tip provides a local potential perturbation and imaging is performed by measuring changes in conductance. Scarred wave functions, long associated with quantum chaos, have been shown in open dots to correspond to pointer states[2], eigenstates that survive the decoherence process that occurs via coupling to the environment. Pointer states modulate the conductance, yielding periodic fluctuations and the scars, normally thought unstable, are stabilized by quantum Darwinism [3]. We shall show that, beyond probing, pointer states can be manipulated by local perturbations. Particularly interesting effects occur in coupled quantum dot arrays, where a pointer state localized in one dot can be shifted over into another with a perturbation in a completely different part of the system. These nonlocal effects may perhaps be exploited to give such systems an exotic functionality. [1] A. M. Burke, R. Akis, T. E. Day, Gil Speyer, D. K. Ferry, and B. R. Bennett, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 176801 (2010). [2] D. K. Ferry, R. Akis, and J. P. Bird, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 176801 (2004). [3] R. Brunner, R. Akis,D. K. Ferry, F. Kuchar,and R. Meisels, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 024102 (2008).

  5. Neurophysiological findings in patients 1 year after snake bite induced neurotoxicity in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Bell, D J; Wijegunasinghe, D; Samarakoon, S; Palipana, H; Gunasekera, S; de Silva, H A; Lalloo, D G; Ranawaka, U K; de Silva, H J

    2010-05-01

    Snake bite causes significant morbidity and mortality in Sri Lanka. Snake venoms contain neurotoxins that block neuromuscular junction transmission. Presynaptic neurotoxicity most commonly causes destruction of nerve terminals with recovery by regrowth, whilst postsynaptic neurotoxicity usually involves competition at the acetylcholine receptor. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there were long-term clinical or neurophysiological changes in snake bite survivors 1 year after their envenoming. Detailed neurophysiological tests and clinical examinations were performed on 26 snake bite victims who had presented with neurotoxicity 12 months previously, and their results were compared with controls recruited from the same communities. Significant differences were observed in some nerve conduction parameters in some snake bite victims compared with controls, predominantly in those thought to have elapid bites, including prolongation of sensory, motor and F-wave latencies and reduction of conduction velocities. There was no evidence of any residual deficits in neuromuscular junction transmission. These results suggest a possible demyelinating type polyneuropathy. None of the cases or controls had abnormalities on clinical examination. This is one of the few studies to report possible long-term neurological damage following systemic neurotoxicity after snake bite. The clinical significance of these neurophysiological abnormalities is uncertain and further studies are required to investigate whether the abnormalities persist and to see whether clinical consequences develop.

  6. Local control of β-adrenergic stimulation: Effects on ventricular myocyte electrophysiology and Ca2+-transient1

    PubMed Central

    Heijman, Jordi; Volders, Paul G.A.; Westra, Ronald L.; Rudy, Yoram

    2011-01-01

    Local signaling domains and numerous interacting molecular pathways and substrates contribute to the whole-cell response of myocytes during β-adrenergic stimulation (βARS). We aimed to elucidate the quantitative contribution of substrates and their local signaling environments during βARS to the canine epicardial ventricular myocyte electrophysiology and calcium transient (CaT). We present a computational compartmental model of βARS and its electrophysiological effects. Novel aspects of the model include localized signaling domains, incorporation of β1 and β2 receptor isoforms, a detailed population-based approach to integrate the βAR and Ca2+/Calmodulin kinase (CaMKII) signaling pathways and their effects on a wide range of substrates that affect whole-cell electrophysiology and CaT. The model identifies major roles for phosphodiesterases, adenylyl cyclases, PKA and restricted diffusion in the control of local cAMP levels and shows that activation of specific cAMP domains by different receptor isoforms allows for specific control of action potential and CaT properties. In addition, the model predicts increased CaMKII activity during βARS due to rate-dependent accumulation and increased Ca2+ cycling. CaMKII inhibition, reduced compartmentation, and selective blockade of β1AR are predicted to reduce the occurrence of delayed afterdepolarizations during βARS. Finally, the relative contribution of each PKA substrate to whole-cell electrophysiology is quantified by comparing simulations with and without phosphorylation of each target. In conclusion, this model enhances our understanding of localized βAR signaling and its whole-cell effects in ventricular myocytes by incorporating receptor isoforms, multiple pathways and a detailed representation of multiple-target phosphorylation; it provides a basis for further studies of βARS under pathological conditions. PMID:21345340

  7. Dose-Volume Histogram Parameters and Local Tumor Control in Magnetic Resonance Image-Guided Cervical Cancer Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Dimopoulos, Johannes Lang, Stefan; Kirisits, Christian; Fidarova, Elena F.; Berger, Daniel; Georg, Petra; Doerr, Wolfgang; Poetter, Richard

    2009-09-01

    Purpose: To investigate the value of dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters for predicting local control in magnetic resonance (MR) image-guided brachytherapy (IGBT) for patients with cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: Our study population consists of 141 patients with cervical cancer (Stages IB-IVA) treated with 45-50 Gy external beam radiotherapy plus four times 7 Gy IGBT with or without cisplatin. Gross tumor volume (GTV), high-risk clinical target volume (HRCTV), and intermediate-risk clinical target volume (IRCTV) were contoured, and DVH parameters (minimum dose delivered to 90% of the volume of interest [D90] and D100) were assessed. Doses were converted to the equivalent dose in 2 Gy (EQD2) by applying the linear quadratic model ({alpha}/{beta} = 10 Gy). Groups were defined for patients with or without local recurrence (LR) in the true pelvis for tumor size at diagnosis (GTV at diagnosis [GTVD] of 2-5 cm (Group 1) or greater than 5 cm (Group 2) and for tumor size response at IGBT (HRCTV) of 2-5 cm (Group 2a) or greater than 5 cm (Group 2b). Results: Eighteen LRs were observed. The most important DVH parameters correlated with LR were the D90 and D100 for HRCTV. Mean D90 and D100 values for HRCTV were 86 {+-} 16 and 65 {+-} 10 Gy, respectively. The D90 for HRCTV greater than 87 Gy resulted in an LR incidence of 4% (3 of 68) compared with 20% (15 of 73) for D90 less than 87 Gy. The effect was most pronounced in the tumor group (Group 2b). Conclusions: We showed an increase in local control in IGBT in patients with cervical cancer with the dose delivered, which can be expressed by the D90 and D100 for HRCTV. Local control rates greater than 95% can be achieved if the D90 (EQD2) for HRCTV is 87 Gy or greater.

  8. Predictors of Local Control After Single-Dose Stereotactic Image-Guided Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Extracranial Metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Greco, Carlo; Zelefsky, Michael J.; Lovelock, Michael; Fuks, Zvi; Hunt, Margie; Rosenzweig, Kenneth; Zatcky, Joan; Kim, Balem; Yamada, Yoshiya

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: To report tumor local control after treatment with single-dose image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy (SD-IGRT) to extracranial metastatic sites. Methods and Materials: A total of 126 metastases in 103 patients were treated with SD-IGRT to prescription doses of 18-24 Gy (median, 24 Gy) between 2004 and 2007. Results: The overall actuarial local relapse-free survival (LRFS) rate was 64% at a median follow-up of 18 months (range, 2-45 months). The median time to failure was 9.6 months (range, 1-23 months). On univariate analysis, LRFS was significantly correlated with prescription dose (p = 0.029). Stratification by dose into high (23 to 24 Gy), intermediate (21 to 22 Gy), and low (18 to 20 Gy) dose levels revealed highly significant differences in LRFS between high (82%) and low doses (25%) (p < 0.0001). Overall, histology had no significant effect on LRFS (p = 0.16). Renal cell histology displayed a profound dose-response effect, with 80% LRFS at the high dose level (23 to 24 Gy) vs. 37% with low doses ({<=}22 Gy) (p = 0.04). However, for patients who received the high dose level, histology was not a statistically significant predictor of LRFS (p = 0.90). Target organ (bone vs. lymph node vs. soft tissues) (p = 0.5) and planning target volume size (p = 0.55) were not found to be associated with long-term LRFS probability. Multivariate Cox regression analysis confirmed prescription dose to be a significant predictor of LRFS (p = 0.003). Conclusion: High-dose SD-IGRT is a noninvasive procedure resulting in high probability of local tumor control. Single-dose IGRT may be effectively used to locally control metastatic deposits regardless of histology and target organ, provided sufficiently high doses (> 22 Gy) of radiation are delivered.

  9. Model predictive control of a combined heat and power plant using local linear models

    SciTech Connect

    Kikstra, J.F.; Roffel, B.; Schoen, P.

    1998-10-01

    Model predictive control has been applied to control of a combined heat and power plant. One of the main features of this plant is that it exhibits nonlinear process behavior due to large throughput swings. In this application, the operating window of the plant has been divided into a number of smaller windows in which the nonlinear process behavior has been approximated by linear behavior. For each operating window, linear step weight models were developed from a detailed nonlinear first principles model, and the model prediction is calculated based on interpolation between these linear models. The model output at each operating point can then be calculated from four basic linear models, and the required control action can subsequently be calculated with the standard model predictive control approach using quadratic programming.

  10. Treating Sexually Abused Children: 1 Year Follow-Up of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, J.A.; Mannarino, A.P.; Knudsen, K.

    2005-01-01

    Objective:: To measure the durability of improvement in response to two alternative treatments for sexually abused children. Method:: Eighty-two sexually abused children ages 8-15 years old and their primary caretakers were randomly assigned to trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) or non-directive supportive therapy (NST) delivered…

  11. LAN (Local Area Network) Interoperability Study of Protocols Needed for Distributed Command and Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-03-01

    rcsosi oa ’. -, geograpical poximit £23. . 4-1) 3.Geguraph52-. ical ditiuionewC untons oh Tf~ Ancautomatued syst, assurverl survhivabiltyuof citical infos...1.Z.3J1 Partitioning 1.2.3.2 Segment Control 1.2.4 Secondary Storage Management (Global Resource Management) 1.2.4.1 Scheduling, Conflict Resolution...Gateway (through layer 2) This is employed to join two media access control LAN segments together; these may be homogeneous or heterogeneous. Logical

  12. Subject-specific modulation of local field potential spectral power during brain-machine interface control in primates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    So, Kelvin; Dangi, Siddharth; Orsborn, Amy L.; Gastpar, Michael C.; Carmena, Jose M.

    2014-04-01

    Objective. Intracortical brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) have predominantly utilized spike activity as the control signal. However, an increasing number of studies have shown the utility of local field potentials (LFPs) for decoding motor related signals. Currently, it is unclear how well different LFP frequencies can serve as features for continuous, closed-loop BMI control. Approach. We demonstrate 2D continuous LFP-based BMI control using closed-loop decoder adaptation, which adapts decoder parameters to subject-specific LFP feature modulations during BMI control. We trained two macaque monkeys to control a 2D cursor in a center-out task by modulating LFP power in the 0-150 Hz range. Main results. While both monkeys attained control, they used different strategies involving different frequency bands. One monkey primarily utilized the low-frequency spectrum (0-80 Hz), which was highly correlated between channels, and obtained proficient performance even with a single channel. In contrast, the other monkey relied more on higher frequencies (80-150 Hz), which were less correlated between channels, and had greater difficulty with control as the number of channels decreased. We then restricted the monkeys to use only various sub-ranges (0-40, 40-80, and 80-150 Hz) of the 0-150 Hz band. Interestingly, although both monkeys performed better with some sub-ranges than others, they were able to achieve BMI control with all sub-ranges after decoder adaptation, demonstrating broad flexibility in the frequencies that could potentially be used for LFP-based BMI control. Significance. Overall, our results demonstrate proficient, continuous BMI control using LFPs and provide insight into the subject-specific spectral patterns of LFP activity modulated during control.

  13. Io meteorology - How atmospheric pressure is controlled locally by volcanos and surface frosts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingersoll, Andrew P.

    1989-01-01

    The present modification of the Ingersoll et al. (1985) hydrodynamic model of the SO2 gas sublimation-driven flow from the day to the night side of Io includes the effects of nonuniform surface properties noted in observational studies. Calculations are conducted for atmospheric pressures, horizontal winds, sublimation rates, and condensation rates for such surface conditions as patchy and continuous frost cover, volcanic venting, surface temperature discontinuities, subsurface cold trapping, and the propagation of insolation into the frost. While pressure is found to follow local vapor pressure away from the plumes, it becomes higher inside them.

  14. Behavior of Caenorhabditis elegans in alternating electric field and its application to their localization and control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezai, Pouya; Siddiqui, Asad; Selvaganapathy, Ponnambalam Ravi; Gupta, Bhagwati P.

    2010-04-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans is an attractive model organism because of its genetic similarity to humans and the ease of its manipulation in the laboratory. Recently, it was shown that a direct current electric field inside microfluidic channel induces directed movement that is highly sensitive, reliable, and benign. In this letter, we describe the worm's movement response to alternating electric fields in a similar channel setup. We demonstrate that the 1 Hz and higher frequency of alternating current field can effectively localize worms in the channel. This discovery could potentially help design microfluidic devices for high throughput automated analysis of worms.

  15. The impact of histology and delivered dose on local control of spinal metastases treated with stereotactic radiosurgery.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Yoshiya; Katsoulakis, Evangelia; Laufer, Ilya; Lovelock, Michael; Barzilai, Ori; McLaughlin, Lily A; Zhang, Zhigang; Schmitt, Adam M; Higginson, Daniel S; Lis, Eric; Zelefsky, Michael J; Mechalakos, James; Bilsky, Mark H

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE An analysis of factors contributing to durable radiographic control of spinal metastases was undertaken, drawing from a large single-institution database in an attempt to elucidate indications and dose requirements for successful treatment. METHODS All patients treated at a single institution with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) of the spine as first-line therapy were assessed for local progression of the treated site, defined as radiographic enlargement of the treated tumor and/or biopsy-proven evidence of active tumor cells. All patients were followed with CT, PET, or MR imaging every 3-6 months until death. Treatment decisions were made by a multidisciplinary team of radiation oncologists, neurosurgeons, and neuroradiologists. Target volumes were defined according to the international consensus guidelines and were reviewed in a multidisciplinary conference. Image-guided techniques and intensity modulation were used for every case. The tumor's histological type, gross tumor volume (GTV), dose that covers 95% of the GTV (GTV D95), percentage of GTV covered by 95% of the prescribed dose (GTV V95), planning target volume (PTV), dose that covers 95% of the PTV (PTV D95), and percentage of PTV covered by 95% of the prescribed dose (PTV V95) were analyzed for significance in relation to local control, based on time to local progression. RESULTS A total of 811 lesions were treated in 657 patients between 2003 and 2015 at a single institution. The mean follow-up and overall survival for the entire cohort was 26.9 months (range 2-141 months). A total of 28 lesions progressed and the mean time to failure was 26 months (range 9.7-57 months). The median prescribed dose was 2400 cGy (range 1600-2600 cGy). Both GTV D95 and PTV D95 were highly significantly associated with local failure in univariate analysis, but GTV and PTV and histological type did not reach statistical significance. The median GTV D95 for the cohort equal to or above the GTV D95 1830 cGy cut point

  16. Response of SO2 and particulate air pollution to local and regional emission controls: A case study in Maryland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Hao; Vinnikov, Konstantin Y.; Li, Can; Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Jongeward, Andrew R.; Li, Zhanqing; Stehr, Jeffrey W.; Hains, Jennifer C.; Dickerson, Russell R.

    2016-04-01

    This paper addresses the questions of what effect local regulations can have on pollutants with different lifetimes and how surface observations and remotely sensed data can be used to determine the impacts. We investigated the decadal trends of tropospheric sulfur dioxide (SO2) and aerosol pollution over Maryland and its surrounding states, using surface, aircraft, and satellite measurements. Aircraft measurements indicated fewer isolated SO2 plumes observed in summers, a ˜40% decrease of column SO2, and a ˜20% decrease of atmospheric optical depth (AOD) over Maryland after the implementation of local regulations on sulfur emissions from power plants (˜90% reduction from 2010). Surface observations of SO2 and particulate matter (PM) concentrations in Maryland show similar trends. OMI SO2 and MODIS AOD observations were used to investigate the column contents of air pollutants over the eastern U.S.; these indicate decreasing trends in column SO2 (˜60% decrease) and AOD (˜20% decrease). The decrease of upwind SO2 emissions also reduced aerosol loadings over the downwind Atlantic Ocean near the coast by ˜20%, while indiscernible changes of the SO2 column were observed. A step change of SO2 emissions in Maryland starting in 2009-2010 had an immediate and profound benefit in terms of local surface SO2 concentrations but a modest impact on aerosol pollution, indicating that short-lived pollutants are effectively controlled locally, while long-lived pollutants require regional measures.

  17. Toward Effective Water Pipe Tobacco Control Policy in the United States: Synthesis of Federal, State, and Local Policy Texts.

    PubMed

    Colditz, Jason B; Ton, Jessica N; James, A Everette; Primack, Brian A

    2016-01-05

    Purpose . Water pipe tobacco smoking (WTS) is growing in popularity among U.S. young adults and is associated with health risks similar to those of cigarette smoking. The purpose of this study is to examine existing tobacco control policies (TCPs) in order to investigate how they engage WTS. Approach . A systematic synthesis of content and legal interactions among federal, state, and local TCP documents. Setting . Pennsylvania, which represents a politically and demographically diverse microcosm of the United States. Participants . No human subjects. Method . Federal and state TCPs were retrieved via public legal repositories. Local policy searches were conducted via county/municipal Web sites, inclusive of 13 localities that had autonomous health departments or existing TCPs based on a National Cancer Institute report. Full-text TCPs were double coded within a grounded theory framework for health policy analysis. Emergent codes were used to compare and contrast policy texts and to examine legal interactions among TCPs. Results . Examination of policy categories including youth access, use restrictions, and taxation revealed WTS as largely omitted from current TCPs. WTS was sometimes addressed as an "other" tobacco product under older TCPs, though ambiguities in language led to questionable enforceability. State preemptions have rolled back or prevented well-tailored reforms at the local level. Federal preemptions have likewise constrained state TCPs. Conclusion . Outdated, preempted, and unclear policies limit the extent to which TCPs engage WTS. Health advocates might target these aspects of TCP reform.

  18. Working memory capacity and Stroop interference: global versus local indices of executive control.

    PubMed

    Meier, Matt E; Kane, Michael J

    2013-05-01

    Two experiments examined the relations among working memory capacity (WMC), congruency-sequence effects, proportion-congruency effects, and the color-word Stroop effect to test whether congruency-sequence effects might inform theoretical claims regarding WMC's prediction of Stroop interference. In Experiment 1, subjects completed either a high-congruency or low-congruency Stroop task that restricted trial-to-trial repetitions of stimulus dimensions to examine WMC's relation to congruency-sequence effects while minimizing bottom-up, stimulus-driven contributions. Congruency-sequence effects and congruency-proportion effects were significant but did not interact. WMC predicted global Stroop interference under low-congruency conditions but neither local congruency-sequence effects nor global Stroop interference under high-congruency conditions, contrary to previous studies (e.g., Kane & Engle, 2003). A high-congruency Stroop task in Experiment 2 removed the Experiment 1 task constraints, and, here, we obtained the typical, global association between WMC and Stroop interference but still no relation between WMC and congruency-sequence effects. We thus examined the methodological differences between Experiments 1 and 2 to determine whether any of these were locally responsible for the global WMC-related differences. They were not, suggesting that the changes between Experiments 1 and 2 created a general task context that engaged (or disengaged) the executive processes associated with WMC.

  19. Local control on precipitation in a fully coupled climate-hydrology model.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Morten A D; Christensen, Jens H; Drews, Martin; Butts, Michael B; Refsgaard, Jens C

    2016-03-10

    The ability to simulate regional precipitation realistically by climate models is essential to understand and adapt to climate change. Due to the complexity of associated processes, particularly at unresolved temporal and spatial scales this continues to be a major challenge. As a result, climate simulations of precipitation often exhibit substantial biases that affect the reliability of future projections. Here we demonstrate how a regional climate model (RCM) coupled to a distributed hydrological catchment model that fully integrates water and energy fluxes between the subsurface, land surface, plant cover and the atmosphere, enables a realistic representation of local precipitation. Substantial improvements in simulated precipitation dynamics on seasonal and longer time scales is seen for a simulation period of six years and can be attributed to a more complete treatment of hydrological sub-surface processes including groundwater and moisture feedback. A high degree of local influence on the atmosphere suggests that coupled climate-hydrology models have a potential for improving climate projections and the results further indicate a diminished need for bias correction in climate-hydrology impact studies.

  20. Eustatic and tectonic control on localization of porosity and permeability, Mid-Permian, Bighorn Basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, S.P.; Scholle, P.A. )

    1990-05-01

    The Goose Egg Formation of the northeastern Bighorn basin was deposited in an arid shoreline (sabkha) environment during a time of global cyclic sea level variations and local tectonic uplift Eustatic sea level lows are represented by terrestrial red beds (seals), whereas highs resulted in the deposition of supratidal to shallow subtidal carbonates (reservoirs). Pennsylvanian and Permian differential uplift along the present basin margin localized a broken chain of barrier islands and shoals during deposition of the Ervay and earlier carbonate members, as recognized in outcrop at Sheep and Little Sheep Mountain anticlines. The Ervay Member on these paleohighs is typified by fenestral dolomite, containing abundant tepees and pisoids. This fabric is interpreted to have folded in the highest intertidal to supratidal sabkha environment which developed on the leeward shores of these islands. The fenestral carbonates grade basinward (westward) into narrow bioclastic grainstone beach deposits and then to open-shelf fossiliferous packstones and wackestone. To the east lie laminated lagoonal micritic limestones and dolomites. Outcrop and core study has shown the fenestral facies to be limited to areas coincident with present-day basin margin anticlines. Not only are these the locations of the most porous facies, but tight Laramide folding of the Goose Egg carbonates resulted in pervasive fracturing and thus very high permeabilities in the same structures. The close association of Laramide folds and productive Permian carbonate horizons in the northeast Bighorn basin could well be characteristic for other yet to be explored structures along the basin-margin trend.

  1. Local control on precipitation in a fully coupled climate-hydrology model

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Morten A. D.; Christensen, Jens H.; Drews, Martin; Butts, Michael B.; Refsgaard, Jens C.

    2016-01-01

    The ability to simulate regional precipitation realistically by climate models is essential to understand and adapt to climate change. Due to the complexity of associated processes, particularly at unresolved temporal and spatial scales this continues to be a major challenge. As a result, climate simulations of precipitation often exhibit substantial biases that affect the reliability of future projections. Here we demonstrate how a regional climate model (RCM) coupled to a distributed hydrological catchment model that fully integrates water and energy fluxes between the subsurface, land surface, plant cover and the atmosphere, enables a realistic representation of local precipitation. Substantial improvements in simulated precipitation dynamics on seasonal and longer time scales is seen for a simulation period of six years and can be attributed to a more complete treatment of hydrological sub-surface processes including groundwater and moisture feedback. A high degree of local influence on the atmosphere suggests that coupled climate-hydrology models have a potential for improving climate projections and the results further indicate a diminished need for bias correction in climate-hydrology impact studies. PMID:26960564

  2. ESCRT-II controls retinal axon growth by regulating DCC receptor levels and local protein synthesis.

    PubMed

    Konopacki, Filip A; Wong, Hovy Ho-Wai; Dwivedy, Asha; Bellon, Anaïs; Blower, Michael D; Holt, Christine E

    2016-04-01

    Endocytosis and local protein synthesis (LPS) act coordinately to mediate the chemotropic responses of axons, but the link between these two processes is poorly understood. The endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) is a key regulator of cargo sorting in the endocytic pathway, and here we have investigated the role of ESCRT-II, a critical ESCRT component, in Xenopus retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons. We show that ESCRT-II is present in RGC axonal growth cones (GCs) where it co-localizes with endocytic vesicle GTPases and, unexpectedly, with the Netrin-1 receptor, deleted in colorectal cancer (DCC). ESCRT-II knockdown (KD) decreases endocytosis and, strikingly, reduces DCC in GCs and leads to axon growth and guidance defects. ESCRT-II-depleted axons fail to turn in response to a Netrin-1 gradient in vitro and many axons fail to exit the eye in vivo These defects, similar to Netrin-1/DCC loss-of-function phenotypes, can be rescued in whole (in vitro) or in part (in vivo) by expressing DCC. In addition, ESCRT-II KD impairs LPS in GCs and live imaging reveals that ESCRT-II transports mRNAs in axons. Collectively, our results show that the ESCRT-II-mediated endocytic pathway regulates both DCC and LPS in the axonal compartment and suggest that ESCRT-II aids gradient sensing in GCs by coupling endocytosis to LPS.

  3. Ash1 Protein, an Asymmetrically Localized Transcriptional Regulator, Controls Filamentous Growth and Virulence of Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Inglis, Diane O.; Johnson, Alexander D.

    2002-01-01

    In response to a number of distinct environmental conditions, the fungal pathogen Candida albicans undergoes a morphological transition from a round, yeast form to a series of elongated, filamentous forms. This transition is believed to be critical for virulence in a mouse model of disseminated candidiasis. Here we describe the characterization of C. albicans ASH1, a gene that encodes an asymmetrically localized transcriptional regulatory protein involved in this response. We show that C. albicans ash1 mutants are defective in responding to some filament-inducing conditions. We also show that Ash1p is preferentially localized to daughter cell nuclei in the budding-yeast form of C. albicans cell growth and to the hyphal tip cells in growing filaments. Thus, Ash1p “marks” newly formed cells and presumably directs a specialized transcriptional program in these cells. Finally, we show that ASH1 is required for full virulence of C. albicans in a mouse model of disseminated candidiasis. PMID:12446785

  4. A Public Policy Approach to Local Models of HIV/AIDS Control in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Assis, Andreia; Costa-Couto, Maria-Helena; Thoenig, Jean-Claude; Fleury, Sonia; de Camargo, Kenneth; Larouzé, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated involvement and cooperation patterns of local Brazilian AIDS program actors and the consequences of these patterns for program implementation and sustainability. Methods. We performed a public policy analysis (documentary analysis, direct observation, semistructured interviews of health service and nongovernmental organization [NGO] actors) in 5 towns in 2 states, São Paulo and Pará. Results. Patterns suggested 3 models. In model 1, local government, NGOs, and primary health care services were involved in AIDS programs with satisfactory response to new epidemiological trends but a risk that HIV/AIDS would become low priority. In model 2, mainly because of NGO activism, HIV/AIDS remained an exceptional issue, with limited responses to new epidemiological trends and program sustainability undermined by political instability. In model 3, involvement of public agencies and NGOs was limited, with inadequate response to epidemiological trends and poor mobilization threatening program sustainability. Conclusions. Within a common national AIDS policy framework, the degree of involvement and cooperation between public and NGO actors deeply impacts population coverage and program sustainability. Specific processes are required to maintain actor mobilization without isolating AIDS programs. PMID:19372523

  5. Is remote stretching based on myofascial chains as effective as local exercise? A randomised-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Wilke, J; Vogt, L; Niederer, D; Banzer, W

    2016-11-07

    Lower limb stretching based on myofascial chains has been demonstrated to increase cervical range of motion (ROM) in the sagittal plane. It is, however, unknown whether such remote exercise is as effective as local stretching. To resolve this research deficit, 63 healthy participants (36 ± 13 years, ♂32) were randomly assigned to one of three groups: remote stretching of the lower limb (LLS), local stretching of the cervical spine (CSS) or inactive control (CON). Prior (M1), immediately post (M2) and 5 min following intervention (M3), maximal cervical ROM was assessed. Non-parametric data analysis (Kruskal-Wallis tests and adjusted post hoc Dunn tests) revealed significant differences between the disposed conditions. With one exception (cervical spine rotation after CSS at M2, P > .05), both LLS and CSS increased cervical ROM compared to the control group in all movement planes and at all measurements (P < .05). Between LLS and CSS, no statistical differences were found (P > .05). Lower limb stretching based on myofascial chains induces similar acute improvements in cervical ROM as local exercise. Therapists might consequently consider its use in programme design. However, as the attained effects do not seem to be direction-specific, further research is warranted in order to provide evidence-based recommendations.

  6. Efficiency of a tool-mounted local exhaust ventilation system for controlling dust exposure during metal grinding operations.

    PubMed

    Ojima, Jun

    2007-12-01

    In general, control of metal dust from hand-held disk grinders is difficult because such respirable dust tends to disperse in every direction around the grinding wheel and cannot be captured effectively by a conventional exhaust hood. The author described the application of a custom-made tool-mounted local exhaust ventilation (LEV) system attached to a hand-held disk grinder, and by laboratory experiments assessed its effectiveness at dust control. The effectiveness of the LEV for dust control was assessed by determining the respirable dust concentration around the grinding wheel during metal surface grinding with and without the use of the LEV. It was shown that the average respirable grinding dust concentration decreased from 7.73 mg/m(3) with the LEV off to 4.87 mg/m(3) with the LEV on, a mean dust generation reduction of about 37%.

  7. Methodology for the passive control of orbital inclination and mean local time to meet sun-synchronous orbit requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David; Kraft, Lauri

    1992-01-01

    The mean local time (MLT) of equatorial crossing of a sun-synchronous Earth-observing spacecraft orbit drifts with inclination; therefore, in order to maintain the MLT, the inclination must be controlled. Inclination may be maintained actively by costly out-of-plane maneuvers or passively by using the perturbing forces due to the sun and moon. This paper examines the passive control approach using the Earth Observing System (EOS) as a basis for the discussion. Applications to Landsat and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) spacecraft are presented for comparison. This technique is especially beneficial to spacecraft lacking propulsion systems. The results indicate that passive inclination control appears to be the preferable maintenance method when spacecraft weight restrictions, operational considerations, and scientific requirements apply.

  8. Control of a Sphere Wake by Sting Interference and Localized Disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norman, Adam; Feingold, Joshua; McKeon, Beverley

    2007-11-01

    Vortex shedding in the wake of a sphere that is simply supported using a streamwise-aligned cylindrical sting is investigated at sub-critical Reynolds numbers of order 10^4. The effect of the sting size on the K'arm'an vortex shedding and Kelvin-Helmholtz shear layer instability is examined. The blockage of the sting will be compared with the two-dimensional analog of the splitter plate introduced into a cylinder wake. The controlling mechanism of a small stud placed upstream of the average azimuthal separation angle is also explored. High speed stereo particle image velocimetry is used to understand the average and temporal aspects of the sting and stud controlling mechanisms, and Lagrangian Coherent Structure (LCS) analysis is implemented to probe the wake structure. This research is a first step towards active control of a sphere wake using surface actuation.

  9. A longitudinal, event-related potential pilot study of adult obsessive-compulsive disorder with 1-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Yamamuro, Kazuhiko; Okada, Koji; Kishimoto, Naoko; Ota, Toyosaku; Iida, Junzo; Kishimoto, Toshifumi

    2016-01-01

    Aim Earlier brain imaging research studies have suggested that brain abnormalities in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) normalize as clinical symptoms improve. However, although many studies have investigated event-related potentials (ERPs) in patients with OCD compared with healthy control subjects, it is currently unknown whether ERP changes reflect pharmacological and psychotherapeutic effects. As such, the current study examined the neurocognitive components of OCD to elucidate the pathophysiological abnormalities involved in the disorder, including the frontal-subcortical circuits. Methods The Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale was used to evaluate 14 adult patients with OCD. The present study also included ten age-, sex-, and IQ-matched controls. The P300 and mismatch negativity (MMN) components during an auditory oddball task at baseline for both groups and after 1 year of treatment for patients with OCD were measured. Results Compared with controls, P300 amplitude was attenuated in the OCD group at Cz and C4 at baseline. Pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy treatment for 1 year reduced OCD symptomology. P300 amplitude after 1 year of treatment was significantly increased, indicating normalization compared with baseline at Fz, Cz, C3, and C4. We found no differences in P300 latency, MMN amplitude, or MMN latency between baseline and after one year of treatment. Conclusion ERPs may be a useful tool for evaluating pharmacological and cognitive behavioral therapy in adult patients with OCD. PMID:27713631

  10. Polo-like kinase Cdc5 controls the local activation of Rho1 to promote cytokinesis.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Satoshi; Kono, Keiko; Lowery, Drew M; Bartolini, Sara; Yaffe, Michael B; Ohya, Yoshikazu; Pellman, David

    2006-07-07

    The links between the cell cycle machinery and the cytoskeletal proteins controlling cytokinesis are poorly understood. The small guanine nucleotide triphosphate (GTP)-binding protein RhoA stimulates type II myosin contractility and formin-dependent assembly of the cytokinetic actin contractile ring. We found that budding yeast Polo-like kinase Cdc5 controls the targeting and activation of Rho1 (RhoA) at the division site via Rho1 guanine nucleotide exchange factors. This role of Cdc5 (Polo-like kinase) in regulating Rho1 is likely to be relevant to cytokinesis and asymmetric cell division in other organisms.

  11. Hippocampal Neuron Number Is Unchanged 1 Year After Fractionated Whole-Brain Irradiation at Middle Age

    SciTech Connect

    Shi Lei Molina, Doris P.; Robbins, Michael E.; Wheeler, Kenneth T.; Brunso-Bechtold, Judy K.

    2008-06-01

    Purpose: To determine whether hippocampal neurons are lost 12 months after middle-aged rats received a fractionated course of whole-brain irradiation (WBI) that is expected to be biologically equivalent to the regimens used clinically in the treatment of brain tumors. Methods and Materials: Twelve-month-old Fischer 344 X Brown Norway male rats were divided into WBI and control (CON) groups (n = 6 per group). Anesthetized WBI rats received 45 Gy of {sup 137}Cs {gamma} rays delivered as 9 5-Gy fractions twice per week for 4.5 weeks. Control rats were anesthetized but not irradiated. Twelve months after WBI completion, all rats were anesthetized and perfused with paraformaldehyde, and hippocampal sections were immunostained with the neuron-specific antibody NeuN. Using unbiased stereology, total neuron number and the volume of the neuronal and neuropil layers were determined in the dentate gyrus, CA3, and CA1 subregions of hippocampus. Results: No differences in tissue integrity or neuron distribution were observed between the WBI and CON groups. Moreover, quantitative analysis demonstrated that neither total neuron number nor the volume of neuronal or neuropil layers differed between the two groups for any subregion. Conclusions: Impairment on a hippocampal-dependent learning and memory test occurs 1 year after fractionated WBI at middle age. The same WBI regimen, however, does not lead to a loss of neurons or a reduction in the volume of hippocampus.

  12. Elaborate uORF/IRES features control expression and localization of human glycyl-tRNA synthetase

    PubMed Central

    Alexandrova, Jana; Paulus, Caroline; Rudinger-Thirion, Joëlle; Jossinet, Fabrice; Frugier, Magali

    2015-01-01

    The canonical activity of glycyl-tRNA synthetase (GARS) is to charge glycine onto its cognate tRNAs. However, outside translation, GARS also participates in many other functions. A single gene encodes both the cytosolic and mitochondrial forms of GARS but 2 mRNA isoforms were identified. Using immunolocalization assays, in vitro translation assays and bicistronic constructs we provide experimental evidence that one of these mRNAs tightly controls expression and localization of human GARS. An intricate regulatory domain was found in its 5′-UTR which displays a functional Internal Ribosome Entry Site and an upstream Open Reading Frame. Together, these elements hinder the synthesis of the mitochondrial GARS and target the translation of the cytosolic enzyme to ER-bound ribosomes. This finding reveals a complex picture of GARS translation and localization in mammals. In this context, we discuss how human GARS expression could influence its moonlighting activities and its involvement in diseases. PMID:26327585

  13. Spatial localization of bacteria controls coagulation of human blood by 'quorum acting'.

    PubMed

    Kastrup, Christian J; Boedicker, James Q; Pomerantsev, Andrei P; Moayeri, Mahtab; Bian, Yao; Pompano, Rebecca R; Kline, Timothy R; Sylvestre, Patricia; Shen, Feng; Leppla, Stephen H; Tang, Wei-Jen; Ismagilov, Rustem F

    2008-12-01

    Blood coagulation often accompanies bacterial infections and sepsis and is generally accepted as a consequence of immune responses. Though many bacterial species can directly activate individual coagulation factors, they have not been shown to directly initiate the coagulation cascade that precedes clot formation. Here we demonstrated, using microfluidics and surface patterning, that the spatial localization of bacteria substantially affects coagulation of human and mouse blood and plasma. Bacillus cereus and Bacillus anthracis, the anthrax-causing pathogen, directly initiated coagulation of blood in minutes when bacterial cells were clustered. Coagulation of human blood by B. anthracis required secreted zinc metalloprotease InhA1, which activated prothrombin and factor X directly (not via factor XII or tissue factor pathways). We refer to this mechanism as 'quorum acting' to distinguish it from quorum sensing--it does not require a change in gene expression, it can be rapid and it can be independent of bacterium-to-bacterium communication.

  14. Surveillance and control of infectious diseases at local, national and international levels.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, J

    2005-04-01

    New emerging and re-emerging threats, the weight of public opinion and new technology for surveillance and treatment are likely to impact on how, and if, effective surveillance can be performed in the future. If surveillance fails to address the needs of practitioners and policy-makers, it is likely that there will be loss of confidence. Current surveillance systems are reasonably effective at detecting significant events that are localised in time and space. It is more difficult to detect diffuse and progressive events with a slow increase over time or sporadic and widespread events without obvious links to time, place or person. Detection of these events relies on good data collection, comparative background data and sophisticated analytical tools. To improve surveillance systems, we need methods with the appropriate sensitivity and specificity for the outputs desired. Targeted surveillance should enable better ascertainment of those cases which must be considered and those which can be dismissed. New methods, such as mathematical modelling and geographical information systems, support conventional surveillance in moving events into the known and predictable category. It is important to integrate surveillance across local, regional and international levels and to base surveillance on local public health structures. The purpose and value of data aggregation at each level and the amount of detail needed at each level must be carefully evaluated. The key to all these improvements is developing the workforce. Surveillance needs individuals with a broad range of skills: clinical, epidemiological, anthropological, and mathematical; in particular, people who can think laterally. These individuals must be encouraged through effective training courses, good mentorship, networking and clear career structures.

  15. Neuroanatomical localization of endocrine control of reproductive behavior in the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica)

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, J.T. III.

    1989-01-01

    Steroid autoradiography and systematic and intracranial steroid treatment were undertaken to determine the neuroanatomical loci which are sufficient to activate steroid sensitive behaviors in the Japanese quail. (1) Autoradiographic localization of steroid binding cells was performed on male and female quail brains using tritiated ({sup 3}H) testosterone (T), estradiol (E2), or 5{alpha}-dihydrotestosterone (DHT). The distributions of labelled cells in the quail brain following {sup 3}H-T or {sup 3}H-E2 injection and autoradiography were similar to one another. The distribution of labelled cells following {sup 3}H-DHT autoradiography was limited in comparison to that following {sup 3}H-T autoradiography. Males were found to have more labelled cells than females in nucleus taeniae. (2) Intracranial implantation of minute pellets of testoterone propionate (TP) and estradiol benzoate (EB) was performed to determine neuroanatomical loci at which steroids activate sexual behavior. Both TP and EB implants in the preoptic area (POA) activated male copulatory behavior. (3) Systematic injection of aromatase inhibitor prior to and concurrent with implantation completely blocked copulatory behavior in males with TP implants in the POA but failed to block copulation in males with EB implants in the POA. (4) Intact males and castrated males given 5 dosages of systematic EB treatment were tested for sexual behavior, and blood samples from each group were assayed for E2 concentration. (5) Midbrain DHTP implants were activated crowing without significantly stimulating peripheral androgen-sensitive tissues, but the effect on crowing was not localized to any one nucleus.

  16. Final Results of Local-Regional Control and Late Toxicity of RTOG 9003: A Randomized Trial of Altered Fractionation Radiation for Locally Advanced Head and Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Beitler, Jonathan J.; Zhang, Qiang; Fu, Karen K.; Trotti, Andy; Spencer, Sharon A.; Jones, Christopher U.; Garden, Adam S.; Shenouda, George; Harris, Jonathan; Ang, Kian K.

    2014-05-01

    Purpose: To test whether altered radiation fractionation schemes (hyperfractionation [HFX], accelerated fractionation, continuous [AFX-C], and accelerated fractionation with split [AFX-S]) improved local-regional control (LRC) rates for patients with squamous cell cancers (SCC) of the head and neck when compared with standard fractionation (SFX) of 70 Gy. Methods and Materials: Patients with stage III or IV (or stage II base of tongue) SCC (n=1076) were randomized to 4 treatment arms: (1) SFX, 70 Gy/35 daily fractions/7 weeks; (2) HFX, 81.6 Gy/68 twice-daily fractions/7 weeks; (3) AFX-S, 67.2 Gy/42 fractions/6 weeks with a 2-week rest after 38.4 Gy; and (4) AFX-C, 72 Gy/42 fractions/6 weeks. The 3 experimental arms were to be compared with SFX. Results: With patients censored for LRC at 5 years, only the comparison of HFX with SFX was significantly different: HFX, hazard ratio (HR) 0.79 (95% confidence interval 0.62-1.00), P=.05; AFX-C, 0.82 (95% confidence interval 0.65-1.05), P=.11. With patients censored at 5 years, HFX improved overall survival (HR 0.81, P=.05). Prevalence of any grade 3, 4, or 5 toxicity at 5 years; any feeding tube use after 180 days; or feeding tube use at 1 year did not differ significantly when the experimental arms were compared with SFX. When 7-week treatments were compared with 6-week treatments, accelerated fractionation appeared to increase grade 3, 4 or 5 toxicity at 5 years (P=.06). When the worst toxicity per patient was considered by treatment only, the AFX-C arm seemed to trend worse than the SFX arm when grade 0-2 was compared with grade 3-5 toxicity (P=.09). Conclusions: At 5 years, only HFX improved LRC and overall survival for patients with locally advanced SCC without increasing late toxicity.

  17. Cryotherapy with concurrent CpG oligonucleotide treatment controls local tumor recurrence and modulates Her2/neu immunity

    PubMed Central

    Veenstra, Jesse J.; Gibson, Heather M.; Littrup, Peter J.; Reyes, Joyce D.; Cher, Michael L.; Takashima, Akira; Wei, Wei-Zen

    2014-01-01

    Percutaneous cryoablation is a minimally invasive procedure for tumor destruction, which can potentially initiate or amplify antitumor immunity through the release of tumor-associated antigens. However, clinically efficacious immunity is lacking and regional recurrences are a limiting factor relative to surgical excision. To understand the mechanism of immune activation by cryoablation, comprehensive analyses of innate immunity and Her2/neu humoral and cellular immunity following cryoablation with or without peritumoral CpG injection was conducted using two Her2/neu+ tumor systems in wild type, neu-tolerant, and SCID mice. Cryoablation of neu+ TUBO tumor in BALB/c mice resulted in systemic immune priming, but not in neu-tolerant BALB NeuT mice. Cryoablation of human Her2+ D2F2/E2 tumor enabled the functionality of tumor-induced immunity but secondary tumors were refractory to anti-tumor immunity if rechallenge occurred during the resolution phase of the cryoablated tumor. A step-wise increase in local recurrence was observed in wild type, neu-tolerant, and SCID mice indicating a role of adaptive immunity in controlling residual tumor foci. Importantly, local recurrences were eliminated or greatly reduced in wild type, neu tolerant and SCID mice when CpG was incorporated in the cryoablation regimen, showing significant local control by innate immunity. For long-term protection, however, adaptive immunity was required because most SCID mice eventually succumbed to local tumor recurrence even with combined cryoablation and CpG treatment. This improved understanding of the mechanisms by which cryoablation affects innate and adaptive immunity will help guide appropriate combination of therapeutic interventions to improve treatment outcomes. PMID:25092895

  18. Primary Tumor Necrosis Predicts Distant Control in Locally Advanced Soft-Tissue Sarcomas After Preoperative Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    MacDermed, Dhara M.; Miller, Luke L.; Peabody, Terrance D.; Simon, Michael A.; Luu, Hue H.; Haydon, Rex C.; Montag, Anthony G.; Undevia, Samir D.

    2010-03-15

    Purpose: Various neoadjuvant approaches have been evaluated for the treatment of locally advanced soft-tissue sarcomas. This retrospective study describes a uniquely modified version of the Eilber regimen developed at the University of Chicago. Methods and Materials: We treated 34 patients (28 Stage III and 6 Stage IV) with locally advanced soft-tissue sarcomas of an extremity between 1995 and 2008. All patients received preoperative therapy including ifosfamide (2.5 g/m2 per day for 5 days) with concurrent radiation (28 Gy in 3.5-Gy daily fractions), sandwiched between various chemotherapy regimens. Postoperatively, 47% received further adjuvant chemotherapy. Results: Most tumors (94%) were Grade 3, and all were T2b, with a median size of 10.3 cm. Wide excision was performed in 29 patients (85%), and 5 required amputation. Of the resected tumor specimens, 50% exhibited high (>=90%) treatment-induced necrosis and 11.8% had a complete pathologic response. Surgical margins were negative in all patients. The 5-year survival rate was 42.3% for all patients and 45.2% for Stage III patients. For limb-preservation patients, the 5-year local control rate was 89.0% and reoperation was required for wound complications in 17.2%. The 5-year freedom-from-distant metastasis rate was 53.4% (Stage IV patients excluded), and freedom from distant metastasis was superior if treatment-induced tumor necrosis was 90% or greater (84.6% vs. 19.9%, p = 0.02). Conclusions: This well-tolerated concurrent chemoradiotherapy approach yields excellent rates of limb preservation and local control. The resulting treatment-induced necrosis rates are predictive of subsequent metastatic risk, and this information may provide an opportunity to guide postoperative systemic therapies.

  19. 21 CFR 1240.30 - Measures in the event of inadequate local control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... 1240.30 Section 1240.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... CONTROL OF COMMUNICABLE DISEASES Administrative Procedures § 1240.30 Measures in the event of inadequate... the spread of any of the communicable diseases from such State or possession to any other State...

  20. [Genetic control of the spring habit in old local cultivars and landraces of common wheat from Siberia].

    PubMed

    Moiseeva, E A; Goncharov, N O

    2007-04-01

    The inheritance of the spring habit was studied in 63 old local cultivars and landraces of common wheat from Eastern and Western Siberia and the Tyva Republic. Minimal polymorphism was observed for the dominant Vrn genes, controlling the spring habit in landraces of these regions. The control was digenic and involved the Vrnl and Vrn2 dominant genes in the majority (95%) of cultivars and was monogenic in three cultivars. None of the cultivars had the Vrn3 dominant gene, characteristic of the neighboring regions of China and Central Asia. Among 137 old local cultivars and landraces of Siberia, only one (cultivar Sibirskaya (k-23347) from Irkutsk oblast, was comparable in the response to the natural short day (photoperiod) to Chinese cultivars. Comparison of the results and the data reported for commercial cultivars revealed that the genotype frequencies of the dominant Vrn genes in Siberian landraces and commercial cultivars of common wheat remained essentially unchanged at least for the past 100 years. At the same time, Siberian landraces significantly differed in Vrn dominant gene frequencies from cultivars of the adjacent regions. It was assumed that the control of the spring habit by the two Vrn dominant genes is optimal for the climatic conditions of Siberia.

  1. Efficacy of local neem extracts for sustainable malaria vector control in an African village

    PubMed Central

    Gianotti, Rebecca L; Bomblies, Arne; Dafalla, Mustafa; Issa-Arzika, Ibrahim; Duchemin, Jean-Bernard; Eltahir, Elfatih AB

    2008-01-01

    Background Larval control of malaria vectors has been historically successful in reducing malaria transmission, but largely fell out of favour with the introduction of synthetic insecticides and bed nets. However, an integrated approach to malaria control, including larval control methods, continues to be the best chance for success, in view of insecticide resistance, the behavioural adaptation of the vectors to changing environments and the difficulties of reaching the poorest populations most at risk,. Laboratory studies investigating the effects of neem seed (Azadirachta indica) extracts on Anopheles larvae have shown high rates of larval mortality and reductions in adult longevity, as well as low potential for resistance development. Methods This paper describes a method whereby seeds of the neem tree can be used to reduce adult Anopheles gambiae s.l. abundance in a way that is low cost and can be implemented by residents of rural villages in western Niger. The study was conducted in Banizoumbou village, western Niger. Neem seeds were collected from around the village. Dried seeds were ground into a coarse powder, which was then sprinkled onto known Anopheles larvae breeding habitats twice weekly during the rainy season 2007. Adult mosquitoes were captured on a weekly basis in the village and captures compared to those from 2005 and 2006 over the same period. Adult mosquitoes were also captured in a nearby village, Zindarou, as a control data set and compared to those from Banizoumbou. Results It was found that twice-weekly applications of the powder to known breeding habitats of Anopheles larvae in 2007 resulted in 49% fewer adult female Anopheles gambiae s.l. mosquitoes in Banizoumbou, compared with previous captures under similar environmental conditions and with similar habitat characteristics in 2005 and 2006. The productivity of the system in 2007 was found to be suppressed compared to the mean behaviour of 2005 and 2006 in Banizoumbou, whereas no change

  2. A randomized controlled trial comparing mandibular local anesthesia techniques in children receiving nitrous oxide-oxygen sedation.

    PubMed Central

    Naidu, Sinuba; Loughlin, Pat; Coldwell, Susan E.; Noonan, Carolyn J.; Milgrom, Peter

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that dental pain control using infiltration/intrapapillary injection was less effective than inferior alveolar block/long buccal infiltration anesthesia in children. A total of 101 healthy children, aged 5-8 years, who had no contraindication for local anesthetic and who needed a pulpotomy treatment and stainless steel crown placement in a lower primary molar were studied. A 2-group randomized blinded controlled design was employed comparing the 2 local anesthesia techniques using 2% lidocaine, 1:100,000 epinephrine. All children were given 40% nitrous oxide. Children self-reported pain using the Color Analogue Scale. The study was conducted in a private pediatric dental practice in Mount Vernon, Wash. Overall pain levels reported by the children were low, and there were no differences between conditions at any point in the procedure. Pain reports for clamp placement were block/long buccal 2.8 and infiltration/intrapapillary 1.9 (P = .1). Pain reports for drilling were block/long buccal 2.0 and infiltration/intrapapillary 1.8 (P = .7). Nine percent of children required supplementary local anesthetic: 4 of 52 (7.7%) in the block/long buccal group and 5 of 49 (10.2%) in the infiltration/intrapapillary group (P = .07). The hypothesis that block/long buccal would be more effective than infiltration/intrapapillary was not supported. There was no difference in pain control effectiveness between infiltration/intrapapillary injection and inferior alveolar block/long buccal infiltration using 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine when mandibular primary molars received pulpotomy treatment and stainless steel crowns. PMID:15106686

  3. Response of pest control by generalist predators to local-scale plant diversity: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Dassou, Anicet Gbèblonoudo; Tixier, Philippe

    2016-02-01

    Disentangling the effects of plant diversity on the control of herbivores is important for understanding agricultural sustainability. Recent studies have investigated the relationships between plant diversity and arthropod communities at the landscape scale, but few have done so at the local scale. We conducted a meta-analysis of 32 papers containing 175 independent measures of the relationship between plant diversity and arthropod communities. We found that generalist predators had a strong positive response to plant diversity, that is, their abundance increased as plant diversity increased. Herbivores, in contrast, had an overall weak and negative response to plant diversity. However, specialist and generalist herbivores differed in their response to plant diversity, that is, the response was negative for specialists and not significant for generalists. While the effects of scale remain unclear, the response to plant diversity tended to increase for specialist herbivores, but decrease for generalist herbivores as the scale increased. There was no clear effect of scale on the response of generalist predators to plant diversity. Our results suggest that the response of herbivores to plant diversity at the local scale is a balance between habitat and trophic effects that vary according to arthropod specialization and habitat type. Synthesis and applications. Positive effects of plant diversity on generalist predators confirm that, at the local scale, plant diversification of agroecosystems is a credible and promising option for increasing pest regulation. Results from our meta-analysis suggest that natural control in plant-diversified systems is more likely to occur for specialist than for generalist herbivores. In terms of pest management, our results indicate that small-scale plant diversification (via the planting of cover crops or intercrops and reduced weed management) is likely to increase the control of specialist herbivores by generalist predators.

  4. Magnetic resonance guided focused ultrasound surgery (MRgFUS) of bone metastases: From primary pain palliation to local tumor control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Napoli, A.; Leonardi, A.; Andrani, F.; Boni, F.; Anzidei, M.; Catalano, C.

    2017-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical performance of MRgFUS in primary pain palliation of painful bone metastases and in local tumor control. Materials and Methods: We enrolled 26 consecutive patients (female/male 12/14; age: 64.7±7.5yrs) with painful bone metastases. Before and 3 months after MRgFUS treatment pain severity and pain interference scores were assessed according to Brief Pain Inventory-Quality of Life (BPI-QoL) criteria and patients underwent both CT and MRI. Local tumor control was evaluated according to lesion size, density and perfusion at CT, dynamic contrast enhancement at MRI (Discovery 750HD, GE; Gd-Bopta, Bracco) and metabolic activity at PET or scintigraphy. Patients were classified as responders or non-responders. Results: No treatment-related adverse events were recorded during the study. As statistically significant difference between baseline and follow-up values for both pain severity and pain interference scores was observed (p<0.05). Increased bone density was observed in 9/26 (34.6%) patients. Non-Perfused Volume values ranged between 20% and 92%. There was no difference in NPV values between responders and non-responders (46.7±24.2% [25 - 90 %] vs. 45±24.9% [20 - 93 %]; p=0.7). In 6 patients (5 prostate and 1 breast primary cancer) there was nearly absence of metabolic activity after treatment (mean SUV=1.2). Conclusion: MRgFUS can be safely and effectively used as the primary treatment for pain palliation in patients with painful bone metastases; moreover our experience demonstrated also a potential role for the MRgFUS in local tumor control.

  5. Cathodic-controlled and near-infrared organic upconverter for local blood vessels mapping

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Chih-Hsien; Lee, Chih-Chien; Liu, Chun-Fu; Lin, Yun-Hsuan; Su, Wei-Cheng; Lin, Shao-Yu; Chen, Kuan-Ting; Li, Yan-De; Chang, Wen-Chang; Li, Ya-Ze; Su, Tsung-Hao; Liu, Yu-Hsuan; Liu, Shun-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Organic materials are used in novel optoelectronic devices because of the ease and high compatibility of their fabrication processes. Here, we demonstrate a low-driving-voltage cathodic-controlled organic upconverter with a mapping application that converts near-infrared images to produce images of visible blood vessels. The proposed upconverter has a multilayer structure consisting of a photosensitive charge-generation layer (CGL) and a phosphorescent organic light-emitting diode (OLED) for producing clear images with a high resolution of 600 dots per inch. In this study, temperature-dependent electrical characterization was performed to analyze the interfacial modification of the cathodic-controlled upconverter. The result shows that the upconverter demonstrated a high conversion efficiency of 3.46% because of reduction in the injection barrier height at the interface between the CGL and the OLED. PMID:27578199

  6. Nonautonomous spatiotemporal localized structures in the inhomogeneous optical fibers: Interaction and control

    SciTech Connect

    Dai Chaoqing; Wang Xiaogang; Zhang Jiefang

    2011-03-15

    Research Highlights: > The similarity transformation of (n + 1)-dimensional inhomogeneous NLSE are found. > From transformation, analytical self-similar waves and rogue waves are obtained. > Dynamical behaviors of self-similar waves in DDF are discussed. > The propagation and control of spatiotemporal self-similar waves are presented. - Abstract: We develop a systematic way to find the similarity transformation and investigate nonautonomous optical similariton dynamics for (n + 1)-dimensional nonlinear Schroedinger equation in the inhomogeneous optical fibers. A condition between the parameters of the mediums, which hints a exact balance between the dispersion/diffraction, nonlinearity and the gain/loss, has been obtained. Under this condition the optical similariton transmission in the dispersion-decreasing fibers (DDF) can be exactly controlled by proper dispersion management. Moreover, novel propagation dynamics of bright and dark similaritons on the background waves and optical rogue waves (rogons) in DDF are investigated too.

  7. Localized gene transfer and its application for the study of central cardiovascular control.

    PubMed

    Hirooka, Yoshitaka

    2006-06-30

    The arterial baroreceptor reflex is the major feedback control system that acts to stabilize blood pressure. Abnormalities of this reflex are considered to be an underlying mechanism in the cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension and heart failure. There is accumulating evidence, however, that central nervous system mechanisms are involved in the enhanced sympathetic drive that occurs in these disease states. This article reviews studies performed in our laboratory in which a gene transfer technique, in combination with other methods, was used to determine the functional role of the central control of cardiovascular regulation. We developed a technique to transfer adenovirus vectors encoding specific genes into the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) or the rostral ventral medulla (RVLM) of rats in vivo. We applied this technique to hypertensive rats as well as in mice with heart failure to explore the pathophysiological significance of nitric oxide, reactive oxygen species, and Rho-kinase.

  8. Cathodic-controlled and near-infrared organic upconverter for local blood vessels mapping.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Chih-Hsien; Lee, Chih-Chien; Liu, Chun-Fu; Lin, Yun-Hsuan; Su, Wei-Cheng; Lin, Shao-Yu; Chen, Kuan-Ting; Li, Yan-De; Chang, Wen-Chang; Li, Ya-Ze; Su, Tsung-Hao; Liu, Yu-Hsuan; Liu, Shun-Wei

    2016-08-31

    Organic materials are used in novel optoelectronic devices because of the ease and high compatibility of their fabrication processes. Here, we demonstrate a low-driving-voltage cathodic-controlled organic upconverter with a mapping application that converts near-infrared images to produce images of visible blood vessels. The proposed upconverter has a multilayer structure consisting of a photosensitive charge-generation layer (CGL) and a phosphorescent organic light-emitting diode (OLED) for producing clear images with a high resolution of 600 dots per inch. In this study, temperature-dependent electrical characterization was performed to analyze the interfacial modification of the cathodic-controlled upconverter. The result shows that the upconverter demonstrated a high conversion efficiency of 3.46% because of reduction in the injection barrier height at the interface between the CGL and the OLED.

  9. Injectable Sources of Locally Controlled Electrical Fields to Facilitate Tissue Repair

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    controlling the developmental growth deformities found in cleft lip & palate and craniofacial anomalies [2]. The requisite ’wiring’ of the wounds presents...representation of "Developmental Osteogenic Stimulation" [2] being used to direct and promote maxillary and palatal shelf growth following cleft lip ... palate repair. 4 each require a 0.8 V polarization. • The compliance voltage needed to generate the required current will thus be 0.8 + 0.8 + 0.4

  10. A new technique for controlling the finger skin temperature in microcirculatory research demonstrated in a local cold stress test in healthy controls and patients with Raynaud's phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Hahn, M; Klyscz, T; Bohnenberger, G; Jünger, M

    1996-01-01

    Changes in skin temperature cause great changes in blood flow and capillary blood pressure. The new technique presented here makes it possible to control the temperature of the finger during nailfold capillaroscopy. Automatic temperature control, both for warming and cooling, is made possible with the aid of a temperature-controlled finger holder. The temperature of the finger holder can be automatically matched to the spontaneous skin temperature of the examined finger, or the finger holder temperature and temperature change velocity can be set digitally to a desired value. We used this new technique in a local cold stress test on 9 healthy controls (3 men, 6 women) and 9 patients (3 men, 6 women) with Raynaud's phenomenon due to systemic sclerosis. We simultaneously measured capillary red blood cell velocity (CBV) and laser Doppler flux (LDF) in adjacent areas of the finger nailfold with three different cooling procedures (8, 10, 12 degrees C for 5 min). CBV and LDF values showed the most pronounced differences between patients and controls at 12 degrees C. This new technique supplements capillaroscopy with full temperature control and defined temperature changes. It can also be combined with measurements of LDF and capillary blood pressure. In view of the disadvantages of other cooling methods we recommend this new and easy-to-handle technique for clinical practice and research.

  11. Inflammation mobilizes local resources to control hyperalgesia: the role of endogenous opioid peptides.

    PubMed

    Alves, Daniela P; da Motta, Patrícia G; Lima, Patrícia P; Queiroz-Junior, Celso M; Caliari, Marcelo V; Pacheco, Daniela F; Pacheco, Cinthia F; Francischi, Janetti N; Duarte, Igor D G

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the mechanisms underlying the endogenous control of nociception at a peripheral level during inflammation. Using a pharmacological approach and the rat paw pressure test, we assessed the effect of an intraplantar injection of naloxone, an opioid receptor antagonist, and bestatin, an aminopeptidase inhibitor, on hyperalgesia induced by carrageenan, which mimics an inflammatory process, or prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), which directly sensitizes nociceptors. Naloxone induced a significant and dose-dependent (25, 50 or 100 μg) increase in carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia, but not PGE(2)-induced hyperalgesia. Bestatin (400 μg/paw) significantly counteracted carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia, inducing an increase in the nociceptive threshold compared to control, but it did not modify hyperalgesia induced by PGE(2) injection into the rat paw. Positive β-endorphin immunoreactivity was increased in paw inflammation induced by carrageenan in comparison with the control group. However, PGE(2) did not significantly alter the immunostained area. These results provide evidence for activation of the endogenous opioidergic system during inflammation and indicate that this system regulates hyperalgesia through a negative feedback mechanism, modulating it at a peripheral level.

  12. Local flow management/profile descent algorithm. Fuel-efficient, time-controlled profiles for the NASA TSRV airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groce, J. L.; Izumi, K. H.; Markham, C. H.; Schwab, R. W.; Thompson, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    The Local Flow Management/Profile Descent (LFM/PD) algorithm designed for the NASA Transport System Research Vehicle program is described. The algorithm provides fuel-efficient altitude and airspeed profiles consistent with ATC restrictions in a time-based metering environment over a fixed ground track. The model design constraints include accommodation of both published profile descent procedures and unpublished profile descents, incorporation of fuel efficiency as a flight profile criterion, operation within the performance capabilities of the Boeing 737-100 airplane with JT8D-7 engines, and conformity to standard air traffic navigation and control procedures. Holding and path stretching capabilities are included for long delay situations.

  13. Continuous control of local magnetic moment by applied electric field in multiferroics Ba2CoGe2O7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soda, Minoru; Hayashida, Shohei; Roessli, Bertrand; Mânsson, Martin; White, Jonathan S.; Matsumoto, Masashige; Shiina, Ryousuke; Masuda, Takatsugu

    2016-09-01

    Ba2CoGe2O7 exhibits a collinear-antiferromagnetic structure with the easy axis along <100 > directions and an antiferroelectric order with the polarization axis along the [001] direction. By applying the electric field the magnetic moment rotates from <100 > to [110] directions and, simultaneously, the antiferroelectric state changes to the ferroelectric state gradually. This magnetoelectric effect, i.e., continuous control of the local magnetic moment by the electric field, is quantitatively explained by the Hamiltonian including the dielectric energy.

  14. Efficacy of acupuncture versus local methylprednisolone acetate injection in De Quervain's tenosynovitis: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Hadianfard, Mohammadjavad; Ashraf, Alireza; Fakheri, Maryamsadat; Nasiri, Aref

    2014-06-01

    There is no consensus on the management of De Quervain's tenosynovitis, but local corticosteroid injection is considered the mainstay of treatment. However, some patients are reluctant to take steroid injections. This study was performed to compare the efficacy of acupuncture versus corticosteroid injection for the treatment of this disease. Thirty patients were consequently treated in two groups. The acupuncture group received five acupuncture sessions of 30 minutes duration on classic points of LI-5, LU-7, and LU-9 and on ahshi points. The injection group received one methylprednisolone acetate injection in the first dorsal compartment of the wrist. The degree of disability and pain was evaluated by using the Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (Q-DASH) scale and the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) at baseline and at 2 weeks and 6 weeks after the start of treatment. The baseline means of the Q-DASH and the VAS scores were 62.8 and 6.9, respectively. At the last follow-up, the mean Q-DASH scores were 9.8 versus 6.2 in the acupuncture and injection groups, respectively, and the mean VAS scores were 2 versus 1.2. We demonstrated short-term improvement of pain and function in both groups. Although the success rate was somewhat higher with corticosteroid injection, acupuncture can be considered as an alternative option for treatment of De Quervain's tenosynovitis.

  15. Expression, localization and control of activin A release from human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Borges, Lavinia E; Bloise, Enrrico; Dela Cruz, Cynthia; Massai, Lauretta; Ciarmela, Pasquapina; Apa, Rosanna; Luisi, Stefano; Severi, Filiberto M; Petraglia, Felice; Reis, Fernando M

    2015-01-01

    Activin-A is a member of the TGFβ superfamily found in maternal and umbilical cord blood throughout gestation. We investigated whether human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) express activin-A in vivo and tested the effects of vasoactive (endothelin-1), pro-inflammatory (interferon-γ, interleukin-8) and anti-inflammatory (dexamethasone, urocortin) factors on activin-A release by isolated HUVEC in vitro. Activin βA subunit protein and mRNA were strongly localized in the endothelial cells of umbilical veins and were also detectable in scattered cells of the cord connective tissue. Dimeric activin-A was detected in the HUVEC culture medium at picomolar concentrations. Activin-A release by HUVEC decreased after cell incubation with urocortin (p < 0.01), whereas no effect was observed with interleukin-8, interferon-γ, endothelin-1 or dexamethasone. In summary, activin-A is present in the human umbilical vein endothelium in vivo and is produced and released by isolated HUVEC. Activin-A secretion is inhibited in vitro by urocortin, a neuropeptide with predominantly anti-inflammatory action.

  16. Using human extra-cortical local field potentials to control a switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Philip; Andreasen, Dinal; Ehirim, Princewill; King, Brandon; Kirby, Todd; Mao, Hui; Moore, Melody

    2004-06-01

    Individuals with profound paralysis and mutism require a communication channel. Traditional assistive technology devices eventually fail, especially in the case of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) subjects who gradually become totally locked-in. A direct brain-to-computer interface that provides switch functions can provide a direct communication channel to the external world. Electroencephalographic (EEG) signals recorded from scalp electrodes are significantly degraded due to skull and scalp attenuation and ambient noise. The present system using conductive skull screws allows more reliable access to cortical local field potentials (LFPs) without entering the brain itself. We describe an almost locked-in human subject with ALS who activated a switch using online time domain detection techniques. Frequency domain analysis of his LFP activity demonstrates this to be an alternative method of detecting switch activation intentions. With this brain communicator system it is reasonable to expect that locked-in, but cognitively intact, humans will always be able to communicate. Financial disclosure. Authors PK and DA may derive some financial gain from the sale of this device. A patent has been applied under US and international law: 10/675,703.

  17. Genetic Control of Chromatin States in Humans Involves Local and Distal Chromosomal Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Grubert, Fabian; Zaugg, Judith B.; Kasowski, Maya; Ursu, Oana; Spacek, Damek V.; Martin, Alicia R.; Greenside, Peyton; Srivas, Rohith; Phanstiel, Doug H.; Pekowska, Aleksandra; Heidari, Nastaran; Euskirchen, Ghia; Huber, Wolfgang; Pritchard, Jonathan K.; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Steinmetz, Lars M.; Kundaje, Anshul; Snyder, Michael

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Deciphering the impact of genetic variants on gene regulation is fundamental to understanding human disease. Although gene regulation often involves long-range interactions, it is unknown to what extent non-coding genetic variants influence distal molecular phenotypes. Here, we integrate chromatin profiling for three histone marks in lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) from 75 sequenced individuals with LCL-specific Hi-C and ChIA-PET-based chromatin contact maps to uncover one of the largest collections of local and distal histone quantitative trait loci (hQTLs). Distal QTLs are enriched within topologically associated domains and exhibit largely concordant variation of chromatin state coordinated by proximal and distal non-coding genetic variants. Histone QTLs are enriched for common variants associated with autoimmune diseases and enable identification of putative target genes of disease-associated variants from genome-wide association studies. These analyses provide insights into how genetic variation can affect human disease phenotypes by coordinated changes in chromatin at interacting regulatory elements. PMID:26300125

  18. Discrete domains of MARCH1 mediate its localization, functional interactions, and posttranscriptional control of expression.

    PubMed

    Jabbour, Maurice; Campbell, Erin M; Fares, Hanna; Lybarger, Lonnie

    2009-11-15

    Within APCs, ubiquitination regulates the trafficking of immune modulators such as MHC class II and CD86 (B7.2) molecules. MARCH1 (membrane-associated RING-CH), a newly identified ubiquitin E3 ligase expressed in APCs, ubiquitinates MHC class II, thereby reducing its surface expression. Following LPS-induced maturation of dendritic cells, MARCH1 mRNA is down-regulated and MHC class II is redistributed to the cell surface from endosomal compartments. Here, we show that MARCH1 expression is also regulated at the posttranscriptional level. In primary dendritic cell and APC cell lines of murine origin, MARCH1 had a half-life of <30 min. MARCH1 degradation appears to occur partly in lysosomes, since inhibiting lysosomal activity stabilized MARCH1. Similar stabilization was observed when MARCH1-expressing cells were treated with cysteine protease inhibitors. Mutational analyses of MARCH1 defined discrete domains required for destabilization, proper localization, and functional interaction with substrates. Taken together, these data suggest that MARCH1 expression is regulated at a posttranscriptional level by trafficking within the endolysosomal pathway where MARCH1 is proteolyzed. The short half-life of MARCH1 permits very rapid changes in the levels of the protein in response to changes in the mRNA, resulting in efficient induction of Ag presentation once APCs receive maturational signals.

  19. Controlling adhesion between multi-asperity contacting surfaces in MEMS devices by local heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gkouzou, A.; Kokorian, J.; Janssen, G. C. A. M.; van Spengen, W. M.

    2016-09-01

    In this work, we have incorporated heaters in a MEMS device, which allow the in situ local heating of its contacting surfaces. This design offers a promising solution for MEMS devices with contacting components by preventing capillary-induced adhesion. The force of adhesion was assessed by optically measuring in-plane snap-off displacements. We were able to decrease adhesion from 500 nN to 200 nN with just one heated surface of which the temperature was set above 300 °C. The temperature should not be set too high: we observed increased adhesion due to a direct bonding process once the temperature was increased above 750 °C. Remarkably, adhesion increased by heating from room temperature to 75 °C, which is attributed to more water being transferred to the contact area due to faster kinetics. We observed the same effect in the cases where both surfaces were heated, although at slightly different temperatures. We demonstrated that heating only one surface to between 300 °C and 750 °C is sufficient to significantly lower adhesion, due to the removal of capillary menisci. The required heater is typically most easily implemented in a stationary part of the device.

  20. Inhibition of Calcification of Bioprosthetic Heart Valves by Local Controlled-Release Diphosphonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Robert J.; Wolfrum, Jacqueline; Schoen, Frederick J.; Hawley, Marguerite A.; Lund, Sally Anne; Langer, Robert

    1985-04-01

    Bioprostheses fabricated from porcine aortic valves are widely used to replace diseased heart valves. Calcification is the principal cause of the clinical failure of these devices. In the present study, inhibition of the calcification of bioprosthetic heart valve cusps implanted subcutaneously in rats was achieved through the adjacent implantation of controlled-release matrices containing the anticalcification agent ethanehydroxydiphosphonate dispersed in a copolymer of ethylene-vinyl acetate. Prevention of calcification was virtually complete, without the adverse effects of retarded bone and somatic growth that accompany systemic administration of ethanehydroxydiphosphonate.

  1. Effects of locality based community hospital care on independence in older people needing rehabilitation: randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Green, John; Young, John; Forster, Anne; Mallinder, Karen; Bogle, Sue; Lowson, Karin; Small, Neil

    2005-01-01

    Objective To determine the effects on independence in older people needing rehabilitation in a locality based community hospital compared with care on a ward for elderly people in a district general hospital. Design Randomised controlled trial. Setting Care in a community hospital and district general hospital in Bradford, England. Participants 220 patients needing rehabilitation after an acute illness that required hospital admission. Interventions Patients were randomly allocated to a locality based community hospital or to remain within a department for the care of elderly people in a district general hospital. Main outcome measures Primary outcomes were Nottingham extended activities of daily living scale and general health questionnaire 28 (carer). Secondary outcomes were activities of daily living (Barthel index), Nottingham health profile, hospital anxiety and depression scale, mortality, destination after discharge, satisfaction with services, carer strain index, and carer's satisfaction with services. Results The median length of stay was 15 days for both the community hospital and the district general hospital groups (interquartile range: community hospital 9-25 days; district general hospital 9-24 days). Independence at six months was greater in the community hospital group (adjusted mean difference 5.30, 95% confidence interval 0.64 to 9.96). Results for the secondary outcome measures, including care satisfaction and measures of carer burden, were similar for both groups. Conclusions Care in a locality based community hospital is associated with greater independence for older people than care in wards for elderly people in a district general hospital. PMID:15994660

  2. Localization and hormonal control of serine dehydratase during metabolic acidosis differ markedly from those of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase in rat kidney.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Tohru; Ogawa, Hirofumi; Matsushima, Takako; Kawamata, Seiichi; Sasahara, Masakiyo; Kuroda, Kazunari; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Takata, Yoshimi; Yamazaki, Mitsuaki; Takusagawa, Fusao; Pitot, Henry C

    2003-08-01

    Serine dehydratase (SDH) is abundant in the rat liver but scarce in the kidney. When administrated with dexamethasone, the renal SDH activity was augmented 20-fold, whereas the hepatic SDH activity was affected little. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry revealed that SDH was localized to the proximal straight tubule of the nephron. To address the role of this hormone, rats were made acidotic by gavage of NH(4)Cl. Twenty-two hours later, the SDH activity was increased three-fold along with a six-fold increment in the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) activity, a rate-limiting enzyme of gluconeogenesis. PEPCK, which is localized to the proximal tubules under the normal condition, spreads throughout the entire cortex to the outer medullary rays by acidosis, whereas SDH does not change regardless of treatment with dexamethasone or NH(4)Cl. When NH(4)Cl was given to adrenalectomized rats, in contrast to the SDH activity no longer increasing, the PEPCK activity responded to acidosis to the same extent as in the intact rats. A simultaneous administration of dexamethasone and NH(4)Cl into the adrenalectomized rats fully restored the SDH activity, demonstrating that the rise in the SDH activity during acidosis is primarily controlled by glucocorticoids. The present findings clearly indicate that the localization of SDH and its hormonal regulation during acidosis are strikingly different from those of PEPCK.

  3. GEF-H1 modulates localized RhoA activation during cytokinesis under the control of mitotic kinases

    PubMed Central

    Birkenfeld, Jörg; Nalbant, Perihan; Bohl, Benjamin P.; Pertz, Olivier; Hahn, Klaus M.; Bokoch, Gary M.

    2007-01-01

    SUMMARY Formation of the mitotic cleavage furrow is dependent upon both microtubules and activity of the small GTPase RhoA. GEF-H1 is a microtubule-regulated exchange factor that couples microtubule dynamics to RhoA activation. GEF-H1 localized to the mitotic apparatus in HeLa cells, particularly at the tips of cortical microtubules and the midbody, and perturbation of GEF-H1 function induced mitotic aberrations, including asymmetric furrowing, membrane blebbing, and impaired cytokinesis. The mitotic kinases Aurora A/B and Cdk1/Cyclin B phosphorylate GEF-H1, thereby inhibiting GEF-H1 catalytic activity. Dephosphorylation of GEF-H1 occurs just prior to cytokinesis, accompanied by GEF-H1-dependent GTP-loading on RhoA. Using a live cell biosensor, we demonstrate distinct roles for GEF-H1 and Ect2 in regulating Rho activity in the cleavage furrow, with GEF-H1 catalyzing Rho activation in response to Ect2-dependent localization and initiation of cell cleavage. Our results identify a GEF-H1-dependent mechanism to modulate localized RhoA activation during cytokinesis under the control of mitotic kinases. PMID:17488622

  4. Fatigue strength of Al7075 notched plates based on the local SED averaged over a control volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berto, Filippo; Lazzarin, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    When pointed V-notches weaken structural components, local stresses are singular and their intensities are expressed in terms of the notch stress intensity factors (NSIFs). These parameters have been widely used for fatigue assessments of welded structures under high cycle fatigue and sharp notches in plates made of brittle materials subjected to static loading. Fine meshes are required to capture the asymptotic stress distributions ahead of the notch tip and evaluate the relevant NSIFs. On the other hand, when the aim is to determine the local Strain Energy Density (SED) averaged in a control volume embracing the point of stress singularity, refined meshes are, not at all, necessary. The SED can be evaluated from nodal displacements and regular coarse meshes provide accurate values for the averaged local SED. In the present contribution, the link between the SED and the NSIFs is discussed by considering some typical welded joints and sharp V-notches. The procedure based on the SED has been also proofed to be useful for determining theoretical stress concentration factors of blunt notches and holes. In the second part of this work an application of the strain energy density to the fatigue assessment of Al7075 notched plates is presented. The experimental data are taken from the recent literature and refer to notched specimens subjected to different shot peening treatments aimed to increase the notch fatigue strength with respect to the parent material.

  5. A biodegradable perivascular wrap for controlled, local and directed drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, William G.; Hogrebe, Paul C.; Grainger, David W.; Cheung, Alfred K.; Terry, Christi M.

    2012-01-01

    Perivascular delivery of anti-proliferative agents is an attractive approach to inhibit hyperplasia that causes stenosis of synthetic hemodialysis grafts and other vascular grafts. Perivascular drug delivery systems typically release drugs to both the vascular wall and non-target extravascular tissue. The objective of this study was to develop a biodegradable, perivascular delivery system for localized, sustained and unidirectional drug release in the context of synthetic arteriovenous (AV) grafts used for chronic hemodialysis. To this end, a dense non-porous polymer barrier layer was laminated to either i) a drug-loaded non-porous polymer layer, or ii) a porous polymer layer. To provide tuneability, the porous layer could be loaded with drug during casting or later infused with a drug-loaded hydrogel. The polymer bilayer wraps were prepared by a solvent casting, thermal-phase inversion technique using either polylactide-co-glycolide (PLGA) or polycaprolactone (PCL). Sunitinib, a multi-target receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, was used as a model drug. In a modified transwell chamber system, the barrier function of the non-porous PLGA backing was superior to the non-porous PCL backing although both markedly inhibited drug diffusion. As assessed by in vitro release assays, drug release duration from the drug-loaded non-porous PCL construct was almost 4-fold greater than release from the porous PCL construct infused with drug-laden hydrogel (22 days vs. 5 days); release duration from the drug-loaded non-porous PLGA construct was prolonged approximately 3-fold over release from the porous PLGA construct infused with drug-laden hydrogel (9 days vs. 3 days). Complete in vitro degradation of the PLGA porous and non-porous constructs occurred by approximately 35 days whereas the PCL constructs remained intact even after most drug was released (49 days). The PLGA non-porous bilayer wrap containing 143±5.5 mg sunitinib in the inner layer was chosen for further

  6. Clinical and microbiological effects of controlled-release locally delivered minocycline in periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Jones, A A; Kornman, K S; Newbold, D A; Manwell, M A

    1994-11-01

    The clinical efficacy of minocycline in a subgingival local delivery system was evaluated alone (M) or as an adjunct to scaling and root planing (M + SRP), in comparison to scaling and root planing (SRP) or to no subgingival treatment (NoTx) in adult periodontitis. Fifty-one adult patients with > or = 7 mm periodontal pockets demonstrating the presence by culture of Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg), Prevotella intermedia (P(i)), or Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (Aa) were randomized into one of the above 4 treatment groups. All sites > or = 5 mm in the most diseased quadrant in each patient received the therapy. Other quadrants were not treated. All patients received standardized oral hygiene instructions at the beginning of the study. At 0, 1, 3 and 6 months following therapy the 7 mm experimental sites were evaluated for selected periodontal pathogens by DNA probe analysis. At these same time points, the plaque index, gingival index, and bleeding on probing were evaluated as well as probing depth and relative clinical attachment level which were assessed by means of an automated probe. Probing depth reduction with M + SRP was significantly greater than all other groups at one month and significantly greater than NoTx and SRP at 3 months. There were no differences in probing depth reduction among groups at 6 months. At 6 months the gain in clinical attachment level was significantly greater for SRP than for either the NoTx or M groups. The prevalence of Pg decreased significantly in the M and M + SRP groups at one month.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Postoperative radiotherapy improves local control and survival in patients with uterine leiomyosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To examine the role of radiotherapy (RT) in uterine leiomyosarcomas (LMS) and to determine the patient population who may benefit from RT. Methods From 1998–2008, 69 patients with primary uterine LMS underwent hysterectomy with or without pelvic radiotherapy to a median dose of 45 Gy. Univariate analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier method and cumulative-incidence function, and multivariate analyses using Fine and Gray or Cox proportional hazard models. Results Following surgery, 32 out of 69 patients received RT. There was no evidence of any correlation between patient, disease and treatment characteristics and the use of RT. Median follow-up was 57 months. RT was associated with reduced local recurrence (3y LR 19% vs. 39%; Gray’s p = 0.019) and improved overall survival (3y OS 69% vs. 35%; log-rank p = 0.025) on univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that RT reduced LR (HR: 0.28, CI: 0.11-0.69, p = 0.006) and increased OS (HR: 0.44, CI: 0.23-0.85, p = 0.014) independent of other clinical and pathologic factors. Positive surgical margins increased the odds of LR (HR: 5.6, CI: 2.3-13.4, p = 0.00012). Large tumor size and advanced stage (II-IV) were associated with the development of distant metastases and inferior OS. Conclusions Postoperative pelvic RT reduces LR and improves OS of patients with uterine LMS. PMID:23705661

  8. Policy approaches to support local community control over the supply and distribution of kava in the Northern Territory (Australia).

    PubMed

    Clough, Alan R; Jones, Peter J

    2004-03-01

    The health consequences of kava abuse in Arnhem Land Aboriginal populations in the Northern Territory (NT) and the persistence of an illegal kava trade with its associated social harms have been a cause for concern for 20 years. Despite these concerns, some Arnhem Land groups seek to continue using kava and to control its sale, distribution and the profits from the enterprise. In response, policy makers in the NT have embraced principles of harm reduction and created regulatory mechanisms to address broader public concerns and to support local management of kava supply while reinforcing control over the consequences of its use. This paper describes the kava regulatory system now being implemented in the NT which features kava management plans developed in consultation between Aboriginal communities and licensing authorities. It complements the earlier Harm Reduction Digest 9 by McDonald & Jowitt which looked at Kava in the South Pacific.

  9. Optogenetic Control of Nuclear Protein Import in Living Cells Using Light-Inducible Nuclear Localization Signals (LINuS).

    PubMed

    Wehler, Pierre; Niopek, Dominik; Eils, Roland; Di Ventura, Barbara

    2016-06-02

    Many biological processes are regulated by the timely import of specific proteins into the nucleus. The ability to spatiotemporally control the nuclear import of proteins of interest therefore allows study of their role in a given biological process as well as controlling this process in space and time. The light-inducible nuclear localization signal (LINuS) was developed based on a natural plant photoreceptor that reversibly triggers the import of proteins of interest into the nucleus with blue light. Each LINuS is a small, genetically encoded domain that is fused to the protein of interest at the N or C terminus. These protocols describe how to carry out initial microscopy-based screening to assess which LINuS variant works best with a protein of interest. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  10. When brain damage "improves" perception: neglect patients can localize motion-shifted probes better than controls.

    PubMed

    de Vito, Stefania; Lunven, Marine; Bourlon, Clémence; Duret, Christophe; Cavanagh, Patrick; Bartolomeo, Paolo

    2015-12-01

    When we look at bars flashed against a moving background, we see them displaced in the direction of the upcoming motion (flash-grab illusion). It is still debated whether these motion-induced position shifts are low-level, reflexive consequences of stimulus motion or high-level compensation engaged only when the stimulus is tracked with attention. To investigate whether attention is a causal factor for this striking illusory position shift, we evaluated the flash-grab illusion in six patients with damaged attentional networks in the right hemisphere and signs of left visual neglect and six age-matched controls. With stimuli in the top, right, and bottom visual fields, neglect patients experienced the same amount of illusion as controls. However, patients showed no significant shift when the test was presented in their left hemifield, despite having equally precise judgments. Thus, paradoxically, neglect patients perceived the position of the flash more veridically in their neglected hemifield. These results suggest that impaired attentional processes can reduce the interaction between a moving background and a superimposed stationary flash, and indicate that attention is a critical factor in generating the illusory motion-induced shifts of location.

  11. Tumor control and therapeutic gain with different schedules of combined radiotherapy and local external hyperthermia in human cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Arcangeli, G.; Cividalli, A.; Nervi, C.; Creton, G.; Lovisolo, G.; Mauro, F.

    1983-08-01

    Tumor control and therapeutic gain have been evaluated in a series of studies on patients with multiple lesions employing different protocols of combined radiotherapy (RT) and local external hyperthermia (HT). Tumor response has been evaluated during a follow-up ranging 6 to 18 months. Local tumor control was constantly better in lesions treated with any combined modalities in comparison with RT alone. The use of high RT dose per fraction appeared to increase tumor control only in the combined modalities groups, the immediate (so called simultaneous) schedule (HT at 42.5/sup 0/C/45 min, applied immediately after each RT fraction, twice a week) being more effective than the delayed (so called sequential) treatment (HT at 42.5/sup 0/C/45 min, delivered 4 h after each RT fraction, twice a week). The combination of high RT dose per fraction with high temperature HT (45/sup 0/C for 30 min) achieved the best tumor control. Consequently, a good therapeutic enhancement factor (TEF) (1.58) was obtained when conventional RT doses per fraction were used in association with 42.5/sup 0/C HT. TEF values of 1.40 and 1.15 were observed when high RT doses per fraction were employed in association with the delayed and immediate 42.5/sup 0/C HT, respectively. HT at 45/sup 0/C can be safely employed only when tumors can be heated selectively or at least preferentially in comparison with normal tissue; in the lesions treated with such a schedule a TEF of 2.10 was obtained.

  12. High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy Boost Effect on Local Tumor Control in Young Women With Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Guinot, Jose-Luis; Baixauli-Perez, Cristobal; Soler, Pablo; Tortajada, Maria Isabel; Moreno, Araceli; Santos, Miguel Angel; Mut, Alejandro; Gozalbo, Francisco; Arribas, Leoncio

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the local control rate and complications of a single fraction of high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR BT) boost in women aged 45 yeas and younger after breast-conserving therapy. Methods and Materials: Between 1999 and 2007, 167 patients between the ages of 26 and 45 years old (72 were 40 years old or younger), with stages T1 to T2 invasive breast cancer with disease-free margin status of at least 5 mm after breast-conserving surgery received 46 to 50 Gy whole-breast irradiation plus a 7-Gy HDR-BT boost (“fast boost”). An axillary dissection was performed in 72.5% of the patients and sentinel lymph node biopsy in 27.5%. A supraclavicular area was irradiated in 19% of the patients. Chemotherapy was used in 86% of the patients and hormone treatment in 77%. Clinical nodes were present in 18% and pathological nodes in 29%. The pathological stage was pT0: 5%, pTis: 3%, pT1: 69% and pT2: 23%. Intraductal component was present in 40% and 28% were G3. Results: At a median follow-up of 92 months, 9 patients relapsed on the margin of the implant, and 1 patient in another quadrant, resulting in a 10-year local relapse rate of 4.3% and a breast relapse rate of 4.9%, with breast preservation in 93.4%; no case of mastectomy due to poor cosmesis arose. Actuarial 5- and 10-year disease-free, cause-specific, and overall survival rates were 87.9% and 85.8%, and 92.1% and 88.4%, and 92.1% and 87.3%, respectively. In a univariate analysis, triple-negative cases and negative hormone receptors did worse, but in a multivariate analysis, only the last factor was significant for local and breast control. Asymptomatic fibrosis G2 was recorded in 3 cases, and there were no other late complications. Cosmetic results were good to excellent in 97% of cases. Conclusions: A single dose of 7 Gy using the fast-boost technique is well tolerated, with a low rate of late complications and improved local tumor control in women aged 45 and younger, compared to published data

  13. Attenuated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis functioning predicts accelerated pubertal development in girls 1 year later.

    PubMed

    Saxbe, Darby E; Negriff, Sonya; Susman, Elizabeth J; Trickett, Penelope K

    2015-08-01

    Accelerated pubertal development has been linked to adverse early environments and may heighten subsequent mental and physical health risks. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis functioning has been posited as a mechanism whereby stress may affect pubertal development, but the literature lacks prospective tests of this mechanism. The current study assessed 277 youth (M = 10.84 years, SD = 1.14), 138 boys and 139 girls, who reported on their pubertal development and underwent the Trier Social Stress Test for Children at baseline and returned to the laboratory approximately 1 year later (M = 1.12 years, range = 0.59-1.98 years). For girls, lower cortisol area under the curve (with respect to ground) at Time 1 predicted more advanced pubertal development at Time 2, controlling for Time 1 pubertal development. This association persisted after additional covariates including age, body mass index, race, and maltreatment history were introduced, and was driven by adrenal rather than gonadal development. Cortisol was not linked to boys' subsequent pubertal development, and no interaction by gender or by maltreatment appeared. These results suggest that attenuated cortisol, reported in other studies of children exposed to early adversity, may contribute to accelerated pubertal tempo in girls.

  14. A role for the Golgi matrix protein giantin in ciliogenesis through control of the localization of dynein-2

    PubMed Central

    Asante, David; MacCarthy-Morrogh, Lucy; Townley, Anna K.; Weiss, Matthew A.; Katayama, Kentaro; Palmer, Krysten J.; Suzuki, Hiroetsu; Westlake, Chris J.; Stephens, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The correct formation of primary cilia is central to the development and function of nearly all cells and tissues. Cilia grow from the mother centriole by extension of a microtubule core, the axoneme, which is then surrounded with a specialized ciliary membrane that is continuous with the plasma membrane. Intraflagellar transport moves particles along the length of the axoneme to direct assembly of the cilium and is also required for proper cilia function. The microtubule motor, cytoplasmic dynein-2 mediates retrograde transport along the axoneme from the tip to the base; dynein-2 is also required for some aspects of cilia formation. In most cells, the Golgi lies adjacent to the centrioles and key components of the cilia machinery localize to this organelle. Golgi-localized proteins have also been implicated in ciliogenesis and in intraflagellar transport. Here, we show that the transmembrane Golgi matrix protein giantin (GOLGB1) is required for ciliogenesis. We show that giantin is not required for the Rab11–Rabin8–Rab8 pathway that has been implicated in the early stages of ciliary membrane formation. Instead we find that suppression of giantin results in mis-localization of WDR34, the intermediate chain of dynein-2. Highly effective depletion of giantin or WDR34 leads to an inability of cells to form primary cilia. Partial depletion of giantin or of WDR34 leads to an increase in cilia length consistent with the concept that giantin acts through dynein-2. Our data implicate giantin in ciliogenesis through control of dynein-2 localization. PMID:24046448

  15. Measuring software development characteristics in the local environment. [considering project requirements for spacecraft control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basili, V. R.; Zelkowitz, M. V.

    1978-01-01

    In a brief evaluation of software-related considerations, it is found that suitable approaches for software development depend to a large degree on the characteristics of the particular project involved. An analysis is conducted of development problems in an environment in which ground support software is produced for spacecraft control. The amount of work involved is in the range from 6 to 10 man-years. Attention is given to a general project summary, a programmer/analyst survey, a component summary, a component status report, a resource summary, a change report, a computer program run analysis, aspects of data collection on a smaller scale, progress forecasting, problems of overhead, and error analysis.

  16. Localized Control of Ligand Binding in Hemoglobin: Effect of Tertiary Structure on Picosecond Geminate Recombination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, J. M.; Scott, T. W.; Fisanick, G. J.; Simon, S. R.; Findsen, E. W.; Ondrias, M. R.; MacDonald, V. W.

    1985-07-01

    The picosecond geminate rebinding of molecular oxygen was monitored in a variety of different human, reptilian, and fish hemoglobins. The fast (100 to 200 picoseconds) component of the rebinding is highly sensitive to protein structure. Both proximal and distal perturbations of the heme affect this rebinding process. The rebinding yield for the fast process correlates with the frequency of the stretching motion of the iron-proximal histidine mode (vFe-His) observed in the transient Raman spectra of photodissociated ligated hemoglobins. The high-affinity R-state species exhibit the highest values for vFe-His and the highest yields for fast rebinding, whereas low affinity R-state species and T-state species exhibit lower values of vFe-His and correspondingly reduced yields for this geminate process. These findings link protein control of ligand binding with events at the heme.

  17. Innovative techniques in radiation oncology. Clinical research programs to improve local and regional control in cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, L.W.; Markoe, A.M.; Micaily, B.; Fisher, S.A.; Lamm, F.R. )

    1990-02-01

    There is a growing importance in failure analysis in cancer management. In these analyses locoregional failure as the cause of death emerges as a significant problem in many tumor sites, e.g., head and neck cancer, gynecologic cancer, genitourinary cancer. Because of these data, the radiation oncology community has attributed high priority to research efforts to improve locoregional control. These efforts include the following: (1) brachytherapy alone or with external beam radiation therapy or surgery; (2) intraoperative radiation therapy; (3) hyperthermia with radiation therapy; (4) particle irradiation (protons, neutrons, stripped nuclei, and pions); and (5) routes of administration of the treatment, including infusional (intravenous) chemotherapy with radiation therapy, intraarterial monoclonal antibodies with radionuclides, and intraarterial chemotherapy with radiation therapy. Each area of investigation is discussed.

  18. Operator performance and localized muscle fatigue in a simulated space vehicle control task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, J. L., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Fourier transforms in a special purpose computer were utilized to obtain power spectral density functions from electromyograms of the biceps brachii, triceps brachii, brachioradialis, flexor carpi ulnaris, brachialis, and pronator teres in eight subjects performing isometric tracking tasks in two directions utilizing a prototype spacecraft rotational hand controller. Analysis of these spectra in general purpose computers aided in defining muscles involved in performing the task, and yielded a derived measure potentially useful in predicting task termination. The triceps was the only muscle to show significant differences in all possible tests for simple effects in both tasks and, overall, was the most consistently involved of the six muscles. The total power monitored for triceps, biceps, and brachialis dropped to minimal levels across all subjects earlier than for other muscles. However, smaller variances existed for the biceps, brachioradialis, brachialis, and flexor carpi ulnaris muscles and could provide longer predictive times due to smaller standard deviations for a greater population range.

  19. Localized Opto-Mechanical Control of Protein Adsorption onto Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Dell, Dakota; Serey, Xavier; Kang, Pilgyu; Erickson, David

    2014-10-01

    Chemical reactions can be described by an energy diagram along a reaction coordinate in which an activation barrier limits the rate at which reactants can be transformed into products. This reaction impedance can be overcome by reducing the magnitude of the barrier through the use of catalysis, increasing the thermal energy of the system, or through macroscopic mechanical processes. Here, we demonstrate direct molecular-scale control of a reaction through the precise application of opto-mechanical work. The method uses optical gradient forces generated in the evanescent field surrounding hybrid photonic-plasmonic structures to drive an otherwise unlikely adsorption reaction between proteins and carbon nanotubes. The adsorption of immunoglobulins on carbon nanotubes is used as a model reaction and investigated with an extended DLVO theory. The technique is also used to force a Förster resonance energy transfer between fluorophores on mismatched immunoglobulin proteins and is expected to lead to novel forms of chemical synthesis.

  20. Generation of localized strain in a thin film piezoelectric to control individual magnetoelectric heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Jizhai; Liang, Cheng-Yen; Sepulveda, Abdon; Carman, Gregory P.; Lynch, Christopher S.; Paisley, Elizabeth A.; Ihlefeld, Jon F.

    2015-08-31

    Experimental results demonstrate the ability of a surface electrode pattern to produce sufficient in-plane strain in a PbZr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48}O{sub 3} (PZT) thin film clamped by a Si substrate to control magnetism in a 1000 nm diameter Ni ring. The electrode pattern and the Ni ring/PZT thin film heterostructure were designed using a finite element based micromagnetics code. The magnetoelectric heterostructures were fabricated on the PZT film using e-beam lithography and characterized using magnetic force microscopy. Application of voltage to the electrodes moved one of the “onion” state domain walls. This method enables the development of complex architectures incorporating strain-mediated multiferroic devices.

  1. Test/analysis comparison of piezoelectric patch local behavior for vibroacoustic active control application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florens, Corine; Balmes, Etienne; Clero, Franck

    2007-04-01

    To predict the effect of active control on aircraft or helicopter trim panels, made with honeycomb sandwich composite, one approach consists in modeling the panel by Finite Element Method. FEM with shell elements for the laminate and volume elements for the core is classically used in industry; in a previous study the homogenized modeling approach has been validated. The aim of the present paper is to make a test/analysis comparison of the dynamic behavior of a honeycomb core sandwich beam actuated by a piezoelectric patch. More precisely, the behavior in the vicinity of the piezoelectric actuator is characterized, in order to validate the modeling approach of honeycomb sandwich composite equipped with piezoelectric patches.

  2. Damping and local control of mirror suspensions for laser interferometric gravitational wave detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strain, K. A.; Shapiro, B. N.

    2012-04-01

    The mirrors of laser interferometric gravitational wave detectors hang from multi-stage suspensions. These support the optics against gravity while isolating them from external vibration. Thermal noise must be kept small so mechanical loss must be minimized and the resulting structure has high-Q resonances rigid-body modes, typically in the frequency range between about 0.3 Hz and 20 Hz. Operation of the interferometer requires these resonances to be damped. Active damping provides the design flexibility required to achieve rapid settling with low noise. In practice there is a compromise between sensor performance, and hence cost and complexity, and sophistication of the control algorithm. We introduce a novel approach which combines the new technique of modal damping with methods developed from those applied in GEO 600. This approach is predicted to meet the goals for damping and for noise performance set by the Advanced LIGO project.

  3. Localized Opto-Mechanical Control of Protein Adsorption onto Carbon Nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    O'Dell, Dakota; Serey, Xavier; Kang, Pilgyu; Erickson, David

    2014-01-01

    Chemical reactions can be described by an energy diagram along a reaction coordinate in which an activation barrier limits the rate at which reactants can be transformed into products. This reaction impedance can be overcome by reducing the magnitude of the barrier through the use of catalysis, increasing the thermal energy of the system, or through macroscopic mechanical processes. Here, we demonstrate direct molecular-scale control of a reaction through the precise application of opto-mechanical work. The method uses optical gradient forces generated in the evanescent field surrounding hybrid photonic-plasmonic structures to drive an otherwise unlikely adsorption reaction between proteins and carbon nanotubes. The adsorption of immunoglobulins on carbon nanotubes is used as a model reaction and investigated with an extended DLVO theory. The technique is also used to force a Förster resonance energy transfer between fluorophores on mismatched immunoglobulin proteins and is expected to lead to novel forms of chemical synthesis. PMID:25330911

  4. Lethal effects of heat and use of localized heat treatment for control of bed bug infestations.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Roberto M; Koehler, Philip G; Pfiester, Margie; Walker, Wayne

    2009-06-01

    Bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L., hide in cracks and crevices in furniture and are difficult to control. The bed bug thermal death kinetics were examined to develop a heat treatment method to eliminate bed bug infestations in room contents. High temperatures caused temporary immobilization (knockdown) of bed bugs even with exposures that did not have lethal effects. Exposure of bed bug adults to 39 degrees C for 240 min caused no mortality; however, as temperatures increased from 41 to 49 degrees C, exposure times that caused 100% mortality decreased. The temperature difference to provide a 10-fold change in the mortality was estimated at 4 degrees C, and the estimated activation energy (EA) was between 484 and 488.3 kJ/mol. This demonstrates that bed bugs are not more resistant or susceptible to changes in temperature than other tested insects and that the temperatures needed to kill bed bugs are relatively low. In room treatment tests, heat treatment times varied from 2 to 7 h with complete mortality of exposed bed bugs within the treatment envelope created by surrounding the treated furniture with polystyrene sheathing boards. Containment and circulation of heat around the treated material were crucial factors in an efficient heat treatment for bed bug control. The room floor material greatly affected containment of the heat. The tested method for limited heat treatment of furniture and other room contents required equipment costing less than US$400 and provided opportunity for residual pesticide application around the room with minimal disruption in use of treated room.

  5. Regional and Local Control of Arsenic Concentrations in Shallow Aquifers by the Permeability of Surface Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Geen, A.; Aziz, Z.; Goodbred, S. L.; Zheng, Y.; Horneman, A.; Dhar, R.; Weinman, B.; Cheng, Z.; Stute, M.; Hoque, M. A.; Seddique, A. A.; Ahmed, K. M.

    2004-12-01

    One of the bewildering aspects of the current arsenic crisis in Bangladesh and other South Asian countries is the extreme degree of spatial variability of groundwater As concentrations. This presentation focuses on the origin of this variability in the top 20 meters of shallow aquifers by combining surface geophysical measurements (EM31) with groundwater and sediment properties obtained by modifying a local hand-drilling method in three contrasting areas of Bangladesh: (1) Birganj, in northwestern Bangladesh, where groundwater As concentrations rarely exceed 50 ug/L, (2) Araihazar, a central portion of the country where shallow groundwater As concentrations are highly variable, and (3) Lakshmipur, where essentially all shallow wells are elevated in As. Comparison with a series of auger cores collected in Araihazar indicates that the EM31 signal combines contributions related to the ionic strength of soil water as well as the proportion of fine-grained sediment. The combined set of observations shows a rather consistent relation between the conductivity of surface soils measured by induction and shallow groundwater As. In Birganj, EM31 conductivities rarely exceed 10 mS/m and can be below the detection limit of the instrument (~0.1 mS/m) over distances of 100s of meters. In Araihazar, areas with EM31 conductivities ranging form 10-15 mS/m are intermixed with regions with EM31 readings of 20-30 mS/m. The lower and higher EM31 conductivity ranges are generally associated with low and elevated As concentrations, respectively. In contrast, EM31 readings in the portion of Lakshmipur that was surveyed are consistently high and range from 30-50 mS/m. Overall, therefore, it appears that high groundwater As concentrations are typically associated with aquifers capped by fine-grained sediment whereas low groundwater As concentrations prevail in aquifers overlain by sandy deposits. This association, combined with gradual downstream fining of surface deposits of the Ganges

  6. Supporting breastfeeding In Local Communities (SILC) in Victoria, Australia: a cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    McLachlan, Helen L; Forster, Della A; Amir, Lisa H; Cullinane, Meabh; Shafiei, Touran; Watson, Lyndsey F; Ridgway, Lael; Cramer, Rhian L; Small, Rhonda

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Breastfeeding has significant health benefits for mothers and infants. Despite recommendations from the WHO, by 6 months of age 40% of Australian infants are receiving no breast milk. Increased early postpartum breastfeeding support may improve breastfeeding maintenance. 2 community-based interventions to increase breastfeeding duration in local government areas (LGAs) in Victoria, Australia, were implemented and evaluated. Design 3-arm cluster randomised trial. Setting LGAs in Victoria, Australia. Participants LGAs across Victoria with breastfeeding initiation rates below the state average and > 450 births/year were eligible for inclusion. The LGA was the unit of randomisation, and maternal and child health centres in the LGAs comprised the clusters. Interventions Early home-based breastfeeding support by a maternal and child health nurse (home visit, HV) with or without access to a community-based breastfeeding drop-in centre (HV+drop-in). Main outcome measures The proportion of infants receiving ‘any’ breast milk at 3, 4 and 6 months (women's self-report). Findings 4 LGAs were randomised to the comparison arm and provided usual care (n=41 clusters; n=2414 women); 3 to HV (n=32 clusters; n=2281 women); and 3 to HV+drop-in (n=26 clusters; 2344 women). There was no difference in breastfeeding at 4 months in either HV (adjusted OR 1.04; 95% CI 0.84 to 1.29) or HV+drop-in (adjusted OR 0.92; 95% CI 0.78 to 1.08) compared with the comparison arm, no difference at 3 or 6 months, nor in any LGA in breastfeeding before and after the intervention. Some issues were experienced with intervention protocol fidelity. Conclusions Early home-based and community-based support proved difficult to implement. Interventions to increase breastfeeding in complex community settings require sufficient time and partnership building for successful implementation. We cannot conclude that additional community-based support is ineffective in improving breastfeeding

  7. A classroom mind/body wellness intervention for older adults with chronic illness: comparing immediate and 1-year benefits.

    PubMed

    Rybarczyk, B; DeMarco, G; DeLaCruz, M; Lapidos, S; Fortner, B

    2001-01-01

    The authors tested the efficacy of a mind/body wellness intervention for older adults with chronic illness. They randomly assigned 243 physician-referred patients from an urban HMO to a classroom intervention or a wait-list control group. The intervention provided instruction on mind/body relationships; relaxation training; cognitive restructuring; problem-solving; communication; and behavioral treatment for insomnia, nutrition, and exercise. At posttreatment, the intervention group had significant decreases in self-reported sleep difficulties, pain, anxiety, and depression symptoms compared with controls. The intervention also led to a significant decrease in "chance" and "powerful others" health locus of control beliefs. At 1-year follow-up, the intervention group maintained benefits in sleep and health locus of control and also reported a significant increase in health behaviors compared with controls. Pain, anxiety, and depression benefits were not maintained. This type of classroom intervention appears to have some lasting effects on health behaviors and beliefs.

  8. Enhanced Confinement Scenarios Without Large Edge Localized Modes in Tokamaks: Control, Performance, and Extrapolability Issues for ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Maingi, R

    2014-07-01

    Large edge localized modes (ELMs) typically accompany good H-mode confinement in fusion devices, but can present problems for plasma facing components because of high transient heat loads. Here the range of techniques for ELM control deployed in fusion devices is reviewed. The two baseline strategies in the ITER baseline design are emphasized: rapid ELM triggering and peak heat flux control via pellet injection, and the use of magnetic perturbations to suppress or mitigate ELMs. While both of these techniques are moderately well developed, with reasonable physical bases for projecting to ITER, differing observations between multiple devices are also discussed to highlight the needed community R & D. In addition, recent progress in ELM-free regimes, namely Quiescent H-mode, I-mode, and Enhanced Pedestal H-mode is reviewed, and open questions for extrapolability are discussed. Finally progress and outstanding issues in alternate ELM control techniques are reviewed: supersonic molecular beam injection, edge electron cyclotron heating, lower hybrid heating and/or current drive, controlled periodic jogs of the vertical centroid position, ELM pace-making via periodic magnetic perturbations, ELM elimination with lithium wall conditioning, and naturally occurring small ELM regimes.

  9. Enhanced confinement scenarios without large edge localized modes in tokamaks: control, performance, and extrapolability issues for ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maingi, R.

    2014-11-01

    Large edge localized modes (ELMs) typically accompany good H-mode confinement in fusion devices, but can present problems for plasma facing components because of high transient heat loads. Here the range of techniques for ELM control deployed in fusion devices is reviewed. Two strategies in the ITER baseline design are emphasized: rapid ELM triggering and peak heat flux control via pellet injection, and the use of magnetic perturbations to suppress or mitigate ELMs. While both of these techniques are moderately well developed, with reasonable physical bases for projecting to ITER, differing observations between multiple devices are also discussed to highlight the needed community R&D. In addition, recent progress in ELM-free regimes, namely quiescent H-mode, I-mode, and enhanced pedestal H-mode is reviewed, and open questions for extrapolability are discussed. Finally progress and outstanding issues in alternate ELM control techniques are reviewed: supersonic molecular beam injection, edge electron cyclotron heating, lower hybrid heating and/or current drive, controlled periodic jogs of the vertical centroid position, ELM pace-making via periodic magnetic perturbations, ELM elimination with lithium wall conditioning, and naturally occurring small ELM regimes.

  10. Application of local exhaust ventilation system and integrated collectors for control of air pollutants in mining company.

    PubMed

    Ghorbani Shahna, Farshid; Bahrami, Abdulrahman; Farasati, Farhad

    2012-01-01

    Local exhaust ventilation (LEV) systems and integrated collectors were designed and implemented in a mining company in order to control emitted air pollutant from furnaces. The LEV was designed for capture and transition of air pollutants emitted from furnaces to the integrated collectors. The integrated collectors including four high efficiency Stairmand model cyclones for control of particulate matter, a venturi scrubber for control of the fine particles, SO(2) and a part of H(2)S to follow them, and a packed scrubber for treatment of the residual H(2)S and SO(2) were designed. Pollutants concentration were measured to determine system effectiveness. The results showed that the effectiveness of LEV for reducing workplace pollution is 91.83%, 96.32% and 83.67% for dust, SO(2) and H(2)S, respectively. Average removal efficiency of particles by combination of cyclone and venturi scrubber was 98.72%. Average removal efficiency of SO(2) and H(2)S were 95.85% and 47.13% for the venturi scrubber and 68.45% and 92.7% for the packed bed scrubber. The average removal efficiency of SO(2) and H(2)S were increased to 99.1% and 95.95% by the combination of venturi and packed bed scrubbers. According to the results, integrated collectors are a good air pollution control option for industries with economic constraints and ancient technologies.

  11. A nonrandomized cohort and a randomized study of local control of large hepatocarcinoma by targeting intratumoral lactic acidosis

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Ming; Wu, Hao; Jin, Kai; Li, Bin; Wu, Jianjun; Zhang, Guangqiang; Yang, Gong; Hu, Xun

    2016-01-01

    Study design: Previous works suggested that neutralizing intratumoral lactic acidosis combined with glucose deprivation may deliver an effective approach to control tumor. We did a pilot clinical investigation, including a nonrandomized (57 patients with large HCC) and a randomized controlled (20 patients with large HCC) studies. Methods: The patients were treated with transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) with or without bicarbonate local infusion into tumor. Results: In the nonrandomized controlled study, geometric mean of viable tumor residues (VTR) in TACE with bicarbonate was 6.4-fold lower than that in TACE without bicarbonate (7.1% [95% CI: 4.6%–10.9%] vs 45.6% [28.9%–72.0%]; p<0.0001). This difference was recapitulated by a subsequent randomized controlled study. TACE combined with bicarbonate yielded a 100% objective response rate (ORR), whereas the ORR treated with TACE alone was 44.4% (nonrandomized) and 63.6% (randomized). The survival data suggested that bicarbonate may bring survival benefit. Conclusion: Bicarbonate markedly enhances the anticancer activity of TACE. Clinical trail registration: ChiCTR-IOR-14005319. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15691.001 PMID:27481188

  12. Randomised controlled trial of local corticosteroid injections for carpal tunnel syndrome in general practice

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Carpal tunnel syndrome is caused by entrapment of the median nerve and results in pain, tingling and numbness in the wrist and hand. It is a common condition in general practice. Effectiveness of treatment by intracarpal corticosteroid injection has never been investigated in general practice. The objective of this study was to determine if corticosteroid injections for carpal tunnel syndrome provided by general practitioners are effective. Methods In this study 69 participants with a clinical diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome were recruited from 20 general practices. Short-term outcomes were assessed in a randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Long-term results were assessed in a prospective cohort-study of steroid responders. Participants were randomised to intracarpal injections of 1 ml triamcinolonacetonide 10 mg/ml (TCA) or 1 ml NaCl (placebo). Non-responders to NaCl were treated with additional TCA injections. Main outcomes were immediate treatment success, mean score of the Symptom Severity Scale (SSS) and Functional Status Scale (FSS) of the Boston carpal tunnel questionnaire, subjective improvement and proportion of participants with recurrences during follow-up. Duration of follow-up was twelve months. Results The TCA-group (36 participants) had better outcomes than the NaCl-group (33 participants) during short-term assessment for outcome measures treatment response, mean improvement of SSS-score (the mean difference in change score was 0.637 {95% CI: 0.320, 0.960; p < 0.001}) and FSS-score (the mean difference in change score was 0.588 {95% CI: 0.232, 0.944; p = 0.002}) and perceived improvement (p = 0.01). The number to treat to achieve satisfactory partial treatment response or complete resolution of symptoms and signs was 3 (95% CI:1.83, 9.72). 49% of TCA-responders (17/35) had recurrences during follow-up. In the group of TCA-responders without recurrences (51%, 18/35) outcomes for SSS-score and FSS-score deteriorated during the follow

  13. Attention, awareness of contingencies, and control in spatial localization: a qualitative difference approach.

    PubMed

    Vaquero, Joaquín M M; Fiacconi, Chris; Milliken, Bruce

    2010-12-01

    The qualitative difference method for distinguishing between aware and unaware processes was applied here to a spatial priming task. Participants were asked simply to locate a target stimulus that appeared in one of four locations, and this target stimulus was preceded by a prime in one of the same four locations. The prime location predicted the location of the target with high probability (p = .75), but prime and target mismatched on a task-relevant feature (identity, color). Across 5 experiments, we observed repetition costs in the absence of awareness of the contingency, and repetition benefits in the presence of awareness of the contingency. These results were particularly clear-cut in Experiment 4, in which awareness was defined by reference to self-reported strategy use. Finally, Experiment 5 showed that frequency-based implicit learning effects were present in our experiments but that these implicit learning effects were not strong enough to override repetition costs that pushed performance in the opposite direction. The results of these experiments constitute a novel application of the qualitative difference method to the study of awareness, learning of contingencies, and strategic control.

  14. Dual-specificity phosphatase 5 controls the localized inhibition, propagation, and transforming potential of ERK signaling

    PubMed Central

    Kidger, Andrew M.; Rushworth, Linda K.; Stellzig, Julia; Davidson, Jane; Bryant, Christopher J.; Bayley, Cassidy; Caddye, Edward; Rogers, Tim; Keyse, Stephen M.; Caunt, Christopher J.

    2017-01-01

    Deregulated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling drives cancer growth. Normally, ERK activity is self-limiting by the rapid inactivation of upstream kinases and delayed induction of dual-specificity MAP kinase phosphatases (MKPs/DUSPs). However, interactions between these feedback mechanisms are unclear. Here we show that, although the MKP DUSP5 both inactivates and anchors ERK in the nucleus, it paradoxically increases and prolongs cytoplasmic ERK activity. The latter effect is caused, at least in part, by the relief of ERK-mediated RAF inhibition. The importance of this spatiotemporal interaction between these distinct feedback mechanisms is illustrated by the fact that expression of oncogenic BRAFV600E, a feedback-insensitive mutant RAF kinase, reprograms DUSP5 into a cell-wide ERK inhibitor that facilitates cell proliferation and transformation. In contrast, DUSP5 deletion causes BRAFV600E-induced ERK hyperactivation and cellular senescence. Thus, feedback interactions within the ERK pathway can regulate cell proliferation and transformation, and suggest oncogene-specific roles for DUSP5 in controlling ERK signaling and cell fate. PMID:28053233

  15. Chagas disease vector control through different intervention modalities in endemic localities of Paraguay.

    PubMed Central

    Rojas de Arias, A.; Ferro, E. A.; Ferreira, M. E.; Simancas, L. C.

    1999-01-01

    In a field study carried out in three rural communities in Paraguay in a zone endemic for Chagas disease, we implemented three different vector control interventions--spraying, housing improvement, and a combination of spraying plus housing improvement--which effectively reduced the triatomine infestation. The reduction of triatomine infestation was 100% (47/47) in the combined intervention community, whereas in the community where housing improvement was carried out it was 96.4% (53/55). In the community where fumigation alone was used, the impact was 97.6% (40/41) in terms of domiciliary infestation. In all the houses where an intervention was made, an 18-month follow-up showed reinfestation rates of less than 10%. A serological survey of the population in the pre- and post-intervention periods revealed a shift in positive cases towards older age groups, but no significant differences were observed. The rate of seroconversion was 1.3% (three new cases) in the community with housing improvement only, but none of these cases could have resulted from vector transmission. The most cost-effective intervention was insecticide spraying, which during a 21-month follow-up period had a high impact on triatomine infestation and cost US$ 29 per house as opposed to US$ 700 per house for housing improvement. PMID:10327712

  16. Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase Beta Protects Nuclear Envelope Integrity by Controlling RCC1 Localization and Ran Activity

    PubMed Central

    Redondo-Muñoz, Javier; Pérez-García, Vicente; Rodríguez, María J.; Valpuesta, José M.

    2014-01-01

    The nuclear envelope (NE) forms a barrier between the nucleus and the cytosol that preserves genomic integrity. The nuclear lamina and nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) are NE components that regulate nuclear events through interaction with other proteins and DNA. Defects in the nuclear lamina are associated with the development of laminopathies. As cells depleted of phosphoinositide 3-kinase beta (PI3Kβ) showed an aberrant nuclear morphology, we studied the contribution of PI3Kβ to maintenance of NE integrity. pik3cb depletion reduced the nuclear membrane tension, triggered formation of areas of lipid bilayer/lamina discontinuity, and impaired NPC assembly. We show that one mechanism for PI3Kβ regulation of NE/NPC integrity is its association with RCC1 (regulator of chromosome condensation 1), the activator of nuclear Ran GTPase. PI3Kβ controls RCC1 binding to chromatin and, in turn, Ran activation. These findings suggest that PI3Kβ regulates the nuclear envelope through upstream regulation of RCC1 and Ran. PMID:25348717

  17. Local adaptation to temperature conserves top-down control in a grassland food web.

    PubMed

    Barton, Brandon T

    2011-10-22

    A fundamental limitation in many climate change experiments is that tests represent relatively short-term 'shock' experiments and so do not incorporate the phenotypic plasticity or evolutionary change that may occur during the gradual process of climate change. However, capturing this aspect of climate change effects in an experimental design is a difficult challenge that few studies have accomplished. I examined the effect of temperature and predator climate history in food webs composed of herbaceous plants, generalist grasshopper herbivores and spider predators across a natural 4.8°C temperature gradient spanning 500 km in northeastern USA. In these grasslands, the effects of rising temperatures on the plant community are indirect and arise via altered predator-herbivore interactions. Experimental warming had no direct effect on grasshoppers, but reduced predation risk effects by causing spiders from all study sites to seek thermal refuge lower in the plant canopy. However, spider thermal tolerance corresponded to spider origin such that spiders from warmer study sites tolerated higher temperatures than spiders from cooler study sites. As a consequence, the magnitude of the indirect effect of spiders on plants did not differ along the temperature gradient, although a reciprocal transplant experiment revealed significantly different effects of spider origin on the magnitude of top-down control. These results suggest that variation in predator response to warming may maintain species interactions and associated food web processes when faced with long term, chronic climate warming.

  18. LAN (Local Area Network) interoperability study of protocols needed for distributed command and control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elden, W. L.; Miller, A. L.; Morgan, S. L.; Romanzo, B. A.

    1985-03-01

    The study examined distrubuted processing requirements for strategic and tactical C3I systems, reviewed the characteristics and architectural issues for distributed processing global operating systems, compared the DoD and ISO networking protocol architecture models, the protocols for LAN's developed by the IEEE and ANSI, reviewed and conducted performance evaluation of Ethernet, DoD's Internet Protocal and Transmission Control Protocol and reported characteristics of CSMA/CD, Token Bus and Token Ring LAN's, reviewed three alternatives to using TCP for an intra-LAN protocol and examined the methods for employing gateway elements to interconnect LAN-based system elements. A comprehensive discussion of the results is given followed by a set of concise conclusions. Ten recommendations are given, providing a roadmap to guide the Air Force in developing C3I systems and LAN-based protocols. Three major areas are identified where future work is needed. A set of protocols and design approaches for internetworking is contained in a set of appendices.

  19. Acetylation and phosphorylation control both local and global stability of the chloroplast F1 ATP synthase

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Carla; Beilsten-Edmands, Victoria; Mohammed, Shabaz; Robinson, Carol V.

    2017-01-01

    ATP synthases (ATPases) are enzymes that produce ATP and control the pH in the cell or cellular compartments. While highly conserved over different species, ATPases are structurally well-characterised but the existence and functional significance of many post-translational modifications (PTMs) is not well understood. We combined a range of mass spectrometric techniques to unravel the location and extent of PTMs in the chloroplast ATP synthase (cATPase) purified from spinach leaves. We identified multiple phosphorylation and acetylation sites and found that both modifications stabilise binding of ε and δ subunits. Comparing cross-linking of naturally modified cATPase with the in vitro deacetylated enzyme revealed a major conformational change in the ε subunit in accord with extended and folded forms of the subunit. Locating modified residues within the catalytic head we found that phosphorylated and acetylated residues are primarily on α/β and β/α interfaces respectively. By aligning along different interfaces the higher abundance acetylated residues are proximal to the regulatory sites while the lower abundance phosphorylation sites are more densely populated at the catalytic sites. We propose that modifications in the catalytic head, together with the conformational change in subunit ε, work in synergy to fine-tune the enzyme during adverse conditions. PMID:28276484

  20. Localization and recognition of traffic signs for automated vehicle control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zadeh, Mahmoud M.; Kasvand, T.; Suen, Ching Y.

    1998-01-01

    We present a computer vision system for detection and recognition of traffic signs. Such systems are required to assist drivers and for guidance and control of autonomous vehicles on roads and city streets. For experiments we use sequences of digitized photographs and off-line analysis. The system contains four stages. First, region segmentation based on color pixel classification called SRSM. SRSM limits the search to regions of interest in the scene. Second, we use edge tracing to find parts of outer edges of signs which are circular or straight, corresponding to the geometrical shapes of traffic signs. The third step is geometrical analysis of the outer edge and preliminary recognition of each candidate region, which may be a potential traffic sign. The final step in recognition uses color combinations within each region and model matching. This system maybe used for recognition of other types of objects, provided that the geometrical shape and color content remain reasonably constant. The method is reliable, easy to implement, and fast, This differs form the road signs recognition method in the PROMETEUS. The overall structure of the approach is sketched.

  1. Disclusion time measurement studies: stability of disclusion time--a 1-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Kerstein, R

    1994-08-01

    Six of seven women were recalled after 1 year to remeasure their right- and left-side working disclusion times. Before the occlusal adjustment technique known as immediate complete anterior guidance development (ICAGD), these patients presented lengthy mean disclusion times (> 1.0 second) and multiple chronic myofascial pain dysfunction syndrome (MPDS) symptoms. After ICAGD, these patients presented with short mean disclusion times (< 0.7 second) and no chronic MPDS symptoms were observed. At 1-year follow-up, there was no statistical difference between present measurements of disclusion time and those of 1 year earlier. In addition, all six posttreatment patients demonstrated no observed chronic MPDS symptoms. However, the symptom of nocturnal bruxism appeared to recur with some chronic regularity. These results suggest that, for this population, disclusion time was stable over the 1-year period of observation, and the short disclusion time appears to allow normal daily muscle function with significantly lessened appearance of chronic myofacial pain dysfunction symptoms.

  2. Biotic and abiotic controls of argentine ant invasion success at local and landscape scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Menke, S.B.; Fisher, R.N.; Jetz, W.; Holway, D.A.

    2007-01-01

    Although the ecological success of introduced species hinges on biotic interactions and physical conditions, few experimental studies - especially on animals - have simultaneously investigated the relative importance of both types of factors. The lack of such research may stem from the common assumption that native and introduced species exhibit similar environmental tolerances. Here we combine experimental and spatial modeling approaches (1) to determine the relative importance of biotic and abiotic controls of Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) invasion success, (2) to examine how the importance of these factors changes with spatial scale in southern California (USA), and (3) to assess how Argentine ants differ from native ants in their environmental tolerances. A factorial field experiment that combined native ant removal with irrigation revealed that Argentine ants failed to invade any dry plots (even those lacking native ants) but readily invaded all moist plots. Native ants slowed the spread of Argentine ants into irrigated plots but did not prevent invasion. In areas without Argentine ants, native ant species showed variable responses to irrigation. At the landscape scale, Argentine ant occurrence was positively correlated with minimum winter temperature (but not precipitation), whereas native ant diversity increased with precipitation and was negatively correlated with minimum winter temperature. These results are of interest for several reasons. First, they demonstrate that fine-scale differences in the physical environment can eclipse biotic resistance from native competitors in determining community susceptibility to invasion. Second, our results illustrate surprising complexities with respect to how the abiotic factors limiting invasion can change with spatial scale, and third, how native and invasive species can differ in their responses to the physical environment. Idiosyncratic and scale-dependent processes complicate attempts to forecast where

  3. LONG-TERM STABILITY OF THE LOCAL GROUND CONTROL NETWORK AT THE CO-LOCATION SITE OF MEDICINA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbondanza, C.; Sarti, P.; Legrand, J.

    2009-12-01

    ITRF combinations rely on the availability of accurate tie vectors linking reference points of space geodetic techniques. Co-located instruments are assumed to move consistently and no local relative motion is taken into account. Instabilities may degrade the quality of the co-location itself and perturb the result of ITRF combinations. This work aims to determine the stability of the local ground control network at Medicina (Italy) with independent surveying methods. The observatory hosts a co-location between a VLBI telescope and two GPS antennas, MEDI and MSEL. It is located in the Po Plain where thick layers of clays are the prevalent soil characteristics. Hence, provision of long term stability of geodetic monuments is a challenge and monitoring their stability is an issue. MEDI and the VLBI station regularly contribute to the determination of ITRF, while MSEL is part of the EUREF network. A set of five tie vectors observations linking the VLBI and MEDI reference points was acquired between 2001 and 2007. It is our main tool for performing local deformation analysis. Additionally, the GPS time series of MEDI and MSEL were used to cross check and confirm the local instability detected by terrestrial methods. To achieve a rigorous and reliable investigation of the local stability, multi-epoch terrestrial observations were homogeneously processed according to common parameterizations in a consistent reference frame. Similarly, continuous GPS observations from MEDI and MSEL were analysed according to the new EPN reprocessing strategy in order to monitor the short baseline between MEDI and MSEL; to spotlight any change in its length. Both approaches confirm differential motions at the site which can be related to monument instabilities originated by the particularly unfavourable local geological setting and the inapt design of the monuments foundation. The monuments move non homogeneously at rates reaching up to 1.6 mm/year, this value being comparable to intra

  4. Local Control of Extracellular Dopamine Levels in the Medial Nucleus Accumbens by a Glutamatergic Projection from the Infralimbic Cortex.

    PubMed

    Quiroz, César; Orrú, Marco; Rea, William; Ciudad-Roberts, Andrés; Yepes, Gabriel; Britt, Jonathan P; Ferré, Sergi

    2016-01-20

    It is generally assumed that infralimbic cortex (ILC) and prelimbic cortex, two adjacent areas of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in rodents, provide selective excitatory glutamatergic inputs to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell and core, respectively. It is also generally believed that mPFC influences the extracellular levels of dopamine in the NAc primarily by an excitatory collateral to the ventral tegmental area (VTA). In the present study, we first established the existence of a selective functional connection between ILC and the posteromedial portions of the VTA (pmVTA) and the mNAc shell (pmNAc shell), by measuring striatal neuronal activation (immunohistochemical analysis of ERK1/2 phosphorylation) and glutamate release (in vivo microdialysis) upon ILC electrical stimulation. A novel optogenetic-microdialysis approach allowed the measurement of extracellular concentrations of glutamate and dopamine in the pmNAc shell upon local light-induced stimulation of glutamatergic terminals from ILC. Cortical electrical and local optogenetic stimulation produced significant increases in the extracellular concentrations of glutamate and dopamine in the pmNAc shell. Local blockade of glutamate release by perfusion of an adenosine A2A receptor antagonist in the pmNAc shell blocked the dopamine release induced by local optogenetic stimulation but only partially antagonized dopamine release induced by cortical electrical stimulation. The results demonstrate that ILC excitatory afferents directly modulate the extracellular concentration of dopamine in the pmNAc shell, but also support the involvement of an indirect mechanism of dopamine control, through a concomitant ILC-mediated activation of the pmVTA. Significance statement: We established the existence of a functional connection between the infralimbic cortex (ILC) and the posteromedial portions of the ventral tegmental area (pmVTA) and the medial nucleus acumbens shell (pmNAc shell). A novel optogenetic

  5. Local Control of Extracellular Dopamine Levels in the Medial Nucleus Accumbens by a Glutamatergic Projection from the Infralimbic Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Quiroz, César; Orrú, Marco; Rea, William; Ciudad-Roberts, Andrés; Yepes, Gabriel; Britt, Jonathan P.

    2016-01-01

    It is generally assumed that infralimbic cortex (ILC) and prelimbic cortex, two adjacent areas of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in rodents, provide selective excitatory glutamatergic inputs to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell an