Science.gov

Sample records for 1-year-old erythrocebus patas

  1. Thermoregulation in Erythrocebus patas - A thermal balance study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolka, M. A.; Elizondo, R. S.

    1983-01-01

    The ability of nonacclimated patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) to maintain a constant core temperature at six ambient temperatures from 15 to 40 C is investigated experimentally in 3 male and 3 female animals weighing 3.9-6.0 kg. The monkeys were permitted to reach equilibrium at the test Ta for at least 2 h before O2-uptake, CO2 output, weighted skin temperature (Tsk), rectal temperature (Tre), respiratory evaporative water loss (Eresp) and total evaporative water loss (Etot) were measured for 30 min. The results are presented in tables and graphs. Tsk is found to vary (from about 30.7 to about 37.2 C) with Ta, while Tre increases only from 37.6 to 38.4 C; Etot increases from about 9 to about 76 W/sq m, mainly due to eccrine sweating. Total body conductance, Tsk, and Tre are shown to be lower (the conductance significantly) at 40 C than those of rhesus monkeys. It is suggested that the enhanced heat tolerance of E. patas makes this species an appropriate subject for further studies of primate temperature regulation.

  2. Thermoregulation in Erythrocebus patas: a thermal balance study

    SciTech Connect

    Kolka, M.A.; Elizondo, R.S.

    1983-11-01

    The ability of nonacclimated patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) to maintain a constant core temperature at six ambient temperatures from 15 to 40 C is investigated experimentally in 3 male and 3 female animals weighing 3.9-6.0 kg. The monkeys were permitted to reach equilibrium at the test Ta for at least 2 h before O2-uptake, CO2 output, weighted skin temperature (Tsk), rectal temperature (Tre), respiratory evaporative water loss (Eresp) and total evaporative water loss (Etot) were measured for 30 min. The results are presented in tables and graphs. Tsk is found to vary (from about 30.7 to about 37.2 C) with Ta, while Tre increases only from 37.6 to 38.4 C Etot increases from about 9 to about 76 W/sq m, mainly due to eccrine sweating. Total body conductance, Tsk, and Tre are shown to be lower (the conductance significantly) at 40 C than those of rhesus monkeys. It is suggested that the enhanced heat tolerance of E. patas makes this species an appropriate subject for further studies of primate temperature regulation.

  3. Thermoregulation in Erythrocebus patas - A thermal balance study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolka, M. A.; Elizondo, R. S.

    1983-01-01

    The ability of nonacclimated patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) to maintain a constant core temperature at six ambient temperatures from 15 to 40 C is investigated experimentally in 3 male and 3 female animals weighing 3.9-6.0 kg. The monkeys were permitted to reach equilibrium at the test Ta for at least 2 h before O2-uptake, CO2 output, weighted skin temperature (Tsk), rectal temperature (Tre), respiratory evaporative water loss (Eresp) and total evaporative water loss (Etot) were measured for 30 min. The results are presented in tables and graphs. Tsk is found to vary (from about 30.7 to about 37.2 C) with Ta, while Tre increases only from 37.6 to 38.4 C; Etot increases from about 9 to about 76 W/sq m, mainly due to eccrine sweating. Total body conductance, Tsk, and Tre are shown to be lower (the conductance significantly) at 40 C than those of rhesus monkeys. It is suggested that the enhanced heat tolerance of E. patas makes this species an appropriate subject for further studies of primate temperature regulation.

  4. Demography and Life Histories of Sympatric Patas Monkeys, Erythrocebus patas, and Vervets, Cercopithecus aethiops, in Laikipia, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Young, Truman P.; Jaffe, Karin Enstam; Carlson, Anne A.; Chancellor, Rebecca L.

    2009-01-01

    Mortality patterns are thought to be strong selective forces on life history traits, with high adult mortality and low immature mortality favoring early and rapid reproduction. Patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) have the highest potential rates of population increase for their body size of any haplorhine primate because they reproduce both earlier and more often. We report here 10 yr of comparative demographic data on a population of patas monkeys and a sympatric population of vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops), a closely related species differing in aspects of social system, ecology, and life history. The data reveal that 1) adult female patas monkeys have significantly higher mortality than adult female vervets; 2) infant mortality in patas monkeys is relatively low compared to the norm for mammals because it is not significantly different from that of adult female patas monkeys; and 3) infant mortality is significantly higher than adult female mortality in vervets. For both species, much of the mortality could be attributed to predation. An epidemic illness was also a major contributor to the mortality of adult female patas monkeys whereas chronic exposure to pathogens in a cold and damp microenvironment may have contributed to the mortality of infant vervets. Both populations experienced large fluctuations during the study period. Our results support the prediction from demographic models of life history evolution that high adult mortality relative to immature mortality selects for early maturation. PMID:20976285

  5. Microhabitat preference and vertical use of space by patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) in relation to predation risk and habitat structure.

    PubMed

    Enstam, Karin L; Isbell, Lynne A

    2004-01-01

    Habitat structure can be important in determining habitat preference of animals because it is often closely linked to factors that affect survival and reproduction, such as food availability and predation risk. Here we examine the ways in which microhabitat structure and predation risk affect the habitat preference of wild patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas). Patas monkeys in Kenya are typically restricted to Acacia drepanolobium habitat, but within our study group's home range, there are two distinct microhabitats, one with taller trees ('tall microhabitat') and one with apparently perennially shorter trees ('short microhabitat'). Examination of ranging behavior indicates that the patas monkeys preferred the tall microhabitat. In the tall microhabitat, focal animals climbed into trees that were significantly taller than average, indicating that they preferred tall trees. Female patas monkeys spent more time scanning from tall trees than from short trees and detected predators only from taller than average trees, based on alarm call data. Their use of tall trees may have decreased their predation risk by increasing their ability to detect predators. We found no evidence of increased food availability or reduced predator presence in the tall microhabitat that could contribute to the monkeys' preference for the tall microhabitat.

  6. Interspecific and temporal variation of ant species within Acacia drepanolobium ant domatia, a staple food of patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) in Laikipia, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Isbell, Lynne A; Young, Truman P

    2007-12-01

    The ants that live in the swollen thorns (domatia) of Acacia drepanolobium are staple foods for patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas). To obtain a better understanding of these insects as resources for patas monkeys, we sampled the contents of 1,051 swollen thorns (ant domatia) over a 22-month period from December 1999 to September 2001, in Laikipia, Kenya. First, we confirmed that of the four species of ants that live on A. drepanolobium, Crematogaster sjostedti, the competitively dominant ant in this system, does not rear significant brood in the swollen thorns and is therefore not a major food item of patas monkeys. Second, across the other three species that do use swollen thorns for rearing their brood, C. nigriceps, C. mimosae, and Tetraponera penzigi, the number of worker ants per swollen thorn increased with increasing competitive dominance. Third, although there was considerable month-to-month variation in the number of workers, immatures, and especially alates (winged reproductives) within species, there was less variation across species because ant production was asynchronous. Variation in domatia contents was poorly related to rainfall for each of the three species. Finally, distal thorns held more alates and fewer workers than interior thorns, and branches higher off the ground held more alates and more workers than lower branches. For the numerically dominant C. mimosae, higher branches held significantly more immature ants than did lower branches. Ants are reliable food resources for patas monkeys, and are probably more reliable than many plant resources in this highly seasonal environment. We estimate that patas monkeys may get as much as a third of their daily caloric needs from these ants year-round. As ants and other insects are widely consumed by primates, we suggest that greater consideration be given to species differences in animal food choices and that further studies be conducted to examine the degree to which ants influence energy intake and

  7. Metabolism and pharmacokinetics of the combination Zidovudine plus Lamivudine in the adult Erythrocebus patas monkey determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Divi, Rao L.; Doerge, Daniel R.; Twaddle, Nathan C.; Shockley, Marie E.; St Claire, Marisa C.; Harbaugh, Jeffrey W.; Harbaugh, Steven W.; Poirier, Miriam C.

    2008-01-15

    Because of their similarity to humans, non-human primates constitute useful preclinical models in which to examine potential human drug toxicities. Antiretroviral nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) toxicity is currently under investigation in Erythrocebus patas monkeys, and whereas NRTI pharmacokinetics have been studied in other monkey species, pharmacokinetics for Zidovudine plus Lamivudine (AZT/3TC) dosing have not been reported in the patas. Here we present 24 h serum pharmacokinetic parameters after a single oral exposure to the combination of AZT (40 mg) and 3TC (24 mg), doses equivalent to a human daily dose of Combivir (registered) . The patas (n = 3) AZT/3TC pharmacokinetic profiles were similar to those seen in other primate species. Average maximum serum concentrations (C{sub max}) for AZT and 3TC were 2.35 and 2.65 {mu}g/ml, respectively, and were observed at 0.83 h (T{sub max}). C{sub max} was 13.34 {mu}g/ml for the AZT-glucuronide (AZT-G) and was 0.023 {mu}g/ml for the potentially toxic minor metabolite 3'-amino-3'-deoxythymidine (AMT), both occurring at about 1 h after dosing. Similar elimination half-times, 0.70 and 0.68 h{sup -1}, were found for AZT and AZT-G, respectively, while 3TC was eliminated about half as fast (0.33 h{sup -1}) resulting in AUC{sub (0-{infinity})} values of 6.97 {mu}g/ml h for 3TC, 2.99 {mu}g/ml h for AZT, 20.5 {mu}g/ml h for AZT-G and 0.002 for AMT 6.97 {mu}g/ml h. This study shows similar metabolism and pharmacokinetics for oral administration of AZT/3TC in the adult patas monkey, other primate species and humans. The data validate the use of the patas monkey for studies of NRTI toxicity.

  8. Language Development: 1 Year Olds

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Language Development: 1 Year Olds Page Content Article Body ... assured, it’s not your imagination. He’s developing his language and comprehension skills right on schedule. This giant ...

  9. Nutritional benefits of Crematogaster mimosae ants and Acacia drepanolobium gum for patas monkeys and vervets in Laikipia, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Isbell, Lynne A; Rothman, Jessica M; Young, Peter J; Rudolph, Kathleen

    2013-02-01

    Patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) are midsized primates that feed extensively on the gum of Acacia drepanolobium and the ants are housed in swollen thorns of this Acacia. Their diet resembles that expected more of smaller bodied primates. Patas monkeys are also more like smaller bodied primates in reproducing at high rates. We sought to better understand the convergence of patas monkeys with smaller bodied primates by comparing their feeding behavior on ants and gum with that of closely related, sympatric vervets (Chlorocebus pygerythrus), and analyzing the nutrient content of the gum of A. drepanolobium and of Crematogaster mimosae, the most common ant species eaten by patas monkeys in Laikipia, Kenya. All occurrences of feeding and moving during focal animal sampling revealed that 1) patas monkeys seek A. drepanolobium gum but vervets avoid it; 2) both species open swollen thorns most often in the morning when antsare less active; 3) patas monkeys continually feed onswollen thorns and gum while moving quickly throughout the day, whereas vervets reduce their consumption of these items and their travel rate at mid-day, and; 4) vervets eat young swollen thorns at a higher rate than patas monkeys. Patas monkeys are able to spend little time acquiring substantial amounts of energy, protein, and minerals from A. drepanolobium gum and C. mimosae ants each day. These findings, when coupled with evidence of causes of infant and adult female mortality, suggest that reproductive success of female patas monkeys is more immediately affected by illness, disease, interactions between adults and infants, and access to water than by food.

  10. Mitochondrial compromise in 3-year old patas monkeys exposed in utero to human-equivalent antiretroviral therapies.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongmin; Shim Park, Eunwoo; Gibbons, Alexander T; Shide, Eric D; Divi, Rao L; Woodward, Ruth A; Poirier, Miriam C

    2016-08-01

    Antiretroviral (ARV) drug therapy, given during pregnancy for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1), induces fetal mitochondrial dysfunction in some children. However, the persistence/reversibility of that dysfunction is unclear. Here we have followed Erythrocebus patas (patas) monkey offspring for up to 3 years of age (similar in development to a 15-year old human) after exposure of the dams to human-equivalent in utero ARV exposure protocols. Pregnant patas dams (3-5/exposure group) were given ARV drug combinations that included zidovudine (AZT)/lamivudine (3TC)/abacavir (ABC), or AZT/3TC/nevirapine (NVP), for the last 10 weeks (50%) of gestation. Infants kept for 1 and 3 years also received drug for the first 6 weeks of life. In offpsring at birth, 1 and 3 years of age mitochondrial morphology, examined by electron microscopy (EM), was compromised compared to the unexposed controls. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), measured by hybrid capture chemiluminescence assay (HCCA) was depleted in hearts of patas exposed to AZT/3TC/NVP at all ages (P < 0.05), but not in those exposed to AZT/3TC/ABC at any age. Compared to unexposed controls, mitochondrial reserve capacity oxygen consumption rate (OCR by Seahorse) in cultured bone marrow mesenchymal fibroblasts from 3-year-old patas offspring was ∼50% reduced in AZT/3TC/ABC-exposed patas (P < 0.01), but not in AZT/3TC/NVP-exposed patas. Overall the data show that 3-year-old patas sustain persistent mitochondrial dysfunction as a result of perinatal ARV drug exposure. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 57:526-534, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Verbal Labels Modulate Perceptual Object Processing in 1-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gliga, Teodora; Volein, Agnes; Csibra, Gergely

    2010-01-01

    Whether verbal labels help infants visually process and categorize objects is a contentious issue. Using electroencephalography, we investigated whether possessing familiar or novel labels for objects directly enhances 1-year-old children's neural processes underlying the perception of those objects. We found enhanced gamma-band (20-60 Hz)…

  12. Verbal Labels Modulate Perceptual Object Processing in 1-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gliga, Teodora; Volein, Agnes; Csibra, Gergely

    2010-01-01

    Whether verbal labels help infants visually process and categorize objects is a contentious issue. Using electroencephalography, we investigated whether possessing familiar or novel labels for objects directly enhances 1-year-old children's neural processes underlying the perception of those objects. We found enhanced gamma-band (20-60 Hz)…

  13. Dentin caries risk indicators in 1-year-olds. A two year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Hultquist, Ann Ingemansson; Bågesund, Mats

    2016-11-01

    Early childhood caries (ECC) risk factors are suspected to vary between regions with different caries prevalence. Identify ECC risk factors for 1-year-olds predicting dentin caries at 3 years of age in a region with low caries prevalence. Caries risk was assessed by dental hygienist or dental assistant in 779 one-year-olds. The oral mutans streptococci (MS) score was performed from a tooth surface or (in pre-dentate children) from oral mucosa. A parental questionnaire with questions regarding family factors (siblings with or without caries), general health, food habits (night meals, breastfeeding, other beverage than water), oral hygiene habits and emerged teeth were answered by parents of the 1-year-olds. Dentin caries was assessed when the children were 3-year-olds. Simple and multiple logistic regression analyses were used for identification of caries-associated factors. An increased caries risk was assessed in 4.4% of the 1-year-olds. Dentin caries was found in 2.6% of the 3-year-olds. Caries risk at 1 year was associated with caries at 3 years (OR = 6.5, p = .002). Multiple regression analysis found the variables Beverages other than water (OR = 7.1, p < 0.001), Caries in sibling (OR = 4.8, p = .002), High level of MS (score 2-3) (OR = 3.4, p = .03) and Night meal (OR = 3.0, p = .03) to be associated with caries. The single variables Beverage other than water between meals and Caries in sibling were more reliable than Caries risk assessed performed by dental personnel. Behavioural, family and microbial factors are important when assessing caries risk among 1-year-olds in a region with low caries experience.

  14. Fathers' depression related to positive and negative parenting behaviors with 1-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Davis, R Neal; Davis, Matthew M; Freed, Gary L; Clark, Sarah J

    2011-04-01

    To examine the associations between depression in fathers of 1-year-old children and specific positive and negative parenting behaviors discussed by pediatric providers at well-child visits. We performed a cross-sectional secondary analysis by using interview data from 1746 fathers of 1-year-old children in the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study. Positive parenting behaviors included fathers' reports of playing games, singing songs, and reading stories to their children ≥ 3 days in a typical week. Negative parenting behavior included fathers' reports of spanking their 1-year-old children in the previous month. Depression was assessed by using the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview Short Form. Weighted bivariate and multivariate analyses of parenting behaviors were performed while controlling for demographics and paternal substance abuse. Overall, 7% of fathers had depression. In bivariate analyses, depressed fathers were more likely than nondepressed fathers to report spanking their 1-year-old children in the previous month (41% compared with 13%; P < .01). In multivariate analyses, depressed fathers were less likely to report reading to their children ≥ 3 days in a typical week (adjusted odds ratio: 0.38 [95% confidence interval: 0.15-0.98]) and much more likely to report spanking (adjusted odds ratio: 3.92 [95% confidence interval: 1.23-12.5]). Seventy-seven percent of depressed fathers reported talking to their children's doctor in the previous year. Paternal depression is associated with parenting behaviors relevant to well-child visits. Pediatric providers should consider screening fathers for depression, discussing specific parenting behaviors (eg, reading to children and appropriate discipline), and referring for treatment if appropriate.

  15. Traumatic spinal epidural hematoma in a 1-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Tarbé de Saint Hardouin, A-L; Grévent, D; Sainte-Rose, C; Angoulvant, F; Chéron, G

    2016-07-01

    Traumatic spinal epidural hematoma is uncommon in children, making rapid diagnosis difficult. In this report, we present a case of traumatic cervical epidural hematoma in a 1-year-old boy, diagnosed with computed tomography scanning and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Management was conservative and the lesion regressed spontaneously. The presentation in childhood is often nonspecific. MRI is the imaging modality of choice for diagnosing these lesions. Conservative treatment has to be considered in cases with a benign clinical course and provided that the patient is followed up neurologically with repeated MRI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Parental spanking of 1-year-old children and subsequent child protective services involvement✩

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Shawna J.; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Berger, Lawrence M.

    2015-01-01

    The majority of U.S. parents spank their children, often beginning when their children are very young. We examined families (N=2,788) who participated in a longitudinal community-based study of new births in urban areas. Prospective analyses examined whether spanking by the child's mother, father, or mother's current partner when the child was 1-year-old was associated with household CPS involvement between age 1 and age 5. Results indicated that 30% of 1-year-olds were spanked at least once in the past month. Spanking at age 1 was associated with increased odds of subsequent CPS involvement (adjusted odds ratio=1.36, 95% CI [1.08, 1.71], p<.01). When compared to non-spanked children, there was a 33% greater probability of subsequent CPS involvement for children who were spanked at age 1. Given the undesirable consequences of spanking children and a lack of empirical evidence to suggest positive effects of physical punishment, professionals who work with families should counsel parents not to spank infants and toddlers. For optimal benefits, efforts to educate parents regarding alternative forms of discipline should begin during the child's first year of life. PMID:24602690

  17. Parental spanking of 1-year-old children and subsequent child protective services involvement.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shawna J; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Berger, Lawrence M

    2014-05-01

    The majority of U.S. parents spank their children, often beginning when their children are very young. We examined families (N=2,788) who participated in a longitudinal community-based study of new births in urban areas. Prospective analyses examined whether spanking by the child's mother, father, or mother's current partner when the child was 1-year-old was associated with household CPS involvement between age 1 and age 5. Results indicated that 30% of 1-year-olds were spanked at least once in the past month. Spanking at age 1 was associated with increased odds of subsequent CPS involvement (adjusted odds ratio=1.36, 95% CI [1.08, 1.71], p<.01). When compared to non-spanked children, there was a 33% greater probability of subsequent CPS involvement for children who were spanked at age 1. Given the undesirable consequences of spanking children and a lack of empirical evidence to suggest positive effects of physical punishment, professionals who work with families should counsel parents not to spank infants and toddlers. For optimal benefits, efforts to educate parents regarding alternative forms of discipline should begin during the child's first year of life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Assessment of the association between Apgar scores and seizures in infants less than 1 year old.

    PubMed

    Eun, Seonghoon; Lee, Jeong Min; Yi, Dae Yong; Lee, Na Mi; Kim, Hyery; Yun, Sin Weon; Lim, InSeok; Choi, Eung Sang; Chae, Soo Ahn

    2016-04-01

    The study aimed to assess the association between Apgar scores at 1 and 5 min after birth and seizures in infants less than 1 year old. We conducted a retrospective, observational, hospital-based study by utilising medical records from the Chung-Ang University Hospital admissions from January 2006 to May 2015 in order to identify infants less than 1 year old who had a history of seizures. Using electronic medical records, infants who were diagnosed with infantile seizures at the Chung-Ang University Hospital from January 2006 to May 2015 were included in the seizure group (n=93), and a control group consisting of 296 age-matched cases without a history of seizures was selected from a group of infants born at Chung-Ang University Hospital during the same study period. We found that Apgar scores were significant risk factors for infantile seizures. Apgar scores differed depending on gestational age and birth weight. We found strong associations between Apgar scores and infantile seizures in the full-term and the normal-birth weight groups (bodyweight ≥2.5 kg), regardless of delivery mode. The Apgar scores were inversely correlated with the EEG class, and only the 1-min Apgar scores were correlated with MRI findings. Low Apgar scores are significant perinatal risk factors for infantile seizures, especially in full-term and normal-birth weight infants, and have a strong negative linear relationship with EEG and brain MRI results in the seizure group. Copyright © 2016 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Development of 1-year-old computational phantom and calculation of organ doses during CT scans using Monte Carlo simulation.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yuxi; Qiu, Rui; Gao, Linfeng; Ge, Chaoyong; Zheng, Junzheng; Xie, Wenzhang; Li, Junli

    2014-09-21

    With the rapidly growing number of CT examinations, the consequential radiation risk has aroused more and more attention. The average dose in each organ during CT scans can only be obtained by using Monte Carlo simulation with computational phantoms. Since children tend to have higher radiation sensitivity than adults, the radiation dose of pediatric CT examinations requires special attention and needs to be assessed accurately. So far, studies on organ doses from CT exposures for pediatric patients are still limited. In this work, a 1-year-old computational phantom was constructed. The body contour was obtained from the CT images of a 1-year-old physical phantom and the internal organs were deformed from an existing Chinese reference adult phantom. To ensure the organ locations in the 1-year-old computational phantom were consistent with those of the physical phantom, the organ locations in 1-year-old computational phantom were manually adjusted one by one, and the organ masses were adjusted to the corresponding Chinese reference values. Moreover, a CT scanner model was developed using the Monte Carlo technique and the 1-year-old computational phantom was applied to estimate organ doses derived from simulated CT exposures. As a result, a database including doses to 36 organs and tissues from 47 single axial scans was built. It has been verified by calculation that doses of axial scans are close to those of helical scans; therefore, this database could be applied to helical scans as well. Organ doses were calculated using the database and compared with those obtained from the measurements made in the physical phantom for helical scans. The differences between simulation and measurement were less than 25% for all organs. The result shows that the 1-year-old phantom developed in this work can be used to calculate organ doses in CT exposures, and the dose database provides a method for the estimation of 1-year-old patient doses in a variety of CT examinations.

  20. Development of 1-year-old computational phantom and calculation of organ doses during CT scans using Monte Carlo simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Yuxi; Qiu, Rui; Gao, Linfeng; Ge, Chaoyong; Zheng, Junzheng; Xie, Wenzhang; Li, Junli

    2014-09-01

    With the rapidly growing number of CT examinations, the consequential radiation risk has aroused more and more attention. The average dose in each organ during CT scans can only be obtained by using Monte Carlo simulation with computational phantoms. Since children tend to have higher radiation sensitivity than adults, the radiation dose of pediatric CT examinations requires special attention and needs to be assessed accurately. So far, studies on organ doses from CT exposures for pediatric patients are still limited. In this work, a 1-year-old computational phantom was constructed. The body contour was obtained from the CT images of a 1-year-old physical phantom and the internal organs were deformed from an existing Chinese reference adult phantom. To ensure the organ locations in the 1-year-old computational phantom were consistent with those of the physical phantom, the organ locations in 1-year-old computational phantom were manually adjusted one by one, and the organ masses were adjusted to the corresponding Chinese reference values. Moreover, a CT scanner model was developed using the Monte Carlo technique and the 1-year-old computational phantom was applied to estimate organ doses derived from simulated CT exposures. As a result, a database including doses to 36 organs and tissues from 47 single axial scans was built. It has been verified by calculation that doses of axial scans are close to those of helical scans; therefore, this database could be applied to helical scans as well. Organ doses were calculated using the database and compared with those obtained from the measurements made in the physical phantom for helical scans. The differences between simulation and measurement were less than 25% for all organs. The result shows that the 1-year-old phantom developed in this work can be used to calculate organ doses in CT exposures, and the dose database provides a method for the estimation of 1-year-old patient doses in a variety of CT examinations.

  1. Thermal sensitivity of growth indicates heritable variation in 1-year-old rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Janhunen, Matti; Koskela, Juha; Ninh, Nguyễn Hữu; Vehviläinen, Harri; Koskinen, Heikki; Nousiainen, Antti; Thỏa, Ngô Phú

    2016-11-29

    Rainbow trout is an important aquaculture species, which has a worldwide distribution across various production environments. The diverse locations of trout farms involve remarkable variation in environmental factors such as water temperature, which is of major importance for the performance of fish. Thus, robust fish that could thrive under different and suboptimal thermal conditions is a desirable goal for trout breeding. Using a split-family experimental design (40 full-/half-sib groups) for a rainbow trout population derived from the Finnish national breeding program, we studied how two different rearing temperatures (14 and 20 °C) affect feed intake, growth rate and feed conversion ratio in 1-year-old fish. Furthermore, we quantified the additive genetic (co-)variation for daily growth coefficient (DGC) and its thermal sensitivity (TS), defined as the slope of the growth reaction norm between the two temperatures. The fish showed consistently lower feed intake, faster growth and better feed conversion ratio at the lower temperature. Heritability of TS of DGC was moderate ([Formula: see text]). The co-heritability parameter derived from selection index theory, which describes the heritable variance of TS, was negative when the intercept was placed at the lower temperature (-0.28). This resulted in moderate accuracy of selection. At the higher temperature, co-heritability of TS was positive (0.20). The genetic correlation between DGC and its TS was strongly negative (-0.64) when the intercept was at the lower temperature and positive (0.38) but not significantly different from zero at the higher temperature. The considerable amount of genetic variation in TS of growth indicates a potential for selection response and thus for targeted genetic improvement in TS. The negative genetic correlation between DGC and its TS suggests that selection for high growth rate at the lower temperature will result in more temperature-sensitive fish. Instead, the correlated

  2. Children of psychotic mothers. An evaluation of 1-year-olds on a test of object permanence.

    PubMed

    Gamer, E; Gallant, D; Grunebaum, H

    1976-03-01

    Fifteen 1-year-old infants at high risk for later psychopathologic behavior were tested on the Piaget Object Scale. Their performance was compared to that of a matched group of controls at low risk. Results indicate a trend in the high-risk group toward lowered object scale performance. Affective styles were found to vary between the groups. The high-risk infants, particularly those with low scores on the object scale, demonstrated more intense anxiety.

  3. Probable transmission of Yersinia enterocolitica from a pet dog with diarrhoea to a 1-year-old infant.

    PubMed

    Hetem, D J; Pekelharing, M; Thijsen, S F T

    2013-08-16

    We report a highly probable case of transmission of a Yersinia enterocolitica from a pet puppy dog, adopted from a Spanish asylum, to a 1-year-old girl. After several weeks of diarrhoea, a PCR detecting enteropathogenic bacteria was performed on the faeces, revealing Y enterocolitica. Following cultures yielded a Y enterocolitica biotype 4, serotype O:3 in the faeces of the girl as well as puppy dog. Despite antibiotic treatment, symptoms and shedding of the organism in the faeces endured during a 2 month period.

  4. Probable transmission of Yersinia enterocolitica from a pet dog with diarrhoea to a 1-year-old infant

    PubMed Central

    Hetem, D J; Pekelharing, M; Thijsen, S F T

    2013-01-01

    We report a highly probable case of transmission of a Yersinia enterocolitica from a pet puppy dog, adopted from a Spanish asylum, to a 1-year-old girl. After several weeks of diarrhoea, a PCR detecting enteropathogenic bacteria was performed on the faeces, revealing Y enterocolitica. Following cultures yielded a Y enterocolitica biotype 4, serotype O:3 in the faeces of the girl as well as puppy dog. Despite antibiotic treatment, symptoms and shedding of the organism in the faeces endured during a 2 month period. PMID:23955982

  5. Nocturnal heart rate variability in 1-year-old infants analyzed by using the Least Square Cosine Spectrum Method.

    PubMed

    Kochiya, Yuko; Hirabayashi, Akari; Ichimaru, Yuhei

    2017-09-16

    To evaluate the dynamic nature of nocturnal heart rate variability, RR intervals recorded with a wearable heart rate sensor were analyzed using the Least Square Cosine Spectrum Method. Six 1-year-old infants participated in the study. A wearable heart rate sensor was placed on their chest to measure RR intervals and 3-axis acceleration. Heartbeat time series were analyzed for every 30 s using the Least Square Cosine Spectrum Method, and an original parameter to quantify the regularity of respiratory-related heart rate rhythm was extracted and referred to as "RA (RA-COSPEC: Respiratory Area obtained by COSPEC)." The RA value is higher when a cosine curve is fitted to the original data series. The time sequential changes of RA showed cyclic changes with significant rhythm during the night. The mean cycle length of RA was 70 ± 15 min, which is shorter than young adult's cycle in our previous study. At the threshold level of RA greater than 3, the HR was significantly decreased compared with the RA value less than 3. The regularity of heart rate rhythm showed dynamic changes during the night in 1-year-old infants. Significant decrease of HR at the time of higher RA suggests the increase of parasympathetic activity. We suspect that the higher RA reflects the regular respiratory pattern during the night. This analysis system may be useful for quantitative assessment of regularity and dynamic changes of nocturnal heart rate variability in infants.

  6. Transhepatic implant of a trimmed Melody™ valved stent in tricuspid position in a 1-year-old infant.

    PubMed

    Cools, Bjorn; Rega, Filip; Gewillig, Marc

    2017-02-15

    Percutaneous valved stent implantation is precluded in small infants because large delivery sheaths and large devices. We describe a procedure in a 1-year-old boy in whom a 19 mm Epic™ valve in tricuspid position had become dysfunctional. As the internal diameter of the prosthetic valve was about 16 mm, the only available valve was the Melody™ valved stent. Technical modifications were required to address issues like venous access, the bulky delivery system, and the length of the valved stent. The Melody™ valved stent was surgically trimmed and mounted on a 16 mm Tyshak balloon, access was provided transhepatically through a short 18 Fr sheath. After deployment, the intrahepatic route was sealed with two vascular plugs (8 and 10 mm) in tandem. The procedure was uncomplicated with perfect valve function 18 months after implant. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Diet in 1-year-old farm and control children and allergy development: results from the FARMFLORA birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    Jonsson, Karin; Green, My; Barman, Malin; Sjöberg, Agneta; Brekke, Hilde K.; Wold, Agnes E.; Sandberg, Ann-Sofie

    2016-01-01

    Background A farming environment confers strong protection against allergy development. We have previously shown that farming mothers consume more full-fat dairy than control mothers, who instead consume more low-fat dairy, margarine, and oils; margarine and oil intake was associated with increased risk of allergy development in their children. Objectives The aims of this study were to investigate the differences in diet between children in farming and control families at 1 year of age, to investigate the relation between the diets of the mothers and their children, and to relate the children's diet to allergy development. Design The diet of 1-year-old children from dairy farming families (n=28) and from control families in the same rural area (n=37) was assessed by 24-h dietary recalls, followed by 24-h food diaries. Allergy was diagnosed by pediatricians at 3 years of age using strict predefined criteria. Results Farm children had a higher intake of farm milk, whole cream, cholesterol, saturated fat, and fat in total and tended to eat more butter, while controls consumed more carbohydrates and poultry and tended to eat more margarine. Farm children also had higher intakes of homemade porridge/gruel, oily fish, and iodine. The intake of butter and whole milk in children and mothers correlated significantly in farm families but not in controls. A weak negative association was found between seafood intake and allergy development, while allergy was positively associated with the intake of pork as well as zinc in the control group; these intakes also correlated with each other. Conclusions Consistent with mothers in farming families, the children consumed more full-fat dairy and saturated fat than did controls, but this could not be linked to the low risk of allergy in the farming group. Seafood intake might protect against allergy development, in accordance with earlier findings. PMID:27534847

  8. Do child healthcare professionals and parents recognize social-emotional and behavioral problems in 1-year-old infants?

    PubMed

    Alakortes, Jaana; Kovaniemi, Susanna; Carter, Alice S; Bloigu, Risto; Moilanen, Irma K; Ebeling, Hanna E

    2017-04-01

    Growing evidence supports the existence of clinically significant social-emotional/behavioral (SEB) problems among as young as 1-year-old infants. However, a substantial proportion of early SEB problems remain unidentified during contacts with child healthcare professionals. In this study, child healthcare nurse (CHCN; N = 1008) and parental (N = 518) reports about SEB worries were gathered, along with the maternal and paternal Brief Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (BITSEA) ratings, for 12-month-old infants randomly recruited through Finnish child health centers. Only 1.4-1.8 % of CHCNs, 3.9 % of mothers, and 3.2 % of fathers reported of being worried about the assessed child's SEB development. When the CHCNs' and parental reports were combined, 7.7 % (33/428) of the infants assessed each by all three adults had one (7.0 %), two (0.7 %) or three (0 %) worry reports. Even the combination of the CHCN's and parental worry reports identified only 7.0-13.8 % of the infants with the maternal and/or paternal BITSEA Problem or Competence rating in the of-concern range. Identified associations across the three informants' worry reports, parental BITSEA ratings and sociodemographic factors are discussed in the paper. Routine and frequent use of developmentally appropriate screening measures, such as the BITSEA, might enhance identification and intervening of early SEB problems in preventive child healthcare by guiding both professionals and parents to pay more attention to substantial aspects of young children's SEB development and encouraging them to discuss possible problems and worries.

  9. [Clinical characteristics and management of infants less than 1-year-old suspected with allergy to cow's milk protein].

    PubMed

    Errázuriz, Germán; Lucero, Yalda; Ceresa, Sergio; Gonzalez, Mónica; Rossel, Maureen; Vives, Andrés

    Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) is highly prevalent in infants (2-5%). It has a wide clinical spectrum, and confirmation through an oral food challenge (OFC) is relevant for its differential diagnosis. Information on this topic is scarce in Chile. To describe the demographic and clinical features of infants with suspected CMPA. A retrospective study of patients<1 year-old, treated for suspected CMPA between 2009 and 2011. Demographic data, symptoms of atopy, nutrition at the time of diagnosis, CMPA symptoms, diagnostic studies, and response to treatment were recorded. Diet response at least 4 weeks after milk modification, and clinical behavior when suspected foods were added back to the diet were considered standard diagnostic criteria. Descriptive statistics were performed using Epiinfo ™ software. The study included 106 infants, of whom, 51% male, 80% term newborns, 74% with≥1 atopic parent, and 34% with ≥1 parent/sibling with food allergy. The median age at onset of symptoms was 1.5 months (range 1.5-2m). Almost half (46%) were breast-feeding≥6m, with 15% receiving formula milk since the neonatal period, and 49% before the third month. Common symptoms were: vomiting (63%), colic (49%), and bleeding on passing stools (41%). No anaphylaxis was identified, and 61% had≥2 symptoms at debut. Only 34% were subjected to OFC. The most frequently requested tests were, test patch (43%), prick test (40%), and blood in stools (37%). 43% breast feeding with exclusion diet, 24% extensively hydrolysed formula, 26% amino acid formula, and 7% others. Demographic characteristics and risk factors were similar to those previously described in international literature. Clinical presentation was early in life, and digestive symptoms predominated. OFC was underused for diagnosis, and most of the tests requested did not change management. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. The Citrus Flavanone Naringenin Produces Cardioprotective Effects in Hearts from 1 Year Old Rat, through Activation of mitoBK Channels

    PubMed Central

    Testai, Lara; Da Pozzo, Eleonora; Piano, Ilaria; Pistelli, Luisa; Gargini, Claudia; Breschi, Maria Cristina; Braca, Alessandra; Martini, Claudia; Martelli, Alma; Calderone, Vincenzo

    2017-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Incidence of cardiovascular disorders increases with age, because of a dramatic fall of endogenous self-defense mechanisms and increased vulnerability of myocardium. Conversely, the effectiveness of many cardioprotective drugs is blunted in hearts of 1 year old rat. The Citrus flavanone naringenin (NAR) was reported to promote cardioprotective effects against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, through the activation of mitochondrial large conductance calcium-activated potassium channel (mitoBK). These effects were observed in young adult rats, but no data are available about the possible cardioprotective effects of NAR in aged animals. Experimental Approach: This study aimed at evaluating the potential cardioprotective effects of NAR against I/R damage in 1 year old rats, and the possible involvement of mitoBK. Key Results: Naringenin protected the hearts of 1 year old rats in both ex vivo and in vivo I/R protocols. Noteworthy, these effects were antagonized by paxilline, a selective BK-blocker. The cardioprotective effects of NAR were also observed in senescent H9c2 cardiomyoblasts. In isolated mitochondria from hearts of 1 year old, NAR exhibited the typical profile of a mitoBK opener. Finally, Western Blot analysis confirmed a significant (albeit reduced) presence of BK-forming alpha and beta subunits, both in cardiac tissue of 1 year old rats and in senescent H9c2 cells. Conclusion and Implications: This is the first work reporting cardioprotective effects of NAR in 1 year old rats. Although further studies are needed to better understand the whole pathway involved in the NAR-mediated cardioprotection, these preliminary data represent a promising perspective for a rational nutraceutical use of NAR in aging. PMID:28289383

  11. Bacillus anthracis acetyltransferases PatA1 and PatA2 modify the secondary cell wall polysaccharide and affect the assembly of S-layer proteins.

    PubMed

    Lunderberg, J Mark; Nguyen-Mau, Sao-Mai; Richter, G Stefan; Wang, Ya-Ting; Dworkin, Jonathan; Missiakas, Dominique M; Schneewind, Olaf

    2013-03-01

    The envelope of Bacillus anthracis encompasses a proteinaceous S-layer with two S-layer proteins (Sap and EA1). Protein assembly in the envelope of B. anthracis requires S-layer homology domains (SLH) within S-layer proteins and S-layer-associated proteins (BSLs), which associate with the secondary cell wall polysaccharide (SCWP), an acetylated carbohydrate that is tethered to peptidoglycan. Here, we investigated the contributions of two putative acetyltransferases, PatA1 and PatA2, on SCWP acetylation and S-layer assembly. We show that mutations in patA1 and patA2 affect the chain lengths of B. anthracis vegetative forms and perturb the deposition of the BslO murein hydrolase at cell division septa. The patA1 and patA2 mutants are defective for the assembly of EA1 in the envelope but retain the ability of S-layer formation with Sap. SCWP isolated from the patA1 patA2 mutant lacked acetyl moieties identified in wild-type polysaccharide and failed to associate with the SLH domains of EA1. A model is discussed whereby patA1- and patA2-mediated acetylation of SCWP enables the deposition of EA1 as well as BslO near the septal region of the B. anthracis envelope.

  12. Clear cell adenocarcinoma of cervix in 1-year-old girl without in utero exposure to diethylstilbestrol: an uncommon tumour at an uncommon age and site.

    PubMed

    Arora, Aditi; Rastogi, Anurag; Neyaz, Azfar; Husain, Nuzhat

    2017-03-16

    Adenocarcinoma of cervix constitutes about 10-15% cases of carcinoma cervix. Clear cell variant is even a rarer variant of adenocarcinoma. It rarely occurs in the paediatric age group and a known risk factor is in utero exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES). We report here a case of primary cervical tumour in a 1-year-old girl, which was initially suspected to be an embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma botryoides. Histopathology with immunohistochemical analysis revealed clear cell adenocarcinoma. There was no maternal history of DES intake during pregnancy. We discuss the histopathological characteristics and clinical course of this unusual tumour. 2017 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  13. Profound Vitamin B12 Deficiency in a 1-Year-Old Child in Botswana: A Call to Initiate Early Empiric Therapy.

    PubMed

    Gajudhur, Juyotee; Slone, Jeremy S; Mehta, Parth S; Mahoney, Donald

    2016-08-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is a rare diagnosis in young children. We present the case of a 1-year-old Zimbabwean child with profound anemia. Further testing revealed undetectable levels of vitamin B12 and positive intrinsic factor antibodies that were drawn after the initiation of empiric treatment with parenteral vitamin B12. We report the evaluation and management of vitamin B12 deficiency in a resource-limited setting. Vitamin B12 deficiency should be considered in children presenting with unexplained cytopenias with consideration of empiric treatment with parenteral vitamin B12, as developmental and neurological complications of vitamin B12 deficiency can be devastating and permanent.

  14. Emotional Development: 1 Year Olds

    MedlinePlus

    ... you there to comfort her and fend off loneliness. It’s impossible to predict when she’ll turn ... her regain her composure is to give her attention and reassurance when she needs it. Snapping at ...

  15. Social Development: 1 Year Olds

    MedlinePlus

    ... a great imitator, he will be learning important social skills from the way you handle conflicts between the ... be helpful. Helping, like sharing, is a vital social skill, and the sooner he develops it, the more ...

  16. Maternal protein restriction during pregnancy and lactation alters central leptin signalling, increases food intake, and decreases bone mass in 1 year old rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Qasem, Rani J; Li, Jing; Tang, Hee Man; Pontiggia, Laura; D'mello, Anil P

    2016-04-01

    The effects of perinatal nutrition on offspring physiology have mostly been examined in young adult animals. Aging constitutes a risk factor for the progressive loss of metabolic flexibility and development of disease. Few studies have examined whether the phenotype programmed by perinatal nutrition persists in aging offspring. Persistence of detrimental phenotypes and their accumulative metabolic effects are important for disease causality. This study determined the effects of maternal protein restriction during pregnancy and lactation on food consumption, central leptin sensitivity, bone health, and susceptibility to high fat diet-induced adiposity in 1-year-old male offspring. Sprague-Dawley rats received either a control or a protein restricted diet throughout pregnancy and lactation and pups were weaned onto laboratory chow. One-year-old low protein (LP) offspring exhibited hyperphagia. The inability of an intraperitoneal (i.p.) leptin injection to reduce food intake indicated that the hyperphagia was mediated by decreased central leptin sensitivity. Hyperphagia was accompanied by lower body weight suggesting increased energy expenditure in LP offspring. Bone density and bone mineral content that are negatively regulated by leptin acting via the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), were decreased in LP offspring. LP offspring did not exhibit increased susceptibility to high fat diet induced metabolic effects or adiposity. The results presented here indicate that the programming effects of perinatal protein restriction are mediated by specific decreases in central leptin signalling to pathways involved in the regulation of food intake along with possible enhancement of different CNS leptin signalling pathways acting via the SNS to regulate bone mass and energy expenditure.

  17. The Effects of Atropine and Pyridostigmine on Thermoregulation and Work Tolerance in the Patas Monkey

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    12 13. Gisolfi, C. F., Sato, K., Wall, P. T., and Satc, F. In vivo and in vitro characteristics of eccrine sweating in patas and rhesus monkeys. J... sweating , and even- tually, evaporative heat loss through its anticholinergic activity (2) resulting in increased net heat storage (1, 15), decreased heat...those reported for humans. The suppressed sweating capacity of the atropine significantly affected the heat loss mechanisms of the exercising animals

  18. Obesogenic dietary intake in families with 1-year-old infants at high and low obesity risk based on parental weight status: baseline data from a longitudinal intervention (Early STOPP).

    PubMed

    Svensson, Viktoria; Sobko, Tanja; Ek, Anna; Forssén, Michaela; Ekbom, Kerstin; Johansson, Elin; Nowicka, Paulina; Westerståhl, Maria; Riserus, Ulf; Marcus, Claude

    2016-03-01

    To compare dietary intake in 1-year-old infants and their parents between families with high and low obesity risk, and to explore associations between infant dietary intake and relative weight. Baseline analyses of 1-year-old infants (n = 193) and their parents participating in a longitudinal obesity intervention (Early STOPP) were carried out. Dietary intake and diet quality indicators were compared between high- and low-risk families, where obesity risk was based on parental weight status. The odds for high diet quality in relation to parental diet quality were determined. Associations between measured infant relative weight and dietary intake were examined adjusting for obesity risk, socio-demographics, and infant feeding. Infant dietary intake did not differ between high- and low-risk families. The parents in high-risk families consumed soft drinks, French fries, and low-fat spread more frequently, and fish and fruits less frequently (p < 0.05) compared to parents in low-risk families. Paternal intake of vegetables and fish increased the odds for children being consumers of vegetables (OR 1.7; 95 % CI 1.0-2.9) and fish, respectively (OR 2.5; 95 % CI 1.4-4.4). Infant relative weight was weakly associated with a high intake of milk cereal drink (r = 0.15; p < 0.05), but not with any other aspect of dietary intake, obesity risk, or early feeding patterns. At the age of one, dietary intake in infants is not associated with family obesity risk, nor with parental obesogenic food intake. Milk cereal drink consumption but no other infant dietary marker reflects relative weight at this young age.

  19. Effects of the Indole-3-Acetic Acid (IAA) Transport Inhibitors N-1-Naphthylphthalamic Acid and Morphactin on Endogenous IAA Dynamics in Relation to Compression Wood Formation in 1-Year-Old Pinus sylvestris (L.) Shoots.

    PubMed Central

    Sundberg, B.; Tuominen, H.; Little, CHA.

    1994-01-01

    Both N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) and methyl-2-chloro-9-hydroxyfluorene-9-carboxylic acid (CF) inhibit the polar transport of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and, therefore, are attractive tools for investigating IAA's role in the regulation of plant growth. Ringing an intact conifer shoot with lanolin containing NPA or CF induces the formation of compression wood above the ring. This induction has been attributed to a postulated accumulation of IAA above the application site of the IAA transport inhibitor, but the validity of this postulation has never been confirmed. Using gas chromatography-selected ion monitoring-mass spectroscopy with [13C6]IAA as an internal standard, we measured the levels of endogenous free and conjugated IAA in 1-year-old Pinus sylvestris (L.) shoots ringed with NPA or CF. The level of free IAA was dramatically decreased below the ring, indicating that the polar transport of endogenous IAA was inhibited by the treatment. However, the free IAA level above the ring, where compression wood was formed, was also slightly lower than in control shoots. The lack of IAA accumulation above the site of the IAA transport inhibitor could not be explained by an increase in IAA conjugation. Furthermore, the turnover of [2-14C]IAA, measured using high-performance liquid chromatography with on-line radioactivity monitoring, was the same in NPA-treated and control shoots. The decrease in IAA level above a NPA or CF ring is attributed to these substances being transported acropetally and interfering with polar IAA transport along the shoot. It is concluded that compression wood formation above a NPA or CF ring is not associated with an overall increase in cambial region IAA level or increased IAA turnover. Instead, we suggest that acropetally transported NPA and CF induce compression wood formation by interacting with the NPA receptor in differentiating tracheids, thereby locally increasing IAA in these cells. PMID:12232343

  20. PatA and PatB form a functional heterodimeric ABC multidrug efflux transporter responsible for the resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae to fluoroquinolones.

    PubMed

    Boncoeur, Emilie; Durmort, Claire; Bernay, Benoît; Ebel, Christine; Di Guilmi, Anne Marie; Croizé, Jacques; Vernet, Thierry; Jault, Jean-Michel

    2012-10-02

    All bacterial multidrug ABC transporters have been shown to work as either homodimers or heterodimers. Two possibly linked genes, patA and patB from Streptococcus pneumococcus, that encode half-ABC transporters have been shown previously to be involved in fluoroquinolone resistance. We showed that the ΔpatA, ΔpatB, or ΔpatA/ΔpatB mutant strains were more sensitive to unstructurally related compounds, i.e., ethidium bromide or fluoroquinolones, than the wild-type R6 strain. Inside-out vesicles prepared from Escherichia coli expressing PatA and/or PatB transported Hoechst 33342, a classical substrate of multidrug transporters, only when both PatA and PatB were coexpressed. This transport was inhibited either by orthovanadate or by reserpine, and mutation of the conserved Walker A lysine residue of either PatA or PatB fully abrogated Hoechst 33342 transport. PatA, PatB, and the PatA/PatB heterodimer were purified from detergent-solubilized E. coli membrane preparations. Protein dimers were identified in all cases, albeit in different proportions. In contrast to the PatA/PatB heterodimers, homodimers of PatA or PatB failed to show a vanadate-sensitive ATPase activity. Thus, PatA and PatB need to interact together to make a functional drug efflux transporter, and they work only as heterodimers.

  1. Effect of extending the photoperiod with low-intensity red or far-red light on the timing of shoot elongation and flower-bud formation of 1-year-old Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia).

    PubMed

    Ito, Akiko; Saito, Takanori; Nishijima, Takaaki; Moriguchi, Takaya

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the effects of light quality (wavelength) on shoot elongation and flower-bud formation in Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia (Burm. f.) Nakai), we treated 1-year-old trees with the following: (i) 8 h sunlight + 16 h dark (SD); (ii) 8 h sunlight + 16 h red light (LD(SD + R)); or (iii) 8 h sunlight + 16 h far-red (FR) light (LD(SD + FR)) daily for 4 months from early April (before the spring flush) until early August in 2009 and 2010. In both years, shoot elongation stopped earlier in the LD(SD + FR) treatment than in the SD and LD(SD + R) treatments. After 4 months of treatments, 21% (2009) or 40% (2010) of LD(SD + FR)-treated trees formed flower buds in the shoot apices, whereas all the shoot apices from SD or LD(SD + R)-treated plants remained vegetative. With an additional experiment conducted in 2012, we confirmed that FR light at 730 nm was the most efficacious wavelength to induce flower-bud formation. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealed that the expression of two floral meristem identity gene orthologues, LEAFY (PpLFY2a) and APETALA1 (PpMADS2-1a), were up-regulated in the shoot apex of LD(SD + FR). In contrast, the expression of a flowering repressor gene, TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (PpTFL1-1a, PpTFL1-2a), was down-regulated. In addition, expression of an orthologue of the flower-promoting gene FLOWERING LOCUS T (PpFT1a) was positively correlated with flower-bud formation, although the expression of another orthologue, PpFT2a, was negatively correlated with shoot growth. Biologically active cytokinin and gibberellic acid concentrations in shoot apices were reduced with LD(SD + FR) treatment. Taken together, our results indicate that pear plants are able to regulate flowering in response to the R : FR ratio. Furthermore, LD(SD + FR) treatment terminated shoot elongation and subsequent flower-bud formation in the shoot apex at an earlier time, possibly by influencing the expression of flowering-related genes and modifying

  2. Imidazenil prevention of alprazolam-induced acquisition deficit in patas monkeys is devoid of tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Auta, James; Guidotti, Alessandro; Costa, Erminio

    2000-01-01

    The partial allosteric modulators (PAMs) of γ-aminobutyric acid-gated Cl− current intensities at γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors have high affinity but low intrinsic efficacy on benzodiazepine recognition sites. Unlike the full allosteric modulators (FAM), like alprazolam, triazolam, and diazepam, PAMs are virtually devoid of unwanted side effects, including tolerance. Imidazenil (IMD) is a PAM that elicits potent anxiolytic and anticonvulsant actions in rodents and nonhuman primates and retains its anticonvulsant and anxiolytic effects, even in rodents that are tolerant to FAMs. IMD antagonizes the side effects of FAMs in rodents and nonhuman primates. Using patas monkeys and a multiple schedule with repeated acquisition and performance of chain responses, we report that IMD administration for 17 days antagonized without showing tolerance ALP-induced disruption of acquisition. PMID:10696114

  3. Overexpression of patA and patB, which encode ABC transporters, is associated with fluoroquinolone resistance in clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Garvey, Mark I; Baylay, Alison J; Wong, Ryan L; Piddock, Laura J V

    2011-01-01

    Fifty-seven clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae were divided into four groups based on their susceptibilities to the fluoroquinolones ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin and the dyes ethidium bromide and acriflavine. Comparative reverse transcription-PCR was used to determine the level of expression of the genes patA and patB, which encode putative ABC transporters. Overexpression was observed in 14 of the 15 isolates that were resistant to both fluoroquinolones and dyes and in only 3 of 24 of those resistant to fluoroquinolones only. Isolates overexpressing patA and patB accumulated significantly less of the fluorescent dye Hoechst 33342 than wild-type isolates, suggesting that PatA and PatB are involved in efflux. Inactivation of patA and patB by in vitro mariner mutagenesis conferred hypersusceptibility to ethidium bromide and acriflavine in all isolates tested and lowered the MICs of ciprofloxacin in the patAB-overproducing and/or fluoroquinolone-resistant isolates. These data represent the first observation of overexpression of patA and patB in clinical isolates and show that PatA and PatB play a clinically relevant role in fluoroquinolone resistance.

  4. Overexpression of patA and patB, Which Encode ABC Transporters, Is Associated with Fluoroquinolone Resistance in Clinical Isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae▿

    PubMed Central

    Garvey, Mark I.; Baylay, Alison J.; Wong, Ryan L.; Piddock, Laura J. V.

    2011-01-01

    Fifty-seven clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae were divided into four groups based on their susceptibilities to the fluoroquinolones ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin and the dyes ethidium bromide and acriflavine. Comparative reverse transcription-PCR was used to determine the level of expression of the genes patA and patB, which encode putative ABC transporters. Overexpression was observed in 14 of the 15 isolates that were resistant to both fluoroquinolones and dyes and in only 3 of 24 of those resistant to fluoroquinolones only. Isolates overexpressing patA and patB accumulated significantly less of the fluorescent dye Hoechst 33342 than wild-type isolates, suggesting that PatA and PatB are involved in efflux. Inactivation of patA and patB by in vitro mariner mutagenesis conferred hypersusceptibility to ethidium bromide and acriflavine in all isolates tested and lowered the MICs of ciprofloxacin in the patAB-overproducing and/or fluoroquinolone-resistant isolates. These data represent the first observation of overexpression of patA and patB in clinical isolates and show that PatA and PatB play a clinically relevant role in fluoroquinolone resistance. PMID:20937787

  5. An articulatory basis for the labial-to-coronal effect: /pata/ seems a more stable articulatory pattern than /tapa/.

    PubMed

    Rochet-Capellan, Amélie; Schwartz, Jean-Luc

    2007-06-01

    This paper investigates the coordination between the jaw, the tongue tip, and the lower lip during repetition with rate increase of labial-to-coronal (L(a)C(o)) consonant-vowel-consonant-vowel disyllables (e.g., /pata/) and coronal-to-labial (C(o)L(a)) ones (e.g., /tapa/) by French speakers. For the two types of disyllables: (1) the speeding process induces a shift from two jaw cycles per disyllable to a single cycle; (2) this shift modifies the coordination between the jaw and the constrictors, and (3) comes with a progression toward either a L(a)C(o) attractor [e.g., (/pata/ or /tapa/) --> /patá/ --> /ptá/] or a C(o)L(a) one (e.g., /pata/ or /tapa/ --> /tapá/ --> /tpá/). Yet, (4) the L(a)C(o) attractor is clearly favored regardless of the initial sequencing. These results are interpreted as evidence that a L(a)C(o) CVCV disyllable could be a more stable coordinative pattern for the lip-tongue-jaw motor system than a C(o)L(a) one. They are discussed in relation with the so-called LC effect that is the preference for L(a)C(o) associations rather than C(o)L(a) ones in CV.CV disyllables in both world languages and infants' first words.

  6. HetF and PatA control levels of HetR in Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120.

    PubMed

    Risser, Douglas D; Callahan, Sean M

    2008-12-01

    Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 is a filamentous cyanobacterium that differentiates heterocysts in response to deprivation of combined nitrogen. A hetF deletion strain lacked heterocysts and had aberrant cell morphology. Site-directed mutagenesis of the predicted active-site histidine and cysteine residues of this putative caspase-hemoglobinase fold protease abolished HetF function, supporting the hypothesis that HetF is a protease. Deletion of patA, which is necessary for the formation of most intercalary heterocysts, or hetF resulted in an increase in HetR protein, and extra copies of hetF on a plasmid functionally bypassed the deletion of patA. A hetR-gfp translational fusion expressed from an inducible promoter demonstrated that hetF-dependent downregulation of HetR levels occurs rapidly in vegetative cells, as well as developing heterocysts. "Mosaic" filaments in which only one cell of a filament had a copy of hetR or hetF indicated that hetF is required for differentiation only in cells that will become heterocysts. hetF was required for transcription from a hetR-dependent transcription start point of the hetR promoter and induction of transcription from the patS promoter. The inverse correlation between the level of HetR protein and transcription from hetR-dependent promoters suggests that the transcriptional activity of HetR is regulated by HetF and PatA.

  7. The Efflux Pump Inhibitor Reserpine Selects Multidrug-Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae Strains That Overexpress the ABC Transporters PatA and PatB▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Garvey, Mark I.; Piddock, Laura J. V.

    2008-01-01

    One way to combat multidrug-resistant microorganisms is the use of efflux pump inhibitors (EPIs). Spontaneous mutants resistant to the EPI reserpine selected from Streptococcus pneumoniae NCTC 7465 and R6 at a frequency suggestive of a single mutational event were also multidrug resistant. No mutations in pmrA (which encodes the efflux protein PmrA) were detected, and the expression of pmrA was unaltered in all mutants. In the reserpine-resistant multidrug-resistant mutants, the overexpression of both patA and patB, which encode ABC transporters, was associated with accumulation of low concentrations of antibiotics and dyes. The addition of sodium orthovanadate, an inhibitor of ABC efflux pumps, or the insertional inactivation of either gene restored wild-type antibiotic susceptibility and wild-type levels of accumulation. Only when patA was insertionally inactivated were both multidrug resistance and reserpine resistance lost. Strains in which patA was insertionally inactivated grew significantly more slowly than the wild type. These data indicate that the overexpression of both patA and patB confers multidrug resistance in S. pneumoniae but that only patA is involved in reserpine resistance. The selection of reserpine-resistant multidrug-resistant pneumococci has implications for analogous systems in other bacteria or in cancer. PMID:18362193

  8. Structural basis for selective recognition of acyl chains by the membrane-associated acyltransferase PatA

    PubMed Central

    Albesa-Jové, David; Svetlíková, Zuzana; Tersa, Montse; Sancho-Vaello, Enea; Carreras-González, Ana; Bonnet, Pascal; Arrasate, Pedro; Eguskiza, Ander; Angala, Shiva K.; Cifuente, Javier O.; Korduláková, Jana; Jackson, Mary; Mikušová, Katarína; Guerin, Marcelo E.

    2016-01-01

    The biosynthesis of phospholipids and glycolipids are critical pathways for virtually all cell membranes. PatA is an essential membrane associated acyltransferase involved in the biosynthesis of mycobacterial phosphatidyl-myo-inositol mannosides (PIMs). The enzyme transfers a palmitoyl moiety from palmitoyl–CoA to the 6-position of the mannose ring linked to 2-position of inositol in PIM1/PIM2. We report here the crystal structures of PatA from Mycobacterium smegmatis in the presence of its naturally occurring acyl donor palmitate and a nonhydrolyzable palmitoyl–CoA analog. The structures reveal an α/β architecture, with the acyl chain deeply buried into a hydrophobic pocket that runs perpendicular to a long groove where the active site is located. Enzyme catalysis is mediated by an unprecedented charge relay system, which markedly diverges from the canonical HX4D motif. Our studies establish the mechanistic basis of substrate/membrane recognition and catalysis for an important family of acyltransferases, providing exciting possibilities for inhibitor design. PMID:26965057

  9. Involvement of the Putative ATP-Dependent Efflux Proteins PatA and PatB in Fluoroquinolone Resistance of a Multidrug-Resistant Mutant of Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Marrer, Estelle; Schad, Karen; Satoh, Andreas T.; Page, Malcolm G. P.; Johnson, Maggie M.; Piddock, Laura J. V.

    2006-01-01

    The multidrug-resistant mutant Streptococcus pneumoniae M22 constitutively overexpresses two genes (patA and patB) that encode proteins homologous to known efflux proteins belonging to the ABC transporter family. It is shown here that PatA and PatB were strongly induced by quinolone antibiotics and distamycin in fluoroquinolone-sensitive strains. PatA was very important for growth of S. pneumoniae, and it could not be disrupted in strain M22. PatB appeared to control metabolic activity, particularly in amino acid biosynthesis, and it may have a pivotal role in coordination of the response to quinolone antibiotics. The induction of PatA and PatB by antibiotics showed a pattern similar to that exhibited by SP1861, a homologue of ABC-type transporters of choline and other osmoprotectants. A second group of quinolone-induced transporter genes comprising SP1587 and SP0287, which are homologues of, respectively, oxalate/formate antiporters and xanthine or uracil permeases belonging to the major facilitator family, showed a different pattern of induction by other antibiotics. There was no evidence for the involvement of PmrA, the putative proton-dependent multidrug transporter that has been implicated in norfloxacin resistance, in the response to quinolone antibiotics in either the resistant mutant or the fluoroquinolone-sensitive strains. PMID:16436727

  10. Tectal pineal cyst in a 1-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Plowey, Edward D; Vogel, Hannes; Yeom, Kristen W; Jung, Henry; Chao, Kevin; Edwards, Michael S B

    2014-03-01

    Glial cysts of the pineal gland can frequently be found in adults and children, but only rarely do they enlarge to become clinically relevant. We report a unique presentation of a pineal cyst in the midbrain tectum of a 16-month-old girl who initially presented with ptosis and strabismus. Preoperative imaging studies and intraoperative findings revealed no continuity between the tectal cyst and the pineal gland proper. We surmise that this tectal pineal cyst may have arisen from duplicated pineal gland tissue.

  11. Biogeochemical Indicators of Paleoenvironmental Changes in a Humid Region of Amazonia (Lagoa da Pata, Sao Gabriel da Cachoeira)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordeiro, R. C.; Turcq, B.; Mendes, L. G.; Azeredo, J. B.; Moura, M. S.; de Oliveira, A. R.; Monteiro, F.; Santelli, R. E.

    2004-12-01

    Analysis of four sediment core collected in Lagoa da Pata lake show significant changes in the environmental history of Amazonia during the last 40,000 years. The Lagoa da Pata Lake (0°17'S, 66°40'W) is located on the top of the Morro dos Seis Lagos, an isolated hill in the extensive forested plane surface of high Rio Negro basin. The climate in the region presents mean annual precipitation around 3000 mm without dry season. Three distinct sections are clearly identified in the LPT III, LPT IV and LPT V cores. They consist of upper and lower organic-rich layers, separated by a clastic layer which represents a short period of rapid accumulation around 18 ka BP. Analysis of the organic matter composition by d13C and d15N, total Carbon and Nitrogen, sedimentary chlorophyll concentration and organic matter petrography show three different phases related to organic matter deposition. Between, at least 46,000 and 31,000 14C yr B.P., the lake presented a high water level attested by high accumulation rates of organic carbon. Values of d13C (around -32%) associated to high C/N ratio demonstrate a lignocellulosic material contribution in this phase; the second phase between the 31000 yr 14C B.P. and 18000 14C B.P. is characterised by a lower productivity attested by low sedimentary chlorophyll and total organic carbon values. The d13C values increase with medium values around -28% that may correspond to an input of organic matter rich in C4 plants (grasses). The sedimentation rate decreases significantly. High charcoal fluxes were observed in this period. At around 18000 14C yr BP, there appears to have been a sudden input of clastic material. This is represented by a sandy facies, which exhibits lower carbon contents. From 18000 14C yr B.P. to the present time occurred an increase in lacustrine productivity marked by an increase in carbon and chlorophyll derivate accumulation rates. The C/N values dropped indicting an algae organic matter contribution. It probably

  12. Multilayer adsorption of Cu(II) and Cd(II) over Brazilian Orchid Tree (Pata-de-vaca) and its adsorptive properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorgetto, Alexandre de O.; da Silva, Adrielli C. P.; Wondracek, Marcos H. P.; Silva, Rafael I. V.; Velini, Edivaldo D.; Saeki, Margarida J.; Pedrosa, Valber A.; Castro, Gustavo R.

    2015-08-01

    Through very simple and inexpensive processes, pata-de-vaca leaves were turned into a powder and applied as an adsorbent for the uptake of Cu(II) and Cd(II) from water. The material was characterized through SEM, EDX, FTIR and surface area measurement. The material had its point of zero charge determined (5.24), and its adsorption capacity was evaluated as a function of time, pH and metal concentration. The material presented fast adsorption kinetics, reaching adsorption equilibrium in less than 5 min and it had a good correlation with the pseudo-second order kinetic model. Optimum pH for the adsorption of Cu(II) and Cd(II) were found to be in the range from 4 to 5, approximately. In the experiment as a function of the analyte concentration, analogously to gas adsorption, the material presented a type II isotherm, indicating the formation of multilayers for both species. Such behavior was explained with basis in the alternation between cations and anions over the material's surface, and the maximum adsorption capacity, considering the formation of the multilayers were found to be 0.238 mmol L-1 for Cu(II) and 0.113 mmol L-1 for Cd(II).

  13. 7-Chloro-3-methyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-1,2,4-benzothiadiazine S,S-dioxide (IDRA 21), a congener of aniracetam, potently abates pharmacologically induced cognitive impairments in patas monkeys.

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, D M; Guidotti, A; DiBella, M; Costa, E

    1995-01-01

    We report here on the ability of IDRA 21 and aniracetam, two negative allosteric modulators of glutamate-induced DL-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor desensitization, to attenuate alprazolam-induced learning deficit in patas monkeys working in a complex behavioral task. In one component of a multiple schedule (repeated acquisition or "learning"), patas monkeys acquired a different four-response chain each session by responding sequentially on three keys in the presence of four discriminative stimuli (geometric forms or numerals). In the other component (performance) the four-response chain was the same each session. The response chain in each component was maintained by food presentation under a fixed-ratio schedule. When alprazolam (0.1 or 0.32 mg/kg p.o.) was administered alone, this full allosteric modulator of gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptors produced large decreases in the response rate and accuracy in the learning component of the task. IDRA 21 (3 or 5.6 mg/kg p.o.) and aniracetam (30 mg/kg p.o.) administered 60 min before alprazolam, having no effect when given alone, antagonized the large disruptive effects of alprazolam on learning. From dose-response studies, it can be estimated that IDRA 21 is approximately 10-fold more potent than aniracetam in antagonizing alprazolam-induced learning deficit. We conclude that IDRA 21, a chemically unrelated pharmacological congener of aniracetam, improves learning deficit induced in patas monkeys by the increase of GABAergic tone elicited by alprazolam. Very likely IDRA 21 exerts its behavioral effects by antagonizing AMPA receptor desensitization. PMID:7644474

  14. Effects of Light Regimes on 1-Year-Old Sweetgum and Water Oak Seedlings

    Treesearch

    Yanfei Guo; Michael G. Shelton; Hui Zhang

    2002-01-01

    Light regimes vary significantly within small forest openings, ranging from full sunlight to total shade. This may affect establishment, early growth, and competitive status of hardwood seedlings. We used modified shadehouses to simulate light conditions within forest openings and to test the effects of daily photosynthetically active radiation and time of direct light...

  15. PREDICTORS OF EMOTIONAL AND BEHAVIORAL PROBLEMS IN 1-YEAR-OLD CHILDREN: A LONGITUDINAL PERSPECTIVE.

    PubMed

    Sirvinskiene, Giedre; Zemaitiene, Nida; Jusiene, Roma; Markuniene, Egle

    2016-07-01

    Emotional and behavioral problems at an early age can reasonably be considered a high-risk factor for later mental health disorders. The aim of the article is to reveal predictive factors of 1½-year-old children's emotional and behavioral problems. The study was a part of a prospective birth-cohort study. The study sample consisted of 172 full-term infants (born during Gestational Weeks 37-42) and their mothers. Emotional and behavioral problems at the age of 1½ years were measured using the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1½-5 (T. Achenbach & L. Rescorla, 2000), which was completed by mothers. Emotional and behavioral problems at age of 1½ years were more prevalent in infants born via cesarean section, as compared to infants born vaginally without administration of medication. Newborns' suboptimal functioning after birth, complicated emotional acceptance of pregnancy, a couple's nonsatisfactory relationship during pregnancy, maternal distress during pregnancy and in the first months after childbirth, and inflexible and parent-oriented attitudes toward infant-rearing also predicted children's emotional and behavioral problems independent of sociodemographic factors. Results suggest that biomedical and psychosocial factors which manifest themselves in the prenatal and perinatal periods can have associations with later infant and child mental health. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  16. Adrenocortical and behavioral attunement in parents with 1-year-old infants.

    PubMed

    van Bakel, Hedwig J A; Riksen-Walraven, J Marianne

    2008-03-01

    Sethre-Hofstad et al. [2002, Psychoneuroendocrinology 27:731-747] found that behaviorally well-attuned or sensitive parents showed better physiological attunement with their 2- to 4-year-old toddlers' adrenocortical responses to a potentially challenging task than less sensitive parents. In the present study we aimed to replicate this finding in a sample of 83 parents with 15-month-old infants. Parental and infant cortisol responses were assessed using saliva samples collected before and 21 min after the child's confrontation with a stranger and a moving robot. Infant behaviors reflecting distress/uncertainty during the stranger-robot session were rated from videotape. Parental sensitivity was observed during a parent-infant teaching episode. Our findings replicate those of Sethre-Hofstad et al. [2002, Psychoneuroendocrinology 27:731-747] by showing correlated parent-infant cortisol responses for sensitive parents but not for less sensitive parents. Furthermore, sensitive parents cortisol responses were associated with their children's distress/uncertainty during the stranger-robot episode, whereas this was not true for less sensitive parents. Results indicate an important connection between behavior and physiology in parent-infant interactions that deserve more research.

  17. Baby Talk [Suggestions for Parents about the Unborn Child through the 1-Year-Old].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This document consists of a compilation of 13 separate parenting information bulletins providing suggestions for parents of yet-to-be-born children, newborn children, and infants 1 through 12 months of age. Contents indicate characteristic abilities and behaviors of children at each age and guide parents in parenting activities, such as providing…

  18. Predictors of Parent Responsiveness to 1-Year-Olds At-Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinard, Jessica L.; Sideris, John; Watson, Linda R.; Baranek, Grace T.; Crais, Elizabeth R.; Wakeford, Linn; Turner-Brown, Lauren

    2017-01-01

    Parent responsiveness is critical for child development of cognition, social-communication, and self-regulation. Parents tend to respond more frequently when children at-risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) demonstrate stronger social-communication; however, it is unclear how responsiveness is associated with sensory characteristics of children…

  19. Predictors of Parent Responsiveness to 1-Year-Olds At-Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinard, Jessica L.; Sideris, John; Watson, Linda R.; Baranek, Grace T.; Crais, Elizabeth R.; Wakeford, Linn; Turner-Brown, Lauren

    2017-01-01

    Parent responsiveness is critical for child development of cognition, social-communication, and self-regulation. Parents tend to respond more frequently when children at-risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) demonstrate stronger social-communication; however, it is unclear how responsiveness is associated with sensory characteristics of children…

  20. Reference Intervals of Hematology and Clinical Chemistry Analytes for 1-Year-Old Korean Children.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye Ryun; Shin, Sue; Yoon, Jong Hyun; Roh, Eun Youn; Chang, Ju Young

    2016-09-01

    Reference intervals need to be established according to age. We established reference intervals of hematology and chemistry from community-based healthy 1-yr-old children and analyzed their iron status according to the feeding methods during the first six months after birth. A total of 887 children who received a medical check-up between 2010 and 2014 at Boramae Hospital (Seoul, Korea) were enrolled. A total of 534 children (247 boys and 287 girls) were enrolled as reference individuals after the exclusion of data obtained from children with suspected iron deficiency. Hematology and clinical chemistry analytes were measured, and the reference value of each analyte was estimated by using parametric (mean±2 SD) or nonparametric methods (2.5-97.5th percentile). Iron, total iron-binding capacity, and ferritin were measured, and transferrin saturation was calculated. As there were no differences in the mean values between boys and girls, we established the reference intervals for 1-yr-old children regardless of sex. The analysis of serum iron status according to feeding methods during the first six months revealed higher iron, ferritin, and transferrin saturation levels in children exclusively or mainly fed formula than in children exclusively or mainly fed breast milk. We established reference intervals of hematology and clinical chemistry analytes from community-based healthy children at one year of age. These reference intervals will be useful for interpreting results of medical check-ups at one year of age.

  1. [Maternal perception of her child's weight and unrelated children less than 1 year old].

    PubMed

    Flores-Peña, Yolanda; Aguado-Barrera, Miguel E; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo M; Cortés-Gutiérrez, Elva I; Dávila-Rodríguez, Martha I

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the maternal perception of their child's weight (MPCW) and perception of unrelated children's weight. Cross-sectional. Maternal and Child Nursing Health Department at 6 Units of Family Medicine. 486 dyads (mother and child under 1 year). The following question was applied: "I think my child is", and images were provided according the child's gender. Children's weight and height were measured. A total of 20.5% of the mothers of overweight (OW) children accurately perceived this situation, while none of the mothers of obese (OB) children did (κ=0.14±0.03, Z=5.36, p=.001). By images, 63.3% of mothers of OW children and 33.3% of mothers of OB children perceived this situation (κ=0.01±0.02, Z=0.73, p=.46). Most mothers selected the image of OW child as the image of a healthy child (κ=-0.04±0.01, Z=-2.65, p=.008), the image of a child under 1 year (κ=-0.01±0.02, Z=-0.86, p=.38) and the image that they would like their child to look like (κ=0.0004±0.01, Z=0.02, p=.98). The mothers do not perceive the OW-OB of their children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Solar urticaria in a 1-year-old infant: diagnosis and management

    PubMed Central

    Hochstadter, Elana Fay; Ben-Shoshan, Moshe

    2014-01-01

    Solar urticaria is a type of inducible urticaria triggered by sun exposure resulting in hives on exposed skin as well as risk of developing systemic symptoms. Most cases are reported in the adult population. However, cases do occur in children. We present a case of visible light induced urticaria in a 12-month-old girl that demonstrates the need for accurate diagnosis and appropriate management. PMID:24744064

  3. Responses of 1-year-old cottonwood to increasing soil moisture tension

    Treesearch

    F.T. Bonner

    1967-01-01

    Cottonwood cuttings planted in sandy loam and clay soils showed a sensitive control of water loss as soil moisture tension increased. Transpiration rates began decreasing at leaf water deficits of 2.5 percent in sandy loam and 4.5 percent in clay. There were no significant differences in rates per unit of leaf area or shoot dry weight between plants grown in the two...

  4. Reference Intervals of Hematology and Clinical Chemistry Analytes for 1-Year-Old Korean Children

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hye Ryun; Roh, Eun Youn; Chang, Ju Young

    2016-01-01

    Background Reference intervals need to be established according to age. We established reference intervals of hematology and chemistry from community-based healthy 1-yr-old children and analyzed their iron status according to the feeding methods during the first six months after birth. Methods A total of 887 children who received a medical check-up between 2010 and 2014 at Boramae Hospital (Seoul, Korea) were enrolled. A total of 534 children (247 boys and 287 girls) were enrolled as reference individuals after the exclusion of data obtained from children with suspected iron deficiency. Hematology and clinical chemistry analytes were measured, and the reference value of each analyte was estimated by using parametric (mean±2 SD) or nonparametric methods (2.5-97.5th percentile). Iron, total iron-binding capacity, and ferritin were measured, and transferrin saturation was calculated. Results As there were no differences in the mean values between boys and girls, we established the reference intervals for 1-yr-old children regardless of sex. The analysis of serum iron status according to feeding methods during the first six months revealed higher iron, ferritin, and transferrin saturation levels in children exclusively or mainly fed formula than in children exclusively or mainly fed breast milk. Conclusions We established reference intervals of hematology and clinical chemistry analytes from community-based healthy children at one year of age. These reference intervals will be useful for interpreting results of medical check-ups at one year of age. PMID:27374715

  5. Impact of universal varicella vaccination on 1-year-olds in Uruguay: 1997–2005

    PubMed Central

    Quian, J; Rüttimann, R; Romero, C; Dall’Orso, P; Cerisola, A; Breuer, T; Greenberg, M; Verstraeten, T

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Varicella vaccination was introduced at the end of 1999 into the Uruguayan immunisation schedule for children aged 12 months. Varilrix (Oka strain; GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals) has been the only vaccine used since then and coverage has been estimated to exceed 90% since the start of the universal varicella vaccination programme. We assessed the impact of the Uruguayan varicella vaccination programme during 2005, 6 years after its introduction. Methods: Information on hospitalisations was collected from the main paediatric referral hospital and information on medical consultations for varicella was collected from two private health insurance systems in Montevideo. The proportion of hospitalisations due to varicella and the proportion of ambulatory visits for varicella since the introduction of the vaccine were compared between 1999 and 2005 and 1997 and 1999 in the following age groups: <1 year, 1–4 years, 5–9 years and 10–14 years. Results: By 2005, the proportion of hospitalisations due to varicella among children, was reduced by 81% overall and by 63%, 94%, 73% and 62% in the <1, 1–4, 5–9 and 10–14 years age groups, respectively. The incidence of ambulatory visits for varicella among children was reduced by 87% overall and by 80%, 97%, 81% and 65% in the <1, 1–4, 5–9 and 10–14 years age groups, respectively. Conclusions: The burden of varicella has decreased substantially in Uruguayan children since the introduction of the varicella vaccination, including those groups outside the recommended vaccination age. It is expected to decrease further as more cohorts of children are vaccinated and herd immunity increases. PMID:18456699

  6. Factors associated with dental caries experience in 1-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Warren, John J; Weber-Gasparoni, Karin; Marshall, Teresa A; Drake, David R; Dehkordi-Vakil, Farideh; Kolker, Justine L; Dawson, Deborah V

    2008-01-01

    Dental caries in early childhood is an important public health problem. Previous studies have examined risk factors, but they have focused on children during the later stages of the disease process. The purpose of this study was to assess the factors associated with caries in children aged 6 to 24 months as part of a cross-sectional analysis. Two hundred twelve mothers with children 6 to 24 months of age were recruited from Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children clinic sites in southeastern Iowa for participation in a longitudinal study of dental caries. Baseline assessments included detailed questions regarding the children's beverage consumption, oral hygiene, and family socioeconomic status. Dental caries examinations using the d(1)d(2-3)f criteria and semiquantitative assessments of salivary mutans streptococci (MS) levels of mother and child were also conducted. Counts of the number of teeth with visible plaque were recorded for maxillary and mandibular molars and incisors. Of the 212 child/mother pairs, 187 children had teeth. Among these children, the mean age was 14 months, and 23 of the children exhibited either d(1), d(2-3), or filled lesions. Presence of caries was significantly associated with older age, presence of MS in children, family income <$25,000 per year, and proportion of teeth with visible plaque. Results suggest that not only microbial measures, including MS and plaque levels, are closely associated with caries in very young children, but that other age-related factors may also be associated with caries. Continued study is necessary to more fully assess the risk factors for caries prevalence and incidence in preschool children.

  7. ERP measures of syllable processing in 1 year olds: infant diet- and gender-related differences

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Language skills are generally better in females than males, but the basis for these differences has not been determined. To investigate whether variations in infant diet contribute to these differences, cortical responses to the syllable /pa/ (ERPs;124 sites) were examined in healthy 12-month-old, f...

  8. Safety of measles-containing vaccines in 1-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Klein, Nicola P; Lewis, Edwin; Fireman, Bruce; Hambidge, Simon J; Naleway, Allison; Nelson, Jennifer C; Belongia, Edward A; Yih, W Katherine; Nordin, James D; Hechter, Rulin C; Weintraub, Eric; Baxter, Roger

    2015-02-01

    All measles-containing vaccines are associated with several types of adverse events, including seizure, fever, and immune thrombocytopenia purpura (ITP). Because the measles-mumps-rubella-varicella (MMRV) vaccine compared with the separate measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) and varicella (MMR + V) vaccine increases a toddler's risk for febrile seizures, we investigated whether MMRV is riskier than MMR + V and whether either vaccine elevates the risk for additional safety outcomes. Study children were aged 12 to 23 months in the Vaccine Safety Datalink from 2000 to 2012. Nine study outcomes were investigated: 7 main outcomes (anaphylaxis, ITP, ataxia, arthritis, meningitis/encephalitis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, and Kawasaki disease), seizure, and fever. Comparing MMRV with MMR + V, relative risk was estimated by using stratified exact binomial tests. Secondary analyses examined post-MMRV or MMR + V risk versus comparison intervals; risk and comparison intervals were then contrasted for MMRV versus MMR+V. We evaluated 123,200 MMRV and 584,987 MMR + V doses. Comparing MMRV with MMR + V, risks for the 7 main outcomes were not significantly different. Several outcomes had few or zero postvaccination events. Comparing risk versus comparison intervals, ITP risk was higher after MMRV (odds ratio [OR]: 11.3 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.9 to 68.2]) and MMR + V (OR: 10 [95% CI: 4.5 to 22.5]) and ataxia risk was lower after both vaccines (MMRV OR: 0.8 [95% CI: 0.5 to 1]; MMR + V OR: 0.8 [95% CI: 0.7 to 0.9]). Compared with MMR + V, MMRV increased risk of seizure and fever 7 to 10 days after vaccination. This study did not identify any new safety concerns comparing MMRV with MMR + V or after either the MMRV or the MMR + V vaccine. This study provides reassurance that these outcomes are unlikely after either vaccine. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  9. Prevalence of enteric zoonotic agents in cats less than 1 year old in central New York State.

    PubMed

    Spain, C V; Scarlett, J M; Wade, S E; McDonough, P

    2001-01-01

    A prevalence study of several enteric zoonotic bacterial and parasitic infections was conducted in 263 fecal samples from cats that were between 1 and 12 months old, and that were in humane shelters (n = 149) or were presented to primary-care veterinarians (n = 114). Of these samples, 2 (0.8%) were positive for Campylobacter, 2 (0.8%) were positive for Salmonella, and 10 (3.8%) were positive for Cryptosporidium, confirming that these zoonotic agents are relatively rare in cats. Toxocara cati (33.0%) and Giardia (7.3%) were found more commonly. At least 1 zoonotic agent was detected in 105 samples (40.7%). Our results suggest that clinical signs such as diarrhea are not reliable predictors of whether a cat is actively shedding enteric organisms. Therefore, the decision to test a newly adopted cat should be based on the potential risks to the client rather than on the cat's clinical presentation. The high prevalence of T. cati confirms that comprehensive testing or treatment for ascarids is warranted in newly adopted kittens.

  10. Genome-wide DNA methylation in 1-year-old infants of mothers with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Cicchetti, Dante; Hetzel, Susan; Rogosch, Fred A; Handley, Elizabeth D; Toth, Sheree L

    2016-11-01

    A genome-wide methylation study was conducted among a sample of 114 infants (M age = 13.2 months, SD = 1.08) of low-income urban women with (n = 73) and without (n = 41) major depressive disorder. The Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array with a GenomeStudio Methylation Module and Illumina Custom model were used to conduct differential methylation analyses. Using the 5.0 × 10-7 p value, 2,119 loci were found to be significantly different between infants of depressed and nondepressed mothers. Infants of depressed mothers had greater methylation at low methylation sites (0%-29%) compared to infants of nondepressed mothers. At high levels of methylation (70%-100%), the infants of depressed mothers were predominantly hypomethylated. The mean difference in methylation between the infants of depressed and infants of nondepressed mothers was 5.23%. Disease by biomarker analyses were also conducted using GeneGo MetaCore Software. The results indicated significant cancer-related differences in biomarker networks such as prostatic neoplasms, ovarian and breast neoplasms, and colonic neoplasms. The results of a process networks analysis indicated significant differences in process networks associated with neuronal development and central nervous system functioning, as well as cardiac development between infants of depressed and nondepressed mothers. These findings indicate that early in development, infants of mothers with major depressive disorder evince epigenetic differences relative to infants of well mothers that suggest risk for later adverse health outcomes.

  11. Combining Genome-Wide Information with a Functional Structural Plant Model to Simulate 1-Year-Old Apple Tree Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Migault, Vincent; Pallas, Benoît; Costes, Evelyne

    2017-01-01

    In crops, optimizing target traits in breeding programs can be fostered by selecting appropriate combinations of architectural traits which determine light interception and carbon acquisition. In apple tree, architectural traits were observed to be under genetic control. However, architectural traits also result from many organogenetic and morphological processes interacting with the environment. The present study aimed at combining a FSPM built for apple tree, MAppleT, with genetic determinisms of architectural traits, previously described in a bi-parental population. We focused on parameters related to organogenesis (phyllochron and immediate branching) and morphogenesis processes (internode length and leaf area) during the first year of tree growth. Two independent datasets collected in 2004 and 2007 on 116 genotypes, issued from a ‘Starkrimson’ × ‘Granny Smith’ cross, were used. The phyllochron was estimated as a function of thermal time and sylleptic branching was modeled subsequently depending on phyllochron. From a genetic map built with SNPs, marker effects were estimated on four MAppleT parameters with rrBLUP, using 2007 data. These effects were then considered in MAppleT to simulate tree development in the two climatic conditions. The genome wide prediction model gave consistent estimations of parameter values with correlation coefficients between observed values and estimated values from SNP markers ranging from 0.79 to 0.96. However, the accuracy of the prediction model following cross validation schemas was lower. Three integrative traits (the number of leaves, trunk length, and number of sylleptic laterals) were considered for validating MAppleT simulations. In 2007 climatic conditions, simulated values were close to observations, highlighting the correct simulation of genetic variability. However, in 2004 conditions which were not used for model calibration, the simulations differed from observations. This study demonstrates the possibility of integrating genome-based information in a FSPM for a perennial fruit tree. It also showed that further improvements are required for improving the prediction ability. Especially temperature effect should be extended and other factors taken into account for modeling GxE interactions. Improvements could also be expected by considering larger populations and by testing other genome wide prediction models. Despite these limitations, this study opens new possibilities for supporting plant breeding by in silico evaluations of the impact of genotypic polymorphisms on plant integrative phenotypes. PMID:28127302

  12. Individual Variation in Fathers’ Testosterone Reactivity to Infant Distress Predicts Parenting Behaviors with their 1-Year-Old Infants

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Patty X.; Saini, Ekjyot K.; Thomason, Elizabeth; Schultheiss, Oliver C.; Gonzalez, Richard; Volling, Brenda L.

    2015-01-01

    Positive father involvement is associated with positive child outcomes. There is great variation in fathers’ involvement and fathering behaviors, and men’s testosterone (T) has been proposed as a potential biological contributor to paternal involvement. Previous studies investigating testosterone changes in response to father-infant interactions or exposure to infant cues are unclear as to whether individual variation in T is predictive of fathering behavior. We show that individual variation in fathers’ T reactivity to their infants during a challenging laboratory paradigm (Strange Situation) uniquely predicted fathers’ positive parenting behaviors during a subsequent father-infant interaction, in addition to other psychosocial determinants of paternal involvement, such as dispositional empathy and marital quality. The findings have implications for understanding fathering behaviors and how fathers can contribute to their children’s socioemotional development. PMID:26497119

  13. Time to First Shunt Failure in Pediatric Patients over 1 Year Old: A 10-Year Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Shannon, Chevis N; Carr, Kevin R; Tomycz, Luke; Wellons, John C; Tulipan, Noel

    2013-01-01

    Studies comparing alternatives to ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunting for treatment of hydrocephalus have often relied upon data from an earlier era that may not be representative of contemporary shunt survival outcomes. We sought to determine the shunt survival rate of our cohort and compare our results to previously published shunt survival and endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) success rates. We identified 95 patients between 1 and 18 years of age, who underwent initial VP shunt placement between January 2001 and December 2010. Our study shows a shunt survival rate of 85% at 6 months and 79% at 2 years, for initial shunts in pediatric patients over 1 year of age in this cohort. The overall infection rate was 3%. This compares favorably with published success rates of ETV at similar time points as well as with the rate of infection. This suggests that ventricular shunting remains a viable alternative to ETV in the older child.

  14. High frequency of S. aureus (MSSA-MRSA) in children under 1 year old with skin and soft tissue infections.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Lorena; Quiceno, Judy Natalia Jimenez

    2017-09-20

    Staphylococcus aureus is responsible for a large number of infections in pediatric population; however, information about the behavior of such infections in this population is limited. The aim of the study was to describe the clinical, epidemiological, and molecular characteristics of infections caused by methicillin-susceptible and resistant S. aureus (MSSA-MRSA) in a pediatric population. A cross-sectional descriptive study in patients from birth to 14 years of age from three high-complexity institutions was conducted (2008-2010). All patients infected with MRSA and a representative sample of patients infected with MSSA were included. Clinical and epidemiological information was obtained from medical records and molecular characterization included spa typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). In addition, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) and virulence factor genes were detected. A total of 182 patients, 65 with MSSA infections and 117 with MRSA infections, were included in the study; 41.4% of the patients being under 1 year. The most frequent infections were of the skin and soft tissues. Backgrounds such as having stayed in day care centers and previous use of antibiotics were more common in patients with MRSA infections (p≤0.05). Sixteen clonal complexes were identified and MSSA strains were more diverse. The most common cassette was SCCmec IVc (70.8%), which was linked to pvl. In contrast with other locations, a prevalence of infections in children under 1 year of age in the city could be observed; this emphasizes the importance of epidemiological knowledge at the local level. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. Mansonella ozzardi: a redescription with comments on its taxonomic relationships.

    PubMed

    Orihel, T C; Eberhard, M L

    1982-11-01

    Mansonella ozzardi is redescribed from adult worms collected from the subcutaneous tissues of patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) infected with a Haitian strain of the filaria. The worms are small and very slender; females measure about 49 mm in length by 0.15 mm in diameter and males, 26 by 0.07 mm. Haitian (Caribbean) and Colombian (Amazon) forms of the filaria are morphologically identical, as are their microfilariae. Mansonella is most closely related to Tetrapetalonema. Based on taxonomic priority the latter becomes a synonym of Mansonella. As a consequence, T. perstans and T. streptocerca of man in Africa are designated as M. perstans (Manson, 1891) n. comb. and M. streptocerca (Macfie and Corson, 1922) n. comb. Further, M. ozzardi is most closely related to the species M. llewellyni (Price, 1962) n. comb., a parasite of the raccoon, and M. interstitium (Price, 1962) n. comb. found in squirrels, both in North America.

  16. Marked referential communicative behaviours, but no differentiation of the "knowledge state" of humans in untrained pet dogs versus 1-year-old infants.

    PubMed

    Gaunet, Florence; Massioui, Farid El

    2014-09-01

    The study examines whether untrained dogs and infants take their caregiver's visual experience into account when communicating with them. Fifteen adult dogs and 15 one-year-old infants were brought into play with their caregivers with one of their own toys. The caregiver gave the toy to the experimenter, who, in different conditions, placed it either above or under one of two containers, with both the infant or dog and the caregiver witnessing the positioning; in a third condition, the caregiver left the room before the toy was placed under one of the two containers and later returned. Afterwards, for each condition, the caregiver asked the participant to indicate the location of the toy. Neither dogs nor infants-untrained to the use of the partner's knowledge state-showed much difference of behaviour between the three conditions. However, dogs showed more persistence for most behaviours (gaze at the owner, gaze at the toy and gaze alternation) and conditions, suggesting that the situation made more demands on dogs' communicative behaviours than on those of infants. When all deictic behaviours of infants (arm points towards the toy and gaze at the toy) were taken into account, dogs and infants did not differ. Phylogeny, early experience and ontogeny may all play a role in the ways that both species communicate with adult humans.

  17. Tamoxifen–DNA adduct formation in monkey and human reproductive organs

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez-Ramon, Elena E.

    2014-01-01

    The estrogen analog tamoxifen (TAM), used for adjuvant therapy of breast cancer, induces endometrial and uterine tumors in breast cancer patients. Proliferation stimulus of the uterine endometrium is likely involved in tumor induction, but genotoxicity may also play a role. Formation of TAM–DNA adducts in human tissues has been reported but remains controversial. To address this issue, we examined TAM–DNA adducts in uteri from two species of monkeys, Erythrocebus patas (patas) and Macaca fascicularis (macaque), and in human endometrium and myometrium. Monkeys were given 3–4 months of chronic TAM dosing scaled to be equivalent to the daily human dose. In the uteri, livers and brains from the patas (n = 3), and endometrium from the macaques (n = 4), TAM–DNA adducts were measurable by TAM–DNA chemiluminescence immunoassay. Average TAM–DNA adduct values for the patas uteri (23 adducts/108 nucleotides) were similar to those found in endometrium of the macaques (19 adducts/108 nucleotides). Endometrium of macaques exposed to both TAM and low-dose estradiol (n = 5) averaged 34 adducts/108 nucleotides. To examine TAM–DNA persistence in the patas, females (n = 3) were exposed to TAM for 3 months and to no drug for an additional month, resulting in low or non-detectable TAM–DNA in livers and uteri. Human endometrial and myometrial samples from women receiving (n = 8) and not receiving (n = 8) TAM therapy were also evaluated. Women receiving TAM therapy averaged 10.3 TAM–DNA adducts/108 nucleotides, whereas unexposed women showed no detectable TAM–DNA. The data indicate that genotoxicity, in addition to estrogen agonist effects, may contribute to TAM-induced human endometrial cancer. PMID:24501327

  18. Tamoxifen-DNA adduct formation in monkey and human reproductive organs.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Ramon, Elena E; Sandoval, Nicole A; John, Kaarthik; Cline, J Mark; Wood, Charles E; Woodward, Ruth A; Poirier, Miriam C

    2014-05-01

    The estrogen analog tamoxifen (TAM), used for adjuvant therapy of breast cancer, induces endometrial and uterine tumors in breast cancer patients. Proliferation stimulus of the uterine endometrium is likely involved in tumor induction, but genotoxicity may also play a role. Formation of TAM-DNA adducts in human tissues has been reported but remains controversial. To address this issue, we examined TAM-DNA adducts in uteri from two species of monkeys, Erythrocebus patas (patas) and Macaca fascicularis (macaque), and in human endometrium and myometrium. Monkeys were given 3-4 months of chronic TAM dosing scaled to be equivalent to the daily human dose. In the uteri, livers and brains from the patas (n = 3), and endometrium from the macaques (n = 4), TAM-DNA adducts were measurable by TAM-DNA chemiluminescence immunoassay. Average TAM-DNA adduct values for the patas uteri (23 adducts/10(8) nucleotides) were similar to those found in endometrium of the macaques (19 adducts/10(8) nucleotides). Endometrium of macaques exposed to both TAM and low-dose estradiol (n = 5) averaged 34 adducts/10(8) nucleotides. To examine TAM-DNA persistence in the patas, females (n = 3) were exposed to TAM for 3 months and to no drug for an additional month, resulting in low or non-detectable TAM-DNA in livers and uteri. Human endometrial and myometrial samples from women receiving (n = 8) and not receiving (n = 8) TAM therapy were also evaluated. Women receiving TAM therapy averaged 10.3 TAM-DNA adducts/10(8) nucleotides, whereas unexposed women showed no detectable TAM-DNA. The data indicate that genotoxicity, in addition to estrogen agonist effects, may contribute to TAM-induced human endometrial cancer.

  19. Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) from Sun-Tailed Monkeys (Cercopithecus solatus): Evidence for Host-Dependent Evolution of SIV within the C. lhoesti Superspecies

    PubMed Central

    Beer, Brigitte E.; Bailes, Elizabeth; Goeken, Robert; Dapolito, George; Coulibaly, Cheik; Norley, Stephen G.; Kurth, Reinhard; Gautier, Jean-Pierre; Gautier-Hion, Annie; Vallet, Dominique; Sharp, Paul M.; Hirsch, Vanessa M.

    1999-01-01

    Recently we reported the characterization of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVlhoest) from a central African l’hoest monkey (Cercopithecus lhoesti lhoesti) that revealed a distant relationship to SIV isolated from a mandrill (SIVmnd). The present report describes a novel SIV (SIVsun) isolated from a healthy, wild-caught sun-tailed monkey (Cercopithecus lhoesti solatus), another member of the l’hoest superspecies. SIVsun replicated in a variety of human T-cell lines and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of macaques (Macaca spp.) and patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas). A full-length infectious clone of SIVsun was derived, and genetic analysis revealed that SIVsun was most closely related to SIVlhoest, with an amino acid identity of 71% in Gag, 73% in Pol, and 67% in Env. This degree of similarity is reminiscent of that observed between SIVagm isolates from vervet, grivet, and tantalus species of African green monkeys. The close relationship between SIVsun and SIVlhoest, despite their geographically distinct habitats, is consistent with evolution from a common ancestor, providing further evidence for the ancient nature of the primate lentivirus family. In addition, this observation leads us to suggest that the SIVmnd lineage should be designated the SIVlhoest lineage. PMID:10438863

  20. An audiometric comparison of primate audiograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, Mark N.

    2001-05-01

    Audiogram data for 18 species of primates were collected from the literature and analyzed by measuring 13 audiometric variables: frequency and threshold of the primary peak, frequency and threshold of the secondary peak, frequency and threshold of the notch between peaks, low-frequency cutoff, high-frequency cutoff, total area of the audible field, low area, middle area, high area, and total audible range in octaves. All areal measurements were made using IGOR PRO 4.04 wave measurement software. Platyrrhines were found to have significantly better low-frequency sensitivity than like-sized lorisoids with an average of 15-dB difference between the means for the two groups. This difference remains significant even when interindividual variation is considered. Callithrix jacchus and Erythrocebus patas have unusual hearing patterns for primates of their size with marmosets showing a reduction in high-frequency sensitivity, while patas monkeys show a reduction in low-frequency sensitivity. It was also noted that chimps have a notch in sensitivity that falls within the range of greatest sensitivity for humans. These findings are discussed in relation to the morphological adaptations that appear to influence these hearing patterns and the evolutionary significance of such patterns for group communication and predator-prey interactions.

  1. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in captive mammals in three zoos in Mexico City, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Gayosso-Dominguez, Edgar Arturo; Villena, Isabelle; Dubey, J P

    2013-09-01

    Antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii were determined in 167 mammals in three zoos in Mexico City, Mexico, using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Overall, antibodies to T. gondii were found in 89 (53.3%) of the 167 animals tested. Antibodies were found in 35 of 43 wild Felidae: 2 of 2 bobcats (Lynx rufus); 4 of 4 cougars (Puma concolor); 10 of 13 jaguars (Panthera onca); 5 of 5 leopards (Panthera pardus); 7 of 7 lions (Panthera leo); 2 of 3 tigers (Panthera tigris); 2 of 3 ocelots (Leopardus pardalis); 2 of 2 Sumatran tigers (Panthera tigris sumatrae); lof 2 Jaguarundi (Herpailurus jagouaroundi); but not in 0 of 2 oncillas (Leopardus tigrinus). Such high seroprevalence in wild felids is of public health significance because of the potential of oocyst shedding. Four of 6 New World primates (2 of 2 Geoffroy's spider monkeys [Ateles geoffroyi], 1 of 3 Patas monkeys [Erythrocebus patas], and 1 of 1 white-headed capuchin [Cebus capucinus]) had high MAT titers of 3,200, suggesting recently acquired infection; these animals are highly susceptible to clinical toxoplasmosis. However, none of these animals were ill. Seropositivity to T. gondii was found for the first time in a number of species.

  2. Etologia aplicada al manejo de especies amenazadas: el caso del turon de patas negras (Mustela nigripes)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vargas, A.; Biggins, D.; Miller, B.

    1999-01-01

    de esta especie de un modo más eficaz y rentable. Black-footed ferrets are considered one of the world's most endangered mammals. The last wild population was discovered in 1981 in Meteetsee, Wyoming, and, in 1985 it collapsed due to an epizootic of canine distemper in combination with sylvatic plague. Prior to the extinction of the last remnant population, 18 wild black-footed ferrets were captured to initiate captive propagation efforts. Captive breeding has been successful and, during the last 11 years, more than 2600 black-footed ferrets have been born in captive breeding centers. Since 1991, approximately 870 ferrets have been reintroduced in 5 areas located within the ferret's original geographic distribution, including sites in Wyoming, Montana, South Dakota, and Arizona. Scientific research has been, and continues to be, a critical tool to direct recovery efforts. Studies in applied ethology conducted on captive and reintroduced ferret populations have demonstrated that a naturalistic captive environment, particularly during early developmental periods, enhances the expression of behaviors necessary for survival in nature. Ferrets raised in a naturalistic environment develop better predatory skills, are able to recognize prairie dog burrows as a home and shelter from predators, and are more physically fit. Results from these studies have been adapted into management strategies to help implement a more cost-effective road to black-footed ferret recovery.

  3. The Labial-Coronal Effect Revisited: Japanese Adults Say Pata, but Hear Tapa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsuji, Sho; Gomez, Nayeli Gonzalez; Medina, Victoria; Nazzi, Thierry; Mazuka, Reiko

    2012-01-01

    The labial-coronal effect has originally been described as a bias to initiate a word with a labial consonant-vowel-coronal consonant (LC) sequence. This bias has been explained with constraints on the human speech production system, and its perceptual correlates have motivated the suggestion of a perception-production link. However, previous…

  4. The Labial-Coronal Effect Revisited: Japanese Adults Say Pata, but Hear Tapa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsuji, Sho; Gomez, Nayeli Gonzalez; Medina, Victoria; Nazzi, Thierry; Mazuka, Reiko

    2012-01-01

    The labial-coronal effect has originally been described as a bias to initiate a word with a labial consonant-vowel-coronal consonant (LC) sequence. This bias has been explained with constraints on the human speech production system, and its perceptual correlates have motivated the suggestion of a perception-production link. However, previous…

  5. The labial-coronal effect revisited: Japanese adults say pata, but hear tapa.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Sho; Gomez, Nayeli Gonzalez; Medina, Victoria; Nazzi, Thierry; Mazuka, Reiko

    2012-12-01

    The labial-coronal effect has originally been described as a bias to initiate a word with a labial consonant-vowel-coronal consonant (LC) sequence. This bias has been explained with constraints on the human speech production system, and its perceptual correlates have motivated the suggestion of a perception-production link. However, previous studies exclusively considered languages in which LC sequences are globally more frequent than their counterpart. The current study examined the LC bias in speakers of Japanese, a language that has been claimed to possess more CL than LC sequences. We first conducted an analysis of Japanese corpora that qualified this claim, and identified a subgroup of consonants (plosives) exhibiting a CL bias. Second, focusing on this subgroup of consonants, we found diverging results for production and perception such that Japanese speakers exhibited an articulatory LC bias, but a perceptual CL bias. The CL perceptual bias, however, was modulated by language of presentation, and was only present for stimuli recorded by a Japanese, but not a French, speaker. A further experiment with native speakers of French showed the opposite effect, with an LC bias for French stimuli only. Overall, we find support for a universal, articulatory motivated LC bias in production, supporting a motor explanation of the LC effect, while perceptual biases are influenced by distributional frequencies of the native language.

  6. Hindlimb proportions, allometry, and biomechanics in Old World monkeys (primates, Cercopithecidae).

    PubMed

    Strasser, E

    1992-02-01

    The traditional focus on morphological rather than mechanical units has obscured some significant functional differences in the hindlimbs of primates. This paper examines the allometric and biomechanical basis for some distinctive proportional differences among pairs of morphological units in the hindlimb, and especially the foot, of cercopithecid primates. Five major conclusions are reached. First, many hindlimb dimensions scale allometrically with body mass to maintain mechanical similarity within taxonomic and locomotor groups. Therefore, the majority of traditional indices which describe the shape of the foot within cercopithecids reveal differences which are primarily a function of size. Second, the hindlimb segments in colobines, and especially in Presbytis, are relatively long, probably to enhance leaping. Third, the major distinction of terrestrial cercopithecines among the features analysed is reduction in the length of the phalanges, due to the reduced importance of grasping during locomotion and the assumption of digitigrady. Fourth, Theropithecus and male Erythrocebus have high crural indices, relative to their body masses, which can facilitate curosoriality. Female E. patas already has a high crural index as a function of its body mass. Fifth, macaques form a distinctive group among cercopithecines, characterized by relatively short hindlimbs. Relatively very short hindlimbs in Macaca fuscata and M. thibetana suggest that climatic conditions can have an added effect on the lengths of the hindlimb segments. In summary, this analysis of the lengths of the hindlimb segments relative to body size reveals taxonomic differences which are due in part to phylogeny, to differences in locomotor behavior, and to substrate use.

  7. Studies on vaccination against bacillary dysentery

    PubMed Central

    Mel, David M.; Cvjetanović, Branko; Felsenfeld, Oscar

    1970-01-01

    In earlier studies in man it has been demonstrated that streptomycin-dependent shigellae, if given orally in 5 sufficiently large doses, confer a very high type-specific protection against bacillary dysentery. In the present study, 2 groups of Erythrocebus patas monkeys were immunized with live streptomycin-dependent Shigella flexneri 2a, and a third group was not vaccinated. One of the vaccinated groups was given streptomycin with each dose of the live vaccine. The animals that received streptomycin with the vaccine were shedding these organisms in their faeces for a significantly longer period than the animals that did not receive streptomycin. A week after the last dose of vaccine, the animals were challenged with virulent Sh. flexneri 2a organisms. All the control animals developed diarrhoea and excreted challenge organisms for an average of 9 days. None of the 9 immunized animals showed pathological changes nor symptoms of dysentery. On average, they excreted challenge organisms for only 2.3 days. Immunological tests confirmed the immunity of the vaccinated animals. This study shows that 3 doses of live oral streptomycin-dependent Shigella vaccine given together with streptomycin are at least as effective as immunization with 5 doses of the same vaccine without streptomycin. Oral application of streptomycin, therefore, seems to have had an enhancing effect on the immunizing property of live oral streptomycin-dependent enteric vaccines. PMID:4993182

  8. Revisiting play elements and self-handicapping in play: a comparative ethogram of five Old World monkey species.

    PubMed

    Petrů, Milada; Spinka, Marek; Charvátová, Veronika; Lhota, Stanislav

    2009-08-01

    Play behavior has been viewed as a mixture of elements drawn from "serious" behavior, interspersed by ritualized play signals. Two other types of play behaviors have been overlooked: patterns that are dissimilar from any serious behavior and patterns with self-handicapping character, that is, those that put the animal into unnecessary disadvantageous positions or situations. Here the authors show that these 2 types of patterns can constitute a major part of play repertoire. From our own videorecordings and observations, we constructed play ethograms of 5 monkey species (Semnopithecus entellus, Erythrocebus patas, Chlorocebus pygerythrus, Cercopithecus neglectus, and Cercopithecus diana). The authors evaluated the self-handicapping character of each pattern and in Hanuman langurs also the (dis)similarity to serious behavior. Of the 74 patterns in the 5 species, 33 (45%) were judged to have a self-handicapping character. Of 48 patterns observed in langurs, 16 (33%) were totally dissimilar to any serious langur behavior known to us. The authors discuss the possibility that the different types of play elements may have different functions in play.

  9. Isolation and characterization of faecal bifidobacteria and lactobacilli isolated from dogs and primates.

    PubMed

    Strompfová, Viola; Lauková, Andrea

    2014-10-01

    Although bifidobacteria and lactobacilli have been suggested beneficial for the host and are components of many probiotics and competitive exclusion mixtures, the knowledge on abundance, metabolic and probiotic characteristics in isolates from dogs and monkeys is still limited. The present study was aimed to isolate Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus strains (faeces of 22 dogs and of 5 primates: Cebus apella, Eulemur fulvus, Erythrocebus patas, Macaca fascicularis, Papio hamadryas) with the MALDI-TOF identification system Lactobacillus murinus, Bifidobacterium animalis and Pediococcus acidilactici were more frequently isolated species in dogs while Lactobacillus plantarum was isolated in several species of primates. Ten strains of 6 species were assayed for enzymatic activities (only Lactobacillus reuteri strains showed no undesirable enzymatic activity), antimicrobial susceptibility (detected higher minimum inhibitory concentration levels for tetracycline and gentamicin), and inhibitory activity against 15 indicator bacteria. All strains inhibited Gram-negative indicators while lactobacilli showed larger inhibition zones than bifidobacteria. L. reuteri II/3b/a (isolate from M. fascicularis) showed the best antimicrobial properties. Resistance to bile (0.3% w/v) was observed in all tested strains (no decrease of CFU/ml) whereas the decrease of 68.4-94.4% (after 90 min exposition) and 78.4-99.9% CFU/ml (after 180 min) depending on the strain was detected in the artificial gastric juice.

  10. Advanced photoacoustic and thermoacoustic sensing and imaging beyond pulsed absorption contrast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Fei; Feng, Xiaohua; Zheng, Yuanjin

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we review the recent progress in the photoacoustic (PA) and thermoacoustic (TA) imaging domain. Going beyond the conventional investigation of optical/microwave absorption contrast, this review will focus more on the new developments of PA and TA imaging towards multi-contrast mechanisms, such as multimodal PA/TA imaging, viscosity imaging, temperature monitoring, Doppler detection of flow speed, etc. In addition, several interesting techniques utilizing PA/TA will be reviewed, including photoacoustic-guided optical focusing, electrical circuit modeling of PA/TA effect, TA imaging with coherent continuous-wave (CW) magnetic and radio-frequency (RF) excitations, as well as its nonlinear effect. Finally, some prospects about the further improvement of PA/TA imaging techniques are suggested, followed by the conclusion.

  11. Environmental degradation of polyacrylamides. II. Effects of environmental (outdoor) exposure.

    PubMed

    Smith, E A; Prues, S L; Oehme, F W

    1997-06-01

    The environmental fate of a polyacrylamide thickening agent (PATA), formulated without and with a glyphosate-surfactant herbicide (GH), was examined under various environmental situations: formulation in surface water and ground water, volatility, and soil mobility. Environmental Fate of PATA in Surface Water and Ground Water: PATA was formulated at four concentrations in distilled-deionized water, three surface water samples, and two ground water samples, without and with a GH. Solutions were placed in glass bottles, covered with plastic wrap, and exposed to environmental (outdoor) conditions for 6 weeks. Acrylamide and ammonium concentration, pH, and bacterial and fungal populations were measured weekly. All solutions in this portion of the study had a homogeneous milky appearance but the conclusions of the study were nearly transparent. The results of this study suggest that polyacrylamide can degrade to acrylamide under environmental conditions. Statistically, there was no linear correlation between the various parameters measured. Volatility: PATA was formulated without and with GH. Each solution plus an acrylamide standard (positive control) was placed in a glass beaker and exposed to environmental (outdoor) conditions for 6 days. Acrylamide concentration, ammonium concentration, pH, and solution volume were measured daily. Acrylamide and ammonium concentrations increased during the study in all formulations, except when solutions evaporated to dryness. pH did not change greatly over the course of the study for these samples. Those solutions containing PATA had a homogeneous milky appearance but by the conclusions of the study were nearly transparent. This suggests a physical structural change in the polymer. Soil Mobility: PATA formulated with GH was also applied to soil columns and soil boxes containing sand, Eudora sandy loam, Eudora sandy clay, and Kohola silt loam. Acrylamide could be detected by Day 2 in all soil columns. Acrylamide could not be

  12. Peptidoglycan Acetylation of Campylobacter jejuni Is Essential for Maintaining Cell Wall Integrity and Colonization in Chicken Intestines.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Taketoshi; Watanabe, Ayako; Kusumoto, Masahiro; Akiba, Masato

    2016-10-15

    Peptidoglycan (PG) acetylation of Gram-positive bacteria confers lysozyme resistance and contributes to survival in the host. However, the importance of PG acetylation in Gram-negative bacteria has not been fully elucidated. The genes encoding putative PG acetyltransferase A (PatA) and B (PatB) are highly conserved in Campylobacter jejuni, the predominant cause of bacterial diarrhea worldwide. To evaluate the importance of PatA and PatB of C. jejuni, we constructed patA and patB isogenic mutants and compared their phenotypes with those of the parental strains. Although transmission electron microscopy did not reveal morphological changes, both mutants exhibited decreased motility and biofilm formation in vitro The extent of acetylation of the PG purified from the patA and patB mutants was significantly lower than the PG acetylation in the parental strains. Both mutants exhibited decreased lysozyme resistance and intracellular survival in macrophage cells. In a chick colonization experiment, significant colonization deficiency was observed for both mutants. These results suggest that PatA and PatB of C. jejuni play important roles in maintaining cell wall integrity by catalyzing PG O-acetylation and that the loss of these enzymes causes decreased motility and biofilm formation, thus leading to colonization deficiency in chicken infection. The importance of peptidoglycan (PG) acetylation in Gram-negative bacteria has not been fully elucidated. The genes encoding putative PG acetyltransferase A (PatA) and B (PatB) are highly conserved in Campylobacter jejuni, the predominant cause of bacterial diarrhea worldwide. We evaluated the importance of these enzymes using isogenic mutants. The results of this study suggest that PatA and PatB of C. jejuni play important roles in maintaining cell wall integrity. The loss of these factors caused multiple phenotypic changes, leading to colonization deficiency in chicken infection. These data should be useful in developing novel

  13. Pediatric Thighbone (Femur) Fracture

    MedlinePlus

    ... fractures in infants under 1 year old is child abuse. Child abuse is also a leading cause of thighbone fracture ... contact sports • Being in a motor vehicle accident • Child abuse Types of Femur Fractures (Classification) Femur fractures vary ...

  14. Ganglioneuroblastoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... spread. A ganglioneuroma is a benign tumor. A neuroblastoma (occurring in children over 1 year old) is ... but it is usually less aggressive than a neuroblastoma. The cause is unknown. Symptoms Most commonly, a ...

  15. Infant Botulism (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Infant Botulism KidsHealth > For Parents > Infant Botulism A A A ... babies younger than 1 year old. About Infant Botulism This illness usually affects babies who are between ...

  16. Can Dirty Diapers Offer Clues to the Infant Brain?

    MedlinePlus

    ... hold clues to their brain development, a new study suggests. Researchers analyzed fecal samples from dozens of 1-year-olds and assessed their thinking (cognitive) skills a year later. The results revealed a link ...

  17. 77 FR 65220 - Certain Licensees Requesting Unescorted Access to Radioactive Material; Order Imposing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-25

    ... the FBI involving: an arrest more than one (1) year old for which there is no information of the... discriminate among individuals on the basis of race, religion, national origin, sex, or age. D. Right to...

  18. 78 FR 51213 - In the Matter of Certain Licensees Requesting Unescorted Access to Radioactive Material; Order...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-20

    ... solely on the basis of information received from the FBI involving: an arrest more than one (1) year old... information in any way which would discriminate among individuals on the basis of race, religion, national...

  19. 75 FR 160 - In the Matter of: Certain Licensees Requesting Unescorted Access to Radioactive Material; Order...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-04

    ... received from the FBI involving: An arrest more than one (1) year old for which there is no information of... discriminate among individuals on the basis of race, religion, national origin, sex, or age. D. Right To...

  20. 75 FR 20010 - In the Matter of: Certain Licensees Requesting Unescorted Access to Radioactive Material; Order...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    ... solely on the basis of information received from the FBI involving: an arrest more than one (1) year old... information in any way which would discriminate among individuals on the basis of race, religion, national...

  1. 77 FR 25762 - In the Matter of Southern Nuclear Operating Company, Inc., Vogtle Electric Generating Plant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-01

    ... more than 1 year old for which there is no information of the disposition of the case, or an arrest... information in any way that would discriminate among individuals on the basis of race, religion, national...

  2. Physical sciences: Thermodynamics, cryogenics, and vacuum technology: A compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Technological developments which have potential application outside the aerospace community are reported. A variety of thermodynamic devices including heat pipes and cooling systems are described along with methods of handling cryogenic fluids. Vacuum devices are also described. Pata et information is included.

  3. Development of Single/Geminate Obstruent Discrimination by Japanese Infants: Early Integration of Durational and Nondurational Cues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sato, Yutaka; Kato, Mahoko; Mazuka, Reiko

    2012-01-01

    The Japanese language has single/geminate obstruents characterized by durational difference in closure/frication as part of the phonemic repertoire used to distinguish word meanings. We first evaluated infants' abilities to discriminate naturally uttered single/geminate obstruents (/pata/ and /patta/) using the visual habituation-dishabituation…

  4. Putrescine catabolism is a metabolic response to several stresses in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Barbara L; Hernandez, V James; Reitzer, Larry

    2013-05-01

    Genes whose products degrade arginine and ornithine, precursors of putrescine synthesis, are activated by either regulators of the nitrogen-regulated (Ntr) response or σ(S) -RNA polymerase. To determine if dual control regulates a complete putrescine catabolic pathway, we examined expression of patA and patD, which specify the first two enzymes of one putrescine catabolic pathway. Assays of PatA (putrescine transaminase) activity and β-galactosidase from cells with patA-lacZ transcriptional and translational fusions indicate dual control of patA transcription and putrescine-stimulated patA translation. Similar assays for PatD indicate that patD transcription required σ(S) -RNA polymerase, and Nac, an Ntr regulator, enhanced the σ(S) -dependent transcription. Since Nac activation via σ(S) -RNA polymerase is without precedent, transcription with purified components was examined and the results confirmed this conclusion. This result indicates that the Ntr regulon can intrude into the σ(S) regulon. Strains lacking both polyamine catabolic pathways have defective responses to oxidative stress, high temperature and a sublethal concentration of an antibiotic. These defects and the σ(S) -dependent expression indicate that polyamine catabolism is a core metabolic response to stress.

  5. Development of Single/Geminate Obstruent Discrimination by Japanese Infants: Early Integration of Durational and Nondurational Cues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sato, Yutaka; Kato, Mahoko; Mazuka, Reiko

    2012-01-01

    The Japanese language has single/geminate obstruents characterized by durational difference in closure/frication as part of the phonemic repertoire used to distinguish word meanings. We first evaluated infants' abilities to discriminate naturally uttered single/geminate obstruents (/pata/ and /patta/) using the visual habituation-dishabituation…

  6. Development of single/geminate obstruent discrimination by Japanese infants: early integration of durational and nondurational cues.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yutaka; Kato, Mahoko; Mazuka, Reiko

    2012-01-01

    The Japanese language has single/geminate obstruents characterized by durational difference in closure/frication as part of the phonemic repertoire used to distinguish word meanings. We first evaluated infants' abilities to discriminate naturally uttered single/geminate obstruents (/pata/ and /patta/) using the visual habituation-dishabituation method. The results revealed that 9.5-month-old Japanese infants were able to make this discrimination, t(21) = 2.119, p = .046, paired t test, whereas 4-month-olds were not, t(25) = 0.395, p = .696, paired t test. To examine how acoustic correlates (covarying cues) are associated with the contrast discrimination, we tested Japanese infants at 9.5 and 11.5 months of age with 3 combinations of natural and manipulated stimuli. The 11.5-month-olds were able to discriminate the naturally uttered pair (/pata/ vs. /patta/), t(20) = 4.680, p < .000, paired t test. Neither group discriminated the natural /patta/ from the manipulated /pata/ created from natural /patta/ tokens: For 9.5-month-olds, t(23) = 0.754, p = .458; for 11.5-month-olds, t(27) = 0.789, p = .437, paired t tests. Only the 11.5-month-olds discriminated the natural /pata/ and the manipulated /patta/ created from /pata/ tokens: For 9.5-month-olds, t(24) = 0.114, p = .910; for 11.5-month-olds, t(23) = 2.244, p = .035, paired t tests. These results suggest that Japanese infants acquire a sensitivity to contrasts of single/geminate obstruents by 9.5 months of age and that certain cues that covary with closure length either facilitate or interfere with contrast discrimination under particular conditions.

  7. Pediatric intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas: age-related differences in clinical features, angioarchitecture, and treatment outcomes.

    PubMed

    Hetts, Steven W; Moftakhar, Parham; Maluste, Neil; Fullerton, Heather J; Cooke, Daniel L; Amans, Matthew R; Dowd, Christopher F; Higashida, Randall T; Halbach, Van V

    2016-11-01

    OBJECTIVE Intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) are rare in children. This study sought to better characterize DAVF presentation, angioarchitecture, and treatment outcomes. METHODS Children with intracranial DAVFs between 1986 and 2013 were retrospectively identified from the neurointerventional database at the authors' institution. Demographics, clinical presentation, lesion angioarchitecture, treatment approaches, angiographic outcomes, and clinical outcomes were assessed. RESULTS DAVFs constituted 5.7% (22/423) of pediatric intracranial arteriovenous shunting lesions. Twelve boys and 10 girls presented between 1 day and 18 years of age; boys presented at a median of 1.3 years and girls presented at a median of 4.9 years. Four of 8 patients ≤ 1 year of age presented with congestive heart failure compared with 0/14 patients > 1 year of age (p = 0.01). Five of 8 patients ≤ 1 year old presented with respiratory distress compared with 0/14 patients > 1 year old (p = 0.0021). Ten of 14 patients > 1 year old presented with focal neurological deficits compared with 0/8 patients ≤ 1 year old (p = 0.0017). At initial angiography, 16 patients harbored a single intracranial DAVF and 6 patients had 2-6 DAVFs. Eight patients (38%) experienced DAVF obliteration by the end of treatment. Good clinical outcome (modified Rankin Scale score 0-2) was documented in 77% of patients > 1 year old at presentation compared with 57% of patients ≤ 1 year old at presentation. Six patients (27%) died. CONCLUSIONS Young children with DAVFs presented predominantly with cardiopulmonary symptoms, while older children presented with focal neurological deficits. Compared with other pediatric vascular shunts, DAVFs had lower rates of angiographic obliteration and poorer clinical outcomes.

  8. Environmental degradation of polyacrylamides. 1. Effects of artificial environmental conditions: temperature, light, and pH.

    PubMed

    Smith, E A; Prues, S L; Oehme, F W

    1996-11-01

    A polyacrylamide thickening agent (PATA) was formulated at four concentrations in distilled-deionized water, without and with a glyphosate-surfactant herbicide (GH). Over a 6-week period, these mixtures were exposed to various controlled temperature and light conditions. Acrylamide concentration, ammonium concentration, and pH were measured at weekly intervals to assess the degradation of polyacrylamide and acrylamide. Satellite studies were conducted to examine the effect of altered pH on solutions of PATA (i.e., does pH promote polyacrylamide depolymerization?) and GH binding to amine groups (i.e., protection from degradation). The results of these studies suggest that polyacrylamide can degrade to acrylamide by thermal and photolytic effects, that changes in pH do not promote the depolymerization of polyacrylamide, and that GH does protect polyacrylamide and acrylamide from environmental degradation. Statistically there was no linear correlation between the various parameters measured.

  9. An analytical study of photoacoustic and thermoacoustic generation efficiency towards contrast agent and film design optimization.

    PubMed

    Gao, Fei; Kishor, Rahul; Feng, Xiaohua; Liu, Siyu; Ding, Ran; Zhang, Ruochong; Zheng, Yuanjin

    2017-09-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) and thermoacoustic (TA) effects have been explored in many applications, such as bio-imaging, laser-induced ultrasound generator, and sensitive electromagnetic (EM) wave film sensor. In this paper, we propose a compact analytical PA/TA generation model to incorporate EM, thermal and mechanical parameters, etc. From the derived analytical model, both intuitive predictions and quantitative simulations are performed. It shows that beyond the EM absorption improvement, there are many other physical parameters that deserve careful consideration when designing contrast agents or film composites, followed by simulation study. Lastly, several sets of experimental results are presented to prove the feasibility of the proposed analytical model. Overall, the proposed compact model could work as a clear guidance and predication for improved PA/TA contrast agents and film generator/sensor designs in the domain area.

  10. Aircraft Crash Survival Design Guide. Volume 5. Aircraft Postcrash Survival

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    Crash Locator Beacons Crashworthiness Emergency Escape Postcrash Survival Aircraft Interior Materials Crashworthy Fuel Systems Ditching Postorash Fire...behavior of interip~r materials , ditching survival, emergency escape, and ~ crash loc tor beacons. ow - SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGIEtfhn Pata...IGNITION SOURCE CONTROL TERMS.... . . 21 2.4 INTERIOR MATERIALS SELECTION TERMS . . . 22 2.5 DITCHING AND EMERGENCY ESCAPE TERMS. . . 23 CHAPTER 3. POSTCRASH

  11. Multiple mutations and increased RNA expression in tetracycline-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae as determined by genome-wide DNA and mRNA sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Lupien, Andréanne; Gingras, Hélène; Bergeron, Michel G.; Leprohon, Philippe; Ouellette, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to characterize chromosomal mutations associated with resistance to tetracycline in Streptococcus pneumoniae. Methods Chronological appearance of mutations in two S. pneumoniae R6 mutants (R6M1TC-5 and R6M2TC-4) selected for resistance to tetracycline was determined by next-generation sequencing. A role for the mutations identified was confirmed by reconstructing resistance to tetracycline in a S. pneumoniae R6 WT background. RNA sequencing was performed on R6M1TC-5 and R6M2TC-4 and the relative expression of genes was reported according to R6. Differentially expressed genes were classified according to their ontology. Results WGS of R6M1TC-5 and R6M2TC-4 revealed mutations in the gene rpsJ coding for the ribosomal protein S10 and in the promoter region and coding sequences of the ABC genes patA and patB. These cells were cross-resistant to ciprofloxacin. Resistance reconstruction confirmed a role in resistance for the mutations in rpsJ and patA. Overexpression of the ABC transporter PatA/PatB or mutations in the coding sequence of patA contributed to resistance to tetracycline, ciprofloxacin and ethidium bromide, and was associated with a decreased accumulation of [3H]tetracycline. Comparative transcriptome profiling of the resistant mutants further revealed that, in addition to the overexpression of patA and patB, several genes of the thiamine biosynthesis and salvage pathway were increased in the two mutants, but also in clinical isolates resistant to tetracycline. This overexpression most likely contributes to the tetracycline resistance phenotype. Conclusions The combination of genomic and transcriptomic analysis coupled to functional studies has allowed the discovery of novel tetracycline resistance mutations in S. pneumoniae. PMID:25862682

  12. Equipment Support Grant for Air Force Task ’Chemical Defense Drugs Effects with Exercise and Thermal Stress’

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-10-12

    1075 (1986). 12 13. Gisolfi, C. F., Sato, K., Wall, P. T., and Sato, F. In vivo and in vitro characteristics of eccrine sweating in patas and rhesus... sweating , and even- tually, evaporative heat loss through its anticholinergic activity (2) resulting in increased net heat storage (1, 15), decreased heat...similar to those reported for humans. The suppressed sweating capacity of the atropine significantly affected the heat loss mechanisms of the

  13. Biased inheritance of the protein PatN frees vegetative cells to initiate patterned heterocyst differentiation.

    PubMed

    Risser, Douglas D; Wong, Francis C Y; Meeks, John C

    2012-09-18

    Heterocysts, cells specialized for nitrogen fixation in certain filamentous cyanobacteria, appear singly in a nonrandom spacing pattern along the chain of vegetative cells. A two-stage, biased initiation and competitive resolution model has been proposed to explain the establishment of this spacing pattern. There is substantial evidence that competitive resolution of a subset of cells initiating differentiation occurs by interactions between a self-enhancing activator protein, HetR, and a diffusible pentapeptide inhibitor PatS-5 (RGSGR). Results presented here show that the absence of a unique membrane protein, PatN, in Nostoc punctiforme strain ATCC 29133 leads to a threefold increase in heterocyst frequency and a fourfold decrease in the vegetative cell interval between heterocysts. A PatN-GFP translational fusion shows a pattern of biased inheritance in daughter vegetative cells of ammonium-grown cultures. Inactivation of another heterocyst patterning gene, patA, is epistatic to inactivation of patN, and transcription of patA increases in a patN-deletion strain, implying that patN may function by modulating levels of patA. The presence of PatN is hypothesized to decrease the competency of a vegetative cell to initiate heterocyst differentiation, and the cellular concentration of PatN is dependent on cell division that results in cells transiently depleted of PatN. We suggest that biased inheritance of cell-fate determinants is a phylogenetic domain-spanning paradigm in the development of biological patterns.

  14. Renal failure in a guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) following ingestion of oxalate containing plants

    PubMed Central

    Holowaychuk, Marie K.

    2006-01-01

    A 1-year-old guinea pig presented with anorexia, lethargy, and weight loss, 1 week after ingesting a peace lily leaf. Laboratory findings were suggestive of renal failure and included elevated blood urea nitrogen and creatinine with concurrent isosthenuria. The guinea pig was euthanized 1 month later due to worsening clinical signs. PMID:16933558

  15. One-Year-Olds Think Creatively, Just Like Their Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoicka, Elena; Mowat, Rachael; Kirkwood, Joanne; Kerr, Tiffany; Carberry, Megan; Bijvoet-van den Berg, Simone

    2016-01-01

    Creativity is an essential human ability, allowing adaptation and survival. Twenty-nine 1-year-olds and their parents were tested on divergent thinking (DT), a measure of creative potential counting how many ideas one can generate. Toddlers' and parents' DT was moderately to highly correlated. Toddlers showed a wide range of DT scores, which were…

  16. Caring for Pretoddlers. Staff Development Series, Military Child Care Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scavo, Marlene; And Others

    Ideas for working with 1-year-old children are provided in this staff development module for the caregiver or teacher in a military child care center. Sections of the module describe what "pretoddlers" are like and provide guidelines for facilitating their physical, socioemotional, and language development. The final section discusses…

  17. Effect of manganese on endomycorrhizal sugar maple seedlings

    Treesearch

    George A. Schier; Carolyn J. McQuattie

    2002-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) toxicity may play an important role in the poor survival of seedlings in declining sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) stands in northern Pennsylvania. To determine the effect of Mn on the growth of sugar maple seedlings, 1-year-old seedlings inoculated with vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi and growing in sand-vermiculite-...

  18. Multiple liver abscesses in a dog secondary to the liver fluke Metorchis conjunctus treated by percutaneous transhepatic drainage and alcoholization.

    PubMed

    Lemetayer, Julie D; Snead, Elizabeth C; Starrak, Greg S; Wagner, Brent A

    2016-06-01

    A 1-year-old German shepherd × husky cross dog was diagnosed with multiple liver abscesses and severe cholangitis secondary to the liver fluke Metorchis conjunctus. The dog was successfully treated with 2 percutaneous transhepatic drainage and alcoholization procedures, and a prolonged course of antibiotics and praziquantel.

  19. 50 CFR 697.5 - Operator permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the Regional Administrator: Name, mailing address, and telephone number; date of birth; hair color; eye color; height; weight; social security number (optional) and signature of the applicant. The applicant must also provide two recent (no more than 1 year old) color passport-size photographs. The...

  20. 50 CFR 648.5 - Operator permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...: Name, mailing address, and telephone number; date of birth; hair color; eye color; height; weight; and signature of the applicant. The applicant must also provide two recent (no more than 1 year old), color... assigned. An applicant for a reissued permit must also provide two recent, color, passport-size photos of...

  1. 50 CFR 648.5 - Operator permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...: Name, mailing address, and telephone number; date of birth; hair color; eye color; height; weight; and signature of the applicant. The applicant must also provide two recent (no more than 1 year old), color... assigned. An applicant for a reissued permit must also provide two recent, color, passport-size photos of...

  2. 50 CFR 697.5 - Operator permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the Regional Administrator: Name, mailing address, and telephone number; date of birth; hair color; eye color; height; weight; social security number (optional) and signature of the applicant. The applicant must also provide two recent (no more than 1 year old) color passport-size photographs. The...

  3. A stand-development approach to oak afforestation in the lower Mississippi alluvial valley

    Treesearch

    Brian Roy Lockhart; Emile Gardiner; Theodor Leininger; John Stanturf

    2008-01-01

    Oak (Quercus spp.) afforestation in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley has involved planting 1-year-old bareroot seedlings on a relatively wide spacing in single-species stands or planting light-seeded species with oaks to form mixed-species stands. In the former case, the developing single-species stands have limited future management options...

  4. A stand-development approach to oak afforestation in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    Treesearch

    J. Stanturf

    2009-01-01

    Oak (Quercus spp.) afforestation in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley has involved planting 1-year-old bareroot seedlings on a relatively wide spacing in single-species stands or planting light-seeded species with oaks to form mixed-species stands. In the former case, the developing single-species stands have limited future...

  5. PHYSIOLOGICAL AND FOLIAR INJURY RESPONSES OF PRUNUS SEROTINA, FRAXINUS AMERICANA, AND ACER RUBRUM SEEDLINGS TO VARYING SOIL MOISTURE AND OZONE. (R825244)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sixteen black cherry (Prunus serotina, Ehrh.), 10 white ash (Fraxinus americana, L.) and 10 red maple (Acer rubrum, L.) 1-year old seedlings were planted per plot in 1997 on a former nursery bed within 12 open-top chambers and six open plots. Seedlings wer...

  6. "Candidatus Rickettsia kellyi," India.

    PubMed

    Rolain, Jean-Marc; Mathai, Elizabeth; Lepidi, Hubert; Somashekar, Hosaagrahara R; Mathew, Leni G; Prakash, John A J; Raoult, Didier

    2006-03-01

    We report the first laboratory-confirmed human infection due to a new rickettsial genotype in India, "Candidatus Rickettsia kellyi," in a 1-year-old boy with fever and maculopapular rash. The diagnosis was made by serologic testing, polymerase chain reaction detection, and immunohistochemical testing of the organism from a skin biopsy specimen.

  7. Logging slash flammability after five years

    Treesearch

    George R. Fahnestock; John H. Dieterich

    1962-01-01

    This paper reports the final phase of research that has determined the flammability of slash for nine species of northern Rocky Mountain conifers at three ages. Visual characteristics, rate of fire spread, and fire intensity for 5-year-old slash were studied by essentially the same methods as had been used previously on freshly cut and 1-year-old material. Final...

  8. Cow's milk and children

    MedlinePlus

    Milk and children; Cow’s milk allergy - children; Lactose intolerance - children ... You may have heard that cow's milk should not be given to babies younger than 1 year old. This is because cow's milk doesn't provide enough of certain ...

  9. Age Differences in Online Processing of Video: An Eye Movement Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkorian, Heather L.; Anderson, Daniel R.; Keen, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Eye movements were recorded while sixty-two 1-year-olds, 4-year-olds, and adults watched television. Of interest was the extent to which viewers looked at the same place at the same time as their peers because high similarity across viewers suggests systematic viewing driven by comprehension processes. Similarity of gaze location increased with…

  10. Within and Between Canopy Variabilit of Foliar Nitrogen Concentration for Loblolly and Slash Pine Stands Planted at Different Densities

    Treesearch

    Rodney E. Will; Greg Barron-Gafford; Robert O. Teskey; Barry D. Shiver

    2004-01-01

    Mid-summer foliar nitrogen concentrations (N) were measured at three canopy positions (upper, middle, lower), two foliage ages per canopy position (current-year and 1-year-old), and two flushes per age class (first flush and second flush) in 4-year-old loblolly (Pinus taeda L.) and slash pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm.) stands...

  11. Multiple liver abscesses in a dog secondary to the liver fluke Metorchis conjunctus treated by percutaneous transhepatic drainage and alcoholization

    PubMed Central

    Lemetayer, Julie D.; Snead, Elizabeth C.; Starrak, Greg S.; Wagner, Brent A.

    2016-01-01

    A 1-year-old German shepherd × husky cross dog was diagnosed with multiple liver abscesses and severe cholangitis secondary to the liver fluke Metorchis conjunctus. The dog was successfully treated with 2 percutaneous transhepatic drainage and alcoholization procedures, and a prolonged course of antibiotics and praziquantel. PMID:27247459

  12. 1973 Mississippi River Flood's Impact on Natural Hardwood Forests and Plantations

    Treesearch

    H. E. Kennedy; R. M. Krinard

    1974-01-01

    Through October, the 1979 Mississippi River flood had not caused extensive damage to natural hardwood forests or plantations that were 1 year or older and had been flooded only during the first 2 months of the growing season. New plantings of cottonwood were virtually destroyed, however, and 1-year-old sweetgum, flooded about 9 months, was killed. All yellow-poplar...

  13. Late-season flooding regimes influence the accretion and partitioning of nitrogen and biomass in silver maple seedlings

    Treesearch

    Christopher M. Kaelke; Jeffery O. Dawson

    2003-01-01

    To better understand how late-season flooding affects survival, growth, N accretion, and N partitioning in silver maple, we subjected 1-year-old seedlings to continuous (July-November), summer (July-September), and fall (September-November) root-flooding regimes outdoors in plastic tanks. Only root growth was affected by flooding as root biomass measured in September...

  14. Creating an Amazing Montessori Toddler Home Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woo, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    The author states that raising her twins the Montessori way has made her life easy. Imagine two 1-year-olds eating entire meals on their own, setting their own tables by 20 months, and becoming potty-trained before 2. These are not statistics found in just one household. Children raised the Montessori way can take care of themselves and their…

  15. 50 CFR 21.29 - Falconry standards and falconry permitting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... offering to purchase, barter, or sell, among other things, raptors (birds of prey) listed in § 10.13 of... at least 18 years old and has at least 2 years experience at the General Falconer level, stating that... in falconry. (E) You may take raptors less than 1 year old, except nestlings, from the wild...

  16. PHYSIOLOGICAL AND FOLIAR INJURY RESPONSES OF PRUNUS SEROTINA, FRAXINUS AMERICANA, AND ACER RUBRUM SEEDLINGS TO VARYING SOIL MOISTURE AND OZONE. (R825244)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sixteen black cherry (Prunus serotina, Ehrh.), 10 white ash (Fraxinus americana, L.) and 10 red maple (Acer rubrum, L.) 1-year old seedlings were planted per plot in 1997 on a former nursery bed within 12 open-top chambers and six open plots. Seedlings wer...

  17. Toddler Growth and Development

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Raise Concerns about a Child’s Speech and Language Development: Do’s and Don’ts How to Share Books ... Old Language Delays in Toddlers: Information for Parents Language Development: 1 Year Olds Language Development: 2 Year Olds ...

  18. Peer Competence and Mother-Child and Child-Child Interactions in One-Year-Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Lieshout, Cornelis F. M.; And Others

    As part of a longitudinal study of the predictors of preschool-aged children's peer relationships, data were collected on the social behavior of 1-year-olds. Participating in the study were 48 mother-child dyads. Individual and comparison data were gathered through observation and videotape recordings in laboratory dyadic play sessions involving…

  19. Why Young Children Choke on Food: How To Prevent It.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobsey, Dick

    According to the National Safety Council, the leading cause of accidental deaths for infants under 1 year old, and the fourth most frequent cause of death for children 1 to 4 years old, is choking on things they try to swallow. This paper indicates the dimensions of the problem and lists foods involved in choking deaths of children. Methods of…

  20. Doing Friendship during the Second Year of Life in a Swedish Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engdahl, Ingrid

    2012-01-01

    A number of studies within early childhood education and care indicate the importance of social competence. This article focuses on how friendship is created among very young children in Swedish preschools. The study was carried out within a toddler unit with 15 children. Six 1-year-old children, three girls and three boys, were observed during…

  1. Factors affecting temporal and spatial soil moisture variation in and adjacent to group selection openings

    Treesearch

    W.H. McNab

    1991-01-01

    Soil moisture content was intensively sampled in three, 1-acre blocks containing an opening and surrounding mature upland hardwoods. Openings covering 0.19-0.26 ac were created by group-selection cutting, and they were occupied by 1-year-old trees and shrubs.

  2. A case of ocular canine transmissible venereal tumor.

    PubMed

    Milo, Jewel; Snead, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    A 1-year-old, intact female mixed-breed dog was presented to St. George's University Small Animal Clinic in Grenada for a third eyelid mass. The dog was diagnosed with a rare ocular transmissible venereal tumor (TVT) and concurrent anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis and dirofilariasis. Treatment with vincristine sulfate resulted in complete resolution of the TVT.

  3. Autonomy and Children's Reactions to Being Controlled: Evidence that Both Compliance and Defiance May Be Positive Markers in Early Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dix, Theodore; Stewart, Amanda D.; Gershoff, Elizabeth T.; Day, William H.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined reactions of 1-year-olds and young 2-year-olds to being controlled by mothers. Mothers' supportive behavior predicted children's willing compliance. However, contrary to research with older children, defiance was also associated with variables linked to maternal competence, specifically, mothers' supportive behavior,…

  4. 7 CFR 4279.29 - Eligible lenders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...; audited financial statements not more than 1 year old; sources of funds for the proposed loans; office... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible lenders. 4279.29 Section 4279.29 Agriculture... UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED LOANMAKING General § 4279.29 Eligible lenders....

  5. Application Date Affects Herbicide Tolerance of Hybrid Poplars

    Treesearch

    William Danfield; James Martishus; Edward Hansen

    1983-01-01

    Several herbicides -- glyphosate (Roundup), Linuron (Lorox), pronamide (Kerb), and dichlobenil (Casoron) -- controlled weeds in a 1-year-old Populus plantation and did not seriously injure the trees when applied in early spring or late fall. Casoron was most effective but is expensive.

  6. Variant course of bilateral anterior cerebral artery in semilobar holoprosencephaly.

    PubMed

    Pendharkar, Hima; Venkateshappa, Bhaskar Madivala; Prasad, Chandrajit

    2015-12-01

    We report an unusual case of semilobar holoprosencephaly with variant course of bilateral anterior cerebral arteries (ACA) in a 1-year-old child. This is a very rare arterial variant, given that holoprosencephalic brains are usually associated with azygous ACAs.

  7. Use of plastic films for weed control during field establishment of micropropagated hardwoods

    Treesearch

    J. W. Van Sambeek; John E. Preece; Carl A. Huetteman; Paul L. Roth

    1995-01-01

    This study compares the use of plastic films to conventional methods for establishing hardwoods on a recently cultivated old field site using 1-year-old micropropagated plantlets of white ash (Fraxinus americana L.) and silver maple (Acer saccharinum L.). After one growing season in the field, height of plantlets with all weed...

  8. [The pharyngeal viral flora in dystrophic infants 0 to 1 years of age with acute respiratory diseases].

    PubMed

    Pârvu, C; Isaia, G; Moldovan, D; Mârşanu, M; Lăzărescu, P; Sîntimbreanu, C; Mârşanu, A

    1989-01-01

    Pharyngeal viral flora was studied in 0-1-year-old dystrophic children with acute infections of the upper respiratory tract and with interstitial pneumopathy. Influence of the dystrophic factor on the qualitative and quantitative aspects of the viral flora is discussed.

  9. Vagal Regulation and Observed Social Behavior in Infancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stifter, Cynthia A.; Corey, Janet M.

    2001-01-01

    Examined the relationship between vagal regulation and infant social behavior. Assessed 1-year-olds' social responses toward an unfamiliar adult, then measured their regulation of cardiac vagal tone during a later test of mental development. Results suggest that infants capable of regulating vagal tone have a greater capacity for social…

  10. Visuo-Motor and Cognitive Procedural Learning in Children with Basal Ganglia Pathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayor-Dubois, C.; Maeder, P.; Zesiger, P.; Roulet-Perez, E.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated procedural learning in 18 children with basal ganglia (BG) lesions or dysfunctions of various aetiologies, using a visuo-motor learning test, the Serial Reaction Time (SRT) task, and a cognitive learning test, the Probabilistic Classification Learning (PCL) task. We compared patients with early (less than 1 year old, n=9), later…

  11. Mothers of "Secure" Vs. "Insecure" Babies Differ Themselves Nine Months Later.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolan, William J.; Tomasini, Lisa

    This study was intended to determine whether differences in maternal attitude and behavior relate to differences in infants' Strange Situation security classification. Subjects for the present study were 38 white middle-class mothers and their normal, 1-year-old infants (20 male, 18 female). Infants who were classified as to the quality of their…

  12. Comparing jack pine slash and forest floor moisture contents and National Fire Danger Rating System predictions.

    Treesearch

    Robert M. Loomis; William A. Main

    1980-01-01

    Relations between certain slash and forest floor moisture contents and the applicable estimated time lag fuel moistures of the National Fire Danger Rating System were investigated for 1-year-old jack pine fuel types in northeastern Minnesota and central Lower Michigan. Only approximate estimates of actual fuel moisture are possible fore the relations determined, thus...

  13. Intense pulsed light hair removal in a patient with congenital hypertrichosis terminalis.

    PubMed

    Attia, Abeer; El Noury, Amr; Abd Alhafez, Mamdouh

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of 1-year-old girl with congenital hypertrichosis terminalis treated using intense pulsed light for hair removal. Repeated sessions were performed every 3 weeks. Facial hair reduction was achieved after 12 sessions and body hair reduction after 15 sessions. Intense pulsed light resulted in 75% reduction of hair in congenital hypertrichosis terminalis.

  14. Treatment of presumptive idiopathic immune-mediated anemia in a Holstein heifer, using blood transfusions and corticotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Lallemand, Michaël; Fecteau, Gilles; Desnoyer, Michel; Francoz, David; Gaucher, Marie-Lou

    2006-01-01

    Abstract An idiopathic immune-mediated anemia was diagnosed in a 1-year-old Holstein heifer. The diagnostic procedures, blood transfusions, use of an immunosuppressive dosage of dexamethasone, and favorable outcome are described, and idiopathic immune-mediated anemia in mammals is briefly reviewed. PMID:16898112

  15. Otitis Media and Language Development at 1 Year of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Ina F.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Fifteen 1-year-olds without otitis media were compared to 12 babies who were otitis positive. No significant differences were detected on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development or the Sequenced Inventory of Communication Development (SICD) Receptive scale. However, the otitis-positive group exhibited lower SICD Expressive scores than the…

  16. Psychosocial Aspects of Cleft Lip and Palate: Implications for Parental Education. Research Report 138.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalland, Mirjam

    This study focused on the psychosocial aspects of cleft lip and/or palate on maternal emotional reactions and the family, with emphasis on the effect on the maternal-infant bond. Interviews were conducted with 40 mothers of 1-year-old infants with non-syndromic cleft lip and/or palate. The interviews were analyzed using the phenomenological…

  17. Generalized benign acanthosis nigricans in an infant

    PubMed Central

    Das, Dipti; Das, Anupam; Kumar, Dhiraj; Gharami, Ramesh C.

    2014-01-01

    The generalized form of acanthosis nigricans, especially in infants, is extremely rare. Herein we report a 1-year-old female child who developed generalized acanthosis nigricans without any evidence of internal malignancy or endocrine disorder. This case is being reported for its rarity. PMID:25593799

  18. One-Year-Olds Think Creatively, Just Like Their Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoicka, Elena; Mowat, Rachael; Kirkwood, Joanne; Kerr, Tiffany; Carberry, Megan; Bijvoet-van den Berg, Simone

    2016-01-01

    Creativity is an essential human ability, allowing adaptation and survival. Twenty-nine 1-year-olds and their parents were tested on divergent thinking (DT), a measure of creative potential counting how many ideas one can generate. Toddlers' and parents' DT was moderately to highly correlated. Toddlers showed a wide range of DT scores, which were…

  19. Coats-like retinopathy in a Young Indian Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Liu, David X; Gilbert, Margaret H; Wang, Xiaolei; Didier, Peter J; Shields, Carol L; Lackner, Andrew A

    2015-04-01

    A 1-year-old male Indian rhesus macaque presented with a bilateral blindness. Ocular examination, gross and histopathological evaluation, and immunohistochemistry were performed. The major findings were retinal telangiectasia, accumulation of exudate in the intraretinal and subretinal space, and retinal detachment. Coat-like retinopathy was diagnosed, and it has not been previously reported in veterinary medicine.

  20. Physiological implications of seasonal variation in membrane-associated calcium in red spruce mesophyll cells

    Treesearch

    D.H. DeHayes; P.G. Schaberg; G.J. Hawley; C.H. Borer; J.R. Cumming; J.R. Strimbeck

    1997-01-01

    We examined the pattern of seasonal variation in total foliar calcium (Ca) pools and plasma membrane-associated Ca (mCa) in mesophyll cells of current-year and 1-year-old needles of red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) and the relationship between mCa and total foliar Ca on an individual plant and seasonal basis. Foliar samples were collected from...

  1. Doing Friendship during the Second Year of Life in a Swedish Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engdahl, Ingrid

    2012-01-01

    A number of studies within early childhood education and care indicate the importance of social competence. This article focuses on how friendship is created among very young children in Swedish preschools. The study was carried out within a toddler unit with 15 children. Six 1-year-old children, three girls and three boys, were observed during…

  2. Pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema in a cat associated with necrotizing bronchopneumonia caused by feline herpesvirus-1

    PubMed Central

    Maes, Sofie; Van Goethem, Bart; Saunders, Jimmy; Binst, Dominique; Chiers, Koen; Ducatelle, Richard

    2011-01-01

    This report describes a 1-year-old cat with acute dyspnea. Thoracic radiography revealed a pneumomediastinum and severe subcutaneous emphysema. Lower airway surgical exploration was unable to determine the cause. At postmortem examination, acute necrotizing bronchopneumonia and fibrinonecrotic tracheitis due to feline herpesvirus-1 were diagnosed. PMID:22467969

  3. An Attachment-Based Home Visiting Program for Distressed Mothers of Young Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaitz, Marsha; Tessler, Naomi; Chriki, Miriam

    2012-01-01

    Mom2Mom is an attachment-based home visiting project for distressed mothers of young infants, based in Israel. Home visitors, who are volunteer mothers from the community, are trained and supervised by professionals. Home visits occur weekly for 1-2 hours and continue until the infant is 1 year old. The project was founded in Jerusalem in year…

  4. Creating an Amazing Montessori Toddler Home Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woo, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    The author states that raising her twins the Montessori way has made her life easy. Imagine two 1-year-olds eating entire meals on their own, setting their own tables by 20 months, and becoming potty-trained before 2. These are not statistics found in just one household. Children raised the Montessori way can take care of themselves and their…

  5. Root desiccation and drought stress responses of bareroot Quercus rubra seedlings treated with a hydrophilic polymer root dip

    Treesearch

    Kent G. Apostol; Douglass F. Jacobs; R. Kasten Dumroese

    2009-01-01

    Root hydrogel, a hydrophilic polymer, has been used to improve transplanting success of bareroot conifer seedlings through effects on water holding capacity. We examined mechanisms by which Terra-sorb Fine Hydrogel reduces damage that occurs when roots of 1-year old, dormant northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) were subjected to shortterm (1, 3, and 5...

  6. Mixtures For Weed Control in Newly Planted Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda L.)

    Treesearch

    J.L. Michael

    1987-01-01

    Imazapyr, metsulfuron methyl, imazapyr plus metsulfuron methyl, and hexazinone plus metsulfuron methyl were aerially applied over newly planted and 1-year-old loblolly pine seedlings for the control of blackberry (Rubus species), composites (Compositae), sumac (Rhus copallina L.), and trumpet vine [Campsis radicans...

  7. Effect of Fertilization on Survival and Early Growth of Direct-Seeded Red Pine

    Treesearch

    David H. Alban

    1971-01-01

    Fertilization resulted in increased height and top weight of red pine seedlings by the end of the second growing season, but also resulted in considerable seedling mortality. A high level of watering also increased seedling growth but to a much less extent than fertilization. Fertilization of 1-year-old seedlings resulted in dramatic changes in their chemical...

  8. The response of two very young naturally regenerated upland hardwood stands to weed control and fertilization

    Treesearch

    Jamie L. Schuler; Daniel J. Robison

    2006-01-01

    Two newly regenerated hardwood forest stands in the Piedmont of North Carolina were examined to determine the potential to accelerate productivity in young stands. Factorial combinations of fertilization and vegetation control treatments were applied to 1-year-old and 3-year-old stands. After three growing seasons, fertilization improved growth rates at both sites. The...

  9. Irrigation and fertilization effects on foliar and soil carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios in a loblolly pine stand

    Treesearch

    Woo-Jung Choi; Scott X. Chang; H. Lee Allen; Daniel L. Kelting; Hee-Myong Ro

    2005-01-01

    We examined 813C and 815N in needle (current and 1-year-old) and soil samples collected on two occasions (July and September 1999) from a 15-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) stand in an irrigation and fertilization experiment to investigate whether these treatments leave specific isotope signals in...

  10. Otitis Media and Language Development at 1 Year of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Ina F.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Fifteen 1-year-olds without otitis media were compared to 12 babies who were otitis positive. No significant differences were detected on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development or the Sequenced Inventory of Communication Development (SICD) Receptive scale. However, the otitis-positive group exhibited lower SICD Expressive scores than the…

  11. An Attachment-Based Home Visiting Program for Distressed Mothers of Young Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaitz, Marsha; Tessler, Naomi; Chriki, Miriam

    2012-01-01

    Mom2Mom is an attachment-based home visiting project for distressed mothers of young infants, based in Israel. Home visitors, who are volunteer mothers from the community, are trained and supervised by professionals. Home visits occur weekly for 1-2 hours and continue until the infant is 1 year old. The project was founded in Jerusalem in year…

  12. The Net Benefits of Early Childhood Investments: Findings, Implications and a Texas Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Christopher T.; Faliski, Katherine; Betsinger, Alicia M.; O'Shea, Daniel P.

    This report primarily addresses the question, "What are the net benefits associated with targeted early childhood investments in Texas?" The expected benefits and costs of targeted early childhood investments are estimated and projected for an illustrative cohort of Texas infants: children 0-1 year old living in families with annual…

  13. Kingella kingae endocardial abscess and cerebral infarction in a previously well immunocompetent child

    PubMed Central

    Gelbart, Ben; Connell, Tom G; Konstantinov, Igor E; Phillips, Rachel; Starr, Mike

    2009-01-01

    Kingella kingae is an emerging paediatric pathogen that most commonly is associated with relatively benign osteoarticular disease in children. This report concerns a 1-year-old child with Kingella kingae endocarditis and perivalvular abscess complicated by septic cerebral emboli and osteomyelitis leading to long-term neurological sequelae, highlighting the capacity of this organism to cause severe invasive disease in children. PMID:22190987

  14. A case of ocular canine transmissible venereal tumor

    PubMed Central

    Milo, Jewel; Snead, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    A 1-year-old, intact female mixed-breed dog was presented to St. George’s University Small Animal Clinic in Grenada for a third eyelid mass. The dog was diagnosed with a rare ocular transmissible venereal tumor (TVT) and concurrent anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis and dirofilariasis. Treatment with vincristine sulfate resulted in complete resolution of the TVT. PMID:24381345

  15. The Net Benefits of Early Childhood Investments: Findings, Implications and a Texas Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Christopher T.; Faliski, Katherine; Betsinger, Alicia M.; O'Shea, Daniel P.

    This report primarily addresses the question, "What are the net benefits associated with targeted early childhood investments in Texas?" The expected benefits and costs of targeted early childhood investments are estimated and projected for an illustrative cohort of Texas infants: children 0-1 year old living in families with annual…

  16. Cushing syndrome induced by parents: a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Basu, S; Verma, N; Kumar, A; Das, B K

    2010-01-01

    Cushing syndrome developed in two children following inappropriate dosage and duration of corticosteroids by parents. One was a 7-year-old boy who was prescribed prednisolone for treatment of neurocysticercosis. The other was a 1-year-old boy who was prescribed oral betamethasone for a respiratory infection.

  17. Visuo-Motor and Cognitive Procedural Learning in Children with Basal Ganglia Pathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayor-Dubois, C.; Maeder, P.; Zesiger, P.; Roulet-Perez, E.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated procedural learning in 18 children with basal ganglia (BG) lesions or dysfunctions of various aetiologies, using a visuo-motor learning test, the Serial Reaction Time (SRT) task, and a cognitive learning test, the Probabilistic Classification Learning (PCL) task. We compared patients with early (less than 1 year old, n=9), later…

  18. Toxoplasma gondii infection in lambs: high prevalence of live parasites, and genetic characterisation of T. gondii isolates revealed new genotypes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Little information is available on the presence of viable Toxoplasma gondii in tissues of lambs worldwide. The prevalence of T. gondii was determined in 383 lambs (< 1 year old) from Maryland, Virginia, and West Virginia. Hearts of 383 lambs were obtained from a slaughter house on the day of killing...

  19. Sliding indirect hernia containing both ovaries.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Carol L

    2005-09-01

    Although sliding indirect inguinal hernias containing the ipsilateral ovary and fallopian tube are not uncommon in infant girls, sliding hernias containing both ovaries are rare. This report describes a large indirect inguinal hernia in a 1-year-old infant girl that contained the left uterine fundus, left bladder ear, as well as both ovaries and fallopian tubes.

  20. Age Differences in Online Processing of Video: An Eye Movement Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkorian, Heather L.; Anderson, Daniel R.; Keen, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Eye movements were recorded while sixty-two 1-year-olds, 4-year-olds, and adults watched television. Of interest was the extent to which viewers looked at the same place at the same time as their peers because high similarity across viewers suggests systematic viewing driven by comprehension processes. Similarity of gaze location increased with…

  1. Preventing Pertussis (Whooping Cough)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Some babies who are less than 3 months old will die from pertussis if they get infected. Most adults do not have severe symptoms of the disease ... pertussis happen in babies less than 1 year old. How can I protect ... babies and children get pertussis from an adult who they are around often, such as a ...

  2. Growth, gas exchange, and root respiration of Quercus rubra seedlings exposed to low root zone temperatures in solution culture

    Treesearch

    Kent G. Apostol; Douglass F. Jacobs; Barrett C. Wilson; K. Francis Salifu; R. Kasten Dumroese

    2007-01-01

    Spring planting is standard operational practice in the Central Hardwood Region, though little is known about potential impacts of low root temperature (RT) common during spring on establishment success of temperate deciduous forest tree species. The effects of low RTon growth, gas exchange, and root respiration following winter dormancy were studied in 1-year-old...

  3. Relationships between light, leaf nitrogen and nitrogen remobilization in the crowns of mature evergreen Quercus glauca trees.

    PubMed

    Miyazawa, Shin-Ichi; Suzuki, Arata Antonio; Sone, Kosei; Terashima, Ichiro

    2004-10-01

    We estimated the amount of nitrogen (N) remobilized from 1-year-old leaves at various positions in the crowns of mature Quercus glauca Thunb. ex Murray trees and related this to the production of new shoots. Leaf N concentration on an area basis (Na) and total N (Nt= Na x lamina area of all leaves on a shoot) were related to photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) on the leaves of current-year and 1-year-old shoots. When new shoots (S02 shoots; flushed in 2002) flushed, only a portion of the leaves on the previous year's shoots (S01 shoots; flushed in 2001) were shed. After the S02 shoots flushed, S01 shoots were defined as 1-year-old shoots (S01* shoots). Both Na and Nt were positively correlated with PPF for S01 shoots, but not for S01* shoots. The fraction of remobilized N (% of the maximum Na in S01 leaves) from remaining leaves was 5-35%, with the fraction size being positively correlated with the number of S02 shoots on an S01* shoot (new shoot number). However, the mean fraction of remobilized N from fallen leaves was 45% and was unrelated to new shoot number. The total amount of N remobilized from both fallen and remaining leaves was 1-20 mg per S01* shoot. Total remobilized N was positively correlated with new shoot number. There was a statistically significant positive relationship between the light-saturated net photosynthetic rate on a leaf area basis (Amax) and Na for both S01* and S02 leaves. However, when we compared leaves with similar Na, Amax of S01* leaves was only half that of S02 leaves, indicating that 1-year-old leaves had lower instantaneous N-use efficiency (Amax per unit Na) than current-year leaves. Ratios of chlorophyll a:b and Rubisco:chlorophyll were lower in S01* leaves than in S02 leaves, indicating that 1-year-old leaves were acclimatized to lower light environments. Thus, in Q. glauca, the N allocation theory (i.e., that N is distributed according to local PPF) applied only to the current-year shoots. Although the amount of foliar N in 1

  4. Protective mucosal immunity in aging is associated with functional CD4+ T cells in nasopharyngeal-associated lymphoreticular tissue.

    PubMed

    Hagiwara, Yukari; McGhee, Jerry R; Fujihashi, Keiko; Kobayashi, Ryoki; Yoshino, Naoto; Kataoka, Kosuke; Etani, Yuri; Kweon, Mi-Na; Tamura, Shinichi; Kurata, Takeshi; Takeda, Yoshifumi; Kiyono, Hiroshi; Fujihashi, Kohtaro

    2003-02-15

    Our previous studies showed that mucosal immunity was impaired in 1-year-old mice that had been orally immunized with OVA and native cholera toxin (nCT) as mucosal adjuvant. In this study, we queried whether similar immune dysregulation was also present in mucosal compartments of mice immunized by the nasal route. Both 1-year-old and young adult mice were immunized weekly with three nasal doses of OVA and nCT or with a nontoxic chimeric enterotoxin (mutant cholera toxin-A E112K/B subunit of native labile toxin) from Brevibacillus choshinensis. Elevated levels of OVA-specific IgG Abs in plasma and secretory IgA Abs in mucosal secretions (nasal washes, saliva, and fecal extracts) were noted in both young adult and 1-year-old mice given nCT or chimeric enterotoxin as mucosal adjuvants. Significant levels of OVA-specific CD4(+) T cell proliferative and OVA-induced Th1- and Th2-type cytokine responses were noted in cervical lymph nodes and spleen of 1-year-old mice. In this regard, CD4(+), CD45RB(+) T cells were detected in greater numbers in the nasopharyngeal-associated lymphoreticular tissues of 1-year-old mice than of young adult mice, but the same did not hold true for Peyer's patches or spleen. One-year-old mice given nasal tetanus toxoid plus the chimeric toxin as adjuvant were protected from lethal challenge with tetanus toxin. This result reinforced our findings that age-associated immune alterations occur first in gut-associated lymphoreticular tissues, and thus nasal delivery of vaccines for nasopharyngeal-associated lymphoreticular tissue-based mucosal immunity offers an attractive possibility to protect the elderly.

  5. Clinically relevant fluoroquinolone resistance due to constitutive overexpression of the PatAB ABC transporter in Streptococcus pneumoniae is conferred by disruption of a transcriptional attenuator.

    PubMed

    Baylay, Alison J; Piddock, Laura J V

    2015-03-01

    Constitutive overexpression of patAB has been observed in several unrelated fluoroquinolone-resistant laboratory mutants and clinical isolates; therefore, we sought to identify the cause of this overexpression. Constitutive patAB overexpression in two clinical isolates and a laboratory-selected mutant was investigated using a whole-genome transformation approach. To determine the effect of the detected terminator mutations, the WT and mutated patA leader sequences were cloned upstream of a GFP reporter. Finally, mutation of the opposing base in the stem-loop structure was carried out. We identified three novel mutations causing up-regulation of patAB. All three of these were located in the upstream region of patA and affected the same Rho-independent transcriptional terminator structure. Each mutation was predicted to destabilize the terminator stem-loop to a different degree, and there was a strong correlation between predicted terminator stability and patAB expression level. Using a GFP reporter of patA transcription, these terminator mutations led to increased transcription of a downstream gene. For one mutant sequence, terminator stability could be restored by mutation of the opposing base in the stem-loop structure, demonstrating that transcriptional suppression of patAB is mediated by the terminator stem-loop structure. This study showed that a mutation in a Rho-independent transcriptional terminator structure confers overexpression of patAB and fluoroquinolone resistance. Understanding how levels of the PatAB efflux pump are regulated increases our knowledge of pneumococcal biology and how the pneumococcus can respond to various stresses, including antimicrobials. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy.

  6. User’s Manual for Strategic Satellite System Terminal Segment Life Cycle Cost Model. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    LE(NP) (AF) Operating Hours and Number of Missions: AMPM(NP,LO(NS)), APFH(NP,LO(NS)),TFAC(NP) (CN) Operating Labor Times: MMPD (NP,LO(NS)), MMPM(NP) (AF...Pata File 3 are MMPM(NP) and MMPD (NP,LO(NS)). These variables are not used in this version of the SSS LCC Model, but may be implemented at some future...date. Therefore, each of the values of MMPM(NP) and MMPD (NP,LO(NS)) must be set to zero. 6.4.5 Contractor Inputs to Data File 4 - Platform Terminal

  7. Multiple mutations and increased RNA expression in tetracycline-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae as determined by genome-wide DNA and mRNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Lupien, Andréanne; Gingras, Hélène; Bergeron, Michel G; Leprohon, Philippe; Ouellette, Marc

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize chromosomal mutations associated with resistance to tetracycline in Streptococcus pneumoniae. Chronological appearance of mutations in two S. pneumoniae R6 mutants (R6M1TC-5 and R6M2TC-4) selected for resistance to tetracycline was determined by next-generation sequencing. A role for the mutations identified was confirmed by reconstructing resistance to tetracycline in a S. pneumoniae R6 WT background. RNA sequencing was performed on R6M1TC-5 and R6M2TC-4 and the relative expression of genes was reported according to R6. Differentially expressed genes were classified according to their ontology. WGS of R6M1TC-5 and R6M2TC-4 revealed mutations in the gene rpsJ coding for the ribosomal protein S10 and in the promoter region and coding sequences of the ABC genes patA and patB. These cells were cross-resistant to ciprofloxacin. Resistance reconstruction confirmed a role in resistance for the mutations in rpsJ and patA. Overexpression of the ABC transporter PatA/PatB or mutations in the coding sequence of patA contributed to resistance to tetracycline, ciprofloxacin and ethidium bromide, and was associated with a decreased accumulation of [(3)H]tetracycline. Comparative transcriptome profiling of the resistant mutants further revealed that, in addition to the overexpression of patA and patB, several genes of the thiamine biosynthesis and salvage pathway were increased in the two mutants, but also in clinical isolates resistant to tetracycline. This overexpression most likely contributes to the tetracycline resistance phenotype. The combination of genomic and transcriptomic analysis coupled to functional studies has allowed the discovery of novel tetracycline resistance mutations in S. pneumoniae. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Special Data Collection System Event Report. Southern Sinkiang Province, China 16 February 1977

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-03-20

    SPECIAL DATA COLLECTION SYSTEM EVENT REPORT Southern Sinkiang Province, China 16 February 1977 Michael S. Dawkins Alexandria Laboratories Teledyne...fi,PECIAL ,PATA 5 OLLECTION SYSTEM ~ ~~~~ ( ~ Technical rep*~’. J~ ~i~Southern Sinkiang Province , China ~~~~~~~~ -- -——9 ______________ 5...Southern Sinkiang Province, China, (l6 F~~~~ar~~~977 2 This event report contains seismic data~ from the Special Data Collection System (SDCS

  9. The strategy for prevention of measles and rubella prevalence with measles-rubella (MR) vaccine in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ihara, Toshiaki

    2009-05-21

    To eliminate the indigenous measles and rubella virus by 2012 in Japan, the strategy fro prevention of measles and rubella prevalence with measles-rubella (MR) vaccine was proposed. Since the vast majority of 1-year old infants are susceptible to measles and rubella, the first MR vaccine, the first MR vaccine should be administered at 1-year old to sustain the herd immunity. Since significant elevation of measles and rubella antibody titers were eliminated in a half of children after the second dose, the second dose of of MR vaccine within 1 year before elementary school entry is the effective maneuver. Moreover, supplement MR vaccination to the teenage group and 20-29 years' group might be necessary, because the mean measles antibody titers in this group were significantly lower compared with those in the older individuals' groups.

  10. Biomass estimation for Virginia pine trees and stands

    SciTech Connect

    Madgwick, H.A.I.

    1980-03-01

    Stands of Virginia Pine (Pinus virginiana Mill.) occur on much abandoned farm land in the Appalachian Mountains and Piedmont of Virginia. Natural stands are an important source of pulpwood, and these are being augmented by plantations. Increased intensity of utilization necessitates the estimation of component weights of the trees. Data from 501 trees from 10 stands were used to develop equations for estimating dry weight of stem wood, stem bark, total stem 1-year-old needles, total needles, live branches, and total branches of individual trees. Stand weight of stems was closely related to stand basal area and mean height. Stand live-branch weight varies inversely with stocking. Weight of 1-year-old foliage on the stands increased with stocking and site index. 13 references.

  11. Seroepidemiological survey of pathogenic Yersinia in breeding squirrel monkeys in Japan.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Taketoshi; Une, Yumi; Lee, Ken-ichi; Nakamura, Shin-ichi; Taniguchi, Takahide; Hayashidani, Hideki

    2010-08-01

    To investigate the prevalence of antibodies to pathogenic Yersinia in breeding squirrel monkeys, the serum samples of 252 squirrel monkeys from 9 zoological gardens in Japan were tested by ELISA using plasmid-encoded Yersinia outer membrane protein (Yops) as the antigen. The cutoff value was calculated by using the serum samples of the squirrel monkeys from Suriname, where no prevalence of pathogenic Yersinia have been reported. According to the cutoff value, 164 of 252 (65.1%) squirrel monkeys were considered positive against pathogenic Yersinia. These positive monkeys belonged to 8 of the 9 zoological gardens, and the percentage of the seropositive monkeys ranged from 22.2 to 89.4%. Furthermore, in one zoological garden, the positive rate of the squirrel monkeys which were over 1 year old (95.7%) was significantly higher than those which were under 1 year old (23.3%). These results suggested that pathogenic Yersinia is highly prevalent among breeding monkeys in Japan.

  12. Factors affecting intraocular pressure in lions.

    PubMed

    Ofri, Ron; Steinmetz, Andrea; Thielebein, Jens; Horowitz, Igal H; Oechtering, Gerhard; Kass, Philip H

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct a detailed analysis of the relationship between age and intraocular pressure (IOP) in lions. Tonometry was conducted in 33 lions aged 5 days to 80 months. Age was significantly associated with IOP (P<0.005). Mean IOP was 12.8+/- and 23.9+/-4.1 mmHg in lions < or =1 year old and >1 year old, respectively. IOP linearly rose with age during the first 20 months of life, plateaued until approximately 40 months, and then gradually declined (r=0.85). Age-related changes in IOP were highly correlated with ultrasonographic measurements of intraocular dimensions (r > or = 0.72), and may be a determinant factor in developmental ocular growth. The dramatic rise in IOP of young lions is similar to that observed in children, but has not been previously demonstrated in animals. Significant IOP differences between lion sub-species were also demonstrated.

  13. Expression of human endogenous retrovirus K and W in babies.

    PubMed

    Nali, L H S; Oliveira, A C S; Alves, D O; Caleiro, G S; Nunes, C F; Gerhardt, D; Succi, R C M; Romano, Camila M; Machado, D M

    2017-03-01

    Here we determined the relative expression of HERV-K and W proviruses in HIV infected and non-infected mothers as well as their respective babies up to 1 year-old. HIV-infected mothers, their babies and uninfected control groups presented expression of both HERV-K and HERV-W with relatively high frequency. While the level of HERV-K expression was similar among groups, the level of HERV-W expression in HIV-infected mothers was four-fold higher than the uninfected mothers from the control group (p < 0.01). HERV-W was down regulated in HIV-exposed babies in comparison to non-exposed babies. To our knowledge, this is the first report of HERV transcriptional activity in babies from 0-1 year-old.

  14. Age-Specificity of Toxoplasma gondii Seroprevalence in Sheep, Goats and Cattle on Subsistence Farms in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    RAHMAN, Moizur; AZAD, Md. Thoufic Anam; NAHAR, Lovely; ROUF, Shah Md. Abdur; OHYA, Kenji; CHIOU, Shih-Pin; BABA, Minami; KITOH, Katsuya; TAKASHIMA, Yasuhiro

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoan parasite that infects humans and domestic animals. In this study, the seroprevalence of T. gondii antibodies was investigated using serum samples collected from 83 sheep, 146 goats and 37 cattle from a dozen subsistence farms in Bangladesh. Fifty-eight out of 83 sheep (69.9%), 89 out of 146 goats (61.0%) and 10 out of 37 cattle (27.0%) were seropositive for the parasite. Seroprevalence in young goats (<1 year old) was significantly lower than that of the adult goats (>1 year old). In contrast, seroprevalence for young and adult sheep was similar. These results indicate that acquired infection with T. gondii occurs in this region of Bangladesh, at least among goats. PMID:24849051

  15. Age-specificity of Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in sheep, goats and cattle on subsistence farms in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Moizur; Azad, Md Thoufic Anam; Nahar, Lovely; Rouf, Shah Md Abdur; Ohya, Kenji; Chiou, Shih-Pin; Baba, Minami; Kitoh, Katsuya; Takashima, Yasuhiro

    2014-09-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoan parasite that infects humans and domestic animals. In this study, the seroprevalence of T. gondii antibodies was investigated using serum samples collected from 83 sheep, 146 goats and 37 cattle from a dozen subsistence farms in Bangladesh. Fifty-eight out of 83 sheep (69.9%), 89 out of 146 goats (61.0%) and 10 out of 37 cattle (27.0%) were seropositive for the parasite. Seroprevalence in young goats (<1 year old) was significantly lower than that of the adult goats (>1 year old). In contrast, seroprevalence for young and adult sheep was similar. These results indicate that acquired infection with T. gondii occurs in this region of Bangladesh, at least among goats.

  16. Piracetam-induced changes on the brainstem auditory response in anesthetized juvenile rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Report of two clinical cases.

    PubMed

    Durand-Rivera, A; Gonzalez-Pina, R; Hernandez-Godinez, B; Ibanez-Contreras, A; Bueno-Nava, A; Alfaro-Rodriguez, A

    2012-10-01

    We describe two clinical cases and examine the effects of piracetam on the brainstem auditory response in infantile female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). We found that the interwave intervals show a greater reduction in a 3-year-old rhesus monkey compared to a 1-year-old rhesus monkey. In this report, we discuss the significance of these observations. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. Planning by 12-Month-Old Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willatts, Peter; Rosie, Karen

    In an investigation of 1-year-olds' ability to plan a sequence of steps, 20 infants were administered a compound means-ends problem. In a planning condition, a barrier was placed in front of a cloth at the far end of which was placed one end of a long string. A toy was fastened to the other end of the string and was placed on a table at some…

  18. Sex Ratio and Body Mass of Adult Herbivorous Beetles Depend on Time of Occurrence and Light Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Łukowski, Adrian; Mąderek, Ewa; Giertych, Marian J.; Karolewski, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Body mass and sex ratio (F/M) of folivorous insects are easily measured parameters that are commonly used to assess the effect of food quality, living conditions, and preferences on the selection of favourable sites for offspring. A study was conducted on the polyphagous beetle, Gonioctena quinquepunctata (a pest of the native Prunus padus and alien P. serotina) and on the monophagous beetle, Altica brevicollis coryletorum (a pest of Corylus avellana). Both species have a similar life cycle with emergence of current-year adults in summer, and reproduction of 1-year-old insects in spring. A. brevicollis coryletorum feeds primarily on sunlit shrubs, while G. quinquepunctata prefers shaded leaves. The present study assessed the effect of time of occurrence (insect age) on body mass in both sexes and on the sex ratio F/M, taking into account the influence of light conditions associated with their favoured food source (sunlit vs. shaded leaves). We hypothesized that a change in body mass in current-year insects would be determined by the amount of consumed food, while the sex ratio would be stable, when in 1-year-old insects females would die shortly after oviposition, while males would be active for a prolonged time. Results confirmed the hypothesis that changes in mass of current-year beetles was determined by the amount of food intake. We also found that in spring, unfertilized females coexist with fertilized ones and that the latter females live for some time after oviposition; resulting in fluctuations of the mean mass for females. In both species, 1-year-old beetles were heavier than current-year. The preference of A. brevicollis coryletorum for sunlit leaves results in a higher body weight than in G. quinquepunctata in both seasons. The data are consistent and indicate seasonal fluctuations in body mass and changes in the sex ratio in 1-year-old beetles, due to the entrance into their reproductive period. PMID:26657564

  19. Comparisons of sediment losses from a newly constructed cross-country natural gas pipeline and an existing in-road pipeline

    Treesearch

    Pamela J. Edwards; Bridget M. Harrison; Daniel J. Holz; Karl W.J. Williard; Jon E. Schoonover

    2014-01-01

    Sediment loads were measured for about one year from natural gas pipelines in two studies in north central West Virginia. One study involved a 1-year-old pipeline buried within the bed of a 25-year-old skid road, and the other involved a newly constructed cross-country pipeline. Both pipelines were the same diameter and were installed using similar trenching and...

  20. Spontaneous Extrusion of Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt Catheter through the Right Lumbar Region: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Oktay, Kadir; Erkoc, Yavuz Selim; Ethemoglu, Kadri Burak; Olguner, Semih Kivanc; Sarac, Mustafa Emre

    2015-01-01

    Ventriculoperitoneal shunt surgery is the most frequently performed procedure in the management of hydrocephalus. Many varied complications related to this procedure have been reported. Distal migration of the peritoneal catheter and extrusion from the intact skin in an area unrelated to the surgical incision constitute a rare complication. We report a 1-year-old patient with the extrusion of the peritoneal catheter from the intact skin in the right lumbar region and present a literature review.

  1. Tonic immobility: differences in susceptibility of experimental and normal sheep and goats.

    PubMed

    MOORE, A U; AMSTEY, M S

    1962-03-02

    Tonic immobility ("animal hypnosis" or catatonic trance) could not be induced in 1-year-old foster lambs and kids. Control animals, conforming to a characteristic of their species, could be readily immobilized. The suggested explanation for this difference in behavior is that the foster animals did not develop a normal flight distance because of the ambivalent behavior of the "stepmother," who alternately permitted and refused nursing.

  2. Epidemiological situation of pertussis and strategies to control it: Argentina, 2002-2011.

    PubMed

    Romanin, Viviana; Agustinho, Vanina; Califano, Gloria; Sagradini, Sandra; Aquino, Analía; Juárez, María del Valle; Antman, Julián; Giovacchini, Carlos; Galas, Marcelo; Lara, Claudia; Hozbor, Daniela; Gentile, Angela; Vizzotti, Carla

    2014-10-01

    Pertussis is a challenge for public health. To describe pertussis-related morbidity and mortality and immunization coverage for the 2002-2011 period, profile of cases for 2011, and control strategies implemented by the Ministry of Health (MoH) of Argentina. Descriptive, epidemiological surveillance study. Morbidity data were obtained from the National Health Surveillance System, while mortality data were obtained from the MoH's Health Statistics and Information Department and official jurisdictional reports. Administrative immunization coverage was used based on the data provided by the MoH's jurisdictions. The Epi Info software, version 7.1.2, was used for analysis. The number of reported cases of pertussis increased between 2002 and 2011, reaching its peak in 2011: an incidence of 16 x 100 000 inhabitants, and 76 deaths. Most deaths occurred in infants younger than 1 year old. Immunization coverage achieved at a national level with the third dose and the dose administered at the time of starting primary education was >90%, while the coverage achieved with the first booster dose was 80%-90%. In 2011, 2821 confirmed cases were reported (incidence of 7 x 100 000 inhabitants): 84% in infants <1 year old; 76 deaths: 97% in infants <1 year old (60.5% in infants <2 months old). Among the strategies that were deployed, a total of 906 clinical nodes and 405 laboratory nodes were consolidated; the use of the polymerase chain reaction as a diagnostic method and the differential classification of cases were implemented, and additional vaccine doses were administered. The number of pertussis cases increased between 2002 and 2011; the highest morbidity and mortality occurred in infants younger than 1 year old; immunization coverage reached 80%-90%. . The highest number of pertussis-related deaths was recorded in 2011. The MoH strengthened the epidemiological surveillance and set guidelines for control measures.

  3. Emergency anesthesia for evacuating a traumatic acute subdural hemorrhage in a child overdosed with hypertonic saline

    PubMed Central

    Goonasekera, Chulananda; Bedford, James; Harpreet, Sodhi; Giombini, Mariangela; Sheikh, Asme

    2016-01-01

    A previously healthy 1-year-old child with a traumatic acute subdural hemorrhage received 10 times higher dose of hypertonic saline inadvertently immediately before surgery. This case report describes deviations in fluid management needed to alleviate salt toxicity and its adverse effects during surgery under anesthesia perioperatively. The child made an uneventful recovery with no evident residual damage at follow-up. PMID:28217157

  4. Lingual cyst lined by respiratory epithelium: a case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Juneja, Manish; Boaz, Karen; Srikant, N; Nandita, K P; Vidya, M

    2011-01-01

    The present report describes a case of a lingual cyst lined by a respiratory epithelium occurring in a 1-year-old girl. The article also reviews the cases published in the literature under the heading of lingual cysts and segregates all the cases having predominant respiratory epithelium as the cystic lining. Reclassification, with more descriptive histologic terminology to name the lingual cysts, has been proposed.

  5. Carnosine content of the middle gluteal muscle in thoroughbred horses with relation to age, sex and training.

    PubMed

    Marlin, D J; Harris, R C; Gash, S P; Snow, D H

    1989-01-01

    1. Muscle biopsies were collected from 85 thoroughbred horses and analysed for carnosine content by an automated HPLC method. 2. No significant sex difference was found between colts, geldings and fillies. 3. There was a trend towards lower muscle carnosine contents with age, which was only significant between 1-year-old untrained horses and 4+ year-old horses (P less than 0.002).

  6. Effect of acorn mass and size, and early shoot growth on one-year old container-grown RPM™ oak seedlings

    Treesearch

    Benjamin C. Grossman; Michael A. Gold; Daniel C. Dey

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of seed source, acorn mass and size, and early shoot growth on morphological traits of 1-year-old oak seedlings. Forested bottomlands in the Midwest have been greatly reduced in the past 150 years as a result of conversion to agriculture and recent catastrophic floods. Due to a lack of available hard mast, intense...

  7. Relationships between water, otolith, and scale chemistries of westslope cutthroat trout from the Coeur d'Alene River, Idaho: the potential application of hard-part chemistry to describe movements in freshwater

    Treesearch

    Brian K. Wells; Bruce E. Rieman; James L. Clayton; Donna L. Horan; Cynthia M. Jones

    2003-01-01

    We quantified Mg:Ca, Mn:Ca, Sr:Ca, and Ba:Ca molar ratios from an area representing the summer 2000 growth season on otoliths and scales from 1-year-old westslope cutthroat trout Oncorhyncus clarki lewisi collected from three streams in the Coeur d'Alene River, Idaho, system. We also quantified Mg:Ca, Sr:Ca, and Ba:Ca molar ratios in the water...

  8. N-ras mutation in a canine lymphoma: short communication.

    PubMed

    Mayr, B; Holzheu, M; Schaffner, G; Reifinger, M

    2003-01-01

    Lymphomas of dogs were investigated by molecular genetic methods. Regions of exon 1 and 2 of the N-ras gene, which harbours the mutation hot spots (codons 12, 13 and 61) were screened. A GGT [symbol: see text] GAT (glycine [symbol: see text] aspartic acid) mutation in codon 13 was present in a multicentric-type lymphoma of a 1-year-old male dog.

  9. Lymphedema secondary to filariasis.

    PubMed

    Leonard, J C; Humphrey, G B; Basmadjian, G

    1985-03-01

    A 1-year-old immunodeficient boy developed brawny edema of the left foot. Lymphoscintigraphy revealed no evidence of left inguinal activity following pedal injection of Tc-99m-Sn phosphate. Over the next two months, the patient developed lymphedema on the right and repeat scintigraphy demonstrated no movement of isotope from the dorsum of either foot. Subsequent studies identified microfilaria in a nocturnal blood smear, which were thought to represent Brugia beaveri acquired by mosquito transmission in Oklahoma.

  10. Prescribed Burning and Direct-Seeding Old Clearcuts in the Piedmont

    Treesearch

    W. Henry McNab

    1976-01-01

    Logging slash 14 to 26 months old was burned at different seasons of the year in the Georgia Piedmont.The following winter, loblolly pine seeds were broadcast 1 to 13 months after burning. Burning 1 -year-old slash during early- or mid-growing season resulted in better stocking, greater height growth, and more effective hardwood control than burning during the dorm ant...

  11. Macronuclear chromatin structure dynamics in Colpoda inflata (Protista, Ciliophora) resting encystment.

    PubMed

    Tiano, L; Chessa, M G; Carrara, S; Tagliafierro, G; Delmonte Corrado, M U

    1999-01-01

    The chromatin structure dynamics of the Colpoda inflata macronucleus have been investigated in relation to its functional condition, concerning chromatin body extrusion regulating activity. Samples of 2- and 25-day-old resting cysts derived from a standard culture, and of 1-year-old resting cysts derived from a senescent culture, were examined by means of histogram analysis performed on acquired optical microscopy images. Three groups of histograms were detected in each sample. Histogram classification, clustering and matching were assessed in order to obtain the mean histogram of each group. Comparative analysis of the mean histogram showed a similarity in the grey level range of 25-day- and 1-year-old cysts, unlike the wider grey level range found in 2-day-old cysts. Moreover, the respective mean histograms of the three cyst samples appeared rather similar in shape. All this implies that macronuclear chromatin structural features of 1-year-old cysts are common to both cyst standard cultures. The evaluation of the acquired images and their respective histograms evidenced a dynamic state of the macronuclear chromatin, appearing differently condensed in relation to the chromatin body extrusion regulating activity of the macronucleus. The coexistence of a chromatin-decondensed macronucleus with a pycnotic extrusion body suggests that chromatin unable to decondense, thus inactive, is extruded. This finding, along with the presence of chromatin structural features common to standard and senescent cyst populations, supports the occurrence of 'rejuvenated' cell lines from 1-year-old encysted senescent cells, a phenomenon which could be a result of accomplished macronuclear renewal.

  12. Evaluation of risk for late language emergence after in utero antiretroviral drug exposure in HIV-exposed uninfected infants.

    PubMed

    Rice, Mabel L; Zeldow, Bret; Siberry, George K; Purswani, Murli; Malee, Kathleen; Hoffman, Howard J; Frederick, Toni; Buchanan, Ashley; Sirois, Patricia A; Allison, Susannah M; Williams, Paige L

    2013-10-01

    Combination antiretroviral (cARV) regimens are recommended for pregnant women with HIV to prevent perinatal HIV transmission. Safety is a concern for infants who were HIV-exposed but uninfected, particularly for neurodevelopmental problems, such as language delays. We studied late language emergence (LLE) in HIV-exposed but uninfected children enrolled in a US-based prospective cohort study. LLE was defined as a caregiver-reported score ≤10th percentile in any of 4 domains of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory for 1-year olds and as ≥1 standard deviation below age-specific norms for the Ages and Stages Questionnaire for 2-year olds. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate associations of in utero cARV exposure with LLE, adjusting for infant, maternal and environmental characteristics. 1129 language assessments were conducted among 792 1- and 2-year-old children (50% male, 62% black and 37% Hispanic). Overall, 86% had in utero exposure to cARV and 83% to protease inhibitors. LLE was identified in 26% of 1-year olds and 23% of 2-year olds, with higher rates among boys. In adjusted models, LLE was not associated with maternal cARV or ARV drug classes in either age group. Among cARV-exposed 1-year olds, increased odds of LLE was observed for those exposed to atazanavir (adjusted odds ratio = 1.83, 95% confidence interval: 1.10-3.04), particularly after the first trimester (adjusted odds ratio = 3.56, P = 0.001), compared with atazanavir-unexposed infants. No associations of individual ARV drugs with LLE were observed among 2-year olds. In utero cARV exposure showed little association with LLE, except for a higher risk of language delay observed in 1-year-old infants with atazanavir exposure.

  13. Chronic granulomatous disease associated with atypical Kawasaki disease.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki-Nakashimada, M A; Ramírez-Vargas, N; De Rubens-Figueroa, J

    2008-01-01

    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is an infrequent inherited disorder characterized by recurrent infections and abnormal granuloma formation. Patients with CGD have an exuberant inflammatory response and an increased risk of developing autoimmunity. We present the case of a 1-year-old boy with CGD who developed several of the characteristic clinical features of Kawasaki Disease. His illness responded to intravenous immunoglobulin, aspirin, and corticosteroids.

  14. Outcomes of a Clinic-Based Pediatric Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reidy, Teressa Garcia; Naber, Erin; Viguers, Emily; Allison, Kristen; Brady, Kathleen; Carney, Joan; Salorio, Cynthia; Pidcock, Frank

    2012-01-01

    A single-group pre- and post-test design was used to evaluate functional outcomes of a constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) protocol implemented in an outpatient therapy center. The participants were 29 children with hemiplegia, ages 1.6-19.1 years old. The less-involved upper limb was placed in a cast that was worn 24 hr a day, 7 days a…

  15. Raine syndrome: expanding the radiological spectrum.

    PubMed

    Koob, Mériam; Doray, Bérénice; Fradin, Mélanie; Astruc, Dominique; Dietemann, Jean-Louis

    2011-03-01

    We describe ante- and postnatal imaging of a 1-year-old otherwise healthy girl with Raine syndrome. She presented with neonatal respiratory distress related to a pyriform aperture stenosis, which was diagnosed on CT. Signs of chondrodysplasia punctata, sagittal vertebral clefting and intervertebral disc and renal calcifications were also found on imaging. This new case confirms that Raine syndrome is not always lethal. The overlapping imaging signs with chondrodysplasia punctata and the disseminated calcifications give new insights into its pathophysiology.

  16. Outcomes of a Clinic-Based Pediatric Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reidy, Teressa Garcia; Naber, Erin; Viguers, Emily; Allison, Kristen; Brady, Kathleen; Carney, Joan; Salorio, Cynthia; Pidcock, Frank

    2012-01-01

    A single-group pre- and post-test design was used to evaluate functional outcomes of a constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) protocol implemented in an outpatient therapy center. The participants were 29 children with hemiplegia, ages 1.6-19.1 years old. The less-involved upper limb was placed in a cast that was worn 24 hr a day, 7 days a…

  17. Retinoblastoma in a microphthalmic eye.

    PubMed

    Axelsen, I

    1978-01-01

    A case of simultaneous occurrence of microphthalmus and retinoblastoma in an eye removed from a 1-year-old monozygote twin with bilateral retinoblastoma, is reported. The other eye was of normal size, and was treated with irradiation (local application of Stallard disc). This case seems to be the first one published showing that one cannot be usre of the absence of tumours in small eyes although it is extremely rare.

  18. Lymphedema secondary to filariasis

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, J.C.; Humphrey, G.B.; Basmadjian, G.

    1985-03-01

    A 1-year-old immunodeficient boy developed brawny edema of the left foot. Lymphoscintigraphy revealed no evidence of left inguinal activity following pedal injection of Tc-99m-Sn phosphate. Over the next two months, the patient developed lymphedema on the right and repeat scintigraphy demonstrated no movement of isotope from the dorsum of either foot. Subsequent studies identified microfilaria in a nocturnal blood smear, which were thought to represent Brugia beaveri acquired by mosquito transmission in Oklahoma.

  19. Sex Ratio and Body Mass of Adult Herbivorous Beetles Depend on Time of Occurrence and Light Conditions.

    PubMed

    Łukowski, Adrian; Mąderek, Ewa; Giertych, Marian J; Karolewski, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Body mass and sex ratio (F/M) of folivorous insects are easily measured parameters that are commonly used to assess the effect of food quality, living conditions, and preferences on the selection of favourable sites for offspring. A study was conducted on the polyphagous beetle, Gonioctenaquinquepunctata (a pest of the native Prunus padus and alien P. serotina) and on the monophagous beetle, Alticabrevicollis coryletorum (a pest of Corylus avellana). Both species have a similar life cycle with emergence of current-year adults in summer, and reproduction of 1-year-old insects in spring. A. brevicollis coryletorum feeds primarily on sunlit shrubs, while G. quinquepunctata prefers shaded leaves. The present study assessed the effect of time of occurrence(insect age) on body mass in both sexes and on the sex ratio F/M, taking into account the influence of light conditions associated with their favoured food source (sunlit vs. shaded leaves). We hypothesized that a change in body mass in current-year insects would be determined by the amount of consumed food, while the sex ratio would be stable, when in 1-year-old insects females would die shortly after oviposition, while males would be active for a prolonged time. Results confirmed the hypothesis that changes in mass of current-year beetles was determined by the amount of food intake. We also found that in spring, unfertilized females coexist with fertilized ones and that the latter females live for some time after oviposition; resulting in fluctuations of the mean mass for females. In both species, 1-year-old beetles were heavier than current-year. The preference of A. brevicollis coryletorum for sunlit leaves results in a higher body weight than in G. quinquepunctata in both seasons. The data are consistent and indicate seasonal fluctuations in body mass and changes in the sex ratio in 1-year-old beetles, due to the entrance into their reproductive period.

  20. Comparative intrinsic optical signal imaging of wild-type and mutant mouse retinas.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiu-Xiang; Zhang, Youwen; Lu, Rong-Wen; Li, Yi-Chao; Pittler, Steven J; Kraft, Timothy W; Yao, Xin-Cheng

    2012-03-26

    Functional measurement is important for retinal study and disease diagnosis. Transient intrinsic optical signal (IOS) response, tightly correlated with functional stimulation, has been previously detected in normal retinas. In this paper, comparative IOS imaging of wild-type (WT) and rod-degenerated mutant mouse retinas is reported. Both 2-month and 1-year-old mice were measured. In 2-month-old mutant mice, time course and peak value of the stimulus-evoked IOS were significantly delayed (relative to stimulus onset) and reduced, respectively, compared to age matched WT mice. In 1-year-old mutant mice, stimulus-evoked IOS was totally absent. However, enhanced spontaneous IOS responses, which might reflect inner neural remodeling in diseased retina, were observed in both 2-month and 1-year-old mutant retinas. Our experiments demonstrate the potential of using IOS imaging for noninvasive and high resolution identification of disease-associated retinal dysfunctions. Moreover, high spatiotemporal resolution IOS imaging may also lead to advanced understanding of disease-associated neural remodeling in the retina.

  1. Comparative intrinsic optical signal imaging of wild-type and mutant mouse retinas

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qiu-Xiang; Zhang, Youwen; Lu, Rong-Wen; Li, Yi-Chao; Pittler, Steven J.; Kraft, Timothy W.; Yao, Xin-Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Functional measurement is important for retinal study and disease diagnosis. Transient intrinsic optical signal (IOS) response, tightly correlated with functional stimulation, has been previously detected in normal retinas. In this paper, comparative IOS imaging of wild-type (WT) and rod-degenerated mutant mouse retinas is reported. Both 2-month and 1-year-old mice were measured. In 2-month-old mutant mice, time course and peak value of the stimulus-evoked IOS were significantly delayed (relative to stimulus onset) and reduced, respectively, compared to age matched WT mice. In 1-year-old mutant mice, stimulus-evoked IOS was totally absent. However, enhanced spontaneous IOS responses, which might reflect inner neural remodeling in diseased retina, were observed in both 2-month and 1-year-old mutant retinas. Our experiments demonstrate the potential of using IOS imaging for noninvasive and high resolution identification of disease-associated retinal dysfunctions. Moreover, high spatiotemporal resolution IOS imaging may also lead to advanced understanding of disease-associated neural remodeling in the retina. PMID:22453443

  2. Sex and age differences in meat composition of Yeso sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) reared for a short period after capture in the wild.

    PubMed

    Hayashida, Maki; Souma, Kousaku; Sugo, Kazuki; Araki, Shin-Ichi; Ishizaka, Fumiaki; Ueda, Masami; Kasai, Takamasa; Masuko, Takayoshi

    2015-02-01

    Yeso sika deer captured in winter around Lake Akan in Hokkaido were reared for 8-10 months at Tokyo University of Agriculture in Abashiri. Six 1-year-old females and males and six 2-year-old or older (adult) females and males were slaughtered and their carcasses were processed. The chemical composition, mineral contents and fatty acid composition of the loin were measured. No marked influence of gender or age was noted in the chemical composition of loin. In the mineral contents, significant differences were noted. The potassium and sulfur contents were lower and the sodium content was higher in adult deer meat (P < 0.05, respectively) and the potassium content was higher in male deer meat (P < 0.05). Arsenic, cadmium or lead were not detected. In the unsaturated fatty acid, a significant interaction was detected (P < 0.05), and it was high in 1-year-old female deer meat and low in 1-year-old male deer meat. Significant gender or age differences were noted only in the mineral contents in the loin of deer reared for a short period after capture.

  3. Detection of Bordetella pertussis using a PCR test in infants younger than one year old hospitalized with whooping cough in five Peruvian hospitals.

    PubMed

    Castillo, María Esther; Bada, Carlos; Del Aguila, Olguita; Petrozzi-Helasvuo, Verónica; Casabona-Ore, Verónica; Reyes, Isabel; Del Valle-Mendoza, Juana

    2015-12-01

    To report the incidence, epidemiology, and clinical features of Bordetella pertussis in Peruvian infants under 1 year old. A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted in five hospitals in Peru from January 2010 to July 2012. A total of 392 infants under 1 year old were admitted with a clinical diagnosis of whooping cough and tested for B. pertussis by PCR. The pertussis toxin and IS481 genes were detected in 39.54% (155/392) of the cases. Infants aged less than 3 months were the most affected, with a prevalence of 73.55% (114/155). The most common household contact was the mother, identified in 20% (31/155) of cases. Paroxysm of coughing (89.03%, 138/155), cyanosis (68.39%, 106/155), respiratory distress (67.09%, 104/155), and breastfeeding difficulties (39.35%, 61/155) were the most frequent symptoms reported. An increase in pertussis cases has been reported in recent years in Peru, despite national immunization efforts. Surveillance with PCR for B. pertussis is essential, especially in infants less than 1 year old, in whom a higher rate of disease-related complications and higher mortality have been reported. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. The dynamics of reproductive rate, offspring survivorship and growth in the lined seahorse, Hippocampus erectus Perry, 1810

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Qiang; Li, Gang; Qin, Geng; Lin, Junda; Huang, Liangmin; Sun, Hushan; Feng, Peiyong

    2012-01-01

    Summary Seahorses are the vertebrate group with the embryonic development occurring within a special pouch in males. To understand the reproductive efficiency of the lined seahorse, Hippocampus erectus Perry, 1810 under controlled breeding experiments, we investigated the dynamics of reproductive rate, offspring survivorship and growth over births by the same male seahorses. The mean brood size of the 1-year old pairs in the 1st birth was 85.4±56.9 per brood, which was significantly smaller than that in the 6th birth (465.9±136.4 per brood) (P<0.001). The offspring survivorship and growth rate increased with the births. The fecundity was positively correlated with the length of brood pouches of males and trunk of females. The fecundity of 1-year old male and 2-year old female pairs was significantly higher than that from 1-year old couples (P<0.001). The brood size (552.7±150.4) of the males who mated with females that were isolated for the gamete-preparation, was larger than those (467.8±141.2) from the long-term pairs (P<0.05). Moreover, the offspring from the isolated females had higher survival and growth rates. Our results showed that the potential reproductive rate of seahorses H. erectus increased with the brood pouch development. PMID:23213429

  5. [Compliance and safety of oseltamivir treatment in children and infants less than one year of age].

    PubMed

    Tasher, Diana; Bishop, Boaz; Stein, Michal; Somekh, Eli

    2012-08-01

    Data regarding the compliance and safety of oseltamivir in infants < 1-year-old are limited. To compare the rates of adverse effects and compliance with oseltamivir treatment among hospitalized children aged < 1-year-old with suspected influenza and older children. A telephone follow-up was carried out with parents of children admitted to hospital during the 2009-influenza pandemic within a week after their discharge, and their medical records were reviewed. A total of 89 children were included (median age was 1.3 years old); 38.2% were < 1-year-old. Only 9% were diagnosed with pH1N1 influenza. The mean duration of therapy was 3 days. Difficulty in the administration of oseltamivir was reported in 52.8% of the children. Adverse effects were reported in 53.9% of the children. The most common were vomiting and/or diarrhea (32.6%) followed by restlessness (31.8%), and rash (6.7%). Treatment of only one child was discontinued due to a possible adverse event. The rates of adverse effects and difficulties in oseltamivir administration were similar among infants < 1-yr-old and older children. The compliance and safety of oseltamivir therapy were similar among infants < 1-yr-old and older children. Difficulties in oseltamivir administrating and/or possible adverse effects have rarely influenced compliance. Liberal treatment with oseltamivir has led to prominent overuse of the medication.

  6. Outbreak of swine erysipelas in a semi-intensive wild boar farm in Spain.

    PubMed

    Risco, D; Llario, P F; Velarde, R; García, W L; Benítez, J M; García, A; Bermejo, F; Cortés, M; Rey, J; de Mendoza, J H; Gómez, L

    2011-10-01

    Swine erysipelas (SE) is a disease caused by the bacterium Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae and is one of the best-known and most serious diseases affecting domestic pigs. However, few studies exist concerning the susceptibility of wild boars to this disease and the role of this species as a reservoir. This study investigates and describes an outbreak of SE that occurred on a semi-intensive wild boar breeding farm housing 40 boars in Extremadura (SW Spain) on 11-18 February 2010. Seven animals died, of which four were examined post-mortem. Of these, three (two females and one male) were approximately 3 months old, and one was 1 year old (male). Lesions were consistent with acute septicaemia, consisting of cutaneous erythema/cyanosis and petechial haemorrhages in kidneys, urinary bladder, lungs and meninges. The 1-year-old male also had proliferative polyarthritis. Histopathology confirmed the presence of disseminated intravascular coagulation and vasculitis. Additionally, a bilateral acute panuveitis with concurrent necrotizing vasculitis and diffuse corneal oedema, neither of which have been described before in this disease, were found in the 3-month-old male boar. E. rhusiopathiae was isolated from all four animals in pure cultures from several tissues. Of these four animals, antibodies against E. rhusiopathiae, using an indirect ELISA test, were only detected in the 1-year-old male boar with polyarthritis. Posteriorly, of nine live adults tested for antibodies, four (including an adult male with polyarthritis) were positive.

  7. Environmental Equity through Negotiation: A Case Study on Urban Landfills and the Roma Community

    PubMed Central

    Petrescu-Mag, Ruxandra Mălina; Petrescu, Dacinia Crina; Oroian, Ioan Gheorghe; Safirescu, Ovidiu Călin; Bican-Brișan, Nicoleta

    2016-01-01

    The paper discusses the necessity to bring environmental equity within the Pata Rât Roma community in Northwest Romania, relying on the answers to three questions: “Does environmental equity exist in Pata Rât?”, “How can it be attained?”, and “To what extent can it be brought to the targeted people?” It was shown how a trio of factors tailors the destiny of Roma inhabitants: being a minority, their ethnicity, and the fact they are living on and off what society rejects and dumps—a landfill. The framing of the environmental equity concerns within a vision considering negotiation as the most adequate means to attain it is a novel approach. Further on, the results of the study can fuel win-win solutions in environmental equity. The information abstracted from a set of indicators, assessed through an evaluation matrix, represents a beneficial platform for future bottom-up decisions concerning landfill residents. Three action options were analyzed: on-site living opportunities—that resulted to be preferred, off-site living opportunities, and “Do nothing”. The analysis provides qualitative evidence that the evaluation of environmental equity is largely subjective, because of its complexity and specificity related to geographical, historical, cultural characteristics, and political interests. PMID:27314371

  8. A novel gene amplification causes upregulation of the PatAB ABC transporter and fluoroquinolone resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Baylay, Alison J; Ivens, Alasdair; Piddock, Laura J V

    2015-01-01

    Overexpression of the ABC transporter genes patA and patB confers efflux-mediated fluoroquinolone resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae and is also linked to pneumococcal stress responses. Although upregulation of patAB has been observed in many laboratory mutants and clinical isolates, the regulatory mechanisms controlling expression of these genes are unknown. In this study, we aimed to identify the cause of high-level constitutive overexpression of patAB in M184, a multidrug-resistant mutant of S. pneumoniae R6. Using a whole-genome transformation and sequencing approach, we identified a novel duplication of a 9.2-kb region of the M184 genome which included the patAB genes. This duplication did not affect growth and was semistable with a low segregation rate. The expression levels of patAB in M184 were much higher than those that could be fully explained by doubling of the gene dosage alone, and inactivation of the first copy of patA had no effect on multidrug resistance. Using a green fluorescent protein reporter system, increased patAB expression was ascribed to transcriptional read-through from a tRNA gene upstream of the second copy of patAB. This is the first report of a large genomic duplication causing antibiotic resistance in S. pneumoniae and also of a genomic duplication causing antibiotic resistance by a promoter switching mechanism.

  9. Asymmetric processing of durational differences - electrophysiological investigations in Bengali.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Adam C; Kotzor, Sandra; Wetterlin, Allison; Lahiri, Aditi

    2014-05-01

    Duration is used contrastively in many languages to distinguish word meaning (e.g. in Bengali, [pata] 'leaf' vs. [pat:a] 'whereabouts'). While there is a large body of research on other contrasts in speech perception (e.g. vowel contrasts and consonantal place features), little work has been done on how durational information is used in speech processing. In non-linguistic studies of low-level processing, such as visual and non-linguistic acoustic pop-out tasks, an asymmetry is found where additional information is more readily detected than missing information. In this study, event-related potentials were recorded during two cross-modal auditory-visual semantic priming studies, where nonword mispronunciations of spoken prime words were created by changing the duration of a medial consonant (real word [dana] 'seed'>nonword [dan:a]). N400 amplitudes showed an opposite asymmetric pattern of results, where increases in consonantal duration were tolerated and led to priming of the visual target, but decreases in consonantal duration were not accepted. This asymmetrical pattern of acceptability is attributed to the fact that a longer consonant includes all essential information for the recognition of the original word with a short medial consonant (a possible default category) and any additional information can be ignored. However, when a consonant is shortened, it lacks the required durational information to activate the word with the original long consonant. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Environmental Equity through Negotiation: A Case Study on Urban Landfills and the Roma Community.

    PubMed

    Petrescu-Mag, Ruxandra Mălina; Petrescu, Dacinia Crina; Oroian, Ioan Gheorghe; Safirescu, Ovidiu Călin; Bican-Brișan, Nicoleta

    2016-06-14

    The paper discusses the necessity to bring environmental equity within the Pata Rât Roma community in Northwest Romania, relying on the answers to three questions: "Does environmental equity exist in Pata Rât?", "How can it be attained?", and "To what extent can it be brought to the targeted people?" It was shown how a trio of factors tailors the destiny of Roma inhabitants: being a minority, their ethnicity, and the fact they are living on and off what society rejects and dumps-a landfill. The framing of the environmental equity concerns within a vision considering negotiation as the most adequate means to attain it is a novel approach. Further on, the results of the study can fuel win-win solutions in environmental equity. The information abstracted from a set of indicators, assessed through an evaluation matrix, represents a beneficial platform for future bottom-up decisions concerning landfill residents. Three action options were analyzed: on-site living opportunities-that resulted to be preferred, off-site living opportunities, and "Do nothing". The analysis provides qualitative evidence that the evaluation of environmental equity is largely subjective, because of its complexity and specificity related to geographical, historical, cultural characteristics, and political interests.

  11. Dynamics of testis-ova in a wild population of Japanese pond frogs, Rana nigromaculata.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Tohru; Kumakura, Masahiko; Yoshie, Sumio; Sugishima, Tomomi; Horie, Yoshifumi

    2015-02-01

    Although many studies have reported the occurrence of testis-ova in wild frog populations, the origin and trigger of testis-ova differentiation/development remain unclear. A high frequency of testis-ova has been previously reported for wild populations of the Japanese pond frog, Rana nigromaculata (cf. Iwasawa and Asai, '59). In the present study, we aimed to clarify the dynamics of testis-ova in this frog species, including the origin and artificial induction of testis-ova. Testis-ova were observed in both mature frogs and puberty-stage frogs (i.e., 0- and 1-year-old frogs). However, the early stages of testis-ova (~pachytene stage) were mostly observed in puberty-stage male frogs at the onset of spermatogenesis. The early stages of testis-ova were observed in the cysts of early secondary spermatogonia and the single cysts of the primary spermatogonium. This finding indicates that testis-ova differentiation occurs during spermatogonial proliferation and that it is correlated with the initiation of spermatogenesis. We also examined whether estrogen exposure induced testis-ova differentiation and how it is correlated with the progression of spermatogenesis. When 1-year-old frogs were exposed to estradiol-17β during spring (i.e., when spermatogenesis was initiated), testis-ova differentiation was induced in a dose-dependent manner. However, this phenomenon did not occur in 1-year-old frogs during summer, (i.e., when the transition from spermatogonia to spermatocytes mainly occurs). These results present the first evidence that testis-ova of the Japanese pond frog are derived from primary and early secondary spermatogonia, and that estrogen exposure induces testis-ova differentiation accompanied by the initiation of spermatogenesis.

  12. Deregulated Ca2+ cycling underlies the development of arrhythmia and heart disease due to mutant obscurin

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Li-Yen R.; Ackermann, Maegen A.; Hecker, Peter A.; Prosser, Benjamin L.; King, Brendan; O’Connell, Kelly A.; Grogan, Alyssa; Meyer, Logan C.; Berndsen, Christopher E.; Wright, Nathan T.; Jonathan Lederer, W.; Kontrogianni-Konstantopoulos, Aikaterini

    2017-01-01

    Obscurins are cytoskeletal proteins with structural and regulatory roles encoded by OBSCN. Mutations in OBSCN are associated with the development of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Specifically, the R4344Q mutation present in immunoglobulin domain 58 (Ig58) was the first to be linked with the development of HCM. To assess the effects of R4344Q in vivo, we generated the respective knock-in mouse model. Mutant obscurins are expressed and incorporated normally into sarcomeres. The expression patterns of sarcomeric and Ca2+-cycling proteins are unaltered in sedentary 1-year-old knock-in myocardia, with the exception of sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ adenosine triphosphatase 2 (SERCA2) and pentameric phospholamban whose levels are significantly increased and decreased, respectively. Isolated cardiomyocytes from 1-year-old knock-in hearts exhibit increased Ca2+-transients and Ca2+-load in the sarcoplasmic reticulum and faster contractility kinetics. Moreover, sedentary 1-year-old knock-in animals develop tachycardia accompanied by premature ventricular contractions, whereas 2-month-old knock-in animals subjected to pressure overload develop a DCM-like phenotype. Structural analysis revealed that the R4344Q mutation alters the distribution of electrostatic charges over the Ig58 surface, thus interfering with its binding capabilities. Consistent with this, wild-type Ig58 interacts with phospholamban modestly, and this interaction is markedly enhanced in the presence of R4344Q. Together, our studies demonstrate that under sedentary conditions, the R4344Q mutation results in Ca2+ deregulation and spontaneous arrhythmia, whereas in the presence of chronic, pathological stress, it leads to cardiac remodeling and dilation. We postulate that enhanced binding between mutant obscurins and phospholamban leads to SERCA2 disinhibition, which may underlie the observed pathological alterations. PMID:28630914

  13. Comparison of function of created wetlands of two age classes in central Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Hoeltje, S M; Cole, C A

    2009-04-01

    Hydrogeomorphic (HGM) functional assessment models were used to assess whether function in created wetlands of two ages (1 year old and >12 years old) was equivalent to that of natural (reference) mainstem floodplain wetlands. Reference wetlands scored higher than both created age classes for providing energy dissipation and short-term surface water storage. Reference wetlands scored higher in maintaining native plant community and structure than 1-year-old sites, and 12-year-old wetlands scored higher than reference sites for providing vertebrate habitat structure. Analysis of individual model variables showed that reference wetlands had greater vegetative biomass and higher soil organic matter content than both created wetland age classes. Created wetlands were farther from natural wetlands and had smaller mean forest patch sizes within a 1-km-radius circle around the site than did the reference sites, indicating less hydrologic connectivity. Created wetlands also had less microtopographic variation than reference wetlands. The 1-year-old created sites were placed in landscape settings with greater land use diversity and road density than reference sites. The 12-year-old sites had a higher gradient and a higher percentage of their surrounding area in urban land use. These results show that the created wetlands were significantly structurally different (if not functionally so) from reference wetlands even after 12 years. The most profound differences were in hydrology and the characteristics of the surrounding landscape. More attention needs to be focused on placing created wetlands in appropriate settings to encourage proper hydrodynamics, eliminate habitat fragmentation, and minimize the effects of stressors to the site.

  14. Distribution and expression characteristics of triterpenoids and OSC genes in white birch (Betula platyphylla suk.).

    PubMed

    Yin, Jing; Ren, Chun-Lin; Zhan, Ya-Guang; Li, Chun-Xiao; Xiao, Jia-Lei; Qiu, Wei; Li, Xin-Yu; Peng, Hong-Mei

    2012-03-01

    Betulin and oleanolic acids (pentacyclic triterpenoid secondary metabolites) have broad pharmacological activities and can be potentially used for the development of anti-cancer and anti-AIDS drugs. In this study, we detected the accumulation and the distribution characteristics of betulin and oleanolic acid in various organs of white birch at different ages. We also determined the expression of 4 OSC genes (LUS, β-AS, CAS1 and CAS2) involved in the triterpenoid synthesis pathways by real time RT-PCR. The result showed that the 1-year old birch can synthesize betulin and oleanolic acid. In addition, betulin and oleanolic acids were mainly distributed in the bark, while the content in the root skin and leaf was very low. The content of betulin and oleanolic acid in birch varied in different seasons. The content of betulin and oleanolic acid and their corresponding LUS and β-AS gene expression were very low in 1-year old birch. With increasing age of birch, betulin content was increased, while oleanolic acid was decreased. Similar changes were also observed for their corresponding synthesis genes LUS and β-AS. In the leaf of 1-year old plant, the highest expression of CAS1 and CAS2 occurred at end of September, while expression of LUS and the β-AS was low from June to October. In the stem skin,high expression of β-AS and the LUS genes occurred from the end of July to September. In the root, high expression of the β-AS gene was observed at the end of October. These results indicated that triterpenoid gene expression was similar to the triterpene accumulation. Expression of LUS gene and β-AS gene in birch with different ages were corresponding to the betulinic and oleanolic acid accumulation. Expression of CAS1 and CAS2 genes were elevated with increasing age of birch. This study provides molecular mechanisms of triterpenes synthesis in birch plants.

  15. Unravelling the importance of forest age stand and forest structure driving microbiological soil properties, enzymatic activities and soil nutrients content in Mediterranean Spanish black pine(Pinus nigra Ar. ssp. salzmannii) Forest.

    PubMed

    Lucas-Borja, M E; Hedo, J; Cerdá, A; Candel-Pérez, D; Viñegla, B

    2016-08-15

    This study aimed to investigate the effects that stand age and forest structure have on microbiological soil properties, enzymatic activities and nutrient content. Thirty forest compartments were randomly selected at the Palancares y Agregados managed forest area (Spain), supporting forest stands of five ages; from 100 to 80years old to compartments with trees that were 19-1years old. Forest area ranging from 80 to 120years old and without forest intervention was selected as the control. We measured different soil enzymatic activities, soil respiration and nutrient content (P, K, Na, Mg, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb and Ca) in the top cm of 10 mineral soils in each compartment. Results showed that the lowest forest stand age and the forest structure created by management presented lower values of organic matter, soil moisture, water holding capacity and litterfall and higher values of C/N ratio in comparison with the highest forest stand age and the related forest structure, which generated differences in soil respiration and soil enzyme activities. The forest structure created by no forest management (control plot) presented the highest enzymatic activities, soil respiration, NH4(+) and NO3(-). Results did not show a clear trend in nutrient content comparing all the experimental areas. Finally, the multivariate PCA analysis clearly clustered three differentiated groups: Control plot; from 100 to 40years old and from 39 to 1year old. Our results suggest that the control plot has better soil quality and that extreme forest stand ages (100-80 and 19-1years old) and the associated forest structure generates differences in soil parameters but not in soil nutrient content. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine on Acute Otitis Media with Severe Middle Ear Inflammation: A Retrospective Multicenter Study.

    PubMed

    Sugino, Hirotoshi; Tsumura, Shigeru; Kunimoto, Masaru; Noda, Masuhiro; Chikuie, Daisuke; Noda, Chieko; Yamashita, Mariko; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Ishii, Hidemasa; Tashiro, Toru; Iwata, Kazuhiro; Kono, Takashi; Tsumura, Kaoru; Sumiya, Takahiro; Takeno, Sachio; Hirakawa, Katsuhiro

    2015-01-01

    The Japanese guidelines for acute otitis media in children recommend classifying acute otitis media by age, manifestations and local findings, and also recommend myringotomy for moderate-grade cases with severe local findings, severe-grade cases, and treatment-resistant cases. The heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine was released in Japan in February 2010. In Hiroshima City, public funding allowing free inoculation with this vaccine was initiated from January 2011, and the number of vaccinated individuals has since increased dramatically. This study investigated changes in the number of myringotomies performed to treat acute otitis media during the 5-year period from January 2008 to December 2012 at two hospitals and five clinics in the Asa Area of Hiroshima City, Japan. A total of 3,165 myringotomies for acute otitis media were performed. The rate of procedures per child-year performed in <5-year-old children decreased by 29.1% in 2011 and by 25.2% in 2012 compared to the mean rate performed in the 3 years prior to the introduction of public funding. A total of 895 myringotomies were performed for 1-year-old infants. The rate of myringotomies per child-year performed for acute otitis media in 1-year-old infants decreased significantly in the 2 years after the introduction of public funding for heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine compared to all years before introduction (p<0.000001). Our results suggest a benefit of heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine for acute otitis media in reducing the financial burden of myringotomy. In addition, this vaccine may help prevent acute otitis media with severe middle ear inflammation in 1-year-old infants.

  17. The structure of the cyanobactin domain of unknown function from PatG in the patellamide gene cluster

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Greg; Koehnke, Jesko; Bent, Andrew F.; Graham, Rachael; Houssen, Wael; Jaspars, Marcel; Schwarz-Linek, Uli; Naismith, James H.

    2014-01-01

    Patellamides are members of the cyanobactin family of ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified cyclic peptide natural products, many of which, including some patellamides, are biologically active. A detailed mechanistic understanding of the biosynthetic pathway would enable the construction of a biotechnological ‘toolkit’ to make novel analogues of patellamides that are not found in nature. All but two of the protein domains involved in patellamide biosynthesis have been characterized. The two domains of unknown function (DUFs) are homologous to each other and are found at the C-termini of the multi-domain proteins PatA and PatG. The domain sequence is found in all cyanobactin-biosynthetic pathways characterized to date, implying a functional role in cyanobactin biosynthesis. Here, the crystal structure of the PatG DUF domain is reported and its binding interactions with plausible substrates are investigated. PMID:25484206

  18. The Effect of Immunosuppression on Viral Encephalitis, with Special Reference to Cyclophosphamide

    PubMed Central

    Zlotnik, I.; Smith, C. E. G.; Grant, D. P.; Peacock, S.

    1970-01-01

    Cyclophosphamide altered not only the pathological picture of virus encephalitis, but also enhanced the invasiveness of viruses and produced fatal forms of disease to which monkeys were otherwise resistant. Normal patas monkeys infected either i.c. or intranasally (i.n.) with louping ill developed clinical encephalitis from which they recovered, but when cyclophosphamide was administered the disease proved fatal. Normal rhesus monkeys inoculated i.n. with virulent western equine encephalitis virus developed neither clinical disease nor CNS lesions, but after treatment with cyclophosphamide they developed fatal encephalitis. The viruses of louping ill, Venezuelan equine encephalitis and Western equine encephalitis when given without an immunosuppressant usually gave rise to acute inflammatory CNS pathology, but when the monkeys were given cyclophosphamide, the inflammatory reaction was replaced by a degenerative process causing both neuronal necrosis and spongy degeneration. ImagesFigs. 1-3 PMID:4991966

  19. Solid and aqueous mercury in remote river sediments (Litany River, French Guyana, South America)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charlet, L.; Roman-Ross, G.; Spadini, L.; Rumbach, G.

    2003-05-01

    Mercury content in river sediments was investigated, in the Haut Maroni river basin (French Guyana, South America), around Antecume-Pata, a village where Wayanas Amerindians are contaminated with mercury. Solid sediment particulate total mercury content indicate a 100 to 150 ng/g Hg geochemical background level. Sediments act as an environmental archive: gold mining contaminated sediments have up to 400 ng/g total mercury. Pore waters from contaminated sediments are enriched in Fe(II) and Hg(II) by a factor 40 compared to uncontaminated sediment pore waters, due to more acute anoxie conditions. They act therefore as a major source of dissolved mercury in remote tropical aquatic ecosystems. Keywords: Mercury, sediment, DGT and DET techniques, pore water, gold mining.

  20. Treatment-refractory multi-lineage autoimmune cytopenia after unrelated cord blood transplantation: remission after combined bortezomib and vincristine treatment.

    PubMed

    Waespe, Nicolas; Zeilhofer, Ulrike; Güngör, Tayfun

    2014-11-01

    Autoimmune cytopenias (AC) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are associated with a dismal prognosis. We describe a 1-year-old female with multi-lineage AC occurring on day +43 after HSCT. Multi-agent treatment with high-dose prednisolone, intravenous immunoglobulins, cyclosporine A, mycophenolate mofetil, sirolimus, and rituximab was unsuccessful. Combined treatment with bortezomib and vincristine in addition to ongoing immunosuppressive therapy was started on day +414 with transfusion-independence after day +444. Immunosuppressants were tapered until day +638. On day +1,121 the patient remained in remission. Bortezomib with vincristine may be a promising treatment modality for refractory AC after HSCT that requires further study.

  1. Limits to the height growth of Caragana korshinskii resprouts.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xiang-Wen; Turner, Neil C; Xu, Dang-Hui; Jin, Yi; He, Jin; Li, Feng-Min

    2013-03-01

    Predawn leaf water potential (LWP), the LWP between 09:00 and 10:30 h (termed minimum LWP), stem xylem hydraulic conductivity, foliar nitrogen, leaf gas exchange and leaf traits were measured on the same days in adults and 1-year-old to 7-year-old resprouts that had regrown after removing all the aboveground shoots. Height growth and accumulation of aboveground biomass quickly decreased with resprout age and there was no difference between 7-year-old resprouts and the uncut adults. Predawn LWP showed no significant difference between resprouts and adults, but the minimum LWP decreased gradually from -2.0 MPa in 1-year-old resprouts to -3.0 MPa in 7-year-old resprouts. The decrease in minimum LWP was associated with increased hydraulic resistance, as indicated by the gradual decrease in leaf area-specific hydraulic conductivity (KL) and sapwood area-specific hydraulic conductivity (KS) and the associated increase in stem native percentage loss of hydraulic conductivity in older than 2-year-old resprouts. The leaf nitrogen content per unit area (Narea) also decreased steadily from 3.6 g m(-2) in 1-year-old resprouts to 1.7 g m(-2) in 7-year-old resprouts. With the decline in LWP and Narea, the rate of leaf photosynthesis per unit area (Aarea) decreased from 20 μ mol m(-2) s(-1) in 1-year-old resprouts to 11 μ mol m(-2) s(-1) in 7-year-old resprouts. In adults, although KS decreased further compared with 7-year-old resprouts, the minimum LWP, KL, Narea and the rate of photosynthesis increased by 0.3 MPa, 29, 34 and 23%, respectively. The results show that a progressive loss of stem hydraulic conductivity and a steady decrease in foliar nitrogen with age were associated with a decrease in the photosynthetic rate of Caragana korshinskii Kom. resprouts, possibly changing the allocation of photosynthetic assimilates and slowing resprout height growth.

  2. Spontaneous thrombosis of a giant cerebral varix in a pediatric patient.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, Mesut; Aslan, Serdar; Ceyhan Bilgici, Meltem; Idil Soylu, Aysegul; Aydin, Keramettin

    2017-07-20

    Cerebral cortical venous aneurysm also known as cerebral varix is a rare entity that usually occurs in relation to high-flow draining veins of arteriovenous fistulas, arteriovenous malformations, and venous angioma. Isolated cerebral varix is an extremely rare entity. We present a 1-year-old male with isolated cerebral varix. During follow-up, the varix thrombosed spontaneously without causing any neurological deficits. To the best of our knowledge, spontaneous asymptomatic thrombosis of an isolated cerebral varix without any clinical finding was reported for the first time in the literature.

  3. The effect of β-sitosterol on the metabolism of cholesterol and lipids in rats on a diet containing coconut oil

    PubMed Central

    Gerson, T.; Shorland, F. B.; Dunckley, G. G.

    1965-01-01

    1. Intraperitoneal injection of β-sitosterol (5mg./rat/day for 25 days) into 1-year-old male Wistar rats fed on a low-fat diet supplemented with 10% of coconut oil resulted in a lowering of cholesterol and lipid concentrations in the tissues. 2. β-Sitosterol increased the rate of biosynthesis of cholesterol and lipids in the tissues, but to an even greater extent enhanced their oxidative degradation. 3. The present results are similar to those previously obtained on a low-fat diet, indicating that the presence of fat had no marked effect on the action of β-sitosterol. PMID:5891218

  4. Case of cytomegalovirus-associated direct anti-globulin test-negative autoimmune hemolytic anemia.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Saeko; Sato, Masanori; Sasaki, Goro; Eguchi, Hiroyuki; Oishi, Tsutomu; Kamesaki, Toyomi; Kawaguchi, Hiroyuki

    2013-12-01

    A 1-year-old boy developed autoimmune hemolytic anemia after a negative direct anti-globulin test. The concentration of erythrocyte membrane-associated immunoglobulin G, determined using an immunoradiometric assay, correlated with disease activity. He was positive for cytomegalovirus (CMV) both serologically and by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, indicating that his autoimmune hemolytic anemia was directly caused by CMV infection. Since anti-CMV immunoglobulin G was not absorbed by the patient's erythrocytes, cross-reaction between erythrocyte antigens and CMV was not likely a causative factor for hemolysis.

  5. Macrodystrophia lipomatosa: a reconstructive approach to gigantism of the foot.

    PubMed

    Watt, Andrew J; Chung, Kevin C

    2004-01-01

    Localized gigantism poses a challenging surgical dilemma, and it may be treated with amputation. This case report documents the application of a reconstructive approach to a severe case of pedal macrodystrophia lipomatosa in a 1-year-old girl. A series of 3 surgeries were designed to reduce the length, width, height, and overall bulk of the congenitally enlarged foot. The 3 procedures debulked the foot for normal ambulation and same-size shoe wear for both feet. The resulting functional and aesthetic improvements achieved through reconstructive treatment provided a desirable alternative to amputation.

  6. Values for preventing influenza-related morbidity and vaccine adverse events in children.

    PubMed

    Prosser, Lisa A; Bridges, Carolyn Buxton; Uyeki, Timothy M; Rêgo, Virginia H; Ray, G Thomas; Meltzer, Martin I; Schwartz, Benjamin; Thompson, William W; Fukuda, Keiji; Lieu, Tracy A

    2005-03-21

    Influenza vaccination recently has been recommended for children 6-23 months old, but is not currently recommended for routine use in non-high-risk older children. Information on disease impact, costs, benefits, risks, and community preferences could help guide decisions about which age and risk groups should be vaccinated and strategies for improving coverage. The objective of this study was to measure preferences and willingness-to-pay for changes in health-related quality of life associated with uncomplicated influenza and two rarely-occurring vaccination-related adverse events (anaphylaxis and Guillain-Barré syndrome) in children. We conducted telephone interviews with adult members selected at random from a large New England HMO (n = 112). Respondents were given descriptions of four health outcomes: uncomplicated influenza in a hypothetical 1-year-old child of their own, uncomplicated influenza in a hypothetical 14-year-old child of their own, anaphylaxis following vaccination, and Guillain-Barré syndrome. "Uncomplicated influenza" did not require a physician's visit or hospitalization. Preferences (values) for these health outcomes were measured using time-tradeoff and willingness-to-pay questions. Time-tradeoff questions asked the adult to assume they had a child and to consider how much time from the end of their own life they would be willing to surrender to avoid the health outcome in the child. Respondents said they would give a median of zero days of their lives to prevent an episode of uncomplicated influenza in either their (hypothetical) 1-year-old or 14-year-old, 30 days to prevent an episode of vaccination-related anaphylaxis, and 3 years to prevent a vaccination-related case of Guillain-Barré syndrome. Median willingness-to-pay to prevent uncomplicated influenza in a 1-year-old was $175, uncomplicated influenza in a 14-year-old was $100, anaphylaxis $400, and Guillain-Barré syndrome $4000. The median willingness-to-pay for an influenza

  7. Simulating certain aspects of hypogravity - Effects on bone maturation in the nonweight bearing skeleton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, D. J.; Grazman, B.; Russell, J. E.; Walker, W. V.; Bikle, D. D.; Morey, E. R.

    1983-01-01

    For a determination of how the nonweight-bearing skeletons, i.e., lower jaws, of 41-day and 1-year old rats would respond to 10 or 14 days of partial skeletal unloading by elevating the hindquarters (PULEH), an experimental system to simulate the fluid shifts and unloading of portions of the skeleton which occur during spaceflight was developed. In comparison with the bone matrix mineralization recorded in the mandibles of rats flown in the Soviet 18.5 day Cosmos-1129 mission, the PULEH studies failed to produce spaceflight-like maturation defects.

  8. Ameloblastic fibroma in one-year-old girl

    PubMed Central

    Munde, Anita D; Karle, Ravindra R; Kale, Ujwala B

    2013-01-01

    Ameloblastic fibroma (AF) is a relatively rare, slow growing benign mixed odontogenic tumor, comprising of 1.5-4.5% of all odontogenic tumors. It is usually asymptomatic except for the eventual expansion of the jaw. AFs are most common in adolescents and young adults, mostly affecting the mandible as a well-defined uni or multilocular radiolucency. The effective surgical treatment includes enucleation and curettage of the surrounding bone and removal of the affected teeth. Although recurrence of AF is rare, a long term follow up is recommended. This report describes a 1-year-old girl with AF in the mandible and discusses its clinical, radiographic and histological findings. PMID:23798857

  9. Ameloblastic fibroma in one-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Munde, Anita D; Karle, Ravindra R; Kale, Ujwala B

    2013-01-01

    Ameloblastic fibroma (AF) is a relatively rare, slow growing benign mixed odontogenic tumor, comprising of 1.5-4.5% of all odontogenic tumors. It is usually asymptomatic except for the eventual expansion of the jaw. AFs are most common in adolescents and young adults, mostly affecting the mandible as a well-defined uni or multilocular radiolucency. The effective surgical treatment includes enucleation and curettage of the surrounding bone and removal of the affected teeth. Although recurrence of AF is rare, a long term follow up is recommended. This report describes a 1-year-old girl with AF in the mandible and discusses its clinical, radiographic and histological findings.

  10. Recurrent Multiple Squamous Cell Carcinomas on the Scalp in a Patient with Juvenile Dermatomyositis

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Yota; Fujimura, Taku; Kambayashi, Yumi; Tsukada, Akira; Hidaka, Takanori; Tanita, Kayo; Haga, Takahiro; Hashimoto, Akira; Aiba, Setsuya

    2017-01-01

    Both long-term administration of immunosuppressive agents and chronic inflammatory conditions, such as autoimmune disease, could be risk factors for the development of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC). In this report, we present a case of recurrent multiple cSCC on the scalp in a patient with juvenile dermatomyositis who had been administered cyclosporine and Predonine since she was a 1-year-old infant. Interestingly, immunohistochemical staining revealed IL-17-producing cells adjacent to IL-17R-expressing atypical keratinocytes. Our present case suggested that IL-17/IL-17R signaling might contribute to the carcinogenesis of cSCC. PMID:28203172

  11. Meningitis due to Haemophilus influenzae type f.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Marta Pessoa; Pasternak, Jacyr; Giglio, Alfredo Elias; Casagrande, Rejane Rimazza Dalberto; Troster, Eduardo Juan

    2013-12-01

    With the decline in the rate of infections caused by Haemophilus influenzae serotype b since the widespread vaccination, non-b serotypes should be considered as potential pathogenic agents in children with invasive disease younger than 5 years old. We report the case of an immunocompetent 1-year-old boy with Haemophilus influenzae type f meningitis. The agent was identified in cerebrospinal fluid and blood cultures. Serotyping was performed by tests using polyclonal sera and confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. All Haemophilus influenzae isolates associated with invasive disease should be serotyped and notified as a way to evaluate the changes and trends in serotype distribution of this disease.

  12. [Bilateral persistent hyaloid artery. A case report].

    PubMed

    Borbolla-Pertierra, A M; Martínez-Hernández, C K; Juárez-Echenique, J C

    2014-06-01

    A 5-year-old male presented with bilateral poor vision, esotropia and a previous diagnosis of cataract since he was 1 year old. The physical examination revealed bilateral posterior paracentric capsule opacification, vitreous cavity with a permeable pulsatile blood filled hyaloid artery in both eyes. He was kept under observation. Persistent hyaloid artery is an uncommon faulty primary vitreous regression, often unilateral (although it may be bilateral) and sporadic, associated with microphthalmos. It may be complicated with glaucoma and phthisis bulbi. Vitrectomy plus lensectomy or simple observation are the accepted treatment options. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Brain stem hypoplasia associated with Cri-du-Chat syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jin Ho; Lee, Ha Young; Lim, Myung Kwan; Kim, Mi Young; Kang, Young Hye; Lee, Kyung Hee; Cho, Soon Gu

    2013-01-01

    Cri-du-Chat syndrome, also called the 5p-syndrome, is a rare genetic abnormality, and only few cases have been reported on its brain MRI findings. We describe the magnetic resonance imaging findings of a 1-year-old girl with Cri-du-Chat syndrome who showed brain stem hypoplasia, particularly in the pons, with normal cerebellum and diffuse hypoplasia of the cerebral hemispheres. We suggest that Cri-du-Chat syndrome chould be suspected in children with brain stem hypoplasia, particularly for those with high-pitched cries.

  14. Brain Stem Hypoplasia Associated with Cri-du-Chat Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jin Ho; Lim, Myung Kwan; Kim, Mi Young; Kang, Young Hye; Lee, Kyung Hee; Cho, Soon Gu

    2013-01-01

    Cri-du-Chat syndrome, also called the 5p-syndrome, is a rare genetic abnormality, and only few cases have been reported on its brain MRI findings. We describe the magnetic resonance imaging findings of a 1-year-old girl with Cri-du-Chat syndrome who showed brain stem hypoplasia, particularly in the pons, with normal cerebellum and diffuse hypoplasia of the cerebral hemispheres. We suggest that Cri-du-Chat syndrome chould be suspected in children with brain stem hypoplasia, particularly for those with high-pitched cries. PMID:24265573

  15. Maternal social capital and child nutritional status in four developing countries.

    PubMed

    De Silva, Mary J; Harpham, Trudy

    2007-06-01

    Social capital has been shown to be positively associated with a range of health outcomes, yet no studies have explored the association between maternal social capital and child nutritional status. Using data from the Young Lives study comprising 7242 1-year-old children from Peru, Ethiopia, Vietnam and the state of Andhra Pradesh in India, we find significant differences in the levels of, in particular, structural social capital (group membership and citizenship) between countries. While few associations were found between structural measures of social capital, support from individuals and cognitive social capital (e.g. trust, social harmony) displayed fairly consistent positive associations with child nutritional status across countries.

  16. Intrahepatic paratesticular cyst: unique presentation of vestigial remnants of Wolffian duct.

    PubMed

    Ceccanti, Silvia; Mele, Ermelinda; Masselli, Gabriele; Bosco, Sandro; Cozzi, Denis A

    2012-01-01

    To report on a case of a progressively enlarging intrahepatic cyst in a 1-year-old boy who also presented with bilateral undescended testes. At surgery, the lesion emerged from the anterior surface of the liver but was unexpectedly found to arise from the epididymis of the right testis, which was located intra-abdominally. The histologic findings were consistent with a paratesticular cyst of vestigial remnants derived from the Wolffian duct. Such an unusual event has not been previously reported among the possible location of a paratesticular cyst, nor has it been described in the differential diagnosis of cystic lesions of the liver.

  17. Tracheostomy-dependent child with temporomandibular ankylosis and severe micrognathia treated by piezosurgery and distraction osteogenesis: case report.

    PubMed

    de Castro e Silva, Lucas Martins; Pereira Filho, Valfrido Antonio; Vieira, Eduardo Hochuli; Gabrielli, Mário Francisco Real

    2011-10-01

    Ankylosis of the temporomandibular joint in children is one the most difficult and complex conditions managed by oral and maxillofacial surgeons, and often leads to some facial deformity. Distraction osteogenesis of the mandible provides an excellent treatment for mandibular airway obstruction in children who do not respond to conservative measures, and allows for early removal of the tracheostomy. We report the case of a 1-year-old boy with severe micrognathia and temporomandibular ankylosis who was dependent on a tracheostomy; he was treated with piezosurgery and mandibular advancement by distraction osteogenesis. Copyright © 2010 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. First Case Report of Canthariasis in an Infant Caused by the Larvae of Lasioderma serricorne (Coleoptera: Anobiidae)

    PubMed Central

    Mokhtar, Aida Syafinaz; Sridhar, Ganiga Srinivasaiah; Mahmud, Rohela; Jeffery, John; Lau, Yee Ling; Wilson, John-James; Abdul-Aziz, Noraishah Mydin

    2016-01-01

    We report an unusual cause of gastrointestinal infection occurring in a 1-year-old infant patient who was brought to a public hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Larvae passed out in the patient’s feces were confirmed by DNA barcoding as belonging to the species, Lasioderma serricorne (F.), known as the cigarette beetle. We postulate that the larvae were acquired from contaminated food and were responsible for gastrointestinal symptoms in the patient. To our knowledge, this the first report of human canthariasis caused by larvae of L. serricorne. PMID:27208008

  19. Primary incisor intruded through the nasal cavity: a case report.

    PubMed

    Costa, Vanessa Polina Pereria; Barbosa, Michele Vale; Goettems, Marília Leão; Torriani, Marcos Antônio; Castagno, Clarissa Delpizzo; Baldissera, Elaine Fátima Zanchin; Torriani, Dione Dias

    2016-01-01

    Intrusive luxation may cause complications for the primary tooth and generate adverse sequelae in the permanent successor. Although intrusion is prevalent in the primary dentition, full intrusion is a rare event that requires specialized treatment and a multidisciplinary approach. This article describes the case of a 1-year-old girl who presented with traumatic displacement of the maxillary left central incisor into the nasal cavity. The parents sought treatment 1 month after the child sustained the injury, and the impacted tooth was removed through her left nostril under general anesthesia. Four-year clinical and radiographic follow-up revealed no adverse sequelae.

  20. Imaging diagnosis--celiacomesenteric trunk and portal vein hypoplasia in a pit bull terrier.

    PubMed

    Ricciardi, Mario; Martino, Rosmara; Assad, Eyad Abu

    2014-01-01

    The computed tomography (CT) imaging findings of a celiacomesenteric trunk (CMT) in a 1-year-old dog with primary hypoplasia of the portal vein (PHPV) are described. Computed tomography angiography revealed acquired porto-systemic shunts secondary to portal hypertension and a common origin of the celiac and cranial mesenteric arteries. The imaging findings and the association of a CMT with other vascular diseases have never been reported in dogs. The recognition of this rare arterial anomaly should prompt to investigate possible concurrent vascular diseases and may influence the planning of abdominal surgeries.

  1. Migration of the Abdominal Catheter of a Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt into the Mouth: A Rare Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Low, Shiong Wen; Sein, Lwin; Yeo, Tseng Tsai; Chou, Ning

    2010-01-01

    A 1-year-old boy with a history of exomphalos and hydrocephalus had surgeries to correct these pathologies. The ventriculopleural (VPL) shunt inserted for hydrocephalus was complicated by pleural effusion, for which a ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt was inserted on the contralateral side. He subsequently presented with protrusion of the distal VP shunt tip from the mouth due to perforation through the gastrointestinal tract. The child also had a history of peritonitis post-exomphalos repair, which may have predisposed him to this relatively uncommon shunt complication. Probable causes and risk factors of the perforation are discussed. PMID:22135552

  2. Ecological studies on the revegetation process of surface coal mined areas in North Dakota. 3. soil and vegetation development of abandoned mines. Final report Aug 75-Jun 82

    SciTech Connect

    Wali, M.K.; Pemble, R.H.

    1982-06-01

    Soil and vegetation development were studied on abandoned mine sites near Velva in Ward County, North Dakota. The sites studied were 1, 7, 17, 30 and 45 years old since abandonment; unmined sites were also studied to provide measures of comparison. Species diversity was the highest at unmined sites (114) and lowest at the 1 year old site (26). Stand-environmental complex ordinations encompassing 53 variables showed topographic variables to be the most important followed by site ages. Rates of nutrient accumulations were given in the report.

  3. Development of latent fingerprints using preferential DC sputter deposition.

    PubMed

    Kent, K; Stoilovic, M

    1995-03-21

    It was shown that a DC metal sputtering process with thermalised atoms, preferentially deposits metal onto fingerprint ridges. This method can be successfully used for the development of latent fingerprints. Four target metals were tested--copper, zinc, platinum, and gold--with platinum showing superior results for latent fingerprint development on clear polythene substrates. A comparison of platinum sputtering and cyanoacrylate fuming followed by rhodamine-6G staining, was conducted for 1-year-old fingerprint deposits. Platinum sputtering showed significantly higher sensitivity, and produced better overall results.

  4. Megalencephaly-polymicrogyria-polydactyly-hydrocephalus syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kariminejad, Ariana; Radmanesh, Farid; Rezayi, Ali-Reza; Tonekaboni, Seyed-Hasan; Gleeson, Joseph G

    2013-05-01

    This report describes a case of megalencephaly-polymicrogyria-polydactyly-hydrocephalus syndrome in a 1-year-old boy, born to healthy nonconsanguineous parents. Megalencephaly and bilateral postaxial polydactyly of upper and lower limbs were noted at birth. He had profound developmental delay and moderate hypotonia. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain revealed hydrocephalus, polymicrogyria in both frontal lobes and perisylvian regions, and thin corpus callosum. Array-comparative genomic hybridization was normal. The patient's clinical and radiologic findings fit the classic description of megalencephaly-polymicrogyria-polydactyly-hydrocephalus syndrome. The possible overlap between megalencephaly-polymicrogyria-polydactyly-hydrocephalus syndrome and other similar conditions is discussed.

  5. Discospondylitis in a yellow-eyed penguin (Megadyptes antipodes).

    PubMed

    Bergen, David J; Gartrell, Brett D

    2010-03-01

    A 1-year-old female yellow-eyed penguin (Megadyptes antipodes) was diagnosed with chronic discospondylitis on the basis of clinical signs and results of hematologic tests, radiography, and computed tomography. Despite significant destruction of the affected vertebral bodies and gross malformation of the spine, neurologic function was unaffected. Treatment with antibiotics, antifungals, and swimming physiotherapy was attempted, but the bird died after 40 days of hospitalization. Histopathologic lesions observed at necropsy were severe chronic discospondylitis, chronic granulomatous tracheitis, proventricular ulceration, and adrenal hemorrhage. The suspected inciting cause of the discospondylitis was a reported population-wide oral stomatitis that affects yellow-eyed penguin chicks.

  6. A Case of Congenital Bilateral Absence of Elbow Flexor Muscles: Review of Differential Diagnosis and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Aliu, Oluseyi; Samra, Saleh; Lewis, Eric

    2007-01-01

    A 1-year-old boy presented to us with congenital inability to flex his elbow. He had bilaterally absent biceps brachii and brachialis muscles, a rare condition. We performed pedicle latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flaps to the left and right volar upper arm at 21 and 24 months of age, respectively, to create elbow flexors. By 4 years of age, he had excellent elbow flexion bilaterally with strength grade in excess of 4.5. In addition to discussing our patient’s treatment options, we discuss other potential causes of weak elbow flexion when faced with this clinical dilemma. PMID:18780113

  7. Disseminated Mycobacterium genavense infection in a chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera).

    PubMed

    Huynh, M; Pingret, J-L; Nicolier, A

    2014-07-01

    A 1-year-old neutered male chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera) was presented with emaciation and a 1-month history of progressive weight loss. The animal was bright and responsive on clinical examination, but had poor body condition. Serum biochemical analysis revealed elevated alanine amino transferase and alkaline phosphatase. Ultrasound examination was unremarkable. Thoracic radiography showed changes consistent with bullous emphysema and severe pneumonia. Antibiotic therapy was initiated, but the chinchilla died 6 weeks later. Necropsy examination revealed granulomatous lesions in the lungs and liver. Numerous acid-fast bacilli were present in the cytoplasm of macrophages. Sequencing of genetic material isolated from fixed tissue classified the pathogen as Mycobacterium genavense.

  8. Pregnant women in the workplace: distinguishing between normal and abnormal physiologic changes.

    PubMed

    Draper, London

    2006-05-01

    The Bureau of Labor Statistics reported in 2001 that 51% of married women return to the work force before their children are 1 year old (Rojjanasrirat, 2004). Women's roles in the United States are rapidly changing, and the workplace environment is also changing to meet the added demands of women in the work force. Many women assimilate the multiple roles of wife, mother, and working professional into a cohesive unit; however, this is often difficult. Occupational health nurses play a vital role advocating for women in the work force. A critical area of advocacy (and education) focuses on providing necessary support to pregnant employees.

  9. The Whole-Hand Point: The Structure and Function of Pointing From a Comparative Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Leavens, David A.; Hopkins, William D.

    2007-01-01

    Pointing by monkeys, apes, and human infants is reviewed and compared. Pointing with the index finger is a species-typical human gesture, although human infants exhibit more whole-hand pointing than is commonly appreciated. Captive monkeys and feral apes have been reported to only rarely “spontaneously” point, although apes in captivity frequently acquire pointing, both with the index finger and with the whole hand, without explicit training. Captive apes exhibit relatively more gaze alternation while pointing than do human infants about 1 year old. Human infants are relatively more vocal while pointing than are captive apes, consistent with paralinguistic use of pointing. PMID:10608565

  10. Processing of Phonemic Consonant Length: Semantic and Fragment Priming Evidence from Bengali.

    PubMed

    Kotzor, Sandra; Wetterlin, Allison; Roberts, Adam C; Lahiri, Aditi

    2016-03-01

    Six cross-modal lexical decision tasks with priming probed listeners' processing of the geminate-singleton contrast in Bengali, where duration alone leads to phonemic contrast ([pata] 'leaf' vs. [pat:a] 'whereabouts'), in order to investigate the phonological representation of consonantal duration in the lexicon. Four form-priming experiments (auditory fragment primes and visual targets) were designed to investigate listeners' sensitivity to segments of conflicting duration. Each prime derived from a real word ([k(h)[symbol: see text]m]/[g(h)en:]) was matched with a mispronunciation of the opposite duration (*[k(h)[symbol: see text]m:]/*[g(h)en]) and both were used to prime the full words [k(h)[symbol: see text]ma] ('forgiveness') and [g(h)en:a] ('disgust') respectively. Although all fragments led to priming, the results showed an asymmetric pattern. The fragments of words with singletons mispronounced as geminates led to equal priming, while those with geminates mispronounced as singletons showed a difference. The priming effect of the real-word geminate fragment was significantly greater than that of its corresponding nonword singleton fragment. In two subsequent semantic priming tasks with full-word primes a stronger asymmetry was found: nonword geminates (*[k(h)[symbol: see text]m:a]) primed semantically related words ([marjona] 'forgiveness') but singleton nonword primes (*[ghena]) did not show priming. This overall asymmetry in the tolerance of geminate nonwords in place of singleton words is attributed to a representational mismatch and points towards a moraic representation of duration. While geminates require a mora which cannot be derived from singleton input, the additional information in geminate nonwords does not create a similar mismatch.

  11. Genomic Characterization of Ciprofloxacin Resistance in a Laboratory-Derived Mutant and a Clinical Isolate of Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Lupien, Andréanne; Billal, Dewan S.; Fani, Fereshteh; Soualhine, Hafid; Zhanel, George G.; Leprohon, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The broad-spectrum fluoroquinolone ciprofloxacin is a bactericidal antibiotic targeting DNA topoisomerase IV and DNA gyrase encoded by the parC and gyrA genes. Resistance to ciprofloxacin in Streptococcus pneumoniae mainly occurs through the acquisition of mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) of the ParC and GyrA targets. A role in low-level ciprofloxacin resistance has also been attributed to efflux systems. To look into ciprofloxacin resistance at a genome-wide scale and to discover additional mutations implicated in resistance, we performed whole-genome sequencing of an S. pneumoniae isolate selected for resistance to ciprofloxacin in vitro (128 μg/ml) and of a clinical isolate displaying low-level ciprofloxacin resistance (2 μg/ml). Gene disruption and DNA transformation experiments with PCR fragments harboring the mutations identified in the in vitro S. pneumoniae mutant revealed that resistance is mainly due to QRDR mutations in parC and gyrA and to the overexpression of the ABC transporters PatA and PatB. In contrast, no QRDR mutations were identified in the genome of the S. pneumoniae clinical isolate with low-level resistance to ciprofloxacin. Assays performed in the presence of the efflux pump inhibitor reserpine suggested that resistance is likely mediated by efflux. Interestingly, the genome sequence of this clinical isolate also revealed mutations in the coding region of patA and patB that we implicated in resistance. Finally, a mutation in the NAD(P)H-dependent glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase identified in the S. pneumoniae clinical strain was shown to protect against ciprofloxacin-mediated reactive oxygen species. PMID:23877698

  12. Morphologic features of Sancassania berlesei (Acari: Astigmata: Acaridae), a common mite of stored products in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Chaopin; Jiang, Yuxin; Guo, Wei; Chen, Qi

    2015-04-01

    Objetivo: sancassania berlesei (S. berlesei) es el lider en la industria de cría amenaza mite eupolyphaga sinensis y la salud pública.Métodos: los especimenes vivos de S. berlesei fueron obtenidos a partir de la superficie de eupolyphaga sinensis y purificado con agua bidestilada.El huevo, larva, ninfa, hypopus, macho adulto y la hembra de S. berlesei fueron evaluados y elegidos bajo microscopio.Resultados: las variaciones morfológicas de S. berlesei, incluidas sus piernas, setas, genitales externos y accesorios, están claramente identificadas en la SEM.La larva tiene tres pares de patas, sin hojas como setas, pero su coxal Rod es desarrollada.Por la etapa de ninfa, cuatro pares de patas y el cuarto dorsal seta surgen, mientras que la zona genital se ve aún en desarrollo.En hypopus, las garras y tarsules aparecen bien construido, y la hoja como setas, setas de tibia y setas de Genu son vistos.La ventosa plato totalmente contiene nueve retoños y cuatro Shell como dimplings en que hay distribuciones simétricas con 1 par de mamones, 2 pares de lado anterior de ventosas y 1 par de tontos, respectivamente.Una pera como posterior ventosa está ubicado en la espalda de Sucker plato.Todos los tontos son suaves excepto anterior Sucker con franja radial.El órgano de sentido genital adultos exhibe con cordiforme aspecto externo y osificación típica textura; mientras que el macho es diferente con la hembra respecto a seta numero en el sentido de órganos genitales.Conclusión: descripción de la estructura morfologica en gran detalle para S. berlesei tiende a suministrar la información importante para la taxonomía y más estudio.

  13. A computational growth model for measuring dynamic cortical development in the first year of life.

    PubMed

    Nie, Jingxin; Li, Gang; Wang, Li; Gilmore, John H; Lin, Weili; Shen, Dinggang

    2012-10-01

    Human cerebral cortex develops extremely fast in the first year of life. Quantitative measurement of cortical development during this early stage plays an important role in revealing the relationship between cortical structural and high-level functional development. This paper presents a computational growth model to simulate the dynamic development of the cerebral cortex from birth to 1 year old by modeling the cerebral cortex as a deformable elastoplasticity surface driven via a growth model. To achieve a high accuracy, a guidance model is also incorporated to estimate the growth parameters and cortical shapes at later developmental stages. The proposed growth model has been applied to 10 healthy subjects with longitudinal brain MR images acquired at every 3 months from birth to 1 year old. The experimental results show that our proposed method can capture the dynamic developmental process of the cortex, with the average surface distance error smaller than 0.6 mm compared with the ground truth surfaces, and the results also show that 1) the curvedness and sharpness decrease from 2 weeks to 12 months and 2) the frontal lobe shows rapidly increasing cortical folding during this period, with relatively slower increase of the cortical folding in the occipital and parietal lobes.

  14. Population variation and individual maximum size in two leech populations: energy extraction from cannibalism or niche widening?

    PubMed

    Persson, Lennart; Elliott, J Malcolm

    2013-05-01

    The theory of cannibal dynamics predicts a link between population dynamics and individual life history. In particular, increased individual growth has, in both modeling and empirical studies, been shown to result from a destabilization of population dynamics. We used data from a long-term study of the dynamics of two leech (Erpobdella octoculata) populations to test the hypothesis that maximum size should be higher in a cycling population; one of the study populations exhibited a delayed feedback cycle while the other population showed no sign of cyclicity. A hump-shaped relationship between individual mass of 1-year-old leeches and offspring density the previous year was present in both populations. As predicted from the theory, the maximum mass of individuals was much larger in the fluctuating population. In contrast to predictions, the higher growth rate was not related to energy extraction from cannibalism. Instead, the higher individual mass is suggested to be due to increased availability of resources due to a niche widening with increased individual body mass. The larger individual mass in the fluctuating population was related to a stronger correlation between the densities of 1-year-old individuals and 2-year-old individuals the following year in this population. Although cannibalism was the major mechanism regulating population dynamics, its importance was negligible in terms of providing cannibalizing individuals with energy subsequently increasing their fecundity. Instead, the study identifies a need for theoretical and empirical studies on the largely unstudied interplay between ontogenetic niche shifts and cannibalistic population dynamics.

  15. Endo- and ectomycorrhizas in Quercus agrifolia Nee. (Fagaceae): patterns of root colonization and effects on seedling growth.

    PubMed

    Egerton-Warburton, L; Allen, M F

    2001-12-01

    We documented the patterns of root occupancy by Glomalean and ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi in Quercus agrifolia, and host plant responses to inoculation with each mycorrhizal type alone or in combination. Glomalean hyphae, coils and vesicles, and EM root tips were recorded. Colonization patterns conformed to a succession from Glomalean and EM fungi in 1-year-old seedlings to predominantly EM in saplings (>11 years old); both mycorrhizal types were rarely detected within the same root segment. Inoculation of Q. agrifolia seedlings with EM or Glomalean fungi (AM) alone or in combination (EM+AM) altered the cost:benefit relationship of mycorrhizas to the host plant. Seedling survival, plant biomass, foliar nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) status were greatest in EM- or AM-only inoculated seedlings. Seedlings inoculated with both mycorrhizal types (AM+EM) exhibited the lowest survival rates, biomass, foliar N, and P levels. Roots of these plants were highly colonized by both EM (38% root length colonized) and Glomalean fungi (34%). Because these levels of colonization were similar to those detected in 1-year-old field seedlings, the presence of both mycorrhizal types may be a carbon cost and, in turn, less beneficial to oaks during establishment in the field. However, the shift to EM colonization in older plants suggests that mycorrhizal effects may become positive with time.

  16. Consumers’ Perception and Knowledge of Food Safety: Results of Questionnaires Accessible on IZSalimenTO Website

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi, Daniela Manila; Astegiano, Sara; Barbaro, Antonio; Bona, Maria Cristina; Baioni, Elisa; Rubinetti, Francesca; Aliberti, Enrico; Palazzo, Carlo; Gallina, Silvia; Decastelli, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    The present survey was undertaken to investigate consumers’ knowledge of the main foodborne agents and dietary regimen during pregnancy. Data were collected using monthly questionnaires available on IZSalimenTO website between March 2013 and January 2014. Hepatitis A virus questionnaire: 20 respondents (77%) recognized berries as foodstuff linked to the outbreak of hepatitis A. The majority correctly indicated as precautionary advice to boil berries before consumption. Botulism questionnaire: 29 respondents (62%) indicated pesto as food involved in botulism alert in July 2013. The risk of infant botulism in infant less than 1 year old due to honey consumption is known by 24 respondents (51%). Main foodborne disease questionnaire: the risk of infection by Salmonella after the consumption of foods made with raw eggs is known by the majority (94%; N=17) as well as the treatments to be applied in order to make fresh fish safe from parasites (76%). Pregnancy questionnaire: 20 respondents (74%) believed that washing vegetables and fruits with sodium bicarbonate or chlorate solution is able to inactivate Toxoplasma; only 4 (15%) reported both raw meat and vegetables washed with sodium bicarbonate as food at risk. Results indicate that all consumers should be trained on behaviour and dietary regimen to be adopted in pregnancy and in infant <1 year old. The website may be considered as a useful tool to assess consumers’ knowledge: both the news section and the contents published may be a source of information and education for consumers on food safety. PMID:27800380

  17. Hydrogeology and chemical quality of water and bottom sediment at three stormwater detention ponds, Pinellas County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fernandez, Mario; Hutchinson, C.B.

    1993-01-01

    An investigation of three detention ponds in Pinellas County, Florida indicated little potential for chemical contamination of surficial-aquifer ground water; however, concentrations of contami- nants in some sediments are sufficient to indicate possible hazardous levels of bioconcentration in benthic organisms. The general direction of ground- water movement at three pond sites indicates that the ponds are ground-water discharge points. Shallow ground water tends to move laterally toward these ponds, which have surface outflow, instead of from the ponds into the aquifer. Surface-water and pond-sediment samples from a 1-year-old pond were collected and analyzed for inorganic constituents and organic compounds. The concentrations were either near or below analytical detection limits. Surface-water and pond-sediment samples from the other two ponds, 20- and 30-years old, respectively, also were analyzed for inorganic constituents and organic compounds. The water quality of these older ponds was not significantly different from that of the 1-year-old pond. However, bottom sediments in the 20- and 30-year-old ponds contained 16 and 23 organic compounds, respectively. None of the organic compounds were in sufficient concentrations to cause concern about their chronic effects on aquatic life. Concentrations of dichlordiphenyl-trichlorethane, dieldrin, and heptachlor were above the hazardous level with respect to bioconcentration in the food chain.

  18. Between-country comparison of whole-body SAR from personal exposure data in Urban areas.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Wout; Frei, Patrizia; Röösli, Martin; Vermeeren, Günter; Bolte, John; Thuróczy, György; Gajšek, Peter; Trček, Tomaž; Mohler, Evelyn; Juhász, Péter; Finta, Viktoria; Martens, Luc

    2012-12-01

    In five countries (Belgium, Switzerland, Slovenia, Hungary, and the Netherlands), personal radio frequency electromagnetic field measurements were performed in different microenvironments such as homes, public transports, or outdoors using the same exposure meters. From the mean personal field exposure levels (excluding mobile phone exposure), whole-body absorption values in a 1-year-old child and adult male model were calculated using a statistical multipath exposure method and compared for the five countries. All mean absorptions (maximal total absorption of 3.4 µW/kg for the child and 1.8 µW/kg for the adult) were well below the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) basic restriction of 0.08 W/kg for the general public. Generally, incident field exposure levels were well correlated with whole-body absorptions (SAR(wb) ), although the type of microenvironment, frequency of the signals, and dimensions of the considered phantom modify the relationship between these exposure measures. Exposure to the television and Digital Audio Broadcasting band caused relatively higher SAR(wb) values (up to 65%) for the 1-year-old child than signals at higher frequencies due to the body size-dependent absorption rates. Frequency Modulation (FM) caused relatively higher absorptions (up to 80%) in the adult male.

  19. Impaired fasting blood glucose is associated to cognitive impairment and cerebral atrophy in middle-aged non-human primates

    PubMed Central

    Djelti, Fathia; Dhenain, Marc; Terrien, Jérémy; Picq, Jean-Luc; Hardy, Isabelle; Champeval, Delphine; Perret, Martine; Schenker, Esther; Epelbaum, Jacques; Aujard, Fabienne

    2017-01-01

    Age-associated cognitive impairment is a major health and social issue because of increasing aged population. Cognitive decline is not homogeneous in humans and the determinants leading to differences between subjects are not fully understood. In middle-aged healthy humans, fasting blood glucose levels in the upper normal range are associated with memory impairment and cerebral atrophy. Due to a close evolutional similarity to Man, non-human primates may be useful to investigate the relationships between glucose homeostasis, cognitive deficits and structural brain alterations. In the grey mouse lemur, Microcebus murinus, spatial memory deficits have been associated with age and cerebral atrophy but the origin of these alterations have not been clearly identified. Herein, we showed that, on 28 female grey mouse lemurs (age range 2.4-6.1 years-old), age correlated with impaired fasting blood glucose (rs=0.37) but not with impaired glucose tolerance or insulin resistance. In middle-aged animals (4.1-6.1 years-old), fasting blood glucose was inversely and closely linked with spatial memory performance (rs=0.56) and hippocampus (rs=−0.62) or septum (rs=−0.55) volumes. These findings corroborate observations in humans and further support the grey mouse lemur as a natural model to unravel mechanisms which link impaired glucose homeostasis, brain atrophy and cognitive processes. PMID:28039490

  20. Evaluation of reported cases of pertussis: epidemiological study in a large city in Spain.

    PubMed

    Solano, Rubén; Rius, Cristina; Simón, Pere; Manzanares-Laya, Sandra; Ros, Miriam; Toledo, Diana; Domíngez, Àngela; Caylà, Joan A

    2014-12-01

    We retrospectively analysed the incidence rate of reported cases of pertussis in Barcelona during 2009-2012 according to age, sex, type of medical centre and vaccination status. We included 748 confirmed or suspected cases, 613 (82.0 %) of which were confirmed by laboratory testing and the remaining 135 (18.0 %) by epidemiological evidence. The highest reported incidence of pertussis was amongst <1 year olds [96.1 per 100,000 person-years, 95 % confidence interval (CI): 84.3-109.1]. The majority of confirmed and suspected cases were reported in 2011 and 2012, and the total incidence (confirmed or suspected) was 6.3 (95 % CI: 5.6-6.9) and 4.2 (95 % CI: 3.6-4.7) per 100,000 person-years, respectively. Incidence increased significantly (P = 0.001) in 2011-2012 compared with 2009. Most confirmed cases occurred in children <1 year old (87.9 %). Cases were confirmed by real-time (RT)-PCR (87.5 %; 95 % CI: 81.3-87.6) and bacterial culture (13.7 %; 95 % CI: 11.0-17.1). We recommend performing RT-PCR in suspected cases with no epidemiological link to a confirmed case.

  1. [Helminths identified by coprological examination in cattle raised in Bartin region].

    PubMed

    Kozan, Esma

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to detect the presence and prevalence of helminths in cattle between March 2011-June 2012 in the Bartin and Amasra districts. A total of 141 feacal samples of cattle younger than 1 year old (n=12), between 1 and 3 years old (n=48), more than 3 years old (n=81) were analyzed with sedimentation, flotation and Baermann Wetzel methods. Strongylid eggs in feaces were cultured and the larvae were then collected and identified. Of 141 cattle examined, 104 (73.75%) were obseved to be infected with various helminths. The ratio of infection was 66.67% in the under 1 year old, 93.75% in 1-3 year old and 62.96% in over 3 year old cattle and 73.68% in female and 74.07% male. 68.4% of Holstein, 91.67% of Simental and 75% of domestic cattle were found to be infected with various helminths. The helminth infection of cattle in the Bartin province is a problem that should not be ignored. Breeders should informed about this subject and necessary measures should be taken.

  2. Infants under 1 year of age have a significant risk of burn injury.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Dai Q A; Tobin, Sean; Dickson, William A; Potokar, Tom S

    2008-09-01

    A wealth of data exists concerning paediatric burn epidemiology in general, but very little exists specifically in infants under 1 year of age, a special group in which mobility begins to develop. A retrospective study of all burn admissions of infants under 1 year old to The Welsh Centre for Burns from January 2003 to January 2006 was performed. During the 3-year period there were 104 new burns cases identified which represents 11.8% of all paediatric admissions. 63.5% (66) were treated as inpatients and 36.5% (38) treated as out-patients. Burns increased in frequency with increasing age and occurred mainly in the home. Scalds were the commonest type of burn in 65% (68) whilst the second most common was contact burns which accounted for 30% (31). The most common source of scald was from cups containing hot drinks (39%) and the most common source of contact burn was radiators/hot water pipes (30%). The mean TBSA was 2.3%, (range 0.5-38%). The frequency of burns in the under 1 year old population highlights a need for emphasis of burn prevention directed to this group. Special attention is needed to look at the specific aetiology of these burns. Starting points for prevention should address the number of burns surrounding hot drinks and bottle warming practices in the case of scalds and the dangers of household radiators and hot water pipes in the case of contact burns.

  3. Ineffective erythropoiesis in β-thalassemia is characterized by increased iron absorption mediated by down-regulation of hepcidin and up-regulation of ferroportin

    PubMed Central

    Gardenghi, Sara; Marongiu, Maria F.; Ramos, Pedro; Guy, Ella; Breda, Laura; Chadburn, Amy; Liu, YiFang; Amariglio, Ninette; Rechavi, Gideon; Rachmilewitz, Eliezer A.; Breuer, William; Cabantchik, Z. Ioav; Wrighting, Diedra M.; Andrews, Nancy C.; de Sousa, Maria; Giardina, Patricia J.; Grady, Robert W.

    2007-01-01

    Progressive iron overload is the most salient and ultimately fatal complication of β-thalassemia. However, little is known about the relationship among ineffective erythropoiesis (IE), the role of iron-regulatory genes, and tissue iron distribution in β-thalassemia. We analyzed tissue iron content and iron-regulatory gene expression in the liver, duodenum, spleen, bone marrow, kidney, and heart of mice up to 1 year old that exhibit levels of iron overload and anemia consistent with both β-thalassemia intermedia (th3/+) and major (th3/th3). Here we show, for the first time, that tissue and cellular iron distribution are abnormal and different in th3/+ and th3/th3 mice, and that transfusion therapy can rescue mice affected by β-thalassemia major and modify both the absorption and distribution of iron. Our study reveals that the degree of IE dictates tissue iron distribution and that IE and iron content regulate hepcidin (Hamp1) and other iron-regulatory genes such as Hfe and Cebpa. In young th3/+ and th3/th3 mice, low Hamp1 levels are responsible for increased iron absorption. However, in 1-year-old th3/+ animals, Hamp1 levels rise and it is rather the increase of ferroportin (Fpn1) that sustains iron accumulation, thus revealing a fundamental role of this iron transporter in the iron overload of β-thalassemia. PMID:17299088

  4. Size-optimized 32-channel brain arrays for 3 T pediatric imaging.

    PubMed

    Keil, Boris; Alagappan, Vijay; Mareyam, Azma; McNab, Jennifer A; Fujimoto, Kyoko; Tountcheva, Veneta; Triantafyllou, Christina; Dilks, Daniel D; Kanwisher, Nancy; Lin, Weili; Grant, P Ellen; Wald, Lawrence L

    2011-12-01

    Size-optimized 32-channel receive array coils were developed for five age groups, neonates, 6 months old, 1 year old, 4 years old, and 7 years old, and evaluated for pediatric brain imaging. The array consisted of overlapping circular surface coils laid out on a close-fitting coil-former. The two-section coil former design was obtained from surface contours of aligned three-dimensional MRI scans of each age group. Signal-to-noise ratio and noise amplification for parallel imaging were evaluated and compared to two coils routinely used for pediatric brain imaging; a commercially available 32-channel adult head coil and a pediatric-sized birdcage coil. Phantom measurements using the neonate, 6-month-old, 1-year-old, 4-year-old, and 7-year-old coils showed signal-to-noise ratio increases at all locations within the brain over the comparison coils. Within the brain cortex the five dedicated pediatric arrays increased signal-to-noise ratio by up to 3.6-, 3.0-, 2.6-, 2.3-, and 1.7-fold, respectively, compared to the 32-channel adult coil, as well as improved G-factor maps for accelerated imaging. This study suggests that a size-tailored approach can provide significant sensitivity gains for accelerated and unaccelerated pediatric brain imaging. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Size-optimized 32-Channel Brain Arrays for 3 T Pediatric Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Keil, Boris; Alagappan, Vijay; Mareyam, Azma; McNab, Jennifer A.; Fujimoto, Kyoko; Tountcheva, Veneta; Triantafyllou, Christina; Dilks, Daniel D.; Kanwisher, Nancy; Lin, Weili; Grant, P. Ellen; Wald, Lawrence L.

    2011-01-01

    Size-optimized 32-channel receive array coils were developed for five age groups, neonates, 6 months old, 1 year old, 4 years old, and 7 years old, and evaluated for pediatric brain imaging. The array consisted of overlapping circular surface coils laid out on a close-fitting coil-former. The two-section coil former design was obtained from surface contours of aligned three-dimensional MRI scans of each age group. Signal-to-noise ratio and noise amplification for parallel imaging were evaluated and compared to two coils routinely used for pediatric brain imaging; a commercially available 32-channel adult head coil and a pediatric-sized birdcage coil. Phantom measurements using the neonate, 6-month-old, 1-year-old, 4-year-old, and 7-year-old coils showed signal-to-noise ratio increases at all locations within the brain over the comparison coils. Within the brain cortex the five dedicated pediatric arrays increased signal-to-noise ratio by up to 3.6-, 3.0-, 2.6-, 2.3-, and 1.7-fold, respectively, compared to the 32-channel adult coil, as well as improved G-factor maps for accelerated imaging. This study suggests that a size-tailored approach can provide significant sensitivity gains for accelerated and unaccelerated pediatric brain imaging. PMID:21656548

  6. Larval Pacific herring, Clupea pallasii (Valenciennes), are highly susceptible to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia and survivors are partially protected after their metamorphosis to juveniles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hershberger, P.K.; Gregg, J.; Pacheco, C.; Winton, J.; Richard, J.; Traxler, G.

    2007-01-01

    Pacific herring were susceptible to waterborne challenge with viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) throughout their early life history stages, with significantly greater cumulative mortalities occurring among VHSV-exposed groups of 9-, 44-, 54- and 76-day-old larvae than among respective control groups. Similarly, among 89-day-1-year-old and 1+year old post-metamorphosed juveniles, cumulative mortality was significantly greater in VHSV-challenged groups than in respective control groups. Larval exposure to VHSV conferred partial protection to the survivors after their metamorphosis to juveniles as shown by significantly less cumulative mortalities among juvenile groups that survived a VHS epidemic as larvae than among groups that were previously nai??ve to VHSV. Magnitude of the protection, measured as relative per cent survival, was a direct function of larval age at first exposure and was probably a reflection of gradual developmental onset of immunocompetence. These results indicate the potential for easily overlooked VHS epizootics among wild larvae in regions where the virus is endemic and emphasize the importance of early life history stages of marine fish in influencing the ecological disease processes. ?? 2007 The Authors.

  7. Population density influences dispersal in female white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lutz, Clayton L.; Diefenbach, Duane R.; Rosenberry, Christopher S.

    2015-01-01

    Dispersal behavior in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) predominantly occurs in 1-year-old males; however, females of the same age also disperse. The timing of female dispersal during fawning season and low dispersal rates suggest that competition for mates and reduced inbreeding are not ultimate causes of female dispersal, as suggested for males. We proposed that female dispersal is the result of competition for space when pregnant females seek to isolate themselves before and after parturition. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a meta-analysis of female dispersal rates from 12 populations of white-tailed deer and predicted dispersal rate and distance were positively related to deer density. We found a positive relationship between dispersal rate and deer per forested km2 and between dispersal distance and deer per forested km2. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that female dispersal is density-dependent and caused by the exclusion of subordinate 1-year-olds as adult females seek isolation before and after parturition.

  8. Hematologic and serum biochemical reference intervals of the Oriental white stork (Ciconia boyciana) and the application of an automatic hematologic analyzer.

    PubMed

    Han, Jae-Ik; Jang, Hye-Jin; Na, Ki-Jeong

    2016-09-30

    This study was conducted to establish accurate baseline values of clinical laboratory data with regard to age-related changes in the Oriental white stork (Ciconia boyciana). In addition, the availability of an automated hematological cell counter was evaluated. A total of 94 clinically normal storks, including 64 young storks (<1 year old; 30 male and 34 female) and 30 adults (> 1 year old; 17 male and 13 female) were included. Hematological assays were performed using manual and automated cell counters and serum biochemistry profiles were examined using an automated analyzer. There were no significant differences in any parameters between male and female storks, while 16 parameters were significantly different between young and adult storks. Of these 16 parameters, total protein, albumin, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, creatinine, triglyceride, total bilirubin, potassium, white blood cell count, packed cell volume, mean cell volume and hemoglobin levels were higher in adult storks than in young storks, while the latter showed higher glucose, uric acid and alkaline phosphatase levels, as well as a higher sodium/potassium ratio. The results presented herein will aid researchers who work for the conservation and rehabilitation of this endangered species.

  9. Hematologic and serum biochemical reference intervals of the Oriental white stork (Ciconia boyciana) and the application of an automatic hematologic analyzer

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jae-Ik; Jang, Hye-Jin

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to establish accurate baseline values of clinical laboratory data with regard to age-related changes in the Oriental white stork (Ciconia boyciana). In addition, the availability of an automated hematological cell counter was evaluated. A total of 94 clinically normal storks, including 64 young storks (<1 year old; 30 male and 34 female) and 30 adults (> 1 year old; 17 male and 13 female) were included. Hematological assays were performed using manual and automated cell counters and serum biochemistry profiles were examined using an automated analyzer. There were no significant differences in any parameters between male and female storks, while 16 parameters were significantly different between young and adult storks. Of these 16 parameters, total protein, albumin, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, creatinine, triglyceride, total bilirubin, potassium, white blood cell count, packed cell volume, mean cell volume and hemoglobin levels were higher in adult storks than in young storks, while the latter showed higher glucose, uric acid and alkaline phosphatase levels, as well as a higher sodium/potassium ratio. The results presented herein will aid researchers who work for the conservation and rehabilitation of this endangered species. PMID:26726025

  10. Age-related reproduction in striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) in the upper Midwest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greenwood, Raymond J.; Sargeant, Alan B.

    1994-01-01

    Reproductive data from the upper Midwest are meager for the striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis), a common North American carnivore. We provide data on some age-related reproductive attributes of 178 female striped skunks collected at 19 sites in eastcentral North Dakota and westcentral Minnesota in 1979–1981 and 1987–1991. Seventy-four percent of the females were 1 year old; 95% were pregnant or parous when collected. Thirteen of 873 (1.5%) embryos in 123 pregnant females were being resorbed. The overall mean (±1 SE) litter size estimated from live embryos was 7.2 ± 0.4. Means of litter-size estimates were similar for females ≥1 year old, but annual estimates of litter size differed among years for all females combined. For females from the interval 1979–1981 and 1990, the mean implantation date based on embryo size was 4 March (±1.6 days). Potential litters were composed of a mean of 55 ± 3% females. Estimates of litter size based on counts of corpora lutea averaged 0.9 young per female less than estimates for the same females based on counts of live embryos, indicating that some skunks may have produced polyovular follicles or identical twins.

  11. Prevalence of Giardia intestinalis and other zoonotic intestinal parasites in private household dogs of the Hachinohe area in Aomori prefecture, Japan in 1997, 2002 and 2007.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Naoyuki; Kanai, Kazutaka; Hori, Yasutomo; Hoshi, Fumio; Higuchi, Seiichi

    2009-12-01

    An epidemiological study on canine intestinal parasites was undertaken to evaluate changes in the prevalence among private household dogs from the Hachinohe region of Aomori prefecture, Japan, in 1997, 2002 and 2007, using the formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation technique. The risk of zoonotic transmission from household dogs to humans was also discussed. All intestinal parasites detected in the present study (Giardia intestinalis, Isospora spp., Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma caninum, Trichuris vulpis and Strongyloides stercoralis) showed no changes in prevalence over the past 10 years based on analysis considering canine epidemiological profiles. In particular, prevalence of Giardia intestinalis in dogs under 1 year old, derived from pet shops/breeding kennels and kept indoors was unchanged, remaining at a high level of >15.0% at each time point. Toxocara canis also showed no changes in the group of dogs under 1 year old, bred by private owners and kept outdoors, and the prevalence was >10.0% every year. The present results indicate that the prevalence of Giardia intestinalis and other intestinal parasites in private household dogs has not always decreased, and the potential for direct parasitic zoonotic transmission from dogs to humans may be relatively high level, than from the environment (indoors and outdoors). We recommend careful surveillance of intestinal parasites and aggressive use of anthelminthic in private household dogs under considering the epidemiological factors.

  12. Consumers' Perception and Knowledge of Food Safety: Results of Questionnaires Accessible on IZSalimenTO Website.

    PubMed

    Traversa, Amaranta; Bianchi, Daniela Manila; Astegiano, Sara; Barbaro, Antonio; Bona, Maria Cristina; Baioni, Elisa; Rubinetti, Francesca; Aliberti, Enrico; Palazzo, Carlo; Gallina, Silvia; Decastelli, Lucia

    2015-02-03

    The present survey was undertaken to investigate consumers' knowledge of the main foodborne agents and dietary regimen during pregnancy. Data were collected using monthly questionnaires available on IZSalimenTO website between March 2013 and January 2014. Hepatitis A virus questionnaire: 20 respondents (77%) recognized berries as foodstuff linked to the outbreak of hepatitis A. The majority correctly indicated as precautionary advice to boil berries before consumption. Botulism questionnaire: 29 respondents (62%) indicated pesto as food involved in botulism alert in July 2013. The risk of infant botulism in infant less than 1 year old due to honey consumption is known by 24 respondents (51%). Main foodborne disease questionnaire: the risk of infection by Salmonella after the consumption of foods made with raw eggs is known by the majority (94%; N=17) as well as the treatments to be applied in order to make fresh fish safe from parasites (76%). Pregnancy questionnaire: 20 respondents (74%) believed that washing vegetables and fruits with sodium bicarbonate or chlorate solution is able to inactivate Toxoplasma; only 4 (15%) reported both raw meat and vegetables washed with sodium bicarbonate as food at risk. Results indicate that all consumers should be trained on behaviour and dietary regimen to be adopted in pregnancy and in infant <1 year old. The website may be considered as a useful tool to assess consumers' knowledge: both the news section and the contents published may be a source of information and education for consumers on food safety.

  13. Management of infant ranula.

    PubMed

    Zhi, Keqian; Wen, Yumin; Ren, Wenhao; Zhang, Yincheng

    2008-06-01

    Many surgical techniques to manage ranulas have been described in the literature. Ranula of infant patients was rare. Few studies have described the approach toward management in infant patients. Eleven infant patients were treated for intraoral ranulas. The methods of treatment included aspiration of mucus, marsupialization and excision of the ranula and the ipsilateral sublingual gland. All cases were performed aspiration of mucus and observed for 6 months; and the marsupialization were recommended if the ranula recurred; the surgical resection of ipsilateral sublingual gland were performed if the ranula recurred when infant patients was about 1-year-old. These patients were followed up at least 24 months. Age of presentation ranged from 2 days to 3 months. There were six females (54.55%) and five males (45.45%). All cases presented simple (introral) ranula. Excision ranula with sublingual gland was performed on seven patients (63.64%) while marsupialization was performed on two patients (18.18%) and two patients (18.18%) were aspiration of the mucus of ranula and no recurrence. There were no recurrent lesions in all cases. Conservative treatment of infant ranula maybe includes observation for 6 months for spontaneous resolution. The methods for observation is performed the aspiration of mucus and marsupialization. The resection of ipsilateral sublingual gland is recommended if ranula recurred for infant patients about 1-year-old. We believe that it is safe that the submandibular duct and complete sublingual nerve are dissected before the sublingual gland is removed.

  14. The Change of Stretched Penile Length and Anthropometric Data in Korean Children Aged 0-14 Years: Comparative Study of Last 25 Years.

    PubMed

    Park, Sungchan; Chung, Jae Min; Kang, Dong Il; Ryu, Dong Soo; Cho, Won Yeol; Lee, Sang Don

    2016-10-01

    There has been a great improvement in height and weight of Korean children owing to economic development over the last 25 years. This study aimed to evaluate the penile length of Korean children today and to compare it with a previous Korean study reported in 1987. The cross-sectional study was conducted with 909 Korean boys aged 0-14 years who had been brought to outpatient clinics of five tertiary hospitals (Busan, Ulsan, and Changwon) between September 2013 and May 2015. The stretched penile length (SPL) was measured and the testicular size was measured using orchidometry (mL). Student's t-test or Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the result of our study and the study reported in 1987. SPL of Korean children gradually increased from 4.1 ± 0.8 cm at 0-1 year old to 9.6 ± 3.0 cm at 13-14 years old, the most rapidly during the age of 13. While body weight and testicular size significantly increased from 1987 in most of age groups, there were no significant changes in SPL although there was in some age groups. Height decreased in the infants < 1 year old and increased in the children > 6 years old. With the great economic development over the last quarter century in Korea, height, body weight, and testicular size of children significantly increased but there was no significant change in SPL except penile growth pattern.

  15. Evidence for potential impacts of ozone on Pinus cembra L. at mountain sites in Europe: an overview.

    PubMed

    Wieser, G; Manning, W J; Tausz, M; Bytnerowicz, A

    2006-01-01

    We summarize what is known about the impact of ozone (O(3)) on Pinus cembra in the timberline ecotone of the central European Alps and the Carpathian Mountains. In the central European Alps exposure to ambient and two-fold ambient O(3) throughout one growing season did neither cause any visible injury nor affect the photosynthetic machinery and biochemical parameters in current to 1-year-old needles. By contrast, in the southern French Alps and in the Carpathians 1-year-old needles of Pinus cembra trees showed visual symptoms similar to those observed in O(3) stressed pine stands in southern California. For the southern French Alps the observed symptoms could clearly be attributed O(3) and differences in O(3) uptake seems to be the likely key factor for explaining the observed decline. For the Carpathians however, other reasons such as drought may not be excluded in eliciting the observed symptoms. Thus, the action of O(3) has always to be evaluated in concert with other environmental impacts, determining the tree's sensitivity to stress.

  16. Retrospective study of mortality in Asiatic lions (Panthera leo persica) in the European breeding population between 2000 and 2014.

    PubMed

    Metz, Olivia; Williams, Jonathan; Nielsen, Rikke Kruse; Masters, Nic

    2017-01-01

    Although the European population of Asiatic lions (Panthera leo persica) has been managed under the European Endangered Species Program (EEP) since 1990, little is known about the health status of the population. This study was designed to characterize mortality for this population through examination of the studbook and other records on 392 Asiatic lions living in the EEP between 2000 and 2014. A total of 270 animals died during the period with 80% of them being under 1 year old. The mortality rate for under 1 year olds was 54%, while the odds of survival of cubs within a litter increased if the dam had had litters previously. Survival to reproductive age was 44%. Post-mortem reports were requested and the cause of death was obtained for 133 animals. Trauma inflicted by a conspecific and lack of care were common causes of death (26% and 22%, respectively) and were also responsible for most of the neonatal mortalities. Congenital defects were responsible for 9% of deaths, although the true prevalence is likely underestimated. A common necropsy protocol for all Asiatic lion collections is needed to facilitate future studies. Zoo Biol. 36:66-73, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Successful laparoscopic removal of mesenteric and omental cysts in toddlers: 3 cases with a literature review.

    PubMed

    Pampal, Arzu; Yagmurlu, Aydin

    2012-08-01

    Mesenteric and omental cysts are rare benign intraabdominal anomalies with uncertain etiologies. Surgical removal is the preferred treatment owing to complications related to cyst enlargement. A 1-year-old boy with an intrauterine diagnosis of a cystic mass adjacent to his stomach and liver, a 3-year-old girl, and a 3-year-old boy with an incidental diagnosis of intraabdominal cysts were scheduled for laparoscopic surgery. The mass of the 1-year-old boy was a multiloculated cyst originating from the lesser omentum, the incidental mass in the girl was a multiseptated cyst located in the jejunoileal mesentery, and the incidental mass of the 3-year-old boy was a uniloculated cyst originating from the ileal mesentery. All the cysts were excised either laparoscopically or in a laparoscopy-assisted manner. The laparoscopic or laparoscopy-assisted excision of the mesenteric and omental cysts seems to be a feasible, safe, and cost-effective surgical procedure with shorter operative times, even in toddlers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparison of aortic intima and inner media in young adult versus aging rats. Stereology in a polarized system.

    PubMed Central

    Guyton, J. R.; Lindsay, K. L.; Dao, D. T.

    1983-01-01

    Age-related ultrastructural changes in the intima and inner media of rat thoracic aorta were examined by new morphometric techniques. Young adult male rats, 10 weeks old, were compared with 1-year-old male rats. The most marked changes were found in the sub-endothelium, which increased in thickness more than five-fold. Basement-membrane-like and granular material accounted for the bulk of this thickening. Certain other structures were increased sevenfold or more in subendothelium. These structures and the volume fractions they occupied in 1-year-old rats were as follows: banded collagen, 4.3%; mononuclear leukocytes, 4.5%; cystic structures, 3.3%; and fibrillar elastin, 1.0%. Changes were also demonstrated in the fenestrae of and at selected depth levels below the innermost, or alternatively the internal, elastic lamina. Collagen increased strikingly within fenestrae and just below the elastic lamina. This was associated with a 28% increase in the thickness of the elastic lamina and a recession of smooth muscle cytoplasm to a deeper position within the first musculoelastic medial layer. The alterations in subendothelial tissues imply an altered basis for mechanical support for aortic endothelium in aging rats. These results mark the successful application of micro-computer-based stereology to a situation of polarized geometry. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:6846504

  19. The Change of Stretched Penile Length and Anthropometric Data in Korean Children Aged 0–14 Years: Comparative Study of Last 25 Years

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    There has been a great improvement in height and weight of Korean children owing to economic development over the last 25 years. This study aimed to evaluate the penile length of Korean children today and to compare it with a previous Korean study reported in 1987. The cross-sectional study was conducted with 909 Korean boys aged 0–14 years who had been brought to outpatient clinics of five tertiary hospitals (Busan, Ulsan, and Changwon) between September 2013 and May 2015. The stretched penile length (SPL) was measured and the testicular size was measured using orchidometry (mL). Student’s t-test or Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the result of our study and the study reported in 1987. SPL of Korean children gradually increased from 4.1 ± 0.8 cm at 0-1 year old to 9.6 ± 3.0 cm at 13-14 years old, the most rapidly during the age of 13. While body weight and testicular size significantly increased from 1987 in most of age groups, there were no significant changes in SPL although there was in some age groups. Height decreased in the infants < 1 year old and increased in the children > 6 years old. With the great economic development over the last quarter century in Korea, height, body weight, and testicular size of children significantly increased but there was no significant change in SPL except penile growth pattern. PMID:27550493

  20. Vitamin D Status: A Different Story in the Very Young versus the Very Old Romanian Patients

    PubMed Central

    Chirita-Emandi, Adela; Socolov, Demetra; Haivas, Carmen; Calapiș, Anca; Gheorghiu, Cristina; Puiu, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Background In Romania (latitude 48°15’N to 43°40’N), vitamin D supplementation is common practice mostly in infants 0-1 year old. No published information is available regarding epidemiological data on vitamin D status in the Romanian population for a wide age range and geographical territory. In this context, we aimed to evaluate the seasonal and age variation of vitamin D status in a large Romanian population. Methods 6631 individuals from across Romania had performed 7544 vitamin D assessments (2012-2014) in a chain of private laboratories. Vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin D2 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3) was measured using High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Vitamin D levels were classified as severe deficiency<10ng/mL, deficiency 10-20ng/mL, insufficiency 21-29ng/mL, sufficiency≥30ng/mL and potentially harmful>100ng/ml. Results Male to female ratio was 1:2.9. Age ranged from 0 to 85 years. Mean vitamin D levels increased from April (26.3ng/ml) to September (35.6ng/ml) and decreased from October (33.5ng/ml) to March (24.4 ng/ml). Overall 40% had sufficient vitamin D, while the rest were insufficient 33%, deficient 22%, severely deficient 4% and 1% potentially harmful (of them 81% under 1 year old). Males compared to females showed higher percentages of sufficiency (47% vs. 38%). Children 0- 2 years presented the highest percentage of vitamin D sufficiency (77%). Lowest percentages (21%) of sufficiency were in people 80-84 years. Conclusion In Romania, suboptimal vitamin D levels are common (59%), especially in older age, wintertime and in women. Vitamin D supplementation would be most warranted from January to April in the Romanian population. 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels>100ng/ml were relatively prevalent in children 0-1 year old (17.3%). This was attributed to supplementation errors and the fact that high-risk individuals were more likely to visit for medical check-up. Nonetheless, it stresses the need to increase awareness of the importance of preventing

  1. Effects of GHRP-2 and Cysteamine Administration on Growth Performance, Somatotropic Axis Hormone and Muscle Protein Deposition in Yaks (Bos grunniens) with Growth Retardation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Rui; Wang, Zhisheng; Peng, Quanhui; Zou, Huawei; Wang, Hongze; Yu, Xiaoqiang; Jing, Xiaoping; Wang, Yixin; Cao, Binghai; Bao, Shanke; Zhang, Wenhua; Zhao, Suonan; Ji, Hanzhong; Kong, Xiangying; Niu, Quanxi

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of growth hormone-releasing peptide-2 (GHRP-2) and cysteamine (CS) administration on growth performance in yaks with growth retardation and try to elucidate its regulatory mechanisms. Trial 1, thirty-six 1-year-old Qinghai high plateau yaks (body weight 38-83.2 kg) were randomly chosen for body weight and jugular blood samples collection. The relationship between body weight and serum GHRH (P < 0.05, R = 0.45), GH (P < 0.05, R = 0.47), IGF-1 (P < 0.05, R = 0.62) was significantly correlated in yaks colonies with lighter body weights. Trial 2, fifteen 1-year-old Qinghai high plateau yaks with growth retardation (average body weight 54.8 ± 8.24 kg) were randomly selected and assigned to negative control group (NG), GHRP-2 injection group (GG) and cysteamine feeding group (CG), with 5 yaks per group. Another five 1-year-old Qinghai high plateau yaks with normal growth performance (average body weight 75.3 ± 2.43 kg) were selected as positive control group (PG). The average daily gain (ADG) of the GG and CG were significantly higher than those in the PG and NG (P < 0.05). Both GHRP-2 and CS administration significantly enhanced the myofiber diameter and area of skeletal muscle (P<0.05). GHRP-2 significantly enhanced the serum GH and IGF-1 levels (P < 0.05), and up-regulated GHR, IGF-1 and IGF-1R mRNA expression in the liver and skeletal muscle (P < 0.05), enhanced the mRNA expression of PI3K, AKt and mTOR in the skeletal muscle (P<0.05). CS significantly reduced the serum SS levels and the hypothalamus SS mRNA expression (P < 0.05), and enhanced GHR and IGF-1 mRNA expression in the liver (P < 0.05), decreased the mRNA expression of muscle atrophy F-box (Atrogin-1) and muscle ring finger 1 (MuRF1) mRNA (P < 0.05). Growth retardation in yaks was primarily due to somatotropic axis hormones secretion deficiency. Both GHRP-2 and CS administration can accelerate growth performance and GH, IGF-1 secretion in yaks

  2. Effects of GHRP-2 and Cysteamine Administration on Growth Performance, Somatotropic Axis Hormone and Muscle Protein Deposition in Yaks (Bos grunniens) with Growth Retardation

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Rui; Wang, Zhisheng; Peng, Quanhui; Zou, Huawei; Wang, Hongze; Yu, Xiaoqiang; Jing, Xiaoping; Wang, Yixin; Cao, Binghai; Bao, Shanke; Zhang, Wenhua; Zhao, Suonan; Ji, Hanzhong; Kong, Xiangying; Niu, Quanxi

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of growth hormone-releasing peptide-2 (GHRP-2) and cysteamine (CS) administration on growth performance in yaks with growth retardation and try to elucidate its regulatory mechanisms. Trial 1, thirty-six 1-year-old Qinghai high plateau yaks (body weight 38–83.2 kg) were randomly chosen for body weight and jugular blood samples collection. The relationship between body weight and serum GHRH (P < 0.05, R = 0.45), GH (P < 0.05, R = 0.47), IGF-1 (P < 0.05, R = 0.62) was significantly correlated in yaks colonies with lighter body weights. Trial 2, fifteen 1-year-old Qinghai high plateau yaks with growth retardation (average body weight 54.8 ± 8.24 kg) were randomly selected and assigned to negative control group (NG), GHRP-2 injection group (GG) and cysteamine feeding group (CG), with 5 yaks per group. Another five 1-year-old Qinghai high plateau yaks with normal growth performance (average body weight 75.3 ± 2.43 kg) were selected as positive control group (PG). The average daily gain (ADG) of the GG and CG were significantly higher than those in the PG and NG (P < 0.05). Both GHRP-2 and CS administration significantly enhanced the myofiber diameter and area of skeletal muscle (P<0.05). GHRP-2 significantly enhanced the serum GH and IGF-1 levels (P < 0.05), and up-regulated GHR, IGF-1 and IGF-1R mRNA expression in the liver and skeletal muscle (P < 0.05), enhanced the mRNA expression of PI3K, AKt and mTOR in the skeletal muscle (P<0.05). CS significantly reduced the serum SS levels and the hypothalamus SS mRNA expression (P < 0.05), and enhanced GHR and IGF-1 mRNA expression in the liver (P < 0.05), decreased the mRNA expression of muscle atrophy F-box (Atrogin-1) and muscle ring finger 1 (MuRF1) mRNA (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Growth retardation in yaks was primarily due to somatotropic axis hormones secretion deficiency. Both GHRP-2 and CS administration can accelerate growth performance and GH, IGF-1

  3. [A survey on anemia among children under 7 years of age from 15 minority ethnic groups in Yunnan].

    PubMed

    Yao, Li-qin; Zou, Tuan-biao; Liu, Jin-tao; Quan, Xing; Chen, Qian; Yang, Fa-bin; Hu, Li-sha; Zhao, Zhong-ming; Wang, Xing-tian

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the level and distribution characteristics of anemia of the minority ethnic group children in Yunnan. The cases with anemia were surveyed from 13 336 samples of 15 minority ethnic groups and Han children in Yunnan by Taking the method of random cluster sampling. The prevalence of anemia among the children under 7 years of age of 15 ethnic groups of minority in Yunnan was 13.6%. There are differences among the different ethnic groups (χ(2) = 716.33, P < 0.01), the highest was 26.6% in Jingpo, the lowest was 3.5% in Bai. There were differences among the different regions, the prevalence of anemia was high in the border regions City, the highest was 23.8% in Dehong; the prevalence of anemia was low in inland cities, the lowest was 2.7% in Fugong, and was higher in border areas. The prevalence of anemia was higher in boys (13.6%) than in girls (12.1%). There were differences among the different age in the different ethnic groups (6 months to 1 years old: χ(2) = 70.52, P < 0.01; 1 - 2 years old:χ(2) = 185.86, P < 0.01; 2 - 5 years old: χ(2) = 296.12, P < 0.01; 5 - 6 years old:χ(2) = 107.11, P < 0.01; 6 - 7 years old:χ(2) = 185.02, P < 0.01), the highest was 59.0% of Deang in 1 to 2 years old children. The trend of change was that the highest prevalence was seen in 6 months to 1 year old children, the prevalence gradually declined among older children, but rose again in children 6 years of age or older. The prevalence of anemia was 13.6% among the children of 15 ethnic minority under 7 years of age in Yunnan. There were differences among different ethnic groups of minority in different prefectures. There were differences among different ethnic groups of different age groups, but it was highest in 6 months to 1 year old children, it declined among older children, and rose in children 6 years of age or older. The prevalence of anemia was related to the ethnic and geographic factors.

  4. Comparative studies of saponins in 1-3-year-old main roots, fibrous roots, and rhizomes of Panax notoginseng, and identification of different parts and growth-year samples.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xiu-Hong; Wang, Chao-Qun; Liu, Jin-Huai; Li, Xiao-Wei; Wang, Xuan; Shang, Ming-Ying; Cai, Shao-Qing; Zhu, Shu; Komatsu, Katsuko

    2013-04-01

    Notoginsenosides R1, R4, Fa, and K (N-R1, N-R4, N-Fa, and N-K), as well as ginsenosides Rg1, Rb1, Rd, Re, Rf, Rg2 and Rh1 (G-Rg1, G-Rb1, G-Rd, G-Re, G-Rf, G-Rg2 and G-Rh1) in 47 Notoginseng samples including 1-, 2- and 3-year-old main roots, rhizomes and fibrous roots of Panax notoginseng were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection method. Total contents (%) of the 11 saponins were 9.82-14.57 for 2-year old and 14.20-16.00 for 3-year-old rhizomes; 2.72-4.50 for 2-year-old and 1.98-4.92 for 3-year-old fibrous roots; 1.75-3.05 for 1-year-old whole roots; and 3.71-8.98 for 2-year-old and 7.03-11.23 for 3-year-old main roots. Contents of most saponins and total content of 11 saponins were in the order 3- >2- >1-year-old main root samples. G-Rf content, sum of G-Rf and G-Rh1 were, respectively, 0.08-0.18 and 0.14-0.32 for 2- or 3-year-old rhizomes, and 0.01-0.07 and 0.03-0.10 for 2- or 3-year-old main roots. Combined contents of N-R1, G-Rg1 and G-Rb1 were 5.78-9.37 in 3-year-old main roots, and 2.99-7.13 in 2-year-old main roots, of which nearly one-third of samples were lower than the limit (5 %) in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. Those of 2- or 3-year-old fibrous roots (1.47-3.83) and 1-year-old whole roots (1.41-2.44) were much lower than the limit, and were considered not suitable for use as Notoginseng. Two-year-old main roots are not appropriate for collection as Notoginseng. Different parts and growth years of P. notoginseng can be identified from each another according to differences in saponin content.

  5. Carbon assimilation and nitrogen in needles of fertilized and unfertilized field-grown Scots pine at natural and elevated concentrations of CO2.

    PubMed

    Laitinen, K; Luomala, E M; Kellomäki, S; Vapaavuori, E

    2000-07-01

    Effects of elevated CO2 concentration ([CO2]) on carbon assimilation and needle biochemistry of fertilized and unfertilized 25-30-year-old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees were studied in a branch bag experiment set up in a naturally regenerated stand. In each tree, one branch was enclosed in a bag supplied with ambient [CO2] (360 micromol mol(-1)), a second branch was enclosed in a bag supplied with elevated [CO2] (680 micromol(-1)) and a control branch was left unbagged. The CO2 treatments were applied from April 15 to September 15, starting in 1993 for unfertilized trees and in 1994 for fertilized trees, which were treated with N in June 1994. Net photosynthesis, amount and activity of Rubisco, N, starch, C:N ratio and SLA of needles were measured during the growing season of 1995. Light-saturated net photosynthetic rates of 1-year-old and current-year shoots measured at ambient [CO2] were not affected by growth [CO2] or N fertilization. Elevated [CO2] reduced the amount and activity of Rubisco, and the relative proportion of Rubisco to soluble proteins and N in needles of unfertilized trees. Elevated [CO2] also reduced the chlorophyll concentration (fresh weight basis) of needles of unfertilized trees. Soluble protein concentration of needles was not affected by growth [CO2]. Elevated [CO2] decreased the Rubisco:chlorophyll ratio in unfertilized and fertilized trees. Starch concentration was significantly increased at elevated [CO2] only in 1-year-old needles of fertilized trees. Elevated [CO2] reduced needle N concentration on a dry weight or structural basis (dry weight minus starch) in unfertilized trees, resulting in an increase in needle C:N ratio. Fertilization had no effect on soluble protein, chlorophyll, Rubisco or N concentration of needles. The decrease in the relative proportions of Rubisco and N concentration in needles of unfertilized trees at elevated [CO2] indicates reallocation of N resources away from Rubisco to nonphotosynthetic

  6. [Value of soluble transferrin receptor in the diagnosis of iron deficiency in children].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ya-Ping; Shao, Jie; Zhuang, Xue-Ling

    2011-07-01

    To study the prevalence of iron deficiency in children between 6 months and 7 years and to study the diagnostic value of soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) for iron deficiency in the children. A total of 502 healthy children between 6 months and 7 years from Hangzhou City of Zhejiang Province were enrolled. Serum sTfR, serum ferritin (SF), serum iron (SI), total iron blinding capacity (TIBC), zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP), Hb, MCV and CRP levels were measured. The prevalence rate of iron deficiency was 19.5% in children at ages of 6 months to 7 years. The prevalence rate of iron deficiency was the highest in infants (≤1 year old; 34.7%), followed by in toddlers (1-3 years old; 19.4%) and preschoolers (3-7 years old; 14.0%). The mean serum sTfR level in infants (2.02±0.73 mg/L) was significantly higher than that in toddlers (1.68±0.40 mg/L) and preschoolers (1.67±0.29 mg/L) (P<0.05).The best cut-off value of serum sTfR for the diagnosis of iron deficiency was 2.02 mg/L in infants (sensitivity: 70.3%, specificity: 82.2%). The best cut-off value was 1.85 mg/L in toddlers (sensitivity: 71.7%; specificity: 86.4%), and that was 1.85 mg/L in preschoolers (sensitivity: 77.8%; specificity: 88.6%). Serum sTfR was correlated with SF (r=0.107, P<0.05), TIBC (r=0.276, P<0.01), TS (r=-0.139, P<0.05), ZPP (r=0.175, P<0.01) and MCV (r=-0.140, P<0.01). Iron deficiency is more prevalent in infants ≤1 year old. The mean serum level and the cut-off value of sTfR in infants are higher than in toddlers and preschoolers. Serum sTfR is an effective index for the diagnosis of iron deficiency in children, especially in infants≤ 1 year old.

  7. Changes in phytochemical synthesis, chalcone synthase activity and pharmaceutical qualities of sabah snake grass (Clinacanthus nutans L.) in relation to plant age.

    PubMed

    Ghasemzadeh, Ali; Nasiri, Alireza; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Baghdadi, Ali; Ahmad, Izham

    2014-10-30

    In the current study, changes in secondary metabolite synthesis and the pharmaceutical quality of sabah snake grass leaves and buds were considered in relation to plant age (1 month, 6 months, and 1 year old). The activity of the enzyme chalcone synthase (CHS, EC 2.3.1.74) was measured, as it is a key enzyme for flavonoid production. Significant differences in total flavonoid (TF) production were observed between the three plant growth periods and the different plant parts. The highest contents of TF (6.32 mg/g dry weight [DW]) and total phenolic (TP) (18.21 mg/g DW) were recorded in 6-month-old buds. Among the flavonoids isolated in this study the most important ones based on concentration were from high to low as follows: catechin > quercetin > kaempferol > luteolin. Production of phenolic acids increased from 1 to 6 months, but after 6 months up to 1 year of age, they decreased significantly. The highest contents of caffeic acid (0.307 mg/g DW) and gallic acid (5.96 mg/g DW) were recorded in 1-year and 6-month-old buds, respectively. The lowest and highest activity of CHS was recorded in 1-month and 6-month-old buds with values of 3.6 and 9.5 nkat/mg protein, respectively. These results indicate that the increment in flavonoids and phenolic acids in 6-month-old buds can be attributed to an increase in CHS activity. The highest 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) activity was observed in the extract of 1-year-old buds followed by 6-month-old buds, with 50% of free radical scavenging (IC50) values of 64.6 and 73.5 µg/mL, respectively. Interestingly, a ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay showed a higher activity in 6-month-old buds (488 μM of Fe(II)/g) than in 1-year-old buds (453 μM of Fe(II)/g), in contrast to the DPPH result. Significant correlations (p < 0.05) were observed between CHS enzyme activity and FRAP activity, TF, catechin, and kaempferol content. Extracts of 6-month-old bud exhibited a significant in vitro anticancer activity against

  8. HIV treatment and care services for adolescents: a situational analysis of 218 facilities in 23 sub-Saharan African countries.

    PubMed

    Mark, Daniella; Armstrong, Alice; Andrade, Catarina; Penazzato, Martina; Hatane, Luann; Taing, Lina; Runciman, Toby; Ferguson, Jane

    2017-05-16

    In 2013, an estimated 2.1 million adolescents (age 10-19 years) were living with HIV globally. The extent to which health facilities provide appropriate treatment and care was unknown. To support understanding of service availability in 2014, Paediatric-Adolescent Treatment Africa (PATA), a non-governmental organisation (NGO) supporting a network of health facilities across sub-Saharan Africa, undertook a facility-level situational analysis of adolescent HIV treatment and care services in 23 countries. Two hundred and eighteen facilities, responsible for an estimated 80,072 HIV-infected adolescents in care, were surveyed. Sixty per cent of the sample were from PATA's network, with the remaining gathered via local NGO partners and snowball sampling. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and coding to describe central tendencies and identify themes. Respondents represented three subregions: West and Central Africa (n = 59; 27%), East Africa (n = 77, 35%) and southern Africa (n = 82, 38%). Half (50%) of the facilities were in urban areas, 17% peri-urban and 33% rural settings. Insufficient data disaggregation and outcomes monitoring were critical issues. A quarter of facilities did not have a working definition of adolescence. Facilities reported non-adherence as their key challenge in adolescent service provision, but had insufficient protocols for determining and managing poor adherence and loss to follow-up. Adherence counselling focused on implications of non-adherence rather than its drivers. Facilities recommended peer support as an effective adherence and retention intervention, yet not all offered these services. Almost two-thirds reported attending to adolescents with adults and/or children, and half had no transitioning protocols. Of those with transitioning protocols, 21% moved pregnant adolescents into adult services earlier than their peers. There was limited sexual and reproductive health integration, with 63% of facilities offering

  9. Amazon Paleofires Records: Comparison Between Land Use Change and Palaeoclimatic Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordeiro, R. C.; Turcq, B.; Moreira, L. S.; Rodrigues, R. D. A.; Simões Filho, F. L.; Martins, G. S.; Santos, A. B.; Barbosa, M.; da Conceição, M. C. G.; Rodrigues, R. D. C.; Evangelista, H.; Moreira-Turcq, P. F.; Penido, Y. P.; Sifeddine, A.; Seoane, J.

    2014-12-01

    Interpreting the geological record of Amazon biomass combustion requires comparing charcoal accumulation rates in various biomes at different time scales. Charcoal accumulation rates, a proxy for palaeofire records, were obtained in sediment cores from Amazon lakes surrounded by several vegetation types and from a reservoir in an intense land use change region. The records presented in this study were obtained in the following areas i) a reservoir in Alta Floresta region (northern Mato Grosso State); ii) Lago do Saci (southern Pará State), a lake close to Alta Floresta and located at the southern border of Pará State; iii) a bog in an ecotone area in the Humaitá region (southern Amazonas State); iv) lakes in lateritic iron crust of the Carajás Hills (southeastern Pará State); v) Lago Comprido, a floodplain lake close to the Amazon River and surrounded by tropical rain forest (Monte Alegre, Pará State; vi) Lagoa da Pata in the Morro dos Seis Lagos alkaline complex (São Gabriel da Cachoeira, Amazonas State) and vii) Lago Caracaranã, a secluded lake in the northern Amazon cerrado (Roraima State). The highest charcoal accumulation rates were observed for modern records related to an intense change in land use at Alta Floresta, which had no precedent during the Holocene history of the Amazon. High charcoal accumulation rates that were observed in the Carajás region during low lake level phases in the Amazon in the mid-Holocene were comparable to those at the onset of the human settlement in Alta Floresta region. An increase in charcoal accumulation rate was observed in the late Holocene when the lake level was high, suggesting an interaction between climates and human presence. Low charcoal accumulation rates are typical of modern high rainfall environments, as observed in Lagoa da Pata where the environment is not susceptible to occurrences of wildfires even during relatively drier climatic phases. Low charcoal accumulation rates also exist in the relatively

  10. [Comparison of feeding behaviors in mothers of infants and young children from 0 to 36 months old].

    PubMed

    Le Heuzey, M-F; Turberg-Romain, C; Lelièvre, B

    2007-11-01

    This article shows the second part of results from the "Behaviour" chapter of fourth edition of Feeding in French infants and young children Survey conducted by SFAE, in 2005, concerning mothers of 713 infants and young children from the age of 1 to 36 months. This survey, conducted every 8 years since 1981, shows that feeding behaviour of young children has improved, especially since 1997, with meals taken in family, postponement of diversification. It confirms that mothers need counselling for feeding their child, and especially from the medical profession. On the other hand, the transition to adult feeding is too fast since 1 year old; an early introduction of certain food as French fries, and cooked pork meat, early television viewing, a lack of sports are observed.

  11. Spontaneous tumours in captive African hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris): a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Raymond, J T; Garner, M M

    2001-01-01

    Forty tumours were diagnosed in 35 (53%) of 66 captive African hedgehogs documented at Northwest ZooPath (NZP) between 1994 and 1999. Three hedgehogs had more than one type of tumour and the remaining 32 had a single type. Of the 35 hedgehogs with tumours, 14 were female, 11 were male, and 10 were of unknown gender; 21 were from zoological parks and 14 were privately owned. Twenty of the hedgehogs with tumours were adult (>1 year old) with a median age of 3.5 years (range 2-5.5 years); 15, of unreported age, were classified as adult. Thirty-four (85%) of the 40 tumours were classified as malignant and six (15%) as benign. The integumentary, haemolymphatic, digestive and endocrine systems were common sites for tumours. The most common tumours were mammary gland adenocarcinoma, lympho-sarcoma and oral squamous cell carcinoma.

  12. Direct detection of Ehrlichia canis by PCR in the conjunctiva of a dog with bilateral anterior uveitis.

    PubMed

    Walser-Reinhard, L; Schaarschmidt-Kiener, D; Forster, J L; Matheis, F; Spiess, B

    2012-04-01

    The following report describes the direct detection of Ehrlichia canis by real-time PCR in the conjunctiva of a 1-year-old female Maltese dog. After being imported from Brazil, the dog was presented because of anorexia, dehydration, fever, and palpable mandibular lymph nodes. A few days later, the dog developed bilateral blepharospasm, photophobia and anterior uveitis. Monocytic ehrlichia was diagnosed by a positive PCR result and the detection of IgM and IgG antibodies. Because of the massive uveitis a conjunctival sample was taken with a cytobrush, which also tested positive for Ehrlichia canis DNA by real-time PCR. Only one week after starting treatment with systemic doxycycline and local anti-inflammatory and cyclopalgic therapy the dog recovered from systemic and eye diseases. After therapy the follow-up examination revealed a full remission of clinical and hematological parameters and negative PCR result.

  13. Influence of solar UV radiation on the nitrogen metabolism in needles of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.).

    PubMed

    Krywult, Marek; Smykla, Jerzy; Kinnunen, Heli; Martz, Françoise; Sutinen, Marja-Liisa; Lakkala, Kaisa; Turunen, Minna

    2008-12-01

    Needles of 20-year-old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) saplings were studied in an ultraviolet (UV) exclusion field experiment (from 2000 to 2002) in northern Finland (67 degrees N). The chambers held filters that excluded both UV-B and UV-A, excluded UV-B only, transmitted all UV (control), or lacked filters (ambient). UV-B/UV-A exclusion decreased nitrate reductase (NR) activity of 1-year-old needles of Scots pines compared to the controls. The proportion of free amino acids varied in the range 1.08-1.94% of total proteins, and was significantly higher in needles of saplings grown under UV-B/UV-A exclusion compared to the controls or UV-B exclusion. NR activity correlated with air temperature, indicating a "chamber effect". The study showed that both UV irradiance and increasing temperature are significant modulators of nitrogen (N) metabolism in Scots pine needles.

  14. Changes in the essential oil composition in the needles of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) under anthropogenic stress.

    PubMed

    Judzentiene, Asta; Stikliene, Aida; Kupcinskiene, Eugenija

    2007-03-21

    Unfavorable anthropogenic factors, such as air pollution, lead to biochemical responses in trees. Changes in the amounts of secondary metabolites may be early indicators of invisible injuries. The aim of this study was to evaluate composition of the essential oils in the needles of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) growing in the areas affected by pollutant emissions of main factories in Lithuania: a nitrogen fertilizer factory (NFF), a cement factory (CF), and an oil refinery (OR). Totally, 14 pine stands were examined along transects from the factories (July 2005). Volatile components of the needles were extracted and analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Over 70 components of the essential oils were identified in current-year and 1-year-old needles. Along the CF transect for current-year needles, the percentage of diterpenes was decreasing with the increasing pH of the pine bark (r = -0.582; p < 0.05) or with the increasing concentration of SO2 (r = -0.573; p < 0.05); for 1-year-old needles, the percentage of diterpenes was decreasing with the increasing pH of the bark (r = -0.534; p < 0.05). Along the OR transect, in both the current-year and 1-year-old needles, the percentage of diterpenes was decreasing with the increasing SO2 (respectively, r = -0.773; p < 0.01; r = -0.486; p < 0.05); an opposite relation was true for sesquiterpenes (respectively, r = -0.751; p < 0.01; r = 0.785; p < 0.01). The view was different along the NFF transect. For current-year needles, the percentage of monoterpenes was decreasing with the increasing NH3 (r = -0.669; p < 0.01); while the percentage of sesquiterpenes or oxysesquiterpenes was increasing with the increasing NH3 (respectively, r = 0.540; p < 0.05 and r = 0.688; p < 0.01). For each transect, cluster analysis of the percentages of components of essential oils in the needles allowed us to distinguish the most contrasting stands according to the concentration of air pollutants. Current-year needles were more effective as indicators of

  15. Bromine accumulations in pine trees growing around bromine production plants

    SciTech Connect

    Tainter, F.H.; Bailey, D.C.

    1980-01-01

    Soil and pine foliage samples were collected from 92 plots located around five bromine production plants in union and Columbia Counties, Arkansas, during January-February 1977. Analysis of pine tissues for the major salt components of brine showed that bromine was the only component accumulating in these tissues and that the amount of bromine decreases exponentially with the distance from the emission sources. Bromine content in plots closest to the sources ranged from 170-550 ppM in 1-year-old needles and from 140-1000 ppM in 2-year-old needles. Some visible injury was evident in trees growing closer than 0.48 km from the sources, but tissues with bromine contents of 800 to 1000 ppM from the closest plots exhibited no visible injury. Bromine did not accumulate in organic litter or in the soil.

  16. Nationwide survey of bovine leukemia virus infection among dairy and beef breeding cattle in Japan from 2009-2011.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Kenji; Kobayashi, Sota; Konishi, Misako; Kameyama, Ken-ichiro; Tsutsui, Toshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    A nationwide survey of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection was conducted among dairy and beef breeding cattle in Japan from 2009-2011 using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Of a total of 20,835 cattle tested, 35.2% were seropositive for BLV and the animal type-level seroprevalences in dairy and beef breeding cattle were 40.9 and 28.7%, respectively. By the time animals were 1 year old, 21.0% of dairy and 13.7% of beef breeding cattle were considered infected. Our findings indicate that BLV is widespread among dairy and beef breeding cattle in Japan with the BLV seroprevalences approximately 10- and 4-fold higher, respectively, than previously reported for 1980-1982 in Japan.

  17. Differentiated effect of ageing on the enzymes of Krebs' cycle, electron transfer complexes and glutamate metabolism of non-synaptic and intra-synaptic mitochondria from cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Villa, R F; Gorini, A; Hoyer, S

    2006-11-01

    The effect of ageing on the activity of enzymes linked to Krebs' cycle, electron transfer chain and glutamate metabolism was studied in three different types of mitochondria of cerebral cortex of 1-year old and 2-year old male Wistar rats. We assessed the maximum rate (V(max)) of the mitochondrial enzyme activities in non-synaptic perikaryal mitochondria, and in two populations of intra-synaptic mitochondria. The results indicated that: (i) in normal, steady-state cerebral cortex the values of the catalytic activities of the enzymes markedly differed in the various populations of mitochondria; (ii) in intra-synaptic mitochondria, ageing affected the catalytic properties of the enzymes linked to Krebs' cycle, electron transfer chain and glutamate metabolism; (iii) these changes were more evident in intra-synaptic "heavy" than "light" mitochondria. These results indicate a different age-related vulnerability of subpopulations of mitochondria in vivo located into synapses than non-synaptic ones.

  18. [Reoperation for baffle leaks and baffle stenosis following Mustard operation; report of a case].

    PubMed

    Kamada, M; Ousaka, K; Nagamine, S; Kakihata, H

    2003-08-01

    A 1-year-old baby boy underwent Mustard operation for simple transposition of the great arteries. He began to complain of fatigability with moderate cyanosis and polycytemia at the age of 23. Cardiac catheterization revealed baffle leaks at the superior vena cava (SVC) channel, but baffle stenosis was not diagnosed then. After the patch closure of the baffle leaks, he suffered from hypoxia and high SVC pressure. Baffle stenosis at the entry of the SVC channel into the functional right atrium was diagnosed by re-catheterization. Patch enlargement of the baffle stenosis was successfully performed. We must take it into consideration that baffle leaks following Mustard operation often coexist with baffle stenosis, requiring vigorous pre- and intra-operative exploration.

  19. Parasites of domestic and wild animals in South Africa. X. Helminths in impala.

    PubMed

    Horak, I G

    1978-12-01

    Two to four impala in the Nylsvley Nature Reserve were culled each month from February 1975-February 1976. Two trematode species, 1 cestode species and 13 species of nematodes were recovered from these antelope. Of these, Fasciola gigantica, Gongylonema pulchrum, Haemonchus placei and Trichostrongylus falculatus are new records for impala. In general, H. placei, Longistrongylus sabie and Impalaia tuberculata exhibited a similar pattern of seasonal occurrence. Adult worms were present during November-February, while marked inhibition in the development of large numbers of 4th stage larvae occurred from April-September or October. Cooperia hungi, Cooperioides hamiltoni and Cooperloides hepaticae followed a similar pattern, but inhibition in the 4th larval stage was not as marked and lasted from June-September. No seasonal pattern of prevalence could be determined for Trichostrongylus spp. The worm burdens of young impala increased with the age of the animals and reached a peak when the impala were 1 year old.

  20. 2010 Military Family Life Project (MFLP): Tabulations of Response

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-28

    CHILD DEMOGRAPHICS Male 100 ±1 1 13 26 24 19 17 ± 2 8.4 ±0.2 Female 100 ±1 1 13 26 25 18 17 ± 2 8.4 ±0.2 Less Than 6 Years Old ...2.0 36 to 40 Years Old 100 ±1 22 5 72 ± 2 78.0 ±2.0 More Than 40 Years Old 100 ±1 22 4 74 ± 2 78.0 ±2.0 FAMILY STATUS With Child (ren) 100 ±1... Years Old 100 ±1 9 ± 2 FAMILY STATUS With Child (ren) 100 ±1 13 ±1 Without Child (ren) 100

  1. Boari flap reconstruction in a male infant with solitary kidney and associated megaureter.

    PubMed

    Saini, Durgesh Kumar; Sinha, Rahul Janak; Sokhal, Ashok Kumar; Singh, Vishwajeet

    2016-12-15

    A 1-year-old male infant presented with fever and abdominal lump for 3 months with increased leucocyte count (15 300/mm(3)) and serum creatinine (0.83 mg%). Abdominal ultrasound and renal scan demonstrated solitary left kidney with dilated tortuous left ureter. Voiding cystourethrogram was unequivocal. Left percutaneous nephrostomy was placed after poor response to perurethral catheterisation. His serum creatinine dropped to 0.58 mg/dL. Subsequent percutaneous nephrostogram and CT nephrostogram showed dilated left pelvicalyceal system, dilated, tortuous left ureter. A diagnosis of obstructed megaureter was made and ureteric plication and reimplantation planned. Intraoperatively, there were primitive ureteral valves until proximal one-third of the ureter. The distance between the upper ureter and bladder was ∼6 cm. This defect was bridged by Boari flap. The postoperative period was uneventful and now after 6 months of follow-up, he is doing fine.

  2. Canine multifocal retinopathy in the Australian Shepherd: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Ingo; Guziewicz, Karina E.; Zangerl, Barbara; Aguirre, Gustavo D.; Mardin, Christian Y.

    2013-01-01

    A 1-year-old Australian Shepherd (AS) was presented for a routine hereditary eye examination. During the examination multiple raised, brown to orange lesions were noted in the fundus, which could not be attributed to a known retinal disease in this breed. As they clinically most closely resembled canine multifocal retinopathy (cmr) and no indication of an acquired condition was found, genetic tests for BEST1 gene mutations were performed. These showed the dog to be homozygous for the cmr1 (C73T/R25X) gene defect. Furthermore, ultrasound (US), electroretinography (ERG), and optical coherence tomography were performed, confirming changes typical for cmr. Subsequently, the AS pedigree members were genetically and clinically tested, demonstrating autosomal recessive inheritance with no clinical symptoms in carrier animals, as was previously described for cmr. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of canine multifocal retinopathy in the AS breed. Further investigations are under way. PMID:22432598

  3. Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup C Causing Primary Arthritis in a Child

    PubMed Central

    Straticiuc, Sergiu; Ignat, Ancuta; Hanganu, Elena; Lupu, Vasile Valeriu; Ciubara, Alexandru Bogdan; Cretu, Roxana

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Neisseria meningitidis (N. meningitidis) is associated with severe invasive infections such as meningitis and fulminant septicemia. Septic arthritis due to N. meningitidis is rare and bone infections have been reported exceptionally. We report the case of a 1-year old girl who presented with a painful, swollen right knee, accompanied by fever and agitation. Arthrocentesis of the right knee, while patient was under anesthesia, yielded grossly purulent fluid, so we made arthrotomy and drainage. The culture from synovial fluid revealed N. meningitidis, sensitive to Ceftriaxone. The patient received intravenous antibiotherapy with Ceftriaxone. The status of the patient improved after surgical drainage and intravenous antibiotic therapy. She recovered completely after 1 month. Conclusion: This observation illustrates an unusual presentation of invasive meningococcal infection and the early identification of the bacteria, combined with the correct treatment, prevent the complications and even death. PMID:26844522

  4. Ranging behaviour of roe deer in an experimental high-density population: are females territorial?

    PubMed

    Maublanc, Marie-Line; Bideau, Eric; Willemet, Romain; Bardonnet, Clara; Gonzalez, Georges; Desneux, Lionel; Cèbe, Nicolas; Gerard, Jean-François

    2012-12-01

    We studied the ranging behaviour and spatial relationships between seven roe deer during more than 4 years in a partly wooded 14.2-ha enclosure. The animals (three young males, four adult females) were monitored with GPS telemetry collars. As expected, the surface area and overlap of the males' bimonthly ranges decreased, and the distance between their arithmetic centres increased, as they became adult and, for two of them, territorial. Unexpectedly, females also tended to space out, the surface area and overlap of their bimonthly ranges being minimal in May to June, i.e. during the birth period. The distance between their arithmetic centres reached its maximum at the same time. Overlap between females' ranges was consistently lower than those between males and females' ranges, or between 1-year old males' ranges. Our results raise the questions of female seasonal territoriality and of independence of the spacing systems of the two sexes in roe deer.

  5. Transumbilical Surgery for Duodenal Stenosis in a Child with Situs Inversus: The First Report

    PubMed Central

    Ueno, Yu; Mukai, Wataru; Imaji, Reisuke; Akiyama, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    Background. Situs inversus is a rare congenital anomaly with a reported incidence of only 1 in 5,000 to 10,000 live births. Congenital duodenal stenosis complicated with situs inversus is an even rarer entity. Case Presentation. A 1-year-old girl with situs inversus who had undergone a hemi-Fontan procedure against a single ventricle in our hospital was referred to our department for vomiting and failure to thrive. An upper gastrointestinal contrast study and endoscopy revealed duodenal stenosis. A transumbilical radical operation as a minimally invasive surgery was successfully performed. After the surgery, she stopped vomiting, and the postoperative course was uneventful with good cosmetic results. Conclusions. To our knowledge, this is the first report of transumbilical surgery for congenital duodenal stenosis with situs inversus as minimally invasive surgery. Transumbilical surgery to situs inversus patient can be performed safely and lead to good cosmetic outcome. PMID:28386502

  6. Enhanced loading of Fura-2/AM calcium indicator dye in adult rodent brain slices via a microfluidic oxygenator.

    PubMed

    Mauleon, Gerardo; Lo, Joe F; Peterson, Bethany L; Fall, Christopher P; Eddington, David T

    2013-06-15

    A microfluidic oxygenator is used to deliver constant oxygen to rodent brain slices, enabling the loading of the cell-permeant calcium indicator Fura-2/AM into cells of adult brain slices. When compared to traditional methods, our microfluidic oxygenator improves loading efficiency, measured by the number of loaded cells per unit area, for all tested age groups. Loading in slices from 1-year-old mice was achieved, which has not been possible with current bulk loading methods. This technique significantly expands the age range for which calcium studies are possible without cellular injection. This technique will facilitate opportunities for the study of calcium signaling of aging and long term stress related diseases. Moreover, it should be applicable to other membrane-permeant physiological indicator varieties.

  7. Sustained Transmission of Pertussis in Vaccinated, 1–5-Year-Old Children in a Preschool, Florida, USA

    PubMed Central

    Pritchard, P. Scott; Martin, Stacey W.; Dusek, Cristina; Cathey, Erika; D’Alessio, Rebecca; Kirsch, Marjorie

    2016-01-01

    In September 2013, local county health officials in Tallahassee, Florida, USA, were notified of a laboratory-confirmed pertussis case in a 1-year-old preschool attendee. During a 5-month period, 26 (22%) students 1–5 years of age, 2 staff from the same preschool, and 11 family members met the national case definition for pertussis. Four persons during this outbreak were hospitalized for clinical management of pertussis symptoms. Only 5 students, including 2 students with pertussis, had not received the complete series of vaccinations for pertussis. Attack rates in 1 classroom for all students who received the complete series of vaccinations for pertussis approached 50%. This outbreak raises concerns about vaccine effectiveness in this preschool age group and reinforces the idea that recent pertussis vaccination should not dissuade physicians from diagnosing, testing, or treating persons with compatible illness for pertussis. PMID:26814429

  8. Effect of synthetic pyrethroid pesticide exposure during pregnancy on the growth and development of infants.

    PubMed

    Xue, Zhanyou; Li, Xiaoqiong; Su, Qian; Xu, Li; Zhang, Peng; Kong, Zhenyu; Xu, Jianhui; Teng, Junfang

    2013-07-01

    Antenatal urine of 497 pregnant women was collected in the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics of a county hospital in Jiaozuo, Henan. The content of the main metabolites of synthetic pyrethroid pesticides in urine were determined. After 1 year, physical development indices of 1-year old infants, such as height, weight, and head and chest circumference, were measured. The neural and mental development of the infants was assessed by the Development Screen Test (DST) scale. We observed that the level of synthetic pyrethroid pesticide exposure was negatively related to the neural and mental development of infants (β = -0.1527, P < 0.05). Therefore, direct or indirect exposure to synthetic pyrethroid pesticides should be avoided during pregnancy.

  9. Study of the safety and immunogenicity of the synthetic malaria SPf66 vaccine in children aged 1-14 years.

    PubMed

    Patarroyo, G; Franco, L; Amador, R; Murillo, L A; Rocha, C L; Rojas, M; Patarroyo, M E

    1992-01-01

    Safety and immunogenicity tests of the SPf66 malaria vaccine have been carried out on a population of children, aged 1 to 14 years, in the town of Tumaco, Colombia. Adverse reactions measured after each vaccination were local and minimal, and observed in only a small percentage of the vaccinated children. One year later, no delayed reaction was evident. The majority of the child population developed high antibody titres against SPf66 and the degree of response did not vary with age. These induced antibodies recognize the native parasite proteins, in particular the molecules from which the amino acid sequence of this vaccine was deduced. These studies demonstrate that the SPf66 vaccine is safe and highly immunogenic for use in children greater than 1 year old.

  10. Safety and immunogenicity of the synthetic malaria vaccine SPf66 in a large field trial.

    PubMed

    Amador, R; Moreno, A; Murillo, L A; Sierra, O; Saavedra, D; Rojas, M; Mora, A L; Rocha, C L; Alvarado, F; Falla, J C

    1992-07-01

    In the first field trial with synthetic malaria vaccine SPf66 in a large population naturally exposed to malaria, 9957 persons greater than 1 year old and residing on the Colombian Pacific coast received three doses of the vaccine. To evaluate vaccine safety, clinical observations were made 30 min and 48 h after each immunization. There were no adverse reactions in 95.7% of cases. In the 4.3% of cases with adverse reactions, local induration and erythema were the most frequent. In a randomly selected group of vaccinees, anti-SPf66 antibody titers were measured after the third dose: 93% of the vaccinees raised antibodies to SPf66. Among these, 55% had titers greater than 1:1600. These results demonstrate the safety and immunogenicity of the SPf66 vaccine in a large field trial.

  11. Burnei’s disease: teratological spondylolysis

    PubMed Central

    Gavriliu, ST; Ghiță, RA; El Nayef, T; Burnei, A; Olaru-Barbilian, CR

    2015-01-01

    Teratological spondylolysis is a pathological entity noted for the first time in the specialty literature by Gh. Burnei in “The Spine Journal”, in September 25, 2014. This disease was described in a short presentation of the first case treated by the author. The aim of this paper was to expose in a didactic manner the main characteristic aspects of Burnei’s disease: embryological, clinical, imaging and treatment data and also to make known this pathological entity with all its pathognomonic diagnostic elements. This paper was based on data obtained after analyzing 2 cases of teratological spondylolysis: a 18-year-old patient with triple L3-L5 teratological spondylolysis with Pang 1 spinal dysraphism and a 1-year-old child with teratological spondylolysis and retrospondylolisthesis. PMID:26664464

  12. A case of acute postoperative transitory sialadenosis of the submandibular glands in a healthy dog.

    PubMed

    Cattai, Andrea; Levorato, Silvia; Franci, Paolo

    2017-01-10

    A 1-year-old healthy female cross-breed dog, weighing 4.5 kg, was scheduled for elective neutering. Fentanyl (5 µg/kg) and propofol (4 mg/kg) were administered intravenously (IV) to induce anesthesia, which was maintained with isoflurane and a constant fentanyl infusion rate (10 µg/kg/hr). During the recovery from the anesthesia, the presence of bilateral dense submandibular masses was recognized, as was the excessive secretion of saliva. An ultrasound examination was performed and revealed bilateral abnormally-diffused enlargement of the submandibular salivary glands. A cytology examination was conducted, and no signs of abnormality were found. The size of the swellings subsequently diminished, completely subsiding after 2 hr, as did the hyper-salivation. To the authors' knowledge, this represents the first case report of an acute transient swelling of submandibular glands after general anesthesia in a dog.

  13. Cavernous sinus syndrome due to osteochondromatosis in a cat.

    PubMed

    Perazzi, Anna; Bernardini, Marco; Mandara, Maria T; De Benedictis, Giulia M; De Strobel, Francesca; Zotti, Alessandro

    2013-12-01

    A 1-year-old sexually intact male Korat cat was referred for ophthalmological consultation due to anisocoria. Mydriasis with external ophthalmoplegia and absence of pupillary light responses in the right eye and nasofacial hypalgesia were seen. Cavernous sinus syndrome (CSS) was suspected. Bilateral deformities of the jaw and phalangeal bones, severe spinal pain and abnormal conformation of the lumbar spine were also present. Radiographic examination revealed several mineralised masses in the appendicular and axial skeleton, indicative of multiple cartilaginous exostoses. For further investigation of the CSS-related neurological deficits, the cat underwent computed tomography (CT) examination of the skull. CT images revealed a non-vascularised, calcified, amorphous mass originating from the right lateral skull base and superimposing on the sella turcica. Based on the severity of diffuse lesions and owing to the clinical signs of extreme pain, the cat was euthanased. A diffuse skeletal and intracranial osteochondromatosis was diagnosed histologically.

  14. Is age the limit for human-assisted reproduction techniques? 'Yes', said an Italian judge.

    PubMed

    Gulino, Matteo; Pacchiarotti, Arianna; Vergallo, Gianluca Montanari; Frati, Paola

    2013-04-01

    Although use of assisted reproduction techniques was examined by an ad hoc act in 2004 in Italy, there are many opposing views about ethical and economic implications of the technologies dealing with infertility and sterility problems. In this paper, the authors examine a recent judge's decision that ordered the removal and subsequent adoption of a 1-year-old child because her parents were considered too old to be parents. The couple had had recourse to heterologous artificial insemination abroad and decided to give birth in Italy. The judgement deals with and discusses the complex issue of the right to procreate in order to balance the opportunities offered by scientific progress with the unborn child's condition.

  15. Great apes distinguish true from false beliefs in an interactive helping task.

    PubMed

    Buttelmann, David; Buttelmann, Frances; Carpenter, Malinda; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the behavior of others in a wide variety of circumstances requires an understanding of their psychological states. Humans' nearest primate relatives, the great apes, understand many psychological states of others, for example, perceptions, goals, and desires. However, so far there is little evidence that they possess the key marker of advanced human social cognition: an understanding of false beliefs. Here we demonstrate that in a nonverbal (implicit) false-belief test which is passed by human 1-year-old infants, great apes as a group, including chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), bonobos (Pan paniscus), and orangutans (Pongo abelii), distinguish between true and false beliefs in their helping behavior. Great apes thus may possess at least some basic understanding that an agent's actions are based on her beliefs about reality. Hence, such understanding might not be the exclusive province of the human species.

  16. Thermotolerant Campylobacters in domestic animals in a defined population in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    López, Clara M; Giacoboni, Gabriela; Agostini, Adela; Cornero, Fernando J; Tellechea, Diana M; Trinidad, Juan José

    2002-10-15

    We assessed the prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni in animals in a region of unsatisfied basic needs in the city of Buenos Aires and studied a few risk factors. First we conducted a census to identify all dwellings having pet animals (dogs, cats, and birds). Fecal samples were then taken for isolation and identification of strains. We observed 17% prevalence for dogs (95% CI: 13, 22), 16% for cats (95% CI: 8, 27) and 19% for birds (95% CI: 5, 42). In dogs, the highest prevalences were found in summer and in animals <1 year old; in cats, in autumn and those aged 3-5 years. Strains were identified as C. jejuni biotype II in 70% of isolates. In the population described here, dogs, cats and birds kept in households were potential sources of human Campylobacter infections.

  17. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke among infants in southern Thailand: a study of urinary cotinine.

    PubMed

    Anuntaseree, Wanaporn; Mo-Suwan, Ladda; Ovatlarnporn, Chitchamai; Tantana, Chanpa; Ma-a-Lee, Arinda

    2008-01-01

    We performed a survey to assess the exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in 1-year-old infants in Thailand. Of the 725 infants, it was reported that 73.3% had household smoking and 40.7% had detectable urinary cotinine. Twenty-five infants (3.4%) had urinary cotinine in the range of adult heavy smokers. The prevalence of ETS exposure was significantly higher in infants with a father whose education was < or = grade 6 than in those with father's education >6 years (44.0% vs. 36.0%, p = 0.039). Data on the exposure to ETS among infants will provide prevalence information and identify population subgroups at increased risk for exposure.

  18. Contiguous triple spinal dysraphism associated with Chiari malformation Type II and hydrocephalus: an embryological conundrum between the unified theory of Pang and the unified theory of McLone.

    PubMed

    Dhandapani, Sivashanmugam; Srinivasan, Anirudh

    2016-01-01

    Triple spinal dysraphism is extremely rare. There are published reports of multiple discrete neural tube defects with intervening normal segments that are explained by the multisite closure theory of primary neurulation, having an association with Chiari malformation Type II consistent with the unified theory of McLone. The authors report on a 1-year-old child with contiguous myelomeningocele and lipomyelomeningocele centered on Type I split cord malformation with Chiari malformation Type II and hydrocephalus. This composite anomaly is probably due to select abnormalities of the neurenteric canal during gastrulation, with a contiguous cascading impact on both dysjunction of the neural tube and closure of the neuropore, resulting in a small posterior fossa, probably bringing the unified theory of McLone closer to the unified theory of Pang.

  19. Occipitoatlantoaxial malformation in an adult goat.

    PubMed

    Seva, Juan I; Gómez, Serafin; Pallarés, Francisco J; Sánchez, Pedro; Bernabé, Antonio

    2008-09-01

    An occipitoatlantoaxial malformation was diagnosed in a 1-year-old Murciano-Granadina goat. At clinical examination, the head and cranial part of the neck were deviated to the right. Clinical signs of spinal cord or brain disease were not observed. At necropsy, morphological abnormalities were seen in the craniovertebral junction and cervical vertebrae, characterized by a firm attachment and incomplete articulation between the occipital bone and the atlas, and scoliosis in the cervical regions. The definitive diagnosis was bilateral asymmetrical occipitoatlantoaxial fusion with rotation of the atlas and atlantoaxial subluxation. To the authors' knowledge, this case report is the second occipitoatlantoaxial malformation described in a goat and the first description in an adult goat.

  20. Welfare policies and very young children: experimental data on stage-environment fit.

    PubMed

    Hill, Heather D; Morris, Pamela

    2008-11-01

    The authors examined the effects of welfare programs that increased maternal employment and family income on the development of very young children using data from 5 random-assignment experiments. The children were 6 months to 3 years old when their mothers entered the programs; cognitive and behavioral outcomes were measured 2-5 years later. While there were no overall program impacts, positive or negative, on the development of children in this age group, there was a pair of domain- and age-specific effects: The programs decreased positive social behavior among 1-year-olds and increased school achievement among 2-year-olds. After exploring several explanations for these results, the authors suggest that the contextual changes engendered by the programs, including children's exposure to center-based child care, interacted differentially with specific developmental transitions.

  1. A case of acute postoperative transitory sialadenosis of the submandibular glands in a healthy dog

    PubMed Central

    CATTAI, Andrea; LEVORATO, Silvia; FRANCI, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    A 1-year-old healthy female cross-breed dog, weighing 4.5 kg, was scheduled for elective neutering. Fentanyl (5 µg/kg) and propofol (4 mg/kg) were administered intravenously (IV) to induce anesthesia, which was maintained with isoflurane and a constant fentanyl infusion rate (10 µg/kg/hr). During the recovery from the anesthesia, the presence of bilateral dense submandibular masses was recognized, as was the excessive secretion of saliva. An ultrasound examination was performed and revealed bilateral abnormally-diffused enlargement of the submandibular salivary glands. A cytology examination was conducted, and no signs of abnormality were found. The size of the swellings subsequently diminished, completely subsiding after 2 hr, as did the hyper-salivation. To the authors’ knowledge, this represents the first case report of an acute transient swelling of submandibular glands after general anesthesia in a dog. PMID:27616555

  2. Janibacter limosus gen. nov., sp. nov., a new actinomycete with meso-diaminopimelic acid in the cell wall.

    PubMed

    Martin, K; Schumann, P; Rainey, F A; Schuetze, B; Groth, I

    1997-04-01

    New gram-positive bacteria were isolated from 1-year-old sludge from a wastewater treatment plant. The isolates are coccoid to rod-shaped, nonmotile aerobes that form neither spores nor mycelia. They are characterized by a peptidoglycan with directly cross-linked meso-diaminopimelic acid (type A1 gamma), by the presence of menaquinone MK-8(H4), and by the lack of mycolic acids. The strains have complex fatty acid patterns with i-C16:0 and straight-chain saturated and unsaturated fatty acids as major components. The G + C content of the DNA is 70 mol%. The results of chemotaxonomic studies and a 16S ribosomal DNA sequence comparison support our proposal to assign these bacteria to a new genus, the genus Janibacter gen. nov.; the type species is Janibacter limosus sp. nov., and the type strain of J. limosus is strain HKI 83 (= DSM 11140).

  3. Studies on the mechanism of long term survival of Taenia taeniaeformis in rats.

    PubMed

    Kwa, B H; Liew, F Y

    1978-03-01

    An attempt was made to determine if blocking antibody is involved in protecting cysticerci of Taenia taeniaeformis against a host immune response. Immunoflourescence microscopy confirmed that host antibody is presnet on the parasite surface within the capsule. To test if the larvae can still survive after such a coat of blocking antibody is removed, the larvae were trysinised and then implanted into recipients. The results indicate that blocking antibody could be involved in the survival of 1 year old established larvae. Untrypsinised larvae were normal 14 days after implantation into control or immunised rats. Trypsinised larvae implanted in control rats were alive but showed on intense cell adherence on their surface. On the other hand, trypsinised larvae implanted into immunised rats were dead and completely encapsulated. However, experiments with 1 month old larvae were inconclusive.

  4. Caucasian emmetropic aged subjects have reduced corneal thickness values: emmetropia, CCT and age.

    PubMed

    Sanchis-Gimeno, Juan A; Lleó-Pérez, Antonio; Alonso, Luis; Rahhal, M S

    2004-07-01

    We aimed to analyze the possible changes in corneal thickness values according to age in emmetropic subjects. The central corneal thickness values of 100 emmetropic subjects (n = 100) were analyzed with the DGH 2000 AP ultrasonic pachymeter (DGH Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA, USA) by one experienced physician. The mean age of the subjects was 40.6 +/- 12.1 years old (range, 21-64). Analysis of the central corneal thickness (CCT) values by age subgroups indicated that subjects aged between 20 and 30 years had the higher CCT values. Differences in CCT values between the age groups were significant (p < 0.001; 1-way ANOVA test). A significant correlation between CCT values and age was found (r = -0.974; p < 0.001). In sum, it seems that there is a decrease in CCT values with age in emmetropic subjects.

  5. Mitochondria in human offspring derived from ooplasmic transplantation.

    PubMed

    Barritt, J A; Brenner, C A; Malter, H E; Cohen, J

    2001-03-01

    Ooplasmic transfer from fertile donor oocytes into potentially compromised recipient patient oocytes has led to the birth of nearly 30 babies worldwide. Cytoplasmic transplantation has caused apprehension, since the mixing of human ooplasm from two different maternal sources may generate mitochondrial (mt) heteroplasmy (both recipient and donor mtDNA) in offspring. This investigation traced the mitochondrial donor population both during the ooplasmic transfer technique and in the bloods of two 1 year old children using mtDNA fingerprinting. Donor ooplasm stained for active mitochondria was transferred into recipient ooplasm and the mitochondria were visualized by confocal microscopy after the microinjection procedure and fertilization. Heteroplasmy was found in the blood from each of the children. This report is the first case of human germline genetic modification resulting in normal healthy children.

  6. Cerebral dopamine neurotrophic factor improves long-term memory in APP/PS1 transgenic mice modeling Alzheimer's disease as well as in wild-type mice.

    PubMed

    Kemppainen, Susanna; Lindholm, Päivi; Galli, Emilia; Lahtinen, Hanna-Maija; Koivisto, Henna; Hämäläinen, Elina; Saarma, Mart; Tanila, Heikki

    2015-09-15

    Cerebral dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF) protects and repairs dopamine neurons in animal models of Parkinson's disease, which motivated us to investigate its therapeutic effect in an animal model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We employed an established APP/PS1 mouse model of AD and gave intrahippocampal injections of CDNF protein or CDNF transgene in an AAV2 viral vector to 1-year-old animals. We performed a behavioral test battery 2 weeks after the injections and collected tissue samples after the 3-week test period. Intrahippocampal CDNF-therapy improved long-term memory in both APP/PS1 mice and wild-type controls, but did not affect spontaneous exploration, object neophobia or early stages of spatial learning. The memory improvement was not associated with decreased brain amyloid load or enhanced hippocampal neurogenesis. Intracranial CDNF treatment has beneficial effects on long-term memory and is well tolerated. The CDNF molecular mechanisms of action on memory await further studies.

  7. Prevalence of mutans streptococci in one-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Grindefjord, M; Dahllof, G; Wikner, S; Hojer, B; Modeer, T

    1991-10-01

    Colonization with mutans streptococci was studied in 1095 1-year-old children living in suburban Stockholm. During a scheduled vaccination appointment at a child health centre, a bacterial sample was obtained from the child's tongue and a structured questionnaire was completed by the accompanying parent. Six percent of the subjects were colonized with mutans streptococci. The variables most strongly correlated with presence of mutans streptococci were: non-Swedish background, consumption of sugar-containing beverages at night and total consumption of sugar-containing beverages. The results indicate that, by the age of 1 year, maternally influenced behaviour patterns such as dietary habits that may predispose to early colonization of mutans streptococci are already established. Such early colonization with mutans streptococci may predict high caries risk in the primary dentition.

  8. Infective endocarditis of the aortic valve in a Border collie dog with patent ductus arteriosus

    PubMed Central

    AOKI, Takuma; SUNAHARA, Hiroshi; SUGIMOTO, Keisuke; ITO, Tetsuro; KANAI, Eiichi; FUJII, Yoko

    2014-01-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) in dogs with cardiac shunts has not been reported previously. However, we encountered a dog with concurrent patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) and IE. The dog was a 1-year-old, 13.9-kg female Border collie and presented with anorexia, weight loss, pyrexia (40.4°C) and lameness. A continuous murmur with maximal intensity over the left heart base (Levine 5/6) was detected on auscultation. Echocardiography revealed a PDA and severe aortic stenosis (AS) caused by aortic-valve vegetative lesions. Corynebacterium spp. and Bacillus subtilis were isolated from blood cultures. The dog responded to aggressive antibiotic therapy, and the PDA was subsequently surgically corrected. After a series of treatments, the dog showed long-term improvement in clinical status. PMID:25391395

  9. Leaching of mercury-containing cement monoliths aged for one year.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Margareta; Allard, Bert

    2008-01-01

    A directive from the Swedish Government states that waste containing more than 1% of mercury shall be permanently deposited. The stabilization of mercury by conversion to a sparingly soluble compound like the sulphide is crucial to ensure long-term immobilization in a permanent storage. Immobilization by the solidification/stabilization (S/S) method and possible formation of HgS from mercury oxide or elemental mercury by reaction with a sulphur source (S or FeS) is investigated by a modified version of the NEN 7345 Dutch tank-leaching test. The diffusion of mercury during 11 months from 1-year-old mercury containing monoliths of Portland and slag cement is demonstrated. In a geologic repository under conditions representative of deep granitic bedrock (bicarbonate buffered to pH 8.6), a favourable monolith combination is slag cement with addition of the iron sulphide troilite. The apparent diffusion coefficient of mercury is estimated.

  10. Subglottic stenosis: another challenge for intubation and potential mechanism of airway obstruction in Pierre Robin Sequence.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Kolin; Powitzky, Rosser; Digoy, Paul

    2011-09-01

    To determine the endotracheal tube (ETT) size and presence of subglottic narrowing in children less than 1 year old with Pierre Robin Sequence (PRS). We performed a retrospective review from 2005 to 2009 of infants with PRS who underwent diagnostic laryngoscopy (DL) and intubation. Fifteen children with a median age of 25 days were reviewed. All patients, except one, were born full term. Subglottic narrowing was visualized in 5 patients (33%). 73% of all patients required an ETT size smaller than what is recommended by intubation guidelines in the literature in regards to normative data based on age and weight. Infants with PRS may have a higher incidence of subglottic stenosis and require a smaller ETT compared to the normal population. This pilot study warrants a larger prospective investigation to validate these findings. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Do we see eye to eye? Chinese mothers' and fathers' parenting beliefs and values for toddlers in Canada and China.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Susan S; Su, Yanjie

    2009-06-01

    This study explores maternal and paternal parenting practices (authoritative or authoritarian) and parental values and goals for toddlers among Chinese mothers and fathers in Canada and China. The participants included 126 families of 1-year-old toddlers (67 Chinese Canadians and 59 mainland Chinese). The findings revealed that Chinese Canadian parents were more supportive of authoritative practices, and Chinese parents were more likely to support authoritarian practices. Between mothers and fathers, gender differences were found within countries. Interparental agreement for parenting beliefs varied by infant gender and country. For parental values, parents generally endorsed self-confidence as the most important trait for their toddlers. Endorsement of other traits (collectivistic and individualistic) varied in importance. Links among parenting beliefs and desired personality traits for their children were also explored. Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Determination of the cultivar and aging of Sicilian olive oils using HPLC-MS and linear discriminant analysis.

    PubMed

    Agozzino, Pasquale; Avellone, Giuseppe; Bongiorno, David; Ceraulo, Leopoldo; Indelicato, Serena; Indelicato, Sergio; Vèkey, Kàroly

    2010-09-01

    A large number of certified samples (84) of Sicilian olive oils arising from the eight cultivars most represented in Sicily (Biancolilla, Cerasuola, Moresca, Nocellara del Belice, Nocellara Etnea, Oglialora Messinese, Brandofino and Tonda Iblea) have been collected and analyzed by HPLC/MS using an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) source. The sample preparation is very simple; in fact, the oil samples are diluted without any chemical derivatization. A following statistical data treatment by general discriminant analysis (GDA) allows the determination of the olive oil cultivar. Furthermore, changes in the composition of glyceridic components of the olive oils lead to easy discrimination between fresh oils and 1-year-old samples. 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Möbius sequence in a girl and arthrogryposis in her half-brother: distinct phenotypes caused by prenatal injuries.

    PubMed

    Borlot, Felippe; da Paz, José Albino; Gonzalez, Claudette Hajaj; Lucato, Leandro Tavares; Marques-Dias, Maria Joaquina

    2011-01-01

    Möbius sequence is a congenital facial and abducens nerve palsy, frequently associated to abnormalities of extremities. Arthrogryposis multiplex congenital is defined as a congenital fixation of multiple joints seldom of neurogenic origin. Both sequences must have a genetic origin, but usually are sporadic cases related to environmental factors such as drugs exposition and maternal trauma. A 5-year-old girl and a 1-year-old boy were born with Möbius sequence and arthrogryposis multiplex congenital, respectively. During pregnancies, the mother had vaginal bleeding at 7 weeks and used crack (free-based cocaine) in the first trimester, respectively. The girl also has equinovarus talipes and autistic behavior. The boy has arthrogryposis with flexion contractures of the feet and knees. A vascular disruption, due to hemorrhage and cocaine exposure, causing a transient ischemic insult to embryos in a critical period of development may be responsible for distinct phenotypes in these cases.

  14. Dosimetry of (99m)Tc (DTPA, DMSA and MAG3) used in renal function studies of newborns and children.

    PubMed

    Arteaga, Marcial Vásquez; Caballero, Víctor Murillo; Rengifo, Kelman Marín

    2017-07-28

    The dose to kidneys of newborns and 1-year old children was calculated using the MIRD methodology. In order to perform renal studies radiopharmaceutical like (99m)Tc-DTPA, (99m) Tc-MAG3 and (99m)Tc-DMSA are used. Here, besides the anatomic and structure information of kidneys another data are provided in benefit of patient, however during the radioisotope decay emitted radiations delivers, totally or partially, their energy. Therefore is important to estimate the internal radiation dose of the organs. The largest dose to kidneys comes from the self-dose and it is due to the charged particles emitted during (99m)Tc decay. From the three radiopharmaceutical here used the largest dose to kidneys is due to (99m)Tc-DMSA, and the smaller dose is due to (99m)Tc-MAG3. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Four Cases of Spontaneous Neoplasia in the Naked Mole-Rat (Heterocephalus glaber), A Putative Cancer-Resistant Species.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Kyle R; Milone, Nicholas A; Rodriguez, Carlos E

    2017-01-01

    The naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is widely acclaimed to be cancer-resistant and of considerable research interest based on a paucity of reports of neoplasia in this species. We have, however, encountered four spontaneous cases of neoplasia and one presumptive case of neoplasia through routine necropsy and biopsy of individuals in a zoo collection of nonhybrid naked mole-rats bred from a single pair. One case each of metastasizing hepatocellular carcinoma, nephroblastoma (Wilms' tumor), and multicentric lymphosarcoma, as well as presumptive esophageal adenocarcinoma (Barrett's esophagus-like) was identified postmortem among 37 nonautolyzed necropsy submissions of naked mole-rats over 1-year-old that were submitted for necropsy between 1998 and August 2015. One incidental case of cutaneous hemangioma was also identified antemortem by skin biopsy from one naked mole-rat examined for trauma.

  16. Peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis in three cats

    PubMed Central

    AOKI, Takuma; SUNAHARA, Hiroshi; SUGIMOTO, Keisuke; ITO, Tetsuro; KANAI, Eiichi; FUJII, Yoko

    2014-01-01

    Case 1 involved a 4-month-old intact male Somali cat in which peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis (PPS) was recognized after a cardiac murmur remained following patent ductus arteriosus ligation. Case 2, which involved a 1-year-old neutered male Norwegian Forest cat, and Case 3, which involved a 6-month-old intact female American Curl cat, were referred, because of cardiac murmurs. Grades III to IV/VI systolic heart murmurs were auscultated at the left heart base in all 3 cats. All cases showed bilateral pulmonary artery stenosis, although there were no associated clinical signs. In Cases 1 and 2, the pressure gradient through the stenosis decreased after treatment with atenolol. PMID:25650057

  17. FDTD calculations of the whole-body averaged SAR in an anatomically realistic voxel model of the human body from 1 MHz to 1 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimbylow, P. J.

    1997-03-01

    This paper presents finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) calculations of the whole-body averaged SAR in an anatomically realistic voxel model of the human body. This model, NORMAN, consists of million voxels, of 2 mm dimension in the adult phantom, segmented into 37 tissue types. SAR values are presented for an adult phantom and for scaled 10, 5 and 1 year old models, grounded and isolated in air from 1 MHz to 1 GHz for plane wave exposure. External electric field values corresponding to a whole-body averaged SAR of are also presented.

  18. Granular cell tumor: report of 8 intraoral cases.

    PubMed

    Eguia, Asier; Uribarri, Agurne; Gay Escoda, Cosme; Crovetto, Miguel Angel; Martínez-Conde, Rafael; Aguirre, Jose Manuel

    2006-08-01

    Granular cell tumor (GCT) is an uncommon neoplasm of controversial origin that can appear in any corporal localization, including the orofacial region. Although aggressive and malignant variants of this neoplasm have been described, most of GCTs are benign. In spite of the amount of research, the etiology of this neoplasm remains unclear and its histogenesis and its possible muscular, connective or neural origin has been broadly debated. In this paper 8 oral cases are presented, corresponding to 5 women and 3 men, with a mean age of 36.1 years old and a mean time of evolution of the lesions of 8.3 months. The most common localization was the tongue (75%). In all the cases a resection with safety margins of the lesions was carried out under local anesthesia. The samples were fixed and processed for histopathological study. The main clinicopathologic and diagnostic features of this neoplasm are reviewed and discussed.

  19. Answer to hypotonia: a simple hemogram.

    PubMed

    Kanra, Güler; Cetin, Mualla; Unal, Sule; Haliloglu, Goknur; Akça, Tulay; Akalan, Nejat; Kara, Ates

    2005-11-01

    A 1-year-old boy with weight loss, decreased activity, and psychomotor regression is presented. He was subjected to an extremely detailed evaluation, including electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), until a simple hemogram in our center revealed that he had macrocytic anemia with megaloblastic changes in the bone marrow. His history revealed that he had been exclusively breast-fed by his vegetarian mother. Further investigations showed low serum vitamin B12 concentration, methylmalonic aciduria, and homocysteinemia, indicating that the macrocytic anemia was due to vitamin B12 deficiency. This boy represents a case of macrocytic anemia and hypotonia owing to vitamin B12 deficiency that developed because of exclusive breast-feeding by a vegetarian mother.

  20. Effect of biotin supplementation on claw horn growth in young, clinically healthy cattle

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Luiz Antônio Franco; Franco, Leandro Guimarães; Atayde, Ingrid Bueno; da Cunha, Paulo Henrique Jorge; de Moura, Maria Ivete; Goulart, Daniel Silva

    2010-01-01

    The effects of orally administered biotin supplementation on the growth of claw horn in young, clinically healthy cattle were analyzed. Twelve, 1-year-old Girolando cattle were randomly assigned to receive either 12.5 mg of diluted powdered biotin (GI) or a control treatment (GII) for 40 consecutive days. Cattle in the GI group showed an average hoof growth of 11.3 ± 0.72 mm, while those in GII had an average hoof growth of 7.2 ± 0.78 mm. The results confirmed the positive effect of biotin supplementation on the growth of angle and length of the dorsal hoof wall, hoof sole length, and on resistance to wearing, in young cattle extensively managed. PMID:20808571

  1. Unilateral anterior persistent fetal vasculature in a child with blepharophimosis-ptosis-epicanthus inversus syndrome: A surgical challenge.

    PubMed

    Kemmanu, Vasudha; Rathod, Pragnya; Anaspure, Hemant; Yadav, Naresh K

    2016-06-01

    Blepharophimosis-ptosis-epicanthus inversus syndrome (BPES) is a rare autosomal dominant genetic disease. It is clinically characterized by four major features; blepharophimosis, ptosis, epicanthus inversus, and telecanthus. We report a case of a 1-year-old female with BPES with unilateral anterior persistent fetal vasculature (PFV). On examination, she was found to have all the clinical features of BPES, along with calcified and partially absorbed cataract with elongated ciliary processes in her left eye. B-scan of left eye showed attached retina with no evidence of posterior PFV. Systemic examination was normal. She underwent cataract surgery with primary posterior capsulotomy with intraocular lens implantation under general anesthesia. Literature search did not reveal any previous reports of unilateral anterior PFV and BPES. The clinical features, other associations, and the difficulties in the surgical management of this condition are discussed.

  2. Unilateral anterior persistent fetal vasculature in a child with blepharophimosis-ptosis-epicanthus inversus syndrome: A surgical challenge

    PubMed Central

    Kemmanu, Vasudha; Rathod, Pragnya; Anaspure, Hemant; Yadav, Naresh K

    2016-01-01

    Blepharophimosis-ptosis-epicanthus inversus syndrome (BPES) is a rare autosomal dominant genetic disease. It is clinically characterized by four major features; blepharophimosis, ptosis, epicanthus inversus, and telecanthus. We report a case of a 1-year-old female with BPES with unilateral anterior persistent fetal vasculature (PFV). On examination, she was found to have all the clinical features of BPES, along with calcified and partially absorbed cataract with elongated ciliary processes in her left eye. B-scan of left eye showed attached retina with no evidence of posterior PFV. Systemic examination was normal. She underwent cataract surgery with primary posterior capsulotomy with intraocular lens implantation under general anesthesia. Literature search did not reveal any previous reports of unilateral anterior PFV and BPES. The clinical features, other associations, and the difficulties in the surgical management of this condition are discussed. PMID:27488160

  3. Use of behavioral responses of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in identifying sublethal exposure to hexavalent chromium.

    PubMed

    Svecevicius, Gintaras

    2009-05-01

    Laboratory tests were conducted in a flow-through apparatus on 1-year-old rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss to evaluate the sensitivity of a number of their behavioral responses to hexavalent chromium (Cr(6+)). Test fish were exposed to Cr(6+) concentrations corresponding to 0.001-1 parts of the rainbow trout 96-h LC50 (0.029-28.5 mg Cr/L, respectively) in short-term (15 min) tests. Sensitivity parameter responses could be arranged into the following sequence: latent period of detection response = locomotor activity > gill ventilation frequency > coughing rate. All the rainbow trout responses were sensitive behavioral indicators of sublethal exposure. Behavioral responses meet the criteria as rapid tools for bioassay testing and could be easily standardized using Cr(6+) as a reference toxicant.

  4. Avoidance of copper and zinc by rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss pre-exposed to copper.

    PubMed

    Svecevičius, Gintaras

    2012-01-01

    Laboratory tests were conducted on 1-year-old rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in a counter-current flow, steep-gradient chamber to evaluate their ability to detect and avoid copper and zinc at concentrations of 0.1 mg Cu/L and 1 mg Zn/L, respectively, after 10-day pre-exposure to five copper sublethal concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 0.5 mg Cu/L and after 10-day re-acclimation period in clean water. Avoidance response intensity in affected fish significantly decreased with increase in pre-exposure Cu concentration. The strength of avoidance response to Cu and Zn test solutions in pre-exposed fish after re-acclimation gradually increased in a concentration-dependent order.

  5. Hypomyelinating leukoencephalopathy with paroxysmal tonic upgaze and absence of psychomotor development.

    PubMed

    Blumkin, Lubov; Lev, Dorit; Watemberg, Nathan; Lerman-Sagie, Tally

    2007-01-15

    Hypomyelinating leukoencephalopathies are characterized by a substantial and permanent deficit in myelin deposition in the brain. Although our knowledge and understanding of the etiology of white matter diseases has progressively increased, many cases with this disorder remain undiagnosed, despite extensive evaluations. Recently, new disease entities have been defined by combining magnetic resonance imaging pattern recognition and clinical features. We describe a 1-year-old Ashkenazi Jewish girl with a hypomyelinating leukoencephalopathy, who presented in the neonatal period with episodes of sustained paroxysmal tonic upward gaze, roving eye movements, pendular nystagmus, and severe hypotonia, with the later appearance of pyramidal and extrapyramidal signs and no development. In addition, she has dysmorphic signs. This clinical picture is not consistent with any of the previously described hypomyelinating leukoencephalopathies and may represent a new entity.

  6. The First Report of Fetal Alcohol Effect in a 12 Year-Old Child in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Dong Hyun; Lee, Young Jin; An, Ho Young; Ahn, Joon Ho

    2009-01-01

    We present the first report of fetal alcohol effect in a 12 year-old child in Korea. The mother had consumed 162 g of alcohol per week continuously during pregnancy. His first febrile seizure occurred before he was 1 year old, and became more frequent 2 years later. He started showing signs of right paraplegia when he was 3.5 years old and brain MRI revealed periventricular leucomalacia near the left ventricle. He was microcephalic and his growth was retarded. He was irritable, impatient, impulsive, and inattentive, and showed disinterest in school activities and aggressive and dangerous behavior. After the diagnosis of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder was made, psychopharmacological treatment and family support was initiated. After 10 months, he still had intermittent ideas of reference, although the aggressive behavior, inattentiveness, and impulsivity had improved. Using this case study, we stress the importance of maternal alcohol history in patients with these characteristics. PMID:20046374

  7. Electrical resistivity survey to search for a recent clandestine burial of a homicide victim, UK.

    PubMed

    Pringle, Jamie K; Jervis, John R

    2010-10-10

    This case report details an electrical resistivity survey to assist the search for a suspected 1-year-old clandestine burial of a murder victim in North Wales in the UK. Conventional search techniques (victim recovery dogs and probing) proved unsuccessful, and with a significant survey area and a high clay content soil precluding GPR as a geophysical search method, a resistivity survey was instead trialled. Ten resistivity grids were collected and site detrended with user-specified, contoured anomalies being generated. The resulting anomalies were compared to anomalies derived from similar-aged, simulated clandestine burial surveys. Seven anomalies with comparative sizes and amplitudes (±3Ω) of the simulated burials were identified within the search area and prioritised for further investigation. The shallowly buried victim was subsequently recovered outside the survey area.

  8. A case of SRY-positive 38,XY true hermaphroditism (XY sex reversal) in a cat.

    PubMed

    Schlafer, D H; Valentine, B; Fahnestock, G; Froenicke, L; Grahn, R A; Lyons, L A; Meyers-Wallen, V N

    2011-07-01

    Investigation of abnormal sexual development in companion animals can allow for the elimination of inherited disorders from breeding populations while contributing to the understanding of the complex process of mammalian sexual development and differentiation. A 1-year-old mixed-breed cat, presented for neutering, was tentatively diagnosed as a male with bilateral cryptorchidism. During surgery, the surgeon identified gonads in an ovarian position and a complete bicornuate uterus. Both testicular and ovarian architecture in the gonads and Mullerian and Wolffian duct derivatives were identified histologically. The karyotype was that of a normal male (38,XY), and no causative mutation was identified in the feline SRY coding sequence amplified from genomic DNA. All features of the case were compatible with a diagnosis of SRY-positive 38,XY sex reversal, true hermaphrodite phenotype. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of this disorder in a domestic cat.

  9. An unusual case of intestinal leiomyositis in a Bernese mountain dog.

    PubMed

    Gianella, P; Tecilla, M; Bellino, C; Buracco, R; Martano, M; Zanatta, R; Cagnasso, A; D'angelo, A

    2015-10-01

    A 1-year-old, female Bernese mountain dog was presented to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of Turin University with a 3-month history of weight loss, intermittent anorexia, vomiting, constipation, and abdominal distension. Full-thickness biopsies from the stomach, duodenum, jejunum and ileum were collected for histological and immunohistochemical examination. Microscopic lesions displayed severe diffuse degeneration and loss of leiomyocytes, with lymphocytic leiomyositis, fibroplasia, angiogenesis, severe diffuse neuronal atrophy, and ganglioneuritis in the myenteric (Auerbach's) plexus. A diagnosis of chronic idiopatic intestinal pseudo-obstruction was made. Response to immunosuppressive therapy was poor and the dog was humanely euthanized. Unique findings were mononuclear infiltration composed predominantly of B-cell, angiogenesis and weak immunoreactivity for neuron-specific enolase.

  10. [The effects of ideal-real self discrepancy and irrational belief on self acceptance].

    PubMed

    Arai, S

    2001-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to clarify the effects of positive ideal-real self discrepancy, negative ideal-real self discrepancy, and irrational belief on self acceptance. A total of 464 university and vocational school students, an average of 21.1 years old, participated. Results confirmed the prediction that the smaller the positive ideal-real discrepancy, and the larger negative ideal-real discrepancy, the higher is the self acceptance score. It was also found that the effects of the positive ideal-real self discrepancy depended on the intensity of irrational belief, and the belief was thus a moderator of the effect. On the other hand, the intensity of irrational belief did not moderate the effect of negative ideal-real self discrepancy. Finally, the findings were discussed in relation to the effectiveness of psychotherapeutic and counseling efforts to enhance self acceptance.

  11. [A case of a child who developed Cushing reflex after a clinical diagnosis of brain death].

    PubMed

    Enoki, Hideo

    2007-01-01

    The author presents a case of brain death caused by salmonella encephalopathy in a 1-year-old girl. The patient suffered from fever, convulsive status, and coma. On the 5th day, her respiration was arrested. At that time, we confirmed the absence of brainstem reflexes. An electroencephalogram (EEG) showed a flat pattern. Only wave I was recordable in auditory brainstem responses (ABR). On the 6th day, we obtained a flat EEG and a disappearance of all components of ABR. A simultaneous elevation of her heart rate and blood pressure was observed 14 to 18 hours after the respiratory arrest. This phenomenon was equivalent to the Cushing reflex, which represents an autoregulation against increased intracranial pressure. Our case suggested that the activity of a part of the brainstem was preserved in spite of the absence of activities in EEG, ABR and brainstem reflexes at 14 hours after the onset of apnea.

  12. Severe parainfluenza pneumonia in a case of transient hypogammalobulinemia of infancy.

    PubMed

    Cotugno, Nicola; Manno, Emma Concetta; Stoppa, Francesca; Sinibaldi, Serena; Saffirio, Claudia; D'Argenio, Parizia; Marano, Marco; Di Nardo, Matteo; Palma, Paolo

    2013-06-26

    Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) infection, largely known to cause self-limiting bronchiolitis and pneumonia in immune competent patients, can lead to severe to fatal pulmonary disease in immune disorders, such as primary or acquired-immune deficiencies. We report the case of a 1-year-old child who developed an acute respiratory distress syndrome. Because of a progressive respiratory failure unresponsive to conventional treatment extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) was rapidly started. HPIV-3 infection was diagnosed on the rhinopharyngeal fluid and immunological examinations revealed a hypogammaglobulinemia. A combination therapy with ribavirin, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and steroid under ECMO support was started with considerable improvement. Subsequent analysis and more specific immunological assessment resulted normal confirming the diagnosis of transient hypogammaglobulinemia of infancy (THI). This case highlights the importance of prompt therapy with early ECMO support in combination with ribavirin, IVIG and steroids in patients affected by severe HPIV-3 pneumonia and THI.

  13. Overview of biology and aquaculture of Amur sturgeon (Acipenser schrenckii) in China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhuang, P.; Kynard, B.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, T.; Zhang, Z.; Li, D.

    2002-01-01

    Amur sturgeon, Acipenser schrenckii is a large riverine species (max. 3 m length and 190 kg weight) native to the Amur River. In the middle Amur River, males first spawn at 7-8 years of age and females at 9-10 years. Due to overfishing and habitat alteration, the abundance of wild stocks has rapidly declined in recent years. Using wild adults, artificial spawning began in the 1950s in China, and since the early 1990s Amur sturgeon has become the most popular sturgeon for aquaculture. The species is adaptive to many conditions of artificial culture, including traditional Chinese fish culture ponds, lakes, reservoirs, and cages. It will grow well on many types of food, and 1-year-old fish reared on commercial diets weigh 900-1200 g. Based on the examination of females reared for broodstock, first full sexual maturity is expected at 5-6 years of age.

  14. The changing age and seasonal profile of pertussis in Canada.

    PubMed

    Skowronski, Danuta M; De Serres, Gaston; MacDonald, Diane; Wu, Wrency; Shaw, Carol; Macnabb, Jane; Champagne, Sylvie; Patrick, David M; Halperin, Scott A

    2002-05-15

    During the postvaccine era in Canada, most cases of pertussis have been reported in children <5 years of age, with the highest incidence, morbidity, and mortality in infants <1 year old. Population-based data, with very high laboratory confirmation rates and hospital separation and mortality statistics, chronicle the changing age and seasonal profile associated with pertussis over recent successive outbreaks in British Columbia, Canada. A large outbreak during 2000 highlights 2 important changes to the postvaccine profile. For the first time in Canada, the incidence of pertussis among preteens and teens surpassed that of all other age groups. At the same time, a decreasing incidence of pertussis among infants and preschool children highlights reduced susceptibility in the very young. Recent changes in the childhood immunization program (including introduction of an acellular pertussis vaccine), waning immunity, and changes in laboratory methods are considered in explaining these 2 simultaneous but divergent trends in the pertussis profile.

  15. Monitoring and probabilistic risk assessment of chlorothalonil residues in vegetables from Shandong province (China).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Nie, Yan; Zhang, Shuqiu; Wang, Wen Zheng; Li, Huidong; Wang, Fengen; Lv, Xiao; Chen, Zilei

    2016-10-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the contamination status of chlorothalonil pesticide residues in vegetables from Shandong province, and to assess the potential risk of chlorothalonil to consumers based on vegetable consumption and body weight using an improved non-parameter probabilistic model. The results showed that Young children (8 months-6 years old) were more sensitive than General population(above 1year-old). In general, the health risk of chlorothalonil residues to 2 consumer groups via vegetable exposure was low, and the level of residual chlorothalonil was below the Acute Reference Dose (ARfD). This result would provide useful information for re-evaluating pesticides and for revising the chlorothalonil standard in vegetables.

  16. Late-onset respiratory distress after inhalation of laundry detergent.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Derek S; Bonny, Andrea E; Ruddy, Richard M; Jacobs, Brian R

    2003-04-01

    Accidental poisoning with household cleaning products can pose significant risks to children. Exposure to granular laundry detergents accounts for a number of calls each year to poison control centers, though few of these exposures result in hospitalization. While caustic gastrointestinal injury resulting from ingestion of these highly alkaline cleaning agents is well-recognized, few reports address the potential damage to the respiratory tract that can occur following ingestion or inhalation of granular laundry detergent. We present a previously healthy 1-year-old who presented to the emergency department with Late-onset stridor and increased work of breathing following presumed inhalation of granular laundry detergent. Parents, primary care providers, and emergency department physicians need to be aware of the potential toxicity of these widely used household products.

  17. An atypical case of lacrimal sac fistula located on the temporal side of the lateral canthus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gyu-Nam; Huh, Hyun-Do; Park, Jong-Moon; Seo, Seong-Wook

    2012-12-01

    We report a case of congenital lacrimal sac fistula located on the temporal side of the lateral canthus. A systemically healthy 1-year-old girl came to the outpatient clinic with a complaint of tearing on the temporal side of the right lateral canthus since birth. On examination, a small orifice was found in the skin on the temporal side of the lateral canthus. There was no evidence of inflammation or swelling within the opening. Surgeons carried out an operation under general anesthesia. They passed a probe through the lacrimal orifice and advanced it toward the lacrimal sac. Next, they introduced saline to the inferior punctum and found that it drained to the lateral fistula. The lower lid stretched as the dissected fistula was pulled. After the operation, the patient was free of the symptom. This paper is to report a case of congenital lacrimal sac fistula located on the temporal side of the lateral canthus.

  18. Ulceroglandular tularemia in a toddler in Germany after a mosquito bite.

    PubMed

    Hanke, Christof A; Otten, Joerg-Elard; Berner, Reinhard; Serr, Annerose; Splettstoesser, Wolf; von Schnakenburg, Christian

    2009-08-01

    Although tularemia is a long-known disease, its significance had diminished over the last decades in Middle Europe. However, over the past years, there is new evidence suggesting that tularemia has re-emerged in Germany. In 2007, the highest number of human cases for almost 50 years has been notified. Beside typical vectors, new ways of transmission seem to gain significance. So far, mosquito bite-transmitted tularemia has only been known from Scandinavia but not from Middle Europe. We report the first case of a 1-year-old toddler from Southwestern Germany with mosquito bite-associated ulceroglandular tularaemia. The new and interesting features of this case are the young age of the patient and the unusual transmission route. The available data suggesting changes in the epidemiology for tularemia in Germany are reviewed. This is an interesting case of infantile tularemia with a very unusual transmission route, highlighting ongoing changes in the epidemiology of tularemia in Germany.

  19. Arm Paralysis After Routine Childhood Vaccinations: Application of Advanced Molecular Methods to the Causality Assessment of an Adverse Event After Immunization.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Jana; Halsey, Neal A; Weinberg, Adriana; Scott Schmid, D; George, Kirsten St; Weldon, William C; Jordan, Michael; Bryant, Patrick W; LaRussa, Philip S; Bradshaw, Deborah Y; Harrington, Theresa; Gershon, Anne

    2017-09-01

    Post-licensure surveillance for adverse events following immunizations (AEFI) can identify rare complications of vaccinations and rigorous vaccine adverse event causality assessments can help to identify possible causal relationships. We report the development of arm paralysis after varicella vaccination in a 1-year-old child. Paralysis was initially presumed to be due to vOka because of the temporal relationship between vaccination and onset of arm weakness; however, molecular studies identified wild-type varicella zoster virus VZV (WT-VZV) in the CSF, leading the authors to conclude that WT-VZV was the probable cause. This case illustrates the complexity of assessing AEFI causality, and the importance of careful and complete evaluations when determining the most likely cause of an AEFI. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. FNIRS-based evaluation of cortical plasticity in children with cerebral palsy undergoing constraint-induced movement therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Jianwei; Khan, Bilal; Hervey, Nathan; Tian, Fenghua; Delgado, Mauricio R.; Clegg, Nancy J.; Smith, Linsley; Roberts, Heather; Tulchin-Francis, Kirsten; Shierk, Angela; Shagman, Laura; MacFarlane, Duncan; Liu, Hanli; Alexandrakis, George

    2015-03-01

    Sensorimotor cortex plasticity induced by constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) in six children (10.2 ± 2.1 years old) with hemiplegic cerebral palsy (CP) was assessed by functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). The activation laterality index and time-to-peak/duration during a finger tapping task were quantified before, immediately after, and six months after CIMT. Five age-matched healthy children (9.8 ± 1.3 years old) were also imaged at the same time points to provide comparative activation metrics for normal controls. In children with CP the activation time-to-peak/duration for all sensorimotor centers displayed significant normalization immediately after CIMT that persisted six months later. In contrast to this longer term improvement in localized activation response, the laterality index that depended on communication between sensorimotor centers improved immediately after CIMT, but relapsed six months later.

  1. [Gains in life expectancy at birth in Brazil after the year 2000: the impact of mortality variations by age and cause of death].

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Érika Ribeiro Pereira; Miranda-Ribeiro, Adriana de

    2017-03-01

    Life expectancy at birth is a synthetic mortality indicator that reflects the general living conditions of the population. Changes in mortality by age and causes of death generate no explicit changes in the indicator. The application of a decomposition method can bring light to the analysis of the phenomenon. The aim of this study was to estimate the contribution of age groups and causes of death in the variation in life expectancy at birth, for men and women, from 2000 to 2010, by applying Pollard's decomposition method. Brazilian life tables were obtained from IBGE and death data from SIM. The results indicate that the age group that most contributed to the increase in life expectancy was of less than 1 year old. Among the defined causes, cardiovascular diseases were responsible for the largest increase in life expectancy.

  2. Mycobacterium fortuitum lipoid pneumonia in a dog.

    PubMed

    Leissinger, M K; Garber, J B; Fowlkes, N; Grooters, A M; Royal, A B; Gaunt, S D

    2015-03-01

    A 1-year old female spayed German Shepherd dog was evaluated for acute onset of dyspnea. Pyogranulomatous inflammation and green globoid structures were present on aspirates of the affected lung. Impression smears and histopathology confirmed pyogranulomatous pneumonia, with large amounts of lipid corresponding to the green structures noted cytologically, and identified poorly staining bacterial rods within lipid vacuoles. Special stains confirmed the presence of acid-fast bacterial rods, and polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing identified the organism as Mycobacterium fortuitum. M. fortuitum pneumonia is well described in humans and has previously been reported in 4 dogs and 1 cat. Lipid was a prominent cytologic and histologic feature, as is often described in humans and in the single feline case report. Additionally, this case highlights the variable cytologic appearance of lipid, as well as Mycobacterium spp, which are classically nonstaining with Wright-Giemsa.

  3. Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumour in a dog.

    PubMed

    Junginger, J; Röthlisberger, A; Lehmbecker, A; Stein, V M; Ludwig, D C; Baumgärtner, W; Seehusen, F

    2013-11-01

    A 1-year-old German shepherd dog was presented with paraparesis quickly progressing to paraplegia. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a large mass beneath the thoracolumbar vertebral column infiltrating the spinal canal and resulting in severe extradural compression of the spinal cord. Microscopically, this comprised a cell-rich unencapsulated tumour supported by fine bands of a fibrovascular stroma and occasionally forming primitive rosettes. Immunohistochemistry showed the tumour cells to express synaptophysin and neuron-specific enolase. Ultrastructurally, the neoplastic cells had low to moderate numbers of intracytoplasmic neurosecretory granules. A peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumour was diagnosed. This is a rare embryonal tumour of neural origin that may have arisen from adrenal medulla, autonomic ganglia or peripheral nerves.

  4. Ophthalmomyiasis interna anterior in a dog: keratotomy and extraction of a Cuterebra sp. larva.

    PubMed

    Edelmann, Michele L; Lucio-Forster, Araceli; Kern, Thomas J; Bowman, Dwight D; Ledbetter, Eric C

    2014-11-01

    A 1-year-old female spayed mixed-breed dog was presented for evaluation of acute onset of lethargy and blepharospasm OD. Slit-lamp biomicroscopy revealed a segmented larva embedded in the inferonasal iris. Moderate anterior uveitis was present. After pharmacologic dilation, mild vitreal hemorrhage and chorioretinal migration tracks were identified. The dog was treated empirically for uveitis for 5 days, after which a keratotomy and larval foreign body extraction was performed. The dog recovered uneventfully from intraocular surgery and remained visual and comfortable. Parasite evaluation confirmed the larva to be a Cuterebra sp. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of canine ophthalmomyiasis interna anterior, and the first report of successful surgical removal from the anterior segment in a dog with preservation of vision.

  5. Osteogenesis imperfecta Type IV: a newly identified variant at position c.560 (G > T; p.Gly187Val) in the COL1A2 gene.

    PubMed

    Usta, Akin; Karademir, Dilay; Sen, Eylem; Yazici, Selcuk; Adali, Ertan; Erdem, Erkan; Karacan, Meric

    2017-01-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta is a clinically heterogenous disease caused by defective collagen syntesis associated with a mutation in the COL1A1 or COL1A2 genes. In this report, we present a case of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) type IV, seen in a female fetus with incurved femurs at 18 weeks of gestation. Molecular analysis of the newborn revealed a novel mutation at position c.560 (c.560 G > T) of the exon 12 in the COL1A2 gene; which lead to the glycine modification with valine (p.Gly187Val) at codon 187. The pregnancy follow-up was uneventful. After delivery, the newborn underwent biphosponat therapy and no fracture was detected until 1 year old.

  6. Factors contributing to hearing impairment in patients with cleft lip/palate in Malaysia: A prospective study of 346 ears.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Jack Pein; Soo, Siew Shuin; Manuel, Anura Michelle

    2016-09-01

    To determine the factors contributing towards hearing impairment in patients with cleft lip/palate. A prospective analysis was conducted on 173 patients (346 ears) with cleft lip and palate (CL/P) who presented to the combined cleft clinic at University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC) over 12 months. The patients' hearing status was determined using otoacoustic emission (OAE), pure tone audiometry (PTA) and auditory brainstem response (ABR). These results were analysed against several parameters, which included age, gender, race, types of cleft pathology, impact and timing of repair surgery. The patients' age ranged from 1-26 years old. They comprised 30% with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP), 28% with bilateral cleft lip and palate (BCLP), 28% with isolated cleft palate (ICP) and 14% with isolated cleft lip (ICL). Majority of the patients (68.2%) had normal otoscopic findings. Out of the 346 ears, 241 ears (70%) ears had passed the hearing tests. There was no significant relationship between patients' gender and ethnicity with their hearing status. The types of cleft pathology significantly influenced the outcome of PTA and ABR screening results (p < 0.001). There was no significant difference between the repaired and unrepaired cleft groups and the outcome of hearing tests. However, hearing improvement occurred when palatal repair was performed at the age of <1year old (OR = 2.37, CI 1.2 = 4.6, p = 0.01). Majority of the cleft patients had normal hearing (70%). Hearing threshold varied significantly between the different types of cleft pathology. Surgery conferred no significant impact on the hearing outcome unless surgery was performed at the age of <1 year old. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Skeletal deformities associated with nutritional congenital rickets in newborn lambs.

    PubMed

    Dittmer, K E; Morley, R E; Smith, R L

    2017-01-01

    A group of 545 pregnant rising 2-year-old Coopdale ewes on a Southland sheep farm were grazed over winter on a fodder beet (Beta vulgaris) crop. Subsequently, 45 out of approximately 750 lambs were born with a variety of skeletal deformities, including shortened limbs, varus and valgus angular limb deformities, palmar grade stance and cranial bowing of the carpus. Analysis of the crop showed the fodder beet contained a low percentage of phosphorus. In addition, 60 out of 460 rising 2-year-old ewes that had been grazed on the fodder beet crop as 1-year-olds had incisor abnormalities and malocclusion. Two affected lambs (1-day-old and 3-days-old) with representative clinical signs examined postmortem were found to have markedly enlarged costochondral junctions, and noticeably enlarged long bone metaphyses. In addition, one lamb had a dense band of metaphyseal sclerosis beneath the physes of all long bones examined. Histopathological findings included small islands and columns of chondrocytes and eosinophilic cartilage matrix present in the metaphysis. Metaphyseal trabeculae were disorganised and often lined by accumulations of pale pink osteoid; similar pale pink osteoid was also present in the cortices. Unerupted molar teeth in the affected lambs lacked a layer of enamel, and the dentine was irregular with globular basophilia. The gross and histopathological lesions were consistent with a diagnosis of rickets. Nutritional congenital rickets has not been previously diagnosed in sheep, but is a recognised disease of human infants with vitamin D deficient mothers. The rickets in affected lambs was most likely associated with phosphorus deficiency as a result of the pregnant ewes grazing fodder beet during gestation. While vitamin D deficiency was not definitively ruled out in these cases, practitioners are alerted to the possible effects of feeding phosphorus-deficient fodder beet to ewes for long periods during gestation and to 1-year-old sheep during important growth

  8. Resonance behaviour of whole-body averaged specific energy absorption rate (SAR) in the female voxel model, NAOMI.

    PubMed

    Dimbylow, Peter

    2005-09-07

    Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) calculations have been performed of the whole-body averaged specific energy absorption rate (SAR) in a female voxel model, NAOMI, under isolated and grounded conditions from 10 MHz to 3 GHz. The 2 mm resolution voxel model, NAOMI, was scaled to a height of 1.63 m and a mass of 60 kg, the dimensions of the ICRP reference adult female. Comparison was made with SAR values from a reference male voxel model, NORMAN. A broad SAR resonance in the NAOMI values was found around 900 MHz and a resulting enhancement, up to 25%, over the values for the male voxel model, NORMAN. This latter result confirmed previously reported higher values in a female model. The effect of differences in anatomy was investigated by comparing values for 10-, 5- and 1-year-old phantoms rescaled to the ICRP reference values of height and mass which are the same for both sexes. The broad resonance in the NAOMI child values around 1 GHz is still a strong feature. A comparison has been made with ICNIRP guidelines. The ICNIRP occupational reference level provides a conservative estimate of the whole-body averaged SAR restriction. The linear scaling of the adult phantom using different factors in longitudinal and transverse directions, in order to match the ICRP stature and weight, does not exactly reproduce the anatomy of children. However, for public exposure the calculations with scaled child models indicate that the ICNIRP reference level may not provide a conservative estimate of the whole-body averaged SAR restriction, above 1.2 GHz for scaled 5- and 1-year-old female models, although any underestimate is by less than 20%.

  9. [Efficacy and safety profile of cranberry in infants and children with recurrent urinary tract infection].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Puentes, V; Uberos, J; Rodríguez-Belmonte, R; Nogueras-Ocaña, M; Blanca-Jover, E; Narbona-López, E

    2015-06-01

    Cranberry prophylaxis of recurrent urinary tract infection in infants has proven effective in the experimental model of the adult. There are few data on its efficacy, safety and recommended dose in the pediatric population. A controlled, double-blind Phase III clinical trial was conducted on children older than 1 month of age to evaluate the efficacy and safety of cranberry in recurrent urinary tract infection. The assumption was of the non-inferiority of cranberry versus trimethoprim. Statistical analysis was performed using Kaplan Meier analysis. A total of 85 patients under 1 year of age and 107 over 1 year were recruited. Trimethoprim was prescribed to 75 patients and 117 received cranberry. The cumulative rate of urinary infection associated with cranberry prophylaxis in children under 1 year was 46% (95% CI; 23-70) in children and 17% (95% CI; 0-38) in girls, effectively at doses inferior to trimethoprim. In children over 1 year-old cranberry was not inferior to trimethoprim, with a cumulative rate of urine infection of 26% (95% CI; 12-41). The cranberry was well tolerated and with no new adverse effects. Our study confirms that cranberry is safe and effective in the prophylaxis of recurrent urinary tract infection in infants and children. With the doses used, their efficiency is not less than that observed for trimethoprim among those over 1 year-old. (Clinical Trials Registry ISRCTN16968287). Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Toxoplasma gondii infection among sheep and goats in Iran: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sharif, M; Sarvi, Sh; Shokri, A; Hosseini Teshnizi, S; Rahimi, M T; Mizani, A; Ahmadpour, E; Daryani, A

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis, a cosmopolitan parasitic infection caused by Toxoplasma gondii, is frequently found in meat-producing animals and human beings. This review and meta-analysis study was performed to evaluate the overall prevalence of T. gondii infection among sheep and goats in Iran. Data were systematically collected from 1977 to 2012 in Iran on the following electronic databases: PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, Scopus, Web of Science, Magiran, Irandoc, IranMedex, and Scientific Information Database (SID). Additionally, abstracts of national scientific congresses and dissertations were included. A total of 34 articles in field of sheep and 18 articles about goat toxoplasmosis, totalizing to the examination of 14,372 sheep and 3,120 goats, reporting prevalence of toxoplasmosis from different regions of Iran fulfilled our eligibility criteria. The overall prevalence rate of toxoplasmosis in Iran was estimated to be 31% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.259825 to 0.352382) in sheep and 27% (95% CI = 0.140097 to 0.424782) in goats, respectively. There was no significant difference in infection rate between males and females among sheep (odds ratio (OR) = 1.002, 95% CI = 0.59 to 1.696) and goats (OR = 1.027, 95% CI = 0.685 to 1.541). Analysis revealed that infection rate in sheep over than 1 year old was 2.4 times more than that in less than 1 year old (OR = 2.396, 95% CI = 1.050 to 5.467). This systematic review and meta-analysis study revealed that infection is widespread in Iran. Further studies are required to improve strategies for controlling infection among flocks and consequently in human population.

  11. The changes of gap junctions between pituitary folliculo-stellate cells during the postnatal development of Zucker fatty and lean rats.

    PubMed

    Sakuma, Eisuke; Wada, Ikuo; Soji, Tsuyoshi; Wakabayashi, Kenjiro; Otsuka, Takanobu; Herbert, Damon C

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effect of leptin on the postnatal development of gap junctions between folliculo-stellate cells by using Zucker fatty (fa/fa) rats that have defects of the functional leptin receptor. Male Zucker fatty rats (fa/fa) and male Zucker lean rats (+/+) were used at each of the following postnatal ages: 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 days, and 1 year. On one of the aforementioned dates, the anterior pituitary glands were prepared for observation by transmission electron microscopy. We quantified the number of follicles and gap junctions, and calculated the rate of occurrence as the ratio of the number of gap junctions existing between folliculo-stellate cells per intersected follicular profile. In Zucker lean male rats, the number of gap junctions remained relatively constant from days 50 to 90 (0.44 ± 0.02 to 0.49 ± 0.03), and was similar in 1 year old rats (0.47 ± 0.03). These data were statistically higher compared to Zucker fatty male rats. In Zucker fatty male rats, very few gap junctions were observed in 30-day-old rats (0.04 ± 0.01: mean ± SE). This disruption of gap junction formation persisted, and the number of gap junctions remained constant and showed a low level from days 40 to 90 (0.11 ± 0.02 to 0.17 ± 0.02); this finding was similar in 1-year-old rats (0.17 ± 0.02). These observations indicate that the effect of leptin over the gap junction formation within the anterior pituitary glands was directly mediated by interaction with the functional leptin receptor present on the folliculo-stellate cells.

  12. Management of stone disease in infants.

    PubMed

    Azili, Mujdem Nur; Ozturk, Fatma; Inozu, Mihriban; Çayci, Fatma Şemsa; Acar, Banu; Ozmert, Sengul; Tiryaki, Tugrul

    2015-11-01

    Evaluating and treating renal stone disease in infants are technically challenging. In this study, we evaluated the surgical treatment of renal stones in children under 1 year of age. We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients under 1 year old who were treated with ESWL, endourological or open surgical procedures for renal stone disease between January, 2009 and December, 2012. The patients' age, gender, stone size, stone location and number, complications, stone-free status, and postoperative complications were recorded. 19 of 121 infants with a mean age of 10.2 ± 3.07 months were treated with surgical procedures. Six (75%) of eight cystinuria patients required a surgical intervention. Retrograde endoscopic management was performed in thirteen patients (63.4%) as an initial surgical approach. There were three major (15.7%) complications. The rate of open surgical procedures was 31.6% (6 of 19 infants). The cutoff value of stone size for open surgery was 10 mm. There was a significant relationship between the conversion to open procedures and stone size, stone location, and symptom presentation especially the presence of obstruction (p < 0.05). After repeated treatments, the stone clearance rate of RIRS reached 84.6%. Retrograde intrarenal surgery is an effective and safe treatment method for renal stones in infants and can be used as a first-line therapy in most patients under 1 year old. This is especially important if an associated ureteral stone or lower pole stone that requires treatment is present and for patients with cystinuria, which does not respond favorably to ESWL.

  13. Sulfadiazine uptake and effects in common hazel (Corylus avellana L.).

    PubMed

    Michelini, Lucia; Meggio, Franco; Reichel, Rüdiger; Thiele-Bruhn, Sören; Pitacco, Andrea; Scattolin, Linda; Montecchio, Lucio; Alberghini, Sara; Squartini, Andrea; Ghisi, Rossella

    2015-09-01

    Soil contamination by antibiotics is a possible consequence of animal husbandry waste, sewage sludge, and reclaimed water spreading in agriculture. In this study, 1-year-old hazel plants (Corylus avellana L.) were grown in pots for 64 days in soil spiked with sulfadiazine (SDZ) in the range 0.01-100 mg kg(-1) soil. Leaf gas exchanges, fluorescence parameters and plant growth were measured regularly during the experiment, whereas plant biomass, sulfonamide concentrations in soil and plant tissues, and the quantitative variation of culturable bacterial endophytes in leaf petiole were analyzed at the end of the trial. During the experiment, photosynthesis and leaf transpiration as well as fluorescence parameters were progressively reduced by the antibiotic. Effects were more evident for leaf transpiration and for the highest SDZ spiking concentrations, whereas growth analyses did not reveal negative effects of the antibiotic. At the end of the trial, a high number of culturable endophytic bacteria in the leaf petiole of plants treated with 0.1 and 0.01 mg kg(-1) were observed, and SDZ was extractable from soil and plant roots for spiking concentrations ≥1 mg kg(-1). Inside plants, the antibiotic was mainly stored at the root level with bioconcentration factors increasing with the spiking dose, and the hydroxylated derivate 4-OH-SDZ was the only metabolite detected. Overall results show that 1-year-old hazel plants can contribute to the reduction of sulfonamide concentrations in the environment, however, sensitive reactions to SDZ can be expected at the highest contamination levels.

  14. Sources of variability in spotted owl population growth rate: testing predictions using long-term mark-recapture data.

    PubMed

    Seamans, Mark E; Gutiérrez, R J

    2007-05-01

    For long-lived iteroparous vertebrates that annually produce few young, life history theory predicts that reproductive output (R) and juvenile survival should influence temporal variation in population growth rate (lambda) more than adult survival does. We examined this general prediction using 15 years of mark-recapture data from a population of California spotted owls (Strix occidentalis occidentalis). We found that survival of individuals > or =1 year old (phi) exhibited much less temporal variability (CV = 0.04), where CV is coefficient of variation, than R (CV = 0.83) and that R was strongly influenced by environmental stochasticity. Although lambda was most sensitive (ê; log-transformed sensitivity) to phi (ê = 0.77), and much less sensitive to either R (ê = 0.12) or juvenile survival (survival rate of owls from fledging to 1 year old; ê = 0.12), we estimated that R contributed as much as phi to the observed annual variability in lambda. The contribution of juvenile survival to variability in lambda was proportional to its ê. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that natural selection may have favored the evolution of longevity in spotted owls as a strategy to increase the probability of experiencing favorable years for reproduction. Our finding that annual weather patterns that most affected R (temperature and precipitation during incubation) and phi (conditions during winter related to the Southern Oscillation Index) were equally good at explaining temporal variability in lambda supports the conclusion that R and phi were equally responsible for variability in lambda. Although currently accepted conservation measures for spotted owl populations attempt to enhance survival, our results indicated that conservation measures that target R may be as successful, as long as actions do not reduce phi.

  15. Usefulness of child development assessments for low-resource settings in francophone Africa

    PubMed Central

    Koura, Ghislain K.; Boivin, Michael J.; Davidson, Leslie L.; Ouédraogo, Smaïla; Zoumenou, Roméo; Alao, Maroufou J.; Garcia, André; Massougbodji, Achille; Cot, Michel; Bodeau-Livinec, Florence

    2013-01-01

    Objective Few tools are available to screen or assess infant’s cognitive development, especially in French-speaking Africa. This study evaluated the use of the French translation of the Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL), and the ‘Ten Questions’ questionnaire (TQ) in 1-year-old children in Benin, a francophone country. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in three health centers serving a semi-rural area in Benin. Three hundred fifty-seven children aged 12 months and their mothers were enrolled in 2011. Infant development was assessed at local health centers followed by a home visit to collect information on socioeconomic status, maternal Raven score, maternal depressive symptoms, and mother–child interactions (HOME Inventory) and to administer the TQ. Results The infant’s gender (female), the HOME and maternal education were associated with a higher Early Learning Composite score in multivariate analyses (P=.02, P=.004, P=.007, respectively). The HOME and family wealth were also associated with the gross motor scale (P=.03 and P=.03, respectively). Mothers were more likely to report difficulties on the TQ when the child presented lower score on the MSEL. When considering the gross motor scale as the gold standard to define moderate delays, the two combined motor-related questions on the TQ showed good sensitivity and specificity (76.5 and 75.7). Conclusion In a low-resource rural setting in Africa, the TQ effectively identified three-quarters of 1-year-old infants with delayed development. After this screening, the MSEL may be useful for further assessment as it showed good feasibility and sensitivity to known risk factors for poor child development. PMID:23899660

  16. Usefulness of child development assessments for low-resource settings in francophone Africa.

    PubMed

    Koura, Kobto G; Boivin, Michael J; Davidson, Leslie L; Ouédraogo, Smaïla; Zoumenou, Roméo; Alao, Maroufou J; Garcia, André; Massougbodji, Achille; Cot, Michel; Bodeau-Livinec, Florence

    2013-09-01

    Few tools are available to screen or assess infant's cognitive development, especially in French-speaking Africa. This study evaluated the use of the French translation of the Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL), and the "Ten Questions" questionnaire (TQ) in 1-year-old children in Benin, a francophone country. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 3 health centers serving a semirural area in Benin. Three hundred fifty-seven children aged 12 months and their mothers were enrolled in 2011. Infant development was assessed at local health centers followed by a home visit to collect information on socioeconomic status, maternal Raven score, maternal depressive symptoms, and mother-child interactions (Home Observation for the Measurement of the Environment [HOME] Inventory), and to administer the TQ. The infant's gender (female), the HOME, and maternal education were associated with a higher Early Learning Composite score in multivariate analyses (p = .02, p = .004, p = .007, respectively). The HOME and family wealth were also associated with the Gross Motor Scale (p = .03 and p = .03, respectively). Mothers were more likely to report difficulties on the TQ when the child presented lower score on the MSEL. When considering the Gross Motor Scale as the gold standard to define moderate delays, the 2 combined motor-related questions on the TQ showed good sensitivity and specificity (76.5 and 75.7). In a low-resource rural setting in Africa, the TQ effectively identified 3 quarters of 1-year-old infants with delayed development. After this screening, the MSEL may be useful for further assessment as it showed good feasibility and sensitivity to known risk factors for poor child development.

  17. The Effects of Run-of-River Hydroelectric Power Schemes on Fish Community Composition in Temperate Streams and Rivers

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The potential environmental impacts of large-scale storage hydroelectric power (HEP) schemes have been well-documented in the literature. In Europe, awareness of these potential impacts and limited opportunities for politically-acceptable medium- to large-scale schemes, have caused attention to focus on smaller-scale HEP schemes, particularly run-of-river (ROR) schemes, to contribute to meeting renewable energy targets. Run-of-river HEP schemes are often presumed to be less environmentally damaging than large-scale storage HEP schemes. However, there is currently a lack of peer-reviewed studies on their physical and ecological impact. The aim of this article was to investigate the effects of ROR HEP schemes on communities of fish in temperate streams and rivers, using a Before-After, Control-Impact (BACI) study design. The study makes use of routine environmental surveillance data collected as part of long-term national and international monitoring programmes at 23 systematically-selected ROR HEP schemes and 23 systematically-selected paired control sites. Six area-normalised metrics of fish community composition were analysed using a linear mixed effects model (number of species, number of fish, number of Atlantic salmon—Salmo salar, number of >1 year old Atlantic salmon, number of brown trout—Salmo trutta, and number of >1 year old brown trout). The analyses showed that there was a statistically significant effect (p<0.05) of ROR HEP construction and operation on the number of species. However, no statistically significant effects were detected on the other five metrics of community composition. The implications of these findings are discussed in this article and recommendations are made for best-practice study design for future fish community impact studies. PMID:27191717

  18. The Effects of Run-of-River Hydroelectric Power Schemes on Fish Community Composition in Temperate Streams and Rivers.

    PubMed

    Bilotta, Gary S; Burnside, Niall G; Gray, Jeremy C; Orr, Harriet G

    2016-01-01

    The potential environmental impacts of large-scale storage hydroelectric power (HEP) schemes have been well-documented in the literature. In Europe, awareness of these potential impacts and limited opportunities for politically-acceptable medium- to large-scale schemes, have caused attention to focus on smaller-scale HEP schemes, particularly run-of-river (ROR) schemes, to contribute to meeting renewable energy targets. Run-of-river HEP schemes are often presumed to be less environmentally damaging than large-scale storage HEP schemes. However, there is currently a lack of peer-reviewed studies on their physical and ecological impact. The aim of this article was to investigate the effects of ROR HEP schemes on communities of fish in temperate streams and rivers, using a Before-After, Control-Impact (BACI) study design. The study makes use of routine environmental surveillance data collected as part of long-term national and international monitoring programmes at 23 systematically-selected ROR HEP schemes and 23 systematically-selected paired control sites. Six area-normalised metrics of fish community composition were analysed using a linear mixed effects model (number of species, number of fish, number of Atlantic salmon-Salmo salar, number of >1 year old Atlantic salmon, number of brown trout-Salmo trutta, and number of >1 year old brown trout). The analyses showed that there was a statistically significant effect (p<0.05) of ROR HEP construction and operation on the number of species. However, no statistically significant effects were detected on the other five metrics of community composition. The implications of these findings are discussed in this article and recommendations are made for best-practice study design for future fish community impact studies.

  19. Variation in Occult Injury Screening for Children With Suspected Abuse in Selected US Children’s Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Feudtner, Chris; Medina, Sheyla P.; Luan, Xianqun; Localio, Russell; Rubin, David M.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe variation across selected US children’s hospitals in screening for occult fractures in children <2 years old diagnosed with physical abuse and in infants <1 year old who have injuries associated with a high likelihood of physical abuse. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of children <2 years old with a diagnosis of physical abuse and infants <1 year old with non-motor vehicle crash–associated traumatic brain injuries or femur fractures admitted to 40 hospitals within the Pediatric Hospital Information System database from January 1, 1999, to December 31, 2009. We examined variation among the hospitals in the performance of screening for occult fractures as defined by receipt of skeletal survey or radionuclide bone scan. Marginal standardization implemented with logistic regression analysis was used to examine hospital variation after adjusting for patient demographic characteristics, injury severity, and year of admission. RESULTS: Screening for occult fractures was performed in 83% of the 10 170 children <2 years old with a diagnosis of physical abuse, 68% of the 9942 infants who had a traumatic brain injury, and 77% of the 2975 infants who had femur fractures. After adjustment for patient characteristics, injury severity, and year of admission, hospitals varied significantly in use of screening for occult fractures in all 3 groups of children. CONCLUSIONS: The observed variation in screening for occult fractures in young victims of physical abuse and infants who have injuries associated with a high likelihood of abuse underscores opportunities to improve the quality of care provided to this vulnerable population. PMID:23071208

  20. Refusal of oral polio vaccine in northwestern Pakistan: a qualitative and quantitative study.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Hitoshi; Kobayashi, Makoto; Hachiya, Masahiko; Khan, Zahir S; Hassan, Syed Q; Sakurada, Shinsaku

    2014-03-10

    Refusal of the oral polio vaccine (OPV) is a difficulty faced by the Polio Eradication Initiative (PEI) in multiple endemic areas, including the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province (KPP), Pakistan. In 2007, we investigated community perceptions of the OPV and estimated the prevalence of OPV refusal in three districts in Swat Valley, KPP, a polio-endemic area. Qualitative data concerning community perceptions were collected by focus group discussions among lady health workers (LHWs) and mothers with children <1 year old and by key informant interviews with local health managers and officials. Quantitative data collection followed using a questionnaire survey of 200 LHWs and a cluster sampling survey of 210 mothers (per district) with children <1 year old. The qualitative assessments identified the grounded theory of OPV refusal involving facts known by the residents that are related to the OPV (too frequent OPV campaigns, an OPV boycott in northern Nigeria in 2003 and that birth control is viewed as is against Islam), the local interpretations of these facts (perceptions that OPV contained birth control or pork, that OPV was a foreign/central plot against Muslims, and that the vaccination was against the Hadith and the fate determined by God) and different manifestations of OPV refusal. Among the three districts studied, the proportion of LHWs who encountered OPV refusal ranged from 0 to 33%, whereas among the districts, the proportions of mothers unwilling to give OPV to their children ranged from 0.5 to 5.7%. Refusal of other injectable vaccines was almost equally prevalent for reasons that were very similar. The PEI needs to reflect local value system in the path to polio eradication in the studied districts in the Swat Valley. The religious and cultural values as well as the interpretation of the international political situation are of particular importance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Alpine Red Deer (Cervus elaphus): Its Spread and Effects on Fertility [corrected].

    PubMed

    Formenti, Nicoletta; Trogu, Tiziana; Pedrotti, Luca; Gaffuri, Alessandra; Lanfranchi, Paolo; Ferrari, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to the depth of knowledge on the pathological effects of parasitism in domestic animals, the impact of the vast majority of parasites on wildlife hosts is poorly understood and, besides, information from domestics is rarely usable to disclose the parasites' impact on free-ranging populations' dynamics. Here we use Toxoplasmosis as a study model since, until now, the infection process and the protozoan's effects in natural conditions has received little attention. We analysed 81 sera from red deer (Cervus elaphus) sampled in Italian Alps and through generalized linear models we evaluated (1) the epidemiological factors influencing T. gondii infection dynamics; (2) its impact on female fertility [corrected]. High seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was recorded in yearling (1 year-old; prevalence = 52.4%) and adult (>2 year-old; prevalence = 51.3%) red deer, while calves (<1 year-old) did not contract the infection suggesting horizontal transmission as the main route of infection. The stable prevalence between yearlings and adults and the higher serological titres of younger individuals lead to two alternative infection processes suggesting a difference between age classes or in acquiring the infection or in responding to the pathogen. No associations between T. gondii serological titres and pregnancy status was observed indicating no direct effect on the probability of being pregnant; nevertheless a relation between females' higher serological titres and lower foetal development emerged, suggesting potential effects of the parasite infection on deer reproduction. The results demonstrate high seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in free-ranging red deer and, furthermore, the effect on foetal development suggests the potential impact of the parasite on red deer fertility and thus on its population dynamics.

  2. Human exposure to trace elements through the skin by direct contact with clothing: Risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Rovira, Joaquim; Nadal, Martí; Schuhmacher, Marta; Domingo, José L.

    2015-07-15

    Metals in textile products and clothing are used for many purposes, such as metal complex dyes, pigments, mordant, catalyst in synthetic fabrics manufacture, synergists of flame retardants, antimicrobials, or as water repellents and odour-preventive agents. When present in textile materials, heavy metals may mean a potential danger to human health. In the present study, the concentrations of a number of elements (Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sn, Sr, Tl, V, and Zn) were determined in skin-contact clothes. Analysed clothes were made of different materials, colours, and brands. Interestingly, we found high levels of Cr in polyamide dark clothes (605 mg/kg), high Sb concentrations in polyester clothes (141 mg/kg), and great Cu levels in some green cotton fabrics (around 280 mg/kg). Dermal contact exposure and human health risks for adult males, adult females, and for <1-year-old children were assessed. Non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks were below safe (HQ<1) and acceptable (<10{sup −6}) limits, respectively, according to international standards. However, for Sb, non-carcinogenic risk was above 10% of the safety limit (HQ>0.1) for dermal contact with clothes. - Highlights: • We determined in skin-contact clothes the concentrations of a number of metals. • Dermal contact exposure and health risks for adults and for 1-year-old children were assessed. • Carcinogenic risks were considered as acceptable (<10{sup −6}). • For non-carcinogenic risks, only Sb exceeded a 10% of the HQ for dermal contact with clothes.

  3. Germination and ultrastructural studies of seeds produced by a fast-growing, drought-resistant tree: implications for its domestication and seed storage

    PubMed Central

    Fotouo-M, Helene; du Toit, Elsa S.; Robbertse, Petrus J.

    2015-01-01

    Seed ageing during storage is one of the main causes of reduction in seed quality and this results in loss of vigour and failure to thrive. Finding appropriate storage conditions to ameliorate deterioration due to ageing is, therefore, essential. Ultrastructural changes in cellular organelles during storage and seed germination rates are valuable indices of damage that occurs during seed ageing. There is increasing interest in Moringa oleifera Lam. because of its multiple uses as an agroforestry crop. Seeds of this species lose their viability within 6–12 months of harvest but no scientific information is available on the longevity of seed stored in the fruit (capsules). In most undeveloped countries, seeds are still stored inside the fruit by traditional methods in special handmade structures. In this experiment we tried to simulate these traditional storage conditions. Capsules of Moringa were stored at ambient room temperature for 12, 24 and 36 months. The ultrastructure, solute leakage and viability of seed were investigated. The ultrastructure of 1-year-old seed showed no sign of deterioration. It was evident, however, that some cells of the 3-year-old seed had deteriorated. The remnants of the outer and inner two integuments that remain tightly attached to the cotyledons probably play a role in seed dormancy. No significant difference was found between germination percentage of fresh and 1-year-old seed. The germination percentage decreased significantly from 2 years of storage onward. The decrease in seed viability during storage was associated with a loss in membrane integrity which was evidenced by an increase in electrolyte leakage. Our findings indicate that the longevity of M. oleifera seeds can be maintained if they are stored within their capsules. PMID:25725083

  4. Infant Mortality Risk and Paternity Certainty Are Associated with Postnatal Maternal Behavior toward Adult Male Mountain Gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei)

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbaum, Stacy; Hirwa, Jean Paul; Silk, Joan B.; Vigilant, Linda; Stoinski, Tara S.

    2016-01-01

    Sexually selected infanticide is an important source of infant mortality in many mammalian species. In species with long-term male-female associations, females may benefit from male protection against infanticidal outsiders. We tested whether mountain gorilla (Gorilla beringei beringei) mothers in single and multi-male groups monitored by the Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund’s Karisoke Research Center actively facilitated interactions between their infants and a potentially protective male. We also evaluated the criteria mothers in multi-male groups used to choose a preferred male social partner. In single male groups, where infanticide risk and paternity certainty are high, females with infants <1 year old spent more time near and affiliated more with males than females without young infants. In multi-male groups, where infanticide rates and paternity certainty are lower, mothers with new infants exhibited few behavioral changes toward males. The sole notable change was that females with young infants proportionally increased their time near males they previously spent little time near when compared to males they had previously preferred, perhaps to encourage paternity uncertainty and deter aggression. Rank was a much better predictor of females’ social partner choice than paternity. Older infants (2–3 years) in multi-male groups mirrored their mothers’ preferences for individual male social partners; 89% spent the most time in close proximity to the male their mother had spent the most time near when they were <1 year old. Observed discrepancies between female behavior in single and multi-male groups likely reflect different levels of postpartum intersexual conflict; in groups where paternity certainty and infanticide risk are both high, male-female interests align and females behave accordingly. This highlights the importance of considering individual and group-level variation when evaluating intersexual conflict across the reproductive cycle. PMID:26863300

  5. Trends in Antifungal Susceptibility of Candida spp. Isolated from Pediatric and Adult Patients with Bloodstream Infections: SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program, 1997 to 2000

    PubMed Central

    Pfaller, M. A.; Diekema, D. J.; Jones, R. N.; Messer, S. A.; Hollis, R. J.

    2002-01-01

    From 1 January 1997 through 31 December 2000, 2,047 bloodstream infections (BSIs) due to Candida spp. were reported from hospitals in the United States, Canada, Latin America, and Europe participating in the SENTRY Antifungal Surveillance Program. Among individuals in four age groups (≤1, 2 to 15, 16 to 64, and ≥65 years) Candida albicans was the most common species, causing 60, 55, 55, and 50% of infections, respectively. C. glabrata caused 17 to 23% of BSIs in those ages 16 to 64 and ≥65 years, whereas it caused only 3% of BSIs in the individuals in the two younger age groups (P < 0.001). C. parapsilosis (which caused 21 to 24% of BSIs) and C. tropicalis (which caused 7 to 10% of BSIs) were more common than C. glabrata in individuals ages ≤1 year and 2 to 15 years. Isolates of Candida spp. showed a trend of decreasing susceptibility to fluconazole, itraconazole, and amphotericin B with increasing patient age (P ≤ 0.01). None of the C. glabrata isolates from individuals ≤1 year old were resistant to fluconazole, whereas they made up 5 to 9% of isolates from individuals ages 16 to 64 and ≥65 years. Isolates of C. tropicalis from patients ≤1 year old were more susceptible to flucytosine (MIC at which 90% of isolates are inhibited [MIC90], 0.5 μg/ml; 0% resistant isolates) than those from patients ≥65 years old (MIC90, 32 μg/ml; 11% resistant isolates). The investigational triazoles posaconazole, ravuconazole, and voriconazole were all highly active against all species of Candida from individuals in all age groups. These data demonstrate differences in the species distributions of pathogens and differences in antifungal resistance among isolates from individuals in the pediatric and adult age groups. Ongoing surveillance will enhance efforts to limit the extent of antifungal resistance in individuals in various age groups. PMID:11880404

  6. Favorable outcome in non-infant children with MLL-AF4-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a report from the Tokyo Children's Cancer Study Group.

    PubMed

    Tomizawa, Daisuke; Kato, Motohiro; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Fujimura, Junya; Inukai, Takeshi; Fukushima, Takashi; Kiyokawa, Nobutaka; Koh, Katsuyoshi; Manabe, Atsushi; Ohara, Akira

    2015-11-01

    Unlike acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in infants, MLL gene rearrangement (MLL-r) is rare in ALL children (≥1 year old). The outcome and optimal treatment options for MLL-r ALL remain controversial. Among the 1827 children enrolled in the Tokyo Children's Cancer Study Group ALL studies L95-14, L99-15, L99-1502, L04-16, and L07-1602 (1995-2009), 25 MLL-r ALL patients (1.3 %) were identified. Their median age and leukocyte count at diagnosis was 2 years old (range 1-15 years) and 27,690/μL (range 1800-1,113,000/μL), respectively. All but one patient achieved complete remission (CR) after induction therapy, and 19 underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in first CR according to the protocol. The 5-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) rate were 60.0 % [standard error (SE), 9.7 %] and 64.0 % (SE 9.6 %), respectively. Notably, 9/12 cases with MLL-AF4-positive ALL are alive in continuous CR with a 75.0 % (SE 12.5 %) EFS rate. The causes of treatment failure were as follows: one induction failure, five relapses, and five transplant-related deaths. With intensive chemotherapy and allogeneic HSCT, favorable outcome of children (≥1 year old) with MLL-AF4-positive ALL was observed. However, considering the risk of acute and late toxicities associated with HSCT, its indication should be restricted.

  7. 17α-Ethinylestradiol (EE2) treatment of wild roach (Rutilus rutilus) during early life development disrupts expression of genes directly involved in the feedback cycle of estrogen.

    PubMed

    Nikoleris, Lina; Hultin, Cecilia L; Hallgren, Per; Hansson, Maria C

    2016-02-01

    Fish are more sensitive to introduced disturbances from synthetic endocrine disrupting compounds during early life phases compared with mature stages. 17α-Ethinylestradiol (EE2), which is the active compound in human oral contraceptives and hormone replacement therapies, is today ever present in the effluents from sewage treatment plants. EE2 targets and interacts with the endogenous biological systems of exposed vertebrates resulting in to large extents unknown short- and long-term effects. We investigated how EE2 exposure affects expression profiles of a large number of target genes during early life of roach (Rutilus rutilus). We exposed fertilized roach eggs collected from a lake in Southern Sweden to EE2 for 12weeks together with 1+-year-old roach in aquaria. We measured the gene expression of the estrogen receptor (esr)1/2a/2b, androgen receptor (ar), vitellogenin, cytochrome P450 (cyp)19a1a/1b in fertilized eggs; newly hatched larvae; 12-week-old fry; and juvenile wild roach (1+-year-old). Results shows that an EE2 concentration as low as 0.5ng/L significantly affects gene expression during early development. Gene expression responses vary both among life stages and molecular receptors. We also show that the gene profile of the estrogen feedback cycle to a large extent depends on the relationship between the three esr genes and the two cyp19a1 genes, which are all up-regulated with age. Results indicate that a disruption of the natural activity of the dominant esr gene could lead to detrimental biological effects if EE2 exposure occurs during development, even if this exposure occurred for only a short period.

  8. Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Alpine Red Deer (Cervus elaphus): Its Spread and Effects on Fertility

    PubMed Central

    Formenti, Nicoletta; Trogu, Tiziana; Pedrotti, Luca; Gaffuri, Alessandra; Lanfranchi, Paolo; Ferrari, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to the depth of knowledge on the pathological effects of parasitism in domestic animals, the impact of the vast majority of parasites on wildlife hosts is poorly understood and, besides, information from domestics is rarely usable to disclose the parasites’ impact on free-ranging populations’ dynamics. Here we use Toxoplasmosis as a study model since, until now, the infection process and the protozoan’s effects in natural conditions has received little attention. We analysed 81 sera from red deer (Cervus elaphus) sampled in Italian Alps and through generalized linear models we evaluated (1) the epidemiological factors influencing T. gondii infection dynamics; (2) its impact on female fertility. High seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was recorded in yearling (1 year-old; prevalence = 52.4%) and adult (>2 year-old; prevalence = 51.3%) red deer, while calves (<1 year-old) did not contract the infection suggesting horizontal transmission as the main route of infection. The stable prevalence between yearlings and adults and the higher serological titres of younger individuals lead to two alternative infection processes suggesting a difference between age classes or in acquiring the infection or in responding to the pathogen. No associations between T. gondii serological titres and pregnancy status was observed indicating no direct effect on the probability of being pregnant; nevertheless a relation between females’ higher serological titres and lower foetal development emerged, suggesting potential effects of the parasite infection on deer reproduction. The results demonstrate high seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in free-ranging red deer and, furthermore, the effect on foetal development suggests the potential impact of the parasite on red deer fertility and thus on its population dynamics. PMID:26405785

  9. Resonance behaviour of whole-body averaged specific energy absorption rate (SAR) in the female voxel model, NAOMI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimbylow, Peter

    2005-09-01

    Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) calculations have been performed of the whole-body averaged specific energy absorption rate (SAR) in a female voxel model, NAOMI, under isolated and grounded conditions from 10 MHz to 3 GHz. The 2 mm resolution voxel model, NAOMI, was scaled to a height of 1.63 m and a mass of 60 kg, the dimensions of the ICRP reference adult female. Comparison was made with SAR values from a reference male voxel model, NORMAN. A broad SAR resonance in the NAOMI values was found around 900 MHz and a resulting enhancement, up to 25%, over the values for the male voxel model, NORMAN. This latter result confirmed previously reported higher values in a female model. The effect of differences in anatomy was investigated by comparing values for 10-, 5- and 1-year-old phantoms rescaled to the ICRP reference values of height and mass which are the same for both sexes. The broad resonance in the NAOMI child values around 1 GHz is still a strong feature. A comparison has been made with ICNIRP guidelines. The ICNIRP occupational reference level provides a conservative estimate of the whole-body averaged SAR restriction. The linear scaling of the adult phantom using different factors in longitudinal and transverse directions, in order to match the ICRP stature and weight, does not exactly reproduce the anatomy of children. However, for public exposure the calculations with scaled child models indicate that the ICNIRP reference level may not provide a conservative estimate of the whole-body averaged SAR restriction, above 1.2 GHz for scaled 5- and 1-year-old female models, although any underestimate is by less than 20%.

  10. Recruitment in a Colorado population of big brown bats: Breeding probabilities, litter size, and first-year survival

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Shea, T.J.; Ellison, L.E.; Neubaum, D.J.; Neubaum, M.A.; Reynolds, C.A.; Bowen, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    We used markrecapture estimation techniques and radiography to test hypotheses about 3 important aspects of recruitment in big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) in Fort Collins, Colorado: adult breeding probabilities, litter size, and 1st-year survival of young. We marked 2,968 females with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags at multiple sites during 2001-2005 and based our assessments on direct recaptures (breeding probabilities) and passive detection with automated PIT tag readers (1st-year survival). We interpreted our data in relation to hypotheses regarding demographic influences of bat age, roost, and effects of years with unusual environmental conditions: extreme drought (2002) and arrival of a West Nile virus epizootic (2003). Conditional breeding probabilities at 6 roosts sampled in 2002-2005 were estimated as 0.64 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 0.530.73) in 1-year-old females, but were consistently high (95% CI = 0.940.96) and did not vary by roost, year, or prior year breeding status in older adults. Mean litter size was 1.11 (95% CI = 1.051.17), based on examination of 112 pregnant females by radiography. Litter size was not higher in older or larger females and was similar to results of other studies in western North America despite wide variation in latitude. First-year survival was estimated as 0.67 (95% CI = 0.610.73) for weaned females at 5 maternity roosts over 5 consecutive years, was lower than adult survival (0.79; 95% CI = 0.770.81), and varied by roost. Based on model selection criteria, strong evidence exists for complex roost and year effects on 1st-year survival. First-year survival was lowest in bats born during the drought year. Juvenile females that did not return to roosts as 1-year-olds had lower body condition indices in late summer of their natal year than those known to survive. ?? 2009 American Society of Mammalogists.

  11. [Beta carotene deficiency in children under five attending Hospital de Ninos Robert Reid Cabral].

    PubMed

    Gamundy Beato, R; Polanco Ortiz, L; Matos Lora, D; Aquino, E; Ortiz, M; Calderon, S; Mendoza, H R

    1989-01-01

    Serum B-carotene levels were measured in 52 children under 5 in Santo Domingo and their consumption of carotene-rich foods in the 2 months preceding the survey was assessed. 29 girls and 23 boys were selected at random from an outpatient clinic of a children's hospital in Santo Domingo serving low-income residents. Clinical criteria of the World Health Organization for vitamin A deficiency were utilized. 23 of the children were under 1 year and 29 were 1-4 years old. Consumption of B-carotene in the day preceding the survey was inadequate in 50% of cases, according to dietary information supplied by parents. 33 of the 52 children were considered adequately nourished. 15 were slightly malnourished, 2 were moderately malnourished, and 2 were seriously malnourished. 40 of the children had low levels of B-carotene, defined as under 50 mcg/ml. 19 of the 40 were under 1 year old and 19 were boys. 80% of those with inadequate carotene consumption and 73% with adequate consumption had low serum carotene levels. 100% of malnourished children with inadequate carotene consumption had low levels of carotene, vs. 66.7% of adequately nourished children with inadequate carotene intake. Only 1 of the children, a slightly malnourished girl under 1 year old, showed clinical evidence of vitamin A deficiency. Causal factors in the low level of consumption of carotene-rich foods included early weaning, unavailability of carotene rich foods or their high cost, aversion of the children to them, or cultural beliefs limiting their consumption by small children. 11 cases were considered at risk because they presented low B-carotenes levels, malnutrition, and low consumption of foods rich in carotenes on the day preceding the survey and in the preceding 2 months.

  12. Car safety seats for children: rear facing for best protection

    PubMed Central

    Henary, B; Sherwood, C P; Crandall, J R; Kent, R W; Vaca, F E; Arbogast, K B; Bull, M J

    2007-01-01

    Objective To compare the injury risk between rear‐facing (RFCS) and forward‐facing (FFCS) car seats for children less than 2 years of age in the USA. Methods Data were extracted from a US National Highway Traffic Safety Administration vehicle crash database for the years 1988–2003. Children 0–23 months of age restrained in an RFCS or FFCS when riding in passenger cars, sport utility vehicles, or light trucks were included in the study. Logistic regression models and restraint effectiveness calculations were used to compare the risk of injury between children restrained in RFCSs and FFCSs. Results Children in FFCSs were significantly more likely to be seriously injured than children restrained in RFCSs in all crash types (OR = 1.76, 95% CI 1.40 to 2.20). When considering frontal crashes alone, children in FFCSs were more likely to be seriously injured (OR = 1.23), although this finding was not statistically significant (95% CI 0.95 to 1.59). In side crashes, however, children in FFCSs were much more likely to be injured (OR = 5.53, 95% CI 3.74 to 8.18). When 1 year olds were analyzed separately, these children were also more likely to be seriously injured when restrained in FFCSs (OR = 5.32, 95% CI 3.43 to 8.24). Effectiveness estimates for RFCSs (93%) were found to be 15% higher than those for FFCSs (78%). Conclusions RFCSs are more effective than FFCSs in protecting restrained children aged 0–23 months. The same findings apply when 1 year olds are analyzed separately. Use of an RFCS, in accordance with restraint recommendations for child size and weight, is an excellent choice for optimum protection up to a child's second birthday. PMID:18056317

  13. Prenatal Hemoglobin Levels and Early Cognitive and Motor Functions of One-Year-Old Children.

    PubMed

    Mireku, Michael O; Davidson, Leslie L; Koura, Ghislain K; Ouédraogo, Smaïla; Boivin, Michael J; Xiong, Xu; Accrombessi, Manfred M K; Massougbodji, Achille; Cot, Michel; Bodeau-Livinec, Florence

    2015-07-01

    To explore the relationship between prenatal hemoglobin (Hb) concentration and infant cognitive and motor functions. Our prospective cohort study included 1-year-old children born to women enrolled at their first antenatal care (ANC) visit in Allada, Benin, before 29 weeks of pregnancy, within a trial comparing the efficacy of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and mefloquine. Hb concentrations of pregnant women were determined from venous blood samples collected at first and second ANC visits of at least 1-month interval and at delivery. Women were prescribed oral iron, folic acid, and anthelminthics after the first ANC visit. A total of 636 children (76.8% of eligible children) were assessed by trained research nurses for cognitive and motor functions by using the Mullen Scales of Early Learning. Prevalence of anemia (Hb < 110 g/L) decreased from 67.0% at first ANC visit (mean gestational age [SD], 22.1 [4.0] weeks) to 38.4% at delivery. Mean (SD) Hb concentrations increased from 103.7 (12.3) at first ANC visit to 112.4 (14.1) at delivery. We observed a significant negative quadratic relationship between infant gross motor (GM) function and Hb concentration at first and second ANC visits. Thus, infant GM scores increased sharply with increasing maternal Hb concentration until 90 g/L where increasing GM was mild, and began to decline after 110 g/L. There appears to be an Hb concentration range that may be optimal for GM function of 1-year-old children. This may reflect the importance of physiologic hemodilution, which occurs after the second trimester until 34 weeks of gestation. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  14. Allocation to Reproduction and Relative Reproductive Costs in Two Species of Dioecious Anacardiaceae with Contrasting Phenology

    PubMed Central

    Matsuyama, Shuhei; Sakimoto, Michinori

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims The cost of reproduction in dioecious plants is often female-biased. However, several studies have reported no difference in costs of reproduction between the sexes. In this study, the relative reproductive allocation and costs at the shoot and whole-plant levels were examined in woody dioecious Rhus javanica and R. trichocarpa, in order to examine differences between types of phenophase (i.e. physiological stage of development). Methods Male and female Rhus javanica and R. trichocarpa were sampled and the reproductive and vegetative allocation of the shoot were estimated by harvesting reproductive current-year shoots during flowering and fruiting. Measurements were made of the number of reproductive and total current-year shoots per whole plant, and of the basal area increment (BAI). The numbers of reproductive and total current-year shoots per 1-year-old shoot were counted in order to examine the costs in the following year at the shoot level. Key Results A female-biased annual reproductive allocation was found; however, the ratio of reproductive current-year shoots per tree and the BAI did not differ between sexes in Rhus javanica and R. trichocarpa. The percentage of 1-year-old shoots with at least one reproductive current-year shoot was significantly male-biased in R. trichocarpa, but not in R. javanica, indicating that there was a relative cost at the shoot level only in R. trichocarpa. The female-biased leaf mass per shoot, an indicator of compensation for costs, was only found in R. javanica. Conclusions Relative reproductive costs at the shoot level were detected in Rhus trichocarpa, which has simultaneous leafing and flowering, but not in R. javanica, which has leafing followed by flowering. However, the costs for the whole-plant level were diminished in both species. The results suggest that the phenophase type may produce the different costs for R. javanica and R. trichocarpa through the development of a compensation mechanism. PMID

  15. Changes in the pattern of sun exposure and sun protection in young children from tropical Australia.

    PubMed

    Smith, Annika; Harrison, Simone; Nowak, Madeleine; Buettner, Petra; Maclennan, Robert

    2013-05-01

    Australia has one of the highest rates of skin cancer globally. Lifetime risk is associated with childhood sun exposure. We sought to investigate whether skin cancer prevention programs have resulted in improvements in sun-exposure and sun-protection behavior among young children in tropical Australia. Two cohorts of 12-to 35-month-old children from Townsville, Australia, were compared: cohort 1 was recruited from hospital birth records (1991) and cohort 2 was recruited via local child-care centers (1999-2002). Children's phenotypic characteristics were assessed. Parents completed questionnaires detailing children's demographic characteristics, and sun-exposure and sun-protective practices. Although 1-year-old children from cohort 2 spent more time in the sun than those from cohort 1 (median 2.2 vs 2.8 h/d; P = .002), a higher proportion almost always wore sunscreen and a swim-shirt year round. Although more 1-year-old children in cohort 2 had experienced a sunburn (35.5% vs 51.2%; P = .007), both cohort 2 age groups experienced fewer hours of sun exposure to the back of the trunk (P < .001), were less likely to have been sunburned on the back/shoulders (age 1 year 34.8% vs 10.1% and age 2 years 52% vs 10.1%; P < .001), and acquired fewer melanocytic nevi at these sites (P < .001). There was potential for socially desirable responses (information bias). Although duration of sun exposure in early childhood did not decrease during an 8-year period, reported use of personal sun protection did. The observed increase in popularity of swim-shirts and sunscreen between cohorts coincided with the development of significantly fewer melanocytic nevi in these children. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Dietary quality and adequacy of micronutrient intakes in children.

    PubMed

    Thorsdottir, Inga; Gunnarsson, Björn S

    2006-11-01

    Presented are longitudinal studies, extending from infancy (n 180) to 2 years of age (n 130) and 6 years of age (>70% participation) of diet and Fe status in a population with high birth weight, high frequency of breast-feeding and, at the time of the study, high intake of cow's milk during the weaning period. The association between socio-demographic and dietary factors was also studied, together with Fe status in early childhood and developmental status at 6 years. Fe status was found to be poorer than in the neighbouring Nordic countries. Every fifth 1-year-old was Fe-deficient (serum ferritin <12 microg/l and mean corpuscular volume <74 fl). It was demonstrated by regression analysis that Fe status was negatively associated with cow's milk consumption at 9-12 months (significant at >460 g/d) and was weakly positively associated with fish, meat and Fe-fortified cereal consumption. Fe-deficient infants had a shorter duration of breast-feeding, and breast-feeding was related to slower growth, which can protect from worsening Fe status. Fe deficiency was less common at ages 2 and 6 years. Maternal factors associated with lower adherence to the recommended infant diet were less education, lower age and smoking. In a multiple stepwise regression analysis that included food factors, socio-demographic factors were not found to be associated with Fe status. Fe-depleted and Fe-deficient 1-year-olds had lower fine motor scores when they were 6 years old than those who were not Fe-deficient or Fe-depleted. The findings of these studies have already led to changes in the local recommendations for diet in infancy. The results suggest that Fe deficiency at 12 months of age affects development at 6 years of age. The studies indicated that mothers with less education, who smoked and who were younger needed more guidance concerning recommendations about diet in infancy.

  17. Rabies virus and canine distemper virus in wild and domestic carnivores in Northern Kenya: are domestic dogs the reservoir?

    PubMed

    Prager, K C; Mazet, Jonna A K; Dubovi, Edward J; Frank, Laurence G; Munson, Linda; Wagner, Aaron P; Woodroffe, Rosie

    2012-12-01

    Rabies virus (RV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) can cause significant mortality in wild carnivore populations, and RV threatens human lives. We investigated serological patterns of exposure to CDV and RV in domestic dogs (Canis familiaris), African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus), black-backed jackals (Canis mesomelas), spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta), striped hyenas (Hyaena hyaena) and African lions (Panthera leo), over a 10-year period, in a Kenyan rangeland to assess the role domestic dogs may play in the transmission dynamics of these two important canid pathogens. Observed patterns of RV exposure suggested that repeated introduction, rather than maintenance, occurred in the wild carnivore species studied. However, RV appeared to have been maintained in domestic dogs: exposure was more likely in domestic dogs than in the wild carnivores; was detected consistently over time without variation among years; and was detected in juveniles (≤1-year-old) as well as adults (>1-year-old). We conclude that this domestic dog population could be a RV reservoir. By contrast, the absence of evidence of CDV exposure for each carnivore species examined in the study area, for specific years, suggested repeated introduction, rather than maintenance, and that CDV may require a larger reservoir population than RV. This reservoir could be a larger domestic dog population; another wildlife species; or a "metareservoir" consisting of multiple interconnected carnivore populations. Our findings suggest that RV risks to people and wild carnivores might be controlled by domestic dog vaccination, but that CDV control, if required, would need to target the species of concern.

  18. A cost-benefit analysis of varicella vaccination in Aragón.

    PubMed

    Peña Blasco, Guillermo; Blasco Pérez-Aramendía, M Jesús

    2017-10-01

    Varicella, a contagious and infectious disease that is usually benign in children, may become complicated among adults and vulnerable children and may even be life-threatening. There are effective vaccines. A retrospective study was conducted about costs and resulting hospitalizations related to this disease in the population of Aragón in the 2004-2014 period. Costs were compared to the expenses that would have been incurred if those people had received the vaccine and also to the expenses of vaccinating the 1-year-old population over the entire period. A cost-benefit analysis was done to assess the economic impact of varicella vaccination. Data for the 11-year period were provided by the Autonomous Community of Aragón (Spain) and included annual varicella incidence, hospital discharges of varicella cases, costs of primary health care visits and hospitalizations for each year, costs of each workday as per the minimum annual salary and of drugs used). Capitalized costs were estimated and compared to capitalized expenses of vaccination, and a sensitivity analysis was performed. A benefit-cost ratio of 1.6 was obtained considering that all children who had varicella had been vaccinated and had received a booster dose. A benefit-cost ratio of 1.24 was obtained considering that the vaccine had been administered to every 1-year-old individual at a price of EUR 28.59 per vaccine. Over the 11-year period, 53% of hospitalizations corresponded to children younger than 5 years old. Public campaigns for the immunization of children younger than 4 years old with 2 doses lead to cost savings and are cost-effective because the vaccine price results in a benefit-cost ratio greater than 1. A major reduction is expected in the number of hospitalizations among children aged 3-4 years.

  19. Infant Mortality Risk and Paternity Certainty Are Associated with Postnatal Maternal Behavior toward Adult Male Mountain Gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei).

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Stacy; Hirwa, Jean Paul; Silk, Joan B; Vigilant, Linda; Stoinski, Tara S

    2016-01-01

    Sexually selected infanticide is an important source of infant mortality in many mammalian species. In species with long-term male-female associations, females may benefit from male protection against infanticidal outsiders. We tested whether mountain gorilla (Gorilla beringei beringei) mothers in single and multi-male groups monitored by the Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund's Karisoke Research Center actively facilitated interactions between their infants and a potentially protective male. We also evaluated the criteria mothers in multi-male groups used to choose a preferred male social partner. In single male groups, where infanticide risk and paternity certainty are high, females with infants <1 year old spent more time near and affiliated more with males than females without young infants. In multi-male groups, where infanticide rates and paternity certainty are lower, mothers with new infants exhibited few behavioral changes toward males. The sole notable change was that females with young infants proportionally increased their time near males they previously spent little time near when compared to males they had previously preferred, perhaps to encourage paternity uncertainty and deter aggression. Rank was a much better predictor of females' social partner choice than paternity. Older infants (2-3 years) in multi-male groups mirrored their mothers' preferences for individual male social partners; 89% spent the most time in close proximity to the male their mother had spent the most time near when they were <1 year old. Observed discrepancies between female behavior in single and multi-male groups likely reflect different levels of postpartum intersexual conflict; in groups where paternity certainty and infanticide risk are both high, male-female interests align and females behave accordingly. This highlights the importance of considering individual and group-level variation when evaluating intersexual conflict across the reproductive cycle.

  20. Evaluation for Occult Fractures in Injured Children

    PubMed Central

    French, Benjamin; Song, Lihai; Feudtner, Chris

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine variation across US hospitals in evaluation for occult fractures in (1) children <2 years old diagnosed with physical abuse and (2) infants <1 year old with injuries associated with a high likelihood of abuse and to identify factors associated with such variation. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study in children <2 years old with a diagnosis of physical abuse and in infants <1 year old with non-motor vehicle crash–related traumatic brain injury or femur fractures discharged from 366 hospitals in the Premier database from 2009 to 2013. We examined across-hospital variation and identified child- and hospital-level factors associated with evaluation for occult fractures. RESULTS: Evaluations for occult fractures were performed in 48% of the 2502 children with an abuse diagnosis, in 51% of the 1574 infants with traumatic brain injury, and in 53% of the 859 infants with femur fractures. Hospitals varied substantially with regard to their rates of evaluation for occult fractures in all 3 groups. Occult fracture evaluations were more likely to be performed at teaching hospitals than at nonteaching hospitals (all P < .001). The hospital-level annual volume of young, injured children was associated with the probability of occult fracture evaluation, such that hospitals treating more young, injured patients were more likely to evaluate for occult fractures (all P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Substantial variation in evaluation for occult fractures among young children with a diagnosis of abuse or injuries associated with a high likelihood of abuse highlights opportunities for quality improvement in this vulnerable population. PMID:26169425

  1. Early social cognition in three cultural contexts.

    PubMed

    Callaghan, Tara; Moll, Henrike; Rakoczy, Hannes; Warneken, Felix; Liszkowski, Ulf; Behne, Tanya; Tomasello, Michael

    2011-08-01

    The influence of culture on cognitive development is well established for school age and older children. But almost nothing is known about how different parenting and socialization practices in different cultures affect infants' and young children's earliest emerging cognitive and social-cognitive skills. In the current monograph, we report a series of eight studies in which we systematically assessed the social-cognitive skills of 1- to 3-year-old children in three diverse cultural settings. One group of children was from a Western, middle-class cultural setting in rural Canada and the other two groups were from traditional, small-scale cultural settings in rural Peru and India.In a first group of studies, we assessed 1-year-old children's most basic social-cognitive skills for understanding the intentions and attention of others: imitation, helping, gaze following, and communicative pointing.Children's performance in these tasks was mostly similar across cultural settings. In a second group of studies, we assessed 1-year-old children's skills in participating in interactive episodes of collaboration and joint attention.Again in these studies the general finding was one of cross-cultural similarity. In a final pair of studies, we assessed 2- to 3-year-old children's skills within two symbolic systems (pretense and pictorial). Here we found that the Canadian children who had much more experience with such symbols showed skills at an earlier age.Our overall conclusion is that young children in all cultural settings get sufficient amounts of the right kinds of social experience to develop their most basic social-cognitive skills for interacting with others and participating in culture at around the same age. In contrast, children's acquisition of more culturally specific skills for use in practices involving artifacts and symbols is more dependent on specific learning experiences.

  2. The role of zinc, copper, plasma glutathione peroxidase enzyme, and vitamins in the development of allergic diseases in early childhood: The Polish mother and child cohort study.

    PubMed

    Stelmach, Iwona; Grzelewski, Tomasz; Bobrowska-Korzeniowska, Monika; Kopka, Monika; Majak, Paweł; Jerzynska, Joanna; Stelmach, Wlodzimierz; Polańska, Kinga; Sobala, Wojciech; Gromadzińska, Jolanta; Wąsowicz, Wojciech; Hanke, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that the increase in allergic disorders may, in part, be a consequence of changing diet. The primary aim of this study was to assess the associations between occurrence of atopic dermatitis; food allergy; the incidence of wheeze inhaled glucocorticosteroid use in children during the 1st year of life; and cord blood concentrations of copper, zinc, vitamins (A and E), and glutathione peroxidase activity. We evaluated 240 1-year-old children from the Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study. Women were interviewed during pregnancy to collect demographic and socioeconomic data and medical and reproductive history. Exposure to tobacco constituents was assessed based on questionnaire data. At delivery, umbilical cord blood plasma was sampled. One year after the birth, the child's exposure and health status were examined. In the analyses a multivariable model was used. Higher zinc and copper concentrations in cord blood were associated with increased likelihood of wheezing in 1-year-old children. This effect was seen only among children exposed to tobacco smoke at home. We also showed significantly lower activity of glutathione peroxidase enzyme 3 in umbilical cord blood plasma of children with atopic dermatitis during the 1st year of life. There were no significant associations between vitamin A and E concentrations in plasma and children's health. We showed imbalance in the antioxidant defense system in cord blood, which may lead to development of atopic dermatitis or wheezing in infancy. The association between maternal nutrient status during pregnancy and child's health is complex and interacts with other environmental factors such as tobacco exposure. This study was a part of the clinical trial NCT01861548 registered at ClinicalTrials.gov.

  3. Lymphocyte differentiation in sea bass thymus: CD4 and CD8-alpha gene expression studies.

    PubMed

    Picchietti, Simona; Guerra, Laura; Buonocore, Francesco; Randelli, Elisa; Fausto, Anna Maria; Abelli, Luigi

    2009-07-01

    Different developmental stages (from eggs to 1-year-old juveniles) of the teleost fish Dicentrarchus labrax (L.) were assayed for CD4 gene expression. RT-PCR revealed the appearance of CD4 transcripts in post-larvae from 51 days post-hatching (dph). This finding overlaps the first detection of CD8-alpha mRNA. Real-time PCR with specific primers quantified CD4, CD8-alpha and TCR-beta transcripts in larvae and post-larvae (25, 51, 75 and 92 dph) and 1-year-old thymus. At 92 dph, TcR-beta and CD8-alpha transcripts were significantly higher (P < 0.001) than in previous stages, as CD4 transcripts compared with 51 dph (P < 0.01). High levels of TCR-beta and CD8-alpha transcripts were found in the thymus, while CD4 transcripts were lower (P < 0.05 vs. TCR-beta). In situ hybridization identified CD4 mRNAs at 51 dph, localized in thymocytes of the outer and lateral zones of the thymic glands. From 75 dph on the signal was mainly detected in the outer region, drawing a cortex-medulla demarcation. Developmental expression of CD4 and CD8-alpha almost coincided. In each adult thymic lobe CD4(+) and CD8-alpha(+) thymocytes filled the cortex. The expression patterns of CD4 and CD8-alpha largely overlap, except in the medulla, where CD4(+) thymocytes were isolated, while CD8-alpha(+) ones mainly arranged in cords. These results provide new information about the thymic compartmentalization and lymphocyte differentiation pathways in a teleost, almost demonstrating that double negative thymocytes fill the cortex giving rise to further selection in the medulla.

  4. Germination and ultrastructural studies of seeds produced by a fast-growing, drought-resistant tree: implications for its domestication and seed storage.

    PubMed

    Fotouo-M, Helene; du Toit, Elsa S; Robbertse, Petrus J

    2015-02-27

    Seed ageing during storage is one of the main causes of reduction in seed quality and this results in loss of vigour and failure to thrive. Finding appropriate storage conditions to ameliorate deterioration due to ageing is, therefore, essential. Ultrastructural changes in cellular organelles during storage and seed germination rates are valuable indices of damage that occurs during seed ageing. There is increasing interest in Moringa oleifera Lam. because of its multiple uses as an agroforestry crop. Seeds of this species lose their viability within 6-12 months of harvest but no scientific information is available on the longevity of seed stored in the fruit (capsules). In most undeveloped countries, seeds are still stored inside the fruit by traditional methods in special handmade structures. In this experiment we tried to simulate these traditional storage conditions. Capsules of Moringa were stored at ambient room temperature for 12, 24 and 36 months. The ultrastructure, solute leakage and viability of seed were investigated. The ultrastructure of 1-year-old seed showed no sign of deterioration. It was evident, however, that some cells of the 3-year-old seed had deteriorated. The remnants of the outer and inner two integuments that remain tightly attached to the cotyledons probably play a role in seed dormancy. No significant difference was found between germination percentage of fresh and 1-year-old seed. The germination percentage decreased significantly from 2 years of storage onward. The decrease in seed viability during storage was associated with a loss in membrane integrity which was evidenced by an increase in electrolyte leakage. Our findings indicate that the longevity of M. oleifera seeds can be maintained if they are stored within their capsules.

  5. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in breeding kennel dogs in Japan.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Naoyuki; Kanai, Kazutaka; Kimura, Yuya; Chikazawa, Seishiro; Hori, Yasutomo; Hoshi, Fumio

    2015-03-01

    The present study is the first to show overall prevalences of intestinal parasites among breeding kennel dogs in Japan. A total of 573 fresh fecal samples were collected from dogs at 12 breeding kennels. Giardia-specific coproantigen was examined by ELISA kit (SNAP(®) Giardia, IDEXX Laboratories, Inc., Maine, USA). Other intestinal parasites were determined microscopically using the formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation technique. Overall prevalences of two genera of protists, Giardia spp. and Cystoisospora spp., were 25.7 and 1.2 %, respectively. The prevalence of helminthes was recorded as: Toxocara canis 0.2 %, Toxascaris leonina 0.9 %, Ancylostoma caninum 0.2 %, Trichuris vulpis 2.1 %, and Spirometra erinacei 0.4 %. According to age categories, Giardia spp., Cystoisospora spp., and T. leonina in <1-year-old dogs were significantly more prevalent than in ≥ 1-year-old dogs (61.0 vs. 19.8 %, P < 0.0001; 7.3 vs. 0.2 %, P < 0.0001; and 4.9 vs. 0.2 %, P < 0.001; respectively). With respect to fecal condition, the prevalences of T. leonina and T. vulpis were significantly higher in unformed stool dogs than in formed ones (2.4 vs. 0 %, P < 0.01, and 4.3 vs. 0.8 %, P < 0.05, respectively). In all of the breeding kennels except for one kennel, intestinal parasite infections were found at the high prevalent, ranging from 16.0 to 70.0 %.

  6. Kinetics of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT I) in Chinese sucker (Myxocyprinus asiaticus) change with its development.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cai-Xia; Luo, Zhi; Hu, Wei; Tan, Xiao-Ying; Zheng, Jia-Lang; Chen, Qi-Liang; Zhu, Qing-Ling

    2014-02-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the ontogeny and kinetic of CPT I in several tissues of the Chinese sucker Myxocyprinus asiaticus. To this end, liver, muscle and intestine tissues were examined at five various developmental stages of Chinese sucker: newly-hatched larvae, 68-day-old, 4-month-old, 1- and 2-year-old Chinese sucker, respectively. The total carnitine (TC) content in the liver increased from birth to 1-year-old Chinese sucker and then declined in the 2-year-old Chinese sucker. From the 68-day-old to the 1-year-old Chinese sucker, both free and total concentrations in muscle increased. Both acyl carnitine (AC) and TC concentrations in intestine were very variable at different stages. The ratio of AC to free carnitine (FC) in liver progressively increased from hatching to 4 months, and declined at the age of 1 year, and then increased by 2 years. In muscle, the highest and lowest ratios of AC/FC were observed at 68-days-old and 4 month-old Chinese sucker. The highest proportion of AC/FC in intestine was also observed at 68-day-old Chinese sucker. All the Chinese sucker larvae at hatching had a high value of the Michaelis constant (K(m)) for carnitine. Maximal velocity (V(max)) in intestine increased with age. V(max) in liver and muscle increased with age except a decrease at 4 months in liver and at 2 years in muscle. The FC concentration in the examined tissues at all developmental stages were less than the respective K(m), indicating that Chinese suckers require supplemental carnitine in their food to ensure that CPT I activity is not constrained by carnitine availability.

  7. Forest age stands affect soil respiration and litterfall in a Black pine forest managed by a shelterwood system in the Central Spain?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedo de Santiago, Javier; Borja, Manuel Esteban Lucas; Candel, David; Viñegla Pérez, Benjamin

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects that stand age and forest structure generates on soil respiration and litterfall quantity. The effect of stand age on these variables was studied in a shelterwood system Spanish Black pine chronosequence in central Iberian Peninsula composed of 0-20, 20-40, 40-60, 60-80, 80-100-year-old. For each stand age, six forest stands with similar characteristics of soil type and site preparation were used. Also, a forest area ranging 80-120 years old and without forest intervention was selected and used as control. We also measured organic matter, C:N ratio, soil moisture and pH in the top 10 mineral soil at each compartment. Soil respiration measurements were carried out in three time points (3, 8 and 12 days). Results showed a clear trend in soil respiration, comparing all the experimental areas. Soil respiration showed the same trend in all stands. It initially showed higher rates, reaching stability in the middle of the measurement process and finally lightly increasing the respiration rate. The older stands had significantly higher soil respiration than the younger stands. Soil organic matter values were also higher in the more mature stands. C:N ratio showed the opposite trend, showing lower values in the less mature stands. More mature stands clearly showed more quantity of litterfall than the younger ones and there was a positive correlation between soil respiration and litterfall. Finally, the multivariate PCA analysis clearly clustered three differenced groups: Control plot; from 100 to 40 years old and from 39 to 1 years old, taking into account both soil respiration and litterfall quantity, also separately. Our results suggest that the control plot has a better soil quality and that extreme forest stand ages (100-80 and 19-1 years old) and the associated forest structure generates differences in soil respiration.

  8. Maternal self-efficacy regarding children's eating and sedentary behaviours in the early years: associations with children's food intake and sedentary behaviours.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Karen; Hesketh, Kylie; Silverii, Amanda; Abbott, Gavin

    2010-12-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to describe parents' views regarding self-efficacy to influence children's eating and sedentary behaviours at two time points in early childhood, and to examine associations between these views and children's eating and sedentary behaviours. Mothers of 1-year (n=60) and 5-year-old children (n=80) were recruited through Maternal and Child Health Centres and kindergartens in Victoria, Australia. Mothers reported children's dietary intake, television viewing and perceptions of their self-efficacy regarding children's eating and sedentary behaviours. Overall, 5-year-old children consumed significantly more energy-dense food and drink and spent significantly more time viewing TV/DVD and video. Mothers of 1-year-olds were significantly more likely to report they felt confident to limit child's consumption of non-core foods/drinks, and to limit screen access (p<0.001). Measures of maternal self-efficacy were directly associated with 5-year-old children's water (p<0.05), and fruit and vegetable consumption (p<0.005), and with 1-year-old children's vegetable consumption (p<0.05), and were inversely associated with cordial and cake consumption (p<0.05). Maternal self-efficacy to limit viewing time was inversely associated with screen-time exposure in both age groups (p<0.01). This study suggests that mother's self-efficacy regarding limiting non-core foods/drinks and limiting screen-time exposures may decline during the first few years of a child's life. Higher maternal self-efficacy was associated with children having more obesity protective eating and sedentary behaviours at both ages. Interventions to support the development of healthy lifestyle behaviours may be most effective if they target mothers' self-efficacy in these domains early in their child's life.

  9. [A multicenter randomized controlled study of Saccharomyces boulardii in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in infants and young children].

    PubMed

    Wan, C M; Yu, H; Liu, G; Xu, H M; Mao, Z Q; Xu, Y; Jin, Y; Luo, R P; Wang, W J; Fang, F

    2017-05-04

    /213) was also significantly lower than that in control group (16.4%, 32/195, χ(2)=23.4, P<0.05). Further analysis revealed that the rate of AAD in children less than or equal to 1 year old (25.1%, 52/207) was significantly higher than that of over 1 year old (13.4%, 27/201, χ(2)=8.922, P<0.05). The incidence of AAD in children treated with antibiotics for more than 5 days was 22.2%(60/270), which was significantly higher than that of less than or equal to 5 days (13.8%, 19/138, χ(2)=4.180, P<0.05). Although no significant difference was observed, the AAD rate of patients with combined use of two antibiotics was higher than that of using one. During the antibiotic therapy, compared with the control group, the risk of AAD in children under 1 year old was reduced by 52% (χ(2)=9.217, P<0.05), and 91% (χ(2)=20.35, P<0.05) in the children over 1 year old in prevention group. The risk of AAD of prevention group decreased by 66% (χ(2)=13.67, P<0.05) in patients treated with one antibiotics, and 65% in children with combined use of antibiotics (χ(2)=10.57, P<0.05). In patients treated with antibiotics for less than or equal to 5 days, the risk of AAD decreased by 74% in prevention group (χ(2)=7.38, P<0.05); and 63% if the course lasted for over 5 days (χ(2)=16.87, P<0.05). Within 14 days after the withdrawal of antibiotics, compared with the control group, the risk of diarrhea in the prevention group decreased by 82% (χ(2)=13.35, P<0.05) in infants (≤1 year old) and 93% (χ(2)=12.00, P<0.05) in children (>1 year old); the risk of diarrhea was reduced by 86% (χ(2)=9.57, P<0.05) and 87% (χ(2)=17.71, P<0.05) respectively in prevention group with single and combined use of antibiotics. In patients treated with antibiotics for more than 5 days, the risk of diarrhea in prevention group was reduced by 63% (χ(2)=22.79, P<0.05), while there was no significant difference if the antibiotics course was less than or equal to 5 days (χ(2)=2.97, P>0.05). No adverse effects related

  10. Single Continuous Near-Infrared Laser-Triggered Photodynamic and Photothermal Ablation of Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria Using Effective Targeted Copper Sulfide Nanoclusters.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xiaomei; Zhao, Yu; Yu, Yunjian; Chen, Xuelei; Wei, Xiaosong; Zhang, Xinge; Li, Chaoxing

    2017-09-01

    The emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains has made conventional antibiotic therapies less efficient. The development of a novel nanoantibiotic approach for efficiently ablating such bacterial infections is becoming crucial. Herein, a collection of poly(5-(2-ethyl acrylate)-4-methylthiazole-g-butyl)/copper sulfide nanoclusters (PATA-C4@CuS) was synthesized for efficient capture and effective ablation of levofloxacin-resistant Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria upon tissue-penetrable near-infrared (NIR) laser irradiation. In this work, we took advantage of the excellent photothermal and photodynamic properties of copper sulfide nanoparticles (CuSNPs) upon NIR laser irradiation and thiazole derivative as a membrane-targeting cationic ligand toward bacteria. The conjugated nanoclusters could anchor the bacteria to trigger the bacterial aggregation quickly and efficiently kill them. These conjugated nanoclusters could significantly inhibit levofloxacin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens at 5.5 μg/mL under NIR laser irradiation (980 nm, 1.5 W cm(-2), 5 min), which suggested that the heat and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated from the irradiated CuSNPs attached to bacteria were effective in eliminating and preventing the regrowth of the bacteria. Importantly, the conjugated nanoclusters could promote healing in bacteria-infected rat wounds without nonspecific damage to normal tissue. These findings highlight the promise of the highly versatile multifunctional nanoantibiotics in bacterial infection.

  11. Substrate specificity and kinetic characterization of peptidoglycan O-acetyltransferase B from Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    PubMed

    Moynihan, Patrick J; Clarke, Anthony J

    2014-06-13

    The O-acetylation of the essential cell wall polymer peptidoglycan is a major virulence factor identified in many bacteria, both Gram-positive and Gram-negative, including Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus anthracis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Neisseria meningitidis. With Gram-negative bacteria, the translocation of acetyl groups from the cytoplasm is performed by an integral membrane protein, PatA, for its transfer to peptidoglycan by O-acetyltransferase PatB, whereas a single bimodal membrane protein, OatA, appears to catalyze both reactions of the process in Gram-positive bacteria. Only phenotypic evidence existed in support of these pathways because no in vitro biochemical assay was available for their analysis, which reflected the complexities of investigating integral membrane proteins that act on a totally insoluble and heterogeneous substrate, such as peptidoglycan. In this study, we present the first biochemical and kinetic analysis of a peptidoglycan O-acetyltransferase using PatB from N. gonorrhoeae as the model system. The enzyme has specificity for muropeptides that possess tri- and tetrapeptide stems on muramyl residues. With chitooligosaccharides as substrates, rates of reaction increase with increasing degrees of polymerization to 5/6. This information will be valuable for the identification and development of peptidoglycan O-acetyltransferase inhibitors that could represent potential leads to novel classes of antibiotics.

  12. The structure of the cyanobactin domain of unknown function from PatG in the patellamide gene cluster

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, Greg; Koehnke, Jesko; Bent, Andrew F.; Graham, Rachael; Houssen, Wael; Jaspars, Marcel; Schwarz-Linek, Uli; Naismith, James H.

    2014-11-14

    The highly conserved domain of unknown function in the cyanobactin superfamily has a novel fold. The protein does not appear to bind the most plausible substrates, leaving questions as to its role. Patellamides are members of the cyanobactin family of ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified cyclic peptide natural products, many of which, including some patellamides, are biologically active. A detailed mechanistic understanding of the biosynthetic pathway would enable the construction of a biotechnological ‘toolkit’ to make novel analogues of patellamides that are not found in nature. All but two of the protein domains involved in patellamide biosynthesis have been characterized. The two domains of unknown function (DUFs) are homologous to each other and are found at the C-termini of the multi-domain proteins PatA and PatG. The domain sequence is found in all cyanobactin-biosynthetic pathways characterized to date, implying a functional role in cyanobactin biosynthesis. Here, the crystal structure of the PatG DUF domain is reported and its binding interactions with plausible substrates are investigated.

  13. Interspecies and intraspecies variations in the serotonin transporter gene intron 3 VNTR in nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Hibino, Emi; Iwatsuki, Hiromi; Inoue, Eiji; Hong, Kyung-Won; Nishida, Toshisada; Hayasaka, Ikuo; Ito, Shin'ichi; Murayama, Yuichi

    2008-04-01

    A variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism based on a 16 or 17-bp unit has been reported in the third intron of the human serotonin transporter gene (5-HTT). VNTRs have been shown to affect the transcriptional activity of genes, and VNTR polymorphisms possibly influence human personality and several psychoneurological disorders. To estimate the changes that occurred in the VNTRs during primate evolution, we amplified and sequenced the regions that corresponded to the human VNTRs in various primate species, including apes, Old World monkeys, and New World monkeys. The VNTR sequences were polymorphic in all the ape species examined, and alleles with repeat numbers of 18, 19, 23, and 24 in chimpanzees, 33, 35, 36, 38, and 40 in gorillas, 4 and 6 in orangutans, and 11, 13, 14, and 15 in gibbons were found. On the other hand, only a 5-repeat allele was detected in Old World monkeys such as the Japanese macaque and patas monkey. In this study we demonstrated for the first time that a repeat structure was not present in the corresponding regions in the New World monkeys examined, and only one unit sequence was found in them. These results suggested that the duplication of a unit in the VNTR region occurred in the Cercopithecidae species following the divergence of the Old World and New World monkeys, and various long repeated alleles were generated in humans and apes, except orangutans.

  14. Solid-State Disk with Double Data Rate DRAM Interface for High-Performance PCs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dong; Bang, Kwanhu; Ha, Seung-Hwan; Park, Chanik; Chung, Sung Woo; Chung, Eui-Young

    We propose a Solid-State Disk (SSD) with a Double Data Rate (DDR) DRAM interface for high-performance PCs. Traditional SSDs simply inherit the interface protocol of Hard Disk Drives (HDD) such as Parallel Advanced Technology Attachment (PATA) or Serial-ATA (SATA) for maintaining the compatibility. However, SSD itself provides much higher performance than HDD, hence the interface also needs to be enhanced. Unlike the traditional SSDs, the proposed SSD with DDR DRAM interface is placed in the North Bridge which provides two or more DDR DRAM interface ports in high-performance PCs. The novelty of our work is on DQS signaling scheme which allows arbitrary Column Address Strobe (CAS) latency unlike typical DDR DRAM interface scheme. The experimental results show that the proposed SSD maximally outperforms the traditional SSD by 8.7 times in read mode, by 1.5 times in write mode. Also, for synthetic workloads, the proposed scheme shows performance improvement over the conventional architecture by a factor of 1.6 times.

  15. Detailed mapping of reservoir structural geometry in detached, shortened fold belts, Ortega (Aptian-Albian) field area, Girardot basin, Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, G.D. )

    1990-05-01

    Discovery and development of oil fields in shortened compressional fold belts require recognition that the largest reservoirs occur in intermediate or third-order scale folds. Third-order folds generally are preserved in the footwall of larger scale fold thrusts, and may be concealed beneath smaller, detached surface folds of nonreservoir condition. A successful reservoir mapping procedure involved (1) detailed surface mapping, (2) depth conversion of seismic data (3) construction of a network of true-scale balanced cross sections, and (4) contour mapping above and below the major zones of detachment. Structure at the 11 million bbl Ortega field consist of convergent third-order fold thrusts, with internal decollement. Tight flexural-slip folds imbricate and tectonically thicken upward on the west-verging Ortega anticline. The buried, east-vergent Salado anticline acts as a buttress to westward propagation at Ortega but retreats along strike to allow the Porvenir anticline to develop a low, broad, fault-bend fold geometry. At least four fault blocks in the Ortega field remain untested because balanced section analysis has not been employed to create additional control points for structure contour maps on the top of the reservoir. It is speculated that another 10-50 million bbl of primary recoverable reserves remain in the Ortega field. In addition, reservoirs like the Ortega field should occur elsewhere in the Girardot basin. These reservoirs likely will occur all along the footwall of fold-thrust structures on the flank of the intrabasin Pata high.

  16. A new metabolic route for the production of gamma-aminobutyric acid by Corynebacterium glutamicum from glucose.

    PubMed

    Jorge, João M P; Leggewie, Christian; Wendisch, Volker F

    2016-11-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a non-protein amino acid widespread in nature, is a component of pharmaceuticals, foods, and the biodegradable plastic polyamide 4. Corynebacterium glutamicum shows great potential for the production of GABA from glucose. GABA added to the growth medium hardly affected growth of C. glutamicum, since a half-inhibitory concentration of 1.1 M GABA was determined. As alternative to GABA production by glutamate decarboxylation, a new route for the production of GABA via putrescine was established in C. glutamicum. A putrescine-producing recombinant C. glutamicum strain was converted into a GABA producing strain by heterologous expression of putrescine transaminase (PatA) and gamma-aminobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase (PatD) genes from Escherichia coli. The resultant strain produced 5.3 ± 0.1 g L(-1) of GABA. GABA production was improved further by adjusting the concentration of nitrogen in the culture medium, by avoiding the formation of the by-product N-acetylputrescine and by deletion of the genes for GABA catabolism and GABA re-uptake. GABA accumulation by this strain was increased by 51 % to 8.0 ± 0.3 g L(-1), and the volumetric productivity was increased to 0.31 g L(-1) h(-1); the highest volumetric productivity reported so far for fermentative production of GABA from glucose in shake flasks was achieved.

  17. Genetic characterization of the hmp locus, a chemotaxis-like gene cluster that regulates hormogonium development and motility in Nostoc punctiforme.

    PubMed

    Risser, Douglas D; Chew, William G; Meeks, John C

    2014-04-01

    Filamentous cyanobacteria are capable of gliding motility, but the mechanism of motility is not well defined. Here we present a detailed characterization of the hmp locus from Nostoc punctiforme, which encodes chemotaxis-like proteins. Deletions of hmpB, C, D and E abolished differentiation of hormogonia under standard growth conditions, but, upon addition of a symbiotic partner exudate, the mutant strains differentiated hormogonium-like filaments that lacked motility and failed to secrete hormogonium specific polysaccharide. The hmp locus is expressed as two transcripts, one originating 5' of hmpA and encompassing the entire hmp locus, and the other 5' of hmpB and encompassing hmpBCDE. The CheA-like HmpE donates phosphate to its own C-terminal receiver domain, and to the CheY-like HmpB, but not to the PatA family CheY-like HmpA. A GFP-tagged variant of each hmp locus protein localized to a ring adjacent to the septum on each end of the rod-shaped cell. Immunofluorescence demonstrated that PilA localizes to a ring at the junction between cells. The phenotype of the deletion strains, and the localization of the Hmp proteins and the putative PilA protein to rings at the cell junctions are consistent with the hypothesis that these proteins are part of the junctional pore complex observed in a number of filamentous cyanobacteria.

  18. An activated triple bond linker enables 'click' attachment of peptides to oligonucleotides on solid support.

    PubMed

    Wenska, Malgorzata; Alvira, Margarita; Steunenberg, Peter; Stenberg, Asa; Murtola, Merita; Strömberg, Roger

    2011-11-01

    A general procedure, based on a new activated alkyne linker, for the preparation of peptide-oligonucleotide conjugates (POCs) on solid support has been developed. With this linker, conjugation is effective at room temperature (RT) in millimolar concentration and submicromolar amounts. This is made possible since the use of a readily attachable activated triple bond linker enhances the Cu(I) catalyzed 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition ('click' reaction). The preferred scheme for conjugate preparation involves sequential conjugation to oligonucleotides on solid support of (i) an H-phosphonate-based aminolinker; (ii) the triple bond donor p-(N-propynoylamino)toluic acid (PATA); and (iii) azido-functionalized peptides. The method gives conversion of oligonucleotide to the POC on solid support, and only involves a single purification step after complete assembly. The synthesis is flexible and can be carried out without the need for specific automated synthesizers since it has been designed to utilize commercially available oligonucleotide and peptide derivatives on solid support or in solution. Methodology for the ready conversion of peptides into 'clickable' azidopeptides with the possibility of selecting either N-terminus or C-terminus connection also adds to the flexibility and usability of the method. Examples of synthesis of POCs include conjugates of oligonucleotides with peptides known to be membrane penetrating and nuclear localization signals.

  19. Motor representations of articulators contribute to categorical perception of speech sounds.

    PubMed

    Möttönen, Riikka; Watkins, Kate E

    2009-08-05

    Listening to speech modulates activity in human motor cortex. It is unclear, however, whether the motor cortex has an essential role in speech perception. Here, we aimed to determine whether the motor representations of articulators contribute to categorical perception of speech sounds. Categorization of continuously variable acoustic signals into discrete phonemes is a fundamental feature of speech communication. We used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to temporarily disrupt the lip representation in the left primary motor cortex. This disruption impaired categorical perception of artificial acoustic continua ranging between two speech sounds that differed in place of articulation, in that the vocal tract is opened and closed rapidly either with the lips or the tip of the tongue (/ba/-/da/ and /pa/-/ta/). In contrast, it did not impair categorical perception of continua ranging between speech sounds that do not involve the lips in their articulation (/ka/-/ga/ and /da/-/ga/). Furthermore, an rTMS-induced disruption of the hand representation had no effect on categorical perception of either of the tested continua (/ba/-da/ and /ka/-/ga/). These findings indicate that motor circuits controlling production of speech sounds also contribute to their perception. Mapping acoustically highly variable speech sounds onto less variable motor representations may facilitate their phonemic categorization and be important for robust speech perception.

  20. Chilean Astronomers and the Birth of Cerro Tololo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, H.

    1990-11-01

    P# JMEN. Hace treinta afios que se tnict6 en Chile la de n luga adecuado pata establecer observatoro astron6ini- Co, que a en wi ieflector de 1 in de diam'etrr . importante destacar el papel que le corres-pondi6 al Obseiwatorio Nacional de Ia Universidad de `Chile -- re'.-. tarde Departamento de de la inisma Univer- sidad .- en 1 de este proycoto. Los resultados han ido mucho mct5 impoftaftes lo esperado . de tal nodo q. el prc -ama destinado a instalar ui telescopio de tama- f ha I levado al establ ecimiento de iri centro de acti- cientfica de relieve inten-acional. ALb(TRA . Thifty years ago the search for a site adequate for the est 1ishment of an astronomical was fn (Thile. Initially it was planned that the main telescope would be a 1 in i-cf lector. It is importaft to the role played by th O Astm-'n6mioo Nacional de la Unfversidad de Cbf Ic - later 0: Depaftamento de of the same University - in the development of this project. The results have been much more important than was e:-:pected initially: in thiS way the prr gram for a telescope of moderate size was transfo -med in a major project wh i ch 1 cad to the estab 1 ). shinent of an i nt i ona 1 center of scieftific research. AQ/ W : OBSERVATORIES

  1. The formation and evolution of Hule and Río Cuarto maars, Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarado, Guillermo E.; Soto, Gerardo J.; Salani, Flavia M.; Ruiz, Pablo; de Mendoza, Luis Hurtado

    2011-04-01

    The Hule and Río Cuarto maars are respectively located 11 and 18 km northward of the active crater of Poás volcano, on the Caribbean side of the Central Volcanic Range of Costa Rica. They lie on the northern part of Poás volcano massif, along a N-S trending, ~ 27 km-long volcanic fracture crossing the Poás volcano. The volcanic products from Hule maar (2.3 km × 1.8 km, area ~ 3.5 km 2) are mainly pyroclastic surges (poorly vesiculated andesites with very small plagioclases), silica-rich andesitic pumice flows, air-fall deposits, ballistic blocks, and reworked deposits that overlie the regional Pleistocene volcanic basement. They were produced during three main explosive phases. Two overlapping pyroclastic cones have developed within the Hule maar, and at least three lava fields are related to them (high-Al basalt to basaltic andesite). Another maar, Pata de Gallo (400 m across), is located less than 1 km off the SE rim of Hule. Río Cuarto is a nearly circular maar (700-850 m across) with a surface area of 0.33 km 2. Río Cuarto products include surges, ballistics and air-fall tephra, produced during three main explosive phases. These deposits show a narrow fan oriented westward, according to westerly wind direction. They indicate a westerly-directed surge (first 2 km), followed by air-fall deposits (up to 5 km away). Radiocarbon dating has shown that Hule was formed ~ 6.2 ka ago and Pata de Gallo probably formed ~ 2.8 ka ago, while the intra-maar products could have ages of ~ 1.7 ka or ~ 0.7 ka, indicating that Hule is a polygenetic maar. There are no radiocarbon ages yet for dating the formation of Río Cuarto maar, but archaeological data suggest that it erupted between 3-4 ka ago. The volume of pyroclastic deposits associated to Hule maar is estimated to be 0.51-0.53 km 3, from which ~ 20% is juvenile material, therefore 0.07-0.08 km 3 of new dense rock equivalent (DRE) magma, after subtracting 20-30% of porosity. The tephra from Río Cuarto is estimated

  2. Amazonian and neotropical plant communities on glacial time-scales: The failure of the aridity and refuge hypotheses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colinvaux, P. A.; De Oliveira, P. E.; Bush, M. B.

    2000-01-01

    Plants respond to Pleistocene climatic change as species, not as associations or biomes. This has been demonstrated unequivocally by paleobotanical data for temperate latitudes. In the far richer vegetations of the tropics species populations also fluctuated independently in response to climatic forcing, from their longlasting glacial states to the patterns of brief interglacials like the present and back again. We use pollen data to reconstruct the vegetation of the Amazon basin in oxygen isotope stages 3 and 2 of the last glaciation in order to measure how the plant populations of the Amazon responded to the global warming at the onset of the Holocene. We find that plant communities of the neotropics vent copious pollen to lake sediments and that this pollen yields powerful signals for community composition. Three continuous sedimentary records reaching through oxygen isotope stage 2 are available from the Amazon lowlands, those from Carajas, Lake Pata and marine deposits off the mouth of the Amazon River. All three records yield pollen histories of remarkable constancy and stability. By comparing them with deposits of equal antiquity from the cerrado (savanna) of central Brazil, we show that most of the Amazon lowlands remained under forest throughout a glacial cycle. This forest was never fragmented by open vegetation as postulated by the refugia hypothesis. Instead the intact forest of glacial times included significant populations of plants that are now montane, suggesting that the global warming of the early Holocene resulted in the expulsion of heat intolerant plants from the lowland forest. Pollen data from the Amazonian flank of the Andes and from Pacific Panama provide evidence that populations of these heat intolerant plants survive the heat of interglacials in part by maintaining large populations at cooler montane altitudes. Our conclusion that the Amazon lowlands were forested in glacial times specifically refutes the hypothesis of Amazonian glacial

  3. Species-specific photosynthetic responses of four coniferous seedlings to open-field experimental warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, S.; Yoon, S. J.; Yoon, T. K.; Han, S. H.; Lee, J.; Lee, D.; Kim, S.; Hwang, J.; Cho, M.; Son, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Temperature increase under climate change is expected to affect photosynthesis of tree species. Biochemical models generally suggest that the elevated temperature increases the photosynthetic carbon fixation, however, many opposing results were reported as well. We aimed to examine the photosynthetic responses of four coniferous seedlings to projected future temperature increase, by conducting an open-field warming experiment. Experimental warming set-up using infra-red heater was built in 2011 and the temperature in warming plots has been regulated to be consistently 3oC higher than that of control plots. The seeds of Abies holophylla (AH), A. koreana (AK), Pinus densiflora (PD), and P. koraiensis (PK) were planted in each 1 m × 1 m plot (n=3) in April, 2012. Monthly net photosynthetic rates (Pn; μmol CO2 m-2 s-1) of 1-year-old seedlings (n=9) from June to November, 2013 were measured using CIRAS-2 (PP-Systems, UK) and photosynthetic parameters (the apparent quantum yield; ф; µmol CO2 mol-1, the dark respiration rate; Rd; µmol CO2 mol-1, and the light compensation point; LCP; µmol mol-1 s-1) were also calculated from the light-response curve of photosynthesis in August, 2013. Chlorophyll contents were measured using DMSO extraction method. Monthly Pn was generally higher for PD and decreased for AK in warmed plots than in control plots (Fig. 1). Pn of AK and PK did not show any significant difference, however, Pn of PK in October and November increased by experimental warming. Pn of PD also showed the highest increase in November and this distinct increase of Pn in autumn might be caused by delayed cessation of photosynthesis by temperature elevation. ф and Rd in warmed plots were higher for PD and lower for AK, while LCP did not significantly differ by treatments for all species. Because ф is considered to be related to the efficiency of harvesting and using light, the change in ф might have caused the response of Pn to warming in this study. Decreases

  4. Children's mouthing and food-handling behavior in an agricultural community on the US/Mexico border.

    PubMed

    Black, Kathleen; Shalat, Stuart L; Freeman, Natalie C G; Jimenez, Marta; Donnelly, Kirby C; Calvin, James A

    2005-05-01

    Children's mouthing and food-handling activities were measured during a study of nondietary ingestion of pesticides in a south Texas community. Mouthing data on 52 children, ranging in age from 7 to 53 months, were collected using questionnaires and videotaping. Data on children's play and hand-washing habits were also collected. Children were grouped into four age categories: infants (7-12 months), 1-year-olds (13-24 months), 2-year-olds (25-36 months) and preschoolers (37-53 months). The frequency and type of events prompting hand washing did not vary by age category except for hand washing after using the bathroom; this increased with increasing age category. Reported contact with grass and dirt also increased with increasing age category. The median hourly hand-to-mouth frequency for the four age groups ranged from 9.9 to 19.4, with 2-year-olds having the lowest frequency and preschoolers having the highest. The median hourly object to mouth frequency ranged from 5.5 to 18.1 across the four age categories; the frequency decreased as age increased (adjusted R(2)=0.179; P=0.003). The median hourly hand-to-food frequency for the four age groups ranged from 10.0 to 16.1, with the highest frequency being observed in the 1-year-olds. Hand-to-mouth frequency was associated with food contact frequency, particularly for children over 12 months of age (adjusted R(2)=0.291; P=0.002). The frequency and duration of hand-to-mouth, object-to-mouth and food-handling behaviors were all greater indoors than outdoors. Infants were more likely to remain indoors than children in other age groups. The time children spent playing on the floor decreased with increasing age (adjusted R(2)=0.096; P=0.031). Parental assessment was correlated with hand-to-mouth activity but not with object-to-mouth activity. The highest combined (hand and object) mouthing rates were observed among infants, suggesting that this age group has the greatest potential for exposure to environmental toxins.

  5. Strongylids in domestic horses: Influence of horse age, breed and deworming programs on the strongyle parasite community.

    PubMed

    Kuzmina, Tetiana A; Dzeverin, Igor; Kharchenko, Vitaliy A

    2016-08-30

    An extensive analysis of the relationships between strongylid egg shedding in domestic horses and the strongylid community structure in regard to the age of the horses, their breeds and different strategies of horse management, particularly with anthelmintic treatment programs was performed. Domestic horses (n=197) of different ages (5 months to 22 years) and of various breeds from 15 farms with different types of deworming programs were included in this study. Strongylids (totally, 82,767 specimens) were collected in vivo after deworming of the horses with the macrocyclic lactone anthelmintic ("Univerm", 0.2% aversectin C), and identified to the species level. Models of multiple regressions with dummy variables were used to estimate the effects of age, breed, type of farm and deworming programs on number of eggs shed per gram of feces (EPG value) and the strongylid community. Totally, 33 strongylid species were collected (8 species of Strongylinae and 25 - of Cyathostominae); a significant correlation (r=0.67; p<0.001) between the prevalence and proportion of species in the strongylid community was observed. The highest number of species (32) was found in young horses (1.5-4 years old); the lowest (17) - in old horses (>16years). Foals (<1year old) had significantly higher EPG value than older horses. The linear regression models of the strongyle egg counts (EPG) with three predictors: horse age (AGE), number of strongylids (SN), and type of farm (FARM) revealed significant effects of SN and FARM, but an effect of AGE was near the limit of significance. Horses from farms with rare or no anthelmintic treatments (type A) shed significantly more strongyle eggs than horses from farms with regular treatments; frequency of dewormings - 1-2 (type B) or 3-4 and more times per year (type C) did not have a significant impact on the EPG value. Thoroughbreds, Ukrainian Saddlers and Russian Racers had much higher EPG values comparing to non-breed horses. Analysis of the

  6. Surveillance for hospitalized acute respiratory infection in Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Verani, Jennifer R; McCracken, John; Arvelo, Wences; Estevez, Alejandra; Lopez, Maria Renee; Reyes, Lissette; Moir, Juan Carlos; Bernart, Chris; Moscoso, Fabiola; Gray, Jennifer; Olsen, Sonja J; Lindblade, Kim A

    2013-01-01

    Acute respiratory infections (ARI) are an important cause of illness and death worldwide, yet data on the etiology of ARI and the population-level burden in developing countries are limited. Surveillance for ARI was conducted at two hospitals in Guatemala. Patients admitted with at least one sign of acute infection and one sign or symptom of respiratory illness met the criteria for a case of hospitalized ARI. Nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swabs were collected and tested by polymerase chain reaction for adenovirus, parainfluenza virus types 1,2 and 3, respiratory syncytial virus, influenza A and B viruses, human metapneumovirus, Chlamydia pneumioniae, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Urine specimens were tested for Streptococcus pneumoniae antigen. Blood culture and chest radiograph were done at the discretion of the treating physician. Between November 2007 and December 2011, 3,964 case-patients were enrolled. While cases occurred among all age groups, 2,396 (60.4%) cases occurred in children <5 years old and 463 (11.7%) among adults ≥65 years old. Viruses were found in 52.6% of all case-patients and 71.8% of those aged <1 year old; the most frequently detected was respiratory syncytial virus, affecting 26.4% of case-patients. Urine antigen testing for Streptococcus pneumoniae performed for case-patients ≥15 years old was positive in 15.1% of those tested. Among 2,364 (59.6%) of case-patients with a radiograph, 907 (40.0%) had findings suggestive of bacterial pneumonia. Overall, 230 (5.9%) case-patients died during the hospitalization. Using population denominators, the observed hospitalized ARI incidence was 128 cases per 100,000, with the highest rates seen among children <1 year old (1,703 per 100,000), followed by adults ≥65 years old (292 per 100,000). These data, which demonstrate a substantial burden of hospitalized ARI in Guatemala due to a variety of pathogens, can help guide public health policies aimed at reducing the burden of illness and death due to

  7. Angular on-line tube current modulation in multidetector CT examinations of children and adults: The influence of different scanning parameters on dose reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Papadakis, Antonios E.; Perisinakis, Kostas; Damilakis, John

    2007-07-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess the potential of angular on-line tube current modulation on dose reduction in pediatric and adult patients undergoing multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) examinations. Five physical anthropomorphic phantoms that simulate the average individual as neonate, 1-year-old, 5-year-old, 10-year-old, and adult were employed in the current study. Phantoms were scanned with the use of on-line tube current modulation (TCM). Percent dose reduction (%DR) factors achieved by applying TCM, were determined for standard protocols used for head and neck, shoulder, thorax, thorax and abdomen, abdomen, abdomen and pelvis, pelvis, and whole body examinations. A preliminary study on the application of TCM in MDCT examinations of adult patients was performed to validate the results obtained in anthropomorphic phantoms. Dose reduction was estimated as the percentage difference of the modulated milliamperes for each scan and the preset milliamperes prescribed by the scan protocol. The dose reduction in children was found to be much lower than the corresponding reduction achieved for adults. For helical scans the %DR factors, ranged between 1.6% and 7.4% for the neonate, 2.9% and 8.7% for the 1-year old, 2% and 6% for the 5-year-old, 5% and 10.9% for the 10-year-old, and 10.4% and 20.7% for the adult individual. For sequential scans the corresponding %DR factors ranged between 1.3% and 6.7%, 4.5% and 11%, 4.2% and 6.6%, 6.4% and 12.3%, and 8.9% and 23.3%, respectively. Broader beam collimations are associated with decreased %DR factors, when other scanning parameters are held constant. TCM did not impair image noise. In adult patients, the %DR values were found to be in good agreement with the corresponding results obtained in the anthropomorphic adult phantom. In conclusion, on-line TCM may be considered as a valuable tool for reducing dose in routine CT examinations of pediatric and adult patients. However, the dose reduction achieved with TCM

  8. [Impact of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on the incidence of consolidated pneumonia in children younger than 5 years old in Pilar, Buenos Aires: A population-based study].

    PubMed

    Gentile, Ángela; Bakir, Julia; Bialorus, Laura; Caruso, Laura; Mirra, Diego; Santander, Celina; Terluk, Mabel; Zurdo, Pablo; Gentile, Fernando; Fermndez, María I

    2015-12-01

    In January 2012, Argentina introduced the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in its immunization schedule for children younger than 2 years old. Coverage in Pilar in 2012 reached>90% for the first two doses and 60% for the third dose. To measure the effectiveness of PCV13 to reduce the incidence of consolidated pneumonia (CP)in the two-year period following its introduction in the immunization schedule. Prospective, population-based study conducted in Pilar. All children younger than 5 year sold with clinical signs of pneumonia assisted at the reference hospitals (both inpatients and outpatients) in the first two years since the vaccine introduction (2012-2013) were included. The annual incidence of CP was compared to the 2003-2005 baseline period. Clinical and radiological assessments were done as per the World Health Organization's criteria. Six hundred and sixty-six patients with clinical suspicion of pneumonia were included. CP was diagnosed in 309 patients; 52.1% were girls, 70.2% were younger than 2 years old, and 56.4% had been immunized with the PCV13; 4.5% (14/309) had bacteriological confirmation (S. pneumoniae: 4; N. meningitidis: 4; S. aureus: 2; others: 4). A significant reduction in the incidence of CP (per 100 000 children younger than 5 years old) was observed between the pre- and postimmunization periods, from 750 (204/27209) to 561 (171/30 475) in 2012 and to 453 (138/30 475) in 2013; effectiveness accounted for 25.2% and 39.6%, respectively. Reduction in infants younger than 1 year old: 33.9% in 2012 and 44.6% in 2013; and in children aged 12-23 months old: 57.9% in 2013. No significant differences were observed in the incidence of CP at an older age. Following the introduction of PCV13 in Argentina's immunization schedule, a fast and significant reduction in the incidence of CP was observed, mainly in infants younger than 1 year old in 2012 and in children younger than 2 years old in 2013.

  9. Effects of nitric oxide synthase deficiency on a disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 12 expression in mouse brain samples.

    PubMed

    Lendeckel, Uwe; Wolke, Carmen; Bernstein, Hans-Gert; Keilhoff, Gerburg

    2015-08-01

    A disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 12 (ADAM12) belongs to the ADAM family of transmembrane proteins. Via proteolysis, cell adhesion, cell-cell fusion, cell-matrix interaction and membrane protein shedding, ADAM proteins are involved in normal brain development, and also in cancer genesis and progression, and in inflammation. Therefore, neurobiological research focusing on this protein is increasing. Nitric oxide (NO), which is endogenously produced by NO synthases (NOS), is associated with glial tumors. However, knock-out of NOS produces only limited antitumor effects. The present study analyzed the expression of ADAM12 in the cortex and hippocampus of C57/BL6 wild-type mice, and endothelial NOS-, neuronal NOS-(nNOS) or inducible NOS (iNOS)-deficient (-/-) mice, at different stages of development. Expression of ADAM12 was quantified using immunoblot analysis of cortical and hippocampal tissue samples from fetal, neonatal (5 days postnatal), adult (12 weeks old) or >1 year old mice. Using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, ADAM12 expression was analyzed in cultured N9, OLN93, C6 and PC12 cells, representing the four main cell types in the brain, following NOS inhibition. ADAM12 expression was low in all mouse genotypes and regions of the brain, and in fetal and neonatal mice, an increase in expression was observed with increasing age. The highest levels of expression were observed in the cortex of adult mice, iNOS(-/-) mice of >1 year and wild-type mice, and in the hippocampus of adult and iNOS(-/-) mice of >1 year. By contrast, ADAM12 expression was lowest in adult nNOS(-/-) mice. Inhibition of NOS using N(ω)-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride, induced ADAM12 mRNA expression in N9 and PC12 cell lines. Inhibition of NOS using L-N(6)-(1-Iminoethyl)lysine dihydrochloride, induced ADAM12 mRNA expression in N9 and C6 cell lines. No change in ADAM12 expression was observed in OLN93 cells following NOS

  10. Status and trends in demography of northern spotted owls, 1985-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anthony, R.G.; Forsman, E.D.; Franklin, A.B.; Anderson, D.R.; Burnham, K.P.; White, Gary C.; Schwarz, C.J.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.; Olson, G.S.; Ackers, S.H.; Andrews, L.S.; Biswell, B.L.; Carlson, P.C.; Diller, L.V.; Dugger, K.M.; Fehring, K.E.; Fleming, T.L.; Gerhardt, R.P.; Gremel, S.A.; Gutierrez, R.J.; Happe, P.J.; Herter, D.R.; Higley, J.M.; Horn, R.B.; Irwin, L.L.; Loschl, P.J.; Reid, J.A.; Sovern, S.G.; Krausman, P.R.

    2006-01-01

    We analyzed demographic data from northern spotted owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) from 14 study areas in Washington, Oregon, and California for 1985-2003. The purpose of our analyses was to provide an assessment of the status and trends of northern spotted owl populations throughout most of their geographic range. The 14 study areas made up approximately 12% of the range of the subspecies and included federal, tribal, private, and mixed federal and private lands. The study areas also included all the major forest types that the subspecies inhabits. The analyses followed rigorous protocols that were developed a priori and were the result of extensive discussions and consensus among the authors. Our primary objectives were to estimate fecundity, apparent survival (??), and annual rate of population change (??) and to determine if there were any temporal trends in these population parameters. In addition to analyses of data from individual study areas, we conducted 2 meta-analyses on each demographic parameter. One meta-analysis was conducted on all 14 areas, and the other was restricted to the 8 areas that constituted the Effectiveness Monitoring Plan for northern spotted owls under the Northwest Forest Plan. The average number of years of reproductive data per study area was 14 (range = 5-19), and the average number of recapture occasions per study area was 13 (range = 4-18). Only 1 study area had 1 year old. We found no differences in apparent survival rates between sexes except for 1 area (Marin), which had only 6 years of data. Estimates of apparent survival from individual study areas indicated that there were differences among age classes with adults generally having higher survival than 1- and 2-year-olds. Apparent survival rates ranged from 0.750 (SE=0.026) to 0.886 (SE=0.010) for adults, 0.626 (SE=0.073) to 0.886 (SE=0.010) for 2-year-olds, and 0.415 (SE=0.111) to 0.860 (SE=0.017) for 1-year-olds. These estimates were comparable to survival rates from

  11. Effects of ewe age and season of lambing on prolificacy in US Targhee, Suffolk, and Polypay sheep.

    PubMed

    Notter

    2000-09-01

    Factors affecting ewe prolificacy (number of lambs born per ewe lambing) were evaluated using records on 9705 Targhee, 12,721 Suffolk, and 7231 Polypay lambings from flocks participating in the US National Sheep Improvement Program. Factors considered were ewe age and season of lambing. Prolificacy was affected by age of the ewe (P<0.001) and was highest for ewes lambing between 4 and either 7 (Polypay) or 8 (Targhee and Suffolk) years of age. Effects of lambing at younger ages were similar for Targhee and Polypay. Relative to mature ewes, prolificacy was reduced by 0.6-0.7 lambs in 1-year-old ewes, about 0.3 lambs in 2-year-old ewes and about 0.1 lambs in 3-year-old ewes. Effects of ewe age were smaller in Suffolk, with reductions relative to mature ewes of 0.47, 0.13, and 0.01 lambs in 1-, 2-, and 3-year-old ewes. Prolificacy of older (>8-year-old) ewes was consistently reduced by 0.17-0.20 lambs relative to adult ewes. Within the 1-year-old age class, age in months further affected prolificacy of Suffolk and Polypay but not Targhee ewes. For these two breeds, prolificacy of 15-month-old ewes averaged 0.21 lambs more than that observed for 12-month-old ewes. Seasonal differences in prolificacy were large for Targhee and Polypay (P<0.001) but not for Suffolk (P=0.23) and the distribution of lambings among seasons differed (P<0.001) for all breeds. 22% of adult Polypay ewes, but only 1% of Targhee and Suffolk ewes lambed in summer and autumn. Prolificacy was highest in winter and spring lambings (December through May) and did not differ importantly among months within this period. Average prolificacy of 3- to 6-year-old ewes lambing in winter and spring was 1.75 for Targhee, 1.91 for Suffolk, and 2.13 for Polypay. For age groups with at least 10 observations, prolificacy in autumn (September through November) was reduced by an average of 0.14 lambs in Suffolk and 0.24 lambs in Polypay (very few Targhee lambed in autumn). Prolificacy in summer (June through August

  12. FDTD calculations of specific energy absorption rate in a seated voxel model of the human body from 10 MHz to 3 GHz.

    PubMed

    Findlay, R P; Dimbylow, P J

    2006-05-07

    Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) calculations have been performed to investigate the frequency dependence of the specific energy absorption rate (SAR) in a seated voxel model of the human body. The seated model was derived from NORMAN (NORmalized MAN), an anatomically realistic voxel phantom in the standing posture with arms to the side. Exposure conditions included both vertically and horizontally polarized plane wave electric fields between 10 MHz and 3 GHz. The resolution of the voxel model was 4 mm for frequencies up to 360 MHz and 2 mm for calculations in the higher frequency range. The reduction in voxel size permitted the calculation of SAR at these higher frequencies using the FDTD method. SAR values have been calculated for the seated adult phantom and scaled versions representing 10-, 5- and 1-year-old children under isolated and grounded conditions. These scaled models do not exactly reproduce the dimensions and anatomy of children, but represent good geometric information for a seated child. Results show that, when the field is vertically polarized, the sitting position causes a second, smaller resonance condition not seen in resonance curves for the phantom in the standing posture. This occurs at approximately 130 MHz for the adult model when grounded. Partial-body SAR calculations indicate that the upper and lower regions of the body have their own resonant frequency at approximately 120 MHz and approximately 160 MHz, respectively, when the grounded adult model is orientated in the sitting position. These combine to produce this second resonance peak in the whole-body averaged SAR values calculated. Two resonance peaks also occur for the sitting posture when the incident electric field is horizontally polarized. For the adult model, the peaks in the whole-body averaged SAR occur at approximately 180 and approximately 600 MHz. These peaks are due to resonance in the arms and feet, respectively. Layer absorption plots and colour images of SAR in

  13. Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping and R2* Measured Changes during White Matter Lesion Development in Multiple Sclerosis: Myelin Breakdown, Myelin Debris Degradation and Removal, and Iron Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Gauthier, S A; Gupta, A; Chen, W; Comunale, J; Chiang, G C-Y; Zhou, D; Askin, G; Zhu, W; Pitt, D; Wang, Y

    2016-09-01

    Quantitative susceptibility mapping and R2* are sensitive to myelin and iron changes in multiple sclerosis lesions. This study was designed to characterize lesion changes on quantitative susceptibility mapping and R2* at various gadolinium-enhancement stages. This study included 64 patients with MS with different enhancing patterns in white matter lesions: nodular, shell-like, nonenhancing < 1 year old, and nonenhancing 1-3 years old. These represent acute, late acute, early chronic, and late chronic lesions, respectively. Susceptibility values measured on quantitative susceptibility mapping and R2* values were compared among the 4 lesion types. Their differences were assessed with a generalized estimating equation, controlling for Expanded Disability Status Scale score, age, and disease duration. We analyzed 203 lesions: 80 were nodular-enhancing, of which 77 (96.2%) were isointense on quantitative susceptibility mapping; 33 were shell-enhancing, of which 30 (90.9%) were hyperintense on quantitative susceptibility mapping; and 49 were nonenhancing lesions < 1 year old and 41 were nonenhancing lesions 1-3 years old, all of which were hyperintense on quantitative susceptibility mapping. Their relative susceptibility/R2* values were 0.5 ± 4.4 parts per billion/-5.6 ± 2.9 Hz, 10.2 ± 5.4 parts per billion/-8.0 ± 2.6 Hz, 20.2 ± 7.8 parts per billion/-3.1 ± 2.3 Hz, and 33.2 ± 8.2 parts per billion/-2.0 ± 2.6 Hz, respectively, and were significantly different (P < .005). Early active MS lesions with nodular enhancement show R2* decrease but no quantitative susceptibility mapping change, reflecting myelin breakdown; late active lesions with peripheral enhancement show R2* decrease and quantitative susceptibility mapping increase in the lesion center, reflecting further degradation and removal of myelin debris; and early or late chronic nonenhancing lesions show both quantitative susceptibility mapping and R2* increase, reflecting iron accumulation. © 2016 by

  14. Socio-demographic disparities in the utilisation of general practice services for Australian children - Results from a nationally representative longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Ou, Lixin; Chen, Jack; Hillman, Ken

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the pattern of general practice services utilization for Australian children and to examine socio-demographic disparities in general practitioner (GP) visits. We used the linked data from the nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC) and the Medicare Australia claims data record. We used survey negative binomial and logistic regression to examine the socio-demographic factors associated with the utilisation of general practice services. The average number of annual GP visits gradually declined from 7.0 at 0-1 year old to 2.4 at 5-8 years (p< .001 for trend) in the infant cohort and from 3.5 at 2-4 years to 2.0 at 9-12 years (p < .001 for trend) in the child cohort. Girls were more likely to visit GPs than boys at 0-1 year old in the infant cohort (RR = 1.06, 95%CI: 1.02-1.11) and at 2-4 years in the child cohort (RR = 1.09, 95%CI: 1.04-1.14), but there were no differences at 2-4 to 5-8 year age periods in the infant cohort and at 5-8 to 9-12 year age period in the child cohort. Children from non-English speaking background were more likely to have a greater number of GP visits compared with their counterparts from English-speaking and Indigenous background up to eight year old in both cohorts (all p < .001). Children from families with the higher socio-economic position, children without private health insurance and children living in non-metropolitan were less likely to have GP consultations in both cohorts. Fair or poor parent-rated health status was associated with greater number of GP visits. Socio-demographic disparities existed in the utilisation of general practice services and varied at different age periods. Family socio-economic position, private health insurance coverage and region of residence strongly associates with the utilisation disparities over all age period. Further policy interventions are called to minimise the disparities in GP utilisation for children in Australian context.

  15. Socio-demographic disparities in the utilisation of general practice services for Australian children - Results from a nationally representative longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Lixin; Chen, Jack; Hillman, Ken

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to investigate the pattern of general practice services utilization for Australian children and to examine socio-demographic disparities in general practitioner (GP) visits. Methods We used the linked data from the nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC) and the Medicare Australia claims data record. We used survey negative binomial and logistic regression to examine the socio-demographic factors associated with the utilisation of general practice services. Results The average number of annual GP visits gradually declined from 7.0 at 0–1 year old to 2.4 at 5–8 years (p< .001 for trend) in the infant cohort and from 3.5 at 2–4 years to 2.0 at 9–12 years (p < .001 for trend) in the child cohort. Girls were more likely to visit GPs than boys at 0–1 year old in the infant cohort (RR = 1.06, 95%CI: 1.02–1.11) and at 2–4 years in the child cohort (RR = 1.09, 95%CI: 1.04–1.14), but there were no differences at 2–4 to 5–8 year age periods in the infant cohort and at 5–8 to 9–12 year age period in the child cohort. Children from non-English speaking background were more likely to have a greater number of GP visits compared with their counterparts from English-speaking and Indigenous background up to eight year old in both cohorts (all p < .001). Children from families with the higher socio-economic position, children without private health insurance and children living in non-metropolitan were less likely to have GP consultations in both cohorts. Fair or poor parent-rated health status was associated with greater number of GP visits. Conclusion Socio-demographic disparities existed in the utilisation of general practice services and varied at different age periods. Family socio-economic position, private health insurance coverage and region of residence strongly associates with the utilisation disparities over all age period. Further policy interventions are called to minimise the

  16. Nitrate reductase is induced in red spruce by NO sub 2 and HNO sub 3 vapor

    SciTech Connect

    Norby, R.J.; Hanson, P.J. ); Weerasuiya, Y. )

    1989-04-01

    The activity of nitrate reductase (NR) in needles of red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) trees is normally very low: 220 nmol{center dot}g{sup {minus}1}{center dot}h{sup {minus}1} in 1-year-old nursery-grown seedlings and 47 nmol{center dot}g{sup {minus}1}{center dot}h{sup {minus}1} in plants excavated from a high-elevation spruce forest. The assimilation of nitrogen oxide pollutants absorbed from the atmosphere by red spruce trees may, therefore, require that NR is induced in the needles. To test for induction of NR, 1-year-old, nursery-grown red spruce seedlings were exposed to NO{sub 2}, HNO{sub 3} vapor, or acid mist containing nitrate, and the activity of NR in needles was measured using an in vivo assay. One day after exposure to NO{sub 2} (75 nl{center dot}l{sup {minus}1}) began, NR activity had increased to 765 nmol{center dot}g{sup {minus}1}{center dot}h{sup {minus}1}, more than 3 times that of unexposed control plants. During the 7-day exposure, NR activity of the treated seedlings declined 36%, but it remained significantly higher than that of controls. One day after exposure ended, NR activity returned to the control level. Forest-frown seedlings exhibited a similar response to NO{sub 2}, but at a much lower level. Nitric acid vapor (75 nl{center dot}l{sup {minus}1}) also induced NR in red spruce needles, and the pattern and magnitude of response were similar to that with NO{sub 2}, except that the NR activity did not return to control levels until 2 days after exposure ended. Exposure of seedlings to simulated acid mist containing nitrate (pH 3.5 and pH 5.0) did not result in a significant change in NR activity. These results indicate that red spruce is capable of assimilating NO{sub 2} and HNO{sub 3} vapor, and that hypotheses of forest decline based on foliar assimilation of pollutant nitrogen oxides are tenable.

  17. The Sertoli cell hormones inhibin-B and anti Müllerian hormone have different patterns of secretion in prepubertal cryptorchid boys.

    PubMed

    Cortes, Dina; Clasen-Linde, Erik; Hutson, John M; Li, Ruili; Thorup, Jorgen

    2016-03-01

    The Sertoli-cells produce inhibin-B and Anti-Müllerian-Hormone (AMH). Much is still unknown about these hormones in prepubertal cryptorchids. The Sertoli-cells are mandatory for germ cell development. The aim of the study was to investigate if there are differences in secretion pattern of Sertoli-cell hormones and their gonadotropin feed-back mechanisms. Included were 94 prepubertal cryptorchid boys 0.5-13.1years with measurements of serum-inhibin-B, Anti-Müllerian-Hormone (AMH), Luteinizing Hormone (LH) and Follicle Stimulation Hormone (FSH). The serum values were measured using commercially available kits. The hormonal values were related to age-matched normal values. Testicular biopsy was taken at orchiopexy. Inhibin-B positively correlated to AMH for 1-13year-old patients (p<0.0001), but not for 0.5-1year-old patients (p=0.439). For 0.5-1year-old patients inhibin-B-values tended to decrease (p=0.055), in contrast to AMH-values (p=0.852). LH was elevated more often than FSH (p=0.014). FSH and LH were positively associated in patients both 0.5-1year (p=0.042) and 1-13years of age (p<0.0001). LH correlated positively to inhibin- B (p=0.001). In contrast, FSH did not correlate to inhibin-B or AMH (p=0.755 and p=0.528). The number of A-dark spermatogonia per tubular transverse section was positively correlated to inhibin-B serum level. Our new finding of an association between LH and inhibin-B in infancy of cryptorchid boys may be essential for the transformation of gonocytes to A-dark spermatogonia. Previously, LH associated to inhibin-B was described in early puberty only. During the first year of life inhibin-B values decreased faster than AMH. The AMH-levels may just reflect the increased Sertoli cell number that occurs during the first 3months of life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Canopy position and needle age affect photosynthetic response in field-grown Pinus radiata after five years of exposure to elevated carbon dioxide partial pressure.

    PubMed

    Tissue, D T; Griffin, K L; Turnbull, M H; Whitehead, D

    2001-08-01

    Photosynthesis of tree seedlings is generally enhanced during short-term exposure to elevated atmospheric CO2 partial pressure, but longer-term studies often indicate some degree of photosynthetic adjustment. We present physiological and biochemical evidence to explain observed long-term photosynthetic responses to elevated CO2 partial pressure as influenced by needle age and canopy position. We grew Pinus radiata D. Don. trees in open-top chambers for 5 years in sandy soil at ambient (36 Pa) and elevated (65 Pa) CO2 partial pressures. The trees were well watered and exposed to natural light and ambient temperature. In the fourth year of CO2 exposure (fall 1997), when foliage growth had ceased for the year, photosynthetic down-regulation was observed in 1-year-old needles, but not in current-year needles, suggesting a reduction in carbohydrate sink strength as a result of increasing needle age (Turnbull et al. 1998). In 5-year-old trees (spring 1997), when foliage expansion was occurring, photosynthetic down-regulation was not observed, reflecting significantly large sinks for carbohydrates throughout the tree. Net photosynthesis was stimulated by 79% in trees growing in elevated CO2 partial pressure, but there was no significant effect on photosynthetic capacity or Rubisco activity and concentration. Current-year needles were more responsive to elevated CO2 partial pressure than 1-year-old needles, exhibiting larger relative increases in net photosynthesis to elevated CO2 partial pressure (98 versus 64%). Lower canopy and upper canopy leaves exhibited similar relative responses to growth in elevated CO2 partial pressure. However, needles in the upper canopy exhibited higher net photosynthesis, photosynthetic capacity, and Rubisco activity and concentration than needles in the lower canopy. Given that the ratio of mature to juvenile foliage mass in the canopy will increase as trees mature, we suggest that trees may become less responsive to elevated CO2 partial

  19. Energy fluxes in oil palm plantations as affected by water storage in the trunk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meijide, Ana; Röll, Alexander; Fan, Yuanchao; Herbst, Mathias; Niu, Furong; Tiedemann, Frank; June, Tania; Rauf, Abdul; Hölscher, Dirk; Knohl, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    Oil palm is increasingly expanding, particularly in Indonesia, but information on water and energy fluxes in oil palm plantations is still very limited and on how those are affected by environmental conditions or oil palm age. Using the eddy covariance technique, we studied turbulent fluxes of sensible (H) and latent (LE) heat and gross primary production (GPP) for 8 months each in a young oil palm plantation (1-year old) and subsequently in a mature plantation (12-year old) in Jambi Province, Sumatra, Indonesia. We measured transpiration (T) simultaneously using a sap flux technique. The energy budget was dominated by LE in both plantations, particularly in the mature one, where it represented up to 70% of the available energy. In the young oil palm plantation, evapotranspiration (ET) was significantly reduced and H fluxes were higher. This affected the Bowen ratio, defined as the ratio of H and LE, which was higher in the 1-year old plantation (0.67±0.33), where it remained constant during the day, than in the mature plantation (0.14±0.09), where it varied considerably over the day, suggesting that water accumulated inside the canopy. Using the Community Land Model (CLM), a process based land surface model that has been adapted to oil palm functional traits (i.e. CLM-Palm), we investigated the contribution of different water sources to the measured fluxes. CLM-Palm differentiates leaf and stem surfaces in modelling water interception and is therefore able to diagnose the fraction of dry leaves that contribute to T and the wet fraction of all vegetation surfaces (leaf and stem) that contributes to evaporation. Results from our simulations strengthen our hypothesis of significant contribution of canopy evaporation to ET. As observed in the field, water accumulates inside the canopy in the mature plantation in oil palm trunk surfaces including epiphytes, creating water reservoirs in the trunk, which potentially contribute to ET when they evaporate. The decoupling

  20. Skin prick test responses and allergen-specific IgE levels as predictors of peanut, egg, and sesame allergy in infants.

    PubMed

    Peters, Rachel L; Allen, Katrina J; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Tang, Mimi L K; Koplin, Jennifer J; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; Lowe, Adrian J; Hill, David; Gurrin, Lyle C

    2013-10-01

    Ninety-five percent positive predictive values (PPVs) provide an invaluable tool for clinicians to avoid unnecessary oral food challenges. However, 95% PPVs specific to infants, the age group most likely to present for diagnosis of food allergy, are limited. We sought to develop skin prick test (SPT) and allergen-specific IgE (sIgE) thresholds with 95% PPVs for challenge-confirmed food allergy in a large population-based cohort of 1-year-old infants with challenges undertaken irrespective of SPT wheal size or previous history of ingestion. HealthNuts is a population-based, longitudinal food allergy study with baseline recruitment of 1-year-old infants. Infants were recruited from council-run immunization sessions during which they underwent SPTs to 4 allergens: egg, peanut, sesame, and cow's milk/shrimp. Any infant with a detectable SPT response was invited to undergo oral food challenge and sIgE testing. Five thousand two hundred seventy-six infants participated in the study. Peanut SPT responses of 8 mm or greater (95% CI, 7-9 mm), egg SPT responses of 4 mm or greater (95% CI, 3-5 mm), and sesame SPT responses of 8 mm or greater (95% CI, 5-9 mm) had 95% PPVs for challenge-proved food allergy. Peanut sIgE levels of 34 kUA/L or greater (95% CI, 14-48 kUA/L) and egg sIgE levels of 1.7 kUA/L or greater (95% CI, 1-3 kUA/L) had 95% PPVs for challenge-proved food allergy. Results were robust when stratified on established risk factors for food allergy. Egg SPT responses and sIgE levels were poor predictors of allergy to egg in baked goods. These 95% PPVs, which were generated from a unique dataset, are valuable for the diagnosis of food allergy in young infants and were robust when stratified across a number of different risk factors. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Normalized dose data for upper gastrointestinal tract contrast studies performed to infants

    SciTech Connect

    Damilakis, John; Stratakis, John; Raissaki, Maria; Perisinakis, Kostas; Kourbetis, Nikiforos; Gourtsoyiannis, Nicholas

    2006-04-15

    The aim of the current study was to (a) provide normalized dose data for the estimation of the radiation dose from upper gastrointestinal tract contrast (UGIC) studies carried out to infants and (b) estimate the average patient dose and risks associated with radiation from UGIC examinations performed in our institution. Organ and effective doses, normalized to entrance skin dose (ESD) and dose area product (DAP) were estimated for UGIC procedures utilizing the Monte Carlo N-particle (MCNP) transport code and two mathematical phantoms, one corresponding to the size of a newborn and one to the size of a 1-year-old child. The validity of the MCNP results was verified by comparison with dose data obtained in physical anthropomorphic phantoms simulating a newborn and a 1-year-old infant using thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD). Data were also collected from 25 consecutive UGIC examinations performed to infants. Study participants were (a) 12 infants aged from 0.5 to 5.9 months (group 1) and (b) 13 infants aged from 6 to 15 months (group 2). For each examination, ESD and dose to comforters were measured using TLD. Patient effective doses were estimated using normalized dose data obtained in the simulation study. The risk for fatal cancer induction was estimated using appropriate coefficients. The results consist of tabulated dose data normalized to ESD or DAP for the estimation of patient dose. Conversion coefficients were estimated for various tube potentials and beam filtration values. The mean total fluoroscopy time was 1.26 and 1.62 min for groups 1 and 2, respectively. The average effective dose was 1.6 mSv for group 1 and 1.9 mSv for group 2. The risk of cancer attributable to the radiation exposure associated with a typical UGIC study was found to be up to 3 per 10 000 infants undergoing an UGIC examination. The mean radiation dose absorbed by the hands of comforters was 47 {mu}Gy. In conclusion, estimation of radiation doses associated with UGIC studies performed

  2. Time Course Analysis of Skeletal Muscle Pathology of GDE5 Transgenic Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Yoshizawa, Ikumi; Kajihara, Kaori; Kato, Norihisa; Wada, Masanobu; Yanaka, Noriyuki

    2016-01-01

    Glycerophosphodiesterase 5 (GDE5) selectively hydrolyses glycerophosphocholine to choline and is highly expressed in type II fiber-rich skeletal muscles. We have previously generated that a truncated mutant of GDE5 (GDE5dC471) that lacks phosphodiesterase activity and shown that transgenic mice overexpressing GDE5dC471 in skeletal muscles show less skeletal muscle mass than control mice. However, the molecular mechanism and pathophysiological features underlying decreased skeletal muscle mass in GDE5dC471 mice remain unclear. In this study, we characterized the skeletal muscle disorder throughout development and investigated the primary cause of muscle atrophy. While type I fiber-rich soleus muscle mass was not altered in GDE5dC471 mice, type II fiber-rich muscle mass was reduced in 8-week-old GDE5dC471 mice. Type II fiber-rich muscle mass continued to decrease irreversibly in 1-year-old transgenic mice with an increase in apoptotic cell. Adipose tissue weight and blood triglyceride levels in 8-week-old and 1-year-old transgenic mice were higher than those in control mice. This study also demonstrated compensatory mRNA expression of neuromuscular junction (NMJ) components, including nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α1, γ, and ε subunits) and acetylcholinesterase in type II fiber-rich quadriceps muscles in GDE5dC471 mice. However, we did not observe morphological changes in NMJs associated with skeletal muscle atrophy in GDE5dC471 mice. We also found that HSP70 protein levels are significantly increased in the skeletal muscles of 2-week-old GDE5dC471 mice and in mouse myoblastic C2C12 cells overexpressing GDE5dC471. These findings suggest that GDE5dC471 mouse is a novel model of early-onset irreversible type II fiber-rich myopathy associated with cellular stress. PMID:27658304

  3. Low-dose computed tomography scans with automatic exposure control for patients of different ages undergoing cardiac PET/CT and SPECT/CT.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ching-Ching; Yang, Bang-Hung; Tu, Chun-Yuan; Wu, Tung-Hsin; Liu, Shu-Hsin

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of automatic exposure control (AEC) in order to optimize low-dose computed tomography (CT) protocols for patients of different ages undergoing cardiac PET/CT and single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT). One PET/CT and one SPECT/CT were used to acquire CT images for four anthropomorphic phantoms representative of 1-year-old, 5-year-old and 10-year-old children and an adult. For the hybrid systems investigated in this study, the radiation dose and image quality of cardiac CT scans performed with AEC activated depend mainly on the selection of a predefined image quality index. Multiple linear regression methods were used to analyse image data from anthropomorphic phantom studies to investigate the effects of body size and predefined image quality index on CT radiation dose in cardiac PET/CT and SPECT/CT scans. The regression relationships have a coefficient of determination larger than 0.9, indicating a good fit to the data. According to the regression models, low-dose protocols using the AEC technique were optimized for patients of different ages. In comparison with the standard protocol with AEC activated for adult cardiac examinations used in our clinical routine practice, the optimized paediatric protocols in PET/CT allow 32.2, 63.7 and 79.2% CT dose reductions for anthropomorphic phantoms simulating 10-year-old, 5-year-old and 1-year-old children, respectively. The corresponding results for cardiac SPECT/CT are 8.4, 51.5 and 72.7%. AEC is a practical way to reduce CT radiation dose in cardiac PET/CT and SPECT/CT, but the AEC settings should be determined properly for optimal effect. Our results show that AEC does not eliminate the need for paediatric protocols and CT examinations using the AEC technique should be optimized for paediatric patients to reduce the radiation dose as low as reasonably achievable.

  4. FDTD calculations of specific energy absorption rate in a seated voxel model of the human body from 10 MHz to 3 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Findlay, R. P.; Dimbylow, P. J.

    2006-05-01

    Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) calculations have been performed to investigate the frequency dependence of the specific energy absorption rate (SAR) in a seated voxel model of the human body. The seated model was derived from NORMAN (NORmalized MAN), an anatomically realistic voxel phantom in the standing posture with arms to the side. Exposure conditions included both vertically and horizontally polarized plane wave electric fields between 10 MHz and 3 GHz. The resolution of the voxel model was 4 mm for frequencies up to 360 MHz and 2 mm for calculations in the higher frequency range. The reduction in voxel size permitted the calculation of SAR at these higher frequencies using the FDTD method. SAR values have been calculated for the seated adult phantom and scaled versions representing 10-, 5- and 1-year-old children under isolated and grounded conditions. These scaled models do not exactly reproduce the dimensions and anatomy of children, but represent good geometric information for a seated child. Results show that, when the field is vertically polarized, the sitting position causes a second, smaller resonance condition not seen in resonance curves for the phantom in the standing posture. This occurs at ~130 MHz for the adult model when grounded. Partial-body SAR calculations indicate that the upper and lower regions of the body have their own resonant frequency at ~120 MHz and ~160 MHz, respectively, when the grounded adult model is orientated in the sitting position. These combine to produce this second resonance peak in the whole-body averaged SAR values calculated. Two resonance peaks also occur for the sitting posture when the incident electric field is horizontally polarized. For the adult model, the peaks in the whole-body averaged SAR occur at ~180 and ~600 MHz. These peaks are due to resonance in the arms and feet, respectively. Layer absorption plots and colour images of SAR in individual voxels show the specific regions in which the seated

  5. Mark 6: A Next-Generation VLBI Data System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitney, A. R.; Lapsley, D. E.; Taveniku, M.

    2011-07-01

    A new real-time high-data-rate disk-array system based on entirely commercial-off-the-shelf hardware components is being evaluated for possible use as a next-generation VLBI data system. The system, developed by XCube Communications of Nashua, NH, USA was originally developed for the automotive industry for testing/evaluation of autonomous driving systems that require continuous capture of an array of video cameras and automotive sensors at ~8Gbps from multiple 10GigE data links and other data sources. In order to sustain the required recording data rate, the system is designed to account for slow and/or failed disks by shifting the load to other disks as necessary in order to maintain the target data rate. The system is based on a Linux OS with some modifications to memory management and drivers in order to guarantee the timely movement of data, and the hardware/software combination is highly tuned to achieve the target data rate; data are stored in standard Linux files. A kit is also being designed that will allow existing Mark 5 disk modules to be modified to be used with the XCube system (though PATA disks will need to be replaced by SATA disks). Demonstrations of the system at Haystack Observatory and NRAO Socorro have proved very encouraging; some modest software upgrades/revisions are being made by XCube in order to meet VLBI-specific requirements. The system is easily expandable, with sustained 16 Gbps likely to be supported before end CY2011.

  6. On the calibration of the COBE/IRAS dust emission reddening maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutra, C. M.; Ahumada, A. V.; Clariá, J. J.; Bica, E.; Barbuy, B.

    2003-09-01

    In this work we study the spectral properties (3600-6800 Å) of the nuclear region of early-type galaxies at low (|b|<25deg), intermediate (including surroundings of the Magellanic Clouds) and high (South Polar Cap) Galactic latitudes. We determine the E(B-V) reddening values of the galaxies by matching their continuum distribution with respect to those of reddening-free spectral galaxy templates with similar stellar populations. We also compare the spectroscopic reddening value of each galaxy with that derived from 100 mu m dust emission (E(B-V)FIR) in its line of sight, and we find that there is agreement up to E(B-V)=0.25. Beyond this limit E(B-V)FIR values are higher. Taking into account the data up to E(B-V) ~ 0.7, we derive a calibration factor of 0.016 between the spectroscopic E(B-V) values and Schlegel et al.'s (\\cite{Schlegel1998}) opacities. By combining this result with an AK extinction map built within ten degrees of the Galactic centre using Bulge giants as probes (Dutra et al. \\cite{Dutra2003}), we extended the calibration of dust emission reddening maps to low Galactic latitudes down to |b|=4deg and E(B-V)= 1.6 (AV ~ 5). According to this new calibration, a multiplicative factor of ~0.75 must be applied to the COBE/IRAS dust emission reddening maps. Based on observations made at Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito, which is operated under agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina and the National Universities of La Pata, Córdoba and San Juan, Argentina.

  7. [Association between activities of daily living and oral diadochokinesis among Japanese elderly individuals in a nursing home].

    PubMed

    Hara, Shuichi; Miura, Hiroko; Yamasaki, Kiyoko; Sumi, Yasunori

    2012-01-01

    We studied the association between the activities of daily living (ADL) and oral diadochokinesis (OD) among 84 Japanese elderly individuals residing in a nursing home. We assessed OD in terms of speech and articulation. Each subject repetitively produced the syllables /pa/, /ta/, /ka/ and the sequence /pataka/. We also evaluated comprehensive ADL (basic, BADL; instrumental, IADL; and communicative, CADL) based on the criteria of the ADL-20 and intellectual ability using the revised Hasegawa Dementia Scale (HDS-R). We classified types of OD into a hypokinesia group (less than 3 times per second for OD /pa//ta//ka/ or less than once per second for OD /pataka/) and a repetition exercise maintenance group (more than 3 times per second for OD /pa//ta/ /ka/ or more than once per second for OD /pataka/). After adjusting for age, sex, and HDS-R score, the ADL-20 total score of the hypokinesia group was significantly lower than that of the maintenance group for OD (/pa/ and /pataka/) (p<0.01). The BADL for mobility (BADLm) score in the hypokinesia group for all OD sections was significantly lower than that in the maintenance group (p<0.05). The BADL for self-care score (BADLs) in the hypokinesia group for OD (/pataka/) was lower than that in the maintenance group (p<0.01). The CADL score in the hypokinesia group for OD (/pa/) was lower than that in the maintenance group (p<0.05). A decline in OD may have been associated with a decline in ADL in our subjects, suggesting that the rate of decline in OD may affect overall ADL in elderly individuals.

  8. Comparison Between Paeoenvironmental and Land Use Changes Records in Brazilian Amazon Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordeiro, R. C.; Turcq, B. J.; Rodrigues, R. A.; Sifeddine, A.; Seoane, J. S.; Simões Filho, F. L.; Conceicao, M. G.

    2008-12-01

    Interpretations of biomass burn records in lacustrine sediments need a comparison among the charcoal particle fluxes influenced by different plant communities. The charcoal fluxes, which are related with paleofires, represent an important disturbance to the atmospheric system. These charcoal particles emitted to the atmosphere can promote a decrease in the sunlight penetration and greenhouse gas enhancement.Thus, the evaluation of charcoal deposition, as a consequence of regional burns, will have great importance to determine the impact of climatic change in different tropical ecosystems. This subject will be an important contribution for understanding the dynamics among vegetation, climate and carbon cycle along the present interglacial. In this study, paleofires records were obtained through the charcoal particle fluxes analysis in sediments of lakes surrounded by different vegetation, which represents the most spread ecosystems in Brazil. The main goals were to identify major events of vegetation burn during the Holocene and evaluate the influence of biomass availability to charcoal fluxes. Fires records were obtained through the charcoal particles flux analyses in lacustrine sediments cores at the following locations Brazilian Amazon: Lagoa da Pata (AM); Humaitá (AM), Lago do Saci (PA), Carajás N4, (PA); and Caracarana (RO) and reservoirs sediments in an intense land use change region (Alta Floresta, MT). The charcoal analyses could have also a great importance in evaluating the impact of dry climates in different ecosystems. Determination of fire frequencies and dimensions in key areas of South America, during the Holocene, is a first step to understand the global carbon transference between terrestrial and atmospheric systems. The synchronism among the fires occurrences show a good relation with the middle Holocene dry climate phase in Brazil. Discrepancy in the flux values could be attributed to differences in biomass availability provided by these

  9. Constituents of leaves from Bauhinia curvula Benth. exert gastroprotective activity in rodents: role of quercitrin and kaempferol.

    PubMed

    Beber, Ana Paula; de Souza, Priscila; Boeing, Thaise; Somensi, Lincon Bordignon; Mariano, Luísa Nathália Bolda; Cury, Benhur Judah; Burci, Ligia Moura; da Silva, Cristiane Bezerra; Simionatto, Euclésio; de Andrade, Sérgio Faloni; da Silva, Luísa Mota

    2017-02-07

    The Bauhinia genus is known as "Pata-de-Vaca" and a wide variety of these species are used in Brazilian folk medicine due to their gastroprotective properties. This study aimed to investigate the antiulcer efficacy of the hydroalcoholic extract from B. curvula (HEBC) leaves, as well as its semi-purified fraction (SPFr) and the contribution of their phytochemicals constituents for this effect. For that, ethanol 60%/HCl 0.3 M- and indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer were performed in rodents. Gastric ulcerated tissues were processed for histological, histochemical and biochemical analysis. The oral treatment with HEBC and SPFr decreased the gastric ulcer induced by ethanol/HCl in mice and by indomethacin (only HEBC) in rats. The gastroprotective effect of HEBC was abolished in mice pretreated with Nω-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, N-Ethylmaleimide, glibenclamide or indomethacin. Both HEBC and SPFr reduced myeloperoxidase activity in parallel with a decrease of lipoperoxides content at the site of the lesion. On the other hand, HEBC did not alter volume, pH, total acidity or pepsin activity of acid gastric secretion in rats, and neither inhibited the in vitro H(+),K(+)-ATPase activity. Additionally, the compounds identified and isolated from the SPFr, the flavonoids quercitrin (65%) and kaempferol (35%), were able to diminish the extent of ulcerated area induced by both ethanol/HCl and indomethacin. Taking together, these findings show that B. curvula extracts present gastroprotective effect, mainly explained by the presence of flavonoids quercitrin and kaempferol, which may possibly improve the defensive factors of gastric mucosa.

  10. Isolation and intracellular localization of insulin-like proteins from leaves of Bauhinia variegata.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, C R; Maciel, F M; Silva, L B; Ferreira, A T S; da Cunha, M; Machado, O L T; Fernandes, K V S; Oliveira, A E A; Xavier-Filho, J

    2006-11-01

    Evidence based on immunological cross-reactivity and anti-diabetic properties has suggested the presence of insulin-like peptides in plants. The objective of the present study was to investigate the presence of insulin-like proteins in the leaves of Bauhinia variegata ("pata-de-vaca", "mororó"), a plant widely utilized in popular medicine as an anti-diabetic agent. We show that an insulin-like protein was present in the leaves of this plant. A chloroplast protein with a molecular mass similar to that of bovine insulin was extracted from 2-mm thick 15% SDS-PAGE gels and fractionated with a 2 x 24 cm Sephadex G-50 column. The activity of this insulin-like protein (0.48 mg/mL) on serum glucose levels of four-week-old Swiss albino (CF1) diabetic mice was similar to that of commercial swine insulin used as control. Further characterization of this molecule by reverse-phase hydrophobic HPLC chromatographic analysis as well as its antidiabetic activity on alloxan-induced mice showed that it has insulin-like properties. Immunolocalization of the insulin-like protein in the leaves of B. variegata was performed by transmission electron microscopy using a polyclonal anti-insulin human antibody. Localization in the leaf blades revealed that the insulin-like protein is present mainly in chloroplasts where it is also found associated with crystals which may be calcium oxalate. The presence of an insulin-like protein in chloroplasts may indicate its involvement in carbohydrate metabolism. This finding has strengthened our previous results and suggests that insulin-signaling pathways have been conserved through evolution.

  11. A randomized, phase 2 clinical trial of lithium carbonate in Machado-Joseph disease.

    PubMed

    Saute, Jonas Alex Morales; de Castilhos, Raphael Machado; Monte, Thais Lampert; Schumacher-Schuh, Artur Francisco; Donis, Karina Carvalho; D'Ávila, Rui; Souza, Gabriele Nunes; Russo, Aline Dutra; Furtado, Gabriel Vasata; Gheno, Tailise Conte; de Souza, Diogo Onofre Gomes; Portela, Luis Valmor Cruz; Saraiva-Pereira, Maria-Luiza; Camey, Suzi Alvez; Torman, Vanessa Bielefeld Leotti; de Mello Rieder, Carlos Roberto; Jardim, Laura Bannach

    2014-04-01

    Because lithium exerts neuroprotective effects in preclinical models of polyglutamine disorders, our objective was to assess the safety and efficacy of lithium carbonate (0.5-0.8 milliequivalents per liter) in patients with Machado-Joseph disease (spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 [MJD/SCA3]). For this phase 2, single-center, double-blind, parallel, placebo-controlled trial (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01096082), 62 patients who had MJD/SCA3 with a disease duration ≤10 years and an independent gait were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive either lithium or placebo. After 24 weeks, 169 adverse events were reported, including 50.3% in the lithium group (P = 1.00; primary safety outcome). Sixty patients (31 in the placebo group and 29 in the lithium group) were analyzed for efficacy (intention-to-treat analysis). Mean progression between groups did not differ according to scores on the Neurological Examination Score for the Assessment of Spinocerebellar Ataxia (NESSCA) after 48 weeks (-0.35; 95% confidence interval, -1.7 to 1.0; primary efficacy outcome). The lithium group exhibited minor progression on the PATA speech-rate (P = 0.002), the nondominant Click Test (P = 0.023), the Spinocerebellar Ataxia Functional Index (P = 0.003), and the Composite Cerebellar Functional Score (P = 0.029). Lithium was safe and well tolerated, but it had no effect on progression when measured using the NESSCA in patients with MJD/SCA3. This slowdown in secondary outcomes deserves further clarification. © 2014 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  12. Isolation of poxvirus from debilitating cutaneous lesions on four immature grackles (Quiscalus sp.)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Docherty, D.E.; Long, R.I.R.; Flickinger, Edward L.; Locke, L.N.

    1991-01-01

    Poxvirus was isolated from nodules on four immature grackles (Quiscalus sp.) collected in two residential areas of Victoria, Texas. All of the birds were emaciated and had nodules on the eyelids, bill, legs, toes, and areas of the skin on the wings, neck, and ventral abdomen. These pox nodules were extensive and probably interfered with both sight and flight. The preliminary diagnosis was confirmed by virus isolation, histopathology, and electron microscopy. Poxvirus was isolated on the chorioallantoic membrane of embryonated hen's eggs and in Muscovy duck embryo fibroblast cell culture. Phaenicia calliphoridae (blowfly) larvae were found in one of the pox nodules, raising the possibility of mechanical transmission of the virus by contaminated adult blowfiles. /// Se aisl?? virus de viruela a partir de n??dulos presentes en cuatro estorninos inmaduros (Quiscalus sp.) capturados en dos ?!reas residenciales de Victoria, Texas. Las cuatro aves estaban emaciadas y presentaron n??dulos en los p?!rpados, pico, patas, dedos, y algunas ?!reas de la piel de las alas, cuello, y regi??n inferior del abdomen. Estos n??dulos producidos por viruela eran extensos y probablemente interfirieron con la visi??n y el vuelo. El diagn??stico presuntivo fue confirmado mediante aislamiento viral, histopatolog?-a, y microscop?-a electr??nica. Se aisl?? el virus de viruela en la membrana corioalantoidea de huevos embrionados de gallina y en cultivos celulares de fibroblasto de embri??n de pato. Se encontraron larvas de mosca azul (Phaenicia calliphoridae) en uno de los n??dulos de viruela, increment?!ndose as?- la posibilidad de transmisi??n mec?!nica del virus mediante moscas adultas contaminadas.

  13. DRD4 dopamine receptor allelic diversity in various primate species

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, M.; Higley, D.; O`Brien, S.

    1994-09-01

    The DRD4 dopamine receptor is uniquely characterized by a 48 bp repeating segment within the coding region, located in exon III. Different DRD4 alleles are produced by the presence of additional 48 bp repeats, each of which adds 16 amino acids to the length of the 3rd intracytoplasmic loop of the receptor. The DRD4 receptor is therefore an intriguing candidate gene for behaviors which are influenced by dopamine function. In several human populations, DRD4 alleles with 2-8 and 10 repeats have previously been identified, and the 4 and 7 repeat alleles are the most abundant. We have determined DRD4 genotypes in the following nonhuman primate species: chimpanzee N=2, pygmy chimpanzee N=2, gorilla N=4, siamang N=2, Gelada baboon N=1, gibbon N=1, orangutan (Bornean and Sumatran) N=62, spider monkey N=4, owl monkey N=1, Colobus monkey N=1, Patas monkey N=1, ruffed lemur N=1, rhesus macaque N=8, and vervet monkey N=28. The degree of DRD4 polymorphism and which DRD4 alleles were present both showed considerable variation across primate species. In contrast to the human, rhesus macaque monkeys were monomorphic. The 4 and 7 repeat allels, highly abundant in the human, may not be present in certain other primates. For example, the four spider monkeys we studied showed the 7, 8 and 9 repeat length alleles and the only gibbon we analyzed was homozygous for the 9 repeat allele (thus far not observed in the human). Genotyping of other primate species and sequencing of the individual DRD4 repeat alleles in different species may help us determine the ancestral DRD4 repeat length and identify connections between DRD4 genotype and phenotype.

  14. Accumulation of Peptidoglycan O-Acetylation Leads to Altered Cell Wall Biochemistry and Negatively Impacts Pathogenesis Factors of Campylobacter jejuni*

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Reuben; Frirdich, Emilisa; Sychantha, David; Biboy, Jacob; Taveirne, Michael E.; Johnson, Jeremiah G.; DiRita, Victor J.; Vollmer, Waldemar; Clarke, Anthony J.; Gaynor, Erin C.

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in the developed world. Despite its prevalence, its mechanisms of pathogenesis are poorly understood. Peptidoglycan (PG) is important for helical shape, colonization, and host-pathogen interactions in C. jejuni. Therefore, changes in PG greatly impact the physiology of this organism. O-acetylation of peptidoglycan (OAP) is a bacterial phenomenon proposed to be important for proper cell growth, characterized by acetylation of the C6 hydroxyl group of N-acetylmuramic acid in the PG glycan backbone. The OAP gene cluster consists of a PG O-acetyltransferase A (patA) for translocation of acetate into the periplasm, a PG O-acetyltransferase B (patB) for O-acetylation, and an O-acetylpeptidoglycan esterase (ape1) for de-O-acetylation. In this study, reduced OAP in ΔpatA and ΔpatB had minimal impact on C. jejuni growth and fitness under the conditions tested. However, accumulation of OAP in Δape1 resulted in marked differences in PG biochemistry, including O-acetylation, anhydromuropeptide levels, and changes not expected to result directly from Ape1 activity. This suggests that OAP may be a form of substrate level regulation in PG biosynthesis. Ape1 acetylesterase activity was confirmed in vitro using p-nitrophenyl acetate and O-acetylated PG as substrates. In addition, Δape1 exhibited defects in pathogenesis-associated phenotypes, including cell shape, motility, biofilm formation, cell surface hydrophobicity, and sodium deoxycholate sensitivity. Δape1 was also impaired for chick colonization and adhesion, invasion, intracellular survival, and induction of IL-8 production in INT407 cells in vitro. The importance of Ape1 in C. jejuni biology makes it a good candidate as an antimicrobial target. PMID:27474744

  15. Quantitative analysis of 3'-hydroxynorcotinine in human urine.

    PubMed

    Upadhyaya, Pramod; Hecht, Stephen S

    2015-05-01

    Based on previous metabolism studies carried out in patas monkeys, we hypothesized that urinary 3'-hydroxynorcotinine could be a specific biomarker for uptake and metabolism of the carcinogen N'-nitrosonornicotine in people who use tobacco products. We developed a method for quantitation of 3'-hydroxynorcotinine in human urine. [Pyrrolidinone-(13)C4]3'-hydroxynorcotinine was added to urine as an internal standard, the samples were treated with β-glucuronidase, partially purified by solid supported liquid extraction and quantified by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. The method was accurate (average accuracy = 102%) and precise (coefficient of variation = 5.6%) in the range of measurement. 3'-Hydroxynorcotinine was detected in 48 urine samples from smokers (mean 393±287 pmol/ml urine) and 12 samples from individuals who had stopped smoking and were using the nicotine patch (mean 658±491 pmol/ml urine), but not in any of 10 samples from nonsmokers. Since the amounts of 3'-hydroxynorcotinine found in smokers' urine were approximately 50 times greater than the anticipated daily dose of N'-nitrosonornicotine, we concluded that it is a metabolite of nicotine or one of its metabolites, comprising perhaps 1% of nicotine intake in smokers. Therefore, it would not be suitable as a specific biomarker for uptake and metabolism of N'-nitrosonornicotine. Since 3'-hydroxynorcotinine has never been previously reported as a constituent of human urine, further studies are required to determine its source and mode of formation. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Testing the Oxidative Stress Hypothesis of Aging in Primate Fibroblasts: Is There a Correlation Between Species Longevity and Cellular ROS Production?

    PubMed Central

    Csiszar, Anna; Podlutsky, Andrej; Podlutskaya, Natalia; Sonntag, William E.; Merlin, Steven Z.; Philipp, Eva E. R.; Doyle, Kristian; Davila, Antonio; Recchia, Fabio A.; Ballabh, Praveen; Pinto, John T.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted to test predictions of the oxidative stress theory of aging assessing reactive oxygen species production and oxidative stress resistance in cultured fibroblasts from 13 primate species ranging in body size from 0.25 to 120 kg and in longevity from 20 to 90 years. We assessed both basal and stress-induced reactive oxygen species production in fibroblasts from five great apes (human, chimpanzee, bonobo, gorilla, and orangutan), four Old World monkeys (baboon, rhesus and crested black macaques, and patas monkey), three New World monkeys (common marmoset, red-bellied tamarin, and woolly monkey), and one lemur (ring-tailed lemur). Measurements of cellular MitoSox fluorescence, an indicator of mitochondrial superoxide (O2·−) generation, showed an inverse correlation between longevity and steady state or metabolic stress–induced mitochondrial O2·− production, but this correlation was lost when the effects of body mass were removed, and the data were analyzed using phylogenetically independent contrasts. Fibroblasts from longer-lived primate species also exhibited superior resistance to H2O2-induced apoptotic cell death than cells from shorter-living primates. After correction for body mass and lack of phylogenetic independence, this correlation, although still discernible, fell short of significance by regression analysis. Thus, increased longevity in this sample of primates is not causally associated with low cellular reactive oxygen species generation, but further studies are warranted to test the association between increased cellular resistance to oxidative stressor and primate longevity. PMID:22219516

  17. Effects of acetyl-DL-leucine in patients with cerebellar ataxia: a case series.

    PubMed

    Strupp, Michael; Teufel, Julian; Habs, Maximilian; Feuerecker, Regina; Muth, Carolin; van de Warrenburg, Bart P; Klopstock, Thomas; Feil, Katharina

    2013-10-01

    No existing medication has yet been shown to convincingly improve cerebellar ataxia. Therefore, the identification of new drugs for its symptomatic treatment is desirable. The objective of this case series was to evaluate the efficacy of treatment of cerebellar ataxia with the amino acid acetyl-DL-leucine (Tanganil). Thirteen patients (eight males, median age 51 years) with degenerative cerebellar ataxia of different etiologies (SCA1/2, ADCA, AOA, SAOA) were treated with acetyl-DL-leucine (5 g/day) without titration for 1 week. Motor function was evaluated by changes in the Scale for the Rating and Assessment of Ataxia (SARA) and in the Spinocerebellar Ataxia Functional Index (SCAFI) during treatment compared to a baseline examination. Quality of life (EuroQol-5D-3L) and side effects were also assessed. Mean total SARA decreased remarkably (p = 0.002) from a baseline of 16.1 ± 7.1 to 12.8 ± 6.8 (mean ± SD) on medication. There were also significant improvements in sub-scores for gait (p = 0.022), speech (p = 0.007), finger-chase (p = 0.042), nose-finger-test (p = 0.035), rapid-alternating-movements (p = 0.002) and heel-to-shin (p = 0.018). Furthermore, patients showed better performance in the SCAFI consisting of the 8-m-walking-time (8 MW, p = 0.003), 9-Hole-Peg-Test of the dominant hand (9HPTD, p = 0.011) and the PATA rate (p = 0.005). Quality of life increased during treatment (p = 0.003). No side effects were reported. In conclusion, acetyl-DL-leucine significantly improved ataxic symptoms without side effects and therefore showed a good risk-benefit profile. These findings need to be confirmed in placebo-controlled trials.

  18. Accumulation of Peptidoglycan O-Acetylation Leads to Altered Cell Wall Biochemistry and Negatively Impacts Pathogenesis Factors of Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Ha, Reuben; Frirdich, Emilisa; Sychantha, David; Biboy, Jacob; Taveirne, Michael E; Johnson, Jeremiah G; DiRita, Victor J; Vollmer, Waldemar; Clarke, Anthony J; Gaynor, Erin C

    2016-10-21

    Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in the developed world. Despite its prevalence, its mechanisms of pathogenesis are poorly understood. Peptidoglycan (PG) is important for helical shape, colonization, and host-pathogen interactions in C. jejuni Therefore, changes in PG greatly impact the physiology of this organism. O-acetylation of peptidoglycan (OAP) is a bacterial phenomenon proposed to be important for proper cell growth, characterized by acetylation of the C6 hydroxyl group of N-acetylmuramic acid in the PG glycan backbone. The OAP gene cluster consists of a PG O-acetyltransferase A (patA) for translocation of acetate into the periplasm, a PG O-acetyltransferase B (patB) for O-acetylation, and an O-acetylpeptidoglycan esterase (ape1) for de-O-acetylation. In this study, reduced OAP in ΔpatA and ΔpatB had minimal impact on C. jejuni growth and fitness under the conditions tested. However, accumulation of OAP in Δape1 resulted in marked differences in PG biochemistry, including O-acetylation, anhydromuropeptide levels, and changes not expected to result directly from Ape1 activity. This suggests that OAP may be a form of substrate level regulation in PG biosynthesis. Ape1 acetylesterase activity was confirmed in vitro using p-nitrophenyl acetate and O-acetylated PG as substrates. In addition, Δape1 exhibited defects in pathogenesis-associated phenotypes, including cell shape, motility, biofilm formation, cell surface hydrophobicity, and sodium deoxycholate sensitivity. Δape1 was also impaired for chick colonization and adhesion, invasion, intracellular survival, and induction of IL-8 production in INT407 cells in vitro The importance of Ape1 in C. jejuni biology makes it a good candidate as an antimicrobial target. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Development and validation of a real-time PCR method to quantify rumen protozoa and examination of variability between entodinium populations in sheep offered a hay-based diet.

    PubMed

    Skillman, Lucy C; Toovey, Andrew F; Williams, Andrew J; Wright, André-Denis G

    2006-01-01

    PCR and real-time PCR primers for the 18S rRNA gene of rumen protozoa (Entodinium and Dasytricha spp.) were designed, and their specificities were tested against a range of rumen microbes and protozoal groups. External standards were prepared from DNA extracts of a rumen matrix containing known numbers and species of protozoa. The efficiency of PCR (epsilon) was calculated following amplification of serial dilutions of each standard and was used to calculate the numbers of protozoa in each sample collected; serial dilutions of DNA were used similarly to calculate PCR efficiency. Species of Entodinium, the most prevalent of the rumen protozoa, were enumerated in rumen samples collected from 100 1-year-old merino wethers by microscopy and real-time PCR. Both the counts developed by the real-time PCR method and microscopic counts were accurate and repeatable, with a strong correlation between them (R2= 0.8), particularly when the PCR efficiency was close to optimal (i.e., two copies per cycle). The advantages and disadvantages of each procedure are discussed. Entodinium represented on average 98% of the total protozoa, and populations within the same sheep were relatively stable, but greater variation occurred between different sheep (10(0) and 10(6) entodinia per gram of rumen contents). With this inherent variability, it was estimated that, to detect a statistically significant (P = 0.05) 20% change in Entodinium populations, 52 sheep per treatment group would be required.

  20. Diversity of Gut Microbiota Metabolic Pathways in 10 Pairs of Chinese Infant Twins

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Zhou, Jianli; Zhou, Wenhao

    2016-01-01

    Early colonization of gut microbiota in human gut is a complex process. It remains unclear when gut microbiota colonization occurs and how it proceeds. In order to study gut microbiota composition in human early life, the present study recruited 10 healthy pairs of twins, including five monozygotic (MZ) and five dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs, whose age ranged from 0 to 6 years old. 20 fecal samples from these twins were processed by shotgun metagenomic sequencing, and their averaged data outputs were generated as 2G per sample. We used MEGAN5 to perform taxonomic and functional annotation of the metagenomic data, and systematically analyzed those 20 samples, including Jaccard index similarity, principle component, clustering, and correlation analyses. Our findings indicated that within our study group: 1) MZ-twins share more microbes than DZ twins or non-twin pairs, 2) gut microbiota distribution is relatively stable at metabolic pathways level, 3) age represents the strongest factor that can account for variation in gut microbiota, and 4) a clear metabolic pathway shift can be observed, which speculatively occurs around the age of 1 year old. This research will serve as a base for future studies of gut microbiota-related disease research. PMID:27583441

  1. Phototropic bending of non-elongating and radially growing woody stems results from asymmetrical xylem formation.

    PubMed

    Matsuzaki, Jun; Masumori, Masaya; Tange, Takeshi

    2007-05-01

    Active phototropic bending of non-elongating and radially growing portion of stems (woody stems) has not been previously documented, whereas negative gravitropic bending is well known. We found phototropic bending in woody stems and searched for the underlying mechanism. We inclined 1-year-old Quercus crispula Blume seedlings and unilaterally illuminated them from a horizontal direction perpendicular to ('normal' illumination) or parallel to ('parallel' illumination) the inclination azimuth. With normal illumination, active phototropic bending and xylem formation could be evaluated separately from the negative gravitropic response and vertical deflection resulting from the weight of the seedlings. One-year-old stems with normal illumination bent significantly, with asymmetrical xylem formation towards the illuminated upper surface and side of the stem, whereas those with parallel illumination showed non-significant lateral bending, with asymmetrical xylem formation only on the upper side. A mechanical model was built on the assumption that a bending moment resulted from the asymmetrical xylem formation during phototropic bending of the woody stems. The model fitted the relationship between the observed spatial distributions of the xylem and the observed lateral bending, and thus supported the hypothesis that phototropic bending of woody stems results from asymmetrical xylem formation, as such occurs during gravitropism.

  2. Epidemiology of intussusception in Malaysia: a three-year review.

    PubMed

    Giak, Chan Lee; Singh, H S S Amar; Nallusamy, Revathy; Leong, Teoh Yee; Ng, Timothy L; Bock, Hans L

    2008-09-01

    This study aimed to document the baseline incidence and epidemiology of intussusception (IS) in Malaysia. This retrospective surveillance examined hospital discharge data from three hospitals in Malaysia to identify IS cases over a 3-year period (2000-2003) in children <5 years of age. Identification of definite cases of IS was done through a search of computerized hospital discharge records (ICD-9-CM code 560.0) followed by confirmation of diagnosis through medical record review. The definition of IS was based on the clinical guidelines from the IS Brighton Collaboration Working Group, version 2002. During the 3-year study period, there were 62 cases hospitalized due to IS, of which 74.2% were < 1 year of age. The incidences for hospitalization due to IS in children < 1 year old and < 5 years old averaged 17.8 and 4.8 per 100,000 person-years, respectively. No IS-associated deaths were recorded and all IS cases had a favorable outcome. No distinct seasonality with IS occurrence was observed.

  3. PubMed Central

    DALLAN, I.; NAVARI, E.; SELLARI FRANCESCHINI, S.; CERCHIAI, N.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The aim of this paper is to analyse, after clinical experience with a series of patients with established diagnoses and review of the literature, all relevant anamnestic features in order to build a simple diagnostic algorithm for vertigo in childhood. This study is a retrospective chart review. A series of 37 children underwent complete clinical and instrumental vestibular examination. Only neurological disorders or genetic diseases represented exclusion criteria. All diagnoses were reviewed after applying the most recent diagnostic guidelines. In our experience, the most common aetiology for dizziness is vestibular migraine (38%), followed by acute labyrinthitis/neuritis (16%) and somatoform vertigo (16%). Benign paroxysmal vertigo was diagnosed in 4 patients (11%) and paroxysmal torticollis was diagnosed in a 1-year-old child. In 8% (3 patients) of cases, the dizziness had a post-traumatic origin: 1 canalolithiasis of the posterior semicircular canal and 2 labyrinthine concussions, respectively. Menière's disease was diagnosed in 2 cases. A bilateral vestibular failure of unknown origin caused chronic dizziness in 1 patient. In conclusion, this algorithm could represent a good tool for guiding clinical suspicion to correct diagnostic assessment in dizzy children where no neurological findings are detectable. The algorithm has just a few simple steps, based mainly on two aspects to be investigated early: temporal features of vertigo and presence of hearing impairment. A different algorithm has been proposed for cases in which a traumatic origin is suspected. PMID:26246662

  4. Goal Attribution toward Non-Human Objects during Infancy Predicts Imaginary Companion Status during Preschool Years.

    PubMed

    Moriguchi, Yusuke; Kanakogi, Yasuhiro; Todo, Naoya; Okumura, Yuko; Shinohara, Ikuko; Itakura, Shoji

    2016-01-01

    It has been shown that there is a significant relationship between children's mentalizing skills and creation of an imaginary companion (IC). Theorists have proposed that interaction with an IC may improve mentalizing skills, but it is also possible that children's mentalizing skills affect their creation of an IC. In this longitudinal study, we examined whether goal attribution in infants younger than 1 years old (Time 1) predicted their creation of ICs at 48 months old (Time 2). At Time 1, infants' goal attribution was measured in an action prediction experiment, where infants anticipated three types of action goals: (1) another person's goal-directed action (GH condition); (2) another person's non-goal-directed (BH condition); and (3) a mechanical claw's goal-directed action (MC condition). At Time 2, parents completed questionnaires assessing whether their children had ICs. The path analyses using Bayesian estimation revealed that infants' anticipation in the MC condition, but not in the GH and BH conditions, predicted their later IC status. These results indicate that infants' goal attributions to non-human agents may be a strong predictor of their later IC creation. Early mentalizing skills toward non-human objects may provide children with a basis for their engagement in imaginative play.

  5. Unexpected peripheral markers of thyroid function in a patient with a novel mutation of the MCT8 thyroid hormone transporter gene.

    PubMed

    Herzovich, V; Vaiani, E; Marino, R; Dratler, G; Lazzati, J M; Tilitzky, S; Ramirez, P; Iorcansky, S; Rivarola, M A; Belgorosky, A

    2007-01-01

    The specific thyroid hormone transporter, MCT8, located on the X chromosome, has led to the identification a novel syndrome. The objective is to relate phenotype with several tissue-specific thyroid functions. A 1-year-old boy, who had severe psychological damage and low serum T4, had received l-T4 for 3 months. At admission, body length was normal but weight was low. Off therapy, serum TSH was mildly elevated, serum T4 and free T4 were low, and serum T3 and free T3 were high. Direct sequencing of the MCT8 gene revealed a single nucleotide change that resulted in a novel nonsense mutation at codon 261 (Q261X) in exon 3. Since serum T3 was high, peripheral markers of hyperthyroidism were looked for. Bone age was advanced, despite the presence of malnutrition and low T4. Serum SHBG, a marker of thyroid hormone action in liver, was markedly elevated. Markers of skeletal muscle catabolism, ammonemia and lactic acid, were found to be elevated. The phenotype of MCT 8 mutation might be explained by differences in the entry of thyroid hormones into different cells. In the presence of an inactive MCT8 transporter, the high blood T3 levels might not be enough to prevent brain damage early in life, while they seem to be able to induce a postnatal state of peripheral hyperthyroidism in other tissues, such as liver, bone and skeletal muscle.

  6. Effectiveness of propranolol in the treatment of infantile hemangioma beyond the proliferation phase.

    PubMed

    Vivas-Colmenares, Grecia V; Bernabeu-Wittel, Jose; Alonso-Arroyo, Veronica; Matute de Cardenas, Jose A; Fernandez-Pineda, Israel

    2015-01-01

    During the last 5 years, many studies have shown the efficacy of propranolol as first-line treatment for infantile hemangiomas (IHs), but not much has been written about the role of propranolol beyond the proliferation phase of IH (>1 year). Our aim was to assess propranolol efficacy and safety in the treatment of patients older than 1 year. A retrospective study of patients older than 1 year diagnosed with IH and treated in our vascular anomalies clinic between 2009 and 2013 was performed. Eighteen patients older than 1 year with a diagnosis of IH (15 girls, 3 boys) were identified. The mean age at the time of initiation of treatment was 25.7 months (range 13-72 mos). Single lesions were observed in 13 patients and multiple lesions in 5. Fifteen patients had focal lesions and three had segmental. The median duration of treatment with oral propranolol was 11.8 months (range 2-33 mos). Complete response was observed in 72.2% of the patients and partial response in 27.8%. Recurrence was observed in three patients 4.7 months after completion of therapy (range 0.3-8 mos). These patients required further therapy with propranolol for 6 more months. Bradycardia was documented in two patients and night terrors in one patient, which led to discontinuation of treatment. In our experience, propranolol may be useful in the treatment of IHs beyond the proliferation phase (>1 year old), but more studies are needed to support this observation.

  7. Cardiomyopathy in captive African hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris).

    PubMed

    Raymond, J T; Garner, M M

    2000-09-01

    From 1994 to 1999, 16 captive African hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris), from among 42 necropsy cases, were diagnosed with cardiomyopathy. The incidence of cardiomyopathy in this study population was 38%. Fourteen of 16 hedgehogs with cardiomyopathy were males and all hedgehogs were adult (>1 year old). Nine hedgehogs exhibited 1 or more of the following clinical signs before death: heart murmur, lethargy, icterus, moist rales, anorexia, dyspnea, dehydration, and weight loss. The remaining 7 hedgehogs died without premonitory clinical signs. Gross findings were cardiomegaly (6 cases), hepatomegaly (5 cases), pulmonary edema (5 cases), pulmonary congestion (4 cases), hydrothorax (3 cases), pulmonary infarct (1 case), renal infarcts (1 case), ascites (1 case), and 5 cases showed no changes. Histologic lesions were found mainly within the left ventricular myocardium and consisted primarily of myodegeneration, myonecrosis, atrophy, hypertrophy, and disarray of myofibers. All hedgehogs with cardiomyopathy had myocardial fibrosis, myocardial edema, or both. Other common histopathologic findings were acute and chronic passive congestion of the lungs, acute passive congestion of the liver, renal tubular necrosis, vascular thrombosis, splenic extramedullary hematopoiesis, and hepatic lipidosis. This is the first report of cardiomyopathy in African hedgehogs.

  8. Costs and benefits of measles vaccination in Finland.

    PubMed

    Ekblom, M; Elo, O; Laurinkari, J; Niemelä, P

    1978-01-01

    Measles vaccination is fairly beneficial. During the third year after launching of the vaccination programme, cumulative benefits accuring from vaccination outweigh the cumulative costs of vaccination. This conclusion is based on a study of the vaccination programme in Finland. According to the vaccination programme, all 1-year-old infants in Finland are vaccinated. The duration of the period under survey has been set at 25 years, the measuring unit is the Finnish mark and the price level is that of the year 1975. When comparing costs and benefits, these are converted to present day monetary values. Vaccination costs per vaccinated infant amount to 32 marks, and in total during the period 1975--1999 they will amount to about 34 million marks according to an interest rate of 9% and to about 41 million marks according to an interest rate of 6% in current monetary value. Benefits gained by vaccination, compared with costs, are manifold. The benefits of one vaccination have been estimated at 230 marks. In total, benefits during the period 1975--99 constitute ca 117 million marks at an interest rate of 9%, and ca 159 million marks at an interest rate of 6% in current monetary value, without any deduction for vaccination costs. The net gain of vaccination--with a deduction of vaccination costs--is ca 84 million marks at an interest rate of 9%, and ca 118 million marks at an interest rate of 6% in current monetary value.

  9. Drought-Induced Xylem Dysfunction in Petioles, Branches, and Roots of Populus balsamifera L. and Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.

    PubMed Central

    Hacke, U.; Sauter, J. J.

    1996-01-01

    Variation in vulnerability to xylem cavitation was measured within individual organs of Populus balsamifera L. and Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn. Cavitation was quantified by three different techniques: (a) measuring acoustic emissions, (b) measuring loss of hydraulic conductance while air-dehydrating a branch, and (c) measuring loss of hydraulic conductance as a function of positive air pressure injected into the xylem. All of these techniques gave similar results. In Populus, petioles were more resistant than branches, and branches were more resistant than roots. This corresponded to the pattern of vessel width: maximum vessel diameter in 1- to 2-year-old roots was 140 [mu]m, compared to 65 and 45 [mu]m in rapidly growing 1-year-old shoots and petioles, respectively. Cavitation in Populus petioles started at a threshold water potential of -1.1 MPa. The lowest leaf water potential observed was -0.9 MPa. In Alnus, there was no relationship between vessel diameter and the cavitation response of a plant organ. Although conduits were narrower in petioles than in branches, petioles were more vulnerable to cavitation. Cavitation in petioles was detected when water potential fell below -1.2 MPa. This value equaled midday leaf water potential in late June. As in Populus, roots were the most vulnerable organ. The significance of different cavitation thresholds in individual plant organs is discussed. PMID:12226296

  10. The ankle meter: an instrument for evaluation of anterior talar drawer in ankle sprain.

    PubMed

    Spahn, Gunter

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this study was to work out a clinical test which is possible to measure the anterior talar drawer (ATD) in patients after ankle sprain. The instrument for evaluation was called "ankle meter". The instrument consists of two plastic scales (heal scale and tibia scale). The instrument allows quantifying the results of the anterior drawing test. A total of 38 persons (16 men, 22 women) were available as control group. The persons were 28.8+/-10.1 years old. No proband had any ankle problems in his history. A total of 45 patients (25 males, 20 females) suffering from ankle sprain were included in the study. In these patients stress radiography (147.1 N) was performed to measure the ATD. In control group the clinical measured ATD was 1.7+/-1.3 mm. Measurement for detect the interobserver validity did not detect significant differences. The ATD of the joint after ankle sprain was significantly higher (8.9+/-4.3 mm). The difference between healthy and injured ankle in case of an ankle sprain was 7.4+/-4.2 mm. There was a significant correlation between clinical and radiological measured ATD (R=0.91). The results suggest that it is possible to measure the ATD exactly. The values of the clinical ATD measurement showed a good correlation with the results of stress radiography. Diligent clinical examination in combination with this special test are after this experiences sufficient to classify the severity of injury after ankle sprain.

  11. Cinnarizine for Sea Sickness During a Remote Pacific Ocean Rescue Mission.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Regan F; Rush, Stephen C; Roland, J Thomas; Jethanamest, Daniel; Schwan, Christopher P; Kharon, Chetan U

    2015-01-01

    Motion sickness can be a limiting factor for sea and air missions. We report the experience of a Pararescue (PJ) team on a Pacific Ocean rescue mission in which motion sickness was prevalent. Cinnarizine, an antagonist of H1-histamine receptors, was used to treat affected PJs. We also report findings of a survey of PJs regarding motion sickness. A family of four on a disabled sailboat 900 miles off the coast of Mexico sent out a distress call because their 1-year-old daughter became severely ill with fever and diarrhea. Four PJs were deployed on a C-130, performed a free-fall parachute insertion into the ocean, and boarded the sailboat. All four PJs experienced onset of motion sickness at some point during the early part of the mission and symptoms persisted through the first 24 hours. Three PJs experienced ongoing nausea, vomiting, dizziness, and sensory imbalances. The captain of the sailboat offered the three sick PJs approximately 18mg of cinnarizine two or three times a day with relief of symptoms and improvement on operational effectiveness. A new, anonymous, voluntary survey of Air National Guard PJs and combat rescue officers revealed that 78.4% of Operators have experienced motion sickness at sea. We discuss the current theories on motion sickness, the effect of motion sickness on operational effectiveness, and research on treatment of motion sickness, including the medication cinnarizine. 2015.

  12. Dietary protein concentration affects intestinal microbiota of adult cats: a study using DGGE and qPCR to evaluate differences in microbial populations in the feline gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Lubbs, D C; Vester, B M; Fastinger, N D; Swanson, K S

    2009-02-01

    The objective of this study was to identify qualitative and quantitative differences in microbial populations of adult cats fed diets containing different protein concentrations. Following a 4 week baseline period, eight healthy adult domestic short-hair queens (>1-year-old) were randomly allotted to a moderate-protein (MP; n = 4) or high-protein (HP; n = 4) diet for 8 weeks. Fresh faecal samples were collected after baseline and 8 weeks on treatment and stored at -80 degrees C. Following DNA extraction, samples were analyzed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis to distinguish qualitative changes between diets. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to measure E. coli, Bifidobacterium, Clostridium perfringens, and Lactobacillus populations. Compared to baseline, cats fed MP had a bacterial similarity index of 66.7% as opposed to 40.6% similarity for those fed HP, exhibiting marked changes in intestinal bacteria of cats fed HP. Bifidobacterium populations were greater (p < 0.05) in cats fed MP versus HP (9.44 vs. 5.63 CFU/g). Clostridium perfringens populations were greater (p < 0.05) in cats fed HP than MP (12.39 vs. 10.83 CFU/g). In this experiment, a high-protein diet resulted in a dramatic shift in microbial populations. Decreased Bifidobacterium population in cats fed HP may justify prebiotic supplementation for such diets.

  13. Can Oak Powdery Mildew Severity be Explained by Indirect Effects of Climate on the Composition of the Erysiphe Pathogenic Complex?

    PubMed

    Marçais, Benoit; Piou, Dominique; Dezette, Damien; Desprez-Loustau, Marie-Laure

    2017-05-01

    Coinfection by several pathogens is increasingly recognized as an important feature in the epidemiology and evolution of plant fungal pathogens. Oak mildew is induced by two closely related Erysiphe invasive species (Erysiphe alphitoides and E. quercicola) which differ in their mode of overwintering. We investigated how climate influences the co-occurrence of the two species in oak young stands and whether this is important for the disease epidemiology. We studied the frequency of flag-shoots (i.e., shoots developing from infected buds, usually associated with E. quercicola) in 95 oak regenerations over a 6-year period. Additionally, in 2012 and 2013, the oak mildew severity and the two Erysiphe spp. relative frequencies were determined in both spring and autumn in 51 regenerations and 43 1-year-old plantations of oaks. Both the frequency of flag-shoots and the proportion of Erysiphe lesions with E. quercicola presence were related to climate. We showed that survival of E. quercicola was improved after mild winters, with increase of both the flag-shoot frequency and the proportion of Erysiphe lesions with E. quercicola presence in spring. However, disease severity was not related to any complementarity effect between the two Erysiphe spp. causing oak powdery mildew. By contrast, increased E. alphitoides prevalence in spring was associated with higher oak mildew severity in autumn. Our results point out the critical role of between-season transmission and primary inoculum to explain disease dynamics which could be significant in a climate-warming context.

  14. Units of Freezing of Deep Supercooled Water in Woody Xylem 1

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Sung-Gak; Sucoff, Edward

    1980-01-01

    The low temperature exotherms (LTE) of 1-year-old twigs of Haralson apple (Malus pumila Mill.), shagbark hickory (Carya ovata [Mill.] K. Koch), green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh), honey locust (Gleditsia triacanthos L.), American chestnut (Castanea dentata [Marsh] Borkh.), and red oak (Quercus rubra L.) were determined by differential thermal analysis (DTA). In one type of experiment freezing during a DTA experiment was halted for up to 2.5 hours after part of the supercooled water had frozen at temperatures between −25 and −42 C. Upon resumption of cooling the freezing started within 2 C of the stopping temperature. In a second type of experiment living and dead cells were microscopically observed in the same ray after partial freezing in the DTA apparatus. In another experiment, the LTE persisted even after tangential and radial sectioning of the twig to 0.13 millimeters. In a final experiment the LTE of a single multiseriate ray of red oak had the same shape as the LTE of wood with many uniseriate rays. These experiments confirm that the deep supercooled water in woody xylem or pith freezes in numerous independent events over a span of as much as 20 C. The units which freeze in an event are single cells or small groups of cells. Ice grows very slowly if at all from these units, and water moves very slowly from unfrozen cells to frozen ones. Deep supercooling of ray parenchyma does not require an intact ray. Images PMID:16661390

  15. Whole-body-averaged SAR from 50 MHz to 4 GHz in the University of Florida child voxel phantoms.

    PubMed

    Dimbylow, Peter; Bolch, Wesley

    2007-11-21

    The University of Florida (UF) Series B paediatric phantoms were developed for medical and radiation protection photon dosimetry. The series includes a 9 month male, a 4 year female, an 8 year female, an 11 year male and a 14 year male. In this paper they have been adapted to calculate the whole-body-averaged specific energy absorption rate (SAR) in children for plane wave exposure from 50 MHz to 4 GHz. The consideration of children is important in the application of the ICNIRP public exposure reference levels above approximately 1 GHz. The uniformly scaled models of NORMAN and NAOMI suggest that the ICNIRP reference level does not provide a conservative estimate of the whole-body-averaged SAR restriction for 5 year and 1 year old models. Comparison is made with the previous linearly scaled versions of NORMAN and NAOMI for calculations at 2 mm resolution. Further FDTD calculations were performed at resolutions of 1 and 0.7 mm above 900 MHz to elucidate the effects of grid resolution on SAR. A comparison is made between the calculated external electric fields required to produce the basic restriction on the whole-body-averaged SAR and the ICNIRP reference levels for public exposure.

  16. Whole-body-averaged SAR from 50 MHz to 4 GHz in the University of Florida child voxel phantoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimbylow, Peter; Bolch, Wesley

    2007-11-01

    The University of Florida (UF) Series B paediatric phantoms were developed for medical and radiation protection photon dosimetry. The series includes a 9 month male, a 4 year female, an 8 year female, an 11 year male and a 14 year male. In this paper they have been adapted to calculate the whole-body-averaged specific energy absorption rate (SAR) in children for plane wave exposure from 50 MHz to 4 GHz. The consideration of children is important in the application of the ICNIRP public exposure reference levels above ~1 GHz. The uniformly scaled models of NORMAN and NAOMI suggest that the ICNIRP reference level does not provide a conservative estimate of the whole-body-averaged SAR restriction for 5 year and 1 year old models. Comparison is made with the previous linearly scaled versions of NORMAN and NAOMI for calculations at 2 mm resolution. Further FDTD calculations were performed at resolutions of 1 and 0.7 mm above 900 MHz to elucidate the effects of grid resolution on SAR. A comparison is made between the calculated external electric fields required to produce the basic restriction on the whole-body-averaged SAR and the ICNIRP reference levels for public exposure.

  17. Plant-parasitic Nematodes Associated with Cherry Rootstocks in Michigan

    PubMed Central

    Melakeberhan, H.; Bird, G. W.; Perry, R.

    1994-01-01

    In two field trials, 10-year-old sweet and tart cherry rooted on 'Mazzard', 'Mahaleb', 'MXM 2', 'MXM 14', 'MXM 39', 'MXM 60', 'MXM 97', and 'Colt' showed 10-203 Pratylenchus penetrans per g fresh root from all tart rootstocks, and up to 46 Pratylenchus, Criconemella, and Xiphinema spp. per 100 cm³ soil. Infestation of soil containing 1-year-old Mazzard, Mahaleb, MXM 60, 'GI148-1', and 'G1148-8' with 625/100 cm³ soil of either P. penetrans or C. xenoplax resulting in final nematode population densities of 123-486 and 451-2,496/g fresh root plus 100 cm³ soil, respectively, and had little effect on plant height or dry weight after 157 days in a greenhouse. Population densities of neither nematode differed among the five rootstocks. In a second greenhouse experiment, soil containing the same rootstocks was infested with P. penetrans (1,250/100 cm³ soil), maintained for 8 months in a greenhouse, 4 months in a cold room (2-4 C), and 3 additional months in a greenhouse. The number of P. penetrans recovered at the end of 475 days was approximately 10% of those recovered in the first experiment, probably due to the cold treatment. The ability of P. penetrans and C. xenoplax to infect the cherry rootstocks may be of concern in cherry management programs. PMID:19279962

  18. Contractile activity of circular smooth muscle in rats one year after small bowel transplantation: differing adaptive response of the jejunum and ileum to denervation.

    PubMed

    Shibata, C; Murr, M M; Balsiger, B; Anding, W J; Sarr, M G

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the long-term effects of isogeneic small bowel transplantation (SBT) on jejunal and ileal circular smooth muscle contractile activity in the rat. Transmural strips of circular muscle were prepared from proximal jejunum and distal ileum of 1-year-old control rats and rats 1 year after SBT (SBT-1Y) to measure isometric force. Spontaneous contractile activity and the dose-responses to bethanechol and norepinephrine were studied. Electrical field stimulation (EFS) at varying frequencies (1 to 20 Hz) was evaluated under adrenergic and cholinergic blockade to investigate inhibitory nerves. Spontaneous activity both in the jejunum and ileum in SBT-1Y rats was not different compared to control rats. Sensitivity to bethanechol did not differ between control and SBT-1Y rats in the jejunum or ileum. Sensitivity to norepinephrine, however, was significantly increased after SBT in the ileum but not in the jejunum. During EFS, inhibition was seen at low frequencies, and contractions were induced at high frequencies in all groups. The degree of inhibition did not differ between control and SBT-1Y rats in the jejunum; however, it tended to be increased in the ileum after SBT. The long-term adaptive response of smooth muscle to the extrinsic denervation accompanying SBT differs between the jejunum and the ileum.

  19. Fire ignition during laser surgery in pet rodents

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Laser surgery is an attractive alternative to other means of section device in terms of tissue inflammation and interaction, which has been extensively used in human and veterinary medicine. Although accidental ignition during laser surgeries is sporadically reported in human medical literature, to the authors’ knowledge this is the first report regarding laser-dependent fire ignition during surgery in veterinary medicine. Case presentation Two rodents, a 13-month old, 27-gram, male pet mouse (Mus musculus) and a 1-year old, female Russian hamster (Phodopus sungorus), underwent surgical removal of masses with diode laser. During the surgical procedures fires ignited from the face masks. The mouse presented severe burns on the head and both forelimbs, it was hospitalized and approximately 2 months after surgery burns were resolved. The hamster presented severe burns on the face and the proximal regions of the body. At 72 hours from the accident the hamster was euthanized. Conclusion The present report suggests that fire ignition is a potential life-threatening complication of laser surgery in non-intubated rodents maintained under volatile anesthesia. High oxygen concentrations, the presence of combustible, and the narrowness of the surgical field with the face mask during laser surgery on rodents are risk factors for fire ignition. PMID:23009047

  20. Diarrhoea prevention in Bolivia through point-of-use water treatment and safe storage: a promising new strategy.

    PubMed Central

    Quick, R. E.; Venczel, L. V.; Mintz, E. D.; Soleto, L.; Aparicio, J.; Gironaz, M.; Hutwagner, L.; Greene, K.; Bopp, C.; Maloney, K.; Chavez, D.; Sobsey, M.; Tauxe, R. V.

    1999-01-01

    A novel water quality intervention that consists of point-of-use water disinfection, safe storage and community education was field tested in Bolivia. A total of 127 households in two periurban communities were randomized into intervention and control groups, surveyed and the intervention was distributed. Monthly water quality testing and weekly diarrhoea surveillance were conducted. Over a 5-month period, intervention households had 44% fewer diarrhoea episodes than control households (P = 0.002). Infants < 1 year old (P = 0.05) and children 5-14 years old (P = 0.01) in intervention households had significantly less diarrhoea than control children. Campylobacter was less commonly isolated from intervention than control patients (P = 0.02). Stored water in intervention households was less contaminated with Escherichia coli than stored water in control households (P < 0.0001). Intervention households exhibited less E. coli contamination of stored water and less diarrhoea than control households. This promising new strategy may have broad applicability for waterborne disease prevention. PMID:10098789