Science.gov

Sample records for 10-10 cm-2 s-1

  1. Small Molecule/Polymer Blend Organic Transistors with Hole Mobility Exceeding 13 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1).

    PubMed

    Paterson, Alexandra F; Treat, Neil D; Zhang, Weimin; Fei, Zhuping; Wyatt-Moon, Gwenhivir; Faber, Hendrik; Vourlias, George; Patsalas, Panos A; Solomeshch, Olga; Tessler, Nir; Heeney, Martin; Anthopoulos, Thomas D

    2016-09-01

    A ternary organic semiconducting blend composed of a small-molecule, a conjugated polymer, and a molecular p-dopant is developed and used in solution-processed organic transistors with hole mobility exceeding 13 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) (see the Figure). It is shown that key to this development is the incorporation of the p-dopant and the formation of a vertically phase-separated film microstructure. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Epitaxial SrTiO3 films with electron mobilities exceeding 30,000cm2V-1s-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Junwoo; Moetakef, Pouya; Jalan, Bharat; Bierwagen, Oliver; Wright, Nicholas J.; Engel-Herbert, Roman; Stemmer, Susanne

    2010-06-01

    The study of quantum phenomena in semiconductors requires epitaxial structures with exceptionally high charge-carrier mobilities. Furthermore, low-temperature mobilities are highly sensitive probes of the quality of epitaxial layers, because they are limited by impurity and defect scattering. Unlike many other complex oxides, electron-doped SrTiO3 single crystals show high (~104cm2V-1s-1) electron mobilities at low temperatures. High-mobility, epitaxial heterostructures with SrTiO3 have recently attracted attention for thermoelectric applications, field-induced superconductivity and two-dimensional (2D) interface conductivity. Epitaxial SrTiO3 thin films are often deposited by energetic techniques, such as pulsed laser deposition. Electron mobilities in such films are lower than those of single crystals. In semiconductor physics, molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) is widely established as the deposition method that produces the highest mobility structures. It is a low-energetic, high-purity technique that allows for low defect densities and precise control over doping concentrations and location. Here, we demonstrate controlled doping of epitaxial SrTiO3 layers grown by MBE. Electron mobilities in these films exceed those of single crystals. At low temperatures, the films show Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations. These high-mobility SrTiO3 films allow for the study of the intrinsic physics of SrTiO3 and can serve as building blocks for high-mobility oxide heterostructures.

  3. Growth of ˜5 cm2V-1s-1 mobility, p-type Copper(I) oxide (Cu2O) films by fast atmospheric atomic layer deposition (AALD) at 225°C and below

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Rojas, D.; Jordan, M.; Yeoh, C.; Marin, A. T.; Kursumovic, A.; Dunlop, L. A.; Iza, D. C.; Chen, A.; Wang, H.; MacManus Driscoll, J. L.

    2012-12-01

    Phase pure, dense Cu2O thin films were grown on glass and polymer substrates at 225°C by rapid atmospheric atomic layer deposition (AALD). Carrier mobilities of 5 cm2V-1s-1 and carrier concentrations of ˜1016 cm-3 were achieved in films of thickness 50 - 120 nm, over a >10 cm2 area. Growth rates were ˜1 nm.min-1 which is two orders of magnitude faster than conventional ALD.. The high mobilities achieved using the atmospheric, low temperature method represent a significant advance for flextronics and flexible solar cells which require growth on plastic substrates.

  4. High Mobility Exceeding 80 cm2 V-1 s-1 in Polycrystalline Ta-Doped SnO2 Thin Films on Glass Using Anatase TiO2 Seed Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakao, Shoichiro; Yamada, Naoomi; Hitosugi, Taro; Hirose, Yasushi; Shimada, Toshihiro; Hasegawa, Tetsuya

    2010-03-01

    High-mobility Ta-doped SnO2 (TTO) thin films were grown on glass substrates by pulsed laser deposition using a seed-layer technique. The use of 10-nm-thick polycrystalline anatase TiO2 seed layers was found to lead to the preferred growth of (200)-oriented TTO films, resulting in a 30% increase in the carrier density and a more than two times increase in mobility, compared to films grown directly on the glass substrates. The highest mobility obtained was 83 cm2 V-1 s-1 with a resistivity of 2.8×10-4 Ω cm, whereas the film with the lowest resistivity of 1.8×10-4 Ω cm had a mobility of 60 cm2 V-1 s-1.

  5. CM2 Spacecraft Magnetic Test Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Y.

    2012-05-01

    CM2 spacecraft magnetic test facility was constructed for the purpose of simulating geomagnetic and interplanetary field environment. The facility includes 3 axis coil system consisting of 12 squares loops, 4 loops on each of the three orthogonal axes. CM2 can provide uniform, stable zero magnetic fields and is equipped with instrumentation for the measurement and calibration of spacecraft and individual instruments. The length of maximum coil side is 16 m. The permitted largest dimension of spacecraft is 3.5 m (length)×3.5 m (width)×4.5 m (height). The permitted maximum mass of spacecraft is 3000 kg. The facility has been used for magnetic moment measurement of spacecraft. The facility has also been used for precise, high-resolution magnetometer calibration and magnetic cleanliness tests of spacecraft. Magnetic tests items include magnetic field measurement, magnetic moment measurement, magnetic compensation test, magnetization and demagnetization test.

  6. Design of a 10**36 CM-2 S-1 Super-B Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Biagini, M.E.; Boni, R.; Boscolo, M.; Demma, T.; Drago, A.; Guiducci, S.; Raimondi, P.; Tomassini, S.; Zobov, M.; Bertsche, Kirk J.; Novokhatski, A.; Seeman, J.; Sullivan, M.; Wienands, U.; Wittmer, W.; Bettoni, S.; Paoloni, E.; Marchiori, G.; Bogomyagkov, A.; Koop, I.; Levichev, E.; /Novosibirsk, IYF

    2011-10-24

    Parameters have been studied for a high luminosity e{sup +}e{sup -} collider operating at the Upsilon 4S that would deliver a luminosity of 1 to 4 x 10{sup 36}/cm{sup 2}/s. This collider, called a Super-B Factory, would use a combination of linear collider and storage ring techniques. In this scheme an electron beam and a positron beam are stored in low-emittance damping rings similar to those designed for a Linear Collider (LC) or the next generation light source. A LC style interaction region is included in the ring to produce sub-millimeter vertical beta functions at the collision point. A large crossing angle (+/- 24 mrad) is used at the collision point to allow beam separation. A crab-waist scheme is used to reduce the hourglass effect and restore peak luminosity. Beam currents of 1.8 A at 4 x 7 GeV in 1251 bunches can produce a luminosity of 10{sup 36}/cm{sup 2}/s with upgrade possibilities. Such a collider would produce an integrated luminosity of about 10,000 fb{sup -1} (10 ab{sup -1}) in a running year (10{sup 7} sec) at the {gamma}(4S) resonance. Further possibilities include having longitudinally polarized e- at the IR and operating at the J/Psi and Psi beam energies.

  7. Lessons Learned From CM-2 Modal Testing and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNelis, Mark E.; Goodnight, Thomas W.; Carney, Kelly S.; Otten, Kim D.

    2002-01-01

    The Combustion Module-2 (CM-2) is a space experiment that launches on Shuttle mission STS-107 in the SPACEHAB Double Research Module. The CM-2 flight hardware is installed into SPACEHAB single and double racks. The CM-2 flight hardware was vibration tested in the launch configuration to characterize the structure's modal response. Cross-orthogonality between test and analysis mode shapes were used to assess model correlation. Lessons learned for pre-test planning and model verification are discussed.

  8. CM-2 Environmental/Modal Testing of SPACEHAB Racks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNelis, Mark E.; Goodnight, Thomas W.

    2001-01-01

    Combined environmental/modal vibration testing has been implemented at the NASA Glenn Research Center's Structural Dynamics Laboratory. The benefits of combined vibration testing are that it facilitates test article modal characterization and vibration qualification testing. The Combustion Module-2 (CM-2) is a space experiment that will launch on shuttle mission STS-107 in the SPACEHAB Research Double Module. The CM-2 flight hardware is integrated into a SPACEHAB single and double rack. CM-2 rack-level combined vibration testing was recently completed on a shaker table to characterize the structure's modal response and verify the random vibration response. Control accelerometers and limit force gauges, located between the fixture and rack interface, were used to verify the input excitation. Results of the testing were used to verify the loads and environments for flight on the shuttles.

  9. CM-2 Environmental / Modal Testing of Spacehab Racks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNelis, Mark E.; Goodnight, Thomas W.; Farkas, Michael A.

    2001-01-01

    Combined environmental/modal vibration testing has been implemented at the NASA Glenn Research Center's Structural Dynamics Laboratory. The benefits of combined vibration testing are that it facilitates test article modal characterization and vibration qualification testing. The Combustion Module-2 (CM-2) is a space experiment that launches on Shuttle mission STS 107 in the SPACEHAB Research Double Module. The CM-2 flight hardware is integrated into a SPACEHAB single and double rack. CM-2 rack level combined vibration testing was recently completed on a shaker table to characterize the structure's modal response and verify the random vibration response. Control accelerometers and limit force gauges, located between the fixture and rack interface, were used to verify the input excitation. Results of the testing were used to verify the loads and environments for flight on the Shuttle.

  10. Organic Matter Inclusions in CM2 Chondrite Murchison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peeters, Z.; Liebig, B.; Lee, T.

    2015-07-01

    Large (~10 μm) inclusions of pure organic carbon exist in carbonaceous chondrites. We extracted organic inclusions from Murchison, a CM2, and analyzed the sections using XANES, TEM, and nanoSIMS. The results are compared to previous results of CRs.

  11. Sayama CM2 Chondrite: Fresh but Heavily Altered

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takaoka, N.; Nakamura, T.; Noguchi, T.; Tonui, E.; Gounelle, M.; Zolensky, M. E.; Ebisawa, N.; Osawa, T.; Okazaki, R.; Nagao, K.; Yoneda, S.

    2001-01-01

    Noble gas composition and mineralogy of Sayama meteorite, that fell in Japan and recently identified as a CM2 chondrite, revealed many unique features, indicating that it experienced extensive aqueous alteration under highly oxidized condition compared with typical CMs. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  12. Benchmarking and performance analysis of the CM-2. [SIMD computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, David W.; Adams, George B., II

    1988-01-01

    A suite of benchmarking routines testing communication, basic arithmetic operations, and selected kernel algorithms written in LISP and PARIS was developed for the CM-2. Experiment runs are automated via a software framework that sequences individual tests, allowing for unattended overnight operation. Multiple measurements are made and treated statistically to generate well-characterized results from the noisy values given by cm:time. The results obtained provide a comparison with similar, but less extensive, testing done on a CM-1. Tests were chosen to aid the algorithmist in constructing fast, efficient, and correct code on the CM-2, as well as gain insight into what performance criteria are needed when evaluating parallel processing machines.

  13. 46 CFR 92.10-10 - Location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Location. 92.10-10 Section 92.10-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Means of Escape § 92.10-10 Location. (a) The two means of escape shall be as remote as practicable so as...

  14. 46 CFR 190.10-10 - Location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Location. 190.10-10 Section 190.10-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Means of Escape § 190.10-10 Location. (a) The two means of escape shall be as remote as...

  15. 46 CFR 72.10-10 - Location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Location. 72.10-10 Section 72.10-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Means of Escape § 72.10-10 Location. (a) The two means of escape shall be as remote as practicable so as to minimize...

  16. 1 CFR 10.10 - Publication required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Publication required. 10.10 Section 10.10 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER PRESIDENTIAL PAPERS Annual Publication § 10.10 Publication required. The Director of the...

  17. 1 CFR 10.10 - Publication required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Publication required. 10.10 Section 10.10 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER PRESIDENTIAL PAPERS Annual Publication § 10.10 Publication required. The Director of the...

  18. 1 CFR 10.10 - Publication required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Publication required. 10.10 Section 10.10 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER PRESIDENTIAL PAPERS Annual Publication § 10.10 Publication required. The Director of the...

  19. 1 CFR 10.10 - Publication required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Publication required. 10.10 Section 10.10 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER PRESIDENTIAL PAPERS Annual Publication § 10.10 Publication required. The Director of the...

  20. 1 CFR 10.10 - Publication required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Publication required. 10.10 Section 10.10 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER PRESIDENTIAL PAPERS Annual Publication § 10.10 Publication required. The Director of the...

  1. 19 CFR 10.10 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false 10.10 Section 10.10 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Articles Exported and Returned § 10.10...

  2. Organic Power Electronics: Transistor Operation in the kA/cm(2) Regime.

    PubMed

    Klinger, Markus P; Fischer, Axel; Kaschura, Felix; Widmer, Johannes; Kheradmand-Boroujeni, Bahman; Ellinger, Frank; Leo, Karl

    2017-03-17

    In spite of interesting features as flexibility, organic thin-film transistors have commercially lagged behind due to the low mobilities of organic semiconductors associated with hopping transport. Furthermore, organic transistors usually have much larger channel lengths than their inorganic counterparts since high-resolution structuring is not available in low-cost production schemes. Here, we present an organic permeable-base transistor (OPBT) which, despite extremely simple processing without any high-resolution structuring, achieve a performance beyond what has so far been possible using organic semiconductors. With current densities above 1 kA cm(-2) and switching speeds towards 100 MHz, they open the field of organic power electronics. Finding the physical limits and an effective mobility of only 0.06 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), this OPBT device architecture has much more potential if new materials optimized for its geometry will be developed.

  3. Organic Power Electronics: Transistor Operation in the kA/cm2 Regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinger, Markus P.; Fischer, Axel; Kaschura, Felix; Widmer, Johannes; Kheradmand-Boroujeni, Bahman; Ellinger, Frank; Leo, Karl

    2017-03-01

    In spite of interesting features as flexibility, organic thin-film transistors have commercially lagged behind due to the low mobilities of organic semiconductors associated with hopping transport. Furthermore, organic transistors usually have much larger channel lengths than their inorganic counterparts since high-resolution structuring is not available in low-cost production schemes. Here, we present an organic permeable-base transistor (OPBT) which, despite extremely simple processing without any high-resolution structuring, achieve a performance beyond what has so far been possible using organic semiconductors. With current densities above 1 kA cm-2 and switching speeds towards 100 MHz, they open the field of organic power electronics. Finding the physical limits and an effective mobility of only 0.06 cm2 V-1 s-1, this OPBT device architecture has much more potential if new materials optimized for its geometry will be developed.

  4. 43 CFR 10.10 - Repatriation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Museums and Federal Collections § 10.10 Repatriation. (a) Unassociated funerary objects, sacred objects... objects as defined in § 10.10 (a)(2); and (iv) The agency or museum is unable to present evidence to the..., the museum or Federal agency may retain the human remains, funerary objects, sacred objects,...

  5. 43 CFR 10.10 - Repatriation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Museums and Federal Collections § 10.10 Repatriation. (a) Unassociated funerary objects, sacred objects... objects as defined in § 10.10 (a)(2); and (iv) The agency or museum is unable to present evidence to the..., the museum or Federal agency may retain the human remains, funerary objects, sacred objects,...

  6. Direct particle simulation on the Connection Machine CM-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dagum, L.

    1992-01-01

    Particle simulation is a useful technique for analyzing low density flows. The Connection Machine CM-2 is a useful test bed for studying the fine-grain data objects decomposition and the coarse-grain domain decomposition single instruction multiple datastream (SIMD) approaches to particle simulation. Both approaches are investigated for the model problem of uniform flow through a channel and the algorithms required for the SIMD domain decomposition approach are presented. An unresolved issue with the domain decomposition approach is the effect of a poor partitioning on flows with real geometries. Initial results with the channel flow problem indicate that a poor partitioning has only a small detrimental effect on the overall performance.

  7. CO2-Induced Ocean Climate Change around Antarctica in GFDL CM2.5 and CM2.6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goddard, P.; Griffies, S. M.; Yin, J.

    2015-12-01

    We use two high resolution climate models recently developed at GFDL (CM2.5 and CM2.6) to investigate CO2-induced ocean climate change around Antarctica, and its implication for the Antarctic ice sheet melt. We consider both long-term control runs and the idealized 1% per year CO2 doubling experiments. In particular, we focus on the role of three different mechanisms for the transport of heat from the ocean interior onto the continental shelf of Antarctica, which is responsible for the basal melt of ice shelves. Firstly, the southward shift of the westerlies in the doubling CO2 experiments leads to a weakening of the easterlies near the continental edge, thereby decreasing Ekman downwelling. The decreased downwelling allows the transport of heat from the ocean interior onto the continental shelf. Secondly, the increase in surface wind velocity in the CO2 experiments lead to more energetic mesoscale eddies and greater heat transport across the shelf break. Thirdly, the lower salinity of shelf water in the CO2 experiments due to the freshwater addition and a decline in sea ice formation enhances baroclinicity near the shelf break, as well as the heat transport towards the continental shelf.

  8. Not All Refractory Spherules in CM2S are Chondrules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenwood, R. C.

    1992-07-01

    Refractory spherules in CM2 meteorites are small, <300 micrometers in diameter, inclusions composed predominantly of spinel, with accessory hibonite and perovskite (Macdougall 1981). On the basis of their chondrule-like morphology, and the inward-radiating habit of hibonite in some inclusions, it has been suggested that refractory spherules formed from liquid droplets (Macdougall 1981; MacPherson et al. 1983). Since many spherules are composed purely of spinel, Macdougall (1981) estimated that their 1-atm melting temperature might have been as high as 2135 degrees C. Melt temperatures in excess of 1550 degrees C were estimated by MacPherson et al. (1983) for the spinel-hibonite spherule BB1. Refractory spherules are a minor component of the Ca-Al rich inclusions (CAIs) found in CM2s. Of 345 CAIs located in the CM2 Cold Bokkeveld only 4 are refractory spherules (study in collaboration with M. Lee, University of Essex). Textural evidence from Cold Bokkeveld demonstrates that CAIs in CM2s are highly fragmented and must have been derived by disruption of larger objects (Greenwood et al. 1991). That this is also the case for refractory spherules is clearly demonstrated by MSP1, an anhedral, spinel-bearing inclusion (300 mmicrometer longest dimension) located in situ in Murchison (CM2). It comprises a rounded core (110 micrometers in diameter) of Fe-free spinel (V2O3 0.5wt%) surrounded by a rim of pyroxene (15-25 micrometers thick), in turn enclosed by a zone of olivine (Fo 99.7) and Mg-rich phyllosilicate. The spinel core contains 15% void space (estimated). The pyroxene rim is zoned outwards from fassaite to diopside. Blocky crystals of olivine <20 micrometers in diameter form a discontinuous rim to pyroxene and occur as isolated grains enclosed by Mg-phyllosilicate. The inclusion has an irregular outline and a sharp contact with surrounding matrix, indicating that it is a fragment of a larger, now disrupted CAI. In CV3 meteorites refractory spinel-rich spherules

  9. Microbiological study of the Murchison CM2 meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2012-10-01

    In 1864, Louis Pasteur attempted to cultivate living microorganisms from pristine samples of the Orgueil CI1 carbonaceous meteorite. His results were negative and never published, but recorded it in his laboratory notebooks. At that time, only aerobic liquid or agar-based organic reach media were used, as his research on anaerobes had just started. In our laboratory the Murchison CM2 carbonaceous meteorite was selected to expand on these studies for microbiological study by cultivation on anaerobic mineral media. Since the surface could have been more easily contaminated, interior fragments of a sample of the Murchison meteorite were extracted and crushed under sterile conditions. The resulting powder was then mixed in anoxic medium and injected into Hungate tubes containing anaerobic media with various growth substrates at different pH and salinity and incubated at different temperatures. The goal of the experiments was to determine if living cells would grow from the material of freshly fractured interior fragments of the stone. If any growth occurred, work could then be carried out to assess the nature of the environmental contamination by observations of the culture growth (rates of speed and biodiversity); live/dead fluorescent staining to determine contamination level and DNA analysis to establish the microbial species present. In this paper we report the results of that study.

  10. Presolar grains in the CM2 chondrite Sutter's Mill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xuchao; Lin, Yangting; Yin, Qing-Zhu; Zhang, Jianchao; Hao, Jialong; Zolensky, Michael; Jenniskens, Peter

    2014-11-01

    The Sutter's Mill (SM) carbonaceous chondrite is a regolith breccia, composed predominantly of CM2 clasts with varying degrees of aqueous alteration and thermal metamorphism. An investigation of presolar grains in four Sutter's Mill sections, SM43, SM51, SM2-4, and SM18, was carried out using NanoSIMS ion mapping technique. A total of 37 C-anomalous grains and one O-anomalous grain have been identified, indicating an abundance of 63 ppm for presolar C-anomalous grains and 2 ppm for presolar oxides. Thirty-one silicon carbide (SiC), five carbonaceous grains, and one Al-oxide (Al2O3) were confirmed based on their elemental compositions determined by C-N-Si and O-Si-Mg-Al isotopic measurements. The overall abundance of SiC grains in Sutter's Mill (55 ppm) is consistent with those in other CM chondrites. The absence of presolar silicates in Sutter's Mill suggests that they were destroyed by aqueous alteration on the parent asteroid. Furthermore, SM2-4 shows heterogeneous distributions of presolar SiC grains (12-54 ppm) in different matrix areas, indicating that the fine-grained matrix clasts come from different sources, with various thermal histories, in the solar nebula.

  11. 75 FR 82333 - Airworthiness Directives; McDonnell Douglas Corporation Model DC-10-10, DC-10-10F, and MD-10-10F...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-30

    ... Corporation Model DC- 10-10, DC-10-10F, and MD-10-10F Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... directive (AD) for certain Model DC-10-10, DC-10-10F, and MD-10-10F airplanes. This proposed AD would...., Washington, DC 20590. Hand Delivery: U.S. Department of Transportation, Docket Operations, M-30,...

  12. 75 FR 35611 - Airworthiness Directives; McDonnell Douglas Corporation Model DC-10-10, DC-10-10F, and MD-10-10F...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-23

    ... Corporation Model DC- 10-10, DC-10-10F, and MD-10-10F Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... DC-10-10, DC-10-10F, and MD-10-10F airplanes. This AD requires a one-time high frequency eddy current... instances of Model DC-10-10F airplanes having fuel leaks in the wing rear spar lower cap at station Xors=345...

  13. Multielectron ultrastrong laser field ionization of Arn+, Krm+ and Xel+ (n <= 9, m <= 9, l <= 12) at intensities from 1015 W cm-2 to 1018 W cm-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palaniyappan, S.; Di Chiara, A.; Ghebregziabher, I.; Huskins, E. L.; Falkowski, A.; Pajerowski, D.; Walker, B. C.

    2006-07-01

    Ionization yields are reported for Ar, Kr and Xe in ultrastrong fields from 1015 W cm-2 to 1018 W cm-2. Non-sequential ionization (NSI) is shown to be a robust and general feature in ultrahigh field ionization. NSI yields measured are consistent with the trends predicted by a rescattering model, but as one proceeds to higher Z atoms more NSI is observed than predicted theoretically. Additional recollision mechanisms that may need to be considered in future theories of ultrastrong field-atom interactions include 'chain' NSI, NSI from excited states of the atom (e.g. Rydberg states or inner-shell holes) and the possibility of ultrastrong field enhanced recollision/impact processes.

  14. 46 CFR 53.10-10 - Certification by stamping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Certification by stamping. 53.10-10 Section 53.10-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING HEATING BOILERS Tests, Inspection, Stamping, and Reporting (Article 5) § 53.10-10 Certification by stamping. Stamping of...

  15. 46 CFR 53.10-10 - Certification by stamping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Certification by stamping. 53.10-10 Section 53.10-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING HEATING BOILERS Tests, Inspection, Stamping, and Reporting (Article 5) § 53.10-10 Certification by stamping. Stamping of...

  16. 46 CFR 53.10-10 - Certification by stamping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Certification by stamping. 53.10-10 Section 53.10-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING HEATING BOILERS Tests, Inspection, Stamping, and Reporting (Article 5) § 53.10-10 Certification by stamping. Stamping of...

  17. 46 CFR 53.10-10 - Certification by stamping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Certification by stamping. 53.10-10 Section 53.10-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING HEATING BOILERS Tests, Inspection, Stamping, and Reporting (Article 5) § 53.10-10 Certification by stamping. Stamping of...

  18. 46 CFR 53.10-10 - Certification by stamping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Certification by stamping. 53.10-10 Section 53.10-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING HEATING BOILERS Tests, Inspection, Stamping, and Reporting (Article 5) § 53.10-10 Certification by stamping. Stamping of...

  19. 24 CFR 10.10 - Participation by interested persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Participation by interested persons. 10.10 Section 10.10 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development RULEMAKING: POLICY AND PROCEDURES Procedures § 10.10 Participation by...

  20. 33 CFR 66.10-5-66.10-10 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 66.10-5-66.10-10 Section 66.10-5-66.10-10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Uniform State Waterway Marking System §§ 66.10-5—66.10-10...

  1. 33 CFR 66.10-5-66.10-10 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 66.10-5-66.10-10 Section 66.10-5-66.10-10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Uniform State Waterway Marking System §§ 66.10-5—66.10-10...

  2. 10 CFR 10.10 - Application of the criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Application of the criteria. 10.10 Section 10.10 Energy... for Access to Restricted Data or National Security Information or an Employment Clearance § 10.10... in § 10.11 set forth a number of the types of derogatory information used to assist in...

  3. 10 CFR 10.10 - Application of the criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Application of the criteria. 10.10 Section 10.10 Energy... for Access to Restricted Data or National Security Information or an Employment Clearance § 10.10... in § 10.11 set forth a number of the types of derogatory information used to assist in...

  4. 10 CFR 10.10 - Application of the criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application of the criteria. 10.10 Section 10.10 Energy... for Access to Restricted Data or National Security Information or an Employment Clearance § 10.10... in § 10.11 set forth a number of the types of derogatory information used to assist in...

  5. 10 CFR 10.10 - Application of the criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Application of the criteria. 10.10 Section 10.10 Energy... for Access to Restricted Data or National Security Information or an Employment Clearance § 10.10... in § 10.11 set forth a number of the types of derogatory information used to assist in...

  6. 10 CFR 10.10 - Application of the criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Application of the criteria. 10.10 Section 10.10 Energy... for Access to Restricted Data or National Security Information or an Employment Clearance § 10.10... in § 10.11 set forth a number of the types of derogatory information used to assist in...

  7. 46 CFR 58.10-10 - Diesel engine installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Diesel engine installations. 58.10-10 Section 58.10-10... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 58.10-10 Diesel engine installations. (a) The requirements of § 58.10-5 (a), (c), and (d) shall apply to diesel engine installations...

  8. 46 CFR 58.10-10 - Diesel engine installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Diesel engine installations. 58.10-10 Section 58.10-10... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 58.10-10 Diesel engine installations. (a) The requirements of § 58.10-5 (a), (c), and (d) shall apply to diesel engine installations...

  9. 46 CFR 58.10-10 - Diesel engine installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Diesel engine installations. 58.10-10 Section 58.10-10... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 58.10-10 Diesel engine installations. (a) The requirements of § 58.10-5 (a), (c), and (d) shall apply to diesel engine installations...

  10. 46 CFR 58.10-10 - Diesel engine installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Diesel engine installations. 58.10-10 Section 58.10-10... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 58.10-10 Diesel engine installations. (a) The requirements of § 58.10-5 (a), (c), and (d) shall apply to diesel engine installations...

  11. 46 CFR 71.10-10 - Conditions of permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Conditions of permit. 71.10-10 Section 71.10-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Permit To Engage in Excursions § 71.10-10 Conditions of permit. (a) The permit will state upon its...

  12. 46 CFR 71.10-10 - Conditions of permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Conditions of permit. 71.10-10 Section 71.10-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Permit To Engage in Excursions § 71.10-10 Conditions of permit. (a) The permit will state upon its...

  13. 46 CFR 3.10-10 - Right of appeal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Right of appeal. 3.10-10 Section 3.10-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC DESIGNATION OF OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS Designation § 3.10-10 Right of appeal. Any person directly affected by a decision...

  14. 46 CFR 71.10-10 - Conditions of permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Conditions of permit. 71.10-10 Section 71.10-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Permit To Engage in Excursions § 71.10-10 Conditions of permit. (a) The permit will state upon its face...

  15. Compositions of Partly Altered Olivine and Replacement Serpentine in the CM2 Chondrite QUE 93005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velbel, M. A.; Tonui, E. K.; Zolensky, M. E.

    2013-09-01

    Serpentine replacing olivine in QUE 93005 has a narrow range of compositions, regardless of the reactant olivine’s composition. Homogeneity of replacement serpentines in QUE 93005 and other CM2s favors homogeneity of aqueous solutions on >cm scales.

  16. Magnesium isotopic fractionation in chondrules from the Murchison and Murray CM2 carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouvier, Audrey; Wadhwa, Meenakshi; Simon, Steven B.; Grossman, Lawrence

    2013-03-01

    We present high-precision measurements of the Mg isotopic compositions of a suite of types I and II chondrules separated from the Murchison and Murray CM2 carbonaceous chondrites. These chondrules are olivine- and pyroxene-rich and have low 27Al/24Mg ratios (0.012-0.316). The Mg isotopic compositions of Murray chondrules are on average lighter (δ26Mg ranging from -0.95‰ to -0.15‰ relative to the DSM-3 standard) than those of Murchison (δ26Mg ranging from -1.27‰ to +0.77‰). Taken together, the CM2 chondrules exhibit a narrower range of Mg isotopic compositions than those from CV and CB chondrites studied previously. The least-altered CM2 chondrules are on average lighter (average δ26Mg = -0.39 ± 0.30‰, 2SE) than the moderately to heavily altered CM2 chondrules (average δ26Mg = -0.11 ± 0.21‰, 2SE). The compositions of CM2 chondrules are consistent with isotopic fractionation toward heavy Mg being associated with the formation of secondary silicate phases on the CM2 parent body, but were also probably affected by volatilization and recondensation processes involved in their original formation. The low-Al CM2 chondrules analyzed here do not exhibit any mass-independent variations in 26Mg from the decay of 26Al, with the exception of two chondrules that show only small variations just outside of the analytical error. In the case of the chondrule with the highest Al/Mg ratio (a type IAB chondrule from Murchison), the lack of resolvable 26Mg excess suggests that it either formed >1 Ma after calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions, or that its Al-Mg isotope systematics were reset by secondary alteration processes on the CM2 chondrite parent body after the decay of 26Al.

  17. GFDL's CM2 global coupled climate models. Part I: Formulation and simulation characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Delworth, T.L.; Broccoli, A.J.; Rosati, A.; Stouffer, R.J.; Balaji, V.; Beesley, J.A.; Cooke, W.F.; Dixon, K.W.; Dunne, J.; Dunne, K.A.; Durachta, J.W.; Findell, K.L.; Ginoux, P.; Gnanadesikan, A.; Gordon, C.T.; Griffies, S.M.; Gudgel, R.; Harrison, M.J.; Held, I.M.; Hemler, R.S.; Horowitz, L.W.; Klein, S.A.; Knutson, T.R.; Kushner, P.J.; Langenhorst, A.R.; Lee, H.-C.; Lin, S.-J.; Lu, J.; Malyshev, S.L.; Milly, P.C.D.; Ramaswamy, V.; Russell, J.; Schwarzkopf, M.D.; Shevliakova, E.; Sirutis, J.J.; Spelman, M.J.; Stern, W.F.; Winton, M.; Wittenberg, A.T.; Wyman, B.; Zeng, F.; Zhang, R.

    2006-01-01

    The formulation and simulation characteristics of two new global coupled climate models developed at NOAA's Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) are described. The models were designed to simulate atmospheric and oceanic climate and variability from the diurnal time scale through multicentury climate change, given our computational constraints. In particular, an important goal was to use the same model for both experimental seasonal to interannual forecasting and the study of multicentury global climate change, and this goal has been achieved. Tw o versions of the coupled model are described, called CM2.0 and CM2.1. The versions differ primarily in the dynamical core used in the atmospheric component, along with the cloud tuning and some details of the land and ocean components. For both coupled models, the resolution of the land and atmospheric components is 2?? latitude ?? 2.5?? longitude; the atmospheric model has 24 vertical levels. The ocean resolution is 1?? in latitude and longitude, with meridional resolution equatorward of 30?? becoming progressively finer, such that the meridional resolution is 1/3?? at the equator. There are 50 vertical levels in the ocean, with 22 evenly spaced levels within the top 220 m. The ocean component has poles over North America and Eurasia to avoid polar filtering. Neither coupled model employs flux adjustments. The co ntrol simulations have stable, realistic climates when integrated over multiple centuries. Both models have simulations of ENSO that are substantially improved relative to previous GFDL coupled models. The CM2.0 model has been further evaluated as an ENSO forecast model and has good skill (CM2.1 has not been evaluated as an ENSO forecast model). Generally reduced temperature and salinity biases exist in CM2.1 relative to CM2.0. These reductions are associated with 1) improved simulations of surface wind stress in CM2.1 and associated changes in oceanic gyre circulations; 2) changes in cloud tuning and

  18. Impact-Induced Chondrule Deformation and Aqueous Alteration of CM2 Murchison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanna, R. D.; Zolensky, M.; Ketcham, R. A.; Behr, W. M.; Martinez, J. E.

    2014-01-01

    Deformed chondrules in CM2 Murchison have been found to define a prominent foliation [1,2] and lineation [3] in 3D using X-ray computed tomography (XCT). It has been hypothesized that chondrules in foliated chondrites deform by "squeezing" into surrounding pore space [4,5], a process that also likely removes primary porosity [6]. However, shock stage classification based on olivine extinction in Murchison is consistently low (S1-S2) [4-5,7] implying that significant intracrystalline plastic deformation of olivine has not occurred. One objective of our study is therefore to determine the microstructural mechanisms and phases that are accommodating the impact stress and resulting in relative displacements within the chondrules. Another question regarding impact deformation in Murchison is whether it facilitated aqueous alteration as has been proposed for the CMs which generally show a positive correlation between degree of alteration and petrofabric strength [7,2]. As pointed out by [2], CM Murchison represents a unique counterpoint to this correlation: it has a strong petrofabric but a relatively low degree of aqueous alteration. However, Murchison may not represent an inconsistency to the proposed causal relationship between impact and alteration, if it can be established that the incipient aqueous alteration post-dated chondrule deformation. Methods: Two thin sections from Murchison sample USNM 5487 were cut approximately perpendicular to the foliation and parallel to lineation determined by XCT [1,3] and one section was additionally polished for EBSD. Using a combination of optical petrography, SEM, EDS, and EBSD several chondrules were characterized in detail to: determine phases, find microstructures indicative of strain, document the geometric relationships between grain-scale microstructures and the foliation and lineation direction, and look for textural relationships of alteration minerals (tochilinite and Mg-Fe serpentine) that indicate timing of their

  19. 46 CFR 95.10-10 - Fire hydrants and hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire hydrants and hose. 95.10-10 Section 95.10-10... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Main System, Details § 95.10-10 Fire hydrants and hose. (a) The size of fire hydrants, hose, and nozzles and the length of hose required shall be as noted in Table 95.10-5(a). (b) In...

  20. 15 CFR 10.10 - Review of published standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Review of published standards. 10.10... DEVELOPMENT OF VOLUNTARY PRODUCT STANDARDS § 10.10 Review of published standards. (a) Each standard published... considered until a replacement standard is published. (b) Each standard published under these or previous...

  1. 15 CFR 10.10 - Review of published standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Review of published standards. 10.10... DEVELOPMENT OF VOLUNTARY PRODUCT STANDARDS § 10.10 Review of published standards. (a) Each standard published... considered until a replacement standard is published. (b) Each standard published under these or previous...

  2. 46 CFR 105.10-10 - Combustible liquid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Combustible liquid. 105.10-10 Section 105.10-10 Shipping... Combustible liquid. (a) The term combustible liquid means any liquid having a flashpoint above 80 °F. (as..., combustible liquids are referred to by grades, as follows: (1) Grade D. Any combustible liquid having...

  3. 46 CFR 105.10-10 - Combustible liquid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Combustible liquid. 105.10-10 Section 105.10-10 Shipping... Combustible liquid. (a) The term combustible liquid means any liquid having a flashpoint above 80 °F. (as..., combustible liquids are referred to by grades, as follows: (1) Grade D. Any combustible liquid having...

  4. 46 CFR 105.10-10 - Combustible liquid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Combustible liquid. 105.10-10 Section 105.10-10 Shipping... Combustible liquid. (a) The term combustible liquid means any liquid having a flashpoint above 80 °F. (as..., combustible liquids are referred to by grades, as follows: (1) Grade D. Any combustible liquid having...

  5. 46 CFR 105.10-10 - Combustible liquid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Combustible liquid. 105.10-10 Section 105.10-10 Shipping... Combustible liquid. (a) The term combustible liquid means any liquid having a flashpoint above 80 °F. (as..., combustible liquids are referred to by grades, as follows: (1) Grade D. Any combustible liquid having...

  6. 46 CFR 105.10-10 - Combustible liquid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Combustible liquid. 105.10-10 Section 105.10-10 Shipping... Combustible liquid. (a) The term combustible liquid means any liquid having a flashpoint above 80 °F. (as..., combustible liquids are referred to by grades, as follows: (1) Grade D. Any combustible liquid having...

  7. 46 CFR 58.10-10 - Diesel engine installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 58.10-10 Diesel engine installations. (a) The requirements of § 58.10-5 (a), (c), and (d) shall apply to diesel engine installations... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Diesel engine installations. 58.10-10 Section...

  8. 33 CFR 67.10-10 - Operating requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Operating requirements. 67.10-10 Section 67.10-10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES General Requirements for...

  9. 33 CFR 67.10-10 - Operating requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operating requirements. 67.10-10 Section 67.10-10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES General Requirements for...

  10. 33 CFR 67.10-10 - Operating requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Operating requirements. 67.10-10 Section 67.10-10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES General Requirements for...

  11. 33 CFR 67.10-10 - Operating requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Operating requirements. 67.10-10 Section 67.10-10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES General Requirements for...

  12. 33 CFR 67.10-10 - Operating requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Operating requirements. 67.10-10 Section 67.10-10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES General Requirements for...

  13. 46 CFR 194.10-10 - Integral magazine construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Integral magazine construction. 194.10-10 Section 194.10... HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Magazines § 194.10-10 Integral magazine construction. (a) Magazines shall be of permanent watertight construction. Bulkheads and...

  14. 46 CFR 194.10-10 - Integral magazine construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Integral magazine construction. 194.10-10 Section 194.10... HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Magazines § 194.10-10 Integral magazine construction. (a) Magazines shall be of permanent watertight construction. Bulkheads and...

  15. 46 CFR 194.10-10 - Integral magazine construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Integral magazine construction. 194.10-10 Section 194.10... HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Magazines § 194.10-10 Integral magazine construction. (a) Magazines shall be of permanent watertight construction. Bulkheads and...

  16. 46 CFR 194.10-10 - Integral magazine construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Integral magazine construction. 194.10-10 Section 194.10... HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Magazines § 194.10-10 Integral magazine construction. (a) Magazines shall be of permanent watertight construction. Bulkheads and...

  17. 46 CFR 194.10-10 - Integral magazine construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Integral magazine construction. 194.10-10 Section 194.10... HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Magazines § 194.10-10 Integral magazine construction. (a) Magazines shall be of permanent watertight construction. Bulkheads and...

  18. Aliphatic amines in Antarctic CR2, CM2, and CM1/2 carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aponte, José C.; McLain, Hannah L.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Elsila, Jamie E.

    2016-09-01

    Meteoritic water-soluble organic compounds provide a unique record of the processes that occurred during the formation of the solar system and the chemistry preceding the origins of life on Earth. We have investigated the molecular distribution, compound-specific δ13C isotopic ratios and enantiomeric compositions of aliphatic monoamines present in the hot acid-water extracts of the carbonaceous chondrites LAP 02342 (CR2), GRA 95229 (CR2), LON 94101 (CM2), LEW 90500 (CM2), and ALH 83100 (CM1/2). Analyses of the concentration of monoamines in these meteorites revealed: (a) the CR2 chondrites studied here contain higher concentrations of monoamines relative to the analyzed CM2 chondrites; (b) the concentration of monoamines decreases with increasing carbon number; and (c) isopropylamine is the most abundant monoamine in these CR2 chondrites, while methylamine is the most abundant amine species in these CM2 and CM1/2 chondrites. The δ13C values of monoamines in CR2 chondrite do not correlate with the number of carbon atoms; however, in CM2 and CM1/2 chondrites, the 13C enrichment decreases with increasing monoamine carbon number. The δ13C values of methylamine in CR2 chondrites ranged from -1 to +10‰, while in CM2 and CM1/2 chondrites the δ13C values of methylamine ranged from +41 to +59‰. We also observed racemic compositions of sec-butylamine, 3-methyl-2-butylamine, and sec-pentylamine in the studied carbonaceous chondrites. Additionally, we compared the abundance and δ13C isotopic composition of monoamines to those of their structurally related amino acids. We found that monoamines are less abundant than amino acids in CR2 chondrites, with the opposite being true in CM2 and CM1/2 chondrites. We used these collective data to evaluate different primordial synthetic pathways for monoamines in carbonaceous chondrites and to understand the potential common origins these molecules may share with meteoritic amino acids.

  19. Aliphatic Amines in Antarctic CR2, CM2, and CM1/2 Carbonaceous Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aponte, Jose C.; McLain, Hannah L.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Elsila, Jamie E.

    2016-01-01

    Meteoritic water-soluble organic compounds provide a unique record of the processes that occurred during the formation of the solar system and the chemistry preceding the origins of life on Earth. We have investigated the molecular distribution, compound-specific delta13C isotopic ratios and enantiomeric compositions of aliphatic monoamines present in the hot acid-water extracts of the carbonaceous chondrites LAP 02342 (CR2), GRA 95229 (CR2), LON 94101 (CM2), LEW 90500 (CM2), and ALH 83100 (CM1/2). Analyses of the concentration of monoamines in these meteorites revealed: (a) the CR2 chondrites studied here contain higher concentrations of monoamines relative to the analyzed CM2 chondrites; (b) the concentration of monoamines decreases with increasing carbon number; and (c) isopropylamine is the most abundant monoamine in these CR2 chondrites, while methylamine is the most abundant amine species in these CM2 and CM1/2 chondrites. The delta13C values of monoamines in CR2 chondrite do not correlate with the number of carbon atoms; however, in CM2 and CM1/2 chondrites, the 13C enrichment decreases with increasing monoamine carbon number. The delta13C values of methylamine in CR2 chondrites ranged from -1 to +10per mille, while in CM2 and CM1/2 chondrites the delta13C values of methylamine ranged from +41 to +59per mille. We also observed racemic compositions of sec-butylamine, 3-methyl-2-butylamine, and sec-pentylamine in the studied carbonaceous chondrites. Additionally, we compared the abundance and delta13C isotopic composition of monoamines to those of their structurally related amino acids. We found that monoamines are less abundant than amino acids in CR2 chondrites, with the opposite being true in CM2 and CM1/2 chondrites. We used these collective data to evaluate different primordial synthetic pathways for monoamines in carbonaceous chondrites and to understand the potential common origins these molecules may share with meteoritic amino acids.

  20. The EET87513 clast N: A CM2 fragment in an HED polymict breccia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchanan, P. C.; Zolensky, M. E.; Reid, A. M.; Barrett, R. A.

    1993-01-01

    Xenoliths of material resembling carbonaceous chondrites have been found in several HED polymict breccias. Most workers concluded that these clasts are related to CM2 meteorites on the basis of texture, bulk composition, and mineralogy. Data on clast N, a carbonaceous chondrite fragment from the howardite EET87513 large enough (approximately 4x5mm on the surface of the slab from which it was separated) to extract bulk samples for INAA and oxygen isotope analysis and to provide a thin section for electron microprobe, SEM, and TEM analysis is reported. Preliminary data for this clast were previously reported. INAA was performed at Oregon State University and bulk oxygen isotopic composition was determined at the University of Chicago. These data confirm that EET87513 clast N is a fragment of CM2 material.

  1. Molecular Composition of Carbonaceous Globules in the Bells (CM2) Chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clemett, S. J.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; Robinson, G.-A.; Mckay, D. S.

    2009-01-01

    Some meteorites and IDPs contain micron-size carbonaceous globules that are associated with significant H and/or N isotopic anomalies. This has been interpreted as indicating that such globules may contain at least partial preserved organic species formed in the outer reaches of the proto-solar disk or the presolar cold molecular cloud. Owing to their small sizes, relatively little is known about their chemical compositions. Here we present in situ measurements of aromatic molecular species in organic globules from the Bells (CM2) chondrite by microprobe two-step laser mass spectrometry. This meteorite was chosen for study because we have previously found this meteorite to contain high abundances of globules that often occur in clusters. The Bells (CM2) globules are also noteworthy for having particularly high enrichments in H-2. and N-15. In this study, we identified individual globules and clusters of globules using native UV fluorescence.

  2. 33 CFR 144.10-10 - Other lifesaving equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES LIFESAVING APPLIANCES Unmanned Platforms § 144.10-10 Other lifesaving equipment. Any lifesaving equipment on an unmanned platform that is not required in § 144.10-1...

  3. Relativistic Electron Accleration by a Laser of Intensity in Excess of 1020 W cm-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangles, S. P. D.; Walton, B.; Wei, M. S.; Clarke, R. J.; Fritzler, S.; Gopal, A.; Hernandez-Gomez, C.; Krushelnick, K.; Najmudin, Z.; Dangor, A. E.

    Relativistic electrons with energies in excess of 300 MeV have been observed resulting from the interaction of a 0.3 PW laser beam focused to intensities of around 3 × 1020 W cm-2 interacting with an underdense plasma. Two dimensional particle in cell simulation of the interaction show that an interaction directly between preheated electrons and the intense laser field is responsible for the maximum acceleration.

  4. Detecting 100 fW cm(-2) Light with Trapped Electron Gated Organic Phototransistors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Yuan, Yongbo; Huang, Jinsong

    2017-02-01

    Ultraweak light detection with solid-state and cooling-free photodetectors is important for both fundamental research and practical applications. A general phototransistor architecture for detecting ultraviolet-visible light down to 100 fW cm(-2) at room temperature is demonstrated. The exceptional sensitivity stems from an amplification process triggered by incident light. A responsivity of ≈10(7) A W(-1) is achieved.

  5. Investigation of Pyridine Carboxylic Acids in CM2 Carbonaceous Chondrites: Potential Precursor Molecules for Ancient Coenzymes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Karen E.; Callahan, Michael P.; Gerakines, Perry A.; Dworkin, Jason P.; House, Christopher H.

    2014-01-01

    The distribution and abundances of pyridine carboxylic acids (including nicotinic acid) in eight CM2 carbonaceous chondrites (ALH 85013, DOM 03183, DOM 08003, EET 96016, LAP 02333, LAP 02336, LEW 85311, and WIS 91600) were investigated by liquid chromatography coupled to UV detection and high resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometry. We find that pyridine monocarboxylic acids are prevalent in CM2-type chondrites and their abundance negatively correlates with the degree of pre-terrestrial aqueous alteration that the meteorite parent body experienced. We also report the first detection of pyridine dicarboxylic acids in carbonaceous chondrites. Additionally, we carried out laboratory studies of proton-irradiated pyridine in carbon dioxide-rich ices (a 1:1 mixture) to serve as a model of the interstellar ice chemistry that may have led to the synthesis of pyridine carboxylic acids. Analysis of the irradiated ice residue shows that a comparable suite of pyridine mono- and dicarboxylic acids was produced, although aqueous alteration may still play a role in the synthesis (and ultimate yield) of these compounds in carbonaceous meteorites. Nicotinic acid is a precursor to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, a likely ancient molecule used in cellular metabolism in all of life, and its common occurrence in CM2 chondrites may indicate that meteorites may have been a source of molecules for the emergence of more complex coenzymes on the early Earth.

  6. Investigation of Pyridine Carboxylic Acids in CM2 Carbonaceous Chondrites: Potential Precursor Molecules for Ancient Coenzymes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Karen E.; Callahan, Michael P.; Gerakines, Perry A.; Dworkin, Jason P.; House, Christopher H.

    2014-01-01

    The distribution and abundances of pyridine carboxylic acids (including nicotinic acid) in eight CM2 carbonaceous chondrites (ALH 85013, DOM 03183, DOM 08003, EET 96016, LAP 02333, LAP 02336, LEW 85311, and WIS 91600) were investigated by liquid chromatography coupled to UV detection and high resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometry. We find that pyridine monocarboxylic acids are prevalent in CM2-type chondrites and their abundance negatively correlates with the degree of pre-terrestrial aqueous alteration that the meteorite parent body experienced. We lso report the first detection of pyridine dicarboxylic acids in carbonaceous chondrites. Additionally, we carried out laboratory studies of proton-irradiated pyridine in carbon dioxide-rich ices (a 1:1 mixture) to serve as a model of the interstellar ice chemistry that may have led to the synthesis of pyridine carboxylic acids. Analysis of the irradiated ice residue shows that a comparable suite of pyridine mono- and dicarboxylic acids was produced, although aqueous alteration may still play a role in the synthesis (and ultimate yield) of these compounds in carbonaceous meteorites. Nicotinic acid is a precursor to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, a likely ancient molecule used in cellular metabolism in all of life, and its common occurrence in CM2 chondrites may indicate that meteorites may have been a source of molecules for the emergence of more complex coenzymes on the early Earth.

  7. Investigation of pyridine carboxylic acids in CM2 carbonaceous chondrites: Potential precursor molecules for ancient coenzymes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Karen E.; Callahan, Michael P.; Gerakines, Perry A.; Dworkin, Jason P.; House, Christopher H.

    2014-07-01

    The distribution and abundances of pyridine carboxylic acids (including nicotinic acid) in eight CM2 carbonaceous chondrites (ALH 85013, DOM 03183, DOM 08003, EET 96016, LAP 02333, LAP 02336, LEW 85311, and WIS 91600) were investigated by liquid chromatography coupled to UV detection and high resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometry. We find that pyridine monocarboxylic acids are prevalent in CM2-type chondrites and their abundance negatively correlates with the degree of pre-terrestrial aqueous alteration that the meteorite parent body experienced. We also report the first detection of pyridine dicarboxylic acids in carbonaceous chondrites. Additionally, we carried out laboratory studies of proton-irradiated pyridine in carbon dioxide-rich ices (a 1:1 mixture) to serve as a model of the interstellar ice chemistry that may have led to the synthesis of pyridine carboxylic acids. Analysis of the irradiated ice residue shows that a comparable suite of pyridine mono- and dicarboxylic acids was produced, although aqueous alteration may still play a role in the synthesis (and ultimate yield) of these compounds in carbonaceous meteorites. Nicotinic acid is a precursor to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, a likely ancient molecule used in cellular metabolism in all of life, and its common occurrence in CM2 chondrites may indicate that meteorites may have been a source of molecules for the emergence of more complex coenzymes on the early Earth.

  8. Climate-monitoring CubeSat mission (CM2): a project for global mesopause temperature sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doe, Richard A.; Watchorn, Steven

    2011-10-01

    The goals of the Climate Monitoring CubeSat Mission (CM2) are to accelerate climate projection by obtaining global temperature, tidal and wave measurements with a simple CubeSat-based imaging spectrograph; and to demonstrate how a high-resolution imaging spectrograph can be deployed on a CubeSat satellite. In the middle atmosphere (50 - 100 km), beyond the reach of balloons or satellites, thermal signatures of CO2 radiation and wave activity have been largely missing from climate model inputs. This paper outlines an instrument to advance the state of the art in atmospheric climate projection by providing critical global measurements of middle-atmosphere temperatures and waves with a CubeSatscale imaging spectrograph. The CM2 will remotely sense middle-atmosphere temperatures and waves at ~90 km by analyzing spectra of intrinsically bright molecular oxygen emissions at near-infrared wavelengths in the O2 atmospheric band. The core instrument will be a miniaturized imaging spectrograph based on a monolithic spatial heterodyne spectrometer (SHS). This spectrograph will have sensitivity and spectral resolution to extract temperatures with 10° K precision and waves with 4 km scale resolution along a ~200 km cross-track swath. The SHS is significantly more robust than conventional interferometers, and thus better suited to space-based observation. Acquiring high-resolution middle-atmosphere temperature, tidal, and wave data on a daily, global basis will significantly improve climate models, and will help assess long-term greenhouse gas mitigation policy impact on upper-atmosphere thermal signatures. The CM2 program will also establish the efficacy of highresolution CubeSat-based broadband (near-IR to UV) spectroscopy for application to other atmospheric research missions.

  9. 44 CFR 10.10 - Preparation of environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Procedures § 10.10 Preparation of environmental impact statements. (a) Scoping. After determination that an environmental impact statement will be prepared and publication of the notice of intent, the Regional... environmental impact statement. Detailed procedures for preparation of the environmental impact statement are...

  10. 46 CFR 59.10-10 - Corroded surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... VESSELS AND APPURTENANCES Welding Repairs to Boilers and Pressure Vessels in -Service § 59.10-10 Corroded surfaces. (a) Corroded surfaces in the calking edges of circumferential seams may be built up by welding to... inches in length in a circumferential direction. (2) In all repairs to circumferential seams by...

  11. 46 CFR 59.10-10 - Corroded surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... VESSELS AND APPURTENANCES Welding Repairs to Boilers and Pressure Vessels in -Service § 59.10-10 Corroded surfaces. (a) Corroded surfaces in the calking edges of circumferential seams may be built up by welding to... inches in length in a circumferential direction. (2) In all repairs to circumferential seams by...

  12. 46 CFR 59.10-10 - Corroded surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... VESSELS AND APPURTENANCES Welding Repairs to Boilers and Pressure Vessels in -Service § 59.10-10 Corroded surfaces. (a) Corroded surfaces in the calking edges of circumferential seams may be built up by welding to... inches in length in a circumferential direction. (2) In all repairs to circumferential seams by...

  13. 46 CFR 59.10-10 - Corroded surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... VESSELS AND APPURTENANCES Welding Repairs to Boilers and Pressure Vessels in -Service § 59.10-10 Corroded surfaces. (a) Corroded surfaces in the calking edges of circumferential seams may be built up by welding to... inches in length in a circumferential direction. (2) In all repairs to circumferential seams by...

  14. 46 CFR 59.10-10 - Corroded surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... VESSELS AND APPURTENANCES Welding Repairs to Boilers and Pressure Vessels in -Service § 59.10-10 Corroded surfaces. (a) Corroded surfaces in the calking edges of circumferential seams may be built up by welding to... inches in length in a circumferential direction. (2) In all repairs to circumferential seams by...

  15. 44 CFR 10.10 - Preparation of environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Procedures § 10.10 Preparation of environmental impact statements. (a) Scoping. After determination that an environmental impact statement will be prepared and publication of the notice of intent, the Regional... environmental impact statement. Detailed procedures for preparation of the environmental impact statement are...

  16. 44 CFR 10.10 - Preparation of environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Procedures § 10.10 Preparation of environmental impact statements. (a) Scoping. After determination that an environmental impact statement will be prepared and publication of the notice of intent, the Regional... environmental impact statement. Detailed procedures for preparation of the environmental impact statement are...

  17. 44 CFR 10.10 - Preparation of environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Procedures § 10.10 Preparation of environmental impact statements. (a) Scoping. After determination that an environmental impact statement will be prepared and publication of the notice of intent, the Regional... environmental impact statement. Detailed procedures for preparation of the environmental impact statement are...

  18. 44 CFR 10.10 - Preparation of environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Procedures § 10.10 Preparation of environmental impact statements. (a) Scoping. After determination that an environmental impact statement will be prepared and publication of the notice of intent, the Regional... environmental impact statement. Detailed procedures for preparation of the environmental impact statement are...

  19. Actinic defect counting statistics over 1 cm2 area of EUVL mask blank

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Seongtae; Lai, Chih-Wei; Rekawa, Seno; Walton, Chris W.; Bokor, Jeffrey

    2000-02-18

    As a continuation of comparison experiments between EUV inspection and visible inspection of defects on EUVL mask blanks, we report on the result of an experiment where the EUV defect inspection tool is used to perform at-wavelength defect counting over 1 cm{sup 2} of EUVL mask blank. Initial EUV inspection found five defects over the scanned area and the subsequent optical scattering inspection was able to detect all of the five defects. Therefore, if there are any defects that are only detectable by EUV inspection, the density is lower than the order of unity per cm2. An upgrade path to substantially increase the overall throughput of the EUV inspection system is also identified in the manuscript.

  20. Krylov methods preconditioned with incompletely factored matrices on the CM-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berryman, Harry; Saltz, Joel; Gropp, William; Mirchandaney, Ravi

    1989-01-01

    The performance is measured of the components of the key interative kernel of a preconditioned Krylov space interative linear system solver. In some sense, these numbers can be regarded as best case timings for these kernels. Sweeps were timed over meshes, sparse triangular solves, and inner products on a large 3-D model problem over a cube shaped domain discretized with a seven point template. The performance of the CM-2 is highly dependent on the use of very specialized programs. These programs mapped a regular problem domain onto the processor topology in a careful manner and used the optimized local NEWS communications network. The rather dramatic deterioration in performance was documented when these ideal conditions no longer apply. A synthetic workload generator was developed to produce and solve a parameterized family of increasingly irregular problems.

  1. Compositions of Partly Altered Olivine and Replacement Serpentine in the CM2 Chondrite QUE93005

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Velbel, M. A.; Tonui, E. K.; Zolensky, M. E.

    2005-01-01

    Some phyllosilicates in CM carbonaceous chondrites formed by aqueous alteration of anhydrous precursor phases. Although broad trends in the compositions of hydrous phyllosilicates are recognized and believed to be related to trends in degree of aqueous alteration, details of the reactions that formed specific secondary minerals remain obscure. This paper reports compositional relationships between remnants of partially pseudomorphically (or alteromorphically) replaced silicates and their alteration products (serpentine) in the CM2 chondrite QUE93005 and compares it with previously published results for ALH81002. Reactants and products were characterized by optical petrography, backscattered scanning electron microscopy (BSEM), and electron microprobe. By focusing on serpentine formed from known reactants (olivines), and on only those instances in which some of the reactant silicate remains, direct compositional relationships between reactants and products, and the elemental mobility required by the reactions, can be established. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  2. Organic Power Electronics: Transistor Operation in the kA/cm2 Regime

    PubMed Central

    Klinger, Markus P.; Fischer, Axel; Kaschura, Felix; Widmer, Johannes; Kheradmand-Boroujeni, Bahman; Ellinger, Frank; Leo, Karl

    2017-01-01

    In spite of interesting features as flexibility, organic thin-film transistors have commercially lagged behind due to the low mobilities of organic semiconductors associated with hopping transport. Furthermore, organic transistors usually have much larger channel lengths than their inorganic counterparts since high-resolution structuring is not available in low-cost production schemes. Here, we present an organic permeable-base transistor (OPBT) which, despite extremely simple processing without any high-resolution structuring, achieve a performance beyond what has so far been possible using organic semiconductors. With current densities above 1 kA cm−2 and switching speeds towards 100 MHz, they open the field of organic power electronics. Finding the physical limits and an effective mobility of only 0.06 cm2 V−1 s−1, this OPBT device architecture has much more potential if new materials optimized for its geometry will be developed. PMID:28303924

  3. The amino acid composition of the Sutter's Mill CM2 carbonaceous chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, Aaron S.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Elsila, Jamie E.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Jenniskens, Peter; Yin, Qing-Zhu

    2014-11-01

    We determined the abundances and enantiomeric compositions of amino acids in Sutter's Mill fragment #2 (designated SM2) recovered prior to heavy rains that fell April 25-26, 2012, and two other meteorite fragments, SM12 and SM51, that were recovered postrain. We also determined the abundance, enantiomeric, and isotopic compositions of amino acids in soil from the recovery site of fragment SM51. The three meteorite stones experienced terrestrial amino acid contamination, as evidenced by the low D/L ratios of several proteinogenic amino acids. The D/L ratios were higher in SM2 than in SM12 and SM51, consistent with rain introducing additional L-amino acid contaminants to SM12 and SM51. Higher percentages of glycine, β-alanine, and γ-amino-n-butyric acid were observed in free form in SM2 and SM51 compared with the soil, suggesting that these free amino acids may be indigenous. Trace levels of D+L-β-aminoisobutyric acid (β-AIB) observed in all three meteorites are not easily explained as terrestrial contamination, as β-AIB is rare on Earth and was not detected in the soil. Bulk carbon and nitrogen and isotopic ratios of the SM samples and the soil also indicate terrestrial contamination, as does compound-specific isotopic analysis of the amino acids in the soil. The amino acid abundances in SM2, the most pristine SM meteorite analyzed here, are approximately 20-fold lower than in the Murchison CM2 carbonaceous chondrite. This may be due to thermal metamorphism in the Sutter's Mill parent body at temperatures greater than observed for other aqueously altered CM2 meteorites.

  4. Intensity increasing up to 4 MW/cm2 with BALB's via wavelengths coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timmermann, Andre; Bartoschewski, Daniel; Schlüter, Stephan; Burke, Colin; Meinschien, Jens

    2009-02-01

    An increase in the performance of micro-optic beam shaping resulted in diode laser modules with more than 400W out of 200 μm fibre based on Broad Area Laser Bars (BALB). The brightness of a 400 W laser module opened the door for new applications in material processing such as temper marking of stainless steel and metal sheet cutting. Further improvements of the light sources and the beam shaping for BALB's have increased the efficiency of the laser modules. Therefore we present an output power of 1200 W out of a 200 μm fibre (0.22 NA). This is achieved by further sophistication of the coupling technique and four wavelength coupling. The beam parameter product is still 22 mm*mrad with a power density of 3800 kW/cm2 if focussed to a 200 μm spot. Furthermore, each of the four wavelength modules are separately exchangeable and checkable. The availability of a top-hat profile out of the fibre proves itself to be advantageous compared to the traditional Gaussian beam profiles of fibre, solid-state and gas lasers. This leads to excellent laser cutting results with extremely small cutting kerfs down to 200 μm and very plane cutting edges. Process speeds rise up to more than 10 m/min i.e. for thin sheet stainless steel or titanium. In the near future, 600 W out of 200 μm based on BALB's with a beam compressor is possible. With wavelength coupling, power levels with up to 2 kW out of 200 μm fibre will be reached. This will result in a power density of more than 6 MW/cm2.

  5. Organic blend semiconductors and transistors with hole mobility exceeding 10 cm2/Vs (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paterson, Alexandra F.; Anthopoulos, Thomas D.

    2015-10-01

    Plastic electronics that can be manufactured using solution-based methods are the subject of great research interest due to their potential for low-cost, large-area electronic applications. The interest in this field has led to considerable research and subsequent advances in device performance. To this end solution-processed organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) have shown impressive improvements in recent years through the increasing values of charge carrier mobility. Here we report the development of next generation organic blend materials for OTFTs with hole mobilities of 10 cm2/Vs. These high performance devices have been achieved using a novel semiconducting blend system comprising of an amorphous-like conjugated polymer and a high mobility small molecule. The combination of a highly crystalline small molecule with the polymer binder aids the formation of uniform films as well as enables an element of control over the nucleation and growth of the small molecule. The polymer binders investigated belongs to the family of indacenodithiophene-based copolymers which are renowned for their high carrier mobilities regardless of their apparent structural disorder. The addition of the polymer with carefully chosen small molecules is found to further increase the hole mobility of the resulting blend OTFT to over 10 cm2/Vs. These organic devices provide an interesting insight into this rather complex blend system, highlighting the correlation between the morphology developed following solution processing and device performance, as well as exploring the role of each of the two components in the blend in terms of their contribution to charge transport.

  6. Spectral content of buried Ag foils at 1016 W/cm2 laser illuminationa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huntington, C. M.; Maddox, B. R.; Park, H.-S.; Prisbrey, S.; Remington, B. A.

    2014-11-01

    Sources of 5-12 keV thermal Heα x-rays are readily generated by laser irradiation of mid-Z foils at intensities >1014 W/cm2, and are widely used as probes for inertial confinement fusion and high-energy-density experiments. Higher energy 17-50 keV x-ray sources are efficiently produced from "cold" Kα emission using short pulse, petawatt lasers at intensities >1018 W/cm2 [H.-S. Park, B. R. Maddox et al., "High-resolution 17-75 keV backlighters for high energy density experiments," Phys. Plasmas 15(7), 072705 (2008); B. R. Maddox, H. S. Park, B. A. Remington et al., "Absolute measurements of x-ray backlighter sources at energies above 10 keV," Phys. Plasmas 18(5), 056709 (2011)]. However, when long pulse (>1 ns) lasers are used with Z > 30 elements, the spectrum contains contributions from both K shell transitions and from ionized atomic states. Here we show that by sandwiching a silver foil between layers of high-density carbon, the ratio of Kα:Heα in the x-ray spectrum is significant increased over directly illuminated Ag foils, with narrower lines from K-shell transitions. Additionally, the emission volume is more localized for the sandwiched target, producing a more planar x-ray sheet. This technique may be useful for generating probes requiring spectral purity and a limited spatial extent, for example, in incoherent x-ray Thomson scattering experiments.

  7. On the Behavior of Phosphorus During the Aqueous Alteration of CM2 Carbonaceous Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brearley, Adrian J.; Chizmadia, Lysa J.

    2005-01-01

    During the earliest period of solar system formation, water played an important role in the evolution of primitive dust, both after accretion of planetesimals and possible before accretion within the protoplanetary disk. Many chondrites show evidence of variable degrees of aqueous alteration, the CM2 chondrites being among the most studied [1]. This group of chondrites is characterized by mineral assemblages of both primary and secondary alteration phases. Hence, these meteorites retain a particularly important record of the reactions that occurred between primary high temperature nebular phases and water. Studies of these chondrites can provide information on the conditions and environments of aqueous alteration and the mobility of elements during alteration. This latter question is at the core of a debate concerning the location of aqueous alteration, i.e. whether alteration occurred predominantly within a closed system after accretion (parent body alteration) or whether some degree of alteration occurred within the solar nebula or on ephemeral protoplanetary bodies prior to accretion. At the core of the parent body alteration model is the hypothesis that elemental exchange between different components, principally chondrules and matrix, must have occurred. chondrules and matrix, must have occurred. In this study, we focus on the behavior of the minor element, phosphorus. This study was stimulated by observations of the behavior of P during the earliest stages of alteration in glassy mesostasis in type II chondrules in CR chondrites and extends the preliminary observations of on Y791198 to other CM chondrites.

  8. N-15-Rich Organic Globules in a Cluster IDP and the Bells CM2 Chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messenger, S.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Keller, Lindsay P.

    2008-01-01

    Organic matter in primitive meteorites and chondritic porous interplanetary dust particles (CP IDPs) is commonly enriched in D/H and 15N/14N relative to terrestrial values [1-3]. These anomalies are ascribed to the partial preservation of presolar cold molecular cloud material [1]. Some meteorites and IDPs contain m-size inclusions with extreme H and N isotopic anomalies [2-4], possibly due to preserved pristine primordial organic grains. We recently showed that the in the Tagish Lake meteorite, the principle carriers of these anomalies are sub- m, hollow organic globules [5]. The globules likely formed by photochemical processing of organic ices in a cold molecular cloud or the outermost regions of the protosolar disk [5]. We proposed that similar materials should be common among primitive meteorites, IDPs, and comets. Similar objects have been observed in organic extracts of carbonaceous chondrites [6-8], however their N and H isotopic compositions are generally unknown. Bulk H and N isotopic compositions may indicate which meteorites best preserve interstellar organic compounds. Thus, we selected the Bells CM2 carbonaceous chondrites for study based on its large bulk 15N (+335 %) and D (+990 %) [9].

  9. Murchison CM2 chondrite at nanoscale: evidence for hydrated minerals in the protoplanetary disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigo, J. M.; Vila-Ruaix, A.; Alonso-Azcárate, J.; Abad, M. M.

    2017-03-01

    The most pristine chondrites are undifferentiated meteorites with highly unequilibrated mineral grains that accreted from the protoplanetary disk about 4.6 Gyrs ago. Here we focus our attention in the study of Murchison, one of the most primitive carbonaceous chondrites belonging to the CM2 group. Despite of being aqueously altered, Murchison matrix is extraordinarily complex at nanoscale, and its study can hold clues to understand the origin of the water incorporated in the parent bodies of carbonaceous chondrites. Murchison comes from an undifferentiated carbon-rich asteroid which formed from the accretion of solid particles formed in the outer protoplanetary disk. Their rock-forming materials felt into the plane of the system where they mixed with organics, and probably with hydrated minerals. Our UHRTEM (ultra-high resolution transmission electron microscopy) data demonstrate that Murchison fine-grained matrix consists of a complex mixture of many ingredients, including chondrule and CAI fragments, stellar grains, phyllosilicates and organic compounds. We describe here some mineral and textural features that exemplify how pristine, and diverse is Murchison matrix. Our results indicate that the study of carbonaceous chondrites at nanoscale can provide a significant progress in our understanding of the accretion of materials and the preservation of presolar grains in the outer regions of the protoplanetary disk.

  10. Evaporation of metals by high-density (107 A · cm-2) electrical currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakhel, A. D.

    1996-09-01

    In the present work, the problem of time evolution of pressure and temperature profiles across a wire through which an electrical current with a density of the order of 107 A · cm-2 flows is solved. The correct boundary conditions for a metal surface are obtained for the case when this metal is rapidly evaporated as a result of high-power Joule heating. The pressure profile appears under these conditions due to pinch-effect and inertia of thermal expansion of the metal; the temperature profile arises because of intensive evaporation from the surface of the wire. The conditions under which a liquid metal is superheated are formulated. On the basis of the analysis of the experimental results on exploding wires, the conclusion is drawn that decay of the metastable state takes place near the binodal. It is shown that the distribution of fine dispersed vapor bubbles is strongly nonuniform across the wire and the process of expansion of the two-phase mixture is very similar to the motion of a wave.

  11. TNSA ion acceleration at 1016 W/cm2 sub-nanosecond laser intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrisi, L.; Cutroneo, M.; Calcagno, L.; Rosinski, M.; Ullschmied, J.

    2014-04-01

    Micrometric thin targets have been irradiated in vacuum in TNSA (Target Normal Sheath Acceleration) configuration at PALS Laboratory in Prague by using 1016 W/cm2 laser intensity, 1315 nm wavelength, 300 ps pulse duration and different laser beam energies and focal positions. The plasmas produced were characterized by using ion collectors, semiconductor SiC detectors, X-ray streak camera and Thomson parabola spectrometer. Time of flight techniques, time resolved imaging and ion deflection spectrometry were used to characterize the laser-generated non-equilibrium plasma and the electric field driving ion acceleration developed at the rear side of the target. The maximum ion acceleration can be obtained for optimal film thickness depending on the laser energy and on the kind of irradiated targets. Special targets containing nanostructures, showing high absorption and low reflective coefficients, induce resonant absorption effects enhancing the electric acceleration field. The maximum kinetic energy measured for proton ions was above 5.0 MeV and the ion distributions can be fitted with Coulomb-Boltzmann shifted functions.

  12. A minimum column density of 1 g cm(-2) for massive star formation.

    PubMed

    Krumholz, Mark R; McKee, Christopher F

    2008-02-28

    Massive stars are very rare, but their extreme luminosities make them both the only type of young star we can observe in distant galaxies and the dominant energy sources in the Universe today. They form rarely because efficient radiative cooling keeps most star--forming gas clouds close to isothermal as they collapse, and this favours fragmentation into stars of one solar mass or lower. Heating of a cloud by accreting low-mass stars within it can prevent fragmentation and allow formation of massive stars, but the necessary properties for a cloud to form massive stars-and therefore where massive stars form in a galaxy--have not yet been determined. Here we show that only clouds with column densities of at least 1 g cm(-2) can avoid fragmentation and form massive stars. This threshold, and the environmental variation of the stellar initial mass function that it implies, naturally explain the characteristic column densities associated with massive star clusters and the difference between the radial profiles of Halpha and ultraviolet emission in galactic disks. The existence of a threshold also implies that the initial mass function should show detectable variation with environment within the Galaxy, that the characteristic column densities of clusters containing massive stars should vary between galaxies, and that star formation rates in some galactic environments may have been systematically underestimated.

  13. Nanosecond laser-cluster interactions at 109-1012 W/cm 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Rohtash; Tripathi, V. K.; Vatsa, R. K.; Das, D.

    2017-08-01

    An analytical model and a numerical code are developed to study the evolution of multiple charge states of ions by irradiating clusters of atoms of a high atomic number (e.g., Xe) by 1.06 μm and 0.53 μm nanosecond laser pulses of an intensity in the range of 109-1012 W/cm 2 . The laser turns clusters into plasma nanoballs. Initially, the momentum randomizing collisions of electrons are with neutrals, but soon these are taken over by collisions with ions. The ionization of an ion to the next higher state of ionization is taken to be caused by an energetic free electron impact, and the rates of impact ionization are suitably modelled by having an inverse exponential dependence of ionizing collision frequency on the ratio of ionization potential to electron temperature. Cluster expansion led adiabatic cooling is a major limiting mechanism on electron temperature. In the intensity range considered, ionization states up to 7 are expected with nanosecond pulses. Another possible mechanism, filamentation of the laser, has also been considered to account for the observation of higher charged states. However, filamentation is seen to be insufficient to cause substantial local enhancement in the intensity to affect electron heating rates.

  14. DC-10-10 winglet flight test program management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agar, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    This paper discusses the McDonnell Douglas/NASA DC-10-10 winglet flight test program from a program management viewpoint. The program was conducted to obtain flight test data on the same airplane with and without winglets for direct comparison. As occasionally happens in flight tests, unexpected events occur. This program was encumbered by a low-speed buffet anomaly that required several configuration modifications before satisfactory performance could be attained. This paper relates the management techniques utilized to accommodate the unplanned increases in program scope and still complete the program on time and below the budgeted cost.

  15. Application of ``electronika 10 - 10'' electron linac for food irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migdał, W.; Maciszewski, W.; Gryzlow, A.

    1995-02-01

    The industrial electron linac "Elektronika 10 - 10" has been installed in Experimental Plant for Food Irradiation (INCT) in 1990. The accelerator is a prototype unit, prior the use for food treatment a period of optimization was involved in its experimental operation during 1993. The accelerator is capable to produce scanned beam of electrons with the energy 10 MeV and beam power of 10 kW. Radiation dose at minimal conveyer speed of 0.25 m/min reaches 50 kGy. The role of the plant is to promote food irradiation in Poland.

  16. A Comparison Between Silicon Carbide from Indarch (EH4) and CM2 Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, S. S.; Alexander, C. M. O'd.; Ott, U.; Zinner, E. K.; Arden, J. W.; Pillinger, C. T.

    1993-07-01

    A light-element stepped-combustion, noble-gas, ion-probe, and SEM study of interstellar SiC from Indarch has been undertaken in order to compare SiC isolated from enstatite chondrites with SiC from the more extensively studied CM2 carbonaceous chondrites. Eighty-five grams of Indarch were etched in HF/HCl, crushed and treated with 9MHF/1MHCl + 1M HCl, Cr(sub)2O(sub)7^2- in H(sub)2SO(sub)4, and then HClO(sub)4, leaving an acid-resistant residue equivalent to 42 ppm of the whole rock. Carbon, nitrogen, and noble-gas data were acquired by stepped combustion and pyrolysis after precombusting the samples to 600 degrees C to oxidize nanometer-sized diamond. The presence of isotopically anomalous SiC in the Indarch residue is indicated by the isotopically heavy CO2 released at high temperature during stepped combustion, with a maximum delta ^13C value of +1420 per mil (^12C/^13C = 36.2), identical to results obtained for typical CM2 samples [1]. In contrast to CM meteorites, however, the peak release of heavy carbon occurs at 1200 degrees C, some 200 degrees C higher than the peak release temperatures of Murchison and Cold Bokkeveld. A similarly high release temperature was seen in the stepped-combustion analysis of the noble gas in the Indarch residue. This suggests a morphological and/or size difference between the SiC present in the two types of meteorites. The nitrogen stepped-combustion profile of the Indarch residue is dominated by the presence of Si(sub)3N(sub)4 of unremarkable isotopic composition (delta ^15N = -56 per mil) that could not be resolved from nitrogen released from SiC. The abundance of SiC in Indarch is estimated, from the stepped combustion data, to be about 1.4 ppm (or 14 ppm SiC in the matrix, not dissimilar to values obtained for CM2 meteorites). A comparison of the noble-gas data from grain-size fractions of Murchison [2] and the bulk Indarch residue data, particularly the Ne-E/Xe-s ratio, suggests that Indarch is enriched in fine-grained Si

  17. Dhofar 225 and Dhofar 735: Relationship to CM2 chondrites and metamorphosed carbonaceous chondrites, Belgica-7904 and Yamato-86720

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, Marina A.; Lorenz, Cyrill A.; Nazarov, Mikhail A.; Brandstaetter, Franz; Franchi, Ian A.; Moroz, Lyuba V.; Clayton, Robert N.; Bychkov, Andrew Yu.

    2010-07-01

    Dhofar (Dho) 225 and Dho 735 are carbonaceous chondrites found in a hot desert and having affinities to Belgica-like Antarctic chondrites (Belgica [B-] 7904 and Yamato [Y-] 86720). Texturally they resemble CM2 chondrites, but differ in mineralogy, bulk chemistry and oxygen isotopic compositions. The texture and main mineralogy of Dho 225 and Dho 735 are similar to the CM2 chondrites, but unlike CM2 chondrites they do not contain any (P, Cr)-sulfides, nor tochilinite 6Fe0.9S*5(Fe,Mg)(OH)2. H2O-contents of Dho 225 and Dho 735 (1.76 and 1.06 wt%) are lower than those of CM2 chondrites (2-18 wt%), but similar to those in the metamorphosed carbonaceous chondrites of the Belgica-like group. Bulk compositions of Dho 225 and Dho 735, as well as their matrices, have low Fe and S and low Fe/Si ratios relative to CM2 chondrites. X-ray powder diffraction patterns of the Dho 225 and Dho 735 matrices showed similarities to laboratory-heated Murchison CM2 chondrite and the transformation of serpentine to olivine. Dho 225 and 735's oxygen isotopic compositions are in the high 18O range on the oxygen diagram, close to the Belgica-like meteorites. This differs from the oxygen isotopic compositions of typical CM2 chondrites. Experimental results showed that the oxygen isotopic compositions of Dho 225 and Dhofar 725, could not be derived from those of typical CM2 chondrites via dehydration caused by thermal metamorphism. Dho 225 and Dho 735 may represent a group of chondrites whose primary material was different from typical CM2 chondrites and the Belgica-like meteorites, but they formed in an oxygen reservoir similar to that of the Belgica-like meteorites.

  18. Fe and O EELS Studies of Ion Irradiated Murchison CM2 Carbonaceous Chondrite Matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, L. P.; Christofferson, R.; Dukes, C. A.; Baragiola, R. A.; Rahman, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The physical and chemical response of hydrated carbonaceous chondrite materials to space weathering processes is poorly understood. Improving this understanding is a key part of establishing how regoliths on primitive carbonaceous asteroids respond to space weathering processes, knowledge that supports future sample return missions (Hayabusa 2 and OSIRISREx) that are targeting objects of this type. We previously reported on He+ irradiation of Murchison matrix and showed that the irradiation resulted in amorphization of the matrix phyllosilicates, loss of OH, and surface vesiculation. Here, we report electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) measurements of the irradiated material with emphasis on the Fe and O speciation. Sample and Methods: A polished thin section of the Murchison CM2 carbonaceous chondrite was irradiated with 4 kilovolts He(+) (normal incidence) to a total dose of 1 x 10(exp 18) He(+) per square centimeter. We extracted thin sections from both irradiated and unirradiated regions in matrix using focused ion beam (FIB) techniques with electron beam deposition for the protective carbon strap to minimize surface damage artifacts from the FIB milling. The FIB sections were analyzed using a JEOL 2500SE scanning and transmission electron microscope (STEM) equipped with a Gatan Tridiem imaging filter. EELS spectra were collected from 50 nanometer diameter regions with an energy resolution of 0.7 electronvolts FWHM at the zero loss. EELS spectra were collected at low electron doses to minimize possible artifacts from electron-beam irradiation damage. Results and Discussion: Fe L (sub 2,3) EELS spectra from matrix phyllosilicates in CM chondrites show mixed Fe(2+)/Fe(3+) oxidation states with Fe(3+)/Sigma Fe approximately 0.5. Fe L(sub 2,3) spectra from the irradiated/ amorphized matrix phyllosilicates show higher Fe(2+)/Fe(3+) ratios compared to spectra obtained from pristine material at depths beyond the implantation/amorphization layer. We

  19. Formation of spinel-, hibonite-rich inclusions found in CM2 carbonaceous chrondrites

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, S B; Grossman, L; Hutcheon, I D; Phinney, D L; Weber, P K; Fallon, S J

    2005-11-03

    We report petrography, mineral chemistry, bulk chemistry, and bulk isotopic compositions of a suite of 40 spinel-rich inclusions from the Murchison (CM2) carbonaceous chondrite. Seven types of inclusions are identified based on mineralogy: spinel-hibonite-perovskite; spinel-perovskite-pyroxene; spinel-perovskite-melilite; spinel-hibonite-perovskite-melilite; spinel-hibonite; spinel-pyroxene; and spinel-melilite-anorthite. Hibonite-bearing inclusions have Ti-poor spinel compared to the hibonite-free ones, and spinel-hibonite-perovskite inclusions have the highest average bulk TiO{sub 2} contents (7.8 wt%). The bulk CaO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ratios of the inclusions range from 0.005-0.21, well below the solar value of 0.79. Hibonite-, spinel-rich inclusions consist of phases that are not predicted by condensation calculations to coexist; in the equilibrium sequence, hibonite is followed by melilite, which is followed by spinel. Therefore, hibonite-melilite or melilite-spinel inclusions should be dominant instead. One explanation for the 'missing melilite' is that it condensed as expected but was lost due to evaporation of Mg and Ca during heating and melting of spherule precursors. If this theory were correct, melilite-poor spherules would have isotopically heavy Mg and Ca. Except for one inclusion with F{sub Mg} = 4.3 {+-} 2.6{per_thousand}/amu and another with isotopically light Ca (F{sub Ca} = 3.4 {+-} 2.0{per_thousand}/amu), however, all the inclusions we analyzed have normal isotopic compositions within their 2{sigma} uncertainties. Thus, we found no evidence for significant mass-dependent fractionation. Our preferred explanation for the general lack of melilite among hibonite-, spinel-bearing inclusions is kinetic inhibition of melilite condensation relative to spinel. Because of similarities between the crystal structures of hibonite and spinel, it should be easier for spinel to form from hibonite than for melilite to do so.

  20. Characterizing unforced multi-decadal variability of ENSO: a case study with the GFDL CM2.1 coupled GCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atwood, A. R.; Battisti, D. S.; Wittenberg, A. T.; Roberts, W. H. G.; Vimont, D. J.

    2016-12-01

    Large multi-decadal fluctuations of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) variability simulated in a 4000-year pre-industrial control run of GFDL CM2.1 have received considerable attention due to implications for constraining the causes of past and future changes in ENSO. We evaluated the mechanisms of this low-frequency ENSO modulation through analysis of the extreme epochs of CM2.1 as well as through the use of a linearized intermediate-complexity model of the tropical Pacific, which produces reasonable emulations of observed ENSO variability. We demonstrate that the low-frequency ENSO modulation can be represented by the simplest model of a linear, stationary process, even in the highly nonlinear CM2.1. These results indicate that CM2.1's ENSO modulation is driven by transient processes that operate at interannual or shorter time scales. Nonlinearities and/or multiplicative noise in CM2.1 likely exaggerate the ENSO modulation by contributing to the overly active ENSO variability. In contrast, simulations with the linear model suggest that intrinsically-generated tropical Pacific decadal mean state changes do not contribute to the extreme-ENSO epochs in CM2.1. Rather, these decadal mean state changes actually serve to damp the intrinsically-generated ENSO modulation, primarily by stabilizing the ENSO mode during strong-ENSO epochs. Like most coupled General Circulation Models, CM2.1 suffers from large biases in its ENSO simulation, including ENSO variance that is nearly twice that seen in the last 50 years of observations. We find that CM2.1's overly strong ENSO variance directly contributes to its strong multi-decadal modulation through broadening the distribution of epochal variance, which increases like the square of the long-term variance. These results suggest that the true spectrum of unforced ENSO modulation is likely substantially narrower than that in CM2.1. However, relative changes in ENSO modulation are similar between CM2.1, the linear model tuned to

  1. Experimental estimation of S-1 photocathode beam strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedev, Vitaly B.

    1999-06-01

    The threshold value of the energy density qthr at wavelength of 1.06 micrometer which led to unrecoverable sensitivity loss of the first generation S-1 photocathode of single-chamber module image converter tube (ICT) with fiber disks at input and output was determined experimentally. The value amounted to 2 X 10-2J/cm2.

  2. Nanoimprinted polymer lasers with threshold below 100 W/cm2 using mixed-order distributed feedback resonators.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue; Tsiminis, Georgios; Kanibolotsky, Alexander L; Skabara, Peter J; Samuel, Ifor D W; Turnbull, Graham A

    2013-06-17

    Organic semiconductor lasers were fabricated by UV-nanoimprint lithography with thresholds as low as 57 W/cm(2) under 4 ns pulsed operation. The nanoimprinted lasers employed mixed-order distributed feedback resonators, with second-order gratings surrounded by first-order gratings, combined with a light-emitting conjugated polymer. They were pumped by InGaN LEDs to produce green-emitting lasers, with thresholds of 208 W/cm(2) (102 nJ/pulse). These hybrid lasers incorporate a scalable UV-nanoimprint lithography process, compatible with high-performance LEDs, therefore we have demonstrated a coherent, compact, low-cost light source.

  3. Hydration and transparency of the rabbit cornea irradiated with UVB-doses of 0.25 J/cm(2) and 0.5 J/cm(2) compared with equivalent UVB radiation exposure reaching the human cornea from sunlight.

    PubMed

    Cejka, Cestmír; Ardan, Taras; Sirc, Jakub; Michálek, Jiří; Beneš, Jiří; Brůnová, Blanka; Rosina, Jozef

    2011-07-01

    Exposure of the cornea to UV radiation from sunlight evokes intraocular inflammation, photokeratitis. Photokeratitis is caused by UVB radiation. It is accompanied by changes of corneal hydration and light absorption. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of two UVB doses on corneal optics in rabbits and to compare these UVB doses with the equivalent exposure of UVB radiation reaching the human cornea from sunlight. Rabbit corneas were irradiated with a daily UVB dose of 0.25 J/cm(2) or 0.5 J/cm(2) for 4 days. One day after finishing the irradiations the rabbits were sacrificed and corneal light absorption measured using our spectrophotometrical method. Corneal hydration was examined using an ultrasonic Pachymeter every experimental day before the irradiation procedure and the last day before sacrificing the animals. Changes in corneal optics appeared after the repeated exposure of the cornea to a UVB dose of 0.25 J/ cm(2) and massively increased after the repeated exposure of the cornea to a UVB dose of 0.5 J/cm(2). The first significant changes in corneal hydration appeared after a single exposure of the cornea to a UVB dose of 0.25 J/cm(2). Changes in corneal hydration appeared after the exposure of the rabbit cornea to a single UVB dose equivalent to 2.6 hours of solar UVB radiation reaching the human cornea, as measured by UVB sensors embedded in the eyes of mannequin heads facing the sun on a beach at noon in July. Repeated exposure of the rabbit cornea to the same UVB dose evoked profound changes in corneal optics. Although comparison of experimental and outdoor conditions are only approximate, the results in rabbits point to the danger for the human eye from UVB radiation when short stays in sunlight are repeated for several consecutive days without UV protection.

  4. Comparison of visible and near-infrared reflectance spectra of CM2 carbonaceous chondrites and primitive asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilas, F.; Hiroi, T.; Zolensky, M. E.

    1993-01-01

    Spectra of primitive asteroids (defined as C, P, and D classes and associated subclasses) were compared to the limited number of spectra of CM2 carbonaceous chondrites. An absorption feature located at 0.7 microns attributed to an Fe(+2) - Fe(+3) charge transfer absorption in iron oxides in phyllosilicates is apparent in some of the CM2 carbonaceous chondrite spectra and many of the asteroid spectra. Sawyer found a correlation between the area of the 0.7 micron feature and the mean semimajor axis of the asteroids. Spectra of a larger sample of carbonaceous chondrites, including 7 CM2 chondrites, covering a spectral interval of 0.30-2.5 microns were recently obtained using the Relab instrument at Brown University. These spectra were compared with spectrophotometric asteroid observations in a separate abstract. Those spectra of CM2 chondrites were isolated into the UV, visible and near-infrared spectral regions in order to compare them with high-quality narrowband reflectance spectra.

  5. Successful Capture, Extraction and Identification of Hypervelocity CM2 Meteorite Fragments Shot by Light-Gas Gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snead, C.; Westphal, A. J.; Dominguez, G.; Zolensky, M. E.

    2003-01-01

    Here we report the successful capture, extraction and identification of two fragments of a CM2 meteorite (ALH83100) into lowdensity aerogel. The shot was carried out at the AVGR at NASAARC. A mixture of powdered ALH83100 and borosilicate glass microspheres was shot at 4.55.0 km/sec into 50 mg cm silicate aerogel.

  6. Successful Capture, Extraction and Identification of Hypervelocity CM2 Meteorite Fragments Shot by Light-Gas Gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snead, C.; Westphal, A. J.; Dominguez, G.; Zolensky, M. E.

    2003-01-01

    Here we report the successful capture, extraction and identification of two fragments of a CM2 meteorite (ALH83100) into lowdensity aerogel. The shot was carried out at the AVGR at NASAARC. A mixture of powdered ALH83100 and borosilicate glass microspheres was shot at 4.55.0 km/sec into 50 mg cm silicate aerogel.

  7. Comparison of visible and near-infrared reflectance spectra of CM2 carbonaceous chondrites and primitive asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilas, F.; Hiroi, T.; Zolensky, M. E.

    1993-01-01

    Spectra of primitive asteroids (defined as C, P, and D classes and associated subclasses) were compared to the limited number of spectra of CM2 carbonaceous chondrites. An absorption feature located at 0.7 microns attributed to an Fe(+2) - Fe(+3) charge transfer absorption in iron oxides in phyllosilicates is apparent in some of the CM2 carbonaceous chondrite spectra and many of the asteroid spectra. Sawyer found a correlation between the area of the 0.7 micron feature and the mean semimajor axis of the asteroids. Spectra of a larger sample of carbonaceous chondrites, including 7 CM2 chondrites, covering a spectral interval of 0.30-2.5 microns were recently obtained using the Relab instrument at Brown University. These spectra were compared with spectrophotometric asteroid observations in a separate abstract. Those spectra of CM2 chondrites were isolated into the UV, visible and near-infrared spectral regions in order to compare them with high-quality narrowband reflectance spectra.

  8. Tropical Atlantic climate simulated in the GFDL CM2.5 high-resolution coupled climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doi, T.; Vecchi, G. A.; Rosati, A. J.; Delworth, T. L.

    2012-12-01

    Using two fully coupled ocean-atmosphere models of CM2.1 (the Climate Model version 2.1 developed at the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory) and CM2.5 (a new high-resolution climate model based on CM2.1), the characteristics and sources of SST and precipitation biases associated with the Atlantic ITCZ have been investigated. CM2.5 has an improved simulation of the annual mean and the annual cycle of the rainfall over the Sahel and the northern South America, while CM2.1 shows excessive Sahel rainfall and lack of northern South America rainfall in boreal summer. This marked improvement in CM2.5 is due to not only high-resolved orography, but also a significant reduction of biases in the seasonal meridional migration of the ITCZ. In particular, the seasonal northward migration of the ITCZ in boreal summer is coupled to the seasonal variation of the SST and a subsurface doming of the thermocline in the northeastern tropical Atlantic, known as the Guinea Dome. Improvements in the ITCZ allow for better representation of the coupled processes that are important for an abrupt seasonally phase-locked decay of the interannual SST anomaly in the northern tropical Atlantic. Nevertheless, the differences between CM2.5 and CM2.1 were not sufficient to reduce the warm SST biases in the eastern equatorial region and Angola-Benguela Area. The weak bias of southerly winds along the southwestern African coast associated with the excessive southward migration bias of the ITCZ may be a key to improve the warm SST biases there. Also, response of climate conditions in the Atlantic Hurricane Main Development Region (MDR) to doubling of atmospheric CO2 with CM2.5 has been explored. In the annual mean, the SST in the MDR warms by about 2°C in the CO2 doubling run relative to the Control run, the trade winds become weaker in the northern tropical Atlantic, and the rainfall increases over the ITCZ and its northern region. The amplitude of the annual cycle of the SST over the MDR is not

  9. Ion acceleration in electrostatic field of charged cavity created by ultra-short laser pulses of 1020-1021 W/cm2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bychenkov, V. Yu.; Singh, P. K.; Ahmed, H.; Kakolee, K. F.; Scullion, C.; Jeong, T. W.; Hadjisolomou, P.; Alejo, A.; Kar, S.; Borghesi, M.; Ter-Avetisyan, S.

    2017-01-01

    Ion acceleration resulting from the interaction of ultra-high intensity and ultra-high contrast (˜10-10) laser pulses with thin A l foil targets at 30° angle of laser incidence is studied. Proton maximum energies of 30 and 18 MeV are measured along the target normal rear and front sides, respectively, showing intensity scaling as Ib . For the target front bf r o n t= 0.5-0.6 and for the target rear br e a r= 0.7-0.8 is observed in the intensity range 1020-1021 W/cm2. The fast scaling from the target rear ˜I0.75 can be attributed enhancement of laser energy absorption as already observed at relatively low intensities. The backward acceleration of the front side protons with intensity scaling as ˜I0.5 can be attributed to the to the formation of a positively charged cavity at the target front via ponderomotive displacement of the target electrons at the interaction of relativistic intense laser pulses with a solid target. The experimental results are in a good agreement with theoretical predictions.

  10. Adiabatic quantum-flux-parametron cell library designed using a 10 kA cm-2 niobium fabrication process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, Naoki; Nagasawa, Shuichi; China, Fumihiro; Ando, Takumi; Hidaka, Mutsuo; Yamanashi, Yuki; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki

    2017-03-01

    Adiabatic quantum-flux-parametron (AQFP) logic is an energy-efficient superconductor logic with zero static power consumption and very small switching energy. In this paper, we report a new AQFP cell library designed using the AIST 10 kA cm-2 Nb high-speed standard process (HSTP), which is a high-critical-current-density version of the AIST 2.5 kA cm-2 Nb standard process (STP2). Since the intrinsic damping of the Josephson junction (JJ) of HSTP is relatively strong, shunt resistors for JJs were removed and the energy efficiency improved significantly. Also, excitation transformers in the new cells were redesigned so that the cells can operate in a four-phase excitation mode. We described the detail of HSTP and the AQFP cell library designed using HSTP, and showed experimental results of cell test circuits.

  11. Amino acid analyses of Antarctic CM2 meteorites using liquid chromatography-time of flight-mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glavin, Daniel P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Aubrey, Andrew; Botta, Oliver; Doty, James H.; Martins, Zita; Bada, Jeffrey L.

    2006-06-01

    Amino acid analyses of the Antarctic CM2 chondrites Allan Hills (ALH) 83100 and Lewis Cliff (LEW) 90500 using liquid chromatography-time of flight-mass spectrometry (LC-ToF-MS) coupled with UV fluorescence detection revealed that these carbonaceous meteorites contain a suite of indigenous amino acids not present in Antarctic ice. Several amino acids were detected in ALH 83100, including glycine, alanine, β-alanine, γ-amino-n-butyric acid (γ-ABA), and α-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) with concentrations ranging from 250 to 340 parts per billion (ppb). In contrast to ALH 83100, the CM2 meteorites LEW 90500 and Murchison had a much higher total abundance of these amino acids (440-3200 ppb). In addition, ALH 83100 was found to have lower abundances of the α-dialkyl amino acids AIB and isovaline than LEW 90500 and Murchison. There are three possible explanations for the depleted amino acid content in ALH 83100: 1) amino acid leaching from ALH 83100 during exposure to Antarctic ice meltwater, 2) a higher degree of aqueous alteration on the ALH 83100 parent body, or 3) ALH 83100 originated on a chemically distinct parent body from the other two CM2 meteorites. The high relative abundance of ɛ-amino-n-caproic acid (EACA) in the ALH 83100 meteorite as well as the Antarctic ice indicates that Nylon-6 contamination from the Antarctic sample storage bags may have occurred during collection.

  12. 46 CFR 50.10-10 - Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection, (OCMI).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection, (OCMI). 50.10-10 Section 50.10-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 50.10-10 Officer in Charge,...

  13. 46 CFR 50.10-10 - Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection, (OCMI).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection, (OCMI). 50.10-10 Section 50.10-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 50.10-10 Officer in Charge,...

  14. 46 CFR 50.10-10 - Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection, (OCMI).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection, (OCMI). 50.10-10 Section 50.10-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 50.10-10 Officer in Charge,...

  15. 40 CFR 10.10 - Limitation on Environmental Protection Agency's authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Limitation on Environmental Protection Agency's authority. 10.10 Section 10.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS UNDER FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT Procedures § 10.10 Limitation on Environmental...

  16. 40 CFR 10.10 - Limitation on Environmental Protection Agency's authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Limitation on Environmental Protection Agency's authority. 10.10 Section 10.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS UNDER FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT Procedures § 10.10 Limitation on Environmental...

  17. 40 CFR 10.10 - Limitation on Environmental Protection Agency's authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limitation on Environmental Protection Agency's authority. 10.10 Section 10.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS UNDER FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT Procedures § 10.10 Limitation on Environmental...

  18. 40 CFR 10.10 - Limitation on Environmental Protection Agency's authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Limitation on Environmental Protection Agency's authority. 10.10 Section 10.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS UNDER FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT Procedures § 10.10 Limitation on Environmental...

  19. 40 CFR 10.10 - Limitation on Environmental Protection Agency's authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Limitation on Environmental Protection Agency's authority. 10.10 Section 10.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS UNDER FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT Procedures § 10.10 Limitation on Environmental...

  20. Generation and diagnostics of pulsed intense ion beams with an energy density of 10 J/cm2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isakova, Yu.; Pushkarev, A.; Khailov, I.; Zhong, H.

    2015-07-01

    The paper presents the results of a study on transportation and focusing of a pulsed ion beam at gigawatt power level, generated by a diode with explosive-emission cathode. The experiments were carried out with the TEMP-4M accelerator operating in double-pulse mode: the first pulse is of negative polarity (500 ns, 100-150 kV), and this is followed by a second pulse of positive polarity (120 ns, 200-250 kV). To reduce the beam divergence, we modified the construction of the diode. The width of the anode was increased compared to that of the cathode. We studied different configurations of planar and focusing strip diodes. It was found that the divergence of the ion beam formed by a planar strip diode, after construction modification, does not exceed 3° (half-angle). Modification to the construction of a focusing diode made it possible to reduce the beam divergence from 8° to 4°-5°, as well as to increase the energy density at the focus up to 10-12 J/cm2, and decrease the shot to shot variation in the energy density from 10%-15% to 5%-6%. When measuring the ion beam energy density above the ablation threshold of the target material (3.5-4 J/cm2), we used a metal mesh with 50% transparency to lower the energy density. The influence of the metal mesh on beam transport has been studied.

  1. Proton emission from thin hydrogenated targets irradiated by laser pulses at 1016 W/cm2a)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrisi, L.; Giuffrida, L.; Cutroneo, M.; Cirrone, P.; Picciotto, A.; Krasa, J.; Margarone, D.; Velyhan, A.; Laska, L.; Ullschmied, J.; Wolowski, J.; Badziak, J.; Rosinski, M.

    2012-02-01

    The iodine laser at PALS Laboratory in Prague, operating at 1315 nm fundamental harmonics and at 300 ps FWHM pulse length, is employed to irradiate thin hydrogenated targets placed in vacuum at intensities on the order of 1016 W/cm2. The laser-generated plasma is investigated in terms of proton and ion emission in the forward and backward directions. The time-of-flight technique, using ion collectors and semiconductor detectors, is used to measure the ion currents and the corresponding velocities and energies. Thomson parabola spectrometer is employed to separate the contribution of the ion emission from single laser shots. A particular attention is given to the proton production in terms of the maximum energy, emission yield, and angular distribution as a function of the laser energy, focal position, target thickness, and composition. Metallic and polymeric targets allow to generate protons with large energy range and different yield, depending on the laser, target composition, and target geometry properties.

  2. Advanced polymer targets for TNSA regime producing 6 MeV protons at 1016 W/cm2 laser intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrisi, L.

    2017-02-01

    High intensity laser pulses, at an intensity of the order of 1016 W/cm2, are employed to irradiate in vacuum polyethylene terephthalate thin foils in the target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA) regime. The plasma obtained in the forward emission is investigated using ion collectors and semiconductor detectors connected in a time-of-flight configuration, Thomson parabola spectrometer, and X-ray streak camera. The results indicate that the foil thickness of 1 micron is optimal to accelerate protons of up to 6.5 MeV. The high ion acceleration can be due to different effects such as the high absorption in the advanced semicrystalline polymer containing spherulite centers, the high resonant absorption in gold nanoparticles embedded in the polymer, the optimal thickness of the used polymer to enhance the electron density in the forward plasma, and the self-focusing effect induced by preplasma created in front of the irradiated target.

  3. Xenoliths in the CM2 Carbonaceous Chondrite LON 94101: Implications for Complex Mixing on the Asteroidal Parent Body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindgren, P.; Lee, M. R.; Sofe, M.; Zolensky, M. E.

    2011-01-01

    Xenoliths are foreign clasts that oc-cur in various classes of meteorites, e.g. [1,2,3]. A re-cent study reveals the presence of several distinct classes of xenoliths in regolith-bearing meteorites, in-cluding in over 20 different carbonaceous chondrites [4]. The most common types of xenoliths are fine-grained hydrous clasts, often referred to as C1 or CI clasts in the literature, although their mineralogy is actually more similar to hydrous micrometeorites [5,6]. Xenoliths in meteorites present an opportunity to study material not yet classified or available as separate meteorites, and can provide additional information on processes in the dynamic early history of the Solar Sys-tem. Here we have performed chemical and mineralogi-cal analyses of xenoliths in the CM2 carbonaceous chondrite LON 94101, using scanning electron micro-scopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

  4. Gas-Phase Oxidation of Cm+ and Cm2+ -- Thermodynamics of neutral and ionized CmO

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, John K; Haire, Richard G.; Santos, Marta; Pires de Matos, Antonio; Marcalo, Joaquim

    2008-12-08

    Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry was employed to study the products and kinetics of gas-phase reactions of Cm+ and Cm2+; parallel studies were carried out with La+/2+, Gd+/2+ and Lu+/2+. Reactions with oxygen-donor molecules provided estimates for the bond dissociation energies, D[M+-O](M = Cm, Gd, Lu). The first ionization energy, IE[CmO], was obtained from the reactivity of CmO+ with dienes, and the second ionization energies, IE[MO+](M = Cm, La, Gd, Lu), from the rates of electron-transfer reactions from neutrals to the MO2+ ions. The following thermodynamic quantities for curium oxide molecules were obtained: IE[CmO]= 6.4+-0.2 eV; IE[CmO+]= 15.8+-0.4 eV; D[Cm-O]= 710+-45 kJ mol-1; D[Cm+-O]= 670+-40 kJ mol-1; and D[Cm2+-O]= 342+-55 kJ mol-1. Estimates for the M2+-O bond energies for M = Cm, La, Gd and Lu are all intermediate between D[N2-O]and D[OC-O]--i.e., 167 kJ mol-1< D[M2+-O]< 532 kJ mol-1 -- such that the four MO2+ ions fulfill the thermodynamic requirement for catalytic O-atom transport from N2O to CO. It was demonstrated that the kinetics are also favorable and that the CmO2+, LaO2+, GdO2+ and LuO2+ dipositive ions each catalyze the gas-phase oxidation of CO to CO2 by N2O. The CmO2+ ion appeared during the reaction of Cm+ with O2 when the intermediate, CmO+, was not collisionally cooled -- although its formation is kinetically and/or thermodynamically unfavorable, CmO2+ is a stable species.

  5. Clinical features and prognosis of patients with isolated severe aortic stenosis and valve area less than 1.0 cm(2).

    PubMed

    Mehrotra, Praveen; Jansen, Katrijn; Tan, Timothy C; Flynn, Aidan; Hung, Judy W

    2017-08-16

    Current guidelines define severe aortic stenosis (AS) as an aortic valve area (AVA)≤1.0 cm(2), but some authors have suggested that the AVA cut-off be decreased to 0.8 cm(2). The aim of this study was, therefore, to better describe the clinical features and prognosis of patients with an AVA of 0.8-0.99 cm(2). Patients with isolated, severe AS and ejection fraction ≥55% with an AVA of 0.8-0.99 cm(2) (n=105) were compared with those with an AVA<0.8 cm(2) (n=155) and 1.0-1.3 cm(2) (n=81). The endpoint of this study was a combination of death from any cause or aortic valve replacement at or before 3 years. Patients with an AVA of 0.8-0.99 cm(2) group comprised predominantly normal-flow, low-gradient (NFLG) AS, while high gradients and low flow were more often observed with an AVA<0.8 cm(2). The frequency of symptoms was not significantly different between an AVA of 0.8-0.99 cm(2) and 1.0-1.3 cm(2). The combined endpoint was achieved in 71%, 52% and 21% of patients with an AVA of 0.8 cm(2), 0.8-0.99 cm(2)and 1.0-1.3 cm(2), respectively (p<0.001). Among patients with an AVA of 0.8-0.99 cm(2), NFLG AS was associated with a lower hazard (HR=0.40, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.68, p=0.001) of achieving the combined endpoint with outcomes similar to moderate AS in the first 1.5 years of follow-up. Patients with high-gradient or low-flow AS with an AVA of 0.8-0.99 cm(2) had outcomes similar to those with an AVA<0.8 cm(2). The sensitivity for the combined endpoint was 61% for an AVA cut-off of 0.8 cm(2) and 91% for a cut-off of 1.0 cm(2). The outcomes of patients with AS with an AVA of 0.8-0.99 cm(2) are variable and are more precisely defined by flow-gradient status. Our findings support the current AVA cut-off of 1.0 cm(2). © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Improved Reproducibility for Perovskite Solar Cells with 1 cm(2) Active Area by a Modified Two-Step Process.

    PubMed

    Shen, Heping; Wu, Yiliang; Peng, Jun; Duong, The; Fu, Xiao; Barugkin, Chog; White, Thomas P; Weber, Klaus; Catchpole, Kylie R

    2017-02-22

    With rapid progress in recent years, organohalide perovskite solar cells (PSC) are promising candidates for a new generation of highly efficient thin-film photovoltaic technologies, for which up-scaling is an essential step toward commercialization. In this work, we propose a modified two-step method to deposit the CH3NH3PbI3 (MAPbI3) perovskite film that improves the uniformity, photovoltaic performance, and repeatability of large-area perovskite solar cells. This method is based on the commonly used two-step method, with one additional process involving treating the perovskite film with concentrated methylammonium iodide (MAI) solution. This additional treatment is proved to be helpful for tailoring the residual PbI2 level to an optimal range that is favorable for both optical absorption and inhibition of recombination. Scanning electron microscopy and photoluminescence image analysis further reveal that, compared to the standard two-step and one-step methods, this method is very robust for achieving uniform and pinhole-free large-area films. This is validated by the photovoltaic performance of the prototype devices with an active area of 1 cm(2), where we achieved the champion efficiency of ∼14.5% and an average efficiency of ∼13.5%, with excellent reproducibility.

  7. Spin-Hall-Effect-Assisted Electroresistance in Antiferromagnets via 10(5) A/cm(2) dc Current.

    PubMed

    Han, Jiahao; Wang, Yuyan; Pan, Feng; Song, Cheng

    2016-08-22

    Antiferromagnet (AFM) spintronics with reduced electrical current is greatly expected to process information with high integration and low power consumption. In Pt/FeMn and Ta/FeMn hybrids, we observe significant resistance variation (up to 7% of the total resistance) manipulated by 10(5) A/cm(2) dc current. We have excluded the contribution of isotropic structural effects, and confirmed the critical role of the spin Hall injection from Pt (or Ta) to FeMn. This electrical current-manipulated resistance (i.e. electroresistance) is proposed to be attributed to the spin-Hall-effect-induced spin-orbit torque in FeMn. Similar results have also been detected in plain IrMn films, where the charge current generates spin current via the spin Hall effect with the existence of Ir atoms. All the measurements are free from external magnetic fields and ferromagnets. Our findings present an interesting step towards high-efficiency spintronic devices.

  8. Spin-Hall-Effect-Assisted Electroresistance in Antiferromagnets via 105 A/cm2 dc Current

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jiahao; Wang, Yuyan; Pan, Feng; Song, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Antiferromagnet (AFM) spintronics with reduced electrical current is greatly expected to process information with high integration and low power consumption. In Pt/FeMn and Ta/FeMn hybrids, we observe significant resistance variation (up to 7% of the total resistance) manipulated by 105 A/cm2 dc current. We have excluded the contribution of isotropic structural effects, and confirmed the critical role of the spin Hall injection from Pt (or Ta) to FeMn. This electrical current-manipulated resistance (i.e. electroresistance) is proposed to be attributed to the spin-Hall-effect-induced spin-orbit torque in FeMn. Similar results have also been detected in plain IrMn films, where the charge current generates spin current via the spin Hall effect with the existence of Ir atoms. All the measurements are free from external magnetic fields and ferromagnets. Our findings present an interesting step towards high-efficiency spintronic devices. PMID:27546199

  9. Clasts in the CM2 carbonaceous chondrite Lonewolf Nunataks 94101: Evidence for aqueous alteration prior to complex mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindgren, Paula; Lee, Martin R.; Sofe, Mahmood R.; Zolensky, Michael E.

    2013-06-01

    Clasts in the CM2 carbonaceous chondrite Lonewolf Nunataks (LON) 94101 have been characterized using scanning and transmission electron microscopy and electron microprobe analysis to determine their degrees of aqueous alteration, and the timing of alteration relative to incorporation of clasts into the host. The provenance of the clasts, and the mechanism by which they were incorporated and mixed with their host material are also considered. Results show that at least five distinct types of clasts occur in LON 94101, of which four have been aqueously altered to various degrees and one is largely anhydrous. The fact that they have had different alteration histories implies that the main part of aqueous activity occurred prior to the mixing and assimilation of the clasts with their host. Further, the presence of such a variety of clasts suggests complex mixing in a dynamic environment involving material from various sources. Two of the clasts, one containing approximately 46 vol% carbonate and the other featuring crystals of pyrrhotite up to approximately 1 mm in size, are examples of unusual lithologies and indicate concentration of chemical elements in discrete areas of the parent body(ies), possibly by flow of aqueous solutions.

  10. Proton emission from thin hydrogenated targets irradiated by laser pulses at 10(16) W∕cm2.

    PubMed

    Torrisi, L; Giuffrida, L; Cutroneo, M; Cirrone, P; Picciotto, A; Krasa, J; Margarone, D; Velyhan, A; Laska, L; Ullschmied, J; Wolowski, J; Badziak, J; Rosinski, M

    2012-02-01

    The iodine laser at PALS Laboratory in Prague, operating at 1315 nm fundamental harmonics and at 300 ps FWHM pulse length, is employed to irradiate thin hydrogenated targets placed in vacuum at intensities on the order of 10(16) W∕cm(2). The laser-generated plasma is investigated in terms of proton and ion emission in the forward and backward directions. The time-of-flight technique, using ion collectors and semiconductor detectors, is used to measure the ion currents and the corresponding velocities and energies. Thomson parabola spectrometer is employed to separate the contribution of the ion emission from single laser shots. A particular attention is given to the proton production in terms of the maximum energy, emission yield, and angular distribution as a function of the laser energy, focal position, target thickness, and composition. Metallic and polymeric targets allow to generate protons with large energy range and different yield, depending on the laser, target composition, and target geometry properties.

  11. Perovskite solar cells with 18.21% efficiency and area over 1 cm2 fabricated by heterojunction engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yongzhen; Yang, Xudong; Chen, Wei; Yue, Youfeng; Cai, Molang; Xie, Fengxian; Bi, Enbing; Islam, Ashraful; Han, Liyuan

    2016-11-01

    Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) are promising low-cost photovoltaic technologies with high solar-to-electric power conversion efficiency (PCE). The heterojunction structure between perovskite and charge extraction layers is crucial to the photovoltaic performance of PSCs. Here, we report efficient inverted-structured PSCs with a perovskite-fullerene graded heterojunction (GHJ), in which the electron-accepting material is distributed in the perovskite layer with a gradient. This structure can enhance the PCE as it improves the photoelectron collection and reduces recombination loss, especially for the formamidinium cation-based perovskite. The conformal fullerene coating on perovskite during the GHJ deposition achieves a full coverage with reduced layer thickness, thus minimizing the resistive loss in larger sized devices. Our strategy enables the fabrication of centimetre-scale PSCs showing high efficiency with small hysteresis and good stability. A PCE of 18.21% was certified by an independent institution for cells with an aperture area of 1.022 cm2.

  12. Achieving high carrier mobility exceeding 70 cm2/Vs in amorphous zinc tin oxide thin-film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang Tae; Shin, Yeonwoo; Yun, Pil Sang; Bae, Jong Uk; Chung, In Jae; Jeong, Jae Kyeong

    2017-09-01

    This paper proposes a new defect engineering concept for low-cost In- and Ga-free zinc tin oxide (ZTO) thin-film transistors (TFTs). This concept is comprised of capping ZTO films with tantalum (Ta) and a subsequent modest thermal annealing treatment at 200 °C. The Ta-capped ZTO TFTs exhibited a remarkably high carrier mobility of 70.8 cm2/Vs, low subthreshold gate swing of 0.18 V/decade, threshold voltage of -1.3 V, and excellent ION/OFF ratio of 2 × 108. The improvement (> two-fold) in the carrier mobility compared to the uncapped ZTO TFT can be attributed to the effective reduction of the number of adverse tailing trap states, such as hydroxyl groups or oxygen interstitial defects, which stems from the scavenging effect of the Ta capping layer on the ZTO channel layer. Furthermore, the Ta-capped ZTO TFTs showed excellent positive and negative gate bias stress stabilities. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  13. 46 CFR 76.10-10 - Fire station hydrants, hose and nozzles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire station hydrants, hose and nozzles. 76.10-10... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Main System, Details § 76.10-10 Fire station hydrants, hose and nozzles. (a) The... fire station; however, if all such stations can be satisfactorily served with 50-foot lengths,...

  14. 46 CFR 76.10-10 - Fire station hydrants, hose and nozzles-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire station hydrants, hose and nozzles-T/ALL. 76.10-10... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Main System, Details § 76.10-10 Fire station hydrants, hose and nozzles-T/ALL. (a... each fire station; however, if all such stations can be satisfactorily served with 50-foot lengths,...

  15. 46 CFR 76.10-10 - Fire station hydrants, hose and nozzles-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire station hydrants, hose and nozzles-T/ALL. 76.10-10... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Main System, Details § 76.10-10 Fire station hydrants, hose and nozzles-T/ALL. (a... each fire station; however, if all such stations can be satisfactorily served with 50-foot lengths, 50...

  16. 46 CFR 76.10-10 - Fire station hydrants, hose and nozzles-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire station hydrants, hose and nozzles-T/ALL. 76.10-10... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Main System, Details § 76.10-10 Fire station hydrants, hose and nozzles-T/ALL. (a... each fire station; however, if all such stations can be satisfactorily served with 50-foot lengths, 50...

  17. Newly Installed S-1 Truss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Launched October 7, 2002 aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, the STS-112 mission lasted 11 days and performed three sessions of Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA). Its primary mission was to install the Starboard (S1) Integrated Truss Structure and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart to the International Space Station (ISS). The S1 truss provides structural support for the orbiting research facility's radiator panels, which use ammonia to cool the Station's complex power system. The S1 truss, attached to the S0 (S Zero) truss installed by the previous STS-110 mission, flows 637 pounds of anhydrous ammonia through three heat rejection radiators. The truss is 45-feet long, 15-feet wide, 10-feet tall, and weighs approximately 32,000 pounds. The CETA is the first of two human-powered carts that will ride along the International Space Station's railway providing a mobile work platform for future extravehicular activities by astronauts. This is a view of the newly installed S1 Truss as photographed during the mission's first scheduled EVA. The Station's Canadarm2 is in the foreground. Visible are astronauts Piers J. Sellers (lower left) and David A. Wolf (upper right), both STS-112 mission specialists.

  18. Newly Installed S-1 Truss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Launched October 7, 2002 aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, the STS-112 mission lasted 11 days and performed three sessions of Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA). Its primary mission was to install the Starboard (S1) Integrated Truss Structure and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart to the International Space Station (ISS). The S1 truss provides structural support for the orbiting research facility's radiator panels, which use ammonia to cool the Station's complex power system. The S1 truss, attached to the S0 (S Zero) truss installed by the previous STS-110 mission, flows 637 pounds of anhydrous ammonia through three heat rejection radiators. The truss is 45-feet long, 15-feet wide, 10-feet tall, and weighs approximately 32,000 pounds. The CETA is the first of two human-powered carts that will ride along the International Space Station's railway providing a mobile work platform for future extravehicular activities by astronauts. This is a view of the newly installed S1 Truss as photographed during the mission's first scheduled EVA. The Station's Canadarm2 is in the foreground. Visible are astronauts Piers J. Sellers (lower left) and David A. Wolf (upper right), both STS-112 mission specialists.

  19. Extended chronologies of aqueous alteration in the CM2 carbonaceous chondrites: Evidence from carbonates in Queen Alexandra Range 93005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, M. R.; Lindgren, P.; Sofe, M. R.; O'D Alexander, C. M.; Wang, J.

    2012-09-01

    The Antarctic CM2 carbonaceous chondrite QUE 93005 contains four compositionally distinct carbonates, namely breunnerite, calcite, dolomite and a Ca-poor dolomite. These carbonates can form monomineralic grains, or may be intergrown as bimineralic grains consisting of dolomite plus breunnerite and dolomite plus calcite, or polymineralic grains containing an intergrowth of breunnerite, Ca-poor dolomite and calcite. Carbonates in all grain types have inclusions of Fe-Ni sulphides and/or Mg-Fe phyllosilicates. In the bimineralic grains, dolomite crystallised first to be overgrown by breunnerite or partially replaced by calcite. Polymineralic grains are concentrically layered, with breunnerite crystallising first on pore margins to be later etched, then overgrown and partially replaced by Ca-poor dolomite that was itself partly dissolved prior to being overgrown by calcite. Calcite and dolomite have also cemented fractures that cross-cut the fine-grained rims to aqueously altered chondrules and were formed by expansion of the chondrules during their hydration. Overall, the sequence of mineralisation in QUE 93005 was: (1) dolomite, (2) breunnerite, (3) Ca-poor dolomite then (4) calcite. This secular change in carbonate composition and mineralogy reflects changing solution composition and probably also provenance. Mg-Fe phyllosilicates replaced dolomite, breunnerite and Ca-poor dolomite prior to calcite crystallisation, and most or all of the sulphides formed after both the phyllosilicates and calcite. Following sulphide crystallisation, the edges of carbonate grains were abraded, either by impact 'gardening' or as a consequence of fluidisation of the matrix during rapid loss of gas or vapour. Determination of the crystallisation age of dolomite via the Mn-Cr system indicates that aqueous alteration of QUE 93005 began on or before 3.93 ± 0.23 Ma after the formation of the oldest solar system solids. Overall, the water/rock ratio and fO2 during alteration of QUE 93005

  20. Changes in storm tracks and energy transports in a warmer climate simulated by the GFDL CM2.1 model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yutian; Ting, Mingfang; Seager, Richard; Huang, Huei-Ping; Cane, Mark A.

    2011-07-01

    Storm tracks play a major role in regulating the precipitation and hydrological cycle in midlatitudes. The changes in the location and amplitude of the storm tracks in response to global warming will have significant impacts on the poleward transport of heat, momentum and moisture and on the hydrological cycle. Recent studies have indicated a poleward shift of the storm tracks and the midlatitude precipitation zone in the warming world that will lead to subtropical drying and higher latitude moistening. This study agrees with this key feature for not only the annual mean but also different seasons and for the zonal mean as well as horizontal structures based on the analysis of Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) CM2.1 model simulations. Further analyses show that the meridional sensible and latent heat fluxes associated with the storm tracks shift poleward and intensify in both boreal summer and winter in the late twenty-first century (years 2081-2100) relative to the latter half of the twentieth century (years 1961-2000). The maximum dry Eady growth rate is examined to determine the effect of global warming on the time mean state and associated available potential energy for transient growth. The trend in maximum Eady growth rate is generally consistent with the poleward shift and intensification of the storm tracks in the middle latitudes of both hemispheres in both seasons. However, in the lower troposphere in northern winter, increased meridional eddy transfer within the storm tracks is more associated with increased eddy velocity, stronger correlation between eddy velocity and eddy moist static energy, and longer eddy length scale. The changing characteristics of baroclinic instability are, therefore, needed to explain the storm track response as climate warms. Diagnosis of the latitude-by-latitude energy budget for the current and future climate demonstrates how the coupling between radiative and surface heat fluxes and eddy heat and moisture

  1. Red light photodynamic therapy for actinic keratosis using 37 J/cm(2) : Fractionated irradiation with 12.3 mW/cm(2) after 30 minutes incubation time compared to standard continuous irradiation with 75 mW/cm(2) after 3 hours incubation time using a mathematical modeling.

    PubMed

    Vignion-Dewalle, Anne-Sophie; Baert, Gregory; Devos, Laura; Thecua, Elise; Vicentini, Claire; Mortier, Laurent; Mordon, Serge

    2017-09-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an emerging treatment modality for various diseases, especially for dermatological conditions. Although, the standard PDT protocol for the treatment of actinic keratoses in Europe has shown to be effective, treatment-associated pain is often observed in patients. Different modifications to this protocol attempted to decrease pain have been investigated. The decrease in fluence rate seems to be a promising solution. Moreover, it has been suggested that light fractionation significantly increases the efficacy of PDT. Based on a flexible light-emitting textile, the FLEXITHERALIGHT device specifically provides a fractionated illumination at a fluence rate more than six times lower than that of the standard protocol. In a recently completed clinical trial of PDT for the treatment of actinic keratosis, the non-inferiority of a protocol involving illumination with the FLEXITHERALIGHT device after a short incubation time and referred to as the FLEXITHERALIGHT protocol has been assessed compared to the standard protocol. In this paper, we propose a comparison of the two above mentioned 635 nm red light protocols with 37 J/cm(2) in the PDT treatment of actinic keratosis: the standard protocol and the FLEXITHERALIGHT one through a mathematical modeling. This mathematical modeling, which slightly differs from the one we have already published, enables the local damage induced by the therapy to be estimated. The comparison performed in terms of the local damage induced by the therapy demonstrates that the FLEXITHERALIGHT protocol with lower fluence rate, light fractionation and shorter incubation time is somewhat less efficient than the standard protocol. Nevertheless, from the clinical trial results, the FLEXITHERALIGHT protocol results in non-inferior response rates compared to the standard protocol. This finding raises the question of whether the PDT local damage achieved by the FLEXITHERALIGHT protocol (respectively, the standard protocol

  2. 46 CFR 38.10-10 - Cargo piping-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., Fittings, and Accessory Equipment § 38.10-10 Cargo piping—TB/ALL. (a) The piping shall be designed for a...) Piping shall be provided with adequate support to take the weight of the piping off valves and...

  3. Fungistatic Performance of 10,10'-Oxybisphenoxarsine in Exterior Latex and Asphalt Coatings.

    PubMed

    Wolf, P A; Riley, W H

    1965-01-01

    10, 10'-Oxybisphenoxarsine has been found to be outstanding in its activity against bacteria and fungi. Parallel tests with known fungistats for comparison (2,3,4,6-tetrachlorophenol and phenylmercuric acetate) have demonstrated its superior activity and persistence in an exterior acrylate paint film and in an asphalt coating. In view of its superior antimicrobial activity and its persistence, it can be used in applications in which there is no danger of its ingestion. Further field trials are in progress to evaluate 10, 10'oxybisphenoxarsine in paint, asphalt, wood, and in marine pilings.

  4. Ageing studies on CuInS2/In2S3 junction (2.5×2cm2) deposited using automated spray machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santhosh, M. V.; Kartha, C. Sudha; Vijayakumar, K. P.

    2014-04-01

    CuInS2/In2S3 heterojunction photovoltaic device was realized in an area of 2.5 × 2 cm2 using automated spray pyrolysis machine which shows an open-circuit voltage of 432mV, short circuit current density of 6.33mA/cm2, fill factor of 34% and efficiency of 0.94%. Performance of the device was monitored up to 100 days and it was working quite well without the application of any protective coatings. The device maintains a fill factor of around 32% up to 80 days but other photovoltaic parameters had slight decrease.

  5. 46 CFR 46.10-10 - Marks to indicate subdivision load lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... LOAD LINES FOR PASSENGER VESSELS Administration § 46.10-10 Marks to indicate subdivision load lines. (a) Marks to indicate the maximum mean draft to which a passenger vessel may be lawfully submerged shall be permanently marked on each side of the passenger vessel in the form, manner, and location provided in...

  6. 46 CFR 46.10-10 - Marks to indicate subdivision load lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... LOAD LINES FOR PASSENGER VESSELS Administration § 46.10-10 Marks to indicate subdivision load lines. (a) Marks to indicate the maximum mean draft to which a passenger vessel may be lawfully submerged shall be permanently marked on each side of the passenger vessel in the form, manner, and location provided in...

  7. 46 CFR 46.10-10 - Marks to indicate subdivision load lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... LOAD LINES FOR PASSENGER VESSELS Administration § 46.10-10 Marks to indicate subdivision load lines. (a) Marks to indicate the maximum mean draft to which a passenger vessel may be lawfully submerged shall be permanently marked on each side of the passenger vessel in the form, manner, and location provided in...

  8. 46 CFR 46.10-10 - Marks to indicate subdivision load lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... LOAD LINES FOR PASSENGER VESSELS Administration § 46.10-10 Marks to indicate subdivision load lines. (a) Marks to indicate the maximum mean draft to which a passenger vessel may be lawfully submerged shall be permanently marked on each side of the passenger vessel in the form, manner, and location provided in...

  9. 46 CFR 46.10-10 - Marks to indicate subdivision load lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... LOAD LINES FOR PASSENGER VESSELS Administration § 46.10-10 Marks to indicate subdivision load lines. (a) Marks to indicate the maximum mean draft to which a passenger vessel may be lawfully submerged shall be permanently marked on each side of the passenger vessel in the form, manner, and location provided in...

  10. Automated cortical projection of EEG sensors: anatomical correlation via the international 10-10 system.

    PubMed

    Koessler, L; Maillard, L; Benhadid, A; Vignal, J P; Felblinger, J; Vespignani, H; Braun, M

    2009-05-15

    Several studies have described cranio-cerebral correlations in accordance with the 10-20 electrode placement system. These studies have made a significant contribution to human brain imaging techniques, such as near-infrared spectroscopy and trans-magnetic stimulation. With the recent development of high resolution EEG, an extension of the 10-20 system has been proposed. This new configuration, namely the 10-10 system, allows the placement of a high number (64-256) of EEG electrodes. Here, we describe the cranio-cerebral correlations with the 10-10 system. Thanks to the development of a new EEG-MRI sensor and an automated algorithm which enables the projection of electrode positions onto the cortical surface, we studied the cortical projections in 16 healthy subjects using the Talairach stereotactic system and estimated the variability of cortical projections in a statistical way. We found that the cortical projections of the 10-10 system could be estimated with a grand standard deviation of 4.6 mm in x, 7.1 mm in y and 7.8 mm in z. We demonstrated that the variability of projections is greatest in the central region and parietal lobe and least in the frontal and temporal lobes. Knowledge of cranio-cerebral correlations with the 10-10 system should enable to increase the precision of surface brain imaging and should help electrophysiological analyses, such as localization of superficial focal cortical generators.

  11. Amino Acid Analyses of the Antarctic CM2 Meteorites ALH 83100 and LEW 90500 Using Liquid Chromatography-Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.; Aubrey, A. D.; Botta, O.; Doty, J. H., III; Bada, J. L.

    2006-03-01

    Amino acids and their enantiomeric abundances were measured in the CM meteorites ALH 83100, LEW 90500 and Murchison using a new liquid chromatography-time of flight-mass spectrometry technique. ALH 83100 has an amino acid distribution that is distinct from other CM2 meteorites.

  12. 2.6 A, 0.69 MW cm -2 single-chip bulk GaN p-i-n rectifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irokawa, Y.; Luo, B.; Kang, B. S.; Kim, Jihyun; LaRoche, J. R.; Ren, F.; Baik, K. H.; Pearton, S. J.; Pan, C.-C.; Chen, G.-T.; Chyi, J.-I.; Park, S. S.; Park, Y. J.

    2004-02-01

    The performance of a 9 device array of 500 × 500 μm 2 GaN p-i-n rectifiers fabricated on epitaxial layers grown on a free-standing GaN template is reported. The forward turn-on voltage was ˜5.5 V at 25 °C, with an on-state resistance of ˜5 × 10 -3 Ω cm 2. The total forward current was 1 A at ˜8.8 V and 2.6 A at 18 V. The power figure-of-merit for the array, VB2/ RON, was 0.69 MW cm -2, with a reverse recovery time of ⩽300 ns. The individual p-i-n rectifiers were interconnected using electroplated Au and clamped in a Cu pressure pack for thermal management.

  13. Feasibility Study for Implementing Magnetic Suspension in the Glenn Research Center 225 cm2 Supersonic Wind Tunnel for Testing the Dynamic Stability of Blunt Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sevier, Abigail; Davis, David O.; Schoenenberger, Mark; Barnhart, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The implementation of a magnetic suspension system in the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) 225 cm2 Supersonic Wind Tunnel would be a powerful test technique that could accurately determine the dynamic stability of blunt body entry vehicles with no sting interference. This paper explores initial design challenges to be evaluated before implementation, including defining the lowest possible operating dynamic pressure and corresponding model size, developing a compatible video analysis technique, and incorporating a retractable initial support sting.

  14. Solution-processed small molecule-polymer blend organic thin-film transistors with hole mobility greater than 5 cm2/Vs.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jeremy; Zhang, Weimin; Sougrat, Rachid; Zhao, Kui; Li, Ruipeng; Cha, Dongkyu; Amassian, Aram; Heeney, Martin; McCulloch, Iain; Anthopoulos, Thomas D

    2012-05-08

    Using phase-separated organic semiconducting blends containing a small molecule, as the hole transporting material, and a conjugated amorphous polymer, as the binder material, we demonstrate solution-processed organic thin-film transistors with superior performance characteristics that include; hole mobility >5 cm(2) /Vs, current on/off ratio ≥10(6) and narrow transistor parameter spread. These exceptional characteristics are attributed to the electronic properties of the binder polymer and the advantageous nanomorphology of the blend film.

  15. Identification of a 10/10 matched donor for patients with an uncommon haplotype is unlikely.

    PubMed

    Olson, J A; Gibbens, Y; Tram, K; Kempenich, J; Novakovich, J; Buck, K; Dehn, J

    2017-02-01

    Despite over 6 million subjects contributing to the National Marrow Donor Program human leukocyte antigen (HLA) haplotype frequency reference data (HFD), haplotypes cannot be predicted from the HLA assignments of some patients searching for an unrelated donor (URD) in the Be The Match Registry®. We aimed to determine the incidence of these patient searches and whether haplotypes lacking from the HFD can be found among the low-resolution typed URD pool. New NMDP searches with uncommon patient haplotypes (UPH), defined as a lack of haplotype pairs in any single ethnic group in the HFD based upon HLA-A˜C˜B˜DRB1˜DQB1, were identified. Each search had up to 20 potential 10/10 or 8/8 URDs typed to determine the likelihood of an allele match. The incidence of patient searches without haplotype pairs in a single ethnic group in the HFD was 1.2% (N=144 out of 12,172) and a majority of these patients (117; 81%) had one uncommon haplotype previously uncharacterized in the HFD. Non-White patients had the highest incidence of UPH. Importantly, no patients with UPH had a 10/10 URD identified. The transplant rate among UPH patients was 15%, and a majority of these patients utilized cord blood units as their transplant stem cell source. Therefore, the HLA HFD that informs the HapLogic matching algorithm is thorough as UPH patient searches were infrequent. Since such patients are highly unlikely to have a fully 10/10 matched URD identified, this study supports the identification of alternative stem cell sources including cord blood or a mismatched URD early in the search process. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Highly Efficient and Uniform 1 cm2 Perovskite Solar Cells with an Electrochemically Deposited NiOx Hole-Extraction Layer

    DOE PAGES

    Park, Ik Jae; Kang, Gyeongho; Park, Min Ah; ...

    2017-05-10

    Here, given that the highest certified conversion efficiency of the organic-inorganic perovskite solar cell (PSC) already exceeds 22%, which is even higher than that of the polycrystalline silicon solar cell, the significance of new scalable processes that can be utilized for preparing large-area devices and their commercialization is rapidly increasing. From this perspective, the electrodeposition method is one of the most suitable processes for preparing large-area devices because it is an already commercialized process with proven controllability and scalability. Here, a highly uniform NiOx layer prepared by electrochemical deposition is reported as an efficient hole-extraction layer of a p-i-n-type planarmore » PSC with a large active area of >1 cm2. It is demonstrated that the increased surface roughness of the NiOx layer, achieved by controlling the deposition current density, facilitates the hole extraction at the interface between perovskite and NiOx, and thus increases the fill factor and the conversion efficiency. The electrochemically deposited NiOx layer also exhibits extremely uniform thickness and morphology, leading to highly efficient and uniform large-area PSCs. As a result, the p-i-n-type planar PSC with an area of 1.084 cm2 exhibits a stable conversion efficiency of 17.0% (19.2% for 0.1 cm2) without showing hysteresis effects.« less

  17. Qualitative determination of 10,10'-oxybisphenoxarsine and decabromodiphenyl ether in plastics.

    PubMed

    Zitko, V

    1999-02-01

    Plastics destined for facilities holding aquatic fauna, such as aquaculture and aquatic toxicology laboratories, were studied. The plastics were extracted with dichloromethane. The fungicide 10,10'-oxybisphenoxarsine (OBPA) was detected by silver nitrate after cleanup on a silica cartridge and TLC in petroleum ether-diethyl ether-acetic acid 80:20:1. The flame retardant decabromodiphenyl ether (DBDPO) was crystallized from dichloromethane and confirmed by IR spectrum. A UV-spectrophotometric method is suggested for the estimation of the leaching potential of additives from plastics.

  18. Vibrational spectroscopic studies and molecular docking of 10,10-Dimethylanthrone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheena Mary, Y.; Yamuna, T. S.; Yohannan Panicker, C.; Yathirajan, H. S.; Siddegowda, M. S.; Al-Saadi, Abdulaziz A.; Van Alsenoy, Christian; War, Javeed Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of 10,10-Dimethylanthrone were recorded and analyzed. The vibrational wavenumbers were computed using DFT quantum chemical calculations. The data obtained from wavenumber calculations are used to assign vibrational bands obtained experimentally. In its most stable form, the title compound maintains C2v symmetry as determined by XRD results, where both methyl groups are staggered with respect to the corresponding C23sbnd C24 and C23sbnd C28 bonds. The geometrical parameters (B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p)(5D,7F)) of the title compound are in agreement with the XRD results. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies allow the calculations of atomic and molecular properties and they also showed that charge transfer occurs in the molecule. A detailed molecular picture of the title compound and its interactions were obtained from NBO analysis. As seen from the MEP map, negative potential regions are localized over the carbonyl group and are possible sites for electrophilic attack. The title compound, 10,10-Dimethylanthrone forms a stable complex with human topoisomerase-II as is evident from the ligand-receptor interactions and show appreciable antineoplastic activity.

  19. S1P control of endothelial integrity.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Yuquan; Hla, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), a lipid mediator produced by sphingolipid metabolism, promotes endothelial cell spreading, vascular maturation/stabilization, and barrier function. S1P is present at high concentrations in the circulatory system, whereas in tissues its levels are low. This so-called vascular S1P gradient is essential for S1P to regulate much physiological and pathophysiological progress such as the modulation of vascular permeability. Cellular sources of S1P in blood has only recently begun to be identified. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of S1P in regulating vascular integrity. In particular, we discuss the recent discovery of the endothelium-protective functions of HDL-bound S1P which is chaperoned by apolipoprotein M.

  20. Absence of ocular effects after either single or repeated exposure to 10 mW/cm(2) from a 60 GHz CW source.

    PubMed

    Kues, H A; D'Anna, S A; Osiander, R; Green, W R; Monahan, J C

    1999-12-01

    This study was designed to examine ocular effects associated with exposure to millimeter waves (60 GHz). Rabbits served as the primary experimental subjects. To confirm the results of the rabbit experiments in a higher species, the second phase of the study used nonhuman primates (Macaca mulatta). First, this study used time-resolved infrared radiometry to assess the field distribution patterns produced by different antennas operating at 60 GHz. These results allowed us to select an antenna that produced a uniform energy distribution and the best distance at which to expose our experimental subjects. The study then examined ocular changes after exposure at an incident power density of 10 mW/cm(2). Acute exposure of both rabbits and nonhuman primates consisted of a single 8 h exposure, and the repeated exposure protocol consisted of five separate 4 h exposures on consecutive days. One eye in each animal was exposed and the contralateral eye served as the sham-exposed control. After postexposure diagnostic examinations, animals were euthanized and the eyes were removed. Ocular tissue was examined by both light and transmission electron microscopy. Neither microscopic examinations nor the diagnostic procedures performed on the eyes of acute and repeatedly exposed rabbits found any ocular changes that could be attributed to millimeter-wave exposure at 10 mW/cm(2). Examination of the primates after comparable exposures also failed to detect any ocular changes due to exposure. On the basis of our results, we conclude that single or repeated exposure to 60 GHz CW radiation at 10 mW/cm(2) does not result in any detectable ocular damage.

  1. Dynamics of cell and tissue growth acquired by means of 25 mm2 to 10 cm2 lens-free imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momey, F.; Coutard, J.-G.; Bordy, T.; Navarro, F.; Menneteau, M.; Dinten, J.-M.; Allier, C.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we discuss a new methodology based on lens-free imaging to perform wound healing assay with unprecedented statistics. Our video lens-free microscopy setup is a simple optical system featuring only a CMOS sensor and a semi coherent illumination system. Yet it is a powerful means for the real-time monitoring of cultivated cells. It presents several key advantages, e.g., integration into standard incubator, compatibility with standard cell culture protocol, simplicity and ease of use. It can perform the follow-up in a large field of view (25 mm2) of several crucial parameters during the culture of cells i.e. their motility, their proliferation rate or their death. Consequently the setup can gather large statistics both in space and time. But in the case of tissue growth experiments, the field of view of 25 mm2 remains not sufficient and results can be biased depending on the position of the device with respect to the recipient of the cell culture. Hence, to conduct exhaustive wound healing assay, here we propose to enlarge the field of view up to 10 cm2 through two different approaches. The first method consists in performing a scan of the cell culture by moving the source/sensor couple and then stitch the stack of images. The second is to make an acquisition by scanning with a line scan camera. The two approaches are compared in term of resolution, complexity and acquisition time. Next we have performed acquisitions of wound healing assay (keratinocytes HaCaT) both in real-time (25 mm2) and in final point (10 cm2) to assess the combination of these two complementary modalities. In the future, we aim at combining directly super wide field of view acquisitions (>10 cm2) with real time ability inside the incubator.

  2. [Effects of 2000 μW/cm2; electromagnetic radiation on expression of immunoreactive protein and mRNA of NMDA receptor 2A subunit in rats hippocampus].

    PubMed

    Li, Yu-hong; Lu, Guo-bing; Shi, Chang-hua; Zhang, Zhuo; Xu, Qian

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of electromagnetic irradiation of 2000 μW/cm(2); exposure on mRNA and protein expression levels of immunoreactive protein and mRNA of NMDA receptor 2A subunit in rats hippocampal, and to explore the mechanism of electromagnetic irradiation induced learning and memory impairment. Rats were randomly divided into normal control group, sham-radiated group, and 1 h/d, 2 h/d, and 3 h/d radiation groups. The rats in the radiation groups were fixed after microwave exposure of 2000 μW/cm(2);, then their learning and memory abilities were tested by Morris water maze experiment, the change of NR2A protein in hippocampal neurons of each group of rats were measured with immunohistochmistry and Western blot techniques, and the expression of NR2A mRNA in hippocampus were determined by RT-PCR. Compared with the normal control group, each index of the sham-radiated group has no significant change (P>0.05), while the latency of rats of radiated group in Morris water maze test were significantly longer (P<0.05). In the radiation group, the hippocampal neurons of rats showing evident reduction in the ratio of NR2A positive cells, irregular, and arrayed in disorder. Moreover, the expession of NR2A protein and its mRNA in hippocampal neurons were significant decreased (P<0.05). Electromagnetic irradiation of 2000 μW/cm(2); exposure can impair the learning and memory abilities of rats possibly through a mechanism correlated with the lower expression of NR2A protein and its mRNA in hippocampus.

  3. Laser Driven Compression Equations of State and Hugoniot Pressure Measurements in Thick Solid Metallic Targets at ˜0.17-13 TW/cm2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remo, John L.

    2010-10-01

    An electro-optic laser probe was developed to obtain parameters for high energy density equations of state (EoS), Hugoniot pressures (PH), and strain rates for high energy density laser irradiation intensity, I, experiments at ˜170 GW/cm2 (λ = 1064 nm) to ˜13 TW/cm2 (λ = 527 nm) on Al, Cu, Ti, Fe, Ni metal targets in a vacuum. At I ˜7 TW/cm2 front surface plasma pressures and temperatures reached 100's GPa and over two million K. Rear surface PH ranged from 7-120 GPa at average shock wave transit velocities 4.2-8.5 km/s, depending on target thickness and I. A surface plasma compression ˜100's GPa generated an impulsive radial expanding shock wave causing compression, rarefactions, and surface elastic and plastic deformations depending on I. A laser/fiber optic system measured rear surface shock wave emergence and particle velocity with ˜3 GHz resolution by monitoring light deflection from diamond polished rear surfaces of malleable metallic targets, analogous to an atomic force microscope. Target thickness, ˜0.5-2.9 mm, prevented front surface laser irradiation penetration, due to low radiation skin depth, from altering rear surface reflectivity (refractive index). At ˜10 TW electromagnetic plasma pulse noise generated from the target chamber overwhelmed detector signals. Pulse frequency analysis using Moebius loop antennae probed transient noise characteristics. Average shock (compression) and particle (rear surface displacement) velocity measurements determined rear surface PH and GPa) EoS that are compared with gas guns.

  4. In Situ Location and Characterization of Carbon-bearing Phases in Carbonaceous Chondrites: Insights from Yamato 791198, a Weakly-altered CM2 Chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brearley, Adrian J.

    2004-01-01

    Intense studies of carbonaceous chondrites have provided remarkable insights into the behavior of carbon during the earliest stages of our solar system. This research has demonstrated that carbonaceous meteorites contain a diverse array of organic compounds, whose origins are probably the result of multiple processes that occurred in different locations including interstellar space, the solar nebula and asteroidal parent bodies [1-3]. The most abundant organic carbon component in CI1 and CM2 carbonaceous chondrites is so-called macromolecular carbon, a high molecular weight material that has some affinities to terrestrial kerogen and constitutes approximately 60-70% of the organic material in these meteorites. Although recent studies e.g. [3] have radically improved our understanding of the structural and compositional characteristics of this material, a number of key questions remain to be addressed. In particular, our knowledge of where this macromolecular material is distributed at the fine-scale within carbonaceous chondrites is scant. [4] have shown that organic material is associated with phyllosilicate-rich matrix in CM chondrites, but the detailed mineralogical associations are not well-known. Over the past 2 years, we have begun to address this question by using energy filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) to locate carbon-bearing materials in situ, focusing specifically on the CM2s. To date we have reported data on the Murchison CM2 chondrite [5], a meteorite that has experienced a modest degree of aqueous alteration. To extend our observations to other CM2 chondrites, we have examined the occurrence of carbon-bearing phases in Yamato 791198. Our recent studies [5] have shown that Y-791198 is among the most weakly-altered CM chondrite currently known and hence is likely to preserve a quite primitive distribution of carbonaceous material. In this study, we present initial observations on the distribution of these materials in one fine

  5. 4H-SiC Power Bipolar Junction Transistor with a Very Low Specific On-resistance of 2.9 mOmega.cm2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-12

    pp1381-1382, 2004. [2] C.-F. Huang and J. A. Cooper, Jr., “High current gain 4H-SiC NPN Bipolar Junction Transistors ,” IEEE Electron Device Lett...4H-SiC Power Bipolar Junction Transistor with a Very Low Specific On-resistance of 2.9 mΩ.cm2 Jianhui Zhang, member, IEEE, Petre Alexandrov...specific on-resistance (Rsp,on) of power 4H-SiC bipolar junction transistors (BJT). A 4H-SiC BJT based on a 12 um drift-layer shows a record low

  6. MgZnO/ZnO heterostructures with electron mobility exceeding 1 × 106 cm2/Vs

    PubMed Central

    Falson, Joseph; Kozuka, Yusuke; Uchida, Masaki; Smet, Jurgen H.; Arima, Taka-hisa; Tsukazaki, Atsushi; Kawasaki, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    The inherently complex chemical and crystallographic nature of oxide materials has suppressed the purities achievable in laboratory environments, obscuring the rich physical degrees of freedom these systems host. In this manuscript we provide a systematic approach to defect identification and management in oxide molecular beam epitaxy grown MgZnO/ZnO heterostructures which host two-dimensional electron systems. We achieve samples displaying electron mobilities in excess of 1 × 106 cm2/Vs. This data set for the MgZnO/ZnO system firmly establishes that the crystalline quality has become comparable to traditional semiconductor materials. PMID:27229479

  7. High-voltage thin-film GaN LEDs fabricated on ceramic substrates: the alleviated droop effect at 670 W/cm(2).

    PubMed

    Tsai, M L; Liao, J H; Yeh, J H; Hsu, T C; Hon, S J; Chung, T Y; Lai, K Y

    2013-11-04

    High-voltage thin-film GaN LEDs with the emission wavelength of 455 nm were fabricated on ceramic substrates (230 W/m · K). The high-voltage operation was achieved by three cascaded sub-LEDs with dielectric passivation and metal bridges conformally deposited on the side walls. Under the driving power of 670 W/cm(2), the high-voltage LEDs exhibit much alleviated efficiency droop and the operative temperature below 80 °C. The excellent performances were attributed to the improved current spreading within each sub-LED and the superior heat sinking of the ceramic substrate.

  8. CONTROL OF LASER RADIATION PARAMETERS: Direct amplification of picosecond pulses in neodymium glass with a power density above 100 GW cm-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Vladimir V.; Kutsenko, A. V.; Matsveiko, A. A.; Mikhailov, Yu A.; Popov, A. I.; Sklizkov, G. V.; Starodub, Aleksandr N.; Chekmarev, Alexander M.

    2003-09-01

    A scheme for amplification of ultrashort laser pulses is studied, which is used in experiments on symmetrisation of ablation pressure with the help of a prepulse upon acceleration of foils by laser radiation of high brightness. The possibility of direct amplification of short pulses before their expansion in order to increase the energy contrast is considered. In experiments performed on the PICO facility, the amplification of a 10-ps pulse with a power density exceeding 100 GW cm-2 is demonstrated with the gain equal to 1.2 and the inversion drop above 30 %.

  9. Tailoring gadolinium-doped ceria-based solid oxide fuel cells to achieve 2 W cm-2 at 550 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jin Goo; Park, Jeong Ho; Shul, Yong Gun

    2014-06-01

    Low-temperature operation is necessary for next-generation solid oxide fuel cells due to the wide variety of their applications. However, significant increases in the fuel cell losses appear in the low-temperature solid oxide fuel cells, which reduce the cell performance. To overcome this problem, here we report Gd0.1Ce0.9O1.95-based low-temperature solid oxide fuel cells with nanocomposite anode functional layers, thin electrolytes and core/shell fibre-structured Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ-Gd0.1Ce0.9O1.95 cathodes. In particular, the report describes the use of the advanced electrospinning and Pechini process in the preparation of the core/shell-fibre-structured cathodes. The fuel cells show a very high performance of 2 W cm-2 at 550 °C in hydrogen, and are stable for 300 h even under the high current density of 1 A cm-2. Hence, the results suggest that stable and high-performance solid oxide fuel cells at low temperatures can be achieved by modifying the microstructures of solid oxide fuel cell components.

  10. Current density and catalyst-coated membrane resistance distribution of hydro-formed metallic bipolar plate fuel cell short stack with 250 cm2 active area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haase, S.; Moser, M.; Hirschfeld, J. A.; Jozwiak, K.

    2016-01-01

    An automotive fuel cell with an active area of 250 cm2 is investigated in a 4-cell short stack with a current and temperature distribution device next to the bipolar plate with 560 current and 140 temperature segments. The electrical conductivities of the bipolar plate and gas diffusion layer assembly are determined ex-situ with this current scan shunt module. The applied fuel cell consists of bipolar plates constructed of 75-μm-thick, welded stainless-steel foils and a graphitic coating. The electrical conductivities of the bipolar plate and gas diffusion layer assembly are determined ex-situ with this module with a 6% deviation in in-plane conductivity. The current density distribution is evaluated up to 2.4 A cm-2. The entire cell's investigated volumetric power density is 4.7 kW l-1, and its gravimetric power density is 4.3 kW kg-1 at an average cell voltage of 0.5 V. The current density distribution is determined without influencing the operating cell. In addition, the current density distribution in the catalyst-coated membrane and its effective resistivity distribution with a finite volume discretisation of Ohm's law are evaluated. The deviation between the current density distributions in the catalyst-coated membrane and the bipolar plate is determined.

  11. 5 × 5 cm2 silicon photonic crystal slabs on glass and plastic foil exhibiting broadband absorption and high-intensity near-fields

    PubMed Central

    Becker, C.; Wyss, P.; Eisenhauer, D.; Probst, J.; Preidel, V.; Hammerschmidt, M.; Burger, S.

    2014-01-01

    Crystalline silicon photonic crystal slabs are widely used in various photonics applications. So far, the commercial success of such structures is still limited owing to the lack of cost-effective fabrication processes enabling large nanopatterned areas (≫ 1 cm2). We present a simple method for producing crystalline silicon nanohole arrays of up to 5 × 5 cm2 size with lattice pitches between 600 and 1000 nm on glass and flexible plastic substrates. Exclusively up-scalable, fast fabrication processes are applied such as nanoimprint-lithography and silicon evaporation. The broadband light trapping efficiency of the arrays is among the best values reported for large-area experimental crystalline silicon nanostructures. Further, measured photonic crystal resonance modes are in good accordance with light scattering simulations predicting strong near-field intensity enhancements greater than 500. Hence, the large-area silicon nanohole arrays might become a promising platform for ultrathin solar cells on lightweight substrates, high-sensitive optical biosensors, and nonlinear optics. PMID:25073935

  12. AMINO ACID ANALYSES OF THE ANTARCTIC CM2 METEORITES ALH 83100 AND LEW 90500 USING LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY-TIME OF FLIGHT-MASS SPECTROMETRY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.; Aubrey, A.; Botta, O.; Doty, J. H., III; Bada, J. L.

    2001-01-01

    The investigation of organic compounds in primitive carbonaceous meteorites provides a record of the chemical processes that occurred in the early solar system. In particular, amino acids have been shown to be potential indicators in tracing the nature of carbonaceous chondrite parent bodies [ 13. The delivery of amino acids by carbonaceous chondrites to the early Earth could have been any important source of the Earth's prebiotic organic inventory [2]. Over 80 different amino acids have been detected in the Murchison CM2 meteorite, most of them completely non-existent in the terrestrial biosphere [3]. We have optimized a new liquid chromatography-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (LC-ToF-MS) technique coupled with OPAMAC derivatization in order to detect amino acids in meteorite extracts by UV fluorescence and exact mass simultaneously. The detection limit of the LC-ToF-MS instrument for amino acids is at least 3 orders of magnitude lower than traditional GC-MS techniques. Here we report on the first analyses of amino acids and their enantiomeric abundances in the CM2 carbonaceous meteorites ALH 83100, LEW 90500, and Murchison using this new LC-ToF-MS instrument configuration. Amino acid analyses of any kind for the CM meteorite ALH 83100 have not previously been reported.

  13. Tailoring gadolinium-doped ceria-based solid oxide fuel cells to achieve 2 W cm(-2) at 550 °C.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin Goo; Park, Jeong Ho; Shul, Yong Gun

    2014-06-04

    Low-temperature operation is necessary for next-generation solid oxide fuel cells due to the wide variety of their applications. However, significant increases in the fuel cell losses appear in the low-temperature solid oxide fuel cells, which reduce the cell performance. To overcome this problem, here we report Gd0.1Ce0.9O1.95-based low-temperature solid oxide fuel cells with nanocomposite anode functional layers, thin electrolytes and core/shell fibre-structured Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ-Gd0.1Ce0.9O1.95 cathodes. In particular, the report describes the use of the advanced electrospinning and Pechini process in the preparation of the core/shell-fibre-structured cathodes. The fuel cells show a very high performance of 2 W cm(-2) at 550 °C in hydrogen, and are stable for 300 h even under the high current density of 1 A cm(-2). Hence, the results suggest that stable and high-performance solid oxide fuel cells at low temperatures can be achieved by modifying the microstructures of solid oxide fuel cell components.

  14. Performance of n-in-p Pixel Detectors Irradiated at Fluences up to 5x1015 neq/cm2 for the Future ATLAS Upgrades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macchiolo, A.; Gallrapp, C.; La Rosa, A.; Nisius, R.; Pernegger, H.; Richter, R. H.; Weigell, P.

    We present the results of the characterization of novel n-in-p planar pixel detectors, designed for the future upgrades of the ATLAS pixel system. N-in-p silicon devices are a promising candidate to replace the n-in-n sensors thanks to their radiation hardness and cost effectiveness, that allow for enlarging the area instrumented with pixel detectors. The n-in-p modules presented here are composed of pixel sensors produced by CiS connected by bump-bonding to the ATLAS readout chip FE-I3. The characterization of these devices has been performed with the ATLAS pixel read-out systems, TurboDAQ and USBPIX, before and after irradiation with 25 MeV protons and neutrons up to a fluence of 5x1015 neq/cm2. The charge collection measurements carried out with radioactive sources have proven the feasibility of employing this kind of detectors up to these particle fluences. The collected charge has been measured to be for any fluence in excess of twice the value of the FE-I3 threshold, tuned to 3200 e. The first results from beam test data with 120 GeV pions at the CERN-SPS are also presented, demonstrating a high tracking efficiency before irradiation and a high collected charge for a device irradiated at 1015 neq/cm2. This work has been performed within the framework of the RD50 Collaboration.

  15. High critical current density over 1 MA cm-2 at 13 T in BaZrO3 incorporated Ba(Fe,Co)2As2 thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jongmin; Jiang, Jianyi; Kametani, Fumitake; Oh, Myeong Jun; Weiss, Jeremy D.; Collantes, Yesusa; Seo, Sehun; Yoon, Sejun; Tarantini, Chiara; Jo, Youn Jung; Hellstrom, Eric E.; Lee, Sanghan

    2017-08-01

    Achieving high critical current density (J c) under a high magnetic field in Fe based superconductors is indispensable for practical applications. Here we report that high critical current density over 1 MA cm-2 in high field (13 T) can be achieved in BaZrO3 (BZO) incorporated Ba(Fe,Co)2As2 (Co-Ba122) thin film grown on CaF2 substrate using pulsed laser deposition. The magnetization J c of Co-Ba122 thin film incorporated with 2 mol.% BZO reaches 1.3 MA cm-2 (Hǁc, 13 T and 4.2 K), 14 times higher than that of pure Co-Ba122 thin film. Transmission electron microscopy observation revealed that BZO forms nanorods of ˜4 nm in average diameter with mean separation of 10-11 nm which corresponds to a matching field of about 17-20 T. Incorporating BZO in Co-Ba122 thin films led to a strong vortex pinning effect and a significant enhancement of J c because a high density of BZO nanorods could form in the superconducting matrix without significant degradation of T c, and the diameter of BZO nanorods is approximately twice the coherence length of Co-Ba122 (ξ ab(0) ˜ 2.5 nm) which is the optimal size as pinning centers.

  16. Operation of low-noise single-gap RPC modules exposed to ionisation rates up to 1 kHz /cm2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ćwiok, M.; Dominik, W.; Górski, M.; Królikowski, J.

    2004-11-01

    Two single gap medium-size RPC modules, made of bakelite plates of very good mechanical quality of the surface and having initial volume resistivity of 1 ×1010 Ω cm, were tested in the Gamma Irradiation Facility at CERN at ionisation rates up to 1 kHz /cm2. The internal surfaces facing the gas volume of one RPC module were cladded with a thin layer of linseed oil varnish for comparison of oiled and non-oiled RPC operation. The results refer to the gas mixture of C2H2F4/isobutane (97:3) with SF6 addition below 1%. The single gap modules exhibited full detection efficiency plateau for the high voltage range of about 1 kV at full intensity of gamma rays. Good timing characteristics allowed to reach 95% efficiency at fully opened irradiation source with time window of 20 ns. The intrinsic noise rate for a non-oiled and an oiled RPC gap was, respectively, below 5 and 1 Hz /cm2 at full efficiency over 1 kV voltage range.

  17. Patch test concentrations (doses in mg/cm2 ) for the 12 non-mix fragrance substances regulated by European legislation.

    PubMed

    Bruze, Magnus; Svedman, Cecilia; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Bruynzeel, Derk; Goossens, An; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Matura, Mihaly; Orton, David; Vigan, Martine

    2012-03-01

    According to EU legislation, 26 fragrance substance allergens must be labelled on cosmetic products. For 12 of them, the optimal patch test concentration/dose has not been evaluated. To establish the optimal patch test doses in mg/cm2 for the 12 fragrance substances that are not included in fragrance mix I or II in the European baseline patch test series. Patch testing with the 12 fragrance substances was performed in a stepwise manner encompassing up to five rounds in at least 100 dermatitis patients for each round. Before patch testing, an individual maximum concentration/dose was determined for each fragrance substance. The predetermined maximum patch test concentrations/doses could be tested for all 12 fragrance substances, with no observable adverse reactions being noted. For each fragrance substance investigated, it is recommended that half of the maximum patch test dose (mg/cm2) be used for aimed and screening patch testing. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  18. Stability, electronic structures and transport properties of armchair (10, 10) BN/C nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, H.P.; He, Chaoyu; Zhang, C.X.; Sun, L.Z.; Zhou, Pan; Zhong, Jianxin

    2013-04-15

    Using the first-principle calculations, the stability and electronic properties of two novel types of four-segment armchair (10, 10) BN/C hybrid nanotubes ((BN){sub 5}C{sub 5}(BN){sub 5}C{sub 5}NT and (BN){sub 5}C{sub 5}(NB){sub 5}C{sub 5}NT) as well as two-segment armchair (10, 10) BN/C hybrid nanotubes ((BN{sub 20−n}C{sub n}NTs) are systematically investigated. When n increases from 1 to 4, the band gap of (BN){sub 20−n}C{sub n}NTs gradually decreases to a narrow one. When 4≤n≤17, the electronic structure of carbon segment in (BN){sub 20−n}C{sub n}NTs behaves as zigzag graphene nanoribbons whose band gap is modulated by an inherent electric field of the BN segment. ZGNR-like segments in (BN){sub 5}C{sub 5}(BN){sub 5}C{sub 5}NT and (BN){sub 5}C{sub 5}(NB){sub 5}C{sub 5}NT behave as narrow gap semiconductor and metal, respectively, due to their different chemical environment. Moreover, the (BN){sub 5}C{sub 5}(NB){sub 5}C{sub 5}NT can separate electron and hole carriers, indicating its potential application in solar cell materials. Obvious transport enhancement around the Fermi level is found in the four-segment nanotubes, especially a 6G{sub 0} transmission peak in the metallic (BN){sub 5}C{sub 5}(NB){sub 5}C{sub 5}NT. - Graphical abstract: Structural diagram of four-segment (BN){sub 5}C{sub 5}(NB){sub 5}C{sub 5}NT and its typical two-probe system. The band structures and transport spectra of (BN){sub 5}C{sub 5}(NB){sub 5}C{sub 5}NT are shown in upper and lower panels. Highlights: ► Transport properties of two types of four-segment BNC hybrid nanotubes are studied. ► Transport enhancements are realized in the four-segment BNC hybrid nanotubes. ► Electron and hole separation is found in four-segment BNC hybrid nanotubes.

  19. 20 CFR 10.10 - Are all documents relating to claims filed under the FECA considered confidential?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Are all documents relating to claims filed under the FECA considered confidential? 10.10 Section 10.10 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS... Freedom of Information Act and the Privacy Act of 1974 or under the routine uses provided by DOL/GOVT-1...

  20. CYP2S1: A short review

    SciTech Connect

    Saarikoski, Sirkku T. . E-mail: sirkku.saarikoski@ktl.fi; Rivera, Steven P.; Hankinson, Oliver; Husgafvel-Pursiainen, Kirsti

    2005-09-01

    A new member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily, CYP2S1, has recently been identified in human and mouse. In this paper, we review the data currently available for CYP2S1. The human CYP2S1 gene is located in chromosome 19q13.2 within a cluster including CYP2 family members CYP2A6, CYP2A13, CYP2B6, and CYP2F1. These genes also show the highest homology to the human CYP2S1. The gene has recently been found to harbor genetic polymorphism. CYP2S1 is inducible by dioxin, the induction being mediated by the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AHR) and Aryl Hydrocarbon Nuclear Translocator (ARNT) in a manner typical for CYP1 family members. In line with this, CYP2S1 has been shown to be inducible by coal tar, an abundant source of PAHs, and it was recently reported to metabolize naphthalene. This points to the involvement of CYP2S1 in the metabolism of toxic and carcinogenic compounds, similar to other dioxin-inducible CYPs. CYP2S1 is expressed in epithelial cells of a wide variety of extrahepatic tissues. The highest expression levels have been observed in the epithelial tissues frequently exposed to xenobiotics, e.g., the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and urinary tracts, and in the skin. The observed ubiquitous tissue distribution, as well as the expression of CYP2S1 throughout embryogenesis suggest that CYP2S1 is likely to metabolize important endogenous substrates; thus far, retinoic acid has been identified. In conclusion, CYP2S1 exhibits many features of interest for human health and thus warrants further investigation.

  1. The oxygen isotope evolution of parent body aqueous solutions as recorded by multiple carbonate generations in the Lonewolf Nunataks 94101 CM2 carbonaceous chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, M. R.; Sofe, M. R.; Lindgren, P.; Starkey, N. A.; Franchi, I. A.

    2013-11-01

    The CM2 carbonaceous chondrite LON 94101 contains aragonite and two generations of calcite that provide snapshots of the chemical and isotopic evolution of aqueous solutions during parent body alteration. Aragonite was the first carbonate to crystallize. It is rare, heterogeneously distributed within the meteorite matrix, and its mean oxygen isotope values are δ18O 39.9 ± 0.6‰, Δ17O -0.3 ± 1.0‰ (1σ). Calcite precipitated soon afterwards, and following a fall in solution Mg/Ca ratios, to produce small equant grains with a mean oxygen isotope value of δ18O 37.5 ± 0.7‰, Δ17O 1.4 ± 1.1‰ (1σ). These grains were partially or completely replaced by serpentine and tochilinite prior to precipitation of the second generation of calcite, which occluded an open fracture to form a millimetre-sized vein, and replaced anhydrous silicates within chondrules and the matrix. The vein calcite has a mean composition of δ18O 18.4 ± 0.3‰, Δ17O -0.5 ± 0.5‰ (1σ). Petrographic and isotopic results therefore reveal two discrete episodes of mineralisation that produced calcite generations with contrasting δ18O, and mean Δ17O values. The aragonite and equant calcite crystallized over a relatively brief period early in the aqueous alteration history of the parent body, and from static fluids that were evolving chemically in response to mineral dissolution and precipitation. The second calcite generation crystallized from solutions of a lower Δ17O, and a lower δ18O and/or higher temperature. As two generations of calcite whose petrographic characteristics and oxygen isotopic compositions are similar to those in LON 94101 occur in at least one other CM2, multiphase carbonate mineralisation could be the typical outcome of the sequence of chemical reactions during parent body aqueous alteration. It is equally possible however that the second generation of calcite formed in response to an event such as impact fracturing and concomitant fluid mobilisation that affected

  2. Safety assessment for the S-1 Spheromak

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, R. Jr.; Stencel, J.R.

    1984-02-01

    The S-1 machine is part of the Magnetic Fusion Program. The goal of the Magnetic Fusion Program is to develop and demonstrate the practical application of fusion. S-1 is an experimental device which will provide an essential link in the research effort aiming at the realization of fusion power.

  3. Compositions of Partly Altered Olivine and Replacement Serpentine in the CM2 Chondrites QUE93005 and Nogoya: Implications for Scales of Elemental Redistribution During Aqueous Alteration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Velbel, M. A.; Tonui, E. K.; Zolensky, M. E.

    2003-01-01

    Some phyllosilicates in CM carbonaceous chondrites formed by aqueous alteration of anhydrous precursor phases. Although broad trends in the compositions of hydrous phyllosilicates are recognized and believed to be related to trends in degree of aqueous alteration, details of the reactions that formed specific secondary minerals remain obscure. This paper reports compositional relationships between remnants of partially pseudomorphically replaced silicates and their alteration products (serpentine) in the CM2 chondrites QUE93005 and Nogoya and compares both with previously published results for Allan Hills 81002. By focusing on serpentine formed from known reactants (olivines), and on only those instances in which some of the reactant silicate remains, direct compositional relationships between reactants and products, and the elemental mobility required by the reactions, can be established.

  4. Three-dimensional nanostructured bilayer solid oxide fuel cell with 1.3 W/cm(2) at 450 °C.

    PubMed

    An, Jihwan; Kim, Young-Beom; Park, Joonsuk; Gür, Turgut M; Prinz, Fritz B

    2013-09-11

    Obtaining high power density at low operating temperatures has been an ongoing challenge in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), which are efficient engines to generate electrical energy from fuels. Here we report successful demonstration of a thin-film three-dimensional (3-D) SOFC architecture achieving a peak power density of 1.3 W/cm(2) obtained at 450 °C. This is made possible by nanostructuring of the ultrathin (60 nm) electrolyte interposed with a nanogranular catalytic interlayer at the cathode/electrolyte interface. We attribute the superior cell performance to significant reduction in both the ohmic and the polarization losses due to the combined effects of employing an ultrathin film electrolyte, enhancement of effective area by 3-D architecture, and superior catalytic activity by the ceria-based interlayer at the cathode. These insights will help design high-efficiency SOFCs that operate at low temperatures with power densities that are of practical significance.

  5. Line length scalable high power diode laser with power densities > 100kw/cm2 for industrial Si-annealing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revermann, Markus; Bayer, Andreas; Meinschien, Jens

    2008-02-01

    We present newly developed high power diode laser modules which are performing at outstanding power densities and line uniformity. The combination of recently designed laser diode bars on passive heat sinks and optimized micro-optics results to laser modules with power densities > 100kW/cm2 in a line length of 12mm x 0.1mm. The usage of non periodic structured homogenizers leads to a homogeneity of less than 3% p/v which allows precise heating and annealing applications. The application for such laser lines are hardening, metallization and annealing of different materials. In the presentation we will show results of thin film Si-a annealing process with direct diode laser annealing.

  6. Compositions of Partly Altered Olivine and Replacement Serpentine in the CM2 Chondrites QUE93005 and Nogoya: Implications for Scales of Elemental Redistribution During Aqueous Alteration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Velbel, M. A.; Tonui, E. K.; Zolensky, M. E.

    2003-01-01

    Some phyllosilicates in CM carbonaceous chondrites formed by aqueous alteration of anhydrous precursor phases. Although broad trends in the compositions of hydrous phyllosilicates are recognized and believed to be related to trends in degree of aqueous alteration, details of the reactions that formed specific secondary minerals remain obscure. This paper reports compositional relationships between remnants of partially pseudomorphically replaced silicates and their alteration products (serpentine) in the CM2 chondrites QUE93005 and Nogoya and compares both with previously published results for Allan Hills 81002. By focusing on serpentine formed from known reactants (olivines), and on only those instances in which some of the reactant silicate remains, direct compositional relationships between reactants and products, and the elemental mobility required by the reactions, can be established.

  7. Focusing coherent soft-x-ray radiation to a micrometer spot size with an intensity of 10(14) W/cm2.

    PubMed

    Mashiko, Hiroki; Suda, Akira; Midorikawa, Katsumi

    2004-08-15

    We investigate the focusability of intense coherent soft-x-ray radiation generated by high-order harmonic conversion. The 27th-harmonic wave at 29.6 nm is focused by an off-axis parabolic mirror with a SiC/Mg multilayer coating. Focal-spot images are observed from the visible fluorescence induced by the soft-x-ray photons on a Ce:YAG scintillator. We demonstrate focusing of the soft-x-ray beam to a 1-microm spot size with a peak intensity of 1 x 10(14) W/cm2, which is to our knowledge the highest ever reported in the soft-x-ray region.

  8. Hypothalamic S1P/S1PR1 axis controls energy homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Silva, Vagner R R; Micheletti, Thayana O; Pimentel, Gustavo D; Katashima, Carlos K; Lenhare, Luciene; Morari, Joseane; Mendes, Maria Carolina S; Razolli, Daniela S; Rocha, Guilherme Z; de Souza, Claudio T; Ryu, Dongryeol; Prada, Patrícia O; Velloso, Lício A; Carvalheira, José B C; Pauli, José Rodrigo; Cintra, Dennys E; Ropelle, Eduardo R

    2014-09-25

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1PR1) is a G-protein-coupled receptor for sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) that has a role in many physiological and pathophysiological processes. Here we show that the S1P/S1PR1 signalling pathway in hypothalamic neurons regulates energy homeostasis in rodents. We demonstrate that S1PR1 protein is highly enriched in hypothalamic POMC neurons of rats. Intracerebroventricular injections of the bioactive lipid, S1P, reduce food consumption and increase rat energy expenditure through persistent activation of STAT3 and the melanocortin system. Similarly, the selective disruption of hypothalamic S1PR1 increases food intake and reduces the respiratory exchange ratio. We further show that STAT3 controls S1PR1 expression in neurons via a positive feedback mechanism. Interestingly, several models of obesity and cancer anorexia display an imbalance of hypothalamic S1P/S1PR1/STAT3 axis, whereas pharmacological intervention ameliorates these phenotypes. Taken together, our data demonstrate that the neuronal S1P/S1PR1/STAT3 signalling axis plays a critical role in the control of energy homeostasis in rats.

  9. Modified MBE hardware and techniques and role of gallium purity for attainment of two dimensional electron gas mobility >35×106 cm2/V s in AlGaAs/GaAs quantum wells grown by MBE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, Geoffrey C.; Fallahi, Saeed; Watson, John D.; Manfra, Michael J.

    2016-05-01

    We provide evidence that gallium purity is the primary impediment to attainment of ultra-high mobility in a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The purity of gallium can be enhanced dramatically by in-situ high temperature outgassing within an operating MBE. Based on analysis of data from an initial growth campaign in a new MBE system and modifications employed for a 2nd growth campaign, we have produced 2DEGs with low temperature mobility μ in excess of 35×106 cm2/V s at density n=3.0×1011/cm2 and μ=18×106 cm2/V s at n=1.1×1011/cm2. Our 2nd campaign data indicate that gallium purity remains the factor currently limiting μ<40×106 cm2/V s. We describe strategies to overcome this limitation.

  10. Predicting the optimal process window for the coating of single-crystalline organic films with mobilities exceeding 7 cm2/Vs.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janneck, Robby; Vercesi, Federico; Heremans, Paul; Genoe, Jan; Rolin, Cedric

    2016-09-01

    Organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) based on single crystalline thin films of organic semiconductors have seen considerable development in the recent years. The most successful method for the fabrication of single crystalline films are solution-based meniscus guided coating techniques such as dip-coating, solution shearing or zone casting. These upscalable methods enable rapid and efficient film formation without additional processing steps. The single-crystalline film quality is strongly dependent on solvent choice, substrate temperature and coating speed. So far, however, process optimization has been conducted by trial and error methods, involving, for example, the variation of coating speeds over several orders of magnitude. Through a systematic study of solvent phase change dynamics in the meniscus region, we develop a theoretical framework that links the optimal coating speed to the solvent choice and the substrate temperature. In this way, we can accurately predict an optimal processing window, enabling fast process optimization. Our approach is verified through systematic OTFT fabrication based on films grown with different semiconductors, solvents and substrate temperatures. The use of best predicted coating speeds delivers state of the art devices. In the case of C8BTBT, OTFTs show well-behaved characteristics with mobilities up to 7 cm2/Vs and onset voltages close to 0 V. Our approach also explains well optimal recipes published in the literature. This route considerably accelerates parameter screening for all meniscus guided coating techniques and unveils the physics of single crystalline film formation.

  11. Nanostructured multielement (TiHfZrNbVTa)N coatings before and after implantation of N+ ions (1018 cm-2): Their structure and mechanical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogrebnjak, A. D.; Bondar, O. V.; Borba, S. O.; Abadias, G.; Konarski, P.; Plotnikov, S. V.; Beresnev, V. M.; Kassenova, L. G.; Drodziel, P.

    2016-10-01

    Multielement high entropy alloy (HEA) nitride (TiHfZrNbVTa)N coatings were deposited by vacuum arc and their structural and mechanical stability after implantation of high doses of N+ ions, 1018 cm-2, were investigated. The crystal structure and phase composition were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Transmission Electron Microscopy, while depth-resolved nanoindentation tests were used to determine the evolution of hardness and elastic modulus along the implantation depth. XRD patterns show that coatings exhibit a main phase with fcc structure, which preferred orientation varies from (1 1 1) to (2 0 0), depending on the deposition conditions. First-principles calculations reveal that the presence of Nb atoms could favor the formation of solid solution with fcc structure in multielement HEA nitride. TEM results showed that amorphous and nanostructured phases were formed in the implanted coating sub-surface layer (∼100 nm depth). Concentration of nitrogen reached 90 at% in the near-surface layer after implantation, and decreased at higher depth. Nanohardness of the as-deposited coatings varied from 27 to 38 GPa depending on the deposition conditions. Ion implantation led to a significant decrease of the nanohardness to 12 GPa in the implanted region, while it reaches 24 GPa at larger depths. However, the H/E ratio is ⩾0.1 in the sub-surface layer due to N+ implantation, which is expected to have beneficial effect on the wear properties.

  12. Laser driven shock pressure measurements by VF2/VF3 and PVDF gages for pulses of 2.5ns up to 1012W/cm2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couturier, S.; Boustie, M.; de Résséguier, T.; Hallouin, M.; Romain, J. P.

    1996-05-01

    Thick 450 μm piezoelectric VF2/VF3 copolymer and thin 25 μm PVDF gages have been used to measure the induced pressure history at the back face of aluminum and copper targets irradiated by infra-red laser pulses† of 2.5 ns with intensities up to 7.1011W/cm2. The measured pressures in the gages infer pressures up to 200 kbar on the front face of the target. The whole shock pressure temporal pressure profile applied on the front face of the targets is determined roughly by using the laser matter interaction hydro-code FILM. The modifications to bring to this profile in order to fit the experimental record via the simulation of the propagation of the applied profile into the set-up are very limited. The comparison of the applied peak pressure given by simulation of laser matter interaction and the experiment deduced one is also rather good. These results give the peak pressure versus the incident intensity under these laser irradiation conditions and assess the possibility to use this kind of gages as a measurement device for high amplitude with rapid evolution shocks.

  13. Hybrid complementary circuits based on p-channel organic and n-channel metal oxide transistors with balanced carrier mobilities of up to 10 cm2/Vs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isakov, Ivan; Paterson, Alexandra F.; Solomeshch, Olga; Tessler, Nir; Zhang, Qiang; Li, Jun; Zhang, Xixiang; Fei, Zhuping; Heeney, Martin; Anthopoulos, Thomas D.

    2016-12-01

    We report the development of hybrid complementary inverters based on p-channel organic and n-channel metal oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs) both processed from solution at <200 °C. For the organic TFTs, a ternary blend consisting of the small-molecule 2,7-dioctyl[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene, the polymer indacenodithiophene-benzothiadiazole (C16IDT-BT) and the p-type dopant C60F48 was employed, whereas the isotype In2O3/ZnO heterojunction was used for the n-channel TFTs. When integrated on the same substrate, p- and n-channel devices exhibited balanced carrier mobilities up to 10 cm2/Vs. Hybrid complementary inverters based on these devices show high signal gain (>30 V/V) and wide noise margins (70%). The moderate processing temperatures employed and the achieved level of device performance highlight the tremendous potential of the technology for application in the emerging sector of large-area microelectronics.

  14. First operation and performance of a 200 lt double phase LAr LEM-TPC with a 40 × 76 cm2 readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badertscher, A.; Curioni, A.; Degunda, U.; Epprecht, L.; Gendotti, A.; Horikawa, S.; Knecht, L.; Lussi, D.; Natterer, G.; Nguyen, K.; Resnati, F.; Rubbia, A.; Viant, T.

    2013-04-01

    In this paper we describe the design, construction, and operation of a first large area double-phase liquid argon Large Electron Multiplier Time Projection Chamber (LAr LEM-TPC). The detector has a maximum drift length of 60 cm and the readout consists of a 40 × 76 cm2 LEM and 2D projective anode to multiply and collect drifting charges. Scintillation light is detected by means of cryogenic PMTs positioned below the cathode. To record both charge and light signals, we have developed a compact acquisition system, which is scalable up to ton-scale detectors with thousands of charge readout channels. The acquisition system, as well as the design and the performance of custom-made charge sensitive preamplifiers, are described. The complete experimental setup has been operated for a first time during a period of four weeks at CERN in the cryostat of the ArDM experiment, which was equipped with liquid and gas argon purification systems. The detector, exposed to cosmic rays, recorded events with a single-channel signal-to-noise ratio in excess of 30 for minimum ionising particles. Cosmic muon tracks and their δ-rays were used to assess the performance of the detector, and to estimate the liquid argon purity and the gain at different amplification fields.

  15. Aging characteristics of blue InGaN micro-light emitting diodes at an extremely high current density of 3.5 kA cm-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Pengfei; Althumali, Ahmad; Gu, Erdan; Watson, Ian M.; Dawson, Martin D.; Liu, Ran

    2016-04-01

    The aging characteristics of blue InGaN micro-light emitting diodes (micro-LEDs) with different sizes have been studied at an extremely high current density 3.5 kA cm-2 for emerging micro-LED applications including visible light communication (VLC), micro-LED pumped organic lasers and optogenetics. The light output power of micro-LEDs first increases and then decreases due to the competition of Mg activation in p-GaN layer and defect generation in the active region. The smaller micro-LEDs show less light output power degradation compared with larger micro-LEDs, which is attributed to the lower junction temperature of smaller micro-LEDs. It is found that the high current density without additional junction temperature cannot induce significant micro-LED degradation at room temperature but the combination of the high current density and high junction temperature leads to strong degradation. Furthermore, the cluster LEDs, composed of a micro-LED array, have been developed with both high light output power and less light output degradation for micro-LED applications in solid state lighting and VLC.

  16. Absolute X-ray yield studies from Xe-clusters with ultrashort Ti:Sa laser pulses at 2×1018 W/cm2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nickles, P. V.; Ter-Avetisyan, S.; Stiel, H.; Sandner, W.; Schnürer, M.

    2002-04-01

    High intensity (~2×1018 W/cm2) laser excited large Xe-clusters (105…106 atoms per cluster) have been studied concerning scaling and absolute EUV-emission in a wavelength range between 7 nm and 15 nm. Ultrashort (50 fs) pulses from a Ti:Sa multi-TW laser at 800 nm wavelength were applied in the experiments. Characterized cluster target variations in combination with different laser irradiation have been used for EUV-yield optimization. Maximum emission as a function of the backing pressure and a spatial emission anisotropy covering a factor of 2 is discussed with a simple model of the source geometry and EUV-radiation absorption. High charge states and strong x-ray yield from laser heated clusters are considered due to collisional and optical field ionization processes. Circularly polarized laser light instead of linear polarization results in a factor of 2.5 higher emission in the 11 nm to 15 nm wavelength range. This indicates the initial influence of optical field ionization for the interaction parameter range used and contrasts to collisional heating which seems to influence preferentially higher ionization states. An absolute emission efficiency at 13.4 nm of up to 0.5% in 2π sr and 2.2% bandwidth has been measured. .

  17. The Global S$_1$ Ocean Tide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Richard D.; Egbert, G. D.

    2003-01-01

    The small S$_1$ ocean tide is caused primarily by diurnal atmospheric pressure loading. Its excitation is therefore unlike any other diurnal tide. The global character of $S-1$ is here determined by numerical modeling and by analysis of Topex/Poseidon satellite altimeter data. The two approaches yield reasonably consistent results, and large ( $ greater than $l\\cm) amplitudes in several regions are further confirmed by comparison with coastal tide gauges. Notwithstanding their excitation differences, S$-1$ and other diurnal tides are found to share several common features, such as relatively large amplitudes in the Arabian Sea, the Sea of Okhotsk, and the Gulf of Alaska. The most noticeable difference is the lack of an S$-1$ Antarctic Kelvin wave. These similarities and differences can be explained in terms of the coherences between near-diurnal oceanic normal modes and the underlying tidal forcings. While gravitational diurnal tidal forces excite primarily a 28-hour Antarctic-Pacific mode, the S$_1$ air tide excites several other near-diurnal modes, none of which has large amplitudes near Antarctica.

  18. One-year Outcomes of Pachymetry and Epithelium Thicknesses after Accelerated (45 mW/cm2) Transepithelial Corneal Collagen Cross-linking for Keratoconus Patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoyu; Sun, Ling; Chen, Yingjun; Li, Meiyan; Tian, Mi; Zhou, Xingtao

    2016-01-01

    The thickness of corneal pachymetry and the epithelium after accelerated (45 mW/cm2) transepithelial corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) for keratoconus were assessed in this prospective case series study. Twenty-eight patients were treated for keratoconus. The mean Kmax was 56.18 ± 7.90. The thinnest point, as assessed by optical coherence tomography (OCT), was 443.18 ± 39.75 μm. Accelerated transepithelial CXL was performed, and corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), corneal topography, and OCT were recorded at 1 week postoperatively as well as at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. The surgery was uneventful in all eyes. Postoperative epithelial edema was observed and faded in 3 days. The postoperative Kmax was 54.56 ± 8.81, 55.78 ± 8.11, 56.37 ± 8.71, 55.80 ± 7.92, and 55.47 ± 8.24 at 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months, respectively (all, P > 0.05). The thinnest postoperative corneal point, 439.04 ± 44.99 μm, was observed at 12 months (P = 0.109). The epithelial thickness decreased during the first postoperative week then showed a gradual recovery. Postoperative pachymetry thickness showed no significant changes for up to 12 months. Postoperative epithelial thickness decreased temporarily, then stabilized at month 12. Accelerated transepithelial CXL was shown to be effective and safe for the treatment of keratoconus. PMID:27597655

  19. Aqueous Alteration of Carbonaceous Chondrites: New Insights from Comparative Studies of Two Unbrecciated CM2 Chondrites, Y 791198 and ALH 81002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chizmadia, L. J.; Brearley, A. J.

    2004-01-01

    Carbonaceous chondrites are an important resource for understanding the physical and chemical conditions in the early solar system. In particular, a long-standing question concerns the role of water in the cosmochemical evolution of carbonaceous chondrites. It is well established that extensive hydration of primary nebular phases occurred in the CM and CI chondrites, but the location where this alteration occurred remains controversial. In the CM2 chondrites, hydration formed secondary phases such as serpentine, tochilinite, pentlandite, carbonate and PCP. There are several textural observations which suggest that alteration occurred before the accretion of the final CM parent asteroid, i.e. preaccretionary alteration. Conversely, there is a significant body of evidence that supports parent-body alteration. In order to test these two competing hypotheses further, we studied two CM chondrites, Y-791198 and ALH81002, two meteorites that exhibit widely differing degrees of aqueous alteration. In addition, both meteorites have primary accretionary textures, i.e. experienced minimal asteroidal brecciation. Brecciation significantly complicates the task of unraveling alteration histories, mixing components that have been altered to different degrees from different locations on the same asteroidal parent body. Alteration in Y-791198 is mostly confined to chondrule mesostases, FeNi metal and fine-grained matrix and rims. In comparison, the primary chondrule silicates in ALH81002 have undergone extensive replacement by secondary hydrous phases. This study focuses on compositional and textural relationships between chondrule mesostasis and the associated rim materials. Our hypothesis is: both these components are highly susceptible to aqueous alteration and should be sensitive recorders of the alteration process. For parent body alteration, we expect systematic coupled mineralogical and compositional changes in rims and altered mesostasis, as elemental exchange between these

  20. Effects of delivering the same radiant exposures at 730, 1450, and 2920 mW/cm2 to two resin-based composites

    PubMed Central

    AlShaafi, Maan M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of curing two resin-based composites (RBC) with the same radiant exposures at 730, 1450, and 2920 mW/cm2. Materials and Methods: Two types of RBC, Filtek Supreme Ultra and Tetric-EvoCeram-Bulk Fill, were light-cured to deliver the same radiant exposures for 5, 10, or 20 s by means of a modified Valo light emitted diode light-curing unit with the light tip placed directly over each specimen. The RBC was expressed into metal rings that were 2.0 and 4.0 mm in thickness, directly on an attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared plate heated to 33°C, and the degree of conversion (DC) of the RBC was recorded. The specimens were then removed and the Knoop microhardness (KHN) was tested at both the bottom and the top of each specimen. The KHN was tested again after 24 h and 7 days of storage in the dark at 37°C and 100% humidity. The DC and KHN results were analyzed with Fisher's protected least significant difference at α = 0.05. Results: The DC values for the specimens cured at the three different irradiance levels were similar. However, at different depths, there were differences in the DC values. In general, there were no clear differences among the samples cured in the three different groups, and the KHN was always greater 24 h and 7 days later (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Despite the curing time, and as long as the samples were cured with the same radiant exposures, there were no significant effects on the DC and KHN of both RBCs. PMID:28435361

  1. Hydrogen and carbon isotopic ratios of polycyclic aromatic compounds in two CM2 carbonaceous chondrites and implications for prebiotic organic synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yongsong; Aponte, José C.; Zhao, Jiaju; Tarozo, Rafael; Hallmann, Christian

    2015-09-01

    Study of meteoritic organic compounds offers a unique opportunity to understand the origins of the organic matter in the early Solar System. Meteoritic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heteropolycyclic aromatic compounds (HACs) have been studied for over fifty years, however; their hydrogen stable isotopic ratios (δD) have never been reported. Compound-specific δD measurements of PAHs and HACs are important, in part because the carbon isotopic ratios (δ13C) of various meteoritic PAHs cannot be readily distinguished from their terrestrial counterparts and it is difficult to rule out terrestrial contamination based on carbon isotopic ratios alone. In this study, we have extracted and identified more than sixty PAHs and HACs present in two CM2 carbonaceous chondrites Murchison and LON 94101. Their carbon and hydrogen stable isotopic ratios (δ13C and δD) were measured and used to discuss about their synthetic environments and formation mechanisms. The concentration of aromatic compounds is ∼30% higher in Murchison than in the Antarctic meteorite LON 94101, but both samples contained similar suites of PAHs and HACs. All PAHs and HACs found exhibited positive δD values (up to 1100‰) consistent with an extraterrestrial origin, indicating the relatively low δ13C values are indeed an inherent feature of the meteoritic aromatic compounds. The hydrogen isotopic data suggest aromatic compounds in carbonaceous chondrites were mainly formed in the cold interstellar environments. Molecular level variations in hydrogen and carbon isotopic values offer new insights to the formation pathways for the aromatic compounds in carbonaceous chondrites.

  2. Origin of Na in glass inclusions hosted in olivine from Allende CV3 and Jbilet Winselwan CM2: Implications for chondrule formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florentin, L.; Faure, F.; Deloule, E.; Tissandier, L.; Gurenko, A.; Lequin, D.

    2017-09-01

    Glass inclusions trapped in Mg-rich olivines within type I chondrules from the Allende (CV3) and Jbilet Winselwan (CM2) chondrites were analyzed by EPMA (Electron Probe Microanalysis) for major elements and by SIMS (Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry) for Cl and S (analyzed here for the first time in chondrule-hosted glass inclusions). The inclusions from Jbilet Winselwan are poor in Na2O, whereas those from Allende are Na-rich, displaying up to 8 wt.% Na2O. The source of Na is a central issue in terms of chondrule origins because of the volatility of Na at high temperature. The wide scatter in Na2O contents of olivine-hosted glass inclusions from chondrules has led the community to propose that Na2O came from late interactions of chondrules with a Si/Na-rich gas. To gain new insights into the origins of the Na2O recorded in glass inclusions, heating experiments (up to 1810 °C) were performed on Allende inclusions in an effort to constrain the initial composition of the trapped melts. Our results demonstrate that sodium (although volatile) does not escape from inclusions during heating, thus confirming that glass inclusions behave as closed systems. Furthermore, heated olivines still bear inclusions containing up to 7.2 wt.% of Na2O. Olivines are thought to form at temperatures at which Na is volatile. This implies that (1) Na from glass inclusions cannot come from condensation but rather results from trapping in a Na-rich environment, which implies a high pressure, as in a melting planetasimal (2) there may be two distinct origins for the sodium: an indigenous origin for the sodium trapped inside glass inclusions and a gaseous origin for the sodium recorded in mesostasis from chondrules. Consequently, these results are in favor of a planetesimal origin for olivine from chondrules.

  3. Effect of Tube-Based X-Ray Microtomography Imaging on the Amino Acid and Amine Content of the Murchison CM2 Chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavin, D. P.; Friedrich, J. M.; Aponte, J. C.; Dworkin, J. P.; Ebel, D. S.; Elsila, J. E.; Hill, M.; McLain, H. L.; Towbin, W. H.

    2017-01-01

    X-ray and synchrotron X-ray micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) are increasingly being used for three dimensional reconnaissance imaging of chondrites and returned extraterrestrial material prior to detailed chemical and mineralogical analyses. Although micro-CT imaging is generally considered to be a non-destructive technique since silicate and metallic minerals in chondrites are not affected by X-ray exposures at the intensities and wavelengths typically used, there are concerns that the use of micro-CT could be detrimental to the organics in carbonaceous chondrites. We recently conducted a synchrotron micro-CT experiment on a powdered sample of the Murchison CM2 carbonaceous chondrite exposed to a monochromatic high energy (approximately 48 kiloelectronvolts) total X-ray radiation dose of approximately 1 kilogray (kGy) using the Advanced Photon Source beamline 13-BMD (13-Bending Magnet-D Beamline) at Argonne National Laboratory and found that there were no detectable changes in the amino acid abundances or enantiomeric compositions in the chondrite after exposure relative to a Murchison control sample that was not exposed. However, lower energy bremsstrahlung X-rays could interact more with amino acids and other lower molecular weight amines in meteorites. To test for this possibility, three separate micro-CT imaging experiments of the Murchison meteorite using the GE Phoenix v/tome/x s 240 kilovolt microfocus high resolution tungsten target X-ray tube instrument at the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH) were conducted and the amino acid abundances and enantiomeric compositions were determined. We also investigated the abundances of the C1-C5 amines in Murchison which were not analyzed in the first study.

  4. Chloromethane Utilization Gene Cluster from Hyphomicrobium chloromethanicum Strain CM2T and Development of Functional Gene Probes To Detect Halomethane-Degrading Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    McAnulla, Craig; Woodall, Claire A.; McDonald, Ian R.; Studer, Alex; Vuilleumier, Stephane; Leisinger, Thomas; Murrell, J. Colin

    2001-01-01

    Hyphomicrobium chloromethanicum CM2T, an aerobic methylotrophic member of the α subclass of the class proteobacteria, can grow with chloromethane as the sole carbon and energy source. H. chloromethanicum possesses an inducible enzyme system for utilization of chloromethane, in which two polypeptides (67-kDa CmuA and 35-kDa CmuB) are expressed. Previously, four genes, cmuA, cmuB, cmuC, and purU, were shown to be essential for growth of Methylobacterium chloromethanicum on chloromethane. The cmuA and cmuB genes were used as probes to identify homologs in H. chloromethanicum. A cmu gene cluster (9.5 kb) in H. chloromethanicum contained 10 open reading frames: folD (partial), pduX, orf153, orf207, orf225, cmuB, cmuC, cmuA, fmdB, and paaE (partial). CmuA from H. chloromethanicum (67 kDa) showed high identity to CmuA from M. chloromethanicum and contains an N-terminal methyltransferase domain and a C-terminal corrinoid-binding domain. CmuB from H. chloromethanicum is related to a family of methyl transfer proteins and to the CmuB methyltransferase from M. chloromethanicum. CmuC from H. chloromethanicum shows identity to CmuC from M. chloromethanicum and is a putative methyltransferase. folD codes for a methylene-tetrahydrofolate cyclohydrolase, which may be involved in the C1 transfer pathway for carbon assimilation and CO2 production, and paaE codes for a putative redox active protein. Molecular analyses and some preliminary biochemical data indicated that the chloromethane utilization pathway in H. chloromethanicum is similar to the corrinoid-dependent methyl transfer system in M. chloromethanicum. PCR primers were developed for successful amplification of cmuA genes from newly isolated chloromethane utilizers and enrichment cultures. PMID:11133460

  5. Performance of a 41 x 41 cm2 amorphous silicon flat panel x-ray detector designed for angiographic and R&F imaging applications.

    PubMed

    Granfors, Paul R; Aufrichtig, Richard; Possin, George E; Giambattista, Brian W; Huang, Zhong S; Liu, Jianqiang; Ma, Bing

    2003-10-01

    We measured the physical imaging performance of a 41 x 41 cm2 amorphous silicon flat panel detector designed for angiographic and R&F imaging applications using methods from the emerging IEC standard for the measurement of detective quantum efficiency (DQE) in digital radiographic detectors. Measurements on 12 production detectors demonstrate consistent performance. The mean DQE at the detector center is about 0.77 at zero frequency and 0.27 at the Nyquist frequency (2.5 cycles/mm) when measured with a 7 mm of Al HVL spectrum at about 3.6 microGy. The mean MTF at the center of the detector for this spectrum is 0.24 at the Nyquist frequency. For radiographic operation all 2048 x 2048 detector elements are read out individually. For fluoroscopy, the detector operates in two 30 frame per second modes: either the center 1024 x 1024 detector elements are read out or the entire detector is read out with 2 x 2 pixel binning. A model was developed to predict differences in performance between the modes, and measurements demonstrate agreement with the model. Lag was measured using a quasi-equilibrium exposure method and was found to be 0.044 in the first frame and less than 0.007 after 1 s. We demonstrated that it is possible to use the lag data to correct for temporal correlation in images when measuring DQE with a fluoroscopic imaging technique. Measurements as a function of position on the detector demonstrate a high degree of uniformity. We also characterized dependences on spectrum, exposure level, and direction. Finally, we measured the DQE of a current state of the art image intensifier/CCD system using the same method as for the flat panel. We found the image intensifier system to have lower DQE than the flat panel at high exposure levels and approximately equivalent DQE at fluoroscopic levels.

  6. Photorefractive properties of Fe, Zn co-doped near stoichiometric LiNbO3 crystals at moderate intensities (0.5-6W/cm2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatt, R.; Ganesamoorthy, S.; Bhaumik, Indranil; Sexana, A.; Karnal, A. K.; Gupta, P. K.; George, Jogy; Ranganathan, K.

    2013-09-01

    Iron and zinc co-doped near stoichiometric lithium niobate (SLN:Fe,Zn) single crystals were grown by the top seeded solution growth technique from Li-rich flux. The Raman scattering analysis confirmed the near stoichiometric composition (Li/Nb˜0.98) whereas the birefringence interferometry revealed the optical homogeneity to be better than 5.2×10-5/mm for the grown crystals. Two beam coupling measurements showed the writing time constant to be 26-3.6s measured in the intensity range 0.5-6W/cm2. The slow and fast erasure time constants as obtained from bi-exponential fit are ˜22-4 and ˜200-24s, respectively. Interestingly, the fast eraser time is found to be nearly the same as the writing time. The improvement in photorefractive sensitivity (˜0.16cm/J) has been observed. The light induced changes in the refractive index (Δn˜5.8×10-5) are found to be in agreement with the estimated value. The intensity dependent photoconductivity estimated from the two beam coupling experiment is found to vary from 1.12×10-11Ω-1m-1 to 6.20×10-11Ω-1m-1 due to primary defects and from 1.24×10-12Ω-1m-1 to 1.04×10-11Ω-1m-1 due to secondary defects.

  7. Aqueous Alteration of Carbonaceous Chondrites: New Insights from Comparative Studies of Two Unbrecciated CM2 Chondrites, Y 791198 and ALH 81002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chizmadia, L. J.; Brearley, A. J.

    2004-01-01

    Carbonaceous chondrites are an important resource for understanding the physical and chemical conditions in the early solar system. In particular, a long-standing question concerns the role of water in the cosmochemical evolution of carbonaceous chondrites. It is well established that extensive hydration of primary nebular phases occurred in the CM and CI chondrites, but the location where this alteration occurred remains controversial. In the CM2 chondrites, hydration formed secondary phases such as serpentine, tochilinite, pentlandite, carbonate and PCP. There are several textural observations which suggest that alteration occurred before the accretion of the final CM parent asteroid, i.e. preaccretionary alteration. Conversely, there is a significant body of evidence that supports parent-body alteration. In order to test these two competing hypotheses further, we studied two CM chondrites, Y-791198 and ALH81002, two meteorites that exhibit widely differing degrees of aqueous alteration. In addition, both meteorites have primary accretionary textures, i.e. experienced minimal asteroidal brecciation. Brecciation significantly complicates the task of unraveling alteration histories, mixing components that have been altered to different degrees from different locations on the same asteroidal parent body. Alteration in Y-791198 is mostly confined to chondrule mesostases, FeNi metal and fine-grained matrix and rims. In comparison, the primary chondrule silicates in ALH81002 have undergone extensive replacement by secondary hydrous phases. This study focuses on compositional and textural relationships between chondrule mesostasis and the associated rim materials. Our hypothesis is: both these components are highly susceptible to aqueous alteration and should be sensitive recorders of the alteration process. For parent body alteration, we expect systematic coupled mineralogical and compositional changes in rims and altered mesostasis, as elemental exchange between these

  8. Investigation of rat bone fracture healing using pulsed 1.5 MHz, 30 mW/cm(2) burst ultrasound--axial distance dependency.

    PubMed

    Fung, Chak-Hei; Cheung, Wing-Hoi; Pounder, Neill M; de Ana, F Javier; Harrison, Andrew; Leung, Kwok-Sui

    2014-03-01

    This study investigated the effect of LIPUS on fracture healing when fractures were exposed to ultrasound at three axial distances: z=0 mm, 60 mm, and 130 mm. We applied LIPUS to rat fracture at these three axial distances mimicking the exposure condition of human fractures at different depths under the soft tissue. Measurement of LIPUS shows pressure variations in near field (nearby transducer); uniform profile was found beyond it (far field). We asked whether different positions of the fracture within the ultrasound field cause inconsistent biological effect during the healing process. Closed femoral fractured Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into control, near-field (0mm), mid-near field (60 mm) or far-field (130 mm) groups. Daily LIPUS treatment (plane, but apodized source, see details in the text; 2.2 cm in diameter; 1.5 MHz sine waves repeating at 1 kHz PRF; spatial average temporal average intensity, ISATA=30 mW/cm(2)) was given to fracture site at the three axial distances. Weekly radiographs and endpoint microCT, histomorphometry, and mechanical tests were performed. The results showed that the 130 mm group had the highest tissue mineral density; and significantly higher mechanical properties than control at week 4. The 60 mm and 0 mm groups had significantly higher (i.e. p<0.05) woven bone percentage than control group in radiological, microCT and histomorphometry measurements. In general, LIPUS at far field augmented callus mineralization and mechanical properties; while near field and mid-near field enhanced woven bone formation. Our results indicated the therapeutic effect of LIPUS is dependent on the axial distance of the ultrasound beam. Therefore, the depth of fracture under the soft tissue affects the biological effect of LIPUS. Clinicians have to be aware of the fracture depth when LIPUS is applied transcutaneously.

  9. Defective transient endogenous spleen colony formation in S1/S1d mice.

    PubMed

    Wiktor-Jedrzejczak, W; Ahmed, A; Sharkis, S J; McKee, A; Sell, K W

    1979-04-01

    WCB6F1 mice of the genotype S1/S1d did not form transient 5-day endogenous spleen colonies following midlethal irradiation, either spontaneously or in response to postirradiation bleeding. Their hematologically normal (+/+) littermates produced colonies equivalent in number and morphologic type to a normal strain (D2B6F1), as evaluated by both macroscopic and microscopic criteria. Bone marrow cells from S1/S1d mice, when transplanted into lethally irradiated +/+ mice, were able to generate equivalent numbers of transient endogenous spleen colonies (TE-CFUs), as compared to that obtained when syngeneic +/+ marrow cells were injected into lethally irradiated +/+ recipients. A defective growth of an early class of hematopoietic progenitor cells, resulting in the clinical course of the S1/S1d anemia is suggested and confirms previous reports on the microenvironmental nature of this abnormality.

  10. Determining temperature distribution in tissue in the focal plane of the high (>100 W/cm(2)) intensity focused ultrasound beam using phase shift of ultrasound echoes.

    PubMed

    Karwat, Piotr; Kujawska, Tamara; Lewin, Peter A; Secomski, Wojciech; Gambin, Barbara; Litniewski, Jerzy

    2016-02-01

    In therapeutic applications of High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) the guidance of the HIFU beam and especially its focal plane is of crucial importance. This guidance is needed to appropriately target the focal plane and hence the whole focal volume inside the tumor tissue prior to thermo-ablative treatment and beginning of tissue necrosis. This is currently done using Magnetic Resonance Imaging that is relatively expensive. In this study an ultrasound method, which calculates the variations of speed of sound in the locally heated tissue volume by analyzing the phase shifts of echo-signals received by an ultrasound scanner from this very volume is presented. To improve spatial resolution of B-mode imaging and minimize the uncertainty of temperature estimation the acoustic signals were transmitted and received by 8 MHz linear phased array employing Synthetic Transmit Aperture (STA) technique. Initially, the validity of the algorithm developed was verified experimentally in a tissue-mimicking phantom heated from 20.6 to 48.6 °C. Subsequently, the method was tested using a pork loin sample heated locally by a 2 MHz pulsed HIFU beam with focal intensity ISATA of 129 W/cm(2). The temperature calibration of 2D maps of changes in the sound velocity induced by heating was performed by comparison of the algorithm-determined changes in the sound velocity with the temperatures measured by thermocouples located in the heated tissue volume. The method developed enabled ultrasound temperature imaging of the heated tissue volume from the very inception of heating with the contrast-to-noise ratio of 3.5-12 dB in the temperature range 21-56 °C. Concurrently performed, conventional B-mode imaging revealed CNR close to zero dB until the temperature reached 50 °C causing necrosis. The data presented suggest that the proposed method could offer an alternative to MRI-guided temperature imaging for prediction of the location and extent of the thermal lesion prior to applying the

  11. Anatomical considerations for percutaneous trans ilio-sacroiliac S1 and S2 screw placement.

    PubMed

    König, M A; Sundaram, R O; Saville, P; Jehan, S; Boszczyk, Bronek M

    2016-06-01

    To determine the presence of a consistent osseous corridor through S1 and S2 and fluoroscopic landmarks thereof, which could be used for safe trans ilio-sacroiliac screw fixation of posterior pelvic ring disorders. Computed tomography (CT) based anatomical investigation utilising multiplanar image and trajectory reconstruction (Agfa-IMPAX Version 5.2 software). Determination of the presence and dimension of a continuous osseous corridor in the coronal plane of the sacrum at the S1 and S2 vertebral levels. Determination of: (a) the presence of an osseous corridor in the coronal plane through S1 and S2 in males and females; (b) the dimension of the corridor with regard to diameter and length; (c) the fluoroscopic landmarks of the corridor. The mean cross-sectional area for S1 corridors in males and females was 2.13 and 1.47 cm(2) , respectively. The mean cross-sectional area for the S2 corridor in males and females was 1.46 and 1.13 cm(2), respectively. The limiting anatomical factor is the sagittal diameter of the sacral ala at the junction to the vertebral body. The centre of the S1 and S2 corridor is located in close proximity to the centre of the S1 and S2 vertebrae on the lateral fluoroscopic view as determined by the adjacent endplates and anterior and posterior vertebral cortices. Two-thirds of males and females have a complete osseous corridor to pass a trans-sacroiliac S1 screw of 8 mm diameter. The S2 corridor was present in all males but only in 87 % of females. Preoperative review of the axial CT slices at the midpoint of the S1 or S2 vertebral body allows the presence of a trans-sacroiliac osseous corridor to be determined by assessing the passage at the narrowest point of the corridor at the junction of the sacral ala to the vertebral body.

  12. Intersystem crossing rates of S1 state keto-amino cytosine at low excess energy.

    PubMed

    Lobsiger, Simon; Etinski, Mihajlo; Blaser, Susan; Frey, Hans-Martin; Marian, Christel; Leutwyler, Samuel

    2015-12-21

    The amino-keto tautomer of supersonic jet-cooled cytosine undergoes intersystem crossing (ISC) from the v = 0 and low-lying vibronic levels of its S1((1)ππ(∗)) state. We investigate these ISC rates experimentally and theoretically as a function of S1 state vibrational excess energy Eexc. The S1 vibronic levels are pumped with a ∼5 ns UV laser, the S1 and triplet state ion signals are separated by prompt or delayed ionization with a second UV laser pulse. After correcting the raw ISC yields for the relative S1 and T1 ionization cross sections, we obtain energy dependent ISC quantum yields QISC (corr)=1%-5%. These are combined with previously measured vibronic state-specific decay rates, giving ISC rates kISC = 0.4-1.5 ⋅ 10(9) s(-1), the corresponding S1⇝S0 internal conversion (IC) rates are 30-100 times larger. Theoretical ISC rates are computed using SCS-CC2 methods, which predict rapid ISC from the S1; v = 0 state with kISC = 3 ⋅ 10(9) s(-1) to the T1((3)ππ(∗)) triplet state. The surprisingly high rate of this El Sayed-forbidden transition is caused by a substantial admixture of (1)nOπ(∗) character into the S1((1)ππ(∗)) wave function at its non-planar minimum geometry. The combination of experiment and theory implies that (1) below Eexc = 550 cm(-1) in the S1 state, S1⇝S0 internal conversion dominates the nonradiative decay with kIC ≥ 2 ⋅ 10(10) s(-1), (2) the calculated S1⇝T1 ((1)ππ(∗)⇝(3)ππ(∗)) ISC rate is in good agreement with experiment, (3) being El-Sayed forbidden, the S1⇝T1 ISC is moderately fast (kISC = 3 ⋅ 10(9) s(-1)), and not ultrafast, as claimed by other calculations, and (4) at Eexc ∼ 550 cm(-1) the IC rate increases by ∼50 times, probably by accessing the lowest conical intersection (the C5-twist CI) and thereby effectively switching off the ISC decay channels.

  13. Restless legs syndrome mimicking S1 radiculopathy.

    PubMed

    Zambelis, Th; Wolgamuth, B R; Papoutsi, S N; Economou, N T

    2016-01-01

    Α case of a chronic idiopathic form of a severe type of Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS), which developed during pregnancy and persisted after this, misdiagnosed for 34 years as radiculopathy S1, is reported. In spite of the thorough clinical and laboratory investigation, in addition to constant changes of the therapeutic approach, the diagnosis of S1 radiculopathy could not be confirmed, resulting in a chronic clinical course; the latter was characterized by relapses and remissions not attributed or linked in any way to the treatment (various types of). In fact, it was due to a routine workup in a sleep clinic, where the patient was referred because of a coincident chronic insomnia (Restless Legs Syndrome is a known and important cause of insomnia/chronic insomnia), which resulted in a proper diagnosis and treatment of this case. With the use of Restless Legs Syndrome appropriate treatment (Pramipexole 0.18 mg taken at bedtime, a dopaminergic agent and Level A recommended drug for Restless Legs Syndrome) an excellent response and immediate elimination of symptoms was achieved. Restless Legs Syndrome may present with a variety of symptoms (with the most prominent shortly being reported with the acronym URGE: Urge to move the legs usually associated with unpleasant leg sensations, Rest induces symptoms, Getting active brings relief, Evening and night deteriorate symptoms); given the fact that Restless Legs Syndrome presents with a great variety and heterogeneity of symptoms (mostly pain, dysesthesia and paresthesia), which may occur in several other diseases (the so called "RLS mimics"), proper diagnosis of Restless Legs Syndrome usually fails. Restless Legs Syndrome misinterpreted as S1 radiculopathy, to the best of our knowledge, has not been reported yet in the literature. Here, case history, clinical course and common RLS mimics are presented. Different forms of Restless Legs Syndrome manifestations, which are commonly -as in this case- misinterpreted due to their

  14. Complete genome of Pseudomonas sp. strain L10.10, a psychrotolerant biofertilizer that could promote plant growth.

    PubMed

    See-Too, Wah Seng; Lim, Yan-Lue; Ee, Robson; Convey, Peter; Pearce, David A; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok Gan

    2016-03-20

    Pseudomonas sp. strain L10.10 (=DSM 101070) is a psychrotolerant bacterium which was isolated from Lagoon Island, Antarctica. Analysis of its complete genome sequence indicates its possible role as a plant-growth promoting bacterium, including nitrogen-fixing ability and indole acetic acid (IAA)-producing trait, with additional suggestion of plant disease prevention attributes via hydrogen cyanide production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) displays sustained S1P1 receptor agonism and signaling through S1P lyase-dependent receptor recycling.

    PubMed

    Gatfield, John; Monnier, Lucile; Studer, Rolf; Bolli, Martin H; Steiner, Beat; Nayler, Oliver

    2014-07-01

    The sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) type 1 receptor (S1P1R) is a novel therapeutic target in lymphocyte-mediated autoimmune diseases. S1P1 receptor desensitization caused by synthetic S1P1 receptor agonists prevents T-lymphocyte egress from secondary lymphoid organs into the circulation. The selective S1P1 receptor agonist ponesimod, which is in development for the treatment of autoimmune diseases, efficiently reduces peripheral lymphocyte counts and displays efficacy in animal models of autoimmune disease. Using ponesimod and the natural ligand S1P, we investigated the molecular mechanisms leading to different signaling, desensitization and trafficking behavior of S1P1 receptors. In recombinant S1P1 receptor-expressing cells, ponesimod and S1P triggered Gαi protein-mediated signaling and β-arrestin recruitment with comparable potency and efficiency, but only ponesimod efficiently induced intracellular receptor accumulation. In human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), ponesimod and S1P triggered translocation of the endogenous S1P1 receptor to the Golgi compartment. However, only ponesimod treatment caused efficient surface receptor depletion, receptor accumulation in the Golgi and degradation. Impedance measurements in HUVEC showed that ponesimod induced only short-lived Gαi protein-mediated signaling followed by resistance to further stimulation, whereas S1P induced sustained Gαi protein-mediated signaling without desensitization. Inhibition of S1P lyase activity in HUVEC rendered S1P an efficient S1P1 receptor internalizing compound and abrogated S1P-mediated sustained signaling. This suggests that S1P lyase - by facilitating S1P1 receptor recycling - is essential for S1P-mediated sustained signaling, and that synthetic agonists are functional antagonists because they are not S1P lyase substrates.

  16. The functional roles of S1P in immunity.

    PubMed

    Hisano, Yu; Nishi, Tsuyoshi; Kawahara, Atsuo

    2012-10-01

    The lipid mediator sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is generated within cells from sphingosine by two sphingosine kinases (SPHK1 and SPHK2). Intracellularly synthesized S1P is released into the extracellular fluid by S1P transporters, including SPNS2. Released S1P binds specifically to the G protein-coupled S1P receptors (S1PR1/S1P(1)-S1PR5/S1P(5)), which activate a diverse range of downstream signalling pathways. Recent studies have proposed that one of the central physiological functions of intercellular S1P signalling is in lymphocyte trafficking in vivo because genetic disruption of SPHK1/2, SPNS2 or S1PR1/S1P(1) in mice induces a lymphopenia phenotype. In this review, we discuss the current understanding of intercellular S1P signalling in the context of immunity.

  17. S=+1 pentaquarks in QCD sum rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubler, Philipp; Jido, Daisuke; Kojo, Toru; Nishikawa, Tetsuo; Oka, Makoto

    2009-10-01

    The QCD sum rule technique is employed to investigate pentaquark states with strangeness S = +1 and IJ^π = 012^±,112^±,032^ ±,132^±. Throughout the calculation, we emphasize the importance of the establishment of a valid Borel window, which corresponds to a region of the Borel mass, where the operator product expansion (OPE) converges and the presumed ground state pole dominates the sum rules. Such a Borel window is achieved by constructing the sum rules from the differenece of two carefully chosen independent correlators and by calculating the OPE up to dimension 14. As a result, we conclude that the state with qauntum numbers 032^+ state appears to be the most probable candidate for the experimantally observed &+circ;(1540), while we also obtain states with 012^-,112^-,132^+ at somewhat higher mass regions. We furthermore discuss the contribution of the KN scattering states to the sum rules, and the possible influence of these states on our results.

  18. S=+1 pentaquarks in QCD sum rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubler, Philipp; Jido, Daisuke; Kojo, Toru; Nishikawa, Tetsuo; Oka, Makoto

    2010-04-01

    We study pentaquark states with strangeness S=+1 and IJ=01,11,03,13 within the QCD sum rule technique. In order to obtain reliable results with this method, it is indispensable to establish a valid Borel window, where the operator product expansion (OPE) converges and the presumed ground state pole dominates the sum rules. By constructing the sum rules from the difference of two carefully chosen independent correlators and calculating the OPE up to dimension 14, such a Borel window can be established. This then leads to our main conclusion that the state with qantum numbers 03 appears to be the most probable candidate for the experimentally observed Θ(1540). Furthermore, states with 01,11,13 are also obtained at slightly higher mass regions.

  19. Galaxy Groups within 3500 km s-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kourkchi, Ehsan; Tully, R. Brent

    2017-01-01

    We present an algorithm to find nearby galaxy groups within 3,500 km s-1 (~45 Mpc). Our algorithm is based on the direct observed scaling relations that relate luminosity, velocity dispersion and dimensions of groups. Using these scaling relations, in an iterative process, galaxies with almost the same radial velocities and in close angular proximity fall into groups. Since peculiar velocities and Hubble expansion rate are comparable at these local distances, radial velocities are not very good proxies for galaxies distances. Therefore, further manual investigations of the identified groups is inevitable to discard interlopers and/or to resolve confusing cases in crowded regions. The goal of this study is to explore the nature of smallest galaxy groups and to investigate the halo mass function below 8x1012 solar mass.

  20. S=+1 pentaquarks in QCD sum rules

    SciTech Connect

    Kojo, T.; Gubler, P.; Jido, D.; Nishikawa, T.; Oka, M.

    2010-04-01

    The QCD sum rule technique is employed to investigate pentaquark states with strangeness S = +1 and IJ{sup {pi}} = 0 1/2{sup {+-}}, 1 1/2{sup {+-}}, 0 3/2{sup {+-}}, 1 3/2{sup {+-}}. Throughout the calculation, we emphasize the importance of the establishment of a valid Borel window, which corresponds to a region of the Borel mass, where the operator product expansion (OPE) converges and the presumed ground state pole dominates the sum rules. Such a Borel window is achieved by constructing the sum rules from the differenece of two carefully chosen independent correlators and by calculating the OPE up to dimension 14. As a result, we conclude that the state with qauntum numbers 0 3/2{sup +} state appears to be the most probable candidate for the experimentally observed {Theta}{sup +}(1540), while we also obtain states with 0 1/2{sup -}, 1 1/2{sup -}, 1 3/2{sup +} at somewhat higher mass regions. We furthermore discuss the contribution of the KN scattering states to the sum rules, and the possible influence of these states on our results.

  1. International Space Station (ISS) S1 Truss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Shown here is the International Space Station (ISS) S1 Truss in preparation for installation in the payload bay of the Space Shuttle Atlantis at NASA's Kennedy Space Center )KSC)in Florida. The truss launched October 7, 2002 on the STS-112 mission and will be attached during three spacewalks. Constructed primarily of aluminum, it measures 45 feet long, 15 feet wide, 10 feet tall, and weighs over 27,000 pounds. It is one of nine similar truss segments that, combined, will serve as the Station's main backbone, measuring 356 feet from end to end upon completion. Manufactured by the Boeing Company in Huntington Beach, California, the truss was flown to the Marshall Space Flight Center, in Huntsville, Alabama where brackets, cable trays, fluid tubing, and other secondary components and outfitting items were added. In Huntsville, it was screened for manufacturing flaws, including pressure and leak checking tubing, and electrical checks for cabling, before being shipped to KSC for final hardware installation and testing. The Space Station's labs, living modules, solar arrays, heat radiators, and other main components will be attached to the truss.

  2. Electrochemical, Spectroscopic and 1O2 Sensitization Characteristics of 10,10-Dimethylbiladiene Complexes of Zinc and Copper

    DOE PAGES

    Pistner, Allen; Pupillo, Rachel C.; Yapp, Glenn P. A.; ...

    2014-09-04

    The synthesis, electrochemistry and photophysical characterization of a 10,10- dimethylbiladiene tetrapyrrole bearing ancillary pentafluorophenyl groups at the 5 and 15-meso positions (DMBil1) is presented. This non-macrocyclic tetrapyrrole platform is robust and can serve as an excellent ligand scaffold for Zn2+ and Cu2+ centers. X-ray diffraction studies conducted for DMBil1 along with the corresponding Zn[DMBil1] and Cu[DMBil1] complexes show that this ligand scaffold binds a single metal ion within the tetrapyrrole core. Additionally, electrochemical experiments revealed that all three of the aforementioned compounds display an interesting redox chemistry, as the DMBil1 framework can be both oxidized and reduced by two electrons.more » Spectroscopic and photophysical experiments carried out for DMBil1, Zn[DMBil1] and Cu[DMBil1] provide a basic picture of the electronic properties of these platforms. All three biladiene derivatives strongly absorb light in the visible region and are weakly emissive. The ability of these compounds to sensitize the formation of 1O2 at wavelengths longer than 500 nm was probed. Both the freebase and Zn2+ 10,10-dimethylbiladiene architectures show modest efficiencies for 1O2 sensitization. The combination of structural, electrochemical and photophysical data detailed herein, provides a basis for the design of additional biladiene constructs for the activation of O2 and other small molecules.« less

  3. Electrochemical, Spectroscopic, and 1O2 Sensitization Characteristics of 10,10-Dimethylbiladiene Complexes of Zinc and Copper

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis, electrochemistry, and photophysical characterization of a 10,10-dimethylbiladiene tetrapyrrole bearing ancillary pentafluorophenyl groups at the 5- and 15-meso positions (DMBil1) is presented. This nonmacrocyclic tetrapyrrole platform is robust and can serve as an excellent ligand scaffold for Zn2+ and Cu2+ centers. X-ray diffraction studies conducted for DMBil1 along with the corresponding Zn[DMBil1] and Cu[DMBil1] complexes show that this ligand scaffold binds a single metal ion within the tetrapyrrole core. Additionally, electrochemical experiments revealed that all three of the aforementioned compounds display an interesting redox chemistry as the DMBil1 framework can be both oxidized and reduced by two electrons. Spectroscopic and photophysical experiments carried out for DMBil1, Zn[DMBil1], and Cu[DMBil1] provide a basic picture of the electronic properties of these platforms. All three biladiene derivatives strongly absorb light in the visible region and are weakly emissive. The ability of these compounds to sensitize the formation of 1O2 at wavelengths longer than 500 nm was probed. Both the free base and Zn2+ 10,10-dimethylbiladiene architectures show modest efficiencies for 1O2 sensitization. The combination of structural, electrochemical, and photophysical data detailed herein provides a basis for the design of additional biladiene constructs for the activation of O2 and other small molecules. PMID:25187099

  4. Diverse Anhydrous Silicates in a Fine-Grained Rim in the Weakly Altered CM2 Chondrite Queen Elizabeth Range 97990: Evidence for the Localized Preservation of Pristine Nebular Dust in CM Chondrites.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brearley, A. J.

    2016-08-01

    A fine-grained rim the QUE 97990 CM2 chondrite contains diverse submicron crystalline anhydrous silicates, including olivines, low-Ca and high Ca pyroxenes and represents a more pristine sample of nebular dust than is present in most CM chondrites.

  5. Picosecond transient gratings in CdS1- xSex mixed crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dörnfeld, C.; Noll, G.; Schwab, H.; Hvam, J. M.; Weber, Ch.; Renner, R.; Göbel, E. O.; Reznitsky, A.; Lyssenko, V.; Pendjur, S. A.; Talensky, O. N.; Klingshirn, C.

    1990-04-01

    We performed transient grating experiments to study various relaxation processes of localized excitons in CdS1 xSex mixed crystals. At low temperatures we observe a strong nonlinear response, spectrally in the localized states. We measured the phase relaxation time of localized excitons with a correlation technique. At low excitation levels we found long phase relaxation times of 75 ps. In a three beam configuration of a transient grating experiment we investigated the recombination as well as the diffusion of excitons within the localized states. We observed a reduced mobility compared to the mobility of free excitons in the pure compounds and found diffusion coefficients D < 2 cm2/ s.

  6. Homoepitaxial nonpolar (10-10) ZnO/ZnMgO monolithic microcavities: Towards reduced photonic disorder

    SciTech Connect

    Zuniga-Perez, J. Kappei, L.; Deparis, C.; Chenot, S.; Leroux, M.; Reveret, F.; Jamadi, O.; Leymarie, J.; Grundmann, M.; Prado, E. de

    2016-06-20

    Nonpolar ZnO/ZnMgO-based optical microcavities have been grown on (10-10) m-plane ZnO substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Reflectivity measurements indicate an exponential increase of the cavity quality factor with the number of layers in the distributed Bragg reflectors. Most importantly, microreflectivity spectra recorded with a spot size in the order of 2 μm show a negligible photonic disorder (well below 1 meV), leading to local quality factors equivalent to those obtained by macroreflectivity. The anisotropic character of the nonpolar heterostructures manifests itself both in the surface features, elongated parallel to the in-plane c direction, and in the optical spectra, with two cavity modes being observed at different energies for orthogonal polarizations.

  7. Evidence of an association between 10/10 genotype of DAT1 and endophenotypes of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Agudelo, J A; Gálvez, J M; Fonseca, D J; Mateus, H E; Talero-Gutiérrez, C; Velez-Van-Meerbeke, A

    2015-04-01

    Genetic variance of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a strong determinant of this disorder. The 40 base pairs (bp) variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) located in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of DAT1 gene increases the expression of the dopamine transporter. Therefore, DAT1 has been associated with susceptibility to ADHD. To determine the association between the VNTR of DAT1 and the phenotype of ADHD or its endophenotypes in a sample of children aged between 6 and 15 years from Bogotá. We selected 73 patients with ADHD and 54 controls. WISC test was applied in all subjects and executive functions were assessed. The VNTR of DAT1 was polymerase chain reaction-amplified. Data regarding population genetics and statistical analysis were obtained. Correlation and association tests between genotype and neuropsychological testing were performed. The DAT1 polymorphism was not associated with ADHD (P=.85). Nevertheless, the 10/10 genotype was found to be correlated with the processing speed index (P<.05). In the hyperactivity subtype, there was a genotypic correlation with some subtests of executive function (cognitive flexibility) (P≤.01). In the combined subtype, the 10/10 genotype was associated with verbal comprehension index of WISC (P<.05). A correlation was found between DAT1 VNTR and the subtest "processing speed index" of WISC and the subtest "cognitive flexibility" of executive functions. To our knowledge, this is the first report to assess DAT1 gene in a Colombian population. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Exit Strategies: S1P Signaling and T Cell Migration.

    PubMed

    Baeyens, Audrey; Fang, Victoria; Chen, Cynthia; Schwab, Susan R

    2015-12-01

    Whereas the role of sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1PR1) in T cell egress and the regulation of S1P gradients between lymphoid organs and circulatory fluids in homeostasis are increasingly well understood, much remains to be learned about S1P signaling and distribution during an immune response. Recent data suggest that the role of S1PR1 in directing cells from tissues into circulatory fluids is reprised again and again, particularly in guiding activated T cells from non-lymphoid tissues into lymphatics. Conversely, S1P receptor 2 (S1PR2), which antagonizes migration towards chemokines, confines cells within tissues. Here we review the current understanding of the roles of S1P signaling in activated T cell migration. In this context, we outline open questions, particularly regarding the shape of S1P gradients in different tissues in homeostasis and inflammation, and discuss recent strategies to measure S1P.

  9. Exogenous S1P Exposure Potentiates Ischemic Stroke Damage That Is Reduced Possibly by Inhibiting S1P Receptor Signaling.

    PubMed

    Moon, Eunjung; Han, Jeong Eun; Jeon, Sejin; Ryu, Jong Hoon; Choi, Ji Woong; Chun, Jerold

    2015-01-01

    Initial and recurrent stroke produces central nervous system (CNS) damage, involving neuroinflammation. Receptor-mediated S1P signaling can influence neuroinflammation and has been implicated in cerebral ischemia through effects on the immune system. However, S1P-mediated events also occur within the brain itself where its roles during stroke have been less well studied. Here we investigated the involvement of S1P signaling in initial and recurrent stroke by using a transient middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion (M/R) model combined with analyses of S1P signaling. Gene expression for S1P receptors and involved enzymes was altered during M/R, supporting changes in S1P signaling. Direct S1P microinjection into the normal CNS induced neuroglial activation, implicating S1P-initiated neuroinflammatory responses that resembled CNS changes seen during initial M/R challenge. Moreover, S1P microinjection combined with M/R potentiated brain damage, approximating a model for recurrent stroke dependent on S1P and suggesting that reduction in S1P signaling could ameliorate stroke damage. Delivery of FTY720 that removes S1P signaling with chronic exposure reduced damage in both initial and S1P-potentiated M/R-challenged brain, while reducing stroke markers like TNF-α. These results implicate direct S1P CNS signaling in the etiology of initial and recurrent stroke that can be therapeutically accessed by S1P modulators acting within the brain.

  10. S1-equivariant Chern-Weil constructions on loop space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCauley, Thomas

    2017-02-01

    We study the existence of S1-equivariant characteristic classes on certain natural infinite rank bundles over the loop space LM of a manifold M. We discuss the different S1-equivariant cohomology theories in the literature and clarify their relationships. We attempt to use S1-equivariant Chern-Weil techniques to construct S1-equivariant characteristic classes. The main result is the construction of a sequence of S1-equivariant characteristic classes on the total space of the bundles, but these classes do not descend to the base LM. Nevertheless, we conclude by identifying a class of bundles for which the S1-equivariant first Chern class does descend to LM.

  11. Blocking S1P interaction with S1P{sub 1} receptor by a novel competitive S1P{sub 1}-selective antagonist inhibits angiogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Fujii, Yasuyuki; Ueda, Yasuji; Ohtake, Hidenori; Ono, Naoya; Takayama, Tetsuo; Nakazawa, Kiyoshi; Igarashi, Yasuyuki; Goitsuka, Ryo

    2012-03-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of a newly developed S1P{sub 1}-selective antagonist on angiogenic responses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer S1P{sub 1} is a critical component of VEGF-related angiogenic responses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer S1P{sub 1}-selective antagonist showed in vitro activity to inhibit angiogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer S1P{sub 1}-selective antagonist showed in vivo activity to inhibit angiogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The efficacy of S1P{sub 1}-selective antagonist for anti-cancer therapies. -- Abstract: Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor type 1 (S1P{sub 1}) was shown to be essential for vascular maturation during embryonic development and it has been demonstrated that substantial crosstalk exists between S1P{sub 1} and other pro-angiogenic growth factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor. We developed a novel S1P{sub 1}-selective antagonist, TASP0277308, which is structurally unrelated to S1P as well as previously described S1P{sub 1} antagonists. TASP0277308 inhibited S1P- as well as VEGF-induced cellular responses, including migration and proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Furthermore, TASP0277308 effectively blocked a VEGF-induced tube formation in vitro and significantly suppressed tumor cell-induced angiogenesis in vivo. These findings revealed that S1P{sub 1} is a critical component of VEGF-related angiogenic responses and also provide evidence for the efficacy of TASP0277308 for anti-cancer therapies.

  12. Conformationally Constrained, Stable, Triplet Ground State (S = 1) Nitroxide Diradicals. Antiferromagnetic Chains of S = 1 Diradicals

    SciTech Connect

    Rajca, Andrzej; Takahashi, Masahiro; Pink, Maren; Spagnol, Gaelle; Rajca, Suchada

    2008-06-30

    Nitroxide diradicals, in which nitroxides are annelated to m-phenylene forming tricyclic benzobisoxazine-like structures, have been synthesized and characterized by X-ray crystallography, magnetic resonance (EPR and {sup 1}H NMR) spectroscopy, as well as magnetic studies in solution and in solid state. For the octamethyl derivative of benzobisoxazine nitroxide diradical, the conformationally constrained nitroxide moieties are coplanar with the m-phenylene, leading to large values of 2J (2J/k > 200 K in solution and 2J/k >> 300 K in the solid state). For the diradical, in which all ortho and para positions of the m-phenylene are sterically shielded, distortion of the nitroxide moieties from coplanarity is moderate, such that the singlet-triplet gaps remain large in both solution (2J/k > 200 K) and the solid state (2J/k {approx} 400-800 K), though an onset of thermal depopulation of the triplet ground state is detectable near room temperature. These diradicals have robust triplet ground states with strong ferromagnetic coupling and good stability at ambient conditions. Magnetic behavior of the nitroxide diradicals at low temperature is best fit to the model of one-dimensional S = 1 Heisenberg chains with intrachain antiferromagnetic coupling. The antiferromagnetic coupling between the S = 1 diradicals may be associated with the methyl nitroxide C-H {hor_ellipsis} O contacts, including nonclassical hydrogen bonds. These unprecedented organic S = 1 antiferromagnetic chains are highly isotropic, compared to those of the extensively studied Ni(II)-based chains.

  13. Metal Acetylacetonate Series in Interface Engineering for Full Low-Temperature-Processed, High-Performance, and Stable Planar Perovskite Solar Cells with Conversion Efficiency over 16% on 1 cm(2) Scale.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Xu, Leiming; Feng, Xiyuan; Jie, Jiansheng; He, Zhubing

    2017-02-14

    A series of metal acetylacetonates produced by a full low-temperature (below 100 °C) process are successfully employed to obtain both "multistable" and high-performance planar-inverted perovskite solar cells. All the three kinds of champion cells in small area exhibit over 18% in conversion-efficiency with negligible hysteresis, along with above 16% in conversion-efficiency for planar PSCs in an aperture area of over 1 cm(2) .

  14. Study of EWS/FLI-1 rearrangement in 18 cases of CK20+/CM2B4+ Merkel cell carcinoma using FISH and correlation to the differential diagnosis of Ewing sarcoma/peripheral neuroectodermal tumor.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Flores, Angel; Suarez-Peñaranda, Jose M; Alonso, Soledad

    2013-10-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) and primary cutaneous Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PCES/PNET) pose a challenging morphologic differential diagnosis. Approximately 90% of Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) have a specific translocation, t(11;22) (q24;q12). The EWS-friend leukemia integration-1 (FLI-1) fusion results in FLI-1 overexpression. EWS/FLI-1 rearrangement has been suggested as a useful tool in the diagnosis of PCES/PNET. In contrast, Merkel cell polyomavirus was found to be an infective agent related to the pathogenesis of MCC. Merkel cell polyomavirus can be immunohistochemically detected with the antibody CM2B4. To the best of our knowledge, there is no case of any cytokeratin (CK)20-/CM2B4+ PNET. The goal of our study was to investigate whether EWS/FLI-1 rearrangement was present in cases of MCC. We have studied 18 cases of MCC. To make sure that the cases investigated by fluorescent in situ hybridization were genuine MCC, we considered only CK20+/CM2B4+ cases. Six cases met this criterion. EWS/FLI-1 rearrangement was not evidenced in any of the 18 cases (including the 6 "genuine" cases of MCC). Although our findings were somewhat expected, we think that they fill a gap in the literature: the confirmation that MCC is devoid of the EWS/FLI-1 rearrangement.

  15. Toward 10 10 contrast for terrestrial exoplanet detection: demonstration of wavefront correction in a shaped-pupil coronagraph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belikov, Ruslan; Give'on, Amir; Trauger, John T.; Carr, Michael; Kasdin, N. J.; Vanderbei, Robert J.; Shi, Fang; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham; Kuhnert, Andreas

    2006-06-01

    The Shaped Pupil Coronagraph (SPC) is a high-contrast imaging system pioneered at Princeton for detection of extra-solar earthlike planets. It is designed to achieve 10-10 contrast at an inner working angle of 4λ/D. However, a critical requirement in attaining this contrast level in practice is the ability to control wavefront phase and amplitude aberrations to at least λ/10 4 in rms phase and 1/1000 rms amplitude, respectively. Furthermore, this has to be maintained over a large spectral band. The High Contrast Imaging Testbed (HCIT) at the Jet Propulsion Lab (JPL) is a state-of-the-art facility for studying high contrast imaging systems and fine wavefront control methods. It consists of a vacuum chamber containing a configurable coronagraph setup with a Xinetics deformable mirror. In this paper, we present the results of testing Princeton's SPC in JPL's HCIT. In particular, we present the achievement of 4x10 -8 contrast using a speckle nulling algorithm, and demonstrate that this contrast is maintained across wavelengths of 785, 836nm, and for broadband light having 10% bandwidth around 800nm.

  16. S1P in HDL promotes interaction between SR-BI and S1PR1 and activates S1PR1-mediated biological functions: calcium flux and S1PR1 internalization.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mi-Hye; Appleton, Kathryn M; El-Shewy, Hesham M; Sorci-Thomas, Mary G; Thomas, Michael J; Lopes-Virella, Maria F; Luttrell, Louis M; Hammad, Samar M; Klein, Richard L

    2017-02-01

    HDL normally transports about 50-70% of plasma sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), and the S1P in HDL reportedly mediates several HDL-associated biological effects and signaling pathways. The HDL receptor, SR-BI, as well as the cell surface receptors for S1P (S1PRs) may be involved partially and/or completely in these HDL-induced processes. Here we investigate the nature of the HDL-stimulated interaction between the HDL receptor, SR-BI, and S1PR1 using a protein-fragment complementation assay and confocal microscopy. In both primary rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells and HEK293 cells, the S1P content in HDL particles increased intracellular calcium concentration, which was mediated by S1PR1. Mechanistic studies performed in HEK293 cells showed that incubation of cells with HDL led to an increase in the physical interaction between the SR-BI and S1PR1 receptors that mainly occurred on the plasma membrane. Model recombinant HDL (rHDL) particles formed in vitro with S1P incorporated into the particle initiated the internalization of S1PR1, whereas rHDL without supplemented S1P did not, suggesting that S1P transported in HDL can selectively activate S1PR1. In conclusion, these data suggest that S1P in HDL stimulates the transient interaction between SR-BI and S1PRs that can activate S1PRs and induce an elevation in intracellular calcium concentration.

  17. 26 CFR 1.414(s)-1 - Definition of compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Definition of compensation. 1.414(s)-1 Section 1.414(s)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.414(s)-1 Definition...

  18. 26 CFR 1.414(s)-1 - Definition of compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of compensation. 1.414(s)-1 Section 1.414(s)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.414(s)-1 Definition of...

  19. Chemical and genetic tools to explore S1P biology.

    PubMed

    Cahalan, Stuart M

    2014-01-01

    The zwitterionic lysophospholipid Sphingosine 1-Phosphate (S1P) is a pleiotropic mediator of physiology and pathology. The synthesis, transport, and degradation of S1P are tightly regulated to ensure that S1P is present in the proper concentrations in the proper location. The binding of S1P to five G protein-coupled S1P receptors regulates many physiological systems, particularly the immune and vascular systems. Our understanding of the functions of S1P has been aided by the tractability of the system to both chemical and genetic manipulation. Chemical modulators have been generated to affect most of the known components of S1P biology, including agonists of S1P receptors and inhibitors of enzymes regulating S1P production and degradation. Genetic knockouts and manipulations have been similarly engineered to disrupt the functions of individual S1P receptors or enzymes involved in S1P metabolism. This chapter will focus on the development and utilization of these chemical and genetic tools to explore the complex biology surrounding S1P and its receptors, with particular attention paid to the in vivo findings that these tools have allowed for.

  20. Sphingosine-1-Phosphate (S1P) Lyase Inhibition Causes Increased Cardiac S1P Levels and Bradycardia in Rats.

    PubMed

    Harris, Christopher M; Mittelstadt, Scott; Banfor, Patricia; Bousquet, Peter; Duignan, David B; Gintant, Gary; Hart, Michelle; Kim, Youngjae; Segreti, Jason

    2016-10-01

    Inhibition of the sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P)-catabolizing enzyme S1P lyase (S1PL) elevates the native ligand of S1P receptors and provides an alternative mechanism for immune suppression to synthetic S1P receptor agonists. S1PL inhibition is reported to preferentially elevate S1P in lymphoid organs. Tissue selectivity could potentially differentiate S1PL inhibitors from S1P receptor agonists, the use of which also results in bradycardia, atrioventricular block, and hypertension. But it is unknown if S1PL inhibition would also modulate cardiac S1P levels or cardiovascular function. The S1PL inhibitor 6-[(2R)-4-(4-benzyl-7-chlorophthalazin-1-yl)-2-methylpiperazin-1-yl]pyridine-3-carbonitrile was used to determine the relationship in rats between drug concentration, S1P levels in select tissues, and circulating lymphocytes. Repeated oral doses of the S1PL inhibitor fully depleted circulating lymphocytes after 3 to 4 days of treatment in rats. Full lymphopenia corresponded to increased levels of S1P of 100- to 1000-fold in lymph nodes, 3-fold in blood (but with no change in plasma), and 9-fold in cardiac tissue. Repeated oral dosing of the S1PL inhibitor in telemeterized, conscious rats resulted in significant bradycardia within 48 hours of drug treatment, comparable in magnitude to the bradycardia induced by 3 mg/kg fingolimod. These results suggest that S1PL inhibition modulates cardiac function and does not provide immune suppression with an improved cardiovascular safety profile over fingolimod in rats.

  1. Targeting sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) levels and S1P receptor functions for therapeutic immune interventions.

    PubMed

    Gräler, Markus H

    2010-01-01

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is an important regulator of many different immune functions including lymphocyte circulation, antigen presentation, and T cell development. It stimulates five G protein-coupled receptors designated S1P(1-5), which are also expressed by immune cells. S1P receptors couple to different heterotrimeric G proteins including G alpha i, q, and 12/13, and elicit cellular signalling events by activating the small GTPases Rac and Rho and protein kinases Akt, ERK, and JNK, and by inducing cellular calcium flux and inhibiting cAMP accumulation, amongst others. S1P is the exit signal for lymphocytes leaving lymphoid organs and present in blood and lymph at high nanomolar concentrations due to the S1P-producing activity of sphingosine kinases (SK). The S1P-degrading enzyme S1P-lyase maintains low amounts of S1P in lymphoid organs. Disrupting this concentration difference by S1P receptor agonists and antagonists like FTY720, SEW2871, and VPC23019, by an anti-S1P antibody, or by inhibiting the S1P-lyase has therapeutic potential for autoimmune diseases like multiple sclerosis (MS) and rheumatoid arthritis and for many other disorders like cancer, fibrosis, inflammation, macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and glaucoma. This report aims to provide a brief overview of concepts, approaches, pharmaceutical compounds, and targets that are currently used to modulate S1P-driven immune functions.

  2. Biomechanical Comparison of Sacral Fixation Characteristics of Standard S1-Pedicle Screw Fixation versus a Novel Constrained S1-Dual-Screw Anchorage in the S1-Pedicle and S1-Alar Bone.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Michael; Stephan, Daniel; Resch, Herbert; Augat, Peter; Auffarth, Alexander; Blocher, Martina; Ernstbrunner, Lukas; Hitzl, Wolfgang; Defossez, Henri; Rouge, Renaud; Koller, Heiko

    2015-12-01

    Biomechanical Laboratory Study. Analysis of the biomechanical characteristics of a novel sacral constrained dual-screw fixation device (S1-PALA), combining a S1-pedicle screw and a S1-ala screw, compared to a standard bicortical S1-pedicle screw (S1-PS) fixation. Instrumented fusions to the sacrum are biomechanically challenging and plagued by a high risk of nonunion when S1-PS is used as the sole means of fixation. Thus, lumbopelvic fixation is increasingly selected instead, although associated with a reasonable number of instrumentation-related complications. Around 30 fresh-frozen human sacral bones were harvested and embedded after CT scans. Instrumentation was conducted in alternating order with bicortical 7.0 mm S1-PS and with the S1-PALA including a S1-PS screw and a S1-ala screw, of 7.0 and 6.0 mm diameter, respectively. Specimens were subjected to cyclic loading with increasing loads (25-250 N) until a maximum of 2000 cycles or displacement >2 mm occurred. All implant sacral units (ISUs) were subject to coaxial pullout tests. Failure load, number of ISUs surpassing 2000 cycles, number of cycles, and loads at failure were recorded and compared. Donors' age averaged 77 ± 14.2 years, and BMD was 115 ± 64.8 mgCA-HA/ml. Total working length of screws implanted was 90 ± 8.6 mm in the S1-PALA group and 46 ± 5 mm in the S1-PS group (P = 0.0002). In the S1-PALA group, displacement >2 mm occurred after 845 ± 325 cycles at 149 ± 41 N compared to 512 ± 281 cycles at 106 ± 36 N in the S1-PS group (P = 0.004; P = 0.002). In coaxial pull-out testing, failure load was 2118.1 ± 1166 N at a displacement of 2.5 ± 1 mm in the S1-PALA group compared to 1375.6 ± 750.1 N at a displacement of 1.6 ± 0.5 mm in the S1-PS group (P = 0.0007; P = 0.0003). The novel sacral constrained dual-screw anchorage (S1-PALA) significantly improved holding strength after cyclic loading compared to S1-PS. The S1-PALA demonstrated mechanical potential as a useful adjunct in the

  3. Sphingosine-1-Phosphate (S1P) and S1P Signaling Pathway: Therapeutic Targets in Autoimmunity and Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Hsing-Chuan; Han, May H

    2016-07-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) and S1P receptors (S1PR) are ubiquitously expressed. S1P-S1PR signaling has been well characterized in immune trafficking and activation in innate and adaptive immune systems. However, the full extent of its involvement in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases is not well understood. FTY720 (fingolimod), a non-selective S1PR modulator, significantly decreased annualized relapse rates in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS). FTY720, which primarily targets S1P receptor 1 as a functional antagonist, arrests lymphocyte egress from secondary lymphoid tissues and reduces neuroinflammation in the central nervous system (CNS). Recent studies suggest that FTY720 also decreases astrogliosis and promotes oligodendrocyte differentiation within the CNS and may have therapeutic benefit to prevent brain atrophy. Since S1P signaling is involved in multiple immune functions, therapies targeting S1P axis may be applicable to treat autoimmune diseases other than MS. Currently, over a dozen selective S1PR and S1P pathway modulators with potentially superior therapeutic efficacy and better side-effect profiles are in the pipeline of drug development. Furthermore, newly characterized molecules such as apolipoprotein M (ApoM) (S1P chaperon) and SPNS2 (S1P transporter) are also potential targets for treatment of autoimmune diseases. Finally, the application of therapies targeting S1P and S1P signaling pathways may be expanded to treat several other immune-mediated disorders (such as post-infectious diseases, post-stroke and post-stroke dementia) and inflammatory conditions beyond their application in primary autoimmune diseases.

  4. Chemistry of 1,1,2,2,9,9,10,10-octafluoro-[2,2]-paracyclophane: Its synthesis and reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Jian-Xin

    This dissertation describes the first example of the synthesis of 1,1,2,2,9,9,10,10-octafluoro[2.2]paracyclophane (AF4) under non-high-dilution conditions. Under very mild reaction conditions, bis-p-(chlorodifluoromethyl)benzene (TFPX dichloride) and its derivatives reacted with Zn dust in N,N-dimethyl acetamide (DMA) (Zinc method) affording the corresponding AF4 and its derivatives in moderate to good yields. Purification of products was also studied and an efficient purification process was developed. A new and very cheap method for preparation of TFPX dichloride is also disclosed. Using the very cheap fluorinating reagent, anhydrous hydrogen fluoride (AHF), 1,4-bis(trichloromethyl)benezene or its derivatives were converted to TFPX and its derivatives in high yields (F/Cl exchange reaction). With the success of the Zinc method and F/Cl exchange reaction, highly pure AF4 thus can be provided to the semiconductor industry and academy research scientists in large quantity and at a very low price. Starting from AF4, numerous AF4 derivatives were synthesized using convenient reaction conditions. Reaction of AF4 with fuming nitric acid at room temperature gave mono-nitroAF4 in almost quantitative yield. Reduction of the mono-nitroAF4 with iron powder in the presence of HCl in alcoholic solvent gave the aminoAF4 in 90% yield. Via the diazonium salt intermediate, iodoAF4 was also obtained in good yield. Under similar reaction conditions, disubstituted AF4 derivatives were also prepared in good yields. Heating a mixture of AF4, trifluoroacetyl peroxide and dichloromethane gave the trifluoromethylated dimeric AF4 as a mixture of diastereomers. When these products were heated to 170--180°C in the presence of I 2, 4-trifluoromethyl-AF4 was obtained in almost 87% yield. X-ray structural analysis showed that the C-C bond connecting the two cyclophane moieties to be longer than the normal C-C bond. Kinetic studies, conducted in the presence of excess amount of hydrogen donor

  5. Fully Enzymatic Membraneless Glucose|Oxygen Fuel Cell That Provides 0.275 mA cm(-2) in 5 mM Glucose, Operates in Human Physiological Solutions, and Powers Transmission of Sensing Data.

    PubMed

    Ó Conghaile, Peter; Falk, Magnus; MacAodha, Domhnall; Yakovleva, Maria E; Gonaus, Christoph; Peterbauer, Clemens K; Gorton, Lo; Shleev, Sergey; Leech, Dónal

    2016-02-16

    Coimmobilization of pyranose dehydrogenase as an enzyme catalyst, osmium redox polymers [Os(4,4'-dimethoxy-2,2'-bipyridine)2(poly(vinylimidazole))10Cl](+) or [Os(4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine)2(poly(vinylimidazole))10Cl](+) as mediators, and carbon nanotube conductive scaffolds in films on graphite electrodes provides enzyme electrodes for glucose oxidation. The recombinant enzyme and a deglycosylated form, both expressed in Pichia pastoris, are investigated and compared as biocatalysts for glucose oxidation using flow injection amperometry and voltammetry. In the presence of 5 mM glucose in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) (50 mM phosphate buffer solution, pH 7.4, with 150 mM NaCl), higher glucose oxidation current densities, 0.41 mA cm(-2), are obtained from enzyme electrodes containing the deglycosylated form of the enzyme. The optimized glucose-oxidizing anode, prepared using deglycosylated enzyme coimmobilized with [Os(4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine)2(poly(vinylimidazole))10Cl](+) and carbon nanotubes, was coupled with an oxygen-reducing bilirubin oxidase on gold nanoparticle dispersed on gold electrode as a biocathode to provide a membraneless fully enzymatic fuel cell. A maximum power density of 275 μW cm(-2) is obtained in 5 mM glucose in PBS, the highest to date under these conditions, providing sufficient power to enable wireless transmission of a signal to a data logger. When tested in whole human blood and unstimulated human saliva maximum power densities of 73 and 6 μW cm(-2) are obtained for the same fuel cell configuration, respectively.

  6. Integrated Assessment of Hadley Centre (HadCM2) Climate-Change Impacts on Agricultural Productivity and Irrigation Water Supply in the Conterminous United States. Part II. Regional Agricultural Production in 2030 and 2095.

    SciTech Connect

    Izaurralde, R Cesar C.; Rosenberg, Norman J.; Brown, Robert A.; Thomson, Allison M.

    2003-06-30

    This study used scenarios of the HadCM2 GCM and the EPIC agroecosystem model to evaluate climate change impacts on crop yields and ecosystem processes. Baseline climate data were obtained from records for 1961-1990. The scenario runs for 2025-2034 and 2090-2099 were extracted from a HadCM2 run. EPIC was run on 204 representative farms under current climate and two 10-y periods centered on 2030 and 2095, each at CO2 concentrations of 365 and 560 ppm. Texas, New Mexico, Colorado, Utah, Arizona, and California are projected to experience significant temperature increases by 2030. Slight cooling is expected by 2030 in Alabama, Florida, Maine, Montana, Idaho, and Utah. Larger areas are projected to experience increased warming by 2095. Uniform precipitation increases are expected by 2030 in the NE. These increases are predicted to expand to the eastern half of the country by 2095. EPIC simulated yield increases for the Great Lakes, Corn Belt and Northeast regions. Simulated yields of irrigated corn yields were predicted to increase in almost all regions. Soybean yields could decrease in the Northern and Southern Plains, the Corn Belt, Delta, Appalachian, and Southeast regions and increase in the Lakes and Northeast regions. Simulated wheat yields exhibited upward yield trends under scenarios of climate change. National corn production in 2030 and 2095 could be affected by changes in three major producing regions. In 2030, corn production could increase in the Corn Belt and Lakes regions but decrease in the Northern Plains leading to an overall decrease in national production. National wheat production is expected to increase during both future periods. A proxy indicator was developed to provide a sense of where in the country, and when water would be available to satisfy change in irrigation demand for corn and alfalfa production as these are influenced by the HadCM2 scenarios and CO2-fertilization.

  7. Representations of Nets of C*-Algebras over S 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzzi, Giuseppe; Vasselli, Ezio

    2012-11-01

    In recent times a new kind of representations has been used to describe superselection sectors of the observable net over a curved spacetime, taking into account the effects of the fundamental group of the spacetime. Using this notion of representation, we prove that any net of C*-algebras over S 1 admits faithful representations, and when the net is covariant under Diff( S 1), it admits representations covariant under any amenable subgroup of Diff( S 1).

  8. S1P and the birth of platelets.

    PubMed

    Hla, Timothy; Galvani, Sylvain; Rafii, Shahin; Nachman, Ralph

    2012-11-19

    Recent work has highlighted the multitude of biological functions of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), which include roles in hematopoietic cell trafficking, organization of immune organs, vascular development, and neuroinflammation. Indeed, a functional antagonist of S1P(1) receptor, FTY720/Gilenya, has entered the clinic as a novel therapeutic for multiple sclerosis. In this issue of the JEM, Zhang et al. highlight yet another function of this lipid mediator: thrombopoiesis. The S1P(1) receptor is required for the growth of proplatelet strings in the bloodstream and the shedding of platelets into the circulation. Notably, the sharp gradient of S1P between blood and the interstitial fluids seems to be essential to ensure the production of platelets, and S1P appears to cooperate with the CXCL12-CXCR4 axis. Pharmacologic modulation of the S1P(1) receptor altered circulating platelet numbers acutely, suggesting a potential therapeutic strategy for controlling thrombocytopenic states. However, the S1P(4) receptor may also regulate thrombopoiesis during stress-induced accelerated platelet production. This work reveals a novel physiological action of the S1P/S1P(1) duet that could potentially be harnessed for clinical translation.

  9. Low level laser therapy (AlGaInP) applied at 5J/cm2 reduces the proliferation of Staphylococcus aureus MRSA in infected wounds and intact skin of rats*

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Daniela Conceição Gomes Gonçalves e; Plapler, Helio; da Costa, Mateus Matiuzzi; Silva, Silvio Romero Gonçalves e; de Sá, Maria da Conceição Aquino; Silva, Benedito Sávio Lima e

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Laser therapy is a low cost, non-invasive procedure with good healing results. Doubts exist as to whether laser therapy action on microorganisms can justify research aimed at investigating its possible effects on bacteria-infected wounds. OBJECTIVE To assess the effect of low intensity laser on the rate of bacterial contamination in infected wounds in the skin of rats. METHODS An experimental study using 56 male Wistar rats. The animals were randomly divided into eight groups of seven each. Those in the "infected" groups were infected by Staphylococcus aureus MRSA in the dorsal region. Red laser diode (AlGaInP) 658nm, 5J/cm2 was used to treat the animals in the "treated" groups in scan for 3 consecutive days. Samples were drawn before inoculating bacteria and following laser treatment. For statistical analysis we used the nonparametric Wilcoxon (paired data) method with a significance level of p <0.05. RESULTS The statistical analysis of median values showed that the groups submitted to laser treatment had low bacterial proliferation. CONCLUSION The laser (AlGaInP), with a dose of 5J/cm2 in both intact skin and in wounds of rats infected with Staphylococcus aureus MRSA, is shown to reduce bacterial proliferation. PMID:23539003

  10. Spin–orbit torque switching in MgO/CoFeB/Ta/CoFeB/MgO heterostructures with a critical current density of 105 A/cm2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Guoyi; Chang, Yuansi; Cai, Jianwang; Zhang, Pengxiang; Pan, Feng; Song, Cheng

    2017-10-01

    Spin–orbit torque-induced magnetization switching in heavy metal/ferromagnetic metal/oxide heterostructures has been extensively studied. However, thus far, the critical current density for magnetization switching in these systems is at least ∼106 A/cm2. Here, we investigate the spin–orbit torque switching in a substrate/MgO/CoFeB/Ta/CoFeB/MgO structure where the upper CoFeB layer exhibits a strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in contrast to the relatively weak perpendicular anisotropy in the lower CoFeB layer. By varying the thickness of Ta, we observe that the critical current required for switching differs markedly. Specifically, for the sample with a 3-nm-thick Ta layer, with an external field of 100 Oe applied along the current direction to break the symmetry, the critical current density is ∼2 × 105 A/cm2. This could be ascribed to the minimum coercivity and perpendicular anisotropic field in the sample with a 3-nm-thick Ta layer.

  11. A mechanism for the 150 µC cm(-2) polarization of BiFeO(3) films based on first-principles calculations and new structural data.

    PubMed

    Ricinschi, Dan; Yun, Kwi-Young; Okuyama, Masanori

    2006-02-15

    Following our experimental report of a giant ferroelectric polarization in the region of 150 µC cm(-2) in BiFeO(3) (BFO) films, we have performed first-principles calculations based on the local density approximation to density functional theory, aiming to clarify its mechanism. Upon optimization of lattice constants we have shown that the natural tetragonal structure of BFO has a giant tetragonality ratio of 1.26 and large ionic off-centring. Experimentally this structure has been detected in BFO films deposited on La-doped SrTiO(3) substrates. The spontaneous polarization calculated ab initio for this structure is 143.5 µC cm(-2), in agreement with the remanent polarization of hysteresis loops measured at 90 K. These results suggest that the giant polarization of our BFO films may occur upon stabilization of the optimal tetragonal phase with giant tetragonality. Future experimental effort aiming to routinely obtain such values of spontaneous polarization should concentrate on how to isolate this phase without compromising the insulating and switching properties of BFO.

  12. Diagnostic advantage of S1 foramen-evoked H-reflex for S1 radiculopathy in patients with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Chaojun; Zhu, Yu; Lu, Feizhou; Xia, Xinlei; Jin, Xiang; Weber, Robert; Jiang, Jianyuan

    2013-11-01

    Hoffmann reflex to tibial nerve stimulation at the popliteal fossa (tibial H-reflex) is routinely used to evaluate S1 radiculopathy. However, it lacks sensitivity because other lesions along this reflex circuit affect the H-reflex bilaterally. This study was undertaken to determine whether the H-reflex evoked by stimulating proximally at the S1 foramen (S1 foramen H-reflex) could improve S1 root lesion evaluation sensitivity in patients with diabetes mellitus. A randomized paired study was designed to evaluate tibial and S1 foramen H-reflexes; bilateral H-M interval (HMI) and H-reflex latency were compared in 22 diabetic patients with unilateral S1 radiculopathy. Other electrophysiological evaluations included standard tibial conduction studies, sural conduction studies and needle electromyography (EMG). The S1 foramen H-reflex had a significantly higher sensitivity (91.0%, 20 of 22) in evaluating S1 radiculopathy than the conventional tibial H-reflex (63.6%, 14 of 22, p < 0.05). Bilateral tibial compound muscle action potential amplitudes were reduced in 3 patients, and sural sensory nerve action potential amplitudes decreased in 7 patients. Needle EMG revealed denervation restricted to the paraspinal muscle and myotomes supplied by the S1 nerve root on the ipsilateral side in 18 patients, and multiple lumbosacral nerve roots were involved bilaterally in the other 4 patients. Our results demonstrate that the S1 foramen H-reflex is a more sensitive assessment of S1 compressive radiculopathy in patients with diabetes mellitus.

  13. QnrS1 structure–activity relationships

    PubMed Central

    Tavío, María M.; Jacoby, George A.; Hooper, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Loop B is important for low-level quinolone resistance conferred by Qnr proteins. The role of individual amino acids within QnrS1 loop B in quinolone resistance and gyrase protection was assessed. Methods qnrS1 and 11 qnrS1 alleles with site-directed Ala mutations in loop B were expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) and proteins were purified by affinity chromatography. Ciprofloxacin MICs were determined with and without IPTG. Gyrase DNA supercoiling was measured with and without ciprofloxacin IC50 and with various concentrations of QnrS1 proteins. Results Wild-type QnrS1 and QnrS1 with Asn-110→Ala and Arg-111→Ala substitutions increased the ciprofloxacin MIC 12-fold in BL21(DE3), although QnrS1 with Gln-107→Ala replacement increased it 2-fold more than wild-type did. However, QnrS1 with Ala substitutions at His-106, Val-108, Ser-109, Met-112, Tyr-113, Phe-114, Cys-115 and Ser-116 increased ciprofloxacin MIC 1.4- to 8-fold less than wild-type QnrS1. Induction by 10–1000 μM IPTG increased ciprofloxacin MICs for all mutants, reaching values similar to those for wild-type. Purified wild-type and mutated proteins differed in protection of gyrase from ciprofloxacin action. Wild-type QnrS1 produced complete protection of gyrase supercoiling from ciprofloxacin (1.8 μM) action at 0.05 nM and half protection at 0.5 pM, whereas QnrS1 with Ala replacements that conferred the least increase in ciprofloxacin MICs also required the highest QnrS1 concentrations for protection. Conclusions Key individual residues in QnrS1 loop B affect ciprofloxacin resistance and gyrase protection from ciprofloxacin action, supporting the concept that loop B is key for interaction with gyrase necessary for quinolone resistance. PMID:24729602

  14. Phase-matched four-wave mixing of sub-100-TW/ cm2 femtosecond laser pulses in isolated air-guided modes of a hollow photonic-crystal fiber.

    PubMed

    Konorov, S O; Serebryannikov, E E; Akimov, D A; Ivanov, A A; Alfimov, M V; Zheltikov, A M

    2004-12-01

    Hollow-core photonic-crystal fibers are shown to allow propagation and nonlinear-optical frequency conversion of high-intensity ultrashort laser pulses in the regime of isolated guided modes confined in the hollow gas-filled fiber core. With a specially designed dispersion of such modes, the 3omega=2omega+2omega-omega four-wave mixing of fundamental (omega) and second-harmonic (2omega) sub-100- TW/ cm(2) femtosecond pulses of a Cr:forsterite laser can be phase matched in a hollow photonic-crystal fiber within a spectral band of more than 10 nm, resulting in the efficient generation of femtosecond pulses in a well-resolved higher-order air-guided mode of 417-nm radiation.

  15. Robustness of S1 with Hodges-Lehmann

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahad, Nor Aishah; Yahaya, Sharipah Soaad Syed; Yin, Lee Ping

    2015-12-01

    The classical methods for comparing groups can be highly inefficient under the influence of non-normal and heteroscedastic settings. Investigators are looking for alternatives which are more flexible in terms of assumptions. Robust methods are known to be one such alternative. This study looks into S1 statistic, flexible method for comparing groups using median as the location estimator. Works on S1 mostly focussed on the searching of a more favorable alternative of the standard error of sample medians to achieve better control of Type I error. In this study, instead of targetting on the standard error, the investigation on the S1 statistic focusses on the sample median itself. The modified S1 statistic replaced the medians with Hodges-Lehmann and the default scale estimator with the variance of Hodges-Lehmann and MADn to produce two different test statistics for comparing groups. Since the sampling distributions of these modified S1 statistics are unknown, bootstrap method was used for testing the hypotheses. The performance of the proposed statistic was measured in terms of Type I error and compared against the original S1 statistic. The propose procedures, generated conservative Type I error rates and on par with the original S1 statistic for most of the conditions.

  16. Degenerative Sacrolisthesis of S1-S2: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Rajendra, Thakre Kunwar; Issac, Thomas; Swamy, B Mallikarjuna

    2015-01-01

    Degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS) is usually seen at L4-L5 level and less frequently at L5-S1 level. This is a rare case report of spondylolisthesis of S1 over S2 with lumbarization of S1. Lumbarization of S1 is seen in just 1-2% of the population and to have spondylolisthesis in this segment is even rarer. The purpose is to report a rare case of DS at S1-S2 level. This is a single case report of a 66-year-old gentleman who presented with complains of lower backache for 2 years and acute retention of urine to the emergency department. Detailed clinical and radiological evaluation of the spine was done which revealed lumbarization of S1 with spondylolisthesis at S1-S2 and facetal hypertrophy at L5, S1, and S2. He underwent decompression and stabilization at L5, S1, and S2 along with placement of autologous bone graft. The bladder symptoms disappeared after 3 weeks. At 1-year follow-up, patient's clinical symptoms were relieved, and he improved clinically. To the best of our knowledge, this is probably the first case of DS of sacral vertebrae to be reported in English literature. The prevalence of complete lumbarization is around 1.8% and to get spondylolisthesis in this segment is even rarer, hence the lack of literature in this regard. Since this is the first of its kind of case, further case series or longitudinal studies of such cases may help understand better the pathomechanics related to spondylolisthesis at this level.

  17. Current Development of Anti-Cancer Drug S-1

    PubMed Central

    Giri, Anil; Shakya, Suraj; Shakya, Sujana; Sapkota, Binaya; Pramod, KC

    2016-01-01

    S-1 is a novel oral fluoropyrimidine derivative, widely used for treating gastric, pancreatic, lung, head, neck and breast carcinomas. It is designed to enhance the clinical utility of an oral fluoropyrimidine and is associated with low gastrointestinal toxicity. S-1 consists of three pharmacological agents (at a molar ratio of 1:0.4:1)-Tegafur (FT), a prodrug of 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU), 5-Chloro-2-4-Dihydroxypyridine (CDHP), which inhibits the activity of Dihydropyrimidine Dehydrogenase (DPD) and Oxonic Acid (Oxo), which reduces Gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity of 5-FU. The present article reviews the current development of clinical study of S-1. PMID:28050491

  18. (10, 10) Single walled carbon nanotube consisted of chemisorbed oxygen atoms as a promising supercapacitor electrode material: A first principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Targholi, Ehsan; Molaei, Masoumeh; Mousavi-Khoshdel, S. Morteza

    2016-11-01

    The effects of atomic oxygen chemisorption on the electronic structures and quantum capacitance of (10, 10) CNT have been studied in this article. The results indicated that the chemisorption on bonds aligned with nanotube axis is more favorable than other position. The most efficient configuration for enhancing quantum capacitance is the nanotube with oxygen atoms chemisorbed on axial bonds. Specifically, in water stability range, the quantum capacitance of (10, 10) CNT before and after chemisorption of six oxygen atoms (aligned with nanotube axis) were found to be 222.6 (anode) -117.6 (cathode) and 306.9 (anode) -217.2 (cathode) F/g, respectively.

  19. 7S(1/2) ? 9S(1/2) two-photon spectroscopy of trapped francium.

    PubMed

    Simsarian, J E; Shi, W; Orozco, L A; Sprouse, G D; Zhao, W Z

    1996-12-01

    We report on the spectroscopic measurement of the (210)Fr 9S(1/2) energy obtained by two-photon excitation of atoms confined and cooled in a magneto-optic trap. The resonant intermediate level 7P(3/2) is the upper state of the trapping transition. We have measured the energy difference between the 9S(1/2) state and the 7S(1/2) ground state to be 25 671.021 +/- 0.006 cm(-1).

  20. 25 CFR 10.10 - What happens if I believe my civil rights have been violated while incarcerated in an Indian...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What happens if I believe my civil rights have been... AND PROGRAMS § 10.10 What happens if I believe my civil rights have been violated while incarcerated in an Indian country detention or holding facility? All allegations of civil rights violations...

  1. 25 CFR 10.10 - What happens if I believe my civil rights have been violated while incarcerated in an Indian...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true What happens if I believe my civil rights have been... AND PROGRAMS § 10.10 What happens if I believe my civil rights have been violated while incarcerated in an Indian country detention or holding facility? All allegations of civil rights violations...

  2. 25 CFR 10.10 - What happens if I believe my civil rights have been violated while incarcerated in an Indian...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What happens if I believe my civil rights have been... AND PROGRAMS § 10.10 What happens if I believe my civil rights have been violated while incarcerated in an Indian country detention or holding facility? All allegations of civil rights violations...

  3. 25 CFR 10.10 - What happens if I believe my civil rights have been violated while incarcerated in an Indian...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What happens if I believe my civil rights have been... AND PROGRAMS § 10.10 What happens if I believe my civil rights have been violated while incarcerated in an Indian country detention or holding facility? All allegations of civil rights violations...

  4. 25 CFR 10.10 - What happens if I believe my civil rights have been violated while incarcerated in an Indian...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What happens if I believe my civil rights have been... AND PROGRAMS § 10.10 What happens if I believe my civil rights have been violated while incarcerated in an Indian country detention or holding facility? All allegations of civil rights violations must...

  5. Replacement of olivine by serpentine in the Queen Alexandra Range 93005 carbonaceous chondrite (CM2): Reactant-product compositional relations, and isovolumetric constraints on reaction stoichiometry and elemental mobility during aqueous alteration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velbel, Michael A.; Tonui, Eric K.; Zolensky, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Isovolumetric replacement of euhedral and anhedral olivine by serpentine produced both centripetal and meshwork textures in the CM2 chondrites ALH 81002 and Nogoya. The compositions of these textural varieties of serpentine are uniform within narrow limits within each previously studied meteorite, independent of the composition of olivine being replaced, and different between the two meteorites. In QUE 93005 (CM2), coarse olivines of widely varying compositions (Fo<76-99) are replaced in a texturally similar manner by compositionally uniform serpentine (Mg0.73±0.05Fe0.27±0.05)3Si2O5(OH)4. The narrow compositional range of serpentine replacing coarse olivine indicates that the aqueous solution from which the serpentine formed was compositionally uniform on scales at least as large as the meteorite (∼2.5 cm in longest dimension). Isovolumetric textures and compositional observations constrain elemental redistribution from coarse olivine to serpentine and to surrounding phases during serpentinization. Regardless of olivine's composition, isovolumetric replacement of coarse olivines by serpentine of the observed composition released more Mg and Si from olivine than was required to form the serpentine. Excess Mg and Si released by olivine destruction and not retained in serpentine were exported from the replaced volume. Olivines with different Fa/Fo proportions contributed different amounts of Fe and Mg to the serpentine. Ferroan olivines released more Fe than required to form the serpentines replacing them, so some of the Fe released from ferroan olivine was exported from the replaced volumes. Forsteritic olivines released less Fe than required to form the serpentines replacing them, so some Fe was imported into the replaced volumes augmenting the small amount of Fe released from forsteritic olivine. In QUE 93005 Fo83.8 is the threshold composition between Fe-exporting and Fe-importing behavior in individual olivine-serpentine pairs, which released exactly the

  6. Integrated Assessment of Hadley Centre (HadCM2) Climate Change Projections on Agricultural Productivity and Irrigation Water Supply in the Conterminous United States.I. Climate change scenarios and impacts on irrigation water supply simulated with the HUMUS model.

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, Norman J.; Brown, Robert A.; Izaurralde, R Cesar C.; Thomson, Allison M.

    2003-06-30

    This paper describes methodology and results of a study by researchers at PNNL contributing to the water sector study of the U.S. National Assessment of Climate Change. The vulnerability of water resources in the conterminous U.S. to climate change in 10-y periods centered on 2030 and 2095--as projected by the HadCM2 general circulation model--was modeled with HUMUS (Hydrologic Unit Model of the U.S.). HUMUS consists of a GIS that provides data on soils, land use and climate to drive the hydrology model Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The modeling was done at the scale of the 2101 8-digit USGS hydrologic unit areas (HUA). Results are aggregated to the 4-digit and 2-digit (Major Water Resource Region, MWRR) scales for various purposes. Daily records of temperature and precipitation for 1961-1990 provided the baseline climate. Water yields (WY)--sum of surface and subsurface runoff--increases from the baseline period over most of the U.S. in 2030 and 2095. In 2030, WY increases in the western US and decreases in the central and southeast regions. Notably, WY increases by 139 mm from baseline in the Pacific NW. Decreased WY is projected for the Lower Mississippi and Texas Gulf basins, driven by higher temperatures and reduced precipitation. The HadCM2 2095 scenario projects a climate significantly wetter than baseline, resulting in WY increases of 38%. WY increases are projected throughout the eastern U.S. WY also increases in the western U.S. Climate change also affects the seasonality of the hydrologic cycle. Early snowmelt is induced in western basins, leading to dramatically increased WYs in late winter and early spring. The simulations were run at current (365 ppm) and elevated (560 ppm) atmospheric CO2 concentrations to account for the potential impacts of the CO2-fertilization effect. The effects of climate change scenario were considerably greater than those due to elevated CO2 but the latter, overall, decreased losses and augmented increases in water yield.

  7. 10/20, 10/10, and 10/5 systems revisited: their validity as relative head-surface-based positioning systems.

    PubMed

    Jurcak, Valer; Tsuzuki, Daisuke; Dan, Ippeita

    2007-02-15

    With the advent of multi-channel EEG hardware systems and the concurrent development of topographic and tomographic signal source localization methods, the international 10/20 system, a standard system for electrode positioning with 21 electrodes, was extended to higher density electrode settings such as 10/10 and 10/5 systems, allowing more than 300 electrode positions. However, their effectiveness as relative head-surface-based positioning systems has not been examined. We previously developed a virtual 10/20 measurement algorithm that can analyze any structural MR head and brain image. Extending this method to the virtual 10/10 and 10/5 measurement algorithms, we analyzed the MR images of 17 healthy subjects. The acquired scalp positions of the 10/10 and 10/5 systems were normalized to the Montreal Neurological Institute (MNI) stereotactic coordinates and their spatial variability was assessed. We described and examined the effects of spatial variability due to the selection of positioning systems and landmark placement strategies. As long as a detailed rule for a particular system was provided, it yielded precise landmark positions on the scalp. Moreover, we evaluated the effective spatial resolution of 329 scalp landmark positions of the 10/5 system for multi-subject studies. As long as a detailed rule for landmark setting was provided, 241 scalp positions could be set effectively when there was no overlapping of two neighboring positions. Importantly, 10/10 positions could be well separated on a scalp without overlapping. This study presents a referential framework for establishing the effective spatial resolutions of 10/20, 10/10, and 10/5 systems as relative head-surface-based positioning systems.

  8. Technical tips: verification of accurate placement and labeling of 10-10 scalp electrodes and intracranial grid/strip electrodes using documentation tools.

    PubMed

    Feravich, Susan M; Keller, Crystal M

    2012-06-01

    In some instances, evaluation of seizure activity may require the addition of 10-10 scalp electrodes or the placement of intracranial grids and strips. At any given time, different technologists may be responsible for placement, addition, and the care of electrodes for the same patient. The presence of extra surface electrodes or extensive coverage of brain with intracranial electrodes increases the risk of incorrect placement and labeling which can cause treatment errors based on inaccurate reading of EEG recordings. Procedures should be put into place with documentation tools to correctly place, label, and hook-up extra 10-10 scalp and intracranial electrodes without errors. By using written processes and documentation tools, staff are more capable of acquiring safe and accurate patient data which increase good patient outcomes. The processes for placement and hook up of 10-10 scalp electrodes and intracranial grid and strip electrodes are different and require separate procedures and documentation tools to ensure accuracy. For 10-10 scalp electrode placement, the use of a 10-10 map, labeled tape, and non-duplicating adjacent electrode colors reduces risk of error Documentation of intracranial grid/strip electrodes includes placement map, list of electrode locations in amplifier and a table of cables and corresponding grid/strips with colors. Accurate hook-up is verified by the technologist and the epileptologist and is documented on recording. With the use of documentation tools and verification procedures, the quality of patient outcomes increases while the potential for recording errors is reduced.

  9. [Evaluation of Drug Interaction between S-1 and Warfarin].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kaori; Suzuki, Shinya; Ikegawa, Kiwako; Nomura, Hisanaga; Fuse, Nozomu; Saito, Shinichiro

    2016-01-01

    Prolonged prothrombin time is observed in patients taking warfarin (WF) with a fluoropyrimidine, such as S-1. When WF is combined with S-1, the prothrombin time-international normalized ratio (PT-INR) and dose adjustment of WF should be closely monitored. To date, no clinical data have been reported in terms of the relation between temporal variation of PT-INR and its therapeutic range. In this study, we retrospectively collected patients' clinical data including PT-INR. We identified 21 patients receiving WF therapy before the start of S-1 treatment. Patient characteristics were male/female: 18/3, median age: 69 (range 48-81) years old, cancer of gastric/lung/pancreatic/other: 8/5/4/4, and history of deep vein thrombosis (DVT)/atrial fibrillation (AF)/cerebral infarction (CI)/other: 11/6/2/2. The PT-INR of 16 patients exceeded normal upper limits after taking S-1 with WF. The median time to exceed the PT-INR upper therapeutic range is 25 (range 3-77) days. Patients receiving WF anticoagulant therapy concomitant with S-1 should have their PT-INR closely monitored and WF doses adjusted accordingly.

  10. Test of a 3 m long, 4 × 4 cm 2 time-of-flight (TOF) scintillation counter using 38 × 38 mm 2 fine-mesh photomultipliers in magnetic fields up to 1.5 T

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujita, Y.; Asano, Y.; Hamasaki, H.; Mori, S.; Yusa, K.; Kephart, R.

    1996-02-01

    A prototype time-of-flight counter for the CDF detector was tested in magnetic fields up to 1.5 T using a test beam line of 2 GeV/ c, T-1, at the KEK-PS. The counter of a 3 m long scintillator bar (BC-408) of 4 × 4 cm 2 in cross section is viewed by a newly developed 38 × 38 mm 2 square-shaped fine-mesh photomultiplier tube at each end. In the first test the time resolution for a single photomultiplier after being corrected for the contribution from a reference counter was measured to be about 130 ps in a magnetic field of 1.2 T in the tube axial direction when the beam was perpendicularly incident at the middle of the counter, and it was found to be essentially constant in the magnetic field range below 1.2 T. This result implies that the prototype TOF counter with two fine-mesh photomultipliers can give a time resolution of about 100 ps in this field range. In the second test after the scintillator surface was damaged time resolutions were measured in magnetic fields up to 1.5 T. Data indicate a slight degradation in time resolution with increasing magnetic field above 1 T. The time resolution becomes poorer by about 20% at 1.5 T compared with those below 1 T.

  11. Key comparison BIPM.RI(I)-K6 of the standards for absorbed dose to water at 10 g cm-2 of the NMIJ, Japan and the BIPM in accelerator photon beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picard, S.; Burns, D. T.; Roger, P.; Shimizu, M.; Morishita, Y.; Kato, M.; Tanaka, T.; Kurosawa, T.; Saito, N.

    2016-01-01

    A comparison of the dosimetry for accelerator photon beams was carried out between the National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ) and the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) from 9 to 23 April 2015. The comparison was based on the determination of absorbed dose to water at 10 g cm-2 for three radiation qualities at the NMIJ. The results, reported as ratios of the NMIJ and the BIPM evaluations (and with the combined standard uncertainties given in parentheses), are 0.9966 (47) at 6 MV, 0.9965 (60) at 10 MV and 0.9953 (50) at 15 MV. This result is the eighth in the on-going BIPM.RI(I)-K6 series of comparisons. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  12. Key comparison BIPM.RI(I)-K6 of the standards for absorbed dose to water at 10 g cm-2 of the NPL, United Kingdom and the BIPM in accelerator photon beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picard, S.; Burns, D. T.; Roger, P.; Duane, S.; Bass, G. A.; Manning, J. W.; Shipley, D. R.

    2015-01-01

    A comparison of the dosimetry for accelerator photon beams was carried out between the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) and the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) from 23 September to 7 October 2014. The comparison was based on the determination of absorbed dose to water at 10 g cm-2 for three radiation qualities at the NPL. The results, reported as ratios of the NPL and the BIPM evaluations (and with the combined standard uncertainties given in parentheses), are 1.0000(62) at 6 MV, 0.9999(70) at 10 MV and 0.9993(80) at 25 MV. This result is the seventh in the on-going BIPM.RI(I)-K6 series of comparisons. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  13. Vortex pinning properties in Co-doped BaFe2As2 thin films with a high critical current density over 2 MA cm-2 at 9 T

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Pusheng; Xu, Zhongtang; Wang, Dongliang; Zhang, Ming; Li, Jianqi; Ma, Yanwei

    2017-02-01

    Similar to other high-temperature superconductors, the pinning centers largely determine the critical current density (J c) in Co-doped BaFe2As2 (Ba122:Co). Therefore, understanding the vortex pinning mechanism of high-J c Ba122:Co thin films is important for the applications of Ba122:Co. Herein we report the pinning of the naturally grown defects in Ba122:Co thin films with a high critical current density. The transport J c of thin films is up to 2.6 MA cm-2 in 9 T at 4.2 K, which is the highest value in iron-based superconductors. Microstructure investigations reveal a high density of ab-planar defects (stacking faults) and localized vertical defects present in the sample. The Dew-Hughes mode analyses prove that pinning centers by surface defects and by point defects are responsible for H//ab and H//c, respectively. Therefore, the high J c in strong magnetic field for both H//ab and H//c are related to surface and point defects which act as the pinning centers in Ba122:Co films.

  14. Enhanced therapeutic anti-inflammatory effect of betamethasone upon topical administration with low frequency, low intensity (20 kHz, 100 mW/cm2) ultrasound exposure on carrageenan-induced arthritis in mice model

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Gadi; Natsheh, Hiba; Sunny, Youhan; Bawiec, Christopher R.; Touitou, Elka; Lerman, Melissa A.; Lazarovici, Philip; Lewin, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate whether low frequency, low intensity (LFLI, 20 kHz, <100 mW/cm2, spatial-peak, temporal-peak) ultrasound (US), delivered by a light-weight (<100g), tether-free, fully wearable, battery powered applicator is capable of reducing inflammation in a mouse model of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). The therapeutic, acute, anti-inflammatory effect was estimated by the relative swelling induced in mice hind limb paws. In an independent, indirect approach, the inflammation was bio-imaged by measuring glycolytic activity with near infrared labeled 2-deoxy-glucose (2DG). The outcome of the experiments indicated that the combination of US exposure with topical application of 0.1% w/w betamethasone gel, exhibited statistically significant (p<0.05) enhanced anti-inflammatory properties in comparison with the drug or US treatment alone. The present study underscores the potential benefits of LFLI US assisted drug delivery. However, the proof of concept presented indicates the need for additional experiments to systematically evaluate and optimize the potential of, and the conditions for, safe, LFLI ultrasound promoted non-invasive drug delivery. PMID:26003010

  15. The S=1 Underscreened Anderson Lattice model for Uranium compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, C.; Simões, A. S. R.; Iglesias, J. R.; Lacroix, C.; Perkins, N. B.; Coqblin, B.

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic properties of uranium and neptunium compounds showing coexistence of the Kondo effect and ferromagnetic order are investigated within the degenerate Anderson Lattice Hamiltonian, describing a 5f2 electronic configuration with S = 1 spins. Through the Schrieffer-Wolff transformation, both an exchange Kondo interaction for the S = 1 f-spins and an effective f-band term are obtained, allowing to describe the coexistence of Kondo effect and ferromagnetic ordering and a weak delocalization of the 5f-electrons. We calculate the Kondo and Curie temperatures and we can account for the pressure dependence of the Curie temperature of UTe.

  16. L5 – S1 Segmental Kinematics After Facet Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Voronov, Leonard I.; Havey, Robert M.; Rosler, David M.; Sjovold, Simon G.; Rogers, Susan L.; Carandang, Gerard; Ochoa, Jorge A.; Yuan, Hansen; Webb, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Background Facet arthroplasty is a motion restoring procedure. It is normally suggested as an alternative to rigid fixation after destabilizing decompression procedures in the posterior lumbar spine. While previous studies have reported successful results in reproducing normal spine kinematics after facet replacement at L4-5 and L3-4, there are no data on the viability of facet replacement at the lumbosacral joint. The anatomy of posterior elements and the resulting kinematics at L5-S1 are distinctly different from those at superior levels, making the task of facet replacement at the lumbosacral level challenging. This study evaluated the kinematics of facet replacement at L5-S1. Methods Six human cadaveric lumbar spines (L1-S1, 46.7 ± 13.0 years) were tested in the following sequence: (1) intact (L1-S1), (2) complete laminectomy and bilateral facetectomy at L5-S1, and (3) implantation of TFAS-LS (Lumbosacral Total Facet Arthroplasty System, Archus Orthopedics, Redmond, Washington) at L5-S1 using pedicle screws. Specimens were tested in flexion (8Nm), extension (6Nm), lateral bending (LB, ± 6Nm), and axial rotation (AR, ± 5Nm). The level of significance was α = .017 after Bonferroni correction for three comparisons: (1) intact vs. destabilized, (2) destabilized vs. reconstructed, and (3) intact vs. reconstructed. Results Laminectomy-facetectomy at L5-S1 increased the L5-S1 angular range of motion (ROM) in all directions. Flexion-extension (F-E) ROM increased from 15.3 ± 2.9 to 18.7 ± 3.5 degrees (P < .017), LB from 8.2 ± 1.8 to 9.3 ± 1.6 degrees (P < .017), and AR from 3.7 ± 2.0 to 5.9 ± 1.8 degrees (P < .017). The facet arthroplasty system decreased ROM compared to the laminectomy-facetectomy condition in all tested directions (P < .017). The facet arthroplasty system restored the L5-S1 ROM to its intact levels in LB and AR (P > .017). F-E ROM after the facet arthroplasty system implantation was smaller than the intact value (10.1 ± 2.2 vs. 15.3 ± 2

  17. High-Performance, Air-Stable Field-Effect Transistors Based on Heteroatom-Substituted Naphthalenediimide-Benzothiadiazole Copolymers Exhibiting Ultrahigh Electron Mobility up to 8.5 cm V(-1) s(-1).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhiyuan; Yin, Zhihong; Chen, Huajie; Zheng, Liping; Zhu, Chunguang; Zhang, Long; Tan, Songting; Wang, Hanlin; Guo, Yunlong; Tang, Qingxin; Liu, Yunqi

    2017-01-01

    Rational heteroatom engineering is applied to develop high-performance electron-transporting naphthalenediimide copolymers. Top-gate field-effect transistors fabricated from selenophene-containing polymers achieve an ultrahigh electron mobility of 8.5 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) and excellent air-stability. The results demonstrate that the incorporation of selenophene heterocycles into the polymers can improve the film-forming ability, intermolecular interaction, and carrier transport significantly.

  18. Primary structure of chicken cardiac myosin S-1 heavy chain.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, S; Tanaka, H; Yajima, E; Maita, T

    1994-05-01

    The sequence of the NH2-terminal 830 amino acid residues of chicken cardiac ventricular muscle myosin subfragment-1 (S-1) was determined. S-1 was obtained by limited chymotryptic digestion, and cleaved into three characteristics fragments (23, 41, and 22 kDa fragments) by limited tryptic digestion. These fragments were isolated by gel filtration on a Sephadex G-100 column, followed by cation-exchange chromatography on a CM-52 column and reverse-phase HPLC. The isolated fragments were sequenced completely. Peptides overlapping the 23 and 41 kDa fragments and also overlapping the 41 and 22 kDa fragments were obtained by cleaving S-1 with cyanogen bromide, and sequenced completely. We also obtained a minor fragment, the 20 kDa fragment, in addition to the three characteristic fragments. Amino acid compositions of the cyanogen bromide peptides of the 20 kDa fragment indicated that a portion of S-1 heavy chains had lost their COOH-terminal 21 residues during limited tryptic digestion. Methylated amino acid residues were found at four positions: epsilon-N-monomethyllysine at position 32, epsilon-N-trimethyllysine residues at 127 and 549, and 3-N-methylhistidine at 754.

  19. Excitation of nutation by the global radiational S1 tide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindelegger, M.; Salstein, D. A.; Einspigel, D.; Boehm, J.

    2014-12-01

    Cyclic mass redistributions in the atmosphere and oceans related to the global radiational S1 tide elicit seasonal perturbations of Earth's nutation at a level of 0.1 mas (milliarcseconds). The present study provides an up-to-date assessment of these excitation effects on the basis of 10-year surface and isobaric level data from three, previously unavailable global atmospheric reanalysis systems. We retrieve numerical values of in- and out-of-phase nutation corrections for seasonally modulated S1 variations and indicate how model improvements, specifically in terms of the representation of tidal oscillations, lead to different estimates with respect to earlier reanalyses. Motion term signals in nutation display a close agreement across all probed datasets, whereas larger disparities remain among mass term excitation estimates due to their dependency on small-scale diurnal surface pressure oscillations. A simple time-stepping model for barotropic ocean dynamics, based on the shallow water equations and driven by air pressure tide climatologies, represents an appropriate means to determine global S1 estimates of sea level heights and currents that are consistent with the respective forcing fields from each reanalysis. We address the intricacies of constructing such a model and compare our preliminary oceanic angular momentum solutions to those from more established hydrodynamic forward integrations. The combined influence of the S1 tide on Earth's nutation, associated with both atmosphere and ocean dynamics, is found to yield a rough agreement with observations from geodetic VLBI (Very Long Baseline Interferometry) measurements.

  20. U.S. Regional Agricultural Production in 2030 and 2095: Response to CO2 Fertilization and Hadley Climate Model (HadCM2) Projections of Greenhouse-Forced Climatic Change

    SciTech Connect

    NJ Rosenberg; RC Izaurralde: RA Brown

    1999-11-19

    Research activities underway to evaluate potential consequences of climate change and variability on the agriculture, water resources, and other U.S. sectors were mandated by the Global Change Research Act of 1990. These activities are being carried out in a public-private partnership under the guidance of the U.S. Global Change Research Program. Researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have been using integrated assessment methodologies to appraise the possible impacts of global warming and climatic variability on the behavior of managed and natural systems. This interim PNNL report contributes to the U.S. National Assessment process with an analysis of the modeled impacts of climatic changes projected by the Hadley/UKMO (HadCM2) general circulation model on agricultural productivity and selected environmental variables. The construction of climatic data for the simulation runs followed general guidelines established by the U.S. National Assessment Synthesis Team. The baseline climate data were obtained from national records for the period 1961 - 1990. The scenario runs for two future periods (2025 - 2030 and 2090 - 2099) were extracted from results of a HadCM2 run distributed at a half-degree spatial resolution. The Erosion Productivity Impact Calculator (EPIC) was used to simulate the behavior of 204 "representative farms" (i.e., soil-climate-management combinations) under baseline climate, the two future periods and their combinations with two levels of atmospheric C02 concentrations (365 and 560 ppm). Analysis of simulation results identified areas in Texas, New Mexico, Colorado, Utah, Arizona, and California that would experience large temperature increases by 2030. Slight cooling is expected by 2030 in parts of Alabama, Florida, Maine, Montana, Idaho, and Utah. Larger areas will experience increased warming by 2095. Uniform precipitation increases are expected by 2030 in the north eastern quarter of the country. These uniform precipitation

  1. Hot cracking of welded joints of the 7CrMoVTiB 10-10 (T/P24) steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamiec, J.

    2011-05-01

    Bainitic steel 7CrMoVTiB10-10 is one the newest steels for waterwalls of modern industrial boilers [1]. In Europe, attempts have been made to make butt welded joints of pipes made of this steel of the diameter up to 51 mm and thickness up to 8 mm. Many cracks have been observed in the welded joint, both during welding and transport and storage [2-4]. The reasons of cracking and the prevention methods have not been investigated. No comprehensive research is carried out in Europe in order to automate the welding process of the industrial boiler elements made of modern bainitic steel, such as 7CrMoVTiB10-10. There is no information about its overall, operative and local weldability, influence of heat treatment, as well as about resistance of the joints to cracking during welding and use. The paper presents experience of Energoinstal SA from development of technology and production of waterwalls of boilers made of the 7CrMoVTiB 10-10 steel on a multi-head automatic welder for submerged arc welding.

  2. Low-voltage back-gated atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition based graphene-striped channel transistor with high-κ dielectric showing room-temperature mobility > 11,000 cm(2)/V·s.

    PubMed

    Smith, Casey; Qaisi, Ramy; Liu, Zhihong; Yu, Qingkai; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2013-07-23

    Utilization of graphene may help realize innovative low-power replacements for III-V materials based high electron mobility transistors while extending operational frequencies closer to the THz regime for superior wireless communications, imaging, and other novel applications. Device architectures explored to date suffer a fundamental performance roadblock due to lack of compatible deposition techniques for nanometer-scale dielectrics required to efficiently modulate graphene transconductance (gm) while maintaining low gate capacitance-voltage product (CgsVgs). Here we show integration of a scaled (10 nm) high-κ gate dielectric aluminum oxide (Al2O3) with an atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD)-derived graphene channel composed of multiple 0.25 μm stripes to repeatedly realize room-temperature mobility of 11,000 cm(2)/V·s or higher. This high performance is attributed to the APCVD graphene growth quality, excellent interfacial properties of the gate dielectric, conductivity enhancement in the graphene stripes due to low tox/Wgraphene ratio, and scaled high-κ dielectric gate modulation of carrier density allowing full actuation of the device with only ±1 V applied bias. The superior drive current and conductance at Vdd = 1 V compared to other top-gated devices requiring undesirable seed (such as aluminum and poly vinyl alcohol)-assisted dielectric deposition, bottom gate devices requiring excessive gate voltage for actuation, or monolithic (nonstriped) channels suggest that this facile transistor structure provides critical insight toward future device design and process integration to maximize CVD-based graphene transistor performance.

  3. Fabrication of large flat gallium nitride templates with extremely low dislocation densities in the 106 cm-2 range by novel two-side hydride vapor-phase epitaxial growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujikura, Hajime; Konno, Taichiro

    2017-10-01

    Large GaN templates with high flatness (i.e., negligible wafer bowing and smooth as-grown surfaces) and low threading dislocation densities (TTDs) were fabricated by a novel two-side hydride vapor-phase epitaxial (HVPE) growth, beginning with deposition of polycrystalline GaN on the rear side of the wafer. Appropriate gas-flow management realized by our homemade HVPE system permitted the growth of a GaN layer with a smooth as-grown surface and excellent thickness uniformity on the front surfaces of 4- or 6-inch patterned sapphire substrates (PSSs). However, when the grown thickness exceeded 20 μm, single-side HVPE-growth induced fractures in GaN crystals. The fracture resistance of the GaN increased markedly when it was in a cleavage-resistant polycrystalline form (poly-GaN), permitting its growth to a thickness of 100 μm. In the presence of a back-side poly-GaN layer, extremely thick GaN crystal layers could be grown on the front side without fractures. An 80-μm-thick GaN template fabricated by two-side growth on a 4-inch PSS had a device-quality surface, negligible bowing, and low TDD (7 × 106 cm-2). Issues of high fabrication costs, unavailability of large-size wafers, and large off-angle variations associated with native GaN wafers could be overcome by using our high-quality GaN templates as alternative substrates.

  4. Late-stage optimization of a tercyclic class of S1P3-sparing, S1P1 receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Horan, Joshua C; Kuzmich, Daniel; Liu, Pingrong; DiSalvo, Darren; Lord, John; Mao, Can; Hopkins, Tamara D; Yu, Hui; Harcken, Christian; Betageri, Raj; Hill-Drzewi, Melissa; Patenaude, Lori; Patel, Monica; Fletcher, Kimberly; Terenzzio, Donna; Linehan, Brian; Xia, Heather; Patel, Mita; Studwell, Debbie; Miller, Craig; Hickey, Eugene; Levin, Jeremy I; Smith, Dustin; Kemper, Raymond A; Modis, Louise K; Bannen, Lynne C; Chan, Diva S; Mac, Morrison B; Ng, Stephanie; Wang, Yong; Xu, Wei; Lemieux, René M

    2016-01-15

    Poor solubility and cationic amphiphilic drug-likeness were liabilities identified for a lead series of S1P3-sparing, S1P1 agonists originally developed from a high-throughput screening campaign. This work describes the subsequent optimization of these leads by balancing potency, selectivity, solubility and overall molecular charge. Focused SAR studies revealed favorable structural modifications that, when combined, produced compounds with overall balanced profiles. The low brain exposure observed in rat suggests that these compounds would be best suited for the potential treatment of peripheral autoimmune disorders.

  5. STS-112 S1 Truss Payload arrives at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Inside the Operations and Checkout Building, a strongback is lowered toward the S1 truss below it in order to lift the truss from the Guppy cargo carrier that protected it during flight and transfer. Manufactured by the Boeing Co. in Huntington Beach, Calif., this component of the International Space Station is the first starboard (right-side) truss segment, whose main job is providing structural support for the orbiting research facility's radiator panels that cool the Space Station's complex power system. The S1 truss segment also will house communications systems, external experiment positions and other subsystems. Primarily constructed of aluminum, the truss segment is 45 feet long, 15 feet wide and 6 feet tall. When full y outfitted, it will weigh 31,137 pounds. The truss is slated for flight in 2001

  6. STS-112 S1 Truss Payload arrives at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Inside the Operations and Checkout Building, a strongback lifts the S1 truss from the Guppy cargo carrier that protected it during flight and transfer. Manufactured by the Boeing Co. in Huntington Beach, Calif., this component of the International Space Station is the first starboard (right-side) truss segment, whose main job is providing structural support for the orbiting research facility's radiator panels that cool the Space Station's complex power system. The S1 truss se gment also will house communications systems, external experiment positions and other subsystems. Primarily constructed of aluminum, the truss segment is 45 feet long, 15 feet wide and 6 feet tall. When fully outfitted, it will weigh 31,137 pounds. The tr uss is slated for flight in 2001

  7. STS-112 S1 Truss Payload arrives at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- A KSC transporter moves the Guppy cargo carrier encasing the S1 truss into the Operations and Checkout Building. Manufactured by the Boeing Co. in Huntington Beach, Calif., this component of the International Space Station is the first starboard (right-side) truss segment, whose main job is providing structural support for the orbiting research facility's radiator panels that cool the Space Station's complex power system. The S1 truss segment also will house communications systems, external experiment positions and other subsystems. Primarily constructed of aluminum, the truss segment is 45 feet long, 15 feet wide and 6 feet tall. When fully outfitted, it will weigh 31,137 pounds. The truss is slated for flight in 2001.

  8. STS-112 S1 Truss Payload arrives at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Inside the Operations and Checkout Building, the top of the Guppy cargo carrier is lifted off the S1 truss (background). Manufactured by the Boeing Co. in Huntington Beach, Calif., this component of the International Space Station is the first starboard (right-side) truss segment, whose main job is providing structural support for the orbiting research facility's radiator panels that cool the Space Station's complex power system. The S1 truss segment also will house communica tions systems, external experiment positions and other subsystems. Primarily constructed of aluminum, the truss segment is 45 feet long, 15 feet wide and 6 feet tall. When fully outfitted, it will weigh 31,137 pounds. The truss is slated for flight in 200 1

  9. EVA 1 - MS Wolf and Sellers on S1 truss

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-10-10

    STS112-E-05123 (10 October 2002) --- Astronaut David A. Wolf, STS-112 mission specialist, anchored to the end of the Canadarm2, works on the Starboard One (S1) Truss, newly installed on the International Space Station (ISS). Astronaut Piers J. Sellers (partially obscured), mission specialist, worked in tandem with Wolf during the spacewalk. STS-112’s first session of extravehicular activity (EVA) lasted 7 hours and 1 minute.

  10. EVA 1 - MS Wolf on S1 truss

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-10-10

    STS112-E-05118 (10 October 2002) --- Astronaut David A. Wolf, STS-112 mission specialist, works on the Starboard One (S1) Truss, newly installed on the International Space Station (ISS). Astronaut Piers J. Sellers (out of frame), mission specialist, worked in tandem with Wolf during the spacewalk. STS-112’s first session of extravehicular activity (EVA) lasted 7 hours and 1 minute.

  11. The Global S_1 Tide in Earth's Nutation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindelegger, Michael; Einšpigel, David; Salstein, David; Böhm, Johannes

    2016-05-01

    Diurnal S_1 tidal oscillations in the coupled atmosphere-ocean system induce small perturbations of Earth's prograde annual nutation, but matching geophysical model estimates of this Sun-synchronous rotation signal with the observed effect in geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) data has thus far been elusive. The present study assesses the problem from a geophysical model perspective, using four modern-day atmospheric assimilation systems and a consistently forced barotropic ocean model that dissipates its energy excess in the global abyssal ocean through a parameterized tidal conversion scheme. The use of contemporary meteorological data does, however, not guarantee accurate nutation estimates per se; two of the probed datasets produce atmosphere-ocean-driven S_1 terms that deviate by more than 30 μ as (microarcseconds) from the VLBI-observed harmonic of -16.2+i113.4 μ as. Partial deficiencies of these models in the diurnal band are also borne out by a validation of the air pressure tide against barometric in situ estimates as well as comparisons of simulated sea surface elevations with a global network of S_1 tide gauge determinations. Credence is lent to the global S_1 tide derived from the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) and the operational model of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). When averaged over a temporal range of 2004 to 2013, their nutation contributions are estimated to be -8.0+i106.0 μ as (MERRA) and -9.4+i121.8 μ as (ECMWF operational), thus being virtually equivalent with the VLBI estimate. This remarkably close agreement will likely aid forthcoming nutation theories in their unambiguous a priori account of Earth's prograde annual celestial motion.

  12. Angular momentum budget of the radiational S1 ocean tide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindelegger, Michael; Dobslaw, Henryk; Poropat, Lea; Salstein, David; Böhm, Johannes

    2016-04-01

    The balance of diurnal S1 oceanic angular momentum (OAM) variations through torques at the sea surface and the bottom topography is validated using both a barotropic and a baroclinic numerical tide model. This analysis discloses the extent to which atmosphere-driven S1 forward simulations are reliable for use in studies of high-frequency polar motion and changes in length-of-day. Viscous and dissipative torques associated with wind stress, bottom friction, as well as internal tidal energy conversion are shown to be small, and they are overshadowed by gravitational and pressure-related interaction forces. In particular, the zonal OAM variability of S1 is almost completely balanced by the water pressure torque on the local bathymetry, whereas in the prograde equatorial case also the air pressure torque on the seafloor as well as ellipsoidal contributions from the non-spherical atmosphere and solid Earth must be taken into account. Overall, the OAM budget is well closed in both the axial and the equatorial directions, thus allowing for an identification of the main diurnal angular momentum sinks in the ocean. The physical interaction forces are found to be largest at shelf breaks and continental slopes in low latitudes, with the most dominant contribution coming from the Indonesian archipelago.

  13. Search for ammonia in comet C/2012 S1 (ISON)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faggi, S.; Codella, C.; Tozzi, G. P.; Comoretto, G.; Crovisier, J.; Nesti, R.; Panella, D.; Boissier, J.; Brucato, J. R.; Bolli, P.; Massi, F.; Tofani, G.

    2015-12-01

    Comets are uniquely pristine bodies providing unique insights about the formation of our Solar System. In this work, we focus on a dynamically new comet as it enters the inner Solar System for the first time after residing for billion of years in the Oort Cloud. Such comets are particularly important because they are thought to be not differentiated by solar radiation and they are supposed to have a large quantity of organic matter close to the surface. Here we report the results of a search for NH3(1,1) emission at 23.7 GHz towards comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) using a new dual-feed K band receiver mounted on the Medicina 32-m antenna. We observed the comet close to its perihelion, from 25 to 29 November 2013, when its heliocentric distance changed from 0.25 AU to 0.03 AU. We derive an upper limit of Q(NH3) of about 2.5×1029 mol s-1 on 26 November, that is consistent with the last peak of water production rate of ∼2×1030 mol s-1 within the last few days before the perihelion.

  14. The global S1 tide and Earth's nutation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindelegger, M.; Böhm, J.; Salstein, D. A.

    2015-08-01

    Diurnal S1 tidal atmospheric oscillations induced by the cyclic heating of air masses through solar radiation elicit a small contribution to Earth's prograde annual nutation at a level of 100 μas (microarcseconds). Previously published estimates of this Sun-synchronous perturbation based on angular momentum series from global geophysical fluid models have however diverged, and within the present conventional nutation theory, the effect has been instead accounted for in an empirical manner based on analyzing residual spectra of observed celestial pole offsets. This study constitutes a first, tentative reassessment of the S1 signal in nutation by resorting to modern-day atmospheric reanalyses as well as available hydrodynamic solutions for diurnal oceanic angular momentum changes that are driven by daily air pressure variations at the water surface. We elucidate the global character of the S1 tide with particular regard to Earth rotation variations and investigate to which extent atmospheric and oceanic excitation terms from various sources can be superimposed. The combined influence of the principal diurnal tide on Earth's nutation, associated with both atmosphere and ocean dynamics, is found to yield a sound agreement with its observational evidence from geodetic VLBI (Very Long Baseline Interferometry) measurements.

  15. Osmo-, Thermo- and Ethanol- Tolerances of Saccharomyces cerevisiae S1

    PubMed Central

    Balakumar, Sandrasegarampillai; Arasaratnam, Vasanthy

    2012-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae S1, which is a locally isolated and improved strain showed viability at 40, 45 and 50°C and produced ethanol at 40, 43 and 45°C. When the cells were given heat shock at 45°C for 30min and grown at 40°C, 100% viability was observed for 60h, and addition of 200gL−1 ethanol has led to complete cell death at 30h. Heat shock given at 45°C (for 30min) has improved the tolerance to temperature induced ethanol shock leading to 37% viability at 30h. When the cells were subjected to ethanol (200gL−1 for 30 min) and osmotic shock (sorbitol 300gL−1), trehalose contents in the cells were increased. The heat shocked cells showed better viability in presence of added ethanol. Soy flour supplementation has improved the viability of S. cerevisiae S1 to 80% in presence of 100gL−1 added ethanol and to 60% in presence of 300gL−1sorbitol. In presence of sorbitol (200gL−1) and ethanol (50gL−1) at 40°C, 46% viability was retained by S. cerevisiae S1 at 48h and it was improved to 80% by soy flour supplementation. PMID:24031814

  16. Interaction of integrin β4 with S1P receptors in S1P- and HGF-induced endothelial barrier enhancement.

    PubMed

    Ni, Xiuqin; Epshtein, Yulia; Chen, Weiguo; Zhou, Tingting; Xie, Lishi; Garcia, Joe G N; Jacobson, Jeffrey R

    2014-06-01

    We previously reported sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) augment endothelial cell (EC) barrier function and attenuate murine acute lung inury (ALI). While the mechanisms underlying these effects are not fully understood, S1P and HGF both transactivate the S1P receptor, S1PR1 and integrin β4 (ITGB4) at membrane caveolin-enriched microdomains (CEMs). In the current study, we investigated the roles of S1PR2 and S1PR3 in S1P/HGF-mediated EC signaling and their associations with ITGB4. Our studies confirmed ITGB4 and S1PR2/3 are recruited to CEMs in human lung EC in response to either S1P (1 µM, 5 min) or HGF (25 ng/ml, 5 min). Co-immunoprecipitation experiments identified an S1P/HGF-mediated interaction of ITGB4 with both S1PR2 and S1PR3. We then employed an in situ proximity ligation assay (PLA) to confirm a direct ITGB4-S1PR3 association induced by S1P/HGF although a direct association was not detectable between S1PR2 and ITGB4. S1PR1 knockdown (siRNA), however, abrogated S1P/HGF-induced ITGB4-S1PR2 associations while there was no effect on ITGB4-S1PR3 associations. Moreover, PLA confirmed a direct association between S1PR1 and S1PR2 induced by S1P and HGF. Finally, silencing of S1PR2 significantly attenuated S1P/HGF-induced EC barrier enhancement as measured by transendothelial resistance while silencing of S1PR3 significantly augmented S1P/HGF-induced barrier enhancement. These results confirm an important role for S1PR2 and S1PR3 in S1P/HGF-mediated EC barrier responses that are associated with their complex formation with ITGB4. Our findings elucidate novel mechanisms of EC barrier regulation that may ultimately lead to new therapeutic targets for disorders characterized by increased vascular permeability including ALI.

  17. Lama glama αS1-casein: Identification of new polymorphisms in the CSN1S1 gene.

    PubMed

    Pauciullo, A; Gauly, M; Cosenza, G; Wagner, H; Erhardt, G

    2017-02-01

    South American camelids have been poorly genetically investigated and little information is available in llamas (Lama glama) regarding the diversity of the caseins at the protein and gene level. Exon skipping and duplication events previously reported in the αS1-casein gene (CSN1S1) led us to investigate the genetic variability at this locus. Seventy-two positive clones for the αS1-casein transcripts were analyzed and randomly sequenced. The comparative analysis of the sequences revealed 2 transitions, c.366A>G and c.690T>C, at the 10th nucleotide of exon 12 and 94 bp of exon 19, respectively. These SNP are responsible for 2 amino acid changes, Ile→Val in position 86 and Tyr→His in position 194 of the mature protein. Both polymorphisms clarify the genetic events behind the protein variants A and B. This result was confirmed by isoelectric focusing analysis of llama milk samples. Quick methods based on PCR-RFLP and allele-specific PCR were set up for allelic discrimination in a population of 128 animals. Based on genotyping results, 4 haplotypes were observed and the estimated frequencies indicated B as the most common haplotype (0.629) in the investigated population. These data add knowledge to the genetic variability of a species little investigated, and open opportunity for new investigation in the field of milk protein for South American camelids, including the possibility, in the future, to select alleles with favorable characteristics.

  18. Influence of ABCB1 genetic polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetics of risperidone in healthy subjects with CYP2D6*10/*10

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Hee-Doo; Lee, Sang-No; Kang, Hyun-Ah; Cho, Hea-Young; Lee, Il-Kwon; Lee, Yong-Bok

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The objective of this study was to investigate the combined influence of genetic polymorphisms in ABCB1 and CYP2D6 genes on risperidone pharmacokinetics. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Seventy-two healthy Korean volunteers receiving a single oral dose of 2 mg risperidone were included in this study. KEY RESULTS Significant differences were observed between the ABCB1 3435C>T genotypes for the pharmacokinetic parameters (peak serum concentration) of risperidone and the active moiety (risperidone and its main metabolite, 9-hydroxyrisperidone). There were no significant differences in the area under the serum concentration-time curves of risperidone and the active moiety among the ABCB1 2677G>T/A and 3435C>T genotypes. However, the peak serum concentration and area under the serum concentration-time curves were significantly different among the ABCB1 3435C>T genotypes in CYP2D6*10/*10. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS These findings indicate that polymorphisms of ABCB1 3435C>T in individuals with CYP2D6*10/*10, which has low metabolic activity, could play an important role in the potential adverse effects or toxicity of risperidone. PMID:21449914

  19. Is there any impact of HLA-DPB1 disparity in 10/10 HLA-matched unrelated hematopoietic SCT? Results of a French multicentric retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Gagne, K; Loiseau, P; Dubois, V; Dufossé, F; Perrier, P; Dormoy, A; Jollet, I; Renac, V; Masson, D; Picard, C; Lafarge, X; Hanau, D; Quainon, F; Delbos, F; Coeffic, B; Absi, Léna; Eliaou, J-F; Moalic, V; Fort, M; de Matteis, M; Theodorou, I; Hau, F; Batho, A; Pedron, B; Caillat-Zucman, S; Marry, E; Raus, N; Yakoub-Agha, I; Cesbron, A

    2015-02-01

    We retrospectively analyzed the impact of HLA-DPB1 mismatches in a large cohort of 1342 French patients who underwent 10/10 HLA-matched unrelated HSCT. A significant impact of HLA-DPB1 allelic mismatches (2 vs 0) was observed in severe acute GVHD (aGVHDIII-IV) (risk ratio (RR)=1.73, confidence interval (CI) 95% 1.09-2.73, P=0.019) without impact on OS, TRM, relapse and chronic GVHD (cGVHD). According to the T-cell epitope 3 (TCE3)/TCE4 HLA-DPB1 disparity algorithm, 37.6% and 58.4% pairs had nonpermissive HLA-DPB1, respectively. TCE3 and TCE4 disparities had no statistical impact on OS, TRM, relapse, aGVHD and cGVHD. When TCE3/TCE4 disparities were analyzed in the graft-vs-host or host-vs-graft (HVG) direction, only a significant impact of TCE4 nonpermissive disparities in the HVG direction was observed on relapse (RR=1.34, CI 95% 1.00-1.80, P=0.048). In conclusion, this French retrospective study shows an adverse prognosis of HLA-DPB1 mismatches (2 vs 0) on severe aGVHD and of nonpermissive TCE4 HVG disparities on relapse after HLA-matched 10/10 unrelated HSCT.

  20. Structure of the toxaphene compound 2,5-endo,6-exo,8,9,9,10,10-octachlorobornene-2: a temperature-dependent formation of two rotamers.

    PubMed

    Parlar, Harun; Burhenne, Jürgen; Coelhan, Mehmet; Vetter, Walter

    2005-03-15

    The irradiation of 2,2,3-exo,5-endo,6-exo,8,9,9,10,10-decachlorobornane in n-hexane at 254 nm leads to a spontaneous Cl2 elimination as the major reaction pathway. This results finally in the main product 2,5-endo,6-exo,8,9,9,10,10-octachlorobornene-2, of which the structure could be elucidated with the help of X-ray, 1H and 13C NMR, IR, and MS. Temperature-dependent 1H NMR spectroscopic investigations have shown that the -CHCl2 groups located at C1 and C7 are able to rotate slowly under normal circumstances. If such measurements, however, are exerted at low temperatures (-10 to -60 degrees C), so can be seen that two rotamers are formed due to the hindrance of the free rotation about the bonds C1-C10, C7-C8, and C7-C9, which for the first time could be revealed for a toxaphene compound. Furthermore, as all 1H NMR chlorobornane spectra known so far show only sharp and clear signals, it can be assumed that chlorobornane compounds as main toxaphene components have fixed bonds, which requires to indicate chlorine atoms within the tentacles such as "a", "b", and "c" for characterizing the correct position. Those fixed tentacles are probably the reason that many toxaphene congeners remain very stable in environmental compartments, and particularly the biotic and abiotic transformation may strongly be hindered by the inflexibility of the tentacles.

  1. Attaining Doppler Precision of 3 M s-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, R. P.; Marcy, G. W.; Williams, E.; McCarthy, C.; Dosanjh, P.; Vogt, S. S.

    1996-06-01

    Current spectroscopic techniques yield Doppler-shift errors of 10 to 50 m s^-1, barely adequate to detect reflex velocities caused by Jupiter-like and lower-mass planets. We describe a technique which yields relative radial velocity errors of 3 m s^-1. This technique makes use of a fast echelle spectrograph at resolution of R=62,000 and a large format CCD which acquires the entire visible and near IR spectrum in each exposure. Starlight is sent through an iodine absorption cell placed at the spectrometer entrance slit. The resulting superimposed iodine lines provide a fiducial wavelength scale against which to measure radial velocity shifts. The shapes of iodine lines convey the PSF of the spectrometer to account for changes in spectrometer optics and illumination on all times scales. We construct a model of each observed spectrum by multiplying a stellar spectrum with an iodine spectrum and convolving the result with the spectrometer PSF. The free parameters of the model include the wavelength scale, spectrometer PSF, and stellar Doppler shift. All model parameters are derived anew for each exposure and the synthesis is done on a grid of CCD sub-pixels, using spline functions as interpolation predictors. We present Doppler tests of the Sun, Tau Ceti, and 107 Psc, observed with the Lick and Keck echelles. All exhibit apparent errors of about 3 m s^-1, maintained on time scales of minutes to a year. This precision agrees with the theoretically predicted errors that stem primarily from photon statistics. (SECTION: Astronomical Instrumentation)

  2. Highly selective and potent agonists of sphingosine-1-phosphate 1 (S1P1) receptor.

    PubMed

    Vachal, Petr; Toth, Leslie M; Hale, Jeffrey J; Yan, Lin; Mills, Sander G; Chrebet, Gary L; Koehane, Carol A; Hajdu, Richard; Milligan, James A; Rosenbach, Mark J; Mandala, Suzanne

    2006-07-15

    Novel series of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor agonists were developed through a systematic SAR aimed to achieve high selectivity for a single member of the S1P family of receptors, S1P1. The optimized structure represents a highly S1P1-selective and efficacious agonist: S1P1/S1P2, S1P1/S1P3, S1P1/S1P4>10,000-fold, S1P1/S1P5>600-fold, while EC50 (S1P1) <0.2 nM. In vivo experiments are consistent with S1P1 receptor agonism alone being sufficient for achieving desired lymphocyte-lowering effect.

  3. Spangolite: an s = 1/2 maple leaf lattice antiferromagnet?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fennell, T.; Piatek, J. O.; Stephenson, R. A.; Nilsen, G. J.; Rønnow, H. M.

    2011-04-01

    Spangolite, Cu6Al(SO4)(OH)12Cl·3H2O, is a hydrated layered copper sulfate mineral. The Cu2 + ions of each layer form a systematically depleted triangular lattice which approximates a maple leaf lattice. We present details of the crystal structure, which suggest that in spangolite this lattice actually comprises two species of edge linked trimers with different exchange parameters. However, magnetic susceptibility measurements show that despite the structural trimers, the magnetic properties are dominated by dimerization. The high temperature magnetic moment is strongly reduced below that expected for the six s = 1/2 in the unit cell.

  4. Complete genome sequence of Rhodospirillum rubrum type strain (S1).

    PubMed

    Munk, A Christine; Copeland, Alex; Lucas, Susan; Lapidus, Alla; Del Rio, Tijana Glavina; Barry, Kerrie; Detter, John C; Hammon, Nancy; Israni, Sanjay; Pitluck, Sam; Brettin, Thomas; Bruce, David; Han, Cliff; Tapia, Roxanne; Gilna, Paul; Schmutz, Jeremy; Larimer, Frank; Land, Miriam; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Richardson, Paul; Rohde, Manfred; Göker, Markus; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Zhang, Yaoping; Roberts, Gary P; Reslewic, Susan; Schwartz, David C

    2011-07-01

    Rhodospirillum rubrum (Esmarch 1887) Molisch 1907 is the type species of the genus Rhodospirillum, which is the type genus of the family Rhodospirillaceae in the class Alphaproteobacteria. The species is of special interest because it is an anoxygenic phototroph that produces extracellular elemental sulfur (instead of oxygen) while harvesting light. It contains one of the most simple photosynthetic systems currently known, lacking light harvesting complex 2. Strain S1(T) can grow on carbon monoxide as sole energy source. With currently over 1,750 PubMed entries, R. rubrum is one of the most intensively studied microbial species, in particular for physiological and genetic studies. Next to R. centenum strain SW, the genome sequence of strain S1(T) is only the second genome of a member of the genus Rhodospirillum to be published, but the first type strain genome from the genus. The 4,352,825 bp long chromosome and 53,732 bp plasmid with a total of 3,850 protein-coding and 83 RNA genes were sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute Program DOEM 2002.

  5. STS-112 S1 Truss Payload arrives at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- NASA's Super Guppy airplane, with the International Space Station's (ISS) S1 truss aboard, arrives at KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility from Marshall Space Flight Center. Manufactured by the Boeing Co. in Huntington Beach, Calif ., this component of the ISS is the first starboard (right-side) truss segment, whose main job is providing structural support for the orbiting research facility's radiator panels that cool the Space Station's complex power system. The S1 truss segment al so will house communications systems, external experiment positions and other subsystems. Primarily constructed of aluminum, the truss segment is 45 feet long, 15 feet wide and 6 feet tall. When fully outfitted, it will weigh 31,137 pounds. The truss is s lated for flight in 2001. The Super Guppy, with its 25-foot diameter fuselage designed to handle oversized loads, is well prepared to transport the truss and other ISS segments. Loading the Guppy is easy because of the unique 'fold-away' nose of the aircr aft that opens 110 degrees for cargo loading. A system of rails in the cargo compartment, used with either Guppy pallets or fixtures designed for specific cargo, makes cargo loading simple and efficient. Rollers mounted in the rails allow pallets or fixtu res to be moved by an electric winch mounted beneath the cargo floor. Automatic hydraulic lock pins in each rail secure the pallet for flight. The truss is to be moved to the Operations and Checkout Building

  6. STS-112 S1 Truss Payload arrives at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- At the Shuttle Landing Facility, the S1 truss, a segment of the International Space Station, is moved away from the Super Guppy that brought it to KSC from Marshall Space Flight Center. Manufactured by the Boeing Co. in Hunti ngton Beach, Calif., this component of the ISS is the first starboard (right-side) truss segment, whose main job is providing structural support for the orbiting research facility's radiator panels that cool the Space Station's complex power system. The S 1 truss segment also will house communications systems, external experiment positions and other subsystems. Primarily constructed of aluminum, the truss segment is 45 feet long, 15 feet wide and 6 feet tall. When fully outfitted, it will weigh 31,137 poun ds. The truss is slated for flight in 2001. The Super Guppy, with its 25-foot diameter fuselage designed to handle oversized loads, is well prepared to transport the truss and other ISS segments. Loading the Guppy is easy because of the unique 'fold-away' nose of the aircraft that opens 110 degrees for cargo loading. A system of rails in the cargo compartment, used with either Guppy pallets or fixtures designed for specific cargo, makes cargo loading simple and efficient. Rollers mounted in the rails allow pallets or fixtures to be moved by an electric winch mounted beneath the cargo floor. Automatic hydraulic lock pins in each rail secure the pallet for flight. The truss is being transferred to the Operations and Checkout Building.

  7. STS-112 S1 Truss Payload arrives at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Escort vehicles prepare to leave the Shuttle Landing Facility with the S1 truss (at right) on its trek to the Operations and Checkout Building. Manufactured by the Boeing Co. in Huntington Beach, Calif., this component of the ISS is the first starboard (right-side) truss segment, whose main job is providing structural support for the orbiting research facility's radiator panels that cool the Space Station's complex power system. The S1 truss segment also will house communications systems, external experiment positions and other subsystems. Primarily constructed of aluminum, the truss segment is 45 feet long, 15 feet wide and 6 feet tall. When fully outfitted, it will weigh 31,137 pounds. The truss is slated for flight in 2001. The truss arrived at KSC aboard NASA's Super Guppy, seen in the background. The aircraft is uniquely built with a 25-foot diameter fuselage designed to handle oversized loads and a 'fold-away' nose that opens 110 degrees for cargo loading. A system of rails in the cargo compartment, used with either Guppy pallets or fixtures designed for specific cargo, makes cargo loading simple and efficient. Rollers mounted in the rails allow pallets or fixtures to be moved by an electric winch mounted beneath the cargo floor. Automatic hydraulic lock pins in each rail secure the pallet for flight

  8. STS-112 S1 Truss Payload arrives at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- At KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility, NASA's Super Guppy opens to reveal its cargo, the International Space Station's (ISS) S1 truss. Manufactured by the Boeing Co. in Huntington Beach, Calif., this component of the ISS is the f irst starboard (right-side) truss segment, whose main job is providing structural support for the orbiting research facility's radiator panels that cool the Space Station's complex power system. The S1 truss segment also will house communications systems, external experiment positions and other subsystems. Primarily constructed of aluminum, the truss segment is 45 feet long, 15 feet wide and 6 feet tall. When fully outfitted, it will weigh 31,137 pounds. The truss is slated for flight in 2001. The Super G uppy, with its 25-foot diameter fuselage designed to handle oversized loads, is well prepared to transport the truss and other ISS segments. Loading the Guppy is easy because of the unique 'fold-away' nose of the aircraft that opens 110 degrees for cargo loading. A system of rails in the cargo compartment, used with either Guppy pallets or fixtures designed for specific cargo, makes cargo loading simple and efficient. Rollers mounted in the rails allow pallets or fixtures to be moved by an electric winch mounted beneath the cargo floor. Automatic hydraulic lock pins in each rail secure the pallet for flight. The truss is to be transferred to the Operations and Checkout Building

  9. STS-112 S1 Truss Payload arrives at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- NASA's Super Guppy airplane, with the International Space Station's (ISS) S1 truss aboard, rolls to a stop at KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility. Manufactured by the Boeing Co. in Huntington Beach, Calif., this component of the I SS is the first starboard (right-side) truss segment, whose main job is providing structural support for the orbiting research facility's radiator panels that cool the Space Station's complex power system. The S1 truss segment also will house communicatio ns systems, external experiment positions and other subsystems. Primarily constructed of aluminum, the truss segment is 45 feet long, 15 feet wide and 6 feet tall. When fully outfitted, it will weigh 31,137 pounds. The truss is slated for flight in 2001. The Super Guppy, with its 25-foot diameter fuselage designed to handle oversized loads, is well prepared to transport the truss and other ISS segments. Loading the Guppy is easy because of the unique 'fold-away' nose of the aircraft that opens 110 degrees for cargo loading. A system of rails in the cargo compartment, used with either Guppy pallets or fixtures designed for specific cargo, makes cargo loading simple and efficient. Rollers mounted in the rails allow pallets or fixtures to be moved by an elec tric winch mounted beneath the cargo floor. Automatic hydraulic lock pins in each rail secure the pallet for flight. The truss is to be transferred to the Operations and Checkout Building

  10. STS-112 S1 Truss Payload arrives at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- At the Shuttle Landing Facility, the newly arrived S1 truss, a segment of the International Space Station (ISS), is offloaded from NASA's Super Guppy aircraft. Manufactured by the Boeing Co. in Huntington Beach, Calif., this component of the ISS is the first starboard (right-side) truss segment, whose main job is providing structural support for the orbiting research facility's radiator panels that cool the Space Station's complex power system. The S1 truss segment also will house communications systems, external experiment positions and other subsystems. Primarily constructed of aluminum, the truss segment is 45 feet long, 15 feet wide and 6 feet tall. When fully outfitted, it will weigh 31,137 pounds. The truss is slated fo r flight in 2001. The Super Guppy, with its 25-foot diameter fuselage designed to handle oversized loads, is well prepared to transport the truss and other ISS segments. Loading the Guppy is easy because of the unique 'fold-away' nose of the aircraft that opens 110 degrees for cargo loading. A system of rails in the cargo compartment, used with either Guppy pallets or fixtures designed for specific cargo, makes cargo loading simple and efficient. Rollers mounted in the rails allow pallets or fixtures to b e moved by an electric winch mounted beneath the cargo floor. Automatic hydraulic lock pins in each rail secure the pallet for flight. The truss is being transferred to the Operations and Checkout Building.

  11. STS-112 S1 Truss Payload arrives at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- At the Shuttle Landing Facility, workers attach cranes to the S1 truss, a segment of the International Space Station, to lift the truss to a payload transporter for its transfer to the Operations and Checkout Building. Manufa ctured by the Boeing Co. in Huntington Beach, Calif., this component of the ISS is the first starboard (right-side) truss segment, whose main job is providing structural support for the orbiting research facility's radiator panels that cool the Space Station's complex power system. The S1 truss segment also will house communications systems, external experiment positions and other subsystems. Primarily constructed of aluminum, the truss segment is 45 feet long, 15 feet wide and 6 feet tall. When fully out fitted, it will weigh 31,137 pounds. The truss is slated for flight in 2001. The truss arrived at KSC aboard NASA's Super Guppy, with a 25-foot diameter fuselage designed to handle oversized loads. Loading the Guppy is easy because of the unique 'fold-away' nose of the aircraft that opens 110 degrees for cargo loading. A system of rails in the cargo compartment, used with either Guppy pallets or fixtures designed for specific cargo, makes cargo loading simple and efficient. Rollers mounted in the rails al low pallets or fixtures to be moved by an electric winch mounted beneath the cargo floor. Automatic hydraulic lock pins in each rail secure the pallet for flight

  12. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P)/S1P receptor 1 signaling regulates receptor activator of NF-{kappa}B ligand (RANKL) expression in rheumatoid arthritis

    SciTech Connect

    Takeshita, Harunori; Kitano, Masayasu; Iwasaki, Tsuyoshi; Kitano, Sachie; Tsunemi, Sachi; Sato, Chieri; Sekiguchi, Masahiro; Azuma, Naoto; Miyazawa, Keiji; Hla, Timothy; Sano, Hajime

    2012-03-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MH7A cells and CD4{sup +} T cells expressed S1P1 and RANKL. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer S1P increased RANKL expression in MH7A cells and CD4{sup +} T cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of S1P in MH7A cells was inhibited by specific Gi/Go inhibitors. -- Abstract: Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P)/S1P receptor 1 (S1P1) signaling plays an important role in synovial cell proliferation and inflammatory gene expression by rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synoviocytes. The purpose of this study is to clarify the role of S1P/S1P1 signaling in the expression of receptor activator of NF-{kappa}B ligand (RANKL) in RA synoviocytes and CD4{sup +} T cells. We demonstrated MH7A cells, a human RA synovial cell line, and CD4{sup +} T cells expressed S1P1 and RANKL. Surprisingly, S1P increased RANKL expression in MH7A cells and CD4{sup +} T cells in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, S1P enhanced RANKL expression induced by stimulation with TNF-{alpha} in MH7A cells and CD4{sup +} T cells. These effects of S1P in MH7A cells were inhibited by pretreatment with PTX, a specific Gi/Go inhibitor. These findings suggest that S1P/S1P1 signaling may play an important role in RANKL expression by MH7A cells and CD4{sup +} T cells. S1P/S1P1 signaling of RA synoviocytes is closely connected with synovial hyperplasia, inflammation, and RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in RA. Thus, regulation of S1P/S1P1 signaling may become a novel therapeutic target for RA.

  13. Platelet and Erythrocyte Sources of S1P Are Redundant for Vascular Development and Homeostasis, but Both Rendered Essential After Plasma S1P Depletion in Anaphylactic Shock.

    PubMed

    Gazit, Salomé L; Mariko, Boubacar; Thérond, Patrice; Decouture, Benoit; Xiong, Yuquan; Couty, Ludovic; Bonnin, Philippe; Baudrie, Véronique; Le Gall, Sylvain M; Dizier, Blandine; Zoghdani, Nesrine; Ransinan, Jessica; Hamilton, Justin R; Gaussem, Pascale; Tharaux, Pierre-Louis; Chun, Jerold; Coughlin, Shaun R; Bachelot-Loza, Christilla; Hla, Timothy; Ho-Tin-Noé, Benoit; Camerer, Eric

    2016-09-30

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) signaling is essential for vascular development and postnatal vascular homeostasis. The relative importance of S1P sources sustaining these processes remains unclear. To address the level of redundancy in bioactive S1P provision to the developing and mature vasculature. S1P production was selectively impaired in mouse platelets, erythrocytes, endothelium, or smooth muscle cells by targeted deletion of genes encoding sphingosine kinases -1 and -2. S1P deficiency impaired aggregation and spreading of washed platelets and profoundly reduced their capacity to promote endothelial barrier function ex vivo. However, and in contrast to recent reports, neither platelets nor any other source of S1P was essential for vascular development, vascular integrity, or hemostasis/thrombosis. Yet rapid and profound depletion of plasma S1P during systemic anaphylaxis rendered both platelet- and erythrocyte-derived S1P essential for survival, with a contribution from blood endothelium observed only in the absence of circulating sources. Recovery was sensitive to aspirin in mice with but not without platelet S1P, suggesting that platelet activation and stimulus-response coupling is needed. S1P deficiency aggravated vasoplegia in this model, arguing a vital role for S1P in maintaining vascular resistance during recovery from circulatory shock. Accordingly, the S1P2 receptor mediated most of the survival benefit of S1P, whereas the endothelial S1P1 receptor was dispensable for survival despite its importance for maintaining vascular integrity. Although source redundancy normally secures essential S1P signaling in developing and mature blood vessels, profound depletion of plasma S1P renders both erythrocyte and platelet S1P pools necessary for recovery and high basal plasma S1P levels protective during anaphylactic shock. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. A Preliminary Report on X-Ray Photoabsorption Coefficients andAtomic Scattering Factors for 92 Elements in the 10-10,000 eVRegion

    SciTech Connect

    Henke, B.L.; Davis, J.C.; Gullikson, E.M.; Perera, R.C.C.

    1988-11-01

    Based on currently available photoabsorption measurements and recent theoretical calculations by Doolen and Liberman (Physica Scripta 36, 77 (1987)), a revised (from ADNDT 27, 1 (1982)) best-fit determination of the photoabsorption cross sections is presented here for the elements Z=1 to Z=92 in the 10-10,000 eV range. The photoabsorption data used include those described in the Lockheed and DOE listings of research abstracts for the past ten years and those which have been recently added to the comprehensive NBS Measured Data Base (NBSIR 86-3461, Hubbell et al.). The best-fit curves are compared with both the compilation of measurements and the calculations by Doolen and Liberman. Using the photoabsorption curves, the atomic scattering factors have been calculated for the energy range 50-10,000 eV and are also presented in this report.

  15. Magnetoelectric Behavior from S =1 /2 Asymmetric Square Cupolas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Yasuyuki; Kimura, Kenta; Miyake, Atsushi; Tokunaga, Masashi; Matsuo, Akira; Kindo, Koichi; Akaki, Mitsuru; Hagiwara, Masayuki; Sera, Masakazu; Kimura, Tsuyoshi; Motome, Yukitoshi

    2017-03-01

    Magnetoelectric properties are studied by a combined experimental and theoretical study of a quasi-two-dimensional material composed of square cupolas, Ba(TiO )Cu4(PO4 ) 4 . The magnetization is measured up to the field above the saturation, and several anomalies are observed depending on the field directions. We propose a S =1 /2 spin model with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions, which reproduces the full magnetization curves well. Elaborating the phase diagram of the model, we show that the anomalies are explained by magnetoelectric phase transitions. Our theory also accounts for the scaling of the dielectric anomaly observed in the experiments. The results elucidate the crucial role of the in-plane component of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions, which is induced by the noncoplanar buckling of a square cupola. We also predict a "hidden" phase and another magnetoelectric response, both of which appear in a nonzero magnetic field.

  16. Comparisons of absolute gravimeters (COOMET.M.G-S1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinnichenko, Mr Alexander; Germak, Alessandro, Dr

    2017-01-01

    This report describes the results of the RMO supplementary comparison COOMET.M.G-S1 (also known as bilateral comparison COOMET 634/UA/14). The comparison measurements between the two participants NSC 'IM' (pilot laboratory) and INRIM were started in December 2015 and finished in January 2016. Participants of comparisons were conducted at their national standards the measurements of the free fall acceleration in gravimetric point laboratory of absolute gravimetry of INRIM named INRiM.2. Absolute measurements of gravimetric acceleration were conducted by ballistic gravimeters. The agreement between the two participants is good. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  17. Effect of anisotropy in the S=1 underscreened Kondo lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Christopher; da Rosa Simões, Acirete S.; Lacroix, Claudine; Iglesias, José Roberto; Coqblin, Bernard

    2014-12-01

    We study the effect of crystal field anisotropy in the underscreened S=1 Kondo lattice model. Starting from the two orbital Anderson lattice model and including a local anisotropy term, we show, through Schrieffer-Wolff transformation, that local anisotropy is equivalent to an anisotropic Kondo interaction (J∥≠J⊥). The competition and coexistence between ferromagnetism and Kondo effect in this effective model is studied within a generalized mean-field approximation. Several regimes are obtained, depending on the parameters, exhibiting or not coexistence of magnetic order and Kondo effect. Particularly, we show that a re-entrant Kondo phase at low temperature can be obtained. We are also able to describe phases where the Kondo temperature is smaller than the Curie temperature (TK

  18. Confinement and power balance in the S-1 spheromak

    SciTech Connect

    Levinton, F.M.; Meyerhofer, D.D.; Mayo, R.M.; Janos, A.C.; Ono, Y.; Ueda, Y.; Yamada, M.

    1989-07-01

    The confinement and scaling features of the S-1 spheromak have been investigated using magnetic, spectroscopic, and Thomson scattering data in conjunction with numerical modeling. Results from the multipoint Thomson scattering diagnostic shows that the central beta remains constant (/beta//sub to/ /approximately/ 5%) as the plasma current density increases from 0.68--2.1 MA/m/sup 2/. The density is observed to increase slowly over this range, while the central electron temperature increases much more rapidly. Analysis of the global plasma parameters shows a decrease in the volume average beta and energy confinement as the total current is increased. The power balance has been modeled numerically with a 0-D non-equilibrium time-dependent coronal model and is consistent with the experimental observations. 20 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Transitive Lie groups on S^1\\times S^{2m}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbatsevich, Vladimir V.

    2007-10-01

    The structure of Lie groups acting transitively on the direct product of a circle and an even-dimensional sphere is described. For products of two spheres of dimension >1 a similar problem has already been solved by other authors. The minimal transitive Lie groups on S^1 and S^{2m} are also indicated. As an application of these results, the structure of the automorphism group of one class of geometric structures, generalized quadrangles (a special case of Tits buildings) is considered. A conjecture put forward by Kramer is proved: the automorphism group of a connected generalized quadrangle of type (1,2m) always contains a transitive subgroup that is the direct product of a compact simple Lie group and a one-dimensional Lie group. Bibliography: 16 titles.

  20. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) induces COX-2 expression and PGE2 formation via S1P receptor 2 in renal mesangial cells.

    PubMed

    Völzke, Anja; Koch, Alexander; Meyer Zu Heringdorf, Dagmar; Huwiler, Andrea; Pfeilschifter, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P)-induced cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) formation in renal mesangial cells may provide potential therapeutic targets to treat inflammatory glomerular diseases. Thus, we evaluated the S1P-dependent signaling mechanisms which are responsible for enhanced COX-2 expression and PGE2 formation in rat mesangial cells under basal conditions. Furthermore, we investigated whether these mechanisms are operative in the presence of angiotensin II (Ang II) and of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Treatment of rat and human mesangial cells with S1P led to concentration-dependent enhanced expression of COX-2. Pharmacological and molecular biology approaches revealed that the S1P-dependent increase of COX-2 mRNA and protein expression was mediated via activation of S1P receptor 2 (S1P2). Further, inhibition of Gi and p42/p44 MAPK signaling, both downstream of S1P2, abolished the S1P-induced COX-2 expression. In addition, S1P/S1P2-dependent upregulation of COX-2 led to significantly elevated PGE2 levels, which were further potentiated in the presence of Ang II and IL-1β. A functional consequence downstream of S1P/S1P2 signaling is mesangial cell migration that is stimulated by S1P. Interestingly, inhibition of COX-2 by celecoxib and SC-236 completely abolished the migratory response. Overall, our results demonstrate that extracellular S1P induces COX-2 expression via activation of S1P2 and subsequent Gi and p42/p44 MAPK-dependent signaling in renal mesangial cells leading to enhanced PGE2 formation and cell migration that essentially requires COX-2. Thus, targeting S1P/S1P2 signaling pathways might be a novel strategy to treat renal inflammatory diseases.

  1. Selective coupling of the S1P3 receptor subtype to S1P-mediated RhoA activation and cardioprotection.

    PubMed

    Yung, Bryan S; Brand, Cameron S; Xiang, Sunny Y; Gray, Charles B B; Means, Christopher K; Rosen, Hugh; Chun, Jerold; Purcell, Nicole H; Brown, Joan Heller; Miyamoto, Shigeki

    2017-02-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), a bioactive lysophospholipid, is generated and released at sites of tissue injury in the heart and can act on S1P1, S1P2, and S1P3 receptor subtypes to affect cardiovascular responses. We established that S1P causes little phosphoinositide hydrolysis and does not induce hypertrophy indicating that it does not cause receptor coupling to Gq. We previously demonstrated that S1P confers cardioprotection against ischemia/reperfusion by activating RhoA and its downstream effector PKD. The S1P receptor subtypes and G proteins that regulate RhoA activation and downstream responses in the heart have not been determined. Using siRNA or pertussis toxin to inhibit different G proteins in NRVMs we established that S1P regulates RhoA activation through Gα13 but not Gα12, Gαq, or Gαi. Knockdown of the three major S1P receptors using siRNA demonstrated a requirement for S1P3 in RhoA activation and subsequent phosphorylation of PKD, and this was confirmed in studies using isolated hearts from S1P3 knockout (KO) mice. S1P treatment reduced infarct size induced by ischemia/reperfusion in Langendorff perfused wild-type (WT) hearts and this protection was abolished in the S1P3 KO mouse heart. CYM-51736, an S1P3-specific agonist, also decreased infarct size after ischemia/reperfusion to a degree similar to that achieved by S1P. The finding that S1P3 receptor- and Gα13-mediated RhoA activation is responsible for protection against ischemia/reperfusion suggests that selective targeting of S1P3 receptors could provide therapeutic benefits in ischemic heart disease.

  2. Regulation of human cerebro-microvascular endothelial baso-lateral adhesion and barrier function by S1P through dual involvement of S1P1 and S1P2 receptors.

    PubMed

    Wiltshire, Rachael; Nelson, Vicky; Kho, Dan Ting; Angel, Catherine E; O'Carroll, Simon J; Graham, E Scott

    2016-01-27

    Herein we show that S1P rapidly and acutely reduces the focal adhesion strength and barrier tightness of brain endothelial cells. xCELLigence biosensor technology was used to measure focal adhesion, which was reduced by S1P acutely and this response was mediated through both S1P1 and S1P2 receptors. S1P increased secretion of several pro-inflammatory mediators from brain endothelial cells. However, the magnitude of this response was small in comparison to that mediated by TNFα or IL-1β. Furthermore, S1P did not significantly increase cell-surface expression of any key cell adhesion molecules involved in leukocyte recruitment, included ICAM-1 and VCAM-1. Finally, we reveal that S1P acutely and dynamically regulates microvascular endothelial barrier tightness in a manner consistent with regulated rapid opening followed by closing and strengthening of the barrier. We hypothesise that the role of the S1P receptors in this process is not to cause barrier dysfunction, but is related to controlled opening of the endothelial junctions. This was revealed using real-time measurement of barrier integrity using ECIS ZΘ TEER technology and endothelial viability using xCELLigence technology. Finally, we show that these responses do not occur simply though the pharmacology of a single S1P receptor but involves coordinated action of S1P1 and S1P2 receptors.

  3. Regulation of human cerebro-microvascular endothelial baso-lateral adhesion and barrier function by S1P through dual involvement of S1P1 and S1P2 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Wiltshire, Rachael; Nelson, Vicky; Kho, Dan Ting; Angel, Catherine E.; O’Carroll, Simon J.; Graham, E. Scott

    2016-01-01

    Herein we show that S1P rapidly and acutely reduces the focal adhesion strength and barrier tightness of brain endothelial cells. xCELLigence biosensor technology was used to measure focal adhesion, which was reduced by S1P acutely and this response was mediated through both S1P1 and S1P2 receptors. S1P increased secretion of several pro-inflammatory mediators from brain endothelial cells. However, the magnitude of this response was small in comparison to that mediated by TNFα or IL-1β. Furthermore, S1P did not significantly increase cell-surface expression of any key cell adhesion molecules involved in leukocyte recruitment, included ICAM-1 and VCAM-1. Finally, we reveal that S1P acutely and dynamically regulates microvascular endothelial barrier tightness in a manner consistent with regulated rapid opening followed by closing and strengthening of the barrier. We hypothesise that the role of the S1P receptors in this process is not to cause barrier dysfunction, but is related to controlled opening of the endothelial junctions. This was revealed using real-time measurement of barrier integrity using ECIS ZΘ TEER technology and endothelial viability using xCELLigence technology. Finally, we show that these responses do not occur simply though the pharmacology of a single S1P receptor but involves coordinated action of S1P1 and S1P2 receptors. PMID:26813587

  4. Phase II multi-institutional prospective randomised trial comparing S-1+paclitaxel with S-1+cisplatin in patients with unresectable and/or recurrent advanced gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mochiki, E; Ogata, K; Ohno, T; Toyomasu, Y; Haga, N; Fukai, Y; Aihara, R; Ando, H; Uchida, N; Asao, T; Kuwano, H

    2012-01-01

    Background: A combination of S-1 and cisplatin has been shown to be effective with acceptable safety for the first-line treatment of far-advanced gastric cancer in Japan. This is the first randomised phase II trial to compare S-1+paclitaxel with S-1+cisplatin in this setting. Methods: Patients with unresectable and/or recurrent advanced gastric cancer were randomly assigned to receive one of the two regimens: S-1 (40 mg m−2 twice daily) on days 1–14 plus paclitaxel (60 mg m−2) on days 1, 8, and 15 of a 4-week cycle (S-1+paclitaxel) or S-1 (40 mg m−2 twice daily) on days 1–21 plus cisplatin (60 mg m−2) on day 8 of a 5-week cycle (S-1+cisplatin). The primary end point was the response rate (RR). Secondary end points included progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and safety. Results: A total of 83 patients were eligible for safety and efficacy analyses. In the S-1+paclitaxel and S-1+cisplatin groups, RRs (52.3% vs 48.7% P=0.74) and median PFS (9 vs 6 months; P=0.50) were similar. The median OS was similar in the S-1+paclitaxel and S-1+cisplatin groups (16 vs 17 months; P=0.84). The incidence of grade 3 or higher haematological toxicity was 19.0% with S-1+paclitaxel and 19.5% with S-1+cisplatin. The incidence of grade 3 or higher non-haematological toxicity was 14.2% with S-1+paclitaxel and 17.1% with S-1+cisplatin. Conclusion: S-1+paclitaxel was suggested to be a feasible and effective non-platinum-based regimen for chemotherapy in patients with advanced gastric cancer. Our results should be confirmed in multicenter, phase III-controlled clinical trials. PMID:22617130

  5. S1P lyase in thymic perivascular spaces promotes egress of mature thymocytes via up-regulation of S1P receptor 1.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Yasuhiro; Yagi, Hideki; Takemoto, Kana; Utsumi, Hiroyuki; Fukunari, Atsushi; Sugahara, Kunio; Masuko, Takashi; Chiba, Kenji

    2014-05-01

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) and S1P receptor 1 (S1P1) play an important role in the egress of mature CD4 or CD8 single-positive (SP) thymocytes from the thymus. Fingolimod hydrochloride (FTY720), an S1P1 functional antagonist, induced significant accumulation of CD62L(high)CD69(low) mature SP thymocytes in the thymic medulla. Immunohistochemical staining using anti-S1P1 antibody revealed that S1P1 is predominantly expressed on thymocytes in the thymic medulla and is strongly down-regulated even at 3h after FTY720 administration. 2-Acetyl-4-tetrahydroxybutylimidazole (THI), an S1P lyase inhibitor, also induced accumulation of mature SP thymocytes in the thymic medulla with an enlargement of the perivascular spaces (PVS). At 6h after THI administration, S1P1-expressing thymocytes reduced partially as if to form clusters and hardly existed in the proximity of CD31-expressing blood vessels in the thymic medulla, suggesting S1P lyase expression in the cells constructing thymic medullary PVS. To determine the cells expressing S1P lyase in the thymus, we newly established a mAb (YK19-2) specific for mouse S1P lyase. Immunohistochemical staining with YK19-2 revealed that S1P lyase is predominantly expressed in non-lymphoid thymic stromal cells in the thymic medulla. In the thymic medullary PVS, S1P lyase was expressed in ER-TR7-positive cells (reticular fibroblasts and pericytes) and CD31-positive vascular endothelial cells. Our findings suggest that S1P lyase expressed in the thymic medullary PVS keeps the tissue S1P concentration low around the vessels and promotes thymic egress via up-regulation of S1P1.

  6. Possible Dust Models for C/2012 S1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanamandra-Fisher, P. A.

    2014-12-01

    Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) provided a great opportunity to study a dynamically new Oort-cloud comet on its initial and only passage through the inner solar system. Contrary to expectations, the comet's activity fluctuated from high through a quiescent phase, and a major outburst days before its perihelion passage, ending in a dramatic race to complete disintegration on perihelion day, 28 November 2013. Amateur observations to professional ground-based, sub-orbital telescopes indicate the various changes of visible factors such as Afrho, a proxy for dust activity, and the measured production rates for water, consistent with the disintegration of the nucleus. Hines et al. (2013; ApJ Lett. 780) detected positive polarization in the inner coma and negative polarization in the outer coma, indicative of a jet, independently confirmed by Li et al. (2013, ApJ Lett., 779). Thermal emission observations of the comet pre-perihelion from NAOJ/Subaru/COMICS, a mid-infrared spectrometer, indicated a body with an equivalent brightness temperature of 265K (Ootsubo et al., 2013, ACM, Helsinki,FI); thermal observations acquired at the NASA/Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) with The Aerospace Corporation spectrometer (BASS, PI. R. Russell), before and after the November 12, 2013 outburst observed by the CIOC_ISON amateur network, indicates a brightness temperature of 330K and the presence, albeit weak, of the 11.3-micron crystalline silicate feature (Sitko et al., 2014, LPI abstract 1537). A Monte Carlo comet dust tail model, applied to extract the dust environment parameters of comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) from both Earth-based and Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) calibrated observations, performed from about 6 AU (inbound), to right after perihelion passage, when just a small portion of the original comet nucleus survived in the form of a cloud of tiny particles, indicates that particles underwent disintegration and fragmentation (Moreno et al., 2014, ApJ Lett., 791). Ongoing work

  7. Sphingosine 1-Phosphate Receptor 1 (S1P1) Upregulation and Amelioration of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis by an S1P1 Antagonist

    PubMed Central

    Cahalan, Stuart M.; Gonzalez-Cabrera, Pedro J.; Nguyen, Nhan; Guerrero, Miguel; Cisar, Elizabeth A. George; Leaf, Nora B.; Brown, Steven J.; Roberts, Edward

    2013-01-01

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1P1) is a G protein–coupled receptor that is critical for proper lymphocyte development and recirculation. Agonists to S1P1 are currently in use clinically for the treatment of multiple sclerosis, and these drugs may act on both S1P1 expressed on lymphocytes and S1P1 expressed within the central nervous system. Agonists to S1P1 and deficiency in S1P1 both cause lymphocyte sequestration in the lymph nodes. In the present study, we show that S1P1 antagonism induces lymphocyte sequestration in the lymph nodes similar to that observed with S1P1 agonists while upregulating S1P1 on lymphocytes and endothelial cells. Additionally, we show that S1P1 antagonism reverses experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice without acting on S1P1 expressed within the central nervous system, demonstrating that lymphocyte sequestration via S1P1 antagonism is sufficient to alleviate autoimmune pathology. PMID:23204443

  8. Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1P(1)) upregulation and amelioration of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by an S1P(1) antagonist.

    PubMed

    Cahalan, Stuart M; Gonzalez-Cabrera, Pedro J; Nguyen, Nhan; Guerrero, Miguel; Cisar, Elizabeth A George; Leaf, Nora B; Brown, Steven J; Roberts, Edward; Rosen, Hugh

    2013-02-01

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1P(1)) is a G protein-coupled receptor that is critical for proper lymphocyte development and recirculation. Agonists to S1P(1) are currently in use clinically for the treatment of multiple sclerosis, and these drugs may act on both S1P(1) expressed on lymphocytes and S1P(1) expressed within the central nervous system. Agonists to S1P(1) and deficiency in S1P(1) both cause lymphocyte sequestration in the lymph nodes. In the present study, we show that S1P(1) antagonism induces lymphocyte sequestration in the lymph nodes similar to that observed with S1P(1) agonists while upregulating S1P(1) on lymphocytes and endothelial cells. Additionally, we show that S1P(1) antagonism reverses experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice without acting on S1P(1) expressed within the central nervous system, demonstrating that lymphocyte sequestration via S1P(1) antagonism is sufficient to alleviate autoimmune pathology.

  9. Hyperoxia-induced p47phox activation and ROS generation is mediated through S1P transporter Spns2, and S1P/S1P1&2 signaling axis in lung endothelium.

    PubMed

    Harijith, Anantha; Pendyala, Srikanth; Ebenezer, David L; Ha, Alison W; Fu, Panfeng; Wang, Yue-Ting; Ma, Ke; Toth, Peter T; Berdyshev, Evgeny V; Kanteti, Prasad; Natarajan, Viswanathan

    2016-08-01

    Hyperoxia-induced lung injury adversely affects ICU patients and neonates on ventilator assisted breathing. The underlying culprit appears to be reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced lung damage. The major contributor of hyperoxia-induced ROS is activation of the multiprotein enzyme complex NADPH oxidase. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) signaling is known to be involved in hyperoxia-mediated ROS generation; however, the mechanism(s) of S1P-induced NADPH oxidase activation is unclear. Here, we investigated various steps in the S1P signaling pathway mediating ROS production in response to hyperoxia in lung endothelium. Of the two closely related sphingosine kinases (SphKs)1 and 2, which synthesize S1P from sphingosine, only Sphk1(-/-) mice conferred protection against hyperoxia-induced lung injury. S1P is metabolized predominantly by S1P lyase and partial deletion of Sgpl1 (Sgpl1(+/-)) in mice accentuated lung injury. Hyperoxia stimulated S1P accumulation in human lung microvascular endothelial cells (HLMVECs), and downregulation of S1P transporter spinster homolog 2 (Spns2) or S1P receptors S1P1&2, but not S1P3, using specific siRNA attenuated hyperoxia-induced p47(phox) translocation to cell periphery and ROS generation in HLMVECs. These results suggest a role for Spns2 and S1P1&2 in hyperoxia-mediated ROS generation. In addition, p47(phox) (phox:phagocyte oxidase) activation and ROS generation was also reduced by PF543, a specific SphK1 inhibitor in HLMVECs. Our data indicate a novel role for Spns2 and S1P1&2 in the activation of p47(phox) and production of ROS involved in hyperoxia-mediated lung injury in neonatal and adult mice.

  10. Outgassing and chemical evolution of C/2012 S1 (ISON)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dello Russo, Neil; Vervack, Ronald J.; Kawakita, Hideyo; Cochran, Anita; McKay, Adam J.; Harris, Walter M.; Weaver, Harold A.; Lisse, Carey M.; DiSanti, Michael A.; Kobayashi, Hitomi; Biver, Nicolas; Bockelée-Morvan, Dominique; Crovisier, Jacques; Opitom, Cyrielle; Jehin, Emmanuel

    2015-11-01

    Volatile production rates, relative abundances, rotational temperatures, and spatial distributions in the coma were measured in C/2012 S1 (ISON) using long-slit high-dispersion (λ/Δλ ~ 25,000) infrared spectroscopy as part of a worldwide observing campaign. Spectra were obtained on UT 2013 October 26 and 28 with NIRSPEC at the W. M. Keck Observatory, and UT 2013 November 19 and 20 with CSHELL at the NASA IRTF. H2O was detected on all dates, with production rates increasing by about a factor of 40 between October 26 (Rh = 1.12 AU) and November 20 (Rh = 0.43 AU). Short-term variability of H2O was also seen as the production rate increased by nearly a factor of two during observations obtained over a period of about six hours on November 19. C2H6, CH3OH and CH4 abundances were slightly depleted relative to H2O in ISON compared to mean values for comets measured at infrared wavelengths. On the November dates, C2H2, HCN and OCS abundances relative to H2O appear to be close to the range of mean values, whereas H2CO and NH3 were significantly enhanced. We will compare derived chemical abundances in ISON to other comets measured with infrared spectroscopy.

  11. Magnetic susceptibilities of rectangular Heisenberg S=1/2 antiferromagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valleau, Tom; Butcher, Rob; Keith, Brian; Landee, Christopher; Turnbull, Mark; Sandvik, Anders

    2008-03-01

    Rectangular antiferromagnets are two-dimensional systems with inequivalent exchange strengths (J', J) along the two principle axes with J' ≡ αJ, α <1. They have an intermediate dimensionality that can vary continuously from 1D (α = 0 ) to square 2D (α = 1). There exist a number of physical realizations of rectangular antiferromagnets (CuPzBr2, CuPzCl2, CuPz(N3)2 where Pz = pyrazine) but there has been no previous mechanism for interpreting their susceptibilities in terms of two exchange parameters. We have simulated the susceptibility of the rectangular S=1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet using the stochastic series expansion quantum Monte Carlo method [1] and used the results to interpret our experimental data. For example, copper pyrazine diazide, CuPz(N3)2, has a primary exchange of 15.5 K and an anisotropy parameter α = 0.4. The stronger exchange is due to the superexchange pathway through the pyrazine molecule and the weaker corresponds to the azide bridges. [1] A. Sandvik, PRB 59, R14157 (1999).

  12. Will Comet ISON (C/2012 S1) Survive Perihelion?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, Matthew M.; Walsh, Kevin J.

    2013-10-01

    On 2013 November 28 Comet ISON (C/2012 S1) will pass by the Sun with a perihelion distance of 2.7 solar radii. Understanding the possible outcomes for the comet's response to such a close passage by the Sun is important for planning observational campaigns and for inferring ISON's physical properties. We present new numerical simulations and interpret them in context with the historical track record of comet disruptions and of sungrazing comet behavior. Historical data suggest that sizes below ~200 m are susceptible to destruction by sublimation driven mass loss, while we find that for ISON's perihelion distance, densities lower than 0.1 g cm-3 are required to tidally disrupt a retrograde or non-spinning body. Such low densities are substantially below the range of the best-determined comet nucleus densities, though dynamically new comets such as ISON have few measurements of physical properties. Disruption may occur for prograde rotation at densities up to 0.7 g cm-3, with the chances of disruption increasing for lower density, faster prograde rotation, and increasing elongation of the nucleus. Given current constraints on ISON's nucleus properties and the typically determined values for these properties among all comets, we find tidal disruption to be unlikely unless other factors (e.g., spin-up via torquing) affect ISON substantially. Whether or not disruption occurs, the largest remnant must be big enough to survive subsequent mass loss due to sublimation in order for ISON to remain a viable comet well after perihelion.

  13. Sphingosine kinase-1, S1P transporter spinster homolog 2 and S1P2 mRNA expressions are increased in liver with advanced fibrosis in human.

    PubMed

    Sato, Masaya; Ikeda, Hitoshi; Uranbileg, Baasanjav; Kurano, Makoto; Saigusa, Daisuke; Aoki, Junken; Maki, Harufumi; Kudo, Hiroki; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Kokudo, Norihiro; Yatomi, Yutaka

    2016-08-26

    The role of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) in liver fibrosis or inflammation was not fully examined in human. Controversy exists which S1P receptors, S1P1 and S1P3 vs S1P2, would be importantly involved in its mechanism. To clarify these matters, 80 patients who received liver resection for hepatocellular carcinoma and 9 patients for metastatic liver tumor were enrolled. S1P metabolism was analyzed in background, non-tumorous liver tissue. mRNA levels of sphingosine kinase 1 (SK1) but not SK2 were increased in livers with fibrosis stages 3-4 compared to those with 0-2 and to normal liver. However, S1P was not increased in advanced fibrotic liver, where mRNA levels of S1P transporter spinster homolog 2 (SPNS2) but not S1P-degrading enzymes were enhanced. Furthermore, mRNA levels of S1P2 but not S1P1 or S1P3 were increased in advanced fibrotic liver. These increased mRNA levels of SK1, SPNS2 and S1P2 in fibrotic liver were correlated with α-smooth muscle actin mRNA levels in liver, and with serum ALT levels. In conclusion, S1P may be actively generated, transported to outside the cells, and bind to its specific receptor in human liver to play a role in fibrosis or inflammation. Altered S1P metabolism in fibrotic liver may be their therapeutic target.

  14. Solid-state Fermentation of Xylanase from Penicillium canescens 10-10c in a Multi-layer-packed Bed Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assamoi, Antoine A.; Destain, Jacqueline; Delvigne, Frank; Lognay, Georges; Thonart, Philippe

    Xylanase is produced by Penicillium canescens 10-10c from soya oil cake in static conditions using solid-state fermentation. The impact of several parameters such as the nature and the size of inoculum, bed-loading, and aeration is evaluated during the fermentation process. Mycelial inoculum gives more production than conidial inoculum. Increasing the quantity of inoculum enhances slightly xylanase production. Forced aeration induces more sporulation of strain and reduces xylanase production. However, forced moistened air improves the production compared to production obtained with forced dry air. In addition, increasing bed-loading reduces the specific xylanase production likely due to the incapacity of the Penicillium strain to grow deeply in the fermented soya oil cake mass. Thus, the best cultivation conditions involve mycelial inoculum form, a bed loading of 1-cm height and passive aeration. The maximum xylanase activity is obtained after 7 days of fermentation and attains 10,200 U/g of soya oil cake. These levels are higher than those presented in the literature and, therefore, show all the potentialities of this stock and this technique for the production of xylanase.

  15. Solid-state fermentation of xylanase from Penicillium canescens 10-10c in a multi-layer-packed bed reactor.

    PubMed

    Assamoi, Antoine A; Destain, Jacqueline; Delvigne, Frank; Lognay, Georges; Thonart, Philippe

    2008-03-01

    Xylanase is produced by Penicillium canescens 10-10c from soya oil cake in static conditions using solid-state fermentation. The impact of several parameters such as the nature and the size of inoculum, bed-loading, and aeration is evaluated during the fermentation process. Mycelial inoculum gives more production than conidial inoculum. Increasing the quantity of inoculum enhances slightly xylanase production. Forced aeration induces more sporulation of strain and reduces xylanase production. However, forced moistened air improves the production compared to production obtained with forced dry air. In addition, increasing bed-loading reduces the specific xylanase production likely due to the incapacity of the Penicillium strain to grow deeply in the fermented soya oil cake mass. Thus, the best cultivation conditions involve mycelial inoculum form, a bed loading of 1-cm height and passive aeration. The maximum xylanase activity is obtained after 7 days of fermentation and attains 10,200 U/g of soya oil cake. These levels are higher than those presented in the literature and, therefore, show all the potentialities of this stock and this technique for the production of xylanase.

  16. Measurements of exciton diffusion by degenerate four-wave mixing in CdS1-xSex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwab, H.; Pantke, K.-H.; Hvam, J. M.; Klingshirn, C.

    1992-09-01

    We performed transient-grating experiments to study the diffusion of excitons in CdS1-xSex mixed crystals. The decay of the initially created exciton density grating is well described for t<=1 ns by a stretched-exponential function. For later times this decay changes over to a behavior that is well fitted by a simple exponential function. During resonant excitation of the localized states, we find the diffusion coefficient (D) to be considerably smaller than in the binary compounds CdSe and CdS. At 4.2 K, D is below our experimental resolution which is about 0.025 cm2/s. With increasing lattice temperature (Tlattice) the diffusion coefficient increases. It was therefore possible to prove, in a diffusion experiment, that at Tlattice<=5 K the excitons are localized, while the exciton-phonon interaction leads to a delocalization and thus to the onset of diffusion. It was possible to deduce the diffusion coefficient of the extended excitons as well as the energetic position of the mobility edge.

  17. S1P promotes murine progenitor cell egress and mobilization via S1P1-mediated ROS signaling and SDF-1 release

    PubMed Central

    Golan, Karin; Vagima, Yaron; Ludin, Aya; Itkin, Tomer; Cohen-Gur, Shiri; Kalinkovich, Alexander; Kollet, Orit; Kim, Chihwa; Schajnovitz, Amir; Ovadya, Yossi; Lapid, Kfir; Shivtiel, Shoham; Morris, Andrew J.; Ratajczak, Mariusz Z.

    2012-01-01

    The mechanisms of hematopoietic progenitor cell egress and clinical mobilization are not fully understood. Herein, we report that in vivo desensitization of Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptors by FTY720 as well as disruption of S1P gradient toward the blood, reduced steady state egress of immature progenitors and primitive Sca-1+/c-Kit+/Lin− (SKL) cells via inhibition of SDF-1 release. Administration of AMD3100 or G-CSF to mice with deficiencies in either S1P production or its receptor S1P1, or pretreated with FTY720, also resulted in reduced stem and progenitor cell mobilization. Mice injected with AMD3100 or G-CSF demonstrated transient increased S1P levels in the blood mediated via mTOR signaling, as well as an elevated rate of immature c-Kit+/Lin− cells expressing surface S1P1 in the bone marrow (BM). Importantly, we found that S1P induced SDF-1 secretion from BM stromal cells including Nestin+ mesenchymal stem cells via reactive oxygen species (ROS) signaling. Moreover, elevated ROS production by hematopoietic progenitor cells is also regulated by S1P. Our findings reveal that the S1P/S1P1 axis regulates progenitor cell egress and mobilization via activation of ROS signaling on both hematopoietic progenitors and BM stromal cells, and SDF-1 release. The dynamic cross-talk between S1P and SDF-1 integrates BM stromal cells and hematopoeitic progenitor cell motility. PMID:22279055

  18. Downregulation of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor 1 by dexamethasone inhibits S1P-induced mesangial cell migration.

    PubMed

    Koch, Alexander; Jäger, Manuel; Völzke, Anja; Grammatikos, Georgios; Zu Heringdorf, Dagmar Meyer; Huwiler, Andrea; Pfeilschifter, Josef

    2015-06-01

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is generated by sphingosine kinase (SK)-1 and -2 and acts mainly as an extracellular ligand at five specific receptors, denoted S1P1-5. After activation, S1P receptors regulate important processes in the progression of renal diseases, such as mesangial cell migration and survival. Previously, we showed that dexamethasone enhances SK-1 activity and S1P formation, which protected mesangial cells from stress-induced apoptosis. Here we demonstrate that dexamethasone treatment lowered S1P1 mRNA and protein expression levels in rat mesangial cells. This effect was abolished in the presence of the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist RU-486. In addition, in vivo studies showed that dexamethasone downregulated S1P1 expression in glomeruli isolated from mice treated with dexamethasone (10 mg/kg body weight). Functionally, we identified S1P1 as a key player mediating S1P-induced mesangial cell migration. We show that dexamethasone treatment significantly lowered S1P-induced migration of mesangial cells, which was again reversed in the presence of RU-486. In summary, we suggest that dexamethasone inhibits S1P-induced mesangial cell migration via downregulation of S1P1. Overall, these results demonstrate that dexamethasone has functional important effects on sphingolipid metabolism and action in renal mesangial cells.

  19. Search for ammonia in comet C/2012 S1 (ISON)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faggi, S.; Codella, C.; Tozzi, G.; Comoretto, G.; Crovisier, J.; Nesti, R.; Panella, D.; Boissier, J.; Bolli, P.; Brucato, J.; Massi, F.; Tofani, G.

    2014-07-01

    Comets are pristine bodies of the Solar System and their studies can give precious hints on the formation of the Solar System itself. New comets, coming form the Oort Colud at their first passage close to the Sun, are particularly important, because they are not differentiated by the Solar radiation and they are supposed to have a large quantity of organic matter close to the surface. Here we report the results of a search for NH_3(1,1) emission at 23.7 GHz in comet C/2012 S1 ISON using a new dual-feed K-band receiver mounted on the Medicina 32-m antenna. We observed the comet once close to its perihelion, from 2013 Nov. 25 to Nov. 28, when its heliocentric distance changed from 0.25 au to 0.03 au. We integrated about 6 hrs per day, obtaining high-spectral-resolution (1 km/s) spectra with a typical rms noise of 10 mK. Such sensitivity allowed us to derive an upper limit of Q(NH_3) of about 2.5 ×10^{29} mol/s on November 26. This upper limit would correspond to a Q(H_2O) of about 2.5 ×10^{31} mol/s, assuming the typical Q(H_2O)/Q(NH_3) ratio of 100. These findings confirm that no significant Q(H_2O) enhancement happened near the perihelion, consistent with a definitive decrease of molecules production rate.

  20. WILL COMET ISON (C/2012 S1) SURVIVE PERIHELION?

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, Matthew M.; Walsh, Kevin J.

    2013-10-10

    On 2013 November 28 Comet ISON (C/2012 S1) will pass by the Sun with a perihelion distance of 2.7 solar radii. Understanding the possible outcomes for the comet's response to such a close passage by the Sun is important for planning observational campaigns and for inferring ISON's physical properties. We present new numerical simulations and interpret them in context with the historical track record of comet disruptions and of sungrazing comet behavior. Historical data suggest that sizes below ∼200 m are susceptible to destruction by sublimation driven mass loss, while we find that for ISON's perihelion distance, densities lower than 0.1 g cm{sup –3} are required to tidally disrupt a retrograde or non-spinning body. Such low densities are substantially below the range of the best-determined comet nucleus densities, though dynamically new comets such as ISON have few measurements of physical properties. Disruption may occur for prograde rotation at densities up to 0.7 g cm{sup –3}, with the chances of disruption increasing for lower density, faster prograde rotation, and increasing elongation of the nucleus. Given current constraints on ISON's nucleus properties and the typically determined values for these properties among all comets, we find tidal disruption to be unlikely unless other factors (e.g., spin-up via torquing) affect ISON substantially. Whether or not disruption occurs, the largest remnant must be big enough to survive subsequent mass loss due to sublimation in order for ISON to remain a viable comet well after perihelion.

  1. The turbomachine blading design using S2-S1 approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luu, T. S.; Bencherif, L.; Viney, B.; Duc, J. M. Nguyen

    1991-01-01

    The boundary conditions corresponding to the design problem when the blades being simulated by the bound vorticity distribution are presented. The 3D flow is analyzed by the two steps S2 - S1 approach. In the first step, the number of blades is supposed to be infinite, the vortex distribution is transformed into an axisymmetric one, so that the flow field can be analyzed in a meridional plane. The thickness distribution of the blade producing the flow channel striction is taken into account by the modification of metric tensor in the continuity equation. Using the meridional stream function to define the flow field, the mass conservation is satisfied automatically. The governing equation is deduced from the relation between the azimuthal component of the vorticity and the meridional velocity. The value of the azimuthal component of the vorticity is provided by the hub to shroud equilibrium condition. This step leads to the determination of the axisymmetric stream sheets as well as the approximate camber surface of the blade. In the second step, the finite number of blades is taken into account, the inverse problem corresponding to the blade to blade flow confined in each stream sheet is analyzed. The momentum equation implies that the free vortex of the absolute velocity must be tangential to the stream sheet. The governing equation for the blade to blade flow stream function is deduced from this condition. At the beginning, the upper and the lower surfaces of the blades are created from the camber surface obtained from the first step with the assigned thickness distribution. The bound vorticity distribution and the penetrating flux conservation applied on the presumed blade surface constitute the boundary conditions of the inverse problem. The detection of this flux leads to the rectification of the geometry of the blades.

  2. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor agonists mediate pro-fibrotic responses in normal human lung fibroblasts via S1P2 and S1P3 receptors and Smad-independent signaling.

    PubMed

    Sobel, Katrin; Menyhart, Katalin; Killer, Nina; Renault, Bérengère; Bauer, Yasmina; Studer, Rolf; Steiner, Beat; Bolli, Martin H; Nayler, Oliver; Gatfield, John

    2013-05-24

    Synthetic sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1 modulators constitute a new class of drugs for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) signaling, however, is also involved in the development of fibrosis. Using normal human lung fibroblasts, we investigated the induction of fibrotic responses by the S1P receptor (S1PR) agonists S1P, FTY720-P, ponesimod, and SEW2871 and compared them with the responses induced by the known fibrotic mediator TGF-β1. In contrast to TGF-β1, S1PR agonists did not induce expression of the myofibroblast marker α-smooth muscle actin. However, TGF-β1, S1P, and FTY720-P caused robust stimulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis and increased pro-fibrotic marker gene expression including connective tissue growth factor. Ponesimod showed limited and SEW2871 showed no pro-fibrotic potential in these readouts. Analysis of pro-fibrotic signaling pathways showed that in contrast to TGF-β1, S1PR agonists did not activate Smad2/3 signaling but rather activated PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 signaling to induce ECM synthesis. The strong induction of ECM synthesis by the nonselective agonists S1P and FTY720-P was due to the stimulation of S1P2 and S1P3 receptors, whereas the weaker induction of ECM synthesis at high concentrations of ponesimod was due to a low potency activation of S1P3 receptors. Finally, in normal human lung fibroblast-derived myofibroblasts that were generated by TGF-β1 pretreatment, S1P and FTY720-P were effective stimulators of ECM synthesis, whereas ponesimod was inactive, because of the down-regulation of S1P3R expression in myofibroblasts. These data demonstrate that S1PR agonists are pro-fibrotic via S1P2R and S1P3R stimulation using Smad-independent pathways.

  3. ApoA-I/SR-BI modulates S1P/S1PR2-mediated inflammation through the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in HUVECs.

    PubMed

    Ren, Kun; Lu, Yan-Ju; Mo, Zhong-Cheng; -Liu, Xing; Tang, Zhen-Li; Jiang, Yue; Peng, Xiao-Shan; Li, Li; Zhang, Qing-Hai; Yi, Guang-Hui

    2017-02-08

    Endothelial dysfunction plays a vital role during the initial stage of atherosclerosis. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) induces vascular endothelial injury and vessel wall inflammation. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) exerts numerous vasoprotective effects by binding to diverse S1P receptors (S1PRs; S1PR1-5). A number of studies have shown that in endothelial cells (ECs), S1PR2 acts as a pro-atherosclerotic mediator by stimulating vessel wall inflammation through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway. Scavenger receptor class B member I (SR-BI), a high-affinity receptor for apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I)/high-density lipoprotein (HDL), inhibits nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) translocation and decreases the plasma levels of inflammatory mediators via the PI3K/Akt pathway. We hypothesized that the inflammatory effects of S1P/S1PR2 on ECs may be regulated by apoA-I/SR-BI. The results showed that ox-LDL, a pro-inflammatory factor, augmented the S1PR2 level in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In addition, S1P/S1PR2 signaling influenced the levels of inflammatory factors, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and IL-10, aggravating inflammation in HUVECs. Moreover, the pro-inflammatory effects induced by S1P/S1PR2 were attenuated by SR-BI overexpression and enhanced by an SR-BI inhibitor, BLT-1. Further experiments showed that the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway was involved in this process. Taken together, these results demonstrate that apoA-I/SR-BI negatively regulates S1P/S1PR2-mediated inflammation in HUVECs by activating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

  4. Epigenetic regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion by sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) in acute lung injury: Role of S1P lyase.

    PubMed

    Ebenezer, David L; Fu, Panfeng; Suryadevara, Vidyani; Zhao, Yutong; Natarajan, Viswanathan

    2017-01-01

    Cellular level of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), the simplest bioactive sphingolipid, is tightly regulated by its synthesis catalyzed by sphingosine kinases (SphKs) 1 & 2 and degradation mediated by S1P phosphatases, lipid phosphate phosphatases, and S1P lyase. The pleotropic actions of S1P are attributed to its unique inside-out (extracellular) signaling via G-protein-coupled S1P1-5 receptors, and intracellular receptor independent signaling. Additionally, S1P generated in the nucleus by nuclear SphK2 modulates HDAC1/2 activity, regulates histone acetylation, and transcription of pro-inflammatory genes. Here, we present data on the role of S1P lyase mediated S1P signaling in regulating LPS-induced inflammation in lung endothelium. Blocking S1P lyase expression or activity attenuated LPS-induced histone acetylation and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Degradation of S1P by S1P lyase generates Δ2-hexadecenal and ethanolamine phosphate and the long-chain fatty aldehyde produced in the cytoplasmic compartment of the endothelial cell seems to modulate histone acetylation pattern, which is different from the nuclear SphK2/S1P signaling and inhibition of HDAC1/2. These in vitro studies suggest that S1P derived long-chain fatty aldehyde may be an epigenetic regulator of pro-inflammatory genes in sepsis-induced lung inflammation. Trapping fatty aldehydes and other short chain aldehydes such as 4-hydroxynonenal derived from S1P degradation and lipid peroxidation, respectively by cell permeable agents such as phloretin or other aldehyde trapping agents may be useful in treating sepsis-induced lung inflammation via modulation of histone acetylation. .

  5. Clinical outcomes of HLA-DPB1 mismatches in 10/10 HLA-matched unrelated donor-recipient pairs undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplant.

    PubMed

    Moyer, Ann M; Hashmi, Shahrukh K; Kroning, Cynthia M; Kremers, Walter K; De Goey, Steven R; Patnaik, Mrinal; Litzow, Mark; Gastineau, Dennis A; Hogan, William J; Jacob, Eapen K; Kreuter, Justin D; Wakefield, Laurie L; Gandhi, Manish J

    2017-09-01

    HLA-DPB1 matching may impact allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (ASCT) outcomes; however, this locus is not in linkage disequilibrium with the remainder of the HLA genes. After classifying HLA-DPB1 mismatches based on T-cell epitope, avoiding non-permissive mismatches may impact survival. We tested this hypothesis at a single academic institution. Retrospective HLA-DPB1 genotyping was performed on 153 adult patients who underwent ASCT and unrelated donors matched for HLA-A, B, C, DRB1, and DQB1 loci (10/10). Using the ImMunoGeneTics/HLA T-cell epitope matching algorithm, mismatch status was classified as permissive or non-permissive. Of 153 donor-recipient pairs, 22 (14.4%) were HLA-DPB1 matches, 64 (42.8%) permissive mismatches, and 67 (43.8%) non-permissive mismatches. DPB1 mismatch increased risk of chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD; RR 2.89 [1.19-9.53], P=.016) compared with DPB1-matched transplants, but there were no differences in overall mortality, risk of relapse, or acute GVHD (aGVHD). Combining matches and permissive mismatches and comparing to non-permissive mismatches, there was no significant difference in overall survival or relapse; however, patients receiving non-permissive mismatched transplants experienced greater risk of aGVHD overall and severe aGVHD (RR 1.66 [1.13-2.44], P=.010 and RR 1.97 [1.10-3.59], P=.024, respectively). In this single-center study, HLA-DPB1 matching influenced outcomes of patients undergoing ASCT for hematologic malignancy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Sequence analysis of leg movements during sleep with different intervals (<10, 10-90 and >90 s) in restless legs syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ferri, Raffaele; Rundo, Francesco; Silvani, Alessandro; Zucconi, Marco; Aricò, Debora; Bruni, Oliviero; Cosentino, Filomena I I; Ferini-Strambi, Luigi; Manconi, Mauro

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to define the time structure of leg movements during sleep occurring with an intermovement interval (onset-to-onset) shorter than 10 s in patients with restless legs syndrome and controls, and to compare it to the structure of movements with intervals of 10-90 s or >90 s. Polysomnographic recordings of 141 untreated patients and 68 age-matched normal controls were analysed. All movements were detected and classified into three categories, separated by intervals of <10, 10-90 or >90 s. The number of movements included in each category was significantly higher in patients than in controls. The movements with an interval of >90 s occurred steadily during the night, whereas the hourly distribution of movements with intervals of <10 or 10-90 s was decreasing or bell-shaped in patients or controls, respectively. Movements with an interval of <10 s tended to have a shorter duration and constituted shorter sequences than movements with intervals of 10-90 or >90 s. The time structure features of the three categories of movements considered in this study were found to be clearly different. This, together with previous observations on the differential effects of dopamine agonists on movements with different intervals, suggests that movements with intervals of <10 and >90 s are regulated by neurotransmitter mechanisms different from those modulating movements with an interval of 10-90 s. © 2017 European Sleep Research Society.

  7. A role of the sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P)-S1P receptor 2 pathway in epithelial defense against cancer (EDAC).

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Sayaka; Yako, Yuta; Fujioka, Yoichiro; Kajita, Mihoko; Kameyama, Takeshi; Kon, Shunsuke; Ishikawa, Susumu; Ohba, Yusuke; Ohno, Yusuke; Kihara, Akio; Fujita, Yasuyuki

    2016-02-01

    At the initial step of carcinogenesis, transformation occurs in single cells within epithelia, where the newly emerging transformed cells are surrounded by normal epithelial cells. A recent study revealed that normal epithelial cells have an ability to sense and actively eliminate the neighboring transformed cells, a process named epithelial defense against cancer (EDAC). However, the molecular mechanism of this tumor-suppressive activity is largely unknown. In this study, we investigated a role for the sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P)-S1P receptor 2 (S1PR2) pathway in EDAC. First, we show that addition of the S1PR2 inhibitor significantly suppresses apical extrusion of RasV12-transformed cells that are surrounded by normal cells. In addition, knockdown of S1PR2 in normal cells induces the same effect, indicating that S1PR2 in the surrounding normal cells plays a positive role in the apical elimination of the transformed cells. Of importance, not endogenous S1P but exogenous S1P is involved in this process. By using FRET analyses, we demonstrate that S1PR2 mediates Rho activation in normal cells neighboring RasV12-transformed cells, thereby promoting accumulation of filamin, a crucial regulator of EDAC. Collectively these data indicate that S1P is a key extrinsic factor that affects the outcome of cell competition between normal and transformed epithelial cells.

  8. Sphingosine-1-phosphate promotes extravillous trophoblast cell invasion by activating MEK/ERK/MMP-2 signaling pathways via S1P/S1PR1 axis activation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Weiwei; Li, Qinghua; Pan, Zhifang

    2014-01-01

    Successful placentation depends on the proper invasion of extravillous trophoblast (EVT) cells into maternal tissues. Previous reports demonstrated that S1P receptors are expressed in the EVT cells and S1P could regulate migration and function of trophoblast cells via S1P receptors. However, little is known about roles of S1P in the invasion of EVT cells. Our study was performed to investigate S1P effect on the invasion of EVT cells. We used the extravillous trophoblast cell line HTR8/SVneo cells to evaluate the effect. In vitro invasion assay was employed to determine the invasion of HTR8/SVneo cells induced by S1P. MMP-2 enzyme activity and relative level in the supernatants of HTR8/SVneo was assessed by gelatin zymography and western blot. Based on the above, siRNA and specific inhibitors were used for the intervention and study of potential signal pathways, and Real-time qPCR and western blot were used to test the mRNA and protein level of potential signal targets. We found that S1P could promote HTR8/SVneo cell invasion and upregulates activity and level of MMP-2. The promotion requires activation of MEK-ERK and is dependent on the axis of S1P/S1PR1. Our investigation of S1P may provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms of EVT invasion.

  9. [Role and related mechanism of S1P/S1P1 signal pathway during post conditioning of hypertrophic cardiomyocytes].

    PubMed

    Bao, X H; Li, H X; Tao, J; Li, X M; Yang, Y N; Ma, Y T; Chen, B D

    2016-05-24

    To study the role and mechanism of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P)/ sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1(S1P1) signal pathway during post conditioning of hypertrophic cardiomyocytes. Neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were isolated and cultured, then stimulated by norepinephrine (NE) to induce cardiomyocytes hypertrophy. Using tri-gas incubator to create hypoxia and reoxygenation enviroment to mimic ischemia-reperfusion and postconditioning. Hypertrophic cardiomyoctyes were divided into five groups according to the presence or absence of various drugs and postconditiong and relevant signal pathways changes were detected: (1) IPost group (hypoxia+ postconditioning); (2) IPost+ S1P group (cells were pretreated with S1P (1 μmol/L) for 2 h before IPost); (3) IPost+ W-146+ S1P group (cells in IPost+ W-146+ S1P group were pretreated with S1P1 inhibitor W-146 (0.4 μmol/L) for 20 min); (4) IPost+ PD98059+ S1P group (cells in IPost+ S1P group were pretreated with MAPK antagonist PD98059 (125 μmol/L) for 20 min); (5) IPost+ LY-294002+ S1P group (cells in IPost+ S1P group were pretreated with PI3K antagonist LY294002 (0.1 μmol/L) for 20 min). Apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry and protein expression of relevant signal pathways were detected by Western blot. (1)Apoptosis rate was significantly increased in hypoxia/reoxygenation (27.90±4.49)% group compared with normal control group (7.97±2.18)%, which could be significantly reduced in IPost group (15.90±1.77)% (all P<0.05). (2)Apoptosis rate and caspase-3 expression were both significantly lower in IPost+ S1P and IPost+ S1P+ LY-294002 groups than in IPost and IPost+ S1P+ W-146 and IPost+ S1P+ PD98059 group (all P<0.05). (3)p-ERK1/2 expression was significantly higher in IPost+ S1P and IPost+ S1P+ LY-294002 group than in IPost and IPost+ S1P+ W-146 group and IPost+ S1P+ PD98059 group (all P<0.05) while p-Akt expression was similar among IPost, IPost+ S1P+ W-146 and IPost+ S1P+ PD98059 groups. p-ERK1/2 and p-Akt levels in

  10. Novel selective allosteric and bitopic ligands for the S1P(3) receptor.

    PubMed

    Jo, Euijung; Bhhatarai, Barun; Repetto, Emanuela; Guerrero, Miguel; Riley, Sean; Brown, Steven J; Kohno, Yasushi; Roberts, Edward; Schürer, Stephan C; Rosen, Hugh

    2012-12-21

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a lysophospholipid signaling molecule that regulates important biological functions, including lymphocyte trafficking and vascular development, by activating G protein-coupled receptors for S1P, namely, S1P(1) through S1P(5). Here, we map the S1P(3) binding pocket with a novel allosteric agonist (CYM-5541), an orthosteric agonist (S1P), and a novel bitopic antagonist (SPM-242). With a combination of site-directed mutagenesis, ligand competition assay, and molecular modeling, we concluded that S1P and CYM-5541 occupy different chemical spaces in the ligand binding pocket of S1P(3). CYM-5541 allowed us to identify an allosteric site where Phe263 is a key gate-keeper residue for its affinity and efficacy. This ligand lacks a polar moiety, and the novel allosteric hydrophobic pocket permits S1P(3) selectivity of CYM-5541 within the highly similar S1P receptor family. However, a novel S1P(3)-selective antagonist, SPM-242, in the S1P(3) pocket occupies the ligand binding spaces of both S1P and CYM-5541, showing its bitopic mode of binding. Therefore, our coordinated approach with biochemical data and molecular modeling, based on our recently published S1P(1) crystal structure data in a highly conserved set of related receptors with a shared ligand, provides a strong basis for the successful optimization of orthosteric, allosteric, and bitopic modulators of S1P(3).

  11. The SphKs/S1P/S1PR1 axis in immunity and cancer: more ore to be mined.

    PubMed

    Jin, Lei; Liu, Wei-Ren; Tian, Meng-Xin; Fan, Jia; Shi, Ying-Hong

    2016-04-29

    Over the past two decades, huge amounts of research were launched to understand the functions of sphingosine. Many pathways were uncovered that convey the relative functions of biomacromolecules. In this review, we discuss the recent advances of the role of the SphKs/S1P/S1PR1 axis in immunity and cancer. Finally, we investigate the therapeutic potential of new drugs that target S1P signaling in cancer therapy.

  12. Smad3 deficiency leads to mandibular condyle degradation via the sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P)/S1P3 signaling axis.

    PubMed

    Mori, Hiroki; Izawa, Takashi; Tanaka, Eiji

    2015-10-01

    Temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis is a degenerative disease that is characterized by permanent cartilage destruction. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β is one of the most abundant cytokines in the bone matrix and is shown to regulate the migration of osteoprogenitor cells. It is hypothesized that TGF-β/Smad3 signaling affects cartilage homeostasis by influencing sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P)/S1P receptor signaling and chondrocyte migration. We therefore investigated the molecular mechanisms by which crosstalk may occur between TGF-β/Smad3 and S1P/S1P receptor signaling to maintain condylar cartilage and to prevent temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis. Abnormalities in the condylar subchondral bone, including dynamic changes in bone mineral density and microstructure, were observed in Smad3(-/-) mice by microcomputed tomography. Cell-free regions and proteoglycan loss characterized the cartilage degradation present, and increased numbers of apoptotic chondrocytes and matrix metalloproteinase 13(+) chondrocytes were also detected. Furthermore, expression of S1P receptor 3 (S1P3), but not S1P1 or S1P2, was significantly down-regulated in the condylar cartilage of Smad3(-/-) mice. By using RNA interference technology and pharmacologic tools, S1P was found to transactivate Smad3 in an S1P3/TGF-β type II receptor-dependent manner, and S1P3 was found to be required for TGF-β-induced migration of chondrocyte cells and downstream signal transduction via Rac1, RhoA, and Cdc42. Taken together, these results indicate that the Smad3/S1P3 signaling pathway plays an important role in the pathogenesis of temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis.

  13. Full pharmacological efficacy of a novel S1P1 agonist that does not require S1P-like head-group interactions

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Cabrera, Pedro J.; Jo, Euijung; Sanna, M. Germana; Brown, Steven; Leaf, Nora; Marsolais, David; Schaeffer, Marie-Therese; Chapman, Jacqueline; Cameron, Michael; Guerrero, Miguel; Roberts, Edward; Rosen, Hugh

    2008-01-01

    Strong evidence exists for interactions of zwitterionic phosphate and amine groups in Sphingosine-1 phosphate (S1P) to conserved R and E residues present at the extracellular face of transmembrane-3 (TM3) of S1P receptors. The contribution of R120 and E121 for high affinity ligand-receptor interactions is essential, as single-point R120A or E121A S1P1 mutants neither bind S1P nor transduce S1P function. Because S1P receptors are therapeutically interesting, identifying potent selective agonists with different binding modes and in vivo efficacy is of pharmacological importance. Here we describe a modestly water-soluble highly-selective S1P1 agonist (CYM-5442) that does not require R120 or E121 residues for activating S1P1-dependent p42/p44 MAPK phosphorylation, which defines a new hydrophobic pocket in S1P1. CYM-5442 is a full agonist in vitro for S1P1 internalization, phosphorylation and ubiquitination. Importantly, CYM-5442 was a full agonist for induction and maintenance of S1P1-dependent lymphopenia, decreasing B-lymphocytes by 65% and T-lymphocytes by 85% of vehicle. Induction of CYM-5442 lymphopenia was dose and time-dependent, requiring serum concentrations in the 50 nM range. In vitro measures of S1P1 activation by CYM-5442 were non-competitively inhibited by a specific S1P1 antagonist (W146), competitive for S1P, FTY720-P and SEW2871. In addition, lymphopenia by CYM-5442 was reversed by W146 administration or upon pharmacokinetic agonist clearance. Pharmacokinetics in mice also indicated that CYM-5442 partitions significantly in central nervous tissue. These data show that CYM-5442 activates S1P1-dependent pathways in vitro and to levels of full efficacy in vivo through a hydrophobic pocket, separable from the orthosteric site of S1P binding that is headgroup dependent. PMID:18708635

  14. Hypothalamic S1P/S1PR1 axis controls energy homeostasis in Middle-Aged Rodents: the reversal effects of physical exercise

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Vagner Ramon Rodrigues; Katashima, Carlos Kiyoshi; Bueno Silva, Carla G.; Lenhare, Luciene; Micheletti, Thayana Oliveira; Camargo, Rafael Ludemann; Ghezzi, Ana Carolina; Camargo, Juliana Alves; Assis, Alexandre Moura; Tobar, Natalia; Morari, Joseane; Razolli, Daniela S.; Moura, Leandro Pereira; Pauli, José Rodrigo; Cintra, Dennys Esper; Velloso, Lício Augusto; Saad, Mario J.A; Ropelle, Eduardo Rochete

    2017-01-01

    Recently, we demonstrated that the hypothalamic S1PR1/STAT3 axis plays a critical role in the control of food consumption and energy expenditure in rodents. Here, we found that reduction of hypothalamic S1PR1 expression occurs in an age-dependent manner, and was associated with defective thermogenic signaling and weight gain. To address the physiological relevance of these findings, we investigated the effects of chronic and acute exercise on the hypothalamic S1PR1/STAT3 axis. Chronic exercise increased S1PR1 expression and STAT3 phosphorylation in the hypothalamus, restoring the anorexigenic and thermogenic signals in middle-aged mice. Acutely, exercise increased sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of young rats, whereas the administration of CSF from exercised young rats into the hypothalamus of middle-aged rats at rest was sufficient to reduce the food intake. Finally, the intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of S1PR1 activators, including the bioactive lipid molecule S1P, and pharmacological S1PR1 activator, SEW2871, induced a potent STAT3 phosphorylation and anorexigenic response in middle-aged rats. Overall, these results suggest that hypothalamic S1PR1 is important for the maintenance of energy balance and provide new insights into the mechanism by which exercise controls the anorexigenic and thermogenic signals in the central nervous system during the aging process. PMID:28039439

  15. Ligand-binding pocket shape differences between S1P1 and S1P3 determine efficiency of chemical probe identification by uHTS

    PubMed Central

    Schürer, Stephan C.; Brown, Steven J.; Cabrera, Pedro Gonzales; Schaeffer, Marie-Therese; Chapman, Jacqueline; Jo, Euijung; Chase, Peter; Spicer, Tim; Hodder, Peter; Rosen, Hugh

    2008-01-01

    We have studied the Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor system to better understand why certain molecular targets within a closely related family are much more tractable when identifying compelling chemical leads. Five medically important G protein-coupled receptors for S1P regulate heart rate, coronary artery caliber, endothelial barrier integrity, and lymphocyte trafficking. Selective S1P receptor agonist probes would be of great utility to study receptor subtype-specific function. Through systematic screening of the same libraries, we identified novel selective agonists chemotypes for each of the S1P1 and S1P3 receptors. uHTS for S1P1 was more effective than for S1P3, with many selective, low nanomolar hits of proven mechanism emerging for. Receptor structure modeling and ligand docking reveal differences between the receptor binding pockets, which are the basis for sub-type selectivity. Novel selective agonists interact primarily in the hydrophobic pocket of the receptor in the absence of head-group interactions. Chemistry-space and shape-based analysis of the screening libraries in combination with the binding models explain the observed differential hit rates and enhanced efficiency for lead discovery for S1P1 vs. S1P3 in this closely related receptor family. PMID:18590333

  16. Oncogenic S1P signalling in EBV-associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma activates AKT and promotes cell migration through S1P receptor 3.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hui Min; Lo, Kwok-Wai; Wei, Wenbin; Tsao, Sai Wah; Chung, Grace Tin Yun; Ibrahim, Maha Hafez; Dawson, Christopher W; Murray, Paul G; Paterson, Ian C; Yap, Lee Fah

    2017-02-27

    Undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a cancer with high metastatic potential that is consistently associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. In this study, we have investigated the functional contribution of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) signalling to the pathogenesis of NPC. We show that EBV infection or ectopic expression of the EBV-encoded latent genes (EBNA1, LMP1 and LMP2A) can up-regulate sphingosine kinase 1 (SPHK1), the key enzyme that produces S1P, in NPC cell lines. Exogenous addition of S1P promotes the migration of NPC cells through the activation of AKT; shRNA knockdown of SPHK1 resulted in a reduction in the levels of activated AKT and inhibition of cell migration. We also show that S1P receptor 3 (S1PR3) mRNA is over-expressed in EBV-positive NPC patient-derived xenografts and a subset of primary NPC tissues, and that knockdown of S1PR3 suppressed the activation of AKT and the S1P-induced migration of NPC cells. Taken together, our data point to a central role for EBV in mediating the oncogenic effects of S1P in NPC and identify S1P signalling as a potential therapeutic target in this disease.

  17. Aberrant expression of the S1P regulating enzymes, SPHK1 and SGPL1, contributes to a migratory phenotype in OSCC mediated through S1PR2.

    PubMed

    Patmanathan, Sathya Narayanan; Johnson, Steven P; Lai, Sook Ling; Panja Bernam, Suthashini; Lopes, Victor; Wei, Wenbin; Ibrahim, Maha Hafez; Torta, Federico; Narayanaswamy, Pradeep; Wenk, Markus R; Herr, Deron R; Murray, Paul G; Yap, Lee Fah; Paterson, Ian C

    2016-05-10

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a lethal disease with a 5-year mortality rate of around 50%. Molecular targeted therapies are not in routine use and novel therapeutic targets are required. Our previous microarray data indicated sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) metabolism and signalling was deregulated in OSCC. In this study, we have investigated the contribution of S1P signalling to the pathogenesis of OSCC. We show that the expression of the two major enzymes that regulate S1P levels were altered in OSCC: SPHK1 was significantly upregulated in OSCC tissues compared to normal oral mucosa and low levels of SGPL1 mRNA correlated with a worse overall survival. In in vitro studies, S1P enhanced the migration/invasion of OSCC cells and attenuated cisplatin-induced death. We also demonstrate that S1P receptor expression is deregulated in primary OSCCs and that S1PR2 is over-expressed in a subset of tumours, which in part mediates S1P-induced migration of OSCC cells. Lastly, we demonstrate that FTY720 induced significantly more apoptosis in OSCC cells compared to non-malignant cells and that FTY720 acted synergistically with cisplatin to induce cell death. Taken together, our data show that S1P signalling promotes tumour aggressiveness in OSCC and identify S1P signalling as a potential therapeutic target.

  18. Therapeutic strategies with oral fluoropyrimidine anticancer agent, S-1 against oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Harada, Koji; Ferdous, Tarannum; Ueyama, Yoshiya

    2017-08-01

    Oral cancer has been recognized as a tumor with low sensitivity to anticancer agents. However, introduction of S-1, an oral cancer agent is improving treatment outcome for patients with oral cancer. In addition, S-1, as a main drug for oral cancer treatment in Japan can be easily available for outpatients. In fact, S-1 exerts high therapeutic effects with acceptable side effects. Moreover, combined chemotherapy with S-1 shows higher efficacy than S-1 alone, and combined chemo-radiotherapy with S-1 exerts remarkable therapeutic effects. Furthermore, we should consider the combined therapy of S-1 and molecular targeting agents right now as these combinations were reportedly useful for oral cancer treatment. Here, we describe our findings related to S-1 that were obtained experimentally and clinically, and favorable therapeutic strategies with S-1 against oral cancer with bibliographic considerations.

  19. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) carrier-dependent regulation of endothelial barrier: high density lipoprotein (HDL)-S1P prolongs endothelial barrier enhancement as compared with albumin-S1P via effects on levels, trafficking, and signaling of S1P1.

    PubMed

    Wilkerson, Brent A; Grass, G Daniel; Wing, Shane B; Argraves, W Scott; Argraves, Kelley M

    2012-12-28

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a blood-borne lysosphingolipid that acts to promote endothelial cell (EC) barrier function. In plasma, S1P is associated with both high density lipoproteins (HDL) and albumin, but it is not known whether the carriers impart different effects on S1P signaling. Here we establish that HDL-S1P sustains EC barrier longer than albumin-S1P. We showed that the sustained barrier effects of HDL-S1P are dependent on signaling by the S1P receptor, S1P1, and involve persistent activation of Akt and endothelial NOS (eNOS), as well as activity of the downstream NO target, soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC). Total S1P1 protein levels were found to be higher in response to HDL-S1P treatment as compared with albumin-S1P, and this effect was not associated with increased S1P1 mRNA or dependent on de novo protein synthesis. Several pieces of evidence indicate that long term EC barrier enhancement activity of HDL-S1P is due to specific effects on S1P1 trafficking. First, the rate of S1P1 degradation, which is proteasome-mediated, was slower in HDL-S1P-treated cells as compared with cells treated with albumin-S1P. Second, the long term barrier-promoting effects of HDL-S1P were abrogated by treatment with the recycling blocker, monensin. Finally, cell surface levels of S1P1 and levels of S1P1 in caveolin-enriched microdomains were higher after treatment with HDL-S1P as compared with albumin-S1P. Together, the findings reveal S1P carrier-specific effects on S1P1 and point to HDL as the physiological mediator of sustained S1P1-PI3K-Akt-eNOS-sGC-dependent EC barrier function.

  20. HDL-associated ApoM is anti-apoptotic by delivering sphingosine 1-phosphate to S1P1 & S1P3 receptors on vascular endothelium.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Mario; Okada, Hiromi; Dahlbäck, Björn

    2017-02-08

    High-density Lipoprotein (HDL) attenuates endothelial cell apoptosis induced by different cell-death stimuli such as oxidation or growth factor deprivation. HDL is the main plasma carrier of the bioactive lipid sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), which it is a signaling molecule that promotes cell survival in response to several apoptotic stimuli. In HDL, S1P is bound to Apolipoprotein M (ApoM), a Lipocalin that is only present in around 5% of the HDL particles. The goal of this study is to characterize ApoM-bound S1P role in endothelial apoptosis protection and the signaling pathways involved. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) cultures were switched to serum/grow factor deprivation medium to induce apoptosis and the effect caused by the addition of ApoM and S1P analyzed. The addition of HDL(+ApoM) or recombinant ApoM-bound S1P promoted cell viability and blocked apoptosis, whereas HDL(-ApoM) had no protective effect. Remarkably, S1P exerted a more potent anti-apoptotic effect when carried by ApoM as compared to albumin, or when added as free molecule. Mechanistically, cooperation between S1P1 and S1P3 was required for the HDL/ApoM/S1P-mediated anti-apoptotic ability. Furthermore, AKT and ERK phosphorylation was also necessary to achieve the anti-apoptotic effect of the HDL/ApoM/S1P complex. Altogether, our results indicate that ApoM and S1P are key elements of the anti-apoptotic activity of HDL and promote optimal endothelial function.

  1. Randomised phase III study of S-1 alone versus S-1 plus lentinan for unresectable or recurrent gastric cancer (JFMC36-0701).

    PubMed

    Yoshino, Shigefumi; Nishikawa, Kazuhiro; Morita, Satoshi; Takahashi, Tsuyoshi; Sakata, Koichiro; Nagao, Jiro; Nemoto, Hiroshi; Murakami, Nozomu; Matsuda, Takeru; Hasegawa, Hiroyasu; Shimizu, Ryoichi; Yoshikawa, Takaki; Osanai, Hiroyuki; Imano, Motohiro; Naitoh, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Akiyoshi; Tajiri, Takashi; Gochi, Akira; Suzuki, Michinari; Sakamoto, Junichi; Saji, Shigetoyo; Oka, Masaaki

    2016-09-01

    Lentinan (LNT) is a purified β-1, 3-glucan that augments immune responses. The present study was conducted to assess the efficacy of LNT in combination with S-1 as a first-line treatment for unresectable or recurrent gastric cancer. Eligible patients were randomly assigned to receive S-1 alone or S-1 plus LNT. The primary end-point was overall survival (OS). Secondary end-points were time-to-treatment failure (TTF), overall response rate (ORR), safety, quality of life (QOL), and biomarker. The percentages of LNT-binding monocytes in peripheral blood prior to treatment were analysed for the biomarker assessment. One hundred and fifty-four and 155 patients were randomly assigned to receive S-1 alone or S-1 plus LNT, respectively. The median OS was 13.8 and 9.9 months (P = 0.208), the median TTF was 4.3 and 2.6 months (P < 0.001), the ORR was 22.3% and 18.7% for the S-1 and S-1 plus LNT groups, respectively. The incidences of haematologic and non-haematologic adverse events were similar, and no significant changes in QOL scores were observed during the treatment in both groups. In a subpopulation of patients with LNT-binding monocytes ≥2%, patients who received more than two cycles of chemotherapy showed a longer survival time in the S-1 plus LNT group. OS did not improve and TTF was significantly worse in the S-1 plus LNT group as compared with the S-1-only group. This study showed no efficacy of LNT when combined with S-1 treatment in patients with unresectable or recurrent gastric cancer. UMIN 000000574. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Genetic characterization of three qnrS1-harbouring multidrug-resistance plasmids and qnrS1-containing transposons circulating in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Le, Vien; Nhu, Nguyen Thi Khanh; Cerdeno-Tarraga, Ana; Campbell, James I.; Tuyen, Ha Thanh; Nhu, Tran Do Hoang; Tam, Pham Thi Thanh; Schultsz, Constance; Thwaites, Guy; Thomson, Nicholas R.

    2015-01-01

    Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) refers to a family of closely related genes that confer decreased susceptibility to fluoroquinolones. PMQR genes are generally associated with integrons and/or plasmids that carry additional antimicrobial resistance genes active against a range of antimicrobials. In Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam, we have previously shown a high frequency of PMQR genes within commensal Enterobacteriaceae. However, there are limited available sequence data detailing the genetic context in which the PMQR genes reside, and a lack of understanding of how these genes spread across the Enterobacteriaceae. Here, we aimed to determine the genetic background facilitating the spread and maintenance of qnrS1, the dominant PMQR gene circulating in HCMC. We sequenced three qnrS1-carrying plasmids in their entirety to understand the genetic context of these qnrS1-embedded plasmids and also the association of qnrS1-mediated quinolone resistance with other antimicrobial resistance phenotypes. Annotation of the three qnrS1-containing plasmids revealed a qnrS1-containing transposon with a closely related structure. We screened 112 qnrS1-positive commensal Enterobacteriaceae isolated in the community and in a hospital in HCMC to detect the common transposon structure. We found the same transposon structure to be present in 71.4 % (45/63) of qnrS1-positive hospital isolates and in 36.7 % (18/49) of qnrS1-positive isolates from the community. The resulting sequence analysis of the qnrS1 environment suggested that qnrS1 genes are widely distributed and are mobilized on elements with a common genetic background. Our data add additional insight into mechanisms that facilitate resistance to multiple antimicrobials in Gram-negative bacteria in Vietnam. PMID:26272054

  3. A Prokaryotic S1P Lyase Degrades Extracellular S1P In Vitro and In Vivo: Implication for Treating Hyperproliferative Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Huwiler, Andrea; Bourquin, Florence; Kotelevets, Nataliya; Pastukhov, Oleksandr; Capitani, Guido; Grütter, Markus G.; Zangemeister-Wittke, Uwe

    2011-01-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) regulates a broad spectrum of fundamental cellular processes like proliferation, death, migration and cytokine production. Therefore, elevated levels of S1P may be causal to various pathologic conditions including cancer, fibrosis, inflammation, autoimmune diseases and aberrant angiogenesis. Here we report that S1P lyase from the prokaryote Symbiobacterium thermophilum (StSPL) degrades extracellular S1P in vitro and in blood. Moreover, we investigated its effect on cellular responses typical of fibrosis, cancer and aberrant angiogenesis using renal mesangial cells, endothelial cells, breast (MCF-7) and colon (HCT 116) carcinoma cells as disease models. In all cell types, wild-type StSPL, but not an inactive mutant, disrupted MAPK phosphorylation stimulated by exogenous S1P. Functionally, disruption of S1P receptor signaling by S1P depletion inhibited proliferation and expression of connective tissue growth factor in mesangial cells, proliferation, migration and VEGF expression in carcinoma cells, and proliferation and migration of endothelial cells. Upon intravenous injection of StSPL in mice, plasma S1P levels rapidly declined by 70% within 1 h and then recovered to normal 6 h after injection. Using the chicken chorioallantoic membrane model we further demonstrate that also under in vivo conditions StSPL, but not the inactive mutant, inhibited tumor cell-induced angiogenesis as an S1P-dependent process. Our data demonstrate that recombinant StSPL is active under extracellular conditions and holds promise as a new enzyme therapeutic for diseases associated with increased levels of S1P and S1P receptor signaling. PMID:21829623

  4. S-1 monotherapy versus S-1 combination therapy in gemcitabine-refractory advanced pancreatic cancer: A meta-analysis (PRISMA) of randomized control trials.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Sheng; Qie, Shuai; Yang, Liu; Yan, Qi; Ge, Linna; Wang, Zhongfeng

    2017-07-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is one of the most lethal digestive system tumors. Most new cases are diagnosed based on metastasis or local aggression and are known as "advanced PC." Recently, studies investigating S-1 have indicated that it has a better clinical curative effect on PC. We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy and safety of S-1 monotherapy compared with S-1 combination regimens in patients with gemcitabine (GEM)-refractory PC. Trials published between 1978 and 2016 were identified by an electronic search of public databases (Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library). All prospective studies were independently identified by 2 authors for inclusion. The response rate (RR), progression-free and overall survival (PFS and OS, respectively), and the primary toxicities were extracted for the meta-analysis. Four randomized controlled trials consisting of 623 patients were included in the analysis, among which 315 patients underwent S-1 monotherapy and 308 patients underwent S-1 combination therapy. The pooled data showed a significantly higher response rate and longer PFS in the S-1 combination group than in the S-1 monotherapy group (RR, 1.75; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.19-2.57; P = .005 and hazard ration [HR], 0.75; 95% CI, 0.62-0.91; P = .005). There were no significant differences in OS or adverse events. Compared with the S-1 monotherapy group, the S-1 combination group had a higher response rate and longer PFS. Both groups had few adverse events, which were balanced between the groups. The subgroup analysis suggested that S-1 combination regimens with leucovorin or irinotecan (CPT-11) provided promising efficacy. These promising combination regimens should be considered for patients with advanced PC who choose S-1 as their second-line therapy.

  5. L5-S1 disc degeneration and the anatomic parameters of the iliac crest: imaging study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong-Li; Wang, Xiang-Yang; Fang, Bi-Dong; Chi, Yong-Long; Xu, Hua-Zi; Wu, Li-Jun; Lin, Zhong-Ke

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the relationship between height ratio of the iliac crest to L4 (HR), width ratio of the iliac crest to L4 (WR) and L5-S1 disc degeneration. On T2-weighted sagittal images of the 50 randomly selected patients, two observers graded L5-S1 discs and some other parameters were measured. Then, relative signal intensity (RSI) of the L5-S1 nucleus pulposus was calculated. On anteroposterior and lateral radiographs of the same 50 patients' lumbar spine, the parameters such as the height of the iliac crest were measured and then HR and WR were calculated. Finally, HR, WR and the percentage of the sROM of L5-S1 in L1-S1 segments of the other 51 randomly selected patients were calculated. Positive correlations were found between HR, WR and RSI of the L5-S1 disc. Negative correlations were found between HR, WR and modified Pfirrmann scores of L5-S1 nucleus pulposus. A statistically significant negative correlation was found between HR and the percentage of sROM of L5-S1 in L1-S1 segments. Low HR and (or) WR were the risk factors for L5-S1 disc degeneration. High HR could reduce the percentage of sROM of L5-S1 in L1-S1 segments and high HR and (or) WR could reduce the incidence of L5-S1 disc degeneration.

  6. Chemical and Biological Properties of S-1-Propenyl-l-Cysteine in Aged Garlic Extract.

    PubMed

    Kodera, Yukihioro; Ushijima, Mitsuyasu; Amano, Hirotaka; Suzuki, Jun-Ichiro; Matsutomo, Toshiaki

    2017-03-31

    S-1-Propenyl-l-cysteine (S1PC) is a stereoisomer of S-1-Propenyl-l-cysteine (SAC), an important sulfur-containing amino acid that plays a role for the beneficial pharmacological effects of aged garlic extract (AGE). The existence of S1PC in garlic preparations has been known since the 1960's. However, there was no report regarding the biological and/or pharmacological activity of S1PC until 2016. Recently, we performed a series of studies to examine the chemical, biological, pharmacological and pharmacokinetic properties of S1PC, and obtained some interesting results. S1PC existed only in trace amounts in raw garlic, but its concentration increased almost up to the level similar of SAC through aging process of AGE. S1PC showed immunomodulatory effects in vitro and in vivo, and reduced blood pressure in a hypertensive animal model. A pharmacokinetic study revealed that S1PC was readily absorbed after oral administration in rats and dogs with bioavailability of 88-100%. Additionally, S1PC had little inhibitory influence on human cytochrome P450 activities, even at a concentration of 1 mM. Based on these findings, S1PC was suggested to be another important, pharmacologically active and safe component of AGE similar to SAC. In this review, we highlight some results from recent studies on S1PC and discuss the potential medicinal value of S1PC.

  7. Study on the anatomy of the lumbosacral anterior great vessels pertinent to L5/S1 anterior interbody surgery with computer tomography angiography.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liehua; Liang, Yong; Zhou, Qiang; Zhang, Hong; Wang, Haoming; Li, Songtao; Zhao, Chen; Hou, Tianyong; Liu, Ling

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the anatomy of the lumbosacral anterior great vessels using computer tomography (CT) angiography before L5/S1 anterior interbody surgery. Sixty-two adult patients were selected. The location of the abdominal aortic bifurcation and common iliac venous confluence in the lumbar vertebrae and the anatomic parameters of the iliac vascular space (e.g., distances from the included angle vertex of the iliac vascular space to the median sagittal plane and to the inferior boundary of L5 and distances between the left and right iliac vessels on the inferior boundary of L5 and on the superior boundary of S1) were analysed. Overall, 67.73% of the 62 cases had an abdominal aortic bifurcation located at L4 and L4/5 intervertebral disc; 61.29%, the common iliac venous confluence located at L5. The four distances mentioned above were 0.98 cm ± 0.38 cm, 2.01 cm ± 1.26 cm, 3.11 cm ± 1.35 cm and 4.34 cm ± 1.10 cm, respectively. A classification system of types A, B and C was developed. The calculated L5/S1 intervertebral space exposure percentages of types A, B and C were 32.21%, 82.58% and 54.68%, respectively. During L5/S1 anterior interbody surgery, type B intervertebral discs can be exposed conveniently, preventing injury of the iliac vessels, which was also observed in 54.68% and 32.21% of the type C and type A discs, respectively. Because the type A intervertebral disc has minimal exposure, the risk of iliac vascular injury is relatively high in these patients.

  8. Amorphous nanostructuralization in HOPG by 1014 W cm-2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    NISHIMURA, Yasuhiko; KITAGAWA, Yoneyoshi; MORI, Yoshitaka; ISHII, Katsuhiro; HANAYAMA, Ryohei; AZUMA, Hirozumi; HIOKI, Tatsumi; NISHI, Teppei; MOTOHIRO, Tomoyoshi; KOMEDA, Osamu; SEKINE, Takashi; SATO, Nakahiro; KURITA, Takashi; KAWASHIMA, Toshiyuki; KAN, Hirofumi; SUNAHARA, Atsushi; SENTOKU, Yasuhiko; MIURA, Eisuke

    2016-05-01

    This reports provide an amorphous nanostructuralization technique on the surface modification in Highly Oriented Pyrolytic Graphite (HOPG) by using a femtosecond laser. We showed, for the first time, that the surface of HOPG is changed to the amorphous nanostructuralization graphite by using a femtosecond laser-driven compression technique. Our results also suggest that the HOPG surface is changed until the deeper area from the surface by the laser-driven shock wave. A single shot of a femtosecond laser beam (1.27 ∼ 1.33×1014 Wcm∼2 in intensity, with 2 mm-diameter, and 110 fs in pulse width) is irradiated under the vacuum ambience onto a 2 mm-thick of HOPG. The calculated impact pressures on a sample was 8.3 ∼ 8.7 GPa. Crystal structure in the HOPG were analyzed using a Raman spectroscopy and an X-ray diffraction, those analyzing depth from the surface were 50 nm and 350 μm, respectively.

  9. Tank testing of a 2500-cm2 solar panel

    SciTech Connect

    Bever, R.S.; Staskus, J.

    1981-10-01

    A 50 cm by 50 cm solar array panel test patch was investigated for spacecraft charging and arcing effects. Bombardment with monochromatic electron was carried out. Some objectives of the test were: (1) to estimate at what voltage of electron bombardment arcing would be probable (2) to find whether the arc's energy would be tolerable or damagingly large (3) to try and separate thermal and photoeffects and, (4) to see whether materials used were such as to minimize arcing. Some conclusions were: In sunlight the tracking data relay satellite's solar panel which has ceria glass on the front and conductive paint on the backside is probably a good design for reducing charge-up. In a geomagnetic substorm simulated in testing there will be arcing at the interconnects during eclipse and transitions into and out of eclipse in testing especially in view of the very cold temperatures that will be reached by this lightweight array. Ceria-doped glass is preferred to fused silica glass for reducing charge build up. The Kapton bare patch should still be conductively painted. The differential voltages on the panel determine when arcing first begins, and the electron beam voltages vary depending upon whether the metallic structure is directly grounded or semifloating.

  10. Tank testing of a 2500-cm2 solar panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bever, R. S.; Staskus, J.

    1981-01-01

    A 50 cm by 50 cm solar array panel test patch was investigated for spacecraft charging and arcing effects. Bombardment with monochromatic electron was carried out. Some objectives of the test were: (1) to estimate at what voltage of electron bombardment arcing would be probable; (2) to find whether the arc's energy would be tolerable or damagingly large; (3) to try and separate thermal and photoeffects; and, (4) to see whether materials used were such as to minimize arcing. Some conclusions were: In sunlight the tracking data relay satellite's solar panel which has ceria glass on the front and conductive paint on the backside is probably a good design for reducing charge-up. In a geomagnetic substorm simulated in testing there will be arcing at the interconnects during eclipse and transitions into and out of eclipse in testing especially in view of the very cold temperatures that will be reached by this lightweight array. Ceria-doped glass is preferred to fused silica glass for reducing charge build up. The Kapton bare patch should still be conductively painted. The differential voltages on the panel determine when arcing first begins, and the electron beam voltages vary depending upon whether the metallic structure is directly grounded or semifloating.

  11. Retrospective comparison of S-1 plus cisplatin versus S-1 monotherapy for the treatment of advanced gastric cancer patients with positive peritoneal cytology but without gross peritoneal metastasis.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Izuma; Chin, Keisho; Matsushima, Tomohiro; Takahari, Daisuke; Ogura, Mariko; Shinozaki, Eiji; Suenaga, Mitsukuni; Ozaka, Masato; Wakatsuki, Takeru; Ichimura, Takashi; Hiroki, Osumi; Yamaguchi, Kensei

    2017-07-26

    Peritoneal cytology positive for carcinoma cells (CY+) is an independent poor prognostic factor in gastric cancer, and patients with CY+ are diagnosed with stage IV disease. However, there is no standard treatment strategy for CY+ gastric cancer, whereas combination chemotherapy with fluoropyrimidine and platinum has been established as the standard treatment for unresectable advanced gastric cancer or after R2 resection. Herein, we assessed whether adding cisplatin to S-1 (SP) could improve the outcome of CY+ gastric cancer patients, as compared to S-1 monotherapy. This retrospective study was conducted at a single Japanese institute between June 2005 and March 2014. Patients diagnosed with CY+ advanced gastric cancer and treated with S-1-based therapy were enrolled. Patients with incurable factors other than CY+ were excluded. Forty-four patients were enrolled; 25 and 19 were administered S-1 and SP, respectively. The 2-year survival rates were 52.0% [95% confidence interval (CI), 31.2-69.2%] and 52.6% (28.7-71.9%) in the S-1 and SP groups, respectively. The median overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were 28.2 and 15.6 months in the S-1 group and 24.0 and 18.8 months in the SP group, respectively; they were not significantly different. The relative dose intensities were 0.79 (S-1) in the S-1 group and 0.69 (S-1)/0.70 (cisplatin) in the SP group. Adding cisplatin to long-term S-1 monotherapy did not significantly improve the outcome of CY+ advanced gastric cancer patients.

  12. HDL-S1P: cardiovascular functions, disease-associated alterations, and therapeutic applications

    PubMed Central

    Levkau, Bodo

    2015-01-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive sphingolipid contained in High-density lipoproteins (HDL) and has drawn considerable attention in the lipoprotein field as numerous studies have demonstrated its contribution to several functions inherent to HDL. Some of them are partly and some entirely due to the S1P contained in HDL (HDL-S1P). Despite the presence of over 1000 different lipids in HDL, S1P stands out as it possesses its own cell surface receptors through which it exercises key physiological functions. Most of the S1P in human plasma is associated with HDL, and the amount of HDL-S1P influences the quality and quantity of HDL-dependent functions. The main binding partner of S1P in HDL is apolipoprotein M but others may also exist particularly under conditions of acute S1P elevations. HDL not only exercise functions through their S1P content but have also an impact on genuine S1P signaling by influencing S1P bioactivity and receptor presentation. HDL-S1P content is altered in human diseases such as atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, renal insufficiency and diabetes mellitus. Low HDL-S1P has also been linked to impaired HDL functions associated with these disorders. Although the pathophysiological and molecular reasons for such disease-associated shifts in HDL-S1P are little understood, there have been successful approaches to circumvent their adverse implications by pharmacologically increasing HDL-S1P as means to improve HDL function. This mini-review will cover the current understanding of the contribution of HDL-S1P to physiological HDL function, its alteration in disease and ways for its restoration to correct HDL dysfunction. PMID:26539121

  13. HDL-S1P: cardiovascular functions, disease-associated alterations, and therapeutic applications.

    PubMed

    Levkau, Bodo

    2015-01-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive sphingolipid contained in High-density lipoproteins (HDL) and has drawn considerable attention in the lipoprotein field as numerous studies have demonstrated its contribution to several functions inherent to HDL. Some of them are partly and some entirely due to the S1P contained in HDL (HDL-S1P). Despite the presence of over 1000 different lipids in HDL, S1P stands out as it possesses its own cell surface receptors through which it exercises key physiological functions. Most of the S1P in human plasma is associated with HDL, and the amount of HDL-S1P influences the quality and quantity of HDL-dependent functions. The main binding partner of S1P in HDL is apolipoprotein M but others may also exist particularly under conditions of acute S1P elevations. HDL not only exercise functions through their S1P content but have also an impact on genuine S1P signaling by influencing S1P bioactivity and receptor presentation. HDL-S1P content is altered in human diseases such as atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, renal insufficiency and diabetes mellitus. Low HDL-S1P has also been linked to impaired HDL functions associated with these disorders. Although the pathophysiological and molecular reasons for such disease-associated shifts in HDL-S1P are little understood, there have been successful approaches to circumvent their adverse implications by pharmacologically increasing HDL-S1P as means to improve HDL function. This mini-review will cover the current understanding of the contribution of HDL-S1P to physiological HDL function, its alteration in disease and ways for its restoration to correct HDL dysfunction.

  14. Moesin Controls Clathrin-Mediated S1PR1 Internalization in T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nomachi, Akira; Yoshinaga, Masanori; Liu, Jaron; Kanchanawong, Pakorn; Tohyama, Kiyoshi; Thumkeo, Dean; Watanabe, Takeshi; Narumiya, Shuh; Hirata, Takako

    2013-01-01

    The lipid mediator sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) regulates a wide range of cellular activities, including vascular maturation, angiogenesis, and immune-cell trafficking. Among the five known receptors for S1P (S1PR1-S1PR5), S1PR1 is a critical regulator of lymphocyte trafficking: its signaling is required for lymphocyte egress from lymphoid organs, while its down-modulation by agonist-induced internalization is a prerequisite for lymphocyte entry into lymphoid organs from the bloodstream. Despite the importance of S1PR1 down-regulation in determining lymphocyte behavior, the molecular mechanism of its internalization in lymphocytes has not been defined. Here we show that agonist-induced S1PR1 internalization in T cells occurs via clathrin-mediated endocytosis and is regulated by moesin, an ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM) family member. In S1P-stimulated T cells, S1PR1 relocalized within clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs) and early endosomes, and S1PR1 internalization was blocked when clathrin was pharmacologically inhibited. Stimulating moesin-deficient T cells with S1P failed to induce S1PR1 internalization and CCV formation. Furthermore, treating moesin-deficient mice with FTY720, an S1P receptor agonist known to internalize S1PR1, caused delayed lymphopenia, and lymphocytes isolated from FTY720-treated moesin-deficient mice still responded to S1P ex vivo in chemotaxis assays. These results reveal a novel role for moesin in regulating clathrin-dependent S1PR1 internalization through CCV formation. PMID:24358210

  15. 26 CFR 31.3121(s)-1 - Concurrent employment by related corporations with common paymaster.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... with common paymaster. 31.3121(s)-1 Section 31.3121(s)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Revenue Code of 1954) General Provisions § 31.3121(s)-1 Concurrent employment by related corporations with... this section. Section 3121(s) and this section apply only to remuneration disbursed in the form of...

  16. 26 CFR 31.3121(s)-1 - Concurrent employment by related corporations with common paymaster.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... with common paymaster. 31.3121(s)-1 Section 31.3121(s)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Revenue Code of 1954) General Provisions § 31.3121(s)-1 Concurrent employment by related corporations with... this section. Section 3121(s) and this section apply only to remuneration disbursed in the form of...

  17. 26 CFR 31.3121(s)-1 - Concurrent employment by related corporations with common paymaster.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... with common paymaster. 31.3121(s)-1 Section 31.3121(s)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Revenue Code of 1954) General Provisions § 31.3121(s)-1 Concurrent employment by related corporations with... this section. Section 3121(s) and this section apply only to remuneration disbursed in the form of...

  18. 26 CFR 31.3121(s)-1 - Concurrent employment by related corporations with common paymaster.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... with common paymaster. 31.3121(s)-1 Section 31.3121(s)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Revenue Code of 1954) General Provisions § 31.3121(s)-1 Concurrent employment by related corporations with... this section. Section 3121(s) and this section apply only to remuneration disbursed in the form of...

  19. The Clinically-tested S1P Receptor Agonists, FTY720 and BAF312, Demonstrate Subtype-Specific Bradycardia (S1P1) and Hypertension (S1P3) in Rat

    PubMed Central

    Fryer, Ryan M.; Muthukumarana, Akalushi; Harrison, Paul C.; Nodop Mazurek, Suzanne; Chen, Rong Rhonda; Harrington, Kyle E.; Dinallo, Roger M.; Horan, Joshua C.; Patnaude, Lori; Modis, Louise K.; Reinhart, Glenn A.

    2012-01-01

    Sphingosine-1-phospate (S1P) and S1P receptor agonists elicit mechanism-based effects on cardiovascular function in vivo. Indeed, FTY720 (non-selective S1PX receptor agonist) produces modest hypertension in patients (2–3 mmHg in 1-yr trial) as well as acute bradycardia independent of changes in blood pressure. However, the precise receptor subtypes responsible is controversial, likely dependent upon the cardiovascular response in question (e.g. bradycardia, hypertension), and perhaps even species-dependent since functional differences in rodent, rabbit, and human have been suggested. Thus, we characterized the S1P receptor subtype specificity for each compound in vitro and, in vivo, the cardiovascular effects of FTY720 and the more selective S1P1,5 agonist, BAF312, were tested during acute i.v. infusion in anesthetized rats and after oral administration for 10 days in telemetry-instrumented conscious rats. Acute i.v. infusion of FTY720 (0.1, 0.3, 1.0 mg/kg/20 min) or BAF312 (0.5, 1.5, 5.0 mg/kg/20 min) elicited acute bradycardia in anesthetized rats demonstrating an S1P1 mediated mechanism-of-action. However, while FTY720 (0.5, 1.5, 5.0 mg/kg/d) elicited dose-dependent hypertension after multiple days of oral administration in rat at clinically relevant plasma concentrations (24-hr mean blood pressure = 8.4, 12.8, 16.2 mmHg above baseline vs. 3 mmHg in vehicle controls), BAF312 (0.3, 3.0, 30.0 mg/kg/d) had no significant effect on blood pressure at any dose tested suggesting that hypertension produced by FTY720 is mediated S1P3 receptors. In summary, in vitro selectivity results in combination with studies performed in anesthetized and conscious rats administered two clinically tested S1P agonists, FTY720 or BAF312, suggest that S1P1 receptors mediate bradycardia while hypertension is mediated by S1P3 receptor activation. PMID:23285242

  20. S1P3 confers differential S1P migration by autoreactive and non-autoreactive immature B cells and is required for normal B cell development

    PubMed Central

    Donovan, Erin E.; Pelanda, Roberta; Torres, Raul M.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY During B cell development, immature B cell fate is determined by whether the B cell antigen receptor is engaged in the bone marrow. Immature B cells that are non-autoreactive continue maturation and emigrate from the marrow whereas autoreactive immature B cells remain and are tolerized. However, the microenvironment where these events occur and the chemoattractants responsible for immature B cell trafficking within and out of the bone marrow remain largely undefined. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a chemoattractant that directs lymphocyte trafficking and thymocyte egress and in this study we investigated whether S1P contributed to B cell development, egress and positioning within the bone marrow. Our findings show that immature B cells are chemotactic towards S1P but that this response is dependent on antigen receptor specificity: non-autoreactive, but not autoreactive, immature B cells migrate towards S1P and are shown to require S1P3 receptor for this response. Despite this response, S1P3 is shown not to facilitate immature B cell egress but is required for normal B cell development including the positioning of transitional B cells within bone marrow sinusoids. These data indicate that S1P3 signaling directs immature B cells to a bone marrow microenvironment important for both tolerance induction and maturation. PMID:20039302

  1. The phylogeny of C/S1 bZIP transcription factors reveals a shared algal ancestry and the pre-angiosperm translational regulation of S1 transcripts.

    PubMed

    Peviani, Alessia; Lastdrager, Jeroen; Hanson, Johannes; Snel, Berend

    2016-07-26

    Basic leucine zippers (bZIPs) form a large plant transcription factor family. C and S1 bZIP groups can heterodimerize, fulfilling crucial roles in seed development and stress response. S1 sequences also harbor a unique regulatory mechanism, termed Sucrose-Induced Repression of Translation (SIRT). The conservation of both C/S1 bZIP interactions and SIRT remains poorly characterized in non-model species, leaving their evolutionary origin uncertain and limiting crop research. In this work, we explored recently published plant sequencing data to establish a detailed phylogeny of C and S1 bZIPs, investigating their intertwined role in plant evolution, and the origin of SIRT. Our analyses clarified C and S1 bZIP orthology relationships in angiosperms, and identified S1 sequences in gymnosperms. We experimentally showed that the gymnosperm orthologs are regulated by SIRT, tracing back the origin of this unique regulatory mechanism to the ancestor of seed plants. Additionally, we discovered an earlier S ortholog in the charophyte algae Klebsormidium flaccidum, together with a C ortholog. This suggests that C and S groups originated by duplication from a single algal proto-C/S ancestor. Based on our observations, we propose a model wherein the C/S1 bZIP dimer network evolved in seed plants from pre-existing C/S bZIP interactions.

  2. Therapeutic efficacy and safety of S-1-based combination therapy compare with S-1 monotherapy following gemcitabine failure in pancreatic cancer: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Sinan; Zhang, Yuan; Zhou, Xiaohu; Zhou, Dongkai; Yang, Qifan; Ju, Bingjie; Zhao, Xinyi; Hu, Zhenhua; Xie, Haiyang; Zhou, Lin; Zheng, Shusen; Wang, Weilin

    2016-01-01

    S-1 monotherapy is widely used following gemcitabine failure in pancreatic cancer, especially in East Asia. We performed a meta-analysis to determine whether S-1-based combination therapy had better efficacy and safety compared with S-1 monotherapy. We searched Pubmed, Web of Science, ClinicalTrials.gov, and Cochrane CENTRAL and subsequently included five trials with a total of 690 patients. The combined hazard ratio (HR) or risk ratio; the corresponding 95% confidence intervals of progression-free survival, overall survival, and overall response rate; and grade 3–4 adverse events were examined. Five randomized controlled trials were included. Meta-analysis demonstrated S-1-based combination therapy significantly increased progression-free survival (HR = 0.78, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.67–0.90, p = 0.0009) and overall response rate (HR = 1.74, 95% CI: 1.20–2.52, p = 0.003). Evidence was insufficient to confirm that S-1-based combined regimens improved overall survival (HR = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.75–1.00, p = 0.05). There was no significant difference in adverse events between the two treatment arms. In conclusion, S-1-based combination therapy improved progression-free survival and overall response rate compared to S-1 monotherapy with acceptable toxicity. PMID:27833144

  3. Therapeutic efficacy and safety of S-1-based combination therapy compare with S-1 monotherapy following gemcitabine failure in pancreatic cancer: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Sinan; Zhang, Yuan; Zhou, Xiaohu; Zhou, Dongkai; Yang, Qifan; Ju, Bingjie; Zhao, Xinyi; Hu, Zhenhua; Xie, Haiyang; Zhou, Lin; Zheng, Shusen; Wang, Weilin

    2016-11-11

    S-1 monotherapy is widely used following gemcitabine failure in pancreatic cancer, especially in East Asia. We performed a meta-analysis to determine whether S-1-based combination therapy had better efficacy and safety compared with S-1 monotherapy. We searched Pubmed, Web of Science, ClinicalTrials.gov, and Cochrane CENTRAL and subsequently included five trials with a total of 690 patients. The combined hazard ratio (HR) or risk ratio; the corresponding 95% confidence intervals of progression-free survival, overall survival, and overall response rate; and grade 3-4 adverse events were examined. Five randomized controlled trials were included. Meta-analysis demonstrated S-1-based combination therapy significantly increased progression-free survival (HR = 0.78, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.67-0.90, p = 0.0009) and overall response rate (HR = 1.74, 95% CI: 1.20-2.52, p = 0.003). Evidence was insufficient to confirm that S-1-based combined regimens improved overall survival (HR = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.75-1.00, p = 0.05). There was no significant difference in adverse events between the two treatment arms. In conclusion, S-1-based combination therapy improved progression-free survival and overall response rate compared to S-1 monotherapy with acceptable toxicity.

  4. The phylogeny of C/S1 bZIP transcription factors reveals a shared algal ancestry and the pre-angiosperm translational regulation of S1 transcripts

    PubMed Central

    Peviani, Alessia; Lastdrager, Jeroen; Hanson, Johannes; Snel, Berend

    2016-01-01

    Basic leucine zippers (bZIPs) form a large plant transcription factor family. C and S1 bZIP groups can heterodimerize, fulfilling crucial roles in seed development and stress response. S1 sequences also harbor a unique regulatory mechanism, termed Sucrose-Induced Repression of Translation (SIRT). The conservation of both C/S1 bZIP interactions and SIRT remains poorly characterized in non-model species, leaving their evolutionary origin uncertain and limiting crop research. In this work, we explored recently published plant sequencing data to establish a detailed phylogeny of C and S1 bZIPs, investigating their intertwined role in plant evolution, and the origin of SIRT. Our analyses clarified C and S1 bZIP orthology relationships in angiosperms, and identified S1 sequences in gymnosperms. We experimentally showed that the gymnosperm orthologs are regulated by SIRT, tracing back the origin of this unique regulatory mechanism to the ancestor of seed plants. Additionally, we discovered an earlier S ortholog in the charophyte algae Klebsormidium flaccidum, together with a C ortholog. This suggests that C and S groups originated by duplication from a single algal proto-C/S ancestor. Based on our observations, we propose a model wherein the C/S1 bZIP dimer network evolved in seed plants from pre-existing C/S bZIP interactions. PMID:27457880

  5. S1P differentially regulates migration of human ovarian cancer and human ovarian surface epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dongmei; Zhao, Zhenwen; Caperell-Grant, Andrea; Yang, Gong; Mok, Samuel C.; Liu, Jinsong; Bigsby, Robert M.; Xu, Yan

    2009-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) arises from the epithelial layer covering the surface of ovaries and intra-peritoneal metastasis is commonly observed at diagnosis. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), a bioactive lipid signaling molecule, is potentially involved in EOC tumorigenesis. We have found that S1P is elevated in human EOC ascites. We show that physiologically relevant concentrations of S1P stimulate migration and invasion of EOC cells, but inhibit migration of human ovarian surface epithelial (HOSE) cells. In addition, S1P inhibits lysophosphatidic acid (LPA)-induced cell migration in HOSE, but not in EOC cells. We have provided the first line of evidence that the expression levels of S1P receptor subtypes are not the only determinants for how cells respond to S1P. Even though S1P1 is expressed and functional in HOSE cells, the inhibitory effect mediated by S1P2 is dominant in those cells. The cellular pre-existing stress fibers are also important determinants for the migratory response to S1P. Differential S1P-induced morphology changes are noted in EOC and HOSE cells. Pre-existing stress fibers in HOSE cells are further enhanced by S1P treatment, resulting in the negative migratory response to S1P. By contrast, EOC cells lost stress fibers and S1P treatment induces filopodium-like structures at cell edges, which correlates with increased cell motility. In addition, inhibition of the protein kinase C pathway is likely to be involved in the inhibitory effect of S1P on LPA-induced cell migration in HOSE cells. These findings are important for the development of new therapeutics targeting S1P and LPA in EOC. PMID:18645009

  6. Phytosphingosine 1-phosphate: a high affinity ligand for the S1P(4)/Edg-6 receptor.

    PubMed

    Candelore, Mari Rios; Wright, Michael J; Tota, Laurie M; Milligan, James; Shei, Gan-ju; Bergstrom, James D; Mandala, Suzanne M

    2002-09-27

    It has been reported recently that the phosphorylated form of the immunomodulator FTY720 activates sphingosine 1-phosphate G protein-coupled receptors. Therefore, understanding the biology of this new class of receptors will be important in clarifying the immunological function of bioactive lysosphingolipid ligands. The S1P(4) receptor has generated interest due to its lymphoid tissue distribution. While the S1P(4) receptor binds the prototypical ligand, S1P, a survey of other lysosphingolipids demonstrated that 4D-hydroxysphinganine 1-phosphate, more commonly known as phytosphingosine 1-phosphate (PhS1P), binds to S1P(4) with higher affinity. Using radiolabeled S1P (S133P), the affinity of PhS1P for the S1P(4) receptor is 1.6nM, while that of S1P is nearly 50-fold lower (119+/-20nM). Radiolabeled PhS1P proved to be superior to S133P in routine binding assays due to improved signal-to-noise ratio. The present study demonstrates the utility of a novel radiolabeled probe, PhS133P, for in vitro studies of the S1P(4) receptor pharmacology.

  7. Synthesis and SAR studies of benzyl ether derivatives as potent orally active S1P₁ agonists.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Takashi; Suzuki, Keisuke; Nakamura, Tsuyoshi; Goto, Taiji; Sekiguchi, Yukiko; Ikeda, Takuya; Fukuda, Takeshi; Takemoto, Toshiyasu; Mizuno, Yumiko; Kimura, Takako; Kawase, Yumi; Nara, Futoshi; Kagari, Takashi; Shimozato, Takaichi; Yahara, Chizuko; Inaba, Shinichi; Honda, Tomohiro; Izumi, Takashi; Tamura, Masakazu; Nishi, Takahide

    2014-08-01

    We report herein the synthesis and structure-activity relationships (SAR) of a series of benzyl ether compounds as an S1P₁ receptor modulator. From our SAR studies, the installation of substituents onto the central benzene ring of 2a was revealed to potently influence the S1P₁ and S1P₃ agonistic activities, in particular, an ethyl group on the 2-position afforded satisfactory S1P₁/S1P₃ selectivity. These changes of the S1P₁ and S1P₃ agonistic activities caused by the alteration of substituents on the 2-position were reasonably explained by a docking study using an S1P₁ X-ray crystal structure and S1P₃ homology modeling. We found that compounds 2b and 2e had a potent in vivo immunosuppressive efficacy along with acceptable S1P₁/S1P₃ selectivity, and confirmed that these compounds had less in vivo bradycardia risk through the evaluation of heart rate change after oral administration of the compounds (30 mg/kg, p.o.) in rats.

  8. S1P lyase in skeletal muscle regeneration and satellite cell activation: exposing the hidden lyase.

    PubMed

    Saba, Julie D; de la Garza-Rodea, Anabel S

    2013-01-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive sphingolipid whose actions are essential for many physiological processes including angiogenesis, lymphocyte trafficking and development. In addition, S1P serves as a muscle trophic factor that enables efficient muscle regeneration. This is due in part to S1P's ability to activate quiescent muscle stem cells called satellite cells (SCs) that are needed for muscle repair. However, the molecular mechanism by which S1P activates SCs has not been well understood. Further, strategies for harnessing S1P signaling to recruit SCs for therapeutic benefit have been lacking. S1P is irreversibly catabolized by S1P lyase (SPL), a highly conserved enzyme that catalyzes the cleavage of S1P at carbon bond C(2-3), resulting in formation of hexadecenal and ethanolamine-phosphate. SPL enhances apoptosis through substrate- and product-dependent events, thereby regulating cellular responses to chemotherapy, radiation and ischemia. SPL is undetectable in resting murine skeletal muscle. However, we recently found that SPL is dynamically upregulated in skeletal muscle after injury. SPL upregulation occurred in the context of a tightly orchestrated genetic program that resulted in a transient S1P signal in response to muscle injury. S1P activated quiescent SCs via a sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 2 (S1P2)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3)-dependent pathway, thereby facilitating skeletal muscle regeneration. Mdx mice, which serve as a model for muscular dystrophy (MD), exhibited skeletal muscle SPL upregulation and S1P deficiency. Pharmacological SPL inhibition raised skeletal muscle S1P levels, enhanced SC recruitment and improved mdx skeletal muscle regeneration. These findings reveal how S1P can activate SCs and indicate that SPL suppression may provide a therapeutic strategy for myopathies. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Advances in Lysophospholipid Research.

  9. Randomized phase II study of gemcitabine plus S-1 combination therapy vs. S-1 in advanced biliary tract cancer: Japan Clinical Oncology Group Study (JCOG0805).

    PubMed

    Takashima, Atsuo; Morizane, Chigusa; Ishii, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Kenichi; Fukuda, Haruhiko; Okusaka, Takuji; Furuse, Junji

    2010-12-01

    A randomized Phase II selection design trial comparing gemcitabine plus S-1 combination therapy with S-1 monotherapy for chemo-naïve unresectable or recurrent biliary tract cancer patients was started in Japan. The aim of this trial is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the two regimens and to determine which is more promising as a test arm regimen to be compared with the current standard regimen, gemcitabine plus cisplatin, in a subsequent Phase III trial. Patients with unresectable or recurrent biliary tract cancer are randomized to either gemcitabine plus S-1 combination therapy arm or S-1 monotherapy arm. A total of 100 patients will be accrued for this study from 18 institutions over 1 year. The primary endpoint is the proportion of 1-year overall survival, and the secondary endpoints are progression-free survival, response rate and adverse events.

  10. Helicobacter pylori vacA s1a and s1b alleles from clinical isolates from different regions of Chile show a distinct geographic distribution

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, MI; Valdivia, A; Martínez, P; Palacios, JL; Harris, P; Novales, J; Garrido, E; Valderrama, D; Shilling, C; Kirberg, A; Hebel, E; Fierro, J; Bravo, R; Siegel, F; Leon, G; Klapp, G; Venegas, A

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To establish the most common vacA alleles in Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) strains isolated from Chilean patients and its relationship with gastritis and gastroduodenal ulcers. METHODS: Two hundred and forty five H pylori clinical isolates were obtained from 79 biopsies from Chilean infected patients suffering from gastrointestinal diseases. An average of 2-3 strains per patient was isolated and the vacA genotype was analyzed by PCR and 3% agarose electrophoresis. Some genotypes were checked by DNA sequencing. RESULTS: The most prevalent vacA genotype in Chilean patients was s1b m1 (76%), followed by s1a m1 (21%). In contrast, the s2 m2 genotype was scarcely represented (3%). The s1b m1 genotype was found most frequently linked to gastropathies (P<0.05) rather than ulcers. Ulcers were found more commonly in male and older patients. Curiously, patients living in cities located North and far South of Santiago, the capital and largest Chilean city, carried almost exclusively strains with the s1b m1 genotype. In contrast, patients from Santiago and cities located South of Santiago carried strains with either one or both s1a m1 and s1b m1 genotypes. Regarding the s2 m2 genotype, comparison with GenBank sequences revealed that Chilean s2 sequence was identical to those of Australian, American, and Colombian strains but quite different from those of Alaska and India. CONCLUSION: Differences in geographic distribution of the s and m vacA alleles in Chile and a relationship of s1b m1 genotype with gastritis were found. Sequence data in part support a hispanic origin for the vacA genotype. Asymmetric distribution of genotypes s1b m1 and s2 m2 recedes H Pylori strain distribution in Spain and Portugal. PMID:16419167

  11. Cost-effectiveness analysis of gemcitabine, S-1 and gemcitabine plus S-1 for treatment of advanced pancreatic cancer based on GEST study.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jing; Zhao, Rongce; Wen, Feng; Zhang, Pengfei; Tang, Ruilei; Du, Zedong; He, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Jian; Li, Qiu

    2015-04-01

    Gemcitabine (GEM) alone, S-1 alone and gemcitabine plus S-1 (GS) have shown a marginal clinical benefit for the treatment of advanced pancreatic cancer. However, there is no clearly defined optimal cost-effectiveness treatment. The objective of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of GEM alone, S-1 alone and GS for the treatment of advanced pancreatic cancer based on GEST study for public payers. A decision model compared GEM alone, S-1 alone and GS. Primary base case data were identified using the GEST study and the literatures. Costs were estimated from West China Hospital, Sichuan University, China, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were calculated. Survival benefits were reported in quality-adjusted life-months (QALMs). Sensitive analyses were performed by varying potentially modifiable parameters of the model. The base case analysis showed that the GEM cost $21,912 and yielded survival of 6.93 QALMs, S-1 cost $19,371 and yielded survival of 7.90 QALMs and GS cost $22,943 and yielded survival of 7.46 QALMs in the entire treatment. The one-way sensitivity analyses showed that the ICER of S-1 was driven mostly by the S-1 group utility score of stable state compared with GEM, and the GEM group utility score of progressed state played a key role on the ICER of GS compared with GEM. S-1 represents an attractive cost-effective treatment for advanced pancreatic cancer, given the favorable cost per QALM and improvement in clinical efficacy, especially the limited available treatment options.

  12. Post-marketing safety evaluation of S-1 in patients with inoperable or recurrent breast cancer: especially in patients treated with S-1 + trastuzumab.

    PubMed

    Saito, Yuki; Oshitanai, Risa; Terao, Mayako; Terada, Mizuho; Tsuda, Banri; Okamura, Takuho; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Tokuda, Yutaka

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the safety of S-1 in Japanese in inoperable or recurrent breast cancer patients. A prospective post-marketing surveillance was performed at 313 sites in Japan in patients with inoperable or recurrent breast cancer treated with S-1. We examined 1361 patients between January 2006 and December 2007 with regard to the incidence of adverse drug reactions graded by the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE), version 3.0. At least one adverse drug reaction was encountered by 858 patients, with an overall incidence of 63.0% (858/1361). The incidence of Grade 3 or higher adverse drug reactions in a descending order was 14.7% (200/1361). In this study, the most common combination drug was trastuzumab. The overall incidence of adverse drug reactions was 63.5% (431/679 patients) in patients treated with S-1 alone, and 55.9% (66/118 patients) in patients treated with S-1 + trastuzumab. Monotherapy with S-1 or combination therapy with S-1 + trastuzumab was well tolerated for inoperable or recurrent breast cancer patients.

  13. Factor Xa inhibitors: S1 binding interactions of a series of N-{(3S)-1-[(1S)-1-methyl-2-morpholin-4-yl-2-oxoethyl]-2-oxopyrrolidin-3-yl}sulfonamides.

    PubMed

    Chan, Chuen; Borthwick, Alan D; Brown, David; Burns-Kurtis, Cynthia L; Campbell, Matthew; Chaudry, Laiq; Chung, Chun-wa; Convery, Máire A; Hamblin, J Nicole; Johnstone, Lisa; Kelly, Henry A; Kleanthous, Savvas; Patikis, Angela; Patel, Champa; Pateman, Anthony J; Senger, Stefan; Shah, Gita P; Toomey, John R; Watson, Nigel S; Weston, Helen E; Whitworth, Caroline; Young, Robert J; Zhou, Ping

    2007-04-05

    Factor Xa inhibitory activities for a series of N-{(3S)-1-[(1S)-1-methyl-2-morpholin-4-yl-2-oxoethyl]-2-oxopyrrolidin-3-yl}sulfonamides with different P1 groups are described. These data provide insight into binding interactions within the S1 primary specificity pocket; rationales are presented for the derived SAR on the basis of electronic interactions through crystal structures of fXa-ligand complexes and molecular modeling studies. A good correlation between in vitro anticoagulant activities with lipophilicity and the extent of human serum albumin binding is observed within this series of potent fXa inhibitors. Pharmacokinetic profiles in rat and dog, together with selectivity over other trypsin-like serine proteases, identified 1f as a candidate for further evaluation.

  14. Ribosome-messenger recognition: mRNA target sites for ribosomal protein S1.

    PubMed Central

    Boni, I V; Isaeva, D M; Musychenko, M L; Tzareva, N V

    1991-01-01

    Ribosomal protein S1 is known to play an important role in translational initiation, being directly involved in recognition and binding of mRNAs by 30S ribosomal particles. Using a specially developed procedure based on efficient crosslinking of S1 to mRNA induced by UV irradiation, we have identified S1 binding sites on several phage RNAs in preinitiation complexes. Targets for S1 on Q beta and fr RNAs are localized upstream from the coat protein gene and contain oligo(U)-sequences. In the case of Q beta RNA, this S1 binding site overlaps the S-site for Q beta replicase and the site for S1 binding within a binary complex. It is reasonable that similar U-rich sequences represent S1 binding sites on bacterial mRNAs. To test this idea we have used E. coli ssb mRNA prepared in vitro with the T7 promoter/RNA polymerase system. By the methods of toeprinting, enzymatic footprinting, and UV crosslinking we have shown that binding of the ssb mRNA to 30S ribosomes is S1-dependent. The oligo(U)-sequence preceding the SD domain was found to be the target for S1. We propose that S1 binding sites, represented by pyrimidine-rich sequences upstream from the SD region, serve as determinants involved in recognition of mRNA by the ribosome. Images PMID:2011495

  15. Decreased neutralizing antigenicity in IBV S1 protein expressed from mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Andoh, Kiyohiko; Suenaga, Kiyotaka; Sakaguchi, Masashi; Yamazaki, Kenichi; Honda, Takashi

    2015-10-02

    We evaluated the antigenicity of recombinant infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) S1 protein expressed in mammalian cells. Recombinant S1 was expressed as a secreted protein fused with a trimerization motif peptide, then purified using Ni Sepharose. The purified protein was analyzed by Western blotting, mixed with oil adjuvant, and administered to 29-day-old specific-pathogen-free chickens. Six weeks after immunization, anti-IBV neutralizing titer and anti-S1 ELISA titer were determined; immunized chickens then were inoculated with IBV via the trachea and ciliary activity was observed. Results showed that the recombinant S1 protein was highly glycosylated, and the neutralizing antigenicity of recombinant S1 protein was lower than that of inactivated virus. However, anti-S1 ELISA indicated that the recombinant S1 protein induced antibodies against S1. These results suggest that the recombinant S1 may retain non-neutralizing epitopes but have unnatural glycosylation pattern and conformation, resulting in lacking neutralizing conformational epitopes. In conclusion, the neutralizing antigenicity of recombinant S1 protein expressed from mammalian cells was decreased, and was not sufficient to induce neutralizing antibodies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A novel synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of a potential dopamine D1/D2 agonist: 1-propyl-1,2,3,4,4a,5,10,10a-octahydrobenzo[g]quinoline-6,7-diol.

    PubMed

    Liu, Danyang; Dijkstra, Durk; de Vries, Jan B; Wikström, Håkan V

    2008-03-15

    Previously, we have demonstrated that enone prodrugs of dopaminergic catecholamines represent a new type of dopamine (DA) agonist. Trans-1-propyl-1,2,3,4,4a,5,10,10a-octahydrobenzo[g]quinoline-6,7-diol (TL-334), the active form of trans-1-propyl-2,3,4,4a,5,7,8,9,10,10a-decahydro-1H-benzo[g]quinolin-6-one (GMC-6650), in vivo showed an extremely potent dopaminergic activity. Here, we report a novel synthesis and a pharmacological evaluation of TL-334 by means of microdialysis.

  17. Growth and optoelectronic characteristic of n-Si/p-CuIn(S 1-xSe x) 2 thin-film solar cell by solution growth technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavhan, S.; Sharma, R.

    2006-07-01

    The p-CuIn(S 1-xSe x) 2 (CISS) thin films have been grown on n-Si substrate by solution growth technique. The deposition parameters, such as pH (10.5), deposition time (60 min), deposition temperature (50 °C), and concentration of bath solution (0.1 M) were optimized. Elemental analysis of the p-CuIn(S 1-xSe x) 2 thin film was confirmed by energy-dispersive analysis of X-ray (EDAX). The SEM study of absorber layer shows the uniform morphology of film as well as the continuous smooth deposition onto the n-Si substrates, whose grain size is 130 nm. CuIn(S 1-xSe x) 2 ( x=0.5) reveals (1 1 2) orientation peak and exhibits the chalcopyrite structure with lattice constant a=5.28 Å and c=11.45 Å. The J- V characteristics were measured in dark and light. The device parameters have been calculated for solar cell fabrication, V=411.09 mV, and J=14.55 mA. FF=46.55% and η=4.64% under an illumination of 60 mW/cm 2. The J- V characteristics of the device under dark condition were also studied and the ideality factor was calculated, which is equal to 2.2 for n-Si/p-CuIn(S 0.5Se 0.5) 2 heterojunction thin film.

  18. STS-112 S1 Truss is transported to the payload canister

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- An overhead crane lifts the S1 Integrated Truss Structure from its workstand. The S1 will be placed in the payload canister for transport it to Atlantis. The first starboard truss segment, the S1 will be attached to the Central truss segment, the S0 Truss, on the International Space Station during mission STS-112. Atlantis is scheduled to launch no earlier than Oct. 2.

  19. Mechanisms of anti-leukemic activity of the Bcl-2 homology domain-3 mimetic S1.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yubo; Li, Zhiqiang; Song, Ting; Xue, Zuguang; Zhang, Zhichao

    2013-09-01

    Most of leukemia exhibits inherent overexpressed Bcl-2-like proteins. Small molecule S1 is a BH3 mimetic discovered by our previous studies. The aim of this study is to dissect the details of apoptosis signaling induced by S1 in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) cells and to provide a molecular basis for the use of S1 in AML treatment. The anti-leukemic activity of S1 was evaluated in three cultured AML cell lines and eight patient samples. S1 induced apoptosis via an intrinsic apoptosis pathway by the disruption of protein-protein interactions of Bcl-2 family members and triggered the activation of Bax and Bak in AML cells. For the first time, we report that S1 can release pro-apoptotic protein from Bcl-XL and selectively inhibits colony formation of primary AML cells. Bak activation and release determined S1 sensitivity in AML cells. Furthermore, S1-induced apoptosis was largely reduced in cells with shRNA-mediated downregulation of Bak but not Bax. The combination of S1 with PD98059 can inhibit Bcl-2 phosphorylation and enhance Bak release from Bcl-2. Our study identified Bak as a key mediator of S1-induced intrinsic apoptosis in AML cells. Moreover, our data suggest that Bcl-2 phosphorylation plays an anti-apoptotic role in S1-induced apoptosis. This study could contribute not only to the future clinical development of S1, but also the rational use of other pan-Bcl-2 inhibitors, alone or in combination with kinase inhibitor-based strategies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Discovery of a novel series of potent S1P1 agonists.

    PubMed

    Crosignani, Stefano; Bombrun, Agnes; Covini, David; Maio, Maurizio; Marin, Delphine; Quattropani, Anna; Swinnen, Dominique; Simpson, Don; Sauer, Wolfgang; Françon, Bernard; Martin, Thierry; Cambet, Yves; Nichols, Anthony; Martinou, Isabelle; Burgat-Charvillon, Fabienne; Rivron, Delphine; Donini, Cristina; Schott, Olivier; Eligert, Valerie; Novo-Perez, Laurence; Vitte, Pierre-Alain; Arrighi, Jean-François

    2010-03-01

    The discovery of a novel series of S1P1 agonists is described. Starting from a micromolar HTS positive, iterative optimization gave rise to several single-digit nanomolar S1P1 agonists. The compounds were able to induce internalization of the S1P1 receptor, and a selected compound was shown to be able to induce lymphopenia in mice after oral dosing.

  1. S1←S0 vibronic spectra and structure of cyclopropanecarboxaldehyde molecule in the S1 lowest excited singlet electronic state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godunov, I. A.; Yakovlev, N. N.; Terentiev, R. V.; Maslov, D. V.; Bataev, V. A.; Abramenkov, A. V.

    2016-11-01

    The S1←S0 vibronic spectra of gas-phase absorption at room temperature and fluorescence excitation of jet-cooled cyclopropanecarboxaldehyde (CPCA, c-C3H5CHO)were obtained and analyzed. In addition, the quantum chemical calculation (CASPT2/cc-pVTZ)was carried out for CPCA in the ground (S0) and lowest excited singlet (S1) electronic states. As a result, it was proved that the S1←S0 electronic excitation of the CPCA conformers (syn and anti) causes (after geometrical relaxation) significant structural changes, namely, the carbonyl fragments become non-planar and the cyclopropyl groups rotate around the central C-C bond. As a consequence, the potential energy surface of CPCA in the S1 state has six minima, 1ab, 2ab, and 3ab, corresponding to three pairs of mirror symmetry conformers: a and b. It was shown that vibronic bands of experimental spectra can be assigned to the 2(S1)←syn(S0) electronic transition with the origin at 30,481 cm-1. A number of fundamental vibrational frequencies for the 2 conformer of CPCA were assigned. In addition, several inversional energy levels for the 2 conformer were found and the 2a↔2b potential function of inversion was determined. The experimental barrier to inversion and the equilibrium angle between the CH bond and the CCO plane were calculated as 570 cm-1 and 28°, respectively.

  2. Spectroscopic properties of the S1 state of linear carotenoids after excess energy excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsova, Valentyna; Southall, June; Cogdell, Richard J.; Fuciman, Marcel; Polívka, Tomáš

    2017-09-01

    Properties of the S1 state of neurosporene, spheroidene and lycopene were studied after excess energy excitation in the S2 state. Excitation of carotenoids into higher vibronic levels of the S2 state generates excess vibrational energy in the S1 state. The vibrationally hot S1 state relaxes faster when carotenoid is excited into the S2 state with excess energy, but the S1 lifetime remains constant regardless of which vibronic level of the S2 state is excited. The S∗ signal depends on excitation energy only for spheroidene, which is likely due to asymmetry of the molecule, facilitating conformations responsible for the S∗ signal.

  3. Flow-regulated endothelial S1P receptor-1 signaling sustains vascular development

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Bongnam; Obinata, Hideru; Galvani, Sylvain; Mendelson, Karen; Ding, Bisen; Skoura, Athanasia; Kinzel, Bernd; Brinkmann, Volker; Rafii, Shahin; Evans, Todd; Hla, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY During angiogenesis, nascent vascular sprouts fuse to form vascular networks enabling efficient circulation. Mechanisms that stabilize the vascular plexus are not well understood. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a blood-borne lipid mediator implicated in the regulation of vascular and immune systems. Here we describe a mechanism by which the G protein-coupled S1P receptor-1 (S1P1) stabilizes the primary vascular network. A gradient of S1P1 expression from the mature regions of the vascular network to the growing vascular front was observed. In the absence of endothelial S1P1, adherens junctions are destabilized, barrier function is breached, and flow is perturbed resulting in abnormal vascular hypersprouting. Interestingly, S1P1 responds to S1P as well as laminar shear stress to transduce flow-mediated signaling in endothelial cells both in vitro and in vivo. These data demonstrate that blood flow and circulating S1P activate endothelial S1P1 to stabilize blood vessels in development and homeostasis. PMID:22975328

  4. S1P₁ localizes to the colonic vasculature in ulcerative colitis and maintains blood vessel integrity.

    PubMed

    Montrose, David C; Scherl, Ellen J; Bosworth, Brian P; Zhou, Xi Kathy; Jung, Bongnam; Dannenberg, Andrew J; Hla, Timothy

    2013-03-01

    Signaling through sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor₁ (S1P₁) promotes blood vessel barrier function. Degradation of S1P₁ results in increased vascular permeability in the lung and may explain side effects associated with administration of FTY720, a functional antagonist of the S1P₁ receptor that is currently used to treat multiple sclerosis. Ulcerative colitis (UC) is characterized by an increased density of abnormal vessels. The expression or role of S1P₁ in blood vessels in the colon has not been investigated. In the present study, we show that S1P₁ is overexpressed in the colonic mucosa of UC patients. This increase in S1P₁ levels reflects increased vascular density in the inflamed mucosa. Genetic deletion of S1pr1 in mice increases colonic vascular permeability under basal conditions and increases bleeding in experimental colitis. In contrast, neither FTY720 nor AUY954, two S1P receptor-targeting agents, increases bleeding in experimental colitis. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that S1P₁ is critical to maintaining colonic vascular integrity and may play a role in UC pathogenesis.

  5. Measurement of the 4 S1 /2→6 S1 /2 transition frequency in atomic potassium via direct frequency-comb spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stalnaker, J. E.; Ayer, H. M. G.; Baron, J. H.; Nuñez, A.; Rowan, M. E.

    2017-07-01

    We present an experimental determination of the 4 S1 /2→6 S1 /2 transition frequency in atomic potassium 39K, using direct frequency-comb spectroscopy. The output of a stabilized optical frequency comb was used to excite a thermal atomic vapor. The repetition rate of the frequency comb was scanned and the transitions were excited using stepwise two-photon excitation. The center-of-gravity frequency for the transition was found to be νcog=822 951 698.09 (13 ) MHz and the measured hyperfine A coefficient of the 6 S1 /2 state was 21.93 (11 ) MHz. The measurements are in agreement with previous values and represent an improvement by a factor of 700 in the uncertainty of the center-of-gravity measurement.

  6. Effects of α s1-casein (CSN1S1) and κ-casein (CSN3) genotypes on milk coagulation properties in Murciano-Granadina goats.

    PubMed

    Caravaca, Francisco; Ares, José Luis; Carrizosa, Juan; Urrutia, Baltasar; Baena, Francisca; Jordana, Jordi; Badaoui, Bouabid; Sànchez, Armand; Angiolillo, Antonella; Amills, Marcel; Serradilla, Juan Manuel

    2011-02-01

    The effects of the caprine α s1-casein (CSN1S1) polymorphisms on milk quality and cheese yield have been widely studied in French and Italian goat breeds. Much less is known about the consequences of κ-casein (CSN3) genotype on the technological and coagulation properties of goat milk. In the current study, we have performed an association analysis between polymorphisms at the goat CSN1S1 and CSN3 genes and milk coagulation (rennet coagulation time, curdling rate and curd firmness) and technological (time to cutting of curd and cheese yield) properties. In this analysis, we have included 193 records from 74 Murciano-Granadina goats (with genotypes constituted by different combinations of alleles B, E and F of the gene CSN1S1 and alleles A and B of the gene CSN3) distributed in three herds, which were collected bimonthly during a whole lactation. Data analysis, using a linear mixed model for repeated observations, revealed significant associations between CSN1S1 genotypes and the rate of the curdling process. In this way, milk from EE goats had a significantly higher curdling rate than milk from BB individuals (P<0·05). Contrary to previous experiments performed in French breeds, cheese yield was not significantly different in BB, EE and EF goats. Moreover, we have shown that CSN3 genotype has a significant effect on the rennet coagulation time (BB>AB, P<0·05) but not on cheese yield. No interaction between the CSN1S1 and CSN3 genotypes was observed.

  7. Pathophysiological Consequences of a Break in S1P1-Dependent Homeostasis of Vascular Permeability Revealed by S1P1 Competitive Antagonism

    PubMed Central

    Bigaud, Marc; Dincer, Zuhal; Bollbuck, Birgit; Dawson, Janet; Beckmann, Nicolau; Beerli, Christian; Fishli-Cavelti, Gina; Nahler, Michaela; Angst, Daniela; Janser, Philipp; Otto, Heike; Rosner, Elisabeth; Hersperger, Rene; Bruns, Christian; Quancard, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Rational Homeostasis of vascular barriers depends upon sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) signaling via the S1P1 receptor. Accordingly, S1P1 competitive antagonism is known to reduce vascular barrier integrity with still unclear pathophysiological consequences. This was explored in the present study using NIBR-0213, a potent and selective S1P1 competitive antagonist. Results NIBR-0213 was tolerated at the efficacious oral dose of 30 mg/kg BID in the rat adjuvant-induced arthritis (AiA) model, with no sign of labored breathing. However, it induced dose-dependent acute vascular pulmonary leakage and pleural effusion that fully resolved within 3–4 days, as evidenced by MRI monitoring. At the supra-maximal oral dose of 300 mg/kg QD, NIBR-0213 impaired lung function (with increased breathing rate and reduced tidal volume) within the first 24 hrs. Two weeks of NIBR-0213 oral dosing at 30, 100 and 300 mg/kg QD induced moderate pulmonary changes, characterized by alveolar wall thickening, macrophage accumulation, fibrosis, micro-hemorrhage, edema and necrosis. In addition to this picture of chronic inflammation, perivascular edema and myofiber degeneration observed in the heart were also indicative of vascular leakage and its consequences. Conclusions Overall, these observations suggest that, in the rat, the lung is the main target organ for the S1P1 competitive antagonism-induced acute vascular leakage, which appears first as transient and asymptomatic but could lead, upon chronic dosing, to lung remodeling with functional impairments. Hence, this not only raises the question of organ specificity in the homeostasis of vascular barriers, but also provides insight into the pre-clinical evaluation of a potential safety window for S1P1 competitive antagonists as drug candidates. PMID:28005953

  8. Phase II study of induction gemcitabine and S-1 followed by chemoradiotherapy and systemic chemotherapy using S-1 for locally advanced pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Sudo, Kentaro; Hara, Ryusuke; Nakamura, Kazuyoshi; Kita, Emiri; Tsujimoto, Akiko; Yamaguchi, Taketo

    2017-07-01

    S-1 has systemic activity for locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC). Here, the efficacy and safety of induction gemcitabine (GEM) and S-1 (GS) followed by chemoradiotherapy (CRT) and systemic chemotherapy using S-1 for LAPC were assessed. The treatment consisted of four cycles of induction GS (S-1 60, 80, or 100 mg/day based on body surface area for 14 days every 3 weeks plus GEM 1000 mg/m(2) on days 8 and 15), followed by S-1 (80, 100, or 120 mg/day based on body surface area on days 1-14 and 22-35) and concurrent radiotherapy (50.4 Gy in 28 fractions). Maintenance chemotherapy with S-1 was started 1-4 weeks after CRT until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity was observed. The primary endpoint was 1-year survival. A total of 30 patients with LAPC were enrolled. The median survival and progression-free survival were 21.3 and 12.7 months, respectively. Overall survival rates at 1, 2, 3, and 4 years were 73.3, 36.7, 23.3, and 16.7%, respectively. The median survival of 23 patients who received CRT was 22.9 months, with a 3-year survival rate of 30.4%. The two most common grade 3 or 4 adverse events during induction GS were neutropenia (63.3%) and biliary tract infection (20%). Toxicities during CRT or maintenance chemotherapy were generally mild. This regimen was feasible and highly active resulting in encouraging survival in patients with LAPC. Further investigations are warranted to elucidate the effectiveness of this treatment strategy in future studies. Clinical trials information: UMIN000006332.

  9. Blocking peptides against HBV: PreS1 protein selected from a phage display library

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wei; Liu, Yang; Zu, Xiangyang; Jin, Rui; Xiao, Gengfu

    2011-09-09

    Highlights: {yields} Successfully selected specific PreS1-interacting peptides by using phage displayed library. {yields} Alignment of the positive phage clones revealed a consensus PreS1 binding motif. {yields} A highly enriched peptide named P7 had a strong binding ability for PreS1. {yields} P7 could block PreS1 attachment. -- Abstract: The PreS1 protein is present on the outermost part of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface and has been shown to have a pivotal function in viral infectivity and assembly. The development of reagents with high affinity and specificity for PreS1 is of great significance for early diagnosis and treatment of HBV infection. A phage display library of dodecapeptide was screened for interactions with purified PreS1 protein. Alignment of the positive phage clones revealed a putative consensus PreS1 binding motif of HX{sub n}HX{sub m}HP/R. Moreover, a peptide named P7 (KHMHWHPPALNT) was highly enriched and occurred with a surprisingly high frequency of 72%. A thermodynamic study revealed that P7 has a higher binding affinity to PreS1 than the other peptides. Furthermore, P7 was able to abrogate the binding of HBV virions to the PreS1 antibody, suggesting that P7 covers key functional sites on the native PreS1 protein. This newly isolated peptide may, therefore, be a new therapeutic candidate for the treatment of HBV. The consensus motif could be modified to deliver imaging, diagnostic, and therapeutic agents to tissues affected by HBV.

  10. Lymphatic endothelial S1P promotes mitochondrial function and survival in naive T cells.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Alejandra; Fang, Victoria; Chen, Cynthia; Serasinghe, Madhavika; Verma, Akanksha; Muller, James; Chaluvadi, V Sai; Dustin, Michael L; Hla, Timothy; Elemento, Olivier; Chipuk, Jerry E; Schwab, Susan R

    2017-06-01

    Effective adaptive immune responses require a large repertoire of naive T cells that migrate throughout the body, rapidly identifying almost any foreign peptide. Because the production of T cells declines with age, naive T cells must be long-lived. However, it remains unclear how naive T cells survive for years while constantly travelling. The chemoattractant sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) guides T cell circulation among secondary lymphoid organs, including spleen, lymph nodes and Peyer's patches, where T cells search for antigens. The concentration of S1P is higher in circulatory fluids than in lymphoid organs, and the S1P1 receptor (S1P1R) directs the exit of T cells from the spleen into blood, and from lymph nodes and Peyer's patches into lymph. Here we show that S1P is essential not only for the circulation of naive T cells, but also for their survival. Using transgenic mouse models, we demonstrate that lymphatic endothelial cells support the survival of T cells by secreting S1P via the transporter SPNS2, that this S1P signals through S1P1R on T cells, and that the requirement for S1P1R is independent of the established role of the receptor in guiding exit from lymph nodes. S1P signalling maintains the mitochondrial content of naive T cells, providing cells with the energy to continue their constant migration. The S1P signalling pathway is being targeted therapeutically to inhibit autoreactive T cell trafficking, and these findings suggest that it may be possible simultaneously to target autoreactive or malignant cell survival.

  11. S1 and S2 Heart Sound Recognition using Deep Neural Networks.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tien-En; Yang, Shih-I; Ho, Li-Ting; Tsai, Kun-Hsi; Chen, Yu-Hsuan; Chang, Yun-Fan; Lai, Ying-Hui; Wang, Syu-Siang; Tsao, Yu; Wu, Chau-Chung

    2016-04-27

    This study focuses on the first (S1) and sec-ond (S2) heart sound recognition based only on acoustic charac-teristics; the assumptions of the individual durations of S1 and S2 and time intervals of S1-S2 and S2-S1 are not involved in the recognition process. The main objective is to investigate whether reliable S1 and S2 recognition performance can still be attained under situations where the duration and interval information might not be accessible. A deep neural network (DNN) method is proposed for recognizing S1 and S2 heart sounds. In the proposed method, heart sound signals are first converted into a sequence of Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs). The K-means algorithm is applied to cluster MFCC features into two groups to refine their representation and discriminative capability. The refined features are then fed to a DNN classifier to perform S1 and S2 recognition. We conducted experiments using actual heart sound signals recorded using an electronic stethoscope. Pre-cision, recall, F-measure, and accuracy are used as the evaluation metrics. The proposed DNN-based method can achieve high precision, recall, and F-measure scores with more than 91% accuracy rate. The DNN classifier provides higher evaluation scores compared with other well-known pattern classi-fication methods. The proposed DNN-based method can achieve reliable S1 and S2 recognition performance based on acoustic characteristics without using an ECG reference or incor-porating the assumptions of the individual durations of S1 and S2 and time intervals of S1-S2 and S2-S1.

  12. S1 and S2 Heart Sound Recognition Using Deep Neural Networks.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tien-En; Yang, Shih-I; Ho, Li-Ting; Tsai, Kun-Hsi; Chen, Yu-Hsuan; Chang, Yun-Fan; Lai, Ying-Hui; Wang, Syu-Siang; Tsao, Yu; Wu, Chau-Chung

    2017-02-01

     This study focuses on the first (S1) and second (S2) heart sound recognition based only on acoustic characteristics; the assumptions of the individual durations of S1 and S2 and time intervals of S1-S2 and S2-S1 are not involved in the recognition process. The main objective is to investigate whether reliable S1 and S2 recognition performance can still be attained under situations where the duration and interval information might not be accessible.  A deep neural network (DNN) method is proposed for recognizing S1 and S2 heart sounds. In the proposed method, heart sound signals are first converted into a sequence of Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs). The K-means algorithm is applied to cluster MFCC features into two groups to refine their representation and discriminative capability. The refined features are then fed to a DNN classifier to perform S1 and S2 recognition. We conducted experiments using actual heart sound signals recorded using an electronic stethoscope. Precision, recall, F-measure, and accuracy are used as the evaluation metrics. The proposed DNN-based method can achieve high precision, recall, and F-measure scores with more than 91% accuracy rate. The DNN classifier provides higher evaluation scores compared with other well-known pattern classification methods. The proposed DNN-based method can achieve reliable S1 and S2 recognition performance based on acoustic characteristics without using an ECG reference or incorporating the assumptions of the individual durations of S1 and S2 and time intervals of S1-S2 and S2-S1.

  13. S1 statistic with Hodges-Lehmann in two groups case for skewed distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Lee Ping; Yahaya, Sharipah Soaad Syed; Ahad, Nor Aishah

    2015-12-01

    This study is focused on the modification of S1 statistic, a procedure for testing the equality of groups, by replacing median with Hodges-Lehmann estimator as the location measure in two groups case under skewed distribution. The modification is also extended to the default scale estimator of Hodges-Lehmann, S1(HL) and robust scale estimator, MADn, S1(MADn). The purpose of the modifications is to improve the robustness of the statistic. To test the strengths and weaknesses of S1(HL) and S1(MADn), a simulation study was conducted. Several variables such as the shape of distributions, balanced and unbalanced group sizes, equal and unequal variances and nature of pairings were manipulated to create various conditions for the data. Since the distribution of S1 statistic is unknown, bootstrap method was used for data generation. According to Guo and Luh, a test statistic is considered robust if its empirical error rate does not exceed 0.075 when α = 0.05. Refer to the results obtained, S1(HL) and S1(MADn) can be considered as robust due to all error rates fall below 0.075 for balanced and unbalanced design in each distribution. t-test and Mann-Whitney are the chosen methods for comparison purpose. For balanced design, t-test and Mann-Whitney shown better results compare to S1(HL) and S1(MADn). However, for unbalanced design especially in negative pairing, S1(MADn) is the most appropriate method to be used across three distributions.

  14. Synthesis and evaluation of CS-2100, a potent, orally active and S1P(3)- sparing S1P(1) agonist.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Tsuyoshi; Asano, Masayoshi; Sekiguchi, Yukiko; Mizuno, Yumiko; Tamaki, Kazuhiko; Nara, Futoshi; Kawase, Yumi; Yabe, Yoshiyuki; Nakai, Daisuke; Kamiyama, Emi; Urasaki-Kaneno, Yoko; Shimozato, Takaichi; Doi-Komuro, Hiromi; Kagari, Takashi; Tomisato, Wataru; Inoue, Ryotaku; Nagasaki, Miyuki; Yuita, Hiroshi; Oguchi-Oshima, Keiko; Kaneko, Reina; Nishi, Takahide

    2012-05-01

    Modulators of sphingosine phosphate receptor-1 (S1P(1)) have recently been focused as a suppressant of autoimmunity. We have discovered a 4-ethylthiophene-based S1P(1) agonist 1-({4-Ethyl-5-[5-(4-phenoxyphenyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl]-2-thienyl}methyl)azetidine-3-carboxylic acid (CS-2100, 8) showing potent S1P(1) agonist activity against S1P(3) and an excellent in vivo potency. We report herein the synthesis of CS-2100 (8) and pharmacological effects such as S1P(1) and S1P(3) agonist activity in vitro, peripheral blood lymphocyte lowering effects and the suppressive effects on adjuvant-induced arthritis and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in animal models. The pharmacokinetic data were also reported. CS-2100 (8) had >5000-fold greater agonist activity for human S1P(1) (EC(50); 4.0 nM) relative to S1P(3) (EC(50); >20,000 nM). Following administration of single oral doses of 0.1 and 1 mg/kg of CS-2100 (8) in rats, lymphocyte counts decreased significantly, with a nadir at 8 and/or 12 h post-dose and recovery to vehicle control levels by 24-48 h post-dose. CS-2100 (8) is efficacious in the adjuvant-induced arthritis model in rats (ID(50); 0.44 mg/kg). In the EAE model compared to the vehicle-treated group, significant decreases in the cumulative EAE scores were observed for 0.3 and 1 mg/kg CS-2100 (8) groups in mice. While CS-2100 (8) showed potent efficacy in various animal disease models, it was also revealed that the central 1,2,4-oxadiazole ring of CS-2100 (8) was decomposed by enterobacteria in intestine of rats and monkeys, implicating the latent concern about an external susceptibility in its metabolic process in the upcoming clinical studies.

  15. Enhanced Raman scattering from cesium suboxides on silver particles and the structure of S-1 photocathodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bates, C. W., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    An explanation is given for the results of recent enhanced Raman scattering studies of photomultiplier tubes with S-1 photocathode surfaces which indicated the presence of Cs11O3 but not Cs2O. The reason for the discrepancy between the currently accepted model of the S-1 and this recent result is discussed.

  16. VIEW OF THE FROM SIDE OF WHARF S1 FROM WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF THE FROM SIDE OF WHARF S1 FROM WEST END OF QUARRY LOCK, FACING NORTHWEST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Naval Submarine Base, Berthing Wharf S1, South Waterfront Road along north side of Quarry Loch, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  17. Genome sequence of Bacillus pumilus S-1, an efficient isoeugenol-utilizing producer for natural vanillin.

    PubMed

    Su, Fei; Hua, Dongliang; Zhang, Zhaobin; Wang, Xiaoyu; Tang, Hongzhi; Tao, Fei; Tai, Cui; Wu, Qiulin; Wu, Geng; Xu, Ping

    2011-11-01

    Bacillus pumilus S-1 is an efficient isoeugenol-utilizing producer of natural vanillin. The genome of B. pumilus S-1 contains the epoxide hydrolase and six candidate monooxygenases that make it possible to explore the mechanism involved in conversion of isoenguenol to vanillin in the B. pumilus strain.

  18. Resonance assignment of the ribosome binding domain of E. coli ribosomal protein S1.

    PubMed

    Giraud, Pierre; Créchet, Jean-Bernard; Uzan, Marc; Bontems, François; Sizun, Christina

    2015-04-01

    Ribosomal protein S1 is an essential actor for protein synthesis in Escherichia coli. It is involved in mRNA recruitment by the 30S ribosomal subunit and recognition of the correct start codon during translation initiation. E. coli S1 is a modular protein that contains six repeats of an S1 motif, which have distinct functions despite structural homology. Whereas the three central repeats have been shown to be involved in mRNA recognition, the two first repeats that constitute the N-terminal domain of S1 are responsible for binding to the 30S subunit. Here we report the almost complete (1)H, (13)C and (15)N resonance assignment of two fragments of the 30S binding region of S1. The first fragment comprises only the first repeat. The second corresponds to the entire ribosome binding domain. Since S1 is absent from all high resolution X-ray structures of prokaryotic ribosomes, these data provide a first step towards atomic level structural characterization of this domain by NMR. Chemical shift analysis of the first repeat provides evidence for structural divergence from the canonical OB-fold of an S1 motif. In contrast the second domain displays the expected topology for an S1 motif, which rationalizes the functional specialization of the two subdomains.

  19. STS-112 S1 Truss is transported to the payload canister

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- An overhead crane moves the S1 Integrated Truss Structure toward the payload canister, which will transport it to Atlantis. The first starboard truss segment, the S1 will be attached to the Central truss segment, the S0 Truss, on the International Space Station during mission STS-112. Atlantis is scheduled to launch no earlier than Oct. 2.

  20. STS-112 S1 Truss is transported to the payload canister

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- The S1 Integrated Truss Structure is lowered into the payload canister for transport to Atlantis. The first starboard truss segment, the S1 will be attached to the Central truss segment, the S0 Truss, on the International Space Station during mission STS-112. Atlantis is scheduled to launch no earlier than Oct. 2.

  1. STS-112 S1 Truss is transported to the payload canister

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- An overhead crane moves the S1 Integrated Truss Structure toward the payload canister below, which will transport it to Atlantis. The first starboard truss segment, the S1 will be attached to the Central truss segment, the S0 Truss, on the International Space Station during mission STS-112. Atlantis is scheduled to launch no earlier than Oct. 2.

  2. Mechanism of the S1 excited state internal conversion in vitamin B12.

    PubMed

    Lodowski, Piotr; Jaworska, Maria; Andruniów, Tadeusz; Garabato, Brady D; Kozlowski, Pawel M

    2014-09-21

    To explain the photostability of vitamin B12, internal conversion of the S1 state was investigated using TD-DFT. The active coordinates for radiationless deactivation were determined to be elongated axial bonds, overcoming a 5.0 kcal mol(-1) energy barrier between the relaxed ligand-to-metal charge transfer (S1), and the ground (S0) states.

  3. To stay or to leave: Stem cells and progenitor cells navigating the S1P gradient.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingjing; Hsu, Andrew; Lee, Jen-Fu; Cramer, Daniel E; Lee, Menq-Jer

    2011-01-26

    Most hematopoietic stem progenitor cells (HSPCs) reside in bone marrow (BM), but a small amount of HSPCs have been found to circulate between BM and tissues through blood and lymph. Several lines of evidence suggest that sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) gradient triggers HSPC egression to blood circulation after mobilization from BM stem cell niches. Stem cells also visit certain tissues. After a temporary 36 h short stay in local tissues, HSPCs go to lymph in response to S1P gradient between lymph and tissue and eventually enter the blood circulation. S1P also has a role in the guidance of the primitive HSPCs homing to BM in vivo, as S1P analogue FTY720 treatment can improve HSPC BM homing and engraftment. In stress conditions, various stem cells or progenitor cells can be attracted to local injured tissues and participate in local tissue cell differentiation and tissue rebuilding through modulation the expression level of S1P(1), S1P(2) or S1P(3) receptors. Hence, S1P is important for stem cells circulation in blood system to accomplish its role in body surveillance and injury recovery.

  4. Alleviating effects of artificial tear instillation on S-1-induced ocular toxicity in dogs.

    PubMed

    Kanie, Shohei; Fujieda, Mitsuhiro; Hitotsumachi, Tomoaki; Suzuki, Satoshi; Morita, Fumio; Hakoi, Kazuo; Yasui, Hirofumi

    2017-01-01

    S-1 is an anticancer agent that consists of tegafur, gimeracil, and oteracil potassium at a molar ratio of 1:0.4:1. S-1 is used to treat metastatic and resectable gastric cancer. However, the extensive use of S-1 in clinical practice results in watery eyes, a serious clinical problem, which worsens patients' quality of life. Although repeated instillation of artificial tears is recommended, therapy or prophylaxis against S-1-induced ocular toxicity has not been established. In the present study, we evaluated the alleviating effects of repeated artificial tear instillation on S-1-induced ocular toxicity in dogs. Ten beagle dogs (5 males and 5 females) were orally administered 3 mg/kg/day of S-1 for up to 21 days. Five drops of artificial tears were instilled to the left eye, eight times daily, within 6 hr after S-1 administration. The mean cornea staining score tended to be low in the left eye with repeated artificial tear instillation. In 4 out of 10 dogs, the corneal staining score of the left eye was more than 2-fold lower than that of the right eye. The incidence of dogs indicating normal tear drainage increased and stenosed tear drainage decreased by repeated artificial tear instillation. In conclusion, we demonstrated that artificial tear instillation can alleviate corneal surface damage induced by S-1 in dogs.

  5. To fingolimod and beyond: The rich pipeline of drug candidates that target S1P signaling.

    PubMed

    Chew, Wee Siong; Wang, Wei; Herr, Deron R

    2016-11-01

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is an extracellular lipid signaling molecule that acts as a selective, high-affinity ligand for a family of five G protein-coupled receptors. This signaling system was first identified twenty years ago, and has since been shown to regulate a diverse range of physiological processes and disease states, such as cardiovascular development, immune function, hypoxic responses, and cancer. The therapeutic potential of targeting this system took center stage when it was demonstrated that the immune modulator, fingolimod (FTY720/Gilenya), exerts it lymphopenic effect by acting on S1P receptors, primarily on S1P receptor 1 (S1P1). In 2010, fingolimod became the first oral medication approved for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). Since then, second-generation S1P receptor modulators have been under development in an effort to provide improved safety and efficacy profiles for MS, and to broaden their use to other autoimmune indications. Beyond the development of S1P1-modulators, there has been considerable effort in targeting other components of the S1P signaling pathway for the treatment of other diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, sepsis, and cancer. This manuscript provides an overview of the clinical and preclinical development of drugs targeting S1P signaling.

  6. Effect of ADP on binding of skeletal S1 to F-actin.

    PubMed

    Andreev, O A; Ushakov, D S; Borejdo, J

    1998-12-22

    The proximity of skeletal myosin subfragment-1 (S1) to actin, and its orientation with respect to thin filaments of single muscle fibers, were compared in the presence and in the absence of ADP. The proximity was assessed by the efficiency of carbodiimide-induced cross-linking and the orientation by polarization of fluorescence of probes attached to the essential light chains. ADP made no difference in proximity or orientation when the molar ratio of S1 to actin was low or high. However, at the intermediate ratios, ADP made a significant difference. Strong dissociating agents, AMP-PNP and PPi, made significant differences at all ratios. To explain this behavior, it is unnecessary to invoke the ADP-induced "swinging" of the tail of S1. Rather, it is simply explained by the "two-state" model which we proposed earlier, in which S1 binds to one or to two actin protomers, depending on the saturation of the filaments with S1s. The dissociation induced by the ADP shifts the equilibrium between the two bound states. At high and low degrees of saturation, ADP is unable to significantly decrease the amount of S1 bound to F-actin. However, at intermediate saturation levels, ADP causes significantly more S1s to bind to two actins. These results suggest that the ADP-induced changes seen at the intermediate molar ratios are due to the dissociation-induced reorientation of S1.

  7. Regulation of S1P receptors and sphingosine kinases expression in acute pulmonary endothelial cell injury

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Huiying; Zhang, Zili; Li, Puyuan; Yuan, Xin; Zheng, Jing; Liu, Jinwen

    2016-01-01

    Background Acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) is a severe clinical syndrome with mortality rate as high as 30–40%. There is no treatment yet to improve pulmonary endothelial barrier function in patients with severe pulmonary edema. Developing therapies to protect endothelial barrier integrity and stabilizing gas exchange is getting more and more attention. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is able to enhance the resistance of endothelial cell barrier. S1P at physiological concentrations plays an important role in maintaining endothelial barrier function. Proliferation, regeneration and anti-inflammatory activity that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) exhibit make it possible to regulate the homeostatic control of S1P. Methods By building a pulmonary endothelial cell model of acute injury, we investigated the regulation of S1P receptors and sphingosine kinases expression by MSCs during the treatment of acute lung injury using RT-PCR, and investigated the HPAECs Micro-electronics impedance using Real Time Cellular Analysis. Results It was found that the down-regulation of TNF-α expression was more significant when MSC was used in combination with S1P. The combination effection mainly worked on S1PR2, S1PR3 and SphK2. The results show that when MSCs were used in combination with S1P, the selectivity of S1P receptors was increased and the homeostatic control of S1P concentration was improved through regulation of expression of S1P metabolic enzymes. Discussions The study found that, as a potential treatment, MSCs could work on multiple S1P related genes simultaneously. When it was used in combination with S1P, the expression regulation result of related genes was not simply the superposition of each other, but more significant outcome was obtained. This study establishes the experimental basis for further exploring the efficacy of improving endothelial barrier function in acute lung injury, using MSCs in combination with S1P and their

  8. Short communication: Carora cattle show high variability in alpha(s1)-casein.

    PubMed

    Caroli, A; Chessa, S; Chiatti, F; Rignanese, D; Meléndez, B; Rizzi, R; Ceriotti, G

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the genetic variability of milk proteins of the Carora, a shorthorned Bos taurus cattle breed in Venezuela and in other Southern American countries that is primarily used for milk production. A total of 184 individual milk samples were collected from Carora cattle in 5 herds in Venezuela. The milk protein genes alpha(s1)-casein (CN) (CSN1S1), beta-CN (CSN2), kappa-CN (CSN3), and beta-lactoglobulin (LGB) were typed at the protein level by isoelectrofocusing. It was necessary to further analyze CSN1S1 at the DNA level by a PCR-based method to distinguish CSN1S1*G from B. Increased variation was found in particular at the CSN1S1 gene, where 4 variants were identified. The predominant variant was CSN1S1*B (frequency = 0.8). The second most common CSN1S1 variant was CSN1S1*G (0.101), followed by CSN1S1*C (0.082). Moreover, a new isoelectrofocusing pattern was identified, which may result from a novel CSN1S1 variant, named CSN1S1*I, migrating at an intermediate position between CSN1S1*B and CSN1S1*C. Six cows carried the variant at the heterozygous condition. For the other loci, predominance of CSN2*A2 (0.764), CSN3*B (0.609), and LGB*B (0.592) was observed. Haplotype frequencies (AF) at the CSN1S1-CSN2-CSN3 complex were also estimated by taking association into account. Only 7 haplotypes showed AF values >0.05, accounting for a cumulative frequency of 0.944. The predominant haplotype was B-A2-B (frequency = 0.418), followed by B-A2-A (0.213). The occurrence of the G variant is at a rather high frequency, which is of interest for selection within the Carora breed because of the negative association of this variant with the synthesis of the specific protein. From a cheese-making point of view, this variant is associated with improved milk-clotting parameters but is negatively associated with cheese ripening. Thus, milk protein typing should be routinely carried out in the breed, with particular emphasis on using a DNA test to

  9. SUSY structures, representations and Peter-Weyl theorem for S 1 | 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmeli, C.; Fioresi, R.; Kwok, S.

    2015-09-01

    The real compact supergroup S 1 | 1 is analysed from different perspectives and its representation theory is studied. We prove it is the only (up to isomorphism) supergroup, which is a real form of (C 1 | 1) × with reduced Lie group S1, and a link with SUSY structures on C 1 | 1 is established. We describe a large family of complex semisimple representations of S 1 | 1 and we show that any S 1 | 1-representation whose weights are all nonzero is a direct sum of members of our family. We also compute the matrix elements of the members of this family and we give a proof of the Peter-Weyl theorem for S 1 | 1.

  10. Local Equivalence of Representations of {Diff^+(S^1)} Corresponding to Different Highest Weights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiner, Mihály

    2017-01-01

    Let c, h and {c,tilde{h}} be two admissible pairs of central charge and highest weight for {Diff^+(S^1)} . It is shown here that the positive energy irreducible projective unitary representations {U_{c,h}} and {U_{c,tilde{h}}} of the group {Diff^+(S^1)} are locally equivalent. This means that for any {ISubset S^1} open proper interval, there exists a unitary operator W I such that {W_I U_{c,h}(γ)W_I^* = U_{c,tilde{h}}(γ)} for all {γ in Diff^+(S^1)} which act identically on {I^c≡ S^1{setminus} I} (i.e., which can "displace" or "move" points only in I). This result extends and completes earlier ones that dealt with only certain regions of the "c, h-plane", and closes the gap in the full classification of superselection sectors of Virasoro nets.

  11. Local Equivalence of Representations of {Diff^+(S^1)} Corresponding to Different Highest Weights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiner, Mihály

    2017-06-01

    Let c, h and {c,\\tilde{h}} be two admissible pairs of central charge and highest weight for {Diff^+(S^1)}. It is shown here that the positive energy irreducible projective unitary representations {U_{c,h}} and {U_{c,\\tilde{h}}} of the group {Diff^+(S^1)} are locally equivalent. This means that for any {I\\Subset S^1} open proper interval, there exists a unitary operator W I such that {W_I U_{c,h}(γ)W_I^* = U_{c,\\tilde{h}}(γ)} for all {γ \\in Diff^+(S^1)} which act identically on {I^c≡ S^1{\\setminus} I} (i.e., which can "displace" or "move" points only in I). This result extends and completes earlier ones that dealt with only certain regions of the " c, h-plane", and closes the gap in the full classification of superselection sectors of Virasoro nets.

  12. Estimates of epistatic and pleiotropic effects of casein alpha s1 (CSN1S1) and thyroglobulin (TG) genetic markers on beef heifer performance traits enhanced by selection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Genetic marker effects and type of inheritance are estimated with poor precision when minor marker allele frequencies are low. A stable composite population (MARC II) was subjected to marker assisted selection for two years to equalize CSN1S1 and TG genetic marker frequencies to evaluate the epista...

  13. Epitaxial growth and photoluminescence of hexagonal CdS 1- xSe x alloy films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grün, M.; Gerlach, H.; Breitkopf, Th.; Hetterich, M.; Reznitsky, A.; Kalt, H.; Klingshirn, C.

    1995-01-01

    CdSSe ternary alloy films were grown on GaAs(111) by hot-wall beam epitaxy. The hexagonal crystal phase is obtained. The composition varies from 0 to 40% selenium. Luminescence spectroscopy at low temperatures shows a dominant effect by alloy disorder. Localization of carriers, for example, is still observed at a pulsed optical excitation density of 6 mJ/cm 2. The overall quality of the CdSSe films is sufficient to use them as buffer layers for the growth of hexagonal superlattices.

  14. Molecular cloning and expression of Cro s 1: an occupational allergen from saffron pollen (Crocus sativus).

    PubMed

    Varasteh, Abdol-Reza; Sankian, Mojtaba; Midoro-Horiuti, Terumi; Moghadam, Malihe; Shakeri, Mohamad Taghi; Brooks, Edward G; Goldblum, Randall M; Chapman, Martin D; Pomés, Anna

    2012-10-01

    The cultivation of saffron is expanding through the southeast of Iran, and allergy to saffron pollen occurs in workers involved in processing this plant. We aimed to clone, sequence and express a major allergen involved in saffron pollen allergy, and to compare the recombinant with the natural allergen. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of Cro s 1, an allergen from saffron pollen, was determined after immunoblotting. The cDNA encoding for this allergen was cloned by PCR utilizing a primer based on the N-terminal amino acid sequence. Recombinant Cro s 1 (rCro s 1) was expressed as a soluble protein in Pichia pastoris and purified to homogeneity by gel filtration. Inhibition of IgE binding to rCro s 1 by pollen extract was analyzed by ELISA. The allergen Cro s 1 was identified from saffron pollen extracts and cloned by PCR. Cro s 1 cDNA defined an acidic polypeptide with homology to pollen proteins from Chenopodium album and Ligastrum vulgaris. The rCro s 1 was expressed in P. pastoris at 28 mg/l. Saffron pollen extract inhibited the binding of patient serum IgE to rCro s 1. We identified and cloned the first Crocus sativus pollen allergen. rCro s 1 cDNA shows a very high homology with Che a 1, the major allergen of lamb's-quarter, Chenopodium album, Caryophyllales, pollen (97%). Cro s 1 is a useful tool for specific diagnosis and structural studies of occupational allergy to saffron.

  15. The role of the S1 domain in exoribonucleolytic activity: Substrate specificity and multimerization

    PubMed Central

    Amblar, Mónica; Barbas, Ana; Gomez-Puertas, Paulino; Arraiano, Cecília M.

    2007-01-01

    RNase II is a 3′-5′ exoribonuclease that processively hydrolyzes single-stranded RNA generating 5′ mononucleotides. This enzyme contains a catalytic core that is surrounded by three RNA-binding domains. At its C terminus, there is a typical S1 domain that has been shown to be critical for RNA binding. The S1 domain is also present in the other major 3′-5′ exoribonucleases from Escherichia coli: RNase R and polynucleotide phosphorylase (PNPase). In this report, we examined the involvement of the S1 domain in the different abilities of these three enzymes to overcome RNA secondary structures during degradation. Hybrid proteins were constructed by replacing the S1 domain of RNase II for the S1 from RNase R and PNPase, and their exonucleolytic activity and RNA-binding ability were examined. The results revealed that both the S1 domains of RNase R and PNPase are able to partially reverse the drop of RNA-binding ability and exonucleolytic activity resulting from removal of the S1 domain of RNase II. Moreover, the S1 domains investigated are not equivalent. Furthermore, we demonstrate that S1 is neither responsible for the ability to overcome secondary structures during RNA degradation, nor is it related to the size of the final product generated by each enzyme. In addition, we show that the S1 domain from PNPase is able to induce the trimerization of the RNaseII–PNP hybrid protein, indicating that this domain can have a role in the biogenesis of multimers. PMID:17242308

  16. Ribosomal protein S1 unwinds double-stranded RNA in multiple steps

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Xiaohui; Lancaster, Laura; Noller, Harry F.; Bustamante, Carlos; Tinoco, Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    The sequence and secondary structure of the 5′-end of mRNAs regulate translation by controlling ribosome initiation on the mRNA. Ribosomal protein S1 is crucial for ribosome initiation on many natural mRNAs, particularly for those with structured 5′-ends, or with no or weak Shine-Dalgarno sequences. Besides a critical role in translation, S1 has been implicated in several other cellular processes, such as transcription recycling, and the rescuing of stalled ribosomes by tmRNA. The mechanisms of S1 functions are still elusive but have been widely considered to be linked to the affinity of S1 for single-stranded RNA and its corresponding destabilization of mRNA secondary structures. Here, using optical tweezers techniques, we demonstrate that S1 promotes RNA unwinding by binding to the single-stranded RNA formed transiently during the thermal breathing of the RNA base pairs and that S1 dissociation results in RNA rezipping. We measured the dependence of the RNA unwinding and rezipping rates on S1 concentration, and the force applied to the ends of the RNA. We found that each S1 binds 10 nucleotides of RNA in a multistep fashion implying that S1 can facilitate ribosome initiation on structured mRNA by first binding to the single strand next to an RNA duplex structure (“stand-by site”) before subsequent binding leads to RNA unwinding. Unwinding by multiple small substeps is much less rate limited by thermal breathing than unwinding in a single step. Thus, a multistep scheme greatly expedites S1 unwinding of an RNA structure compared to a single-step mode. PMID:22908248

  17. S1P and LPA trigger Schwann cell actin changes and migration.

    PubMed

    Barber, Siân C; Mellor, Harry; Gampel, Alex; Scolding, Neil J

    2004-06-01

    The processes by which a Schwann cell (SC) migrates towards, wraps around and, in some cases, myelinates an axon are incompletely understood. The complex morphological rearrangements involved in these events require fundamental changes in the actin cytoskeleton. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) and lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) are two modulators of the actin cytoskeleton, and receptors for these signalling lipids are expressed on SCs at the time of differentiation. Previous work has revealed a role for LPA in SC survival, morphology and differentiation, but the effects of S1P have received less attention. Here we show that S1P and LPA both cause major rearrangements to the actin cytoskeleton in primary rat SCs and the SCL4.1/F7 rat SC line. S1P and LPA caused formation of lamellipodia and a circular geodesic actin network. We also show that S1P and LPA increased cell migration. The small GTPases RhoA and Rac1 were both activated by S1P/LPA treatment, but the actin rearrangements were dependent on Rac1 and not RhoA. These effects of S1P/LPA could be mimicked by SCL4.1/F7 cell-conditioned medium, which was found to contain S1P. Reduction in cellular synthesis of S1P by adding the sphingosine kinase inhibitor dimethyl sphingosine during medium conditioning reduced the ability of conditioned medium to cause actin rearrangements. These results support a role for S1P as an autocrine signal regulating the actin cytoskeleton during Schwann cell development.

  18. Crash Impact Demonstration. (pt 10/10)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    This clip: Looking down the length of the plane from high on the tail. The AMK flows over the fuselage toward the camera No narration. Background: On December 1st, 1984, a remote controlled 4 engined transport jet took off from Edwards AFB, CA and crashed into a barren patch of nearby desert. This Controlled Impact Demonstration was a joint R&D program by the FAA and NASA. The FAA designed the C.I.D. to underscore results of exhaustive research in two areas of aircraft safety: improved crash protection and reduced post-crash fire hazards.Despite the fact the crash did not go exactly as designed C.I.D.did achieve its primary objectives.The analysis of C.I.D. data continues. The CID's crash wothiness tests were as important to the FAA as the fire safety tests. The crash protection objectives were: 1st: To obtain data on impact forces and their transmission thru the structure to the seats and occupants. 2nd: To evaluate the performance of existing and advanced energy absorbing seats. 3rd :To compare tests used to predict structural behaviour with an actual crash. AMK (anti-misting kerosene) fuel was employed in the test. The FAA has examined AMK's potential for protecting commercial transports from ignition of misted fuels. All research indicated that AMK would be effective in preventing this problem. The C.I.D. was an opportunity to use AMK in a realistic, impact-survivable crash.

  19. 46 CFR 2.10-10 - Waivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... The Commandant (CG-DCO-83) will waive collection of vessel inspection fees in this subpart for a... (CG-DCO-83) with a list of the names and vessel identification numbers of vessels for which a...

  20. 43 CFR 10.10 - Repatriation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATIVE AMERICAN GRAVES PROTECTION AND... alienation. The original acquisition of a Native American unassociated funerary object, sacred object, or..., or Native Hawaiian organization, a museum or Federal agency must expeditiously repatriate...

  1. 43 CFR 10.10 - Repatriation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATIVE AMERICAN GRAVES PROTECTION AND... alienation. The original acquisition of a Native American unassociated funerary object, sacred object, or..., or Native Hawaiian organization, a museum or Federal agency must expeditiously repatriate...

  2. 43 CFR 10.10 - Repatriation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... REPATRIATION REGULATIONS Human Remains, Funerary Objects, Sacred Objects, or Objects of Cultural Patrimony in... the notice of intent to repatriate in the Federal Register as described in § 10.8. (b) Human remains... remains and associated funerary objects if all of the following criteria are met: (i) The human remains or...

  3. 47 CFR 10.10 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... authentication of interactions with the Mobile Device. (j) Mobile Devices. The subscriber equipment generally... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL MOBILE ALERT SYSTEM General Information § 10... Participating Commercial Mobile Service Provider under this part. (b) Common Alerting Protocol. The Common...

  4. 47 CFR 10.10 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... authentication of interactions with the Mobile Device. (j) Mobile Devices. The subscriber equipment generally... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL MOBILE ALERT SYSTEM General Information § 10... Participating Commercial Mobile Service Provider under this part. (b) Common Alerting Protocol. The Common...

  5. 47 CFR 10.10 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... authentication of interactions with the Mobile Device. (j) Mobile Devices. The subscriber equipment generally... Commercial Mobile Service Provider under this part. (b) Common Alerting Protocol. The Common Alerting... this part, whereby Commercial Mobile Service Providers may elect to transmit Alert Messages to the...

  6. 47 CFR 10.10 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... authentication of interactions with the Mobile Device. (j) Mobile Devices. The subscriber equipment generally... Commercial Mobile Service Provider under this part. (b) Common Alerting Protocol. The Common Alerting... this part, whereby Commercial Mobile Service Providers may elect to transmit Alert Messages to the...

  7. 47 CFR 10.10 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... authentication of interactions with the Mobile Device. (j) Mobile Devices. The subscriber equipment generally... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL MOBILE ALERT SYSTEM General Information § 10... Participating Commercial Mobile Service Provider under this part. (b) Common Alerting Protocol. The Common...

  8. Phosphorylation of αS1-casein is regulated by different genes.

    PubMed

    Bijl, E; van Valenberg, H J F; Huppertz, T; van Hooijdonk, A C M; Bovenhuis, H

    2014-11-01

    Casein phosphorylation is a posttranslational modification catalyzed by kinase enzymes that attach phosphate groups to specific AA in the protein sequence. This modification is one of the key factors responsible for the stabilization of calcium phosphate nanoclusters in casein micelles and for the internal structure of the casein micelles. α(S1)-Casein (α(s1)-CN) is of special interest because it constitutes up to 40% of the total casein fraction in milk, and it has 2 common phosphorylation states, with 8 (α(S1)-CN-8P) and 9 (α(S1)-CN-9P) phosphorylated serine residues. Factors affecting this variation in the degree of phosphorylation are not currently known. The objective of this research was to determine the genetic background of α(S1)-CN-8P and α(S1)-CN-9P. The genetic and phenotypic correlation between α(S1)-CN-8P and α(S1)-CN-9P was low (0.18 and 0.19, respectively). This low genetic correlation suggests a different genetic background. These differences were further investigated by means of a genome-wide association study, which showed that both α(S1)-CN-8P and α(S1)-CN-9P were affected by a region on Bos taurus autosome (BTA) 6, but only α(S1)-CN-8P was affected by a region on BTA11 that contains the gene that encodes for β-lactoglobulin (β-LG), and only α(S1)-CN-9P was affected by a region on BTA14 that contains the diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) gene. Estimated effects of β-LG protein genotypes showed that only α(S1)-CN-8P was associated with the β-LG A/B polymorphism (g.1772G>A and g.3054C>T); the AA genotype of β-LG was associated with a lower concentration of α(S1)-CN-8P (-0.32% wt/wt) than the BB genotype (+0.41% wt/wt). Estimated effects of DGAT1 K232A genotypes showed that only α(S1)-CN-9P was associated with the DGAT1 gene polymorphism; DGAT1 AA genotype was associated with a higher α(S1)-CN-9P concentration (+0.53% wt/wt) than the DGAT1 KK genotype (-0.44% wt/wt). The results give insight in phosphorylation of α(S1

  9. Structural basis for the interaction of protein S1 with the Escherichia coli ribosome

    PubMed Central

    Byrgazov, Konstantin; Grishkovskaya, Irina; Arenz, Stefan; Coudevylle, Nicolas; Temmel, Hannes; Wilson, Daniel N.; Djinovic-Carugo, Kristina; Moll, Isabella

    2015-01-01

    In Gram-negative bacteria, the multi-domain protein S1 is essential for translation initiation, as it recruits the mRNA and facilitates its localization in the decoding centre. In sharp contrast to its functional importance, S1 is still lacking from the high-resolution structures available for Escherichia coli and Thermus thermophilus ribosomes and thus the molecular mechanism governing the S1–ribosome interaction has still remained elusive. Here, we present the structure of the N-terminal S1 domain D1 when bound to the ribosome at atomic resolution by using a combination of NMR, X-ray crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy. Together with biochemical assays, the structure reveals that S1 is anchored to the ribosome primarily via a stabilizing π-stacking interaction within the short but conserved N-terminal segment that is flexibly connected to domain D1. This interaction is further stabilized by salt bridges involving the zinc binding pocket of protein S2. Overall, this work provides one hitherto enigmatic piece in the ′ribosome puzzle′, namely the detailed molecular insight into the topology of the S1–ribosome interface. Moreover, our data suggest novel mechanisms that have the potential to modulate protein synthesis in response to environmental cues by changing the affinity of S1 for the ribosome. PMID:25510494

  10. Identification of a pepducin acting as S1P3 receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Severino, Beatrice; Incisivo, Giuseppina Maria; Fiorino, Ferdinando; Bertolino, Antonio; Frecentese, Francesco; Barbato, Francesco; Manganelli, Serena; Maggioni, Giada; Capasso, Domenica; Caliendo, Giuseppe; Santagada, Vincenzo; Sorrentino, Raffaella; Roviezzo, Fiorentina; Perissutti, Elisa

    2013-11-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive lipid with key functions in the immune, inflammatory, and cardiovascular systems. S1P exerts its action through the interaction with a family of five known G protein-coupled receptors, named S1P(1-5). Among them, S1P(3) has been implicated in the pathological processes of a number of diseases, including sepsis and cancer. KRX-725 (compound 1) is a pepducin that mimics the effects of S1P by triggering specifically S1P(3). Here, aiming to identify novel S1P(3) antagonists, we carried out an alanine scanning analysis to address the contribution of the side chains of each amino acid residue to the peptide function. Then, deleted peptides from both the C- and N-terminus were prepared in order to determine the minimal sequence for activity and to identify the structural requirements for agonistic and, possibly, antagonistic behaviors. The pharmacological results of the Ala-scan derived compounds (2-10) suggested a high tolerance of the pepducin 1 to amino acid substitutions. Importantly, the deleted peptide 16 has the ability to inhibit, in a dose-dependent manner, both pepducin 1-induced vasorelaxation and fibroblast proliferation. Finally, a computational analysis was performed on the prepared compounds, showing that the supposed antagonists 16 and 17 appeared to be aligned with each other but not with the others. These results suggested a correlation between specific conformations and activities.

  11. One-stage surgery through posterior approach-for L5-S1 spondyloptosis

    PubMed Central

    Suslu, Hikmet Turan; Celikoglu, Erhan; Borekcı, Ali; Hıcdonmez, Tufan; Suslu, Hüsnü

    2011-01-01

    Grade 5 spondylolisthesis or spondyloptosis is a rare condition. Generally, the surgical management of spondyloptosis includes multi-staged procedures instead of one-staged procedures. One-stage treatment for spondyloptosis is very rare. A 15-year-old girl with L5-S1 spondyloptosis was admitted with severe low back pain. There was no history of trauma. The patient underwent L5 laminectomy, L5-S1 discectomy, resection of sacral dome, reduction, L3-L4-L5-S1 pedicular screw fixation, and interbody-posterolateral fusion through the posterior approach. The reduction was maintained with bilateral L5-S1 discectomy, resection of the sacral dome, and transpedicular instrumentation from L3 to S1. In this particular case, one-staged approach was adequate for the treatment of L5-S1 spondyloptosis. One-staged surgery using the posterior approach may be adequate for the treatment of L5-S1 spondyloptosis while avoiding the risks inherent in anterior approaches. PMID:23125496

  12. Target-specific M1 inputs to infragranular S1 pyramidal neurons.

    PubMed

    Kinnischtzke, Amanda K; Fanselow, Erika E; Simons, Daniel J

    2016-09-01

    The functional role of input from the primary motor cortex (M1) to primary somatosensory cortex (S1) is unclear; one key to understanding this pathway may lie in elucidating the cell-type specific microcircuits that connect S1 and M1. Recently, we discovered that a subset of pyramidal neurons in the infragranular layers of S1 receive especially strong input from M1 (Kinnischtzke AK, Simons DJ, Fanselow EE. Cereb Cortex 24: 2237-2248, 2014), suggesting that M1 may affect specific classes of pyramidal neurons differently. Here, using combined optogenetic and retrograde labeling approaches in the mouse, we examined the strengths of M1 inputs to five classes of infragranular S1 neurons categorized by their projections to particular cortical and subcortical targets. We found that the magnitude of M1 synaptic input to S1 pyramidal neurons varies greatly depending on the projection target of the postsynaptic neuron. Of the populations examined, M1-projecting corticocortical neurons in L6 received the strongest M1 inputs, whereas ventral posterior medial nucleus-projecting corticothalamic neurons, also located in L6, received the weakest. Each population also possessed distinct intrinsic properties. The results suggest that M1 differentially engages specific classes of S1 projection neurons, thereby regulating the motor-related influence S1 exerts over subcortical structures. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Structural basis for the interaction of protein S1 with the Escherichia coli ribosome.

    PubMed

    Byrgazov, Konstantin; Grishkovskaya, Irina; Arenz, Stefan; Coudevylle, Nicolas; Temmel, Hannes; Wilson, Daniel N; Djinovic-Carugo, Kristina; Moll, Isabella

    2015-01-01

    In Gram-negative bacteria, the multi-domain protein S1 is essential for translation initiation, as it recruits the mRNA and facilitates its localization in the decoding centre. In sharp contrast to its functional importance, S1 is still lacking from the high-resolution structures available for Escherichia coli and Thermus thermophilus ribosomes and thus the molecular mechanism governing the S1-ribosome interaction has still remained elusive. Here, we present the structure of the N-terminal S1 domain D1 when bound to the ribosome at atomic resolution by using a combination of NMR, X-ray crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy. Together with biochemical assays, the structure reveals that S1 is anchored to the ribosome primarily via a stabilizing π-stacking interaction within the short but conserved N-terminal segment that is flexibly connected to domain D1. This interaction is further stabilized by salt bridges involving the zinc binding pocket of protein S2. Overall, this work provides one hitherto enigmatic piece in the 'ribosome puzzle', namely the detailed molecular insight into the topology of the S1-ribosome interface. Moreover, our data suggest novel mechanisms that have the potential to modulate protein synthesis in response to environmental cues by changing the affinity of S1 for the ribosome. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  14. Molecular insights into replication initiation by Qβ replicase using ribosomal protein S1

    PubMed Central

    Takeshita, Daijiro; Yamashita, Seisuke; Tomita, Kozo

    2014-01-01

    Ribosomal protein S1, consisting of six contiguous OB-folds, is the largest ribosomal protein and is essential for translation initiation in Escherichia coli. S1 is also one of the three essential host-derived subunits of Qβ replicase, together with EF-Tu and EF-Ts, for Qβ RNA replication in E. coli. We analyzed the crystal structure of Qβ replicase, consisting of the virus-encoded RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (β-subunit), EF-Tu, EF-Ts and the N-terminal half of S1, which is capable of initiating Qβ RNA replication. Structural and biochemical studies revealed that the two N-terminal OB-folds of S1 anchor S1 onto the β-subunit, and the third OB-fold is mobile and protrudes beyond the surface of the β-subunit. The third OB-fold mainly interacts with a specific RNA fragment derived from the internal region of Qβ RNA, and its RNA-binding ability is required for replication initiation of Qβ RNA. Thus, the third mobile OB-fold of S1, which is spatially anchored near the surface of the β-subunit, primarily recruits the Qβ RNA toward the β-subunit, leading to the specific and efficient replication initiation of Qβ RNA, and S1 functions as a replication initiation factor, beyond its established function in protein synthesis. PMID:25122749

  15. Molecular insights into replication initiation by Qβ replicase using ribosomal protein S1.

    PubMed

    Takeshita, Daijiro; Yamashita, Seisuke; Tomita, Kozo

    2014-01-01

    Ribosomal protein S1, consisting of six contiguous OB-folds, is the largest ribosomal protein and is essential for translation initiation in Escherichia coli. S1 is also one of the three essential host-derived subunits of Qβ replicase, together with EF-Tu and EF-Ts, for Qβ RNA replication in E. coli. We analyzed the crystal structure of Qβ replicase, consisting of the virus-encoded RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (β-subunit), EF-Tu, EF-Ts and the N-terminal half of S1, which is capable of initiating Qβ RNA replication. Structural and biochemical studies revealed that the two N-terminal OB-folds of S1 anchor S1 onto the β-subunit, and the third OB-fold is mobile and protrudes beyond the surface of the β-subunit. The third OB-fold mainly interacts with a specific RNA fragment derived from the internal region of Qβ RNA, and its RNA-binding ability is required for replication initiation of Qβ RNA. Thus, the third mobile OB-fold of S1, which is spatially anchored near the surface of the β-subunit, primarily recruits the Qβ RNA toward the β-subunit, leading to the specific and efficient replication initiation of Qβ RNA, and S1 functions as a replication initiation factor, beyond its established function in protein synthesis. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  16. S1PR1 expression correlates with inflammatory responses to Newcastle disease virus infection.

    PubMed

    Li, Yaling; Xie, Peng; Sun, Minhua; Xiang, Bin; Kang, Yinfeng; Gao, Pei; Zhu, Wenxian; Ning, Zhangyong; Ren, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is the causative agent of Newcastle disease, which is characterized by inflammatory pathological changes in the organs of chickens. The inflammatory response to this disease has not been well characterized. Previous reports showed that the sphingosine-1-phosphate-1 receptor (S1PR1), a G protein-coupled receptor, is important to the activation of inflammatory responses. To understand better the viral pathogenesis and host inflammatory response, we analyzed S1PR1 expression during NDV infection. We observed a direct correlation between chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cellular inflammatory responses and S1PR1 expression. Virulent NDV-infected CEF cells also had elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-18). When S1PR1 was inhibited by using the specific antagonist W146, pro-inflammatory cytokine production declined. Overexpression of S1PR1 resulted in increased virus-induced IL-1β production. S1PR1 expression levels did not impact significantly NDV replication. These findings highlight the important role of S1PR1 in inflammatory responses in NDV infection.

  17. Extracellular export of sphingosine kinase-1a contributes to the vascular S1P gradient

    PubMed Central

    Venkataraman, Krishnan; Thangada, Shobha; Michaud, Jason; Oo, Myat Lin; Ai, Youxi; Lee, Yong-Moon; Wu, Mingtao; Parikh, Nehal S.; Khan, Faraz; Proia, Richard L.; Hla, Timothy

    2006-01-01

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), produced by Sphks (sphingosine kinases), is a multifunctional lipid mediator that regulates immune cell trafficking and vascular development. Mammals maintain a large concentration gradient of S1P between vascular and extravascular compartments. Mechanisms by which S1P is released from cells and concentrated in the plasma are poorly understood. We recently demonstrated [Ancellin, Colmont, Su, Li, Mittereder, Chae, Stefansson, Liau and Hla (2002) J. Biol. Chem. 277, 6667–6675] that Sphk1 activity is constitutively secreted by vascular endothelial cells. In the present study, we show that among the five Sphk isoforms expressed in endothelial cells, the Sphk-1a isoform is selectively secreted in HEK-293 cells (human embryonic kidney cells) and human umbilical-vein endothelial cells. In sharp contrast, Sphk2 is not secreted. The exported Sphk-1a isoform is enzymatically active and produced sufficient S1P to induce S1P receptor internalization. Wild-type mouse plasma contains significant Sphk activity (179 pmol·min−1·g−1). In contrast, Sphk1−/− mouse plasma has undetectable Sphk activity and approx. 65% reduction in S1P levels. Moreover, human plasma contains enzymatically active Sphk1 (46 pmol·min−1·g−1). These results suggest that export of Sphk-1a occurs under physiological conditions and may contribute to the establishment of the vascular S1P gradient. PMID:16623665

  18. Autosomal-Recessive Hearing Impairment Due to Rare Missense Variants within S1PR2

    PubMed Central

    Santos-Cortez, Regie Lyn P.; Faridi, Rabia; Rehman, Atteeq U.; Lee, Kwanghyuk; Ansar, Muhammad; Wang, Xin; Morell, Robert J.; Isaacson, Rivka; Belyantseva, Inna A.; Dai, Hang; Acharya, Anushree; Qaiser, Tanveer A.; Muhammad, Dost; Ali, Rana Amjad; Shams, Sulaiman; Hassan, Muhammad Jawad; Shahzad, Shaheen; Raza, Syed Irfan; Bashir, Zil-e-Huma; Smith, Joshua D.; Nickerson, Deborah A.; Bamshad, Michael J.; Riazuddin, Sheikh; Ahmad, Wasim; Friedman, Thomas B.; Leal, Suzanne M.

    2016-01-01

    The sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors (S1PRs) are a well-studied class of transmembrane G protein-coupled sphingolipid receptors that mediate multiple cellular processes. However, S1PRs have not been previously reported to be involved in the genetic etiology of human traits. S1PR2 lies within the autosomal-recessive nonsyndromic hearing impairment (ARNSHI) locus DFNB68 on 19p13.2. From exome sequence data we identified two pathogenic S1PR2 variants, c.323G>C (p.Arg108Pro) and c.419A>G (p.Tyr140Cys). Each of these variants co-segregates with congenital profound hearing impairment in consanguineous Pakistani families with maximum LOD scores of 6.4 for family DEM4154 and 3.3 for family PKDF1400. Neither S1PR2 missense variant was reported among ∼120,000 chromosomes in the Exome Aggregation Consortium database, in 76 unrelated Pakistani exomes, or in 720 Pakistani control chromosomes. Both DNA variants affect highly conserved residues of S1PR2 and are predicted to be damaging by multiple bioinformatics tools. Molecular modeling predicts that these variants affect binding of sphingosine-1-phosphate (p.Arg108Pro) and G protein docking (p.Tyr140Cys). In the previously reported S1pr2−/− mice, stria vascularis abnormalities, organ of Corti degeneration, and profound hearing loss were observed. Additionally, hair cell defects were seen in both knockout mice and morphant zebrafish. Family PKDF1400 presents with ARNSHI, which is consistent with the lack of gross malformations in S1pr2−/− mice, whereas family DEM4154 has lower limb malformations in addition to hearing loss. Our findings suggest the possibility of developing therapies against hair cell damage (e.g., from ototoxic drugs) through targeted stimulation of S1PR2. PMID:26805784

  19. Lentinan diminishes apoptotic bodies in the ileal crypts associated with S-1 administration.

    PubMed

    Suga, Yasuyo; Takehana, Kenji

    2017-09-01

    S-1 is an oral agent containing tegafur (a prodrug of 5-fluorouracil) that is used to treat various cancers, but adverse effects are frequent. Two pilot clinical studies have suggested that lentinan (LNT; β-1,3-glucan) may reduce the incidence of adverse effects caused by S-1 therapy. In this study, we established a murine model for assessment of gastrointestinal toxicity associated with S-1 and studied the effect of LNT. S-1 was administered orally to BALB/c mice at the effective dose (8.3mg/kg, as tegafur equivalent) once daily (5days per week) for 3weeks. Stool consistency and intestinal specimens were examined. We investigated the effect of combined intravenous administration of LNT at 0.1mg, which is an effective dose in murine tumor models. We also investigated the effect of a single administration of S-1. During long-term administration of S-1, some mice had loose stools and an increase in apoptotic bodies was observed in the ileal crypts. An increase in apoptotic bodies was also noted after a single administration of S-1 (15mg/kg). Prior or concomitant administration of LNT inhibited the increase in apoptotic bodies in both settings. Administration of LNT also increased the accumulation of CD11b(+)TIM-4(+) cells in the ileum, while depletion of these cells by liposomal clodronate diminished the inhibitory effect of LNT on S-1 toxicity. Combined administration of LNT with S-1 led to a decrease in apoptotic bodies in the ileal crypts, possibly because LNT promoted phagocytosis of damaged cells by CD11b(+)TIM-4(+) cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Decorin in human oral cancer: A promising predictive biomarker of S-1 neoadjuvant chemosensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Kasamatsu, Atsushi; Uzawa, Katsuhiro; Minakawa, Yasuyuki; Ishige, Shunsaku; Kasama, Hiroki; Endo-Sakamoto, Yosuke; Ogawara, Katsunori; Shiiba, Masashi; Takiguchi, Yuichi; Tanzawa, Hideki

    2015-01-30

    Highlights: • DCN is significantly up-regulated in chemoresistant cancer cell lines. • DCN is a key regulator for chemoresistant mechanisms in vitro and in vivo. • DCN predicts the clinical responses to S-1 NAC for patients with oral cancer. - Abstract: We reported previously that decorin (DCN) is significantly up-regulated in chemoresistant cancer cell lines. DCN is a small leucine-rich proteoglycan that exists and functions in stromal and epithelial cells. Accumulating evidence suggests that DCN affects the biology of several types of cancer by directly/indirectly targeting the signaling molecules involved in cell growth, survival, metastasis, and angiogenesis, however, the molecular mechanisms of DCN in chemoresistance and its clinical relevance are still unknown. Here we assumed that DCN silencing cells increase chemosusceptibility to S-1, consisted of tegafur, prodrug of 5-fluorouracil. We first established DCN knockdown transfectants derived from oral cancer cells for following experiments including chemosusceptibility assay to S-1. In addition to the in vitro data, DCN knockdown zenografting tumors in nude mice demonstrate decreasing cell proliferation and increasing apoptosis with dephosphorylation of AKT after S-1 chemotherapy. We also investigated whether DCN expression predicts the clinical responses of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) using S-1 (S-1 NAC) for oral cancer patients. Immunohistochemistry data in the preoperative biopsy samples was analyzed to determine the cut-off point for status of DCN expression by receiver operating curve analysis. Interestingly, low DCN expression was observed in five (83%) of six cases with complete responses to S-1 NAC, and in one (10%) case of 10 cases with stable/progressive disease, indicating that S-1 chemosensitivity is dramatically effective in oral cancer patients with low DCN expression compared with high DCN expression. Our findings suggest that DCN is a key regulator for chemoresistant mechanisms, and

  1. Percutaneous Endoscopic Lumbar Discectomy for L5-S1 Disc Herniation: Consideration of the Relation between the Iliac Crest and L5-S1 Disc.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyung Chul; Park, Choon-Keun

    2016-02-01

    Percutaneous transforaminal techniques for the treatment of lumbar disc herniation have markedly evolved. Percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy (PELD) for L5-S1 disc herniation is regarded as challenging due to the unique anatomy of the iliac crest, large facet joint, and inclinatory disc space. Among these, the iliac crest is considered a major obstacle. There are no studies regarding the height of the iliac crest and their appropriate procedures in PELD. This study discusses PELD for L5-S1 disc herniation and the appropriate approach according to the height of iliac crest. Retrospective evaluation. 100 consecutive patients underwent PELD via the transforaminal route for L5-S1 disc herniation by a single surgeon. The study was divided into 2 groups: the foraminoplasty group requiring foraminal widening to access the herniated disc and the non-foraminoplasty group treated by conventional posterolateral access. Radiological parameters such as iliac height, the relative position of the iliac crest to the landmarks of the L5-S1 level, iliosacral angle and foraminal height, and disc location were considered. Clinical outcomes were assessed by the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS, 0 - 10) for back and leg pain, the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI, 0 - 100%), and the modified MacNab criteria. The overall VAS scores for back and leg pain decreased from 6.0 to 2.3 and from 7.5 to 1.7. The mean ODI (%) improved from 54.0 to 11.6. Using modified MacNab criteria, a good outcome was 92%. Foraminoplasty was required in 19 patients. Iliac crest height was significantly higher in the foraminoplasty group than the non-foraminoplasty group (37.7 mm vs 30.1 mm, P < 0.001). In the foraminoplasty group, the iliac crest is above the mid L5 pedicle on lateral radiography in all cases. There were no significant differences in foraminal height, foraminal width, iliosacral angle, or disc height between the 2 groups. In addition, there were no differences in clinical outcome between the 2

  2. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant for hematological malignancies from mismatched 9/10 human leukocyte antigen unrelated donors: comparison with transplants from 10/10 unrelated donors and human leukocyte antigen identical siblings.

    PubMed

    Michallet, Mauricette; Sobh, Mohamad; Serrier, Caroline; Morisset, Stéphane; Labussière, Hélène; Ducastelle, Sophie; Barraco, Fiorenza; Gilis, Lila; Thomas, Xavier; Nicolini, Franck E

    2015-04-01

    We studied the outcome of 213 patients who received allo-HSCT for hematological malignancies, 121 (57%) from HLA identical siblings, 63 (29%) from 10/10 HLA identical unrelated donors and 29 (14%) from 9/10 HLA mismatched unrelated donors. Engraftment was lower in the 9/10 HLA group (90%) than in the 10/10 HLA group (95%) than in the sibling group (99%); 3 months CI of aGVHD ≥ 2 was 32% (23-41), 20% (15-26) and 27% (23-32) respectively; the one year CI of extensive cGVHD was 21% (13-30), 9% (5-13) and 17% (14-21) respectively. The median OS was 10 months (5-21), 18 months (11-NR) and 60 months (31-NR) respectively with 2-years probability of 19% (8-44), 43% (31-59) and 63% (54-74) respectively. TRM was significantly higher in the 9/10 HLA group with 1 year CI of 45% (35-55), compared to 33% (27-39) in the unrelated 10/10 HLA group and 12% (9-15) in the identical siblings group (p < 0.001).

  3. Including α s1 casein gene information in genomic evaluations of French dairy goats.

    PubMed

    Carillier-Jacquin, Céline; Larroque, Hélène; Robert-Granié, Christèle

    2016-08-04

    Genomic best linear unbiased prediction methods assume that all markers explain the same fraction of the genetic variance and do not account effectively for genes with major effects such as the α s1 casein polymorphism in dairy goats. In this study, we investigated methods to include the available α s1 casein genotype effect in genomic evaluations of French dairy goats. First, the α s1 casein genotype was included as a fixed effect in genomic evaluation models based only on bucks that were genotyped at the α s1 casein locus. Less than 1 % of the females with phenotypes were genotyped at the α s1 casein gene. Thus, to incorporate these female phenotypes in the genomic evaluation, two methods that allowed for this large number of missing α s1 casein genotypes were investigated. Probabilities for each possible α s1 casein genotype were first estimated for each female of unknown genotype based on iterative peeling equations. The second method is based on a multiallelic gene content approach. For each model tested, we used three datasets each divided into a training and a validation set: (1) two-breed population (Alpine + Saanen), (2) Alpine population, and (3) Saanen population. The α s1 casein genotype had a significant effect on milk yield, fat content and protein content. Including an α s1 casein effect in genetic and genomic evaluations based only on male known α s1 casein genotypes improved accuracies (from 6 to 27 %). In genomic evaluations based on all female phenotypes, the gene content approach performed better than the other tested methods but the improvement in accuracy was only slightly better (from 1 to 14 %) than that of a genomic model without the α s1 casein effect. Including the α s1 casein effect in a genomic evaluation model for French dairy goats is possible and useful to improve accuracy. Difficulties in predicting the genotypes for ungenotyped animals limited the improvement in accuracy of the obtained estimated breeding values.

  4. Twisted Diff S 1-action on loop groups and representations of the virasoro algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harnad, J.; Kupershmidt, B. A.

    1990-05-01

    A modified Hamiltonian action of Diff S 1on the phase space LG C /GC, where LG is a loop group, is defined by twisting the usual action by a left translation in LG. This twisted action is shown to be generated by a nonequivariant moment map, thereby defining a classical Poisson bracket realization of a central extension of the Lie algebra diffC S 1. The resulting formula expresses the Diff S 1generators in terms of the left LG translation generators, giving a shifted modification of both the classical and quantum versions of the Sugawara formula.

  5. Randomized study comparing full dose monotherapy (S-1 followed by irinotecan) and reduced dose combination therapy (S-1/oxaliplatin followed by S-1/irinotecan) as initial therapy for older patients with metastatic colorectal cancer: NORDIC 9.

    PubMed

    Winther, Stine Braendegaard; Österlund, Pia; Berglund, Åke; Glimelius, Bengt; Qvortrup, Camilla; Sorbye, Halfdan; Pfeiffer, Per

    2017-08-16

    Metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) is a disease of older age, but there is a relative lack of knowledge about effects of chemotherapy in older patients as they are under-represented in clinical trials. Little data can guide whether the strategy in older mCRC patients should be a sequential full-dose monotherapy chemotherapy approach or a dose-reduced combination chemotherapy approach. The oral 5FU prodrug S-1 seems to have less side effects than capecitabine and should be an optimal drug for older patients, but few data are available. Improved geriatric assessments are needed to select which older patients should receive therapy. The NORDIC 9 trial is a Nordic multicenter randomized phase II study comparing full dose monotherapy (S-1 30 mg/m(2) twice daily days 1-14 every 3 weeks, followed by second line irinotecan 250-350 mg/m(2) iv day 1 every 3 weeks or 180-250 mg/m(2) iv day 1 every 2 weeks) with reduced dose combination therapy (S-1 20 mg/m(2) days 1-14 + oxaliplatin 100 mg/m(2) iv day 1 every 3 weeks, followed by second line S-1 20 mg/m(2) days 1-14 + irinotecan 180 mg/m(2) day 1 every 3 week) for older patients (≥70 years) with mCRC who are not candidates for full-dose standard combination therapy. Additional bevacizumab (7.5 mg/kg) is optional in first-line. Blood samples and tumor tissue will be collected to investigate predictive markers. Geriatric screening tools (G-8, VES-13, Timed-Up-and-Go and Handgrip strength), Charlson Comorbidty Index and quality of life (EORTC QLQ-C30) will be evaluated as predictors of efficacy and toxicity. The target sample size is 150 patients. The primary endpoint is progression-free survival and secondary endpoints are time-to-failure of strategy, overall survival, response rate, toxicity, and correlations between biomarkers, pre-treatment characteristics and geriatric assessments. The study will add knowledge on how to treat older mCRC patients who are not candidates for standard combination therapy

  6. Components-dependent optical nonlinearity in a series of CdSexS1-x and CdSexS1-x/ZnS QDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Shunlong; Wu, Feng; Zhang, Siwen; Wang, Qian; Li, Songtao; Cheng, Xiaoman

    2016-08-01

    The different compositions of the ternary alloyed CdSexS1-x and CdSexS1-x/ZnS core/shell quantum dots(CSQDs) have been synthesized by the chemical routes. The nonlinear optical properties of these QDs were investigated using Z-scan technique under the excitation of the 1064 nm picosecond laser pulse. The Z-scan results reveal that the nonlinear refractive indices of these QDs can be tuned by changing the ratio of Se and S components. Nonlinear optical (NLO) properties have been shown to be enhanced in CSQDs as compared to their core semiconductor counterparts. These QDs exhibit the components-tuned nonlinear refraction indices, which lead to a wide application in the photonic field.

  7. Cationic compositional optimization of CuIn(S1-ySey)2 ultra-thin layers obtained by chemical bath deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugo, S.; Sánchez, Y.; Espíndola, M.; Oliva, F.; Izquierdo-Roca, V.; Peña, Y.; Saucedo, E.

    2017-05-01

    This paper reports the synthesis of CuIn(S1-ySey)2 (CISSe) (y = 0.84-0.93) ultra-thin films prepared by a sequential process based on the chemical bath deposition of In2S3/Cu2-xS precursor layers, followed by annealing under selenium atmosphere. The layers were synthesized varying the [Cu]/[In] ratio from 0.8 to 1.26 and the impact of this variation on the surface region of the ultra-thin absorbers is analyzed for each composition. Through a first optimization of this parameter, we achieved power conversion efficiencies up to 2.7% with open circuit voltage of 334 mV, short circuit current density of 16.1 mA/cm2 and fill factor of 50.9% using a Glass/Mo/CISSe/CdS/i-ZnO/ZnO:Al solar cell structure, for a 600 nm thick absorber annealed at relatively low temperature (450 °C/30 min). This demonstrates that this new synthesis method has potential as a low-cost alternative for CISSe solar cells production.

  8. NACA as a potential cellular target of hepatitis B virus preS1 protein.

    PubMed

    Li, Dan; Wang, Xiao Zhong; Ding, Jian; Yu, Jie-Ping

    2005-06-01

    The mechanisms of the attachment and penetration of hepatitis B virus remain obscure. It has been demonstrated that the preS1 region is essential for viral assembly and infectivity, however, as its cellular receptor has still not been identified unequivocally, we used a yeast two-hybrid system to screen the cellular proteins that can interact with preS1 protein. The protein recovered from a human liver cDNA library was nascent polypeptide-associated complex alpha polypeptide. The interaction between preS1 and nascent polypeptide-associated complex alpha polypeptide was verified by mating experiment and coimmunoprecipitation of COS7 cell lysates expressing both proteins. Based on these results, we speculate that nascent polypeptide-associated complex alpha polypeptide is a functional target of hepatitis B virus preS1 protein in cells.

  9. Heart Disease Could Cost U.S. $1 Trillion Per Year by 2035: Report

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163587.html Heart Disease Could Cost U.S. $1 Trillion Per Year By ... estimates that nearly half of Americans will have heart disease in less than 20 years To use the ...

  10. Preparation of (S)-1-Halo-2-octanols Using Ionic Liquids and Biocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Oromí-Farrús, Mireia; Eras, Jordi; Sala, Núria; Torres, Mercè; Canela, Ramon

    2009-10-23

    Preparation of (S)-1-chloro-2-octanol and (S)-1-bromo-2-octanol was carried out by the enzymatic hydrolysis of halohydrin palmitates using biocatalysts. Halohydrin palmitates were prepared by various methods from palmitic acid and 1,2-octanediol. A tandem hydrolysis was carried out using lipases from Candida antarctica (Novozym 435), Rhizomucor miehei (Lipozyme IM), and "resting cells" from a Rhizopus oryzae strain that was not mycotoxigenic. The influence of the enzyme and the reaction medium on the selective hydrolysis of isomeric mixtures of halohydrin esters is described. Novozym 435 allowed preparation of (S)-1-chloro-2-octanol and (S)-1-bromo-2-octanol after 1-3 h of reaction at 40 degrees C in [BMIM][PF(6)].

  11. PMMA Cementoplasty in Symptomatic Metastatic Lesions of the S1 Vertebral Body

    SciTech Connect

    Dehdashti, Amir R.; Martin, Jean-Baptiste; Jean, Beatrix; Ruefenacht, Daniel A.

    2000-03-15

    We describe a lateral transiliac direct puncture approach to the S1 vertebral body for polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) cementoplasty of painful metastatic lesions. This approach was performed using a 15-cm-long trocar needle with 3-mm outer diameter, introduced under general anesthesia and fluoroscopic control. A lateral projection was used to center the needle just in front of the spinal canal and subjacent to the superior plate of the S1 vertebral body. Needle progression was controlled using anteroposterior and lateral fluoroscopic projections alternately with a needle course parallel to an axial plane, avoiding conflict with the S1 foramen. After needle tip placement in the center of the S1 vertebral body, diluted PMMA with a setting time of 8 min was delivered. Ipsilateral lesions of the lateral sacral compartment were filled with the same needle by stepwise withdrawal and continuous PMMA injection.

  12. The functional architecture of S1 during touch observation described with 7 T fMRI.

    PubMed

    Kuehn, Esther; Mueller, Karsten; Turner, Robert; Schütz-Bosbach, Simone

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) is active not only when touch is physically perceived but also when it is merely observed to be experienced by another person. This social responsivity of S1 has important implications for our understanding of S1 functioning. However, S1 activity during touch observation has not been characterized in great detail to date. We focused on two features of the S1 functional architecture during touch observation, namely the topographical arrangement of index and middle finger receptive fields (RFs), and their dynamic shrinkage during concurrent activation. Both features have important implications for human behavior. We conducted two fMRI studies at 7 T, one where touch was physically perceived, and one where touch was observed. In the two experiments, participants either had their index finger and/or middle finger stimulated using paintbrushes, or just observed similar touch events on video. Our data show that observing and physically experiencing touch elicits overlapping activity changes in S1. In addition, observing touch to the index finger or the middle finger alone evoked topographically arranged activation foci in S1. Importantly, when co-activated, the index and middle finger RFs not only shrank during physical touch perception, but also during touch observation. Our data, therefore, indicate a similarity between the functional architecture of S1 during touch observation and physical touch perception with respect to single-digit topography and RF shrinkage. These results may allow the tentative conclusion that even primary somatosensory experiences, such as physical touch perception, can be shared amongst individuals.

  13. Characterization of the L4-L5-S1 motion segment using the stepwise reduction method.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo, Héctor Enrique; Puttlitz, Christian M; McGilvray, Kirk; García, José J

    2016-05-03

    The two aims of this study were to generate data for a more accurate calibration of finite element models including the L5-S1 segment, and to find mechanical differences between the L4-L5 and L5-S1 segments. Then, the range of motion (ROM) and facet forces for the L4-S1 segment were measured using the stepwise reduction method. This consists of sequentially testing and reducing each segment in nine stages by cutting the ligaments, facet capsules, and removing the nucleus. Five L4-S1 human segments (median: 65 years, range: 53-84 years, SD=11.0 years) were loaded under a maximum pure moment of 8Nm. The ROM was measured using stereo-photogrammetry via tracking of three markers and the facet contact forces (CF) were measured using a Tekscan system. The ROM for the L4-L5 segment and all stages showed good agreement with published data. The major differences in ROM between the L4-L5 and L5-S1 segments were found for lateral bending and all stages, for which the L4-L5 ROM was about 1.5-3 times higher than that of the L5-S1 segment, consistent with L5-S1 facet CF about 1.3 to 4 times higher than those measured for the L4-L5 segment. For the other movements and few stages, the L4-L5 ROM was significantly lower that of the L5-S1 segment. ROM and CF provide important baseline data for more accurate calibration of FE models and to understand the role that their structures play in lower lumbar spine mechanics.

  14. Usefulness of a pharmacist outpatient service for S-1 adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Michio; Go, Makiko; Iwai, Mina; Usami, Eiseki; Teramachi, Hitomi; Yoshimura, Tomoaki

    2017-09-01

    S-1 adjuvant chemotherapy is an outpatient treatment for gastric cancer. To evaluate the role of the pharmacist outpatient service in increasing medication adherence and reducing adverse events associated with S-1, the present study retrospectively analyzed prescription recommendations from pharmacists to physicians and the persistence rate of S-1 adjuvant chemotherapy use in patients with gastric cancer. A total of 40 subjects who utilized the pharmacist outpatient service between November 2014 and March 2016 comprised the pharmacist group; and 94 patients who underwent S-1 adjuvant chemotherapy for gastric cancer between September 2012 and October 2014, but not as pharmacist outpatients, comprised the control group. Data on the prescription recommendations, persistence rate of S-1 adjuvant chemotherapy for 1 year and relative dose intensity were collected. The number of interventions and consultations for the pharmacist outpatient group were 40 and 644, respectively. Prescription recommendations regarding dosage, drug administration interval, and supportive therapy were provided in 62, 15 and 132 cases, respectively. The prescription proposal acceptance rate was 92.5%. The persistence rate of S-1 adjuvant chemotherapy for 1 year was significantly higher in the pharmacist group (82.5%) compared with the control group (39.4%; P<0.0001). The discontinuation rate due to adverse events was significantly lower in the pharmacist group (7.5%) compared with the control group (31.9%; P=0.0015). In subjects who completed S-1 adjuvant chemotherapy, the relative dose intensities in the control and pharmacist groups were 82.9 and 84.7%, respectively. In conclusion, the continued pharmaceutical intervention ensured a high persistence rate of S-1 adjuvant chemotherapy.

  15. STS-112 S1 truss in Payload Changeout Room at Launch Pad 39-B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- The payload canister is ready to be opened in the Payload Changeout Room at the pad. Inside is the S1 Integrated Truss Structure, primary payload on mission STS-112 aboard Space Shuttle Atlantis. The first starboard truss segment, the S1 will be attached to the Central truss segment, the S0 Truss, on the International Space Station during the mission. Atlantis is scheduled to launch no earlier than Oct. 2.

  16. STS-112 S1 Truss is transported to the payload canister

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- An overhead crane moves the S1 Integrated Truss Structure above over other equipment to get to the payload canister for transport to Atlantis. The first starboard truss segment, the S1 will be attached to the Central truss segment, the S0 Truss, on the International Space Station during mission STS-112. Atlantis is scheduled to launch no earlier than Oct. 2.

  17. STS-112 S1 Truss is transported to the payload canister

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Workers inside the payload canister watch the S1 Integrated Truss Structure as it is lowered toward them. The canister will transport the truss to Atlantis. The first starboard truss segment, the S1 will be attached to the Central truss segment, the S0 Truss, on the International Space Station during mission STS-112. Atlantis is scheduled to launch no earlier than Oct. 2.

  18. The S1 helix critically regulates the finely tuned gating of Kv11.1 channels

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Kevin; Ng, Chai Ann; David, Erikka; Shishmarev, Dmitry; Kuchel, Philip W.; Vandenberg, Jamie I.; Perry, Matthew D.

    2017-01-01

    Congenital mutations in the cardiac Kv11.1 channel can cause long QT syndrome type 2 (LQTS2), a heart rhythm disorder associated with sudden cardiac death. Mutations act either by reducing protein expression at the membrane and/or by perturbing the intricate gating properties of Kv11.1 channels. A number of clinical LQTS2-associated mutations have been reported in the first transmembrane segment (S1) of Kv11.1 channels, but the role of this region of the channel is largely unexplored. In part, this is due to problems defining the extent of the S1 helix, as a consequence of its low sequence homology with other Kv family members. Here, we used NMR spectroscopy and electrophysiological characterization to show that the S1 of Kv11.1 channels extends seven helical turns, from Pro-405 to Phe-431, and is flanked by unstructured loops. Functional analysis suggests that pre-S1 loop residues His-402 and Tyr-403 play an important role in regulating the kinetics and voltage dependence of channel activation and deactivation. Multiple residues within the S1 helix also play an important role in fine-tuning the voltage dependence of activation, regulating slow deactivation, and modulating C-type inactivation of Kv11.1 channels. Analyses of LQTS2-associated mutations in the pre-S1 loop or S1 helix of Kv11.1 channels demonstrate perturbations to both protein expression and most gating transitions. Thus, S1 region mutations would reduce both the action potential repolarizing current passed by Kv11.1 channels in cardiac myocytes, as well as the current passed in response to premature depolarizations that normally helps protect against the formation of ectopic beats. PMID:28280240

  19. Risk factors for L5-S1 disk height reduction after lumbar posterolateral floating fusion surgery.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Gen; Takaso, Masashi; Miyagi, Masayuki; Kamoda, Hiroto; Ishikawa, Tetsuhiro; Nakazawa, Toshiyuki; Imura, Takayuki; Ueno, Masaki; Saito, Wataru; Uchida, Kentaro; Toyone, Tomoaki; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Ohtori, Seiji

    2014-07-01

    This is a retrospective study. To investigate the risk factors for radiographic L5-S1 disk height reduction after lumbar posterolateral floating fusion surgery. We investigated data from 86 patients (45 men) who underwent posterolateral floating fusion surgery from 2007 to 2010. The follow-up was from 2 to 6 years. The mean age of the patients was 65.4 years. L5-S1 disk height was calculated and >2 mm reduction was defined as significant. Age, sex, height, weight, body mass index, number of fused levels, grade of disk degeneration, disk height and diameter, sacrolumbar alignment, alignment of fused level, achievement of union, and proximal adjacent segment disorder at final follow-up were compared. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were performed. L5-S1 disk height reduction occurred in 14 patients (30.2%). The number of fused levels was significantly greater (1.8±0.8 vs. 1.4±0.6) in patients without disk height reduction. Radiology showed a significant change of L1-S1 sacrolumbar alignment after surgery in patients without disk height reduction (0.3±6.6 vs. -4.5±7.6 degrees). The height of the disk posterior to the L5-S1 intervertebral disk before surgery was significantly greater (7.3±2.1 vs. 6.1±2.1 mm) in patients without disk height reduction. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, fusion of >3 levels was a significant risk factor for L5-S1 disk height reduction. In posterolateral floating fusion surgery, there was a higher risk of L5-S1 disk height reduction and consequent foraminal stenosis in patients with multiple-level fusion.