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Sample records for 1-year-old erythrocebus patas

  1. Thermoregulation in Erythrocebus patas - A thermal balance study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolka, M. A.; Elizondo, R. S.

    1983-01-01

    The ability of nonacclimated patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) to maintain a constant core temperature at six ambient temperatures from 15 to 40 C is investigated experimentally in 3 male and 3 female animals weighing 3.9-6.0 kg. The monkeys were permitted to reach equilibrium at the test Ta for at least 2 h before O2-uptake, CO2 output, weighted skin temperature (Tsk), rectal temperature (Tre), respiratory evaporative water loss (Eresp) and total evaporative water loss (Etot) were measured for 30 min. The results are presented in tables and graphs. Tsk is found to vary (from about 30.7 to about 37.2 C) with Ta, while Tre increases only from 37.6 to 38.4 C; Etot increases from about 9 to about 76 W/sq m, mainly due to eccrine sweating. Total body conductance, Tsk, and Tre are shown to be lower (the conductance significantly) at 40 C than those of rhesus monkeys. It is suggested that the enhanced heat tolerance of E. patas makes this species an appropriate subject for further studies of primate temperature regulation.

  2. Thermoregulation in Erythrocebus patas: a thermal balance study

    SciTech Connect

    Kolka, M.A.; Elizondo, R.S.

    1983-11-01

    The ability of nonacclimated patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) to maintain a constant core temperature at six ambient temperatures from 15 to 40 C is investigated experimentally in 3 male and 3 female animals weighing 3.9-6.0 kg. The monkeys were permitted to reach equilibrium at the test Ta for at least 2 h before O2-uptake, CO2 output, weighted skin temperature (Tsk), rectal temperature (Tre), respiratory evaporative water loss (Eresp) and total evaporative water loss (Etot) were measured for 30 min. The results are presented in tables and graphs. Tsk is found to vary (from about 30.7 to about 37.2 C) with Ta, while Tre increases only from 37.6 to 38.4 C Etot increases from about 9 to about 76 W/sq m, mainly due to eccrine sweating. Total body conductance, Tsk, and Tre are shown to be lower (the conductance significantly) at 40 C than those of rhesus monkeys. It is suggested that the enhanced heat tolerance of E. patas makes this species an appropriate subject for further studies of primate temperature regulation.

  3. Demography and Life Histories of Sympatric Patas Monkeys, Erythrocebus patas, and Vervets, Cercopithecus aethiops, in Laikipia, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Young, Truman P.; Jaffe, Karin Enstam; Carlson, Anne A.; Chancellor, Rebecca L.

    2009-01-01

    Mortality patterns are thought to be strong selective forces on life history traits, with high adult mortality and low immature mortality favoring early and rapid reproduction. Patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) have the highest potential rates of population increase for their body size of any haplorhine primate because they reproduce both earlier and more often. We report here 10 yr of comparative demographic data on a population of patas monkeys and a sympatric population of vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops), a closely related species differing in aspects of social system, ecology, and life history. The data reveal that 1) adult female patas monkeys have significantly higher mortality than adult female vervets; 2) infant mortality in patas monkeys is relatively low compared to the norm for mammals because it is not significantly different from that of adult female patas monkeys; and 3) infant mortality is significantly higher than adult female mortality in vervets. For both species, much of the mortality could be attributed to predation. An epidemic illness was also a major contributor to the mortality of adult female patas monkeys whereas chronic exposure to pathogens in a cold and damp microenvironment may have contributed to the mortality of infant vervets. Both populations experienced large fluctuations during the study period. Our results support the prediction from demographic models of life history evolution that high adult mortality relative to immature mortality selects for early maturation. PMID:20976285

  4. Microhabitat preference and vertical use of space by patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) in relation to predation risk and habitat structure.

    PubMed

    Enstam, Karin L; Isbell, Lynne A

    2004-01-01

    Habitat structure can be important in determining habitat preference of animals because it is often closely linked to factors that affect survival and reproduction, such as food availability and predation risk. Here we examine the ways in which microhabitat structure and predation risk affect the habitat preference of wild patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas). Patas monkeys in Kenya are typically restricted to Acacia drepanolobium habitat, but within our study group's home range, there are two distinct microhabitats, one with taller trees ('tall microhabitat') and one with apparently perennially shorter trees ('short microhabitat'). Examination of ranging behavior indicates that the patas monkeys preferred the tall microhabitat. In the tall microhabitat, focal animals climbed into trees that were significantly taller than average, indicating that they preferred tall trees. Female patas monkeys spent more time scanning from tall trees than from short trees and detected predators only from taller than average trees, based on alarm call data. Their use of tall trees may have decreased their predation risk by increasing their ability to detect predators. We found no evidence of increased food availability or reduced predator presence in the tall microhabitat that could contribute to the monkeys' preference for the tall microhabitat.

  5. Interspecific and temporal variation of ant species within Acacia drepanolobium ant domatia, a staple food of patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) in Laikipia, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Isbell, Lynne A; Young, Truman P

    2007-12-01

    The ants that live in the swollen thorns (domatia) of Acacia drepanolobium are staple foods for patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas). To obtain a better understanding of these insects as resources for patas monkeys, we sampled the contents of 1,051 swollen thorns (ant domatia) over a 22-month period from December 1999 to September 2001, in Laikipia, Kenya. First, we confirmed that of the four species of ants that live on A. drepanolobium, Crematogaster sjostedti, the competitively dominant ant in this system, does not rear significant brood in the swollen thorns and is therefore not a major food item of patas monkeys. Second, across the other three species that do use swollen thorns for rearing their brood, C. nigriceps, C. mimosae, and Tetraponera penzigi, the number of worker ants per swollen thorn increased with increasing competitive dominance. Third, although there was considerable month-to-month variation in the number of workers, immatures, and especially alates (winged reproductives) within species, there was less variation across species because ant production was asynchronous. Variation in domatia contents was poorly related to rainfall for each of the three species. Finally, distal thorns held more alates and fewer workers than interior thorns, and branches higher off the ground held more alates and more workers than lower branches. For the numerically dominant C. mimosae, higher branches held significantly more immature ants than did lower branches. Ants are reliable food resources for patas monkeys, and are probably more reliable than many plant resources in this highly seasonal environment. We estimate that patas monkeys may get as much as a third of their daily caloric needs from these ants year-round. As ants and other insects are widely consumed by primates, we suggest that greater consideration be given to species differences in animal food choices and that further studies be conducted to examine the degree to which ants influence energy intake and

  6. Metabolism and pharmacokinetics of the combination Zidovudine plus Lamivudine in the adult Erythrocebus patas monkey determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Divi, Rao L.; Doerge, Daniel R.; Twaddle, Nathan C.; Shockley, Marie E.; St Claire, Marisa C.; Harbaugh, Jeffrey W.; Harbaugh, Steven W.; Poirier, Miriam C.

    2008-01-15

    Because of their similarity to humans, non-human primates constitute useful preclinical models in which to examine potential human drug toxicities. Antiretroviral nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) toxicity is currently under investigation in Erythrocebus patas monkeys, and whereas NRTI pharmacokinetics have been studied in other monkey species, pharmacokinetics for Zidovudine plus Lamivudine (AZT/3TC) dosing have not been reported in the patas. Here we present 24 h serum pharmacokinetic parameters after a single oral exposure to the combination of AZT (40 mg) and 3TC (24 mg), doses equivalent to a human daily dose of Combivir (registered) . The patas (n = 3) AZT/3TC pharmacokinetic profiles were similar to those seen in other primate species. Average maximum serum concentrations (C{sub max}) for AZT and 3TC were 2.35 and 2.65 {mu}g/ml, respectively, and were observed at 0.83 h (T{sub max}). C{sub max} was 13.34 {mu}g/ml for the AZT-glucuronide (AZT-G) and was 0.023 {mu}g/ml for the potentially toxic minor metabolite 3'-amino-3'-deoxythymidine (AMT), both occurring at about 1 h after dosing. Similar elimination half-times, 0.70 and 0.68 h{sup -1}, were found for AZT and AZT-G, respectively, while 3TC was eliminated about half as fast (0.33 h{sup -1}) resulting in AUC{sub (0-{infinity})} values of 6.97 {mu}g/ml h for 3TC, 2.99 {mu}g/ml h for AZT, 20.5 {mu}g/ml h for AZT-G and 0.002 for AMT 6.97 {mu}g/ml h. This study shows similar metabolism and pharmacokinetics for oral administration of AZT/3TC in the adult patas monkey, other primate species and humans. The data validate the use of the patas monkey for studies of NRTI toxicity.

  7. Social Development: 1 Year Olds

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Social Development: 1 Year Olds Page Content Article Body During his second year, your toddler will develop a very specific image of his social world, friends, and acquaintances. He ...

  8. Language Development: 1 Year Olds

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Language Development: 1 Year Olds Page Content Article Body ... assured, it’s not your imagination. He’s developing his language and comprehension skills right on schedule. This giant ...

  9. Nutritional benefits of Crematogaster mimosae ants and Acacia drepanolobium gum for patas monkeys and vervets in Laikipia, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Isbell, Lynne A; Rothman, Jessica M; Young, Peter J; Rudolph, Kathleen

    2013-02-01

    Patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) are midsized primates that feed extensively on the gum of Acacia drepanolobium and the ants are housed in swollen thorns of this Acacia. Their diet resembles that expected more of smaller bodied primates. Patas monkeys are also more like smaller bodied primates in reproducing at high rates. We sought to better understand the convergence of patas monkeys with smaller bodied primates by comparing their feeding behavior on ants and gum with that of closely related, sympatric vervets (Chlorocebus pygerythrus), and analyzing the nutrient content of the gum of A. drepanolobium and of Crematogaster mimosae, the most common ant species eaten by patas monkeys in Laikipia, Kenya. All occurrences of feeding and moving during focal animal sampling revealed that 1) patas monkeys seek A. drepanolobium gum but vervets avoid it; 2) both species open swollen thorns most often in the morning when antsare less active; 3) patas monkeys continually feed onswollen thorns and gum while moving quickly throughout the day, whereas vervets reduce their consumption of these items and their travel rate at mid-day, and; 4) vervets eat young swollen thorns at a higher rate than patas monkeys. Patas monkeys are able to spend little time acquiring substantial amounts of energy, protein, and minerals from A. drepanolobium gum and C. mimosae ants each day. These findings, when coupled with evidence of causes of infant and adult female mortality, suggest that reproductive success of female patas monkeys is more immediately affected by illness, disease, interactions between adults and infants, and access to water than by food.

  10. Verbal Labels Modulate Perceptual Object Processing in 1-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gliga, Teodora; Volein, Agnes; Csibra, Gergely

    2010-01-01

    Whether verbal labels help infants visually process and categorize objects is a contentious issue. Using electroencephalography, we investigated whether possessing familiar or novel labels for objects directly enhances 1-year-old children's neural processes underlying the perception of those objects. We found enhanced gamma-band (20-60 Hz)…

  11. Fathers' Depression Related to Positive and Negative Parenting Behaviors With 1-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Matthew M.; Freed, Gary L.; Clark, Sarah J.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations between depression in fathers of 1-year-old children and specific positive and negative parenting behaviors discussed by pediatric providers at well-child visits. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional secondary analysis by using interview data from 1746 fathers of 1-year-old children in the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study. Positive parenting behaviors included fathers' reports of playing games, singing songs, and reading stories to their children ≥3 days in a typical week. Negative parenting behavior included fathers' reports of spanking their 1-year-old children in the previous month. Depression was assessed by using the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview Short Form. Weighted bivariate and multivariate analyses of parenting behaviors were performed while controlling for demographics and paternal substance abuse. RESULTS: Overall, 7% of fathers had depression. In bivariate analyses, depressed fathers were more likely than nondepressed fathers to report spanking their 1-year-old children in the previous month (41% compared with 13%; P < .01). In multivariate analyses, depressed fathers were less likely to report reading to their children ≥3 days in a typical week (adjusted odds ratio: 0.38 [95% confidence interval: 0.15–0.98]) and much more likely to report spanking (adjusted odds ratio: 3.92 [95% confidence interval: 1.23–12.5]). Seventy-seven percent of depressed fathers reported talking to their children's doctor in the previous year. CONCLUSIONS: Paternal depression is associated with parenting behaviors relevant to well-child visits. Pediatric providers should consider screening fathers for depression, discussing specific parenting behaviors (eg, reading to children and appropriate discipline), and referring for treatment if appropriate. PMID:21402627

  12. Parental spanking of 1-year-old children and subsequent child protective services involvement✩

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Shawna J.; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Berger, Lawrence M.

    2015-01-01

    The majority of U.S. parents spank their children, often beginning when their children are very young. We examined families (N=2,788) who participated in a longitudinal community-based study of new births in urban areas. Prospective analyses examined whether spanking by the child's mother, father, or mother's current partner when the child was 1-year-old was associated with household CPS involvement between age 1 and age 5. Results indicated that 30% of 1-year-olds were spanked at least once in the past month. Spanking at age 1 was associated with increased odds of subsequent CPS involvement (adjusted odds ratio=1.36, 95% CI [1.08, 1.71], p<.01). When compared to non-spanked children, there was a 33% greater probability of subsequent CPS involvement for children who were spanked at age 1. Given the undesirable consequences of spanking children and a lack of empirical evidence to suggest positive effects of physical punishment, professionals who work with families should counsel parents not to spank infants and toddlers. For optimal benefits, efforts to educate parents regarding alternative forms of discipline should begin during the child's first year of life. PMID:24602690

  13. Parental spanking of 1-year-old children and subsequent child protective services involvement.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shawna J; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Berger, Lawrence M

    2014-05-01

    The majority of U.S. parents spank their children, often beginning when their children are very young. We examined families (N=2,788) who participated in a longitudinal community-based study of new births in urban areas. Prospective analyses examined whether spanking by the child's mother, father, or mother's current partner when the child was 1-year-old was associated with household CPS involvement between age 1 and age 5. Results indicated that 30% of 1-year-olds were spanked at least once in the past month. Spanking at age 1 was associated with increased odds of subsequent CPS involvement (adjusted odds ratio=1.36, 95% CI [1.08, 1.71], p<.01). When compared to non-spanked children, there was a 33% greater probability of subsequent CPS involvement for children who were spanked at age 1. Given the undesirable consequences of spanking children and a lack of empirical evidence to suggest positive effects of physical punishment, professionals who work with families should counsel parents not to spank infants and toddlers. For optimal benefits, efforts to educate parents regarding alternative forms of discipline should begin during the child's first year of life.

  14. Development of 1-year-old computational phantom and calculation of organ doses during CT scans using Monte Carlo simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Yuxi; Qiu, Rui; Gao, Linfeng; Ge, Chaoyong; Zheng, Junzheng; Xie, Wenzhang; Li, Junli

    2014-09-01

    With the rapidly growing number of CT examinations, the consequential radiation risk has aroused more and more attention. The average dose in each organ during CT scans can only be obtained by using Monte Carlo simulation with computational phantoms. Since children tend to have higher radiation sensitivity than adults, the radiation dose of pediatric CT examinations requires special attention and needs to be assessed accurately. So far, studies on organ doses from CT exposures for pediatric patients are still limited. In this work, a 1-year-old computational phantom was constructed. The body contour was obtained from the CT images of a 1-year-old physical phantom and the internal organs were deformed from an existing Chinese reference adult phantom. To ensure the organ locations in the 1-year-old computational phantom were consistent with those of the physical phantom, the organ locations in 1-year-old computational phantom were manually adjusted one by one, and the organ masses were adjusted to the corresponding Chinese reference values. Moreover, a CT scanner model was developed using the Monte Carlo technique and the 1-year-old computational phantom was applied to estimate organ doses derived from simulated CT exposures. As a result, a database including doses to 36 organs and tissues from 47 single axial scans was built. It has been verified by calculation that doses of axial scans are close to those of helical scans; therefore, this database could be applied to helical scans as well. Organ doses were calculated using the database and compared with those obtained from the measurements made in the physical phantom for helical scans. The differences between simulation and measurement were less than 25% for all organs. The result shows that the 1-year-old phantom developed in this work can be used to calculate organ doses in CT exposures, and the dose database provides a method for the estimation of 1-year-old patient doses in a variety of CT examinations.

  15. Development of 1-year-old computational phantom and calculation of organ doses during CT scans using Monte Carlo simulation.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yuxi; Qiu, Rui; Gao, Linfeng; Ge, Chaoyong; Zheng, Junzheng; Xie, Wenzhang; Li, Junli

    2014-09-21

    With the rapidly growing number of CT examinations, the consequential radiation risk has aroused more and more attention. The average dose in each organ during CT scans can only be obtained by using Monte Carlo simulation with computational phantoms. Since children tend to have higher radiation sensitivity than adults, the radiation dose of pediatric CT examinations requires special attention and needs to be assessed accurately. So far, studies on organ doses from CT exposures for pediatric patients are still limited. In this work, a 1-year-old computational phantom was constructed. The body contour was obtained from the CT images of a 1-year-old physical phantom and the internal organs were deformed from an existing Chinese reference adult phantom. To ensure the organ locations in the 1-year-old computational phantom were consistent with those of the physical phantom, the organ locations in 1-year-old computational phantom were manually adjusted one by one, and the organ masses were adjusted to the corresponding Chinese reference values. Moreover, a CT scanner model was developed using the Monte Carlo technique and the 1-year-old computational phantom was applied to estimate organ doses derived from simulated CT exposures. As a result, a database including doses to 36 organs and tissues from 47 single axial scans was built. It has been verified by calculation that doses of axial scans are close to those of helical scans; therefore, this database could be applied to helical scans as well. Organ doses were calculated using the database and compared with those obtained from the measurements made in the physical phantom for helical scans. The differences between simulation and measurement were less than 25% for all organs. The result shows that the 1-year-old phantom developed in this work can be used to calculate organ doses in CT exposures, and the dose database provides a method for the estimation of 1-year-old patient doses in a variety of CT examinations.

  16. Probable transmission of Yersinia enterocolitica from a pet dog with diarrhoea to a 1-year-old infant

    PubMed Central

    Hetem, D J; Pekelharing, M; Thijsen, S F T

    2013-01-01

    We report a highly probable case of transmission of a Yersinia enterocolitica from a pet puppy dog, adopted from a Spanish asylum, to a 1-year-old girl. After several weeks of diarrhoea, a PCR detecting enteropathogenic bacteria was performed on the faeces, revealing Y enterocolitica. Following cultures yielded a Y enterocolitica biotype 4, serotype O:3 in the faeces of the girl as well as puppy dog. Despite antibiotic treatment, symptoms and shedding of the organism in the faeces endured during a 2 month period. PMID:23955982

  17. Do child healthcare professionals and parents recognize social-emotional and behavioral problems in 1-year-old infants?

    PubMed

    Alakortes, Jaana; Kovaniemi, Susanna; Carter, Alice S; Bloigu, Risto; Moilanen, Irma K; Ebeling, Hanna E

    2017-04-01

    Growing evidence supports the existence of clinically significant social-emotional/behavioral (SEB) problems among as young as 1-year-old infants. However, a substantial proportion of early SEB problems remain unidentified during contacts with child healthcare professionals. In this study, child healthcare nurse (CHCN; N = 1008) and parental (N = 518) reports about SEB worries were gathered, along with the maternal and paternal Brief Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (BITSEA) ratings, for 12-month-old infants randomly recruited through Finnish child health centers. Only 1.4-1.8 % of CHCNs, 3.9 % of mothers, and 3.2 % of fathers reported of being worried about the assessed child's SEB development. When the CHCNs' and parental reports were combined, 7.7 % (33/428) of the infants assessed each by all three adults had one (7.0 %), two (0.7 %) or three (0 %) worry reports. Even the combination of the CHCN's and parental worry reports identified only 7.0-13.8 % of the infants with the maternal and/or paternal BITSEA Problem or Competence rating in the of-concern range. Identified associations across the three informants' worry reports, parental BITSEA ratings and sociodemographic factors are discussed in the paper. Routine and frequent use of developmentally appropriate screening measures, such as the BITSEA, might enhance identification and intervening of early SEB problems in preventive child healthcare by guiding both professionals and parents to pay more attention to substantial aspects of young children's SEB development and encouraging them to discuss possible problems and worries.

  18. Diet in 1-year-old farm and control children and allergy development: results from the FARMFLORA birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    Jonsson, Karin; Green, My; Barman, Malin; Sjöberg, Agneta; Brekke, Hilde K.; Wold, Agnes E.; Sandberg, Ann-Sofie

    2016-01-01

    Background A farming environment confers strong protection against allergy development. We have previously shown that farming mothers consume more full-fat dairy than control mothers, who instead consume more low-fat dairy, margarine, and oils; margarine and oil intake was associated with increased risk of allergy development in their children. Objectives The aims of this study were to investigate the differences in diet between children in farming and control families at 1 year of age, to investigate the relation between the diets of the mothers and their children, and to relate the children's diet to allergy development. Design The diet of 1-year-old children from dairy farming families (n=28) and from control families in the same rural area (n=37) was assessed by 24-h dietary recalls, followed by 24-h food diaries. Allergy was diagnosed by pediatricians at 3 years of age using strict predefined criteria. Results Farm children had a higher intake of farm milk, whole cream, cholesterol, saturated fat, and fat in total and tended to eat more butter, while controls consumed more carbohydrates and poultry and tended to eat more margarine. Farm children also had higher intakes of homemade porridge/gruel, oily fish, and iodine. The intake of butter and whole milk in children and mothers correlated significantly in farm families but not in controls. A weak negative association was found between seafood intake and allergy development, while allergy was positively associated with the intake of pork as well as zinc in the control group; these intakes also correlated with each other. Conclusions Consistent with mothers in farming families, the children consumed more full-fat dairy and saturated fat than did controls, but this could not be linked to the low risk of allergy in the farming group. Seafood intake might protect against allergy development, in accordance with earlier findings. PMID:27534847

  19. The Citrus Flavanone Naringenin Produces Cardioprotective Effects in Hearts from 1 Year Old Rat, through Activation of mitoBK Channels

    PubMed Central

    Testai, Lara; Da Pozzo, Eleonora; Piano, Ilaria; Pistelli, Luisa; Gargini, Claudia; Breschi, Maria Cristina; Braca, Alessandra; Martini, Claudia; Martelli, Alma; Calderone, Vincenzo

    2017-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Incidence of cardiovascular disorders increases with age, because of a dramatic fall of endogenous self-defense mechanisms and increased vulnerability of myocardium. Conversely, the effectiveness of many cardioprotective drugs is blunted in hearts of 1 year old rat. The Citrus flavanone naringenin (NAR) was reported to promote cardioprotective effects against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, through the activation of mitochondrial large conductance calcium-activated potassium channel (mitoBK). These effects were observed in young adult rats, but no data are available about the possible cardioprotective effects of NAR in aged animals. Experimental Approach: This study aimed at evaluating the potential cardioprotective effects of NAR against I/R damage in 1 year old rats, and the possible involvement of mitoBK. Key Results: Naringenin protected the hearts of 1 year old rats in both ex vivo and in vivo I/R protocols. Noteworthy, these effects were antagonized by paxilline, a selective BK-blocker. The cardioprotective effects of NAR were also observed in senescent H9c2 cardiomyoblasts. In isolated mitochondria from hearts of 1 year old, NAR exhibited the typical profile of a mitoBK opener. Finally, Western Blot analysis confirmed a significant (albeit reduced) presence of BK-forming alpha and beta subunits, both in cardiac tissue of 1 year old rats and in senescent H9c2 cells. Conclusion and Implications: This is the first work reporting cardioprotective effects of NAR in 1 year old rats. Although further studies are needed to better understand the whole pathway involved in the NAR-mediated cardioprotection, these preliminary data represent a promising perspective for a rational nutraceutical use of NAR in aging. PMID:28289383

  20. Bacillus anthracis acetyltransferases PatA1 and PatA2 modify the secondary cell wall polysaccharide and affect the assembly of S-layer proteins.

    PubMed

    Lunderberg, J Mark; Nguyen-Mau, Sao-Mai; Richter, G Stefan; Wang, Ya-Ting; Dworkin, Jonathan; Missiakas, Dominique M; Schneewind, Olaf

    2013-03-01

    The envelope of Bacillus anthracis encompasses a proteinaceous S-layer with two S-layer proteins (Sap and EA1). Protein assembly in the envelope of B. anthracis requires S-layer homology domains (SLH) within S-layer proteins and S-layer-associated proteins (BSLs), which associate with the secondary cell wall polysaccharide (SCWP), an acetylated carbohydrate that is tethered to peptidoglycan. Here, we investigated the contributions of two putative acetyltransferases, PatA1 and PatA2, on SCWP acetylation and S-layer assembly. We show that mutations in patA1 and patA2 affect the chain lengths of B. anthracis vegetative forms and perturb the deposition of the BslO murein hydrolase at cell division septa. The patA1 and patA2 mutants are defective for the assembly of EA1 in the envelope but retain the ability of S-layer formation with Sap. SCWP isolated from the patA1 patA2 mutant lacked acetyl moieties identified in wild-type polysaccharide and failed to associate with the SLH domains of EA1. A model is discussed whereby patA1- and patA2-mediated acetylation of SCWP enables the deposition of EA1 as well as BslO near the septal region of the B. anthracis envelope.

  1. Emotional Development: 1 Year Olds

    MedlinePlus

    ... you there to comfort her and fend off loneliness. It’s impossible to predict when she’ll turn ... her regain her composure is to give her attention and reassurance when she needs it. Snapping at ...

  2. Maternal protein restriction during pregnancy and lactation alters central leptin signalling, increases food intake, and decreases bone mass in 1 year old rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Qasem, Rani J; Li, Jing; Tang, Hee Man; Pontiggia, Laura; D'mello, Anil P

    2016-04-01

    The effects of perinatal nutrition on offspring physiology have mostly been examined in young adult animals. Aging constitutes a risk factor for the progressive loss of metabolic flexibility and development of disease. Few studies have examined whether the phenotype programmed by perinatal nutrition persists in aging offspring. Persistence of detrimental phenotypes and their accumulative metabolic effects are important for disease causality. This study determined the effects of maternal protein restriction during pregnancy and lactation on food consumption, central leptin sensitivity, bone health, and susceptibility to high fat diet-induced adiposity in 1-year-old male offspring. Sprague-Dawley rats received either a control or a protein restricted diet throughout pregnancy and lactation and pups were weaned onto laboratory chow. One-year-old low protein (LP) offspring exhibited hyperphagia. The inability of an intraperitoneal (i.p.) leptin injection to reduce food intake indicated that the hyperphagia was mediated by decreased central leptin sensitivity. Hyperphagia was accompanied by lower body weight suggesting increased energy expenditure in LP offspring. Bone density and bone mineral content that are negatively regulated by leptin acting via the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), were decreased in LP offspring. LP offspring did not exhibit increased susceptibility to high fat diet induced metabolic effects or adiposity. The results presented here indicate that the programming effects of perinatal protein restriction are mediated by specific decreases in central leptin signalling to pathways involved in the regulation of food intake along with possible enhancement of different CNS leptin signalling pathways acting via the SNS to regulate bone mass and energy expenditure.

  3. The Effects of Atropine and Pyridostigmine on Thermoregulation and Work Tolerance in the Patas Monkey

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    12 13. Gisolfi, C. F., Sato, K., Wall, P. T., and Satc, F. In vivo and in vitro characteristics of eccrine sweating in patas and rhesus monkeys. J... sweating , and even- tually, evaporative heat loss through its anticholinergic activity (2) resulting in increased net heat storage (1, 15), decreased heat...those reported for humans. The suppressed sweating capacity of the atropine significantly affected the heat loss mechanisms of the exercising animals

  4. Effects of the Indole-3-Acetic Acid (IAA) Transport Inhibitors N-1-Naphthylphthalamic Acid and Morphactin on Endogenous IAA Dynamics in Relation to Compression Wood Formation in 1-Year-Old Pinus sylvestris (L.) Shoots.

    PubMed Central

    Sundberg, B.; Tuominen, H.; Little, CHA.

    1994-01-01

    Both N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) and methyl-2-chloro-9-hydroxyfluorene-9-carboxylic acid (CF) inhibit the polar transport of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and, therefore, are attractive tools for investigating IAA's role in the regulation of plant growth. Ringing an intact conifer shoot with lanolin containing NPA or CF induces the formation of compression wood above the ring. This induction has been attributed to a postulated accumulation of IAA above the application site of the IAA transport inhibitor, but the validity of this postulation has never been confirmed. Using gas chromatography-selected ion monitoring-mass spectroscopy with [13C6]IAA as an internal standard, we measured the levels of endogenous free and conjugated IAA in 1-year-old Pinus sylvestris (L.) shoots ringed with NPA or CF. The level of free IAA was dramatically decreased below the ring, indicating that the polar transport of endogenous IAA was inhibited by the treatment. However, the free IAA level above the ring, where compression wood was formed, was also slightly lower than in control shoots. The lack of IAA accumulation above the site of the IAA transport inhibitor could not be explained by an increase in IAA conjugation. Furthermore, the turnover of [2-14C]IAA, measured using high-performance liquid chromatography with on-line radioactivity monitoring, was the same in NPA-treated and control shoots. The decrease in IAA level above a NPA or CF ring is attributed to these substances being transported acropetally and interfering with polar IAA transport along the shoot. It is concluded that compression wood formation above a NPA or CF ring is not associated with an overall increase in cambial region IAA level or increased IAA turnover. Instead, we suggest that acropetally transported NPA and CF induce compression wood formation by interacting with the NPA receptor in differentiating tracheids, thereby locally increasing IAA in these cells. PMID:12232343

  5. Effect of extending the photoperiod with low-intensity red or far-red light on the timing of shoot elongation and flower-bud formation of 1-year-old Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia).

    PubMed

    Ito, Akiko; Saito, Takanori; Nishijima, Takaaki; Moriguchi, Takaya

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the effects of light quality (wavelength) on shoot elongation and flower-bud formation in Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia (Burm. f.) Nakai), we treated 1-year-old trees with the following: (i) 8 h sunlight + 16 h dark (SD); (ii) 8 h sunlight + 16 h red light (LD(SD + R)); or (iii) 8 h sunlight + 16 h far-red (FR) light (LD(SD + FR)) daily for 4 months from early April (before the spring flush) until early August in 2009 and 2010. In both years, shoot elongation stopped earlier in the LD(SD + FR) treatment than in the SD and LD(SD + R) treatments. After 4 months of treatments, 21% (2009) or 40% (2010) of LD(SD + FR)-treated trees formed flower buds in the shoot apices, whereas all the shoot apices from SD or LD(SD + R)-treated plants remained vegetative. With an additional experiment conducted in 2012, we confirmed that FR light at 730 nm was the most efficacious wavelength to induce flower-bud formation. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealed that the expression of two floral meristem identity gene orthologues, LEAFY (PpLFY2a) and APETALA1 (PpMADS2-1a), were up-regulated in the shoot apex of LD(SD + FR). In contrast, the expression of a flowering repressor gene, TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (PpTFL1-1a, PpTFL1-2a), was down-regulated. In addition, expression of an orthologue of the flower-promoting gene FLOWERING LOCUS T (PpFT1a) was positively correlated with flower-bud formation, although the expression of another orthologue, PpFT2a, was negatively correlated with shoot growth. Biologically active cytokinin and gibberellic acid concentrations in shoot apices were reduced with LD(SD + FR) treatment. Taken together, our results indicate that pear plants are able to regulate flowering in response to the R : FR ratio. Furthermore, LD(SD + FR) treatment terminated shoot elongation and subsequent flower-bud formation in the shoot apex at an earlier time, possibly by influencing the expression of flowering-related genes and modifying

  6. PatA and PatB form a functional heterodimeric ABC multidrug efflux transporter responsible for the resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae to fluoroquinolones.

    PubMed

    Boncoeur, Emilie; Durmort, Claire; Bernay, Benoît; Ebel, Christine; Di Guilmi, Anne Marie; Croizé, Jacques; Vernet, Thierry; Jault, Jean-Michel

    2012-10-02

    All bacterial multidrug ABC transporters have been shown to work as either homodimers or heterodimers. Two possibly linked genes, patA and patB from Streptococcus pneumococcus, that encode half-ABC transporters have been shown previously to be involved in fluoroquinolone resistance. We showed that the ΔpatA, ΔpatB, or ΔpatA/ΔpatB mutant strains were more sensitive to unstructurally related compounds, i.e., ethidium bromide or fluoroquinolones, than the wild-type R6 strain. Inside-out vesicles prepared from Escherichia coli expressing PatA and/or PatB transported Hoechst 33342, a classical substrate of multidrug transporters, only when both PatA and PatB were coexpressed. This transport was inhibited either by orthovanadate or by reserpine, and mutation of the conserved Walker A lysine residue of either PatA or PatB fully abrogated Hoechst 33342 transport. PatA, PatB, and the PatA/PatB heterodimer were purified from detergent-solubilized E. coli membrane preparations. Protein dimers were identified in all cases, albeit in different proportions. In contrast to the PatA/PatB heterodimers, homodimers of PatA or PatB failed to show a vanadate-sensitive ATPase activity. Thus, PatA and PatB need to interact together to make a functional drug efflux transporter, and they work only as heterodimers.

  7. Overexpression of patA and patB, which encode ABC transporters, is associated with fluoroquinolone resistance in clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Garvey, Mark I; Baylay, Alison J; Wong, Ryan L; Piddock, Laura J V

    2011-01-01

    Fifty-seven clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae were divided into four groups based on their susceptibilities to the fluoroquinolones ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin and the dyes ethidium bromide and acriflavine. Comparative reverse transcription-PCR was used to determine the level of expression of the genes patA and patB, which encode putative ABC transporters. Overexpression was observed in 14 of the 15 isolates that were resistant to both fluoroquinolones and dyes and in only 3 of 24 of those resistant to fluoroquinolones only. Isolates overexpressing patA and patB accumulated significantly less of the fluorescent dye Hoechst 33342 than wild-type isolates, suggesting that PatA and PatB are involved in efflux. Inactivation of patA and patB by in vitro mariner mutagenesis conferred hypersusceptibility to ethidium bromide and acriflavine in all isolates tested and lowered the MICs of ciprofloxacin in the patAB-overproducing and/or fluoroquinolone-resistant isolates. These data represent the first observation of overexpression of patA and patB in clinical isolates and show that PatA and PatB play a clinically relevant role in fluoroquinolone resistance.

  8. An articulatory basis for the labial-to-coronal effect: /pata/ seems a more stable articulatory pattern than /tapa/.

    PubMed

    Rochet-Capellan, Amélie; Schwartz, Jean-Luc

    2007-06-01

    This paper investigates the coordination between the jaw, the tongue tip, and the lower lip during repetition with rate increase of labial-to-coronal (L(a)C(o)) consonant-vowel-consonant-vowel disyllables (e.g., /pata/) and coronal-to-labial (C(o)L(a)) ones (e.g., /tapa/) by French speakers. For the two types of disyllables: (1) the speeding process induces a shift from two jaw cycles per disyllable to a single cycle; (2) this shift modifies the coordination between the jaw and the constrictors, and (3) comes with a progression toward either a L(a)C(o) attractor [e.g., (/pata/ or /tapa/) --> /patá/ --> /ptá/] or a C(o)L(a) one (e.g., /pata/ or /tapa/ --> /tapá/ --> /tpá/). Yet, (4) the L(a)C(o) attractor is clearly favored regardless of the initial sequencing. These results are interpreted as evidence that a L(a)C(o) CVCV disyllable could be a more stable coordinative pattern for the lip-tongue-jaw motor system than a C(o)L(a) one. They are discussed in relation with the so-called LC effect that is the preference for L(a)C(o) associations rather than C(o)L(a) ones in CV.CV disyllables in both world languages and infants' first words.

  9. HetF and PatA control levels of HetR in Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120.

    PubMed

    Risser, Douglas D; Callahan, Sean M

    2008-12-01

    Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 is a filamentous cyanobacterium that differentiates heterocysts in response to deprivation of combined nitrogen. A hetF deletion strain lacked heterocysts and had aberrant cell morphology. Site-directed mutagenesis of the predicted active-site histidine and cysteine residues of this putative caspase-hemoglobinase fold protease abolished HetF function, supporting the hypothesis that HetF is a protease. Deletion of patA, which is necessary for the formation of most intercalary heterocysts, or hetF resulted in an increase in HetR protein, and extra copies of hetF on a plasmid functionally bypassed the deletion of patA. A hetR-gfp translational fusion expressed from an inducible promoter demonstrated that hetF-dependent downregulation of HetR levels occurs rapidly in vegetative cells, as well as developing heterocysts. "Mosaic" filaments in which only one cell of a filament had a copy of hetR or hetF indicated that hetF is required for differentiation only in cells that will become heterocysts. hetF was required for transcription from a hetR-dependent transcription start point of the hetR promoter and induction of transcription from the patS promoter. The inverse correlation between the level of HetR protein and transcription from hetR-dependent promoters suggests that the transcriptional activity of HetR is regulated by HetF and PatA.

  10. The Efflux Pump Inhibitor Reserpine Selects Multidrug-Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae Strains That Overexpress the ABC Transporters PatA and PatB▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Garvey, Mark I.; Piddock, Laura J. V.

    2008-01-01

    One way to combat multidrug-resistant microorganisms is the use of efflux pump inhibitors (EPIs). Spontaneous mutants resistant to the EPI reserpine selected from Streptococcus pneumoniae NCTC 7465 and R6 at a frequency suggestive of a single mutational event were also multidrug resistant. No mutations in pmrA (which encodes the efflux protein PmrA) were detected, and the expression of pmrA was unaltered in all mutants. In the reserpine-resistant multidrug-resistant mutants, the overexpression of both patA and patB, which encode ABC transporters, was associated with accumulation of low concentrations of antibiotics and dyes. The addition of sodium orthovanadate, an inhibitor of ABC efflux pumps, or the insertional inactivation of either gene restored wild-type antibiotic susceptibility and wild-type levels of accumulation. Only when patA was insertionally inactivated were both multidrug resistance and reserpine resistance lost. Strains in which patA was insertionally inactivated grew significantly more slowly than the wild type. These data indicate that the overexpression of both patA and patB confers multidrug resistance in S. pneumoniae but that only patA is involved in reserpine resistance. The selection of reserpine-resistant multidrug-resistant pneumococci has implications for analogous systems in other bacteria or in cancer. PMID:18362193

  11. Tectal pineal cyst in a 1-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Plowey, Edward D; Vogel, Hannes; Yeom, Kristen W; Jung, Henry; Chao, Kevin; Edwards, Michael S B

    2014-03-01

    Glial cysts of the pineal gland can frequently be found in adults and children, but only rarely do they enlarge to become clinically relevant. We report a unique presentation of a pineal cyst in the midbrain tectum of a 16-month-old girl who initially presented with ptosis and strabismus. Preoperative imaging studies and intraoperative findings revealed no continuity between the tectal cyst and the pineal gland proper. We surmise that this tectal pineal cyst may have arisen from duplicated pineal gland tissue.

  12. Structural basis for selective recognition of acyl chains by the membrane-associated acyltransferase PatA

    PubMed Central

    Albesa-Jové, David; Svetlíková, Zuzana; Tersa, Montse; Sancho-Vaello, Enea; Carreras-González, Ana; Bonnet, Pascal; Arrasate, Pedro; Eguskiza, Ander; Angala, Shiva K.; Cifuente, Javier O.; Korduláková, Jana; Jackson, Mary; Mikušová, Katarína; Guerin, Marcelo E.

    2016-01-01

    The biosynthesis of phospholipids and glycolipids are critical pathways for virtually all cell membranes. PatA is an essential membrane associated acyltransferase involved in the biosynthesis of mycobacterial phosphatidyl-myo-inositol mannosides (PIMs). The enzyme transfers a palmitoyl moiety from palmitoyl–CoA to the 6-position of the mannose ring linked to 2-position of inositol in PIM1/PIM2. We report here the crystal structures of PatA from Mycobacterium smegmatis in the presence of its naturally occurring acyl donor palmitate and a nonhydrolyzable palmitoyl–CoA analog. The structures reveal an α/β architecture, with the acyl chain deeply buried into a hydrophobic pocket that runs perpendicular to a long groove where the active site is located. Enzyme catalysis is mediated by an unprecedented charge relay system, which markedly diverges from the canonical HX4D motif. Our studies establish the mechanistic basis of substrate/membrane recognition and catalysis for an important family of acyltransferases, providing exciting possibilities for inhibitor design. PMID:26965057

  13. Structural basis for selective recognition of acyl chains by the membrane-associated acyltransferase PatA.

    PubMed

    Albesa-Jové, David; Svetlíková, Zuzana; Tersa, Montse; Sancho-Vaello, Enea; Carreras-González, Ana; Bonnet, Pascal; Arrasate, Pedro; Eguskiza, Ander; Angala, Shiva K; Cifuente, Javier O; Korduláková, Jana; Jackson, Mary; Mikušová, Katarína; Guerin, Marcelo E

    2016-03-11

    The biosynthesis of phospholipids and glycolipids are critical pathways for virtually all cell membranes. PatA is an essential membrane associated acyltransferase involved in the biosynthesis of mycobacterial phosphatidyl-myo-inositol mannosides (PIMs). The enzyme transfers a palmitoyl moiety from palmitoyl-CoA to the 6-position of the mannose ring linked to 2-position of inositol in PIM1/PIM2. We report here the crystal structures of PatA from Mycobacterium smegmatis in the presence of its naturally occurring acyl donor palmitate and a nonhydrolyzable palmitoyl-CoA analog. The structures reveal an α/β architecture, with the acyl chain deeply buried into a hydrophobic pocket that runs perpendicular to a long groove where the active site is located. Enzyme catalysis is mediated by an unprecedented charge relay system, which markedly diverges from the canonical HX4D motif. Our studies establish the mechanistic basis of substrate/membrane recognition and catalysis for an important family of acyltransferases, providing exciting possibilities for inhibitor design.

  14. Involvement of the Putative ATP-Dependent Efflux Proteins PatA and PatB in Fluoroquinolone Resistance of a Multidrug-Resistant Mutant of Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Marrer, Estelle; Schad, Karen; Satoh, Andreas T.; Page, Malcolm G. P.; Johnson, Maggie M.; Piddock, Laura J. V.

    2006-01-01

    The multidrug-resistant mutant Streptococcus pneumoniae M22 constitutively overexpresses two genes (patA and patB) that encode proteins homologous to known efflux proteins belonging to the ABC transporter family. It is shown here that PatA and PatB were strongly induced by quinolone antibiotics and distamycin in fluoroquinolone-sensitive strains. PatA was very important for growth of S. pneumoniae, and it could not be disrupted in strain M22. PatB appeared to control metabolic activity, particularly in amino acid biosynthesis, and it may have a pivotal role in coordination of the response to quinolone antibiotics. The induction of PatA and PatB by antibiotics showed a pattern similar to that exhibited by SP1861, a homologue of ABC-type transporters of choline and other osmoprotectants. A second group of quinolone-induced transporter genes comprising SP1587 and SP0287, which are homologues of, respectively, oxalate/formate antiporters and xanthine or uracil permeases belonging to the major facilitator family, showed a different pattern of induction by other antibiotics. There was no evidence for the involvement of PmrA, the putative proton-dependent multidrug transporter that has been implicated in norfloxacin resistance, in the response to quinolone antibiotics in either the resistant mutant or the fluoroquinolone-sensitive strains. PMID:16436727

  15. Multilayer adsorption of Cu(II) and Cd(II) over Brazilian Orchid Tree (Pata-de-vaca) and its adsorptive properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorgetto, Alexandre de O.; da Silva, Adrielli C. P.; Wondracek, Marcos H. P.; Silva, Rafael I. V.; Velini, Edivaldo D.; Saeki, Margarida J.; Pedrosa, Valber A.; Castro, Gustavo R.

    2015-08-01

    Through very simple and inexpensive processes, pata-de-vaca leaves were turned into a powder and applied as an adsorbent for the uptake of Cu(II) and Cd(II) from water. The material was characterized through SEM, EDX, FTIR and surface area measurement. The material had its point of zero charge determined (5.24), and its adsorption capacity was evaluated as a function of time, pH and metal concentration. The material presented fast adsorption kinetics, reaching adsorption equilibrium in less than 5 min and it had a good correlation with the pseudo-second order kinetic model. Optimum pH for the adsorption of Cu(II) and Cd(II) were found to be in the range from 4 to 5, approximately. In the experiment as a function of the analyte concentration, analogously to gas adsorption, the material presented a type II isotherm, indicating the formation of multilayers for both species. Such behavior was explained with basis in the alternation between cations and anions over the material's surface, and the maximum adsorption capacity, considering the formation of the multilayers were found to be 0.238 mmol L-1 for Cu(II) and 0.113 mmol L-1 for Cd(II).

  16. ERP measures of syllable processing in 1 year olds: infant diet- and gender-related differences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Language skills are generally better in females than males, but the basis for these differences has not been determined. To investigate whether variations in infant diet contribute to these differences, cortical responses to the syllable /pa/ (ERPs;124 sites) were examined in healthy 12-month-old, f...

  17. PREDICTORS OF EMOTIONAL AND BEHAVIORAL PROBLEMS IN 1-YEAR-OLD CHILDREN: A LONGITUDINAL PERSPECTIVE.

    PubMed

    Sirvinskiene, Giedre; Zemaitiene, Nida; Jusiene, Roma; Markuniene, Egle

    2016-07-01

    Emotional and behavioral problems at an early age can reasonably be considered a high-risk factor for later mental health disorders. The aim of the article is to reveal predictive factors of 1½-year-old children's emotional and behavioral problems. The study was a part of a prospective birth-cohort study. The study sample consisted of 172 full-term infants (born during Gestational Weeks 37-42) and their mothers. Emotional and behavioral problems at the age of 1½ years were measured using the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1½-5 (T. Achenbach & L. Rescorla, 2000), which was completed by mothers. Emotional and behavioral problems at age of 1½ years were more prevalent in infants born via cesarean section, as compared to infants born vaginally without administration of medication. Newborns' suboptimal functioning after birth, complicated emotional acceptance of pregnancy, a couple's nonsatisfactory relationship during pregnancy, maternal distress during pregnancy and in the first months after childbirth, and inflexible and parent-oriented attitudes toward infant-rearing also predicted children's emotional and behavioral problems independent of sociodemographic factors. Results suggest that biomedical and psychosocial factors which manifest themselves in the prenatal and perinatal periods can have associations with later infant and child mental health.

  18. Predictors of Parent Responsiveness to 1-Year-Olds At-Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinard, Jessica L.; Sideris, John; Watson, Linda R.; Baranek, Grace T.; Crais, Elizabeth R.; Wakeford, Linn; Turner-Brown, Lauren

    2017-01-01

    Parent responsiveness is critical for child development of cognition, social-communication, and self-regulation. Parents tend to respond more frequently when children at-risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) demonstrate stronger social-communication; however, it is unclear how responsiveness is associated with sensory characteristics of children…

  19. Solar urticaria in a 1-year-old infant: diagnosis and management

    PubMed Central

    Hochstadter, Elana Fay; Ben-Shoshan, Moshe

    2014-01-01

    Solar urticaria is a type of inducible urticaria triggered by sun exposure resulting in hives on exposed skin as well as risk of developing systemic symptoms. Most cases are reported in the adult population. However, cases do occur in children. We present a case of visible light induced urticaria in a 12-month-old girl that demonstrates the need for accurate diagnosis and appropriate management. PMID:24744064

  20. Impact of universal varicella vaccination on 1-year-olds in Uruguay: 1997–2005

    PubMed Central

    Quian, J; Rüttimann, R; Romero, C; Dall’Orso, P; Cerisola, A; Breuer, T; Greenberg, M; Verstraeten, T

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Varicella vaccination was introduced at the end of 1999 into the Uruguayan immunisation schedule for children aged 12 months. Varilrix (Oka strain; GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals) has been the only vaccine used since then and coverage has been estimated to exceed 90% since the start of the universal varicella vaccination programme. We assessed the impact of the Uruguayan varicella vaccination programme during 2005, 6 years after its introduction. Methods: Information on hospitalisations was collected from the main paediatric referral hospital and information on medical consultations for varicella was collected from two private health insurance systems in Montevideo. The proportion of hospitalisations due to varicella and the proportion of ambulatory visits for varicella since the introduction of the vaccine were compared between 1999 and 2005 and 1997 and 1999 in the following age groups: <1 year, 1–4 years, 5–9 years and 10–14 years. Results: By 2005, the proportion of hospitalisations due to varicella among children, was reduced by 81% overall and by 63%, 94%, 73% and 62% in the <1, 1–4, 5–9 and 10–14 years age groups, respectively. The incidence of ambulatory visits for varicella among children was reduced by 87% overall and by 80%, 97%, 81% and 65% in the <1, 1–4, 5–9 and 10–14 years age groups, respectively. Conclusions: The burden of varicella has decreased substantially in Uruguayan children since the introduction of the varicella vaccination, including those groups outside the recommended vaccination age. It is expected to decrease further as more cohorts of children are vaccinated and herd immunity increases. PMID:18456699

  1. Adrenocortical and behavioral attunement in parents with 1-year-old infants.

    PubMed

    van Bakel, Hedwig J A; Riksen-Walraven, J Marianne

    2008-03-01

    Sethre-Hofstad et al. [2002, Psychoneuroendocrinology 27:731-747] found that behaviorally well-attuned or sensitive parents showed better physiological attunement with their 2- to 4-year-old toddlers' adrenocortical responses to a potentially challenging task than less sensitive parents. In the present study we aimed to replicate this finding in a sample of 83 parents with 15-month-old infants. Parental and infant cortisol responses were assessed using saliva samples collected before and 21 min after the child's confrontation with a stranger and a moving robot. Infant behaviors reflecting distress/uncertainty during the stranger-robot session were rated from videotape. Parental sensitivity was observed during a parent-infant teaching episode. Our findings replicate those of Sethre-Hofstad et al. [2002, Psychoneuroendocrinology 27:731-747] by showing correlated parent-infant cortisol responses for sensitive parents but not for less sensitive parents. Furthermore, sensitive parents cortisol responses were associated with their children's distress/uncertainty during the stranger-robot episode, whereas this was not true for less sensitive parents. Results indicate an important connection between behavior and physiology in parent-infant interactions that deserve more research.

  2. Combining Genome-Wide Information with a Functional Structural Plant Model to Simulate 1-Year-Old Apple Tree Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Migault, Vincent; Pallas, Benoît; Costes, Evelyne

    2017-01-01

    In crops, optimizing target traits in breeding programs can be fostered by selecting appropriate combinations of architectural traits which determine light interception and carbon acquisition. In apple tree, architectural traits were observed to be under genetic control. However, architectural traits also result from many organogenetic and morphological processes interacting with the environment. The present study aimed at combining a FSPM built for apple tree, MAppleT, with genetic determinisms of architectural traits, previously described in a bi-parental population. We focused on parameters related to organogenesis (phyllochron and immediate branching) and morphogenesis processes (internode length and leaf area) during the first year of tree growth. Two independent datasets collected in 2004 and 2007 on 116 genotypes, issued from a ‘Starkrimson’ × ‘Granny Smith’ cross, were used. The phyllochron was estimated as a function of thermal time and sylleptic branching was modeled subsequently depending on phyllochron. From a genetic map built with SNPs, marker effects were estimated on four MAppleT parameters with rrBLUP, using 2007 data. These effects were then considered in MAppleT to simulate tree development in the two climatic conditions. The genome wide prediction model gave consistent estimations of parameter values with correlation coefficients between observed values and estimated values from SNP markers ranging from 0.79 to 0.96. However, the accuracy of the prediction model following cross validation schemas was lower. Three integrative traits (the number of leaves, trunk length, and number of sylleptic laterals) were considered for validating MAppleT simulations. In 2007 climatic conditions, simulated values were close to observations, highlighting the correct simulation of genetic variability. However, in 2004 conditions which were not used for model calibration, the simulations differed from observations. This study demonstrates the possibility of integrating genome-based information in a FSPM for a perennial fruit tree. It also showed that further improvements are required for improving the prediction ability. Especially temperature effect should be extended and other factors taken into account for modeling GxE interactions. Improvements could also be expected by considering larger populations and by testing other genome wide prediction models. Despite these limitations, this study opens new possibilities for supporting plant breeding by in silico evaluations of the impact of genotypic polymorphisms on plant integrative phenotypes. PMID:28127302

  3. Time to First Shunt Failure in Pediatric Patients over 1 Year Old: A 10-Year Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Shannon, Chevis N; Carr, Kevin R; Tomycz, Luke; Wellons, John C; Tulipan, Noel

    2013-01-01

    Studies comparing alternatives to ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunting for treatment of hydrocephalus have often relied upon data from an earlier era that may not be representative of contemporary shunt survival outcomes. We sought to determine the shunt survival rate of our cohort and compare our results to previously published shunt survival and endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) success rates. We identified 95 patients between 1 and 18 years of age, who underwent initial VP shunt placement between January 2001 and December 2010. Our study shows a shunt survival rate of 85% at 6 months and 79% at 2 years, for initial shunts in pediatric patients over 1 year of age in this cohort. The overall infection rate was 3%. This compares favorably with published success rates of ETV at similar time points as well as with the rate of infection. This suggests that ventricular shunting remains a viable alternative to ETV in the older child.

  4. Marked referential communicative behaviours, but no differentiation of the "knowledge state" of humans in untrained pet dogs versus 1-year-old infants.

    PubMed

    Gaunet, Florence; Massioui, Farid El

    2014-09-01

    The study examines whether untrained dogs and infants take their caregiver's visual experience into account when communicating with them. Fifteen adult dogs and 15 one-year-old infants were brought into play with their caregivers with one of their own toys. The caregiver gave the toy to the experimenter, who, in different conditions, placed it either above or under one of two containers, with both the infant or dog and the caregiver witnessing the positioning; in a third condition, the caregiver left the room before the toy was placed under one of the two containers and later returned. Afterwards, for each condition, the caregiver asked the participant to indicate the location of the toy. Neither dogs nor infants-untrained to the use of the partner's knowledge state-showed much difference of behaviour between the three conditions. However, dogs showed more persistence for most behaviours (gaze at the owner, gaze at the toy and gaze alternation) and conditions, suggesting that the situation made more demands on dogs' communicative behaviours than on those of infants. When all deictic behaviours of infants (arm points towards the toy and gaze at the toy) were taken into account, dogs and infants did not differ. Phylogeny, early experience and ontogeny may all play a role in the ways that both species communicate with adult humans.

  5. Tamoxifen-DNA adduct formation in monkey and human reproductive organs.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Ramon, Elena E; Sandoval, Nicole A; John, Kaarthik; Cline, J Mark; Wood, Charles E; Woodward, Ruth A; Poirier, Miriam C

    2014-05-01

    The estrogen analog tamoxifen (TAM), used for adjuvant therapy of breast cancer, induces endometrial and uterine tumors in breast cancer patients. Proliferation stimulus of the uterine endometrium is likely involved in tumor induction, but genotoxicity may also play a role. Formation of TAM-DNA adducts in human tissues has been reported but remains controversial. To address this issue, we examined TAM-DNA adducts in uteri from two species of monkeys, Erythrocebus patas (patas) and Macaca fascicularis (macaque), and in human endometrium and myometrium. Monkeys were given 3-4 months of chronic TAM dosing scaled to be equivalent to the daily human dose. In the uteri, livers and brains from the patas (n = 3), and endometrium from the macaques (n = 4), TAM-DNA adducts were measurable by TAM-DNA chemiluminescence immunoassay. Average TAM-DNA adduct values for the patas uteri (23 adducts/10(8) nucleotides) were similar to those found in endometrium of the macaques (19 adducts/10(8) nucleotides). Endometrium of macaques exposed to both TAM and low-dose estradiol (n = 5) averaged 34 adducts/10(8) nucleotides. To examine TAM-DNA persistence in the patas, females (n = 3) were exposed to TAM for 3 months and to no drug for an additional month, resulting in low or non-detectable TAM-DNA in livers and uteri. Human endometrial and myometrial samples from women receiving (n = 8) and not receiving (n = 8) TAM therapy were also evaluated. Women receiving TAM therapy averaged 10.3 TAM-DNA adducts/10(8) nucleotides, whereas unexposed women showed no detectable TAM-DNA. The data indicate that genotoxicity, in addition to estrogen agonist effects, may contribute to TAM-induced human endometrial cancer.

  6. An audiometric comparison of primate audiograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, Mark N.

    2001-05-01

    Audiogram data for 18 species of primates were collected from the literature and analyzed by measuring 13 audiometric variables: frequency and threshold of the primary peak, frequency and threshold of the secondary peak, frequency and threshold of the notch between peaks, low-frequency cutoff, high-frequency cutoff, total area of the audible field, low area, middle area, high area, and total audible range in octaves. All areal measurements were made using IGOR PRO 4.04 wave measurement software. Platyrrhines were found to have significantly better low-frequency sensitivity than like-sized lorisoids with an average of 15-dB difference between the means for the two groups. This difference remains significant even when interindividual variation is considered. Callithrix jacchus and Erythrocebus patas have unusual hearing patterns for primates of their size with marmosets showing a reduction in high-frequency sensitivity, while patas monkeys show a reduction in low-frequency sensitivity. It was also noted that chimps have a notch in sensitivity that falls within the range of greatest sensitivity for humans. These findings are discussed in relation to the morphological adaptations that appear to influence these hearing patterns and the evolutionary significance of such patterns for group communication and predator-prey interactions.

  7. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in captive mammals in three zoos in Mexico City, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Gayosso-Dominguez, Edgar Arturo; Villena, Isabelle; Dubey, J P

    2013-09-01

    Antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii were determined in 167 mammals in three zoos in Mexico City, Mexico, using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Overall, antibodies to T. gondii were found in 89 (53.3%) of the 167 animals tested. Antibodies were found in 35 of 43 wild Felidae: 2 of 2 bobcats (Lynx rufus); 4 of 4 cougars (Puma concolor); 10 of 13 jaguars (Panthera onca); 5 of 5 leopards (Panthera pardus); 7 of 7 lions (Panthera leo); 2 of 3 tigers (Panthera tigris); 2 of 3 ocelots (Leopardus pardalis); 2 of 2 Sumatran tigers (Panthera tigris sumatrae); lof 2 Jaguarundi (Herpailurus jagouaroundi); but not in 0 of 2 oncillas (Leopardus tigrinus). Such high seroprevalence in wild felids is of public health significance because of the potential of oocyst shedding. Four of 6 New World primates (2 of 2 Geoffroy's spider monkeys [Ateles geoffroyi], 1 of 3 Patas monkeys [Erythrocebus patas], and 1 of 1 white-headed capuchin [Cebus capucinus]) had high MAT titers of 3,200, suggesting recently acquired infection; these animals are highly susceptible to clinical toxoplasmosis. However, none of these animals were ill. Seropositivity to T. gondii was found for the first time in a number of species.

  8. The labial-coronal effect revisited: Japanese adults say pata, but hear tapa.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Sho; Gomez, Nayeli Gonzalez; Medina, Victoria; Nazzi, Thierry; Mazuka, Reiko

    2012-12-01

    The labial-coronal effect has originally been described as a bias to initiate a word with a labial consonant-vowel-coronal consonant (LC) sequence. This bias has been explained with constraints on the human speech production system, and its perceptual correlates have motivated the suggestion of a perception-production link. However, previous studies exclusively considered languages in which LC sequences are globally more frequent than their counterpart. The current study examined the LC bias in speakers of Japanese, a language that has been claimed to possess more CL than LC sequences. We first conducted an analysis of Japanese corpora that qualified this claim, and identified a subgroup of consonants (plosives) exhibiting a CL bias. Second, focusing on this subgroup of consonants, we found diverging results for production and perception such that Japanese speakers exhibited an articulatory LC bias, but a perceptual CL bias. The CL perceptual bias, however, was modulated by language of presentation, and was only present for stimuli recorded by a Japanese, but not a French, speaker. A further experiment with native speakers of French showed the opposite effect, with an LC bias for French stimuli only. Overall, we find support for a universal, articulatory motivated LC bias in production, supporting a motor explanation of the LC effect, while perceptual biases are influenced by distributional frequencies of the native language.

  9. The Labial-Coronal Effect Revisited: Japanese Adults Say Pata, but Hear Tapa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsuji, Sho; Gomez, Nayeli Gonzalez; Medina, Victoria; Nazzi, Thierry; Mazuka, Reiko

    2012-01-01

    The labial-coronal effect has originally been described as a bias to initiate a word with a labial consonant-vowel-coronal consonant (LC) sequence. This bias has been explained with constraints on the human speech production system, and its perceptual correlates have motivated the suggestion of a perception-production link. However, previous…

  10. Etologia aplicada al manejo de especies amenazadas: el caso del turon de patas negras (Mustela nigripes)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vargas, A.; Biggins, D.; Miller, B.

    1999-01-01

    de esta especie de un modo más eficaz y rentable. Black-footed ferrets are considered one of the world's most endangered mammals. The last wild population was discovered in 1981 in Meteetsee, Wyoming, and, in 1985 it collapsed due to an epizootic of canine distemper in combination with sylvatic plague. Prior to the extinction of the last remnant population, 18 wild black-footed ferrets were captured to initiate captive propagation efforts. Captive breeding has been successful and, during the last 11 years, more than 2600 black-footed ferrets have been born in captive breeding centers. Since 1991, approximately 870 ferrets have been reintroduced in 5 areas located within the ferret's original geographic distribution, including sites in Wyoming, Montana, South Dakota, and Arizona. Scientific research has been, and continues to be, a critical tool to direct recovery efforts. Studies in applied ethology conducted on captive and reintroduced ferret populations have demonstrated that a naturalistic captive environment, particularly during early developmental periods, enhances the expression of behaviors necessary for survival in nature. Ferrets raised in a naturalistic environment develop better predatory skills, are able to recognize prairie dog burrows as a home and shelter from predators, and are more physically fit. Results from these studies have been adapted into management strategies to help implement a more cost-effective road to black-footed ferret recovery.

  11. Revisiting play elements and self-handicapping in play: a comparative ethogram of five Old World monkey species.

    PubMed

    Petrů, Milada; Spinka, Marek; Charvátová, Veronika; Lhota, Stanislav

    2009-08-01

    Play behavior has been viewed as a mixture of elements drawn from "serious" behavior, interspersed by ritualized play signals. Two other types of play behaviors have been overlooked: patterns that are dissimilar from any serious behavior and patterns with self-handicapping character, that is, those that put the animal into unnecessary disadvantageous positions or situations. Here the authors show that these 2 types of patterns can constitute a major part of play repertoire. From our own videorecordings and observations, we constructed play ethograms of 5 monkey species (Semnopithecus entellus, Erythrocebus patas, Chlorocebus pygerythrus, Cercopithecus neglectus, and Cercopithecus diana). The authors evaluated the self-handicapping character of each pattern and in Hanuman langurs also the (dis)similarity to serious behavior. Of the 74 patterns in the 5 species, 33 (45%) were judged to have a self-handicapping character. Of 48 patterns observed in langurs, 16 (33%) were totally dissimilar to any serious langur behavior known to us. The authors discuss the possibility that the different types of play elements may have different functions in play.

  12. Isolation and characterization of faecal bifidobacteria and lactobacilli isolated from dogs and primates.

    PubMed

    Strompfová, Viola; Lauková, Andrea

    2014-10-01

    Although bifidobacteria and lactobacilli have been suggested beneficial for the host and are components of many probiotics and competitive exclusion mixtures, the knowledge on abundance, metabolic and probiotic characteristics in isolates from dogs and monkeys is still limited. The present study was aimed to isolate Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus strains (faeces of 22 dogs and of 5 primates: Cebus apella, Eulemur fulvus, Erythrocebus patas, Macaca fascicularis, Papio hamadryas) with the MALDI-TOF identification system Lactobacillus murinus, Bifidobacterium animalis and Pediococcus acidilactici were more frequently isolated species in dogs while Lactobacillus plantarum was isolated in several species of primates. Ten strains of 6 species were assayed for enzymatic activities (only Lactobacillus reuteri strains showed no undesirable enzymatic activity), antimicrobial susceptibility (detected higher minimum inhibitory concentration levels for tetracycline and gentamicin), and inhibitory activity against 15 indicator bacteria. All strains inhibited Gram-negative indicators while lactobacilli showed larger inhibition zones than bifidobacteria. L. reuteri II/3b/a (isolate from M. fascicularis) showed the best antimicrobial properties. Resistance to bile (0.3% w/v) was observed in all tested strains (no decrease of CFU/ml) whereas the decrease of 68.4-94.4% (after 90 min exposition) and 78.4-99.9% CFU/ml (after 180 min) depending on the strain was detected in the artificial gastric juice.

  13. Hindlimb proportions, allometry, and biomechanics in Old World monkeys (primates, Cercopithecidae).

    PubMed

    Strasser, E

    1992-02-01

    The traditional focus on morphological rather than mechanical units has obscured some significant functional differences in the hindlimbs of primates. This paper examines the allometric and biomechanical basis for some distinctive proportional differences among pairs of morphological units in the hindlimb, and especially the foot, of cercopithecid primates. Five major conclusions are reached. First, many hindlimb dimensions scale allometrically with body mass to maintain mechanical similarity within taxonomic and locomotor groups. Therefore, the majority of traditional indices which describe the shape of the foot within cercopithecids reveal differences which are primarily a function of size. Second, the hindlimb segments in colobines, and especially in Presbytis, are relatively long, probably to enhance leaping. Third, the major distinction of terrestrial cercopithecines among the features analysed is reduction in the length of the phalanges, due to the reduced importance of grasping during locomotion and the assumption of digitigrady. Fourth, Theropithecus and male Erythrocebus have high crural indices, relative to their body masses, which can facilitate curosoriality. Female E. patas already has a high crural index as a function of its body mass. Fifth, macaques form a distinctive group among cercopithecines, characterized by relatively short hindlimbs. Relatively very short hindlimbs in Macaca fuscata and M. thibetana suggest that climatic conditions can have an added effect on the lengths of the hindlimb segments. In summary, this analysis of the lengths of the hindlimb segments relative to body size reveals taxonomic differences which are due in part to phylogeny, to differences in locomotor behavior, and to substrate use.

  14. Ganglioneuroblastoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... spread. A ganglioneuroma is a benign tumor. A neuroblastoma (occurring in children over 1 year old) is ... but it is usually less aggressive than a neuroblastoma. The cause is unknown. Symptoms Most commonly, a ...

  15. Infant Botulism (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Infant Botulism KidsHealth > For Parents > Infant Botulism A A A ... babies younger than 1 year old. About Infant Botulism This illness usually affects babies who are between ...

  16. Sudden infant death syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Crib death; SIDS ... However, SIDS is still a major cause of death in infants under 1 year old. Thousands of ... affects boys more often than girls. Most SIDS deaths occur in the winter. The following may increase ...

  17. Pediatric Thighbone (Femur) Fracture

    MedlinePlus

    .org Thighbone (Femur) Fractures In Children Page ( 1 ) The thighbone (femur) is the largest and strongest bone in the body. It can break ... Cause Statistics The most common cause of thighbone fractures in infants under 1 year old is child ...

  18. Environmental degradation of polyacrylamides. II. Effects of environmental (outdoor) exposure.

    PubMed

    Smith, E A; Prues, S L; Oehme, F W

    1997-06-01

    The environmental fate of a polyacrylamide thickening agent (PATA), formulated without and with a glyphosate-surfactant herbicide (GH), was examined under various environmental situations: formulation in surface water and ground water, volatility, and soil mobility. Environmental Fate of PATA in Surface Water and Ground Water: PATA was formulated at four concentrations in distilled-deionized water, three surface water samples, and two ground water samples, without and with a GH. Solutions were placed in glass bottles, covered with plastic wrap, and exposed to environmental (outdoor) conditions for 6 weeks. Acrylamide and ammonium concentration, pH, and bacterial and fungal populations were measured weekly. All solutions in this portion of the study had a homogeneous milky appearance but the conclusions of the study were nearly transparent. The results of this study suggest that polyacrylamide can degrade to acrylamide under environmental conditions. Statistically, there was no linear correlation between the various parameters measured. Volatility: PATA was formulated without and with GH. Each solution plus an acrylamide standard (positive control) was placed in a glass beaker and exposed to environmental (outdoor) conditions for 6 days. Acrylamide concentration, ammonium concentration, pH, and solution volume were measured daily. Acrylamide and ammonium concentrations increased during the study in all formulations, except when solutions evaporated to dryness. pH did not change greatly over the course of the study for these samples. Those solutions containing PATA had a homogeneous milky appearance but by the conclusions of the study were nearly transparent. This suggests a physical structural change in the polymer. Soil Mobility: PATA formulated with GH was also applied to soil columns and soil boxes containing sand, Eudora sandy loam, Eudora sandy clay, and Kohola silt loam. Acrylamide could be detected by Day 2 in all soil columns. Acrylamide could not be

  19. Putrescine catabolism is a metabolic response to several stresses in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Barbara L; Hernandez, V James; Reitzer, Larry

    2013-05-01

    Genes whose products degrade arginine and ornithine, precursors of putrescine synthesis, are activated by either regulators of the nitrogen-regulated (Ntr) response or σ(S) -RNA polymerase. To determine if dual control regulates a complete putrescine catabolic pathway, we examined expression of patA and patD, which specify the first two enzymes of one putrescine catabolic pathway. Assays of PatA (putrescine transaminase) activity and β-galactosidase from cells with patA-lacZ transcriptional and translational fusions indicate dual control of patA transcription and putrescine-stimulated patA translation. Similar assays for PatD indicate that patD transcription required σ(S) -RNA polymerase, and Nac, an Ntr regulator, enhanced the σ(S) -dependent transcription. Since Nac activation via σ(S) -RNA polymerase is without precedent, transcription with purified components was examined and the results confirmed this conclusion. This result indicates that the Ntr regulon can intrude into the σ(S) regulon. Strains lacking both polyamine catabolic pathways have defective responses to oxidative stress, high temperature and a sublethal concentration of an antibiotic. These defects and the σ(S) -dependent expression indicate that polyamine catabolism is a core metabolic response to stress.

  20. Physical sciences: Thermodynamics, cryogenics, and vacuum technology: A compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Technological developments which have potential application outside the aerospace community are reported. A variety of thermodynamic devices including heat pipes and cooling systems are described along with methods of handling cryogenic fluids. Vacuum devices are also described. Pata et information is included.

  1. Development of Single/Geminate Obstruent Discrimination by Japanese Infants: Early Integration of Durational and Nondurational Cues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sato, Yutaka; Kato, Mahoko; Mazuka, Reiko

    2012-01-01

    The Japanese language has single/geminate obstruents characterized by durational difference in closure/frication as part of the phonemic repertoire used to distinguish word meanings. We first evaluated infants' abilities to discriminate naturally uttered single/geminate obstruents (/pata/ and /patta/) using the visual habituation-dishabituation…

  2. Development of single/geminate obstruent discrimination by Japanese infants: early integration of durational and nondurational cues.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yutaka; Kato, Mahoko; Mazuka, Reiko

    2012-01-01

    The Japanese language has single/geminate obstruents characterized by durational difference in closure/frication as part of the phonemic repertoire used to distinguish word meanings. We first evaluated infants' abilities to discriminate naturally uttered single/geminate obstruents (/pata/ and /patta/) using the visual habituation-dishabituation method. The results revealed that 9.5-month-old Japanese infants were able to make this discrimination, t(21) = 2.119, p = .046, paired t test, whereas 4-month-olds were not, t(25) = 0.395, p = .696, paired t test. To examine how acoustic correlates (covarying cues) are associated with the contrast discrimination, we tested Japanese infants at 9.5 and 11.5 months of age with 3 combinations of natural and manipulated stimuli. The 11.5-month-olds were able to discriminate the naturally uttered pair (/pata/ vs. /patta/), t(20) = 4.680, p < .000, paired t test. Neither group discriminated the natural /patta/ from the manipulated /pata/ created from natural /patta/ tokens: For 9.5-month-olds, t(23) = 0.754, p = .458; for 11.5-month-olds, t(27) = 0.789, p = .437, paired t tests. Only the 11.5-month-olds discriminated the natural /pata/ and the manipulated /patta/ created from /pata/ tokens: For 9.5-month-olds, t(24) = 0.114, p = .910; for 11.5-month-olds, t(23) = 2.244, p = .035, paired t tests. These results suggest that Japanese infants acquire a sensitivity to contrasts of single/geminate obstruents by 9.5 months of age and that certain cues that covary with closure length either facilitate or interfere with contrast discrimination under particular conditions.

  3. Environmental degradation of polyacrylamides. 1. Effects of artificial environmental conditions: temperature, light, and pH.

    PubMed

    Smith, E A; Prues, S L; Oehme, F W

    1996-11-01

    A polyacrylamide thickening agent (PATA) was formulated at four concentrations in distilled-deionized water, without and with a glyphosate-surfactant herbicide (GH). Over a 6-week period, these mixtures were exposed to various controlled temperature and light conditions. Acrylamide concentration, ammonium concentration, and pH were measured at weekly intervals to assess the degradation of polyacrylamide and acrylamide. Satellite studies were conducted to examine the effect of altered pH on solutions of PATA (i.e., does pH promote polyacrylamide depolymerization?) and GH binding to amine groups (i.e., protection from degradation). The results of these studies suggest that polyacrylamide can degrade to acrylamide by thermal and photolytic effects, that changes in pH do not promote the depolymerization of polyacrylamide, and that GH does protect polyacrylamide and acrylamide from environmental degradation. Statistically there was no linear correlation between the various parameters measured.

  4. Visuo-Motor and Cognitive Procedural Learning in Children with Basal Ganglia Pathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayor-Dubois, C.; Maeder, P.; Zesiger, P.; Roulet-Perez, E.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated procedural learning in 18 children with basal ganglia (BG) lesions or dysfunctions of various aetiologies, using a visuo-motor learning test, the Serial Reaction Time (SRT) task, and a cognitive learning test, the Probabilistic Classification Learning (PCL) task. We compared patients with early (less than 1 year old, n=9), later…

  5. Otitis Media and Language Development at 1 Year of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Ina F.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Fifteen 1-year-olds without otitis media were compared to 12 babies who were otitis positive. No significant differences were detected on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development or the Sequenced Inventory of Communication Development (SICD) Receptive scale. However, the otitis-positive group exhibited lower SICD Expressive scores than the…

  6. Kingella kingae endocardial abscess and cerebral infarction in a previously well immunocompetent child

    PubMed Central

    Gelbart, Ben; Connell, Tom G; Konstantinov, Igor E; Phillips, Rachel; Starr, Mike

    2009-01-01

    Kingella kingae is an emerging paediatric pathogen that most commonly is associated with relatively benign osteoarticular disease in children. This report concerns a 1-year-old child with Kingella kingae endocarditis and perivalvular abscess complicated by septic cerebral emboli and osteomyelitis leading to long-term neurological sequelae, highlighting the capacity of this organism to cause severe invasive disease in children. PMID:22190987

  7. A case of ocular canine transmissible venereal tumor

    PubMed Central

    Milo, Jewel; Snead, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    A 1-year-old, intact female mixed-breed dog was presented to St. George’s University Small Animal Clinic in Grenada for a third eyelid mass. The dog was diagnosed with a rare ocular transmissible venereal tumor (TVT) and concurrent anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis and dirofilariasis. Treatment with vincristine sulfate resulted in complete resolution of the TVT. PMID:24381345

  8. Psychosocial Aspects of Cleft Lip and Palate: Implications for Parental Education. Research Report 138.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalland, Mirjam

    This study focused on the psychosocial aspects of cleft lip and/or palate on maternal emotional reactions and the family, with emphasis on the effect on the maternal-infant bond. Interviews were conducted with 40 mothers of 1-year-old infants with non-syndromic cleft lip and/or palate. The interviews were analyzed using the phenomenological…

  9. 7 CFR 4279.29 - Eligible lenders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...; audited financial statements not more than 1 year old; sources of funds for the proposed loans; office... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible lenders. 4279.29 Section 4279.29 Agriculture... UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED LOANMAKING General § 4279.29 Eligible lenders....

  10. [The pharyngeal viral flora in dystrophic infants 0 to 1 years of age with acute respiratory diseases].

    PubMed

    Pârvu, C; Isaia, G; Moldovan, D; Mârşanu, M; Lăzărescu, P; Sîntimbreanu, C; Mârşanu, A

    1989-01-01

    Pharyngeal viral flora was studied in 0-1-year-old dystrophic children with acute infections of the upper respiratory tract and with interstitial pneumopathy. Influence of the dystrophic factor on the qualitative and quantitative aspects of the viral flora is discussed.

  11. Vagal Regulation and Observed Social Behavior in Infancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stifter, Cynthia A.; Corey, Janet M.

    2001-01-01

    Examined the relationship between vagal regulation and infant social behavior. Assessed 1-year-olds' social responses toward an unfamiliar adult, then measured their regulation of cardiac vagal tone during a later test of mental development. Results suggest that infants capable of regulating vagal tone have a greater capacity for social…

  12. 77 FR 41168 - Marine Mammals; Subsistence Taking of Northern Fur Seals; St. Paul Island

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-12

    ... Northern Fur Seals; St. Paul Island AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and...) petitioned NMFS to revise regulations governing the subsistence taking of northern fur seals on St. Paul..., Alaska to: Take male young of the year (less than 1 year old) fur seals; take a total of up to 3,000...

  13. Peer Competence and Mother-Child and Child-Child Interactions in One-Year-Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Lieshout, Cornelis F. M.; And Others

    As part of a longitudinal study of the predictors of preschool-aged children's peer relationships, data were collected on the social behavior of 1-year-olds. Participating in the study were 48 mother-child dyads. Individual and comparison data were gathered through observation and videotape recordings in laboratory dyadic play sessions involving…

  14. An Attachment-Based Home Visiting Program for Distressed Mothers of Young Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaitz, Marsha; Tessler, Naomi; Chriki, Miriam

    2012-01-01

    Mom2Mom is an attachment-based home visiting project for distressed mothers of young infants, based in Israel. Home visitors, who are volunteer mothers from the community, are trained and supervised by professionals. Home visits occur weekly for 1-2 hours and continue until the infant is 1 year old. The project was founded in Jerusalem in year…

  15. Multiple liver abscesses in a dog secondary to the liver fluke Metorchis conjunctus treated by percutaneous transhepatic drainage and alcoholization

    PubMed Central

    Lemetayer, Julie D.; Snead, Elizabeth C.; Starrak, Greg S.; Wagner, Brent A.

    2016-01-01

    A 1-year-old German shepherd × husky cross dog was diagnosed with multiple liver abscesses and severe cholangitis secondary to the liver fluke Metorchis conjunctus. The dog was successfully treated with 2 percutaneous transhepatic drainage and alcoholization procedures, and a prolonged course of antibiotics and praziquantel. PMID:27247459

  16. Creating an Amazing Montessori Toddler Home Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woo, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    The author states that raising her twins the Montessori way has made her life easy. Imagine two 1-year-olds eating entire meals on their own, setting their own tables by 20 months, and becoming potty-trained before 2. These are not statistics found in just one household. Children raised the Montessori way can take care of themselves and their…

  17. A case of ocular canine transmissible venereal tumor.

    PubMed

    Milo, Jewel; Snead, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    A 1-year-old, intact female mixed-breed dog was presented to St. George's University Small Animal Clinic in Grenada for a third eyelid mass. The dog was diagnosed with a rare ocular transmissible venereal tumor (TVT) and concurrent anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis and dirofilariasis. Treatment with vincristine sulfate resulted in complete resolution of the TVT.

  18. Renal failure in a guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) following ingestion of oxalate containing plants

    PubMed Central

    Holowaychuk, Marie K.

    2006-01-01

    A 1-year-old guinea pig presented with anorexia, lethargy, and weight loss, 1 week after ingesting a peace lily leaf. Laboratory findings were suggestive of renal failure and included elevated blood urea nitrogen and creatinine with concurrent isosthenuria. The guinea pig was euthanized 1 month later due to worsening clinical signs. PMID:16933558

  19. Age Differences in Online Processing of Video: An Eye Movement Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkorian, Heather L.; Anderson, Daniel R.; Keen, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Eye movements were recorded while sixty-two 1-year-olds, 4-year-olds, and adults watched television. Of interest was the extent to which viewers looked at the same place at the same time as their peers because high similarity across viewers suggests systematic viewing driven by comprehension processes. Similarity of gaze location increased with…

  20. Preventing Pertussis (Whooping Cough)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Some babies who are less than 3 months old will die from pertussis if they get infected. Most adults do not have severe symptoms of the disease ... pertussis happen in babies less than 1 year old. How can I protect ... babies and children get pertussis from an adult who they are around often, such as a ...

  1. One-Year-Olds Think Creatively, Just Like Their Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoicka, Elena; Mowat, Rachael; Kirkwood, Joanne; Kerr, Tiffany; Carberry, Megan; Bijvoet-van den Berg, Simone

    2016-01-01

    Creativity is an essential human ability, allowing adaptation and survival. Twenty-nine 1-year-olds and their parents were tested on divergent thinking (DT), a measure of creative potential counting how many ideas one can generate. Toddlers' and parents' DT was moderately to highly correlated. Toddlers showed a wide range of DT scores, which were…

  2. Intense pulsed light hair removal in a patient with congenital hypertrichosis terminalis.

    PubMed

    Attia, Abeer; El Noury, Amr; Abd Alhafez, Mamdouh

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of 1-year-old girl with congenital hypertrichosis terminalis treated using intense pulsed light for hair removal. Repeated sessions were performed every 3 weeks. Facial hair reduction was achieved after 12 sessions and body hair reduction after 15 sessions. Intense pulsed light resulted in 75% reduction of hair in congenital hypertrichosis terminalis.

  3. Generalized benign acanthosis nigricans in an infant

    PubMed Central

    Das, Dipti; Das, Anupam; Kumar, Dhiraj; Gharami, Ramesh C.

    2014-01-01

    The generalized form of acanthosis nigricans, especially in infants, is extremely rare. Herein we report a 1-year-old female child who developed generalized acanthosis nigricans without any evidence of internal malignancy or endocrine disorder. This case is being reported for its rarity. PMID:25593799

  4. 50 CFR 648.5 - Operator permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...: Name, mailing address, and telephone number; date of birth; hair color; eye color; height; weight; and signature of the applicant. The applicant must also provide two recent (no more than 1 year old), color... otherwise expires, or the applicant has failed to report a change in the information on the...

  5. Sliding indirect hernia containing both ovaries.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Carol L

    2005-09-01

    Although sliding indirect inguinal hernias containing the ipsilateral ovary and fallopian tube are not uncommon in infant girls, sliding hernias containing both ovaries are rare. This report describes a large indirect inguinal hernia in a 1-year-old infant girl that contained the left uterine fundus, left bladder ear, as well as both ovaries and fallopian tubes.

  6. Doing Friendship during the Second Year of Life in a Swedish Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engdahl, Ingrid

    2012-01-01

    A number of studies within early childhood education and care indicate the importance of social competence. This article focuses on how friendship is created among very young children in Swedish preschools. The study was carried out within a toddler unit with 15 children. Six 1-year-old children, three girls and three boys, were observed during…

  7. Cow's milk and children

    MedlinePlus

    Milk and children; Cow’s milk allergy - children; Lactose intolerance - children ... You may have heard that cow's milk should not be given to babies younger than 1 year old. This is because cow's milk doesn't provide enough of certain ...

  8. Variant course of bilateral anterior cerebral artery in semilobar holoprosencephaly.

    PubMed

    Pendharkar, Hima; Venkateshappa, Bhaskar Madivala; Prasad, Chandrajit

    2015-12-01

    We report an unusual case of semilobar holoprosencephaly with variant course of bilateral anterior cerebral arteries (ACA) in a 1-year-old child. This is a very rare arterial variant, given that holoprosencephalic brains are usually associated with azygous ACAs.

  9. PHYSIOLOGICAL AND FOLIAR INJURY RESPONSES OF PRUNUS SEROTINA, FRAXINUS AMERICANA, AND ACER RUBRUM SEEDLINGS TO VARYING SOIL MOISTURE AND OZONE. (R825244)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sixteen black cherry (Prunus serotina, Ehrh.), 10 white ash (Fraxinus americana, L.) and 10 red maple (Acer rubrum, L.) 1-year old seedlings were planted per plot in 1997 on a former nursery bed within 12 open-top chambers and six open plots. Seedlings wer...

  10. "Candidatus Rickettsia kellyi," India.

    PubMed

    Rolain, Jean-Marc; Mathai, Elizabeth; Lepidi, Hubert; Somashekar, Hosaagrahara R; Mathew, Leni G; Prakash, John A J; Raoult, Didier

    2006-03-01

    We report the first laboratory-confirmed human infection due to a new rickettsial genotype in India, "Candidatus Rickettsia kellyi," in a 1-year-old boy with fever and maculopapular rash. The diagnosis was made by serologic testing, polymerase chain reaction detection, and immunohistochemical testing of the organism from a skin biopsy specimen.

  11. Toxoplasma gondii infection in lambs: high prevalence of live parasites, and genetic characterisation of T. gondii isolates revealed new genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little information is available on the presence of viable Toxoplasma gondii in tissues of lambs worldwide. The prevalence of T. gondii was determined in 383 lambs (< 1 year old) from Maryland, Virginia, and West Virginia. Hearts of 383 lambs were obtained from a slaughter house on the day of killing...

  12. Cushing syndrome induced by parents: a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Basu, S; Verma, N; Kumar, A; Das, B K

    2010-01-01

    Cushing syndrome developed in two children following inappropriate dosage and duration of corticosteroids by parents. One was a 7-year-old boy who was prescribed prednisolone for treatment of neurocysticercosis. The other was a 1-year-old boy who was prescribed oral betamethasone for a respiratory infection.

  13. The Net Benefits of Early Childhood Investments: Findings, Implications and a Texas Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Christopher T.; Faliski, Katherine; Betsinger, Alicia M.; O'Shea, Daniel P.

    This report primarily addresses the question, "What are the net benefits associated with targeted early childhood investments in Texas?" The expected benefits and costs of targeted early childhood investments are estimated and projected for an illustrative cohort of Texas infants: children 0-1 year old living in families with annual…

  14. Relationships between light, leaf nitrogen and nitrogen remobilization in the crowns of mature evergreen Quercus glauca trees.

    PubMed

    Miyazawa, Shin-Ichi; Suzuki, Arata Antonio; Sone, Kosei; Terashima, Ichiro

    2004-10-01

    We estimated the amount of nitrogen (N) remobilized from 1-year-old leaves at various positions in the crowns of mature Quercus glauca Thunb. ex Murray trees and related this to the production of new shoots. Leaf N concentration on an area basis (Na) and total N (Nt= Na x lamina area of all leaves on a shoot) were related to photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) on the leaves of current-year and 1-year-old shoots. When new shoots (S02 shoots; flushed in 2002) flushed, only a portion of the leaves on the previous year's shoots (S01 shoots; flushed in 2001) were shed. After the S02 shoots flushed, S01 shoots were defined as 1-year-old shoots (S01* shoots). Both Na and Nt were positively correlated with PPF for S01 shoots, but not for S01* shoots. The fraction of remobilized N (% of the maximum Na in S01 leaves) from remaining leaves was 5-35%, with the fraction size being positively correlated with the number of S02 shoots on an S01* shoot (new shoot number). However, the mean fraction of remobilized N from fallen leaves was 45% and was unrelated to new shoot number. The total amount of N remobilized from both fallen and remaining leaves was 1-20 mg per S01* shoot. Total remobilized N was positively correlated with new shoot number. There was a statistically significant positive relationship between the light-saturated net photosynthetic rate on a leaf area basis (Amax) and Na for both S01* and S02 leaves. However, when we compared leaves with similar Na, Amax of S01* leaves was only half that of S02 leaves, indicating that 1-year-old leaves had lower instantaneous N-use efficiency (Amax per unit Na) than current-year leaves. Ratios of chlorophyll a:b and Rubisco:chlorophyll were lower in S01* leaves than in S02 leaves, indicating that 1-year-old leaves were acclimatized to lower light environments. Thus, in Q. glauca, the N allocation theory (i.e., that N is distributed according to local PPF) applied only to the current-year shoots. Although the amount of foliar N in 1

  15. Equipment Support Grant for Air Force Task ’Chemical Defense Drugs Effects with Exercise and Thermal Stress’

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-10-12

    1075 (1986). 12 13. Gisolfi, C. F., Sato, K., Wall, P. T., and Sato, F. In vivo and in vitro characteristics of eccrine sweating in patas and rhesus... sweating , and even- tually, evaporative heat loss through its anticholinergic activity (2) resulting in increased net heat storage (1, 15), decreased heat...similar to those reported for humans. The suppressed sweating capacity of the atropine significantly affected the heat loss mechanisms of the

  16. Multiple mutations and increased RNA expression in tetracycline-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae as determined by genome-wide DNA and mRNA sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Lupien, Andréanne; Gingras, Hélène; Bergeron, Michel G.; Leprohon, Philippe; Ouellette, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to characterize chromosomal mutations associated with resistance to tetracycline in Streptococcus pneumoniae. Methods Chronological appearance of mutations in two S. pneumoniae R6 mutants (R6M1TC-5 and R6M2TC-4) selected for resistance to tetracycline was determined by next-generation sequencing. A role for the mutations identified was confirmed by reconstructing resistance to tetracycline in a S. pneumoniae R6 WT background. RNA sequencing was performed on R6M1TC-5 and R6M2TC-4 and the relative expression of genes was reported according to R6. Differentially expressed genes were classified according to their ontology. Results WGS of R6M1TC-5 and R6M2TC-4 revealed mutations in the gene rpsJ coding for the ribosomal protein S10 and in the promoter region and coding sequences of the ABC genes patA and patB. These cells were cross-resistant to ciprofloxacin. Resistance reconstruction confirmed a role in resistance for the mutations in rpsJ and patA. Overexpression of the ABC transporter PatA/PatB or mutations in the coding sequence of patA contributed to resistance to tetracycline, ciprofloxacin and ethidium bromide, and was associated with a decreased accumulation of [3H]tetracycline. Comparative transcriptome profiling of the resistant mutants further revealed that, in addition to the overexpression of patA and patB, several genes of the thiamine biosynthesis and salvage pathway were increased in the two mutants, but also in clinical isolates resistant to tetracycline. This overexpression most likely contributes to the tetracycline resistance phenotype. Conclusions The combination of genomic and transcriptomic analysis coupled to functional studies has allowed the discovery of novel tetracycline resistance mutations in S. pneumoniae. PMID:25862682

  17. Aircraft Crash Survival Design Guide. Volume 5. Aircraft Postcrash Survival

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    Crash Locator Beacons Crashworthiness Emergency Escape Postcrash Survival Aircraft Interior Materials Crashworthy Fuel Systems Ditching Postorash Fire...behavior of interip~r materials , ditching survival, emergency escape, and ~ crash loc tor beacons. ow - SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGIEtfhn Pata...IGNITION SOURCE CONTROL TERMS.... . . 21 2.4 INTERIOR MATERIALS SELECTION TERMS . . . 22 2.5 DITCHING AND EMERGENCY ESCAPE TERMS. . . 23 CHAPTER 3. POSTCRASH

  18. Biased inheritance of the protein PatN frees vegetative cells to initiate patterned heterocyst differentiation.

    PubMed

    Risser, Douglas D; Wong, Francis C Y; Meeks, John C

    2012-09-18

    Heterocysts, cells specialized for nitrogen fixation in certain filamentous cyanobacteria, appear singly in a nonrandom spacing pattern along the chain of vegetative cells. A two-stage, biased initiation and competitive resolution model has been proposed to explain the establishment of this spacing pattern. There is substantial evidence that competitive resolution of a subset of cells initiating differentiation occurs by interactions between a self-enhancing activator protein, HetR, and a diffusible pentapeptide inhibitor PatS-5 (RGSGR). Results presented here show that the absence of a unique membrane protein, PatN, in Nostoc punctiforme strain ATCC 29133 leads to a threefold increase in heterocyst frequency and a fourfold decrease in the vegetative cell interval between heterocysts. A PatN-GFP translational fusion shows a pattern of biased inheritance in daughter vegetative cells of ammonium-grown cultures. Inactivation of another heterocyst patterning gene, patA, is epistatic to inactivation of patN, and transcription of patA increases in a patN-deletion strain, implying that patN may function by modulating levels of patA. The presence of PatN is hypothesized to decrease the competency of a vegetative cell to initiate heterocyst differentiation, and the cellular concentration of PatN is dependent on cell division that results in cells transiently depleted of PatN. We suggest that biased inheritance of cell-fate determinants is a phylogenetic domain-spanning paradigm in the development of biological patterns.

  19. Protective mucosal immunity in aging is associated with functional CD4+ T cells in nasopharyngeal-associated lymphoreticular tissue.

    PubMed

    Hagiwara, Yukari; McGhee, Jerry R; Fujihashi, Keiko; Kobayashi, Ryoki; Yoshino, Naoto; Kataoka, Kosuke; Etani, Yuri; Kweon, Mi-Na; Tamura, Shinichi; Kurata, Takeshi; Takeda, Yoshifumi; Kiyono, Hiroshi; Fujihashi, Kohtaro

    2003-02-15

    Our previous studies showed that mucosal immunity was impaired in 1-year-old mice that had been orally immunized with OVA and native cholera toxin (nCT) as mucosal adjuvant. In this study, we queried whether similar immune dysregulation was also present in mucosal compartments of mice immunized by the nasal route. Both 1-year-old and young adult mice were immunized weekly with three nasal doses of OVA and nCT or with a nontoxic chimeric enterotoxin (mutant cholera toxin-A E112K/B subunit of native labile toxin) from Brevibacillus choshinensis. Elevated levels of OVA-specific IgG Abs in plasma and secretory IgA Abs in mucosal secretions (nasal washes, saliva, and fecal extracts) were noted in both young adult and 1-year-old mice given nCT or chimeric enterotoxin as mucosal adjuvants. Significant levels of OVA-specific CD4(+) T cell proliferative and OVA-induced Th1- and Th2-type cytokine responses were noted in cervical lymph nodes and spleen of 1-year-old mice. In this regard, CD4(+), CD45RB(+) T cells were detected in greater numbers in the nasopharyngeal-associated lymphoreticular tissues of 1-year-old mice than of young adult mice, but the same did not hold true for Peyer's patches or spleen. One-year-old mice given nasal tetanus toxoid plus the chimeric toxin as adjuvant were protected from lethal challenge with tetanus toxin. This result reinforced our findings that age-associated immune alterations occur first in gut-associated lymphoreticular tissues, and thus nasal delivery of vaccines for nasopharyngeal-associated lymphoreticular tissue-based mucosal immunity offers an attractive possibility to protect the elderly.

  20. The strategy for prevention of measles and rubella prevalence with measles-rubella (MR) vaccine in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ihara, Toshiaki

    2009-05-21

    To eliminate the indigenous measles and rubella virus by 2012 in Japan, the strategy fro prevention of measles and rubella prevalence with measles-rubella (MR) vaccine was proposed. Since the vast majority of 1-year old infants are susceptible to measles and rubella, the first MR vaccine, the first MR vaccine should be administered at 1-year old to sustain the herd immunity. Since significant elevation of measles and rubella antibody titers were eliminated in a half of children after the second dose, the second dose of of MR vaccine within 1 year before elementary school entry is the effective maneuver. Moreover, supplement MR vaccination to the teenage group and 20-29 years' group might be necessary, because the mean measles antibody titers in this group were significantly lower compared with those in the older individuals' groups.

  1. Expression of human endogenous retrovirus K and W in babies.

    PubMed

    Nali, L H S; Oliveira, A C S; Alves, D O; Caleiro, G S; Nunes, C F; Gerhardt, D; Succi, R C M; Romano, Camila M; Machado, D M

    2017-03-01

    Here we determined the relative expression of HERV-K and W proviruses in HIV infected and non-infected mothers as well as their respective babies up to 1 year-old. HIV-infected mothers, their babies and uninfected control groups presented expression of both HERV-K and HERV-W with relatively high frequency. While the level of HERV-K expression was similar among groups, the level of HERV-W expression in HIV-infected mothers was four-fold higher than the uninfected mothers from the control group (p < 0.01). HERV-W was down regulated in HIV-exposed babies in comparison to non-exposed babies. To our knowledge, this is the first report of HERV transcriptional activity in babies from 0-1 year-old.

  2. Factors affecting intraocular pressure in lions.

    PubMed

    Ofri, Ron; Steinmetz, Andrea; Thielebein, Jens; Horowitz, Igal H; Oechtering, Gerhard; Kass, Philip H

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct a detailed analysis of the relationship between age and intraocular pressure (IOP) in lions. Tonometry was conducted in 33 lions aged 5 days to 80 months. Age was significantly associated with IOP (P<0.005). Mean IOP was 12.8+/- and 23.9+/-4.1 mmHg in lions < or =1 year old and >1 year old, respectively. IOP linearly rose with age during the first 20 months of life, plateaued until approximately 40 months, and then gradually declined (r=0.85). Age-related changes in IOP were highly correlated with ultrasonographic measurements of intraocular dimensions (r > or = 0.72), and may be a determinant factor in developmental ocular growth. The dramatic rise in IOP of young lions is similar to that observed in children, but has not been previously demonstrated in animals. Significant IOP differences between lion sub-species were also demonstrated.

  3. Lymphedema secondary to filariasis

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, J.C.; Humphrey, G.B.; Basmadjian, G.

    1985-03-01

    A 1-year-old immunodeficient boy developed brawny edema of the left foot. Lymphoscintigraphy revealed no evidence of left inguinal activity following pedal injection of Tc-99m-Sn phosphate. Over the next two months, the patient developed lymphedema on the right and repeat scintigraphy demonstrated no movement of isotope from the dorsum of either foot. Subsequent studies identified microfilaria in a nocturnal blood smear, which were thought to represent Brugia beaveri acquired by mosquito transmission in Oklahoma.

  4. Identification, Characterization, and Utilization of Adult Meniscal Progenitor Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    toward our goals by establishing a standard protocol for harvesting MSPCs from 8 week , 6 month and 1-year old mouse menisci. MSPCs grow as colonies...effective indentation modulus when compared to controls. Specific Aim 3. Task 3: Production of meniscus tear. One week after injection of genetically...proximal side of menisci from 6- to 24- week old male C57BL/6 mice using microspherical tips (RtipE5 mm) in PBS. A unique, linear correlation between

  5. Sex Ratio and Body Mass of Adult Herbivorous Beetles Depend on Time of Occurrence and Light Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Łukowski, Adrian; Mąderek, Ewa; Giertych, Marian J.; Karolewski, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Body mass and sex ratio (F/M) of folivorous insects are easily measured parameters that are commonly used to assess the effect of food quality, living conditions, and preferences on the selection of favourable sites for offspring. A study was conducted on the polyphagous beetle, Gonioctena quinquepunctata (a pest of the native Prunus padus and alien P. serotina) and on the monophagous beetle, Altica brevicollis coryletorum (a pest of Corylus avellana). Both species have a similar life cycle with emergence of current-year adults in summer, and reproduction of 1-year-old insects in spring. A. brevicollis coryletorum feeds primarily on sunlit shrubs, while G. quinquepunctata prefers shaded leaves. The present study assessed the effect of time of occurrence (insect age) on body mass in both sexes and on the sex ratio F/M, taking into account the influence of light conditions associated with their favoured food source (sunlit vs. shaded leaves). We hypothesized that a change in body mass in current-year insects would be determined by the amount of consumed food, while the sex ratio would be stable, when in 1-year-old insects females would die shortly after oviposition, while males would be active for a prolonged time. Results confirmed the hypothesis that changes in mass of current-year beetles was determined by the amount of food intake. We also found that in spring, unfertilized females coexist with fertilized ones and that the latter females live for some time after oviposition; resulting in fluctuations of the mean mass for females. In both species, 1-year-old beetles were heavier than current-year. The preference of A. brevicollis coryletorum for sunlit leaves results in a higher body weight than in G. quinquepunctata in both seasons. The data are consistent and indicate seasonal fluctuations in body mass and changes in the sex ratio in 1-year-old beetles, due to the entrance into their reproductive period. PMID:26657564

  6. Chronic granulomatous disease associated with atypical Kawasaki disease.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki-Nakashimada, M A; Ramírez-Vargas, N; De Rubens-Figueroa, J

    2008-01-01

    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is an infrequent inherited disorder characterized by recurrent infections and abnormal granuloma formation. Patients with CGD have an exuberant inflammatory response and an increased risk of developing autoimmunity. We present the case of a 1-year-old boy with CGD who developed several of the characteristic clinical features of Kawasaki Disease. His illness responded to intravenous immunoglobulin, aspirin, and corticosteroids.

  7. Lymphedema secondary to filariasis.

    PubMed

    Leonard, J C; Humphrey, G B; Basmadjian, G

    1985-03-01

    A 1-year-old immunodeficient boy developed brawny edema of the left foot. Lymphoscintigraphy revealed no evidence of left inguinal activity following pedal injection of Tc-99m-Sn phosphate. Over the next two months, the patient developed lymphedema on the right and repeat scintigraphy demonstrated no movement of isotope from the dorsum of either foot. Subsequent studies identified microfilaria in a nocturnal blood smear, which were thought to represent Brugia beaveri acquired by mosquito transmission in Oklahoma.

  8. Spontaneous Extrusion of Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt Catheter through the Right Lumbar Region: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Oktay, Kadir; Erkoc, Yavuz Selim; Ethemoglu, Kadri Burak; Olguner, Semih Kivanc; Sarac, Mustafa Emre

    2015-01-01

    Ventriculoperitoneal shunt surgery is the most frequently performed procedure in the management of hydrocephalus. Many varied complications related to this procedure have been reported. Distal migration of the peritoneal catheter and extrusion from the intact skin in an area unrelated to the surgical incision constitute a rare complication. We report a 1-year-old patient with the extrusion of the peritoneal catheter from the intact skin in the right lumbar region and present a literature review.

  9. Emergency anesthesia for evacuating a traumatic acute subdural hemorrhage in a child overdosed with hypertonic saline

    PubMed Central

    Goonasekera, Chulananda; Bedford, James; Harpreet, Sodhi; Giombini, Mariangela; Sheikh, Asme

    2016-01-01

    A previously healthy 1-year-old child with a traumatic acute subdural hemorrhage received 10 times higher dose of hypertonic saline inadvertently immediately before surgery. This case report describes deviations in fluid management needed to alleviate salt toxicity and its adverse effects during surgery under anesthesia perioperatively. The child made an uneventful recovery with no evident residual damage at follow-up. PMID:28217157

  10. N-ras mutation in a canine lymphoma: short communication.

    PubMed

    Mayr, B; Holzheu, M; Schaffner, G; Reifinger, M

    2003-01-01

    Lymphomas of dogs were investigated by molecular genetic methods. Regions of exon 1 and 2 of the N-ras gene, which harbours the mutation hot spots (codons 12, 13 and 61) were screened. A GGT [symbol: see text] GAT (glycine [symbol: see text] aspartic acid) mutation in codon 13 was present in a multicentric-type lymphoma of a 1-year-old male dog.

  11. Planning by 12-Month-Old Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willatts, Peter; Rosie, Karen

    In an investigation of 1-year-olds' ability to plan a sequence of steps, 20 infants were administered a compound means-ends problem. In a planning condition, a barrier was placed in front of a cloth at the far end of which was placed one end of a long string. A toy was fastened to the other end of the string and was placed on a table at some…

  12. Outcomes of a Clinic-Based Pediatric Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reidy, Teressa Garcia; Naber, Erin; Viguers, Emily; Allison, Kristen; Brady, Kathleen; Carney, Joan; Salorio, Cynthia; Pidcock, Frank

    2012-01-01

    A single-group pre- and post-test design was used to evaluate functional outcomes of a constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) protocol implemented in an outpatient therapy center. The participants were 29 children with hemiplegia, ages 1.6-19.1 years old. The less-involved upper limb was placed in a cast that was worn 24 hr a day, 7 days a…

  13. Raine syndrome: expanding the radiological spectrum.

    PubMed

    Koob, Mériam; Doray, Bérénice; Fradin, Mélanie; Astruc, Dominique; Dietemann, Jean-Louis

    2011-03-01

    We describe ante- and postnatal imaging of a 1-year-old otherwise healthy girl with Raine syndrome. She presented with neonatal respiratory distress related to a pyriform aperture stenosis, which was diagnosed on CT. Signs of chondrodysplasia punctata, sagittal vertebral clefting and intervertebral disc and renal calcifications were also found on imaging. This new case confirms that Raine syndrome is not always lethal. The overlapping imaging signs with chondrodysplasia punctata and the disseminated calcifications give new insights into its pathophysiology.

  14. Sex Ratio and Body Mass of Adult Herbivorous Beetles Depend on Time of Occurrence and Light Conditions.

    PubMed

    Łukowski, Adrian; Mąderek, Ewa; Giertych, Marian J; Karolewski, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Body mass and sex ratio (F/M) of folivorous insects are easily measured parameters that are commonly used to assess the effect of food quality, living conditions, and preferences on the selection of favourable sites for offspring. A study was conducted on the polyphagous beetle, Gonioctenaquinquepunctata (a pest of the native Prunus padus and alien P. serotina) and on the monophagous beetle, Alticabrevicollis coryletorum (a pest of Corylus avellana). Both species have a similar life cycle with emergence of current-year adults in summer, and reproduction of 1-year-old insects in spring. A. brevicollis coryletorum feeds primarily on sunlit shrubs, while G. quinquepunctata prefers shaded leaves. The present study assessed the effect of time of occurrence(insect age) on body mass in both sexes and on the sex ratio F/M, taking into account the influence of light conditions associated with their favoured food source (sunlit vs. shaded leaves). We hypothesized that a change in body mass in current-year insects would be determined by the amount of consumed food, while the sex ratio would be stable, when in 1-year-old insects females would die shortly after oviposition, while males would be active for a prolonged time. Results confirmed the hypothesis that changes in mass of current-year beetles was determined by the amount of food intake. We also found that in spring, unfertilized females coexist with fertilized ones and that the latter females live for some time after oviposition; resulting in fluctuations of the mean mass for females. In both species, 1-year-old beetles were heavier than current-year. The preference of A. brevicollis coryletorum for sunlit leaves results in a higher body weight than in G. quinquepunctata in both seasons. The data are consistent and indicate seasonal fluctuations in body mass and changes in the sex ratio in 1-year-old beetles, due to the entrance into their reproductive period.

  15. Sex and age differences in meat composition of Yeso sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) reared for a short period after capture in the wild.

    PubMed

    Hayashida, Maki; Souma, Kousaku; Sugo, Kazuki; Araki, Shin-Ichi; Ishizaka, Fumiaki; Ueda, Masami; Kasai, Takamasa; Masuko, Takayoshi

    2015-02-01

    Yeso sika deer captured in winter around Lake Akan in Hokkaido were reared for 8-10 months at Tokyo University of Agriculture in Abashiri. Six 1-year-old females and males and six 2-year-old or older (adult) females and males were slaughtered and their carcasses were processed. The chemical composition, mineral contents and fatty acid composition of the loin were measured. No marked influence of gender or age was noted in the chemical composition of loin. In the mineral contents, significant differences were noted. The potassium and sulfur contents were lower and the sodium content was higher in adult deer meat (P < 0.05, respectively) and the potassium content was higher in male deer meat (P < 0.05). Arsenic, cadmium or lead were not detected. In the unsaturated fatty acid, a significant interaction was detected (P < 0.05), and it was high in 1-year-old female deer meat and low in 1-year-old male deer meat. Significant gender or age differences were noted only in the mineral contents in the loin of deer reared for a short period after capture.

  16. Outbreak of swine erysipelas in a semi-intensive wild boar farm in Spain.

    PubMed

    Risco, D; Llario, P F; Velarde, R; García, W L; Benítez, J M; García, A; Bermejo, F; Cortés, M; Rey, J; de Mendoza, J H; Gómez, L

    2011-10-01

    Swine erysipelas (SE) is a disease caused by the bacterium Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae and is one of the best-known and most serious diseases affecting domestic pigs. However, few studies exist concerning the susceptibility of wild boars to this disease and the role of this species as a reservoir. This study investigates and describes an outbreak of SE that occurred on a semi-intensive wild boar breeding farm housing 40 boars in Extremadura (SW Spain) on 11-18 February 2010. Seven animals died, of which four were examined post-mortem. Of these, three (two females and one male) were approximately 3 months old, and one was 1 year old (male). Lesions were consistent with acute septicaemia, consisting of cutaneous erythema/cyanosis and petechial haemorrhages in kidneys, urinary bladder, lungs and meninges. The 1-year-old male also had proliferative polyarthritis. Histopathology confirmed the presence of disseminated intravascular coagulation and vasculitis. Additionally, a bilateral acute panuveitis with concurrent necrotizing vasculitis and diffuse corneal oedema, neither of which have been described before in this disease, were found in the 3-month-old male boar. E. rhusiopathiae was isolated from all four animals in pure cultures from several tissues. Of these four animals, antibodies against E. rhusiopathiae, using an indirect ELISA test, were only detected in the 1-year-old male boar with polyarthritis. Posteriorly, of nine live adults tested for antibodies, four (including an adult male with polyarthritis) were positive.

  17. The Metabolic and Thermoregulatory Responses of Rhesus Monkeys to Combined Exercise and Environmental Heat Load

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-01

    P.T. Wall and F. Sato. In vivo and in vitro characteristics of eccrine sweating in patas and rhesus monkeys. J. Appl. Physiol.: Respirat. Environ...in monkeys. Am. J. Physiol. 245: R76-R82, 1983. 15. Gisolfi, C.V., K. Sato and P.T. Wall. Monkey model and techniques for studying eccrine sweating in...baboon. J. Appl. Physiol. 55: 1173-1177, 1983. 18. Johnson, G.S. and R.S. Elizondo. Eccrine sweat gland in Macaca mulatta: physiology, histochemistry

  18. Special Data Collection System Event Report. Southern Sinkiang Province, China 16 February 1977

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-03-20

    SPECIAL DATA COLLECTION SYSTEM EVENT REPORT Southern Sinkiang Province, China 16 February 1977 Michael S. Dawkins Alexandria Laboratories Teledyne...fi,PECIAL ,PATA 5 OLLECTION SYSTEM ~ ~~~~ ( ~ Technical rep*~’. J~ ~i~Southern Sinkiang Province , China ~~~~~~~~ -- -——9 ______________ 5...Southern Sinkiang Province, China, (l6 F~~~~ar~~~977 2 This event report contains seismic data~ from the Special Data Collection System (SDCS

  19. User’s Manual for Strategic Satellite System Terminal Segment Life Cycle Cost Model. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    LE(NP) (AF) Operating Hours and Number of Missions: AMPM(NP,LO(NS)), APFH(NP,LO(NS)),TFAC(NP) (CN) Operating Labor Times: MMPD (NP,LO(NS)), MMPM(NP) (AF...Pata File 3 are MMPM(NP) and MMPD (NP,LO(NS)). These variables are not used in this version of the SSS LCC Model, but may be implemented at some future...date. Therefore, each of the values of MMPM(NP) and MMPD (NP,LO(NS)) must be set to zero. 6.4.5 Contractor Inputs to Data File 4 - Platform Terminal

  20. Environmental Equity through Negotiation: A Case Study on Urban Landfills and the Roma Community

    PubMed Central

    Petrescu-Mag, Ruxandra Mălina; Petrescu, Dacinia Crina; Oroian, Ioan Gheorghe; Safirescu, Ovidiu Călin; Bican-Brișan, Nicoleta

    2016-01-01

    The paper discusses the necessity to bring environmental equity within the Pata Rât Roma community in Northwest Romania, relying on the answers to three questions: “Does environmental equity exist in Pata Rât?”, “How can it be attained?”, and “To what extent can it be brought to the targeted people?” It was shown how a trio of factors tailors the destiny of Roma inhabitants: being a minority, their ethnicity, and the fact they are living on and off what society rejects and dumps—a landfill. The framing of the environmental equity concerns within a vision considering negotiation as the most adequate means to attain it is a novel approach. Further on, the results of the study can fuel win-win solutions in environmental equity. The information abstracted from a set of indicators, assessed through an evaluation matrix, represents a beneficial platform for future bottom-up decisions concerning landfill residents. Three action options were analyzed: on-site living opportunities—that resulted to be preferred, off-site living opportunities, and “Do nothing”. The analysis provides qualitative evidence that the evaluation of environmental equity is largely subjective, because of its complexity and specificity related to geographical, historical, cultural characteristics, and political interests. PMID:27314371

  1. A novel gene amplification causes upregulation of the PatAB ABC transporter and fluoroquinolone resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Baylay, Alison J; Ivens, Alasdair; Piddock, Laura J V

    2015-01-01

    Overexpression of the ABC transporter genes patA and patB confers efflux-mediated fluoroquinolone resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae and is also linked to pneumococcal stress responses. Although upregulation of patAB has been observed in many laboratory mutants and clinical isolates, the regulatory mechanisms controlling expression of these genes are unknown. In this study, we aimed to identify the cause of high-level constitutive overexpression of patAB in M184, a multidrug-resistant mutant of S. pneumoniae R6. Using a whole-genome transformation and sequencing approach, we identified a novel duplication of a 9.2-kb region of the M184 genome which included the patAB genes. This duplication did not affect growth and was semistable with a low segregation rate. The expression levels of patAB in M184 were much higher than those that could be fully explained by doubling of the gene dosage alone, and inactivation of the first copy of patA had no effect on multidrug resistance. Using a green fluorescent protein reporter system, increased patAB expression was ascribed to transcriptional read-through from a tRNA gene upstream of the second copy of patAB. This is the first report of a large genomic duplication causing antibiotic resistance in S. pneumoniae and also of a genomic duplication causing antibiotic resistance by a promoter switching mechanism.

  2. Environmental Equity through Negotiation: A Case Study on Urban Landfills and the Roma Community.

    PubMed

    Petrescu-Mag, Ruxandra Mălina; Petrescu, Dacinia Crina; Oroian, Ioan Gheorghe; Safirescu, Ovidiu Călin; Bican-Brișan, Nicoleta

    2016-06-14

    The paper discusses the necessity to bring environmental equity within the Pata Rât Roma community in Northwest Romania, relying on the answers to three questions: "Does environmental equity exist in Pata Rât?", "How can it be attained?", and "To what extent can it be brought to the targeted people?" It was shown how a trio of factors tailors the destiny of Roma inhabitants: being a minority, their ethnicity, and the fact they are living on and off what society rejects and dumps-a landfill. The framing of the environmental equity concerns within a vision considering negotiation as the most adequate means to attain it is a novel approach. Further on, the results of the study can fuel win-win solutions in environmental equity. The information abstracted from a set of indicators, assessed through an evaluation matrix, represents a beneficial platform for future bottom-up decisions concerning landfill residents. Three action options were analyzed: on-site living opportunities-that resulted to be preferred, off-site living opportunities, and "Do nothing". The analysis provides qualitative evidence that the evaluation of environmental equity is largely subjective, because of its complexity and specificity related to geographical, historical, cultural characteristics, and political interests.

  3. Comparison of function of created wetlands of two age classes in central Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Hoeltje, S M; Cole, C A

    2009-04-01

    Hydrogeomorphic (HGM) functional assessment models were used to assess whether function in created wetlands of two ages (1 year old and >12 years old) was equivalent to that of natural (reference) mainstem floodplain wetlands. Reference wetlands scored higher than both created age classes for providing energy dissipation and short-term surface water storage. Reference wetlands scored higher in maintaining native plant community and structure than 1-year-old sites, and 12-year-old wetlands scored higher than reference sites for providing vertebrate habitat structure. Analysis of individual model variables showed that reference wetlands had greater vegetative biomass and higher soil organic matter content than both created wetland age classes. Created wetlands were farther from natural wetlands and had smaller mean forest patch sizes within a 1-km-radius circle around the site than did the reference sites, indicating less hydrologic connectivity. Created wetlands also had less microtopographic variation than reference wetlands. The 1-year-old created sites were placed in landscape settings with greater land use diversity and road density than reference sites. The 12-year-old sites had a higher gradient and a higher percentage of their surrounding area in urban land use. These results show that the created wetlands were significantly structurally different (if not functionally so) from reference wetlands even after 12 years. The most profound differences were in hydrology and the characteristics of the surrounding landscape. More attention needs to be focused on placing created wetlands in appropriate settings to encourage proper hydrodynamics, eliminate habitat fragmentation, and minimize the effects of stressors to the site.

  4. Dynamics of testis-ova in a wild population of Japanese pond frogs, Rana nigromaculata.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Tohru; Kumakura, Masahiko; Yoshie, Sumio; Sugishima, Tomomi; Horie, Yoshifumi

    2015-02-01

    Although many studies have reported the occurrence of testis-ova in wild frog populations, the origin and trigger of testis-ova differentiation/development remain unclear. A high frequency of testis-ova has been previously reported for wild populations of the Japanese pond frog, Rana nigromaculata (cf. Iwasawa and Asai, '59). In the present study, we aimed to clarify the dynamics of testis-ova in this frog species, including the origin and artificial induction of testis-ova. Testis-ova were observed in both mature frogs and puberty-stage frogs (i.e., 0- and 1-year-old frogs). However, the early stages of testis-ova (~pachytene stage) were mostly observed in puberty-stage male frogs at the onset of spermatogenesis. The early stages of testis-ova were observed in the cysts of early secondary spermatogonia and the single cysts of the primary spermatogonium. This finding indicates that testis-ova differentiation occurs during spermatogonial proliferation and that it is correlated with the initiation of spermatogenesis. We also examined whether estrogen exposure induced testis-ova differentiation and how it is correlated with the progression of spermatogenesis. When 1-year-old frogs were exposed to estradiol-17β during spring (i.e., when spermatogenesis was initiated), testis-ova differentiation was induced in a dose-dependent manner. However, this phenomenon did not occur in 1-year-old frogs during summer, (i.e., when the transition from spermatogonia to spermatocytes mainly occurs). These results present the first evidence that testis-ova of the Japanese pond frog are derived from primary and early secondary spermatogonia, and that estrogen exposure induces testis-ova differentiation accompanied by the initiation of spermatogenesis.

  5. Influence of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine on Acute Otitis Media with Severe Middle Ear Inflammation: A Retrospective Multicenter Study.

    PubMed

    Sugino, Hirotoshi; Tsumura, Shigeru; Kunimoto, Masaru; Noda, Masuhiro; Chikuie, Daisuke; Noda, Chieko; Yamashita, Mariko; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Ishii, Hidemasa; Tashiro, Toru; Iwata, Kazuhiro; Kono, Takashi; Tsumura, Kaoru; Sumiya, Takahiro; Takeno, Sachio; Hirakawa, Katsuhiro

    2015-01-01

    The Japanese guidelines for acute otitis media in children recommend classifying acute otitis media by age, manifestations and local findings, and also recommend myringotomy for moderate-grade cases with severe local findings, severe-grade cases, and treatment-resistant cases. The heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine was released in Japan in February 2010. In Hiroshima City, public funding allowing free inoculation with this vaccine was initiated from January 2011, and the number of vaccinated individuals has since increased dramatically. This study investigated changes in the number of myringotomies performed to treat acute otitis media during the 5-year period from January 2008 to December 2012 at two hospitals and five clinics in the Asa Area of Hiroshima City, Japan. A total of 3,165 myringotomies for acute otitis media were performed. The rate of procedures per child-year performed in <5-year-old children decreased by 29.1% in 2011 and by 25.2% in 2012 compared to the mean rate performed in the 3 years prior to the introduction of public funding. A total of 895 myringotomies were performed for 1-year-old infants. The rate of myringotomies per child-year performed for acute otitis media in 1-year-old infants decreased significantly in the 2 years after the introduction of public funding for heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine compared to all years before introduction (p<0.000001). Our results suggest a benefit of heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine for acute otitis media in reducing the financial burden of myringotomy. In addition, this vaccine may help prevent acute otitis media with severe middle ear inflammation in 1-year-old infants.

  6. Discospondylitis in a yellow-eyed penguin (Megadyptes antipodes).

    PubMed

    Bergen, David J; Gartrell, Brett D

    2010-03-01

    A 1-year-old female yellow-eyed penguin (Megadyptes antipodes) was diagnosed with chronic discospondylitis on the basis of clinical signs and results of hematologic tests, radiography, and computed tomography. Despite significant destruction of the affected vertebral bodies and gross malformation of the spine, neurologic function was unaffected. Treatment with antibiotics, antifungals, and swimming physiotherapy was attempted, but the bird died after 40 days of hospitalization. Histopathologic lesions observed at necropsy were severe chronic discospondylitis, chronic granulomatous tracheitis, proventricular ulceration, and adrenal hemorrhage. The suspected inciting cause of the discospondylitis was a reported population-wide oral stomatitis that affects yellow-eyed penguin chicks.

  7. Brain stem hypoplasia associated with Cri-du-Chat syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jin Ho; Lee, Ha Young; Lim, Myung Kwan; Kim, Mi Young; Kang, Young Hye; Lee, Kyung Hee; Cho, Soon Gu

    2013-01-01

    Cri-du-Chat syndrome, also called the 5p-syndrome, is a rare genetic abnormality, and only few cases have been reported on its brain MRI findings. We describe the magnetic resonance imaging findings of a 1-year-old girl with Cri-du-Chat syndrome who showed brain stem hypoplasia, particularly in the pons, with normal cerebellum and diffuse hypoplasia of the cerebral hemispheres. We suggest that Cri-du-Chat syndrome chould be suspected in children with brain stem hypoplasia, particularly for those with high-pitched cries.

  8. Brain Stem Hypoplasia Associated with Cri-du-Chat Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jin Ho; Lim, Myung Kwan; Kim, Mi Young; Kang, Young Hye; Lee, Kyung Hee; Cho, Soon Gu

    2013-01-01

    Cri-du-Chat syndrome, also called the 5p-syndrome, is a rare genetic abnormality, and only few cases have been reported on its brain MRI findings. We describe the magnetic resonance imaging findings of a 1-year-old girl with Cri-du-Chat syndrome who showed brain stem hypoplasia, particularly in the pons, with normal cerebellum and diffuse hypoplasia of the cerebral hemispheres. We suggest that Cri-du-Chat syndrome chould be suspected in children with brain stem hypoplasia, particularly for those with high-pitched cries. PMID:24265573

  9. Ecological studies on the revegetation process of surface coal mined areas in North Dakota. 3. soil and vegetation development of abandoned mines. Final report Aug 75-Jun 82

    SciTech Connect

    Wali, M.K.; Pemble, R.H.

    1982-06-01

    Soil and vegetation development were studied on abandoned mine sites near Velva in Ward County, North Dakota. The sites studied were 1, 7, 17, 30 and 45 years old since abandonment; unmined sites were also studied to provide measures of comparison. Species diversity was the highest at unmined sites (114) and lowest at the 1 year old site (26). Stand-environmental complex ordinations encompassing 53 variables showed topographic variables to be the most important followed by site ages. Rates of nutrient accumulations were given in the report.

  10. Recurrent Multiple Squamous Cell Carcinomas on the Scalp in a Patient with Juvenile Dermatomyositis

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Yota; Fujimura, Taku; Kambayashi, Yumi; Tsukada, Akira; Hidaka, Takanori; Tanita, Kayo; Haga, Takahiro; Hashimoto, Akira; Aiba, Setsuya

    2017-01-01

    Both long-term administration of immunosuppressive agents and chronic inflammatory conditions, such as autoimmune disease, could be risk factors for the development of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC). In this report, we present a case of recurrent multiple cSCC on the scalp in a patient with juvenile dermatomyositis who had been administered cyclosporine and Predonine since she was a 1-year-old infant. Interestingly, immunohistochemical staining revealed IL-17-producing cells adjacent to IL-17R-expressing atypical keratinocytes. Our present case suggested that IL-17/IL-17R signaling might contribute to the carcinogenesis of cSCC. PMID:28203172

  11. Maternal social capital and child nutritional status in four developing countries.

    PubMed

    De Silva, Mary J; Harpham, Trudy

    2007-06-01

    Social capital has been shown to be positively associated with a range of health outcomes, yet no studies have explored the association between maternal social capital and child nutritional status. Using data from the Young Lives study comprising 7242 1-year-old children from Peru, Ethiopia, Vietnam and the state of Andhra Pradesh in India, we find significant differences in the levels of, in particular, structural social capital (group membership and citizenship) between countries. While few associations were found between structural measures of social capital, support from individuals and cognitive social capital (e.g. trust, social harmony) displayed fairly consistent positive associations with child nutritional status across countries.

  12. First Case Report of Canthariasis in an Infant Caused by the Larvae of Lasioderma serricorne (Coleoptera: Anobiidae)

    PubMed Central

    Mokhtar, Aida Syafinaz; Sridhar, Ganiga Srinivasaiah; Mahmud, Rohela; Jeffery, John; Lau, Yee Ling; Wilson, John-James; Abdul-Aziz, Noraishah Mydin

    2016-01-01

    We report an unusual cause of gastrointestinal infection occurring in a 1-year-old infant patient who was brought to a public hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Larvae passed out in the patient’s feces were confirmed by DNA barcoding as belonging to the species, Lasioderma serricorne (F.), known as the cigarette beetle. We postulate that the larvae were acquired from contaminated food and were responsible for gastrointestinal symptoms in the patient. To our knowledge, this the first report of human canthariasis caused by larvae of L. serricorne. PMID:27208008

  13. A Case of Congenital Bilateral Absence of Elbow Flexor Muscles: Review of Differential Diagnosis and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Aliu, Oluseyi; Samra, Saleh; Lewis, Eric

    2007-01-01

    A 1-year-old boy presented to us with congenital inability to flex his elbow. He had bilaterally absent biceps brachii and brachialis muscles, a rare condition. We performed pedicle latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flaps to the left and right volar upper arm at 21 and 24 months of age, respectively, to create elbow flexors. By 4 years of age, he had excellent elbow flexion bilaterally with strength grade in excess of 4.5. In addition to discussing our patient’s treatment options, we discuss other potential causes of weak elbow flexion when faced with this clinical dilemma. PMID:18780113

  14. Megalencephaly-polymicrogyria-polydactyly-hydrocephalus syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kariminejad, Ariana; Radmanesh, Farid; Rezayi, Ali-Reza; Tonekaboni, Seyed-Hasan; Gleeson, Joseph G

    2013-05-01

    This report describes a case of megalencephaly-polymicrogyria-polydactyly-hydrocephalus syndrome in a 1-year-old boy, born to healthy nonconsanguineous parents. Megalencephaly and bilateral postaxial polydactyly of upper and lower limbs were noted at birth. He had profound developmental delay and moderate hypotonia. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain revealed hydrocephalus, polymicrogyria in both frontal lobes and perisylvian regions, and thin corpus callosum. Array-comparative genomic hybridization was normal. The patient's clinical and radiologic findings fit the classic description of megalencephaly-polymicrogyria-polydactyly-hydrocephalus syndrome. The possible overlap between megalencephaly-polymicrogyria-polydactyly-hydrocephalus syndrome and other similar conditions is discussed.

  15. Imaging diagnosis--celiacomesenteric trunk and portal vein hypoplasia in a pit bull terrier.

    PubMed

    Ricciardi, Mario; Martino, Rosmara; Assad, Eyad Abu

    2014-01-01

    The computed tomography (CT) imaging findings of a celiacomesenteric trunk (CMT) in a 1-year-old dog with primary hypoplasia of the portal vein (PHPV) are described. Computed tomography angiography revealed acquired porto-systemic shunts secondary to portal hypertension and a common origin of the celiac and cranial mesenteric arteries. The imaging findings and the association of a CMT with other vascular diseases have never been reported in dogs. The recognition of this rare arterial anomaly should prompt to investigate possible concurrent vascular diseases and may influence the planning of abdominal surgeries.

  16. Intrahepatic paratesticular cyst: unique presentation of vestigial remnants of Wolffian duct.

    PubMed

    Ceccanti, Silvia; Mele, Ermelinda; Masselli, Gabriele; Bosco, Sandro; Cozzi, Denis A

    2012-01-01

    To report on a case of a progressively enlarging intrahepatic cyst in a 1-year-old boy who also presented with bilateral undescended testes. At surgery, the lesion emerged from the anterior surface of the liver but was unexpectedly found to arise from the epididymis of the right testis, which was located intra-abdominally. The histologic findings were consistent with a paratesticular cyst of vestigial remnants derived from the Wolffian duct. Such an unusual event has not been previously reported among the possible location of a paratesticular cyst, nor has it been described in the differential diagnosis of cystic lesions of the liver.

  17. Meningitis due to Haemophilus influenzae type f.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Marta Pessoa; Pasternak, Jacyr; Giglio, Alfredo Elias; Casagrande, Rejane Rimazza Dalberto; Troster, Eduardo Juan

    2013-12-01

    With the decline in the rate of infections caused by Haemophilus influenzae serotype b since the widespread vaccination, non-b serotypes should be considered as potential pathogenic agents in children with invasive disease younger than 5 years old. We report the case of an immunocompetent 1-year-old boy with Haemophilus influenzae type f meningitis. The agent was identified in cerebrospinal fluid and blood cultures. Serotyping was performed by tests using polyclonal sera and confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. All Haemophilus influenzae isolates associated with invasive disease should be serotyped and notified as a way to evaluate the changes and trends in serotype distribution of this disease.

  18. Treatment-refractory multi-lineage autoimmune cytopenia after unrelated cord blood transplantation: remission after combined bortezomib and vincristine treatment.

    PubMed

    Waespe, Nicolas; Zeilhofer, Ulrike; Güngör, Tayfun

    2014-11-01

    Autoimmune cytopenias (AC) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are associated with a dismal prognosis. We describe a 1-year-old female with multi-lineage AC occurring on day +43 after HSCT. Multi-agent treatment with high-dose prednisolone, intravenous immunoglobulins, cyclosporine A, mycophenolate mofetil, sirolimus, and rituximab was unsuccessful. Combined treatment with bortezomib and vincristine in addition to ongoing immunosuppressive therapy was started on day +414 with transfusion-independence after day +444. Immunosuppressants were tapered until day +638. On day +1,121 the patient remained in remission. Bortezomib with vincristine may be a promising treatment modality for refractory AC after HSCT that requires further study.

  19. Limits to the height growth of Caragana korshinskii resprouts.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xiang-Wen; Turner, Neil C; Xu, Dang-Hui; Jin, Yi; He, Jin; Li, Feng-Min

    2013-03-01

    Predawn leaf water potential (LWP), the LWP between 09:00 and 10:30 h (termed minimum LWP), stem xylem hydraulic conductivity, foliar nitrogen, leaf gas exchange and leaf traits were measured on the same days in adults and 1-year-old to 7-year-old resprouts that had regrown after removing all the aboveground shoots. Height growth and accumulation of aboveground biomass quickly decreased with resprout age and there was no difference between 7-year-old resprouts and the uncut adults. Predawn LWP showed no significant difference between resprouts and adults, but the minimum LWP decreased gradually from -2.0 MPa in 1-year-old resprouts to -3.0 MPa in 7-year-old resprouts. The decrease in minimum LWP was associated with increased hydraulic resistance, as indicated by the gradual decrease in leaf area-specific hydraulic conductivity (KL) and sapwood area-specific hydraulic conductivity (KS) and the associated increase in stem native percentage loss of hydraulic conductivity in older than 2-year-old resprouts. The leaf nitrogen content per unit area (Narea) also decreased steadily from 3.6 g m(-2) in 1-year-old resprouts to 1.7 g m(-2) in 7-year-old resprouts. With the decline in LWP and Narea, the rate of leaf photosynthesis per unit area (Aarea) decreased from 20 μ mol m(-2) s(-1) in 1-year-old resprouts to 11 μ mol m(-2) s(-1) in 7-year-old resprouts. In adults, although KS decreased further compared with 7-year-old resprouts, the minimum LWP, KL, Narea and the rate of photosynthesis increased by 0.3 MPa, 29, 34 and 23%, respectively. The results show that a progressive loss of stem hydraulic conductivity and a steady decrease in foliar nitrogen with age were associated with a decrease in the photosynthetic rate of Caragana korshinskii Kom. resprouts, possibly changing the allocation of photosynthetic assimilates and slowing resprout height growth.

  20. Simulating certain aspects of hypogravity - Effects on bone maturation in the nonweight bearing skeleton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, D. J.; Grazman, B.; Russell, J. E.; Walker, W. V.; Bikle, D. D.; Morey, E. R.

    1983-01-01

    For a determination of how the nonweight-bearing skeletons, i.e., lower jaws, of 41-day and 1-year old rats would respond to 10 or 14 days of partial skeletal unloading by elevating the hindquarters (PULEH), an experimental system to simulate the fluid shifts and unloading of portions of the skeleton which occur during spaceflight was developed. In comparison with the bone matrix mineralization recorded in the mandibles of rats flown in the Soviet 18.5 day Cosmos-1129 mission, the PULEH studies failed to produce spaceflight-like maturation defects.

  1. Macrodystrophia lipomatosa: a reconstructive approach to gigantism of the foot.

    PubMed

    Watt, Andrew J; Chung, Kevin C

    2004-01-01

    Localized gigantism poses a challenging surgical dilemma, and it may be treated with amputation. This case report documents the application of a reconstructive approach to a severe case of pedal macrodystrophia lipomatosa in a 1-year-old girl. A series of 3 surgeries were designed to reduce the length, width, height, and overall bulk of the congenitally enlarged foot. The 3 procedures debulked the foot for normal ambulation and same-size shoe wear for both feet. The resulting functional and aesthetic improvements achieved through reconstructive treatment provided a desirable alternative to amputation.

  2. Case of cytomegalovirus-associated direct anti-globulin test-negative autoimmune hemolytic anemia.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Saeko; Sato, Masanori; Sasaki, Goro; Eguchi, Hiroyuki; Oishi, Tsutomu; Kamesaki, Toyomi; Kawaguchi, Hiroyuki

    2013-12-01

    A 1-year-old boy developed autoimmune hemolytic anemia after a negative direct anti-globulin test. The concentration of erythrocyte membrane-associated immunoglobulin G, determined using an immunoradiometric assay, correlated with disease activity. He was positive for cytomegalovirus (CMV) both serologically and by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, indicating that his autoimmune hemolytic anemia was directly caused by CMV infection. Since anti-CMV immunoglobulin G was not absorbed by the patient's erythrocytes, cross-reaction between erythrocyte antigens and CMV was not likely a causative factor for hemolysis.

  3. The Whole-Hand Point: The Structure and Function of Pointing From a Comparative Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Leavens, David A.; Hopkins, William D.

    2007-01-01

    Pointing by monkeys, apes, and human infants is reviewed and compared. Pointing with the index finger is a species-typical human gesture, although human infants exhibit more whole-hand pointing than is commonly appreciated. Captive monkeys and feral apes have been reported to only rarely “spontaneously” point, although apes in captivity frequently acquire pointing, both with the index finger and with the whole hand, without explicit training. Captive apes exhibit relatively more gaze alternation while pointing than do human infants about 1 year old. Human infants are relatively more vocal while pointing than are captive apes, consistent with paralinguistic use of pointing. PMID:10608565

  4. Disseminated Mycobacterium genavense infection in a chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera).

    PubMed

    Huynh, M; Pingret, J-L; Nicolier, A

    2014-07-01

    A 1-year-old neutered male chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera) was presented with emaciation and a 1-month history of progressive weight loss. The animal was bright and responsive on clinical examination, but had poor body condition. Serum biochemical analysis revealed elevated alanine amino transferase and alkaline phosphatase. Ultrasound examination was unremarkable. Thoracic radiography showed changes consistent with bullous emphysema and severe pneumonia. Antibiotic therapy was initiated, but the chinchilla died 6 weeks later. Necropsy examination revealed granulomatous lesions in the lungs and liver. Numerous acid-fast bacilli were present in the cytoplasm of macrophages. Sequencing of genetic material isolated from fixed tissue classified the pathogen as Mycobacterium genavense.

  5. Solid and aqueous mercury in remote river sediments (Litany River, French Guyana, South America)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charlet, L.; Roman-Ross, G.; Spadini, L.; Rumbach, G.

    2003-05-01

    Mercury content in river sediments was investigated, in the Haut Maroni river basin (French Guyana, South America), around Antecume-Pata, a village where Wayanas Amerindians are contaminated with mercury. Solid sediment particulate total mercury content indicate a 100 to 150 ng/g Hg geochemical background level. Sediments act as an environmental archive: gold mining contaminated sediments have up to 400 ng/g total mercury. Pore waters from contaminated sediments are enriched in Fe(II) and Hg(II) by a factor 40 compared to uncontaminated sediment pore waters, due to more acute anoxie conditions. They act therefore as a major source of dissolved mercury in remote tropical aquatic ecosystems. Keywords: Mercury, sediment, DGT and DET techniques, pore water, gold mining.

  6. The structure of the cyanobactin domain of unknown function from PatG in the patellamide gene cluster

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Greg; Koehnke, Jesko; Bent, Andrew F.; Graham, Rachael; Houssen, Wael; Jaspars, Marcel; Schwarz-Linek, Uli; Naismith, James H.

    2014-01-01

    Patellamides are members of the cyanobactin family of ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified cyclic peptide natural products, many of which, including some patellamides, are biologically active. A detailed mechanistic understanding of the biosynthetic pathway would enable the construction of a biotechnological ‘toolkit’ to make novel analogues of patellamides that are not found in nature. All but two of the protein domains involved in patellamide biosynthesis have been characterized. The two domains of unknown function (DUFs) are homologous to each other and are found at the C-termini of the multi-domain proteins PatA and PatG. The domain sequence is found in all cyanobactin-biosynthetic pathways characterized to date, implying a functional role in cyanobactin biosynthesis. Here, the crystal structure of the PatG DUF domain is reported and its binding interactions with plausible substrates are investigated. PMID:25484206

  7. Prevalence of Giardia intestinalis and other zoonotic intestinal parasites in private household dogs of the Hachinohe area in Aomori prefecture, Japan in 1997, 2002 and 2007.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Naoyuki; Kanai, Kazutaka; Hori, Yasutomo; Hoshi, Fumio; Higuchi, Seiichi

    2009-12-01

    An epidemiological study on canine intestinal parasites was undertaken to evaluate changes in the prevalence among private household dogs from the Hachinohe region of Aomori prefecture, Japan, in 1997, 2002 and 2007, using the formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation technique. The risk of zoonotic transmission from household dogs to humans was also discussed. All intestinal parasites detected in the present study (Giardia intestinalis, Isospora spp., Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma caninum, Trichuris vulpis and Strongyloides stercoralis) showed no changes in prevalence over the past 10 years based on analysis considering canine epidemiological profiles. In particular, prevalence of Giardia intestinalis in dogs under 1 year old, derived from pet shops/breeding kennels and kept indoors was unchanged, remaining at a high level of >15.0% at each time point. Toxocara canis also showed no changes in the group of dogs under 1 year old, bred by private owners and kept outdoors, and the prevalence was >10.0% every year. The present results indicate that the prevalence of Giardia intestinalis and other intestinal parasites in private household dogs has not always decreased, and the potential for direct parasitic zoonotic transmission from dogs to humans may be relatively high level, than from the environment (indoors and outdoors). We recommend careful surveillance of intestinal parasites and aggressive use of anthelminthic in private household dogs under considering the epidemiological factors.

  8. Population density influences dispersal in female white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lutz, Clayton L.; Diefenbach, Duane R.; Rosenberry, Christopher S.

    2015-01-01

    Dispersal behavior in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) predominantly occurs in 1-year-old males; however, females of the same age also disperse. The timing of female dispersal during fawning season and low dispersal rates suggest that competition for mates and reduced inbreeding are not ultimate causes of female dispersal, as suggested for males. We proposed that female dispersal is the result of competition for space when pregnant females seek to isolate themselves before and after parturition. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a meta-analysis of female dispersal rates from 12 populations of white-tailed deer and predicted dispersal rate and distance were positively related to deer density. We found a positive relationship between dispersal rate and deer per forested km2 and between dispersal distance and deer per forested km2. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that female dispersal is density-dependent and caused by the exclusion of subordinate 1-year-olds as adult females seek isolation before and after parturition.

  9. Hydrogeology and chemical quality of water and bottom sediment at three stormwater detention ponds, Pinellas County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fernandez, Mario; Hutchinson, C.B.

    1993-01-01

    An investigation of three detention ponds in Pinellas County, Florida indicated little potential for chemical contamination of surficial-aquifer ground water; however, concentrations of contami- nants in some sediments are sufficient to indicate possible hazardous levels of bioconcentration in benthic organisms. The general direction of ground- water movement at three pond sites indicates that the ponds are ground-water discharge points. Shallow ground water tends to move laterally toward these ponds, which have surface outflow, instead of from the ponds into the aquifer. Surface-water and pond-sediment samples from a 1-year-old pond were collected and analyzed for inorganic constituents and organic compounds. The concentrations were either near or below analytical detection limits. Surface-water and pond-sediment samples from the other two ponds, 20- and 30-years old, respectively, also were analyzed for inorganic constituents and organic compounds. The water quality of these older ponds was not significantly different from that of the 1-year-old pond. However, bottom sediments in the 20- and 30-year-old ponds contained 16 and 23 organic compounds, respectively. None of the organic compounds were in sufficient concentrations to cause concern about their chronic effects on aquatic life. Concentrations of dichlordiphenyl-trichlorethane, dieldrin, and heptachlor were above the hazardous level with respect to bioconcentration in the food chain.

  10. The Change of Stretched Penile Length and Anthropometric Data in Korean Children Aged 0-14 Years: Comparative Study of Last 25 Years.

    PubMed

    Park, Sungchan; Chung, Jae Min; Kang, Dong Il; Ryu, Dong Soo; Cho, Won Yeol; Lee, Sang Don

    2016-10-01

    There has been a great improvement in height and weight of Korean children owing to economic development over the last 25 years. This study aimed to evaluate the penile length of Korean children today and to compare it with a previous Korean study reported in 1987. The cross-sectional study was conducted with 909 Korean boys aged 0-14 years who had been brought to outpatient clinics of five tertiary hospitals (Busan, Ulsan, and Changwon) between September 2013 and May 2015. The stretched penile length (SPL) was measured and the testicular size was measured using orchidometry (mL). Student's t-test or Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the result of our study and the study reported in 1987. SPL of Korean children gradually increased from 4.1 ± 0.8 cm at 0-1 year old to 9.6 ± 3.0 cm at 13-14 years old, the most rapidly during the age of 13. While body weight and testicular size significantly increased from 1987 in most of age groups, there were no significant changes in SPL although there was in some age groups. Height decreased in the infants < 1 year old and increased in the children > 6 years old. With the great economic development over the last quarter century in Korea, height, body weight, and testicular size of children significantly increased but there was no significant change in SPL except penile growth pattern.

  11. Larval Pacific herring, Clupea pallasii (Valenciennes), are highly susceptible to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia and survivors are partially protected after their metamorphosis to juveniles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hershberger, P.K.; Gregg, J.; Pacheco, C.; Winton, J.; Richard, J.; Traxler, G.

    2007-01-01

    Pacific herring were susceptible to waterborne challenge with viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) throughout their early life history stages, with significantly greater cumulative mortalities occurring among VHSV-exposed groups of 9-, 44-, 54- and 76-day-old larvae than among respective control groups. Similarly, among 89-day-1-year-old and 1+year old post-metamorphosed juveniles, cumulative mortality was significantly greater in VHSV-challenged groups than in respective control groups. Larval exposure to VHSV conferred partial protection to the survivors after their metamorphosis to juveniles as shown by significantly less cumulative mortalities among juvenile groups that survived a VHS epidemic as larvae than among groups that were previously nai??ve to VHSV. Magnitude of the protection, measured as relative per cent survival, was a direct function of larval age at first exposure and was probably a reflection of gradual developmental onset of immunocompetence. These results indicate the potential for easily overlooked VHS epizootics among wild larvae in regions where the virus is endemic and emphasize the importance of early life history stages of marine fish in influencing the ecological disease processes. ?? 2007 The Authors.

  12. Evidence for potential impacts of ozone on Pinus cembra L. at mountain sites in Europe: an overview.

    PubMed

    Wieser, G; Manning, W J; Tausz, M; Bytnerowicz, A

    2006-01-01

    We summarize what is known about the impact of ozone (O(3)) on Pinus cembra in the timberline ecotone of the central European Alps and the Carpathian Mountains. In the central European Alps exposure to ambient and two-fold ambient O(3) throughout one growing season did neither cause any visible injury nor affect the photosynthetic machinery and biochemical parameters in current to 1-year-old needles. By contrast, in the southern French Alps and in the Carpathians 1-year-old needles of Pinus cembra trees showed visual symptoms similar to those observed in O(3) stressed pine stands in southern California. For the southern French Alps the observed symptoms could clearly be attributed O(3) and differences in O(3) uptake seems to be the likely key factor for explaining the observed decline. For the Carpathians however, other reasons such as drought may not be excluded in eliciting the observed symptoms. Thus, the action of O(3) has always to be evaluated in concert with other environmental impacts, determining the tree's sensitivity to stress.

  13. Hematologic and serum biochemical reference intervals of the Oriental white stork (Ciconia boyciana) and the application of an automatic hematologic analyzer.

    PubMed

    Han, Jae-Ik; Jang, Hye-Jin; Na, Ki-Jeong

    2016-09-30

    This study was conducted to establish accurate baseline values of clinical laboratory data with regard to age-related changes in the Oriental white stork (Ciconia boyciana). In addition, the availability of an automated hematological cell counter was evaluated. A total of 94 clinically normal storks, including 64 young storks (<1 year old; 30 male and 34 female) and 30 adults (> 1 year old; 17 male and 13 female) were included. Hematological assays were performed using manual and automated cell counters and serum biochemistry profiles were examined using an automated analyzer. There were no significant differences in any parameters between male and female storks, while 16 parameters were significantly different between young and adult storks. Of these 16 parameters, total protein, albumin, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, creatinine, triglyceride, total bilirubin, potassium, white blood cell count, packed cell volume, mean cell volume and hemoglobin levels were higher in adult storks than in young storks, while the latter showed higher glucose, uric acid and alkaline phosphatase levels, as well as a higher sodium/potassium ratio. The results presented herein will aid researchers who work for the conservation and rehabilitation of this endangered species.

  14. Hematologic and serum biochemical reference intervals of the Oriental white stork (Ciconia boyciana) and the application of an automatic hematologic analyzer

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jae-Ik; Jang, Hye-Jin

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to establish accurate baseline values of clinical laboratory data with regard to age-related changes in the Oriental white stork (Ciconia boyciana). In addition, the availability of an automated hematological cell counter was evaluated. A total of 94 clinically normal storks, including 64 young storks (<1 year old; 30 male and 34 female) and 30 adults (> 1 year old; 17 male and 13 female) were included. Hematological assays were performed using manual and automated cell counters and serum biochemistry profiles were examined using an automated analyzer. There were no significant differences in any parameters between male and female storks, while 16 parameters were significantly different between young and adult storks. Of these 16 parameters, total protein, albumin, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, creatinine, triglyceride, total bilirubin, potassium, white blood cell count, packed cell volume, mean cell volume and hemoglobin levels were higher in adult storks than in young storks, while the latter showed higher glucose, uric acid and alkaline phosphatase levels, as well as a higher sodium/potassium ratio. The results presented herein will aid researchers who work for the conservation and rehabilitation of this endangered species. PMID:26726025

  15. Evaluation of reported cases of pertussis: epidemiological study in a large city in Spain.

    PubMed

    Solano, Rubén; Rius, Cristina; Simón, Pere; Manzanares-Laya, Sandra; Ros, Miriam; Toledo, Diana; Domíngez, Àngela; Caylà, Joan A

    2014-12-01

    We retrospectively analysed the incidence rate of reported cases of pertussis in Barcelona during 2009-2012 according to age, sex, type of medical centre and vaccination status. We included 748 confirmed or suspected cases, 613 (82.0 %) of which were confirmed by laboratory testing and the remaining 135 (18.0 %) by epidemiological evidence. The highest reported incidence of pertussis was amongst <1 year olds [96.1 per 100,000 person-years, 95 % confidence interval (CI): 84.3-109.1]. The majority of confirmed and suspected cases were reported in 2011 and 2012, and the total incidence (confirmed or suspected) was 6.3 (95 % CI: 5.6-6.9) and 4.2 (95 % CI: 3.6-4.7) per 100,000 person-years, respectively. Incidence increased significantly (P = 0.001) in 2011-2012 compared with 2009. Most confirmed cases occurred in children <1 year old (87.9 %). Cases were confirmed by real-time (RT)-PCR (87.5 %; 95 % CI: 81.3-87.6) and bacterial culture (13.7 %; 95 % CI: 11.0-17.1). We recommend performing RT-PCR in suspected cases with no epidemiological link to a confirmed case.

  16. Impaired fasting blood glucose is associated to cognitive impairment and cerebral atrophy in middle-aged non-human primates

    PubMed Central

    Djelti, Fathia; Dhenain, Marc; Terrien, Jérémy; Picq, Jean-Luc; Hardy, Isabelle; Champeval, Delphine; Perret, Martine; Schenker, Esther; Epelbaum, Jacques; Aujard, Fabienne

    2017-01-01

    Age-associated cognitive impairment is a major health and social issue because of increasing aged population. Cognitive decline is not homogeneous in humans and the determinants leading to differences between subjects are not fully understood. In middle-aged healthy humans, fasting blood glucose levels in the upper normal range are associated with memory impairment and cerebral atrophy. Due to a close evolutional similarity to Man, non-human primates may be useful to investigate the relationships between glucose homeostasis, cognitive deficits and structural brain alterations. In the grey mouse lemur, Microcebus murinus, spatial memory deficits have been associated with age and cerebral atrophy but the origin of these alterations have not been clearly identified. Herein, we showed that, on 28 female grey mouse lemurs (age range 2.4-6.1 years-old), age correlated with impaired fasting blood glucose (rs=0.37) but not with impaired glucose tolerance or insulin resistance. In middle-aged animals (4.1-6.1 years-old), fasting blood glucose was inversely and closely linked with spatial memory performance (rs=0.56) and hippocampus (rs=−0.62) or septum (rs=−0.55) volumes. These findings corroborate observations in humans and further support the grey mouse lemur as a natural model to unravel mechanisms which link impaired glucose homeostasis, brain atrophy and cognitive processes. PMID:28039490

  17. Between-country comparison of whole-body SAR from personal exposure data in Urban areas.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Wout; Frei, Patrizia; Röösli, Martin; Vermeeren, Günter; Bolte, John; Thuróczy, György; Gajšek, Peter; Trček, Tomaž; Mohler, Evelyn; Juhász, Péter; Finta, Viktoria; Martens, Luc

    2012-12-01

    In five countries (Belgium, Switzerland, Slovenia, Hungary, and the Netherlands), personal radio frequency electromagnetic field measurements were performed in different microenvironments such as homes, public transports, or outdoors using the same exposure meters. From the mean personal field exposure levels (excluding mobile phone exposure), whole-body absorption values in a 1-year-old child and adult male model were calculated using a statistical multipath exposure method and compared for the five countries. All mean absorptions (maximal total absorption of 3.4 µW/kg for the child and 1.8 µW/kg for the adult) were well below the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) basic restriction of 0.08 W/kg for the general public. Generally, incident field exposure levels were well correlated with whole-body absorptions (SAR(wb) ), although the type of microenvironment, frequency of the signals, and dimensions of the considered phantom modify the relationship between these exposure measures. Exposure to the television and Digital Audio Broadcasting band caused relatively higher SAR(wb) values (up to 65%) for the 1-year-old child than signals at higher frequencies due to the body size-dependent absorption rates. Frequency Modulation (FM) caused relatively higher absorptions (up to 80%) in the adult male.

  18. Consumers' Perception and Knowledge of Food Safety: Results of Questionnaires Accessible on IZSalimenTO Website.

    PubMed

    Traversa, Amaranta; Bianchi, Daniela Manila; Astegiano, Sara; Barbaro, Antonio; Bona, Maria Cristina; Baioni, Elisa; Rubinetti, Francesca; Aliberti, Enrico; Palazzo, Carlo; Gallina, Silvia; Decastelli, Lucia

    2015-02-03

    The present survey was undertaken to investigate consumers' knowledge of the main foodborne agents and dietary regimen during pregnancy. Data were collected using monthly questionnaires available on IZSalimenTO website between March 2013 and January 2014. Hepatitis A virus questionnaire: 20 respondents (77%) recognized berries as foodstuff linked to the outbreak of hepatitis A. The majority correctly indicated as precautionary advice to boil berries before consumption. Botulism questionnaire: 29 respondents (62%) indicated pesto as food involved in botulism alert in July 2013. The risk of infant botulism in infant less than 1 year old due to honey consumption is known by 24 respondents (51%). Main foodborne disease questionnaire: the risk of infection by Salmonella after the consumption of foods made with raw eggs is known by the majority (94%; N=17) as well as the treatments to be applied in order to make fresh fish safe from parasites (76%). Pregnancy questionnaire: 20 respondents (74%) believed that washing vegetables and fruits with sodium bicarbonate or chlorate solution is able to inactivate Toxoplasma; only 4 (15%) reported both raw meat and vegetables washed with sodium bicarbonate as food at risk. Results indicate that all consumers should be trained on behaviour and dietary regimen to be adopted in pregnancy and in infant <1 year old. The website may be considered as a useful tool to assess consumers' knowledge: both the news section and the contents published may be a source of information and education for consumers on food safety.

  19. Age-related reproduction in striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) in the upper Midwest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greenwood, Raymond J.; Sargeant, Alan B.

    1994-01-01

    Reproductive data from the upper Midwest are meager for the striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis), a common North American carnivore. We provide data on some age-related reproductive attributes of 178 female striped skunks collected at 19 sites in eastcentral North Dakota and westcentral Minnesota in 1979–1981 and 1987–1991. Seventy-four percent of the females were 1 year old; 95% were pregnant or parous when collected. Thirteen of 873 (1.5%) embryos in 123 pregnant females were being resorbed. The overall mean (±1 SE) litter size estimated from live embryos was 7.2 ± 0.4. Means of litter-size estimates were similar for females ≥1 year old, but annual estimates of litter size differed among years for all females combined. For females from the interval 1979–1981 and 1990, the mean implantation date based on embryo size was 4 March (±1.6 days). Potential litters were composed of a mean of 55 ± 3% females. Estimates of litter size based on counts of corpora lutea averaged 0.9 young per female less than estimates for the same females based on counts of live embryos, indicating that some skunks may have produced polyovular follicles or identical twins.

  20. Consumers’ Perception and Knowledge of Food Safety: Results of Questionnaires Accessible on IZSalimenTO Website

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi, Daniela Manila; Astegiano, Sara; Barbaro, Antonio; Bona, Maria Cristina; Baioni, Elisa; Rubinetti, Francesca; Aliberti, Enrico; Palazzo, Carlo; Gallina, Silvia; Decastelli, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    The present survey was undertaken to investigate consumers’ knowledge of the main foodborne agents and dietary regimen during pregnancy. Data were collected using monthly questionnaires available on IZSalimenTO website between March 2013 and January 2014. Hepatitis A virus questionnaire: 20 respondents (77%) recognized berries as foodstuff linked to the outbreak of hepatitis A. The majority correctly indicated as precautionary advice to boil berries before consumption. Botulism questionnaire: 29 respondents (62%) indicated pesto as food involved in botulism alert in July 2013. The risk of infant botulism in infant less than 1 year old due to honey consumption is known by 24 respondents (51%). Main foodborne disease questionnaire: the risk of infection by Salmonella after the consumption of foods made with raw eggs is known by the majority (94%; N=17) as well as the treatments to be applied in order to make fresh fish safe from parasites (76%). Pregnancy questionnaire: 20 respondents (74%) believed that washing vegetables and fruits with sodium bicarbonate or chlorate solution is able to inactivate Toxoplasma; only 4 (15%) reported both raw meat and vegetables washed with sodium bicarbonate as food at risk. Results indicate that all consumers should be trained on behaviour and dietary regimen to be adopted in pregnancy and in infant <1 year old. The website may be considered as a useful tool to assess consumers’ knowledge: both the news section and the contents published may be a source of information and education for consumers on food safety. PMID:27800380

  1. Ineffective erythropoiesis in β-thalassemia is characterized by increased iron absorption mediated by down-regulation of hepcidin and up-regulation of ferroportin

    PubMed Central

    Gardenghi, Sara; Marongiu, Maria F.; Ramos, Pedro; Guy, Ella; Breda, Laura; Chadburn, Amy; Liu, YiFang; Amariglio, Ninette; Rechavi, Gideon; Rachmilewitz, Eliezer A.; Breuer, William; Cabantchik, Z. Ioav; Wrighting, Diedra M.; Andrews, Nancy C.; de Sousa, Maria; Giardina, Patricia J.; Grady, Robert W.

    2007-01-01

    Progressive iron overload is the most salient and ultimately fatal complication of β-thalassemia. However, little is known about the relationship among ineffective erythropoiesis (IE), the role of iron-regulatory genes, and tissue iron distribution in β-thalassemia. We analyzed tissue iron content and iron-regulatory gene expression in the liver, duodenum, spleen, bone marrow, kidney, and heart of mice up to 1 year old that exhibit levels of iron overload and anemia consistent with both β-thalassemia intermedia (th3/+) and major (th3/th3). Here we show, for the first time, that tissue and cellular iron distribution are abnormal and different in th3/+ and th3/th3 mice, and that transfusion therapy can rescue mice affected by β-thalassemia major and modify both the absorption and distribution of iron. Our study reveals that the degree of IE dictates tissue iron distribution and that IE and iron content regulate hepcidin (Hamp1) and other iron-regulatory genes such as Hfe and Cebpa. In young th3/+ and th3/th3 mice, low Hamp1 levels are responsible for increased iron absorption. However, in 1-year-old th3/+ animals, Hamp1 levels rise and it is rather the increase of ferroportin (Fpn1) that sustains iron accumulation, thus revealing a fundamental role of this iron transporter in the iron overload of β-thalassemia. PMID:17299088

  2. The Change of Stretched Penile Length and Anthropometric Data in Korean Children Aged 0–14 Years: Comparative Study of Last 25 Years

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    There has been a great improvement in height and weight of Korean children owing to economic development over the last 25 years. This study aimed to evaluate the penile length of Korean children today and to compare it with a previous Korean study reported in 1987. The cross-sectional study was conducted with 909 Korean boys aged 0–14 years who had been brought to outpatient clinics of five tertiary hospitals (Busan, Ulsan, and Changwon) between September 2013 and May 2015. The stretched penile length (SPL) was measured and the testicular size was measured using orchidometry (mL). Student’s t-test or Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the result of our study and the study reported in 1987. SPL of Korean children gradually increased from 4.1 ± 0.8 cm at 0-1 year old to 9.6 ± 3.0 cm at 13-14 years old, the most rapidly during the age of 13. While body weight and testicular size significantly increased from 1987 in most of age groups, there were no significant changes in SPL although there was in some age groups. Height decreased in the infants < 1 year old and increased in the children > 6 years old. With the great economic development over the last quarter century in Korea, height, body weight, and testicular size of children significantly increased but there was no significant change in SPL except penile growth pattern. PMID:27550493

  3. Population variation and individual maximum size in two leech populations: energy extraction from cannibalism or niche widening?

    PubMed

    Persson, Lennart; Elliott, J Malcolm

    2013-05-01

    The theory of cannibal dynamics predicts a link between population dynamics and individual life history. In particular, increased individual growth has, in both modeling and empirical studies, been shown to result from a destabilization of population dynamics. We used data from a long-term study of the dynamics of two leech (Erpobdella octoculata) populations to test the hypothesis that maximum size should be higher in a cycling population; one of the study populations exhibited a delayed feedback cycle while the other population showed no sign of cyclicity. A hump-shaped relationship between individual mass of 1-year-old leeches and offspring density the previous year was present in both populations. As predicted from the theory, the maximum mass of individuals was much larger in the fluctuating population. In contrast to predictions, the higher growth rate was not related to energy extraction from cannibalism. Instead, the higher individual mass is suggested to be due to increased availability of resources due to a niche widening with increased individual body mass. The larger individual mass in the fluctuating population was related to a stronger correlation between the densities of 1-year-old individuals and 2-year-old individuals the following year in this population. Although cannibalism was the major mechanism regulating population dynamics, its importance was negligible in terms of providing cannibalizing individuals with energy subsequently increasing their fecundity. Instead, the study identifies a need for theoretical and empirical studies on the largely unstudied interplay between ontogenetic niche shifts and cannibalistic population dynamics.

  4. Endo- and ectomycorrhizas in Quercus agrifolia Nee. (Fagaceae): patterns of root colonization and effects on seedling growth.

    PubMed

    Egerton-Warburton, L; Allen, M F

    2001-12-01

    We documented the patterns of root occupancy by Glomalean and ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi in Quercus agrifolia, and host plant responses to inoculation with each mycorrhizal type alone or in combination. Glomalean hyphae, coils and vesicles, and EM root tips were recorded. Colonization patterns conformed to a succession from Glomalean and EM fungi in 1-year-old seedlings to predominantly EM in saplings (>11 years old); both mycorrhizal types were rarely detected within the same root segment. Inoculation of Q. agrifolia seedlings with EM or Glomalean fungi (AM) alone or in combination (EM+AM) altered the cost:benefit relationship of mycorrhizas to the host plant. Seedling survival, plant biomass, foliar nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) status were greatest in EM- or AM-only inoculated seedlings. Seedlings inoculated with both mycorrhizal types (AM+EM) exhibited the lowest survival rates, biomass, foliar N, and P levels. Roots of these plants were highly colonized by both EM (38% root length colonized) and Glomalean fungi (34%). Because these levels of colonization were similar to those detected in 1-year-old field seedlings, the presence of both mycorrhizal types may be a carbon cost and, in turn, less beneficial to oaks during establishment in the field. However, the shift to EM colonization in older plants suggests that mycorrhizal effects may become positive with time.

  5. Comparison of aortic intima and inner media in young adult versus aging rats. Stereology in a polarized system.

    PubMed Central

    Guyton, J. R.; Lindsay, K. L.; Dao, D. T.

    1983-01-01

    Age-related ultrastructural changes in the intima and inner media of rat thoracic aorta were examined by new morphometric techniques. Young adult male rats, 10 weeks old, were compared with 1-year-old male rats. The most marked changes were found in the sub-endothelium, which increased in thickness more than five-fold. Basement-membrane-like and granular material accounted for the bulk of this thickening. Certain other structures were increased sevenfold or more in subendothelium. These structures and the volume fractions they occupied in 1-year-old rats were as follows: banded collagen, 4.3%; mononuclear leukocytes, 4.5%; cystic structures, 3.3%; and fibrillar elastin, 1.0%. Changes were also demonstrated in the fenestrae of and at selected depth levels below the innermost, or alternatively the internal, elastic lamina. Collagen increased strikingly within fenestrae and just below the elastic lamina. This was associated with a 28% increase in the thickness of the elastic lamina and a recession of smooth muscle cytoplasm to a deeper position within the first musculoelastic medial layer. The alterations in subendothelial tissues imply an altered basis for mechanical support for aortic endothelium in aging rats. These results mark the successful application of micro-computer-based stereology to a situation of polarized geometry. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:6846504

  6. Retrospective study of mortality in Asiatic lions (Panthera leo persica) in the European breeding population between 2000 and 2014.

    PubMed

    Metz, Olivia; Williams, Jonathan; Nielsen, Rikke Kruse; Masters, Nic

    2017-01-01

    Although the European population of Asiatic lions (Panthera leo persica) has been managed under the European Endangered Species Program (EEP) since 1990, little is known about the health status of the population. This study was designed to characterize mortality for this population through examination of the studbook and other records on 392 Asiatic lions living in the EEP between 2000 and 2014. A total of 270 animals died during the period with 80% of them being under 1 year old. The mortality rate for under 1 year olds was 54%, while the odds of survival of cubs within a litter increased if the dam had had litters previously. Survival to reproductive age was 44%. Post-mortem reports were requested and the cause of death was obtained for 133 animals. Trauma inflicted by a conspecific and lack of care were common causes of death (26% and 22%, respectively) and were also responsible for most of the neonatal mortalities. Congenital defects were responsible for 9% of deaths, although the true prevalence is likely underestimated. A common necropsy protocol for all Asiatic lion collections is needed to facilitate future studies. Zoo Biol. 36:66-73, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Genomic Characterization of Ciprofloxacin Resistance in a Laboratory-Derived Mutant and a Clinical Isolate of Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Lupien, Andréanne; Billal, Dewan S.; Fani, Fereshteh; Soualhine, Hafid; Zhanel, George G.; Leprohon, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The broad-spectrum fluoroquinolone ciprofloxacin is a bactericidal antibiotic targeting DNA topoisomerase IV and DNA gyrase encoded by the parC and gyrA genes. Resistance to ciprofloxacin in Streptococcus pneumoniae mainly occurs through the acquisition of mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) of the ParC and GyrA targets. A role in low-level ciprofloxacin resistance has also been attributed to efflux systems. To look into ciprofloxacin resistance at a genome-wide scale and to discover additional mutations implicated in resistance, we performed whole-genome sequencing of an S. pneumoniae isolate selected for resistance to ciprofloxacin in vitro (128 μg/ml) and of a clinical isolate displaying low-level ciprofloxacin resistance (2 μg/ml). Gene disruption and DNA transformation experiments with PCR fragments harboring the mutations identified in the in vitro S. pneumoniae mutant revealed that resistance is mainly due to QRDR mutations in parC and gyrA and to the overexpression of the ABC transporters PatA and PatB. In contrast, no QRDR mutations were identified in the genome of the S. pneumoniae clinical isolate with low-level resistance to ciprofloxacin. Assays performed in the presence of the efflux pump inhibitor reserpine suggested that resistance is likely mediated by efflux. Interestingly, the genome sequence of this clinical isolate also revealed mutations in the coding region of patA and patB that we implicated in resistance. Finally, a mutation in the NAD(P)H-dependent glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase identified in the S. pneumoniae clinical strain was shown to protect against ciprofloxacin-mediated reactive oxygen species. PMID:23877698

  8. Morphologic features of Sancassania berlesei (Acari: Astigmata: Acaridae), a common mite of stored products in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Chaopin; Jiang, Yuxin; Guo, Wei; Chen, Qi

    2015-04-01

    Objetivo: sancassania berlesei (S. berlesei) es el lider en la industria de cría amenaza mite eupolyphaga sinensis y la salud pública.Métodos: los especimenes vivos de S. berlesei fueron obtenidos a partir de la superficie de eupolyphaga sinensis y purificado con agua bidestilada.El huevo, larva, ninfa, hypopus, macho adulto y la hembra de S. berlesei fueron evaluados y elegidos bajo microscopio.Resultados: las variaciones morfológicas de S. berlesei, incluidas sus piernas, setas, genitales externos y accesorios, están claramente identificadas en la SEM.La larva tiene tres pares de patas, sin hojas como setas, pero su coxal Rod es desarrollada.Por la etapa de ninfa, cuatro pares de patas y el cuarto dorsal seta surgen, mientras que la zona genital se ve aún en desarrollo.En hypopus, las garras y tarsules aparecen bien construido, y la hoja como setas, setas de tibia y setas de Genu son vistos.La ventosa plato totalmente contiene nueve retoños y cuatro Shell como dimplings en que hay distribuciones simétricas con 1 par de mamones, 2 pares de lado anterior de ventosas y 1 par de tontos, respectivamente.Una pera como posterior ventosa está ubicado en la espalda de Sucker plato.Todos los tontos son suaves excepto anterior Sucker con franja radial.El órgano de sentido genital adultos exhibe con cordiforme aspecto externo y osificación típica textura; mientras que el macho es diferente con la hembra respecto a seta numero en el sentido de órganos genitales.Conclusión: descripción de la estructura morfologica en gran detalle para S. berlesei tiende a suministrar la información importante para la taxonomía y más estudio.

  9. Processing of Phonemic Consonant Length: Semantic and Fragment Priming Evidence from Bengali.

    PubMed

    Kotzor, Sandra; Wetterlin, Allison; Roberts, Adam C; Lahiri, Aditi

    2016-03-01

    Six cross-modal lexical decision tasks with priming probed listeners' processing of the geminate-singleton contrast in Bengali, where duration alone leads to phonemic contrast ([pata] 'leaf' vs. [pat:a] 'whereabouts'), in order to investigate the phonological representation of consonantal duration in the lexicon. Four form-priming experiments (auditory fragment primes and visual targets) were designed to investigate listeners' sensitivity to segments of conflicting duration. Each prime derived from a real word ([k(h)[symbol: see text]m]/[g(h)en:]) was matched with a mispronunciation of the opposite duration (*[k(h)[symbol: see text]m:]/*[g(h)en]) and both were used to prime the full words [k(h)[symbol: see text]ma] ('forgiveness') and [g(h)en:a] ('disgust') respectively. Although all fragments led to priming, the results showed an asymmetric pattern. The fragments of words with singletons mispronounced as geminates led to equal priming, while those with geminates mispronounced as singletons showed a difference. The priming effect of the real-word geminate fragment was significantly greater than that of its corresponding nonword singleton fragment. In two subsequent semantic priming tasks with full-word primes a stronger asymmetry was found: nonword geminates (*[k(h)[symbol: see text]m:a]) primed semantically related words ([marjona] 'forgiveness') but singleton nonword primes (*[ghena]) did not show priming. This overall asymmetry in the tolerance of geminate nonwords in place of singleton words is attributed to a representational mismatch and points towards a moraic representation of duration. While geminates require a mora which cannot be derived from singleton input, the additional information in geminate nonwords does not create a similar mismatch.

  10. Changes in phytochemical synthesis, chalcone synthase activity and pharmaceutical qualities of sabah snake grass (Clinacanthus nutans L.) in relation to plant age.

    PubMed

    Ghasemzadeh, Ali; Nasiri, Alireza; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Baghdadi, Ali; Ahmad, Izham

    2014-10-30

    In the current study, changes in secondary metabolite synthesis and the pharmaceutical quality of sabah snake grass leaves and buds were considered in relation to plant age (1 month, 6 months, and 1 year old). The activity of the enzyme chalcone synthase (CHS, EC 2.3.1.74) was measured, as it is a key enzyme for flavonoid production. Significant differences in total flavonoid (TF) production were observed between the three plant growth periods and the different plant parts. The highest contents of TF (6.32 mg/g dry weight [DW]) and total phenolic (TP) (18.21 mg/g DW) were recorded in 6-month-old buds. Among the flavonoids isolated in this study the most important ones based on concentration were from high to low as follows: catechin > quercetin > kaempferol > luteolin. Production of phenolic acids increased from 1 to 6 months, but after 6 months up to 1 year of age, they decreased significantly. The highest contents of caffeic acid (0.307 mg/g DW) and gallic acid (5.96 mg/g DW) were recorded in 1-year and 6-month-old buds, respectively. The lowest and highest activity of CHS was recorded in 1-month and 6-month-old buds with values of 3.6 and 9.5 nkat/mg protein, respectively. These results indicate that the increment in flavonoids and phenolic acids in 6-month-old buds can be attributed to an increase in CHS activity. The highest 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) activity was observed in the extract of 1-year-old buds followed by 6-month-old buds, with 50% of free radical scavenging (IC50) values of 64.6 and 73.5 µg/mL, respectively. Interestingly, a ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay showed a higher activity in 6-month-old buds (488 μM of Fe(II)/g) than in 1-year-old buds (453 μM of Fe(II)/g), in contrast to the DPPH result. Significant correlations (p < 0.05) were observed between CHS enzyme activity and FRAP activity, TF, catechin, and kaempferol content. Extracts of 6-month-old bud exhibited a significant in vitro anticancer activity against

  11. Vitamin D Status: A Different Story in the Very Young versus the Very Old Romanian Patients

    PubMed Central

    Chirita-Emandi, Adela; Socolov, Demetra; Haivas, Carmen; Calapiș, Anca; Gheorghiu, Cristina; Puiu, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Background In Romania (latitude 48°15’N to 43°40’N), vitamin D supplementation is common practice mostly in infants 0-1 year old. No published information is available regarding epidemiological data on vitamin D status in the Romanian population for a wide age range and geographical territory. In this context, we aimed to evaluate the seasonal and age variation of vitamin D status in a large Romanian population. Methods 6631 individuals from across Romania had performed 7544 vitamin D assessments (2012-2014) in a chain of private laboratories. Vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin D2 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3) was measured using High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Vitamin D levels were classified as severe deficiency<10ng/mL, deficiency 10-20ng/mL, insufficiency 21-29ng/mL, sufficiency≥30ng/mL and potentially harmful>100ng/ml. Results Male to female ratio was 1:2.9. Age ranged from 0 to 85 years. Mean vitamin D levels increased from April (26.3ng/ml) to September (35.6ng/ml) and decreased from October (33.5ng/ml) to March (24.4 ng/ml). Overall 40% had sufficient vitamin D, while the rest were insufficient 33%, deficient 22%, severely deficient 4% and 1% potentially harmful (of them 81% under 1 year old). Males compared to females showed higher percentages of sufficiency (47% vs. 38%). Children 0- 2 years presented the highest percentage of vitamin D sufficiency (77%). Lowest percentages (21%) of sufficiency were in people 80-84 years. Conclusion In Romania, suboptimal vitamin D levels are common (59%), especially in older age, wintertime and in women. Vitamin D supplementation would be most warranted from January to April in the Romanian population. 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels>100ng/ml were relatively prevalent in children 0-1 year old (17.3%). This was attributed to supplementation errors and the fact that high-risk individuals were more likely to visit for medical check-up. Nonetheless, it stresses the need to increase awareness of the importance of preventing

  12. Effects of GHRP-2 and Cysteamine Administration on Growth Performance, Somatotropic Axis Hormone and Muscle Protein Deposition in Yaks (Bos grunniens) with Growth Retardation

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Rui; Wang, Zhisheng; Peng, Quanhui; Zou, Huawei; Wang, Hongze; Yu, Xiaoqiang; Jing, Xiaoping; Wang, Yixin; Cao, Binghai; Bao, Shanke; Zhang, Wenhua; Zhao, Suonan; Ji, Hanzhong; Kong, Xiangying; Niu, Quanxi

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of growth hormone-releasing peptide-2 (GHRP-2) and cysteamine (CS) administration on growth performance in yaks with growth retardation and try to elucidate its regulatory mechanisms. Trial 1, thirty-six 1-year-old Qinghai high plateau yaks (body weight 38–83.2 kg) were randomly chosen for body weight and jugular blood samples collection. The relationship between body weight and serum GHRH (P < 0.05, R = 0.45), GH (P < 0.05, R = 0.47), IGF-1 (P < 0.05, R = 0.62) was significantly correlated in yaks colonies with lighter body weights. Trial 2, fifteen 1-year-old Qinghai high plateau yaks with growth retardation (average body weight 54.8 ± 8.24 kg) were randomly selected and assigned to negative control group (NG), GHRP-2 injection group (GG) and cysteamine feeding group (CG), with 5 yaks per group. Another five 1-year-old Qinghai high plateau yaks with normal growth performance (average body weight 75.3 ± 2.43 kg) were selected as positive control group (PG). The average daily gain (ADG) of the GG and CG were significantly higher than those in the PG and NG (P < 0.05). Both GHRP-2 and CS administration significantly enhanced the myofiber diameter and area of skeletal muscle (P<0.05). GHRP-2 significantly enhanced the serum GH and IGF-1 levels (P < 0.05), and up-regulated GHR, IGF-1 and IGF-1R mRNA expression in the liver and skeletal muscle (P < 0.05), enhanced the mRNA expression of PI3K, AKt and mTOR in the skeletal muscle (P<0.05). CS significantly reduced the serum SS levels and the hypothalamus SS mRNA expression (P < 0.05), and enhanced GHR and IGF-1 mRNA expression in the liver (P < 0.05), decreased the mRNA expression of muscle atrophy F-box (Atrogin-1) and muscle ring finger 1 (MuRF1) mRNA (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Growth retardation in yaks was primarily due to somatotropic axis hormones secretion deficiency. Both GHRP-2 and CS administration can accelerate growth performance and GH, IGF-1

  13. Direct detection of Ehrlichia canis by PCR in the conjunctiva of a dog with bilateral anterior uveitis.

    PubMed

    Walser-Reinhard, L; Schaarschmidt-Kiener, D; Forster, J L; Matheis, F; Spiess, B

    2012-04-01

    The following report describes the direct detection of Ehrlichia canis by real-time PCR in the conjunctiva of a 1-year-old female Maltese dog. After being imported from Brazil, the dog was presented because of anorexia, dehydration, fever, and palpable mandibular lymph nodes. A few days later, the dog developed bilateral blepharospasm, photophobia and anterior uveitis. Monocytic ehrlichia was diagnosed by a positive PCR result and the detection of IgM and IgG antibodies. Because of the massive uveitis a conjunctival sample was taken with a cytobrush, which also tested positive for Ehrlichia canis DNA by real-time PCR. Only one week after starting treatment with systemic doxycycline and local anti-inflammatory and cyclopalgic therapy the dog recovered from systemic and eye diseases. After therapy the follow-up examination revealed a full remission of clinical and hematological parameters and negative PCR result.

  14. FNIRS-based evaluation of cortical plasticity in children with cerebral palsy undergoing constraint-induced movement therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Jianwei; Khan, Bilal; Hervey, Nathan; Tian, Fenghua; Delgado, Mauricio R.; Clegg, Nancy J.; Smith, Linsley; Roberts, Heather; Tulchin-Francis, Kirsten; Shierk, Angela; Shagman, Laura; MacFarlane, Duncan; Liu, Hanli; Alexandrakis, George

    2015-03-01

    Sensorimotor cortex plasticity induced by constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) in six children (10.2 ± 2.1 years old) with hemiplegic cerebral palsy (CP) was assessed by functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). The activation laterality index and time-to-peak/duration during a finger tapping task were quantified before, immediately after, and six months after CIMT. Five age-matched healthy children (9.8 ± 1.3 years old) were also imaged at the same time points to provide comparative activation metrics for normal controls. In children with CP the activation time-to-peak/duration for all sensorimotor centers displayed significant normalization immediately after CIMT that persisted six months later. In contrast to this longer term improvement in localized activation response, the laterality index that depended on communication between sensorimotor centers improved immediately after CIMT, but relapsed six months later.

  15. Follow-up of 100 dogs with acute diarrhoea in a primary care practice.

    PubMed

    Berset-Istratescu, C M; Glardon, O J; Magouras, I; Frey, C F; Gobeli, S; Burgener, I A

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the aetiology of acute diarrhoea and the relapse rate in 100 client-owned dogs presented to a first-opinion clinic. History, physical examination, faecal testing and owner questionnaire data were collected at initial presentation (T0) and at either the time of relapse or at a recheck performed within 3 months. All dogs received treatment according to their clinical signs. Of 96 dogs that completed the study, 37 (38.5%) relapsed during the study period, 21 (21.9%) relapsed within 3 months, and 16 others (16.6%) at 3 months to 1 year after initial examination. Dogs that had undergone a change in housing location within 1 month prior to presentation and dogs <1 year old were significantly more likely to have positive parasitological analyses (P=0.02 and P=0.001, respectively). Pica was a risk factor for relapse (P=0.0002).

  16. The First Report of Fetal Alcohol Effect in a 12 Year-Old Child in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Dong Hyun; Lee, Young Jin; An, Ho Young; Ahn, Joon Ho

    2009-01-01

    We present the first report of fetal alcohol effect in a 12 year-old child in Korea. The mother had consumed 162 g of alcohol per week continuously during pregnancy. His first febrile seizure occurred before he was 1 year old, and became more frequent 2 years later. He started showing signs of right paraplegia when he was 3.5 years old and brain MRI revealed periventricular leucomalacia near the left ventricle. He was microcephalic and his growth was retarded. He was irritable, impatient, impulsive, and inattentive, and showed disinterest in school activities and aggressive and dangerous behavior. After the diagnosis of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder was made, psychopharmacological treatment and family support was initiated. After 10 months, he still had intermittent ideas of reference, although the aggressive behavior, inattentiveness, and impulsivity had improved. Using this case study, we stress the importance of maternal alcohol history in patients with these characteristics. PMID:20046374

  17. Electrical resistivity survey to search for a recent clandestine burial of a homicide victim, UK.

    PubMed

    Pringle, Jamie K; Jervis, John R

    2010-10-10

    This case report details an electrical resistivity survey to assist the search for a suspected 1-year-old clandestine burial of a murder victim in North Wales in the UK. Conventional search techniques (victim recovery dogs and probing) proved unsuccessful, and with a significant survey area and a high clay content soil precluding GPR as a geophysical search method, a resistivity survey was instead trialled. Ten resistivity grids were collected and site detrended with user-specified, contoured anomalies being generated. The resulting anomalies were compared to anomalies derived from similar-aged, simulated clandestine burial surveys. Seven anomalies with comparative sizes and amplitudes (±3Ω) of the simulated burials were identified within the search area and prioritised for further investigation. The shallowly buried victim was subsequently recovered outside the survey area.

  18. Infantile childhood onset of spinocerebellar ataxia type 2.

    PubMed

    Di Fabio, Roberto; Santorelli, Filippo; Bertini, Enrico; Balestri, Martina; Cursi, Laura; Tessa, Alessandra; Pierelli, Francesco; Casali, Carlo

    2012-06-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2) is a late-onset autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia caused by triplet CAG/CTG expansion in the ATX2 gene. The initial symptoms usually appear when subjects are in their 30s.Pediatric onset is less common and usually associated with larger triplet expansions. We here report the case of a 1-year-old girl who presented with facial dysmorphism,dystonic features, developmental delay, and retinitis pigmentosa.She was diagnosed as carrying an expanded CAG/CTG tract (92 repeats) before a molecular diagnosis of SCA2 was made in her father. Facial dysmorphism associated with developmental delay and retinitis pigmentosa in early childhood should prompt a careful family investigation for ataxia and study of ATX2.

  19. Effects of yoga practice on muscular endurance in young women.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, Juliana Costa; Bezerra, Lídia Mara Aguiar

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the effects of a systematized yoga practice on muscular endurance in young women. Twenty six women (24 ± 3.5 years old) participated in six weeks of yoga classes, and twenty one women (25 ± 5.1 years old) participated as the control group. The yoga intervention was composed of eighteen sessions, three times per week, at 1 h per session. The muscular endurance of upper limbs (push-up) and abdominal (sit-up) was assessed through the protocol suggested by Gettman (1989) [1] and Golding, Myers and Sinning (1989) [2] to the maximum repetitions performed in 1 min. To verify the significant differences intra groups and between groups a SPANOVA was performed, and the level of significance was p ≤ 0.05. The findings suggest that yoga provides improvement in upper limb and in abdominal muscular endurance.

  20. Canine multifocal retinopathy in the Australian Shepherd: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Ingo; Guziewicz, Karina E.; Zangerl, Barbara; Aguirre, Gustavo D.; Mardin, Christian Y.

    2013-01-01

    A 1-year-old Australian Shepherd (AS) was presented for a routine hereditary eye examination. During the examination multiple raised, brown to orange lesions were noted in the fundus, which could not be attributed to a known retinal disease in this breed. As they clinically most closely resembled canine multifocal retinopathy (cmr) and no indication of an acquired condition was found, genetic tests for BEST1 gene mutations were performed. These showed the dog to be homozygous for the cmr1 (C73T/R25X) gene defect. Furthermore, ultrasound (US), electroretinography (ERG), and optical coherence tomography were performed, confirming changes typical for cmr. Subsequently, the AS pedigree members were genetically and clinically tested, demonstrating autosomal recessive inheritance with no clinical symptoms in carrier animals, as was previously described for cmr. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of canine multifocal retinopathy in the AS breed. Further investigations are under way. PMID:22432598

  1. Use of behavioral responses of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in identifying sublethal exposure to hexavalent chromium.

    PubMed

    Svecevicius, Gintaras

    2009-05-01

    Laboratory tests were conducted in a flow-through apparatus on 1-year-old rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss to evaluate the sensitivity of a number of their behavioral responses to hexavalent chromium (Cr(6+)). Test fish were exposed to Cr(6+) concentrations corresponding to 0.001-1 parts of the rainbow trout 96-h LC50 (0.029-28.5 mg Cr/L, respectively) in short-term (15 min) tests. Sensitivity parameter responses could be arranged into the following sequence: latent period of detection response = locomotor activity > gill ventilation frequency > coughing rate. All the rainbow trout responses were sensitive behavioral indicators of sublethal exposure. Behavioral responses meet the criteria as rapid tools for bioassay testing and could be easily standardized using Cr(6+) as a reference toxicant.

  2. Avoidance of copper and zinc by rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss pre-exposed to copper.

    PubMed

    Svecevičius, Gintaras

    2012-01-01

    Laboratory tests were conducted on 1-year-old rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in a counter-current flow, steep-gradient chamber to evaluate their ability to detect and avoid copper and zinc at concentrations of 0.1 mg Cu/L and 1 mg Zn/L, respectively, after 10-day pre-exposure to five copper sublethal concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 0.5 mg Cu/L and after 10-day re-acclimation period in clean water. Avoidance response intensity in affected fish significantly decreased with increase in pre-exposure Cu concentration. The strength of avoidance response to Cu and Zn test solutions in pre-exposed fish after re-acclimation gradually increased in a concentration-dependent order.

  3. Differentiated effect of ageing on the enzymes of Krebs' cycle, electron transfer complexes and glutamate metabolism of non-synaptic and intra-synaptic mitochondria from cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Villa, R F; Gorini, A; Hoyer, S

    2006-11-01

    The effect of ageing on the activity of enzymes linked to Krebs' cycle, electron transfer chain and glutamate metabolism was studied in three different types of mitochondria of cerebral cortex of 1-year old and 2-year old male Wistar rats. We assessed the maximum rate (V(max)) of the mitochondrial enzyme activities in non-synaptic perikaryal mitochondria, and in two populations of intra-synaptic mitochondria. The results indicated that: (i) in normal, steady-state cerebral cortex the values of the catalytic activities of the enzymes markedly differed in the various populations of mitochondria; (ii) in intra-synaptic mitochondria, ageing affected the catalytic properties of the enzymes linked to Krebs' cycle, electron transfer chain and glutamate metabolism; (iii) these changes were more evident in intra-synaptic "heavy" than "light" mitochondria. These results indicate a different age-related vulnerability of subpopulations of mitochondria in vivo located into synapses than non-synaptic ones.

  4. Studies on the mechanism of long term survival of Taenia taeniaeformis in rats.

    PubMed

    Kwa, B H; Liew, F Y

    1978-03-01

    An attempt was made to determine if blocking antibody is involved in protecting cysticerci of Taenia taeniaeformis against a host immune response. Immunoflourescence microscopy confirmed that host antibody is presnet on the parasite surface within the capsule. To test if the larvae can still survive after such a coat of blocking antibody is removed, the larvae were trysinised and then implanted into recipients. The results indicate that blocking antibody could be involved in the survival of 1 year old established larvae. Untrypsinised larvae were normal 14 days after implantation into control or immunised rats. Trypsinised larvae implanted in control rats were alive but showed on intense cell adherence on their surface. On the other hand, trypsinised larvae implanted into immunised rats were dead and completely encapsulated. However, experiments with 1 month old larvae were inconclusive.

  5. Caucasian emmetropic aged subjects have reduced corneal thickness values: emmetropia, CCT and age.

    PubMed

    Sanchis-Gimeno, Juan A; Lleó-Pérez, Antonio; Alonso, Luis; Rahhal, M S

    2004-07-01

    We aimed to analyze the possible changes in corneal thickness values according to age in emmetropic subjects. The central corneal thickness values of 100 emmetropic subjects (n = 100) were analyzed with the DGH 2000 AP ultrasonic pachymeter (DGH Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA, USA) by one experienced physician. The mean age of the subjects was 40.6 +/- 12.1 years old (range, 21-64). Analysis of the central corneal thickness (CCT) values by age subgroups indicated that subjects aged between 20 and 30 years had the higher CCT values. Differences in CCT values between the age groups were significant (p < 0.001; 1-way ANOVA test). A significant correlation between CCT values and age was found (r = -0.974; p < 0.001). In sum, it seems that there is a decrease in CCT values with age in emmetropic subjects.

  6. Occipitoatlantoaxial malformation in an adult goat.

    PubMed

    Seva, Juan I; Gómez, Serafin; Pallarés, Francisco J; Sánchez, Pedro; Bernabé, Antonio

    2008-09-01

    An occipitoatlantoaxial malformation was diagnosed in a 1-year-old Murciano-Granadina goat. At clinical examination, the head and cranial part of the neck were deviated to the right. Clinical signs of spinal cord or brain disease were not observed. At necropsy, morphological abnormalities were seen in the craniovertebral junction and cervical vertebrae, characterized by a firm attachment and incomplete articulation between the occipital bone and the atlas, and scoliosis in the cervical regions. The definitive diagnosis was bilateral asymmetrical occipitoatlantoaxial fusion with rotation of the atlas and atlantoaxial subluxation. To the authors' knowledge, this case report is the second occipitoatlantoaxial malformation described in a goat and the first description in an adult goat.

  7. Unilateral anterior persistent fetal vasculature in a child with blepharophimosis-ptosis-epicanthus inversus syndrome: A surgical challenge.

    PubMed

    Kemmanu, Vasudha; Rathod, Pragnya; Anaspure, Hemant; Yadav, Naresh K

    2016-06-01

    Blepharophimosis-ptosis-epicanthus inversus syndrome (BPES) is a rare autosomal dominant genetic disease. It is clinically characterized by four major features; blepharophimosis, ptosis, epicanthus inversus, and telecanthus. We report a case of a 1-year-old female with BPES with unilateral anterior persistent fetal vasculature (PFV). On examination, she was found to have all the clinical features of BPES, along with calcified and partially absorbed cataract with elongated ciliary processes in her left eye. B-scan of left eye showed attached retina with no evidence of posterior PFV. Systemic examination was normal. She underwent cataract surgery with primary posterior capsulotomy with intraocular lens implantation under general anesthesia. Literature search did not reveal any previous reports of unilateral anterior PFV and BPES. The clinical features, other associations, and the difficulties in the surgical management of this condition are discussed.

  8. Unilateral anterior persistent fetal vasculature in a child with blepharophimosis-ptosis-epicanthus inversus syndrome: A surgical challenge

    PubMed Central

    Kemmanu, Vasudha; Rathod, Pragnya; Anaspure, Hemant; Yadav, Naresh K

    2016-01-01

    Blepharophimosis-ptosis-epicanthus inversus syndrome (BPES) is a rare autosomal dominant genetic disease. It is clinically characterized by four major features; blepharophimosis, ptosis, epicanthus inversus, and telecanthus. We report a case of a 1-year-old female with BPES with unilateral anterior persistent fetal vasculature (PFV). On examination, she was found to have all the clinical features of BPES, along with calcified and partially absorbed cataract with elongated ciliary processes in her left eye. B-scan of left eye showed attached retina with no evidence of posterior PFV. Systemic examination was normal. She underwent cataract surgery with primary posterior capsulotomy with intraocular lens implantation under general anesthesia. Literature search did not reveal any previous reports of unilateral anterior PFV and BPES. The clinical features, other associations, and the difficulties in the surgical management of this condition are discussed. PMID:27488160

  9. Overview of biology and aquaculture of Amur sturgeon (Acipenser schrenckii) in China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhuang, P.; Kynard, B.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, T.; Zhang, Z.; Li, D.

    2002-01-01

    Amur sturgeon, Acipenser schrenckii is a large riverine species (max. 3 m length and 190 kg weight) native to the Amur River. In the middle Amur River, males first spawn at 7-8 years of age and females at 9-10 years. Due to overfishing and habitat alteration, the abundance of wild stocks has rapidly declined in recent years. Using wild adults, artificial spawning began in the 1950s in China, and since the early 1990s Amur sturgeon has become the most popular sturgeon for aquaculture. The species is adaptive to many conditions of artificial culture, including traditional Chinese fish culture ponds, lakes, reservoirs, and cages. It will grow well on many types of food, and 1-year-old fish reared on commercial diets weigh 900-1200 g. Based on the examination of females reared for broodstock, first full sexual maturity is expected at 5-6 years of age.

  10. Thermotolerant Campylobacters in domestic animals in a defined population in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    López, Clara M; Giacoboni, Gabriela; Agostini, Adela; Cornero, Fernando J; Tellechea, Diana M; Trinidad, Juan José

    2002-10-15

    We assessed the prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni in animals in a region of unsatisfied basic needs in the city of Buenos Aires and studied a few risk factors. First we conducted a census to identify all dwellings having pet animals (dogs, cats, and birds). Fecal samples were then taken for isolation and identification of strains. We observed 17% prevalence for dogs (95% CI: 13, 22), 16% for cats (95% CI: 8, 27) and 19% for birds (95% CI: 5, 42). In dogs, the highest prevalences were found in summer and in animals <1 year old; in cats, in autumn and those aged 3-5 years. Strains were identified as C. jejuni biotype II in 70% of isolates. In the population described here, dogs, cats and birds kept in households were potential sources of human Campylobacter infections.

  11. Hypomyelinating leukoencephalopathy with paroxysmal tonic upgaze and absence of psychomotor development.

    PubMed

    Blumkin, Lubov; Lev, Dorit; Watemberg, Nathan; Lerman-Sagie, Tally

    2007-01-15

    Hypomyelinating leukoencephalopathies are characterized by a substantial and permanent deficit in myelin deposition in the brain. Although our knowledge and understanding of the etiology of white matter diseases has progressively increased, many cases with this disorder remain undiagnosed, despite extensive evaluations. Recently, new disease entities have been defined by combining magnetic resonance imaging pattern recognition and clinical features. We describe a 1-year-old Ashkenazi Jewish girl with a hypomyelinating leukoencephalopathy, who presented in the neonatal period with episodes of sustained paroxysmal tonic upward gaze, roving eye movements, pendular nystagmus, and severe hypotonia, with the later appearance of pyramidal and extrapyramidal signs and no development. In addition, she has dysmorphic signs. This clinical picture is not consistent with any of the previously described hypomyelinating leukoencephalopathies and may represent a new entity.

  12. Effect of synthetic pyrethroid pesticide exposure during pregnancy on the growth and development of infants.

    PubMed

    Xue, Zhanyou; Li, Xiaoqiong; Su, Qian; Xu, Li; Zhang, Peng; Kong, Zhenyu; Xu, Jianhui; Teng, Junfang

    2013-07-01

    Antenatal urine of 497 pregnant women was collected in the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics of a county hospital in Jiaozuo, Henan. The content of the main metabolites of synthetic pyrethroid pesticides in urine were determined. After 1 year, physical development indices of 1-year old infants, such as height, weight, and head and chest circumference, were measured. The neural and mental development of the infants was assessed by the Development Screen Test (DST) scale. We observed that the level of synthetic pyrethroid pesticide exposure was negatively related to the neural and mental development of infants (β = -0.1527, P < 0.05). Therefore, direct or indirect exposure to synthetic pyrethroid pesticides should be avoided during pregnancy.

  13. Transumbilical Surgery for Duodenal Stenosis in a Child with Situs Inversus: The First Report

    PubMed Central

    Ueno, Yu; Mukai, Wataru; Imaji, Reisuke; Akiyama, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    Background. Situs inversus is a rare congenital anomaly with a reported incidence of only 1 in 5,000 to 10,000 live births. Congenital duodenal stenosis complicated with situs inversus is an even rarer entity. Case Presentation. A 1-year-old girl with situs inversus who had undergone a hemi-Fontan procedure against a single ventricle in our hospital was referred to our department for vomiting and failure to thrive. An upper gastrointestinal contrast study and endoscopy revealed duodenal stenosis. A transumbilical radical operation as a minimally invasive surgery was successfully performed. After the surgery, she stopped vomiting, and the postoperative course was uneventful with good cosmetic results. Conclusions. To our knowledge, this is the first report of transumbilical surgery for congenital duodenal stenosis with situs inversus as minimally invasive surgery. Transumbilical surgery to situs inversus patient can be performed safely and lead to good cosmetic outcome. PMID:28386502

  14. Enhanced loading of Fura-2/AM calcium indicator dye in adult rodent brain slices via a microfluidic oxygenator.

    PubMed

    Mauleon, Gerardo; Lo, Joe F; Peterson, Bethany L; Fall, Christopher P; Eddington, David T

    2013-06-15

    A microfluidic oxygenator is used to deliver constant oxygen to rodent brain slices, enabling the loading of the cell-permeant calcium indicator Fura-2/AM into cells of adult brain slices. When compared to traditional methods, our microfluidic oxygenator improves loading efficiency, measured by the number of loaded cells per unit area, for all tested age groups. Loading in slices from 1-year-old mice was achieved, which has not been possible with current bulk loading methods. This technique significantly expands the age range for which calcium studies are possible without cellular injection. This technique will facilitate opportunities for the study of calcium signaling of aging and long term stress related diseases. Moreover, it should be applicable to other membrane-permeant physiological indicator varieties.

  15. Sustained Transmission of Pertussis in Vaccinated, 1–5-Year-Old Children in a Preschool, Florida, USA

    PubMed Central

    Pritchard, P. Scott; Martin, Stacey W.; Dusek, Cristina; Cathey, Erika; D’Alessio, Rebecca; Kirsch, Marjorie

    2016-01-01

    In September 2013, local county health officials in Tallahassee, Florida, USA, were notified of a laboratory-confirmed pertussis case in a 1-year-old preschool attendee. During a 5-month period, 26 (22%) students 1–5 years of age, 2 staff from the same preschool, and 11 family members met the national case definition for pertussis. Four persons during this outbreak were hospitalized for clinical management of pertussis symptoms. Only 5 students, including 2 students with pertussis, had not received the complete series of vaccinations for pertussis. Attack rates in 1 classroom for all students who received the complete series of vaccinations for pertussis approached 50%. This outbreak raises concerns about vaccine effectiveness in this preschool age group and reinforces the idea that recent pertussis vaccination should not dissuade physicians from diagnosing, testing, or treating persons with compatible illness for pertussis. PMID:26814429

  16. A case of SRY-positive 38,XY true hermaphroditism (XY sex reversal) in a cat.

    PubMed

    Schlafer, D H; Valentine, B; Fahnestock, G; Froenicke, L; Grahn, R A; Lyons, L A; Meyers-Wallen, V N

    2011-07-01

    Investigation of abnormal sexual development in companion animals can allow for the elimination of inherited disorders from breeding populations while contributing to the understanding of the complex process of mammalian sexual development and differentiation. A 1-year-old mixed-breed cat, presented for neutering, was tentatively diagnosed as a male with bilateral cryptorchidism. During surgery, the surgeon identified gonads in an ovarian position and a complete bicornuate uterus. Both testicular and ovarian architecture in the gonads and Mullerian and Wolffian duct derivatives were identified histologically. The karyotype was that of a normal male (38,XY), and no causative mutation was identified in the feline SRY coding sequence amplified from genomic DNA. All features of the case were compatible with a diagnosis of SRY-positive 38,XY sex reversal, true hermaphrodite phenotype. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of this disorder in a domestic cat.

  17. Cavernous sinus syndrome due to osteochondromatosis in a cat.

    PubMed

    Perazzi, Anna; Bernardini, Marco; Mandara, Maria T; De Benedictis, Giulia M; De Strobel, Francesca; Zotti, Alessandro

    2013-12-01

    A 1-year-old sexually intact male Korat cat was referred for ophthalmological consultation due to anisocoria. Mydriasis with external ophthalmoplegia and absence of pupillary light responses in the right eye and nasofacial hypalgesia were seen. Cavernous sinus syndrome (CSS) was suspected. Bilateral deformities of the jaw and phalangeal bones, severe spinal pain and abnormal conformation of the lumbar spine were also present. Radiographic examination revealed several mineralised masses in the appendicular and axial skeleton, indicative of multiple cartilaginous exostoses. For further investigation of the CSS-related neurological deficits, the cat underwent computed tomography (CT) examination of the skull. CT images revealed a non-vascularised, calcified, amorphous mass originating from the right lateral skull base and superimposing on the sella turcica. Based on the severity of diffuse lesions and owing to the clinical signs of extreme pain, the cat was euthanased. A diffuse skeletal and intracranial osteochondromatosis was diagnosed histologically.

  18. Influence of solar UV radiation on the nitrogen metabolism in needles of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.).

    PubMed

    Krywult, Marek; Smykla, Jerzy; Kinnunen, Heli; Martz, Françoise; Sutinen, Marja-Liisa; Lakkala, Kaisa; Turunen, Minna

    2008-12-01

    Needles of 20-year-old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) saplings were studied in an ultraviolet (UV) exclusion field experiment (from 2000 to 2002) in northern Finland (67 degrees N). The chambers held filters that excluded both UV-B and UV-A, excluded UV-B only, transmitted all UV (control), or lacked filters (ambient). UV-B/UV-A exclusion decreased nitrate reductase (NR) activity of 1-year-old needles of Scots pines compared to the controls. The proportion of free amino acids varied in the range 1.08-1.94% of total proteins, and was significantly higher in needles of saplings grown under UV-B/UV-A exclusion compared to the controls or UV-B exclusion. NR activity correlated with air temperature, indicating a "chamber effect". The study showed that both UV irradiance and increasing temperature are significant modulators of nitrogen (N) metabolism in Scots pine needles.

  19. A case of acute postoperative transitory sialadenosis of the submandibular glands in a healthy dog.

    PubMed

    Cattai, Andrea; Levorato, Silvia; Franci, Paolo

    2017-01-10

    A 1-year-old healthy female cross-breed dog, weighing 4.5 kg, was scheduled for elective neutering. Fentanyl (5 µg/kg) and propofol (4 mg/kg) were administered intravenously (IV) to induce anesthesia, which was maintained with isoflurane and a constant fentanyl infusion rate (10 µg/kg/hr). During the recovery from the anesthesia, the presence of bilateral dense submandibular masses was recognized, as was the excessive secretion of saliva. An ultrasound examination was performed and revealed bilateral abnormally-diffused enlargement of the submandibular salivary glands. A cytology examination was conducted, and no signs of abnormality were found. The size of the swellings subsequently diminished, completely subsiding after 2 hr, as did the hyper-salivation. To the authors' knowledge, this represents the first case report of an acute transient swelling of submandibular glands after general anesthesia in a dog.

  20. Boari flap reconstruction in a male infant with solitary kidney and associated megaureter.

    PubMed

    Saini, Durgesh Kumar; Sinha, Rahul Janak; Sokhal, Ashok Kumar; Singh, Vishwajeet

    2016-12-15

    A 1-year-old male infant presented with fever and abdominal lump for 3 months with increased leucocyte count (15 300/mm(3)) and serum creatinine (0.83 mg%). Abdominal ultrasound and renal scan demonstrated solitary left kidney with dilated tortuous left ureter. Voiding cystourethrogram was unequivocal. Left percutaneous nephrostomy was placed after poor response to perurethral catheterisation. His serum creatinine dropped to 0.58 mg/dL. Subsequent percutaneous nephrostogram and CT nephrostogram showed dilated left pelvicalyceal system, dilated, tortuous left ureter. A diagnosis of obstructed megaureter was made and ureteric plication and reimplantation planned. Intraoperatively, there were primitive ureteral valves until proximal one-third of the ureter. The distance between the upper ureter and bladder was ∼6 cm. This defect was bridged by Boari flap. The postoperative period was uneventful and now after 6 months of follow-up, he is doing fine.

  1. [Gains in life expectancy at birth in Brazil after the year 2000: the impact of mortality variations by age and cause of death].

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Érika Ribeiro Pereira; Miranda-Ribeiro, Adriana de

    2017-03-01

    Life expectancy at birth is a synthetic mortality indicator that reflects the general living conditions of the population. Changes in mortality by age and causes of death generate no explicit changes in the indicator. The application of a decomposition method can bring light to the analysis of the phenomenon. The aim of this study was to estimate the contribution of age groups and causes of death in the variation in life expectancy at birth, for men and women, from 2000 to 2010, by applying Pollard's decomposition method. Brazilian life tables were obtained from IBGE and death data from SIM. The results indicate that the age group that most contributed to the increase in life expectancy was of less than 1 year old. Among the defined causes, cardiovascular diseases were responsible for the largest increase in life expectancy.

  2. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke among infants in southern Thailand: a study of urinary cotinine.

    PubMed

    Anuntaseree, Wanaporn; Mo-Suwan, Ladda; Ovatlarnporn, Chitchamai; Tantana, Chanpa; Ma-a-Lee, Arinda

    2008-01-01

    We performed a survey to assess the exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in 1-year-old infants in Thailand. Of the 725 infants, it was reported that 73.3% had household smoking and 40.7% had detectable urinary cotinine. Twenty-five infants (3.4%) had urinary cotinine in the range of adult heavy smokers. The prevalence of ETS exposure was significantly higher in infants with a father whose education was < or = grade 6 than in those with father's education >6 years (44.0% vs. 36.0%, p = 0.039). Data on the exposure to ETS among infants will provide prevalence information and identify population subgroups at increased risk for exposure.

  3. A case of acute postoperative transitory sialadenosis of the submandibular glands in a healthy dog

    PubMed Central

    CATTAI, Andrea; LEVORATO, Silvia; FRANCI, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    A 1-year-old healthy female cross-breed dog, weighing 4.5 kg, was scheduled for elective neutering. Fentanyl (5 µg/kg) and propofol (4 mg/kg) were administered intravenously (IV) to induce anesthesia, which was maintained with isoflurane and a constant fentanyl infusion rate (10 µg/kg/hr). During the recovery from the anesthesia, the presence of bilateral dense submandibular masses was recognized, as was the excessive secretion of saliva. An ultrasound examination was performed and revealed bilateral abnormally-diffused enlargement of the submandibular salivary glands. A cytology examination was conducted, and no signs of abnormality were found. The size of the swellings subsequently diminished, completely subsiding after 2 hr, as did the hyper-salivation. To the authors’ knowledge, this represents the first case report of an acute transient swelling of submandibular glands after general anesthesia in a dog. PMID:27616555

  4. Spontaneous tumours in captive African hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris): a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Raymond, J T; Garner, M M

    2001-01-01

    Forty tumours were diagnosed in 35 (53%) of 66 captive African hedgehogs documented at Northwest ZooPath (NZP) between 1994 and 1999. Three hedgehogs had more than one type of tumour and the remaining 32 had a single type. Of the 35 hedgehogs with tumours, 14 were female, 11 were male, and 10 were of unknown gender; 21 were from zoological parks and 14 were privately owned. Twenty of the hedgehogs with tumours were adult (>1 year old) with a median age of 3.5 years (range 2-5.5 years); 15, of unreported age, were classified as adult. Thirty-four (85%) of the 40 tumours were classified as malignant and six (15%) as benign. The integumentary, haemolymphatic, digestive and endocrine systems were common sites for tumours. The most common tumours were mammary gland adenocarcinoma, lympho-sarcoma and oral squamous cell carcinoma.

  5. Measurement of ethylene emission from Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora) under field conditions in NOx-polluted areas.

    PubMed

    Kume, A; Tsuboi, N; Nakatani, N; Nakane, K; Sakurai, N; Nakagawa, N; Sakugawa, H

    2001-01-01

    Emission of ethylene from the needles of Japanese red pine, Pinus densiflora, was measured in air-polluted areas in Hiroshima, Japan. We applied a suitable protocol to determine the rate of ethylene emission from the excised needles. The influence of excision of needles on ethylene emission was not detected during the first 4 h of incubation at 20 degrees C. Ethylene emissions were low in the unpolluted (clean) areas regardless of the altitude or season. The emission of stress ethylene increased with the atmospheric NO2 concentration, suggesting that atmospheric NOx or related substances induced the higher ethylene emission in the polluted areas (near urban and industrial areas). In all cases, 1-year-old needles emitted significantly larger amounts of ethylene than the current needles. Ethylene emission did not increase evenly in the polluted areas, but the frequency of trees emitting high ethylene increased. Therefore, threshold rates for the baseline ethylene emission were proposed.

  6. Peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis in three cats

    PubMed Central

    AOKI, Takuma; SUNAHARA, Hiroshi; SUGIMOTO, Keisuke; ITO, Tetsuro; KANAI, Eiichi; FUJII, Yoko

    2014-01-01

    Case 1 involved a 4-month-old intact male Somali cat in which peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis (PPS) was recognized after a cardiac murmur remained following patent ductus arteriosus ligation. Case 2, which involved a 1-year-old neutered male Norwegian Forest cat, and Case 3, which involved a 6-month-old intact female American Curl cat, were referred, because of cardiac murmurs. Grades III to IV/VI systolic heart murmurs were auscultated at the left heart base in all 3 cats. All cases showed bilateral pulmonary artery stenosis, although there were no associated clinical signs. In Cases 1 and 2, the pressure gradient through the stenosis decreased after treatment with atenolol. PMID:25650057

  7. Infective endocarditis of the aortic valve in a Border collie dog with patent ductus arteriosus

    PubMed Central

    AOKI, Takuma; SUNAHARA, Hiroshi; SUGIMOTO, Keisuke; ITO, Tetsuro; KANAI, Eiichi; FUJII, Yoko

    2014-01-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) in dogs with cardiac shunts has not been reported previously. However, we encountered a dog with concurrent patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) and IE. The dog was a 1-year-old, 13.9-kg female Border collie and presented with anorexia, weight loss, pyrexia (40.4°C) and lameness. A continuous murmur with maximal intensity over the left heart base (Levine 5/6) was detected on auscultation. Echocardiography revealed a PDA and severe aortic stenosis (AS) caused by aortic-valve vegetative lesions. Corynebacterium spp. and Bacillus subtilis were isolated from blood cultures. The dog responded to aggressive antibiotic therapy, and the PDA was subsequently surgically corrected. After a series of treatments, the dog showed long-term improvement in clinical status. PMID:25391395

  8. Cerebral dopamine neurotrophic factor improves long-term memory in APP/PS1 transgenic mice modeling Alzheimer's disease as well as in wild-type mice.

    PubMed

    Kemppainen, Susanna; Lindholm, Päivi; Galli, Emilia; Lahtinen, Hanna-Maija; Koivisto, Henna; Hämäläinen, Elina; Saarma, Mart; Tanila, Heikki

    2015-09-15

    Cerebral dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF) protects and repairs dopamine neurons in animal models of Parkinson's disease, which motivated us to investigate its therapeutic effect in an animal model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We employed an established APP/PS1 mouse model of AD and gave intrahippocampal injections of CDNF protein or CDNF transgene in an AAV2 viral vector to 1-year-old animals. We performed a behavioral test battery 2 weeks after the injections and collected tissue samples after the 3-week test period. Intrahippocampal CDNF-therapy improved long-term memory in both APP/PS1 mice and wild-type controls, but did not affect spontaneous exploration, object neophobia or early stages of spatial learning. The memory improvement was not associated with decreased brain amyloid load or enhanced hippocampal neurogenesis. Intracranial CDNF treatment has beneficial effects on long-term memory and is well tolerated. The CDNF molecular mechanisms of action on memory await further studies.

  9. Mitochondria in human offspring derived from ooplasmic transplantation.

    PubMed

    Barritt, J A; Brenner, C A; Malter, H E; Cohen, J

    2001-03-01

    Ooplasmic transfer from fertile donor oocytes into potentially compromised recipient patient oocytes has led to the birth of nearly 30 babies worldwide. Cytoplasmic transplantation has caused apprehension, since the mixing of human ooplasm from two different maternal sources may generate mitochondrial (mt) heteroplasmy (both recipient and donor mtDNA) in offspring. This investigation traced the mitochondrial donor population both during the ooplasmic transfer technique and in the bloods of two 1 year old children using mtDNA fingerprinting. Donor ooplasm stained for active mitochondria was transferred into recipient ooplasm and the mitochondria were visualized by confocal microscopy after the microinjection procedure and fertilization. Heteroplasmy was found in the blood from each of the children. This report is the first case of human germline genetic modification resulting in normal healthy children.

  10. Leaching of mercury-containing cement monoliths aged for one year.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Margareta; Allard, Bert

    2008-01-01

    A directive from the Swedish Government states that waste containing more than 1% of mercury shall be permanently deposited. The stabilization of mercury by conversion to a sparingly soluble compound like the sulphide is crucial to ensure long-term immobilization in a permanent storage. Immobilization by the solidification/stabilization (S/S) method and possible formation of HgS from mercury oxide or elemental mercury by reaction with a sulphur source (S or FeS) is investigated by a modified version of the NEN 7345 Dutch tank-leaching test. The diffusion of mercury during 11 months from 1-year-old mercury containing monoliths of Portland and slag cement is demonstrated. In a geologic repository under conditions representative of deep granitic bedrock (bicarbonate buffered to pH 8.6), a favourable monolith combination is slag cement with addition of the iron sulphide troilite. The apparent diffusion coefficient of mercury is estimated.

  11. Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup C Causing Primary Arthritis in a Child

    PubMed Central

    Straticiuc, Sergiu; Ignat, Ancuta; Hanganu, Elena; Lupu, Vasile Valeriu; Ciubara, Alexandru Bogdan; Cretu, Roxana

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Neisseria meningitidis (N. meningitidis) is associated with severe invasive infections such as meningitis and fulminant septicemia. Septic arthritis due to N. meningitidis is rare and bone infections have been reported exceptionally. We report the case of a 1-year old girl who presented with a painful, swollen right knee, accompanied by fever and agitation. Arthrocentesis of the right knee, while patient was under anesthesia, yielded grossly purulent fluid, so we made arthrotomy and drainage. The culture from synovial fluid revealed N. meningitidis, sensitive to Ceftriaxone. The patient received intravenous antibiotherapy with Ceftriaxone. The status of the patient improved after surgical drainage and intravenous antibiotic therapy. She recovered completely after 1 month. Conclusion: This observation illustrates an unusual presentation of invasive meningococcal infection and the early identification of the bacteria, combined with the correct treatment, prevent the complications and even death. PMID:26844522

  12. Prevalence of mutans streptococci in one-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Grindefjord, M; Dahllof, G; Wikner, S; Hojer, B; Modeer, T

    1991-10-01

    Colonization with mutans streptococci was studied in 1095 1-year-old children living in suburban Stockholm. During a scheduled vaccination appointment at a child health centre, a bacterial sample was obtained from the child's tongue and a structured questionnaire was completed by the accompanying parent. Six percent of the subjects were colonized with mutans streptococci. The variables most strongly correlated with presence of mutans streptococci were: non-Swedish background, consumption of sugar-containing beverages at night and total consumption of sugar-containing beverages. The results indicate that, by the age of 1 year, maternally influenced behaviour patterns such as dietary habits that may predispose to early colonization of mutans streptococci are already established. Such early colonization with mutans streptococci may predict high caries risk in the primary dentition.

  13. Four Cases of Spontaneous Neoplasia in the Naked Mole-Rat (Heterocephalus glaber), A Putative Cancer-Resistant Species.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Kyle R; Milone, Nicholas A; Rodriguez, Carlos E

    2017-01-01

    The naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is widely acclaimed to be cancer-resistant and of considerable research interest based on a paucity of reports of neoplasia in this species. We have, however, encountered four spontaneous cases of neoplasia and one presumptive case of neoplasia through routine necropsy and biopsy of individuals in a zoo collection of nonhybrid naked mole-rats bred from a single pair. One case each of metastasizing hepatocellular carcinoma, nephroblastoma (Wilms' tumor), and multicentric lymphosarcoma, as well as presumptive esophageal adenocarcinoma (Barrett's esophagus-like) was identified postmortem among 37 nonautolyzed necropsy submissions of naked mole-rats over 1-year-old that were submitted for necropsy between 1998 and August 2015. One incidental case of cutaneous hemangioma was also identified antemortem by skin biopsy from one naked mole-rat examined for trauma.

  14. Ranging behaviour of roe deer in an experimental high-density population: are females territorial?

    PubMed

    Maublanc, Marie-Line; Bideau, Eric; Willemet, Romain; Bardonnet, Clara; Gonzalez, Georges; Desneux, Lionel; Cèbe, Nicolas; Gerard, Jean-François

    2012-12-01

    We studied the ranging behaviour and spatial relationships between seven roe deer during more than 4 years in a partly wooded 14.2-ha enclosure. The animals (three young males, four adult females) were monitored with GPS telemetry collars. As expected, the surface area and overlap of the males' bimonthly ranges decreased, and the distance between their arithmetic centres increased, as they became adult and, for two of them, territorial. Unexpectedly, females also tended to space out, the surface area and overlap of their bimonthly ranges being minimal in May to June, i.e. during the birth period. The distance between their arithmetic centres reached its maximum at the same time. Overlap between females' ranges was consistently lower than those between males and females' ranges, or between 1-year old males' ranges. Our results raise the questions of female seasonal territoriality and of independence of the spacing systems of the two sexes in roe deer.

  15. Mycobacterium fortuitum lipoid pneumonia in a dog.

    PubMed

    Leissinger, M K; Garber, J B; Fowlkes, N; Grooters, A M; Royal, A B; Gaunt, S D

    2015-03-01

    A 1-year old female spayed German Shepherd dog was evaluated for acute onset of dyspnea. Pyogranulomatous inflammation and green globoid structures were present on aspirates of the affected lung. Impression smears and histopathology confirmed pyogranulomatous pneumonia, with large amounts of lipid corresponding to the green structures noted cytologically, and identified poorly staining bacterial rods within lipid vacuoles. Special stains confirmed the presence of acid-fast bacterial rods, and polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing identified the organism as Mycobacterium fortuitum. M. fortuitum pneumonia is well described in humans and has previously been reported in 4 dogs and 1 cat. Lipid was a prominent cytologic and histologic feature, as is often described in humans and in the single feline case report. Additionally, this case highlights the variable cytologic appearance of lipid, as well as Mycobacterium spp, which are classically nonstaining with Wright-Giemsa.

  16. Study of the safety and immunogenicity of the synthetic malaria SPf66 vaccine in children aged 1-14 years.

    PubMed

    Patarroyo, G; Franco, L; Amador, R; Murillo, L A; Rocha, C L; Rojas, M; Patarroyo, M E

    1992-01-01

    Safety and immunogenicity tests of the SPf66 malaria vaccine have been carried out on a population of children, aged 1 to 14 years, in the town of Tumaco, Colombia. Adverse reactions measured after each vaccination were local and minimal, and observed in only a small percentage of the vaccinated children. One year later, no delayed reaction was evident. The majority of the child population developed high antibody titres against SPf66 and the degree of response did not vary with age. These induced antibodies recognize the native parasite proteins, in particular the molecules from which the amino acid sequence of this vaccine was deduced. These studies demonstrate that the SPf66 vaccine is safe and highly immunogenic for use in children greater than 1 year old.

  17. Safety and immunogenicity of the synthetic malaria vaccine SPf66 in a large field trial.

    PubMed

    Amador, R; Moreno, A; Murillo, L A; Sierra, O; Saavedra, D; Rojas, M; Mora, A L; Rocha, C L; Alvarado, F; Falla, J C

    1992-07-01

    In the first field trial with synthetic malaria vaccine SPf66 in a large population naturally exposed to malaria, 9957 persons greater than 1 year old and residing on the Colombian Pacific coast received three doses of the vaccine. To evaluate vaccine safety, clinical observations were made 30 min and 48 h after each immunization. There were no adverse reactions in 95.7% of cases. In the 4.3% of cases with adverse reactions, local induration and erythema were the most frequent. In a randomly selected group of vaccinees, anti-SPf66 antibody titers were measured after the third dose: 93% of the vaccinees raised antibodies to SPf66. Among these, 55% had titers greater than 1:1600. These results demonstrate the safety and immunogenicity of the SPf66 vaccine in a large field trial.

  18. Contiguous triple spinal dysraphism associated with Chiari malformation Type II and hydrocephalus: an embryological conundrum between the unified theory of Pang and the unified theory of McLone.

    PubMed

    Dhandapani, Sivashanmugam; Srinivasan, Anirudh

    2016-01-01

    Triple spinal dysraphism is extremely rare. There are published reports of multiple discrete neural tube defects with intervening normal segments that are explained by the multisite closure theory of primary neurulation, having an association with Chiari malformation Type II consistent with the unified theory of McLone. The authors report on a 1-year-old child with contiguous myelomeningocele and lipomyelomeningocele centered on Type I split cord malformation with Chiari malformation Type II and hydrocephalus. This composite anomaly is probably due to select abnormalities of the neurenteric canal during gastrulation, with a contiguous cascading impact on both dysjunction of the neural tube and closure of the neuropore, resulting in a small posterior fossa, probably bringing the unified theory of McLone closer to the unified theory of Pang.

  19. Burnei’s disease: teratological spondylolysis

    PubMed Central

    Gavriliu, ST; Ghiță, RA; El Nayef, T; Burnei, A; Olaru-Barbilian, CR

    2015-01-01

    Teratological spondylolysis is a pathological entity noted for the first time in the specialty literature by Gh. Burnei in “The Spine Journal”, in September 25, 2014. This disease was described in a short presentation of the first case treated by the author. The aim of this paper was to expose in a didactic manner the main characteristic aspects of Burnei’s disease: embryological, clinical, imaging and treatment data and also to make known this pathological entity with all its pathognomonic diagnostic elements. This paper was based on data obtained after analyzing 2 cases of teratological spondylolysis: a 18-year-old patient with triple L3-L5 teratological spondylolysis with Pang 1 spinal dysraphism and a 1-year-old child with teratological spondylolysis and retrospondylolisthesis. PMID:26664464

  20. Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumour in a dog.

    PubMed

    Junginger, J; Röthlisberger, A; Lehmbecker, A; Stein, V M; Ludwig, D C; Baumgärtner, W; Seehusen, F

    2013-11-01

    A 1-year-old German shepherd dog was presented with paraparesis quickly progressing to paraplegia. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a large mass beneath the thoracolumbar vertebral column infiltrating the spinal canal and resulting in severe extradural compression of the spinal cord. Microscopically, this comprised a cell-rich unencapsulated tumour supported by fine bands of a fibrovascular stroma and occasionally forming primitive rosettes. Immunohistochemistry showed the tumour cells to express synaptophysin and neuron-specific enolase. Ultrastructurally, the neoplastic cells had low to moderate numbers of intracytoplasmic neurosecretory granules. A peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumour was diagnosed. This is a rare embryonal tumour of neural origin that may have arisen from adrenal medulla, autonomic ganglia or peripheral nerves.

  1. The changing age and seasonal profile of pertussis in Canada.

    PubMed

    Skowronski, Danuta M; De Serres, Gaston; MacDonald, Diane; Wu, Wrency; Shaw, Carol; Macnabb, Jane; Champagne, Sylvie; Patrick, David M; Halperin, Scott A

    2002-05-15

    During the postvaccine era in Canada, most cases of pertussis have been reported in children <5 years of age, with the highest incidence, morbidity, and mortality in infants <1 year old. Population-based data, with very high laboratory confirmation rates and hospital separation and mortality statistics, chronicle the changing age and seasonal profile associated with pertussis over recent successive outbreaks in British Columbia, Canada. A large outbreak during 2000 highlights 2 important changes to the postvaccine profile. For the first time in Canada, the incidence of pertussis among preteens and teens surpassed that of all other age groups. At the same time, a decreasing incidence of pertussis among infants and preschool children highlights reduced susceptibility in the very young. Recent changes in the childhood immunization program (including introduction of an acellular pertussis vaccine), waning immunity, and changes in laboratory methods are considered in explaining these 2 simultaneous but divergent trends in the pertussis profile.

  2. Monitoring and probabilistic risk assessment of chlorothalonil residues in vegetables from Shandong province (China).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Nie, Yan; Zhang, Shuqiu; Wang, Wen Zheng; Li, Huidong; Wang, Fengen; Lv, Xiao; Chen, Zilei

    2016-10-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the contamination status of chlorothalonil pesticide residues in vegetables from Shandong province, and to assess the potential risk of chlorothalonil to consumers based on vegetable consumption and body weight using an improved non-parameter probabilistic model. The results showed that Young children (8 months-6 years old) were more sensitive than General population(above 1year-old). In general, the health risk of chlorothalonil residues to 2 consumer groups via vegetable exposure was low, and the level of residual chlorothalonil was below the Acute Reference Dose (ARfD). This result would provide useful information for re-evaluating pesticides and for revising the chlorothalonil standard in vegetables.

  3. Late-onset respiratory distress after inhalation of laundry detergent.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Derek S; Bonny, Andrea E; Ruddy, Richard M; Jacobs, Brian R

    2003-04-01

    Accidental poisoning with household cleaning products can pose significant risks to children. Exposure to granular laundry detergents accounts for a number of calls each year to poison control centers, though few of these exposures result in hospitalization. While caustic gastrointestinal injury resulting from ingestion of these highly alkaline cleaning agents is well-recognized, few reports address the potential damage to the respiratory tract that can occur following ingestion or inhalation of granular laundry detergent. We present a previously healthy 1-year-old who presented to the emergency department with Late-onset stridor and increased work of breathing following presumed inhalation of granular laundry detergent. Parents, primary care providers, and emergency department physicians need to be aware of the potential toxicity of these widely used household products.

  4. [A case of a child who developed Cushing reflex after a clinical diagnosis of brain death].

    PubMed

    Enoki, Hideo

    2007-01-01

    The author presents a case of brain death caused by salmonella encephalopathy in a 1-year-old girl. The patient suffered from fever, convulsive status, and coma. On the 5th day, her respiration was arrested. At that time, we confirmed the absence of brainstem reflexes. An electroencephalogram (EEG) showed a flat pattern. Only wave I was recordable in auditory brainstem responses (ABR). On the 6th day, we obtained a flat EEG and a disappearance of all components of ABR. A simultaneous elevation of her heart rate and blood pressure was observed 14 to 18 hours after the respiratory arrest. This phenomenon was equivalent to the Cushing reflex, which represents an autoregulation against increased intracranial pressure. Our case suggested that the activity of a part of the brainstem was preserved in spite of the absence of activities in EEG, ABR and brainstem reflexes at 14 hours after the onset of apnea.

  5. [The effects of ideal-real self discrepancy and irrational belief on self acceptance].

    PubMed

    Arai, S

    2001-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to clarify the effects of positive ideal-real self discrepancy, negative ideal-real self discrepancy, and irrational belief on self acceptance. A total of 464 university and vocational school students, an average of 21.1 years old, participated. Results confirmed the prediction that the smaller the positive ideal-real discrepancy, and the larger negative ideal-real discrepancy, the higher is the self acceptance score. It was also found that the effects of the positive ideal-real self discrepancy depended on the intensity of irrational belief, and the belief was thus a moderator of the effect. On the other hand, the intensity of irrational belief did not moderate the effect of negative ideal-real self discrepancy. Finally, the findings were discussed in relation to the effectiveness of psychotherapeutic and counseling efforts to enhance self acceptance.

  6. Severe parainfluenza pneumonia in a case of transient hypogammalobulinemia of infancy.

    PubMed

    Cotugno, Nicola; Manno, Emma Concetta; Stoppa, Francesca; Sinibaldi, Serena; Saffirio, Claudia; D'Argenio, Parizia; Marano, Marco; Di Nardo, Matteo; Palma, Paolo

    2013-06-26

    Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) infection, largely known to cause self-limiting bronchiolitis and pneumonia in immune competent patients, can lead to severe to fatal pulmonary disease in immune disorders, such as primary or acquired-immune deficiencies. We report the case of a 1-year-old child who developed an acute respiratory distress syndrome. Because of a progressive respiratory failure unresponsive to conventional treatment extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) was rapidly started. HPIV-3 infection was diagnosed on the rhinopharyngeal fluid and immunological examinations revealed a hypogammaglobulinemia. A combination therapy with ribavirin, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and steroid under ECMO support was started with considerable improvement. Subsequent analysis and more specific immunological assessment resulted normal confirming the diagnosis of transient hypogammaglobulinemia of infancy (THI). This case highlights the importance of prompt therapy with early ECMO support in combination with ribavirin, IVIG and steroids in patients affected by severe HPIV-3 pneumonia and THI.

  7. An atypical case of lacrimal sac fistula located on the temporal side of the lateral canthus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gyu-Nam; Huh, Hyun-Do; Park, Jong-Moon; Seo, Seong-Wook

    2012-12-01

    We report a case of congenital lacrimal sac fistula located on the temporal side of the lateral canthus. A systemically healthy 1-year-old girl came to the outpatient clinic with a complaint of tearing on the temporal side of the right lateral canthus since birth. On examination, a small orifice was found in the skin on the temporal side of the lateral canthus. There was no evidence of inflammation or swelling within the opening. Surgeons carried out an operation under general anesthesia. They passed a probe through the lacrimal orifice and advanced it toward the lacrimal sac. Next, they introduced saline to the inferior punctum and found that it drained to the lateral fistula. The lower lid stretched as the dissected fistula was pulled. After the operation, the patient was free of the symptom. This paper is to report a case of congenital lacrimal sac fistula located on the temporal side of the lateral canthus.

  8. Ophthalmomyiasis interna anterior in a dog: keratotomy and extraction of a Cuterebra sp. larva.

    PubMed

    Edelmann, Michele L; Lucio-Forster, Araceli; Kern, Thomas J; Bowman, Dwight D; Ledbetter, Eric C

    2014-11-01

    A 1-year-old female spayed mixed-breed dog was presented for evaluation of acute onset of lethargy and blepharospasm OD. Slit-lamp biomicroscopy revealed a segmented larva embedded in the inferonasal iris. Moderate anterior uveitis was present. After pharmacologic dilation, mild vitreal hemorrhage and chorioretinal migration tracks were identified. The dog was treated empirically for uveitis for 5 days, after which a keratotomy and larval foreign body extraction was performed. The dog recovered uneventfully from intraocular surgery and remained visual and comfortable. Parasite evaluation confirmed the larva to be a Cuterebra sp. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of canine ophthalmomyiasis interna anterior, and the first report of successful surgical removal from the anterior segment in a dog with preservation of vision.

  9. Forest age stands affect soil respiration and litterfall in a Black pine forest managed by a shelterwood system in the Central Spain?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedo de Santiago, Javier; Borja, Manuel Esteban Lucas; Candel, David; Viñegla Pérez, Benjamin

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects that stand age and forest structure generates on soil respiration and litterfall quantity. The effect of stand age on these variables was studied in a shelterwood system Spanish Black pine chronosequence in central Iberian Peninsula composed of 0-20, 20-40, 40-60, 60-80, 80-100-year-old. For each stand age, six forest stands with similar characteristics of soil type and site preparation were used. Also, a forest area ranging 80-120 years old and without forest intervention was selected and used as control. We also measured organic matter, C:N ratio, soil moisture and pH in the top 10 mineral soil at each compartment. Soil respiration measurements were carried out in three time points (3, 8 and 12 days). Results showed a clear trend in soil respiration, comparing all the experimental areas. Soil respiration showed the same trend in all stands. It initially showed higher rates, reaching stability in the middle of the measurement process and finally lightly increasing the respiration rate. The older stands had significantly higher soil respiration than the younger stands. Soil organic matter values were also higher in the more mature stands. C:N ratio showed the opposite trend, showing lower values in the less mature stands. More mature stands clearly showed more quantity of litterfall than the younger ones and there was a positive correlation between soil respiration and litterfall. Finally, the multivariate PCA analysis clearly clustered three differenced groups: Control plot; from 100 to 40 years old and from 39 to 1 years old, taking into account both soil respiration and litterfall quantity, also separately. Our results suggest that the control plot has a better soil quality and that extreme forest stand ages (100-80 and 19-1 years old) and the associated forest structure generates differences in soil respiration.

  10. Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Alpine Red Deer (Cervus elaphus): Its Spread and Effects on Fertility

    PubMed Central

    Formenti, Nicoletta; Trogu, Tiziana; Pedrotti, Luca; Gaffuri, Alessandra; Lanfranchi, Paolo; Ferrari, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to the depth of knowledge on the pathological effects of parasitism in domestic animals, the impact of the vast majority of parasites on wildlife hosts is poorly understood and, besides, information from domestics is rarely usable to disclose the parasites’ impact on free-ranging populations’ dynamics. Here we use Toxoplasmosis as a study model since, until now, the infection process and the protozoan’s effects in natural conditions has received little attention. We analysed 81 sera from red deer (Cervus elaphus) sampled in Italian Alps and through generalized linear models we evaluated (1) the epidemiological factors influencing T. gondii infection dynamics; (2) its impact on female fertility. High seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was recorded in yearling (1 year-old; prevalence = 52.4%) and adult (>2 year-old; prevalence = 51.3%) red deer, while calves (<1 year-old) did not contract the infection suggesting horizontal transmission as the main route of infection. The stable prevalence between yearlings and adults and the higher serological titres of younger individuals lead to two alternative infection processes suggesting a difference between age classes or in acquiring the infection or in responding to the pathogen. No associations between T. gondii serological titres and pregnancy status was observed indicating no direct effect on the probability of being pregnant; nevertheless a relation between females’ higher serological titres and lower foetal development emerged, suggesting potential effects of the parasite infection on deer reproduction. The results demonstrate high seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in free-ranging red deer and, furthermore, the effect on foetal development suggests the potential impact of the parasite on red deer fertility and thus on its population dynamics. PMID:26405785

  11. Recruitment in a Colorado population of big brown bats: Breeding probabilities, litter size, and first-year survival

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Shea, T.J.; Ellison, L.E.; Neubaum, D.J.; Neubaum, M.A.; Reynolds, C.A.; Bowen, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    We used markrecapture estimation techniques and radiography to test hypotheses about 3 important aspects of recruitment in big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) in Fort Collins, Colorado: adult breeding probabilities, litter size, and 1st-year survival of young. We marked 2,968 females with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags at multiple sites during 2001-2005 and based our assessments on direct recaptures (breeding probabilities) and passive detection with automated PIT tag readers (1st-year survival). We interpreted our data in relation to hypotheses regarding demographic influences of bat age, roost, and effects of years with unusual environmental conditions: extreme drought (2002) and arrival of a West Nile virus epizootic (2003). Conditional breeding probabilities at 6 roosts sampled in 2002-2005 were estimated as 0.64 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 0.530.73) in 1-year-old females, but were consistently high (95% CI = 0.940.96) and did not vary by roost, year, or prior year breeding status in older adults. Mean litter size was 1.11 (95% CI = 1.051.17), based on examination of 112 pregnant females by radiography. Litter size was not higher in older or larger females and was similar to results of other studies in western North America despite wide variation in latitude. First-year survival was estimated as 0.67 (95% CI = 0.610.73) for weaned females at 5 maternity roosts over 5 consecutive years, was lower than adult survival (0.79; 95% CI = 0.770.81), and varied by roost. Based on model selection criteria, strong evidence exists for complex roost and year effects on 1st-year survival. First-year survival was lowest in bats born during the drought year. Juvenile females that did not return to roosts as 1-year-olds had lower body condition indices in late summer of their natal year than those known to survive. ?? 2009 American Society of Mammalogists.

  12. Effects of Bay K 8644 in aorta from spontaneously hypertensive and Wistar Kyoto rats of different ages.

    PubMed

    Hernández, M C; Salaices, M; Ponte, A; Alonso, M J; Sánchez-Ferrer, C F; Marín, J

    1995-08-01

    1. The Ca(2+)-channel agonist, Bay K 8644, induced small contractions in aortae from Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats of 5-week-, 3-month-, 1-year- and 1.5-year-old, which were unaltered with age. These contractions were increased by partial depolarization with 15 mM K+. 2. In segments from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), the contractions obtained in both situations were similar and equivalent to those observed in segments from normotensive animals partially depolarized. Responses to Bay K 8644 were modified by age only in tissues from the SHR, the responses to this agent in basal conditions being increased in tissues from 3-month- and 1-year-old animals and depressed in those from 1.5-year SHR. 3. A reduction of the response to Bay K 8644 was observed in partial depolarized endothelium denuded segments from WKY of all ages, and no modification in basal situation. However, the direct contractions induced by Bay K 8644 in aortae from 3-month- and 1.5-year-old SHR were reduced by endothelium removal. 4. These results suggest that: (a) in the hypertensive strain the voltage-gated Ca2+ channels seem to be partially activated; (b) the direct contractions induced by Bay K 8644 were unaltered by age in aortae from WKY but increased in tissues from SHR of 3-month-and-1-year old and depressed in those from 1.5 years, and (c) the contractions evoked by Bay K 8644 seem to involve an endothelium-derived contracting factor in aortae from both strains, or the endothelium produces a partial depolarization of vascular smooth muscle that increases the responsiveness to Bay K 8644.

  13. Rabies virus and canine distemper virus in wild and domestic carnivores in Northern Kenya: are domestic dogs the reservoir?

    PubMed

    Prager, K C; Mazet, Jonna A K; Dubovi, Edward J; Frank, Laurence G; Munson, Linda; Wagner, Aaron P; Woodroffe, Rosie

    2012-12-01

    Rabies virus (RV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) can cause significant mortality in wild carnivore populations, and RV threatens human lives. We investigated serological patterns of exposure to CDV and RV in domestic dogs (Canis familiaris), African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus), black-backed jackals (Canis mesomelas), spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta), striped hyenas (Hyaena hyaena) and African lions (Panthera leo), over a 10-year period, in a Kenyan rangeland to assess the role domestic dogs may play in the transmission dynamics of these two important canid pathogens. Observed patterns of RV exposure suggested that repeated introduction, rather than maintenance, occurred in the wild carnivore species studied. However, RV appeared to have been maintained in domestic dogs: exposure was more likely in domestic dogs than in the wild carnivores; was detected consistently over time without variation among years; and was detected in juveniles (≤1-year-old) as well as adults (>1-year-old). We conclude that this domestic dog population could be a RV reservoir. By contrast, the absence of evidence of CDV exposure for each carnivore species examined in the study area, for specific years, suggested repeated introduction, rather than maintenance, and that CDV may require a larger reservoir population than RV. This reservoir could be a larger domestic dog population; another wildlife species; or a "metareservoir" consisting of multiple interconnected carnivore populations. Our findings suggest that RV risks to people and wild carnivores might be controlled by domestic dog vaccination, but that CDV control, if required, would need to target the species of concern.

  14. Trends in Antifungal Susceptibility of Candida spp. Isolated from Pediatric and Adult Patients with Bloodstream Infections: SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program, 1997 to 2000

    PubMed Central

    Pfaller, M. A.; Diekema, D. J.; Jones, R. N.; Messer, S. A.; Hollis, R. J.

    2002-01-01

    From 1 January 1997 through 31 December 2000, 2,047 bloodstream infections (BSIs) due to Candida spp. were reported from hospitals in the United States, Canada, Latin America, and Europe participating in the SENTRY Antifungal Surveillance Program. Among individuals in four age groups (≤1, 2 to 15, 16 to 64, and ≥65 years) Candida albicans was the most common species, causing 60, 55, 55, and 50% of infections, respectively. C. glabrata caused 17 to 23% of BSIs in those ages 16 to 64 and ≥65 years, whereas it caused only 3% of BSIs in the individuals in the two younger age groups (P < 0.001). C. parapsilosis (which caused 21 to 24% of BSIs) and C. tropicalis (which caused 7 to 10% of BSIs) were more common than C. glabrata in individuals ages ≤1 year and 2 to 15 years. Isolates of Candida spp. showed a trend of decreasing susceptibility to fluconazole, itraconazole, and amphotericin B with increasing patient age (P ≤ 0.01). None of the C. glabrata isolates from individuals ≤1 year old were resistant to fluconazole, whereas they made up 5 to 9% of isolates from individuals ages 16 to 64 and ≥65 years. Isolates of C. tropicalis from patients ≤1 year old were more susceptible to flucytosine (MIC at which 90% of isolates are inhibited [MIC90], 0.5 μg/ml; 0% resistant isolates) than those from patients ≥65 years old (MIC90, 32 μg/ml; 11% resistant isolates). The investigational triazoles posaconazole, ravuconazole, and voriconazole were all highly active against all species of Candida from individuals in all age groups. These data demonstrate differences in the species distributions of pathogens and differences in antifungal resistance among isolates from individuals in the pediatric and adult age groups. Ongoing surveillance will enhance efforts to limit the extent of antifungal resistance in individuals in various age groups. PMID:11880404

  15. The Effects of Run-of-River Hydroelectric Power Schemes on Fish Community Composition in Temperate Streams and Rivers

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The potential environmental impacts of large-scale storage hydroelectric power (HEP) schemes have been well-documented in the literature. In Europe, awareness of these potential impacts and limited opportunities for politically-acceptable medium- to large-scale schemes, have caused attention to focus on smaller-scale HEP schemes, particularly run-of-river (ROR) schemes, to contribute to meeting renewable energy targets. Run-of-river HEP schemes are often presumed to be less environmentally damaging than large-scale storage HEP schemes. However, there is currently a lack of peer-reviewed studies on their physical and ecological impact. The aim of this article was to investigate the effects of ROR HEP schemes on communities of fish in temperate streams and rivers, using a Before-After, Control-Impact (BACI) study design. The study makes use of routine environmental surveillance data collected as part of long-term national and international monitoring programmes at 23 systematically-selected ROR HEP schemes and 23 systematically-selected paired control sites. Six area-normalised metrics of fish community composition were analysed using a linear mixed effects model (number of species, number of fish, number of Atlantic salmon—Salmo salar, number of >1 year old Atlantic salmon, number of brown trout—Salmo trutta, and number of >1 year old brown trout). The analyses showed that there was a statistically significant effect (p<0.05) of ROR HEP construction and operation on the number of species. However, no statistically significant effects were detected on the other five metrics of community composition. The implications of these findings are discussed in this article and recommendations are made for best-practice study design for future fish community impact studies. PMID:27191717

  16. Infant Mortality Risk and Paternity Certainty Are Associated with Postnatal Maternal Behavior toward Adult Male Mountain Gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei).

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Stacy; Hirwa, Jean Paul; Silk, Joan B; Vigilant, Linda; Stoinski, Tara S

    2016-01-01

    Sexually selected infanticide is an important source of infant mortality in many mammalian species. In species with long-term male-female associations, females may benefit from male protection against infanticidal outsiders. We tested whether mountain gorilla (Gorilla beringei beringei) mothers in single and multi-male groups monitored by the Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund's Karisoke Research Center actively facilitated interactions between their infants and a potentially protective male. We also evaluated the criteria mothers in multi-male groups used to choose a preferred male social partner. In single male groups, where infanticide risk and paternity certainty are high, females with infants <1 year old spent more time near and affiliated more with males than females without young infants. In multi-male groups, where infanticide rates and paternity certainty are lower, mothers with new infants exhibited few behavioral changes toward males. The sole notable change was that females with young infants proportionally increased their time near males they previously spent little time near when compared to males they had previously preferred, perhaps to encourage paternity uncertainty and deter aggression. Rank was a much better predictor of females' social partner choice than paternity. Older infants (2-3 years) in multi-male groups mirrored their mothers' preferences for individual male social partners; 89% spent the most time in close proximity to the male their mother had spent the most time near when they were <1 year old. Observed discrepancies between female behavior in single and multi-male groups likely reflect different levels of postpartum intersexual conflict; in groups where paternity certainty and infanticide risk are both high, male-female interests align and females behave accordingly. This highlights the importance of considering individual and group-level variation when evaluating intersexual conflict across the reproductive cycle.

  17. Resonance behaviour of whole-body averaged specific energy absorption rate (SAR) in the female voxel model, NAOMI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimbylow, Peter

    2005-09-01

    Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) calculations have been performed of the whole-body averaged specific energy absorption rate (SAR) in a female voxel model, NAOMI, under isolated and grounded conditions from 10 MHz to 3 GHz. The 2 mm resolution voxel model, NAOMI, was scaled to a height of 1.63 m and a mass of 60 kg, the dimensions of the ICRP reference adult female. Comparison was made with SAR values from a reference male voxel model, NORMAN. A broad SAR resonance in the NAOMI values was found around 900 MHz and a resulting enhancement, up to 25%, over the values for the male voxel model, NORMAN. This latter result confirmed previously reported higher values in a female model. The effect of differences in anatomy was investigated by comparing values for 10-, 5- and 1-year-old phantoms rescaled to the ICRP reference values of height and mass which are the same for both sexes. The broad resonance in the NAOMI child values around 1 GHz is still a strong feature. A comparison has been made with ICNIRP guidelines. The ICNIRP occupational reference level provides a conservative estimate of the whole-body averaged SAR restriction. The linear scaling of the adult phantom using different factors in longitudinal and transverse directions, in order to match the ICRP stature and weight, does not exactly reproduce the anatomy of children. However, for public exposure the calculations with scaled child models indicate that the ICNIRP reference level may not provide a conservative estimate of the whole-body averaged SAR restriction, above 1.2 GHz for scaled 5- and 1-year-old female models, although any underestimate is by less than 20%.

  18. Management of stone disease in infants.

    PubMed

    Azili, Mujdem Nur; Ozturk, Fatma; Inozu, Mihriban; Çayci, Fatma Şemsa; Acar, Banu; Ozmert, Sengul; Tiryaki, Tugrul

    2015-11-01

    Evaluating and treating renal stone disease in infants are technically challenging. In this study, we evaluated the surgical treatment of renal stones in children under 1 year of age. We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients under 1 year old who were treated with ESWL, endourological or open surgical procedures for renal stone disease between January, 2009 and December, 2012. The patients' age, gender, stone size, stone location and number, complications, stone-free status, and postoperative complications were recorded. 19 of 121 infants with a mean age of 10.2 ± 3.07 months were treated with surgical procedures. Six (75%) of eight cystinuria patients required a surgical intervention. Retrograde endoscopic management was performed in thirteen patients (63.4%) as an initial surgical approach. There were three major (15.7%) complications. The rate of open surgical procedures was 31.6% (6 of 19 infants). The cutoff value of stone size for open surgery was 10 mm. There was a significant relationship between the conversion to open procedures and stone size, stone location, and symptom presentation especially the presence of obstruction (p < 0.05). After repeated treatments, the stone clearance rate of RIRS reached 84.6%. Retrograde intrarenal surgery is an effective and safe treatment method for renal stones in infants and can be used as a first-line therapy in most patients under 1 year old. This is especially important if an associated ureteral stone or lower pole stone that requires treatment is present and for patients with cystinuria, which does not respond favorably to ESWL.

  19. The role of zinc, copper, plasma glutathione peroxidase enzyme, and vitamins in the development of allergic diseases in early childhood: The Polish mother and child cohort study.

    PubMed

    Stelmach, Iwona; Grzelewski, Tomasz; Bobrowska-Korzeniowska, Monika; Kopka, Monika; Majak, Paweł; Jerzynska, Joanna; Stelmach, Wlodzimierz; Polańska, Kinga; Sobala, Wojciech; Gromadzińska, Jolanta; Wąsowicz, Wojciech; Hanke, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that the increase in allergic disorders may, in part, be a consequence of changing diet. The primary aim of this study was to assess the associations between occurrence of atopic dermatitis; food allergy; the incidence of wheeze inhaled glucocorticosteroid use in children during the 1st year of life; and cord blood concentrations of copper, zinc, vitamins (A and E), and glutathione peroxidase activity. We evaluated 240 1-year-old children from the Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study. Women were interviewed during pregnancy to collect demographic and socioeconomic data and medical and reproductive history. Exposure to tobacco constituents was assessed based on questionnaire data. At delivery, umbilical cord blood plasma was sampled. One year after the birth, the child's exposure and health status were examined. In the analyses a multivariable model was used. Higher zinc and copper concentrations in cord blood were associated with increased likelihood of wheezing in 1-year-old children. This effect was seen only among children exposed to tobacco smoke at home. We also showed significantly lower activity of glutathione peroxidase enzyme 3 in umbilical cord blood plasma of children with atopic dermatitis during the 1st year of life. There were no significant associations between vitamin A and E concentrations in plasma and children's health. We showed imbalance in the antioxidant defense system in cord blood, which may lead to development of atopic dermatitis or wheezing in infancy. The association between maternal nutrient status during pregnancy and child's health is complex and interacts with other environmental factors such as tobacco exposure. This study was a part of the clinical trial NCT01861548 registered at ClinicalTrials.gov.

  20. Favorable outcome in non-infant children with MLL-AF4-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a report from the Tokyo Children's Cancer Study Group.

    PubMed

    Tomizawa, Daisuke; Kato, Motohiro; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Fujimura, Junya; Inukai, Takeshi; Fukushima, Takashi; Kiyokawa, Nobutaka; Koh, Katsuyoshi; Manabe, Atsushi; Ohara, Akira

    2015-11-01

    Unlike acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in infants, MLL gene rearrangement (MLL-r) is rare in ALL children (≥1 year old). The outcome and optimal treatment options for MLL-r ALL remain controversial. Among the 1827 children enrolled in the Tokyo Children's Cancer Study Group ALL studies L95-14, L99-15, L99-1502, L04-16, and L07-1602 (1995-2009), 25 MLL-r ALL patients (1.3 %) were identified. Their median age and leukocyte count at diagnosis was 2 years old (range 1-15 years) and 27,690/μL (range 1800-1,113,000/μL), respectively. All but one patient achieved complete remission (CR) after induction therapy, and 19 underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in first CR according to the protocol. The 5-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) rate were 60.0 % [standard error (SE), 9.7 %] and 64.0 % (SE 9.6 %), respectively. Notably, 9/12 cases with MLL-AF4-positive ALL are alive in continuous CR with a 75.0 % (SE 12.5 %) EFS rate. The causes of treatment failure were as follows: one induction failure, five relapses, and five transplant-related deaths. With intensive chemotherapy and allogeneic HSCT, favorable outcome of children (≥1 year old) with MLL-AF4-positive ALL was observed. However, considering the risk of acute and late toxicities associated with HSCT, its indication should be restricted.

  1. Human exposure to trace elements through the skin by direct contact with clothing: Risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Rovira, Joaquim; Nadal, Martí; Schuhmacher, Marta; Domingo, José L.

    2015-07-15

    Metals in textile products and clothing are used for many purposes, such as metal complex dyes, pigments, mordant, catalyst in synthetic fabrics manufacture, synergists of flame retardants, antimicrobials, or as water repellents and odour-preventive agents. When present in textile materials, heavy metals may mean a potential danger to human health. In the present study, the concentrations of a number of elements (Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sn, Sr, Tl, V, and Zn) were determined in skin-contact clothes. Analysed clothes were made of different materials, colours, and brands. Interestingly, we found high levels of Cr in polyamide dark clothes (605 mg/kg), high Sb concentrations in polyester clothes (141 mg/kg), and great Cu levels in some green cotton fabrics (around 280 mg/kg). Dermal contact exposure and human health risks for adult males, adult females, and for <1-year-old children were assessed. Non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks were below safe (HQ<1) and acceptable (<10{sup −6}) limits, respectively, according to international standards. However, for Sb, non-carcinogenic risk was above 10% of the safety limit (HQ>0.1) for dermal contact with clothes. - Highlights: • We determined in skin-contact clothes the concentrations of a number of metals. • Dermal contact exposure and health risks for adults and for 1-year-old children were assessed. • Carcinogenic risks were considered as acceptable (<10{sup −6}). • For non-carcinogenic risks, only Sb exceeded a 10% of the HQ for dermal contact with clothes.

  2. Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Alpine Red Deer (Cervus elaphus): Its Spread and Effects on Fertility [corrected].

    PubMed

    Formenti, Nicoletta; Trogu, Tiziana; Pedrotti, Luca; Gaffuri, Alessandra; Lanfranchi, Paolo; Ferrari, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to the depth of knowledge on the pathological effects of parasitism in domestic animals, the impact of the vast majority of parasites on wildlife hosts is poorly understood and, besides, information from domestics is rarely usable to disclose the parasites' impact on free-ranging populations' dynamics. Here we use Toxoplasmosis as a study model since, until now, the infection process and the protozoan's effects in natural conditions has received little attention. We analysed 81 sera from red deer (Cervus elaphus) sampled in Italian Alps and through generalized linear models we evaluated (1) the epidemiological factors influencing T. gondii infection dynamics; (2) its impact on female fertility [corrected]. High seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was recorded in yearling (1 year-old; prevalence = 52.4%) and adult (>2 year-old; prevalence = 51.3%) red deer, while calves (<1 year-old) did not contract the infection suggesting horizontal transmission as the main route of infection. The stable prevalence between yearlings and adults and the higher serological titres of younger individuals lead to two alternative infection processes suggesting a difference between age classes or in acquiring the infection or in responding to the pathogen. No associations between T. gondii serological titres and pregnancy status was observed indicating no direct effect on the probability of being pregnant; nevertheless a relation between females' higher serological titres and lower foetal development emerged, suggesting potential effects of the parasite infection on deer reproduction. The results demonstrate high seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in free-ranging red deer and, furthermore, the effect on foetal development suggests the potential impact of the parasite on red deer fertility and thus on its population dynamics.

  3. Germination and ultrastructural studies of seeds produced by a fast-growing, drought-resistant tree: implications for its domestication and seed storage

    PubMed Central

    Fotouo-M, Helene; du Toit, Elsa S.; Robbertse, Petrus J.

    2015-01-01

    Seed ageing during storage is one of the main causes of reduction in seed quality and this results in loss of vigour and failure to thrive. Finding appropriate storage conditions to ameliorate deterioration due to ageing is, therefore, essential. Ultrastructural changes in cellular organelles during storage and seed germination rates are valuable indices of damage that occurs during seed ageing. There is increasing interest in Moringa oleifera Lam. because of its multiple uses as an agroforestry crop. Seeds of this species lose their viability within 6–12 months of harvest but no scientific information is available on the longevity of seed stored in the fruit (capsules). In most undeveloped countries, seeds are still stored inside the fruit by traditional methods in special handmade structures. In this experiment we tried to simulate these traditional storage conditions. Capsules of Moringa were stored at ambient room temperature for 12, 24 and 36 months. The ultrastructure, solute leakage and viability of seed were investigated. The ultrastructure of 1-year-old seed showed no sign of deterioration. It was evident, however, that some cells of the 3-year-old seed had deteriorated. The remnants of the outer and inner two integuments that remain tightly attached to the cotyledons probably play a role in seed dormancy. No significant difference was found between germination percentage of fresh and 1-year-old seed. The germination percentage decreased significantly from 2 years of storage onward. The decrease in seed viability during storage was associated with a loss in membrane integrity which was evidenced by an increase in electrolyte leakage. Our findings indicate that the longevity of M. oleifera seeds can be maintained if they are stored within their capsules. PMID:25725083

  4. Allocation to Reproduction and Relative Reproductive Costs in Two Species of Dioecious Anacardiaceae with Contrasting Phenology

    PubMed Central

    Matsuyama, Shuhei; Sakimoto, Michinori

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims The cost of reproduction in dioecious plants is often female-biased. However, several studies have reported no difference in costs of reproduction between the sexes. In this study, the relative reproductive allocation and costs at the shoot and whole-plant levels were examined in woody dioecious Rhus javanica and R. trichocarpa, in order to examine differences between types of phenophase (i.e. physiological stage of development). Methods Male and female Rhus javanica and R. trichocarpa were sampled and the reproductive and vegetative allocation of the shoot were estimated by harvesting reproductive current-year shoots during flowering and fruiting. Measurements were made of the number of reproductive and total current-year shoots per whole plant, and of the basal area increment (BAI). The numbers of reproductive and total current-year shoots per 1-year-old shoot were counted in order to examine the costs in the following year at the shoot level. Key Results A female-biased annual reproductive allocation was found; however, the ratio of reproductive current-year shoots per tree and the BAI did not differ between sexes in Rhus javanica and R. trichocarpa. The percentage of 1-year-old shoots with at least one reproductive current-year shoot was significantly male-biased in R. trichocarpa, but not in R. javanica, indicating that there was a relative cost at the shoot level only in R. trichocarpa. The female-biased leaf mass per shoot, an indicator of compensation for costs, was only found in R. javanica. Conclusions Relative reproductive costs at the shoot level were detected in Rhus trichocarpa, which has simultaneous leafing and flowering, but not in R. javanica, which has leafing followed by flowering. However, the costs for the whole-plant level were diminished in both species. The results suggest that the phenophase type may produce the different costs for R. javanica and R. trichocarpa through the development of a compensation mechanism. PMID

  5. 17α-Ethinylestradiol (EE2) treatment of wild roach (Rutilus rutilus) during early life development disrupts expression of genes directly involved in the feedback cycle of estrogen.

    PubMed

    Nikoleris, Lina; Hultin, Cecilia L; Hallgren, Per; Hansson, Maria C

    2016-02-01

    Fish are more sensitive to introduced disturbances from synthetic endocrine disrupting compounds during early life phases compared with mature stages. 17α-Ethinylestradiol (EE2), which is the active compound in human oral contraceptives and hormone replacement therapies, is today ever present in the effluents from sewage treatment plants. EE2 targets and interacts with the endogenous biological systems of exposed vertebrates resulting in to large extents unknown short- and long-term effects. We investigated how EE2 exposure affects expression profiles of a large number of target genes during early life of roach (Rutilus rutilus). We exposed fertilized roach eggs collected from a lake in Southern Sweden to EE2 for 12weeks together with 1+-year-old roach in aquaria. We measured the gene expression of the estrogen receptor (esr)1/2a/2b, androgen receptor (ar), vitellogenin, cytochrome P450 (cyp)19a1a/1b in fertilized eggs; newly hatched larvae; 12-week-old fry; and juvenile wild roach (1+-year-old). Results shows that an EE2 concentration as low as 0.5ng/L significantly affects gene expression during early development. Gene expression responses vary both among life stages and molecular receptors. We also show that the gene profile of the estrogen feedback cycle to a large extent depends on the relationship between the three esr genes and the two cyp19a1 genes, which are all up-regulated with age. Results indicate that a disruption of the natural activity of the dominant esr gene could lead to detrimental biological effects if EE2 exposure occurs during development, even if this exposure occurred for only a short period.

  6. Sulfadiazine uptake and effects in common hazel (Corylus avellana L.).

    PubMed

    Michelini, Lucia; Meggio, Franco; Reichel, Rüdiger; Thiele-Bruhn, Sören; Pitacco, Andrea; Scattolin, Linda; Montecchio, Lucio; Alberghini, Sara; Squartini, Andrea; Ghisi, Rossella

    2015-09-01

    Soil contamination by antibiotics is a possible consequence of animal husbandry waste, sewage sludge, and reclaimed water spreading in agriculture. In this study, 1-year-old hazel plants (Corylus avellana L.) were grown in pots for 64 days in soil spiked with sulfadiazine (SDZ) in the range 0.01-100 mg kg(-1) soil. Leaf gas exchanges, fluorescence parameters and plant growth were measured regularly during the experiment, whereas plant biomass, sulfonamide concentrations in soil and plant tissues, and the quantitative variation of culturable bacterial endophytes in leaf petiole were analyzed at the end of the trial. During the experiment, photosynthesis and leaf transpiration as well as fluorescence parameters were progressively reduced by the antibiotic. Effects were more evident for leaf transpiration and for the highest SDZ spiking concentrations, whereas growth analyses did not reveal negative effects of the antibiotic. At the end of the trial, a high number of culturable endophytic bacteria in the leaf petiole of plants treated with 0.1 and 0.01 mg kg(-1) were observed, and SDZ was extractable from soil and plant roots for spiking concentrations ≥1 mg kg(-1). Inside plants, the antibiotic was mainly stored at the root level with bioconcentration factors increasing with the spiking dose, and the hydroxylated derivate 4-OH-SDZ was the only metabolite detected. Overall results show that 1-year-old hazel plants can contribute to the reduction of sulfonamide concentrations in the environment, however, sensitive reactions to SDZ can be expected at the highest contamination levels.

  7. Infant Mortality Risk and Paternity Certainty Are Associated with Postnatal Maternal Behavior toward Adult Male Mountain Gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei)

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbaum, Stacy; Hirwa, Jean Paul; Silk, Joan B.; Vigilant, Linda; Stoinski, Tara S.

    2016-01-01

    Sexually selected infanticide is an important source of infant mortality in many mammalian species. In species with long-term male-female associations, females may benefit from male protection against infanticidal outsiders. We tested whether mountain gorilla (Gorilla beringei beringei) mothers in single and multi-male groups monitored by the Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund’s Karisoke Research Center actively facilitated interactions between their infants and a potentially protective male. We also evaluated the criteria mothers in multi-male groups used to choose a preferred male social partner. In single male groups, where infanticide risk and paternity certainty are high, females with infants <1 year old spent more time near and affiliated more with males than females without young infants. In multi-male groups, where infanticide rates and paternity certainty are lower, mothers with new infants exhibited few behavioral changes toward males. The sole notable change was that females with young infants proportionally increased their time near males they previously spent little time near when compared to males they had previously preferred, perhaps to encourage paternity uncertainty and deter aggression. Rank was a much better predictor of females’ social partner choice than paternity. Older infants (2–3 years) in multi-male groups mirrored their mothers’ preferences for individual male social partners; 89% spent the most time in close proximity to the male their mother had spent the most time near when they were <1 year old. Observed discrepancies between female behavior in single and multi-male groups likely reflect different levels of postpartum intersexual conflict; in groups where paternity certainty and infanticide risk are both high, male-female interests align and females behave accordingly. This highlights the importance of considering individual and group-level variation when evaluating intersexual conflict across the reproductive cycle. PMID:26863300

  8. Toxoplasma gondii infection among sheep and goats in Iran: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sharif, M; Sarvi, Sh; Shokri, A; Hosseini Teshnizi, S; Rahimi, M T; Mizani, A; Ahmadpour, E; Daryani, A

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis, a cosmopolitan parasitic infection caused by Toxoplasma gondii, is frequently found in meat-producing animals and human beings. This review and meta-analysis study was performed to evaluate the overall prevalence of T. gondii infection among sheep and goats in Iran. Data were systematically collected from 1977 to 2012 in Iran on the following electronic databases: PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, Scopus, Web of Science, Magiran, Irandoc, IranMedex, and Scientific Information Database (SID). Additionally, abstracts of national scientific congresses and dissertations were included. A total of 34 articles in field of sheep and 18 articles about goat toxoplasmosis, totalizing to the examination of 14,372 sheep and 3,120 goats, reporting prevalence of toxoplasmosis from different regions of Iran fulfilled our eligibility criteria. The overall prevalence rate of toxoplasmosis in Iran was estimated to be 31% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.259825 to 0.352382) in sheep and 27% (95% CI = 0.140097 to 0.424782) in goats, respectively. There was no significant difference in infection rate between males and females among sheep (odds ratio (OR) = 1.002, 95% CI = 0.59 to 1.696) and goats (OR = 1.027, 95% CI = 0.685 to 1.541). Analysis revealed that infection rate in sheep over than 1 year old was 2.4 times more than that in less than 1 year old (OR = 2.396, 95% CI = 1.050 to 5.467). This systematic review and meta-analysis study revealed that infection is widespread in Iran. Further studies are required to improve strategies for controlling infection among flocks and consequently in human population.

  9. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in breeding kennel dogs in Japan.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Naoyuki; Kanai, Kazutaka; Kimura, Yuya; Chikazawa, Seishiro; Hori, Yasutomo; Hoshi, Fumio

    2015-03-01

    The present study is the first to show overall prevalences of intestinal parasites among breeding kennel dogs in Japan. A total of 573 fresh fecal samples were collected from dogs at 12 breeding kennels. Giardia-specific coproantigen was examined by ELISA kit (SNAP(®) Giardia, IDEXX Laboratories, Inc., Maine, USA). Other intestinal parasites were determined microscopically using the formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation technique. Overall prevalences of two genera of protists, Giardia spp. and Cystoisospora spp., were 25.7 and 1.2 %, respectively. The prevalence of helminthes was recorded as: Toxocara canis 0.2 %, Toxascaris leonina 0.9 %, Ancylostoma caninum 0.2 %, Trichuris vulpis 2.1 %, and Spirometra erinacei 0.4 %. According to age categories, Giardia spp., Cystoisospora spp., and T. leonina in <1-year-old dogs were significantly more prevalent than in ≥ 1-year-old dogs (61.0 vs. 19.8 %, P < 0.0001; 7.3 vs. 0.2 %, P < 0.0001; and 4.9 vs. 0.2 %, P < 0.001; respectively). With respect to fecal condition, the prevalences of T. leonina and T. vulpis were significantly higher in unformed stool dogs than in formed ones (2.4 vs. 0 %, P < 0.01, and 4.3 vs. 0.8 %, P < 0.05, respectively). In all of the breeding kennels except for one kennel, intestinal parasite infections were found at the high prevalent, ranging from 16.0 to 70.0 %.

  10. Germination and ultrastructural studies of seeds produced by a fast-growing, drought-resistant tree: implications for its domestication and seed storage.

    PubMed

    Fotouo-M, Helene; du Toit, Elsa S; Robbertse, Petrus J

    2015-02-27

    Seed ageing during storage is one of the main causes of reduction in seed quality and this results in loss of vigour and failure to thrive. Finding appropriate storage conditions to ameliorate deterioration due to ageing is, therefore, essential. Ultrastructural changes in cellular organelles during storage and seed germination rates are valuable indices of damage that occurs during seed ageing. There is increasing interest in Moringa oleifera Lam. because of its multiple uses as an agroforestry crop. Seeds of this species lose their viability within 6-12 months of harvest but no scientific information is available on the longevity of seed stored in the fruit (capsules). In most undeveloped countries, seeds are still stored inside the fruit by traditional methods in special handmade structures. In this experiment we tried to simulate these traditional storage conditions. Capsules of Moringa were stored at ambient room temperature for 12, 24 and 36 months. The ultrastructure, solute leakage and viability of seed were investigated. The ultrastructure of 1-year-old seed showed no sign of deterioration. It was evident, however, that some cells of the 3-year-old seed had deteriorated. The remnants of the outer and inner two integuments that remain tightly attached to the cotyledons probably play a role in seed dormancy. No significant difference was found between germination percentage of fresh and 1-year-old seed. The germination percentage decreased significantly from 2 years of storage onward. The decrease in seed viability during storage was associated with a loss in membrane integrity which was evidenced by an increase in electrolyte leakage. Our findings indicate that the longevity of M. oleifera seeds can be maintained if they are stored within their capsules.

  11. Kinetics of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT I) in Chinese sucker (Myxocyprinus asiaticus) change with its development.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cai-Xia; Luo, Zhi; Hu, Wei; Tan, Xiao-Ying; Zheng, Jia-Lang; Chen, Qi-Liang; Zhu, Qing-Ling

    2014-02-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the ontogeny and kinetic of CPT I in several tissues of the Chinese sucker Myxocyprinus asiaticus. To this end, liver, muscle and intestine tissues were examined at five various developmental stages of Chinese sucker: newly-hatched larvae, 68-day-old, 4-month-old, 1- and 2-year-old Chinese sucker, respectively. The total carnitine (TC) content in the liver increased from birth to 1-year-old Chinese sucker and then declined in the 2-year-old Chinese sucker. From the 68-day-old to the 1-year-old Chinese sucker, both free and total concentrations in muscle increased. Both acyl carnitine (AC) and TC concentrations in intestine were very variable at different stages. The ratio of AC to free carnitine (FC) in liver progressively increased from hatching to 4 months, and declined at the age of 1 year, and then increased by 2 years. In muscle, the highest and lowest ratios of AC/FC were observed at 68-days-old and 4 month-old Chinese sucker. The highest proportion of AC/FC in intestine was also observed at 68-day-old Chinese sucker. All the Chinese sucker larvae at hatching had a high value of the Michaelis constant (K(m)) for carnitine. Maximal velocity (V(max)) in intestine increased with age. V(max) in liver and muscle increased with age except a decrease at 4 months in liver and at 2 years in muscle. The FC concentration in the examined tissues at all developmental stages were less than the respective K(m), indicating that Chinese suckers require supplemental carnitine in their food to ensure that CPT I activity is not constrained by carnitine availability.

  12. Solid-State Disk with Double Data Rate DRAM Interface for High-Performance PCs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dong; Bang, Kwanhu; Ha, Seung-Hwan; Park, Chanik; Chung, Sung Woo; Chung, Eui-Young

    We propose a Solid-State Disk (SSD) with a Double Data Rate (DDR) DRAM interface for high-performance PCs. Traditional SSDs simply inherit the interface protocol of Hard Disk Drives (HDD) such as Parallel Advanced Technology Attachment (PATA) or Serial-ATA (SATA) for maintaining the compatibility. However, SSD itself provides much higher performance than HDD, hence the interface also needs to be enhanced. Unlike the traditional SSDs, the proposed SSD with DDR DRAM interface is placed in the North Bridge which provides two or more DDR DRAM interface ports in high-performance PCs. The novelty of our work is on DQS signaling scheme which allows arbitrary Column Address Strobe (CAS) latency unlike typical DDR DRAM interface scheme. The experimental results show that the proposed SSD maximally outperforms the traditional SSD by 8.7 times in read mode, by 1.5 times in write mode. Also, for synthetic workloads, the proposed scheme shows performance improvement over the conventional architecture by a factor of 1.6 times.

  13. Chilean Astronomers and the Birth of Cerro Tololo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, H.

    1990-11-01

    P# JMEN. Hace treinta afios que se tnict6 en Chile la de n luga adecuado pata establecer observatoro astron6ini- Co, que a en wi ieflector de 1 in de diam'etrr . importante destacar el papel que le corres-pondi6 al Obseiwatorio Nacional de Ia Universidad de `Chile -- re'.-. tarde Departamento de de la inisma Univer- sidad .- en 1 de este proycoto. Los resultados han ido mucho mct5 impoftaftes lo esperado . de tal nodo q. el prc -ama destinado a instalar ui telescopio de tama- f ha I levado al establ ecimiento de iri centro de acti- cientfica de relieve inten-acional. ALb(TRA . Thifty years ago the search for a site adequate for the est 1ishment of an astronomical was fn (Thile. Initially it was planned that the main telescope would be a 1 in i-cf lector. It is importaft to the role played by th O Astm-'n6mioo Nacional de la Unfversidad de Cbf Ic - later 0: Depaftamento de of the same University - in the development of this project. The results have been much more important than was e:-:pected initially: in thiS way the prr gram for a telescope of moderate size was transfo -med in a major project wh i ch 1 cad to the estab 1 ). shinent of an i nt i ona 1 center of scieftific research. AQ/ W : OBSERVATORIES

  14. Motor representations of articulators contribute to categorical perception of speech sounds.

    PubMed

    Möttönen, Riikka; Watkins, Kate E

    2009-08-05

    Listening to speech modulates activity in human motor cortex. It is unclear, however, whether the motor cortex has an essential role in speech perception. Here, we aimed to determine whether the motor representations of articulators contribute to categorical perception of speech sounds. Categorization of continuously variable acoustic signals into discrete phonemes is a fundamental feature of speech communication. We used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to temporarily disrupt the lip representation in the left primary motor cortex. This disruption impaired categorical perception of artificial acoustic continua ranging between two speech sounds that differed in place of articulation, in that the vocal tract is opened and closed rapidly either with the lips or the tip of the tongue (/ba/-/da/ and /pa/-/ta/). In contrast, it did not impair categorical perception of continua ranging between speech sounds that do not involve the lips in their articulation (/ka/-/ga/ and /da/-/ga/). Furthermore, an rTMS-induced disruption of the hand representation had no effect on categorical perception of either of the tested continua (/ba/-da/ and /ka/-/ga/). These findings indicate that motor circuits controlling production of speech sounds also contribute to their perception. Mapping acoustically highly variable speech sounds onto less variable motor representations may facilitate their phonemic categorization and be important for robust speech perception.

  15. Genetic characterization of the hmp locus, a chemotaxis-like gene cluster that regulates hormogonium development and motility in Nostoc punctiforme.

    PubMed

    Risser, Douglas D; Chew, William G; Meeks, John C

    2014-04-01

    Filamentous cyanobacteria are capable of gliding motility, but the mechanism of motility is not well defined. Here we present a detailed characterization of the hmp locus from Nostoc punctiforme, which encodes chemotaxis-like proteins. Deletions of hmpB, C, D and E abolished differentiation of hormogonia under standard growth conditions, but, upon addition of a symbiotic partner exudate, the mutant strains differentiated hormogonium-like filaments that lacked motility and failed to secrete hormogonium specific polysaccharide. The hmp locus is expressed as two transcripts, one originating 5' of hmpA and encompassing the entire hmp locus, and the other 5' of hmpB and encompassing hmpBCDE. The CheA-like HmpE donates phosphate to its own C-terminal receiver domain, and to the CheY-like HmpB, but not to the PatA family CheY-like HmpA. A GFP-tagged variant of each hmp locus protein localized to a ring adjacent to the septum on each end of the rod-shaped cell. Immunofluorescence demonstrated that PilA localizes to a ring at the junction between cells. The phenotype of the deletion strains, and the localization of the Hmp proteins and the putative PilA protein to rings at the cell junctions are consistent with the hypothesis that these proteins are part of the junctional pore complex observed in a number of filamentous cyanobacteria.

  16. An activated triple bond linker enables 'click' attachment of peptides to oligonucleotides on solid support.

    PubMed

    Wenska, Malgorzata; Alvira, Margarita; Steunenberg, Peter; Stenberg, Asa; Murtola, Merita; Strömberg, Roger

    2011-11-01

    A general procedure, based on a new activated alkyne linker, for the preparation of peptide-oligonucleotide conjugates (POCs) on solid support has been developed. With this linker, conjugation is effective at room temperature (RT) in millimolar concentration and submicromolar amounts. This is made possible since the use of a readily attachable activated triple bond linker enhances the Cu(I) catalyzed 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition ('click' reaction). The preferred scheme for conjugate preparation involves sequential conjugation to oligonucleotides on solid support of (i) an H-phosphonate-based aminolinker; (ii) the triple bond donor p-(N-propynoylamino)toluic acid (PATA); and (iii) azido-functionalized peptides. The method gives conversion of oligonucleotide to the POC on solid support, and only involves a single purification step after complete assembly. The synthesis is flexible and can be carried out without the need for specific automated synthesizers since it has been designed to utilize commercially available oligonucleotide and peptide derivatives on solid support or in solution. Methodology for the ready conversion of peptides into 'clickable' azidopeptides with the possibility of selecting either N-terminus or C-terminus connection also adds to the flexibility and usability of the method. Examples of synthesis of POCs include conjugates of oligonucleotides with peptides known to be membrane penetrating and nuclear localization signals.

  17. The structure of the cyanobactin domain of unknown function from PatG in the patellamide gene cluster

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, Greg; Koehnke, Jesko; Bent, Andrew F.; Graham, Rachael; Houssen, Wael; Jaspars, Marcel; Schwarz-Linek, Uli; Naismith, James H.

    2014-11-14

    The highly conserved domain of unknown function in the cyanobactin superfamily has a novel fold. The protein does not appear to bind the most plausible substrates, leaving questions as to its role. Patellamides are members of the cyanobactin family of ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified cyclic peptide natural products, many of which, including some patellamides, are biologically active. A detailed mechanistic understanding of the biosynthetic pathway would enable the construction of a biotechnological ‘toolkit’ to make novel analogues of patellamides that are not found in nature. All but two of the protein domains involved in patellamide biosynthesis have been characterized. The two domains of unknown function (DUFs) are homologous to each other and are found at the C-termini of the multi-domain proteins PatA and PatG. The domain sequence is found in all cyanobactin-biosynthetic pathways characterized to date, implying a functional role in cyanobactin biosynthesis. Here, the crystal structure of the PatG DUF domain is reported and its binding interactions with plausible substrates are investigated.

  18. Time Course Analysis of Skeletal Muscle Pathology of GDE5 Transgenic Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Yoshizawa, Ikumi; Kajihara, Kaori; Kato, Norihisa; Wada, Masanobu; Yanaka, Noriyuki

    2016-01-01

    Glycerophosphodiesterase 5 (GDE5) selectively hydrolyses glycerophosphocholine to choline and is highly expressed in type II fiber-rich skeletal muscles. We have previously generated that a truncated mutant of GDE5 (GDE5dC471) that lacks phosphodiesterase activity and shown that transgenic mice overexpressing GDE5dC471 in skeletal muscles show less skeletal muscle mass than control mice. However, the molecular mechanism and pathophysiological features underlying decreased skeletal muscle mass in GDE5dC471 mice remain unclear. In this study, we characterized the skeletal muscle disorder throughout development and investigated the primary cause of muscle atrophy. While type I fiber-rich soleus muscle mass was not altered in GDE5dC471 mice, type II fiber-rich muscle mass was reduced in 8-week-old GDE5dC471 mice. Type II fiber-rich muscle mass continued to decrease irreversibly in 1-year-old transgenic mice with an increase in apoptotic cell. Adipose tissue weight and blood triglyceride levels in 8-week-old and 1-year-old transgenic mice were higher than those in control mice. This study also demonstrated compensatory mRNA expression of neuromuscular junction (NMJ) components, including nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α1, γ, and ε subunits) and acetylcholinesterase in type II fiber-rich quadriceps muscles in GDE5dC471 mice. However, we did not observe morphological changes in NMJs associated with skeletal muscle atrophy in GDE5dC471 mice. We also found that HSP70 protein levels are significantly increased in the skeletal muscles of 2-week-old GDE5dC471 mice and in mouse myoblastic C2C12 cells overexpressing GDE5dC471. These findings suggest that GDE5dC471 mouse is a novel model of early-onset irreversible type II fiber-rich myopathy associated with cellular stress. PMID:27658304

  19. FDTD calculations of specific energy absorption rate in a seated voxel model of the human body from 10 MHz to 3 GHz.

    PubMed

    Findlay, R P; Dimbylow, P J

    2006-05-07

    Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) calculations have been performed to investigate the frequency dependence of the specific energy absorption rate (SAR) in a seated voxel model of the human body. The seated model was derived from NORMAN (NORmalized MAN), an anatomically realistic voxel phantom in the standing posture with arms to the side. Exposure conditions included both vertically and horizontally polarized plane wave electric fields between 10 MHz and 3 GHz. The resolution of the voxel model was 4 mm for frequencies up to 360 MHz and 2 mm for calculations in the higher frequency range. The reduction in voxel size permitted the calculation of SAR at these higher frequencies using the FDTD method. SAR values have been calculated for the seated adult phantom and scaled versions representing 10-, 5- and 1-year-old children under isolated and grounded conditions. These scaled models do not exactly reproduce the dimensions and anatomy of children, but represent good geometric information for a seated child. Results show that, when the field is vertically polarized, the sitting position causes a second, smaller resonance condition not seen in resonance curves for the phantom in the standing posture. This occurs at approximately 130 MHz for the adult model when grounded. Partial-body SAR calculations indicate that the upper and lower regions of the body have their own resonant frequency at approximately 120 MHz and approximately 160 MHz, respectively, when the grounded adult model is orientated in the sitting position. These combine to produce this second resonance peak in the whole-body averaged SAR values calculated. Two resonance peaks also occur for the sitting posture when the incident electric field is horizontally polarized. For the adult model, the peaks in the whole-body averaged SAR occur at approximately 180 and approximately 600 MHz. These peaks are due to resonance in the arms and feet, respectively. Layer absorption plots and colour images of SAR in

  20. Angular on-line tube current modulation in multidetector CT examinations of children and adults: The influence of different scanning parameters on dose reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Papadakis, Antonios E.; Perisinakis, Kostas; Damilakis, John

    2007-07-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess the potential of angular on-line tube current modulation on dose reduction in pediatric and adult patients undergoing multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) examinations. Five physical anthropomorphic phantoms that simulate the average individual as neonate, 1-year-old, 5-year-old, 10-year-old, and adult were employed in the current study. Phantoms were scanned with the use of on-line tube current modulation (TCM). Percent dose reduction (%DR) factors achieved by applying TCM, were determined for standard protocols used for head and neck, shoulder, thorax, thorax and abdomen, abdomen, abdomen and pelvis, pelvis, and whole body examinations. A preliminary study on the application of TCM in MDCT examinations of adult patients was performed to validate the results obtained in anthropomorphic phantoms. Dose reduction was estimated as the percentage difference of the modulated milliamperes for each scan and the preset milliamperes prescribed by the scan protocol. The dose reduction in children was found to be much lower than the corresponding reduction achieved for adults. For helical scans the %DR factors, ranged between 1.6% and 7.4% for the neonate, 2.9% and 8.7% for the 1-year old, 2% and 6% for the 5-year-old, 5% and 10.9% for the 10-year-old, and 10.4% and 20.7% for the adult individual. For sequential scans the corresponding %DR factors ranged between 1.3% and 6.7%, 4.5% and 11%, 4.2% and 6.6%, 6.4% and 12.3%, and 8.9% and 23.3%, respectively. Broader beam collimations are associated with decreased %DR factors, when other scanning parameters are held constant. TCM did not impair image noise. In adult patients, the %DR values were found to be in good agreement with the corresponding results obtained in the anthropomorphic adult phantom. In conclusion, on-line TCM may be considered as a valuable tool for reducing dose in routine CT examinations of pediatric and adult patients. However, the dose reduction achieved with TCM

  1. Nitrate reductase is induced in red spruce by NO sub 2 and HNO sub 3 vapor

    SciTech Connect

    Norby, R.J.; Hanson, P.J. ); Weerasuiya, Y. )

    1989-04-01

    The activity of nitrate reductase (NR) in needles of red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) trees is normally very low: 220 nmol{center dot}g{sup {minus}1}{center dot}h{sup {minus}1} in 1-year-old nursery-grown seedlings and 47 nmol{center dot}g{sup {minus}1}{center dot}h{sup {minus}1} in plants excavated from a high-elevation spruce forest. The assimilation of nitrogen oxide pollutants absorbed from the atmosphere by red spruce trees may, therefore, require that NR is induced in the needles. To test for induction of NR, 1-year-old, nursery-grown red spruce seedlings were exposed to NO{sub 2}, HNO{sub 3} vapor, or acid mist containing nitrate, and the activity of NR in needles was measured using an in vivo assay. One day after exposure to NO{sub 2} (75 nl{center dot}l{sup {minus}1}) began, NR activity had increased to 765 nmol{center dot}g{sup {minus}1}{center dot}h{sup {minus}1}, more than 3 times that of unexposed control plants. During the 7-day exposure, NR activity of the treated seedlings declined 36%, but it remained significantly higher than that of controls. One day after exposure ended, NR activity returned to the control level. Forest-frown seedlings exhibited a similar response to NO{sub 2}, but at a much lower level. Nitric acid vapor (75 nl{center dot}l{sup {minus}1}) also induced NR in red spruce needles, and the pattern and magnitude of response were similar to that with NO{sub 2}, except that the NR activity did not return to control levels until 2 days after exposure ended. Exposure of seedlings to simulated acid mist containing nitrate (pH 3.5 and pH 5.0) did not result in a significant change in NR activity. These results indicate that red spruce is capable of assimilating NO{sub 2} and HNO{sub 3} vapor, and that hypotheses of forest decline based on foliar assimilation of pollutant nitrogen oxides are tenable.

  2. Surveillance for hospitalized acute respiratory infection in Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Verani, Jennifer R; McCracken, John; Arvelo, Wences; Estevez, Alejandra; Lopez, Maria Renee; Reyes, Lissette; Moir, Juan Carlos; Bernart, Chris; Moscoso, Fabiola; Gray, Jennifer; Olsen, Sonja J; Lindblade, Kim A

    2013-01-01

    Acute respiratory infections (ARI) are an important cause of illness and death worldwide, yet data on the etiology of ARI and the population-level burden in developing countries are limited. Surveillance for ARI was conducted at two hospitals in Guatemala. Patients admitted with at least one sign of acute infection and one sign or symptom of respiratory illness met the criteria for a case of hospitalized ARI. Nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swabs were collected and tested by polymerase chain reaction for adenovirus, parainfluenza virus types 1,2 and 3, respiratory syncytial virus, influenza A and B viruses, human metapneumovirus, Chlamydia pneumioniae, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Urine specimens were tested for Streptococcus pneumoniae antigen. Blood culture and chest radiograph were done at the discretion of the treating physician. Between November 2007 and December 2011, 3,964 case-patients were enrolled. While cases occurred among all age groups, 2,396 (60.4%) cases occurred in children <5 years old and 463 (11.7%) among adults ≥65 years old. Viruses were found in 52.6% of all case-patients and 71.8% of those aged <1 year old; the most frequently detected was respiratory syncytial virus, affecting 26.4% of case-patients. Urine antigen testing for Streptococcus pneumoniae performed for case-patients ≥15 years old was positive in 15.1% of those tested. Among 2,364 (59.6%) of case-patients with a radiograph, 907 (40.0%) had findings suggestive of bacterial pneumonia. Overall, 230 (5.9%) case-patients died during the hospitalization. Using population denominators, the observed hospitalized ARI incidence was 128 cases per 100,000, with the highest rates seen among children <1 year old (1,703 per 100,000), followed by adults ≥65 years old (292 per 100,000). These data, which demonstrate a substantial burden of hospitalized ARI in Guatemala due to a variety of pathogens, can help guide public health policies aimed at reducing the burden of illness and death due to

  3. Effects of nitric oxide synthase deficiency on a disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 12 expression in mouse brain samples.

    PubMed

    Lendeckel, Uwe; Wolke, Carmen; Bernstein, Hans-Gert; Keilhoff, Gerburg

    2015-08-01

    A disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 12 (ADAM12) belongs to the ADAM family of transmembrane proteins. Via proteolysis, cell adhesion, cell-cell fusion, cell-matrix interaction and membrane protein shedding, ADAM proteins are involved in normal brain development, and also in cancer genesis and progression, and in inflammation. Therefore, neurobiological research focusing on this protein is increasing. Nitric oxide (NO), which is endogenously produced by NO synthases (NOS), is associated with glial tumors. However, knock-out of NOS produces only limited antitumor effects. The present study analyzed the expression of ADAM12 in the cortex and hippocampus of C57/BL6 wild-type mice, and endothelial NOS-, neuronal NOS-(nNOS) or inducible NOS (iNOS)-deficient (-/-) mice, at different stages of development. Expression of ADAM12 was quantified using immunoblot analysis of cortical and hippocampal tissue samples from fetal, neonatal (5 days postnatal), adult (12 weeks old) or >1 year old mice. Using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, ADAM12 expression was analyzed in cultured N9, OLN93, C6 and PC12 cells, representing the four main cell types in the brain, following NOS inhibition. ADAM12 expression was low in all mouse genotypes and regions of the brain, and in fetal and neonatal mice, an increase in expression was observed with increasing age. The highest levels of expression were observed in the cortex of adult mice, iNOS(-/-) mice of >1 year and wild-type mice, and in the hippocampus of adult and iNOS(-/-) mice of >1 year. By contrast, ADAM12 expression was lowest in adult nNOS(-/-) mice. Inhibition of NOS using N(ω)-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride, induced ADAM12 mRNA expression in N9 and PC12 cell lines. Inhibition of NOS using L-N(6)-(1-Iminoethyl)lysine dihydrochloride, induced ADAM12 mRNA expression in N9 and C6 cell lines. No change in ADAM12 expression was observed in OLN93 cells following NOS

  4. Contribution of in utero drug exposure when interpreting hair results in young children.

    PubMed

    Kintz, P

    2015-04-01

    Hair specimen is necessary to complement blood and/or urine analyses as it permits differentiation of a single exposure from chronic use of a drug by segmentation of the hair for a stated growth period. Moreover, due to a frequent long delay between event and police declaration, hair can be the only solution for lack of corroborative evidence of a committed crime. With the exception of lower amount of biological material in children versus adults, there is no specific analytical problem when processing samples from children. The issue is the interpretation of the findings, with respect to the different pharmacological parameters. In some very young children, the interpretation can be complicated by potential in utero exposure. Twenty-four cases from daily practice have been reviewed. Children were less than 1 year old, hair was always longer than 4 cm and the corresponding mothers admitted having used drugs during pregnancy. Drugs involved include methadone, tramadol, diphenhydramine, diazepam, cannabis, heroin, amitriptyline and bromazepam. Analyses were achieved by hyphenated chromatographic validated procedures after hair decontamination and segmentation. The concentrations measured in the hair of children were lower than those observed in subjects using therapeutically (or illegally) these drugs. In that sense, the frequency of exposures appears as un-frequent (low level of exposure), with marked decrease in the more recent period. However, the parents denied any administration in all cases and there was no reason to suspect re-exposure after delivery and no clinical problem during the period between delivery and hair collection during regular visits to the physician was noticed. The pattern of drug distribution was similar in all these cases, low concentrations in the proximal segments and highest concentration in the distal segment (last segment). When considering the concentration in the distal segment as the 100% of the response (highest concentration

  5. Species-specific photosynthetic responses of four coniferous seedlings to open-field experimental warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, S.; Yoon, S. J.; Yoon, T. K.; Han, S. H.; Lee, J.; Lee, D.; Kim, S.; Hwang, J.; Cho, M.; Son, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Temperature increase under climate change is expected to affect photosynthesis of tree species. Biochemical models generally suggest that the elevated temperature increases the photosynthetic carbon fixation, however, many opposing results were reported as well. We aimed to examine the photosynthetic responses of four coniferous seedlings to projected future temperature increase, by conducting an open-field warming experiment. Experimental warming set-up using infra-red heater was built in 2011 and the temperature in warming plots has been regulated to be consistently 3oC higher than that of control plots. The seeds of Abies holophylla (AH), A. koreana (AK), Pinus densiflora (PD), and P. koraiensis (PK) were planted in each 1 m × 1 m plot (n=3) in April, 2012. Monthly net photosynthetic rates (Pn; μmol CO2 m-2 s-1) of 1-year-old seedlings (n=9) from June to November, 2013 were measured using CIRAS-2 (PP-Systems, UK) and photosynthetic parameters (the apparent quantum yield; ф; µmol CO2 mol-1, the dark respiration rate; Rd; µmol CO2 mol-1, and the light compensation point; LCP; µmol mol-1 s-1) were also calculated from the light-response curve of photosynthesis in August, 2013. Chlorophyll contents were measured using DMSO extraction method. Monthly Pn was generally higher for PD and decreased for AK in warmed plots than in control plots (Fig. 1). Pn of AK and PK did not show any significant difference, however, Pn of PK in October and November increased by experimental warming. Pn of PD also showed the highest increase in November and this distinct increase of Pn in autumn might be caused by delayed cessation of photosynthesis by temperature elevation. ф and Rd in warmed plots were higher for PD and lower for AK, while LCP did not significantly differ by treatments for all species. Because ф is considered to be related to the efficiency of harvesting and using light, the change in ф might have caused the response of Pn to warming in this study. Decreases

  6. Status and trends in demography of northern spotted owls, 1985-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anthony, R.G.; Forsman, E.D.; Franklin, A.B.; Anderson, D.R.; Burnham, K.P.; White, Gary C.; Schwarz, C.J.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.; Olson, G.S.; Ackers, S.H.; Andrews, L.S.; Biswell, B.L.; Carlson, P.C.; Diller, L.V.; Dugger, K.M.; Fehring, K.E.; Fleming, T.L.; Gerhardt, R.P.; Gremel, S.A.; Gutierrez, R.J.; Happe, P.J.; Herter, D.R.; Higley, J.M.; Horn, R.B.; Irwin, L.L.; Loschl, P.J.; Reid, J.A.; Sovern, S.G.; Krausman, P.R.

    2006-01-01

    We analyzed demographic data from northern spotted owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) from 14 study areas in Washington, Oregon, and California for 1985-2003. The purpose of our analyses was to provide an assessment of the status and trends of northern spotted owl populations throughout most of their geographic range. The 14 study areas made up approximately 12% of the range of the subspecies and included federal, tribal, private, and mixed federal and private lands. The study areas also included all the major forest types that the subspecies inhabits. The analyses followed rigorous protocols that were developed a priori and were the result of extensive discussions and consensus among the authors. Our primary objectives were to estimate fecundity, apparent survival (??), and annual rate of population change (??) and to determine if there were any temporal trends in these population parameters. In addition to analyses of data from individual study areas, we conducted 2 meta-analyses on each demographic parameter. One meta-analysis was conducted on all 14 areas, and the other was restricted to the 8 areas that constituted the Effectiveness Monitoring Plan for northern spotted owls under the Northwest Forest Plan. The average number of years of reproductive data per study area was 14 (range = 5-19), and the average number of recapture occasions per study area was 13 (range = 4-18). Only 1 study area had 1 year old. We found no differences in apparent survival rates between sexes except for 1 area (Marin), which had only 6 years of data. Estimates of apparent survival from individual study areas indicated that there were differences among age classes with adults generally having higher survival than 1- and 2-year-olds. Apparent survival rates ranged from 0.750 (SE=0.026) to 0.886 (SE=0.010) for adults, 0.626 (SE=0.073) to 0.886 (SE=0.010) for 2-year-olds, and 0.415 (SE=0.111) to 0.860 (SE=0.017) for 1-year-olds. These estimates were comparable to survival rates from

  7. Normalized dose data for upper gastrointestinal tract contrast studies performed to infants

    SciTech Connect

    Damilakis, John; Stratakis, John; Raissaki, Maria; Perisinakis, Kostas; Kourbetis, Nikiforos; Gourtsoyiannis, Nicholas

    2006-04-15

    The aim of the current study was to (a) provide normalized dose data for the estimation of the radiation dose from upper gastrointestinal tract contrast (UGIC) studies carried out to infants and (b) estimate the average patient dose and risks associated with radiation from UGIC examinations performed in our institution. Organ and effective doses, normalized to entrance skin dose (ESD) and dose area product (DAP) were estimated for UGIC procedures utilizing the Monte Carlo N-particle (MCNP) transport code and two mathematical phantoms, one corresponding to the size of a newborn and one to the size of a 1-year-old child. The validity of the MCNP results was verified by comparison with dose data obtained in physical anthropomorphic phantoms simulating a newborn and a 1-year-old infant using thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD). Data were also collected from 25 consecutive UGIC examinations performed to infants. Study participants were (a) 12 infants aged from 0.5 to 5.9 months (group 1) and (b) 13 infants aged from 6 to 15 months (group 2). For each examination, ESD and dose to comforters were measured using TLD. Patient effective doses were estimated using normalized dose data obtained in the simulation study. The risk for fatal cancer induction was estimated using appropriate coefficients. The results consist of tabulated dose data normalized to ESD or DAP for the estimation of patient dose. Conversion coefficients were estimated for various tube potentials and beam filtration values. The mean total fluoroscopy time was 1.26 and 1.62 min for groups 1 and 2, respectively. The average effective dose was 1.6 mSv for group 1 and 1.9 mSv for group 2. The risk of cancer attributable to the radiation exposure associated with a typical UGIC study was found to be up to 3 per 10 000 infants undergoing an UGIC examination. The mean radiation dose absorbed by the hands of comforters was 47 {mu}Gy. In conclusion, estimation of radiation doses associated with UGIC studies performed

  8. Children's mouthing and food-handling behavior in an agricultural community on the US/Mexico border.

    PubMed

    Black, Kathleen; Shalat, Stuart L; Freeman, Natalie C G; Jimenez, Marta; Donnelly, Kirby C; Calvin, James A

    2005-05-01

    Children's mouthing and food-handling activities were measured during a study of nondietary ingestion of pesticides in a south Texas community. Mouthing data on 52 children, ranging in age from 7 to 53 months, were collected using questionnaires and videotaping. Data on children's play and hand-washing habits were also collected. Children were grouped into four age categories: infants (7-12 months), 1-year-olds (13-24 months), 2-year-olds (25-36 months) and preschoolers (37-53 months). The frequency and type of events prompting hand washing did not vary by age category except for hand washing after using the bathroom; this increased with increasing age category. Reported contact with grass and dirt also increased with increasing age category. The median hourly hand-to-mouth frequency for the four age groups ranged from 9.9 to 19.4, with 2-year-olds having the lowest frequency and preschoolers having the highest. The median hourly object to mouth frequency ranged from 5.5 to 18.1 across the four age categories; the frequency decreased as age increased (adjusted R(2)=0.179; P=0.003). The median hourly hand-to-food frequency for the four age groups ranged from 10.0 to 16.1, with the highest frequency being observed in the 1-year-olds. Hand-to-mouth frequency was associated with food contact frequency, particularly for children over 12 months of age (adjusted R(2)=0.291; P=0.002). The frequency and duration of hand-to-mouth, object-to-mouth and food-handling behaviors were all greater indoors than outdoors. Infants were more likely to remain indoors than children in other age groups. The time children spent playing on the floor decreased with increasing age (adjusted R(2)=0.096; P=0.031). Parental assessment was correlated with hand-to-mouth activity but not with object-to-mouth activity. The highest combined (hand and object) mouthing rates were observed among infants, suggesting that this age group has the greatest potential for exposure to environmental toxins.

  9. The formation and evolution of Hule and Río Cuarto maars, Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarado, Guillermo E.; Soto, Gerardo J.; Salani, Flavia M.; Ruiz, Pablo; de Mendoza, Luis Hurtado

    2011-04-01

    The Hule and Río Cuarto maars are respectively located 11 and 18 km northward of the active crater of Poás volcano, on the Caribbean side of the Central Volcanic Range of Costa Rica. They lie on the northern part of Poás volcano massif, along a N-S trending, ~ 27 km-long volcanic fracture crossing the Poás volcano. The volcanic products from Hule maar (2.3 km × 1.8 km, area ~ 3.5 km 2) are mainly pyroclastic surges (poorly vesiculated andesites with very small plagioclases), silica-rich andesitic pumice flows, air-fall deposits, ballistic blocks, and reworked deposits that overlie the regional Pleistocene volcanic basement. They were produced during three main explosive phases. Two overlapping pyroclastic cones have developed within the Hule maar, and at least three lava fields are related to them (high-Al basalt to basaltic andesite). Another maar, Pata de Gallo (400 m across), is located less than 1 km off the SE rim of Hule. Río Cuarto is a nearly circular maar (700-850 m across) with a surface area of 0.33 km 2. Río Cuarto products include surges, ballistics and air-fall tephra, produced during three main explosive phases. These deposits show a narrow fan oriented westward, according to westerly wind direction. They indicate a westerly-directed surge (first 2 km), followed by air-fall deposits (up to 5 km away). Radiocarbon dating has shown that Hule was formed ~ 6.2 ka ago and Pata de Gallo probably formed ~ 2.8 ka ago, while the intra-maar products could have ages of ~ 1.7 ka or ~ 0.7 ka, indicating that Hule is a polygenetic maar. There are no radiocarbon ages yet for dating the formation of Río Cuarto maar, but archaeological data suggest that it erupted between 3-4 ka ago. The volume of pyroclastic deposits associated to Hule maar is estimated to be 0.51-0.53 km 3, from which ~ 20% is juvenile material, therefore 0.07-0.08 km 3 of new dense rock equivalent (DRE) magma, after subtracting 20-30% of porosity. The tephra from Río Cuarto is estimated

  10. First case of methemoglobinemia caused by a ClO2-based household product.

    PubMed

    Hagiwara, Yusuke; Inoue, Nobuaki

    2015-12-01

    When new household products are developed and distributed, new injuries often occur in children. We report the first known case of methemoglobinemia caused by a chlorine dioxide (ClO2)-based household product. A 1-year-old boy presented to the emergency department with vomiting and poor complexion after accidentally ingesting a ClO2-based household product. The patient had profound hypoxia that did not respond to oxygen therapy and required endotracheal intubation to maintain a normal oxygen level. Although oxygen saturation (SpO2) fluctuated at approximately 95% after intubation, arterial oxygen pressure (PaO2) was high on arterial blood gas analysis. We suspected methemoglobinemia based on the gap between SpO2 and PaO2, and subsequently detected increased methemoglobin at 8.0%. The patient was admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit for further management. After supportive treatment, he was discharged without any complications. He had no cognitive or motor dysfunction on follow up 3 months later.

  11. Dietary protein concentration affects intestinal microbiota of adult cats: a study using DGGE and qPCR to evaluate differences in microbial populations in the feline gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Lubbs, D C; Vester, B M; Fastinger, N D; Swanson, K S

    2009-02-01

    The objective of this study was to identify qualitative and quantitative differences in microbial populations of adult cats fed diets containing different protein concentrations. Following a 4 week baseline period, eight healthy adult domestic short-hair queens (>1-year-old) were randomly allotted to a moderate-protein (MP; n = 4) or high-protein (HP; n = 4) diet for 8 weeks. Fresh faecal samples were collected after baseline and 8 weeks on treatment and stored at -80 degrees C. Following DNA extraction, samples were analyzed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis to distinguish qualitative changes between diets. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to measure E. coli, Bifidobacterium, Clostridium perfringens, and Lactobacillus populations. Compared to baseline, cats fed MP had a bacterial similarity index of 66.7% as opposed to 40.6% similarity for those fed HP, exhibiting marked changes in intestinal bacteria of cats fed HP. Bifidobacterium populations were greater (p < 0.05) in cats fed MP versus HP (9.44 vs. 5.63 CFU/g). Clostridium perfringens populations were greater (p < 0.05) in cats fed HP than MP (12.39 vs. 10.83 CFU/g). In this experiment, a high-protein diet resulted in a dramatic shift in microbial populations. Decreased Bifidobacterium population in cats fed HP may justify prebiotic supplementation for such diets.

  12. Drought-Induced Xylem Dysfunction in Petioles, Branches, and Roots of Populus balsamifera L. and Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.

    PubMed Central

    Hacke, U.; Sauter, J. J.

    1996-01-01

    Variation in vulnerability to xylem cavitation was measured within individual organs of Populus balsamifera L. and Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn. Cavitation was quantified by three different techniques: (a) measuring acoustic emissions, (b) measuring loss of hydraulic conductance while air-dehydrating a branch, and (c) measuring loss of hydraulic conductance as a function of positive air pressure injected into the xylem. All of these techniques gave similar results. In Populus, petioles were more resistant than branches, and branches were more resistant than roots. This corresponded to the pattern of vessel width: maximum vessel diameter in 1- to 2-year-old roots was 140 [mu]m, compared to 65 and 45 [mu]m in rapidly growing 1-year-old shoots and petioles, respectively. Cavitation in Populus petioles started at a threshold water potential of -1.1 MPa. The lowest leaf water potential observed was -0.9 MPa. In Alnus, there was no relationship between vessel diameter and the cavitation response of a plant organ. Although conduits were narrower in petioles than in branches, petioles were more vulnerable to cavitation. Cavitation in petioles was detected when water potential fell below -1.2 MPa. This value equaled midday leaf water potential in late June. As in Populus, roots were the most vulnerable organ. The significance of different cavitation thresholds in individual plant organs is discussed. PMID:12226296

  13. Evaluation of cortical plasticity in children with cerebral palsy undergoing constraint-induced movement therapy based on functional near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Jianwei; Khan, Bilal; Hervey, Nathan; Tian, Fenghua; Delgado, Mauricio R.; Clegg, Nancy J.; Smith, Linsley; Roberts, Heather; Tulchin-Francis, Kirsten; Shierk, Angela; Shagman, Laura; MacFarlane, Duncan; Liu, Hanli; Alexandrakis, George

    2015-04-01

    Sensorimotor cortex plasticity induced by constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) in six children (10.2±2.1 years old) with hemiplegic cerebral palsy was assessed by functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). The activation laterality index and time-to-peak/duration during a finger-tapping task and the resting-state functional connectivity were quantified before, immediately after, and 6 months after CIMT. These fNIRS-based metrics were used to help explain changes in clinical scores of manual performance obtained concurrently with imaging time points. Five age-matched healthy children (9.8±1.3 years old) were also imaged to provide comparative activation metrics for normal controls. Interestingly, the activation time-to-peak/duration for all sensorimotor centers displayed significant normalization immediately after CIMT that persisted 6 months later. In contrast to this improved localized activation response, the laterality index and resting-state connectivity metrics that depended on communication between sensorimotor centers improved immediately after CIMT, but relapsed 6 months later. In addition, for the subjects measured in this work, there was either a trade-off between improving unimanual versus bimanual performance when sensorimotor activation patterns normalized after CIMT, or an improvement occurred in both unimanual and bimanual performance but at the cost of very abnormal plastic changes in sensorimotor activity.

  14. Spatial distribution of limited resources and local density regulation in juvenile Atlantic salmon.

    PubMed

    Finstad, Anders G; Einum, Sigurd; Ugedal, Ola; Forseth, Torbjørn

    2009-01-01

    1. Spatial heterogeneity of resources may influence competition among individuals and thus have a fundamental role in shaping population dynamics and carrying capacity. In the present study, we identify shelter opportunities as a limiting resource for juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Experimental and field studies are combined in order to demonstrate how the spatial distribution of shelters may influence population dynamics on both within and among population scales. 2. In closed experimental streams, fish performance scaled negatively with decreasing shelter availability and increasing densities. In contrast, the fish in open stream channels dispersed according to shelter availability and performance of fish remaining in the streams did not depend on initial density or shelters. 3. The field study confirmed that spatial variation in densities of 1-year-old juveniles was governed both by initial recruit density and shelter availability. Strength of density-dependent population regulation, measured as carrying capacity, increased with decreasing number of shelters. 4. Nine rivers were surveyed for spatial variation in shelter availability and increased shelter heterogeneity tended to decrease maximum observed population size (measured using catch statistics of adult salmon as a proxy). 5. Our studies highlight the importance of small-scale within-population spatial structure in population dynamics and demonstrate that not only the absolute amount of limiting resources but also their spatial arrangement can be an important factor influencing population carrying capacity.

  15. Relation between optimism and lipids in midlife.

    PubMed

    Boehm, Julia K; Williams, David R; Rimm, Eric B; Ryff, Carol; Kubzansky, Laura D

    2013-05-15

    The present research examined optimism's relation with total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides. The hypothesis that optimism is associated with a healthier lipid profile was tested. The participants were 990 mostly white men and women from the Midlife in the United States study, who were, on average, 55.1 years old. Optimism was assessed by self-report using the Life Orientation Test. A fasting blood sample was used to assess the serum lipid levels. Linear and logistic regression models examined the cross-sectional association between optimism and lipid levels, accounting for covariates such as demographic characteristics (e.g., education) and health status (e.g., chronic medical conditions). After adjusting for covariates, the results suggested that greater optimism was associated with greater high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and lower triglycerides. Optimism was not associated with low-density lipoprotein or total cholesterol. The findings were robust to a variety of modeling strategies that considered the effect of treatment of cholesterol problems. The results also indicated that diet and body mass index might link optimism with lipids. In conclusion, this is the first study to suggest that optimism is associated with a healthy lipid profile; moreover, these associations can be explained, in part, by the presence of healthier behaviors and a lower body mass index.

  16. Evaluation of cortical plasticity in children with cerebral palsy undergoing constraint-induced movement therapy based on functional near-infrared spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Jianwei; Khan, Bilal; Hervey, Nathan; Tian, Fenghua; Delgado, Mauricio R.; Clegg, Nancy J.; Smith, Linsley; Roberts, Heather; Tulchin-Francis, Kirsten; Shierk, Angela; Shagman, Laura; MacFarlane, Duncan; Liu, Hanli; Alexandrakis, George

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Sensorimotor cortex plasticity induced by constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) in six children (10.2±2.1 years old) with hemiplegic cerebral palsy was assessed by functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). The activation laterality index and time-to-peak/duration during a finger-tapping task and the resting-state functional connectivity were quantified before, immediately after, and 6 months after CIMT. These fNIRS-based metrics were used to help explain changes in clinical scores of manual performance obtained concurrently with imaging time points. Five age-matched healthy children (9.8±1.3 years old) were also imaged to provide comparative activation metrics for normal controls. Interestingly, the activation time-to-peak/duration for all sensorimotor centers displayed significant normalization immediately after CIMT that persisted 6 months later. In contrast to this improved localized activation response, the laterality index and resting-state connectivity metrics that depended on communication between sensorimotor centers improved immediately after CIMT, but relapsed 6 months later. In addition, for the subjects measured in this work, there was either a trade-off between improving unimanual versus bimanual performance when sensorimotor activation patterns normalized after CIMT, or an improvement occurred in both unimanual and bimanual performance but at the cost of very abnormal plastic changes in sensorimotor activity. PMID:25900145

  17. A case of hyperodontia with twenty-two supernumeraries: its surgical-orthodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Rizzuti, N; Scotti, S

    1997-05-01

    A 10.1-year-old boy showed no permanent teeth, with the exception of the lower central incisors. An x-ray examination revealed that eruption of the permanent dentition was obstructed by 1 deciduous supernumerary and 22 permanent supernumeraries ectopically. Treatment consisted of the following steps: (1) extracting all deciduous and supernumerary teeth; (2) waiting for the roots of the permanent teeth to develop and fitting two temporary partial prostheses; (3) assisting eruption of the permanent teeth by removing the bone that covers the remaining teeth and applying crowns to stimulate the eruption; and (4) bringing the permanent teeth into occlusion with orthodontic treatment. The problem of limiting treatment time was made more difficult by the amount of repositioning needed to bring the teeth into occlusion and by delayed root formation. Therefore the orthodontist decided to use extreme caution in applying forces; as a result, treatment time was lengthened. Success was due to good teamwork between the surgeon with an orthodontic background and the orthodontist, who was familiar with surgical procedures.

  18. [Children of heroin-addicted parents: a risk group. Study of 110 cases].

    PubMed

    Casado Flores, J; Baño Rodrigo, A; Lirio Casero, J; Solera Oliva, R

    1993-08-01

    In order to know the medical and social problems of children of heroin addicted parents (one or both), one-hundred and nineteen patients were studied. All children had been hospitalized suffering from different diseases. The age of these children ranged from 1 day to 17.3 years (19.6 +/- 30.9 months). Seventy-four of the children were less than 1 year old. The total number of admissions was 159 (range 1-14), representing 2.575 days of hospitalization. The most frequent diagnoses were infectious diseases (gastrointestinal and respiratory), deficiency related diseases (malnutrition and anemia) and parental neglect. Maltreatment was suspected in 44 children (physical: 10, severely neglected: 26, abandonment: 8). Eight children died during the study (AIDS: 4, maltreatment: 2, other causes: 2). Nine parents also died (4 from heroin overdose). The social and family environment of these children, with an increased risk for delinquency and marginality, as well as frequent hospitalizations, make these children a special group at risk for social and health problems which demands multidisciplinary attention and understanding.

  19. Field Measurement on the Emissions of PM, OC, EC and PAHs from Indoor Crop Straw Burning in rural China

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Siye; Shen, Guofeng; Zhang, Yanyan; Xue, Miao; Xie, Han; Lin, Pengchuan; Chen, Yuanchen; Wang, Xilong; Tao, Shu

    2015-01-01

    Field measurements were conducted to measure emission factors of particulate matter (EFPM), organic carbon (EFOC), elemental carbon (EFEC), 28 parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (EF28pPAHs), and 4 oxygenated PAHs (EF4oPAHs) for four types of crop straws burnt in two stoves with similar structure but different ages. The average EFPM, EFOC, EFEC, EF28pPAHs, and EF4oPAHs were 9.1±5.7 (1.8 – 22 as range), 2.6±2.9 (0.30 – 12), 1.1±1.2 (0.086 – 5.5), 0.26±0.19 (0.076 – 0.96), 0.011±0.14 (1.3×10−4 – 0.063) g/kg, respectively. Much high EF28pPAHs was observed in field compared with the laboratory derived EFs and significant difference in EF28pPAHs was identified among different crop residues, indicating considerable underestimation when laboratory derived EFs were used in the inventory. The field measured EFPM, EFOC, and EFEC were significantly affected by stove age and the EFs of carbonaceous particles for the 15-year old stove were approximately 2.5 times of those for the 1-year old stove. PMID:24012787

  20. Costs and benefits of measles and mumps immunization in Austria.

    PubMed

    Wiedermann, G; Ambrosch, F

    1979-01-01

    The usefulness of an immunization programme can be evaluated by comparing either risks and benefits or costs and benefits. By means of special formulae, the benefit-cost ratio and the benefit-cost difference can be calculated for monovalent and bivalent vaccines. An analysis of combined measles-mumps immunization in Austria showed that this measure is highly profitable economically. Since employed mothers are allowed one week's vacation each year to nurse a sick child, this affects the calculations. Including the cost of the "nursing vacation" among the benefits that would be realized following an immunization programme, the estimated benefit-cost ratio is 4.48; if the cost of the "nursing vacation" is omitted the ratio is 2.65. The estimated annual benefit-cost differences are AS 1681.90 and AS 672.85, respectively, per child. Twelve years after the beginning of a programme to immunize 100 000 1-year-old children per year (corresponding roughly to the birth rate in Austria) an amount of AS 528 million would be saved if the "nursing vacation" is included in the calculations and an amount of AS 63 million if it is not.

  1. [Costs and benefits of measles vaccination].

    PubMed

    Ambrosch, F; Wiedermann, G; Harasek, G

    1978-02-23

    Former calculations of the medical benefit of measles immunization, concerning frequency of measles complications, effectiveness and risk of vaccination, showed that measles vaccination is a very useful measure. As the decision to introduce vaccination on a broad scale depends on financial deliberations, too, a cost-benefit analysis for Austria has been performed and the cost-benefit ratio as well as the cost-benefit difference calculated. The costs of measles vaccination which is performed mainly by private pediatricians at the present time, include costs of vaccine, physician and additional antipyretic and is 257.90 AS. The average costs of therapy per child consist of home treatment (287.20 AS), hospital treatment (162.50 AS) and care of residual cerebral damage (88.50 AS). Together with the costs of one week vacation which is warranted in Austria for the nursing of a sick child once a year, this makes a total sum of 1081.--AS. From these data the cost-benefit ratio was calculated by 2.95, the cost-benefit difference by 715.--AS per child. 5 years after the start of general measles vaccination of 1 year old children the accumulated costs of vaccination are equalled by the profit gained by prevention of the disease. The annual cost-benefit difference is positive after 3 years. 10 years after introduction of general vaccination the accumulated cost-benefit difference in Austria would be approximately 167 Mill. AS.

  2. Expert elicitation, uncertainty, and the value of information in controlling invasive species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Fred A.; Smith, Brian J.; Bonneau, Mathieu; Martin, Julien; Romagosa, Christina; Mazzotti, Frank J.; Waddle, Hardin; Reed, Robert; Eckles, Jennifer Kettevrlin; Vitt, Laurie J.

    2017-01-01

    We illustrate the utility of expert elicitation, explicit recognition of uncertainty, and the value of information for directing management and research efforts for invasive species, using tegu lizards (Salvator merianae) in southern Florida as a case study. We posited a post-birth pulse, matrix model in which four age classes of tegus are recognized: hatchlings, 1 year-old, 2 year-olds, and 3 + year-olds. This matrix model was parameterized using a 3-point process to elicit estimates of tegu demographic rates in southern Florida from 10 herpetology experts. We fit statistical distributions for each parameter and for each expert, then drew and pooled a large number of replicate samples from these to form a distribution for each demographic parameter. Using these distributions, as well as the observed correlations among elicited values, we generated a large sample of matrix population models to infer how the tegu population would respond to control efforts. We used the concepts of Pareto efficiency and stochastic dominance to conclude that targeting older age classes at relatively high rates appears to have the best chance of minimizing tegu abundance and control costs. We conclude that expert opinion combined with an explicit consideration of uncertainty can be valuable in conducting an initial assessment of what control strategy, effort, and monetary resources are needed to reduce and eventually eliminate the invader. Scientists, in turn, can use the value of information to focus research in a way that not only increases the efficacy of control, but minimizes costs as well.

  3. Difficulties with assessment and management of an infant’s distress in the postoperative period: Optimising opportunities for interdisciplinary information-sharing

    PubMed Central

    Weiner, Carlye; Penrose, Sueann; Manias, Elizabeth; Cranswick, Noel; Rosenfeld, Ellie; Newall, Fiona; Williams, Allison; Borrott, Narelle; Kinney, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The importance of accurate paediatric patient assessment is well established but under-utilised in managing postoperative medication regimens. Methods: Data for this case report were collected through observations of clinical practice, conduct of interviews, and retrieval of information from the medical record. This case report involving a hospitalised 1-year-old boy demonstrates the difficulties associated with assessing and managing postoperative distress, including pain and other clinical conditions related to the surgical procedure. Results: Postoperatively, there were difficulties in managing pain and an episode of over-sedation, occasioning opiate reversal with naloxone. In addition, he had decreasing oxygen saturation and increased work of breathing. X-ray showed changes consistent with either atelectasis or aspiration, and he was commenced on antibiotics. The patient experienced respiratory distress and required intervention from the medical emergency team. Conclusion: This case demonstrated the importance of comprehensive assessment and careful consideration of alternative causes of an infant’s distress using the results of assessment tools to aid decision-making. Communication moderates effective patient care, and more favourable outcomes could be achieved by optimising interdisciplinary information-sharing. PMID:28228956

  4. The affective structure of supportive parenting: depressive symptoms, immediate emotions, and child-oriented motivation.

    PubMed

    Dix, Theodore; Gershoff, Elizabeth T; Meunier, Leah N; Miller, Pamela C

    2004-11-01

    This study investigated the maternal concerns and emotions that may regulate one form of sensitive parenting, support for children's immediate desires or intentions. While reviewing a videotape of interactions with their 1-year-olds, mothers who varied on depressive symptoms reported concerns and emotions they had during the interaction. Emotions reflected outcomes either to children (child-oriented concerns) or to mothers themselves (parent-oriented concerns). Child-oriented concerns were associated with fewer negative emotions and more supportive behavior. Supportive parenting was high among mothers who experienced high joy and worry and low anger, sadness, and guilt. However, relations depended on whether emotions were child or parent oriented: Supportive behavior occurred more when emotions were child oriented. In addition, as depressive symptoms increased, mothers reported fewer child-oriented concerns, fewer child-oriented positive emotions, and more parent-oriented negative emotions. They also displayed less supportive behavior. Findings suggest that support for children's immediate intentions may be regulated by parents' concerns, immediate emotions, and depressive symptoms.

  5. Effect of Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica infection on acute-phase proteins and some mineral levels in colostrum-breast milk-fed or colostrum-breast milk-deprived sheep.

    PubMed

    Ulutas, P A; Ozpinar, A

    2006-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the levels of acute-phase proteins and minerals as indicators for the reactivity in 1-year-old sheep. A total of 26 Chios breed sheep were fed colostrum-breast milk (control, n = 15)or were deprived afterseparation from their mother immediately after birth(experimental, n = 11). Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica serotype A1 was inoculated intratracheally and blood samples were taken in vacuumed sera on days 0, 1, 4, 7, 10, 13, 16, 19 and 22. Antibiotic treatment was initiated after blood sampling on day 22, and blood samples were taken on days 1, 4 and 7 after the treatment. The levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), haptoglobin, ceruloplasmin, fibrinogen, zinc, iron and calcium, which are the indicators of immune function and infectious diseases were analysed. No significant difference between the control and trial groups before and after the infection was determined. However, serum CRP, haptoglobin, ceruloplasmin and fibrinogen levels were increased in the course of the infection. These levels were restored to normal following treatment.

  6. The effect of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria on asparagus seedlings and germinating seeds subjected to water stress under greenhouse conditions.

    PubMed

    Liddycoat, Scott M; Greenberg, Bruce M; Wolyn, David J

    2009-04-01

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) can have positive effects on vigour and productivity, especially under stress conditions. In asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) field culture, seeds are planted in high-density nurseries, and 1-year-old crowns are transplanted to production fields. Performance can be negatively affected by water stress, transplant shock, and disease pressure on wounded roots. PGPR inoculation has the potential to alleviate some of the stresses incurred in the production system. In this study, the effects of PGPR (Pseudomonas spp.) treatment were determined on 3-week-old greenhouse-grown seedlings and germinating seeds of 2 asparagus cultivars. The pots were irrigated to a predetermined level that resulted in optimum growth or the plants were subjected to drought or flooding stress for 8 weeks. The cultivars responded differently to PGPR: single inoculations of seedlings enhanced growth of 'Guelph Millennium' under optimum conditions and 'Jersey Giant' seedlings under drought stress. Seed inoculations with PGPR resulted in a positive response only for 'Guelph Millennium', for which both single or multiple inoculations enhanced plant growth under drought stress.

  7. Timing of the maturation transition in haddock Melanogrammus aeglefinus.

    PubMed

    Tobin, D; Wright, P J; O'Sullivan, M

    2010-10-01

    The timing of maturation in haddock Melanogrammus aeglefinus was examined using changes in gonad development, follicle stimulating hormone β (FSH-β) transcript expression profile, growth and condition of 1 year old females held under a common environment between the summer and winter solstices. The circumnuclear ring, cortical alveolus and vitellogenic oocyte stages were first observed in August, October and November, respectively. FSH-β transcript levels did not change significantly until September but increased markedly thereafter in maturing fish. A combined analysis of the mean oocyte diameter of the leading cohort, histological staging and FSH-β transcript profile provided evidence of a commitment to maturation by October or November. Contrary to that previously proposed for gadoid species, histological analysis of field-caught immature M. aeglefinus during the spawning season indicated that cortical alveolar, rather than circumnuclear ring, stage oocytes provided definitive evidence of maturation. A decrease in relative liver size following the summer solstice suggested a possible link between energy status and maturation.

  8. Two human cases infected by the horsehair worm, Parachordodes sp. (Nematomorpha: Chordodidae), in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Minoru; Tegoshi, Tatsuya; Abe, Niichiro; Urabe, Misako

    2012-09-01

    The present study was performed to describe 2 human cases infected by the horsehair worm, Parachordodes sp., in Japan. Two gordiid worms were collected in the vomit and excreta of an 80-year-old woman in November 2009 in Kyoto city, and in the mouth of 1-year-old boy in December 2009 in Nara city, Japan, respectively. Both worms were males having bifurcated posterior ends and male gonads in cross sectional specimens. They were identified as Parachordodes sp. (Nematomorpha: Chordodidae) based on the characteristic morphologies of cross sections and areoles in the cuticle. DNA analysis on 18S rRNA partial sequence arrangements was also carried out and both worms were assumed to be close to the genus Paragordionus based on tree analysis, and far from Gordius sp. which has already been reported in humans in Japan. DNA sequencing of the Parachordodes worm does not appear on the database; therefore, more information on the gene sequences of the genus Parachordodes from humans, animals, or intermediates is required.

  9. Comprehensive pathogen detection associated with four recurrent episodes of Kawasaki disease in a patient during a single year using next-generation sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Sekizuka, Tsuyoshi; Oba, Kunihiro; Katano, Harutaka; Kinumaki, Akiko; Terai, Masaru; Mizutani, Tetsuya; Kuroda, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Kawasaki disease (KD) is the most common multisystem vasculitis in childhood. Pathogens can be associated with the onset of KD. However, a lack of consistency prevails among reports about this disease. Case presentation: For this case of a 1-year-old boy with four recurrent episodes of KD within a year, we analysed profiles of pathogen reads in his serum and pharynx specimens using next-generation sequencing. Comparative analysis of the identified bacterial reads from serum samples found significant correlation of bacteria such as Streptococcus and Haemophilus spp. with the first and fourth episodes (R2 = 0.9506) before treatment. In the first convalescent phase, the number of Streptococcus spp. was reduced remarkably (P < 0.0001). From sequencing of the pharynx specimen from the fourth episode, a similar correlation was found with serum from the fourth episode (R2 = 0.6633). Conclusion: In this case, Streptococcus spp. may have been associated with onset of KD. Further studies must be undertaken to evaluate the putative association of micro-organism infection with KD pathogenesis. PMID:28348750

  10. Etiology, clinical profile, gender identity and long-term follow up of patients with ambiguous genitalia in India.

    PubMed

    Ammini, A C; Gupta, R; Kapoor, A; Karak, A; Kriplani, A; Gupta, D K; Kucheria, K

    2002-04-01

    There is little information on the profile of children with ambiguous genitalia in India. Presented here is an analysis of patients with ambiguous genitalia registered in a general endocrine clinic during the last 2 decades. Seventy-four patients (age 4 months to 36 years) were registered during this period. Fifty-two were more than 5 years old at the time of registration. Thirty-five were reared as females, 29 as males; nine children (4 months to 1 year old) were brought for sex assignment, and one (with epispadias) was brought for correction of urinary incontinence. Investigations revealed 28 patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, 14 dysgenetic male pseudohermaphroditism, ten true hermaphroditism, six partial androgen insensitivity, four castration and one epispadias. There were eight patients with perineal hypospadias with normal Leydig cell reserve (normal LH, FSH and testosterone response to LHRH). Sex of rearing and gender identity were concordant in all except the patients with perineal hypospadias with normal Leydig cell response. These observations support the theory that prenatal androgen exposure masculinizes the brain.

  11. Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever at 60 Years: Early Evolution of Concepts of Causation and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Halstead, Scott B; Cohen, Sanford N

    2015-09-01

    During the decade of the 1960s, the epidemiology of a new dengue disease, dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS), was described by collaborative research performed by Thai scientists from many institutions and by workers at the U.S. Army's SEATO Medical Research Laboratory in Bangkok, Thailand. Careful clinical and physiological studies provided the initial description of DSS. DSS cases were caused by each of the four dengue viruses (DENV) and not chikungunya (CHIK) virus or DENV 5 and 6, were associated with a secondary-type dengue antibody response in children over the age of 1 year, were associated with a primary antibody response in infants less than 1 year old whose mothers had neutralizing antibodies to all four DENV, were associated more frequently with secondary DENV 2 infections than those due to DENV 1 and 3, and were more common in females than males over the age of 3 years. Robust laboratory methods for growth and recovery of DENV in tissue cultures were introduced. In addition, life-saving principles of fluid and plasma protein resuscitation of hypovolemia were described. Most epidemiological observations made during the decade of the 1960s have been confirmed in the succeeding 45 years. Much contemporary research on pathogenesis fails to address the two distinct immunological antecedents of DHF/DSS.

  12. Experimental evaluation of population trend and harvest composition in a Wyoming cougar population

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, C.R.; Lindzey, F.G.

    2005-01-01

    Cougar (Puma concolor) management has been hindered by inability to identify population trends. We documented changes in sex and age of harvested cougars during an experimentally induced reduction in population size and subsequent recovery to better understand the relationship between sex-age composition and population trend in exploited populations. The cougar population in the Snowy Range, southeast Wyoming, was reduced by increased harvest (treatment phase) from 58 independent cougars (>1 year old) (90% CI = 36-81) in the autumn of 1998 to 20 by the spring of 2000 (mean exploitation rate = 43%) and then increased to 46 by spring 2003 following 3 years of reduced harvests (mean exploitation rate = 18%). Pretreatment harvest composition was 63% subadults (1.0-2.5 years old), 23% adult males, and 14% adult females (2 seasons; n = 22). A reduction in subadult harvest, an initial increase followed by a reduction in adult male harvest, and a steady increase in adult female harvest characterized harvest composition trends during the treatment phase. Harvest composition was similar at high and low densities when harvest was light, but proportion of harvested subadult males increased at low density as they replaced adult males removed during the treatment period (high harvest). While sex ratio of harvested cougars alone appears of limited value in identifying population change, when combined with age class the 2 appear to provide an index to population change. Composition of the harvest can be applied to adaptively manage cougar populations where adequate sex and age data are collected from harvested animals.

  13. Results of nutritional status surveillance in El Salvador, 1975 - 77*

    PubMed Central

    Trowbridge, Frederick L.; Stetler, Harrison C.

    1982-01-01

    Nutritional status surveillance data based on the clinical diagnosis of malnutrition and on weight-for-age, as well as diarrhoeal disease data for preschool age children attending government health clinics in El Salvador are presented for a 3-year period (1975 - 77). Surveillance results indicated consistently higher rates of clinical malnutrition and weight-for-age deficit in rural children as compared with urban children, and higher malnutrition rates in children 1 - 4 years of age as compared with infants less than 1 year old. Consistent seasonal increases in malnutrition were observed that were most pronounced in older preschool children (1 - 4 years) in rural areas. Seasonal peaks in malnutrition consistently followed 1 - 2 months after the major seasonal peak in diarrhoea at the onset of the rainy season, suggesting that diarrhoea may play a role in the etiology of malnutrition. A secondary seasonal peak in diarrhoea in the cooler, dry season was most prominent in infants but was not related to increased malnutrition. These results indicate that nutritional and health status indicators formed from data collected regularly at health centres can demonstrate consistent age group, urban/rural, and seasonal differences in nutritional status that may be useful in identifying risk groups and in monitoring nutritional changes for planning and evaluation purposes. PMID:6982777

  14. The effects of concentrate added to pineapple (Ananas comosus Linn. Mer.) waste silage in differing ratios to form complete diets, on digestion, excretion of urinary purine derivatives and blood metabolites in growing, male, Thai swamp buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Jetana, T; Suthikrai, W; Usawang, S; Vongpipatana, C; Sophon, S; Liang, J B

    2009-04-01

    Four, male, growing Thai swamp buffaloes (197 +/- 5.3 kg and all 1 year old) were used to evaluate the effects of concentrate added to pineapple waste silage in differing ratios, to form a complete diet, studying in vivo digestion, the rate of passage, microbial protein synthesis and blood metabolites. Animals were fed ad libitum with 4 diets, using four combinations of pineapple waste silage (P) and concentrate (C), in the proportions (on a dry matter basis) of 0.8:0.2 (P80:C20), 0.6:0.4 (P60:C40), 0.4:0.6 (P40:C60) and 0.2:0.8 (P20:C80). The results showed that the intakes of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), nitrogen (N), the N-balance, urinary purine derivatives (PD) excretion, the ratios of allantoin to creatinine (CR), PD to CR, the plasma urea-N (PUN) and insulin increased in the animals, but the intake of neutral detergent fiber (NDF), the coefficient of whole tract, apparent digestibility of NDF, the transit time (TT) and the mean retention time (TMRT) decreased, when the proportion of concentrate in the diet increased. This study indicated that the proportion of P40:C60 in the diet produced the best efficiency of urinary PD excretion (mmol) per digestible OM intake (kg DOMI).

  15. [A case of mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma of the transverse colon].

    PubMed

    Kusakabe, Jiro; Miki, Akira; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Uryuhara, Kenji; Hashida, Hiroki; Mizumoto, Masaki; Kaihara, Satoshi; Hosotani, Ryo; Yamashita, Daisuke

    2014-11-01

    A 7 1-year-old man presented to our hospital with constipation and abdominal pain. Computed tomography of the abdomen and colonoscopy revealed advanced cancer of the transverse colon. The biopsy specimen indicated a highly differentiated adenocarcinoma. The patient underwent extended right hemicolectomy with regional lymph node dissection. Pathological examination showed a neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) with concurrent adenocarcinoma of the transverse colon and regional lymph node metastases of the NEC and adenocarcinoma. The histopathological examination confirmed a diagnosis of mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma (MANEC) in accordance with the 2010 WHO Classification of Tumors of the Digestive System. Liver and lung metastases were identified 8 months after the surgery. We administered chemotherapy including 5-fluorouracil, Leucovorin, and oxaliplatin (mFOLFOX) plus bevacizumab, with limited therapeutic effect, as the disease progressed despite treatment. The patient chose best supportive care 13 months after the surgery. Several studies have reported that most patients with adenoendocrine cell carcinoma, including MANEC, experience relapse within 1 year after surgery, and few patients remain disease-free for long periods after surgery. The optimal strategy for the management of MANEC is variable owing to its rarity; only 2 cases of MANEC in the colon, including the present case, have been reported in Japan. It is thus important to gather more evidence on this disease and its management.

  16. Comparative study of plant growth of two poplar tree species irrigated with treated wastewater, with particular reference to accumulation of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, As, and Ni).

    PubMed

    Houda, Zarati; Bejaoui, Zoubeir; Albouchi, Ali; Gupta, Dharmendra K; Corpas, Francisco J

    2016-02-01

    Water is a scarce natural resource around the world which can hamper the socio-economic development of many countries. The Mediterranean area, especially north Africa, is known for its semi-arid to arid climate, causing serious water supply problems. Treated wastewater (TWW) is being used as an alternative strategy for recycling wastewater. It is also a potential source of nutrients for reforestation with certain plant species such as poplar trees, a useful wood resource, and even for phytoremediation purposes. In the present study, we used treated wastewater to irrigate two clones of 1-year-old poplar trees (Populus nigra cv. I-488 and Populus alba cv. MA-104) for 90 days. After a stipulated time, a comparative study was made of the effects of TWW on growth parameters, acquisition of essential minerals (Na, Fe and Zn) and pollutants (Cd, Pb, As and Ni) as well as the enrichment of secondary metabolites such as polyphenolic, flavonoid and tannin compounds which could contribute to the growth and development of poplar plants. The results of this study show that the use of TWW increased P. alba's biomass production by 36% and also enhanced its Cd and Pb accumulation capacity. We also found that P. alba has considerable potential to be used as an alternative plant species for reforestation and/or phytoremediation of toxic metals from contaminated water or effluent.

  17. Propagation of Valuable North Sumatera Benzoin Trees (Styrax Sp) Using Macrocutting Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susilowati, A.; Hartini, K. S.; Rachmat, H. H.; Alvaroby, M.

    2017-03-01

    Kemenyan known as Sumatran benzoin is North Sumatera local species that produce high valuable rosin and prospective export comodities. However, sustainability of Sumatran benzoin production has many constraints such as instability of resin production, lack information of propagation technique and traditional management system. Until now, comprehensive information for Sumatran benzoin propagation system still not determined yet. The objectives of this research were (1) to get information about propagation technique of Sumatran benzoin and its suitable growing medium and 2) to get information on adventitious root formation in Sumatran benzoin cuttings. Cutting materials (Toba benzoin and Durame benzoin) were originated from 1 year old seedling propagated by seed. Media used were combination of sand : rice husk (1:0 v/v; 1/1 v/v). Results showed that interaction between media and benzoin species significantly affected primer and secondary root lenght. While planting medium significantly improved secondary root length and number. Benzoin species significantly affected primary and secondary root lenght, and secondary root number.

  18. Role of hydraulic and chemical signals in leaves, stems and roots in the stomatal behaviour of olive trees under water stress and recovery conditions.

    PubMed

    Torres-Ruiz, Jose M; Diaz-Espejo, Antonio; Perez-Martin, Alfonso; Hernandez-Santana, Virginia

    2015-04-01

    The control of plant transpiration by stomata under water stress and recovery conditions is of paramount importance for plant performance and survival. Although both chemical and hydraulic signals emitted within a plant are considered to play a major role in controlling stomatal dynamics, they have rarely been assessed together. The aims of this study were to evaluate (i) the dynamics of chemical and hydraulic signals at leaf, stem and root level, and (ii) their effect on the regulation of stomatal conductance (gs) during water stress and recovery. Measurements of gs, water potential, abscisic acid (ABA) content and loss of hydraulic functioning at leaf, stem and root level were conducted during a water stress and recovery period imposed on 1-year-old olive plants (Olea europaea L.). Results showed a strong hydraulic segmentation in olive plants, with higher hydraulic functioning losses in roots and leaves than in stems. The dynamics of hydraulic conductance of roots and leaves observed as water stress developed could explain both a protection of the hydraulic functionality of larger organs of the plant (i.e., branches, etc.) and a role in the down-regulation of gs. On the other hand, ABA also increased, showing a similar pattern to gs dynamics, and thus its effect on gs in response to water stress cannot be ruled out. However, neither hydraulic nor non-hydraulic factors were able to explain the delay in the full recovery of gs after soil water availability was restored.

  19. Clinical, laboratorial and radiographic predictors of Bordetella pertussis infection☆

    PubMed Central

    Bellettini, Camila Vieira; de Oliveira, Andressa Welter; Tusset, Cintia; Baethgen, Ludmila Fiorenzano; Amantéa, Sérgio Luís; Motta, Fabrizio; Gasparotto, Aline; Andreolla, Huander Felipe; Pasqualotto, Alessandro C.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify clinical, laboratorial and radiographic predictors for Bordetella pertussis infection. METHODS: This was a retrospective study, which analyzed medical records of all patients submitted to a molecular dignosis (qPCR) for B. pertussis from September 2011 to January 2013. Clinical and laboratorial data were reviewed, including information about age, sex, signs/symptoms, length of hospitalization, blood cell counts, imaging findings, coinfection with other respiratory pathogens and clinical outcome. RESULTS: 222 cases were revised. Of these, 72.5% had proven pertussis, and 60.9% were under 1 year old. In patients aging up to six months, independent predictors for B. pertussis infection were (OR 8.0, CI 95% 1.8-36.3; p=0.007) and lymphocyte count >104/µL (OR 10.0, CI 95% 1.8-54.5; p=0.008). No independent predictors of B. pertussis infection could be determined for patients older than six months. Co-infection was found in 21.4% of patients, of which 72.7% were up to six months of age. Adenovirus was the most common agent (40.9%). In these patients, we were not able to identify any clinical features to detect patients presenting with a respiratory co-infection, even though longer hospital stay was observed in patients with co-infections (12 vs. 6 days; p=0.009). CONCLUSIONS: Cyanosis and lymphocytosis are independent predictors for pertussis in children up to 6 months old. PMID:25510991

  20. Dermal mass aspirate from a Persian cat.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Kurt; Feldman, Bernard; Robertson, John; Herring, Erin S; Manning, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    A 1-year-old spayed female Persian cat with alopecia and weight loss had numerous variably ulcerated dermal nodules. Cytologic examination of an aspirate of one of the nodules revealed pyogranulomatous inflammation along with septate hyphae and basophilic round bodies, 0.5-1.0 microm in diameter, surrounded by a thin clear halo (arthrospores). The cytologic diagnosis was dermatophytic pseudomycetoma. Histologically, there were dermal granulomas containing poorly staining, septate hyphae with bulbous spores embedded within abundant amorphous eosinophilic material (Splendore-Hoeppli reaction), and the histologic diagnosis was pseudomycetoma-associated chronic multifocal severe granulomatous dermatitis with lymphocytic perifolliculitis and furunculosis. Microsporum canis was cultured from the lesion. Pseudomycetomas are distinguished from fungal mycetomas, or eumycotic mycetomas, by the findings of multiple lesions, lack of a history of skin trauma, an association with dermatophytes, most commonly Microsporum canis, and, histologically, lack of true cement material and a more abundant Splendore-Hoeppli reaction in pseudomycetomas. Additionally, pseudomycetomas differ from dermatophytosis, in which lesions are restricted to epidermal structures. Persian cats have a high incidence of pseudomycetoma formation, suggesting a heritable predisposition. The prognosis is fair with systemic antifungal therapy. When examining cytologic specimens from Persian cats with single or multiple dermal nodules, especially if pyogranulomatous inflammation is present, a diagnosis of pseudomycetoma should be suspected and is warranted if arthrospores and refractile septate hyphae are present.

  1. Effect of cold storage on immediate graft function in an experimental model of renal transplantation in cats.

    PubMed

    Csomos, Rebecca A; Hardie, Robert J; Schmiedt, Chad W; Delaney, Fern A; McAnulty, Jonathan F

    2017-03-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the effect of cold storage (CS) on immediate posttransplantation function of renal autografts in cats. ANIMALS 15 healthy 1-year-old cats. PROCEDURES Cats were assigned to 2 groups and underwent autotransplantation of the left kidney followed by nephrectomy of the right kidney. The left kidney was autotransplanted either immediately (IT group; n = 6) or after being flushed with a cold sucrose phosphate solution and stored on ice while the implant site was prepared (CS group; 9). Serum creatinine and BUN concentrations were monitored daily and autografts were ultrasonographically examined intermittently for 14 days after surgery. RESULTS Mean duration of CS was 24 minutes for the CS group. Posttransplantation serum creatinine and BUN concentrations for the CS group had lower peak values, returned to the respective reference ranges quicker, and were generally significantly lower than those for the IT group. Mean posttransplantation autograft size for the CS group was smaller than that for the IT group. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that immediate posttransplantation function of renal autografts following a short period of CS was better than that of renal autografts that did not undergo CS, which suggested CS protected grafts from ischemic injury and may decrease perioperative complications, speed recovery, and improve the long-term outcome for cats with renal transplants. IMPACT FOR HUMAN MEDICINE Cats metabolize immunosuppressive drugs in a manner similar to humans; therefore, renal transplantation in cats may serve as a desirable model for investigating the effects of renal transplantation in human patients.

  2. Iatrogenic surgical microscope skin burns: A systematic review of the literature and case report.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Joseph; Soni, Ashwin; Calva, Daniel; Susarla, Srinivas M; Jallo, George I; Redett, Richard

    2016-06-01

    Cutaneous burns associated with microscope-use are perceived to be uncommon adverse events in microsurgery. Currently, it is unknown what factors are associated with these iatrogenic events. In this report, we describe the case of a 1-year-old patient who suffered a full thickness skin burn from a surgical microscope after a L4-S1 laminectomy. Additionally, we present a systematic review of the literature that assessed the preoperative risk, outcome, and management of iatrogenic microscope skin burns. Lastly, a summary of the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience (MAUDE) database of voluntary adverse events was reviewed and analyzed for clinical cases of microscope thermal injuries. The systematic literature review identified only seven articles related to microsurgery-related cutaneous burns. From these seven studies, 15 clinical cases of iatrogenic skin burns were extracted for analysis. The systematic review of the FDA MAUDE database revealed only 60 cases of cutaneous burns associated with surgical microscopes since 2004. Few cases of microscope burns have been described in the literature; this report is, to our knowledge, one of the first comprehensive reports of this iatrogenic event in the literature.

  3. A clinical appraisal of patients with psoriasis treated in Seremban General Hospital, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Siow, K Y; Safdar, N A Mohd; Chong, K H; Chua, K B

    2004-08-01

    A prospective clinical study of 181 patients with psoriasis seen in Seremban General Hospital showed the incidence of psoriasis among dermatology outpatients was 2.15%. A significantly higher proportion of male patients were affected, with a male to female ratio of 1.7:1. Within the racial groups; 63 were Malays, 37 Chinese, and 81 Indians. There was a significantly higher proportion of Indians affected as compared with the races. The mean age of patients in this study was 43.7 years old but the mean age of onset of psoriasis in these patients was 33.1 years old. Thirty-one (17.1%) patients gave a positive family history of psoriasis and the mean age of onset of psoriasis was lower (29.3 years old) for patients with a positive family history. Plaque psoriasis was the commonest type of clinical presentation with the scalp being the commonest site affected. Psoriatic arthropathy was seen in 35 (19.3%) patients. Ninety-five (52.5%) patients gave a positive history of factors exacerbating their pre-existing disease and stress was singled out as the most common exacerbating factor.

  4. A cross-sectional study of the health effects of work schedules on 3212 hospital workers in France: implications for the new French work schedules policy.

    PubMed

    Poissonnet, C M; Iwatsubo, Y; Cosquer, M; Quera Salva, M A; Caillard, J F; Veron, M

    2001-12-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of work schedules on the health of hospital workers at the Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP). Out of 40 hospitals, 17 volunteered to participate in this study. The Standard Shiftwork Index and a questionnaire concerning physicians' work schedules were used. Ten thousand questionnaires were distributed anonymously to hospital workers between March and April 1999. Professional categories comprised head nurses, nurses, nursing auxiliaries, hospital agents, midwives and full time physicians. Departments included internal and geriatric medicine, general paediatrics, orthopaedic and general surgery, operating and emergency rooms, and anaesthesiology and intensive care units. 3250 questionnaires were returned. Demographics for the respondents were: 79.2% female, average age 38.1 +/- 9.1 years old. Eleven work schedules were identified. One fourth of the personnel had fixed morning work schedules. The highest level of job satisfaction was found in personnel working in paediatrics while dissatisfaction was strongest in the gerontology and, emergency room personnel. General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) scores were high for head nurses, operating room nurses and junior doctors as well as for personnel with rotating and flexible shifts. This study will be used to make recommendations concerning the reduction of working time for French hospital workers.

  5. Phototropic bending of non-elongating and radially growing woody stems results from asymmetrical xylem formation.

    PubMed

    Matsuzaki, Jun; Masumori, Masaya; Tange, Takeshi

    2007-05-01

    Active phototropic bending of non-elongating and radially growing portion of stems (woody stems) has not been previously documented, whereas negative gravitropic bending is well known. We found phototropic bending in woody stems and searched for the underlying mechanism. We inclined 1-year-old Quercus crispula Blume seedlings and unilaterally illuminated them from a horizontal direction perpendicular to ('normal' illumination) or parallel to ('parallel' illumination) the inclination azimuth. With normal illumination, active phototropic bending and xylem formation could be evaluated separately from the negative gravitropic response and vertical deflection resulting from the weight of the seedlings. One-year-old stems with normal illumination bent significantly, with asymmetrical xylem formation towards the illuminated upper surface and side of the stem, whereas those with parallel illumination showed non-significant lateral bending, with asymmetrical xylem formation only on the upper side. A mechanical model was built on the assumption that a bending moment resulted from the asymmetrical xylem formation during phototropic bending of the woody stems. The model fitted the relationship between the observed spatial distributions of the xylem and the observed lateral bending, and thus supported the hypothesis that phototropic bending of woody stems results from asymmetrical xylem formation, as such occurs during gravitropism.

  6. Hepatitis B virus infection in general population in Madagascar: evidence for different epidemiological patterns in urban and in rural areas.

    PubMed Central

    Boisier, P.; Rabarijaona, L.; Piollet, M.; Roux, J. F.; Zeller, H. G.

    1996-01-01

    To describe the features of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in Madagascar, a randomized sero-epidemiological survey was undertaken in the general population > or = 1 year old of two provinces which represents 45% of the total population. In the 921 sera tested, the prevalence of HBV markers was 20.5% for HBsAg, 38.2% for anti-HBc and 6.9% for HBeAg. HBsAg and anti-HBc prevalence rates were significantly higher in males. A large difference in HBsAg prevalence was observed between urban (5.3%) and rural areas (26.0%). The same contrast in prevalence was noticed for the other HBV markers. In rural areas, HBV infection was more frequently acquired early in infancy, which suggests predominantly perinatal or postnatal transmission. The presence of HBV markers was not significantly associated with a history of blood transfusion, surgery or parenteral injection. High infectivity carriers represented 5.3% and the overall frequency of chronic carriers was 10.4%. These results place Madagascar among areas of high endemicity. PMID:8760960

  7. Reasoning about instrumental and communicative agency in human infancy.

    PubMed

    Gergely, György; Jacob, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Theoretical rationality and practical rationality are, respectively, properties of an individual's belief system and decision system. While reasoning about instrumental actions complies with practical rationality, understanding communicative actions complies with the principle of relevance. Section 2 reviews the evidence showing that young infants can reason about an agent's instrumental action by representing her subjective motivations and the episodic contents of her epistemic states (including false beliefs). Section 3 reviews the evidence showing special sensitivity in young human infants to some ostensive behavioral signals encoding an agent's communicative intention. We also address the puzzle of imitative learning of novel means actions by 1-year olds and argue that it can be resolved only by assuming that the infant construes the model's demonstration as a communicative, not an instrumental, action. Section 4 reviews the evidence for natural pedagogy, a species-unique social communicative learning mechanism that exploits human infants' receptivity to ostensive-communicative signals and enables infants to acquire kind-wide generalizations from the nonverbal demonstrations of communicative agents. We argue that the essentialist bias that has been shown to be involved in children's concepts of natural kinds also applies to infants' concepts of artifacts. We further examine how natural pedagogy may also boost inductive learning in human infancy.

  8. Derivation of safety factors for setting harvest quotas on adult walleyes from past estimates of abundance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Michael J.; Staggs, Michael D.; Hoff, Michael H.

    1991-01-01

    Past population estimates of adult walleyes Stizostedion vitreum can be used to set harvest quotas, provided that temporal variability in abundance of adult walleyes is accounted for. We used a long-term data set from Escanaba Lake, Wisconsin, to evaluate the accuracy of past population estimates for setting current-year quotas for adult walleyes. The results from Escanaba Lake were corroborated by comparison with other lakes where adult walleye abundance was estimated in more than 1 year. The accuracy of estimates of adult walleye abundance declined over time from the year the estimate was obtained to the year it was used to set a harvest quota. We derived safety factors for application to past estimates of population size; these factors limit the occurrence of an exploitation rate exceeding the maximum sustainable rate (35%) to approximately 1 in 40. These safety factors declined from 35% for 1-year-old estimates to less than 20% for 10-year-old estimates.

  9. Olfactory experience modulates immature neuron development in postnatal and adult guinea pig piriform cortex.

    PubMed

    He, X; Zhang, X-M; Wu, J; Fu, J; Mou, L; Lu, D-H; Cai, Y; Luo, X-G; Pan, A; Yan, X-X

    2014-02-14

    Immature neurons expressing doublecortin (DCX+) are present around cortical layer II in various mammals including guinea pigs and humans, especially enriched in the paleocortex. However, little is known whether and how functional experience affects the development of this population of neurons. We attempted to explore a modulation by experience to layer II DCX+ cells in the primary olfactory cortex in postnatal and adult guinea pigs. Neonatal and 1-year-old guinea pigs were subjected to unilateral naris-occlusion, followed 1 and 2months later by morphometry of DCX+ cells in the piriform cortex. DCX+ somata and processes were reduced in the deprived relative to the non-deprived piriform cortex in both age groups at the two surviving time points. The number of DCX+ cells was decreased in the deprived side relative to internal control at 1 and 2months in the youths and at 2months in the adults post-occlusion. The mean somal area of DCX+ cells showed a trend of decrease in the deprived side relative to the internal control in the youths. In addition, DCX+ cells in the deprived side exhibited a lower frequency of colocalization with the neuron-specific nuclear antigen (NeuN) relative to counterparts. These results suggest that normal olfactory experience is required for the maintenance and development of DCX+ immature neurons in postnatal and adult guinea pig piriform cortex.

  10. CSPα, a Molecular Co-chaperone Essential for Short and Long-Term Synaptic Maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Ortega, Elena; Ruiz, Rocío; Tabares, Lucia

    2017-01-01

    Cysteine string protein α (CSPα) is a vesicle protein located in the presynaptic terminal of most synapses. CSPα is an essential molecular co-chaperone that facilitates the correct folding of proteins and the assembly of the exocytic machinery. The absence of this protein leads to altered neurotransmitter release and neurodegeneration in multiple model systems, from flies to mice. In humans, CSPα mutations are associated with the development of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL), a neurodegenerative disease characterized by intracellular accumulation of lysosomal material. Here, we review the physiological role of CSPα and the pathology resulting from the homozygous deletion of the gene or its mutations. In addition, we investigate whether long-term moderate reduction of the protein produces motor dysfunction. We found that 1-year-old CSPα heterozygous mice display a reduced ability to sustain motor unit recruitment during repetitive stimulation, which indicates that physiological levels of CSPα are required for normal neuromuscular responses in mice and, likely, in humans. PMID:28239331

  11. Clinical variability in neurohepatic syndrome due to combined mitochondrial DNA depletion and Gaucher disease.

    PubMed

    Harvengt, Julie; Wanty, Catherine; De Paepe, Boel; Sempoux, Christine; Revencu, Nicole; Smet, Joél; Van Coster, Rudy; Lissens, Willy; Seneca, Sara; Weekers, Laurent; Sokal, Etienne; Debray, François-Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    A 1-year-old girl born to consanguineous parents presented with unexplained liver failure, leading to transplantation at 19 months. Subsequent partial splenectomy for persistent cytopenia showed the presence of foamy cells, and Gaucher disease was confirmed by homozygosity for the p.Leu483Pro mutation in the GBA gene. She was treated by enzyme replacement therapy (ERT). Clinical follow-up showed mild developmental delay, strabismus, nystagmus and oculomotor apraxia. Biochemical studies revealed multiple respiratory chain deficiencies and a mosaic pattern of deficient complex IV immunostaining in liver and fibroblast. Molecular analysis identified a mtDNA depletion syndrome due to the homozygous p.Pro98Leu mutation in MPV17. A younger sister unaffected by mtDNA depletion, presented with pancytopenia and hepatosplenomegaly. ERT for Gaucher disease resulted in visceral normalization without any neurological symptom. A third sister, affected by both conditions, had marked developmental delay, strabismus and ophthalmoplegia but no liver cirrhosis. In conclusion, intrafamilal variability occurs in MPV17-related disease. The combined pathological effect of Gaucher and mitochondrial diseases can negatively impact neurological and liver functions and influence the outcome in consanguineous families. The immunocytochemical staining of OXPHOS protein in tissues and cultured cells is a powerful tool revealing mosaic pattern of deficiency pointing to mtDNA-related mitochondrial disorders.

  12. Climate influences assemblages of abomasal nematodes of sheep on steppe pastures in the east of Algeria.

    PubMed

    Zouyed, I; Cabaret, J; Bentounsi, B

    2016-12-01

    It is a common view that assemblages of parasitic nematodes are influenced by climatic conditions; however, there are only a few articles available regarding those that infect farm animals. We investigated the relationship between climate variables and infection with abomasal trichostrongyles in 335 1-year-old rams grazed on steppe pastures in Eastern Algeria. Abomasa were collected from 12 local slaughterhouses located in four climatic areas (from humid to arid) and the worms extracted, identified and counted. The abundance was low and the fauna composed primarily of Teladorsagia circumcincta, Marshallagia marshalli and Trichostrongylus sp. The high percentage of M. marshalli is typical of steppe areas. Ostertagia ostertagi and Haemonchus contortus were present in low numbers. Rainfall was the most important climatic variable related to the main species. This relationship was not linear for M. marshalli but an optimal rainfall was detected (350-400 mm/year). The more complex climatic indicators used in the study did not demonstrate a more significant correlation than rainfall. The predictive value of rainfall on the abundance or proportion of species in the assemblage was modest but highly significant. The seasonality of assemblages was different between the two main sub-climates (sub-humid and semi-arid).

  13. Negligible risk associated with the movement of processed rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), from an infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) endemic area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LaPatra, S.E.; Batts, W.N.; Overturf, K.; Jones, G.N.; Shewmaker, W.D.; Winton, J.R.

    2001-01-01

    To assess the risk of transmission of infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) associated with the movement of processed rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, from an area where the virus is endemic, 240 freshly eviscerated fish (225-500 g) exhibiting spinal curvature or spinal compression types of deformities were tested for IHNV by virus isolation and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques. Commercially produced rainbow trout, approximately 1-year-old, that exhibited spinal deformities were considered to have had a high likelihood of having survived an outbreak of IHN. Serological analysis of fish exhibiting spinal curvature or spinal compression types of deformities for anti-IHNV antibodies resulted, in 71 and 50% of the serum samples, respectively, with detectable neutralization activity suggesting previous infection with IHNV. A portion of the skin and muscle in the area of the deformity was collected, as well as brain tissue from each commercially processed fish. Tissue homogenates were tested for IHNV using the epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC) cell line pretreated with polyethylene glycol and the chinook salmon embryo (CHSE-214) cell line using standard methods. Nested, reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR for the detection of IHNV used the central 1231 bp portion of the glycoprotein (G) challenge studies and is suggested as a mechanism responsible for virus clearance. These results provide scientific information that can be used to assess the risk associated with the movement of processed rainbow trout from an IHNV endemic area.

  14. CTNS gene analysis emphasizes diagnostic value of eye examination in patients with cystinosis

    PubMed Central

    Alcántara-Ortigoza, Miguel A.; Martínez-Bernal, Astrid B.; Belmont-Martínez, Leticia; Vela-Amieva, Marcela; Angel, Ariadna González-del

    2013-01-01

    Classic nephropathic cystinosis (CNC) is an autosomal recessive and infrequent inborn metabolic disease that should be suspected in all children who show failure to thrive and renal Fanconi syndrome (RFS). Slit-lamp examination reveals pathognomonic corneal deposits of cystine crystals in virtually all affected individuals after 12–16 mo of age. A diagnosis of CNC is difficult to confirm in children living in Mexico and most Latin American countries, because cystine levels can be measured only at a few locations. We report the cystinosin genotype findings in 15 Latin American patients with a high clinical suspicion of CNC mainly due to RFS (n =13), although five of them lacked proper ophthalmologic assessment, despite being more than 1-year-old. Molecular analysis confirmed diagnosis of CNC in six (40%) of the 15 patients, five of them with RFS and cystine crystals. The remaining nine (60%) patients had a normal genotype. The predominance of a normal cystinosin genotype in eight of 13 patients with RFS (61.50%) reinforces the need to perform slit-lamp examinations in all patients with RFS over 1 yr of age, prior to measuring cystine or performing molecular cystinosin study, both methods not readily available throughout Latin America. PMID:27625850

  15. Testing global positioning system telemetry to study wolf predation on deer fawns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Demma, D.J.; Barber-Meyer, S. M.; Mech, L.D.

    2007-01-01

    We conducted a pilot study to test the usefulness of Global Positioning System (GPS) collars for investigating wolf (Canis lupus) predation on white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawns. Using GPS collars with short location-attempt intervals on 5 wolves and 5 deer during summers 2002-2004 in northeastern Minnesota, USA, demonstrated how this approach could provide new insights into wolf hunting behavior of fawns. For example, a wolf traveled ???1.5-3.0 km and spent 20-22 hours in the immediate vicinity of known fawn kill sites and ???0.7 km and 8.3 hours at scavenging sites. Wolf travel paths indicated that wolves intentionally traveled into deer summer ranges, traveled ???0.7-4.2 km in such ranges, and spent <1-22 hours per visit. Each pair of 3 GPS-collared wolf pack members were located together for ???6% of potential locations. From GPS collar data, we estimated that each deer summer range in a pack territory containing 5 wolves ???1 year old and hunting individually would be visited by a wolf on average every 3-5 days. This approach holds great potential for investigating summer hunting behavior of wolves in areas where direct observation is impractical or impossible.

  16. Deoxynivalenol Exposure in Norway, Risk Assessments for Different Human Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Sundheim, Leif; Lillegaard, Inger Therese; Fæste, Christiane Kruse; Brantsæter, Anne-Lise; Brodal, Guro; Eriksen, Gunnar Sundstøl

    2017-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is the most common mycotoxin in Norwegian cereals, and DON is detected in most samples of crude cereal grain and cereal food commodities such as flour, bran, and oat flakes. The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety assessed the risk for adverse effects of deoxynivalenol (DON) in different age groups of the domestic population. This review presents the main results from the risk assessment, supplemented with some recently published data. Impairment of the immune system together with reduced feed intake and weight gain are the critical effects of DON in experimental animals on which the current tolerable daily intake was established. Based on food consumption and occurrence data, the mean exposure to DON in years with low and high levels of DON in the flour, respectively, were in the range of or up to two times the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) in 1-year-old infants and 2-year-old children. In years with high mean DON concentration, the high (95th-percentile) exposure exceeded the TDI by up to 3.5 times in 1-, 2- , 4-, and 9-year-old children. The assessment concluded that exceeding the TDI in infants and children is of concern. The estimated dietary DON intakes in adolescent and adult populations are in the range of the TDI or below, and are not a health concern. Acute human exposure to DON is not of concern in any age group. PMID:28165414

  17. Aging somatosensory cortex displays increased density of WFA-binding perineuronal nets associated with GAD-negative neurons.

    PubMed

    Karetko-Sysa, M; Skangiel-Kramska, J; Nowicka, D

    2014-09-26

    The mechanisms of aging in the brain and the subsequent decrease in cognitive abilities remain elusive. While most studies refer to research conducted in old and senile animals, little is known about the early symptoms of normal, healthy aging. In this study, we examined whether perineuronal nets (PNNs), a special form of extracellular matrix (ECM) tightly associated with neurons that is thought to be involved in limiting neuronal plasticity, undergo changes in density during early aging. Using histochemistry and immunohistochemistry, we found that in middle-aged mice (1-year-old), the density of WFA-binding PNNs in the somatosensory cortex as well as in the visual cortex was increased in comparison to that in young adults (3-month-old). Moreover, in the somatosensory cortex, this increase was not associated with any of the GABAergic neuron types that were examined. We propose that early age-related changes in neuronal plasticity may be associated with this increase and can be conceptualized as the spreading of structural brakes for synaptic rearrangements.

  18. Ligneous conjunctivitis in a plasminogen-deficient dog: clinical management and 2-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Torres, María-Dolores; Leiva, Marta; Tabar, María-Dolores; Naranjo, Carolina; Pastor, Josep; Peña, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    A 1-year-old-female Yorkshire Terrier was referred to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of the Autonomous University of Barcelona (VTH-UAB) (Spain) with a 6-month history of unilateral chronic proliferative conjunctivitis and intermittent vomiting and cough. Several medical and surgical treatment efforts to manage conjunctival lesions had resulted in no improvement of the clinical signs. Complete general and ophthalmic examinations revealed several proliferative 'wood-like' masses in the conjunctiva, oral cavity and an interscapular subcutaneous nodule. Conjunctival and buccal biopsies were performed as diagnostic procedures. A diagnosis of ligneous conjunctivitis was made on the basis of histopathology findings and clinical presentation. The only biochemical abnormalities found were severe proteinuria and low plasminogen activity in plasma. No other analytical abnormalities were observed. Topical treatment with heparin and anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive drugs have controlled the ophthalmological clinical signs. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of a dog with plasminogen deficiency and ligneous conjunctivitis with a long survival period and 2-year follow-up.

  19. Rapid detoxification of cereulide in Bacillus cereus food poisoning.

    PubMed

    Shiota, Mitsutaka; Saitou, Keiko; Mizumoto, Hiroshi; Matsusaka, Masanori; Agata, Norio; Nakayama, Masahiro; Kage, Masayoshi; Tatsumi, Shinji; Okamoto, Akira; Yamaguchi, Seiji; Ohta, Michio; Hata, Daisuke

    2010-04-01

    Bacillus cereus is recognized as a major pathogenic bacterium that causes food poisoning and produces gastrointestinal diseases of 2 types: emetic and diarrheal. The emetic type, which is often linked to pasta and rice, arises from a preformed toxin, cereulide, in food. Rapid and accurate diagnostic methods for this emetic toxin are important but are limited. Here we describe 3 patients with B cereus food poisoning in which cereulide was detected and measured sequentially. Three family members began to vomit frequently 30 minutes after consuming reheated fried rice. After 6 hours, a 1-year-old brother died of acute encephalopathy. A 2-year-old sister who presented with unconsciousness recovered rapidly after plasma exchange and subsequent hemodialysis. Their mother recovered soon by fluid therapy. From leftover fried rice and the children's stomach contents, B cereus was isolated. Serum cereulide was detected in both children; it decreased to an undetected level in the sister. These cases highlight the importance of measuring the value of cereulide, which would reflect the severity of B cereus emetic food poisoning. The cases also suggest the possible role of blood-purification therapy in severe cases.

  20. Human exposure to trace elements through the skin by direct contact with clothing: Risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Rovira, Joaquim; Nadal, Martí; Schuhmacher, Marta; Domingo, José L

    2015-07-01

    Metals in textile products and clothing are used for many purposes, such as metal complex dyes, pigments, mordant, catalyst in synthetic fabrics manufacture, synergists of flame retardants, antimicrobials, or as water repellents and odour-preventive agents. When present in textile materials, heavy metals may mean a potential danger to human health. In the present study, the concentrations of a number of elements (Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sn, Sr, Tl, V, and Zn) were determined in skin-contact clothes. Analysed clothes were made of different materials, colours, and brands. Interestingly, we found high levels of Cr in polyamide dark clothes (605 mg/kg), high Sb concentrations in polyester clothes (141 mg/kg), and great Cu levels in some green cotton fabrics (around 280 mg/kg). Dermal contact exposure and human health risks for adult males, adult females, and for <1-year-old children were assessed. Non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks were below safe (HQ<1) and acceptable (<10(-6)) limits, respectively, according to international standards. However, for Sb, non-carcinogenic risk was above 10% of the safety limit (HQ>0.1) for dermal contact with clothes.

  1. Wolf-bison interactions in Yellowstone National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Douglas W.; Mech, L. David; Meagher, Mary; Clark, Wendy E.; Jaffe, Rosemary; Phillips, Michael K.; Mack, John A.

    2000-01-01

    We studied interactions of reintroduced wolves (Canis lupus) with bison (Bison bison) in Yellowstone National Park. Only 2 of 41 wolves in this study had been exposed to bison before their translocation. Wolves were more successful killing elk (Cervus elaphus) than bison, and elk were more abundant than bison, so elk were the primary prey of wolves. Except for a lone emaciated bison calf killed by 8 1-year-old wolves 21 days after their release, the 1st documented kill occurred 25 months after wolves were released. Fourteen bison kills were documented from April 1995 through March 1999. All kills were made in late winter when bison were vulnerable because of poor condition or of bison that were injured or young. Wolves learned to kill bison and killed more bison where elk were absent or scarce. We predict that wolves that have learned to kill bison will kill them more regularly, at least in spring. The results of this study indicate how adaptable wolves are at killing prey species new to them.

  2. Newborn granule cells in the ageing dentate gyrus

    PubMed Central

    Morgenstern, Nicolás A; Lombardi, Gabriela; Schinder, Alejandro F

    2008-01-01

    The dentate gyrus of the hippocampus generates neurons throughout life, but adult neurogenesis exhibits a marked age-dependent decline. Although the decrease in the rate of neurogenesis has been extensively documented in the ageing hippocampus, the specific characteristics of dentate granule cells born in such a continuously changing environment have received little attention. We have used retroviral labelling of neural progenitor cells of the adult mouse dentate gyrus to study morphological properties of neurons born at different ages. Dendritic spine density was measured to estimate glutamatergic afferent connectivity. Fully mature neurons born at the age of 2 months display ∼2.3 spines μm−1 and maintain their overall morphology and spine density in 1-year-old mice. Surprisingly, granule cells born in 10-month-old mice, at which time the rate of neurogenesis has decreased by ∼40-fold, reach a density of dendritic spines similar to that of neurons born in young adulthood. Therefore, in spite of the sharp decline in cell proliferation, differentiation and overall neuronal number, the ageing hippocampus presents a suitable environment for new surviving neurons to reach a high level of complexity, comparable to that of all other dentate granule cells. PMID:18565998

  3. PPARγ negatively regulates T cell activation to prevent follicular helper T cells and germinal center formation.

    PubMed

    Park, Hong-Jai; Kim, Do-Hyun; Choi, Jin-Young; Kim, Won-Ju; Kim, Ji Yun; Senejani, Alireza G; Hwang, Soo Seok; Kim, Lark Kyun; Tobiasova, Zuzana; Lee, Gap Ryol; Craft, Joseph; Bothwell, Alfred L M; Choi, Je-Min

    2014-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a transcription factor that regulates lipid and glucose metabolism. Although studies of PPARγ ligands have demonstrated its regulatory functions in inflammation and adaptive immunity, its intrinsic role in T cells and autoimmunity has yet to be fully elucidated. Here we used CD4-PPARγKO mice to investigate PPARγ-deficient T cells, which were hyper-reactive to produce higher levels of cytokines and exhibited greater proliferation than wild type T cells with increased ERK and AKT phosphorylation. Diminished expression of IκBα, Sirt1, and Foxo1, which are inhibitors of NF-κB, was observed in PPARγ-deficient T cells that were prone to produce all the signature cytokines under Th1, Th2, Th17, and Th9 skewing condition. Interestingly, 1-year-old CD4-PPARγKO mice spontaneously developed moderate autoimmune phenotype by increased activated T cells, follicular helper T cells (TFH cells) and germinal center B cells with glomerular inflammation and enhanced autoantibody production. Sheep red blood cell immunization more induced TFH cells and germinal centers in CD4-PPARγKO mice and the T cells showed increased of Bcl-6 and IL-21 expression suggesting its regulatory role in germinal center reaction. Collectively, these results suggest that PPARγ has a regulatory role for TFH cells and germinal center reaction to prevent autoimmunity.

  4. Pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with bronchopulmonary dysplasia and congenital heart disease in preterm infants. A case report of a preterm infant with recurrent pulmonary hypertension after corrective cardiac surgery and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Muneuchi, Jun; Kuraoka, Ayako; Watanabe, Mamie; Ochiai, Yoshie; Joo, Kunitaka

    2015-01-01

    In preterm infants with congenital heart disease, concomitant bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is associated with relatively poor clinical outcomes because of the increased pulmonary vascular resistance and adverse effects of inflammation on the damaged lungs, even after surgery. We present herein a 1-year-old female who developed recurrent pulmonary arterial hypertension 6 months after closure of a ventricular septal defect. She was born at 26 weeks of gestation (birth weight, 470 g), and developed BPD requiring oxygen supplementation. Her systemic-to-pulmonary blood flow ratio was 2.1 preoperatively and 1.0 postoperatively, pulmonary arterial pressure was 61/15 (mean 39) mmHg preoperatively and 41/17 (mean 24) mmHg postoperatively, and pulmonary vascular resistance was 4.2 mmHg/L·minute·m(2) preoperatively and 3.6 mmHg/L·minute·m(2) postoperatively. At 1 year of age, echocardiography showed an increase in her estimated right ventricular pressure, indicating worsening pulmonary hypertension. After 3 years of treatment with oxygen supplementation, prostacyclin, and bosentan, her pulmonary arterial pressure improved to the normal range. The pathophysiology of pulmonary arterial hypertension is heterogeneous in preterm infants with congenital heart disease and concomitant BPD. Careful management of these patients is warranted even after corrective cardiac surgery.

  5. The relationship between reproductive success and demographic structure in remnant populations of Primula veris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brys, Rein; Jacquemyn, Hans; Endels, Patrick; Hermy, Martin; De Blust, Geert

    2003-12-01

    Plants often suffer reductions in fecundity due to fragmentation, degradation and destruction of populations and their sites. Whether this decrease in seed production has population-level consequences is generally unknown. Here, we aimed to determine the current status of remnant populations in the perennial herb Primula veris in Belgium. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of reduced population size and morph bias on reproductive success and explored if changes in demographic structure could be associated with population fecundity. We studied 69 populations that differed in population size from three to nearly 1500 flowering plants. Three different population types could be distinguished: (a) "dynamic" populations, characterized by high densities of 1 year old juveniles, (b) "normal" populations with adult age-stages prevailing, but still a considerable number of juveniles, and (c) "regressive" populations, in which only flowering adults dominate and rejuvenation hardly occurs. The three population types differed with respect to population size and morph frequency. Dynamic populations were significantly larger and showed a weaker morph bias compared to the intermediate normal and the small regressive populations. Reproductive success, studied the previous year in 26 populations, decreased significantly with decreasing population size and was significantly associated with the demographic structure of the populations. Coefficients of variation for the proportion of flowers setting fruit, the number of seeds per fruit and the total number of seeds per plant decreased significantly with increasing population size. Hence, the observed variability in seed set may be one of the causal factors affecting the observed types of population demographic structure.

  6. Microbial secondary metabolites in homes in association with moisture damage and asthma.

    PubMed

    Kirjavainen, P V; Täubel, M; Karvonen, A M; Sulyok, M; Tiittanen, P; Krska, R; Hyvärinen, A; Pekkanen, J

    2016-06-01

    We aimed to characterize the presence of microbial secondary metabolites in homes and their association with moisture damage, mold, and asthma development. Living room floor dust was analyzed by LC-MS/MS for 333 secondary metabolites from 93 homes of 1-year-old children. Moisture damage was present in 15 living rooms. At 6 years, 8 children had active and 15 lifetime doctor-diagnosed asthma. The median number of different metabolites per house was 17 (range 8-29) and median sum load 65 (4-865) ng/m(2) . Overall 42 different metabolites were detected. The number of metabolites present tended to be higher in homes with mold odor or moisture damage. The higher sum loads and number of metabolites with loads over 10 ng/m(2) were associated with lower prevalence of active asthma at 6 years (aOR 0.06 (95% CI <0.001-0.96) and 0.05 (<0.001-0.56), respectively). None of the individual metabolites, which presence tended (P < 0.2) to be increased by moisture damage or mold, were associated with increased risk of asthma. Microbial secondary metabolites are ubiquitously present in home floor dust. Moisture damage and mold tend to increase their numbers and amount. There was no evidence indicating that the secondary metabolites determined would explain the association between moisture damage, mold, and the development of asthma.

  7. Photoperiod modulates the reproductive axis of European sea bass through regulation of kiss1 and gnrh2 neuronal expression.

    PubMed

    Espigares, F; Rocha, A; Gómez, A; Carrillo, M; Zanuy, S

    2017-01-01

    The onset of puberty is characterized by activation of the brain-pituitary-gonad axis. However, the molecular and endocrine mechanism involved in the process of puberty and the influence of environmental conditions, such as photoperiod signalling, are not well understood in fish. In this study, 1-year-old male European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) were exposed to photoperiod manipulation in combination with size-sorting. Two treatment groups, a puberty accelerating photoperiod (AP) group and a continuous light (LL) group, were studied from August to February. Our results indicate that AP and LL are able to entrain the rhythms of both kiss1 and gnrh2 mRNA levels in the brain, while kiss2 and gnrh1 mRNA expression does not seem to be directly affected by the photoperiod, at least during testicular growth. It is likely that AP and LL photoperiod regimes affected both plasma Fsh and 11-KT profiles, which might explain, respectively, the phase shift and reduction of testes maturation seen under these conditions. We therefore hypothesize that the unbalanced production of this androgen regulated by circulating Fsh might be limiting the stimulation of germ cell proliferation in European sea bass males. In summary, our study establishes that photoperiod modulates the expression of kiss1 and gnrh2 in the forebrain-midbrain, which may be involved in the translation of the light stimulus to activate the reproductive axis.

  8. Probing genetic algorithms for feature selection in comprehensive metabolic profiling approach.

    PubMed

    Zou, Wei; Tolstikov, Vladimir V

    2008-04-01

    Six different clones of 1-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seedlings grown under standardized conditions in a green house were used for sample preparation and further analysis. Three independent and complementary analytical techniques for metabolic profiling were applied in the present study: hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC-LC/ESI-MS), reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RP-LC/ESI-MS), and gas chromatography all coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/TOF-MS). Unsupervised methods, such as principle component analysis (PCA) and clustering, and supervised methods, such as classification, were used for data mining. Genetic algorithms (GA), a multivariate approach, was probed for selection of the smallest subsets of potentially discriminative classifiers. From more than 2000 peaks found in total, small subsets were selected by GA as highly potential classifiers allowing discrimination among six investigated genotypes. Annotated GC/TOF-MS data allowed the generation of a small subset of identified metabolites. LC/ESI-MS data and small subsets require further annotation. The present study demonstrated that combination of comprehensive metabolic profiling and advanced data mining techniques provides a powerful metabolomic approach for biomarker discovery among small molecules. Utilizing GA for feature selection allowed the generation of small subsets of potent classifiers.

  9. [Stress among nurses: an examination of salivary cortisol levels on work and day off].

    PubMed

    Pires da Rocha, Maria Cecília; Figueiredo de Martino, Milva Maria; Grassi-Kassisse, Dora Maria; Luiz de Souza, Aglécio

    2013-10-01

    The present study evaluates the use of salivary cortisol concentration as a physiological index of the stress level among nurses on their work day and day off and correlates it with the questionnaire used to measure occupational stress in nurses (Inventário de Estresse em Enfermeiros - IEE). This is a comparative, cross-sectional descriptive study in which sociodemographic data, IEE results and salivary cortisol levels were used. Fifty-seven nurses participated in the study (80.7% females and a mean age of 37.1 years old). The IEE average score was 124.5. The average cortisol level was 564.1 ng/m on work day and 354.1 ng/mL on day off. Nurses who had double workdays presented high values of salivary cortisol during the work day (638.1 ng/mL). In conclusion, salivary cortisol identified the nurses' stress level, and differences were found between a work day and day off. On the nurses' day off, their salivary cortisol levels and stress scores were lower.

  10. Response of stomatal conductance to drought in ponderosa pine: implications for carbon and ozone uptake.

    PubMed

    Panek, J A; Goldstein, A H

    2001-03-01

    To gain insight into the limitations imposed by a typical Mediterranean-climate summer drought on the uptake of carbon and ozone in the ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) ecosystem, we compared diurnal trends in leaf physiology of young trees in a watered and a control plot located in the Sierra Nevada Mountains, CA, USA (Blodgett Forest, 38 degrees 53' N, 120 degrees 37' W, 1315 m elevation). Predawn water potential of trees in the watered plot remained above -0.3 MPa throughout the growing season, whereas it dropped in the control plot from -0.24 to -0.52 MPa between late May and mid-August. Photosynthesis and stomatal conductance of trees in the watered plot were relatively insensitive to atmospheric vapor pressure deficit (VPD), whereas gas exchange of trees in the control plot varied with changes in soil water, VPD and temperature. Although the 1998 growing season was abnormally wet, we saw a pronounced drought effect at the control site. Over the 2 months following the onset of watering, carbon and ozone uptake were measured on three days at widely spaced intervals. Carbon uptake per unit leaf area by 1-year-old foliage of trees in the control plot was 39, 35 and 30% less, respectively, than in the watered plot, and estimated ozone deposition per unit leaf area (ozone concentration times stomatal conductance) was 36, 46 and 41% less.

  11. Genome-Wide Transcriptional Profile Analysis of Prunus persica in Response to Low Sink Demand after Fruit Removal

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Wei; Xu, Hongguo; Liu, Guotian; Fan, Peige; Liang, Zhenchang; Li, Shaohua

    2016-01-01

    Prunus persica fruits were removed from 1-year-old shoots to analysis photosynthesis, chlorophyll fluorescence and genes changes in leaves to low sink demand caused by fruit removal (−fruit) during the final stage of rapid fruit growth. A decline in net photosynthesis rate was observed, accompanied with a decrease in stomatal conductance. The intercellular CO2 concentrations and leaf temperature increased as compared with a normal fruit load (+fruit). Moreover, low sink demand significantly inhibited the donor side and the reaction center of photosystem II. 382 genes in leaf with an absolute fold change ≥1 change in expression level, representing 116 up- and 266 down-regulated genes except for unknown transcripts. Among these, 25 genes for photosynthesis were down-regulated, 69 stress and 19 redox related genes up-regulated under the low sink demand. These studies revealed high leaf temperature may result in a decline of net photosynthesis rate through down-regulation in photosynthetic related genes and up-regulation in redox and stress related genes, especially heat shock proteins genes. The complex changes in genes at the transcriptional level under low sink demand provided useful starting points for in-depth analyses of source-sink relationship in P. persica. PMID:27446115

  12. Utility of Baseline Home Visit Audit in Home Hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    François, Karlien; Faratro, Rose; d'Gama, Céline; Wong, Elizabeth; Fung, Stella; Chan, Christopher T

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a retrospective cohort study in a university hospital-based home hemodialysis (HHD) program to evaluate the effectiveness of a home visit audit tool. We aimed to delineate safety risk in HHD patients and to ascertain whether this is associated with clinical outcomes. All incident HHD patients between July 18, 2008, and June 30, 2013 with follow-up until December 31, 2013, were included in the cohort. Primary outcome was the description of the presence of safety risk evaluated by the home visit audit at the start of HHD. Secondary outcomes were patient-reported adverse events and technique survival. In our cohort of 84 patients, a baseline home visit audit was surveyed in 56 (67%) patients. Overall, patients were 45.8 ± 14.1 years old, and 51.2% were men. Eighteen of the 35 potential safety risks were documented at least once in the cohort. Thrity-three of the 56 surveyed subjects presented more than one safety risk. The performance of an audit did not influence adverse events or technique survival. Process and methods of auditing a home visit should be reviewed to improve judicious resource use.

  13. Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever at 60 Years: Early Evolution of Concepts of Causation and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Sanford N.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY During the decade of the 1960s, the epidemiology of a new dengue disease, dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS), was described by collaborative research performed by Thai scientists from many institutions and by workers at the U.S. Army's SEATO Medical Research Laboratory in Bangkok, Thailand. Careful clinical and physiological studies provided the initial description of DSS. DSS cases were caused by each of the four dengue viruses (DENV) and not chikungunya (CHIK) virus or DENV 5 and 6, were associated with a secondary-type dengue antibody response in children over the age of 1 year, were associated with a primary antibody response in infants less than 1 year old whose mothers had neutralizing antibodies to all four DENV, were associated more frequently with secondary DENV 2 infections than those due to DENV 1 and 3, and were more common in females than males over the age of 3 years. Robust laboratory methods for growth and recovery of DENV in tissue cultures were introduced. In addition, life-saving principles of fluid and plasma protein resuscitation of hypovolemia were described. Most epidemiological observations made during the decade of the 1960s have been confirmed in the succeeding 45 years. Much contemporary research on pathogenesis fails to address the two distinct immunological antecedents of DHF/DSS. PMID:26085471

  14. Predisposing factors for renal scarring in children with urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Beiraghdar, Fatemeh; Panahi, Yunes; Einollahi, Behzad; Moharamzad, Yashar; Nemati, Eghlim; Amirsalari, Susan

    2012-05-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the predisposing factors for renal scarring in children with urinary tract infection. In this prospective cohort study, 176 children with documented urinary tract infection were categorized into four groups: ≤1 year old, 1-2 years old, 2-7 years and 7-14 years old. Ultrasonography and Technetium-99 m-DMSA scan were used to detect the possible abnormalities. Infants under 12 months old presented as the most common group for renal scarring (27 cases, 52.9%), and vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) was diagnosed in 29 cases (56.8%). Fifteen (41.67%) children between the ages of one and two years had renal scar, and VUR was detected in half of the patients. In the third group, 36.3%, and in fourth group, 41.6% of the patients had renal scar. Also, 38.6% in group three and 50% in the final group had VUR. A co-incidental finding that was observed in this study was the high incidence of pseudohypoaldesteronism (PHA) in our patients: in 39.2% of the children in group one, 22.2% in group two and 4% in group three. In group four however, none of the patients had PHA. Risk of scar formation with urinary tract infection (UTI) was higher in the younger age group and in those with recurrent UTIs.

  15. A Community-based Randomized Trial of Postcard Mailings to Increase Dental Utilization Among Low-income Children

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Asia Dela; Mueller, Gregory; Milgrom, Peter; Coldwell, Susan E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Increasing awareness about the importance of preventive dental care among low-income families has been considered to be key to overcoming nonfinancial access to care barriers for children. The purpose of this randomized, controlled trial was to measure the impact of postcard mailings on dental utilization by low-income children through a dental society program designed to increase access to dental care. Methods Five thousand eight hundred and seven low-income 2- to 4-year-olds were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: (1) Group 1 (N=2,014) received postcards containing information on how to enroll in the Yakima County Access to Baby and Child Dentistry program; (2) Group 2 (N=2,014) received the enrollment information as well as additional information on the availability of fluoride varnish and the need to visit the dentist by the age of 1-year-old; and (3) Group 3 (N=1,779) did not receive postcards. Results Preventive services utilization rates were not different among the groups: 61% for Group 1, 62% for Group 2, and 60% for Group 3, although rates were high for a Medicaid population. Conclusions Postcard mailings did not significantly increase utilization of preventive dental services. Other strategies to increase utilization of preventive oral health measures are needed. PMID:23433618

  16. Successful closed suction drain management of a canine elbow hygroma.

    PubMed

    Pavletic, M M; Brum, D E

    2015-07-01

    A 1-year-old castrated male St. Bernard dog presented to Angell Animal Medical Center with bilateral elbow hygromas which had been present for several weeks. The largest hygroma involving the left elbow was managed with a closed suction (active) drain system to continuously collapse the hygroma pocket over a 3-week period. Soft bedding was used to protect the elbows from further impact trauma to the olecranon areas. Following drain removal, there was no evidence of hygroma recurrence based on periodic examinations over an 18-month period. The smaller non-operated right elbow hygroma had slightly enlarged during this period. Closed suction drain management of the hygroma proved to be a simple and economical method of collapsing the left elbow hygroma. This closed drainage system eliminated the need for the postoperative bandage care required with the use of the Penrose (passive) drain method of managing elbow hygromas. The external drain tube should be adequately secured in order to minimise the risk of its inadvertent displacement.

  17. Modulation of porcine (Sus scrofa domestica) and pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) carbonyl reducing enzymes by anthelmintic therapy with flubendazole.

    PubMed

    Szotáková, Barbora; Nobilis, Milan; Lamka, Jirí; Krízová, Veronika; Savlík, Michal; Skálová, Lenka

    2008-01-01

    Flubendazole (FLU) is a widely administered benzimidazole anthelmintic indicated for the control of parasitic diseases in farm animals including pigs and pheasants. This study was designed to test the biotransformation of FLU in control animals and animals treated with FLU in recommended therapeutic doses. The activities of several pheasant and porcine hepatic and intestinal carbonyl reducing enzymes and their modulation by FLU were also studied. Twelve adult pheasant hens, approximately 1 year old, were divided into two groups and treated for 7 days with placebo or 6 mg of FLU/kg of body weight. Eight male hog weaners, approximately 3 month old, were divided into two groups and treated for 5 days with placebo or 1.57 mg of FLU/kg of body weight. Subcellular fractions, prepared from livers and small intestines of control and FLU treated animals, were incubated with FLU. In vitro formation of two main FLU metabolites, reduced FLU, and hydrolyzed FLU were analyzed using HPLC. While FLU was reduced significantly more intensively in FLU-treated pheasants than in control animals, no differences were observed in pigs. These results were confirmed by measuring the enzyme activities: carbonyl reducing enzyme activities were increased in pheasants treated by FLU, whereas FLU did not affect these enzymes in pigs.

  18. Improved Prefrontal Activity and Chewing Performance as Function of Wearing Denture in Partially Edentulous Elderly Individuals: Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study

    PubMed Central

    Kamiya, Kazunobu; Narita, Noriyuki; Iwaki, Sunao

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effects of wearing a denture on prefrontal activity during chewing performance. We specifically examined that activity in 12 elderly edentulous subjects [63.1±6.1 years old (mean ± SD)] and 12 young healthy controls (22.1±2.3 years old) using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) in order to evaluate the quality of prefrontal functionality during chewing performance under the conditions of wearing a denture and tooth loss, and then compared the findings with those of young healthy controls. fNIRS and electromyography were used simultaneously to detect prefrontal and masticatory muscle activities during chewing, while occlusal force and masticatory score were also examined by use of a food intake questionnaire. A significant increase in prefrontal activity was observed during chewing while wearing a denture, which was accompanied by increased masticatory muscle activity, occlusal force, and masticatory score, as compared with the tooth loss condition. Prefrontal activation during chewing while wearing a denture in the elderly subjects was not much different from that in the young controls. In contrast, tooth loss in the elderly group resulted in marked prefrontal deactivation, accompanied by decreased masticatory muscle activity, occlusal force, and masticatory score, as compared with the young controls. We concluded that intrinsic prefrontal activation during chewing with a denture may prevent prefrontal depression induced by tooth loss in elderly edentulous patients. PMID:27362255

  19. Postnatal development of echolocation abilities in a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus): temporal organization.

    PubMed

    Favaro, Livio; Gnone, Guido; Pessani, Daniela

    2013-03-01

    In spite of all the information available on adult bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) biosonar, the ontogeny of its echolocation abilities has been investigated very little. Earlier studies have reported that neonatal dolphins can produce both whistles and burst-pulsed sounds just after birth and that early-pulsed sounds are probably a precursor of echolocation click trains. The aim of this research is to investigate the development of echolocation signals in a captive calf, born in the facilities of the Acquario di Genova. A set of 81 impulsive sounds were collected from birth to the seventh postnatal week and six additional echolocation click trains were recorded when the dolphin was 1 year old. Moreover, behavioral observations, concurring with sound production, were carried out by means of a video camera. For each sound we measured five acoustic parameters: click train duration (CTD), number of clicks per train, minimum, maximum, and mean click repetition rate (CRR). CTD and number of clicks per train were found to increase with age. Maximum and mean CRR followed a decreasing trend with dolphin growth starting from the second postnatal week. The calf's first head scanning movement was recorded 21 days after birth. Our data suggest that in the bottlenose dolphin the early postnatal weeks are essential for the development of echolocation abilities and that the temporal features of the echolocation click trains remain relatively stable from the seventh postnatal week up to the first year of life.

  20. Purely cystic form of choroid plexus papilloma with acute hydrocephalus in an infant. Case report.

    PubMed

    Miyagi, Yasushi; Natori, Yoshihiro; Suzuki, Satoshi O; Iwaki, Toru; Morioka, Takato; Arimura, Koichi; Maeda, Yoshihisa; Shono, Tadahisa; Matsukado, Koichiro; Sasaki, Tomio

    2006-12-01

    Infants with acute hydrocephalus often present with nonspecific neurological signs, and cystic choroid plexus papilloma (CPP) is a very rare cause of acute obstructive hydrocephalus. The authors present the case of a 1-year-old girl who became irritable, started vomiting, and became comatose within a day. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging revealed a cystic lesion in the third ventricle as well as hydrocephalus. Although the aqueduct appeared to be patent, phase-contrast MR imaging showed no pulsatile flow of cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricles. An emergent endoscopic third ventriculostomy was performed. Endoscopic examination revealed a highly mobile cyst attached by a pedicle to the choroid plexus adjacent to the Monro foramen in the lateral ventricle. The cyst was totally excised during the endoscopic procedure and was subsequently diagnosed as a CPP on the basis of histopathological findings. Purely cystic CPP is a very rare pathological entity; however, when it does occur, it can cause obstructive hydrocephalus which, without rapid diagnosis and surgical intervention, could lead to sudden death.

  1. Goal Attribution toward Non-Human Objects during Infancy Predicts Imaginary Companion Status during Preschool Years.

    PubMed

    Moriguchi, Yusuke; Kanakogi, Yasuhiro; Todo, Naoya; Okumura, Yuko; Shinohara, Ikuko; Itakura, Shoji

    2016-01-01

    It has been shown that there is a significant relationship between children's mentalizing skills and creation of an imaginary companion (IC). Theorists have proposed that interaction with an IC may improve mentalizing skills, but it is also possible that children's mentalizing skills affect their creation of an IC. In this longitudinal study, we examined whether goal attribution in infants younger than 1 years old (Time 1) predicted their creation of ICs at 48 months old (Time 2). At Time 1, infants' goal attribution was measured in an action prediction experiment, where infants anticipated three types of action goals: (1) another person's goal-directed action (GH condition); (2) another person's non-goal-directed (BH condition); and (3) a mechanical claw's goal-directed action (MC condition). At Time 2, parents completed questionnaires assessing whether their children had ICs. The path analyses using Bayesian estimation revealed that infants' anticipation in the MC condition, but not in the GH and BH conditions, predicted their later IC status. These results indicate that infants' goal attributions to non-human agents may be a strong predictor of their later IC creation. Early mentalizing skills toward non-human objects may provide children with a basis for their engagement in imaginative play.

  2. Prevalence of Corneal Astigmatism in Tohono O'odham Native American Children 6 Months to 8 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Dobson, Velma; Miller, Joseph M.; Schwiegerling, Jim; Clifford-Donaldson, Candice E.; Green, Tina K.; Messer, Dawn H.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To describe the prevalence of corneal astigmatism in infants and young children who are members of a Native American tribe with a high prevalence of refractive astigmatism. Methods. The prevalence of corneal astigmatism was assessed by obtaining infant keratometer (IK4) measurements from 1235 Tohono O'odham children, aged 6 months to 8 years. Results. The prevalence of corneal astigmatism >2.00 D was lower in the 1- to <2-year-old age group when compared with all other age groups, except the 6- to <7-year-old group. The magnitude of mean corneal astigmatism was significantly lower in the 1- to <2-year age group than in the 5- to <6-, 6- to <7-, and 7- to <8-year age groups. Corneal astigmatism was with-the-rule (WTR) in 91.4% of astigmatic children (≥1.00 D). Conclusions. The prevalence and mean amount of corneal astigmatism were higher than reported in non–Native American populations. Mean astigmatism increased from 1.43 D in 1-year-olds to nearly 2.00 D by school age. PMID:21460261

  3. Modeling the Injury Prevention Impact of Mandatory Alcohol Ignition Interlock Installation in All New US Vehicles

    PubMed Central

    Flannagan, Carol A. C.; Bingham, C. Raymond; Cunningham, Rebecca M.; Rupp, Jonathan D.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated the injury prevention impact and cost savings associated with alcohol interlock installation in all new US vehicles. Methods. We identified fatal and nonfatal injuries associated with drinking driver vehicle crashes from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System and National Automotive Sampling System’s General Estimates System data sets (2006–2010). We derived the estimated impact of universal interlock installation using an estimate of the proportion of alcohol-related crashes that were preventable in vehicles < 1 year-old. We repeated this analysis for each subsequent year, assuming a 15-year implementation. We applied existing crash-induced injury cost metrics to approximate economic savings, and we used a sensitivity analysis to examine results with varying device effectiveness. Results. Over 15 years, 85% of crash fatalities (> 59 000) and 84% to 88% of nonfatal injuries (> 1.25 million) attributed to drinking drivers would be prevented, saving an estimated $342 billion in injury-related costs, with the greatest injury and cost benefit realized among recently legal drinking drivers. Cost savings outweighed installation costs after 3 years, with the policy remaining cost effective provided device effectiveness remained above approximately 25%. Conclusions. Alcohol interlock installation in all new vehicles is likely a cost-effective primary prevention policy that will substantially reduce alcohol-involved crash fatalities and injuries, especially among young vulnerable drivers. PMID:25790385

  4. Bordetella pertussis.

    PubMed

    Nieves, Delma J; Heininger, Ulrich

    2016-06-01

    Pertussis is a highly infectious vaccine-preventable cough illness that continues to be a significant source of morbidity and mortality around the world. The majority of human illness is caused by Bordetella pertussis, and some is caused by Bordetella parapertussis. Bordetella is a Gram-negative, pleomorphic, aerobic coccobacillus. In the past several years, even countries with high immunization rates in early childhood have experienced rises in pertussis cases. Reasons for the resurgence of reported pertussis may include molecular changes in the organism and increased awareness and diagnostic capabilities, as well as lessened vaccine efficacy and waning immunity. The most morbidity and mortality with pertussis infection is seen in infants too young to benefit from immunization. Severe infection requiring hospitalization, including in an intensive care setting, is mostly seen in those under 3 months of age. As a result, research and public health actions have been aimed at better understanding and reducing the spread of Bordetella pertussis. Studies comparing the cost benefit of cocooning strategies versus immunization of pregnant women have been favorable towards immunizing pregnant women. This strategy is expected to prevent a larger number of pertussis cases, hospitalizations, and deaths in infants <1 year old while also being cost-effective. Studies have demonstrated that the source of infection in infants usually is a family member. Efforts to immunize children and adults, in particular pregnant women, need to remain strong.

  5. Photosynthetic and growth responses of Schima superba seedlings to sulfuric and nitric acid depositions.

    PubMed

    Yao, Fang-Fang; Ding, Hui-Ming; Feng, Li-Li; Chen, Jing-Jing; Yang, Song-Yu; Wang, Xi-Hua

    2016-05-01

    A continuing rise in acid deposition can cause forest degradation. In China, acid deposition has converted gradually from sulfuric acid deposition (SAD) to nitric acid deposition (NAD). However, the differing responses of photosynthesis and growth to depositions of sulfuric vs. nitric acid have not been well studied. In this study, 1-year-old seedlings of Schima superba, a dominant species in subtropical forests, were treated with two types of acid deposition SO4 (2-)/NO3 (-) ratios (8:1 and 0.7:1) with two applications (foliar spraying and soil drenching) at two pH levels (pH 3.5 and pH 2.5) over a period of 18 months. The results showed that the intensity, acid deposition type, and spraying method had significant effects on the physiological characteristics and growth performance of seedlings. Acid deposition at pH 2.5 via foliar application reduced photosynthesis and growth of S. superba, especially in the first year. Unlike SAD, NAD with high acidity potentially alleviated the negative effects of acidity on physiological properties and growth, probably due to a fertilization effect that improved foliar nitrogen and chlorophyll contents. Our results suggest that trees were damaged mainly by direct acid stress in the short term, whereas in the long term, soil acidification was also likely to be a major risk to forest ecosystems. Our data suggest that the shift in acid deposition type may complicate the ongoing challenge of anthropogenic acid deposition to ecosystem stability.

  6. An ERβ agonist induces browning of subcutaneous abdominal fat pad in obese female mice

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Yi-fei; Su, Wen; Dai, Yu-bing; Wu, Wan-fu; Huang, Bo; Barros, Rodrigo P. A.; Nguyen, Hao; Maneix, Laure; Guan, You-fei; Warner, Margaret; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke

    2016-01-01

    Estrogen, via estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), exerts several beneficial effects on metabolism and energy homeostasis by controlling size, enzymatic activity and hormonal content of adipose tissue. The actions of estrogen on sympathetic ganglia, which are key players in the browning process, are less well known. In the present study we show that ERβ influences browning of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) via its actions both on sympathetic ganglia and on the SAT itself. A 3-day-treatment with a selective ERβ agonist, LY3201, induced browning of SAT in 1-year-old obese WT and ERα−/− female mice. Browning was associated with increased expression of ERβ in the nuclei of neurons in the sympathetic ganglia, increase in tyrosine hydroxylase in both nerve terminals in the SAT and sympathetic ganglia neurons and an increase of β3-adrenoceptor in the SAT. LY3201 had no effect on browning in young female or male mice. In the case of young females browning was already maximal while in males there was very little expression of ERβ in the SAT and very little expression of the β3-adrenoceptor. The increase in both sympathetic tone and responsiveness of adipocytes to catecholamines reveals a novel role for ERβ in controlling browning of adipose tissue. PMID:27922125

  7. Maxillary deficiency treatment by fixed tongue appliance--a case report.

    PubMed

    Showkatbakhsh, Rahman; Jamilian, Abdolreza; Ghassemi, Mehrangiz; Ghassemi, Alireza; Shayan, Arman

    2013-01-01

    This case illustrates orthopaedic treatment of a 12.1-year-old girl with class III malocclusion and maxillary deficiency. The patient was treated by a fixed tongue appliance in the upper jaw. First maxillary molars and premolars were banded and a hyrax was mounted on them in order to achieve lateral expansion. A fixed tongue appliance comprising of a few cribs was soldered to the anterior side of the hyrax with the purpose of pushing the maxilla in forward position. The orthopaedic stage of treatment lasted for 5 months after which favourable correction of the malocclusion was observed. The SNA angle increased by 2 degrees, the IMPA decreased by 10 degrees and mandibular plane angle (GoGn-SN) increased by 20. After this time, the fixed tongue appliance and Hyrax remained in the mouth for 3 more months as retention. This case demonstrates that fixed tongue appliance might be an alternative method to extra oral appliances in class III and maxillary deficient cases.

  8. [Effects of thinning intensity on the seed bank and seedling growth of Quercus variabilis on the south slope of Qinling Mountains, Northwest China].

    PubMed

    Ran, Ran; Zhang, Wen-Hui; Zhou, Jian-Yun; He, Jing-Feng

    2013-06-01

    In August-November 2010 and August 2011, and taking the pure Quercus variabilis forests under close-to-natural management of different thinning intensity (30%, 20%, and 10%) in Shangluo district of south slope of Qinling Mountains as the object, an investigation was conducted on the seed amount of seed bank, the survival rate and growth status of seedlings, and their relationships with environmental factors 4-5 years after thinning. As compared with the control, the seed amount in the seed bank of 10%, 20%, and 30% thinning plots increased by 2.0%, 21.1%, and 34.8%, respectively in the fourth year after thinning, and the 1-year-old seedlings amount increased by 28.5%, 99.7%, and 122.2%, respectively in the next year. The survival rate of the seedlings in the 10%, 20%, and 30% thinning plots was increased by 25.5%, 235.7%, and 480.0%, respectively in the fifth year after thinning. Thinning improved the light, temperature, soil moisture, and soil nutrient conditions in the forests, which promoted the height- and new shoot growth and the leaf area index of each age seedlings. The three growth indices also increased with increasing thinning intensity. In the Q. variabilis forest with a canopy density of > or = 0.85, the thinning intensity 30% (canopy density 0.6) was most conducive to the seed germination and seedling growth.

  9. Effect of spatial differences in growth on distribution of seasonally co-occurring herring Clupea harengus stocks.

    PubMed

    Clausen, L A W; Stæhr, K-J; Rindorf, A; Mosegaard, H

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms most likely to determine the distribution of the two major herring Clupea harengus stocks in their common early summer feeding ground in the eastern North Sea, Skagerrak and Kattegat were investigated through analysis of acoustic survey data from six consecutive years. No change was detected in biomass of North Sea autumn spawning C. harengus (NSAS) over time, whereas the biomass of western Baltic spring spawning C. harengus (WBSS) declined severely. Analyses of centre of abundance by stock showed no change in NSAS distribution, whereas the WBSS changed to a more western distribution over time. Contrary to previous perception of the juvenile migration, NSAS were found to leave the study area at the age between 1 and 2 years and WBSS 1 year olds were encountered in the Skagerrak. The estimated parameters of von Bertalanffy growth equations showed marked differences between areas with fish in the eastern part of the area having the lowest size at age at all ages. Further, their growth conditions appeared to deteriorate progressively over the period studied. Both NSAS and WBSS showed the highest condition in the North Sea and Skagerrak while condition was substantially lower in age Kattegat. The westward movement of spring spawners over time suggests that growth rate and possibly density of conspecifics influence the migration pattern and distribution of C. harengus in the area. In contrast, there was no evidence to suggest that distribution was constant over time within stocks or that distribution reflected size-dependent limitations on migration distance.

  10. Myocarditis induced by targeted expression of the MCP-1 gene in murine cardiac muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Kolattukudy, P. E.; Quach, T.; Bergese, S.; Breckenridge, S.; Hensley, J.; Altschuld, R.; Gordillo, G.; Klenotic, S.; Orosz, C.; Parker-Thornburg, J.

    1998-01-01

    To explore the possible role of monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP-1) in inflammatory diseases of the heart, we expressed the murine MCP-1(JE) gene under the control of the alpha-cardiac myosin heavy chain promoter to attempt to target MCP-1 expression to the adult heart muscle. The five lines of transgenic mice thus produced showed targeted expression of MCP-1 transcripts and protein in the adult heart muscle and pulmonary vein but not in skeletal muscle. MCP-1 level in the transgenic hearts increased up to 30 to 45 days of age, and leukocyte infiltration into interstitium between cardiomyocytes increased up to 60 to 75 days. The infiltrate was mainly macrophages but not T cells. The presence of MCP-1 in the transgenic hearts did not induce cytokine production indicative of leukocyte activation. Echocardiographic analysis of 1-year-old mice that express MCP-1 in the myocardium and of age-matched controls revealed cardiac hypertrophy and dilation, increases in left ventricular (LV) mass, and systolic and diastolic left ventricular internal diameters. A significant decline in M-mode shortening fraction showed depressed contractile function. Transgenic hearts were 65% heavier, and histological analysis showed moderate myocarditis, edema, and some fibrosis. Thus, MCP-1 expression in the heart muscle may provide a model to investigate myocarditis and cardiomyopathy. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:9422528

  11. Age-related changes in the propensity of dogs to bite.

    PubMed

    Messam, L L McV; Kass, P H; Chomel, B B; Hart, L A

    2013-08-01

    This retrospective cohort study was aimed at describing the effects of age at acquisition, age, and duration of ownership of dogs on the risk of (1) bites during play and (2) non-play bites to humans. Data were collected on 110 dogs that had bitten during play with a person, 161 dogs that had bitten outside of play and 951 non-biting dogs from veterinary clients in Kingston (KGN), Jamaica and San Francisco (SF), USA. Modified Poisson regression was employed to model the relationships of both types of bites to each variable separately. Effects of the variables on dog bite risk (1) during and (2) outside of play with the dog, differed from each other and by type of bite. Effects varied with the dog's age and age-related associations were strongest in dogs younger than 1 year old. Ages at acquisition of dogs at highest risk for bites during play were substantially lower than those at risk for non-play bites. Ages and durations of ownership of dogs at highest risk for bites during play were also lower than those of dogs at highest risk for non-play bites. The propensity of a dog to bite changes as it ages and relationships between dog bites occurring during and outside of play and the dog's age at acquisition, current age, and duration of ownership, differ from each other.

  12. Sialoblastoma of the cheek: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    SITTHICHAIYAKUL, PEERAYUT; SOMRAN, JULINTORN; OILMUNGMOOL, NONGLUK; WORASAKWUTTIPONG, SARAN; LARBCHAROENSUB, NOPPADOL

    2016-01-01

    Sialoblastoma is a rare salivary gland tumor that recapitulates the primitive salivary gland anlage. The authors herein report a case of sialoblastoma of a minor salivary gland, clinically presenting with progressive enlargement of a mass in the cheek of a 1-year-old female infant. Histopathologically, the mass consisted of tight clusters of basaloid cells and partially formed ductal and pseudo-ductal spaces separated by thin fibrous bands. Immunohistchemical studies demonstrated the presence of cytokeratin AE1/AE3, p63, CD99, α-fetoprotein (AFP) and Hep Par-1 expression in a considerable number of tumor cells. The clinical and pathological characteristics are presented and relevant literature is reviewed. Early complete surgical excision is recommended for the treatment of sialoblastoma. Radiation may be considered in cases with incomplete resection of the tumor. Chemotherapy may play a vital role in extensive, metastatic, or relapsed cases, or in cases with inadequate excision. The follow-up treatment should be frequent and prolonged. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of sialoblastoma of the cheek with immunoreactivity for AFP and Hep Par-1, which may be associated with the embryonic origin of the tumor. AFP may be a useful marker of tumor response in patient with sialoblastoma. PMID:27284424

  13. Epididymis seleno-independent glutathione peroxidase 5 maintains sperm DNA integrity in mice

    PubMed Central

    Chabory, Eléonore; Damon, Christelle; Lenoir, Alain; Kauselmann, Gary; Kern, Hedrun; Zevnik, Branko; Garrel, Catherine; Saez, Fabrice; Cadet, Rémi; Henry-Berger, Joelle; Schoor, Michael; Gottwald, Ulrich; Habenicht, Ursula; Drevet, Joël R.; Vernet, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    The mammalian epididymis provides sperm with an environment that promotes their maturation and protects them from external stresses. For example, it harbors an array of antioxidants, including non-conventional glutathione peroxidase 5 (GPX5), to protect them from oxidative stress. To explore the role of GPX5 in the epididymis, we generated mice that lack epididymal expression of the enzyme. Histological analyses of Gpx5–/– epididymides and sperm cells revealed no obvious defects. Furthermore, there were no apparent differences in the fertilization rate of sexually mature Gpx5–/– male mice compared with WT male mice. However, a higher incidence of miscarriages and developmental defects were observed when WT female mice were mated with Gpx5-deficient males over 1 year old compared with WT males of the same age. Flow cytometric analysis of spermatozoa recovered from Gpx5-null and WT male mice revealed that sperm DNA compaction was substantially lower in the cauda epididymides of Gpx5-null animals and that they suffered from DNA oxidative attacks. Real-time PCR analysis of enzymatic scavengers expressed in the mouse epididymis indicated that the cauda epididymidis epithelium of Gpx5-null male mice mounted an antioxidant response to cope with an excess of ROS. These observations suggest that GPX5 is a potent antioxidant scavenger in the luminal compartment of the mouse cauda epididymidis that protects spermatozoa from oxidative injuries that could compromise their integrity and, consequently, embryo viability. PMID:19546506

  14. Physical therapy assessment tools to evaluate disease progression and phenotype variability in Golden Retriever muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Gaiad, T P; Silva, M B; Silva, G C A; Caromano, F A; Miglino, M A; Ambrósio, C E

    2011-10-01

    Dogs suffering from Golden Retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD) present symptoms that are similar to human patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Phenotypic variability is common in both cases and correlates with disease progression and response to therapy. Physical therapy assessment tools were used to study disease progression and assess phenotypic variability in dogs with GRMD. At 5 (T0), 9 (T1), 13 (T2) and 17 (T3)months of age, the physical features, joint ranges of motion (ROM), limb and thorax circumferences, weight and creatine kinase (CK) levels were assessed in 11 dogs with GRMD. Alterations of physical features were higher at 13 months, and different disease progression rates were observed. Passive ROM decreased until 1 year old, which was followed by a decline of elbow and tarsal ROM. Limb and thorax circumferences, which were corrected for body weight, decreased significantly between T0 and T3. These measurements can be used to evaluate disease progression in dogs with GRMD and to help discover new therapies for DMD patients.

  15. Human albumin use at hospitals in the Metropolitan Region of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Matos, Guacira Corrêa de; Rozenfeld, Suely; Martins, Monica

    2010-05-01

    The study analyzes the use of human albumin in hospitals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, using inpatient data from the information system of Brazil's health system between 1999 and 2001. Death was the main outcome as patients died in 32% of admissions in which human albumin was used as compared with 4% of all admissions in the same period and region. The Charlson Comorbidity Index was included for risk adjustment. Human albumin was used in 10,111 in-patients more than 1 year old. 87,774 50-ml bottles of 20% human albumin were consumed at a cost of US$ 1,755. The main diagnoses were neoplasms (29.1%), diseases of the digestive system (17.5%) and circulatory system (16%). Death rate increased with age, public ownership of the hospital, clinical services (as opposed to surgical services), length of stay and use of intensive care. Death was associated with use of more than four bottles of human albumin (PR: 1.30; 99%CI: 1.23-1.37), adjusted for severity and speciality. The results are cause for concern as they may be related to poor compliance with guidelines, excess of risk to patients and unnecessary expenses for the public health system.

  16. Microarchitecture is severely compromised but motor protein function is preserved in dystrophic mdx skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, O; Both, M; Weber, C; Schürmann, S; Teichmann, M D H; von Wegner, F; Fink, R H A; Vogel, M; Chamberlain, J S; Garbe, C

    2010-02-17

    Progressive force loss in Duchenne muscular dystrophy is characterized by degeneration/regeneration cycles and fibrosis. Disease progression may involve structural remodeling of muscle tissue. An effect on molecular motorprotein function may also be possible. We used second harmonic generation imaging to reveal vastly altered subcellular sarcomere microarchitecture in intact single dystrophic mdx muscle cells (approximately 1 year old). Myofibril tilting, twisting, and local axis deviations explain at least up to 20% of force drop during unsynchronized contractile activation as judged from cosine angle sums of myofibril orientations within mdx fibers. In contrast, in vitro motility assays showed unaltered sliding velocities of single mdx fiber myosin extracts. Closer quantification of the microarchitecture revealed that dystrophic fibers had significantly more Y-shaped sarcomere irregularities ("verniers") than wild-type fibers (approximately 130/1000 microm(3) vs. approximately 36/1000 microm(3)). In transgenic mini-dystrophin-expressing fibers, ultrastructure was restored (approximately 38/1000 microm(3) counts). We suggest that in aged dystrophic toe muscle, progressive force loss is reflected by a vastly deranged micromorphology that prevents a coordinated and aligned contraction. Second harmonic generation imaging may soon be available in routine clinical diagnostics, and in this work we provide valuable imaging tools to track and quantify ultrastructural worsening in Duchenne muscular dystrophy, and to judge the beneficial effects of possible drug or gene therapies.

  17. Microarchitecture Is Severely Compromised but Motor Protein Function Is Preserved in Dystrophic mdx Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Friedrich, O.; Both, M.; Weber, C.; Schürmann, S.; Teichmann, M.D.H.; von Wegner, F.; Fink, R.H.A.; Vogel, M.; Chamberlain, J.S.; Garbe, C.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Progressive force loss in Duchenne muscular dystrophy is characterized by degeneration/regeneration cycles and fibrosis. Disease progression may involve structural remodeling of muscle tissue. An effect on molecular motorprotein function may also be possible. We used second harmonic generation imaging to reveal vastly altered subcellular sarcomere microarchitecture in intact single dystrophic mdx muscle cells (∼1 year old). Myofibril tilting, twisting, and local axis deviations explain at least up to 20% of force drop during unsynchronized contractile activation as judged from cosine angle sums of myofibril orientations within mdx fibers. In contrast, in vitro motility assays showed unaltered sliding velocities of single mdx fiber myosin extracts. Closer quantification of the microarchitecture revealed that dystrophic fibers had significantly more Y-shaped sarcomere irregularities (“verniers”) than wild-type fibers (∼130/1000 μm3 vs. ∼36/1000 μm3). In transgenic mini-dystrophin-expressing fibers, ultrastructure was restored (∼38/1000 μm3 counts). We suggest that in aged dystrophic toe muscle, progressive force loss is reflected by a vastly deranged micromorphology that prevents a coordinated and aligned contraction. Second harmonic generation imaging may soon be available in routine clinical diagnostics, and in this work we provide valuable imaging tools to track and quantify ultrastructural worsening in Duchenne muscular dystrophy, and to judge the beneficial effects of possible drug or gene therapies. PMID:20159157

  18. Population dynamics of Greater Scaup breeding on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, Paul L.; Grand, J. Barry; Fondell, Thomas F.; Morse, Julie A.

    2006-01-01

    Using a stochastic model, we estimated that, on average, breeding females produced 0.57 young females/nesting season. We combined this estimate of productivity with our annual estimates of adult survival and an assumed population growth rate of 1.0, then solved for an estimate of first-year survival (0.40). Under these conditions the predicted stable age distribution of breeding females (i.e., the nesting population) was 15.1% 1-year-old, 4.1% 2-year-old first-time breeders, and 80.8% 2-year-old and older, experienced breeders. We subjected this stochastic model to perturbation analyses to examine the relative effects of demographic parameters on k. The relative effects of productivity and adult survival on the population growth rate were 0.26 and 0.72, respectively. Thus, compared to productivity, proportionally equivalent changes in annual survival would have 2.8 times the effect on k. However, when we examined annual variation in predicted population size using standardized regression coefficients, productivity explained twice as much variation as annual survival. Thus, management actions focused on changes in survival or productivity have the ability to influence population size; however, substantially larger changes in productivity are required to influence population trends.

  19. Water stress preconditioning to improve drought resistance in young apricot plants.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Sánchez; Domingo; Torrecillas; Pérez-Pastor

    2000-07-28

    The effect of water stress preconditioning was studied in 1-year-old apricot plants (Prunus armeniaca L., cv. Búlida). Plants were submitted to different treatments, T-0 (control treatment) and T-1, drip irrigated daily; T-2 and T-3, irrigated daily at 50% and 25% of T-0, respectively; T-4 and T-5, irrigated to field capacity every 3 and 6 days, respectively. After 30 days, irrigation was withheld for 10 days, maintaining the T-0 treatment irrigated daily. After this period, the plants were re-irrigated to run-off and treated as control treatment. The stomatal closure and epinasty observed in response to water stress represented adaptive mechanisms to drought, allowing the plants to regulate water loss more effectively and prevent leaf heating. A substantial reduction in the irrigation water supplied combined with a high frequency of application (T-3 treatment) promoted plant hardening; the plants enduring drought better, due to their greater osmotic adjustment (0.77 MPa), which prevented severe plant dehydration and leaf abscission. Such a preconditioning treatment may be valuable for young apricot plants in the nursery stage in order to improve their subsequent resistance to drought. A 50% reduction in daily irrigation (T-2 treatment) did not significantly affect either gas exchange rates or leaf turgor, which suggests that water should be applied frequently if deficit irrigation is to be implemented.

  20. Foliar leaching and root uptake of Ca, Mg and K in relation to acid fog effects on Douglas Fir

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, D.P.; Tingey, D.T.

    1990-01-01

    The impact of acid fog on foliar leaching and root uptake of Ca, Mg, and K by Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) seedlings was examined. In a factorial experiment, 1-year old seedlings were grown in a solution culture at two levels of nutrient availability (low and moderate) and exposed twice a week (4 hr per event) for 12 weeks to fog at pH 5.6 or pH 3.1. Throughfall enrichment of Ca, Mg and K was determined from drip collectors at the base of each seedling and root uptake rates for trees under the moderate nutrient regime were evaluated by monitoring nutrient solution depletion. Throughfall enrichment was higher in the pH 3.1 fog than the pH 5.6 fog but much of the enrichment appeared to be wash off of precipitate from previous fogs. The amounts of nutrients coming off of the foliage with the low pH fog were small relative to the daily uptake rates. Foliar concentrations of K and Mg at the end of the exposures were lower under the low nutrient regime but were not affected by fog pH. Comparisons of wax weight and examinations of epicuticular wax by electron microscopy did not indicate a significant impact from exposure to the low pH fog.

  1. Long working distance optical coherence tomography for pediatric imaging (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Ruobing; Carrasco-Zevallos, Oscar; Vajzovic, Lejla; Gramatikov, Boris I.; Guyton, David L.; Toth, Cynthia A.; Izatt, Joseph A.

    2016-03-01

    Conventional optical coherence tomography (OCT) systems have working distances of about 25 mm, and require cooperative subjects to immobilize and fixate on a target. Handheld OCT probes have also been demonstrated for successful imaging of pre-term infants and neonates up to ~1 year old. However, no technology yet exists for OCT in young children due to their lack of attention and inherent fear of large objects close to their face. In this work, we demonstrate a prototype retinal swept-source OCT system with a long working distance (from the last optical element to the subject's eye) to facilitate pediatric imaging. To reduce the footprint and weight of the system compared to the conventional 4f scheme, a novel 2f scanning configuration was implemented to achieve a working distance of 348mm with a +/- 8° scanning angle prior to cornea. Employing two custom-designed lenses, the system design resolution was nearly diffraction limited throughout a -8D to +5D refractive corrections. A fixation target displayed on a LCD monitor and an iris camera were used to facilitate alignment and imaging. Our prototype was tested in consented adult subjects and has the potential to facilitate imaging of young children. With this apparatus, young children could potentially sit comfortably in caretaker's lap while viewing entertainment on the fixation screen designed to direct their gaze into the imaging apparatus.

  2. Excessive levels of nitric oxide in rat model of Parkinson’s disease induced by rotenone

    PubMed Central

    XIONG, ZHONG-KUI; LANG, JUAN; XU, GANG; LI, HAI-YU; ZHANG, YUN; WANG, LEI; SU, YAO; SUN, AI-JING

    2015-01-01

    Systemic rotenone models of Parkinson’s disease (PD) are highly reproducible and may provide evidence on the pathogenesis of PD. In the present study, male Sprague-Dawley rats (1-year-old) were subcutaneously administered with rotenone (1.5 mg/kg/day) for six days and observed for the following three weeks. Compared with the control rats, a significant decrease was observed in the body weight and a marked increase was observed in the areas under the behavioral scoring curves in the rotenone-treated rats. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that the abundance of nigral tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons was markedly reduced following rotenone treatment. ELISA and neurochemical assays demonstrated a significant increase in the levels of nitric oxide (NO) and NO synthase, whereas a marked decrease was observed in the thiol levels in the brains of the rotenone-treated rats. Thus, subacute rotenone treatment was found to induce behavioral deficits and the loss of nigral TH-positive neurons which may be associated with the excessive levels of NO in the rat brains. PMID:25574233

  3. Diversity of Gut Microbiota Metabolic Pathways in 10 Pairs of Chinese Infant Twins

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Zhou, Jianli; Zhou, Wenhao

    2016-01-01

    Early colonization of gut microbiota in human gut is a complex process. It remains unclear when gut microbiota colonization occurs and how it proceeds. In order to study gut microbiota composition in human early life, the present study recruited 10 healthy pairs of twins, including five monozygotic (MZ) and five dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs, whose age ranged from 0 to 6 years old. 20 fecal samples from these twins were processed by shotgun metagenomic sequencing, and their averaged data outputs were generated as 2G per sample. We used MEGAN5 to perform taxonomic and functional annotation of the metagenomic data, and systematically analyzed those 20 samples, including Jaccard index similarity, principle component, clustering, and correlation analyses. Our findings indicated that within our study group: 1) MZ-twins share more microbes than DZ twins or non-twin pairs, 2) gut microbiota distribution is relatively stable at metabolic pathways level, 3) age represents the strongest factor that can account for variation in gut microbiota, and 4) a clear metabolic pathway shift can be observed, which speculatively occurs around the age of 1 year old. This research will serve as a base for future studies of gut microbiota-related disease research. PMID:27583441

  4. Electroretinography recordings using a light emitting diode active corneal electrode in healthy beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Yoshiki; Maehara, Seiya; Itoh, Norihiko; Yamashita, Kazuto; Izumisawa, Yasuharu

    2013-01-01

    Electroretinography (ERG) is a well-established diagnostic procedure for objectively evaluating retinal function. In this study, ERG in beagle dogs, which are a popular experimental animal, was performed to determine the normal range of ERG variables and assess differences between the left and right eyes. ERG findings including rod, combined rod-cone, single-flash cone, and 30-Hz flicker responses were recorded with an LED-electrode in 43 sedated beagle dogs. The subjects were divided into young (< 1 year old), adult (1 ˜ 5 years old), and senile animals (≥ 6 years old). Normal ERG ranges were obtained. Significant differences in b-wave amplitude along with b/a ratio of the combined rod-cone response were found between the young and adult animals as well as young and senile dogs. No significant differences were observed between the left and right eyes. ERG variables in beagle dogs differed by age due to age-related retinal changes. Thus, we propose that normal ERG ranges should be determined according to age in each clinic and laboratory using its own equipment because each institution usually has different systems or protocols for ERG testing.

  5. Pediatric Genital Injury: An Analysis of the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System

    PubMed Central

    Casey, Jessica T.; Bjurlin, Marc A.; Cheng, Earl Y.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the characteristics of pediatric genital injuries presenting to United States emergency departments (EDs). Methods A retrospective cohort study utilizing the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) from 1991-2010 to evaluate pediatric genital injuries was performed. Results Pediatric genital injuries represented 0.6% of all pediatric injuries with the incidence of injuries rising through the period studied, 1991-2010. The mean age at injury was 7.1 years old and was distributed 56.6% girls and 43.4% boys. A total of 43.3% had lacerations and 42.2% had contusions/abrasions. The majority of injuries occurred at home (65.9%), and the majority of patients (94.7%) were treated and released from the hospital. The most common consumer products associated with pediatric genital trauma were: bicycles (14.7% of all pediatric genital injuries), bathtubs (5.8%), daywear (5.6%), monkey bars (5.4%), and toilets (4.0%). Conclusion Although pediatric genital injuries represent a small proportion of overall injuries presenting to the ED, genital injuries continue to rise despite public health measures targeted to decrease childhood injury. Our results can be used to guide further prevention strategies for pediatric genital injury. PMID:23953603

  6. Inherited fungal symbionts enhance establishment of an invasive annual grass across successional habitats.

    PubMed

    Uchitel, Andrea; Omacini, Marina; Chaneton, Enrique J

    2011-02-01

    Plants infected with vertically transmitted fungal endophytes carry their microbial symbionts with them during dispersal into new areas. Yet, whether seed-borne endophytes enhance the host plant's ability to overcome colonisation barriers and to regenerate within invaded sites remains poorly understood. We examined how symbiosis with asexual endophytic fungi (Neotyphodium) affected establishment and seed loss to predators in the invasive annual grass Lolium multiflorum (Italian ryegrass) across contrasting successional plots. Italian ryegrass seeds with high and low endophyte incidence were sown into three communities: a 1-year-old fallow field, a 15-year-old grassland, and a 24-year-old forest, which conformed to an old-field chronosequence in the eastern Inland Pampa, Argentina. We found that endophyte infection consistently increased host population recruitment and reproductive output. Endophyte presence also enhanced aerial biomass production of ryegrass in a low recruitment year but not in a high recruitment year, suggesting that symbiotic effects on growth performance are density dependent. Endophyte presence reduced seed removal by rodents, although differential predation may not account for the increased success of infected grass populations. Overall, there was no statistical evidence for an endophyte-by-site interaction, indicating that the fungal endosymbiont benefitted host establishment regardless of large differences in biotic and abiotic environment among communities. Our results imply that hereditary endophytes may increase the chances for host grass species to pass various ecological filters associated with invasion resistance across a broad range of successional habitats.

  7. The ankle meter: an instrument for evaluation of anterior talar drawer in ankle sprain.

    PubMed

    Spahn, Gunter

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this study was to work out a clinical test which is possible to measure the anterior talar drawer (ATD) in patients after ankle sprain. The instrument for evaluation was called "ankle meter". The instrument consists of two plastic scales (heal scale and tibia scale). The instrument allows quantifying the results of the anterior drawing test. A total of 38 persons (16 men, 22 women) were available as control group. The persons were 28.8+/-10.1 years old. No proband had any ankle problems in his history. A total of 45 patients (25 males, 20 females) suffering from ankle sprain were included in the study. In these patients stress radiography (147.1 N) was performed to measure the ATD. In control group the clinical measured ATD was 1.7+/-1.3 mm. Measurement for detect the interobserver validity did not detect significant differences. The ATD of the joint after ankle sprain was significantly higher (8.9+/-4.3 mm). The difference between healthy and injured ankle in case of an ankle sprain was 7.4+/-4.2 mm. There was a significant correlation between clinical and radiological measured ATD (R=0.91). The results suggest that it is possible to measure the ATD exactly. The values of the clinical ATD measurement showed a good correlation with the results of stress radiography. Diligent clinical examination in combination with this special test are after this experiences sufficient to classify the severity of injury after ankle sprain.

  8. Development and validation of a real-time PCR method to quantify rumen protozoa and examination of variability between entodinium populations in sheep offered a hay-based diet.

    PubMed

    Skillman, Lucy C; Toovey, Andrew F; Williams, Andrew J; Wright, André-Denis G

    2006-01-01

    PCR and real-time PCR primers for the 18S rRNA gene of rumen protozoa (Entodinium and Dasytricha spp.) were designed, and their specificities were tested against a range of rumen microbes and protozoal groups. External standards were prepared from DNA extracts of a rumen matrix containing known numbers and species of protozoa. The efficiency of PCR (epsilon) was calculated following amplification of serial dilutions of each standard and was used to calculate the numbers of protozoa in each sample collected; serial dilutions of DNA were used similarly to calculate PCR efficiency. Species of Entodinium, the most prevalent of the rumen protozoa, were enumerated in rumen samples collected from 100 1-year-old merino wethers by microscopy and real-time PCR. Both the counts developed by the real-time PCR method and microscopic counts were accurate and repeatable, with a strong correlation between them (R2= 0.8), particularly when the PCR efficiency was close to optimal (i.e., two copies per cycle). The advantages and disadvantages of each procedure are discussed. Entodinium represented on average 98% of the total protozoa, and populations within the same sheep were relatively stable, but greater variation occurred between different sheep (10(0) and 10(6) entodinia per gram of rumen contents). With this inherent variability, it was estimated that, to detect a statistically significant (P = 0.05) 20% change in Entodinium populations, 52 sheep per treatment group would be required.

  9. Growth overcompensation against O3 exposure in two Japanese oak species, Quercus mongolica var. crispula and Quercus serrata, grown under elevated CO2.

    PubMed

    Kitao, Mitsutoshi; Komatsu, Masabumi; Yazaki, Kenichi; Kitaoka, Satoshi; Tobita, Hiroyuki

    2015-11-01

    To assess the effects of elevated concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) and ozone (O3) on the growth of two mid-successional oak species native to East Asia, Quercus mongolica var. crispula and Quercus serrata, we measured gas exchange and biomass allocation in seedlings (initially 1-year-old) grown under combinations of elevated CO2 (550 μmol mol(-1)) and O3 (twice-ambient) for two growing seasons in an open-field experiment in which root growth was not limited. Both the oak species showed a significant growth enhancement under the combination of elevated CO2 and O3 (indicated by total dry mass; over twice of ambient-grown plants, p < .05), which probably resulted from a preferable biomass partitioning into leaves induced by O3 and a predominant enhancement of photosynthesis under elevated CO2. Such an over-compensative response in the two Japanese oak species resulted in greater plant growth under the combination of elevated CO2 and O3 than elevated CO2 alone.

  10. Unilateral adrenalectomy can be an alternative therapy for infantile onset Cushing' s syndrome caused by ACTH-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia with McCune-Albright syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hamajima, Takashi; Maruwaka, Kaori; Homma, Keiko; Matsuo, Kumihiro; Fujieda, Kenji; Hasegawa, Tomonobu

    2010-01-01

    We report herein the case of a 1-year-old boy with McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS) who presented with infantile-onset Cushing' s syndrome caused by ACTH independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (AIMAH). Abdominal CT, MRI, and adrenal scintigraphy with (131)I-adosterol identified bilateral adrenal involvement with the left adrenal gland being larger and functionally more active. Unilateral adrenalectomy of the left gland was performed and ameliorated many clinical symptoms, such as Cushingoid appearance and height restriction, and it also normalized many endocrinological data, such as diurnal rhythms of ACTH and cortisol, ACTH and cortisol responses to CRH, and urinary 24 hr free cortisol. Glucocorticoid was replaced for the first 1 year and 6 months after the operation. One adrenal crisis episode occurred at 3 weeks after the operation, but none have occurred since. These results suggest that unilateral adrenalectomy of the larger gland can be an alternative therapy for infantile onset Cushing' s syndrome caused by AIMAH with MAS, when asymmetric involvement is evident and the smaller gland is not markedly enlarged.

  11. Heavy Metal Coprecipitation with Hydrozincite [Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6] from Mine Waters Caused by Photosynthetic Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Podda, Francesca; Zuddas, Paola; Minacci, Andrea; Pepi, Milva; Baldi, Franco

    2000-01-01

    An iron-poor stream of nearly neutral pH polluted by mine tailings has been investigated for a natural phenomenon responsible for the polishing of heavy metals in mine wastewaters. A white mineralized mat, which was determined to be hydrozincite [Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6] by X-ray diffraction analysis, was observed in the stream sediments mainly in spring. The precipitate shows a total organic matter residue of 10% dry weight and contains high concentrations of Pb, Cd, Ni, Cu, and other metals. Scanning electron microscopy analysis suggests that hydrozincite is mainly of biological origin. Dormant photosynthetic microorganisms have been retrieved from 1-year-old dry hydrozincite. The autofluorescent microorganisms were imaged by a scanning confocal laser microscope. A photosynthetic filamentous bacterium, classified as Scytonema sp. strain ING-1, was found associated with microalga Chlorella sp. strain SA1. This microbial community is responsible for the natural polishing of heavy metals in the water stream by coprecipitation with hydrozincite. PMID:11055969

  12. Discrepancy in perception of bullying experiences and later internalizing and externalizing behavior: A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Soonjo; Kim, Young Shin; Koh, Yun-Joo; Bishop, Somer; Leventhal, Bennett L

    2017-03-22

    Discrepancy in perception of bullying experiences may lead to later internalizing or externalizing behavior in adolescents. A 1,663 South Korean 7th and 8th graders (mean age: 13.1 and 14.1 years old), were seen for a follow-up study to examine the relationships between the discrepancy in perception of their bullying experiences (defined as discrepancy between self- and peer-reports of bullying experiences) and internalizing or externalizing behavior at follow-up. Bullying was assessed by self- and peer-report. The discrepancy in perception of bullying experiences was defined by the concordance or discordance between self- and peer-reports. Internalizing and externalizing behavior was evaluated using the Youth Self Report and Child Behavior Checklist, at baseline and follow-up. Two by two ANCOVA was performed with a factorial design, categorizing discrepancy in perception of bullying experiences based on the agreement between self-report and peer-report. Internalizing/externalizing behavior-at-follow-up was used as an outcome, adjusting for other known risk factors for internalizing/externalizing behavior, including baseline internalizing/externalizing behavior, and bullying experiences. Adolescents with perceptions of bullying experiences discrepant from peer-reports showed increased internalizing/externalizing behavior at follow-up. Bullying also stands out as an independent risk factor for the development of future externalizing behavior even among adolescents with accurate perceptions of bullying experiences. These specific groups of youth warrant more focused assessment and intervention.

  13. Responses of dairy heifers to the visual cliff formed by a herringbone milking pit: evidence of fear of heights in cows (Bos taurus).

    PubMed

    Arnold, Naomi Adele; Ng, Kim Tee; Jongman, Ellen Caroline; Hemsworth, Paul Hamilton

    2007-11-01

    The ability of cows (Bos taurus) to perceive depth has never been experimentally investigated. If cows can perceive depth, the milking pit in commercial milking facilities may be fear provoking for dairy cows, as past research has shown that most land-dwelling species possess an instinctive fear of heights. In the current study, 12 dairy heifers (1-year-old cows) were exposed to a milking pit (depth-exposed group) and 13 heifers (control group) were exposed to a standard change in the environment while they moved through a milking facility over a 5-day treatment period. Heifers in the depth-exposed group showed a higher heart rate (p < .05) and stopped more often (p < .05) than did those in the control group; persistence of heart rate but not of behavioral responses on repeated exposures indicated that some habituation to the depth stimulus had occurred. Depth exposure had no effect on cortisol concentrations or on ease of handling. These results indicate that heifers responded differently to a change in depth than they did to a standard change in the environment and provide evidence of both depth perception and acute fear of heights in cows.

  14. Very slow turnover of beta-cells in aged adult mice.

    PubMed

    Teta, Monica; Long, Simon Y; Wartschow, Lynn M; Rankin, Matthew M; Kushner, Jake A

    2005-09-01

    Although many signaling pathways have been shown to promote beta-cell growth, surprisingly little is known about the normal life cycle of preexisting beta-cells or the signaling pathways required for beta-cell survival. Adult beta-cells have been speculated to have a finite life span, with ongoing adult beta-cell replication throughout life to replace lost cells. However, little solid evidence supports this idea. To more accurately measure adult beta-cell turnover, we performed continuous long-term labeling of proliferating cells with the DNA precursor analog 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) in 1-year-old mice. We show that beta-cells of aged adult mice have extremely low rates of replication, with minimal evidence of turnover. Although some pancreatic components acquired BrdU label in a linear fashion, only 1 in approximately 1,400 adult beta-cells were found to undergo replication per day. We conclude that adult beta-cells are very long lived.

  15. Biochemical and molecular changes associated with heteroxylan biosynthesis in Neolamarckia cadamba (Rubiaceae) during xylogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xianhai; Ouyang, Kunxi; Gan, Siming; Zeng, Wei; Song, Lili; Zhao, Shuai; Li, Juncheng; Doblin, Monika S.; Bacic, Antony; Chen, Xiao-Yang; Marchant, Alan; Deng, Xiaomei; Wu, Ai-Min

    2014-01-01

    Wood, derived from plant secondary growth, is a commercially important material. Both cellulose and lignin assembly have been well studied during wood formation (xylogenesis), but heteroxylan biosynthesis is less well defined. Elucidation of the heteroxylan biosynthetic pathway is crucial to understand the mechanism of wood formation. Here, we use Neolamarckia cadamba, a fast-growing tropical tree, as a sample to analyze heteroxylan formation at the biochemical and molecular levels during wood formation. Analysis of the non-cellulosic polysaccharides isolated from N. cadamba stems shows that heteroxylans dominate non-cellulosic polysaccharides and increase with xylogenesis. Microsomes isolated from stems of 1-year-old N. cadamba exhibited UDP-Xyl synthase and xylosyltransferase activities with the highest activity present in the middle and basal stem regions. To further understand the genetic basis of heteroxylan synthesis, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) was used to generate transcriptomes of N. cadamba during xylogenesis. The RNA-seq results showed that genes related to heteroxylan synthesis had higher expression levels in the middle and basal part of the stem compared to the apical part. Our results describe the heteroxylan distribution and heteroxylan synthesis trait in N. cadamba and give a new example for understanding the mechanism of heteroxylan synthesis in tropical tree species in future. PMID:25426124

  16. Induced compression wood formation in Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwon, M.; Bedgar, D. L.; Piastuch, W.; Davin, L. B.; Lewis, N. G.

    2001-01-01

    In the microgravity environment of the Space Shuttle Columbia (Life and Microgravity Mission STS-78), were grown 1-year-old Douglas fir and loblolly pine plants in a NASA plant growth facility. Several plants were harnessed (at 45 degrees ) to establish if compression wood biosynthesis, involving altered cellulose and lignin deposition and cell wall structure would occur under those conditions of induced mechanical stress. Selected plants were harnessed at day 2 in orbit, with stem sections of specific plants harvested and fixed for subsequent microscopic analyses on days 8, 10 and 15. At the end of the total space mission period (17 days), the remaining healthy harnessed plants and their vertical (upright) controls were harvested and fixed on earth. All harnessed (at 45 degrees ) plant specimens, whether grown at 1 g or in microgravity, formed compression wood. Moreover, not only the cambial cells but also the developing tracheid cells underwent significant morphological changes. This indicated that the developing tracheids from the primary cell wall expansion stage to the fully lignified maturation stage are involved in the perception and transduction of the stimuli stipulating the need for alteration of cell wall architecture. It is thus apparent that, even in a microgravity environment, woody plants can make appropriate corrections to compensate for stress gradients introduced by mechanical bending, thereby enabling compression wood to be formed. The evolutionary implications of these findings are discussed in terms of "variability" in cell wall biosynthesis.

  17. KNAP2, a class I KN1-like gene is a negative marker of bud growth potential in apple trees (Malus domestica [L.] Borkh.).

    PubMed

    Brunel, Nicole; Leduc, Nathalie; Poupard, Pascal; Simoneau, Philippe; Mauget, Jean-Claude; Viémont, Jean-Daniel

    2002-11-01

    The determinism of bud bursting pattern along the 1-year-old shoot was studied at the molecular and morphological levels in the apple tree variety 'Lodi' which shows an acrotonic tendency. At the molecular level, the expression of KNAP2, which belongs to the class I KN1-like gene family, was studied. Measurements were carried out during dormancy (October), breaking dormancy (January) and just before bud bursting (March). The results showed that KNAP2 is more highly expressed in buds that will remain at rest in the spring. Expression of KNAP2 was found in the meristem and in the marginal meristem of the two latest shaped primordia. In the January and March buds, this gene is also expressed in the procambial zone underneath the apical meristem. This study therefore suggests that KNAP2 may be considered as a negative marker of bud growth potential and that the growth inhibition in proximal buds could partially result from differential gene activity. At the morphological level, it was shown that no organogenetic activity took place between October and March as revealed by the constant number of leaf primordia in buds. Nevertheless, those buds likely to grow the following spring had a larger size and fewer hard scales than other buds. This suggests that genetic control may act together with other mechanisms, possibly physical (number of scales) or biochemical, to control bud inhibition.

  18. Prevalence and Spectrum of PITX2c Mutations Associated with Congenital Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Yuan-Feng; Xu, Wen-Jun; Liu, Zhong-Min; Qiu, Xing-Biao; Qu, Xin-Kai; Xu, Lei; Li, Xin

    2013-01-01

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common form of birth defect and is the leading noninfectious cause of infant death. A growing body of evidence demonstrates that genetic risk factors are involved in the pathogenesis of CHD. However, CHD is a genetically heterogeneous disease and the genetic defects underlying CHD in an overwhelming majority of patients remain unclear. In this study, the whole coding region and splice junction sites of the PITX2c gene, which encodes variant 3 of paired-like homeodomain transcription factor 2 crucial for normal cardiovascular morphogenesis, were sequenced in 382 unrelated patients with CHD, and 2 novel heterozygous mutations, p.W147X and p.N153D, were identified in 2 unrelated patients with CHD, respectively, including a 1-year-old male patient with double outlet right ventricle in combination with ventricular septal defect and a 4-year-old female patient with ventricular septal defect. The mutations were absent in 400 control chromosomes and were both predicted to be disease-causing by MutationTaster. Multiple alignments of PITX2c proteins across species displayed that the altered amino acids were completely conserved evolutionarily. Functional analysis revealed that the mutated PITX2c proteins were associated with a significantly reduced transactivational activity compared with their wild-type counterpart. These findings provide a novel insight into the molecular mechanisms implicated in CHD, suggesting potential implications for the antenatal prophylaxis and allele-specific treatment of CHD. PMID:24083357

  19. Juvenile Osprey Navigation during Trans-Oceanic Migration

    PubMed Central

    Horton, Travis W.; Bierregaard, Richard O.; Zawar-Reza, Peyman; Holdaway, Richard N.; Sagar, Paul

    2014-01-01

    To compensate for drift, an animal migrating through air or sea must be able to navigate. Although some species of bird, fish, insect, mammal, and reptile are capable of drift compensation, our understanding of the spatial reference frame, and associated coordinate space, in which these navigational behaviors occur remains limited. Using high resolution satellite-monitored GPS track data, we show that juvenile ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) are capable of non-stop constant course movements over open ocean spanning distances in excess of 1500 km despite the perturbing effects of winds and the lack of obvious landmarks. These results are best explained by extreme navigational precision in an exogenous spatio-temporal reference frame, such as positional orientation relative to Earth's magnetic field and pacing relative to an exogenous mechanism of keeping time. Given the age (<1 year-old) of these birds and knowledge of their hatching site locations, we were able to transform Enhanced Magnetic Model coordinate locations such that the origin of the magnetic coordinate space corresponded with each bird's nest. Our analyses show that trans-oceanic juvenile osprey movements are consistent with bicoordinate positional orientation in transformed magnetic coordinate or geographic space. Through integration of movement and meteorological data, we propose a new theoretical framework, chord and clock navigation, capable of explaining the precise spatial orientation and temporal pacing performed by juvenile ospreys during their long-distance migrations over open ocean. PMID:25493430

  20. Evaluation of the impact of frost resistances on potential altitudinal limit of trees.

    PubMed

    Charrier, Guillaume; Cochard, Hervé; Améglio, Thierry

    2013-09-01

    Winter physiology of woody plants is a key issue in temperate biomes. Here, we investigated different frost resistance mechanisms on 1-year-old branches of 11 European tree species from November until budburst: (i) frost hardiness of living cells (by electrolyte leakage method), (ii) winter embolism sensitivity (by percentage loss of conductivity: PLC) and (iii) phenological variation of budburst (by thermal time to budburst). These ecophysiological traits were analyzed according to the potential altitudinal limit, which is highly related to frost exposure. Seasonal frost hardiness and PLC changes are relatively different across species. Maximal PLC observed in winter (PLCMax) was the factor most closely related to potential altitudinal limit. Moreover, PLCMax was related to the mean hydraulic diameter of vessels (indicating embolism sensitivity) and to osmotic compounds (indicating ability of living cells to refill xylem conducting elements). Winter embolism formation seems to be counterbalanced by active refilling from living cells. These results enabled us to model potential altitudinal limit according to three of the physiological/anatomical parameters studied. Monitoring different frost resistance strategies brings new insights to our understanding of the altitudinal limits of trees.

  1. Retropharyngeal abscess.

    PubMed Central

    Coulthard, M; Isaacs, D

    1991-01-01

    Of 31 children with retropharyngeal abscess treated at this hospital between 1954 and 1990, 17 (55%) were 12 months old or less and 10 (32%) less than 6 months. Three of these 10 children were neonates, only one of whom had a predisposing congenital lesion. Fourteen children (45%) had a preceding upper respiratory illness and four (13%) had a prior history of pharyngeal trauma or ingestion of a foreign body. In children less than 1 year old the clinical presentation was usually classical with fever, neck swelling, stridor, and pharyngeal swelling. Significantly fewer children over 1 year had neck swelling and no child over 3 years old had stridor. A lateral radiograph of the neck, when performed, had a sensitivity of 88% in diagnosis. Bacteria isolated included pure growths of Staphylococcus aureus (25%), klebsiella species (13%), group A streptococcus (8%), and a mixture of Gram negative and anaerobic organisms (38%). There were two deaths. In six cases (24%) the abscess recurred necessitating further surgical drainage. Images Figure 2 PMID:1953008

  2. Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) mothers huddle with their young offspring instead of adult females for thermoregulation.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Masataka; Nakamichi, Masayuki

    2016-08-01

    It is unclear whom animals select to huddle with for thermoregulation. In this study, we investigated whom Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) mothers huddled with-their young offspring or other adult group members-when there is need for thermoregulation. We used a focal-animal sampling method, targeting 17 females at Katsuyama, Okayama Prefecture, Japan. A majority of huddling among adult females was recorded during winter season (December, January, and February). Females who had young (0- or 1-year-old) offspring huddled less frequently with other adult females compared to females who did not have young offspring in winter. However, including young offspring, the frequency of huddling with any other individuals did not differ by whether females had young offspring. Moreover, the females who did not have young offspring huddled with other adult females more often in cloudy than in sunny weather during winter season. In contrast, females who had young offspring increased huddling with their young offspring in cloudy than in sunny weather, but did not do so with other adult females. This study indicates that Japanese macaque mothers huddle with their young offspring instead of other adult females when there is need for thermoregulation.

  3. Survival and mortality among users and non-users of hydroxyurea with sickle cell disease

    PubMed Central

    de Araujo, Olinda Maria Rodrigues; Ivo, Maria Lúcia; Ferreira, Marcos Antonio; Pontes, Elenir Rose Jardim Cury; Bispo, Ieda Maria Gonçalves Pacce; de Oliveira, Eveny Cristine Luna

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to estimate survival, mortality and cause of death among users or not of hydroxyurea with sickle cell disease. METHOD: cohort study with retrospective data collection, from 1980 to 2010 of patients receiving inpatient treatment in two Brazilian public hospitals. The survival probability was determined using the Kaplan-Meier estimator, survival calculations (SPSS version 10.0), comparison between survival curves, using the log rank method. The level of significance was p=0.05. RESULTS: of 63 patients, 87% had sickle cell anemia, with 39 using hydroxyurea, with a mean time of use of the drug of 20.0±10.0 years and a mean dose of 17.37±5.4 to 20.94±7.2 mg/kg/day, raising the fetal hemoglobin. In the comparison between those using hydroxyurea and those not, the survival curve was greater among the users (p=0.014). A total of 10 deaths occurred, with a mean age of 28.1 years old, and with Acute Respiratory Failure as the main cause. CONCLUSION: the survival curve is greater among the users of hydroxyurea. The results indicate the importance of the nurse incorporating therapeutic advances of hydroxyurea in her care actions. PMID:25806633

  4. Effects of 12 Weeks Resistance Training on Serum Irisin in Older Male Adults

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jiexiu; Su, Zhongjun; Qu, Chaoyi; Dong, Yanan

    2017-01-01

    Background: To assess the effects of resistance training on circulating irisin concentration in older male adults, and to investigate the association between resistance training induced alteration of irisin and body fat. Methods: Seventeen older adults (mean age is 62.1 years old) were randomized into old control group (male, n = 7), and old training group (male, n = 10). The control group has no any exercise intervention. The resistance training group underwent leg muscle strength and core strength training program two times/wk, 55 min/class for 12 weeks. Before and after the intervention, we evaluated serum irisin level and body composition. Results: Serum irisin level was significantly increased in the resistance training group after the 12 weeks intervention period (P < 0.01), but not in the control group. In the resistance training group, the reduction in whole-body fat percent was negatively correlated with the increase in serum irisin level (r = −0.705, P < 0.05). Conclusion: After the 12 weeks intervention, circulating irisin levels were significantly elevated in the older adults. In summary, serum irisin may be involved in the regulation of body fat in older male adults. PMID:28382004

  5. Cardiomyopathy in captive African hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris).

    PubMed

    Raymond, J T; Garner, M M

    2000-09-01

    From 1994 to 1999, 16 captive African hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris), from among 42 necropsy cases, were diagnosed with cardiomyopathy. The incidence of cardiomyopathy in this study population was 38%. Fourteen of 16 hedgehogs with cardiomyopathy were males and all hedgehogs were adult (>1 year old). Nine hedgehogs exhibited 1 or more of the following clinical signs before death: heart murmur, lethargy, icterus, moist rales, anorexia, dyspnea, dehydration, and weight loss. The remaining 7 hedgehogs died without premonitory clinical signs. Gross findings were cardiomegaly (6 cases), hepatomegaly (5 cases), pulmonary edema (5 cases), pulmonary congestion (4 cases), hydrothorax (3 cases), pulmonary infarct (1 case), renal infarcts (1 case), ascites (1 case), and 5 cases showed no changes. Histologic lesions were found mainly within the left ventricular myocardium and consisted primarily of myodegeneration, myonecrosis, atrophy, hypertrophy, and disarray of myofibers. All hedgehogs with cardiomyopathy had myocardial fibrosis, myocardial edema, or both. Other common histopathologic findings were acute and chronic passive congestion of the lungs, acute passive congestion of the liver, renal tubular necrosis, vascular thrombosis, splenic extramedullary hematopoiesis, and hepatic lipidosis. This is the first report of cardiomyopathy in African hedgehogs.

  6. Spatial and seasonal variability of temperature responses of biochemical photosynthesis parameters and leaf nitrogen content within a Pinus densiflora crown.

    PubMed

    Han, Qingmin; Kawasaki, Tatsuro; Nakano, Takashi; Chiba, Yukihiro

    2004-07-01

    We measured seasonal variation in area-based nitrogen concentration (N), maximum rate of carboxylation (Vcmax) and maximum rate of electron transport (Jmax) in 1-year-old needles along four first-order branches within a Pinus densiflora Sieb. & Zucc. crown, and analyzed their relationships to growth irradiance and temperature. Each leaf light environment was expressed as a ratio of the monthly mean of daily integrated photosynthetically active irradiance (Iint) for the particular needle to Iint above the canopy (Irel). Needle N decreased in the upper crown during the development of new needles, whereas it remained fairly constant in the lower crown, reflecting differences between upper and lower crown needles in their contribution to the nitrogen of new needles. Gradients of N within the crown were correlated with Irel in all seasons (r2 = 0.40-0.78). Seasonal variation in N was weakly correlated with mean daily air minimum temperatures. Both Vcmax and Jmax showed seasonal variation in all first-order branches, and decreased to their lowest values in winter. The gradients of Vcmax and Jmax within the crown were not correlated with Irel in some seasons, but were correlated with changes in N in most months (r2 = 0.33-0.75), except in the winter. Furthermore, the regression slope of the relationship between N and Vcmax and the temperature response of Vcmax and Jmax exhibited seasonal variation.

  7. A Double-Inactivated Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Vaccine Provides Incomplete Protection in Mice and Induces Increased Eosinophilic Proinflammatory Pulmonary Response upon Challenge▿

    PubMed Central

    Bolles, Meagan; Deming, Damon; Long, Kristin; Agnihothram, Sudhakar; Whitmore, Alan; Ferris, Martin; Funkhouser, William; Gralinski, Lisa; Totura, Allison; Heise, Mark; Baric, Ralph S.

    2011-01-01

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) is an important emerging virus that is highly pathogenic in aged populations and is maintained with great diversity in zoonotic reservoirs. While a variety of vaccine platforms have shown efficacy in young-animal models and against homologous viral strains, vaccine efficacy has not been thoroughly evaluated using highly pathogenic variants that replicate the acute end stage lung disease phenotypes seen during the human epidemic. Using an adjuvanted and an unadjuvanted double-inactivated SARS-CoV (DIV) vaccine, we demonstrate an eosinophilic immunopathology in aged mice comparable to that seen in mice immunized with the SARS nucleocapsid protein, and poor protection against a nonlethal heterologous challenge. In young and 1-year-old animals, we demonstrate that adjuvanted DIV vaccine provides protection against lethal disease in young animals following homologous and heterologous challenge, although enhanced immune pathology and eosinophilia are evident following heterologous challenge. In the absence of alum, DIV vaccine performed poorly in young animals challenged with lethal homologous or heterologous strains. In contrast, DIV vaccines (both adjuvanted and unadjuvanted) performed poorly in aged-animal models. Importantly, aged animals displayed increased eosinophilic immune pathology in the lungs and were not protected against significant virus replication. These data raise significant concerns regarding DIV vaccine safety and highlight the need for additional studies of the molecular mechanisms governing DIV-induced eosinophilia and vaccine failure, especially in the more vulnerable aged-animal models of human disease. PMID:21937658

  8. [Vaccination against hepatitis B. Impact of vaccination programmes after 20 years of use in Spain. Is it time for a change?].

    PubMed

    Arístegui Fernández, Javier; Díez-Domingo, Javier; Marés Bermúdez, Josep; Martinón Torres, Federico

    2015-02-01

    The highest incidence rate of hepatitis B (HB) in Spain is detected in adults between 20 and 54 years old, whereas the incidence in children under 1 year old is almost nil. The low prevalence of HB in children under 1 year is mainly due to the success of gestational screening strategies for the detection of HBsAg(+) in pregnant women, and vaccination campaigns during childhood. Currently, in Spain, the last dose of the HB included in the national childhood immunization program is administered at 6 months of age, although some studies show that delaying the age of the administration of the last dose of HB vaccine and increasing the time between doses, may improve immune memory by offering greater protection against this virus in the adulthood. In this article, the impact of HB vaccination in Spain is reviewed, and other potential vaccination strategies in our environment are discussed, such as extending the interval between doses, and administering the last dose in the second year of life, adapting the valid strategy in Spain to the current epidemiological context in order to reduce the prevalence of HB in adulthood.

  9. Assessment of nutritional status and trace element contamination of holm oak woodlands through analyses of leaves and surrounding soils.

    PubMed

    De Nicola, F; Maisto, G; Alfani, A

    2003-07-20

    The nutritional status and trace element contamination of holm oak woodlands in Vesuvius National Park were assessed by analyses of Quercus ilex L. leaves and surrounding soils. The concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, V and Zn were measured in 1-year-old leaves, and in the soils at 0-5 and 15-20 cm depths. The potentially available concentrations were also measured for the soils. The leaf element concentrations were similar to the Q. ilex chemical fingerprint, thus indicating a good nutritional status and the absence of short-term trace element depositions. Total K and V were more abundant in the deep soil layers than in the surface ones, whereas Cd and Pb showed higher values in the surface soils. This suggests that long-term soil accumulations of Cd and Pb are due to atmospheric input. The soil availabilities of Cd, Pb and Zn were high, and Cr availability was very low. A correlation between the available concentrations in the deep soil layers and leaf concentrations was found only for Zn.

  10. Significant decline in anticancer immune capacity during puberty in the Tasmanian devil

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yuanyuan; Heasman, Kim; Peck, Sarah; Peel, Emma; Gooley, Rebecca M.; Papenfuss, Anthony T.; Hogg, Carolyn J.; Belov, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    Tasmanian devils (Sarcophilus harrisii) are at risk of extinction in the wild due to Devil Facial Tumour Disease (DFTD), a rare contagious cancer. The prevalence of DFTD differs by age class: higher disease prevalence is seen in adults (2–3 years) versus younger devils (<2 years). Here we propose that immunological changes during puberty may play a role in susceptibility to DFTD. We show that the second year of life is a key developmental period for Tasmanian devils, during which they undergo puberty and pronounced changes in the immune system. Puberty coincides with a significant decrease in lymphocyte abundance resulting in a much higher neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio in adults than subadults. Quantitative PCR analysis of gene expression of transcription factors T-bet and GATA-3 and cytokines interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin 4 (IL-4) revealed a drastic increase in GATA-3 and IL-4 expression during puberty. These changes led to a significantly lower IFN-γ:IL-4 ratio in 2-year-olds than <1 year olds (on average 1.3-fold difference in males and 4.0-fold in females), which reflects a major shift of the immune system towards Th2 responses. These results all indicate that adult devils are expected to have a lower anticancer immune capacity than subadults, which may explain the observed pattern of disease prevalence of DFTD in the wild. PMID:28300197

  11. Genitourinary anomaly in congenital varicella syndrome: case report and review.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Hisayo; Yoshii, Akira; Maeda, Jun; Kosaki, Kenjiro; Shishido, Seiichiro; Nakai, Hideo; Awazu, Midori

    2004-05-01

    We describe a 1-year-old boy with congenital varicella syndrome who had vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) and neurogenic bladder. His mother had varicella during the 3rd month of pregnancy. At birth the patient presented with right microphthalmia, right microcornea, and persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous of the right eye. He had chronic constipation from 3 months of age. He had urinary tract infection at 1 year of age. Urological investigation revealed left grade V VUR and neurogenic bladder. His varicella zoster virus IgG titer measured by ELISA was 39.4 antibody index (normal <0.1). He had repeated episodes of urinary tract infection despite antibiotic prophylaxis and clean intermittent catheterization, and underwent a uretero-vesiconeostomy at 2 years of age. Maternal infection during early pregnancy and the serological evidence of varicella zoster IgG antibodies without a history of varicella after birth led to the diagnosis of congenital varicella syndrome. Urogenital anomalies have previously been described in 14 cases of congenital varicella syndrome. Most of these patients had neurogenic bladder, the pathophysiology of which could be explained by the known neurotropic nature of the virus.

  12. [Impacts of digging Phascolosoma esculenta on the growth of mangrove Avicennia marina seedlings: a simulation study].

    PubMed

    He, Qin-Fei; Fan, Hang-Qing; Mo, Zhu-Cheng; Wang, Xin; Shen, Wen-Hui

    2012-04-01

    Digging Phascolosoma esculenta to increase income is one of the main causes leading to the degradation of China mangroves. In order to understand the impact mechanisms of digging P. esculenta on the mangrove growth and to select indicators to evaluate the mangrove health, a simulative study was conducted to clarify the impacts of digging depth, radian, and frequency on the growth of 1-year old Avicennia marina seedlings, with the indices seedling height, basal diameter, single leaf area, specific leaf area, total biomass, and dead root dry mass measured. The results showed that digging activities decreased the increment of seedling height and basal diameter, single leaf area, specific leaf area, and total biomass significantly, and increased the dead root dry mass markedly. Digging depth and radian had obvious effects on the growth of A. marina seedlings, but digging frequency had minor effects. When the digging depth was < 5 cm, digging radian was < 240 degrees, and digging frequency was < 2 times per month, the damage to the seedlings was slighter; but when the digging depth was > 5 cm, the damage was quite serious.

  13. Comparative study of electrolyte additives using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy on symmetric cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petibon, R.; Sinha, N. N.; Burns, J. C.; Aiken, C. P.; Ye, Hui; VanElzen, Collette M.; Jain, Gaurav; Trussler, S.; Dahn, J. R.

    2014-04-01

    The effect of various electrolyte additives and additive combinations added to a 1 M LiPF6 EC:EMC electrolyte on the positive and negative electrodes surface of 1 year old wound LiCoO2/graphite cells and Li[Ni0.4Mn0.4Co0.2])O2/graphite cells was studied using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) on symmetric cells. The additives tested were: vinylene carbonate (VC), trimethoxyboroxine (TMOBX), fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC), lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI), and H2O alone or in combination. In general, compared to control electrolyte, the additives tested reduced the impedance of the positive electrode and increased the impedance of the negative electrode with the exception of LiTFSI in Li[Ni0.4Mn0.4Co0.2]O2/graphite wound cells. Higher charge voltage led to higher positive electrode impedance, with the exception of 2%VC + 2% FEC, and 2% LiTFSI. In some cases, some additives when mixed with another controlled the formation of the SEI at one electrode, and shared the formation of the SEI at one electrode when mixed with a different additive.

  14. Added copper filtration in digital paediatric double-contrast colon examinations: effects on radiation dose and image quality.

    PubMed

    Hansson, B; Finnbogason, T; Schuwert, P; Persliden, J

    1997-01-01

    Paediatric double-contrast barium enema examinations are usually performed at high tube voltage, 102-105 kV. The aim of this study was to investigate how much the effective dose to the child could be reduced by increasing the X-ray energy further by adding copper filter in the beam, and if this dose reduction could be achieved without endangering image quality. Organ doses to an anthropomorphic phantom simulating a 1-year-old child was measured using thermoluminescence dosimetry for assessment of the effective dose and this value was compared with the energy imparted which was obtained from kerma-area product measurements. To verify that the image quality achieved with this added filtration was still diagnostically acceptable, the study included 15 patient examinations. Since the increased X-ray energy will most probably affect low-contrast objects, image quality was also evaluated with two different phantoms containing low-contrast objects. Effective dose for a complete examination can be decreased 44 % and energy imparted 77 % when a 0.3-mm copper filter is inserted in the beam at tube voltage 102 kV. The patient study did not show any significant deterioration of image quality, whereas phantom measurements of contrast-detail resolution and signal-to-noise ratio was marginally impaired by the added copper filtration. This technique is now in clinical practice for paediatric colon examinations.

  15. Epidemiology of pertussis in Italy: disease trends over the last century.

    PubMed

    Gonfiantini, M V; Carloni, E; Gesualdo, F; Pandolfi, E; Agricola, E; Rizzuto, E; Iannazzo, S; Ciofi Degli Atti, M L; Villani, A; Tozzi, A E

    2014-10-09

    We reviewed the epidemiology of pertussis in Italy over the last 125 years to identify disease trends and factors that could have influenced these trends. We described mortality rates (1888-2012), case fatality rates (1925-2012), cumulative incidence rates (1925-2013) and age-specific incidence rates (1974-2013). We compared data from routine surveillance with data from a paediatric sentinel surveillance system to estimate under-notification. Pertussis mortality decreased from 42.5 per 100,000 population in 1890 to no reported pertussis-related death after 2002. Incidence decreased from 86.3 per 100,000 in 1927 to 1 per 100,000 after 2008. Vaccine coverage increased from 32.8% in 1993 to about 96% after 2006. As for under-notification, mean sentinel/routine surveillance incidence ratio increased with age (from 1.8 in <1 year-olds to 12.9 in 10-14 year-olds). Pertussis mortality decreased before the introduction of immunisation. Incidence has decreased only after the introduction of pertussis vaccine and in particular after the achievement of a high immunisation coverage with acellular vaccines. Routine surveillance does not show an increase in cumulative incidence nor in ≥ 15 year-olds as reported by other countries. Underrecognition because of atypical presentation and the infrequent use of laboratory tests may be responsible for under-notification, and therefore affect incidence reports and management of immunisation programmes.

  16. Bilateral vision loss in a captive cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Walser-Reinhardt, Ladina; Wernick, Morena B; Hatt, Jean-Michel; Spiess, Bernhard M

    2010-09-01

    The following case report describes a 1-year-old female cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) with bilateral blindness and unresponsive pupils. For comparison, a second healthy 2.5-year-old male cheetah without visual deficits was also examined. Clinical examination of both animals included biomicroscopy, indirect ophthalmoscopy, tonometry, and electroretinography. The young female cheetah showed no menace response, no direct or indirect pupillary light reflex, and no dazzle reflex in either eye. Fundus lesions, as detected by indirect ophthalmoscopy, are described for the female animal. In both eyes, the fundus color was green/turquoise/yellow with multiple hyperpigmented linear lesions in the tapetal area around the optic nerve. The optic nerve head was dark gray and about half the normal size suggesting bilateral optic nerve hypoplasia and retinal dysplasia or differentially optic nerve atrophy and chorioretinal scarring. The ERG had low amplitudes in the right eye but appeared normal in the left eye compared with the male cheetah. Blood levels did not suggest current taurine deficiency. This is addressed to some degree in the discussion. Bilateral optic nerve hypoplasia or optic nerve atrophy is a rare anomaly in cats and has not yet been described in a cheetah.

  17. Infant color preference for red is not selectively context specific.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Anna; Gibbons, Emily; Chittenden, Katie; Alvarez, James; Taylor, Chloe

    2012-10-01

    It has been proposed that human infants, like nonhuman primates, respond favorably to red in hospitable contexts, yet unfavorably in hostile contexts (Maier, Barchfeld, Elliot, & Pekrun, 2009). Here, we replicate and extend the study (Maier et al., 2009) whose findings have been used to support this hypothesis. As in Maier et al., 1-year-old infants were shown a photograph of a happy or angry face before pairs of colors were presented, yet in the current study, the set of stimuli crucially included two colors that are typically preferred by infants (red and blue). The percentage of times that infants looked first at the colors was analyzed for the two emotional "contexts." Following the happy face, infants looked first at red and blue equally, but significantly more than green. Following the angry face, the pattern of looking preference was the same as following the happy face, but the variation across the three colors was reduced. Contrary to Maier et al.'s hypothesis, there was no evidence that infants are selectively averse to red in angry contexts: following the angry face, "preference" for both red and blue was reduced, but was not significantly below chance. We therefore suggest an alternative account to Maier et al.'s evolutionary hypothesis, which argues that an angry face merely removes infant color preference, potentially due to the perceptual characteristics of the angry face disrupting infants' encoding of color.

  18. A new and unusual reciprocal translocation in cattle: rcp(11;25)(q11;q14-21).

    PubMed

    Perucatti, A; Genualdo, V; Iannuzzi, A; De Lorenzi, L; Matassino, D; Parma, P; Di Berardino, D; Iannuzzi, L; Di Meo, G P

    2011-01-01

    A new and unusual reciprocal translocation was detected in a heifer of the Agerolese cattle breed during a routine cytogenetic screening carried out on 13 animals (2 males and 11 females) kept at the ConSDABI Conservation Center in Benevento (Southern Italy). The 13 animals investigated had a normal karyotype except for a 1-year-old female, which carried one autosome smaller than the smallest normal bovine autosomes. This small autosome showed very little C-banding in comparison to the other autosomes, while another medium-sized autosome showed 2 distinct and prominent C-bands. RBA-banding and karyotype analysis revealed that these 2 chromosomes were the result of a reciprocal translocation between chromosomes 11 and 25. FISH analysis with BAC142G06 mapping to the proximal (subcentromeric) region of both BTA25 and der11, BAC513H08 (ELN) mapping to BTA25q22dist and der25, and BAC533C11 mapping to the proximal region of BTA11 and der11 confirmed the localization of the breakpoints on band q11 (centromere) of chromosome 11 and q14-21 of chromosome 25. Ag-NOR and sequential RBA/Ag-NOR techniques detected the presence of NORs on both BTA11 and BTA25 and both der11 and der25. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a reciprocal translocation event in cattle with the breakpoint located in the centromeric region.

  19. Cinnarizine for Sea Sickness During a Remote Pacific Ocean Rescue Mission.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Regan F; Rush, Stephen C; Roland, J Thomas; Jethanamest, Daniel; Schwan, Christopher P; Kharon, Chetan U

    2015-01-01

    Motion sickness can be a limiting factor for sea and air missions. We report the experience of a Pararescue (PJ) team on a Pacific Ocean rescue mission in which motion sickness was prevalent. Cinnarizine, an antagonist of H1-histamine receptors, was used to treat affected PJs. We also report findings of a survey of PJs regarding motion sickness. A family of four on a disabled sailboat 900 miles off the coast of Mexico sent out a distress call because their 1-year-old daughter became severely ill with fever and diarrhea. Four PJs were deployed on a C-130, performed a free-fall parachute insertion into the ocean, and boarded the sailboat. All four PJs experienced onset of motion sickness at some point during the early part of the mission and symptoms persisted through the first 24 hours. Three PJs experienced ongoing nausea, vomiting, dizziness, and sensory imbalances. The captain of the sailboat offered the three sick PJs approximately 18mg of cinnarizine two or three times a day with relief of symptoms and improvement on operational effectiveness. A new, anonymous, voluntary survey of Air National Guard PJs and combat rescue officers revealed that 78.4% of Operators have experienced motion sickness at sea. We discuss the current theories on motion sickness, the effect of motion sickness on operational effectiveness, and research on treatment of motion sickness, including the medication cinnarizine.

  20. Evaluation of a Density-Based Rapid Diagnostic Test for Sickle Cell Disease in a Clinical Setting in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Hennek, Jonathan W.; Mantina, Hamakwa; Lee, S. Y. Ryan; Patton, Matthew R.; Sambo, Pauline; Sinyangwe, Silvester; Kankasa, Chipepo; Chintu, Chifumbe; Brugnara, Carlo; Stossel, Thomas P.; Whitesides, George M.

    2014-01-01

    Although simple and low-cost interventions for sickle cell disease (SCD) exist in many developing countries, child mortality associated with SCD remains high, in part, because of the lack of access to diagnostic tests for SCD. A density-based test using aqueous multiphase systems (SCD-AMPS) is a candidate for a low-cost, point-of-care diagnostic for SCD. In this paper, the field evaluation of SCD-AMPS in a large (n = 505) case-control study in Zambia is described. Of the two variations of the SCD-AMPS used, the best system (SCD-AMPS-2) demonstrated a sensitivity of 86% (82–90%) and a specificity of 60% (53–67%). Subsequent analysis identified potential sources of false positives that include clotting, variation between batches of SCD-AMPS, and shipping conditions. Importantly, SCD-AMPS-2 was 84% (62–94%) sensitive in detecting SCD in children between 6 months and 1 year old. In addition to an evaluation of performance, an assessment of end-user operability was done with health workers in rural clinics in Zambia. These health workers rated the SCD-AMPS tests to be as simple to use as lateral flow tests for malaria and HIV. PMID:25490722

  1. Mortality following snake bite envenomation by Bitis arietans in an HIV positive child

    PubMed Central

    Firth, Gregory B.; Street, Matthew; Ramguthy, Yammesh; Doedens, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Snake bites occur commonly in the rural areas of South Africa. Hospitals where snake bites are uncommon should always have protocols on standby in the event of such cases presenting. This is the first reported case documenting the effect of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) on snake bite in South African children. A case report and review of relevant information about the case was undertaken. We present a case of a 1-year-old child referred from a peripheral hospital following a snake bite to the left upper limb with a compartment syndrome and features of cytotoxic envenomation. The patient presented late with a wide area of necrotic skin on the arm requiring extensive debridement. The underlying muscle was not necrotic. Polyvalent antivenom (South African Institute of Medical Research Polyvalent Snakebite Antiserum) administration was delayed by 4 days after the snake bite. The patient was also diagnosed with HIV and a persistent thrombocytopenia possibly due to both HIV infection and the snake bite venom. Lower respiratory tract infections with subsequent overwhelming sepsis ultimately resulted in the child's death. The case highlights the challenge of treating a snake bite in a young child with HIV and the detrimental outcome of delayed treatment. A protocol is essential in the management of snake bites in all hospitals. Level IV, Case report. This case highlights the interaction of snake bite envenomation and HIV infection on thrombocytopenia. PMID:27399076

  2. Diagnosis and prevalence of Theileria equi horses in western Mexico by nested PCR.

    PubMed

    Ayala-Valdovinos, Miguel Angel; Lemus-Flores, Clemente; Galindo-García, Jorge; Bañuelos-Pineda, Jacinto; Rodríguez-Carpena, Javier Germán; Sánchez-Chiprés, David; Duifhuis-Rivera, Theodor

    2017-02-01

    Theileria equi infection prevalence was calculated from 1000 blood samples obtained from apparently healthy horses in western Mexico. Samples were sent to the Animal Biotechnology Laboratory of the University of Guadalajara (Mexico) for T. equi diagnosis. Nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) was used as a diagnostic method to detect pathogen DNA. Using primers for the merozoite antigen-1 (EMA-1) gene, 19.70±2.47% of the horses (95% CI, 17.23-22.17%) tested positive for T. equi. There was no significant association between gender and T. equi infection. However, prevalence was higher among stabled horses (25.81%) than that among grazing horses (15.02%). The positivity rate was also higher among Quarter Horse (24.70%), Lusitano (35.90%), and Costa Rican Saddle Horse (47.37%) breeds than that among the other seven breeds investigated in this study. The percentage of T. equi infection was higher among adult horses (≥ 4years old, 25.05%) than that among colts and fillies (2-4years old, 15.48%), yearlings (1-2years old, 10.49%), and foals (<1year old, 10.34%). This is the first study of T. equi infection prevalence among horses in Mexico by nPCR . The results indicate that the equine piroplasmosis (EP) caused by T. equi is enzootic in western Mexico.

  3. Effects of fenoxycarb on development and reproduction of the oriental cockroach, Blatta orientalis.

    PubMed

    Evans, R G; Sunley, A; Bradford, C; Patmore, R I

    1995-07-01

    In a laboratory study, groups of third-instar Blatta orientalis nymphs were reared to adulthood in arenas containing fenoxycarb (48 mg a.i./m2) treated ceramic or plywood tiles. The reproductive capacity of the emergent adults was assessed by pairing each individual with two untreated individuals of the opposite sex. Oothecal production, oothecal hatch and the numbers of nymphs emergent from each hatched ootheca were monitored. Exposure to 1-day-old deposits of fenoxycarb reduced adult emergence by 45-75% in comparison with an untreated control treatment. Substantial (> 40%) mortality also resulted when nymphs were exposed to deposits up to 3 months old on plywood and up to 6 months old on ceramic. Exposure to fenoxycarb significantly extended the time taken to reach adulthood of males contacting 6-month-old deposits on both surfaces, and of females contacting 1-year-old deposits on ceramic. Adult females exposed as nymphs to fenoxycarb were unable to produce oothecae, except one female laid a non-viable ootheca. Untreated females paired with treated males produced large numbers of oothecae of normal appearance but very low viability, with only 0-7.1% hatching. With marked effects on both development and reproduction in B.orientalis, fenoxycarb is a promising agent for control of this species.

  4. The role of maternal behavior and offspring development in the survival of mountain goat kids.

    PubMed

    Théoret-Gosselin, Rachel; Hamel, Sandra; Côté, Steeve D

    2015-05-01

    Studies on juvenile survival have mainly focused on the effects of environmental conditions and maternal traits. However, growing evidence indicates that the ability of parents to care for their young and the offspring developmental behaviors could be key determinants of their survival. We examined the relative influence of (1) environmental conditions, (2) offspring traits, (3) maternal traits, (4) maternal care behaviors, and (5) offspring developmental behaviors on kid survival to weaning and to 1 year old in mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus). Offspring development and maternal care directly affected offspring survival, and this more importantly than did environmental conditions and maternal traits. Frequency of play strongly increased survival before weaning. Greater maternal care increased offspring survival during winter, directly and indirectly through kid mass. Kid mass was also a major determinant of both summer and winter survival. Environmental conditions mainly influenced summer survival while maternal characteristics indirectly affected winter survival through an effect on kid mass. Behavioral adaptations of maternal care and offspring development to local selective pressures can lead to local adaptations and have greater implications in population dynamic studies than previously believed.

  5. Chromosome 11q13 deletion syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yu-Seon; Kim, Gun-Ha; Byeon, Jung Hye; Eun, So-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Chromosome 11q13 deletion syndrome has been previously reported as either otodental syndrome or oculo-oto-dental syndrome. The otodental syndrome is characterized by dental abnormalities and high-frequency sensorineural hearing loss, and by ocular coloboma in some cases. The underlying genetic defect causing otodental syndrome is a hemizygous microdeletion involving the FGF3 gene on chromosome 11q13.3. Recently, a new form of severe deafness, microtia (small ear) and small teeth, without the appearance of eye abnormalities, was also reported. In this report, we describe a 1-year-old girl presenting with ptosis of the left upper eyelid, right auricular deformity, high-arched palate, delayed dentition, simian line on the right hand, microcephaly, and developmental delay. In this patient, we identified a deletion in the chromosome 11q13.2-q13.3 (2.75 Mb) region by using an array-comparative genomic hybridization analysis. The deletion in chromosome 11q13 results in a syndrome characterized by variable clinical manifestations. Some of these manifestations involve craniofacial dysmorphology and require a functional workup for hearing, ophthalmic examinations, and long-term dental care. PMID:28018436

  6. Unexpected peripheral markers of thyroid function in a patient with a novel mutation of the MCT8 thyroid hormone transporter gene.

    PubMed

    Herzovich, V; Vaiani, E; Marino, R; Dratler, G; Lazzati, J M; Tilitzky, S; Ramirez, P; Iorcansky, S; Rivarola, M A; Belgorosky, A

    2007-01-01

    The specific thyroid hormone transporter, MCT8, located on the X chromosome, has led to the identification a novel syndrome. The objective is to relate phenotype with several tissue-specific thyroid functions. A 1-year-old boy, who had severe psychological damage and low serum T4, had received l-T4 for 3 months. At admission, body length was normal but weight was low. Off therapy, serum TSH was mildly elevated, serum T4 and free T4 were low, and serum T3 and free T3 were high. Direct sequencing of the MCT8 gene revealed a single nucleotide change that resulted in a novel nonsense mutation at codon 261 (Q261X) in exon 3. Since serum T3 was high, peripheral markers of hyperthyroidism were looked for. Bone age was advanced, despite the presence of malnutrition and low T4. Serum SHBG, a marker of thyroid hormone action in liver, was markedly elevated. Markers of skeletal muscle catabolism, ammonemia and lactic acid, were found to be elevated. The phenotype of MCT 8 mutation might be explained by differences in the entry of thyroid hormones into different cells. In the presence of an inactive MCT8 transporter, the high blood T3 levels might not be enough to prevent brain damage early in life, while they seem to be able to induce a postnatal state of peripheral hyperthyroidism in other tissues, such as liver, bone and skeletal muscle.

  7. Effectiveness of propranolol in the treatment of infantile hemangioma beyond the proliferation phase.

    PubMed

    Vivas-Colmenares, Grecia V; Bernabeu-Wittel, Jose; Alonso-Arroyo, Veronica; Matute de Cardenas, Jose A; Fernandez-Pineda, Israel

    2015-01-01

    During the last 5 years, many studies have shown the efficacy of propranolol as first-line treatment for infantile hemangiomas (IHs), but not much has been written about the role of propranolol beyond the proliferation phase of IH (>1 year). Our aim was to assess propranolol efficacy and safety in the treatment of patients older than 1 year. A retrospective study of patients older than 1 year diagnosed with IH and treated in our vascular anomalies clinic between 2009 and 2013 was performed. Eighteen patients older than 1 year with a diagnosis of IH (15 girls, 3 boys) were identified. The mean age at the time of initiation of treatment was 25.7 months (range 13-72 mos). Single lesions were observed in 13 patients and multiple lesions in 5. Fifteen patients had focal lesions and three had segmental. The median duration of treatment with oral propranolol was 11.8 months (range 2-33 mos). Complete response was observed in 72.2% of the patients and partial response in 27.8%. Recurrence was observed in three patients 4.7 months after completion of therapy (range 0.3-8 mos). These patients required further therapy with propranolol for 6 more months. Bradycardia was documented in two patients and night terrors in one patient, which led to discontinuation of treatment. In our experience, propranolol may be useful in the treatment of IHs beyond the proliferation phase (>1 year old), but more studies are needed to support this observation.

  8. Dietary habits related to caries development and immigrant status in infants and toddlers living in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Wendt, L K; Birkhed, D

    1995-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the dietary habits of infants and toddlers living in Sweden with special reference to caries prevalence at 2 and 3 years of age and to immigrant status. The study was designed as a prospective, longitudinal study starting with 671 children aged 1 year. At 3 years, all children were invited to a further examination. A total of 298 individuals, randomly selected from the original group, were also examined at 2 years. The accompanying parent was interviewed about the child's dietary habits. Children with caries at 2 and 3 years of age and immigrant children had, when they were 1 year old, consumed caries-risk products and been given nocturnal meals and sweetened liquid in a feeding bottle more often than caries-free 2- and 3-year-olds and non-immigrant children. Although a great variation in dietary habits was found in infants and toddlers, the use of sugar-containing products is widespread in Sweden even in early childhood.

  9. Bacterial diversity in a finished compost and vermicompost: differences revealed by cultivation-independent analyses of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes.

    PubMed

    Fracchia, Letizia; Dohrmann, Anja B; Martinotti, Maria Giovanna; Tebbe, Christoph C

    2006-08-01

    Bacterial communities are important catalysts in the production of composts. Here, it was analysed whether the diversity of bacteria in finished composts is stable and specific for the production process. Single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) based on polymerase chain reaction amplified partial 16S rRNA genes was used to profile and analyse bacterial communities found in total DNA extracted from finished composts. Different batches of compost samples stored over a period of 12 years and a 1-year-old vermicompost were compared to each other. According to digital image analysis, clear differences could be detected between the profiles from compost and vermicompost. Differences between three different periods of compost storage and between replicate vermicompost windrows were only minor. A total of 41 different 16S rRNA genes were identified from the SSCP profiles by DNA sequencing, with the vast majority related to yet-uncultivated bacteria. Sequences retrieved from compost mainly belonged to the phyla Actinobacteria and Firmicutes. In contrast, vermicompost was dominated by bacteria related to uncultured Chloroflexi, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Gemmatimonadetes. The differences were underscored with specific gene probes and Southern blot hybridizations. The results confirmed that different substrates and composting processes selected for specific bacterial communities in the finished products. The specificity and consistency of the bacterial communities inhabiting the compost materials suggest that cultivation-independent bacterial community analysis is a potentially useful indicator to characterize the quality of finished composts in regard to production processes and effects of storage conditions.

  10. Absence of cytoglobin promotes multiple organ abnormalities in aged mice

    PubMed Central

    Thuy, Le Thi Thanh; Van Thuy, Tuong Thi; Matsumoto, Yoshinari; Hai, Hoang; Ikura, Yoshihiro; Yoshizato, Katsutoshi; Kawada, Norifumi

    2016-01-01

    Cytoglobin (Cygb) was identified in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and pericytes of all organs; however, the effects of Cygb on cellular functions remain unclear. Here, we report spontaneous and age-dependent malformations in multiple organs of Cygb−/− mice. Twenty-six percent of young Cygb−/− mice (<1 year old) showed heart hypertrophy, cystic disease in the kidney or ovary, loss of balance, liver fibrosis and lymphoma. Furthermore, 71.3% (82/115) of aged Cygb−/− mice (1–2 years old) exhibited abnormalities, such as heart hypertrophy and cancer development in multiple organs; by contrast, 5.8% (4/68) of aged wild-type (WT) mice had abnormalities (p < 0.0001). Interestingly, serum and urine analysis demonstrated that the concentration of nitric oxide metabolites increased significantly in Cygb−/− mice, resulting in an imbalance in the oxidative stress and antioxidant defence system that was reversed by NG-monomethyl-L-arginine treatment. A senescent phenotype and evidence of DNA damage were found in primary HSCs and the liver of aged Cygb−/− mice. Moreover, compared with HSC+/+, HSC−/− showed high expression of Il-6 and chemokine mRNA when cocultured with mouse Hepa 1–6 cells. Thus, the absence of Cygb in pericytes provokes organ abnormalities, possibly via derangement of the nitric oxide and antioxidant defence system and through accelerated cellular senescence. PMID:27146058

  11. Lung parasites of the genus Metastrongylus Molin, 1861 (Nematoda: Metastrongilidae) in wild boar (Sus scrofa L., 1758) in Central-Italy: An eco-epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Poglayen, Giovanni; Marchesi, Barbara; Dall'Oglio, Giulia; Barlozzari, Giulia; Galuppi, Roberta; Morandi, Benedetto

    2016-02-15

    The respiratory tracts of 57 wild boars (Sus scrofa L. 1758) hunted in central Italy during the 2011/2012 hunting season were examined to detect the presence of lung worms. Fifty-five out of 57 animals (96,5%) were positive. Five species of Metastrongylus were detected and their prevalence was as follows: Metastrongylus asymmetricus Noda, 1973 (91.2%), Metastrongylus confusus Jansen, 1964 and Metastrongylus salmi Gedoelst, 1923 (87.7%), Metastrongylus apri Gmelin, 1790 (80.7%), Metastrongylus pudendotectus Vostokov, 1905 (70.2%). In most cases multi-species infection was observed. The highest parasite load was found in young animals (<1 year old). The Metastrongylus genus sex ratio (M/F) had a range from 1:4.8 to 1:1.5 in favor of females. The Simpson and Shannon-Wiener indices showed a moderate uniformity in parasite community composition. The Fager index highlighted a high degree of affinity among all pairs of selected parasites. The whole parasite population showed an aggregate distribution. Our findings confirm that these parasites are widespread in the wild boar population. The establishment of outdoor domestic pig farming in the same area of the game preserve could pose the risk of infection to domestic animals. Further studies will be needed to understand the factors involved in the presence and prevalence of the intermediate host as well as the population dynamics of Metastrongylus spp.

  12. Effects of Mesocriconema xenoplax on Vitis vinifera and Associated Mycorrhizal Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Pinkerton, J. N.; Schreiner, R. P.; Ivors, K. L.; Vasconcelos, M. C.

    2004-01-01

    Previous surveys of vineyards had indicated that Mesocriconema xenoplax was present in 85% of vineyards in western Oregon, but yields were not depressed in established vines. Microplot studies were initiated in 1997 in a Willamette Valley vineyard to determine the impact of M. xenoplax on vine establishment. Plots were infested with 0.03, 0.6, and 3.0 M. xenoplax g-1 soil and planted with self-rooted Chardonnay and Pinot Noir vines. In November 2000, four growing seasons after planting, pruning weights, fine root weights, and fruit yield of vines planted in infested soil were reduced by 58%, 75%, and 33%, respectively, relative to control vines (planted in noninfested soil). In 1998 with ca 2000 degree-day base 9 °C accumulation, population densities increased 32-fold and 44-fold on 1-year-old Chardonnay and Pinot Noir vines, respectively. Nematode population dynamics and pruning data suggested that the carrying capacity of vines in microplots was 5 to 8 M. xenoplax g-1 soil. In November 2000, more than 80% of the fine root length was colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in all treatments. The frequency of fine roots containing arbuscules (the site of nutrient transfer between plant and fungus), however, was depressed from 5% to 65% in plants infested initially with M. xenoplax as compared to controls. Competition for photosynthate within the root system is proposed as a possible mechanism by which nematodes suppressed arbuscule frequency. PMID:19262807

  13. Inguinal panniculitis in a young Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) caused by Mycobacterium mageritense.

    PubMed

    Reppas, G; Nosworthy, P; Hansen, T; Govendir, M; Malik, R

    2010-05-01

    A 1-year-old, entire male Tasmanian devil living in captivity was presented because of a nodular inguinal lesion that subsequently developed a draining sinus tract. A second, similar lesion developed later in the ipsilateral axillary region. A deep representative biopsy specimen of abnormal subcutaneous tissue showed chronic active pyogranulomatous inflammation and beaded Gram-positive and acid-fast bacilli situated in lipid vacuoles within the lesion. A rapidly growing Mycobacterium species, shown subsequently to be M. mageritense, was grown from a swab of the primary lesion. It was susceptible to tetracyclines (including doxycycline) and moxifloxacin in vitro. The lesions resolved following treatment with doxycycline monohydrate (50 mg PO once daily) and then moxifloxacin (10 mg/kg PO for 20 days). The infection probably resulted from inoculation of subcutaneous tissues by material containing this Mycobacterium following fight or bite injuries. The presentation is reminiscent of similar lesions attributable to rapidly growing mycobacterial infections of the subcutis observed in domestic cats and quolls.

  14. Significant decline in anticancer immune capacity during puberty in the Tasmanian devil.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yuanyuan; Heasman, Kim; Peck, Sarah; Peel, Emma; Gooley, Rebecca M; Papenfuss, Anthony T; Hogg, Carolyn J; Belov, Katherine

    2017-03-16

    Tasmanian devils (Sarcophilus harrisii) are at risk of extinction in the wild due to Devil Facial Tumour Disease (DFTD), a rare contagious cancer. The prevalence of DFTD differs by age class: higher disease prevalence is seen in adults (2-3 years) versus younger devils (<2 years). Here we propose that immunological changes during puberty may play a role in susceptibility to DFTD. We show that the second year of life is a key developmental period for Tasmanian devils, during which they undergo puberty and pronounced changes in the immune system. Puberty coincides with a significant decrease in lymphocyte abundance resulting in a much higher neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio in adults than subadults. Quantitative PCR analysis of gene expression of transcription factors T-bet and GATA-3 and cytokines interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin 4 (IL-4) revealed a drastic increase in GATA-3 and IL-4 expression during puberty. These changes led to a significantly lower IFN-γ:IL-4 ratio in 2-year-olds than <1 year olds (on average 1.3-fold difference in males and 4.0-fold in females), which reflects a major shift of the immune system towards Th2 responses. These results all indicate that adult devils are expected to have a lower anticancer immune capacity than subadults, which may explain the observed pattern of disease prevalence of DFTD in the wild.

  15. PubMed Central

    DALLAN, I.; NAVARI, E.; SELLARI FRANCESCHINI, S.; CERCHIAI, N.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The aim of this paper is to analyse, after clinical experience with a series of patients with established diagnoses and review of the literature, all relevant anamnestic features in order to build a simple diagnostic algorithm for vertigo in childhood. This study is a retrospective chart review. A series of 37 children underwent complete clinical and instrumental vestibular examination. Only neurological disorders or genetic diseases represented exclusion criteria. All diagnoses were reviewed after applying the most recent diagnostic guidelines. In our experience, the most common aetiology for dizziness is vestibular migraine (38%), followed by acute labyrinthitis/neuritis (16%) and somatoform vertigo (16%). Benign paroxysmal vertigo was diagnosed in 4 patients (11%) and paroxysmal torticollis was diagnosed in a 1-year-old child. In 8% (3 patients) of cases, the dizziness had a post-traumatic origin: 1 canalolithiasis of the posterior semicircular canal and 2 labyrinthine concussions, respectively. Menière's disease was diagnosed in 2 cases. A bilateral vestibular failure of unknown origin caused chronic dizziness in 1 patient. In conclusion, this algorithm could represent a good tool for guiding clinical suspicion to correct diagnostic assessment in dizzy children where no neurological findings are detectable. The algorithm has just a few simple steps, based mainly on two aspects to be investigated early: temporal features of vertigo and presence of hearing impairment. A different algorithm has been proposed for cases in which a traumatic origin is suspected. PMID:26246662

  16. Reassessment of spiny dogfish Squalus acanthias age and growth using vertebrae and dorsal-fin spines.

    PubMed

    Bubley, W J; Kneebone, J; Sulikowski, J A; Tsang, P C W

    2012-04-01

    Male and female spiny dogfish Squalus acanthias were collected in the western North Atlantic Ocean in the Gulf of Maine between July 2006 and June 2009. Squalus acanthias ranged from 25 to 102 cm stretch total length and were caught during all months of the year except January. Age estimates derived from banding patterns visible in both the vertebrae and second dorsal-fin spines were compared. Vertebral growth increments were visualized using a modified histological staining technique, which was verified as appropriate for obtaining age estimates. Marginal increment analysis of vertebrae verified the increment periodicity, suggesting annual band deposition. Based on increased precision and accuracy of age estimates, as well as more biologically realistic parameters generated in growth models, the current study found that vertebrae provided a more reliable and accurate means of estimating age in S. acanthias than the second dorsal-fin spine. Age estimates obtained from vertebrae ranged from <1 year-old to 17 years for male and 24 years for female S. acanthias. The two-parameter von Bertalanffy growth model fit to vertebrae-derived age estimates produced parameters of L∞ = 94·23 cm and k = 0·11 for males and L∞ = 100·76 cm and k = 0·12 for females. While these growth parameters differed from those previously reported for S. acanthias in the western North Atlantic Ocean, the causes of such differences were beyond the scope of the current study and remain to be determined.

  17. Effects of different organic farming methods on the concentration of phenolic compounds in sea buckthorn leaves.

    PubMed

    Heinäaho, Merja; Pusenius, Jyrki; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta

    2006-10-04

    The effects of different cultivation methods on the amount of phenolic compounds in leaves of 1-year-old seedlings of two Finnish sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L. ssp. rhamnoides) cultivars 'Terhi' and 'Tytti' were studied in a field experiment established at coastal area in Merikarvia, western Finland. The cultivation methods included different fertilizers (suitable for organic cultivation), mulches (organic and plastic), and land contours (flat vs low hill surface). Two experiments were conducted. The first allowed the estimation of the effects of cultivar, fertilizer, surface contour, and all their interactions, while the other allowed the estimation of the effects of mulches, land contours, and their interactions for the cultivar 'Tytti'. Eleven different hydrolyzable tannins, pentagalloylglucose, and 14 other phenolic compounds were detected by chemical analysis with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The amount of phenolic compounds varied between different land contours and mulches. The concentrations of gallic acid, pentagalloylglucose, quercetin-3-rhamnoside, monocoumaroyl astragalin A, total hydrolyzable tannins, and condensed tannins were significantly higher on the flat surface than on the low hill surface. The plastic mulch decreased the concentration of gallic acid, hydrolyzable tannins, and condensed tannins compared to the other mulches used. These results suggest ways to cultivate sea buckthorn to produce large amounts of valuable chemicals, especially tannins in the leaves.

  18. Plant-parasitic Nematodes Associated with Cherry Rootstocks in Michigan.

    PubMed

    Melakeberhan, H; Bird, G W; Perry, R

    1994-12-01

    In two field trials, 10-year-old sweet and tart cherry rooted on 'Mazzard', 'Mahaleb', 'MXM 2', 'MXM 14', 'MXM 39', 'MXM 60', 'MXM 97', and 'Colt' showed 10-203 Pratylenchus penetrans per g fresh root from all tart rootstocks, and up to 46 Pratylenchus, Criconemella, and Xiphinema spp. per 100 cm(3) soil. Infestation of soil containing 1-year-old Mazzard, Mahaleb, MXM 60, 'GI148-1', and 'G1148-8' with 625/100 cm(3) soil of either P. penetrans or C. xenoplax resulting in final nematode population densities of 123-486 and 451-2,496/g fresh root plus 100 cm(3) soil, respectively, and had little effect on plant height or dry weight after 157 days in a greenhouse. Population densities of neither nematode differed among the five rootstocks. In a second greenhouse experiment, soil containing the same rootstocks was infested with P. penetrans (1,250/100 cm(3) soil), maintained for 8 months in a greenhouse, 4 months in a cold room (2-4 C), and 3 additional months in a greenhouse. The number of P. penetrans recovered at the end of 475 days was approximately 10% of those recovered in the first experiment, probably due to the cold treatment. The ability of P. penetrans and C. xenoplax to infect the cherry rootstocks may be of concern in cherry management programs.

  19. [Measles and pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Anselem, Olivia; Tsatsaris, Vassilis; Lopez, Emmanuel; Krivine, Anne; Le Ray, Camille; Loulergue, Pierre; Floret, Daniel; Goffinet, Francois; Launay, Odile

    2011-11-01

    Because of insufficient vaccine coverage, there is an outbreak of measles since 2008 in France with an increasing incidence of cases, most of them among children less than 1 year old or young adults. When measles occurs during pregnancy, maternal and fetal morbidity is increased. Particularly pregnant women are exposed to a higher risk of severe respiratory distress that might cause death. Measles virus can be detected in the placenta. Placental infection appears to be involved in some cases of fetal death. The virus is not responsible for congenital defects but can induce histologic damages inside the placenta which may lead to fetal death. Major perinatal risks are also miscarriage and prematurity. When measles occurs in late pregnancy, congenital infection is possible with variable expression and a risk of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. Non immune pregnant women or neonates exposed to measles should receive an immunoglobulin prophylaxis within 6 days after contact in order to reduce the risk of infection and severe morbidity. In case of declared measles infection, symptomatic treatment can be proposed and tocolysis can be used if preterm labor is associated. Daily fetal monitoring during the 14 days following the beginning of the eruption can be offered when the fetus is viable. Vaccination is recommended for the people born in France after 1980 with 2 doses of vaccine against measles, rubeola and mumps. Measles vaccine, an attenuated living vaccine, should not be administered during pregnancy but must be proposed before pregnancy or during the post-partum period.

  20. A nationwide study of asthma incidence rate and its determinants in Swedish pre-school children.

    PubMed

    Bröms, Kristina; Norbäck, Dan; Sundelin, Claes; Eriksson, Margaretha; Svärdsudd, Kurt

    2012-09-01

    While many studies on asthma prevalence have been published, the number of studies on asthma incidence in pre-school children is limited. In this project, a nationwide sample of pre-school children was followed with the aim of estimating cumulative 5-year asthma incidence and its determinants. Parents of 5,886 children 1-6 years of age, sampled from day-care centres in 62 municipalities all over Sweden, responded in 2002 to a baseline postal questionnaire with questions regarding symptoms indicating possible asthma or atopic conditions, and a number of other variables. In 2007, parents of 4,255 children responded to an almost identical follow-up questionnaire. Of these, the 3,715 children who were free from asthma at baseline constitute the study population for this report. A large number of potential baseline determinants for cumulative 5-year asthma incidence were identified. Of these, food allergy, rhinitis, incomplete asthma diagnosis criteria (wheezing last 12 months, and ever had asthma but no current symptoms), parental rhinitis, parental asthma, age, and eczema, in ranking order of importance, remained significant in multivariate logistic regression analysis. The asthma incidence rate was highly dependent on presence or absence of these variables, the average annual rate ranging from 2/1,000/year in 6-year-olds with no determinants to 154/1,000/year in 1-year-olds with all determinants, corresponding to 11/1,000/year based on the whole study population.

  1. Identification of X Monosomy Cells From a Gonad of Mixed Gonadal Dysgenesis With a 46,XY Karyotype

    PubMed Central

    Nishina-Uchida, Noriko; Fukuzawa, Ryuji; Hasegawa, Yukihiro; Morison, Ian M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Mixed gonadal dysgenesis (MGD) is a disorder of sexual development that typically has a mosaic 45,X/46,XY karyotype. A 1-year-old infant with 46,XY identified by peripheral blood karyotype demonstrated clinical manifestations and gonadal pathologic features of MGD. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for X and Y chromosomes and immunofluorescence for SRY along with testicular and ovarian lineage markers SOX9 and FOXL2, respectively, were performed on paraffin sections from the gonad to ascertain the somatic mosaic state for 45,X monosomy and 46,XY cells. The gonad consisted of cells with X and XY signals, which were further quantified in comparison with a normal control testis by a digital image analysis program. The average percentages of 45,X cells of this patient's gonad and a control testis were 39.0% and 5.7%, respectively (χ2 test, P < 0.001). SRY expression was absent in approximately 10% of precursor granulosa cells (FOXL2 positive) and precursor Sertoli/granulosa cells (both SOX9 and FOXL2 positive) within gonadoblastomas, confirming the involvement of 45,X cells. A combination of analysis of FISH and immunofluorescence for SRY in the gonadal tissue could identify 45,X cells in MGD with 46,XY. PMID:25860218

  2. Comparison of Infant Car Seat grip orientations and lift strategies.

    PubMed

    Clamann, Michael; Zhu, Biwen; Beaver, Leah; Taylor, Kinley; Kaber, David

    2012-07-01

    The rear-facing Infant Car Seat (ICS) is designed to meet federal requirements for transporting children less than 1 year old. Typical use includes transfer in and out of a vehicle, which is shown to be a difficult lift. Despite the frequency of this lift, manufacturers provide little guidance for users. Review of relevant literature suggested an ICS featuring an angled handle, promoting a neutral wrist posture, would increase grip stability and decrease lifting effort. Popular press suggested a foot-in-car stance for the ICS lift would do the same. An experiment was conducted in which wrist deviations from neutral posture were recorded along with lifting muscle activation levels (multiple flexor muscles and biceps brachii) and overall perceived exertion for straight versus a new bent handle design and conventional stance versus foot-in-car. Foot position was examined to test the recommendations in the popular press. Surprisingly, wrist deviation was not significantly affected by the new bent handle design (due to compensatory behavior with the straight handle) but was related to foot placement (p=0.04). Results revealed the bent handle to significantly reduce flexor activation compared with the straight handle (p=0.0003); however, the level of biceps activation increased. Biceps activation also significantly increased for foot-in-car stance (p=0.035) but not flexor activation. In general, the bent handle enabled the user to lift the ICS with a steadier grip and less effort.

  3. Goal Attribution toward Non-Human Objects during Infancy Predicts Imaginary Companion Status during Preschool Years

    PubMed Central

    Moriguchi, Yusuke; Kanakogi, Yasuhiro; Todo, Naoya; Okumura, Yuko; Shinohara, Ikuko; Itakura, Shoji

    2016-01-01

    It has been shown that there is a significant relationship between children's mentalizing skills and creation of an imaginary companion (IC). Theorists have proposed that interaction with an IC may improve mentalizing skills, but it is also possible that children's mentalizing skills affect their creation of an IC. In this longitudinal study, we examined whether goal attribution in infants younger than 1 years old (Time 1) predicted their creation of ICs at 48 months old (Time 2). At Time 1, infants' goal attribution was measured in an action prediction experiment, where infants anticipated three types of action goals: (1) another person's goal-directed action (GH condition); (2) another person's non-goal-directed (BH condition); and (3) a mechanical claw's goal-directed action (MC condition). At Time 2, parents completed questionnaires assessing whether their children had ICs. The path analyses using Bayesian estimation revealed that infants' anticipation in the MC condition, but not in the GH and BH conditions, predicted their later IC status. These results indicate that infants' goal attributions to non-human agents may be a strong predictor of their later IC creation. Early mentalizing skills toward non-human objects may provide children with a basis for their engagement in imaginative play. PMID:26941682

  4. Diarrhoea prevention in Bolivia through point-of-use water treatment and safe storage: a promising new strategy.

    PubMed Central

    Quick, R. E.; Venczel, L. V.; Mintz, E. D.; Soleto, L.; Aparicio, J.; Gironaz, M.; Hutwagner, L.; Greene, K.; Bopp, C.; Maloney, K.; Chavez, D.; Sobsey, M.; Tauxe, R. V.

    1999-01-01

    A novel water quality intervention that consists of point-of-use water disinfection, safe storage and community education was field tested in Bolivia. A total of 127 households in two periurban communities were randomized into intervention and control groups, surveyed and the intervention was distributed. Monthly water quality testing and weekly diarrhoea surveillance were conducted. Over a 5-month period, intervention households had 44% fewer diarrhoea episodes than control households (P = 0.002). Infants < 1 year old (P = 0.05) and children 5-14 years old (P = 0.01) in intervention households had significantly less diarrhoea than control children. Campylobacter was less commonly isolated from intervention than control patients (P = 0.02). Stored water in intervention households was less contaminated with Escherichia coli than stored water in control households (P < 0.0001). Intervention households exhibited less E. coli contamination of stored water and less diarrhoea than control households. This promising new strategy may have broad applicability for waterborne disease prevention. PMID:10098789

  5. Microbial diversities (16S and 18S rRNA gene pyrosequencing) and environmental pathogens within drinking water biofilms grown on the common premise plumbing materials unplasticized polyvinylchloride and copper.

    PubMed

    Buse, Helen Y; Lu, Jingrang; Lu, Xinxin; Mou, Xiaozhen; Ashbolt, Nicholas J

    2014-05-01

    Drinking water (DW) biofilm communities influence the survival of opportunistic pathogens, yet knowledge about the microbial composition of DW biofilms developed on common in-premise plumbing material is limited. Utilizing 16S and 18S rRNA gene pyrosequencing, this study characterized the microbial community structure within DW biofilms established on unplasticized polyvinyl chloride (uPVC) and copper (Cu) surfaces and the impact of introducing Legionella pneumophila (Lp) and Acanthamoeba polyphaga. Mature (> 1 year old) biofilms were developed before inoculation with sterilized DW (control, Con), Lp, or Lp and A. polyphaga (LpAp). Comparison of uPVC and Cu biofilms indicated significant differences between bacterial (P = 0.001) and eukaryotic (P < 0.01) members attributable to the unique presence of several family taxa: Burkholderiaceae, Characeae, Epistylidae, Goniomonadaceae, Paramoebidae, Plasmodiophoridae, Plectidae, Sphenomonadidae, and Toxariaceae within uPVC biofilms; and Enterobacteriaceae, Erythrobacteraceae, Methylophilaceae, Acanthamoebidae, and Chlamydomonadaceae within Cu biofilms. Introduction of Lp alone or with A. polyphaga had no effect on bacterial community profiles (P > 0.05) but did affect eukaryotic members (uPVC, P < 0.01; Cu, P = 0.001). Thus, established DW biofilms host complex communities that may vary based on substratum matrix and maintain consistent bacterial communities despite introduction of Lp, an environmental pathogen.

  6. Contractile activity of circular smooth muscle in rats one year after small bowel transplantation: differing adaptive response of the jejunum and ileum to denervation.

    PubMed

    Shibata, C; Murr, M M; Balsiger, B; Anding, W J; Sarr, M G

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the long-term effects of isogeneic small bowel transplantation (SBT) on jejunal and ileal circular smooth muscle contractile activity in the rat. Transmural strips of circular muscle were prepared from proximal jejunum and distal ileum of 1-year-old control rats and rats 1 year after SBT (SBT-1Y) to measure isometric force. Spontaneous contractile activity and the dose-responses to bethanechol and norepinephrine were studied. Electrical field stimulation (EFS) at varying frequencies (1 to 20 Hz) was evaluated under adrenergic and cholinergic blockade to investigate inhibitory nerves. Spontaneous activity both in the jejunum and ileum in SBT-1Y rats was not different compared to control rats. Sensitivity to bethanechol did not differ between control and SBT-1Y rats in the jejunum or ileum. Sensitivity to norepinephrine, however, was significantly increased after SBT in the ileum but not in the jejunum. During EFS, inhibition was seen at low frequencies, and contractions were induced at high frequencies in all groups. The degree of inhibition did not differ between control and SBT-1Y rats in the jejunum; however, it tended to be increased in the ileum after SBT. The long-term adaptive response of smooth muscle to the extrinsic denervation accompanying SBT differs between the jejunum and the ileum.

  7. Fire ignition during laser surgery in pet rodents

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Laser surgery is an attractive alternative to other means of section device in terms of tissue inflammation and interaction, which has been extensively used in human and veterinary medicine. Although accidental ignition during laser surgeries is sporadically reported in human medical literature, to the authors’ knowledge this is the first report regarding laser-dependent fire ignition during surgery in veterinary medicine. Case presentation Two rodents, a 13-month old, 27-gram, male pet mouse (Mus musculus) and a 1-year old, female Russian hamster (Phodopus sungorus), underwent surgical removal of masses with diode laser. During the surgical procedures fires ignited from the face masks. The mouse presented severe burns on the head and both forelimbs, it was hospitalized and approximately 2 months after surgery burns were resolved. The hamster presented severe burns on the face and the proximal regions of the body. At 72 hours from the accident the hamster was euthanized. Conclusion The present report suggests that fire ignition is a potential life-threatening complication of laser surgery in non-intubated rodents maintained under volatile anesthesia. High oxygen concentrations, the presence of combustible, and the narrowness of the surgical field with the face mask during laser surgery on rodents are risk factors for fire ignition. PMID:23009047

  8. A Study of the Relationship Between Freshwater Runoff and Benthos Abundance: a Scale-oriented Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardisson, P.-L.; Bourget, E.

    1997-10-01

    In some coastal environments, freshwater runoff is one of the main potential sources of auxiliary energy. Little is known, however, about the mechanisms by which this energy input influences biological production, particularly at intermediate and high trophic levels. Moreover, the evidence available does not allow to link runoff variability one unambiguously to the dynamics of marine fauna. Here, an empirical approach based on exploratory data analysis is used to test for a link between these components of the ecosystem. Linear regression and correlation models were used to examine the relationship between runoff and abundance, biomass and mean weight per individual of juvenile populations (<1 year old) of five dominant epibenthic species sampled on suspended collectors (i.e. Obelia longissima, Hiatella arctica, Mytilus edulis, Semibalanus balanoidesand Balanus crenatus), over a 10-year period. The study was carried out in a large coastal ecosystem, the Estuary and north-western Gulf of St. Lawrence, for both regulated and non-regulated runoff situations. Notwithstanding the regression or correlation model, the spatial scale, the runoff signal, the runoff index, the species or the biological descriptor used, no significant relationships were observed. Results are discussed in light of current hypotheses proposed to account for the effects of runoff on marine fauna.

  9. Potential impact of climate variability on respiratory diseases in infant and children in Semarang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budiyono; Rismawati; Jati, S. P.; Ginandjar, P.

    2017-02-01

    Temperature, humidity, and rainfall may influence respiratory disease, including acute respiratory infection (ARI) and pneumonia. In Semarang, the temperature and humidity has increased 0.1°C and 1.6% respectively during 2002-2011. ARI and pneumonia in children under 5 years had increased during 2012-2014. This study aimed to analyze the relationship of climate variability and ARI and pneumonia incidence. It was an ecological study. Subject consisted of patients visited primary health care of Bandarharjo from 2011 to 2015. Pneumonia was related to infants (<1-year-old) and children (1-4 years old), while ARI was related to children (≥5 years old). Data of climate was obtained from Agency for Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics (BMKG) Semarang. Pearson correlation (α=0.05) was used to analyse the correlation of the 60 samples. Mean of temperature was 27.96° C, relative humidity was 74.73%, and rainfall was 179.98 mm/month. The total of ARI was 38523 cases and pneumonia was 1558 cases. Temperature, humidity, and rainfall had no correlation to pneumonia. Humidity had a significant correlation to ARI on female children and total ARI (r=0.3 and r=0.26; p–value=0.02 and 0.04 respectively). Rainfall and temperature had no correlation to total ARI. This study concluded humidity has potential impact to ARI.

  10. The acceptability and feasibility of the Baby Triple P Positive Parenting Programme on a mother and baby unit: Q-methodology with mothers with severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    Butler, Hannah; Hare, Dougal; Walker, Samantha; Wieck, Angelika; Wittkowski, Anja

    2014-10-01

    New mothers with severe mental illness (SMI) frequently experience significant difficulties in caring for their babies. There are no structured, evidence-based interventions that guide health professionals to help these women improve early parenting. The extensively researched and effective Triple P Positive Parenting Programme has recently been expanded to families with children less than 1 year old, which provides an opportunity to develop the intervention for women with severe postnatal mental illness. This study explored the views of mothers with SMI about the acceptability and feasibility of Baby Triple P (Baby TP) in the setting of a psychiatric Mother and Baby Unit (MBU). An 88-item Q-sort was conducted with a purposive sample of 15 mothers using Q-methodology. Three main factors were identified: 'what we need', 'what we want' and 'we can do it'. A consensus was noted with general agreement about the benefits of Baby TP, and suitability of the MBU environment to accommodate Baby TP. Baby TP was viewed as an acceptable and feasible parenting intervention and deemed positive and non-stigmatising. Mothers requested more staff awareness and knowledge about the programme so that they were supported in learning and generalising skills.

  11. Vertigo in childhood: proposal for a diagnostic algorithm based upon clinical experience.

    PubMed

    Casani, A P; Dallan, I; Navari, E; Sellari Franceschini, S; Cerchiai, N

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse, after clinical experience with a series of patients with established diagnoses and review of the literature, all relevant anamnestic features in order to build a simple diagnostic algorithm for vertigo in childhood. This study is a retrospective chart review. A series of 37 children underwent complete clinical and instrumental vestibular examination. Only neurological disorders or genetic diseases represented exclusion criteria. All diagnoses were reviewed after applying the most recent diagnostic guidelines. In our experience, the most common aetiology for dizziness is vestibular migraine (38%), followed by acute labyrinthitis/neuritis (16%) and somatoform vertigo (16%). Benign paroxysmal vertigo was diagnosed in 4 patients (11%) and paroxysmal torticollis was diagnosed in a 1-year-old child. In 8% (3 patients) of cases, the dizziness had a post-traumatic origin: 1 canalolithiasis of the posterior semicircular canal and 2 labyrinthine concussions, respectively. Menière's disease was diagnosed in 2 cases. A bilateral vestibular failure of unknown origin caused chronic dizziness in 1 patient. In conclusion, this algorithm could represent a good tool for guiding clinical suspicion to correct diagnostic assessment in dizzy children where no neurological findings are detectable. The algorithm has just a few simple steps, based mainly on two aspects to be investigated early: temporal features of vertigo and presence of hearing impairment. A different algorithm has been proposed for cases in which a traumatic origin is suspected.

  12. Camera-Based, Non-Contact, Vital-Signs Monitoring Technology May Provide a Way for the Early Prevention of SIDS in Infants

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Fang; Li, Meng; Jiang, Zhongyi; Tsien, Joe Z.; Lu, Zhaohui

    2016-01-01

    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the unexplained death, usually during sleep, of a baby younger than 1-year-old. Even though researchers have discovered some factors that may put babies at extra risk, SIDS remains unpredictable up until now. One hypothesis is that impaired cardiovascular control may play a role in the underlying mechanism of SIDS. A reduction of heart rate variability (HRV) and progressive decrease in heart rate (HR) have been observed in infants who have later succumbed to SIDS. Many clues indicated the heart could be the final weakness in SIDS. Therefore, continuous monitoring of the dynamic changes within the heart may provide a possible preventive strategy of SIDS. Camera-based photoplethysmography was recently demonstrated as a contactless method to determine HR and HRV. This perspective presents a hypothesis that a camera-based, non-contact, vital-sign monitoring technology, which can indicate abnormal changes or a sudden loss of vital signs in a timely manner, may enable a crucial and low-cost means for the early prevention of SIDS in newborn infants. PMID:28066320

  13. Physiological and foliar injury responses of Prunus serotina, Fraxinus americana, and Acer rubrum seedlings to varying soil moisture and ozone.

    PubMed

    Schaub, M; Skelly, J M; Steiner, K C; Davis, D D; Pennypacker, S P; Zhang, J; Ferdinand, J A; Savage, J E; Stevenson, R E

    2003-01-01

    Sixteen black cherry (Prunus serotina, Ehrh.), 10 white ash (Fraxinus americana, L.) and 10 red maple (Acer rubrum, L.) 1-year old seedlings were planted per plot in 1997 on a former nursery bed within 12 open-top chambers and six open plots. Seedlings were exposed to three different ozone scenarios (ambient air: 100% O3; non-filtered air: 98% ambient O3; charcoal-filtered air: 50% ambient O3) within each of two different water regimes (nine plots irrigated, nine plots non-irrigated) during three growing seasons. During the 1998 and 1999 growing season, leaf gas exchange, plant water relations, and foliar injury were measured. Climatic data,ambient- and chamber-ozone-concentrations were monitored. We found that seedlings grown under irrigated conditions had similar (in 1998) but significantly higher gas exchange rates (in 1999) than seedlings grown within non-irrigated plots among similar ozone exposures. Cherry and ash had similar ozone uptake but cherry developed more ozone-induced injury (< 34% affected leaf area, LAA) than ash (<5% LAA), while maple rarely showed foliar injury, indicating the species differed in ozone sensitivity. Significantly more severe injury on seedlings grown under irrigated conditions than seedlings grown under non-irrigated conditions demonstrated that soil moisture altered seedling responses to ambient ozone exposures.

  14. The Congenital Heart Disease Genetic Network Study: rationale, design, and early results.

    PubMed

    Gelb, Bruce; Brueckner, Martina; Chung, Wendy; Goldmuntz, Elizabeth; Kaltman, Jonathan; Kaski, Juan Pablo; Kim, Richard; Kline, Jennie; Mercer-Rosa, Laura; Porter, George; Roberts, Amy; Rosenberg, Ellen; Seiden, Howard; Seidman, Christine; Sleeper, Lynn; Tennstedt, Sharon; Kaltman, Jonathan; Schramm, Charlene; Burns, Kristin; Pearson, Gail; Rosenberg, Ellen

    2013-02-15

    Congenital heart defects (CHD) are the leading cause of infant mortality among birth defects, and later morbidities and premature mortality remain problematic. Although genetic factors contribute significantly to cause CHD, specific genetic lesions are unknown for most patients. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-funded Pediatric Cardiac Genomics Consortium established the Congenital Heart Disease Genetic Network Study to investigate relationships between genetic factors, clinical features, and outcomes in CHD. The Pediatric Cardiac Genomics Consortium comprises 6 main and 4 satellite sites at which subjects are recruited, and medical data and biospecimens (blood, saliva, cardiovascular tissue) are collected. Core infrastructure includes an administrative/data-coordinating center, biorepository, data hub, and core laboratories (genotyping, whole-exome sequencing, candidate gene evaluation, and variant confirmation). Eligibility includes all forms of CHD. Annual follow-up is obtained for probands <1-year-old. Parents are enrolled whenever available. Enrollment from December 2010 to June 2012 comprised 3772 probands. One or both parents were enrolled for 72% of probands. Proband median age is 5.5 years. The one third enrolled at age <1 year are contacted annually for follow-up information. The distribution of CHD favors more complex lesions. Approximately, 11% of probands have a genetic diagnosis. Adequate DNA is available from 97% and 91% of blood and saliva samples, respectively. Genomic analyses of probands with heterotaxy, atrial septal defects, conotruncal, and left ventricular outflow tract obstructive lesions are underway. The scientific community's use of Pediatric Cardiac Genomics Consortium resources is welcome.

  15. Support for selection of a methamphetamine cleanup standard in Colorado.

    PubMed

    Hammon, Tracy L; Griffin, Susan

    2007-06-01

    Methamphetamine production for illicit use occurs in makeshift labs and is associated with the release of numerous chemicals, including methamphetamine residues. These methamphetamine residues may pose a health risk to residents who reoccupy these structures after property seizures. Several states have established technology-based cleanup standards for methamphetamine, but none have examined the health-protectiveness of these standards. In response to Colorado House Bill 04-1182, exposure intakes correlated with three technology-based standards were calculated for various groups of individuals. Intakes were assessed for a 1-year-old infant, 6-year-old child, and a female of childbearing age. Exposure intakes were compared to toxicity reference values developed from developmental endpoints following methamphetamine exposure from the available literature. Uncertainty factors were applied to the lowest adverse effect levels observed in these studies to arrive at the toxicity reference values. These reference values were greater than the calculated intakes from each proposed technology standard, suggesting that all of the proposed standards would be protective of human health exposure. The cost and practicality of attaining each of the proposed standards was also factored into the decision making process. In their final regulation (6 CCR 1014-3), the CDPHE selected 0.5 microg/100 cm(2) as the final cleanup standard for methamphetamine residues.

  16. Brain responses to cardiac electrical stimulation: a new EEG method for evaluating cardiac sensation.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hideaki; Hirose, Masanori; Watanabe, Satoshi; Fukuda, Koji; Fukudo, Shin; Shimokawa, Hiroaki

    2012-01-01

    Although cardiac sensation, such as palpitation or chest pain, is common and is sometimes a malignant sign of heart diseases, the mechanism by which the human brain responds to afferent signals from the heart remains unclear. In this study, we investigated whether electrical stimulation of the heart provokes brain responses in humans. We examined 15 patients (age: 65.4 ± 3.1 years old, 11 males and 4 females) implanted with either a cardiac pacemaker or cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) device. Electroencephalogram (EEG) was simultaneously recorded from the vertex during right ventricular pacing at 70-100 beats/min at baseline (1.5 V) and intense (6-8 V) stimulation sessions. We evaluated brain responses to cardiac electrical stimulation by measuring cerebral potentials that were obtained by subtracting the average of 100 EEG waves triggered by cardiac pacing during baseline stimulation from those during the intense stimulation. Intense stimulation of the cardiac pacemaker or CRT device reproducibly induced cardiac sensation in 6 out of the 15 patients; namely, the remaining 9 patients showed no reproducible response. Brain responses were evident by averaging cerebral potentials from all of the 15 patients and those from 6 patients with reproducible cardiac sensation. To the best our knowledge, this is the first report that demonstrates the brain responses to cardiac electrical stimulation in humans. This new method should be useful for examining pathophysiology of cardiac diseases with pathological cardiac sensation, including cardiac anxiety and silent myocardial ischemia.

  17. Asymptomatic Mesenchymal Hamartoma of the Chest Wall in Child With Fluorodeoxyglucose Uptake on PET/CT-Report of a Case.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Kentaro; Tani, Yukiko; Yamaguchi, Takeshi; Ogino, Kei; Tsuchioka, Takashi; Nakajima, Masanobu; Yamaguchi, Satoru; Sasaki, Kinro; Kato, Hiroyuki; Ohya, Toshiki

    2015-05-01

    We had experience with a case of mesenchymal hamartoma of the chest wall (MHCW) with fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake on positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). We reported the first case of asymptomatic MHCW in a child with preoperative PET/CT. Mesenchymal hamartoma of the chest wall is a rare benign tumor that usually presents as a visible chest wall mass or respiratory problems secondary to compression of the lung in early infancy. It is often reported that malignant transformation is extraordinarily rare. Positron emission tomography/CT is useful for diagnosis of malignancy. There is no report of MHCW in a child with preoperative PET/CT before. We examined an asymptomatic 1-year-old girl with an incidental finding on a chest x-ray. Scans of CT and PET/CT were performed before surgical resection. After surgery, the resected tumor was examined histologically. Chest x-ray and CT scan of the chest confirmed a 25- × 20-mm round shaped intrapleural mass containing calcification and destructing the rib, arising from the third rib. Scan of PET/CT demonstrated the mass with light FDG accumulation. Histologically, the mass was homogenous, with thick funicular of hyaline cartilage interdigitating with scattered fiber. There were no malignant cells. No malignant MHCW was demonstrated in the mass, with light FDG accumulation by PET/CT. PET/CT might be a useful tool to distinguish malignant MHCW in children.

  18. Outpatient treated burns in infants younger than 1 year in Helsinki during 2005-2009.

    PubMed

    Laitakari, Elina; Koljonen, Virve; Pyörälä, Sari; Rintala, Risto

    2014-05-01

    In general, voluminous data exists concerning burns in children, but the data focusing specially on children less than 1 year of age is sporadic. We therefore focused on examining the special features of burns in children less than 1 year of age. A retrospective study of all outpatient treated burn patients <1 year old at the Hospital for Children and Adolescents, Helsinki, Finland, from January 2005 to December 2009 was performed. During the 5-year period we identified 106 outpatient treated infants with burns, representing 15% of all pediatric burns during the study period. The majority was male and aged 9-12 months. Most of the burns occurred at home, and in most cases a caregiver was present in the injury room. Scalds were the most common type of injury followed by contact burns. The most common source of scald was from cups containing hot drink, and the most common source of contact burn was hot stoves or oven doors. Special attention needs to be targeted toward the prevention of burns in children less than 1 year of age. The majority of the injuries could have been prevented with more vigilance.

  19. Scanning Electron Microscopy of the Endometrium of Mares Infused with Gentamicin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Bagdadi, F. K.; Eilts, B. E.; Richardson, G. F.

    2004-04-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to study the endometrium of nine 1-year-old thoroughbred mares after twice intrauterine infusions of gentamicin, on 2 consecutive days. Five mares were infused on 2 consecutive days with 40 ml gentamicin (50 mg/ml) mixed with 80 ml of normal saline. Four mares served as controls and were infused with 120 ml of saline on 2 consecutive days. Endometrial biopsies were obtained from all mares 3 days after the second intrauterine infusion. Each biopsy was processed for SEM by standard methods. The endometrial epithelium of the gentamicin-infused mares had more cellular perforations than the saline-infused mares. The gentamicin-infused mares had less and shorter microvilli. The ciliated cells were fewer and some ciliated cells had disrupted and some had drooping cilia. The endometrial epithelium of the gentamicin-infused mares had a considerable number of endometrial cells that lost their luminal surfaces and some that lost their microvilli, compared to the saline-infused mares. We suggest that the information gathered in this pilot study should be used as basis for further investigation, on a larger scale basis, of the effects of repeated intrauterine infusion of gentamicin on the endometrial mucosa of mares.

  20. Transgenic overexpression of ADAM12 suppresses muscle regeneration and aggravates dystrophy in aged mdx mice.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Louise Helskov; Jensen, Charlotte Harken; Wewer, Ulla M; Schrøder, Henrik Daa

    2007-11-01

    Muscular dystrophies are characterized by insufficient restoration and gradual replacement of the skeletal muscle by fat and connective tissue. ADAM12 has previously been shown to alleviate the pathology of young dystrophin-deficient mdx mice, a model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy. The observed effect of ADAM12 was suggested to be mediated via a membrane-stabilizing up-regulation of utrophin, alpha7B integrin, and dystroglycans. Ectopic ADAM12 expression in normal mouse skeletal muscle also improved regeneration after freeze injury, presumably by the same mechanism. Hence, it was suggested that ADAM12 could be a candidate for nonreplacement gene therapy of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. We therefore evaluated the long-term effect of ADAM12 overexpression in muscle. Surprisingly, we observed loss of skeletal muscle and accelerated fibrosis and adipogenesis in 1-year-old mdx mice transgenically overexpressing ADAM12 (ADAM12(+)/mdx mice), even though their utrophin levels were mildly elevated compared with age-matched controls. Thus, membrane stabilization was not sufficient to provide protection during prolonged disease. Consequently, we reinvestigated skeletal muscle regeneration in ADAM12 transgenic mice (ADAM12(+)) after a knife cut lesion and observed that the regeneration process was significantly impaired. ADAM12 seemed to inhibit the satellite cell response and delay myoblast differentiation. These results discourage long-term therapeutic use of ADAM12. They also point to impaired regeneration as a possible factor in development of muscular dystrophy.

  1. The Physiologic Development of Speech Motor Control: Lip and Jaw Coordination

    PubMed Central

    Green, Jordan R.; Moore, Christopher A.; Higashikawa, Masahiko; Steeve, Roger W.

    2010-01-01

    This investigation was designed to describe the development of lip and jaw coordination during speech and to evaluate the potential influence of speech motor development on phonologic development. Productions of syllables containing bilabial consonants were observed from speakers in four age groups (i.e., 1-year-olds, 2-year-olds, 6-year-olds, and young adults). A video-based movement tracking system was used to transduce movement of the upper lip, lower lip, and jaw. The coordinative organization of these articulatory gestures was shown to change dramatically during the first several years of life and to continue to undergo refinement past age 6. The present results are consistent with three primary phases in the development of lip and jaw coordination for speech: integration, differentiation, and refinement. Each of these developmental processes entails the existence of distinct coordinative constraints on early articulatory movement. It is suggested that these constraints will have predictable consequences for the sequence of phonologic development. PMID:10668666

  2. Genome-Wide Transcriptional Profile Analysis of Prunus persica in Response to Low Sink Demand after Fruit Removal.

    PubMed

    Duan, Wei; Xu, Hongguo; Liu, Guotian; Fan, Peige; Liang, Zhenchang; Li, Shaohua

    2016-01-01

    Prunus persica fruits were removed from 1-year-old shoots to analysis photosynthesis, chlorophyll fluorescence and genes changes in leaves to low sink demand caused by fruit removal (-fruit) during the final stage of rapid fruit growth. A decline in net photosynthesis rate was observed, accompanied with a decrease in stomatal conductance. The intercellular CO2 concentrations and leaf temperature increased as compared with a normal fruit load (+fruit). Moreover, low sink demand significantly inhibited the donor side and the reaction center of photosystem II. 382 genes in leaf with an absolute fold change ≥1 change in expression level, representing 116 up- and 266 down-regulated genes except for unknown transcripts. Among these, 25 genes for photosynthesis were down-regulated, 69 stress and 19 redox related genes up-regulated under the low sink demand. These studies revealed high leaf temperature may result in a decline of net photosynthesis rate through down-regulation in photosynthetic related genes and up-regulation in redox and stress related genes, especially heat shock proteins genes. The complex changes in genes at the transcriptional level under low sink demand provided useful starting points for in-depth analyses of source-sink relationship in P. persica.

  3. Impact characteristics of female children running in adult versus youth shoes of the same size.

    PubMed

    Forrest, Dana; Dufek, Janet S; Mercer, John A

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if ground reaction forces were influenced by shoe design (adult vs. youth) for female children when running. Subjects (n = 10, 12.0 ± 1.1 years old; 154 ± 4.9 cm; 46.2 ± 14.3 kg; shoe size 3.5-7 youth) were fit with a shoe model available in youth and adult sizes. Subjects ran 10 trials per shoe condition across a force platform placed in the middle of a 9-m runway. Impact force, second maximum force, loading rate, stance time and average vertical ground reaction forces were recorded for each trial. Shoes underwent a mechanical impact test with peak force, peak acceleration, and percent energy returned recorded. Each variable was compared between shoe conditions. From the impact testing, it was determined that peak force, peak acceleration and percent energy return were 7.1%, 7.1%, and 18.9% greater, respectively, for the youth vs. adult shoe (p < .001). From the running tests, it was determined that loading rate was different (p = .009) between shoe conditions whereas impact force, second maximum force, average force and stance time were not different between shoes (p > .01). Young girls had a greater loading rate when running in youth vs. adult shoes even though the shoe size was the same.

  4. Language input and acquisition in a Mayan village: how important is directed speech?

    PubMed

    Shneidman, Laura A; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2012-09-01

    Theories of language acquisition have highlighted the importance of adult speakers as active participants in children's language learning. However, in many communities children are reported to be directly engaged by their caregivers only rarely (Lieven, 1994). This observation raises the possibility that these children learn language from observing, rather than participating in, communicative exchanges. In this paper, we quantify naturally occurring language input in one community where directed interaction with children has been reported to be rare (Yucatec Mayan). We compare this input to the input heard by children growing up in large families in the United States, and we consider how directed and overheard input relate to Mayan children's later vocabulary. In Study 1, we demonstrate that 1-year-old Mayan children do indeed hear a smaller proportion of total input in directed speech than children from the US. In Study 2, we show that for Mayan (but not US) children, there are great increases in the proportion of directed input that children receive between 13 and 35 months. In Study 3, we explore the validity of using videotaped data in a Mayan village. In Study 4, we demonstrate that word types directed to Mayan children from adults at 24 months (but not word types overheard by children or word types directed from other children) predict later vocabulary. These findings suggest that adult talk directed to children is important for early word learning, even in communities where much of children's early language input comes from overheard speech.

  5. Telomeres shorten and then lengthen before fledging in Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus)

    PubMed Central

    Cerchiara, Jack A.; Risques, Rosa Ana; Prunkard, Donna; Smith, Jeffrey R.; Kane, Olivia J.; Dee Boersma, P.

    2017-01-01

    For all species, finite metabolic resources must be allocated toward three competing systems: maintenance, reproduction, and growth. Telomeres, the nucleoprotein tips of chromosomes, which shorten with age in most species, are correlated with increased survival. Chick growth is energetically costly and is associated with telomere shortening in most species. To assess the change in telomeres in penguin chicks, we quantified change in telomere length of wild known-age Magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus) chicks every 15 days during the species’ growth period, from hatching to 60 days-of-age. Magellanic penguins continue to grow after fledging so we also sampled a set of 1-year-old juvenile penguins, and adults aged 5 years. Telomeres were significantly shorter on day 15 than on hatch day but returned to their initial length by 30 days old and remained at that length through 60 days of age. The length of telomeres of newly hatched chicks, chicks aged 30, 45 and 60 days, juveniles, and adults aged 5 years were similar. Chicks that fledged and those that died had similar telomere lengths. We show that while telomeres shorten during growth, Magellanic penguins elongate telomeres to their length at hatch, which may increase adult life span and reproductive opportunities. PMID:28186493

  6. Immune cell changes in response to a swimming training session during a 24-h recovery period.

    PubMed

    Morgado, José P; Monteiro, Cristina P; Teles, Júlia; Reis, Joana F; Matias, Catarina; Seixas, Maria T; Alvim, Marta G; Bourbon, Mafalda; Laires, Maria J; Alves, Francisco

    2016-05-01

    Understanding the impact of training sessions on the immune response is crucial for the adequate periodization of training, to prevent both a negative influence on health and a performance impairment of the athlete. This study evaluated acute systemic immune cell changes in response to an actual swimming session, during a 24-h recovery period, controlling for sex, menstrual cycle phases, maturity, and age group. Competitive swimmers (30 females, 15 ± 1.3 years old; and 35 males, 16.5 ± 2.1 years old) performed a high-intensity training session. Blood samples were collected before, immediately after, 2 h after, and 24 h after exercise. Standard procedures for the assessment of leukogram by automated counting (Coulter LH 750, Beckman) and lymphocytes subsets by flow cytometry (FACS Calibur BD, Biosciences) were used. Subjects were grouped according to competitive age groups and pubertal Tanner stages. Menstrual cycle phase was monitored. The training session induced neutrophilia, lymphopenia, and a low eosinophil count, lasting for at least 2 h, independent of sex and maturity. At 24 h postexercise, the acquired immunity of juniors (15-17 years old), expressed by total lymphocytes and total T lymphocytes (CD3(+)), was not fully recovered. This should be accounted for when planning a weekly training program. The observed lymphopenia suggests a lower immune surveillance at the end of the session that may depress the immunity of athletes, highlighting the need for extra care when athletes are exposed to aggressive environmental agents such as swimming pools.

  7. Juvenile Osprey Navigation during Trans-Oceanic Migration.

    PubMed

    Horton, Travis W; Bierregaard, Richard O; Zawar-Reza, Peyman; Holdaway, Richard N; Sagar, Paul

    2014-01-01

    To compensate for drift, an animal migrating through air or sea must be able to navigate. Although some species of bird, fish, insect, mammal, and reptile are capable of drift compensation, our understanding of the spatial reference frame, and associated coordinate space, in which these navigational behaviors occur remains limited. Using high resolution satellite-monitored GPS track data, we show that juvenile ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) are capable of non-stop constant course movements over open ocean spanning distances in excess of 1500 km despite the perturbing effects of winds and the lack of obvious landmarks. These results are best explained by extreme navigational precision in an exogenous spatio-temporal reference frame, such as positional orientation relative to Earth's magnetic field and pacing relative to an exogenous mechanism of keeping time. Given the age (<1 year-old) of these birds and knowledge of their hatching site locations, we were able to transform Enhanced Magnetic Model coordinate locations such that the origin of the magnetic coordinate space corresponded with each bird's nest. Our analyses show that trans-oceanic juvenile osprey movements are consistent with bicoordinate positional orientation in transformed magnetic coordinate or geographic space. Through integration of movement and meteorological data, we propose a new theoretical framework, chord and clock navigation, capable of explaining the precise spatial orientation and temporal pacing performed by juvenile ospreys during their long-distance migrations over open ocean.

  8. Unilateral absence of the right pulmonary artery with associated aortopulmonary collaterals and bullous lung lesions in a dog.

    PubMed

    Birch, S; Casamian-Sorrosal, D; Fonfara, S; Chanoit, G; Warren-Smith, C

    2016-12-01

    This case report describes a combination of congenital cardiopulmonary abnormalities found in a 1-year-old Labrador Retriever. To the authors' knowledge this combination of cardiopulmonary abnormalities has not been previously reported in veterinary medicine. Unilateral absence of the right pulmonary artery associated with unilateral right-sided aortopulmonary collaterals was observed. These aortopulmonary collaterals preserved the blood supply to the right lung lobes but led to left ventricular volume overload. There was also evidence of severe bullous lung disease in the right lung, which was suspected to be secondary to pulmonary sequestration as a result of the anomalous hemi-pulmonary circulation. The diagnosis of left-sided volume overload was achieved by radiography and echocardiography while the remainder of the findings was diagnosed on computed tomography angiography. The owner refused surgery for occlusion of the shunting vessels and therapy at standard doses of benazepril, spironolactone and pimobendan was initiated. In spite of the severe volume overload, the dog remained stable with static non-progressive clinical signs and stable echocardiographic findings at 1-year follow-up. The case report also acts as a reminder of the possible occurrence of unusual extra-cardiac shunts in the presence of an unexplained left ventricular volume overload.

  9. Accumulation of Peptidoglycan O-Acetylation Leads to Altered Cell Wall Biochemistry and Negatively Impacts Pathogenesis Factors of Campylobacter jejuni*

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Reuben; Frirdich, Emilisa; Sychantha, David; Biboy, Jacob; Taveirne, Michael E.; Johnson, Jeremiah G.; DiRita, Victor J.; Vollmer, Waldemar; Clarke, Anthony J.; Gaynor, Erin C.

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in the developed world. Despite its prevalence, its mechanisms of pathogenesis are poorly understood. Peptidoglycan (PG) is important for helical shape, colonization, and host-pathogen interactions in C. jejuni. Therefore, changes in PG greatly impact the physiology of this organism. O-acetylation of peptidoglycan (OAP) is a bacterial phenomenon proposed to be important for proper cell growth, characterized by acetylation of the C6 hydroxyl group of N-acetylmuramic acid in the PG glycan backbone. The OAP gene cluster consists of a PG O-acetyltransferase A (patA) for translocation of acetate into the periplasm, a PG O-acetyltransferase B (patB) for O-acetylation, and an O-acetylpeptidoglycan esterase (ape1) for de-O-acetylation. In this study, reduced OAP in ΔpatA and ΔpatB had minimal impact on C. jejuni growth and fitness under the conditions tested. However, accumulation of OAP in Δape1 resulted in marked differences in PG biochemistry, including O-acetylation, anhydromuropeptide levels, and changes not expected to result directly from Ape1 activity. This suggests that OAP may be a form of substrate level regulation in PG biosynthesis. Ape1 acetylesterase activity was confirmed in vitro using p-nitrophenyl acetate and O-acetylated PG as substrates. In addition, Δape1 exhibited defects in pathogenesis-associated phenotypes, including cell shape, motility, biofilm formation, cell surface hydrophobicity, and sodium deoxycholate sensitivity. Δape1 was also impaired for chick colonization and adhesion, invasion, intracellular survival, and induction of IL-8 production in INT407 cells in vitro. The importance of Ape1 in C. jejuni biology makes it a good candidate as an antimicrobial target. PMID:27474744

  10. Testing the Oxidative Stress Hypothesis of Aging in Primate Fibroblasts: Is There a Correlation Between Species Longevity and Cellular ROS Production?

    PubMed Central

    Csiszar, Anna; Podlutsky, Andrej; Podlutskaya, Natalia; Sonntag, William E.; Merlin, Steven Z.; Philipp, Eva E. R.; Doyle, Kristian; Davila, Antonio; Recchia, Fabio A.; Ballabh, Praveen; Pinto, John T.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted to test predictions of the oxidative stress theory of aging assessing reactive oxygen species production and oxidative stress resistance in cultured fibroblasts from 13 primate species ranging in body size from 0.25 to 120 kg and in longevity from 20 to 90 years. We assessed both basal and stress-induced reactive oxygen species production in fibroblasts from five great apes (human, chimpanzee, bonobo, gorilla, and orangutan), four Old World monkeys (baboon, rhesus and crested black macaques, and patas monkey), three New World monkeys (common marmoset, red-bellied tamarin, and woolly monkey), and one lemur (ring-tailed lemur). Measurements of cellular MitoSox fluorescence, an indicator of mitochondrial superoxide (O2·−) generation, showed an inverse correlation between longevity and steady state or metabolic stress–induced mitochondrial O2·− production, but this correlation was lost when the effects of body mass were removed, and the data were analyzed using phylogenetically independent contrasts. Fibroblasts from longer-lived primate species also exhibited superior resistance to H2O2-induced apoptotic cell death than cells from shorter-living primates. After correction for body mass and lack of phylogenetic independence, this correlation, although still discernible, fell short of significance by regression analysis. Thus, increased longevity in this sample of primates is not causally associated with low cellular reactive oxygen species generation, but further studies are warranted to test the association between increased cellular resistance to oxidative stressor and primate longevity. PMID:22219516

  11. Accumulation of Peptidoglycan O-Acetylation Leads to Altered Cell Wall Biochemistry and Negatively Impacts Pathogenesis Factors of Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Ha, Reuben; Frirdich, Emilisa; Sychantha, David; Biboy, Jacob; Taveirne, Michael E; Johnson, Jeremiah G; DiRita, Victor J; Vollmer, Waldemar; Clarke, Anthony J; Gaynor, Erin C

    2016-10-21

    Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in the developed world. Despite its prevalence, its mechanisms of pathogenesis are poorly understood. Peptidoglycan (PG) is important for helical shape, colonization, and host-pathogen interactions in C. jejuni Therefore, changes in PG greatly impact the physiology of this organism. O-acetylation of peptidoglycan (OAP) is a bacterial phenomenon proposed to be important for proper cell growth, characterized by acetylation of the C6 hydroxyl group of N-acetylmuramic acid in the PG glycan backbone. The OAP gene cluster consists of a PG O-acetyltransferase A (patA) for translocation of acetate into the periplasm, a PG O-acetyltransferase B (patB) for O-acetylation, and an O-acetylpeptidoglycan esterase (ape1) for de-O-acetylation. In this study, reduced OAP in ΔpatA and ΔpatB had minimal impact on C. jejuni growth and fitness under the conditions tested. However, accumulation of OAP in Δape1 resulted in marked differences in PG biochemistry, including O-acetylation, anhydromuropeptide levels, and changes not expected to result directly from Ape1 activity. This suggests that OAP may be a form of substrate level regulation in PG biosynthesis. Ape1 acetylesterase activity was confirmed in vitro using p-nitrophenyl acetate and O-acetylated PG as substrates. In addition, Δape1 exhibited defects in pathogenesis-associated phenotypes, including cell shape, motility, biofilm formation, cell surface hydrophobicity, and sodium deoxycholate sensitivity. Δape1 was also impaired for chick colonization and adhesion, invasion, intracellular survival, and induction of IL-8 production in INT407 cells in vitro The importance of Ape1 in C. jejuni biology makes it a good candidate as an antimicrobial target.

  12. On the calibration of the COBE/IRAS dust emission reddening maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutra, C. M.; Ahumada, A. V.; Clariá, J. J.; Bica, E.; Barbuy, B.

    2003-09-01

    In this work we study the spectral properties (3600-6800 Å) of the nuclear region of early-type galaxies at low (|b|<25deg), intermediate (including surroundings of the Magellanic Clouds) and high (South Polar Cap) Galactic latitudes. We determine the E(B-V) reddening values of the galaxies by matching their continuum distribution with respect to those of reddening-free spectral galaxy templates with similar stellar populations. We also compare the spectroscopic reddening value of each galaxy with that derived from 100 mu m dust emission (E(B-V)FIR) in its line of sight, and we find that there is agreement up to E(B-V)=0.25. Beyond this limit E(B-V)FIR values are higher. Taking into account the data up to E(B-V) ~ 0.7, we derive a calibration factor of 0.016 between the spectroscopic E(B-V) values and Schlegel et al.'s (\\cite{Schlegel1998}) opacities. By combining this result with an AK extinction map built within ten degrees of the Galactic centre using Bulge giants as probes (Dutra et al. \\cite{Dutra2003}), we extended the calibration of dust emission reddening maps to low Galactic latitudes down to |b|=4deg and E(B-V)= 1.6 (AV ~ 5). According to this new calibration, a multiplicative factor of ~0.75 must be applied to the COBE/IRAS dust emission reddening maps. Based on observations made at Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito, which is operated under agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina and the National Universities of La Pata, Córdoba and San Juan, Argentina.

  13. Constituents of leaves from Bauhinia curvula Benth. exert gastroprotective activity in rodents: role of quercitrin and kaempferol.

    PubMed

    Beber, Ana Paula; de Souza, Priscila; Boeing, Thaise; Somensi, Lincon Bordignon; Mariano, Luísa Nathália Bolda; Cury, Benhur Judah; Burci, Ligia Moura; da Silva, Cristiane Bezerra; Simionatto, Euclésio; de Andrade, Sérgio Faloni; da Silva, Luísa Mota

    2017-02-07

    The Bauhinia genus is known as "Pata-de-Vaca" and a wide variety of these species are used in Brazilian folk medicine due to their gastroprotective properties. This study aimed to investigate the antiulcer efficacy of the hydroalcoholic extract from B. curvula (HEBC) leaves, as well as its semi-purified fraction (SPFr) and the contribution of their phytochemicals constituents for this effect. For that, ethanol 60%/HCl 0.3 M- and indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer were performed in rodents. Gastric ulcerated tissues were processed for histological, histochemical and biochemical analysis. The oral treatment with HEBC and SPFr decreased the gastric ulcer induced by ethanol/HCl in mice and by indomethacin (only HEBC) in rats. The gastroprotective effect of HEBC was abolished in mice pretreated with Nω-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, N-Ethylmaleimide, glibenclamide or indomethacin. Both HEBC and SPFr reduced myeloperoxidase activity in parallel with a decrease of lipoperoxides content at the site of the lesion. On the other hand, HEBC did not alter volume, pH, total acidity or pepsin activity of acid gastric secretion in rats, and neither inhibited the in vitro H(+),K(+)-ATPase activity. Additionally, the compounds identified and isolated from the SPFr, the flavonoids quercitrin (65%) and kaempferol (35%), were able to diminish the extent of ulcerated area induced by both ethanol/HCl and indomethacin. Taking together, these findings show that B. curvula extracts present gastroprotective effect, mainly explained by the presence of flavonoids quercitrin and kaempferol, which may possibly improve the defensive factors of gastric mucosa.

  14. Isolation and intracellular localization of insulin-like proteins from leaves of Bauhinia variegata.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, C R; Maciel, F M; Silva, L B; Ferreira, A T S; da Cunha, M; Machado, O L T; Fernandes, K V S; Oliveira, A E A; Xavier-Filho, J

    2006-11-01

    Evidence based on immunological cross-reactivity and anti-diabetic properties has suggested the presence of insulin-like peptides in plants. The objective of the present study was to investigate the presence of insulin-like proteins in the leaves of Bauhinia variegata ("pata-de-vaca", "mororó"), a plant widely utilized in popular medicine as an anti-diabetic agent. We show that an insulin-like protein was present in the leaves of this plant. A chloroplast protein with a molecular mass similar to that of bovine insulin was extracted from 2-mm thick 15% SDS-PAGE gels and fractionated with a 2 x 24 cm Sephadex G-50 column. The activity of this insulin-like protein (0.48 mg/mL) on serum glucose levels of four-week-old Swiss albino (CF1) diabetic mice was similar to that of commercial swine insulin used as control. Further characterization of this molecule by reverse-phase hydrophobic HPLC chromatographic analysis as well as its antidiabetic activity on alloxan-induced mice showed that it has insulin-like properties. Immunolocalization of the insulin-like protein in the leaves of B. variegata was performed by transmission electron microscopy using a polyclonal anti-insulin human antibody. Localization in the leaf blades revealed that the insulin-like protein is present mainly in chloroplasts where it is also found associated with crystals which may be calcium oxalate. The presence of an insulin-like protein in chloroplasts may indicate its involvement in carbohydrate metabolism. This finding has strengthened our previous results and suggests that insulin-signaling pathways have been conserved through evolution.

  15. DRD4 dopamine receptor allelic diversity in various primate species

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, M.; Higley, D.; O`Brien, S.

    1994-09-01

    The DRD4 dopamine receptor is uniquely characterized by a 48 bp repeating segment within the coding region, located in exon III. Different DRD4 alleles are produced by the presence of additional 48 bp repeats, each of which adds 16 amino acids to the length of the 3rd intracytoplasmic loop of the receptor. The DRD4 receptor is therefore an intriguing candidate gene for behaviors which are influenced by dopamine function. In several human populations, DRD4 alleles with 2-8 and 10 repeats have previously been identified, and the 4 and 7 repeat alleles are the most abundant. We have determined DRD4 genotypes in the following nonhuman primate species: chimpanzee N=2, pygmy chimpanzee N=2, gorilla N=4, siamang N=2, Gelada baboon N=1, gibbon N=1, orangutan (Bornean and Sumatran) N=62, spider monkey N=4, owl monkey N=1, Colobus monkey N=1, Patas monkey N=1, ruffed lemur N=1, rhesus macaque N=8, and vervet monkey N=28. The degree of DRD4 polymorphism and which DRD4 alleles were present both showed considerable variation across primate species. In contrast to the human, rhesus macaque monkeys were monomorphic. The 4 and 7 repeat allels, highly abundant in the human, may not be present in certain other primates. For example, the four spider monkeys we studied showed the 7, 8 and 9 repeat length alleles and the only gibbon we analyzed was homozygous for the 9 repeat allele (thus far not observed in the human). Genotyping of other primate species and sequencing of the individual DRD4 repeat alleles in different species may help us determine the ancestral DRD4 repeat length and identify connections between DRD4 genotype and phenotype.

  16. Prevalence of lead exposure among age and sex cohorts of Canada geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeStefano, S.; Brand, C.J.; Rusch, D.H.

    1992-01-01

    We examined the prevalence of lead exposure from ingestion of waste lead shot among age and sex cohorts of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) on the breeding, migration, and wintering grounds of the Eastern Prairie Population. Blood samples from 6963 geese were assayed for lead concentration by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. On the breeding grounds, no goslings and < 1 % of adults showed evidence of recent exposure to lead shot (i.e., concentrations in the blood elevated above the threshold value of 0. 18 ppm lead). However, median background blood lead concentrations (i.e., blood samples with < 0.18 ppm lead) were higher in adults than goslings, indicating that exposure of adults to lead had occurred during previous seasons. Waste lead shot was available on the migration and wintering grounds, where a larger proportion of the blood samples from immatures (< 1 year old) than adults (> 1 year old) had lead concentrations greater-than-or-equal-to 0.18 ppm. Median background lead levels remained higher in adults than in immatures throughout fall and winter. We also found that more immature males than immature females had elevated lead concentrations. Higher rates of intake of food and grit (including shot) probably partially account for the higher prevalence of elevated lead concentrations in immature Canada geese.//Nous avons ??tudi?? l'importance des expositions au plomb par ingestion de plombs de chasse chez les diff??rentes cohortes (??ge et sexe) de Bernaches du Canada (Branta canadensis) dans les zones de reproduction et de migration et dans les territoires d'hiver chez la population de la Prairie de l'Est. Des ??chantillons de sang ont ??t?? pr??lev??s chez 6963 bernaches et analys??s au sphectrophotom??tre ? absorption atomique pour en d??terminer le contenu en plomb. Dans les zones de reproduction, les traces d'exposition r??cente ? des plombs (i.e. concentrations de plomb dans le sang au-dessus de la valeur seuil de 0,18 ppm) ??taient apparentes chez

  17. Water-level variations and their effects on tree growth and mortality and on the biogeochemical system at the phytoremediation demonstration site in Fort Worth, Texas, 1996-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braun, Christopher L.; Eberts, Sandra M.; Jones, Sonya A.; Harvey, Gregory J.

    2004-01-01

    In 1996, a field-scale phytoremediation demonstration project was initiated and managed by the U.S. Air Force at a site in western Fort Worth, Texas, using a plantation of 1-year-old stems harvested from branches of eastern cottonwoods during the dormant season (whips) and a plantation of 1-year-old eastern cottonwood seedlings (calipers). The primary objective of the demonstration project was to determine the effectiveness of eastern cottonwoods at reducing the mass of dissolved trichloroethene transported within an alluvial aquifer. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a study, in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force, to determine water-level variations and their effects on tree growth and mortality and on the biogeochemical system at the phytoremediation site. As part of the study, water-level and water-quality data were collected throughout the duration of the project. This report presents water-level variations at periodic sampling events; data from August 1996 to January 2003 are presented in this report. Water levels are affected by aquifer properties, precipitation, drawdown attributable to the trees in the study area, and irrigation. This report also evaluates the effects of ground-water depth on tree growth and mortality rates and on the biogeochemical system including subsurface oxidation-reduction processes. Overall, both whips and calipers showed a substantial increase in height, canopy diameter, and trunk diameter over the first 3 years of the study. By the fifth growing season (September 2000), the height of the calipers varied predictably with height decreasing with increasing depth to ground water. Percent mortality was relatively constant at about 25 percent in the whip plantation in January 2003 where ground-water levels were less than 10 feet below land surface during the drought in September 2000. The mortality rate increased where the ground-water levels were greater than 10 feet below land surface and approached 90 percent where ground

  18. Effects of isotonic and isometric exercises with mist sauna bathing on cardiovascular, thermoregulatory, and metabolic functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwase, Satoshi; Kawahara, Yuko; Nishimura, Naoki; Nishimura, Rumiko; Sugenoya, Junichi; Miwa, Chihiro; Takada, Masumi

    2014-08-01

    To clarify the effects of isometric and isotonic exercise during mist sauna bathing on the cardiovascular function, thermoregulatory function, and metabolism, six healthy young men (22 ± 1 years old, height 173 ± 4 cm, weight 65.0 ± 5.0 kg) were exposed to a mist sauna for 10 min at a temperature of 40 °C, and relative humidity of 100 % while performing or not performing ˜30 W of isometric or isotonic exercise. The effect of the exercise was assessed by measuring tympanic temperature, heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, chest sweat rate, chest skin blood flow, and plasma catecholamine and cortisol, glucose, lactate, and free fatty acid levels. Repeated measures ANOVA showed no significant differences in blood pressure, skin blood flow, sweat rate, and total amount of sweating. Tympanic temperature increased more during isotonic exercise, and heart rate increase was more marked during isotonic exercise. The changes in lactate indicated that fatigue was not very great during isometric exercise. The glucose level indicated greater energy expenditure during isometric exercise. The free fatty acid and catecholamine levels indicated that isometric exercise did not result in very great energy expenditure and stress, respectively. The results for isotonic exercise of a decrease in lactate level and an increase in plasma free fatty acid level indicated that fatigue and energy expenditure were rather large while the perceived stress was comparatively low. We concluded that isotonic exercise may be a more desirable form of exercise during mist sauna bathing given the changes in glucose and free fatty acid levels.

  19. First report of anthelmintic resistance in Haemonchus contortus in alpacas in Australia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Parasitic nematodes can cause substantial clinical and subclinical problems in alpacas and anthelmintics are regularly used to control parasitic nematodes in alpacas. Although anthelmintic resistance has been reported in ruminants worldwide, very little is known about anthelmintic resistance in alpacas. The present study was carried out to confirm a suspected case of anthelmintic resistance in Haemonchus contortus in alpacas in Australia. Methods Post mortem examination of an alpaca was conducted to determine the cause of its death. To confirm a suspected case of macrocyclic lactone (ML) resistance in H. contortus in alpacas, a faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) was performed using closantel (7.5 mg/kg) and ivermectin (0.2 mg/kg). Nematode species were identified by morphological and molecular methods. Results Post mortem examination of a 1-year-old female alpaca that had died following a brief period of lethargy, anorexia and recumbency revealed severe anaemia, hypoproteinaemia and gastric parasitism by adult Haemonchus contortus, despite recent abamectin (0.2 mg/kg) treatment. Based on these findings and the exclusive use of MLs in the herd over the preceding six years, ML resistance in parasitic nematodes of alpacas on this farm was suspected. FECRT revealed that the efficacy of closantel was 99% (95% CI 93-100), whereas that of ivermectin was 35% (95% CI 0-78), indicating that the treatment failure was likely due to the presence of ML-resistant nematodes. Larval culture of faecal samples collected following ivermectin treatment consisted of 99% H. contortus and 1% Cooperia oncophora, a result confirmed using a PCR assay. Conclusions This study provides the first evidence of ML resistance in H. contortus in alpacas in Australia. Based on the extent of anthelmintic resistance in sheep gastrointestinal nematodes in Australia, veterinarians and alpaca owners should be encouraged to implement integrated parasite management strategies to improve

  20. Production of arthropod pests and vectors in coal-strip-mine ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Pickard, E.

    1982-01-01

    The objective was to determine the species of aquatic arthropod pests, mainly mosquitoes, that were breeding in abandoned coal strip mine ponds, their population densities, and whether these breeding sites would serve as foci for annoyance to surrounding human populations. Nine study ponds were selected in Marion County, Alabama, on the basis of age since formation, with a total of three test ponds in each of three age categories: 1 year old, 5 years old, and 10 years old. These ponds were observed for five successive years; thus, data obtained from surveys depict successional changes in aquatic insect and plant species composition over a period of 14 successive years. Mosquito larvae of four genera including eight species were collected from the strip ponds. Mosquito production was not detected until ponds were at least two years old, and ponds five years old and older were the most productive for mosquitoes. Mosquito production in all ponds was sparse and restricted to narrow vegetated areas along shallow marginal shelves, and the level of mosquito activity was not sufficient to cause severe annoyance to surrounding communities. There was a paucity of insects of medical importance in benthic samples in the nine study ponds; only three genera of public health importance were collected, which consisted of Palpomyia, Chrysops, and Tabanus. Water chemistry of all ponds studied provided very favorable conditions for supporting various fauna and flora. Data obtained during the 5-year study showed no significant change in the pH of the water in the nine study ponds as they increased in age. The dissolved oxygen content of the water in the ponds varied widely with pond age and seasonal changes, ranging from 9.1 to 14.1 ppM.

  1. Bioaccessibility of U, Th and Pb in solid wastes and soils from an abandoned uranium mine.

    PubMed

    Foulkes, Michael; Millward, Geoffrey; Henderson, Samuel; Blake, William

    2016-12-12

    Bioaccessible U, Th, Pb and the (238)U decay products (214)Pb and (210)Pb have been determined, using a modified Unified BARGE Method (UBM), in waste solids and soils from an abandoned uranium mine in South West England, UK. Maximum aqua regia extractable concentrations for U, Th and Pb were 16,200, 3.8 and 4750 μg g(-1), respectively. (238)U had highest activity concentrations near the mine shaft, where the decay products(214)Pb and (210)Pb had values of 235 and 180 Bq g(-1), respectively. UBM extractions gave mean gastro-intestinal bioaccessibility factors (BAFs) for U and Pb in the waste solids of 0.05 and 0.03, respectively, whereas those for the soils were significantly higher at 0.24 and 0.17. The mean BAFs for the transient radionuclides, (214)Pb and (210)Pb, were similar to those for stable Pb implying that the stable and radioactive Pb isotopes were attached to similar sites on the particles. The doses arising from the ingestion of particulate (210)Pb due to soil pica behaviour were in the range 0.2-65 and < 0.1-6.2 μSv day(-1) for a 1-year old child or an adult (>17 years), respectively. The results suggest that the health risk posed by abandoned uranium mines, with waste rock and tailings, throughout the world should take account of the dose due to both bioaccessible radionuclides, as well as their stable counterparts.

  2. Pediatric endogenous Haemophilus influenzae endophthalmitis with presumed hyposplenism

    PubMed Central

    Haruta, Masatoshi; Yoshida, Yumiko; Yamakawa, Ryoji

    2017-01-01

    Background Endogenous bacterial endophthalmitis is a rare but potentially devastating intraocular infection that can have severe sight-threatening complications. Most patients with endogenous bacterial endophthalmitis have underlying infectious conditions, such as diabetes or malignancy, which predispose them to infection. Case report A 1-year-old girl presented with cloudiness of the right eye. Ocular examination showed a cloudy cornea in the right eye with conjunctival injection and hypopyon. The intraocular pressure was 43 mmHg, and the fundus could not be visualized. She had an 8-day history of fever, and cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed typical findings of bacterial meningitis. She was clinically diagnosed with bacterial meningitis and endophthalmitis in the right eye and was treated with intravenous, topical, and intravitreal antibiotics and vitrectomy. Haemophilus influenzae was isolated from the blood and cerebrospinal fluid cultures, but not from the aqueous and vitreous cultures. Four months later, her pediatrician diagnosed Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis, but she had no clinical signs of endophthalmitis. Seven years after the initial presentation, the best-corrected visual acuity was 20/40 in the right eye. Discussion Endophthalmitis caused by H. influenzae is generally associated with poor visual outcomes; however, the patient in the current case responded well to the treatment. The patient had recurrent bacterial meningitis caused by H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae within a 4-month period. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed to search for underlying infectious causes and revealed that the patient had an extremely small spleen for her age. Because the spleen is critical for clearing encapsulated bacteria such as H. influenzae or S. pneumoniae, we speculated that hyposplenism led to the bloodstream infection of H. influenza and then endogenous endophthalmitis in the right eye. PMID:28115875

  3. Vitamin D Intake and Status in 6-Year-Old Icelandic Children Followed up from Infancy

    PubMed Central

    Thorisdottir, Birna; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg; Steingrimsdottir, Laufey; Palsson, Gestur I.; Birgisdottir, Bryndis E.; Thorsdottir, Inga

    2016-01-01

    High serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels have been observed in infants in Nordic countries, likely due to vitamin D supplement use. Internationally, little is known about tracking vitamin D status from infancy to childhood. Following up 1-year-old infants in our national longitudinal cohort, our aims were to study vitamin D intake and status in healthy 6-year-old Icelandic children (n = 139) and to track vitamin D status from one year of age. At six years, the mean 25(OH)D level was 56.5 nmol/L (SD 17.9) and 64% of children were vitamin D sufficient (25(OH)D ≥ 50 nmol/L). A logistic regression model adjusted for gender and breastfeeding showed that higher total vitamin D intake (Odds ratio (OR) = 1.27, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.08–1.49), blood samples collected in summer (OR = 8.88, 95% CI = 1.83–43.23) or autumn (OR = 5.64, 95% CI = 1.16–27.32) compared to winter/spring, and 25(OH)D at age one (OR = 1.02, 95% CI = 1.002–1.04) were independently associated with vitamin D sufficiency at age six. The correlation between 25(OH)D at age one and six was 0.34 (p = 0.003). Our findings suggest that vitamin D status in infancy, current vitamin D intake and season are predictors of vitamin D status in early school age children. Our finding of vitamin D status tracking from infancy to childhood provides motivation for further studies on tracking and its clinical significance. PMID:26861385

  4. Structural and Morphometric Comparison of Lower Incisors in PACAP-Deficient and Wild-Type Mice.

    PubMed

    Sandor, B; Fintor, K; Reglodi, D; Fulop, D B; Helyes, Z; Szanto, I; Nagy, P; Hashimoto, H; Tamas, A

    2016-06-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a neuropeptide with widespread distribution. PACAP plays an important role in the development of the nervous system, it has a trophic and protective effect, and it is also implicated in the regulation of various physiological functions. Teeth are originated from the mesenchyme of the neural crest and the ectoderm of the first branchial arch, suggesting similarities with the development of the nervous system. Earlier PACAP-immunoreactive fibers have been found in the odontoblastic and subodontoblastic layers of the dental pulp. Our previous examinations have shown that PACAP deficiency causes alterations in the morphology and structure of the developing molars of 7-day-old mice. In our present study, morphometric and structural comparison was performed on the incisors of 1-year-old wild-type and PACAP-deficient mice. Hard tissue density measurements and morphometric comparison were carried out on the mandibles and the lower incisors with micro-CT. For structural examination, Raman microscopy was applied on frontal thin sections of the mandible. With micro-CT morphometrical measurements, the size of the incisors and the relative volume of the pulp to dentin were significantly smaller in the PACAP-deficient group compared to the wild-type animals. The density of calcium hydroxyapatite in the dentin was reduced in the PACAP-deficient mice. No structural differences could be observed in the enamel with Raman microscopy. Significant differences were found in the dentin of PACAP-deficient mice with Raman microscopy, where increased carbonate/phosphate ratio indicates higher intracrystalline disordering. The evaluation of amide III bands in the dentin revealed higher structural diversity in wild-type mice. Based upon our present and previous results, it is obvious that PACAP plays an important role in tooth development with the regulation of morphogenesis, dentin, and enamel mineralization. Further studies are

  5. Accumulation of plant small heat-stress proteins in storage organs.

    PubMed

    Lubaretz, Olga; Zur Nieden, Uta

    2002-06-01

    Plant small heat-stress proteins (sHSPs) have been shown to be expressed not only after exposure to elevated temperatures, but also at particular developmental stages such as embryogenesis, microsporogenesis, and fruit maturation. This paper presents new data on the occurrence of sHSPs in vegetative tissues, their tissue-specific distribution, and cellular localization. We have found sHSPs in 1-year-old twigs of Acer platanoides L. and Sambucus nigra L. and in the liana Aristolochia macrophylla Lamk. exclusively in the winter months. In tendrils of Aristolochia, sHSPs were localized in vascular cambium cells. After budding, in spring, these proteins were no longer present. Furthermore, accumulation of sHSPs was demonstrated in tubers and bulbs of Allium cepa L., Amaryllis ( Hippeastrum hybridum hort.), Crocus albiflorus L., Hyacinthus orientalis L., Narcissus pseudonarcissus L., Tulipa gesneriana L., and Solanum tuberosum L. (potato). In potato tubers and bulb scales of Narcissus the stress proteins were localized in the central vacuoles of storage parenchyma cells. In order to obtain more information on a possible functional correlation between storage proteins and sHSPs, the accumulation of both types of protein in tobacco seeds during seed ripening and germination was monitored. The expression of sHSPs and globulins started simultaneously at about the 17th day after anthesis. During seed germination the sHSPs disappeared in parallel with the storage proteins. Furthermore, in embryos of transgenic tobacco plants, which do not contain any protein bodies or storage proteins, no sHSPs were found. Thus, the occurrence of sHSPs in perennial plant storage organs seems to be associated with the presence of storage proteins.

  6. Twelve years' detection of respiratory viruses by immunofluorescence in hospitalised children: impact of the introduction of a new respiratory picornavirus assay

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Direct immunofluorescence assays (DFA) are a rapid and inexpensive method for the detection of respiratory viruses and may therefore be used for surveillance. Few epidemiological studies have been published based solely on DFA and none included respiratory picornaviruses and human metapneumovirus (hMPV). We wished to evaluate the use of DFA for epidemiological studies with a long-term observation of respiratory viruses that includes both respiratory picornaviruses and hMPV. Methods Since 1998 all children hospitalized with respiratory illness at the University Hospital Bern have been screened with DFA for common respiratory viruses including adenovirus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza A and B, and parainfluenza virus 1-3. In 2006 assays for respiratory picornaviruses and hMPV were added. Here we describe the epidemiological pattern for these respiratory viruses detected by DFA in 10'629 nasopharyngeal aspirates collected from 8'285 patients during a 12-year period (1998-2010). Results Addition of assays for respiratory picornaviruses and hMPV raised the proportion of positive DFA results from 35% to 58% (p < 0.0001). Respiratory picornaviruses were the most common viruses detected among patients ≥1 year old. The seasonal patterns and age distribution for the studied viruses agreed well with those reported in the literature. In 2010, an hMPV epidemic of unexpected size was observed. Conclusions DFA is a valid, rapid, flexible and inexpensive method. The addition of assays for respiratory picornaviruses and hMPV broadens its range of viral detection. DFA is, even in the "PCR era", a particularly adapted method for the long term surveillance of respiratory viruses in a pediatric population. PMID:21299840

  7. Morphology of the tympanic-basicranial region in Mirounga leonina (Phocidae, Carnivora), postnatal ontogeny and sexual dimorphism.

    PubMed

    Loza, C M; Scarano, A C; Soibelzon, L H; Negrete, J; Carlini, A A

    2015-04-01

    The auditory region of pinnipeds has seldom been described. Here we describe and analyze the ontogenetic trajectory of the tympanic bulla of the southern elephant seal, Mirounga leonina (Phocidae, Mammalia). This species is extremely sexually dimorphic and highly polygynous (organized in harems). We examined 118 specimens, arranged in three age classes (CI, CII, and CIII), ranging from newborn to adults (males and females). To analyze the overall size and shape of the tympanic bulla we performed a geometric morphometric analysis including 87 skulls. Females reach definitive shape and size of the bulla at earlier ontogenetic stages than males, in agreement with their earlier involvement in reproductive activities. The internal anatomy of the tympanic region (e.g. form and extension of the paries) does not show remarkable differences between sexes or age classes. The greatest differences between age classes are related to bone thickness, resulting from the apposition of new annual layers. An examination of possible sex-related external differences among age classes shows significant shape differences between males and females in CIII. The morphology observed in neonates is conserved across all individuals from CI, which included specimens up to 1 year old. Clear morphological differences were observed between CI individuals, on one hand, and CII individuals plus CIII females on the other. During cranial development of both male and females, the glenoid cavity expands and compresses the bulla; this condition reaches its maximum expression in CIII males. CIII males showed the greatest morphological differences, with respect to both CI and CII individuals, and CIII females.

  8. Ethephon-Induced Gummosis in Sour Cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) 1

    PubMed Central

    Olien, William C.; Bukovac, Martin J.

    1982-01-01

    Ethephon, (2-chloroethyl)phosphonic acid, was sprayed at concentrations up to 69.2 millimolar to enhance gum formation in 1-year-old shoots of mature Prunus cerasus L. cv Montmorency trees. Gum accumulation caused rupturing of the shoot periderm, followed by gum extrusion. Lower ethephon concentrations were required to induce gum formation in spring and early summer (1.7-3.5 millimolar) then in late summer and fall (13.8-69.2 millimolar). The number of functional vessels, shoot hydraulic conductance, and water potential of both leaf and internode tissue decreased as gum content of shoots increased. Nontreated control shoots also contained small quantities of gum. There was no difference in neutral sugar composition of gum exuded by the tree, obtained from aqueous shoot extracts, or flushed from the vessels of shoots, whether induced by ethephon or not. Severe decrease in shoot and leaf water potential was associated with shoot die-back. Recovery of xylem function may occur where gummosis is less severe. Discrepancy between measured and predicted hydraulic conductance increased as shoot gum content increased, suggesting that decrease in number of functional vessels alone was not sufficient to explain the effects of gum on loss of shoot hydraulic conductance. Increased gum content in those vessels remaining functional would increase vessel sap viscosity and further reduce hydraulic conductance. The viscosities necessary to account for discrepancy between measured and predicted hydraulic conductance were calculated. Gum concentration less than 1.0% (w/v) would produce these viscosities. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 PMID:16662532

  9. Women and the media in South Asia.

    PubMed

    Sharma, S; Weerackody, I; Panday, N R; Al-mujahid, S; Musa, A B

    1987-01-01

    This article gives a brief overview of women's access to journalism and communication training, status of women in the media, their needs for development of skills, and portrayal of women in the media, in Bangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan, India and Sri Lanka. 5 authors from those countries contributed sections subdivided into each of these subheadings. In India, women have access to training, but their positions in the media are limited. They are often falsely stereotyped, sensationalized or exploited, or totally absent. In Sri Lanka, however, women are closer to being equal to men, in terms of training, hiring and employment, although they tend to work in women's periodicals. Women are shown in most of the advertisements, and are generally portrayed as perpetually in pursuit of glamour, food, clothes and cosmetics. Media in Nepal are comparatively new; for example, television is only 1 year old. Therefore, opportunities for women are few, and men dominate the hierarchy. Women are portrayed in the media negatively or sensationally, and used extensively in commercials. Women's position in Pakistan is limited in the cities by purdah and in rural areas by the feudal heritage, in which women are chattel. A minority of women are enrolled in journalism schools a employed in the media: those are excelling. Women are often either idealized, abused or caricatured as interested only in consumption. Women have recently entered the journalism profession in Bangladesh, now totaling 24 women. Mores do not permit women to work at night or on outside assignments. The media are liberal in Bangladesh, airing news about dowry abuse and female oppression openly. In most of the countries, women tend to work only until marriage, or afterward are limited by domestic duties.

  10. Gross anatomy of the female genital organs of the pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus, Linnaeus 1758).

    PubMed

    Pérez, W; Vazquez, N; Ungerfeld, R

    2013-06-01

    To describe the macroscopic anatomy of the genital organs of the female pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus), organs from animals dead in a captive breeding station were dissected. A total of twenty females, 17 adults and 10 pre-puberal approximately 1 year old were studied by gross dissection. The ovaries of adult females without corpora lutea weighed 0.22±0.02 g on the right and 0.20±0.01 g on the left and accounted for 0.03±0.01% of body weight. All corpora lutea (n=6) were found in the right ovary, but in cases where there was no corpus luteum present, the right ovary tended to be heavier than the left (P=0.1). The absence of ovarian bursa, intercornual ligament and suburethral diverticle is peculiar to this deer species. Only 6 convex caruncles were found in the uterine horns, which differ from the more of 100 present in domestic ruminants. Four regular folds that were observed in the cervix of the uterus should not be an obstacle to the passage of a transcervical catheter, allowing intrauterine artificial insemination. The close relationship between the ovarian artery and vein stood up could be associated with the passage of the uterine luteolytic factor from the vein to the ovarian artery, avoiding its systemic way, as happens in domestic ruminants. While the plan of organization was similar, there are some differences with the descriptions of other ruminants. Our results may be very useful as it provides with information that may be considered for the development of female reproductive biotechnologies.

  11. Mechanism of tolerance of blueberry (Vaccinium sp) to hexazinone

    SciTech Connect

    Baron, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    Hexazinone (3-cyclohexyl-6-(dimethylamino)-1-methyl-1,3,5-trazine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione) was applied as a soil drench to 1-year-old rooted hardwood cuttings of highbush (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) and rabbiteye (V. ashei Reade) blueberry plants. No differences in susceptibility to hexazinone were detected among 10 highbush and 3 rabbiteye cultivars grown in a fine sandy soil. The tolerance of two highbush and two rabbiteye cultivars to hexazinone were studied in low, medium, and high organic matter soils. Hexazinone at 1 or 2 kg/ha had no inhibitory effect on blueberry growth in the high organic matter soil, inhibited growth slightly on the medium organic matter soil, and caused severe injury in the low organic matter soil. Hexazinone toxicity, absorption, translocation, metabolism, and effect on photosynthesis were investigated with highbush and rabbiteye blueberry and goldenrod (Solidago fistulosa Miller), which were growing in hydroponic culture. Highbush and rabbiteye blueberry plants were three times more tolerant to root applications of hexazinone than was goldenrod. Blueberry plants absorbed an average of 7.9% of the root applied /sup 14/C-hexazinone and the goldenrod absorbed an average of 10.1%. An average of 6.8% of the root absorbed hexazinone (/sup 14/C-label) was translocated from the root system of the blueberry plants to stem and leaves. Radioactivity in the goldenrod plants was equally distributed between the roots and shoots. The majority of the radioactivity in blueberry and goldenrod plants was recovered in the form of hexazinone. Root absorbed hexazinone caused a rapid inhibition of photosynthesis in intact goldenrod leaves at rates of 10 ..mu..M. Root absorbed hexazinone inhibited photosynthesis in intact blueberry leaves at hexazinone concentrations of 100 ..mu..M.

  12. Seasonal changes in photosynthesis and photoprotection in a Quercus ilex subsp. ballota woodland located in its upper altitudinal extreme in the Iberian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Corcuera, L; Morales, F; Abadía, A; Gil-Pelegrín, E

    2005-05-01

    Quercus ilex L. subsp. ballota (Desf.) Samp., a Mediterranean evergreen species growing in a continental Mediterranean climate, did not experience water stress and showed greater sensitivity to winter stress than to summer stress over a 12-month period. Net CO2 assimilation rates and photosystem II (PSII) efficiency decreased markedly during the cold months and recovered completely in spring. Lutein, neoxanthin and beta-carotene to chlorophyll (Chl) molar ratios all showed the same trend throughout the year, increasing from September to March. This increase was a result of increases in carotenoid concentrations, because Chl concentration per unit leaf area remained stable, and was higher at the end than at the beginning of the first growing season. Lutein-epoxide was a minor component of the total lutein pool. Thermal energy dissipation and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) were associated with the de-epoxidated forms of the xanthophyll cycle pigments in the warm months. Photosynthetic rates decreased slightly at midday in summer. These changes were accompanied by decreases in maximum potential PSII efficiency (which recovered during the night), actual and intrinsic PSII efficiencies, photochemical quenching and increases in NPQ. Overall, our data indicate down-regulation of photosynthesis during the summer. The diurnal de-epoxidation of violaxanthin to antheraxanthin and zeaxanthin occurred throughout the year, except in January. Antioxidant enzymatic activity increased in the winter months, especially during the coldest months, highlighting its key role in photoprotection against photo-oxidation. Structural and functional modifications protected PSII from permanent damage and allowed 1-year-old leaves to photosynthesize at high rates when temperatures increased in spring.

  13. The effects of chewing-side preference on human brain activity during tooth clenching: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Jiang, H; Liu, H; Liu, G; Jin, Z; Liu, X

    2010-12-01

    Chewing-side preference (CSP) may be associated with dominant cerebral hemispheric organisation. However, little information exists regarding whether CSP is reflected by preferential activity in the opposite (to the CSP) cerebral hemisphere. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of CSP on cerebral cortex response to bilateral tooth clenching. Sixteen right-handed participants with left (two men: 29·0±8·4 years old, six women: 32·3±4·8 years old) or right (four men: 31·0±6·1 years old, four women: 30·8±4·7 years old) CSP were scanned by functional magnetic resonance imaging during moderate levels of voluntary tooth clenching. The on-off sequence of scanning was 30 s of clenching (on) and 30 s of rest (off) a total of five times. The results showed that blood oxygen level-dependent signals in the contralateral (to the CSP) primary sensorimotor cortex increased more than in the ipsilateral primary sensorimotor cortex in participants with both left and right CSP (P≤0·001). The supplementary motor area was activated in participants with left (P≤0·001) but not right CSP. Activation of the inferior frontal gyrus and inferior parietal lobule was greater in participants with right versus left CSP (P≤0·001). Significant (P≤0·001) activation was observed in the parahippocampal gyrus in five of eight participants with left CSP, whereas no activation was observed in those with right CSP. These findings suggest a relationship between hemispheric dominance and CSP in the primary sensorimotor cortex responsible for bilateral tooth clenching.

  14. Analysis of brain activity involved in chewing-side preference during chewing: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Jiang, H; Liu, H; Liu, G; Jin, Z; Wang, L; Ma, J; Li, H

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the activation characteristics of cerebral cortex in participants with CSP during rhythmic chewing movement. Sixteen right-handed participants with left (two males: 29·0 ± 8·4 years old, six females: 32·3 ± 4·8 years old) or right (four males: 31·0 ± 6·1 years old, four females: 30·8 ± 4·7 years old) CSP were scanned by functional magnetic resonance imaging during rhythmic chewing. The on-off sequence of scanning was 30 s of rhythmic chewing and 30 s of rest (off) a total of five times. The results showed that blood oxygen level-dependent signals in the contralateral (to the CSP) primary sensorimotor cortex increased more than in the ipsilateral primary sensorimotor cortex in participants with both left and right CSP (P ≤ 0·001). Moreover, the BOLD signal within the right substantia nigra of midbrain, brainstem was more significantly (P ≤ 0·001) activated than its left counterpart in participants with left CSP, while no activation was observed in those with right CSP. The similar activation of the cerebellum was in participants with right CSP. The inferior parietal lobule, inferior frontal gyrus and left insular cortex were significantly (P ≤ 0·001) activated in participants with CSP. These findings suggest a relationship between hemispheric dominance and CSP in the primary sensorimotor cortex responsible for rhythmic chewing movement. The brainstem and the cerebellum might also play important role in the regulation of CSP. Furthermore, the IFG, IPL and insular may contribute to higher cognitive information processing for participants with CSP.

  15. Sex, age, spleen size, and kidney fat of red deer relative to infection intensities of the lungworm Elaphostrongylus cervi.

    PubMed

    Vicente, J; Pérez-Rodríguez, L; Gortazar, C

    2007-07-01

    We analyzed the relationships among spleen size, body condition (measured as kidney fat), and larval counts of the nematode Elaphostrongylus cervi in red deer (Cervus elaphus). The aim was to investigate the interaction between host body condition and intensity of infection with parasites. As red deer are highly polygynous, we also tested whether these relationships varied with sex and age of the hosts. Kidney fat and spleen size were positively correlated in subadults (2-3 years old) and adults (>3 years old), but not in calves (<1 year old) or yearlings (1-2 years old). Spleen size was negatively associated with nematode load in subadult females and in adult males. These two age classes are potentially the most nutritionally stressed, as subadult hinds are still growing and often engaging in rearing their first calf, and adult stags were sampled just after the rut, which is recognized as a substantial energy drain in this age-sex class, as they compete to hold females during the mating season. Body condition related negatively to parasite count only in adult males. In the context of red deer life history, these findings suggest that spleen size is dependent on body condition and that it could be affected by variation in resource partitioning among immune defense, growth, and reproductive effort in red deer. For the first time in a wild mammal, the spleen mass is shown to be positively related to body condition and negatively related to parasite infection. We conclude that elucidating whether spleen mass reflects immune defense investment or a measure of general body condition should contribute to understanding topical issues in mammal ecology.

  16. Isolation and identification of feline calicivirus and feline herpesvirus in Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Henzel, Andréia; Brum, Mário Celso Sperotto; Lautert, Cláudia; Martins, Mathias; Lovato, Luciane Teresinha; Weiblen, Rudi

    2012-01-01

    Feline calicivirus (FCV) and feline herpesvirus type 1 (FHV-1) are the two primary causes of upper respiratory tract disease in cats. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the distribution of FCV and FHV-1 among the feline population of several counties in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. To this end, conjunctival and nasal swabs were collected from 302 cats from different locations, including households, breeding catteries, veterinary clinics, animal hospitals and experimental research facilities. The samples were collected between July 2006 to June 2009. The virus isolation was performed in CRFK cells and, subsequently, the identification was confirmed by PCR. FCV, FHV-1, or both were isolated from 55 cats from 28 different locations. FCV alone was isolated from 52.7% (29/55) of the animals that tested positively, FHV-1 alone was isolated from 38.2% (21/55) of the animals that tested positively, and co-infection were detected in 9.1% (5/55) of the animals that tested positively. Virus detection was more prevalent in cats that were less than 1 year old, among animals that shared a living space with other cats, and females. FCV and FHV-1 were isolated from vaccinated cats. In addition, both viruses were isolated from cats that showed no signs of disease. The results suggest that a carrier state is common for both viruses in the evaluated population. A search for other causes of respiratory disease in that population is necessary; and further studies relating to the molecular characterization of viruses and vaccine efficacy are also necessary. PMID:24031864

  17. Mercury in soils, lakes, and fish in Voyageurs National Park (Minnesota): Importance of atmospheric deposition and ecosystem factors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiener, J.G.; Knights, B.C.; Sandheinrich, M.B.; Jeremiason, J.D.; Brigham, M.E.; Engstrom, D.R.; Woodruff, L.G.; Cannon, W.F.; Balogh, S.J.

    2006-01-01

    Concentrations of methylmercury in game fish from many interior lakes in Voyageurs National Park (MN, U.S.A.) substantially exceed criteria for the protection of human health. We assessed the importance of atmospheric and geologic sources of mercury to interior lakes and watersheds within the Park and identified ecosystem factors associated with variation in methylmercury contamination of lacustrine food webs. Geologic sources of mercury were small, based on analyses of underlying bedrock and C-horizon soils, and nearly all mercury in the O- and A-horizon soils was derived from atmospheric deposition. Analyses of dated sediment cores from five lakes showed that most (63% ?? 13%) of the mercury accumulated in lake sediments during the 1900s was from anthropogenic sources. Contamination of food webs was assessed by analysis of whole, 1-year-old yellow perch (Perca flavescens), a regionally important prey fish. The concentrations of total mercury in yellow perch and of methylmercury in lake water varied substantially among lakes, reflecting the influence of ecosystem processes and variables that affect the microbial production and abundance of methylmercury. Models developed with the information-theoretic approach (Akaike Information Criteria) identified lake water pH, dissolved sulfate, and total organic carbon (an indicator of wetland influence) as factors influencing methylmercury concentrations in lake water and fish. We conclude that nearly all of the mercury in fish in this seemingly pristine landscape was derived from atmospheric deposition, that most of this bioaccumulated mercury was from anthropogenic sources, and that both watershed and lacustrine factors exert important controls on the bioaccumulation of methylmercury. ?? 2006 American Chemical Society.

  18. Effects of formaldehyde on normal xenotransplanted human tracheobronchial epithelium.

    PubMed Central

    Ura, H.; Nowak, P.; Litwin, S.; Watts, P.; Bonfil, R. D.; Klein-Szanto, A. J.

    1989-01-01

    Epithelial cells obtained from autopsies of full-term fetuses or infants less than 1 year old were isolated, amplified in primary cultures and inoculated in deepithelialized rat tracheas. These tracheas were then sealed and transplanted subcutaneously into irradiated athymic nude mice. Four weeks after transplantation the tracheal lumen was completely covered by epithelium, most of which was of mucociliary respiratory type. At this stage, tracheal transplants containing tracheobronchial epithelium from 20 different donors were exposed to silastic devices containing 0, 0.5, 1 and 2 mg paraformaldehyde. The tracheal transplants were examined histologically at 2, 4, 8, and 16 weeks after transplantation. Before sacrifice, all animals were injected with a single pulse of tritiated thymidine. Important epithelial alterations could be seen in the formaldehyde treated transplants with a maximum effect visible at 2 weeks after exposure. The highest dose of 2 mg produced, in most cases, numerous areas of epithelial erosion and inflammation whereas this effect was not as evident with the lower doses. All doses produced areas of hyperplastic epithelium alternating with areas of pleomorphic-atrophic epithelium. Although the differences in predominance of different types of epithelium was not clearly dose-dependent, the labeling index (LI) showed dose dependence between 2 and 4 weeks after initiation of exposure. The maximum mean LI was three to four times higher than normal, although in some focal hyperplastic-metaplastic lesions the LI was increased up to 20 times. These studies show that formaldehyde, although toxic at higher doses, is able to elicit at lower doses a proliferative response of the human respiratory epithelium that is not preceded by a massive toxic effect. This response is similar, although less intense than that of the rat respiratory epithelium in which formaldehyde proved to be a carcinogen. Images Figure 2 Figure 5 PMID:2913828

  19. A comparison of reversed locking compression-distal femoral plates and blade plates in osteotomies for young adult hip pathology.

    PubMed

    MacLean, Simon B M; Evans, Scott; O'Hara, John N

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare fixation of proximal femoral osteotomies using reverse contralateral LCP-Distal Femoral Plates (LCP-DF) with the more traditional blade plate technique. This was a retrospective review over six years of a single surgeon's practice within a tertiary orthopaedic unit. Patient demographics were collected, along with indication for surgery. Radiological outcomes, fixation failures and the need for revision surgery were recorded. Forty-six patients were identified; 23 patients in the LCP-DF plate group (7 females, 16 males. Mean age 18.3 years old) and 23 patients in the blade plate group (6 females, 17 males. Mean age 19.1 years old). The patients' presenting conditions were; 26 Perthes'; eight hip dysplasia; 11 slipped capital femoral epiphysis; one fibrous dysplasia. Osteotomy type included; 13 Double osteotomy, 11 Imhauser; 13 pure valgus; eight valgus + rotation; There was one revision for implant failure in the LCP-DF group. In the blade plate group, there were four implant failures--three requiring revision operations (p = 0.155). In the LCP-DF group the mean neck-shaft angle difference compared to the contralateral side (if normal) or 135 degrees (if abnormal) was 0.58°. In the condylar plate group the mean difference was 4.37°. The use of a contralateral LCP-DF plate in the reverse contralateral position to stabilise proximal femoral osteotomies in our cohort confers advantages over blade plate technology. We have found that the plate is stiffer, is easier to use and provides increased screw placement options over standard proximal femoral locking plates.

  20. Risk assessment of short-chain chlorinated paraffins in Japan based on the first market basket study and species sensitivity distributions.

    PubMed

    Iino, Fukuya; Takasuga, Takumi; Senthilkumar, Kurunthachalam; Nakamura, Naoki; Nakanishi, Junko

    2005-02-01

    The chemical risks of short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) to human health and ecological species in Japan were assessed in this study. SCCPs are used as extreme pressure additives in metal-working fluids and flame retardant agents in plastic materials. The first market basket study with a high resolution gas chromatography and mass spectrometry with electron capture negative ionization is reported. Total daily food intakes for Japanese residents of different ages were estimated using Latin Hypercube simulations, and the highest 95th percentile intake is 6.8 x 10(2) ng/kg/day for a 1-year-old child. Based on the reported no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL) and the estimated exposure mainly from food, it was concluded thatSCCPs are not posing risks to humans in Japan. Ecological risks to aquatic and sediment organisms were estimated using species sensitivity distributions. The 95th percentiles of the distributions obtained by fitting several environmental SCCP concentration data of river water and sediment were 41.8 ng/L and 558 ng/g wet weight as the possible highest concentrations, respectively. No-observed-effect-concentrations (NOEC) were determined by calculating the fifth percentiles of a species sensitivity distribution, which were 2.2 microg/L for aquatic organisms and 1.7 to 13.5 mg/ kg wet weight for sediment organisms. While it is likely that there is no imminent environmental chemical risk for aquatic organisms at a regional level in Japan, this study concluded that a more detailed risk assessment is necessary for sediment organisms.

  1. Lactational exposure to short-chain chlorinated paraffins in China, Korea, and Japan.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yang; Harada, Kouji H; Hitomi, Toshiaki; Niisoe, Tamon; Wang, Peiyu; Shi, Yuhui; Yang, Hye-Ran; Takasuga, Takumi; Koizumi, Akio

    2017-04-01

    To investigate short-chain chlorinated paraffin (SCCP) levels in human breast milk, pooled breast milk samples (BMSs) collected between 2007 and 2010 from Chinese (Beijing, n = 17), Korean (Seoul, Busan, n = 16), and Japanese (Kyoto, Sendai, n = 44) women were analyzed. SCCPs found in air samples in Beijing (n = 4, in 2008) were also analyzed and compared with BMSs to estimate the possible source of contamination in Beijing. The electron-capture negative ionization method demonstrated the different sensitivities for SCCPs, and pentachlorinated alkanes had the highest method detection limit (MDL) among congeners. In Beijing, SCCPs were detected in 8 of 17 pooled BMSs at concentrations more than the highest MDL of each homolog. The total SCCP concentration ranged from below the MDL to 54 ng g(-1) lipid weight. Among the SCCP homologs, polychlorinated tridecanes were most frequently detected in Beijing. In Korea and Japan, no samples contained detectable total SCCP concentrations at more than the highest MDL. In Seoul, only two samples showed trace levels of polychlorinated undecanes. In Kyoto and Sendai, congeners of polychlorinated dodecanes were most frequently detected. C10 components were the major contributors to the SCCPs in the atmosphere of Beijing. Congener profiles in breast milk in Beijing provided a clear contrast to the profiles found in food and air. The unique congener profiles necessitate the monitoring of breast milk for exposure of infants to SCCPs. The calculated mean exposure of SCCPs in 1-year-olds in China was 337 ng (kg body weight)(-1) d(-1). These results demonstrate the body burden of SCCPs in the study areas and potential lactational exposure to SCCPs in Asian countries.

  2. Prognostic roles of tetrahydroxy bile acids in infantile intrahepatic cholestasis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chee-Seng; Kimura, Akihiko; Wu, Jia-Feng; Ni, Yen-Hsuan; Hsu, Hong-Yuan; Chang, Mei-Hwei; Nittono, Hiroshi; Chen, Huey-Ling

    2017-03-01

    Tetrahydroxy bile acids (THBAs) are hydrophilic and are present at minimal or undetectable levels in healthy human adults, but are present at high levels in bile salt export pump (abcb11)-knockout mice. The roles of THBAs in human cholestatic diseases are unclear. We aimed to investigate the presence of THBAs in patients with infantile intrahepatic cholestasis and its correlation with outcome. Urinary bile acids (BAs) were analyzed by GC-MS. Data were compared between good (n = 21) (disease-free before 1 year old) and poor prognosis groups (n = 19). Good prognosis patients had a higher urinary THBA proportion than poor prognosis patients [25.89% (3.45-76.73%) vs. 1.93% (0.05-48.90%)]. A urinary THBA proportion >7.23% predicted good prognosis with high sensitivity (95.24%), specificity (84.21%), and area under the curve (0.91) (P < 0.0001). A THBA proportion 7.23% was an independent factor for decreased transplant-free survival (hazard ratio = 7.16, confidence interval: 1.24-41.31, P = 0.028). Patients with a confirmed ABCB11 or tight junction protein 2 gene mutation (n = 7) had a minimally detectable THBA proportion (0.23-2.99% of total BAs). Three patients with an ATP8B1 mutation had an elevated THBA proportion (7.51-37.26%). In conclusion, in addition to disease entity as a major determinant of outcome, a high THBA level was associated with good outcome in the infantile intrahepatic cholestasis patients.

  3. Long-term experimental warming, shading and nutrient addition affect the concentration of phenolic compounds in arctic-alpine deciduous and evergreen dwarf shrubs.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Anja H; Jonasson, Sven; Michelsen, Anders; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta

    2006-02-01

    Environmental changes are likely to alter the chemical composition of plant tissues, including content and concentrations of secondary compounds, and thereby affect the food sources of herbivores. After 10 years of experimental increase of temperature, nutrient levels and light attenuation in a sub-arctic, alpine ecosystem, we investigated the effects on carbon based secondary compounds (CBSC) and nitrogen in one dominant deciduous dwarf shrub, Salix herbacea x polaris and two dominant evergreen dwarf shrubs, Cassiope tetragona and Vaccinium vitis-idaea throughout one growing season. The main aims were to compare the seasonal course and treatment effects on CBSC among the species, life forms and leaf cohorts and to examine whether the responses in different CBSC were consistent across compounds. The changes in leaf chemistry both during the season and in response to the treatments were higher in S. herbacea x polaris than in the corresponding current year's leaf cohort of the evergreen C. tetragona. The changes were also much higher than in the 1-year-old leaves of the two evergreens probably due to differences in dilution and turnover of CBSC in growing and mature leaves paired with different rates of allocation. Most low molecular weight phenolics in the current year's leaves decreased in all treatments. Condensed tannins and the tannin-to-N ratio, however, either increased or decreased, and the strength and even direction of the responses varied among the species and leaf cohorts, supporting views of influential factors additional to resource-based or developmental controls, as e.g. species specific or genetic controls of CBSC. The results indicate that there is no common response to environmental changes across species and substances. However, the pronounced treatment responses imply that the quality of the herbivore forage is likely to be strongly affected in a changing arctic environment, although both the direction and strength of the responses will be

  4. Limitation of Pb and Cd uptake by pine

    SciTech Connect

    Ostrowska, A.; Porebska, G.; Szczubialka, Z.

    2006-07-15

    Model experiments were carried out using 1-year-old pine plants grown in water cultures with the aim of investigating whether and to what extent the accumulation of Pb and Cd in plants can be decreased through decreasing the nutrient solution concentration, supplementing with forest soil, supplementing with calcium carbonate, and addition of brown coal. It was found that with increased doses of Pb and Cd in water cultures pine plants take up more of those elements. Whereas Pb accumulates mainly in the roots, about half of the Cd is transported to the above-ground part of the plants. Addition of Pb, Cd, and forest soil to the nutrition medium increased Pb uptake by pine plants compared to the control treatment. The effect of soil addition was not that evident in the case of Cd uptake. Furthermore, it was observed that addition of brown coal resulted in a slight increase of Pb accumulation in the shoots and in a considerable decrease of its accumulation in roots. A higher increase of Cd accumulation in the shoots was observed after brown coal was added to the nutrient solution. The amounts of Cd and Pb accumulated in plants, mainly in the shoots, decreased following the addition of CaCO{sub 3}. When CaCO{sub 3} and brown coal were added jointly, this effect was markedly more pronounced. The decrease of nutrient supply (down to one-quarter of the original concentration) increased the content of Pb, especially in the roots; for Cd, changes in its content in pine were not univocal.

  5. Mating activity of domestic geese ganders (Anser anser f. domesticus) during breeding period in relation to age, testosterone and thyroid hormones.

    PubMed

    Gumułka, Małgorzata; Rozenboim, Israel

    2013-11-30

    In breeding geese, natural mating applies. The objective of this study was to determine seasonal- and age-related changes in the sexual activity of ganders. Moreover, T, T4 and T3 plasma levels were evaluated. The study was conducted on 2/3-year-old males (n=15) and 1- or 2/3-year-old females (1♂:4♀). Sexual activity of ganders was characterized through the frequency of: courtship, attempts at and successful copulations and total mating activity (MA). Reproductive results manifested by egg production and fertility were recorded. Laying percentage (January-June) was 37.1 and 28.6% for 1-, and 2/3-year-old geese, respectively. MA was noted before the sexual maturity of females and the T level peak. MA was highest at the onset and during peak production (March) for ganders kept with 1-, and 2/3-year-old geese, respectively. From April to May a decrease in fertility with a reduction of the frequency of copulations was observed. At this time low levels of T were noted. The effect of goose age on the MA was shown, with higher frequency of copulations for ganders kept with 1-year-old geese. We suggest that in the successful seasonal mating in geese, social factors such as the presence of females and female age play an important role. The reduction in fertility during the spring period may be associated with decreases in the efficiency of successive mating sequences. The higher frequency of copulations without affecting fertility, for ganders kept with young geese, may be because of differences in sperm transfer or storage/transport efficiency.

  6. Global childhood unintentional injury surveillance in four cities in developing countries: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Sugerman, David E; Puvanachandra, Prasanthi; Razzak, Junaid; El-Sayed, Hesham; Isaza, Andres; Rahman, Fazlur; Peden, Margie

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine the frequency and nature of childhood injuries and to explore the risk factors for such injuries in low-income countries by using emergency department (ED) surveillance data. Methods This pilot study represents the initial phase of a multi-country global childhood unintentional injury surveillance (GCUIS) project and was based on a sequential sample of children < 11 years of age of either gender who presented to selected EDs in Bangladesh, Colombia, Egypt and Pakistan over a 3–4 month period, which varied for each site, in 2007. Findings Of 1559 injured children across all sites, 1010 (65%) were male; 941 (60%) were aged ≥ 5 years, 32 (2%) were < 1 year old. Injuries were especially frequent (34%) during the morning hours. They occurred in and around the home in 56% of the cases, outside while children played in 63% and during trips in 11%. Of all the injuries observed, 913 (56%) involved falls; 350 (22%), road traffic injuries; 210 (13%), burns; 66 (4%), poisoning; and 20 (1%), near drowning or drowning. Falls occurred most often from stairs or ladders; road traffic injuries most often involved pedestrians; the majority of burns were from hot liquids; poisonings typically involved medicines, and most drowning occurred in the home. The mean injury severity score was highest for near drowning or drowning (11), followed closely by road traffic injuries (10). There were 6 deaths, of which 2 resulted from drowning, 2 from falls and 2 from road traffic injuries. Conclusion Hospitals in low-income countries bear a substantial burden of childhood injuries, and systematic surveillance is required to identify the epidemiological distribution of such injuries and understand their risk factors. Methodological standardization for surveillance across countries makes it possible to draw international comparisons and identify common issues. PMID:19551252

  7. Healthcare costs within a year of respiratory syncytial virus among Medicaid infants.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Liisa; Hall, Caroline B; Katkin, Julie P; Shi, Nianwen; Masaquel, Anthony S; McLaurin, Kimmie K; Mahadevia, Parthiv J

    2010-08-01

    Limited research exists on the economic impact of respiratory syncytial virus lower respiratory infection (RSV LRI) among vulnerable infant populations. This study evaluated healthcare costs of full-term and late-preterm Medicaid infants with RSV LRI within 1 year of infection. Medicaid administrative claims were used to conduct a retrospective study of infants born 2003-2005. Full-term and late-preterm infants <1 year old were assigned to groups based on RSV LRI and unspecified bronchiolitis/pneumonia (UBP) diagnosis codes and stratified by setting of diagnosis. Infants without evidence of RSV LRI/UBP were selected as a comparison group. Economic and clinical outcomes were analyzed descriptively using propensity score weighting, and logged ordinary least squares models were used to examine relationship between RSV and costs incurred within 1 year of infection. RSV LRI and UBP infants, regardless of gestational age or healthcare setting, were more likely to experience respiratory diagnoses of wheezing and infantile asthma versus comparisons. Adjusted and weighted healthcare costs were significantly higher for all groups of RSV LRI and UBP infants relative to comparison infants (P < 0.001). Among late-preterm infants with inpatient and outpatient RSV, marginal costs compared with controls were $17,465 and $2,158, respectively. Costs for RSV LRI and UBP Medicaid infants are substantial. While much of the costs result from initial RSV episodes, higher post-episode costs and rates of respiratory events, procedures, and medications in RSV and UBP infants versus comparisons indicate long-term economic impact from infection and the impact is greater among late-preterm compared to full-term infants.

  8. Morphometrics within dog breeds are highly reproducible and dispute Rensch's rule.

    PubMed

    Sutter, Nathan B; Mosher, Dana S; Gray, Melissa M; Ostrander, Elaine A

    2008-01-01

    Using 27 body measurements, we have identified 13 breed-defining metrics for 109 of 159 domestic dog breeds, most of which are recognized by the American Kennel Club (AKC). The data set included 1,155 dogs at least 1 year old (average 5.4 years), and for 53 breed populations, complete measurement data were collected from at least three males and three females. We demonstrate, first, that AKC breed standards are rigorously adhered to for most domestic breeds with little variation observed within breeds. Second, Rensch's rule, which describes a scaling among taxa such that sexual dimorphism is greater among larger species if males are the larger sex, with less pronounced differences in male versus female body size in smaller species, is not maintained in domestic dog breeds because the proportional size difference between males and females of small and large breeds is essentially the same. Finally, principal components (PCs) analysis describes both the overall body size (PC1) and the shape (length versus width) of the skeleton (PC2). That the integrity of the data set is sufficiently rich to discern PCs has strong implications for mapping studies, suggesting that individual measurements may not be needed for genetic studies of morphologic traits, particularly in the case of breed-defining traits that are typically under strong selection. Rather, phenotypes derived from data sets such as these, collected at a fraction of the effort and cost, may be used to direct whole-genome association studies aimed at understanding the genetic basis of fixed morphologic phenotypes defining distinct dog breeds.

  9. Prevalence, Predictors, and Outcomes of Cardiorenal Syndrome in Children with Dilated Cardiomyopathy: A Report from the Pediatric Cardiomyopathy Registry

    PubMed Central

    Kaddourah, Ahmad; Goldstein, Stuart L; Lipshultz, Steven E; Wilkinson, James D; Sleeper, Lynn A; Lu, Minmin; Colan, Steven D; Towbin, Jeffrey A; Aydin, Scott I; Rossano, Joseph; Everitt, Melanie D; Gossett, Jeffrey G; Rusconi, Paolo; Kantor, Paul F; Singh, Rakesh K; Jefferies, John L

    2015-01-01

    Background The association of cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) with mortality in children with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is unknown. Methods With a modified Schwartz formula, we estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) for children ≥1 year old with DCM enrolled in the Pediatric Cardiomyopathy Registry at the time of DCM diagnosis and annually thereafter, and defined CRS as an eGFR <90 mL/min/1.73 m2. Children with and without CRS were compared on survival and serum creatinine concentrations (SCr). The association between eGFR and echocardiographic measures was assessed with linear mixed-effects regression models. Results Of 285 eligible children with DCM diagnosed at ≥1 year of age, 93 were evaluable. CRS was identified in 57 (61.3%). Mean (SD) eGFR was 62.0 (22.6) mL/min/1.73 m2 for children with CRS and 108.0 (14.0) for those without (P<0.001); median SCr concentrations were 0.9 and 0.5 mg/dL, respectively (P<0.001). The mortality hazard ratio of children with CRS vs. no CRS was 2.4 (95% CI: 0.8-7.4). eGFR was positively correlated with measures of left ventricular function and negatively correlated with age. Conclusions CRS in children newly diagnosed with DCM may be associated with higher 5-year mortality. Children with DCM, especially those with impaired left ventricular function, should be monitored for renal disease. PMID:26210985

  10. Of Travertine and Time: Otolith Chemistry and Microstructure Detect Provenance and Demography of Endangered Humpback Chub in Grand Canyon, USA

    PubMed Central

    Limburg, Karin E.; Hayden, Todd A.; Pine, William E.; Yard, Michael D.; Kozdon, Reinhard; Valley, John W.

    2013-01-01

    We developed a geochemical atlas of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon and in its tributary, the Little Colorado River, and used it to identify provenance and habitat use by Federally Endangered humpback chub, Gila cypha.  Carbon stable isotope ratios (δ13C) discriminate best between the two rivers, but fine scale analysis in otoliths requires rare, expensive instrumentation. We therefore correlated other tracers (SrSr, Ba, and Se in ratio to Ca) to δ13C that are easier to quantify in otoliths with other microchemical techniques. Although the Little Colorado River’s water chemistry varies with major storm events, at base flow or near base flow (conditions occurring 84% of the time in our study) its chemistry differs sufficiently from the mainstem to discriminate one from the other. Additionally, when fish egress from the natal Little Colorado River to the mainstem, they encounter cold water which causes the otolith daily growth increments to decrease in size markedly. Combining otolith growth increment analysis and microchemistry permitted estimation of size and age at first egress; size at first birthday was also estimated. Emigrants < 1 year old averaged 51.2 ± 4.4 (SE) days and 35.5 ± 3.6 mm at egress; older fish that had recruited to the population averaged 100 ± 7.8 days old and 51.0 ± 2.2 mm at egress, suggesting that larger, older emigrants recruit better. Back-calculated size at age 1 was unimodal and large (78.2 ± 3.3 mm) in Little Colorado caught fish but was bimodally distributed in Colorado mainstem caught fish (49.9 ± 3.6 and 79 ± 4.9 mm) suggesting that humpback chub can also rear in the mainstem. The study demonstrates the coupled usage of the two rivers by this fish and highlights the need to consider both rivers when making management decisions for humpback chub recovery. PMID:24358346

  11. Undescended testes: a consensus on management.

    PubMed

    Ritzén, E Martin

    2008-12-01

    The mode of treatment best for undescended testes is controversial, and local traditions often override knowledge gained from randomized controlled studies. In order to reach a consensus within the Nordic countries on the current state-of-the-art of treatment, a group of specialists in testicular physiology, paediatric surgery/urology, endocrinology, andrology, pathology and anaesthesiology from all the Nordic countries met for 2 days. Before the meeting, reviews of the literature had been prepared by the participants. Judging from published meta-analyses, hormonal treatment has low efficacy. Although 15-20% of retained testes descend during hormonal treatment, one-fifth of these re-ascend later on. Also, treatment with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) may be harmful to future spermatogenesis through increased apoptosis of germ cells. Orchiopexy, on the contrary, results in about 95% anatomical success, with a low (about 1%) risk of complications. The optimal time for orchiopexy has also been debated. However, a recent randomized controlled study shows that surgery at 9 months of age is followed by a better post-operative growth of the testes than surgery at 3 years, which supports previous arguments for early surgery. The unanimous conclusion of the group was that surgery is generally the preferred mode of treatment, rather than hCG or GnRH treatments. Orchiopexy should be performed between 6 and 12 months of age, or soon after diagnosis, if that occurs later. If a testis is found to be undescended at any age after 6 months, the patient should be referred for surgery. Referral should be to paediatric rather than general surgeons/urologists if the boy is less than 1 year old, if he has bilateral or non-palpable testes, or if he has got relapse of cryptorchidism.

  12. Regression of infancy hemangiomas with recombinant IFN-alpha 2b.

    PubMed

    Garmendía, G; Miranda, N; Borroso, S; Longchong, M; Martínez, E; Ferrero, J; Porrero, P; López-Saura, P

    2001-01-01

    Interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) has antitumor and antiangiogenic effects. The purpose of this work was to evaluate its efficacy and safety in the treatment of infancy hemangioma and to monitor the appearance of anti-IFN antibodies in these patients. Thirty-nine children (29 girls) aged 1.5-158 months, with 19 younger than 1 year and 9 older than 5, were treated with 3 x 10(6) IU/m(2) IFN-alpha 2b, subcutaneously (s.c.) daily. Inclusion criteria were life-threatening or life-limiting hemangioma and parents' informed consent. Regression was considered if tumor size diminished by 50% or more. Of the 38 patients who completed 6 months of treatment, 27 (71.1%) had regression and 11 (28.9%) had stable disease. No patient experienced progression. Regression was more frequent (100%) among patients between 1 and 5 years old, but it was particularly important (68%) among those under 1 year old, when spontaneous regression is rare. The main side effects were the IFN-related flulike syndrome (79%), increase in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (28%), anorexia (19%), and mild inflammation at the injection site (19%). There was no effect on psychomotor or physical development. On the contrary, 1 patient with neurologic symptoms improved remarkably, including seizure disappearance. Eight patients developed anti-IFN-alpha 2 neutralizing antibodies, and 7 of them responded to IFN treatment. IFN-alpha 2b is a safe and efficacious treatment of infancy hemangioma. Further work should look for other treatment schedules and ways of administration and carefully monitor anti-IFN neutralizing antibodies, which does not seem to interfere with response.

  13. Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine During Pregnancy and the Postpartum Period: An Analysis of the National Health Interview Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kemper, Kathi J.; Rothman, Russell; Gardiner, Paula

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is commonly used among women, but few national data exist regarding CAM use during pregnancy or the postnatal period. Methods: Data from the 2007 National Health Interview Survey were analyzed for women ages between the ages of 18 and 49 years who were pregnant or had children less than 1 year old. CAM use was identified based on standard definitions of CAM from the National Institutes of Health's National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. CAM use among women who were pregnant or with a child less than 1 year was compared with the other similarly aged female responders. CAM use was examined among these women stratified by sociodemographics, health conditions, and conventional medicine use through bivariable and multivariable logistic regression models. Results: Among pregnant and postpartum women from the ages of 19 to 49 years in the United States, 37% of pregnant women and 28% of postpartum women reported using CAM in the last 12 months compared with 40% of nonpregnant/non-postpartum women. Mind–body practices were the most common CAM modality reported, with one out of four women reporting use. Biological therapies, excluding vitamins and minerals, during the postpartum period were used by only 8% of women. Using multivariable regression modeling, we report no significant difference in CAM use among pregnant compared with non-pregnant women (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.88; [95% confidence interval 0.65–1.20]), but lower CAM use among postpartum women compared with non-pregnant women (AOR 0.67; [0.52–0.88]), while adjusting for sociodemographics. Conclusion: CAM use among pregnancy similar to women who are not pregnant, while postpartum CAM use decreases. Further evaluation of CAM therapies among pregnant and postpartum women is necessary to determine the costs and benefits of integrative CAM therapies in conventional care. PMID:25268759

  14. Forensic issues in suicidal single gunshot injuries to the chest: an autopsy study.

    PubMed

    Strajina, Veljko; Živković, Vladimir; Nikolić, Slobodan

    2012-12-01

    This study presents a case series of suicides carried out by self-inflicted gunshot wounds to the chest-a relatively uncommon means of suicide. The retrospective autopsy study performed included all cases of single suicidal gunshot injuries to the chest during a 20-year period and which were committed by the use of a handgun. The sample included 67 deceased persons that were an average of 44.4 ± 19.1 years old (range, 12-89 years; 58 men and 9 women). The most common region of the entrance wound was the left side of the chest (54/67), followed by the sternum (10/67), and the right side of the chest (3/67). For 9 subjects, the range of fire could not be determined, as well as whether the shot went through their clothing. In the remaining 58 subjects, only contact or near-contact wounds were found. Of the 58, only 3 subjects had their clothing removed between the chest wall and the muzzle. Three directions of the internal bullet paths were those most frequently found: downward right-to-left (27/67), downward left-to-right (20/67), and downward parallel (10/67) (χ = 101.045, P = 0.000). Also, most bullet paths were directed downward (57/67, χ = 32.970, P = 0.000). The most frequently injured organ was the heart (47/67), and the immediate causes of death were exsanguination (49/67), heart disruption (14/67), and tamponade (4/67).

  15. Effect of 4-week feeding of deoxynivalenol- or T-2-toxin-contaminated diet on lipid peroxidation and glutathione redox system in the hepatopancreas of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Pelyhe, Csilla; Kövesi, Benjámin; Zándoki, Erika; Kovács, Balázs; Szabó-Fodor, Judit; Mézes, Miklós; Balogh, Krisztián

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of study was to investigate the effects of T-2 toxin (4.11 mg T-2 toxin and 0.45 mg HT-2 toxin kg(-1) feed) and deoxynivalenol (5.96 and 0.33 mg 15-acetyl deoxynivalenol (DON) kg(-1) feed) in 1-year-old common carp juveniles in a 4-week feeding trial. The exposure of mycotoxins resulted in increased mortality in both groups consuming mycotoxin-contaminated diet. Parameters of lipid peroxidation were not affected during the trial, and antioxidant defence also did not show response to oxidative stress; however, glutatione peroxidase activity slightly, but significantly, decreased in the T-2 toxin group. Glutathione S-transferase activity showed moderate decrease as effect of T-2 toxin, which suggests its effect on xenobiotic transformation. Reduced glutathione concentration showed moderate changes as effect of DON exposure, but T-2 toxin has no effect. Expression of phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (GPx4) genes showed different response to mycotoxin exposure. T-2 toxin caused dual response in the expression of gpx4a (early and late downregulation and mid-term upregulation), but continuous upregulation was found as effect of deoxynivalenol. Expression of the other gene, gpx4b, was upregulated by both trichothecenes during the whole period. The results suggested that trichothecenes have some effect on free radical formation and antioxidant defence, but the changes depend on the duration of exposure and the dose applied, and in case of glutathione peroxidase, there was no correlation between expression of genes and enzyme activity.

  16. Waterlogging in late dormancy and the early growth phase affected root and leaf morphology in Betula pendula and Betula pubescens seedlings.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ai-Fang; Roitto, Marja; Sutinen, Sirkka; Lehto, Tarja; Heinonen, Jaakko; Zhang, Gang; Repo, Tapani

    2016-01-01

    The warmer winters of the future will increase snow-melt frequency and rainfall, thereby increasing the risk of soil waterlogging and its effects on trees in winter and spring at northern latitudes. We studied the morphology of roots and leaves of 1-year-old silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) and pubescent birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) seedlings exposed to waterlogging during dormancy or at the beginning of the growing season in a growth-chamber experiment. The experiment included 4-week dormancy (Weeks 1-4), a 4-week early growing season (Weeks 5-8) and a 4-week late growing season (Weeks 9-12). The treatments were: (i) no waterlogging, throughout the experiment ('NW'); (ii) 4-week waterlogging during dormancy (dormancy waterlogging 'DW'); (iii) 4-week waterlogging during the early growing season (growth waterlogging 'GW'); and (iv) 4-week DW followed by 4-week GW during the early growing season ('DWGW'). Dormancy waterlogging affected the roots of silver birch and GW the roots and leaf characteristics of both species. Leaf area was reduced in both species by GW and DWGW. In pubescent birch, temporarily increased formation of thin roots was seen in root systems of GW seedlings, which suggests an adaptive mechanism with respect to excess soil water. Additionally, the high density of non-glandular trichomes and their increase in DWGW leaves were considered possible morphological adaptations to excess water in the soil, as was the constant density of stem lenticels during stem-diameter growth. The higher density in glandular trichomes of DWGW silver birch suggests morphological acclimation in that species. The naturally low density of non-glandular trichomes, low density of stem lenticels in waterlogged seedlings and decrease in root growth seen in DWGW and DW silver birch seedlings explain, at least partly, why silver birch grows more poorly relative to pubescent birch in wet soils.

  17. Infants' indoor and outdoor residential exposure to benzene and respiratory health in a Spanish cohort.

    PubMed

    Ferrero, Amparo; Esplugues, Ana; Estarlich, Marisa; Llop, Sabrina; Cases, Amparo; Mantilla, Enrique; Ballester, Ferran; Iñiguez, Carmen

    2017-03-01

    Benzene exposure represents a potential risk for children's health. Apart from being a known carcinogen for humans (group 1 according to IARC), there is scientific evidence suggesting a relationship between benzene exposure and respiratory problems in children. But results are still inconclusive and inconsistent. This study aims to assess the determinants of exposure to indoor and outdoor residential benzene levels and its relationship with respiratory health in infants. Participants were 1-year-old infants (N = 352) from the INMA cohort from Valencia (Spain). Residential benzene exposure levels were measured inside and outside dwellings by means of passive samplers in a 15-day campaign. Persistent cough, low respiratory tract infections and wheezing during the first year of life, and covariates (dwelling traits, lifestyle factors and sociodemographic data) were obtained from parental questionnaires. Multiple Tobit regression and logistic regression models were performed to assess factors associated to residential exposure levels and health associations, respectively. Indoor levels were higher than outdoor ones (1.46 and 0.77 μg/m(3), respectively; p < 0.01). A considerable percentage of dwellings, 42% and 21% indoors and outdoors respectively, surpassed the WHO guideline of 1.7 μg/m(3) derived from a lifetime risk of leukemia above 1/100 000. Monitoring season, maternal country of birth and parental tobacco consumption were associated with residential benzene exposure (indoor and outdoors). Additionally, indoor levels were associated with mother's age and type of heating, and outdoor levels were linked with zone of residence and distance from industrial areas. After adjustment for confounding factors, no significant associations were found between residential benzene exposure levels and respiratory health in infants. Hence, our study did not support the hypothesis for the benzene exposure effect on respiratory health in children. Even so, it highlights a

  18. Florida panther habitat use response to prescribed fire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dees, Catherine S.; Clark, Joseph D.; van Manen, Frank T.

    2001-01-01

    The Florida panther (Puma concolor coryi) is one of the most endangered mammals in the world, with only 30-50 adults surviving in and around Florida Panther National Wildlife Refuge and the adjacent Big Cypress National Preserve. Managers at these areas conduct annual prescribed burns in pine (Pinus sp.) as a cost-effective method of managing wildlife habitat. Our objectives were to determine if temporal and spatial relationships existed between prescribed fire an panther use of pine. to accomplish this, we paired fire-event data from the Refuge an the Preserve with panther radiolocations collected between 1989 and 1998, determined the time that had elapsed since burning had occurred in management units associated with the radiolocations, and generated a frequency distribution based on those times. We then generated ant expected frequency distribution, based on random use relative to time since burning. This analysis revealed that panther use of burned pine habitats was greatest during the first year after a management unit was burned. Also, compositional analysis indicated that panthers were more likely to position their home ranges in areas that contained pine. We conclude that prescribed burning is important to panther ecology. We suggest that panthers were attracted to <1-year-old burns because of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and other prey responses to vegetation and structural changed caused by the prescribed fires. The strong selection for stands burned within 1 year is a persuasive indication that it is the burning in pine, rather than the pine per se, that most influenced habitat use. Before burning rotation lengths are reduced, however, we suggest managers determine effects of shorter burning intervals on vegetation composition and evaluate the landscape-scale changes that would result. 

  19. Vitamin D Intake and Status in 6-Year-Old Icelandic Children Followed up from Infancy.

    PubMed

    Thorisdottir, Birna; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg; Steingrimsdottir, Laufey; Palsson, Gestur I; Birgisdottir, Bryndis E; Thorsdottir, Inga

    2016-02-04

    High serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels have been observed in infants in Nordic countries, likely due to vitamin D supplement use. Internationally, little is known about tracking vitamin D status from infancy to childhood. Following up 1-year-old infants in our national longitudinal cohort, our aims were to study vitamin D intake and status in healthy 6-year-old Icelandic children (n = 139) and to track vitamin D status from one year of age. At six years, the mean 25(OH)D level was 56.5 nmol/L (SD 17.9) and 64% of children were vitamin D sufficient (25(OH)D ≥ 50 nmol/L). A logistic regression model adjusted for gender and breastfeeding showed that higher total vitamin D intake (Odds ratio (OR) = 1.27, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.08-1.49), blood samples collected in summer (OR = 8.88, 95% CI = 1.83-43.23) or autumn (OR = 5.64, 95% CI = 1.16-27.32) compared to winter/spring, and 25(OH)D at age one (OR = 1.02, 95% CI = 1.002-1.04) were independently associated with vitamin D sufficiency at age six. The correlation between 25(OH)D at age one and six was 0.34 (p = 0.003). Our findings suggest that vitamin D status in infancy, current vitamin D intake and season are predictors of vitamin D status in early school age children. Our finding of vitamin D status tracking from infancy to childhood provides motivation for further studies on tracking and its clinical significance.

  20. Effects of isotonic and isometric exercises with mist sauna bathing on cardiovascular, thermoregulatory, and metabolic functions.

    PubMed

    Iwase, Satoshi; Kawahara, Yuko; Nishimura, Naoki; Nishimura, Rumiko; Sugenoya, Junichi; Miwa, Chihiro; Takada, Masumi

    2014-08-01

    To clarify the effects of isometric and isotonic exercise during mist sauna bathing on the cardiovascular function, thermoregulatory function, and metabolism, six healthy young men (22 ± 1 years old, height 173 ± 4 cm, weight 65.0 ± 5.0 kg) were exposed to a mist sauna for 10 min at a temperature of 40 °C, and relative humidity of 100 % while performing or not performing ∼30 W of isometric or isotonic exercise. The effect of the exercise was assessed by measuring tympanic temperature, heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, chest sweat rate, chest skin blood flow, and plasma catecholamine and cortisol, glucose, lactate, and free fatty acid levels. Repeated measures ANOVA showed no significant differences in blood pressure, skin blood flow, sweat rate, and total amount of sweating. Tympanic temperature increased more during isotonic exercise, and heart rate increase was more marked during isotonic exercise. The changes in lactate indicated that fatigue was not very great during isometric exercise. The glucose level indicated greater energy expenditure during isometric exercise. The free fatty acid and catecholamine levels indicated that isometric exercise did not result in very great energy expenditure and stress, respectively. The results for isotonic exercise of a decrease in lactate level and an increase in plasma free fatty acid level indicated that fatigue and energy expenditure were rather large while the perceived stress was comparatively low. We concluded that isotonic exercise may be a more desirable form of exercise during mist sauna bathing given the changes in glucose and free fatty acid levels.