Science.gov

Sample records for 10-11 cm3 molecule-1

  1. 10 CFR 10.11 - Criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Criteria. 10.11 Section 10.11 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... Restricted Data or National Security Information or an Employment Clearance § 10.11 Criteria. (a) The... indicating poor judgment, unreliabilty, or untrustworthiness. (10) Is a user of alcohol habitually and...

  2. 10 CFR 10.11 - Criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Criteria. 10.11 Section 10.11 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... Restricted Data or National Security Information or an Employment Clearance § 10.11 Criteria. (a) The... indicating poor judgment, unreliabilty, or untrustworthiness. (10) Is a user of alcohol habitually and...

  3. 10 CFR 10.11 - Criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Criteria. 10.11 Section 10.11 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... Restricted Data or National Security Information or an Employment Clearance § 10.11 Criteria. (a) The... indicating poor judgment, unreliabilty, or untrustworthiness. (10) Is a user of alcohol habitually and...

  4. 10 CFR 10.11 - Criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Criteria. 10.11 Section 10.11 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... Restricted Data or National Security Information or an Employment Clearance § 10.11 Criteria. (a) The... indicating poor judgment, unreliabilty, or untrustworthiness. (10) Is a user of alcohol habitually and...

  5. 10 CFR 10.11 - Criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Criteria. 10.11 Section 10.11 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... Restricted Data or National Security Information or an Employment Clearance § 10.11 Criteria. (a) The... indicating poor judgment, unreliabilty, or untrustworthiness. (10) Is a user of alcohol habitually and...

  6. Maintenance Downtime January 10 - 11, 2015

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-01-05

    ... outage this weekend, January 10-11,  all our external websites hosted on-Center will be impacted. You may experience sporadic accessibility to these websites during the maintenance period. Please plan your data orders and ...

  7. Adaptation of California Measure of Mental Motivation-CM3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özdemir, Hasan Fehmi; Demirtasli, Nükhet Çikrikçi

    2015-01-01

    Education without doubt, plays a vital role for individuals to gain the essential personal traits of the 21st century, also known as "knowledge age". One of the most important skills among these fundamental qualities which the individuals should be equipped with is critical thinking. California Measure of Mental Motivation-CM3 was…

  8. 44 CFR 10.11 - Environmental information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Environmental information. 10... OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS Agency Implementing Procedures § 10.11 Environmental information. Interested persons may contact the Environmental Officer or the...

  9. 44 CFR 10.11 - Environmental information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Environmental information. 10... OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS Agency Implementing Procedures § 10.11 Environmental information. Interested persons may contact the Environmental Officer or the...

  10. 19 CFR 10.11 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... States Components § 10.11 General. (a) Sections 10.12 through 10.23 set forth definitions and..., Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (19 U.S.C. 1202), for American-made fabricated components... impartial and uniform assessment of duties upon merchandise claimed to be partially exempt from duty...

  11. 1 CFR 10.11 - Scope and sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scope and sources. 10.11 Section 10.11 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER PRESIDENTIAL PAPERS Annual Publication § 10.11 Scope and sources. The basic text of the Public Papers...

  12. 1 CFR 10.11 - Scope and sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Scope and sources. 10.11 Section 10.11 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER PRESIDENTIAL PAPERS Annual Publication § 10.11 Scope and sources. The basic text of the Public Papers...

  13. 27 CFR 10.11 - Meaning of terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Meaning of terms. 10.11 Section 10.11 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS COMMERCIAL BRIBERY Definitions § 10.11 Meaning of terms. As used in this...

  14. 46 CFR 188.10-11 - Chemistry laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Chemistry laboratory. 188.10-11 Section 188.10-11 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-11 Chemistry laboratory. This term...

  15. 46 CFR 188.10-11 - Chemistry laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Chemistry laboratory. 188.10-11 Section 188.10-11 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-11 Chemistry laboratory. This term...

  16. 46 CFR 188.10-11 - Chemistry laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Chemistry laboratory. 188.10-11 Section 188.10-11 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-11 Chemistry laboratory. This term...

  17. 46 CFR 188.10-11 - Chemistry laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Chemistry laboratory. 188.10-11 Section 188.10-11 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-11 Chemistry laboratory. This term...

  18. 46 CFR 188.10-11 - Chemistry laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Chemistry laboratory. 188.10-11 Section 188.10-11 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-11 Chemistry laboratory. This term...

  19. 46 CFR 30.10-11 - Coastwise-TB/C.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coastwise-TB/C. 30.10-11 Section 30.10-11 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-11 Coastwise—TB/C. Under this designation shall be included all tank vessels normally navigating the waters of...

  20. 46 CFR 30.10-11 - Coastwise-TB/C.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Coastwise-TB/C. 30.10-11 Section 30.10-11 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-11 Coastwise—TB/C. Under this designation shall be included all tank vessels normally navigating the waters of...

  1. Heavy ion collision dynamics of 10,11B+10,11B reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, BirBikram; Kaur, Manpreet; Kaur, Varinderjit; Gupta, Raj K.

    2015-01-01

    The dynamical cluster-decay model (DCM) of Gupta and collaborators has been applied successfully to the decay of very-light (A ˜ 30), light (A ˜ 40-80), medium, heavy and super-heavy mass compound nuclei for their decay to light particles (evaporation residues, ER), fusion-fission (ff), and quasi-fission (qf) depending on the reaction conditions. We intend to extend here the application of DCM to study the extreme case of decay of very-light nuclear systems 20,21,22Ne∗ formed in 10,11B+10,11B reactions, for which experimental data is available for their binary symmetric decay (BSD) cross sections, i.e., σBSD. For the systems under study, the calculations are presented for the σBSD in terms of their preformation and barrier penetration probabilities P0 and P. Interesting results are that in the decay of such lighter systems there is a competing reaction mechanism (specifically, the deep inelastic orbiting of non-compound nucleus (nCN) origin) together with ff. We have emipirically estimated the contribution of σnCN. Moreover, the important role of nuclear structure characteristics via P0 as well as angular momentum ℓ in the reaction dynamics are explored in the study.

  2. 37 CFR 10.11 - Removing names from the register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... register. 10.11 Section 10.11 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE... from the register. A letter may be addressed to any individual on the register, at the address of which... desires to remain on the register. The name of any individual failing to reply and give any...

  3. 37 CFR 10.11 - Removing names from the register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... register. 10.11 Section 10.11 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE... from the register. A letter may be addressed to any individual on the register, at the address of which... desires to remain on the register. The name of any individual failing to reply and give any...

  4. 37 CFR 10.11 - Removing names from the register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... register. 10.11 Section 10.11 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE... from the register. A letter may be addressed to any individual on the register, at the address of which... desires to remain on the register. The name of any individual failing to reply and give any...

  5. 47 CFR 10.11 - CMAS implementation timeline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false CMAS implementation timeline. 10.11 Section 10.11 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL MOBILE ALERT SYSTEM General... Federal Alert Aggregator and Alert Gateway makes the Government Interface Design specifications available....

  6. The amino acid sequence of protein CM-3 from Dendroaspis polylepis polylepis (black mamba) venom.

    PubMed

    Joubert, F J

    1985-01-01

    Protein CM-3 from Dendroaspis polylepis polylepis venom was purified by gel filtration and ion exchange chromatography. It comprises 65 amino acids including eight half-cystines. The complete amino acid sequence of protein CM-3 has been elucidated. The sequence (residues 1-50) resembles that of the N-terminal sequence of the subunits of a synergistic type protein and residues 51-65 that of the C-terminal sequence of an angusticeps type protein. Mixtures of protein CM-3 and angusticeps type proteins showed no apparent synergistic effect, in that their toxicity in combination was no greater than the sum of their individual toxicities.

  7. Breadboard RL10-11B low thrust operating mode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kmiec, Thomas D.; Galler, Donald E.

    1987-01-01

    Cryogenic space engines require a cooling process to condition engine hardware to operating temperature before start. This can be accomplished most efficiently by burning propellants that would otherwise be dumped overboard after cooling the engine. The resultant low thrust operating modes are called Tank Head Idle and Pumped Idle. During February 1984, Pratt & Whitney conducted a series of tests demonstrating operation of the RL10 rocket engines at low thrust levels using a previously untried hydrogen/oxygen heat exchanger. The initial testing of the RL10-11B Breadboard Low Thrust Engine is described. The testing demonstrated operation at both tank head idle and pumped idle modes.

  8. Smart-power integrated circuits to drive piezoelectric actuators for a cm3 microrobot system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puig-Vidal, Manel; Lopez-Sanchez, J.; Miribel-Catala, P.; Montane, Enric; Bota, Sebastian A.; Samitier, Josep; Simu, Urban; Johansson, Stefan A. I.

    2001-08-01

    Today, the use of robots for self acting tasks in applications ranging from biology and medicine to microsystems technology demand miniaturized dimensions and high-precision handling techniques. A lot of these tasks have been carried out by humans, but the manual capabilities are restricted to certain tolerances. Transport and manipulation of biological cells or assembly of micromechanical parts are the best suited applications for microrobots with sizes about cm3. Low cost and high-resolution actuators are critical performances which determine to choose piezoceramic materials as more suitable for micropositioning and micromanipulation units of a cm3 microrobot. Smart Piezoactuator Unit (SPUs) as a basic element of a new generation of cm3 microrobots have been developped. The main characteristic of this proposed Smart Piezoactuator Unit system is the integration of driving circuitry with the piezoelectric actuators and to include a serial communication interface to minimize the number of power and command wires. Micropositioning and micromanipulation units are developed combining properly 6 Smart Piezoactuator Units each one. A BCD technology (Bipolar, CMOS, DMOS) is used to design high voltage smart power integrated circuit for these Smart Piezoactuator Units. Using this technology we integrate in the same chip 4 power drivers with its control and protection circuitry.

  9. Cosmic Ray Telescope Experiment (CRT), Pioneer 10/11 Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, Frank B.

    1999-01-01

    In May 1996 the electrical power on Pioneer 10 was no longer adequate to support the Cosmic Ray Telescope Experiment (CRT). In March 1997 ground based operations for the mission were terminated. The 25 years of Pioneer 10 were a remarkable voyage of discovery as it ventured into a vast new unexplored region of space. These observations by the Pioneer experiments led in the development of a new discipline of space science - heliospheric physics. For cosmic ray studies it was an incredible era, leading to the identification of new energetic particle populations and processes and initiating the study of the dynamics and large-scale structure and began the study of the dynamics and large-scale structure of the outer heliosphere. A summary of some of the principal scientific findings of the CRT experiment over this period is given in the next section. Even with the cessation of data from the Pioneer 10/11 mission there remained a great deal of scientific analysis and data archiving that required on the order of an additional three years of effort on the part of the CRT team. We have tried to select those tasks where the P10/11 CRT data have an important role to play. Special emphasis is placed on long-term synoptic studies that make use of the extended temporal and spatial coverage of the missions and the full capabilities of the CRT experiment. The major scientific objectives of this study are: (1) A phenomenological study of the modulation process in the heliosphere, thereby laying the foundation for developing a unified model of cosmic ray modulation over a complete 22 year heliomagnetic cycle; (2) These modulation studies and the temporal changes in the cosmic ray intensities also provide information on the large-scale structure and dynamics of the outer heliosphere; (3) use the galactic and anomalous cosmic ray data from Pioneer 10 to obtain a more accurate estimate of the distance to the modulation boundary and to the termination shock; (4) Use the results from (2

  10. Accuracy of free energies of hydration using CM1 and CM3 atomic charges.

    PubMed

    Udier-Blagović, Marina; Morales De Tirado, Patricia; Pearlman, Shoshannah A; Jorgensen, William L

    2004-08-01

    Absolute free energies of hydration (DeltaGhyd) have been computed for 25 diverse organic molecules using partial atomic charges derived from AM1 and PM3 wave functions via the CM1 and CM3 procedures of Cramer, Truhlar, and coworkers. Comparisons are made with results using charges fit to the electrostatic potential surface (EPS) from ab initio 6-31G* wave functions and from the OPLS-AA force field. OPLS Lennard-Jones parameters for the organic molecules were used together with the TIP4P water model in Monte Carlo simulations with free energy perturbation theory. Absolute free energies of hydration were computed for OPLS united-atom and all-atom methane by annihilating the solutes in water and in the gas phase, and absolute DeltaGhyd values for all other molecules were computed via transformation to one of these references. Optimal charge scaling factors were determined by minimizing the unsigned average error between experimental and calculated hydration free energies. The PM3-based charge models do not lead to lower average errors than obtained with the EPS charges for the subset of 13 molecules in the original study. However, improvement is obtained by scaling the CM1A partial charges by 1.14 and the CM3A charges by 1.15, which leads to average errors of 1.0 and 1.1 kcal/mol for the full set of 25 molecules. The scaled CM1A charges also yield the best results for the hydration of amides including the E/Z free-energy difference for N-methylacetamide in water.

  11. Kidney Injury Molecule-1: A Translational Journey

    PubMed Central

    Bonventre, Joseph V.

    2014-01-01

    Kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1, also named TIM-1 and HAVCR-1) was identified as the most highly upregulated protein in the proximal tubule of the kidney after injury. This protein is present with injury in multiple species including man, and also after a large number of acute and chronic insults to the kidney. It is a type-1 membrane protein whose ectodomain is released into the lumen of the tubule. The ectodomain is heavily glycosylated and stable and appears in the urine after injury. It has been qualified by the United States Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency for preclinical assessment of nephrotoxicity and on a case-by-case basis for clinical evaluation. As a biomarker in humans, its utility has been demonstrated in acute and chronic injury and in renal cell carcinoma, a condition similar to injury, where there is dedifferentiation of the epithelial cell. KIM-1 is a phosphatidylserine receptor which recognizes apoptotic cells directing them to lysosomes. It also serves as a receptor for oxidized lipoproteins and hence is important for uptake of components of the tubular lumen which may be immunomodulatory and/or toxic to the cell. KIM-1 is unique in being the first molecule, not also present on myeloid cells, that transforms kidney proximal epithelial cells into semi-professional phagocytes. Data suggest that KIM-1 expression is protective during early injury, whereas in chronic disease states, prolonged KIM-1 expression may be maladaptive and may represent a target for therapy of chronic kidney disease. PMID:25125746

  12. Improvement of surface albedo parameterization within a regional climate model (RegCM3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Y.; Lü, S.

    2009-03-01

    A parameterization for calculating surface albedo of Solar Zenith Angel (SZA) dependence with coefficient for each vegetation type determined on the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS) reformed by the Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) is incorporated within the latest Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) Regional Climate Model (RegCM3), and evaluated with a high resolution one-way nesting simulation in China using the Climate Research Unit (CRU) data and the observations from the Field Experiment on Interaction between Land and Atmosphere in Arid Region of Northwest China (NWC-ALIEX). The performance of the SZA method modeling surface characteristic is investigated.Results indicate, RegCM with SZA method (RCM_SZA) considerably improve the cold bias of original RegCM (RCM_ORI) in air surface temperature in East Asia with 1.2 degree increased in summer due to the lower albedo produced by SZA method which makes more solar radiation absorbed by the surface and used for heating the atmosphere near to the surface. The simulated diurnal cycle of ground temperature conforms fairly well to the observation in the nesting simulation in Northwest China, especially during the noon time when the SZA has the lowest value. However, the modification can not obviously affect the East Asia summer monsoon precipitation simulation although RCM_SZA produce more evapo-transpiration in surface with more than 2 Wm-2 increases in simulated latent heat fluxes both in East Asia and in Northwest China compared to RCM_ORI.

  13. Evaluation and analysis of RegCM3 simulated summer rainfall over the Huaihe River Basin of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zong, Peishu; Wang, Huijun

    2011-06-01

    This study evaluates the ability of the Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) version 3 Regional Climate Model (RegCM3) in simulating the summer rainfall amount and distribution and large-scale circulation over the Huaihe River basin of China. We conducted the simulation for the period of 1982-2001 and the wet year of 2003 to test the ensemble simulation capacity of RegCM3. First, by comparing the simulated rainfall amount and distribution against the observations, it is found that RegCM3 can reproduce the rainfall pattern and its annual variations. In addition, the simulated spatial patterns of 850-hPa wind and specific humidity fields are close to the observations, although the wind speed and humidity values are larger. Finally, the ensemble simulation of RegCM3 for summer 2003 failed to capture the spatial distribution and underestimated the magnitude of the precipitation anomalies, and the reasons are analyzed.

  14. High resolution climate change simulation of the 21st century over East Asia by RegCM3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xuejie

    2010-05-01

    To meet the increasing demands from the climate change impact assessment studies, a high resolution climate change simulation over East Asia region has being performed in the National Climate Center of the China Meteorological Administration. The model employed in the study is the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) Regional Climate Model (RegCM3). A global model of the CCSR/NIES/FRCGC MIROC3.2_hires is selected to drive RegCM3 because of its high resolution (T106) and its good performances in simulating the present day climate over the region. The simulation is conducted at 25-km grid spacing for the period of 1951-2100. Observed CO2 concentration are used for the present day simulation of 1951-2000 and the emission scenario of IPCC SRES A1B is used as the GHG (greenhouse gases) forcing. Simulations of present day climate over China by RegCM3 and MIROC3.2_hires are compared against observation to valid the model performances. Results show that both models reproduced the general pattern of surface air temperature and precipitation well over the region. Compared to the driving MIROC3.2_hires, RegCM3 provides with more spatial details of the surface fields. Differed from previous GCM-RegCM3 simulations, the RegCM3 did not improves the general pattern of the precipitation due to the good performances of MIROC3.2_hires. Preliminary analysis of the future changes simulated by the two models' show difference, in particular during June-July-August. For example while the MIROC3.2_hires projected a prevailing increase of precipitation in JJA over China, the RegCM3 projected extended areas of decreased precipitation. The data are available for those interested from the community of climate change impacts studies.

  15. Hn PAHs and the 2940 and 28050/cm (3.40 and 3.51 Microns) Infrared Emission Features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, Max; Sandford, Scott; Allamandola, Louis; Witteborn, Fred (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    The 3150-2700/cm (3.17-3.70 microns) range of the spectra of a number of Ar matrix isolated PAHs containing excess H atoms (Hn-PAHs) are presented. This region covers features produced by aromatic and aliphatic C-H stretching vibrations as well as overtone and combination bands involving lower lying fundamentals. It is demonstrated that the aliphatic C-H stretches in molecules of this type having low-to-modest excess H coverage provide excellent fits to a number of the weak emission features superposed on the plateau between 3080 and 2700/cm (3.25 and 3.7 microns) in the spectra of many planetary nebulae, reflection nebulae, and HII regions. Higher H coverage is implied for a few objects. We compare these results in context with the other suggested identifications of the emission features in the 2950-2700/cm (3.39-3.70 microns) region and briefly discuss their astrophysical implications.

  16. Sensitivity of the GCM driven summer monsoon simulations to cumulus parameterization schemes in nested RegCM3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, P.; Mohanty, U. C.; Kar, S. C.; Dash, S. K.; Kumari, S.

    2013-04-01

    The regional climate model (RegCM3) from the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics has been used to simulate the Indian summer monsoon for three different monsoon seasons such as deficit (1987), excess (1988) and normal (1989). Sensitivity to various cumulus parameterization and closure schemes of RegCM3 driven by the National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting global spectral model products has been tested. The model integration of the nested RegCM3 is conducted using 90 and 30-km horizontal resolutions for outer and inner domains, respectively. The India Meteorological Department gridded rainfall (1° × 1°) and National Centre for Environment Prediction (NCEP)-Department of Energy (DOE) reanalysis-2 of 2.5° × 2.5° horizontal resolution data has been used for verification. The RegCM3 forced by NCEP-DOE reanalysis-2 data simulates monsoon seasons of 1987 and 1988 reasonably well, but the monsoon season of 1989 is not represented well in the model simulations. The RegCM3 runs driven by the global model are able to bring out seasonal mean rainfall and circulations well with the use of the Grell and Anthes-Kuo cumulus scheme at 90-km resolution. While the rainfall intensity and distribution is brought out well with the Anthes-Kuo scheme, upper air circulation features are brought out better by the Grell scheme. The simulated rainfall distribution is better with RegCM3 using the MIT-Emanuel cumulus scheme for 30-km resolution. Several statistical analyses, such as correlation coefficient, root mean square error, equitable threat score, confirm that the performance of MIT-Emanuel scheme at 30-km resolution is better in simulating all-India summer monsoon rainfall. The RegCM3 simulated rainfall amount is more and closer to observations than that from the global model. The RegCM3 has corrected its driven GCM in terms of rainfall distribution and magnitude over some parts of India during extreme years. This study brings out several

  17. New α-adrenergic property for synthetic MTβ and CM-3 three-finger fold toxins from black mamba.

    PubMed

    Blanchet, Guillaume; Upert, Gregory; Mourier, Gilles; Gilquin, Bernard; Gilles, Nicolas; Servent, Denis

    2013-12-01

    Despite their isolation more than fifteen years ago from the venom of the African mamba Dendroaspis polylepis, very few data are known on the functional activity of MTβ and CM-3 toxins. MTβ was initially classified as a muscarinic toxin interacting non-selectively and with low affinity with the five muscarinic receptor subtypes while no biological function was determined for CM-3. Recent results highlight the multifunctional activity of three-finger fold toxins for muscarinic and adrenergic receptors and reveal some discrepancies in the pharmacological profiles of their venom-purified and synthetic forms. Here, we report the pharmacological characterization of chemically-synthesized MTβ and CM-3 toxins on nine subtypes of muscarinic and adrenergic receptors and demonstrate their high potency for α-adrenoceptors and in particular a sub-nanomolar affinity for the α1A-subtype. Strikingly, no or very weak affinity were found for muscarinic receptors, highlighting that pharmacological characterizations of venom-purified peptides may be risky due to possible contaminations. The biological profile of these two homologous toxins looks like that one previously reported for the Dendroaspis angusticeps ρ-Da1a toxin. Nevertheless, MTβ and CM-3 interact more potently than ρ-Da1a with α1B- and α1D-AR subtypes. A computational analysis of the stability of the MTβ structure suggests that mutation S38I, could be involved in this gain in function.

  18. 43 CFR 10.11 - Disposition of culturally unidentifiable human remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... human remains. 10.11 Section 10.11 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATIVE AMERICAN GRAVES PROTECTION AND REPATRIATION REGULATIONS Human Remains, Funerary Objects, Sacred Objects, or... unidentifiable human remains. (a) General. This section implements section 8(c)(5) of the Act and applies...

  19. 43 CFR 10.11 - Disposition of culturally unidentifiable human remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... human remains. 10.11 Section 10.11 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATIVE AMERICAN GRAVES PROTECTION AND REPATRIATION REGULATIONS Human Remains, Funerary Objects, Sacred Objects, or... unidentifiable human remains. (a) General. This section implements section 8(c)(5) of the Act and applies...

  20. Outcomes in men with large prostates (≥ 60 cm(3)) treated with definitive proton therapy for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    McGee, Lisa; Mendenhall, Nancy P; Henderson, Randal H; Morris, Christopher G; Nichols, Romaine C; Marcus, Robert J; Li, Zuofeng; Mendenhall, William M; Williams, Christopher R; Hoppe, Bradford S

    2013-04-01

    Large prostate size is associated with higher rates of genitourinary and gastrointestinal toxicities after definitive treatment for prostate cancer, and because of this many men will undergo cytoreduction with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) before definitive therapy, which results in its own unique toxicities and worsens quality of life. This series investigates genitourinary and gastrointestinal toxicity in men with large prostates (> 60 cm(3)) undergoing definitive proton therapy (PT) for prostate cancer. Material and methods. From 2006 to 2010, 186 men with prostates ≥ 60 cm(3) were treated with definitive PT (median dose, 78 CGE) for low- (47%), intermediate- (37%) and high-risk (16%) prostate cancer. Median prostate size was 76 cm(3) (range, 60-143 cm(3)) and pretreatment IPSS was > 15 in 27%. At baseline, 51% were managed for obstructive symptoms with transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) (9.7%) or medical management with α blockers (32%), 5 α-reductase inhibitors (15%), and/or saw palmetto (11%). Fourteen men received ADT for cytoreduction. Results. Median follow-up was two years. Grade 3 genitourinary toxicities occurred in 14 men, including temporary catheterization (n = 7), TURP (n = 6), and balloon dilation for urethral stricture (n = 1). Multivariate analysis demonstrated pretreatment medical management (p = 0.0065) and pretreatment TURP (p = 0.0002) were significantly associated with grade 3 genitourinary toxicity. One man experienced grade 3 gastrointestinal toxicity and 15 men had grade 2 gastrointestinal toxicities. On multivariate analysis, dose > 78 CGE was associated with increased grade 2 + gastrointestinal toxicity (p = 0.0142). Conclusion. Definitive management of men with large prostates without ADT was associated with low rates of genitourinary and gastrointestinal toxicity.

  1. Tellurite-, tellurate-, and selenite-based anaerobic respiration by strain CM-3 isolated from gold mine tailings.

    PubMed

    Maltman, Chris; Piercey-Normore, Michele D; Yurkov, Vladimir

    2015-09-01

    The newly discovered strain CM-3, a Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium from gold mine tailings of the Central Mine in Nopiming Provincial Park, Canada, is capable of dissimilatory anaerobic reduction of tellurite, tellurate, and selenite. CM-3 possesses very high level resistance to these oxides, both aerobically and anaerobically. During aerobic growth, tellurite and tellurate resistance was up to 1500 and 1000 µg/ml, respectively. In the presence of selenite, growth occurred at the highest concentration tested, 7000 µg/ml. Under anaerobic conditions, resistance was decreased to 800 µg/ml for the Te oxides; however, much like under aerobic conditions, growth with selenite still took place at 7000 µg/ml. In the absence of oxygen, CM-3 couples oxide reduction to an increase in biomass. Following an initial drop in viable cells, due to switching from aerobic to anaerobic conditions, there was an increase in CFU/ml greater than one order of magnitude in the presence of tellurite (6.6 × 10(3)-8.6 × 10(4) CFU/ml), tellurate (4.6 × 10(3)-1.4 × 10(5) CFU/ml), and selenite (2.7 × 10(5)-5.6 × 10(6) CFU/ml). A control culture without metalloid oxides showed a steady decrease in CFU/ml with no recovery. ATP production was also increased in the presence of each oxide, further indicating anaerobic respiration. Partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed a 99.0 % similarity of CM-3 to Pseudomonas reactans.

  2. Sensitivity of simulated extreme precipitation and temperature to convective parameterization using RegCM3 in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, Pinhong; Tang, Jianping; Wang, Shuyu; Wu, Jian

    2015-10-01

    In this study, the regional climate model of RegCM3 is applied to investigate the sensitivity of regional climate over China using four cumulus parameterizations, the modified Anthes-Kuo (AK), the Grell with Arakawa-Schubert closure, the Grell with Fritsch-Chappell closure, and the MIT-Emanuel (EM). The model was integrated over the period of 1982 to 2001 using the NCEP Reanalysis data NNRP2 as boundary conditions. RegCM3 coupled with various cumulus parameterizations is evaluated firstly as for its ability to represent regional climatology and climate extreme indices, and the results show that simulated regional climate in China is sensitive to the option of cumulus parameterizations. All the cumulus schemes produce a northward expansion of heavy rain area and an underestimation of surface air temperature. For precipitation, the AK scheme simulates relatively better magnitude, while the EM scheme has more reliable performance on the spatial distribution. RegCM3 can represent the spatial distributions of extreme indices for both precipitation and temperature, as well as their decadal trends irrelevant to the cumulus parameterizations. However, the model underestimates the consecutive dry days and overestimates the three extreme wet indices, with the EM scheme giving the worst result. Slight underestimations of extreme temperature indices are detected in all cumulus parameterization scheme runs. The shapes of probability distribution functions for extreme indices are correctly produced, though the probabilities of extreme dry and warm events are underestimated.

  3. First HPLC-UV method for rapid and simultaneous quantification of phenobarbital, primidone, phenytoin, carbamazepine, carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide, 10,11-trans-dihydroxy-10,11-dihydrocarbamazepine, lamotrigine, oxcarbazepine and licarbazepine in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Serralheiro, Ana; Alves, Gilberto; Fortuna, Ana; Rocha, Marília; Falcão, Amílcar

    2013-04-15

    A sensitive and fast high-performance liquid chromatographic method coupled with ultraviolet detection is herein reported for the simultaneous determination of human plasma concentration of six antiepileptic drugs frequently used in clinical practice [phenobarbital (PB), primidone (PRM), phenytoin (PHT), carbamazepine (CBZ), lamotrigine (LTG), oxcarbazepine (OXC)] and some of their main metabolites, carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide (CBZ-E), 10,11-trans-dihydroxy-10,11-dihydrocarbamazepine (trans-diol) and licarbazepine (Lic). Sample preparation consisted of a deproteinization step with methanol followed by a solid-phase extraction procedure. Chromatographic separation was achieved in approximately 15 min on a reversed-phase C18 column using a mobile phase composed by water-methanol-acetonitrile-triethylamine (68.7:25:6:0.3, v/v/v/v; pH 6.5) pumped isocratically at 1.0 mL/min. The detector was set at 237 nm. Calibration curves were linear with regression coefficients greater than 0.992 over the concentration ranges 0.25-100 μg/mL for PB, 0.4-50 μg/mL for PRM, 0.5-50 μg/mL for PHT, 0.1-50 μg/mL for CBZ, LTG and CBZ-E, 0.1-25 μg/mL for OXC, 0.25-10 μg/mL for trans-diol and 0.15-80 μg/mL for Lic. Inter- and intra-day imprecision did not exceed 12.15% and inaccuracy was within ±14.91%. Absolute mean recoveries ranged from 78.49 to 101.04% and no interferences were observed at the retention times of the analytes and internal standard (ketoprofen). This bioanalytical method was successfully applied to real plasma samples from epileptic patients and it seems to be a suitable tool for routine therapeutic drug monitoring and also to support other clinical pharmacokinetic-based studies.

  4. Easy Growth Experiment on Peas Stimulates Interest in Biology for 10-11 Year Old Pupils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwen, Birgitta

    2007-01-01

    How do we support the enthusiasm children show for biology in school? Unfortunately, lack of exciting practical work and boring biology lessons seem to make science less popular. As a senior lecturer in plant physiology at Karlstad University I have simplified experiments intended for students at university and then tested them on 10-11 year old…

  5. 43 CFR 10.11 - Disposition of culturally unidentifiable human remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... AMERICAN GRAVES PROTECTION AND REPATRIATION REGULATIONS Human Remains, Funerary Objects, Sacred Objects, or Objects of Cultural Patrimony in Museums and Federal Collections § 10.11 Disposition of culturally... control. (4) A museum or Federal agency may also transfer control of funerary objects that are...

  6. 43 CFR 10.11 - Disposition of culturally unidentifiable human remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Objects of Cultural Patrimony in Museums and Federal Collections § 10.11 Disposition of culturally... unidentifiable human remains and associated funerary objects. (1) A museum or Federal agency that is unable to... that none of them has objected to the proposed transfer of control. (4) A museum or Federal agency...

  7. 43 CFR 10.11 - Disposition of culturally unidentifiable human remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... AMERICAN GRAVES PROTECTION AND REPATRIATION REGULATIONS Human Remains, Funerary Objects, Sacred Objects, or Objects of Cultural Patrimony in Museums and Federal Collections § 10.11 Disposition of culturally... control. (4) A museum or Federal agency may also transfer control of funerary objects that are...

  8. 15 CFR 10.11 - Revision or amendment of a standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT OF VOLUNTARY PRODUCT STANDARDS § 10.11 Revision or amendment of a standard. (a) A published... Committee serves in the development of a new standard. The processing of a revision of a standard shall be... or the design characteristics of the product being standardized, or which cannot reasonably...

  9. 46 CFR 39.10-11 - Personnel training-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS VAPOR CONTROL SYSTEMS General § 39.10-11.... Training must include drills or demonstrations using the installed vapor control system covering normal... cover the following subjects: (1) Purpose of a vapor control system; (2) Principles of the vapor...

  10. 46 CFR 39.10-11 - Personnel training-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS VAPOR CONTROL SYSTEMS General § 39.10-11.... Training must include drills or demonstrations using the installed vapor control system covering normal... cover the following subjects: (1) Purpose of a vapor control system; (2) Principles of the vapor...

  11. Synthesis and biological evaluation of 10,11-methylenedioxy-14-azacamptothecin.

    PubMed

    Elban, Mark A; Sun, Wenyue; Eisenhauer, Brian M; Gao, Rong; Hecht, Sidney M

    2006-08-03

    [reaction: see text] 10,11-Methylenedioxy-14-azacamptothecin, a potent analogue of the antitumor agent camptothecin (CPT), has been prepared via a key condensation between AB and DE ring precursors. The biological testing of this compound validated a strategy for modulation of the off-rate of camptothecin analogues from the topoisomerase-DNA-CPT ternary complex via structural modification.

  12. 25 CFR 10.11 - How would someone detained or incarcerated, or their representative, get the BIA policies and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... representative, get the BIA policies and standards? 10.11 Section 10.11 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER INDIAN COUNTRY DETENTION FACILITIES AND PROGRAMS § 10.11 How would someone detained or incarcerated, or their representative, get the BIA policies and standards? At...

  13. 25 CFR 10.11 - How would someone detained or incarcerated, or their representative, get the BIA policies and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... representative, get the BIA policies and standards? 10.11 Section 10.11 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER INDIAN COUNTRY DETENTION FACILITIES AND PROGRAMS § 10.11 How would someone detained or incarcerated, or their representative, get the BIA policies and standards? At...

  14. 25 CFR 10.11 - How would someone detained or incarcerated, or their representative, get the BIA policies and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... representative, get the BIA policies and standards? 10.11 Section 10.11 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER INDIAN COUNTRY DETENTION FACILITIES AND PROGRAMS § 10.11 How would someone detained or incarcerated, or their representative, get the BIA policies and standards? At...

  15. 25 CFR 10.11 - How would someone detained or incarcerated, or their representative, get the BIA policies and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... representative, get the BIA policies and standards? 10.11 Section 10.11 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER INDIAN COUNTRY DETENTION FACILITIES AND PROGRAMS § 10.11 How would someone detained or incarcerated, or their representative, get the BIA policies and standards? At...

  16. 25 CFR 10.11 - How would someone detained or incarcerated, or their representative, get the BIA policies and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... representative, get the BIA policies and standards? 10.11 Section 10.11 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER INDIAN COUNTRY DETENTION FACILITIES AND PROGRAMS § 10.11 How would someone detained or incarcerated, or their representative, get the BIA policies and standards? At...

  17. Regional Climate Responses To Planetary-Scale Geoengineering Activities, as Modeled Using climateprediction.net/HadCM3L

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricke, K.

    2009-12-01

    Concerns that climate mitigation is occurring too slowly, or that there may be a rapid "climate surprise," have lead to renewed dialogue within the scientific community about cooling the planet through geoengineering, specifically stratospheric albedo modification (SAM). There is little consensus about regional hydrological effects of such activities despite a recent spate of climate modeling studies looking at its potential impacts. Here we present the results from one large-ensemble experiment that used Hadley Centre Coupled Model, version 3 with reduced resolution over the ocean (HadCM3L), implemented through climateprediction.net. The analysis examines 54 globally-uniform stratospheric optical depth modification scenarios designed to stabilize global temperatures under SRES A1B. We present normalized regional temperature anomalies versus normalized regional precipitation and subsurface runoff anomalies (for example, see Figure 1) and the results of regression analyses to quantify the relationships between level of stratospheric optical property modification (i.e., geoengineering) and regional hydrology. Results show that while such shortwave compensations for longwave anthropogenic forcings does generally return regional climates to closer to their baseline climate states than the no-geoengineering, business-as-usual scenarios, the magnitudes and sensitivities of regional responses to this type of activity, as modeled in HadCM3L, are highly variable. Regions, such as Eastern China and India, migrate away from their baseline climate states in different ways, illustrating the impossibility of simultaneous stabilization of regional climates. The linearity of the effect of incrementally increasing stratospheric optical depth also varies regionally. Figure 1: Normalized regional temperature and precipitation anomalies (<2020s>-<1990s> and <2070s>-<1990s>) in units of baseline standard deviations for each region). Each grayscale point in-series near the origin

  18. High-resolution δ13C measurements on ancient air extracted from less than 10 cm3 of ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leuenberger, M. C.; Eyer, M.; Nyfeler, P.; Stauffer, B.; Stocker, T. F.

    2003-04-01

    A new method for δ13C analysis of very small air amounts of less than 0.5 cm3 STP was developed. This corresponds to less than 10 g of ice. It is based on the needle-crasher technique, which is routinely used for CO2 concentration measurements by infrared laser absorption. The extracted air is slowly expanded into a large volume through a water trap held at -70 °C where the pressure is measured. This sampled air is then carried by a high helium flux through a preconcentration system to separate CO2 cryogenically from the air. The small CO2 amount is then released into a low helium stream which forces the CO2 via an open split device to a mass spectrometer. The overall precision, based on replicates of standard air without crushing, is significantly better than 0.1‰ for a single analysis, and is further improved by a triplicate measurement of the same sample through a specially designed gas splitter. Performing δ13C measurements on ice air through the whole system, we reach a reproducibility of 0.12‰. Additional information is obtained through amplitude vs. pressure ratio determination, which results in a good control of the CO2 concentration (1 ppm precision for 1σ). The new method allows us to produce highly resolved records of atmospheric δ13C from air enclosed in ice, which is required to better understand the evolution and the temporal variability of the global carbon cycle.

  19. Particle- and gas-phase emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from two-stroke, 50-cm 3 mopeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spezzano, Pasquale; Picini, Paolo; Cataldi, Dario; Messale, Fabrizio; Manni, Claudio

    2008-06-01

    The emissions of gas- and particle-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were evaluated in the exhaust of 10 mopeds (4 EURO-0, 4 EURO-1 and 2 EURO-2) equipped with two-stroke engines with displacement of 50 cm3. Sampling was performed on a dynamometer bench both during the "cold-start" and the "hot" phases of the ECE-47 driving cycle. Eighteen PAHs were quantified and total PAH emission factors (∑PAH) ranged from 1790 to 15,059 μg km-1. Expressed in benzo(a)pyrene equivalent (BaPeq), emission factors ranged 4.7-86.3 μg km-1. PAH emissions are reduced according to the legislation class: EURO-0>EURO-1>EURO-2. PAH emission factors were greater during the cold-start phase than the hot phase of the ECE-47 cycle. Results show that despite their small engine size, two-stroke mopeds can emit amounts of particulate PAHs comparable or even higher than PAH emissions reported elsewhere from gasoline- and diesel-powered passenger cars and light- and heavy-duty vehicles.

  20. The eastern Tropical Pacific hydroclimate over the last 120kyr: a perspective from HadCM3.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, W. H. G.; Valdes, P. J.

    2014-12-01

    The focus of the majority of studies looking into the evolving tropical pacific climate on glacial/interglacial timescales has been the role of the changing orbital forcing. While this is of course the fundamental forcing that drives changes in the climate on these time scales, without a fully interactive Earth System Model the effects that the evolving ice sheets/sea level and green house gases have on the climate will be missed. In the absence of such models these other forcings must be imposed. While the impact on the temperature in both the high latitudes, and to some extent in the tropics, of all of the forcings is reasonably clear, their impact on the hydroclimate is less obvious. In this study we shall investigate what role all of the different forcings that vary over a glacial/interglacial cycle play on the hydroclimate in the eastern Tropical Pacific. We use as the basis of our study a set of three climate model experiments using the model HadCM3. Each of these simulates the last 120 thousand years as a series of time slices in one of three configurations: varying the orbital forcing; varying the orbital and greenhouse gas forcing; varying the orbital, greenhouse and ice sheet/sea level forcing. With these experiments we can deconvolve the role that each forcing plays. We will show that, in addition to the orbital forcing, both the greenhouse gas forcing and the ice sheet configuration have a large impact on the eastern Tropical Pacific's hydroclimate. Using a set of more idealised model simulations we shall elucidate the mechanisms by which each of these different forcing mechanism causes the simulated changes.

  1. Coupling of a regional atmospheric model (RegCM3) and a regional oceanic model (FVCOM) over the maritime continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jun; Malanotte-Rizzoli, Paola; Eltahir, Elfatih A. B.; Xue, Pengfei; Xu, Danya

    2014-09-01

    Climatological high resolution coupled climate model simulations for the maritime continent have been carried out using the regional climate model (RegCM) version 3 and the finite volume coastal ocean model (FVCOM) specifically designed to resolve regions characterized by complex geometry and bathymetry. The RegCM3 boundary forcing is provided by the EMCWF-ERA40 re-analysis. FVCOM is embedded in the Global MITgcm which provides boundary forcing. The domain of the coupled regional model covers the entire South China Sea with its through-flow, the entire Indonesian archipelago with the Indonesian through-flow (ITF) and includes a large region in the western Pacific and eastern Indian oceans. The coupled model is able to provide stable and realistic climatological simulations for a specific decade of atmospheric-oceanic variables without flux correction. The major focus of this work is on oceanic properties. First, the coupled simulation is assessed against ocean-only simulations carried out under two different sets of air-sea heat fluxes. The first set, provided by the MITgcm, is proved to be grossly deficient as the heat fluxes are evaluated by a two-dimensional, zonally averaged atmosphere and the simulated SST have anomalous cold biases. Hence the MITgcm fluxes are discarded. The second set, the NCEP re-analysis heat fluxes, produces a climatological evolution of the SST with an average cold bias of ~-0.8 °C. The coupling eliminates the cold bias and the coupled SST evolution is in excellent agreement with the analogous evolution in the SODA re-analysis data. The detailed comparison of oceanic circulation properties with the International Nusantara Stratification and Transport observations shows that the coupled simulation produces the best estimate of the total ITF transport through the Makassar strait while the transports of three ocean-only simulations are all underestimated. The annual cycle of the transport is also very well reproduced. The coupling also

  2. Study of 11Li and 10,11Be nuclei through elastic scattering and breakup reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaidarov, M. K.; Lukyanov, V. K.; Kadrev, D. N.; Zemlyanaya, E. V.; Antonov, A. N.; Lukyanov, K. V.; Spasova, K.

    2016-01-01

    The hybrid model of the microscopic optical potential (OP) is applied to calculate the 11Li+p, 10,11Be+p, and 10,11Be+12C elastic scattering cross sections at energies E < 100 MeV/nucleon. The OP's contain the folding-model real part (ReOP) with the direct and exchange terms included, while its imaginary part (ImOP) is derived within the high-energy approximation (HEA) theory. For the 11Li+p elastic scattering, the microscopic large-scale shell model (LSSM) density of 11Li is used, while the density distributions of 10,11Be nuclei obtained within the quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) model and the generator coordinate method (GCM) are utilized to calculate the microscopic OPs and cross sections of elastic scattering of these nuclei on protons and 12C. The depths of the real and imaginary parts of OP are fitted to the elastic scattering data, being simultaneously adjusted to reproduce the true energy dependence of the corresponding volume integrals. Also, the cluster models, in which 11Li consists of 2n-halo and the 9Li core having its own LSSM form of density and 11Be consists of a n-halo and the 10Be core, are adopted. Within the latter, we give predictions for the longitudinal momentum distributions of 9Li fragments produced in the breakup of 11Li at 62 MeV/nucleon on a proton target. It is shown that our results for the diffraction and stripping reaction cross sections in 11Be scattering on 9Be, 93Nb, 181Ta, and 238U targets at 63 MeV/nucleon are in a good agreement with the available experimental data.

  3. Design of a Two-Stage Light Gas Gun for Muzzle Velocities of 10 - 11 kms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogdanoff, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Space debris poses a major risk to spacecraft. In low earth orbit, impact velocities can be 10 11 kms and as high as 15 kms. For debris shield design, it would be desirable to be able to launch controlled shape projectiles to these velocities. The design of the proposed 10 11 kmsec gun uses, as a starting point, the Ames 1.280.22 two stage gun, which has achieved muzzle velocities of 10 11.3 kmsec. That gun is scaled up to a 0.3125 launch tube diameter. The gun is then optimized with respect to maximum pressures by varying the pump tube length to diameter ratio (LD), the piston mass and the hydrogen pressure. A pump tube LD of 36.4 is selected giving the best overall performance. Piezometric ratios for the optimized guns are found to be 2.3, much more favorable than for more traditional two stage light gas guns, which range from 4 to 6. The maximum powder chamber pressures are 20 to 30 ksi. To reduce maximum pressures, the desirable range of the included angle of the cone of the high pressure coupling is found to be 7.3 to 14.6 degrees. Lowering the break valve rupture pressure is found to lower the maximum projectile base pressure, but to raise the maximum gun pressure. For the optimized gun with a pump tube LD of 36.4, increasing the muzzle velocity by decreasing the projectile mass and increasing the powder loads is studied. It appears that saboted spheres could be launched to 10.25 and possibly as high as 10.7 10.8 kmsec, and that disc-like plastic models could be launched to 11.05 kms. The use of a tantalum liner to greatly reduce bore erosion and increase muzzle velocity is discussed. With a tantalum liner, CFD code calculations predict muzzle velocities as high as 12 to 13 kms.

  4. Neutron dosimetry and damage calculation for the JP-10, 11, 13, and 16 experiments in HFIR

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwood, L.R.; Ratner, R.T.

    1996-04-01

    Neutron fluence measurements and radiation damage calculations are reported for the joint U.S./Japanese experiments JP-10, 11, 13, and 16 in the target of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Lab (ORNL). These experiments were irradiated at 85 MW for 238.5 EFPD. The maximum fast neutron fluence >0.1 MeV was about 2.1E + 22 n/cm{sup 2} for all of the experiments resulting in about 17.3 dpa in 316 stainless steel.

  5. Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 Knockout Abrogates Radiation Induced Pulmonary Inflammation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallahan, Dennis E.; Virudachalam, Subbulakshmi

    1997-06-01

    Increased expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1; CD54) is induced by exposure to ionizing radiation. The lung was used as a model to study the role of ICAM-1 in the pathogenesis of the radiation-induced inflammation-like response. ICAM-1 expression increased in the pulmonary microvascular endothelium and not in the endothelium of larger pulmonary vessels following treatment of mice with thoracic irradiation. To quantify radiation-induced ICAM-1 expression, we utilized fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis of anti-ICAM-1 antibody labeling of pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells from human cadaver donors (HMVEC-L cells). Fluorochrome conjugates and UV microscopy were used to quantify the fluorescence intensity of ICAM in the irradiated lung. These studies showed a dose- and time-dependent increase in ICAM-1 expression in the pulmonary microvascular endothelium. Peak expression occurred at 24 h, while threshold dose was as low as 2 Gy. To determine whether ICAM-1 is required for inflammatory cell infiltration into the irradiated lung, the anti-ICAM-1 blocking antibody was administered by tail vein injection to mice following thoracic irradiation. Inflammatory cells were quantified by immunofluorescence for leukocyte common antigen (CD45). Mice treated with the anti-ICAM-1 blocking antibody showed attenuation of inflammatory cell infiltration into the lung in response to ionizing radiation exposure. To verify the requirement of ICAM-1 in the inflammation-like radiation response, we utilized the ICAM-1 knockout mouse. ICAM-1 was not expressed in the lungs of ICAM-1-deficient mice following treatment with thoracic irradiation. ICAM-1 knockout mice had no increase in the inflammatory cell infiltration into the lung in response to thoracic irradiation. These studies demonstrate a radiation dose-dependent increase in ICAM-1 expression in the pulmonary microvascular endothelium, and show that ICAM-1 is required for inflammatory cell infiltration

  6. Pioneer 10/11 data analysis of the magnetic field experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, D. E.

    1982-01-01

    Work conducted in support of the Pioneer missions to Jupiter (10,11), and Saturn (11) as well as the reduction, analysis and interpretation of magnetic field data obtained by the vector helium magnetometer on the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft is summarized. Initial efforts concentrated primarily on the interplanetary data, and those aspcts of the data of relevance to obtaining a better understanding of the interaction of the magnetized solar wind with the terrestrial magnetic field. After encounters of Jupiter and Saturn, the emphasis of research was directed primarily to an analysis of the planetary data. In particular, it soon became clear that there was a need for modelling of the various candidate magnetospheric currents suggested by the data. Results not published as yet, are also summarized.

  7. Sperm FISH and chromatin integrity in spermatozoa from a t(6;10;11) carrier.

    PubMed

    Olszewska, Marta; Huleyuk, Nataliya; Fraczek, Monika; Zastavna, Danuta; Wiland, Ewa; Kurpisz, Maciej

    2014-05-01

    Complex chromosome rearrangements (CCRs) are structurally balanced or unbalanced aberrations involving more than two breakpoints on two or more chromosomes. CCRs can be a potential reason for genomic imbalance in gametes, which leads to a drastic reduction in fertility. In this study, the meiotic segregation pattern, aneuploidy of seven chromosomes uninvolved in the CCR and chromatin integrity were analysed in the ejaculated spermatozoa of a 46,XY,t(6;10;11)(q25.1;q24.3;q23.1)mat carrier with asthenozoospermia and a lack of conception. The frequency of genetically unbalanced spermatozoa was 78.8% with a prevalence of 4:2 segregants of 38.2%, while the prevalence of the adjacent 3:3 mode was 35.3%. Analysis of the aneuploidy of chromosomes 13, 15, 18, 21, 22, X and Y revealed an approximately fivefold increased level in comparison with that of the control group, indicating the presence of an interchromosomal effect. Sperm chromatin integrity status was evaluated using chromomycin A3 and aniline blue staining (deprotamination), acridine orange test and TUNEL assay (sperm DNA fragmentation). No differences were found when comparisons were made with a control group. We suggest that the accumulation of genetically unbalanced spermatozoa, significantly increased sperm aneuploidy level and decreased sperm motility (20%, progressive) were not responsible for the observed lack of reproductive success in the analysed infertile t(6;10;11) carrier. Interestingly, in the case described herein, a high level of sperm chromosomal imbalance appears not to be linked to sperm chromatin integrity status.

  8. Analysis of the present and future winter Pacific-North American teleconnection in the ECHAM5 global and RegCM3 regional climate models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allan, Andrea M.; Hostetler, Steven W.; Alder, Jay R.

    2014-01-01

    We use the NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis (NCEP) and the MPI/ECHAM5 general circulation model to drive the RegCM3 regional climate model to assess the ability of the models to reproduce the spatiotemporal aspects of the Pacific-North American teleconnection (PNA) pattern. Composite anomalies of the NCEP-driven RegCM3 simulations for 1982–2000 indicate that the regional model is capable of accurately simulating the key features (500-hPa heights, surface temperature, and precipitation) of the positive and negative phases of the PNA with little loss of information in the downscaling process. The basic structure of the PNA is captured in both the ECHAM5 global and ECHAM5-driven RegCM3 simulations. The 1950–2000 ECHAM5 simulation displays similar temporal and spatial variability in the PNA index as that of NCEP; however, the magnitudes of the positive and negative phases are weaker than those of NCEP. The RegCM3 simulations clearly differentiate the climatology and associated anomalies of snow water equivalent and soil moisture of the positive and negative PNA phases. In the RegCM3 simulations of the future (2050–2100), changes in the location and extent of the Aleutian low and the continental high over North America alter the dominant flow patterns associated with positive and negative PNA modes. The future projections display a shift in the patterns of the relationship between the PNA and surface climate variables, which suggest the potential for changes in the PNA-related surface hydrology of North America.

  9. Acaricidal activity of 9-oxo-10,11-dehydroageraphorone extracted from Eupatorium adenophorum in vitro.

    PubMed

    Liao, Fei; Hu, Yanchun; Tan, Hui; Wu, Lei; Wang, Yunfei; Huang, Yue; Mo, Quan; Wei, Yahui

    2014-05-01

    The acaricidal activity of the 9-oxo-10,11-dehydroageraphorone (euptox A), a cadenine sesquiterpene from Eupatorium adenophorum (E. adenophorum) against Sarcoptes scabiei and Psoroptes cuniculi was tested in vitro. A complementary log-log (CLL) model was used to analyze the data of the toxicity tests in vitro. The results showed euptox A had strong toxicity against mites, killing all S. scabiei at 3 and 4 mg/ml (m/v) concentration, while 4 mg/ml euptox A was also found to kill all P. cuniculi within a 4 h period. Similarly, 2, 3 and 4 mg/ml concentration of euptox A had strong toxicity against S. scabiei, with median lethal time (LT50) values at 0.687, 0.526, 0.326 h, respectively. 3 mg/ml and 4 mg/ml showed strong acaricidal action against P. cuniculi; the LT50 values were 0.693 and 0.493 h, respectively. The median lethal concentration (LC50) values were 1.068 mg/ml for Scabies mite and 0.902 mg/ml for P. cuniculi in 2 h. The results indicate that euptox A has strong acaricidal activity and may exploit as novel drugs for the effective control of animal acariasis.

  10. Geomagnetic activity during 10 - 11 solar cycles that has been observed by old Russian observatories.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seredyn, Tomasz; Wysokinski, Arkadiusz; Kobylinski, Zbigniew; Bialy, Jerzy

    2016-07-01

    A good knowledge of solar-terrestrial relations during past solar activity cycles could give the appropriate tools for a correct space weather forecast. The paper focuses on the analysis of the historical collections of the ground based magnetic observations and their operational indices from the period of two sunspot solar cycles 10 - 11, period 1856 - 1878 (Bartels rotations 324 - 635). We use hourly observations of H and D geomagnetic field components registered at Russian stations: St. Petersburg - Pavlovsk, Barnaul, Ekaterinburg, Nertshinsk, Sitka, and compare them to the data obtained from the Helsinki observatory. We compare directly these records and also calculated from the data of the every above mentioned station IHV indices introduced by Svalgaard (2003), which have been used for further comparisons in epochs of assumed different polarity of the heliospheric magnetic field. We used also local index C9 derived by Zosimovich (1981) from St. Petersburg - Pavlovsk data. Solar activity is represented by sunspot numbers. The correlative and continuous wavelet analyses are applied for estimation of the correctness of records from different magnetic stations. We have specially regard to magnetic storms in the investigated period and the special Carrington event of 1-2 Sep 1859. Generally studied magnetic time series correctly show variability of the geomagnetic activity. Geomagnetic activity presents some delay in relation to solar one as it is seen especially during descending and minimum phase of the even 11-year cycle. This pattern looks similarly in the case of 16 - 17 solar cycles.

  11. [Socioeconomic differences in nutrition and nutritional status in 10-11-year-old boys].

    PubMed

    van Poppel, G; Schneijder, P; Maas, I A; Schrijver, J; Sluiter-van Nies, A A; Kok, F J

    1989-06-17

    The relation between socio-economic status and food consumption and nutritional status was investigated in boys aged 10-11 yr (n = 125) who participated in a survey in 1987. Based on the parents' education and profession, boys were categorized in three levels of socio-economic status. In the lower socio-economic category (n = 59) body mass index and skinfold thickness are higher (p less than 0.05) than in the highest category (n = 41) and caries is more prevalent (83% vs 51%). In comparison with both higher groups, dairy products, vegetables and fruit are less frequently used in the lower category, and consumption of protein, calcium and riboflavin is lower (p less than 0.05). These results indicate an increased risk of caries and obesity in the lower socio-economic group. The other differences clearly have an unfavourable tendency, but do not indicate directly increased risk of nutritional deficiencies or nutrition-related diseases in the lower socio-economic group.

  12. Impact of resolution on regional climate modeling in the source region of Yellow River with complex terrain using RegCM3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, Pinhong; Tang, Jianping; Wang, Shuyu; Wu, Jian; Niu, Xiaorui; Kang, Yue

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents results from a 20-year (1990-2009) simulation by RegCM3 with both 45- and 15-km horizontal resolutions. The research focuses on the source region of Yellow River and its surrounding area, which is located on the northeast edge of the Tibetan Plateau with its very complex topography. Driven by the ECMWF ERA-interim reanalysis data, RegCM3 displays reasonable ability to reproduce the spatial patterns, annual cycles, and the interannual variabilities of regional surface climate, though the model shows wet and cold bias. The model's performance is more close to observation for the source region of Yellow River than the other part of the analysis region, and the application of high resolution of 15 km demonstrates better skill with less bias for mean climate and larger correlation coefficients for interannual variability at most stations. However, the high-resolution simulation shows little advantage for reproducing the variations of precipitation and surface air temperature with altitude. The RegCM3 model also generally reproduces the probability distribution functions (PDFs) of surface climate and, consequently, the occurrence of climatic extremes and extreme indices. The simulation with high resolution again proves to be more reliable to generate climatic extremes over complex terrain of the source region of the Yellow River, related to its better representation of complex terrain and local processes.

  13. The dynamical core, physical parameterizations, and basic simulation characteristics of the atmospheric component AM3 of the GFDL global coupled model CM3

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Donner, L.J.; Wyman, B.L.; Hemler, R.S.; Horowitz, L.W.; Ming, Y.; Zhao, M.; Golaz, J.-C.; Ginoux, P.; Lin, S.-J.; Schwarzkopf, M.D.; Austin, J.; Alaka, G.; Cooke, W.F.; Delworth, T.L.; Freidenreich, S.M.; Gordon, C.T.; Griffies, S.M.; Held, I.M.; Hurlin, W.J.; Klein, S.A.; Knutson, T.R.; Langenhorst, A.R.; Lee, H.-C.; Lin, Y.; Magi, B.I.; Malyshev, S.L.; Milly, P.C.D.; Naik, V.; Nath, M.J.; Pincus, R.; Ploshay, J.J.; Ramaswamy, V.; Seman, C.J.; Shevliakova, E.; Sirutis, J.J.; Stern, W.F.; Stouffer, R.J.; Wilson, R.J.; Winton, M.; Wittenberg, A.T.; Zeng, F.

    2011-01-01

    The Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) has developed a coupled general circulation model (CM3) for the atmosphere, oceans, land, and sea ice. The goal of CM3 is to address emerging issues in climate change, including aerosol-cloud interactions, chemistry-climate interactions, and coupling between the troposphere and stratosphere. The model is also designed to serve as the physical system component of earth system models and models for decadal prediction in the near-term future-for example, through improved simulations in tropical land precipitation relative to earlier-generation GFDL models. This paper describes the dynamical core, physical parameterizations, and basic simulation characteristics of the atmospheric component (AM3) of this model. Relative to GFDL AM2, AM3 includes new treatments of deep and shallow cumulus convection, cloud droplet activation by aerosols, subgrid variability of stratiform vertical velocities for droplet activation, and atmospheric chemistry driven by emissions with advective, convective, and turbulent transport. AM3 employs a cubed-sphere implementation of a finite-volume dynamical core and is coupled to LM3, a new land model with ecosystem dynamics and hydrology. Its horizontal resolution is approximately 200 km, and its vertical resolution ranges approximately from 70 m near the earth's surface to 1 to 1.5 km near the tropopause and 3 to 4 km in much of the stratosphere. Most basic circulation features in AM3 are simulated as realistically, or more so, as in AM2. In particular, dry biases have been reduced over South America. In coupled mode, the simulation of Arctic sea ice concentration has improved. AM3 aerosol optical depths, scattering properties, and surface clear-sky downward shortwave radiation are more realistic than in AM2. The simulation of marine stratocumulus decks remains problematic, as in AM2. The most intense 0.2% of precipitation rates occur less frequently in AM3 than observed. The last two decades of

  14. Climate Impact on South America due to Land Use Degradation of Amazon Rainforest during Winter and Summer Periods by RegCM3 Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, M. E. S.; Da Rocha, R.; Pereira, G.

    2015-12-01

    In this study we investigated the climatic impact over South America region due to the increasing of deforestation at the eastern and southern regions of Amazon through the use of the climate model RegCM3 with 50 km of spatial resolution. Many studies, among global and regional models have been used to simulate climatic impact due to deforestation. Most of them used relatively coarse resolution, small domains over South America, besides do not consider deforestation as usually observed. In order to verify the RegCM3 ability to simulate climate impacts due to Amazon deforestation including relatively higher horizontal resolutions, 50 km, a larger domain, the whole South America, deforested areas more similar to the route-shaped commonly seen, and a landuse updating, the model was run for the 2001-2006 period. As the major part of the previous studies focusing Amazon deforestation, RegCM3-50km simulated over degraded areas air temperature increase, ranging from 1.0 to 2.5oC, and precipitation decreasing, ~10%. These aspects are mainly resulting from soil water depletion and roughness vegetation decreasing, both inhibiting evapotranspiration processes. Apart from these results, the model with 50 km simulated precipitation increasing, ~10%, over the eastern South America and adjacent South Atlantic ocean, after Amazon deforestation. Seeking for physical related reasons able to provide the precipitation increasing during rainy seasons, over eastern South America, we found out that upper levels high pressure system (the Bolivian High) intensification, coupled to the southeastward trough, what follows the low troposphere warming, seems to contribute to the precipitation increasing. The climatic impact simulated for winter seasons presents strongest values for areas with altered landuse, over the north region of South America.

  15. Evaluation of Low-Cost, Objective Instruments for Assessing Physical Activity in 10-11-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Teresa L.; Brusseau, Timothy; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges; McClain, James J.; Tudor-Locke, Catrine

    2011-01-01

    This study compared step counts detected by four, low-cost, objective, physical-activity-assessment instruments and evaluated their ability to detect moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) compared to the ActiGraph accelerometer (AG). Thirty-six 10-11-year-old children wore the NL-1000, Yamax Digiwalker SW 200, Omron HJ-151, and Walk4Life…

  16. Phytoremediation of carbamazepine and its metabolite 10,11-epoxycarbamazepine by C3 and C4 plants.

    PubMed

    Ryšlavá, Helena; Pomeislová, Alice; Pšondrová, Šárka; Hýsková, Veronika; Smrček, Stanislav

    2015-12-01

    The anticonvulsant drug carbamazepine is considered as an indicator of sewage water pollution: however, its uptake by plants and effect on metabolism have not been sufficiently documented, let alone its metabolite (10,11-epoxycarbamazepine). In a model system of sterile, hydroponically cultivated Zea mays (as C4 plant) and Helianthus annuus (as C3 plant), the uptake and effect of carbamazepine and 10,11-epoxycarbamazepine were studied in comparison with those of acetaminophen and ibuprofen. Ibuprofen and acetaminophen were effectively extracted from drug-supplemented media by both plants, while the uptake of more hydrophobic carbamazepine was much lower. On the other hand, the carbamazepine metabolite, 10,11-epoxycarbamazepine, was, unlike sunflower, willingly taken up by maize plants (after 96 h 88 % of the initial concentration) and effectively stored in maize tissues. In addition, the effect of the studied pharmaceuticals on the plant metabolism (enzymes of Hatch-Slack cycle, peroxidases) was followed. The activity of bound peroxidases, which could cause xylem vessel lignification and reduction of xenobiotic uptake, was at the level of control plants in maize leaves contrary to sunflower. Therefore, our results indicate that maize has the potential to remove 10,11-epoxycarbamazepine from contaminated soils.

  17. Evidence, from Pioneer 10/11, Galileo, and Ulysses Data, for an Anomalous, Weak, Long-Range Acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. D.; Laing, P. A.; Lau, E. L.; Liu, A. S.; Nieto, M. M.; Turyshev, S. G.

    1998-01-01

    Radio metric data from the Pioneer 10/11, Galileo, and Ulysses Spacecraft indicate an apparent anomalous, constant, acceleration acting on the spacecraft with a magnitude 8.5 x 10(sup -8) cm/s(sup 2), directed towards the Sun.

  18. A Teacher's Guide to Folksinging: A Mini-Elective for Students in Grades 9, 10, 11, and 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    To help meet the needs of nonmusic-major students in grade 9, 10, 11, and 12, this teacher's guide offers guidelines for a course to stimulate students' interest and involvement in folksinging. Guidelines are provided on the role of the teacher, methods of instruction, and suggested time allotments. Brief descriptions and comments on some typical…

  19. Tuning The Sea-Ice Seasonal Cycle Of HadCM3: Can It Reproduce Observed Trends In Sea-Ice?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tett, S. F.; Roach, L.; Rae, C.; Cartis, C.; Mineter, M.; Steig, E. J.; Yamazaki, K.; Schurer, A. P.

    2015-12-01

    Since high quality satellite observations of sea-ice begin in 1979 Artic sea-ice extent has declined . Observed losses in Arctic sea-ice during September are greater than the majority of models in the CMIP5 archive and the multi-model average. In contrast Antarctic sea-ice has increased in contrast to an expected decline. We have carried out a set of perturbations to the HadCM3 model in which we changed the maximum ice area (a proxy for ice leads), albedo parameterizations, ice thermal conductivity and ocean diffusion. Changes in these parameters affected ice extent in both the Arctic and Antarctic. We used these simulations to identify four parameters that had most impact on minimum and maximum sea-ice extent in both hemispheres. To tune the model we used a Gauss-Newton algorithm to adjust those four parameters to minimize differences between simulated and observed sea-ice extents. With this new parameter set we then simulated the period 1940 to 2015 and compared with the default configuration of HadCM3. Compared to the default configuration the perturbed model had greater summer sea-loss in the Arctic and is consistent with observed loss estimates. However, in the Antarctic neither the perturbed or default simulations show an increase in sea-ice extent. This is in contrast to the observations which do show an increase in sea-ice extent.

  20. Systematic analysis of above-barrier fusion of {sup 9,10,11}Be+{sup 209}Bi

    SciTech Connect

    Hinde, D. J.; Dasgupta, M.

    2010-06-15

    Measurements of fusion for {sup 9,10,11}Be allow testing of the relative importance to fusion and breakup of the alpha-cluster structure found in all these Be isotopes, compared with the neutron-halo structure only present for {sup 11}Be. However, disagreements exist among different published experimental data sets for the reactions of {sup 9,10,11}Be with {sup 209}Bi. Accurate measurements of above-barrier cross sections for the products of complete fusion (fission and evaporation residues) in the reaction of {sup 9}Be with {sup 209}Bi and {sup 208}Pb provide the basis for a reanalysis of above-barrier fusion for {sup 10,11}Be+{sup 209}Bi. This includes procedures making full use of the higher precision stable beam data and resolves many of the disagreements. The improved self-consistency of the analysis allows investigation of the experimental average fusion barriers. Although showing some scatter, these suggest a higher barrier for the neutron halo nucleus {sup 11}Be. Comparison of published cross sections for fusion associated with capture of all the charge of the projectile suggest that all these Be isotopes show significant suppression of complete fusion, a surprising result given that the alpha-breakup threshold energies are 1.57 MeV for {sup 9}Be but over 7 MeV for {sup 10,11}Be. Further experimental studies to investigate in more detail the division between complete and incomplete fusion for reactions of {sup 10,11}Be are needed.

  1. Tissue-specific regulation of CXCL9/10/11 chemokines in keratinocytes: Implications for oral inflammatory disease

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Alison; Celentano, Antonio; Cirillo, Nicola; McCullough, Michael; Porter, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    The IFN-γ-inducible chemokines CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11 play a key role in many inflammatory conditions, particularly those mediated by T cells. Therefore, the production of these chemokines in peripheral tissues could be instrumental in the pathophysiology of tissue-specific immunological diseases such as oral lichen planus (OLP). In the present study, we assessed the production of keratinocyte-derived CXCL9/10/11 under basal and inflammatory conditions and investigated whether these chemokines were involved in the pathogenesis of OLP. We used semi-quantitative PCR, ELISA, chemotaxis assays, and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) to assess the expression and functional role of CXCL9/10/11 in oral keratinocytes (three strains of normal human oral keratinocytes (NHOK), and the H357 oral cancer cell line) in the presence or absence of IFN-γ. CXCL9/10/11 were also assessed in tissues from normal patients and those with oral lichen planus (OLP). The time course study in oral keratinocytes treated with IFN-γ showed that expression of CXCL9/10/11 chemokines was significantly enhanced by IFN-γ in a time-dependent manner. In particular, CXCL10, a prominent chemokine that was overexpressed by IFN-γ-stimulated NHOK, was able to effectively recruit CD4 lymphocytes, mainly CD4+CD45RA- cells. Significantly higher levels of CXCL9/10/11 were found in tissues from patients with OLP compared to normal oral mucosa. Taken together, the results demonstrate that normal oral keratinocytes produce chemotactic molecules that mediate T cell recruitment. This study furthers understanding of chemokine production in oral keratinocytes and their role in the pathophysiology of oral mucosa, with particular relevance to OLP. PMID:28253295

  2. Coffee Beverage Quality Assessment Based on ETA/CPTEC-HadCM3 Model (A1B-IPCC/SRES Scenario), Southeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giarolla, A.; Resende, N.; Chou, S. C.; Tavares, P. S.; Rodrigues, D. C.

    2012-04-01

    Environmental factors influence the coffee beverage quality and air temperature has a significant importance in this process. The grain maturation occurs very quickly in regions that present high temperatures and sometimes there is not enough time to complete all this phase adequately. In the other hand, with mild temperatures, the grain maturation occurs more slowly and it promotes a better quality beverage. The aim of this study was to assess the coffee beverage quality in the southeastern Brazil, based on climate projections using the Eta-CPTEC regional model driven by four members of an ensemble of the Met Office Hadley Centre Global Coupled climate model (HadCM3). The global model ensemble was run over the 21st century according to IPCC SRES, A1B emissions scenario. Each ensemble member presented different climate sensitivity in the analysis. The Eta-CPTEC-HadCM3 model was configured with a 40-km grid size and was run over the period of 1961-90 to represent a baseline climate, and over the period of 2011-2100 to simulate possible future changes and the effects on the coffee beverage quality. A coffee beverage quality classification, which depends on the annual air temperature proposed by Bressani (2007) and also, a quality coffee beverage sensory classification, based on Camargo and Cortez (1998) were considered in this study. An evaluation of the systematic errors (BIAS) for each member for the period from 1961 to 1990 was made. The results presented by Eta/CPTEC-HadCM3 model indicated that in the case of an occurrence of A1B emission scenario, the coffee beverage quality could be affected in this region due to the fact that the flavor may become stronger and unpleasant caused by rising air temperatures. The BIAS evaluation and subsequent errors removal demonstrated improvement in the scenarios simulations. A short review concerning agronomic techniques to mitigate extreme meteorological events or global warming on coffee crop based on Camargo (2010) also is

  3. Accurate quantum chemical modelling of the separation of Eu(3+) from Am(3+)/Cm(3+) by liquid-liquid extraction with Cyanex272.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Jun; Weissmann, Daniel; Dolg, Michael; Chen, Xuebo

    2015-08-28

    The experimentally observed extraction complexes of trivalent lanthanide Eu(3+) and actinide Am(3+)/Cm(3+) cations with Cyanex272 [bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) phosphinic acid, denoted as HC272] and Cyanex301 [bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) dithiophosphinic acid, denoted as HC301] have been studied by using relativistic energy-consistent 4f- and 5f-in-core pseudopotentials for trivalent f elements, combined with density functional theory and a continuum solvation model. It has been found that, as a result of hydrogen bonding, HC272 exists primarily as a self-associated species, whereas HC301 is preferably a monomer. The calculations show that in case of all three M(3+) (M = Eu, Am, Cm) ions for HC272 the extraction complexes M[H(C272)2]3 are formed prior to M(C272)3, whereas for HC301 the extraction complexes M(C301)3 have priority over M[H(C301)2]3. The calculated M-O and M-S bond lengths and the M-P distances of these preferred extraction complexes agree very well with the available experimental data. The obtained changes of the Gibbs free energies in the liquid-liquid extraction reactions (1): Maqu(3+) + 3(HC272)2,org→ M[H(C272)2]3,org + 3Haqu(+) and (2): Maqu(3+) + 3HC301org→ M(C301)3,org + 3Haqu(+) agree with the experimentally observed thermodynamical priorities of HC272 and HC301, i.e., HC272 prefers Eu(3+) over Am(3+)/Cm(3+) and HC301 prefers Am(3+)/Cm(3+) over Eu(3+). The obtained changes of the Gibbs free energies in reaction (2) (Eu, 68.1 kJ mol(-1); Am, 46.5 kJ mol(-1)) agree quite well with the experimental findings (Eu, 63.3 kJ mol(-1); Am, 44.1 kJ mol(-1)).

  4. Parameter Tuning and Calibration of RegCM3 with MIT-Emanuel Cumulus Parameterization Scheme over CORDEX East Asian Domain

    SciTech Connect

    Zou, Liwei; Qian, Yun; Zhou, Tianjun; Yang, Ben

    2014-10-01

    In this study, we calibrated the performance of regional climate model RegCM3 with Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)-Emanuel cumulus parameterization scheme over CORDEX East Asia domain by tuning the selected seven parameters through multiple very fast simulated annealing (MVFSA) sampling method. The seven parameters were selected based on previous studies, which customized the RegCM3 with MIT-Emanuel scheme through three different ways by using the sensitivity experiments. The responses of model results to the seven parameters were investigated. Since the monthly total rainfall is constrained, the simulated spatial pattern of rainfall and the probability density function (PDF) distribution of daily rainfall rates are significantly improved in the optimal simulation. Sensitivity analysis suggest that the parameter “relative humidity criteria” (RH), which has not been considered in the default simulation, has the largest effect on the model results. The responses of total rainfall over different regions to RH were examined. Positive responses of total rainfall to RH are found over northern equatorial western Pacific, which are contributed by the positive responses of explicit rainfall. Followed by an increase of RH, the increases of the low-level convergence and the associated increases in cloud water favor the increase of the explicit rainfall. The identified optimal parameters constrained by the total rainfall have positive effects on the low-level circulation and the surface air temperature. Furthermore, the optimized parameters based on the extreme case are suitable for a normal case and the model’s new version with mixed convection scheme.

  5. Evaluation of eye irritation by S-(-)-10,11-dihydroxyfarnesic acid methyl ester secreted by Beauveria bassiana CS1029.

    PubMed

    Son, Hyeong-U; Lee, Sang-Han

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether S-(-)-10,11-dihydroxyfarnesic acid methyl ester produced by cell subtype Beauveria bassiana CS1029 causes acute toxicity when used for cosmetic purposes by performing an eye irritation test. New Zealand white (NZW) rabbits were treated with a 100 mg/dose of S-(-)-10,11-dihydroxyfarnesic acid methyl ester according to standard procedure guidelines. No significant changes in terms of ocular lesions of the cornea, turbidity of the cornea, swelling of the eyelid or ocular discharge were observed in the methyl ester-treated groups, while sodium dioctyl sulfosuccinate, a positive control, caused severe toxicity. The anatomical and pathological observations indicate that the methyl ester produced by Beauveria bassiana CS1029 did not induce eye irritation in the lenses of the rabbits. The data suggest that the methyl ester evaluated in this study has promising potential as a cosmetic ingredient that does not irritate the eye.

  6. The characterization of ficaprenol-10, -11 and 12 from the leaves of Ficus elastica (decorative rubber plant).

    PubMed

    Stone, K J; Wellburn, A R; Hemming, F W; Pennock, J F

    1967-01-01

    Evidence from mass, nuclear-magnetic-resonance and infrared spectrometry and from gas-liquid and thin-layer chromatography is presented in favour of the presence of cis-trans-decaprenol, -undecaprenol and -dodecaprenol in the mixture of polyprenols (2.6mg./g.) isolated from leaf tissue of Ficus elastica. The trivial names ficaprenol-10, -11 and -12 are proposed. Nuclear-magnetic-resonance studies showed that each of these prenols contains three trans internal isoprene residues and a cis ;OH-terminal' isoprene residue. Ficaprenol-11 is the major component of the mixture. Chromatographic evidence suggests the presence also of small amounts of ficaprenol-9 and -13. The precise position of the three trans internal isoprene residues was not determined but it is suggested that these are adjacent to the omega-terminal isoprene residue and that the ficaprenols are formed from all-trans-geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate. It is also suggested that ficaprenol-10, -11, -12 and -13 are probably the same compounds as castaprenol-10, -11, -12 and -13.

  7. Angiogenesis mediated by soluble forms of E-selectin and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Alisa E.; Halloran, Margaret M.; Haskell, Catherine J.; Shah, Manisha R.; Polverini, Peter J.

    1995-08-01

    ENDOTHELIAL adhesion molecules facilitate the entry of leukocytes into inflamed tissues. This in turn promotes neovascularization, a process central to the progression of rheumatoid arthritis, tumour growth and wound repair1. Here we test the hypothesis that soluble endothelial adhesion molecules promote angiogenesis2á¤-4. Human recombinant soluble E-selectin and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 induced chemotaxis of human endothelial cells in vitro and were angiogenic in rat cornea. Soluble E-selectin acted on endothelial cells in part through a sialyl Lewis-X-dependent mechanism, while soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 acted on endothelial cells in part through a very late antigen (VLA)-4 dependent mechanism. The chemotactic activity of rheumatoid synovial fluid for endothelial cells, and also its angiogenic activity, were blocked by antibodies to either soluble E-selectin or soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1. These results suggest a novel function for soluble endothelial adhesion molecules as mediators of angiogenesis.

  8. Simulation of the GeoMIP G1 and G2 experiments with a perturbed parameter ensemble of HadCM3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irvine, P. J.; Ridgwell, A. J.; Lunt, D. J.

    2012-12-01

    The geoengineering model intercomparison project is an attempt to assess the uncertainties in the effectiveness and climate impacts of solar radiation management (SRM) geoengineering using a multi-model ensemble (MME) of Global Circulation Models (GCM). Another approach for assessing GCM uncertainty is to use a perturbed parameter ensemble (PPE) generated from a single GCM. Although the PPE approach is limited in that all the members of the ensemble have many similarities it is still a useful way to explore uncertainty in GCM results. We simulate the G1 and G2 using a 27 member PPE of a fully-coupled CMIP3-era GCM, HadCM3, without using flux adjustments. The PPE we use is described in an article that has been submitted to the geoscientific model development journal. An analysis of the mean and spread of the PPE is made and comparisons are made with the geoMIP MME results. This comparison will support the geoMIP effort to identify the robust, and the uncertain, aspects of the simulated climate response to SRM geoengineering. This work will be complementary to the main GeoMIP MME approach and will test the utility of using PPEs of earlier generation GCMs alongside latest generation models.

  9. Perovskite CH3NH3PbI3(Cl) Single Crystals: Rapid Solution Growth, Unparalleled Crystalline Quality, and Low Trap Density toward 10(8) cm(-3).

    PubMed

    Lian, Zhipeng; Yan, Qingfeng; Gao, Taotao; Ding, Jie; Lv, Qianrui; Ning, Chuangang; Li, Qiang; Sun, Jia-Lin

    2016-08-03

    Single crystal reflects the intrinsic physical properties of a material, and single crystals with high-crystalline quality are highly desired for the acquisition of high-performance devices. We found that large single crystals of perovskite CH3NH3PbI3(Cl) could be grown rapidly from chlorine-containing solutions. Within 5 days, CH3NH3PbI3(Cl) single crystal as large as 20 mm × 18 mm × 6 mm was harvested. As a most important index to evaluate the crystalline quality, the full width at half-maximum (fwhm) in the high-resolution X-ray rocking curve (HR-XRC) of as-grown CH3NH3PbI3(Cl) single crystal was measured as 20 arcsec, which is far superior to so far reported CH3NH3PbI3 single crystals (∼1338 arcsec). The unparalleled crystalline quality delivered a low trap-state density of down to 7.6 × 10(8) cm(-3), high carrier mobility of 167 ± 35 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), and long transient photovoltaic carrier lifetime of 449 ± 76 μs. The improvement in the crystalline quality, together with the rapid growth rate and excellent carrier transport property, provides state-of-the-art single crystalline hybrid perovskite materials for high-performance optoelectronic devices.

  10. Investigating the Feedbacks between Land Surface Cover and North Atlantic Climate Variability in the HadCM3 Coupled Climate Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, E.; Valdes, P.; House, J.; Singarayer, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    The North Atlantic displays a number of major modes of decadal variability, namely the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). On decadal to multi-decadal timescales, this unforced climate variability is expected to be more influential on the overall pattern of climate than anthropogenic forcing. Greater understanding of this decadal-scale variability is essential to improve its predictability, which in turn is vital to constrain uncertainty in decadal to centennial climate change predictions. Numerous studies have investigated how oceanic and atmospheric forcing modulates climate variability. However the feedbacks between the land surface and decadal variability have not been examined to the same degree. The land surface influences climate via biogeophysical and biogeochemical processes which interact and vary across a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. Increasing concentrations of CO2 are expected to drive a change in the distribution and physiology (i.e. stomatal conductance and leaf area index) of vegetation, which can alter land surface structure and influence biogeophysical processes. It is important to more accurately constrain if/how land surface cover influences decadal variability and the associated feedback mechanisms and how these may change in a warming climate. This sensitivity study will use the HadCM3 climate model to investigate the impact of a range of vegetation distributions on the strength and variability of the AMOC/NAO at increasing CO2 concentrations. We aim to elucidate feedbacks between the land surface, ocean and atmosphere in a coupled climate model and potential implications for decadal modelling studies.

  11. Sensitivity studies of high-resolution RegCM3 simulations of precipitation over the European Alps: the effect of lateral boundary conditions and domain size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeem, Imran; Formayer, Herbert

    2016-11-01

    A suite of high-resolution (10 km) simulations were performed with the International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) Regional Climate Model (RegCM3) to study the effect of various lateral boundary conditions (LBCs), domain size, and intermediate domains on simulated precipitation over the Great Alpine Region. The boundary conditions used were ECMWF ERA-Interim Reanalysis with grid spacing 0.75∘, the ECMWF ERA-40 Reanalysis with grid spacing 1.125 and 2.5∘, and finally the 2.5∘ NCEP/DOE AMIP-II Reanalysis. The model was run in one-way nesting mode with direct nesting of the high-resolution RCM (horizontal grid spacing Δx = 10 km) with driving reanalysis, with one intermediate resolution nest (Δx = 30 km) between high-resolution RCM and reanalysis forcings, and also with two intermediate resolution nests (Δx = 90 km and Δx = 30 km) for simulations forced with LBC of resolution 2.5∘. Additionally, the impact of domain size was investigated. The results of multiple simulations were evaluated using different analysis techniques, e.g., Taylor diagram and a newly defined useful statistical parameter, called Skill-Score, for evaluation of daily precipitation simulated by the model. It has been found that domain size has the major impact on the results, while different resolution and versions of LBCs, e.g., 1.125∘ ERA40 and 0.7∘ ERA-Interim, do not produce significantly different results. It is also noticed that direct nesting with reasonable domain size, seems to be the most adequate method for reproducing precipitation over complex terrain, while introducing intermediate resolution nests seems to deteriorate the results.

  12. Present-day climatology and projected changes of warm and cold days in the CNRM-CM3 global climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballester, J.; Douville, H.; Chauvin, F.

    2009-01-01

    The impact of global warming on the warmest and coldest days of the annual cycle is explored according to an A2 scenario simulated by the CNRM-CM3 climate model in the framework of the IPCC AR4 intercomparison. Given the multi-model spread in IPCC projections, a validation strategy is proposed using the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis. Validation of the late twentieth century model climatology shows that warm and cold model events are slightly too long and infrequent. Although interannual trends in the warm (cold) day occurrence were positive (negative) only for six (three) of the nine considered sub-continental regions, simulated model trends are always positive (negative). This different behaviour suggests that simulated non-anthropogenic decadal variability is small relative to anthropogenic trends. Large-scale synoptic processes associated with European regional warm and cold peaks are also described and validated. Regional cold peaks are better reproduced than warm peaks, whose intensity accuracy is limited by other physical variables. Positive (negative) winter anomalies of sea and land surface temperature lead to summers with severe (weak) temperatures. These inter-annual anomalies are generated by a persistent pressure dipole over Europe. Regarding climate change, warm (cold) events will become more (less) frequent and longer (shorter). The number of warm days will largely rise and the number of cold days will dramatically decrease. The intensity of warm days will be particularly pronounced over Europe, given the projected summer drying in this region. However, according to the limited skill of the CNRM model, these results must be considered with caution.

  13. In vivo exposure of marine mussels to carbamazepine and 10-hydroxy-10,11-dihydro-carbamazepine: Bioconcentration and metabolization.

    PubMed

    Boillot, C; Martinez Bueno, M J; Munaron, D; Le Dreau, M; Mathieu, O; David, A; Fenet, H; Casellas, C; Gomez, E

    2015-11-01

    Aquatic organisms are exposed to pharmaceuticals present in natural waters, but few data are available on the accumulation of these substances in such organisms. The present study evaluated the in vivo bioconcentration of two anticonvulsants--carbamazepine (CBZ) and 10-hydroxy-10,11-dihydro-carbamazepine (10 OH)--in marine mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) exposed to nominal 10 μg L(-1) concentrations for one week. The bioconcentration factors (BCFs) were 3.9 and 4.5 L kg(-1) dry weight (dw) for CBZ and 10 OH, respectively. CBZ accumulation reached an average tissue concentration of 29.3 ± 4.8 ng g(-1) dw, and 10 OH accumulated up to 40.9 ± 4.6 ng g(-1) dw in tissues within one week, showing first-order kinetics. BCF obtained with linear QSAR models correctly estimated the CBZ bioconcentration and overestimated the 10 OH bioconcentration to some extent. The detection of two metabolites (carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide and acridine) among the five sought suggested an active metabolism for CBZ. In contrast, none of the 10 OH metabolites were detected in mussels exposed to 10 OH. CBZ showed higher accumulation in the digestive gland, where some relevant metabolites were detected, than in other studied tissues. The implication of those findings on field biomonitoring is discussed.

  14. Combating childhood obesity: Reactions of children aged 10-11 years towards the National Child Measurement Programme.

    PubMed

    Nnyanzi, Lawrence Achilles

    2015-10-06

    The aim of this study was to explore the reactions of children aged 10-11 years towards being weighed and measured and subsequently told their correct weight as part of the National Child Measurement Programme (NCMP). The study was undertaken in primary schools in a Primary Care Trust (PCT) in the North East of England, UK. One-to-one semi-structured interviews were conducted post-NCMP measurement (and the feedback) with a sample of 21 children, aged 10-11 years, conveniently sampled from the primary schools in the PCT. Findings from the study indicate that the NCMP, especially the weight feedback letter caused annoyance, panic and worry among children who were indicated to have weight problems and oversensitised all children about weight issues, regardless of their weight category. The NCMP is a potentially useful 'wake-up call' to the fact that something needs to be done for children identified to be overweight or obese but needs to be delivered with a sensitivity to the impact of the news on the child.

  15. Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule 1, Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1, and Cluster of Differentiation 146 Levels in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes with Complications

    PubMed Central

    Saribal, Devrim; Yenmis, Guven; Guvenen, Guvenc

    2017-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a multisystemic, chronic disease accompanied by microvascular complications involving various complicated mechanisms. Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), and cluster of differentiation-146 (CD146) are mainly expressed by endothelial cells, and facilitate the adhesion and transmigration of immune cells, leading to inflammation. In the present study, we evaluated the levels of soluble adhesion molecules in patients with microvascular complications of T2DM. Methods Serum and whole blood samples were collected from 58 T2DM patients with microvascular complications and 20 age-matched healthy subjects. Levels of soluble ICAM-1 (sICAM-1) and soluble VCAM-1 (sVCAM-1) were assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, while flow cytometry was used to determine CD146 levels. Results Serum sICAM-1 levels were lower in T2DM patients with microvascular complications than in healthy controls (P<0.05). No significant differences were found in sVCAM-1 and CD146 levels between the study and the control group. Although patients were subdivided into groups according to the type of microvascular complications that they experienced, cell adhesion molecule levels were not correlated with the complication type. Conclusion In the study group, most of the patients were on insulin therapy (76%), and 95% of them were receiving angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitor agents. Insulin and ACE-inhibitors have been shown to decrease soluble adhesion molecule levels via various mechanisms, so we suggest that the decreased or unchanged levels of soluble forms of cellular adhesion molecules in our study group may have resulted from insulin and ACE-inhibitor therapy, as well as tissue-localized inflammation in patients with T2DM. PMID:28345319

  16. Sodium chloride in supercritical water as a function of density: potentials of mean force and an equation for the dissociation constant from 723 to 1073 K and from 0 to 0.9 g/cm(3).

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenbin; Wood, Robert H; Doren, Douglas J

    2008-06-19

    The potential of mean force (PMF) of sodium chloride in water has been calculated by using the ab initio classical free-energy perturbation method at five state points: at 973 K with densities of 0.2796, 0.0935, and 0.0101 g/cm (3) and at 723 K with densities of 0.0897 and 0.0098 g/cm (3). The method is based on a QM-MM model in which Na-H 2O, Cl-H 2O, and Na-Cl interactions are calculated by ab initio methods. The water-water interactions are from the polarizable TIP4P-FQ model. The logarithm of the dissociation constant (log K c) has been calculated from the PMF. These predictions, together with experimental measurements, were used to derive an equation for log K c at densities from 0 to 0.9 g/cm (3) and temperatures from 723 to 1073 K, as well as from 600 to 1073 K for densities from 0.29 g/cm (3) to 0.9 g/cm (3). Extrapolation of the present equation below 723 K for densities less than 0.29 g/cm (3) does not fit the experimental results. This is attributed to long-range changes in the local dielectric constant due to the high compressibility. Comparisons with previous predictions and simulations are presented.

  17. Complement activation and kidney injury molecule-1-associated proximal tubule injury in severe preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Burwick, Richard M; Easter, Sarah Rae; Dawood, Hassan Y; Yamamoto, Hidemi S; Fichorova, Raina N; Feinberg, Bruce B

    2014-10-01

    Kidney injury with proteinuria is a characteristic feature of preeclampsia, yet the nature of injury in specific regions of the nephron is incompletely understood. Our study aimed to use existing urinary biomarkers to describe the pattern of kidney injury and proteinuria in pregnancies affected by severe preeclampsia. We performed a case-control study of pregnant women from Brigham and Women's Hospital from 2012 to 2013. We matched cases of severe preeclampsia (n=25) 1:1 by parity and gestational age to 2 control groups with and without chronic hypertension. Urinary levels of kidney injury molecule-1 and complement components (C3a, C5a, and C5b-9) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and other markers (albumin, β2 microglobulin, cystatin C, epithelial growth factor, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, osteopontin, and uromodulin) were measured simultaneously with a multiplex electrochemiluminescence assay. Median values between groups were compared with the Wilcoxon signed-rank test and correlations with Spearman correlation coefficient. Analysis of urinary markers revealed higher excretion of albumin and kidney injury molecule-1 and lower excretion of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and epithelial growth factor in severe preeclampsia compared with chronic hypertension and healthy controls. Among subjects with severe preeclampsia, urinary excretion of complement activation products correlated most closely with kidney injury molecule-1, a specific marker of proximal tubule injury (C5a: r=0.60; P=0.001; and C5b-9: r=0.75; P<0.0001). Taken together, we describe a pattern of kidney injury in severe preeclampsia that is characterized by glomerular impairment and complement-mediated inflammation and injury, possibly localized to the proximal tubule in association with kidney injury molecule-1.

  18. Effect of pressure on the semipolar GaN (10-11) growth mode on patterned Si substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jian-Ming; Zhang, Jie; Lin, Wen-Yu; Ye, Meng-Xin; Feng, Xiang-Xu; Zhang, Dong-Yan; Steve, Ding; Xu, Chen-Ke; Liu, Bao-Lin

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we investigate the effect of pressure on the growth mode of high quality (10-11) GaN using an epitaxial lateral over growth (ELO) technique by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). Two pressure growth conditions, high pressure (HP) 1013 mbar and low pressure growth (LP) 500 mbar, are employed during growth. In the high pressure growth conditions, the crystal quality is improved by decreasing the dislocation and stack fault density in the strip connection locations. The room temperature photoluminescence measurement also shows that the light emission intensity increases three times using the HP growth condition compared with that using the LP growth conditions. In the low temperature (77 K) photoluminescence, the defects-related peaks are very obvious in the low pressure growth samples. This result also indicates that the crystal quality is improved using the high pressure growth conditions. Project support by the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Green Laser).

  19. Revisiting the Chemistry of Guaiacwood Oil: Identification and Formation Pathways of 5,11- and 10,11-Epoxyguaianes.

    PubMed

    Tissandié, Loïc; Gaysinski, Marc; Brévard, Hugues; Meierhenrich, Uwe J; Filippi, Jean-Jacques

    2017-02-24

    Guaiacwood oil from Bulnesia sarmientoi Lorentz ex. Griseb is a common natural ingredient of the perfume industry used in both domestic and luxury fragrances for its highly appreciated woody-rosy odor, as well as its excellent fixative properties. Despite its long and traditional use as a perfume ingredient, guaiacwood oil has not been extensively studied. Thus, the chemical characterization of its constituents by using a full array of GC-hyphenated techniques (GC-MS, GC × GC-MS, and pc-GC) combined with conventional chemical fractionation was undertaken. In the course of this work, 15 new sesquiterpenoids mostly belonging to the 5,11- and 10,11-epoxyguaiane families were identified. Each isolated compound was fully characterized by NMR and MS. Collectively, the specific chemical relationships observed between sesquiterpene oxides and alcohols permitted the formulation of probable formation pathways regarding their presence as natural constituents of guaiacwood extracts.

  20. Absolute frequency list of the ν3-band transitions of methane at a relative uncertainty level of 10(-11).

    PubMed

    Okubo, Sho; Nakayama, Hirotaka; Iwakuni, Kana; Inaba, Hajime; Sasada, Hiroyuki

    2011-11-21

    We determine the absolute frequencies of 56 rotation-vibration transitions of the ν(3) band of CH(4) from 88.2 to 90.5 THz with a typical uncertainty of 2 kHz corresponding to a relative uncertainty of 2.2 × 10(-11) over an average time of a few hundred seconds. Saturated absorption lines are observed using a difference-frequency-generation source and a cavity-enhanced absorption cell, and the transition frequencies are measured with a fiber-laser-based optical frequency comb referenced to a rubidium atomic clock linked to the international atomic time. The determined value of the P(7) F(2)((2)) line is consistent with the International Committee for Weights and Measures recommendation within the uncertainty.

  1. A longitudinal study of grapheme-color synesthesia in childhood: 6/7 years to 10/11 years.

    PubMed

    Simner, Julia; Bain, Angela E

    2013-01-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia is a condition characterized by enduring and consistent associations between letter/digits and colors. This study is the continuation of longitudinal research begun by Simner et al. (2009) which aimed to explore the development of this condition in real time within a childhood population. In that earlier study we randomly sampled over 600 children and tested them aged 6/7 and 7/8 years. We identified the child synesthetes within that cohort and measured their development over 1 year, in comparison to a group of non-synesthetic children with both average and superior memories. We were able to show the beginnings of a developmental progression in which synesthetic associations (e.g., A = red) mature over time from relatively chaotic pairings into a system of fixed consistent associations. In the current study we return to this same population three years later when participants are now 10/11 years. We used the same paired-association memory task to determine the synesthetic status of our participants and to also establish synesthetes' inventories of grapheme-color associations. We compared their inventories to those from age 6/7 and 7/8 years to examine how synesthesia matures over time. Together with earlier findings, our study shows that grapheme-color synesthesia emerges with a protracted trajectory, with 34% of letters/digits fixed at age 6/7 years, 48% fixed at 7/8 years and 71% fixed at 10/11 years. We also show several cases where synesthesia is not developing in the same time-frame as peers, either because it has died out at an older age, or because it was slower to develop than other cases. Our study paints the first picture of the emergence of synesthesia in real-time over four years within a randomly sampled population of child synesthetes.

  2. Targeting sites of inflammation: intercellular adhesion molecule-1 as a target for novel inflammatory therapies

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Targeted drug delivery to sites of inflammation will provide effective, precise, and safe therapeutic interventions for treatment of diverse disease conditions, by limiting toxic side effects and/or increasing drug action. Disease-site targeting is believed to play a major role in the enhanced efficacy observed for a variety of drugs when formulated inside lipid vesicles. This article will focus on the factors and mechanisms involved in drug targeting to sites of inflammation and the importance of cell adhesion molecules, in particular intercellular adhesion molecule-1, in this process. PMID:24109453

  3. Luni-solar 18.6- and solar cycle 10 - 11-year signals in USA air temperature records.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currie, R. G.

    1993-02-01

    Spectrum analysis of 1197 USA air temperature records yields evidence for two peaks with periods 18.8±1.7 and 10.4±0.5 years. Tests by the t-statistic show that both are significant at confidence levels of 99.9 per cent, and both account for 23 per cent of total variance in the raw data. They are identified as the luni-solar 18.6 year Mn and solar cycle Sc 10 - 11 year signals in climate, induced by the twelfth largest constituent tide acting on the Earth and a variation of 10 to 11 years in the Sun's luminosity of the order of 0.1 per cent. Amplitude and phase of Mn wavetrains are highly non-stationary with respect to both time and geography; in particular, abrupt 180° phase changes in wave polarity are often observed. Amplitude and phase of the Sc waves are also highly non-stationary.

  4. False carbamazepine positives due to 10,11-dihydro-10-hydroxycarbamazepine breakdown in the GC-MS injector port.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Russell J; Angier, Mike K; Johnson, Robert D

    2014-10-01

    During the investigation of aviation accidents, postmortem specimens from accident victims are submitted to the Federal Aviation Administration's Civil Aerospace Medical Institute (CAMI) for toxicological analysis. A case recently received by CAMI screened positive for the anticonvulsant medication carbamazepine (CBZ; Tegretol(®)) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The CBZ found during this routine screening procedure was subsequently confirmed using a CBZ-specific GC-MS procedure. It was later discovered that the accident victim had been prescribed oxcarbazepine (OXCBZ; Trileptal(®)). OXCBZ is structurally similar to CBZ and is metabolized by cytosolic enzymes in the liver to an active metabolite, 10,11-dihydro-10-hydroxycarbamazepine (DiCBZ). It was determined that the CBZ initially found in this case was present due to the thermal breakdown of DiCBZ in the GC-MS injector port. In the current study, this conversion was investigated and the percentage of CBZ formed at various injector port temperatures was determined. Additionally, these three compounds were quantified in nine fluid and tissue specimens from the case in question. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was also incorporated to further demonstrate the absence/presence of CBZ in these samples.

  5. Transdermal delivery of 10,11-methylenedioxycamptothecin by hyaluronic acid based nanoemulsion for inhibition of keloid fibroblast.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuanyuan; Cheng, Xiaojie; Wang, Zhiguo; Wang, Juan; Gao, Tingting; Li, Peng; Kong, Ming; Chen, Xiguang

    2014-11-04

    This study designs an alternative transdermal delivery system for 10,11-methylenedioxycamptothecin(MD-CPT) to inhibit keloid. Hyaluronic acid nanoemulsions (HANs) with nano size, negative charge and good stability were prepared as transdermal carriers. The MD-CPT loaded HANs performed desirable skin permeable capacity across human keloid skin and the drug was transferred directly to keloid lesion area. MD-CPT was delivered percutaneously higher than the control group. FITC-HANs could be successfully internalized by keloid fibroblast (KF) and deliver MD-CPT toward nucleus, inhibited the proliferation of KF, while there was no serious toxicity to normal skin fibroblasts. The growth-inhibitory effect was further clarified upon cell cycle regulation, which arrested cells at G1/S and prevented them entry into mitosis. KF gene expression demonstrated plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) was significantly down-regulated and Smad7 up-regulated, which was beneficial to inhibit keloid. The study demonstrated that as transdermal delivery of MD-CPT by HANs has potential for inhibition of keloid fibroblast.

  6. Associations between sleeping habits and food consumption patterns among 10-11-year-old children in Finland.

    PubMed

    Westerlund, Lisa; Ray, Carola; Roos, Eva

    2009-11-01

    The increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity among children is of special concern. Inverse associations between sleep length and overweight have been found in children. Short sleeping hours result in hormonal changes, which increase perceived hunger and appetite. This could affect food intake, and consequently lead to overweight. The aim is to find out whether there is an association between adequate sleep and food consumption among 10-11-year-old school children in Finland. One thousand two hundred and sixty-five children (response rate 79 %), aged 9-11, from thirty-one schools filled in a questionnaire about their health behaviour. Inadequate sleep was measured as short sleeping hours during school nights and weekend nights, difficulties in waking up in the morning and tiredness during the day. Food consumption patterns were measured by two consumption indices, energy-rich foods and nutrient-dense foods, based on a short FFQ (sixteen items). Inadequate sleep is associated with food consumption patterns. Boys with shorter sleep duration during school nights, and who were felt tired during the day, were more likely to consume energy-rich foods. Girls with shorter sleep duration during school nights consumed more likely energy-rich foods and less likely nutrient-dense foods. Adjusting for physical activity and screen time weakened the explored associations. The associations with energy-rich foods were stronger for boys than for girls. Sleeping habits are associated with food consumption patterns. Shorter sleep duration during school nights in school children is associated with higher consumption of energy-rich foods.

  7. Laboratory-Scale Column Testing Using IONSIV IE-911 for Removing Cesium from Acidic Tank Waste Simulant. 2: Determination of Cesium Exchange Capacity and Effective Mass Transfer Coefficient from a 500-cm3 Column Experiement

    SciTech Connect

    T.J. Tranter; R.D. Tillotson; T.A. Todd

    2005-04-01

    A semi-scale column test was performed using a commercial form of crystalline silicotitanate (CST) for removing radio-cesium from a surrogate acidic tank solution, which represents liquid waste stored at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The engineered form of CST ion exchanger, known as IONSIVtmIE-911 (UOP, Mt. Laurel,NJ, USA), was tested in a 500-cm3 column to obtain a cesium breakthrough curve. The cesium exchange capacity of this column matched that obtained from previous testing with a 15-mc3 column. A numerical algorithm using implicit finite difference approximations was developed to solve the governing mass transport equations for the CST columns. An effective mass transfer coefficient was derived from solving these equations for previously reported 15 cm3 tests. The effective mass transfer coefficient was then used to predict the cesium breakthrough curve for the 500-cm3 column and compared to the experimental data reported in this paper. The calculated breakthrough curve showed excellent agreement with the data from the 500-cm3 column even though the interstitial velocity was a factor of two greater. Thus, this approach should provide a reasonable method for scale up to larger columns for treating actual tank waste.

  8. Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites cross retinal endothelium assisted by intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in vitro.

    PubMed

    Furtado, João M; Bharadwaj, Arpita S; Chipps, Timothy J; Pan, Yuzhen; Ashander, Liam M; Smith, Justine R

    2012-10-01

    Retinal infection is the most common clinical manifestation of toxoplasmosis. The route by which circulating Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites cross the vascular endothelium to enter the human retina is unknown. Convincing studies using murine encephalitis models have strongly implicated leukocyte taxis as one pathway used by the parasite to access target organs. To establish whether tachyzoites might also interact directly with vascular endothelium, we populated a transwell system with human ocular endothelial cells. Human retinal endothelial monolayers permitted transmigration of tachyzoites of RH and three natural isolate strains. Antibody blockade of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 significantly reduced this migration, but did not impact tachyzoite movement across an endothelial monolayer derived from the choroid, which lies adjacent to the retina within the eye. In demonstrating that tachyzoites are capable of independent migration across human vascular endothelium in vitro, this study carries implications for the development of therapeutics aimed at preventing access of T. gondii to the retina.

  9. Critical roles of co-activation receptor DNAX accessory molecule-1 in natural killer cell immunity

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Peng; Sang, Hai-Wei; Zhu, Min

    2015-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells, which can exert early and powerful anti-tumour and anti-viral responses, are important components of the innate immune system. DNAX accessory molecule-1 (DNAM-1) is an activating receptor molecule expressed on the surface of NK cells. Recent findings suggest that DNAM-1 is a critical regulator of NK cell biology. DNAM-1 is involved in NK cell education and differentiation, and also plays a pivotal role in the development of cancer, viral infections and immune-related diseases. However, tumours and viruses have developed multiple mechanisms to evade the immune system. They are able to impair DNAM-1 activity by targeting the DNAM-1 receptor–ligand system. We have reviewed the roles of DNAM-1, and its biological functions, with respect to NK cell biology and DNAM-1 chimeric antigen receptor-based immunotherapy. PMID:26235210

  10. MORPHEUS' MOLECULE1 is required to prevent aberrant RNA transcriptional read-through in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yue; Zhang, Jun; Lin, Huixin; Guo, Guangqin; Guo, Yan

    2010-11-01

    Several pathways function to remove aberrant mRNA in eukaryotic cells; however, the exact mechanisms underlying the restriction of aberrant mRNA transcription are poorly understood. In this study, we found that MORPHEUS' MOLECULE1 (MOM1) is a key component of this regulatory machinery. The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mom1-44 mutation was identified by luciferase imaging in transgenic plants harboring a cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter-LUCIFERASE transgene lacking the 3'-untranslated region. In the mom1-44 mutant, transcriptional read-though occurred in genes with an aberrant RNA structure. Analysis of an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase2 mom1 double mutant revealed that the RNA-directed DNA methylation pathway is not involved in this regulatory process. Moreover, the prevention of aberrant mRNA transcriptional read-through by MOM1 is gene locus and transgene copy number independent.

  11. Prediction of drug-drug interactions with carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide using a new in vitro assay for epoxide hydrolase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Maria; Bonnaillie, Pierre; Chanteux, Hugues

    2016-12-01

    1. Carbamazepine is an antiepileptic drug which is metabolized by CYP3A4 into carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide. This metabolite is then detoxified by epoxide hydrolase. As carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide has been associated with neurotoxicity, it is critical to identify whether a new antiepileptic drug has the potential to inhibit epoxide hydrolase and therefore increase carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide plasma levels. 2. In this study, an in vitro assay was developed to evaluate epoxide hydrolase activity by using carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide as probe substrate. The ability of this assay to predict drug-drug interactions (DDI) at the epoxide hydrolase level was also investigated. 3. To this aim, known inhibitors of epoxide hydrolase for which in vivo data are available were used. Firstly, carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide hydrolase activity was determined in liver microsomes, cytosol and hepatocytes. Thereafter, the IC50 of epoxide hydrolase inhibitors (progabide, valproic acid, valpromide and valnoctamide) was determined in liver microsomes and hepatocytes. Finally, prediction of AUC increase was performed using the in vitro data generated. 4. Interestingly, epoxide hydrolase activity was found to be much higher in human hepatocytes compared to liver microsomes/cytosol. Even though assessed on a limited number of compounds, this study demonstrated that the use of hepatocytes seems to be a more relevant model to assess and predict DDI at the epoxide hydrolase level.

  12. Pelvis width associated with bone mass distribution at the proximal femur in children 10-11 years old.

    PubMed

    Cardadeiro, Graça; Baptista, Fátima; Janz, Kathleen F; Rodrigues, Luís A; Sardinha, Luís B

    2014-03-01

    Differences in skeletal geometry may generate different patterns of mechanical loading to bone. Impact and muscle loading during physical activity have been shown to influence skeletal geometry. The purpose of this study was to compare geometric measures of the pelvis and proximal femur (PF) of young children and to analyze the contribution and potential interaction of these geometric measures with physical activity on PF bone mass distribution. Participants were 149 girls and 145 boys, aged 10-11 years. Total body and left hip DXA scans were used to derive pelvic and PF geometric measures and PF bone mineral density (BMD) at the femoral neck (FN), trochanter (TR), and intertrochanter (IT). These subregions were used to represent bone mass distribution via three BMD ratios: FN:PF, TR:PF, and IT:PF. Physical activity was objectively measured using accelerometry, and maturity was estimated as the years of distance from peak height velocity. When compared to boys, girls had a wider pelvic diameter and greater interacetabular distances (p < 0.001), lower BMD at FN, TR, and IT (p < 0.05), and higher TR:PF (p < 0.001). After controlling for maturity, body height, and lean body mass, the interacetabular distance in girls explained 21.1 % (β = 0.713, p < 0.001) in TR:PF and 2.9 % (β = -0.179, p = 0.031) in the IT:PF. Neck-shaft angle explained 5.6 % (β = -0.265, p = 0.001) of the IT:PF and 3.1 % (β = 0.194, p = 0.018) of the FN:PF. In boys, FN axis length explained 2.9 % (β = 0.195, p = 0.040) of TR:PF. There was no main effect of physical activity or interaction effect with pelvic geometry in explaining BMD differences among the subregions of the PF. Even before sexual dimorphism, girls have a wider pelvis than boys, which accounted for proportionally greater BMD of the TR than other subregions of the PF.

  13. High electrical conductivity in Ni₃(2,3,6,7,10,11-hexaiminotriphenylene)₂, a semiconducting metal-organic graphene analogue.

    PubMed

    Sheberla, Dennis; Sun, Lei; Blood-Forsythe, Martin A; Er, Süleyman; Wade, Casey R; Brozek, Carl K; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán; Dincă, Mircea

    2014-06-25

    Reaction of 2,3,6,7,10,11-hexaaminotriphenylene with Ni(2+) in aqueous NH3 solution under aerobic conditions produces Ni3(HITP)2 (HITP = 2,3,6,7,10,11-hexaiminotriphenylene), a new two-dimensional metal-organic framework (MOF). The new material can be isolated as a highly conductive black powder or dark blue-violet films. Two-probe and van der Pauw electrical measurements reveal bulk (pellet) and surface (film) conductivity values of 2 and 40 S·cm(-1), respectively, both records for MOFs and among the best for any coordination polymer.

  14. Role of Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 in Radiation-Induced Brain Injury

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, K.-L.; Tu Ba; Li Yuqing; Wong, C. Shun

    2010-01-15

    Purpose: To determine the role of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in the pathogenesis of brain injury after irradiation (IR). Methods and Materials: We assessed the expression of ICAM-1 in mouse brain after cranial IR and determined the histopathologic and behavioral changes in mice that were either wildtype (+/+) or knockout (-/-) of the ICAM-1 gene after IR. Results: There was an early dose-dependent increase in ICAM-1 mRNA and protein expression after IR. Increased ICAM-1 immunoreactivity was observed in endothelia and glia of ICAM-1+/+ mice up to 8 months after IR. ICAM-1-/- mice showed no expression. ICAM-1+/+ and ICAM-1-/- mice showed similar vascular abnormalities at 2 months after 10-17 Gy, and there was evidence for demyelination and inhibition of hippocampal neurogenesis at 8 months after 10 Gy. After 10 Gy, irradiated ICAM-1+/+ and ICAM-1-/- mice showed similar behavioral changes at 2-6 months in open field, light-dark chamber, and T-maze compared with age-matched genotype controls. Conclusion: There is early and late upregulation of ICAM-1 in the vasculature and glia of mouse brain after IR. ICAM-1, however, does not have a causative role in the histopathologic injury and behavioral dysfunction after moderate single doses of cranial IR.

  15. Kidney injury molecule-1 is an early biomarker of cadmium nephrotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Prozialeck, WC; Vaidya, VS; Liu, J; Waalkes, MP; Edwards, JR; Lamar, PC; Bernard, AM; Dumont, X; Bonventre, JV

    2009-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) exposure results in injury to the proximal tubule characterized by polyuria and proteinuria. Kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1) is a transmembrane glycoprotein not normally detected in the mature kidney, but is upregulated and shed into the urine following nephrotoxic injury. In this study, we determine if Kim-1 might be a useful early biomarker of Cd nephrotoxicity. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were given daily injections of Cd for up to 12 weeks. Weekly urine samples were analyzed for Kim-1, protein, creatinine, metallothionein, and Clara cell protein CC-16. Significant levels of Kim-1 were detected in the urine by 6 weeks and continued to increase throughout the treatment period. This appearance of Kim-1 occurred 4-5 weeks before the onset of proteinuria, and 1-3 weeks before the appearance of metallothionein and CC-16. Higher doses of Cd gave rise to higher Kim-1 excretion. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) expression analysis showed that Kim-1 transcript levels were increased after 6 weeks at the low dose of Cd. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that Kim-1 was present in proximal tubule cells of the Cd-treated rats. Our results suggest that Kim-1 may be a useful biomarker of early stages of Cd-induced proximal tubule injury. PMID:17687258

  16. Reduced Hepatic Carcinoembryonic Antigen-Related Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 Level in Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Heinrich, Garrett; Muturi, Harrison T.; Rezaei, Khadijeh; Al-Share, Qusai Y.; DeAngelis, Anthony M.; Bowman, Thomas A.; Ghadieh, Hilda E.; Ghanem, Simona S.; Zhang, Deqiang; Garofalo, Robert S.; Yin, Lei; Najjar, Sonia M.

    2017-01-01

    Impairment of insulin clearance is being increasingly recognized as a critical step in the development of insulin resistance and metabolic disease. The carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) promotes insulin clearance. Null deletion or liver-specific inactivation of Ceacam1 in mice causes a defect in insulin clearance, insulin resistance, steatohepatitis, and visceral obesity. Immunohistological analysis revealed reduction of hepatic CEACAM1 in obese subjects with fatty liver disease. Thus, we aimed to determine whether this occurs at the hepatocyte level in response to systemic extrahepatic factors and whether this holds across species. Northern and Western blot analyses demonstrate that CEACAM1 mRNA and protein levels are reduced in liver tissues of obese individuals compared to their lean age-matched counterparts. Furthermore, Western analysis reveals a comparable reduction of CEACAM1 protein in primary hepatocytes derived from the same obese subjects. Similar to humans, Ceacam1 mRNA level, assessed by quantitative RT-PCR analysis, is significantly reduced in the livers of obese Zucker (fa/fa, ZDF) and Koletsky (f/f) rats relative to their age-matched lean counterparts. These studies demonstrate that the reduction of hepatic CEACAM1 in obesity occurs at the level of hepatocytes and identify the reduction of hepatic CEACAM1 as a common denominator of obesity across multiple species.

  17. Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 Expression by Skeletal Muscle Cells Augments Myogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Qingnian; Dearth, Christopher L.; Corbett, Jacob T.; Pierre, Philippe; Chadee, Deborah N.; Pizza, Francis X.

    2014-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) by skeletal muscle cells after muscle overload contributes to ensuing regenerative and hypertrophic processes in skeletal muscle. The objective of the present study is to reveal mechanisms through which skeletal muscle cell expression of ICAM-1 augments regenerative and hypertrophic processes of myogenesis. This was accomplished by genetically engineering C2C12 myoblasts to stably express ICAM-1, and by inhibiting the adhesive and signaling functions of ICAM-1 through the use of a neutralizing antibody or cell penetrating peptide, respectively. Expression of ICAM-1 by cultured skeletal muscle cells augmented myoblast-myoblast adhesion, myotube formation, myonuclear number, myotube alignment, myotube-myotube fusion, and myotube size without influencing the ability of myoblasts to proliferate or differentiate. ICAM-1 augmented myotube formation, myonuclear accretion, and myotube alignment through a mechanism involving adhesion-induced activation of ICAM-1 signaling, as these dependent measures were reduced via antibody and peptide inhibition of ICAM-1. The adhesive and signaling functions of ICAM-1 also facilitated myotube hypertrophy through a mechanism involving myotube-myotube fusion, protein synthesis, and Akt/p70s6k signaling. Our findings demonstrate that ICAM-1 expression by skeletal muscle cells augments myogenesis, and establish a novel mechanism through which the inflammatory response facilitates growth processes in skeletal muscle. PMID:25281303

  18. Polymorphisms in the intercellular adhesion molecule 1 gene and cancer risk: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Weifeng; Wang, Yafeng; Chen, Yuanmei; Gu, Haiyong; Chen, Shuchen; Kang, Mingqiang

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The correlation between intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) common polymorphisms (rs5498 A>G and rs3093030 C>T) and cancer susceptibility has been explored in various ethnic groups and different cancer types; however, these investigations have yielded contradictory results. To address the relationship more precisely, we performed this meta-analysis. Design and methods: EmBase, PubMed and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases were searched by two authors independently for eligible publications before April 8, 2015. Random-effects or fixed-effects model was harnessed to calculate the pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) when appropriate. Results: The result suggested that the ICAM-1 rs5498 A>G polymorphism is not associated with cancer susceptibility in overall cancer. In a stratified analysis by ethnicity, a significant increased cancer risk was identified among Asians, but the inverse association was found among Caucasians. In a stratified analysis by cancer type, ICAM-1 rs5498 A>G polymorphism was associated with a significantly increased risk of oral cancer, but with protection from colorectal cancer and melanoma. ICAM-1 rs3093030 C>T polymorphism is not correlated with cancer susceptibility. Conclusions: In summary, this meta-analysis highlights that the ICAM-1 rs5498 A>G polymorphism probably contributes to decreased susceptibility to cancer, especially in Caucasians, in melanoma and colorectal cancer subgroup, but it may be a risk factor for oral cancer and Asians. PMID:26550112

  19. Kidney Injury Molecule-1 and Cardiovascular Diseases: From Basic Science to Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Medić, Branislava; Rovčanin, Branislav; Basta Jovanović, Gordana; Radojević-Škodrić, Sanja; Prostran, Milica

    2015-01-01

    Despite the recent findings concerning pathogenesis and novel therapeutic strategies, cardiovascular disease (CVD) still stays the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with renal dysfunction, especially acute kidney injury (AKI). Early detection of patients with impaired renal function with cardiovascular risk may help ensure more aggressive treatment and improve clinical outcome. Kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) is a new, promising marker of kidney damage which is currently the focus of countless studies worldwide. Some recent animal and human studies established KIM-1 as an important marker of acute tubular necrosis (ATN) and reliable predictor of development and prognosis of AKI. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in USA acclaimed KIM-1 as an AKI biomarker for preclinical drug development. Recent data suggest the importance of monitoring of KIM-1 for early diagnosis and clinical course not only in patients with various forms of AKI and other renal diseases but also in patients with cardiorenal syndrome, heart failure, cardiopulmonary bypass, cardiothoracic surgical interventions in the pediatric emergency setting, and so forth. The aim of this review article is to summarize the literature data concerning KIM-1 as a potential novel marker in the early diagnosis and prediction of clinical outcome of certain cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26697493

  20. Kidney injury molecule-1: more than just an injury marker of tubular epithelial cells?

    PubMed

    Lim, Ai Ing; Tang, Sydney C W; Lai, Kar Neng; Leung, Joseph C K

    2013-05-01

    Regardless of the original causes and etiology, the progression to renal function declines follows a final common pathway associated with tubulointerstitial injury, in which the proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTEC) are instrumental. Kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) is an emerging biomarker, and its expression and release are induced in PTEC upon injury. KIM-1 plays the role as a double-edged sword and implicates in the process of kidney injury and healing. Expression of KIM-1 is also associated with tubulointerstitial inflammation and fibrosis. More importantly, KIM-1 expressing PTEC play the role as the residential phagocytes, contribute to the removal of apoptotic cells and facilitate the regeneration of injured tubules. The precise mechanism of KIM-1 and its sheded ectodomain on restoration of tubular integrity after injury is not fully understood. Other than PTEC, macrophages (Mø) also implicate in tubular repair. Understanding the crosstalk between Mø and the injured PTEC is essential for designing appropriate methods for controlling the sophisticated machinery in tubular regeneration and healing. This article will review the current findings of KIM-1, beginning with its basic structure, utility as a biomarker, and possible functions, with focus on the role of KIM-1 in regeneration and healing of injured PTEC.

  1. Effect of Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 Expression on Intracellular Granule Movement in Pancreatic α Cells.

    PubMed

    Yokawa, Satoru; Furuno, Tadahide; Suzuki, Takahiro; Inoh, Yoshikazu; Suzuki, Ryo; Hirashima, Naohide

    2016-09-01

    Although glucagon secreted from pancreatic α cells plays a role in increasing glucose concentrations in serum, the mechanism regulating glucagon secretion from α cells remains unclear. Cell adhesion molecule 1 (CADM1), identified as an adhesion molecule in α cells, has been reported not only to communicate among α cells and between nerve fibers, but also to prevent excessive glucagon secretion from α cells. Here, we investigated the effect of CADM1 expression on the movement of intracellular secretory granules in α cells because the granule transport is an important step in secretion. Spinning disk microscopic analysis showed that granules moved at a mean velocity of 0.236 ± 0.010 μm/s in the mouse α cell line αTC6 that expressed CADM1 endogenously. The mean velocity was significantly decreased in CADM1-knockdown (KD) cells (mean velocity: 0.190 ± 0.016 μm/s). The velocity of granule movement decreased greatly in αTC6 cells treated with the microtubule-depolymerizing reagent nocodazole, but not in αTC6 cells treated with the actin-depolymerizing reagent cytochalasin D. No difference in the mean velocity was observed between αTC6 and CADM1-KD cells treated with nocodazole. These results suggest that intracellular granules in pancreatic α cells move along the microtubule network, and that CADM1 influences their velocity.

  2. The Prion Protein Controls Polysialylation of Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 during Cellular Morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Mehrabian, Mohadeseh; Brethour, Dylan; Wang, Hansen; Xi, Zhengrui; Rogaeva, Ekaterina; Schmitt-Ulms, Gerold

    2015-01-01

    Despite its multi-faceted role in neurodegenerative diseases, the physiological function of the prion protein (PrP) has remained elusive. On the basis of its evolutionary relationship to ZIP metal ion transporters, we considered that PrP may contribute to the morphogenetic reprogramming of cells underlying epithelial-to-mesenchymal transitions (EMT). Consistent with this hypothesis, PrP transcription increased more than tenfold during EMT, and stable PrP-deficient cells failed to complete EMT in a mammalian cell model. A global comparative proteomics analysis identified the neural cell adhesion molecule 1 (NCAM1) as a candidate mediator of this impairment, which led to the observation that PrP-deficient cells fail to undergo NCAM1 polysialylation during EMT. Surprisingly, this defect was caused by a perturbed transcription of the polysialyltransferase ST8SIA2 gene. Proteomics data pointed toward β-catenin as a transcriptional regulator affected in PrP-deficient cells. Indeed, pharmacological blockade or siRNA-based knockdown of β-catenin mimicked PrP-deficiency in regards to NCAM1 polysialylation. Our data established the existence of a PrP-ST8SIA2-NCAM signaling loop, merged two mature fields of investigation and offer a simple model for explaining phenotypes linked to PrP. PMID:26288071

  3. Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule 1: testing for a role in insect immunity, behaviour and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Peuß, Robert; Wensing, Kristina U; Woestmann, Luisa; Eggert, Hendrik; Milutinović, Barbara; Sroka, Marlene G U; Scharsack, Jörn P; Kurtz, Joachim; Armitage, Sophie A O

    2016-04-01

    Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule 1 (Dscam1) has wide-reaching and vital neuronal functions although the role it plays in insect and crustacean immunity is less well understood. In this study, we combine different approaches to understand the roles that Dscam1 plays in fitness-related contexts in two model insect species. Contrary to our expectations, we found no short-term modulation of Dscam1 gene expression after haemocoelic or oral bacterial exposure in Tribolium castaneum, or after haemocoelic bacterial exposure in Drosophila melanogaster. Furthermore, RNAi-mediated Dscam1 knockdown and subsequent bacterial exposure did not reduce T. castaneum survival. However, Dscam1 knockdown in larvae resulted in adult locomotion defects, as well as dramatically reduced fecundity in males and females. We suggest that Dscam1 does not always play a straightforward role in immunity, but strongly influences behaviour and fecundity. This study takes a step towards understanding more about the role of this intriguing gene from different phenotypic perspectives.

  4. Integrin engagement mediates tyrosine dephosphorylation on platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1.

    PubMed Central

    Lu, T T; Yan, L G; Madri, J A

    1996-01-01

    Platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 (PECAM-1, CD31) is a 130-kDa member of the immunoglobulin gene superfamily expressed on endothelial cells, platelets, neutrophils, and monocytes and plays a role during endothelial cell migration. Phosphoamino acid analysis and Western blot analysis with anti-phosphotyrosine antibody show that endothelial PECAM-1 is tyrosine-phosphorylated. Phosphorylation is decreased with endothelial cell migration on fibronectin and collagen and with cell spreading on fibronectin but not on plastic. Cell adhesion on anti-integrin antibodies is also able to specifically induce PECAM-1 dephosphorylation while concurrently inducing pp125 focal adhesion kinase phosphorylation. Inhibition of dephosphorylation with sodium orthovanadate suggests that this effect is at least partially mediated by phosphatase activity. Tyr-663 and Tyr-686 are identified as potential phosphorylation sites and mutated to phenylalanine. When expressed, both mutants show reduced PECAM-1 phosphorylation but Phe-686 mutants also show significant reversal of PECAM-1-mediated inhibition of cell migration and do not localize PECAM-1 to cell borders. Our results suggest that beta 1-integrin engagement can signal to dephosphorylate PECAM-1 and that this signaling pathway may play a role during endothelial cell migration. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:8876219

  5. Lack of Platelet Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 Attenuates Foreign Body Inflammation because of Decreased Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Solowiej, Anna; Biswas, Purba; Graesser, Donnasue; Madri, Joseph A.

    2003-01-01

    Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1, CD31) is a 130-kd member of the immunoglobulin superfamily of proteins, expressed on endothelial cells, leukocytes, and platelets. Antibody-blocking studies have implicated it in modulating leukocyte transmigration and angiogenesis. However, the generation of the PECAM-1 knockout mouse has shown that its function can be compensated for by similarly acting proteins because most acute inflammatory models proceed in a comparable manner in wild-type and knockout animals. We decided to examine the function of PECAM-1 in the chronic process of foreign body inflammation. We show that PECAM-1-deficient mice exhibit attenuated neutrophil infiltration in and around a subcutaneous polyvinyl acetyl implant. Bone marrow engraftment studies indicate that the lack of CD31 expression on the endothelium determines the diminished leukocyte accumulation in the knockout implants. Specifically, we find that decreased angiogenesis (as manifested by lower vessel density, decreased hemoglobin content, and less laminin deposition) correlates with lower neutrophil accumulation in the knockout animals. This study indicates that the absence of endothelial PECAM-1 results in decreased angiogenesis and therefore in diminished delivery of leukocytes to the foreign body implants. PMID:12598328

  6. Control of islet intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression by interferon-alpha and hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, D; Huang, X; Beck, J; Henrich, J; McFarland, N; James, R F; Stewart, T A

    1996-10-01

    The ability of interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) to induce the adhesion molecules that characterize the islets of patients with type I diabetes has been investigated. We have found that all tested recombinant IFN-as will induce major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I on arterial endothelial cells. Some but not all IFN-as will induce intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). However, there is only a transient and modest increase in VCAM on arterial endothelial cells. IFN-alpha has very little effect on endothelial MHC class II expression but will induce these proteins on monocytes. Thus, there is a close concordance between the biological actions of IFN-alpha and the appearance of those adhesion molecules induced in the islets of patients with type I diabetes. IFN-alpha is also produced in normal human islets during short-term cultures, probably as a result of the ischemia present at the center of the islet. This induction of IFN-alpha by hypoxia may explain the previously reported spontaneous induction of ICAM-1 in human islets and may also be a contributing factor to the failure of islet grafts.

  7. The Prion Protein Controls Polysialylation of Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 during Cellular Morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Mehrabian, Mohadeseh; Brethour, Dylan; Wang, Hansen; Xi, Zhengrui; Rogaeva, Ekaterina; Schmitt-Ulms, Gerold

    2015-01-01

    Despite its multi-faceted role in neurodegenerative diseases, the physiological function of the prion protein (PrP) has remained elusive. On the basis of its evolutionary relationship to ZIP metal ion transporters, we considered that PrP may contribute to the morphogenetic reprogramming of cells underlying epithelial-to-mesenchymal transitions (EMT). Consistent with this hypothesis, PrP transcription increased more than tenfold during EMT, and stable PrP-deficient cells failed to complete EMT in a mammalian cell model. A global comparative proteomics analysis identified the neural cell adhesion molecule 1 (NCAM1) as a candidate mediator of this impairment, which led to the observation that PrP-deficient cells fail to undergo NCAM1 polysialylation during EMT. Surprisingly, this defect was caused by a perturbed transcription of the polysialyltransferase ST8SIA2 gene. Proteomics data pointed toward β-catenin as a transcriptional regulator affected in PrP-deficient cells. Indeed, pharmacological blockade or siRNA-based knockdown of β-catenin mimicked PrP-deficiency in regards to NCAM1 polysialylation. Our data established the existence of a PrP-ST8SIA2-NCAM signaling loop, merged two mature fields of investigation and offer a simple model for explaining phenotypes linked to PrP.

  8. Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule 1: testing for a role in insect immunity, behaviour and reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Wensing, Kristina U.; Eggert, Hendrik; Scharsack, Jörn P.

    2016-01-01

    Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule 1 (Dscam1) has wide-reaching and vital neuronal functions although the role it plays in insect and crustacean immunity is less well understood. In this study, we combine different approaches to understand the roles that Dscam1 plays in fitness-related contexts in two model insect species. Contrary to our expectations, we found no short-term modulation of Dscam1 gene expression after haemocoelic or oral bacterial exposure in Tribolium castaneum, or after haemocoelic bacterial exposure in Drosophila melanogaster. Furthermore, RNAi-mediated Dscam1 knockdown and subsequent bacterial exposure did not reduce T. castaneum survival. However, Dscam1 knockdown in larvae resulted in adult locomotion defects, as well as dramatically reduced fecundity in males and females. We suggest that Dscam1 does not always play a straightforward role in immunity, but strongly influences behaviour and fecundity. This study takes a step towards understanding more about the role of this intriguing gene from different phenotypic perspectives. PMID:27152227

  9. Stromal interaction molecule 1 regulates growth, cell cycle, and apoptosis of human tongue squamous carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xiaobo; Song, Laixiao; Bai, Yunfei; Wang, Yaping; Wang, Boqian; Wang, Wei

    2017-04-30

    Oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC) is the most common type of oral carcinomas. However, the molecular mechanism by which OTSCC developed is not fully identified. Stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) is a transmembrane protein, mainly located in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). STIM1 is involved in several types of cancers. Here, we report that STIM1 contributes to the development of human OTSCC. We knocked down STIM1 in OTSCC cell line Tca-8113 with lentivirus-mediated shRNA and found that STIM1 knockdown repressed the proliferation of Tca-8113 cells. In addition, we also showed that STIM1 deficiency reduced colony number of Tca-8113 cells. Knockdown of STIM1 repressed cells to enter M phase of cell cycle and induced cellular apoptosis. Furthermore, we performed microarray and bioinformatics analysis and found that STIM1 was associated with p53 and MAPK pathways, which may contribute to the effects of STIM1 on cell growth, cell cycle, and apoptosis. Finally, we confirmed that STIM1 controlled the expression of MDM2, cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4), and growth arrest and DNA damage inducible α (GADD45A) in OTSCC cells. In conclusion, we provide evidence that STIM1 contributes to the development of OTSCC partially through regulating p53 and MAPK pathways to promote cell cycle and survival.

  10. Epigenetic silencing of endogenous repetitive sequences by MORPHEUS' MOLECULE1 in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Habu, Yoshiki

    2010-10-01

    Morpheus' molecule1 (MOM1) is a plant-specific epigenetic regulator of transcriptional gene silencing. Mutants of MOM1 release silencing of subsets of endogenous repetitive elements and transgenes without affecting their cytosine methylation status. Although MOM1 is evolutionarily related to chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein3 (CHD3), a family of chromatin remodeling proteins involved in repression of gene expression, MOM1 does not carry the functional ATPase/helicase domain essential for chromatin remodeling activity, and therefore, its mode of action is unknown. We recently performed a genome-wide survey for endogenous targets silenced by MOM1 and identified loci that are concentrated around centromeres and rich in sequences homologous to the 24-nt small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) that accumulate in wild type plants. Further and independent analyses indicated that the degree of contribution of MOM1 to maintenance of the silent states varies in different loci and that other silencing machineries, including those in the RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) pathway, interact genetically with MOM1. In this short article, I review what we know about MOM1 and discuss its possible functions in silencing through examination of other silencing factors that interact genetically with MOM1.

  11. Current Explorations of Adult Learner: Implications for Mentoring and More. Adult Higher Education Alliance Annual Conference Proceedings (36th, Orlando, Florida, March 10-11, 2016)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elufiede, Kemi, Ed.; Flynn, Bonnie, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    The 36th Annual Adult Higher Education Alliance (AHEA) Conference was held on March 10-11, 2016 in Orlando, Florida, on the campus of the University of Central Florida. There were 48 presentations from scholars and practitioners from 20 states who participated in the conference. The contributions to these proceedings represent the best of the…

  12. Studio in Advertising Design, Fashion Design and Illustration, Product Design, Stage Design. Volume 3: Advanced Elective Courses in Art for Grades 10, 11, or 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    The document provides teaching guidelines and information on advance elective courses in a studio art program for grades 10, 11, and 12. The courses are presented in four sections: (1) studio in advertising design--advertising and production, lettering, illustrating, and color reproduction; (2) studio in fashion design and illustration--elements…

  13. Health Curriculum Materials: Grades 10, 11, and 12. Strand IV, Environmental and Community Health; Consumer Health. Special Edition for Evaluation and Discussion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Hooft, Gordon E.; And Others

    This publication contains curriculum suggestions for teaching Environmental and Community Health - Consumer Health for grades 10, 11 and 12. Emphasis is placed on the psychological dimension of contemporary quackery and pseudo-scientific practices, and sources of health information and health counsel. In general, the grade 10 through 12 materials…

  14. Solubility of chlorargyrite (AgCl(cr./l.)) in water: New experimental data and a predictive model valid for a wide range of temperatures (273-873 K) and water densities (0.01-1 g·cm-3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akinfiev, Nikolay N.; Zotov, Alexander V.

    2016-04-01

    The solubility of chlorargyrite, AgCl(cr./l.), in pure water at 623, 673 and 753 (±2) K as a function of pressure in a wide range aqueous densities (0.01-0.7 g·cm-3) was determined using various experimental approaches. Combined theoretical quantum chemistry simulations of Ag speciation and structure with a recently developed equation of state (EoS) for aqueous neutral species (Akinfiev and Diamond, 2003) were applied to describe published and newly made AgCl(cr./l.) solubility measurements in water. The use of the employed EoS for AgCl(H2O)(aq) cluster is found out to provide a good description of the whole set of experimental measurements in a wide range of temperatures (273-753 K), water densities (0.01-0.7 g·cm-3), and pressures of 0.1-100 MPa. Also, the proposed AgCl(H2O)(aq) thermodynamic description is proved to be valid for a dense aqueous fluid (0.7-1 g·cm-3) at 273-623 K and saturation water pressure. Although silver obviously shows greater affinity to dense aqueous fluid, AgCl hydration in the vapour phase is demonstrated to be also significant. A model extrapolation to magmatic conditions predicts an appreciable silver content even in low density fluids, thus supporting the hypothesis of metal transport with vapour.

  15. Behavioral responses of the invasive Halyomorpha halys (Stål) to traps baited with stereoisomeric mixtures of 10,11-epoxy-1-bisabolen-3-OL.

    PubMed

    Leskey, Tracy C; Khrimian, Ashot; Weber, Donald C; Aldrich, Jeffrey C; Short, Brent D; Lee, Doo-Hyung; Morrison, William R

    2015-04-01

    The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys, is an invasive insect in the United States that is capable of inflicting significant yield losses for fruit, vegetable, and soybean growers. Recently, a male-produced aggregation pheromone of H. halys was identified as a 3.5:1 mixture of (3S,6S,7R,10S)-10,11-epoxy-1-bisabolen-3-ol and (3R,6S,7R,10S)-10,11-epoxy-1-bisabolen-3-ol, two stereoisomers of a natural sesquiterpene with a bisabolane skeleton, potentially existing in 16 stereoisomeric forms. In this study, we assessed attraction to pheromonal and non-pheromonal stereoisomeric mixtures of 10,11-epoxy-1-bisabolen-3-ol, which are easier to synthesize than single isomers, and evaluated dose-dependent responses to attractive mixtures in field trials. Some treatments not containing the natural pheromone components were moderately active in field-trapping studies, signifying that some stereoisomers of 10,11-epoxy-1-bisabolen-3-ol are sufficiently similar to the true pheromone in structure to trigger behavioral responses. Importantly, we found that mixtures of stereoisomers containing pheromone components were also highly attractive to H. halys, even in the presence of multiple "unnatural" stereoisomers. Further, adult and nymphal captures were dose-dependent, regardless of whether the lure contained pheromonal or non-pheromonal components. Our findings of attraction to pheromonal and non-pheromonal stereoisomers and lack of inhibition from non-pheromonal stereoisomers of 10,11-epoxy-1-bisabolen-3-ol increase the flexibility of developing pheromone-based products for H. halys.

  16. Involvement of oxidative stress and mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1 (MAdCAM-1) in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Tanida, Satoshi; Mizoshita, Tsutomu; Mizushima, Takashi; Sasaki, Makoto; Shimura, Takaya; Kamiya, Takeshi; Kataoka, Hiromi; Joh, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    The pathophysiology of inflammatory bowel disease involves excessive immune effects of inflammatory cells against gut microbes. In genetically predisposed individuals, these effects are considered to contribute to the initiation and perpetuation of mucosal injury. Oxidative stress is a fundamental tissue-destructive mechanisms that can occur due to the reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen metabolites which are released in abundance from numerous inflammatory cells that have extravasated from lymphatics and blood vessels to the lamina propria. This extravasation is mediated by interactions between adhesion molecules including mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 on the surface of lymphocytes or neutrophils and their ligands on endothelial cells. Thus, reactive oxygen species and adhesion molecules play an important role in the development of inflammatory bowel disease. The present review focuses on the involvement of oxidative stress and adhesion molecules, in particular mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1, in inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:21373262

  17. Differential up-regulation of circulating soluble and endothelial cell intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Komatsu, S.; Flores, S.; Gerritsen, M. E.; Anderson, D. C.; Granger, D. N.

    1997-01-01

    Although circulating levels of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) are frequently used as an indicator of the severity of different immune, inflammatory, or neoplastic diseases, little is known about the factors that govern plasma sICAM-1 concentration and its relationship to the membranous form of ICAM-1 (mICAM-1) expressed on vascular endothelial cells. Plasma sICAM-1 concentration (measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and mICAM-1 expression (measured using the dual radiolabeled monoclonal antibody technique) in different vascular beds (eg, lung, small intestine, and spleen) were monitored in wild-type (C57BL) and ICAM-1-deficient mice, before and after administration of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. In wild-type mice, TNF-alpha elicited time-dependent increases in lung and intestine mICAM-1 (plateau achieved at 12 hours), with a corresponding increase in plasma sICAM-1 (peaked at 5 hours and then declined). The initial increases in mICAM-1 and pulmonary leukocyte sequestration (measured as lung myeloperoxidase activity) induced by TNF-alpha preceded any detectable elevation in sICAM-1. In ICAM-1-deficient mice, plasma sICAM-1 was reduced by approximately 70%, with > 95% reductions of mICAM-1 in lung and intestine, and > 75% reduction in splenic accumulation of anti-ICAM-1 antibody. Although TNF-alpha doubled plasma sICAM-1 in ICAM-1-deficient mice, mICAM-1 was unaffected in all tissues. Either splenectomy or pretreatment with cycloheximide resulted in an attenuated TNF-induced increase in sICAM-1, without affecting mICAM-1 expression. These findings indicate that plasma sICAM-1 concentration does not accurately reflect the level of ICAM-1 expression on endothelial cells in different vascular beds. PMID:9212746

  18. Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (ICAM-1) Polymorphisms and Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    CHENG, Daye; LIANG, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) Lys469Glu (K469E) polymorphism and Gly 241Arg (G241R) polymorphism might play important roles in cancer development and progression. However, the results of previous studies are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between ICAM-1 K469E and G241R polymorphisms and the risk of cancer by meta-analysis. Methods: A comprehensive literature search (last search updated in November 2013) was conducted to identify case-control studies that investigated the association between ICAM-1 K469E and G241R polymorphisms and cancer risk. Results: A total of 18 case-control studies for ICAM-1 polymorphisms were included in the meta-analysis, including 4,844 cancer cases and 5,618 healthy controls. For K469E polymorphism, no significant association was found between K469E polymorphism and cancer risk. However, subgroup analysis by ethnicity revealed one genetic comparison (GG vs. AA) presented the relationship with cancer risk in Asian subgroup, and two genetic models (GG+GA vs. AA and GA vs. AA) in European subgroup, respectively. For G241R polymorphism, G241R polymorphism was significantly association with cancer risk in overall analysis. The subgroup analysis by ethnicity showed that G241R polymorphism was significantly associated with cancer risk in European subgroup. Conclusion: ICAM-1 G241R polymorphism might be associated with cancer risk, especially in European populations, but the results doesn’t support ICAM-1 K469E polymorphism as a risk factor for cancer. PMID:26284202

  19. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression is upregulated in autoimmune murine lupus nephritis.

    PubMed Central

    Wuthrich, R. P.; Jevnikar, A. M.; Takei, F.; Glimcher, L. H.; Kelley, V. E.

    1990-01-01

    Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) is a cell-surface protein regulating interactions among immune cells. To determine whether altered expression of ICAM-1 occurs in autoimmune lupus nephritis, we studied ICAM-1 expression in kidneys of normal and autoimmune MRL-lpr and (NZBX NZW)F1 (NZB/W) mice. By immunoperoxidase staining, ICAM-1 is constitutively expressed at low levels in proximal tubules (PT), endothelium and interstitial cells in normal C3H/FeJ mice. In nephritic MRL-lpr and NZB/W kidneys, staining for ICAM-1 is increased in the PT, particularly in the brush border, and is prominent in the glomerular mesangium and the endothelium of large vessels. By Western blot analysis, ICAM-1 is not detected in the urine of normal BALB/c and C3H/FeJ or autoimmune MRL-lpr. By Northern blot analysis, nephritic MRL-lpr and NZB/W have a two- to fivefold increase in steady state levels of ICAM-1 transcripts in the kidney as compared with normal or prenephritic mice. This is paralleled by an increase in MHC class II transcripts. In cultured PT cells, ICAM-1 is expressed at basal levels in PT and is increased by the cytokines interferon-gamma, IL-1 alpha, and TNF-alpha. Thus cytokine-mediated upregulation of ICAM-1 in lupus nephritis may promote interaction of immune cells with renal tissue. The predominant apical expression of ICAM-1 opposite to the basolateral Ia expression suggests a novel role for this adhesion molecule in PT. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:1968316

  20. R-Ras Regulates Murine T Cell Migration and Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 Binding

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xiaocai; Yan, Mingfei; Guo, Yihe; Singh, Gobind; Chen, Yuhong; Yu, Mei; Wang, Demin; Hillery, Cheryl A.; Chan, Andrew M.

    2015-01-01

    The trafficking of T-lymphocytes to peripheral draining lymph nodes is crucial for mounting an adaptive immune response. The role of chemokines in the activation of integrins via Ras-related small GTPases has been well established. R-Ras is a member of the Ras-subfamily of small guanosine-5’-triphosphate-binding proteins and its role in T cell trafficking has been investigated in R-Ras null mice (Rras−/−). An examination of the lymphoid organs of Rras−/− mice revealed a 40% reduction in the cellularity of the peripheral lymph nodes. Morphologically, the high endothelial venules of Rras−/− mice were more disorganized and less mature than those of wild-type mice. Furthermore, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from Rras−/− mice had approximately 42% lower surface expression of L-selectin/CD62L. These aberrant peripheral lymph node phenotypes were associated with proliferative and trafficking defects in Rras−/− T cells. Furthermore, R-Ras could be activated by the chemokine, CCL21. Indeed, Rras−/− T cells had approximately 14.5% attenuation in binding to intercellular adhesion molecule 1 upon CCL21 stimulation. Finally, in a graft-versus host disease model, recipient mice that were transfused with Rras−/− T cells showed a significant reduction in disease severity when compared with mice transplanted with wild-type T cells. These findings implicate a role for R-Ras in T cell trafficking in the high endothelial venules during an effective immune response. PMID:26710069

  1. Leukocytosis and resistance to septic shock in intercellular adhesion molecule 1-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) is one of three immunoglobulin superfamily members that bind to the integrins lymphocyte function associated 1 (LFA-1) and Mac-1 on leukocytes. We have generated mice that are genetically and functionally deficient in ICAM-1. These mice have elevated numbers of circulating neutrophils and lymphocytes, as well as diminished allogeneic T cell responses and delayed type hypersensitivity. Mutant mice are resistant to lethal effects of high doses of endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS]), and this correlates with a significant decrease in neutrophil infiltration in the liver. Production of inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha or interleukin 1 is normal in ICAM-1-deficient mice, and thus protection appears to be related to a diminution in critical leukocyte-endothelial interactions. After sensitization with D- galactosamine (D-Gal), ICAM-1-deficient mice are resistant to the lethal effect of low doses of exotoxin (Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B [SEB]), which has been shown to mediate its toxic effects via the activation of specific T cells. In this model, ICAM-1-mediated protection against SEB lethality correlates with a decrease in the systemic release of inflammatory cytokines, as well as with prevention of extensive hepatocyte necrosis and hemorrhage. ICAM-1-deficient mice sensitized with D-Gal, however, are not protected from lethality when challenged with low doses of endotoxin (LPS). These studies show that the different contribution of ICAM-1 in the activation of either T cells or macrophages is decisive for the fatal outcome of the shock in these two models. This work suggests that anti-ICAM-1 therapy may be beneficial in both gram-positive and -negative septic shock, either by reducing T cell activation or by diminishing neutrophil infiltration. PMID:7911822

  2. Localization of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in the lungs of silica-exposed mice.

    PubMed Central

    Nario, R C; Hubbard, A K

    1997-01-01

    Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) is expressed on a variety of cells including endothelial cells, alveolar epithelial cells, and alveolar macrophages. Endothelial/epithelial cell ICAM-1 participates in the migration of leukocytes out of the blood in response to pulmonary inflammation, whereas alveolar macrophage ICAM-1 may represent cell activation. Our previous studies have shown that there is increased expression of ICAM-1 in lung tissue during acute inflammation following intratracheal injection with silica particles (2 mg/mouse). This increased expression was shown to play a role, in part, in the migration of neutrophils from the circulation into the tissue parenchyma. The aim of the current work is to localize expression of ICAM-1 during acute inflammation in lungs of mice exposed to either silica or the nuisance dust, titanium dioxide. In silica-exposed mice, a significant increase in ICAM-1 was detected on day-1 and localized by immunohistochemistry to aggregates of pulmonary macrophages and to type II epithelial cells. Areas of the lung with increased ICAM-1 expression also showed increased tumor necrosis factor alpha expression. Immunocytochemical staining of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells demonstrated increased ICAM-1 expression associated with alveolar macrophages 3, 5, and 7 days following silica exposure. Finally, soluble ICAM-1 levels in the BAL fluid were significantly increased in mice exposed to silica on the same days. Titanium dioxide exposure elicited a minimal increase in expression of ICAM-1 in the lungs. These data demonstrate that exposure to the toxic particle silica specifically increases ICAM-1 expression localized to pulmonary macrophages and type II epithelial cells. Images Figure 2. B Figure 2. A Figure 2. D Figure 2. C Figure 3. A Figure 3. B Figure 5. B Figure 5. A Figure 5. C PMID:9400721

  3. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression by skeletal muscle cells augments myogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Goh, Qingnian; Dearth, Christopher L.; Corbett, Jacob T.; Pierre, Philippe; Chadee, Deborah N.; Pizza, Francis X.

    2015-02-15

    We previously demonstrated that the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) by skeletal muscle cells after muscle overload contributes to ensuing regenerative and hypertrophic processes in skeletal muscle. The objective of the present study is to reveal mechanisms through which skeletal muscle cell expression of ICAM-1 augments regenerative and hypertrophic processes of myogenesis. This was accomplished by genetically engineering C2C12 myoblasts to stably express ICAM-1, and by inhibiting the adhesive and signaling functions of ICAM-1 through the use of a neutralizing antibody or cell penetrating peptide, respectively. Expression of ICAM-1 by cultured skeletal muscle cells augmented myoblast–myoblast adhesion, myotube formation, myonuclear number, myotube alignment, myotube–myotube fusion, and myotube size without influencing the ability of myoblasts to proliferate or differentiate. ICAM-1 augmented myotube formation, myonuclear accretion, and myotube alignment through a mechanism involving adhesion-induced activation of ICAM-1 signaling, as these dependent measures were reduced via antibody and peptide inhibition of ICAM-1. The adhesive and signaling functions of ICAM-1 also facilitated myotube hypertrophy through a mechanism involving myotube–myotube fusion, protein synthesis, and Akt/p70s6k signaling. Our findings demonstrate that ICAM-1 expression by skeletal muscle cells augments myogenesis, and establish a novel mechanism through which the inflammatory response facilitates growth processes in skeletal muscle. - Highlights: • We examined mechanisms through which skeletal muscle cell expression of ICAM-1 facilitates events of in vitro myogenesis. • Expression of ICAM-1 by cultured myoblasts did not influence their ability to proliferate or differentiate. • Skeletal muscle cell expression of ICAM-1 augmented myoblast fusion, myotube alignment, myotube–myotube fusion, and myotube size. • ICAM-1 augmented myogenic processes through

  4. Environmental exposure to arsenic and chromium in children is associated with kidney injury molecule-1.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas-González, M; Osorio-Yáñez, C; Gaspar-Ramírez, O; Pavković, M; Ochoa-Martínez, A; López-Ventura, D; Medeiros, M; Barbier, O C; Pérez-Maldonado, I N; Sabbisetti, V S; Bonventre, J V; Vaidya, V S

    2016-10-01

    Environmental hazards from natural or anthropological sources are widespread, especially in the north-central region of Mexico. Children represent a susceptible population due to their unique routes of exposure and special vulnerabilities. In this study we evaluated the association of exposure to environmental kidney toxicants with kidney injury biomarkers in children living in San Luis Potosi (SLP), Mexico. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 83 children (5-12 years of age) residents of Villa de Reyes, SLP. Exposure to arsenic, cadmium, chromium, fluoride and lead was assessed in urine, blood and drinking water samples. Almost all tap and well water samples had levels of arsenic (81.5%) and fluoride (100%) above the permissible levels recommended by the World Health Organization. Mean urine arsenic (45.6ppb) and chromium (61.7ppb) were higher than the biological exposure index, a reference value in occupational settings. Using multivariate adjusted models, we found a dose-dependent association between kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) across chromium exposure tertiles [(T1: reference, T2: 467pg/mL; T3: 615pg/mL) (p-trend=0.001)]. Chromium upper tertile was also associated with higher urinary miR-200c (500 copies/μl) and miR-423 (189 copies/μL). Arsenic upper tertile was also associated with higher urinary KIM-1 (372pg/mL). Other kidney injury/functional biomarkers such as serum creatinine, glomerular filtration rate, albuminuria, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and miR-21 did not show any association with arsenic, chromium or any of the other toxicants evaluated. We conclude that KIM-1 might serve as a sensitive biomarker to screen children for kidney damage induced by environmental toxic agents.

  5. Intraocular soluble intracellular adhesion molecule-1 correlates with subretinal fluid height of diabetic macular edema

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Dan; Zhu, He; Wang, Chunyan; Yang, Dayong

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the correlations between aqueous concentrations of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), soluble intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and diabetic macular edema (DME). Materials and Methods: VEGF, MCP-1 and sICAM-1 concentrations in aqueous humor samples of 22 patients with DME and 23 patients with cataract of a control group were measured with solid-phase chemiluminescence immunoassay. Results: Aqueous VEGF (89.2 ± 58.5 pg/ml versus 48.5 ± 27.8 pg/ml, P = 0.006), MCP-1 (684.2 ± 423.4 pg/ml versus 432.4 ± 230.4 pg/ml, P = 0.019) and sICAM-1 (3213.8 ± 2581.6 pg/ml versus 260.2 ± 212.2 pg/ml, P < 0.001) all vary significantly between DME group and control group. Maximum height of submacular fluid measured by Optical coherence tomography (OCT) was significantly associated with aqueous sICAM-1 (r = -0.45, P = 0.034). The maximum height of macular thickness measured by OCT was not significantly associated with either VEGF (P = 0.300), MCP-1 (P = 0.320) or sICAM-1 (P = 0.285). Conclusions: Our results suggest that sICAM-1 may majorly contribute to the formation of subretinal fluid in DME patients and imply that MCP-1 and sICAM-1 may be the potential therapy targets, besides VEGF. PMID:23619489

  6. High Electrical Conductivity in Ni3(2,3,6,7,10,11-hexaiminotriphenylene)2, a Semiconducting Metal-Organic Graphene Analogue

    SciTech Connect

    Sheberla, Dennis; Sun, Lei; Blood-Forsythe, Martin A.; Er, Süleyman; Wade, Casey R.; Brozek, Carl K.; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán; Dinc,; #259; Mircea,

    2014-09-22

    Reaction of 2,3,6,7,10,11-hexaaminotriphenylene with Ni2+ in aqueous NH3 solution under aerobic conditions produces Ni3(HITP)2 (HITP = 2,3,6,7,10,11-hexaiminotriphenylene), a new two-dimensional metal–organic framework (MOF). The new material can be isolated as a highly conductive black powder or dark blue-violet films. Two-probe and van der Pauw electrical measurements reveal bulk (pellet) and surface (film) conductivity values of 2 and 40 S·cm–1, respectively, both records for MOFs and among the best for any coordination polymer.

  7. Differential effects of heme oxygenase isoforms on heme mediation of endothelial intracellular adhesion molecule 1 expression.

    PubMed

    Wagener, F A; da Silva, J L; Farley, T; de Witte, T; Kappas, A; Abraham, N G

    1999-10-01

    Heme oxygenase (HO), by catabolizing heme to bile pigments, down-regulates cellular hemoprotein, hemoglobin, and heme; the latter generates pro-oxidant products, including free radicals. Two HO isozymes, the products of distinct genes, have been described; HO-1 is the inducible isoform, whereas HO-2 is suggested to be constitutively expressed. We studied the inducing effect of several metal compounds (CoCl(2), stannic mesoporphyrin, and heme) on HO activity. Additionally, we studied HO-1 expression in experimental models of adhesion molecule expression produced by heme in endothelial cells, and the relationship of HO-1 expression to the induced adhesion molecules. Flow cytometry analysis showed that heme induces intracellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) expression in a concentration (10-100 microM)- and time (1-24 h)-dependent fashion in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Pretreatment with stannic mesoporphyrin, an inhibitor of HO activity, caused a 2-fold increase in heme-induced ICAM-1 expression. In contrast, HO induction by CoCl(2) decreased heme-induced ICAM-1 expression by 33%. To examine the contribution of HO-1 and HO-2 to endothelial HO activity, specific antisense oligonucleotides (ODNs) of each isoform were tested for their specificity to inhibit HO activity in cells exposed to heme. Endothelial cells exposed to heme elicited increased HO activity, which was prevented (70%) by HO-1 antisense ODNs. HO-2 antisense ODN inhibited heme-induced HO activity by 21%. Addition of HO-1 antisense ODNs prevented heme degradation and resulted in elevation of microsomal heme. Western blot analysis showed that HO-1 antisense ODNs selectively inhibited HO-1 protein and failed to inhibit HO-2 protein. Incubation of endothelial cells with HO-1 antisense enhanced heme-dependent increase of ICAM-1. In contrast, addition of HO-2 antisense to endothelial cells failed to increase adhesion molecules. The role of glutathione, an important antioxidant, was examined on heme

  8. Role of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in glucan-induced pulmonary granulomatosis in the rat.

    PubMed

    Barton, P A; Imlay, M M; Flory, C M; Warren, J S

    1996-08-01

    Glucan-induced pulmonary granulomatous vasculitis in the rat mimics several human lung diseases (e.g., Wegener's granulomatosis, intravenous talcosis). We sought to clarify the role of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in the pathogenesis of glucan-induced granulomatous vasculitis. Immunohistochemical analysis of lung sections from rats with florid vasculitis (48 hours) revealed marked alveolar septal and lesional expression of ICAM-1. An ex vivo binding analysis with isotope-labeled antibodies and lung sections taken at various times up to 48 hours after glucan infusion revealed a progressive increase in whole-lung ICAM-1 expression. In vivo measurements of vascular wall-associated ICAM-1 expression revealed an earlier rise that began less than 6 hours after glucan infusion, peaked at 24 to 48 hours, and then declined to near baseline during the ensuing 24 to 96 hours. To assess whether ICAM-1 expression both within blood vessel walls and within lesions per se is important in granuloma development, we carried out in vivo neutralization experiments with several different routes of administration of antibody to ICAM-1. Monoclonal antibody to rat ICAM-1 was either infused intravenously at time 0 (when glucan was infused), infused intravenously at time 0 and after 24 hours, instilled only intratracheally 24 hours after glucan infusion, or given both intravenously (time = 0 and 24 hours) and intratracheally (time = 24 hours). Infusions of monoclonal antibody to rat ICAM-1 resulted in dose-dependent reductions in mean granuloma number and cross-sectional area. Intrapulmonary instillation of antibody to rat ICAM-1 (via tracheostomy 24 hours after glucan infusion) resulted in a modest reduction in mean granuloma number and cross-sectional area. When antibody to ICAM-1 was both infused and instilled via the trachea, we found an additive reduction in mean granuloma size and number. There was a 12-fold increase in adhesion of ED-1-positive peripheral blood

  9. De Par en Par, 10 & 11. (Wide Open, 10 & 11.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Par en Par, 1997

    1997-01-01

    These two magazines, written entirely in Spanish, are designed for classroom use in the elementary grades. Number 10, focuses on ecology, discussing such topics as the greenhouse effect, endangered species, protecting the natural environment, tree planting, earthworms, natural waste, books on environmental subjects, saving the earth, and…

  10. Intrathecal administration of AAV/GALC vectors in 10-11-day-old twitcher mice improves survival and is enhanced by bone marrow transplant.

    PubMed

    Karumuthil-Melethil, Subha; Marshall, Michael S; Heindel, Clifford; Jakubauskas, Benas; Bongarzone, Ernesto R; Gray, Steven J

    2016-11-01

    Globoid cell leukodystrophy (GLD), or Krabbe disease, is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disease caused by the deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme galactocerebrosidase (GALC). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) provides modest benefit in presymptomatic patients but is well short of a cure. Gene transfer experiments using viral vectors have shown some success in extending the survival in the mouse model of GLD, twitcher mice. The present study compares three single-stranded (ss) AAV serotypes, two natural and one engineered (with oligodendrocyte tropism), and a self-complementary (sc) AAV vector, all packaged with a codon-optimized murine GALC gene. The vectors were delivered via a lumbar intrathecal route for global CNS distribution on PND10-11 at a dose of 2 × 10(11) vector genomes (vg) per mouse. The results showed a similar significant extension of life span of the twitcher mice for all three serotypes (AAV9, AAVrh10, and AAV-Olig001) as well as the scAAV9 vector, compared to control cohorts. The rAAV gene transfer facilitated GALC biodistribution and detectable enzymatic activity throughout the CNS as well as in sciatic nerve and liver. When combined with BMT from syngeneic wild-type mice, there was significant improvement in survival for ssAAV9. Histopathological analysis of brain, spinal cord, and sciatic nerve showed significant improvement in preservation of myelin, with ssAAV9 providing the greatest benefit. In summary, we demonstrate that lumbar intrathecal delivery of rAAV/mGALCopt can significantly enhance the life span of twitcher mice treated at PND10-11 and that BMT synergizes with this treatment to improve the survival further. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Androgens act synergistically to enhance estrogen-induced upregulation of human tissue kallikreins 10, 11, and 14 in breast cancer cells via a membrane bound androgen receptor.

    PubMed

    Paliouras, Miltiadis; Diamandis, Eleftherios P

    2008-04-01

    The regulation of gene expression by steroid hormones plays an important role in the normal development and function of many organs, as well as in the pathogenesis of endocrine-related cancers, especially breast cancer. However, clinical data suggest that combined testosterone and estrogen treatments on post-menopausal women increase the risk of breast cancer. Experiments have shown that many, if not all kallikreins are under steroid hormone regulation in breast cancer cell lines. Their implication as prognostic and diagnostic markers has also been well-documented. Thus, we investigated the effect of combined hormone stimulation with androgens and 17beta-estradiol on the ductal caricinoma cell line BT474. This cell line has been shown to be sensitive to both, androgens (secreting PSA) and estrogens (secreting a number of kallikreins including KLK10, 11, and KLK14). We found that PSA expression was downregulated upon combined hormone stimulation, confirming reports that estrogen can antagonize and block the activity of the androgen receptor. Upon analysis of estrogen-sensitive kallikreins 10, 11, and 14, all showed to be synergistically enhanced in their expression three- to fourfold, upon joint hormone treatment versus individual hormone stimulation. The enhancement is dependent upon the action of androgens as treatment with the androgen receptor antagonist cyproterone actetate normalized the expression of KLK10, 11, and KLK14 to estrogen-stimulation levels. The synergistic effects between estrogens and androgens on estrogen-sensitive genes may have implications on the role of the kallikreins in associated risk of breast cancer and progression.

  12. Studying the properties and response of a large volume (946 cm3) LaBr3:Ce detector with γ-rays up to 22.5 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazumdar, I.; Gothe, D. A.; Anil Kumar, G.; Yadav, N.; Chavan, P. B.; Patel, S. M.

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents the results of our measurements and detailed simulations using GEANT4 to investigate the performance of a large volume (946 cm3) cylindrical (3.5 in.diameter×6 in.length) LaBr3:Ce detector. The properties of the detector have been studied using γ-rays from radioactive sources and in-beam reaction, from few hundred keV to 22.5 MeV. The salient features, which have been studied in-depth, are the uniformity and internal activity of the crystal, the energy and timing resolutions, linearity of the response up to 22.5 MeV, and efficiencies. A highly linear response has been observed by extracting the energy signal from a lower dynode and operating the PMT at a low voltage. The detector is to be primarily used for measuring high energy γ-rays spectra from Giant Dipole Resonance (GDR) decay studies.

  13. 1015 cm-3 eV-1 level detection of density of states of a p-type polymer by hν-dependent high-sensitivity ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Tomoya; Kinjo, Hiroumi; Yamazaki, Junki; Ishii, Hisao

    2017-01-01

    We propose a method, called hν-dependent high-sensitivity ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy, to observe the density of states (DOS) in a very wide range from HOMO to extremely weak gap states (1022 to 1015 cm-3 eV-1 in density of states). The method was applied to a p-type semiconducting polymer. A series of spectra for hν = 4.4-7.7 eV were recorded, and the DOS was obtained by overlapping the spectral part with a similar line shape between adjacent photon energy spectra to eliminate the photon energy dependence of the photoionization cross section. This method can be applied to both organic and inorganic materials, providing useful information about the DOS of functional materials.

  14. Analytical performance evaluation of ADVIA Chemistry Carbamazepine_2 assay: minimal cross-reactivity with carbamazepine 10, 11-epoxide and none with hydroxyzine or cetirizine.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Amitava; Reyes, Meredith A; Davis, Barbara G; Marlow, Anne M; Johnson, Myrtle

    2010-01-01

    Carbamazepine is an anticonvulsant requiring routine therapeutic drug monitoring. Recently, Siemens Healthcare Diagnostic Division released a new carbamazepine assay: ADVIA Chemistry Carbamazepine_2 (Carbamazepine_2) for application on ADVIA analyzers. We evaluated the analytical performance of this assay as well as its potential cross-reactivities with carbamazepine 10, 11-epoxide, hydroxyzine, and cetirizine. The within-run and between-run precisions of the Carbamzepine-2 assay were <6% and limit of detection was 0.5 microg/ml using ADVIA 1800 analyzer. The assay was linear up to a carbamazepine concentration of 20.0 microg/ml. The new method compared well with a widely used carbamazepine EMIT 2000 assay on the Hitachi 917 analyzer. Using 75 patients' specimens (where carbamazepine concentrations varied from 0.5 to 21.7 microg/ml) and carbamazepine EMIT 2000 as the reference method (x-axis), we observed the following regression equation: y=1.04 x+0.32 (r=0.99). The new carbazepine_2 method was not affected by a hemoglobin concentration of 1,000 mg/dl, conjugated or unconjugated bilirubin concentration of 60 mg/dl, and triglyceride concentration of 1,000 mg/dl. In addition, this assay showed no cross-reactivity with hydroxyzine or cetirizine and demonstrated minimal cross-reactivity with carbamazepine 10, 11-epoxide. We conclude that the ADVIA Chemistry carbamazepine_2 assay has adequate precision and accuracy for routine therapeutic drug monitoring of carbamazepine in clinical laboratories.

  15. Laboratory-Scale Column Testing Using IONSIV IE-911 for Removing Cesium from Acidic Tank Waste Simulant. 1: Cesium Exchange Capacity of a 15-cm3 Column and Dynamic Stability of the Exchange Media

    SciTech Connect

    T.J. Tranter; R.D. Tillotson; T.A. Todd

    2005-04-01

    Bench-scale column tests were performed using a commercial form of crystalline silicotitanate (CST) for removing radio-cesium from a surrogate acidic tank solution representative of liquid waste stored at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). An engineered form of CST ion exchanger, known as IONSIVtm IE-911 (UOP, Mt Laurel, NJ, USA), was tested in 15 cm3 columns at a flow rate of 5 bed volumes per hour. These experiments showed the ion exchange material to have reasonable selectivity and capacity for removing cesium from the complex chemical matrix of the solution. However, previous testing indicated that partial neutralization of the feed stream was necessary to increase the stability of the ion exchange media. Thus, in these studies, CST degradation was determined as a function of throughput in order to better assess the stability characteristics of the exchanger for potential future waste treatment applications. Results of these tests indicate that the degradation of the CST reaches a maximum very soon after the acidic feed is introduced to the column and then rapidly declines. Total dissolution of bed material did not exceed 3% under the experimental regime used.

  16. MITF is a critical regulator of the carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) in malignant melanoma.

    PubMed

    Ullrich, Nico; Löffek, Stefanie; Horn, Susanne; Ennen, Marie; Sánchez-Del-Campo, Luis; Zhao, Fang; Breitenbuecher, Frank; Davidson, Irwin; Singer, Bernhard B; Schadendorf, Dirk; Goding, Colin R; Helfrich, Iris

    2015-11-01

    The multifunctional Ig-like carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) is neo-expressed in the majority of malignant melanoma lesions. CEACAM1 acts as a driver of tumor cell invasion, and its expression correlates with poor patient prognosis. Despite its importance in melanoma progression, how CEACAM1 expression is regulated is largely unknown. Here, we show that CEACAM1 expression in melanoma cell lines and melanoma tissue strongly correlates with that of the microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), a key regulator of melanoma proliferation and invasiveness. MITF is revealed as a direct and positive regulator for CEACAM1 expression via binding to an M-box motif located in the CEACAM1 promoter. Taken together, our study provides novel insights into the regulation of CEACAM1 expression and suggests an MITF-CEACAM1 axis as a potential determinant of melanoma progression.

  17. Role of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 in pathogenesis of staphylococcal arthritis and in host defense against staphylococcal bacteremia.

    PubMed Central

    Verdrengh, M; Springer, T A; Gutierrez-Ramos, J C; Tarkowski, A

    1996-01-01

    Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily that interacts with two integrins, LFA-1 and Mac-1. These interactions are critical for leukocyte extravasation into inflamed tissue. To assess the role of ICAM-1 expression in the pathogenesis of bacterial infection, homozygously mutant mice lacking the ICAM-1 gene were exposed to Staphylococcus aureus. Within 6 days after inoculation 50% of the animals in the ICAM-1(-/-) group, but none of the controls, had died. Despite the high level of mortality, ICAM-1(-/-) mice developed less frequent and less severe arthritis than their wild-type littermates. In agreement, normal mice inoculated with staphylococci and administered anti-ICAM-1 antibodies exhibited a higher frequency of mortality but less severe arthritis than the controls. Our results indicate that ICAM-1 on the one hand provides protection against systemic disease but on the other hand aggravates the local disease manifestation. PMID:8698512

  18. Cutting edge: DNAX accessory molecule 1-deficient CD8+ T cells display immunological synapse defects that impair antitumor immunity.

    PubMed

    Ramsbottom, Kelly M; Hawkins, Edwin D; Shimoni, Raz; McGrath, Mairi; Chan, Christopher J; Russell, Sarah M; Smyth, Mark J; Oliaro, Jane

    2014-01-15

    DNAX accessory molecule 1 (DNAM-1) is expressed on all CD8(+) T cells and promotes their activation and effector function. DNAM-1 interacts with LFA-1, a critical molecule for immunological synapse formation between T cells and APCs, and for cytotoxic killing of target cells. Mice that lack DNAM-1 display abnormal T cell responses and antitumor activity; however, the mechanism involved is unclear. In this article, we show that DNAM-1 deficiency results in reduced proliferation of CD8(+) T cells after Ag presentation and impaired cytotoxic activity. We also demonstrate that DNAM-1-deficient T cells show reduced conjugations with tumor cells and decreased recruitment of both LFA-1 and lipid rafts to the immunological synapse, which correlates with reduced tumor cell killing in vitro. This synapse defect may explain why DNAM-1-deficient mice cannot clear tumors in vivo, and highlights the importance of DNAM-1 and the immunological synapse in T cell-mediated antitumor immunity.

  19. Human Dermal Mast Cells Contain and Release Tumor Necrosis Factor α, which Induces Endothelial Leukocyte Adhesion Molecule 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Laurence J.; Trinchieri, Giorgio; Waldorf, Heidi A.; Whitaker, Diana; Murphy, George F.

    1991-05-01

    Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) is a proinflammatory cytokine that mediates endothelial leukocyte interactions by inducing expression of adhesion molecules. In this report, we demonstrate that human dermal mast cells contain sizeable stores of immunoreactive and biologically active TNF-α within granules, which can be released rapidly into the extracellular space upon degranulation. Among normal human dermal cells, mast cells are the predominant cell type that expresses both TNF-α protein and TNF-α mRNA. Moreover, induction of endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule 1 expression is a direct consequence of release of mast cell-derived TNF-α. These findings establish a role for human mast cells as "gatekeepers" of the dermal microvasculature and indicate that mast cell products other than vasoactive amines influence endothelium in a proinflammatory fashion.

  20. Electrical detection of kidney injury molecule-1 with AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, H. T.; Kang, B. S.; Ren, F.; Pearton, S. J.; Johnson, J. W.; Rajagopal, P.; Roberts, J. C.; Piner, E. L.; Linthicum, K. J.

    2007-11-26

    AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) were used to detect kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), an important biomarker for early kidney injury detection. The gate region consisted of 5 nm gold deposited onto the AlGaN surface. The gold was conjugated to highly specific KIM-1 antibodies through a self-assembled monolayer of thioglycolic acid. The HEMT source-drain current showed a clear dependence on the KIM-1 concentration in phosphate-buffered saline solution. The limit of detection was 1 ng/ml using a 20x50 {mu}m{sup 2} gate sensing area. This approach shows potential for both preclinical and clinical kidney injury diagnosis with accurate, rapid, noninvasive, and high throughput capabilities.

  1. Electrical detection of kidney injury molecule-1 with AlGaN /GaN high electron mobility transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H. T.; Kang, B. S.; Ren, F.; Pearton, S. J.; Johnson, J. W.; Rajagopal, P.; Roberts, J. C.; Piner, E. L.; Linthicum, K. J.

    2007-11-01

    AlGaN /GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) were used to detect kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), an important biomarker for early kidney injury detection. The gate region consisted of 5nm gold deposited onto the AlGaN surface. The gold was conjugated to highly specific KIM-1 antibodies through a self-assembled monolayer of thioglycolic acid. The HEMT source-drain current showed a clear dependence on the KIM-1 concentration in phosphate-buffered saline solution. The limit of detection was 1ng/ml using a 20×50μm2 gate sensing area. This approach shows potential for both preclinical and clinical kidney injury diagnosis with accurate, rapid, noninvasive, and high throughput capabilities.

  2. Simultaneous stereoselective high-performance liquid chromatographic determination of 10-hydroxycarbazepine and its metabolite carbamazepine-10,11-trans-dihydrodiol in human urine.

    PubMed

    Volosov, A; Bialer, M; Xiaodong, S; Perucca, E; Sintov, A; Yagen, B

    2000-02-11

    An enantioselective HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of the concentration of the enantiomers of the oxcarbazepine metabolites 10-hydroxycarbazepine (MHD) and carbamazepine-10,11-trans-dihydrodiol (DHD) in human urine is described. The method is based on extraction with tert.-butylmethyl ether-dichloromethane (2:1, v/v) under alkaline conditions, separation and evaporation of the organic phase and dissolution of the residue in the mobile phase. Enantiomers are resolved on a Diacel Chiralcel OD column (250 mm x 4.6 mm I.D.) under isocratic conditions using as mobile phase n-hexane-ethanol-2-propanol (18:2:1, v/v/v) with addition of glacial acetic acid (0.1%). The enantiomers are detected by UV at 215 nm. The method allows reliable determination of the MHD and DHD enantiomers in human urine with limits of quantification of 0.2 mg/l and 0.4 mg/l, respectively.

  3. Comparison of in vitro and in vivo phototoxicity tests with S-(-)-10,11-dihydroxyfarnesic acid methyl ester produced by Beauveria bassiana KACC46831.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-A; Son, Hyeong-U; Yoon, Cheol-Sik; Nam, Sung-Hee; Choi, Young-Cheol; Lee, Sang-Han

    2014-09-01

    Beauveria bassiana is a fungi that is well-known for demonstrating a resistance to environmental change. To confirm whether S-(-)-10,11-dihydroxyfarnesic acid methyl ester (DHFAME) produced by Beauveria bassiana KACC46831 causes phototoxicity when used for cosmetic purposes due to its anti-tyrosinase activity, we conducted in vitro and in vivo phototoxicity tests. There were no significant changes or damage observed in the compound-treated group with regards to skin phototoxicity, while 8-methoxypsoralen, which served as a positive control, induced toxic effects. The in vitro 3T3 neutral red uptake assay, an alternative assessment, was used for further confirmation of the phototoxicity. The results showed that DHFAME did not exhibit phototoxicity at the designated concentrations, with or without UV irradiation in the 3T3 cells. These results indicated that the methyl ester produced by Beauveria bassiana KACC46831 does not induce phototoxicity in the skin. Therefore, the results of the present study indicate that DHFAME shows potential for use as a cosmetic ingredient that does not cause skin phototoxicity.

  4. Microscopic analysis of 10,11Be elastic scattering on protons and 12C and breakup processes of 11Be within the 10Be+n cluster model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spasova, K.; Lukyanov, V. K.; Kadrev, D. N.; Antonov, A. N.; Zemlyanaya, E. V.; Lukyanov, K. V.; Gaidarov, M. K.

    2016-06-01

    The elastic scattering cross-sections of 10,11Be on protons and 12C at energy E < 100 MeV/nucleon using microscopically calculated optical potentials (OP) are presented. The real OP is obtained by a folding procedure with effective NN interactions, while the imaginary OP is estimated within the high energy approximation (HEA). The spin-orbit part of the OP is also included. The characteristics of the breakup processes of 11Be on different nuclear targets are also considered. The cross-sections of diffractive breakup and stripping reactions of 11Be on 9Be, 93Nb, 181Ta and 238U at energy E = 63 MeV/nucleon and the longitudinal momentum distributions of 10Be fragments produced in the breakup of 11Be on these nuclei are presented. The results are in a good agreement with the available experimental data, in particular the obtained widths of about 50 MeV/c are closed to the empirical ones.

  5. Quantification of carbamazepine and its 10,11-epoxide metabolite in rat plasma by UPLC-UV and application to pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Beig, Avital; Dahan, Arik

    2014-07-01

    A rapid, selective and sensitive UPLC-UV method was developed and validated for the quantitative analysis of carbamazepine and its epoxide metabolite in rat plasma. A relatively small volume of plasma sample (200 μL) is required for the described analytical method. The method includes simple protein precipitation, liquid-liquid extraction, evaporation, and reconstitution steps. Samples were separated on a Waters Acquity UPLC BEH C18 column (1.7 µm, 2.1 × 100 mm) with a gradient mobile phase consisted of 60:40 going to 40:60 (v/v) water-acetonitrile at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. The total run time was as low as 6 min, representing a significant improvement in comparison to existing methods. Excellent linearity (r(2)  > 0.999) was achieved over a wide concentration range. Close to complete recovery, short analysis time, high stability, accuracy, precision and reproducibility, and low limit of quantitation were demonstrated. Finally, we successfully applied this analytical method to a pre-clinical oral pharmacokinetic study, revealing the plasma profiles of both carbamazepine and carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide following oral administration of carbamazepine to rats. The advantages demonstrated in this work make this analytical method both time- and cost-efficient approach for drug and metabolite monitoring in the pre-clinical/clinical laboratory.

  6. Metal-organic Kagome lattices M3(2,3,6,7,10,11-hexaiminotriphenylene)2 (M = Ni and Cu): from semiconducting to metallic by metal substitution.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shuang; Dai, Jun; Zeng, Xiao Cheng

    2015-02-28

    Motivated by recent experimental synthesis of a semiconducting metal-organic graphene analogue (J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2014, 136, 8859), i.e., Ni3(2,3,6,7,10,11-hexaiminotriphenylene)2 [Ni3(HITP)2], a new Kagome lattice, Cu3(HITP)2, is designed by substituting the coordination of Ni by Cu. Such substitution results in interesting changes in electronic properties of the M3(HITP)2 bulk and two-dimensional (2D) sheets. In Ni3(HITP)2, each Ni atom adopts the dsp(2) hybridization, forming a perfect 2D conjugation, whereas in Cu3(HITP)2, each Cu atom adopts the sp(3) hybridization, resulting in a distorted 2D sheet. The M3(HITP)2 bulks, assembled from M3(HITP)2 sheets via both strong π-π interaction and weak metal-metal interaction, are metallic. However, the 2D Ni3(HITP)2 sheet is a semiconductor with a narrow band gap whereas the 2D Cu3(HITP)2 sheet is a metal. Remarkably, both the 2D M3(HITP)2 Kagome lattices possess Dirac bands in the vicinity of the Fermi level. Additional ab initio molecular dynamics simulations show that both sheets exhibit high thermal stability at elevated temperatures. Our theoretical study offers new insights into tunability of electronic properties for the 2D metal-organic frameworks (MOFs).

  7. Comorbidity of 9/11-related PTSD and depression in the World Trade Center Health Registry 10-11 years postdisaster.

    PubMed

    Caramanica, Kimberly; Brackbill, Robert M; Liao, Tim; Stellman, Steven D

    2014-12-01

    Many studies report elevated prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression among persons exposed to the September 11, 2001 (9/11) disaster compared to those unexposed; few have evaluated long-term PTSD with comorbid depression. We examined prevalence and risk factors for probable PTSD, probable depression, and both conditions 10-11 years post-9/11 among 29,486 World Trade Center Health Registry enrollees who completed surveys at Wave 1 (2003-2004), Wave 2 (2006-2007), and Wave 3 (2011-2012). Enrollees reporting physician diagnosed pre-9/11 PTSD or depression were excluded. PTSD was defined as scoring ≥ 44 on the PTSD Checklist and depression as scoring ≥ 10 on the 8-item Patient Health Questionnaire. We examined 4 groups: comorbid PTSD and depression, PTSD only, depression only, and neither. Among enrollees, 15.2% reported symptoms indicative of PTSD at Wave 3, 14.9% of depression, and 10.1% of both. Comorbid PTSD and depression was associated with high 9/11 exposures, low social integration, health-related unemployment, and experiencing ≥ 1 traumatic life event post-9/11. Comorbid persons experienced poorer outcomes on all PTSD-related impairment measures, life satisfaction, overall health, and unmet mental health care need compared to those with only a single condition. These findings highlight the importance of ongoing screening and treatment for both conditions, particularly among those at risk for mental health comorbidity.

  8. Structure and properties of 9,10,11,12,13,14-hexahydro-9,10[1‧,4‧]-benzenoanthracene and 9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16-octahydro-9,10[1‧,4‧]-benzenoanthracene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masnovi, Michelle E.; Schildcrout, Steven M.; Masnovi, John

    2015-01-01

    The title compounds were prepared by 4πs + 4πs photochemical cycloaddition between anthracene and 1,3-cyclohexadiene, followed by catalytic hydrogenation. The results confirm the structure of the initial cycloadduct, 9,10,11,12,13,14-hexahydro-9,10[1‧,4‧]-benzenoanthracene (1), which in the crystal exhibits positional disorder about the cyclohexadiene-derived fragment that is only partially resolved. The origin of the disorder is considered in light of the crystallographic packing interactions and compared with intermolecular contacts in the hydrogenated derivative, 9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16-octahydro-9,10[1‧,4‧]-benzenoanthracene (2), which is not disordered. The asymmetric unit of 2 contains one-half of a molecule situated about a two-fold symmetry axis. Both structures contain relatively long interannular bonds between the bridgehead carbons of the anthracene- and cyclohexadiene-derived fragments, in agreement with ab initio calculations and considered in terms of bond strain in the carbon framework of these compounds.

  9. Preliminary report on the July 10-11, 2015 eruption at Volcán de Colima: Pyroclastic density currents with exceptional runouts and volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capra, L.; Macías, J. L.; Cortés, A.; Dávila, N.; Saucedo, R.; Osorio-Ocampo, S.; Arce, J. L.; Gavilanes-Ruiz, J. C.; Corona-Chávez, P.; García-Sánchez, L.; Sosa-Ceballos, G.; Vázquez, R.

    2016-01-01

    On July 10-11, 2015 an eruption occurred at Colima volcano produced 10.5 km long pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) along the Montegrande, and 6.5 km long along the San Antonio ravines. The summit dome was destroyed and a new crater excavated and breached to the south. This new breach connects to a narrow channel that descends along Colima's southern flank and was used by a subsequent lava flow. The Montegrande PDCs represent the longest and hottest flow of this type recorded during the past 30 years but are still smaller in comparison to the 15-km long PDCs produced during the 1913 Plinian eruption. Data obtained from field reconnaissance, lahar monitoring stations, and satellite imagery suggest that at least six PDCs occurred. The two largest PDCs (H/L 0.2) were able to surmount topographic barriers or bends. Based on field reconnaissance and digital elevation models extracted from SPOT satellite imageries we estimate a minimum volume for the valley-pond and distal fan deposits of 4.5 × 106 m3. After one week, the deposits were still hot with burning trees on the surface and millimeter-sized holes from which fumes were emanating. The juvenile components of the deposits consist of gray dense blocks and vesicular dark-gray blocks and bombs with bread-crust textures and cooling joints. The mineral association of these rocks consists of plagioclase + clinopyroxene + orthopyroxene + FeTi-oxides ± olivine and resorbed hornblende in a dark glassy matrix that corresponds to an andesitic composition.

  10. Identification of Human Junctional Adhesion Molecule 1 as a Functional Receptor for the Hom-1 Calicivirus on Human Cells.

    PubMed

    Sosnovtsev, Stanislav V; Sandoval-Jaime, Carlos; Parra, Gabriel I; Tin, Christine M; Jones, Ronald W; Soden, Jo; Barnes, Donna; Freeth, Jim; Smith, Alvin W; Green, Kim Y

    2017-02-14

    The Hom-1 vesivirus was reported in 1998 following the inadvertent transmission of the animal calicivirus San Miguel sea lion virus to a human host in a laboratory. We characterized the Hom-1 strain and investigated the mechanism by which human cells could be infected. An expression library of 3,559 human plasma membrane proteins was screened for reactivity with Hom-1 virus-like particles, and a single interacting protein, human junctional adhesion molecule 1 (hJAM1), was identified. Transient expression of hJAM1 conferred susceptibility to Hom-1 infection on nonpermissive Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Virus infection was markedly inhibited when CHO cells stably expressing hJAM were pretreated with anti-hJAM1 monoclonal antibodies. Cell lines of human origin were tested for growth of Hom-1, and efficient replication was observed in HepG2, HuH7, and SK-CO15 cells. The three cell lines (of hepatic or intestinal origin) were confirmed to express hJAM1 on their surface, and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/Cas9-mediated knockout of the hJAM1 gene in each line abolished Hom-1 propagation. Taken together, our data indicate that entry of the Hom-1 vesivirus into these permissive human cell lines is mediated by the plasma membrane protein hJAM1 as a functional receptor.IMPORTANCE Vesiviruses, such as San Miguel sea lion virus and feline calicivirus, are typically associated with infection in animal hosts. Following the accidental infection of a laboratory worker with San Miguel sea lion virus, a related virus was isolated in cell culture and named Hom-1. In this study, we found that Hom-1 could be propagated in a number of human cell lines, making it the first calicivirus to replicate efficiently in cultured human cells. Screening of a library of human cell surface membrane proteins showed that the virus could utilize human junctional adhesion molecule 1 as a receptor to enter cells and initiate replication. The Hom-1 virus presents a new

  11. Epidermal Expression of Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 is Not a Primary Inducer of Cutaneous Inflammation in Transgenic Mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Ifor R.; Kupper, Thomas S.

    1994-10-01

    Keratinocytes at sites of cutaneous inflammation have increased expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), a cytokine-inducible adhesion molecule which binds the leukocyte integrins LFA-1 and Mac-1. Transgenic mice were prepared in which the expression of mouse ICAM-1 was targeted to basal keratinocytes by using the human K14 keratin promoter. The level of constitutive expression attained in the transgenic mice exceeded the peak level of ICAM-1 expression induced on nontransgenic mouse keratinocytes in vitro by optimal combinations of interferon γ and tumor necrosis factor α or in vivo by proinflammatory stimuli such as phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. In vitro adhesion assays demonstrated that cultured transgenic keratinocytes were superior to normal keratinocytes as a substrate for the LFA-1-dependent binding of mouse T cells, confirming that the transgene-encoded ICAM-1 was expressed in a functional form. However, the high level of constitutive ICAM-1 expression achieved on keratinocytes in vivo in these transgenic mice did not result in additional recruitment of CD45^+ leukocytes into transgenic epidermis, nor did it elicit dermal inflammation. Keratinocyte ICAM-1 expression also did not potentiate contact-hypersensitivity reactions to epicutaneous application of haptens. The absence of a spontaneous phenotype in these transgenic mice was not the result of increased levels of soluble ICAM-1, since serum levels of soluble ICAM-1 were equal in transgenic mice and controls. We conclude that elevated ICAM-1 expression on keratinocytes cannot act independently to influence leukocyte trafficking and elicit cutaneous inflammation.

  12. Early Detection of Junctional Adhesion Molecule-1 (JAM-1) in the Circulation after Experimental and Clinical Polytrauma.

    PubMed

    Denk, Stephanie; Wiegner, Rebecca; Hönes, Felix M; Messerer, David A C; Radermacher, Peter; Weiss, Manfred; Kalbitz, Miriam; Ehrnthaller, Christian; Braumüller, Sonja; McCook, Oscar; Gebhard, Florian; Weckbach, Sebastian; Huber-Lang, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Severe tissue trauma-induced systemic inflammation is often accompanied by evident or occult blood-organ barrier dysfunctions, frequently leading to multiple organ dysfunction. However, it is unknown whether specific barrier molecules are shed into the circulation early after trauma as potential indicators of an initial barrier dysfunction. The release of the barrier molecule junctional adhesion molecule-1 (JAM-1) was investigated in plasma of C57BL/6 mice 2 h after experimental mono- and polytrauma as well as in polytrauma patients (ISS ≥ 18) during a 10-day period. Correlation analyses were performed to indicate a linkage between JAM-1 plasma concentrations and organ failure. JAM-1 was systemically detected after experimental trauma in mice with blunt chest trauma as a driving force. Accordingly, JAM-1 was reduced in lung tissue after pulmonary contusion and JAM-1 plasma levels significantly correlated with increased protein levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage as a sign for alveolocapillary barrier dysfunction. Furthermore, JAM-1 was markedly released into the plasma of polytrauma patients as early as 4 h after the trauma insult and significantly correlated with severity of disease and organ dysfunction (APACHE II and SOFA score). The data support an early injury- and time-dependent appearance of the barrier molecule JAM-1 in the circulation indicative of a commencing trauma-induced barrier dysfunction.

  13. Soluble Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (VCAM-1) as a Biomarker in the Mouse Model of Experimental Autoimmune Myocarditis (EAM)

    PubMed Central

    Grabmaier, U.; Kania, G.; Kreiner, J.; Grabmeier, J.; Uhl, A.; Huber, B. C.; Lackermair, K.; Herbach, N.; Todica, A.; Eriksson, U.; Weckbach, L. T.; Brunner, S.

    2016-01-01

    Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) is strongly upregulated in hearts of mice with coxsackie virus-induced as well as in patients with viral infection-triggered dilated cardiomyopathy. Nevertheless, the role of its soluble form as a biomarker in inflammatory heart diseases remains unclear. Therefore, we investigated whether plasma levels of soluble VCAM-1 (sVCAM-1) directly correlated with disease activity and progression of cardiac dysfunction in the mouse model of experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM). EAM was induced by immunization of BALB/c mice with heart-specific myosin-alpha heavy chain peptide together with complete Freund`s adjuvant. ELISA revealed strong expression of cardiac VCAM-1 (cVCAM-1) throughout the course of EAM in immunized mice compared to control animals. Furthermore, sVCAM-1 was elevated in the plasma of immunized compared to control mice at acute and chronic stages of the disease. sVCAM-1 did not correlate with the degree of acute cardiac inflammation analyzed by histology or cardiac cytokine expression investigated by ELISA. Nevertheless, heart to body weight ratio correlated significantly with sVCAM-1 at chronic stages of EAM. Cardiac systolic dysfunction studied with positron emission tomography indicated a weak relationship with sVCAM-1 at the chronic stage of the disease. Our data provide evidence that plasma levels of sVCAM-1 are elevated throughout all stages of the disease but showed no strong correlation with the severity of EAM. PMID:27501319

  14. Mechanism of Collaborative Enhancement of Binding of Paired Antibodies to Distinct Epitopes of Platelet Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule-1

    PubMed Central

    Greineder, Colin F.; Villa, Carlos H.; Hood, Elizabeth D.; Shuvaev, Vladimir V.; Sun, Jing; Chacko, Ann-Marie; Abraham, Valsamma; DeLisser, Horace M.; Muzykantov, Vladimir R.

    2017-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed to extracellular epitopes of human and mouse Platelet Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (CD31 or PECAM-1) stimulate binding of other mAbs to distinct adjacent PECAM-1 epitopes. This effect, dubbed Collaborative Enhancement of Paired Affinity Ligands, or CEPAL, has been shown to enhance delivery of mAb-targeted drugs and nanoparticles to the vascular endothelium. Here we report new insights into the mechanism underlying this effect, which demonstrates equivalent amplitude in the following models: i) cells expressing a full length PECAM-1 and mutant form of PECAM-1 unable to form homodimers; ii) isolated fractions of cellular membranes; and, iii) immobilized recombinant PECAM-1. These results indicate that CEPAL is mediated not by interference in cellular functions or homophilic PECAM-1 interactions, but rather by conformational changes within the cell adhesion molecule induced by ligand binding. This mechanism, mediated by exposure of partially occult epitopes, is likely to occur in molecules other than PECAM-1 and may represent a generalizable phenomenon with valuable practical applications. PMID:28085903

  15. Expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) on the human oviductal epithelium and mediation of lymphoid cell adherence.

    PubMed

    Utreras, E; Ossandon, P; Acuña-Castillo, C; Varela-Nallar, L; Müller, C; Arraztoa, J A; Cardenas, H; Imarai, M

    2000-09-01

    The epithelium of the human oviduct expresses the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II and shows endocytic properties towards luminal antigens. Therefore, the epithelial cells might behave as antigen-presenting cells, inducing a local immune response. The activation of antigen-specific T cells not only requires presentation of the peptide antigen by MHC class II, but also the presence of co-stimulatory molecules in the antigen-presenting cells. Therefore, the expression of the intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) was examined in the epithelium of the human oviduct. Most oviducts showed epithelial ICAM-1 expression, as assessed by immunocytochemistry, western blot analysis and RT-PCR assay, and the expression was restricted to the luminal border of ciliated and secretory cells. Interferon gamma, interleukin 1 and lipopolysaccharide treatments increased the percentage of ICAM-1-positive cells in primary cultures, indicating that the expression of ICAM-1 in the oviduct might be upregulated in vivo by inflammatory cytokines or bacterial infections. Binding assays between allogenic phytohaemagglutinin-activated lymphocytes and epithelial monolayers expressing ICAM-1 demonstrated that this molecule stimulated lymphocyte adherence. The presence of ICAM-1, in addition to MHC class II, supports the putative role of the oviductal epithelium in antigen presentation. The exclusive apical distribution of ICAM-1 indicates that T-cell activation would occur in a polarized manner. Binding of lymphoid cells to the surface of the oviductal epithelium may help to retain these immune cells that are required for the clearance of pathogens.

  16. Novel Wnt Regulator NEL-Like Molecule-1 Antagonizes Adipogenesis and Augments Osteogenesis Induced by Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jia; James, Aaron W.; Zhang, Xinli; Pang, Shen; Zara, Janette N.; Asatrian, Greg; Chiang, Michael; Lee, Min; Khadarian, Kevork; Nguyen, Alan; Lee, Kevin S.; Siu, Ronald K.; Tetradis, Sotirios; Ting, Kang; Soo, Chia

    2017-01-01

    The differentiation factor NEL-like molecule-1 (NELL-1) has been reported as osteoinductive in multiple in vivo preclinical models. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 is used clinically for skeletal repair, but in vivo administration can induce abnormal, adipose-filled, poor-quality bone. We demonstrate that NELL-1 combined with BMP2 significantly optimizes osteogenesis in a rodent femoral segmental defect model by minimizing the formation of BMP2-induced adipose-filled cystlike bone. In vitro studies using the mouse bone marrow stromal cell line M2-10B4 and human primary bone marrow stromal cells have confirmed that NELL-1 enhances BMP2-induced osteogenesis and inhibits BMP2-induced adipogenesis. Importantly, the ability of NELL-1 to direct BMP2-treated cells toward osteogenesis and away from adipogenesis requires intact canonical Wnt signaling. Overall, these studies establish the feasibility of combining NELL-1 with BMP2 to improve clinical bone regeneration and provide mechanistic insight into canonical Wnt pathway activity during NELL-1 and BMP2 osteogenesis. The novel abilities of NELL-1 to stimulate Wnt signaling and to repress adipogenesis may highlight new treatment approaches for bone loss in osteoporosis. PMID:26772960

  17. Active Site Formation, Not Bond Kinetics, Limits Adhesion Rate between Human Neutrophils and Immobilized Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule 1

    PubMed Central

    Waugh, Richard E.; Lomakina, Elena B.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The formation of receptor ligand bonds at the interface between different cells and between cells and substrates is a widespread phenomenon in biological systems. Physical measurements of bond formation rates between cells and substrates have been exploited to increase our understanding of the biophysical mechanisms that regulate bond formation at interfaces. Heretofore, these measurements have been interpreted in terms of simple bimolecular reaction kinetics. Discrepancies between this simple framework and the behavior of neutrophils adhering to surfaces expressing vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) motivated the development of a new kinetic framework in which the explicit formation of active bond formation sites (reaction zones) are a prerequisite for bond formation to occur. Measurements of cells interacting with surfaces having a wide range of VCAM-1 concentrations, and for different durations of contact, enabled the determination of novel kinetic rate constants for the formation of reaction zones and for the intrinsic bond kinetics. Comparison of these rates with rates determined previously for other receptor-ligand pairs points to a predominant role of extrinsic factors such as surface topography and accessibility of active molecules to regions of close contact in determining forward rates of bond formation at cell interfaces. PMID:19134479

  18. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression in experimental alcoholic liver disease: relationship to endotoxemia and TNF alpha messenger RNA.

    PubMed

    Nanji, A A; Griniuviene, B; Yacoub, L K; Fogt, F; Tahan, S R

    1995-02-01

    We used the intragastric feeding rat model for alcoholic liver disease to evaluate the relationship among intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), plasma endotoxin, and inflammatory changes in the liver. Rats were fed different dietary fats (saturated fat, corn oil, and fish oil) with ethanol; control rats were fed isocaloric amounts of dextrose instead of ethanol. At sacrifice the following were evaluated: liver pathologic changes, TNF-alpha mRNA by reverse transcription-PCR, plasma endotoxin, and ICAM-1 by immunohistochemistry and immunoblot analysis. Upregulation of ICAM-1 in endothelial lining cells in central and portal veins was observed in rats showing evidence of pathologic changes. Rats fed fish oil and ethanol, which exhibited the most severe inflammation, also showed hepatocyte ICAM-1 staining. The presence of ICAM-1 staining, in general, correlated with the level of TNF-alpha mRNA expression and plasma endotoxin levels. Upregulation of ICAM-1 in rats fed ethanol may contribute to the inflammatory changes seen in this model. The association between ICAM-1 upregulation and endotoxin and TNF-alpha mRNA suggests a role for these mediators in the inflammatory process in alcoholic liver injury.

  19. Soluble interleukin-2 receptor, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and interleukin-10 serum levels in patients with melanoma.

    PubMed

    Boyano, M D; Garcia-Vázquez, M D; López-Michelena, T; Gardeazabal, J; Bilbao, J; Cañavate, M L; Galdeano, A G; Izu, R; Díaz-Ramón, L; Raton, J A; Díaz-Pérez, J L

    2000-10-01

    Serum soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) have each been reported as useful markers for melanoma progression. To evaluate the clinical relevance of these three markers, we simultaneously analysed their serum levels in patients with melanoma. A longitudinal study with a 3-year follow-up was performed and different stages of the disease were considered. Mean values of sIL-2R were significantly higher than in normal controls in all stages and correlated with the disease progression. The prognosis of patients with levels > 529 U/ml of sIL-2R was significantly poorer than in patients with sIL-2R levels < 529 U/ml. Levels of sICAM-1 were also elevated in melanoma patients, specially at the time of the metastatic disease. Serum IL-10 levels were more frequently detectable in the patients that developed metastasis during follow-up, and the prognosis of patients with detectable IL-10 levels was significantly poorer than in those patients with IL-10 undetected levels. Statistical analysis based on Logistic and Cox regression models showed that only sex, stage and sIL-2R value are factors significantly associated with metastatic progression. Moreover, high levels of sIL-2R could be a risk factor for malignant progression in melanoma.

  20. Stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) silencing inhibits tumor growth and promotes cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in hypopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yuanhao; Cui, Xiaobo; Wang, Jun; Wu, Shuai; Bai, Yunfei; Wang, Yaping; Wang, Boqian; Fang, Jugao

    2015-05-01

    As an important pathway maintaining the balance of intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)), store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) is critical for cellular functions. Stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1), a key component of SOCE, plays a dual role as an endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) receptor and an SOCE exciter. Aberrant expression of STIM1 could be discovered in several human cancer cells. However, the role of STIM1 in regulating human hypopharyngeal carcinoma still remains unclear. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect expression of STIM1 in human hypopharyngeal carcinoma cell line FaDu. STIM1 on FaDu cells was knocked down by lentiviral transduction method. The biological impacts after knocking down of STIM1 on FaDu cells were investigated in vitro and in vivo. The result of real-time PCR showed that STIM1 was expressed in FaDu cells. Lentiviral transduction efficiently downregulated the expression of STIM1 in FaDu cells at both mRNA and protein levels. Significant downregulation of STIM1 on FaDu cells inhibited cell proliferation, induced cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase, promoted cell apoptosis, and restrained cell growth rate. The antigrowth effect of STIM1 silencing was also discovered in FaDu hypopharyngeal tumor model. Our findings indicate that STIM1 is likely to become a new therapeutic target for hypopharyngeal carcinoma treatment.

  1. Identification of Human Junctional Adhesion Molecule 1 as a Functional Receptor for the Hom-1 Calicivirus on Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sandoval-Jaime, Carlos; Parra, Gabriel I.; Tin, Christine M.; Jones, Ronald W.; Soden, Jo; Barnes, Donna; Freeth, Jim; Smith, Alvin W.; Green, Kim Y.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Hom-1 vesivirus was reported in 1998 following the inadvertent transmission of the animal calicivirus San Miguel sea lion virus to a human host in a laboratory. We characterized the Hom-1 strain and investigated the mechanism by which human cells could be infected. An expression library of 3,559 human plasma membrane proteins was screened for reactivity with Hom-1 virus-like particles, and a single interacting protein, human junctional adhesion molecule 1 (hJAM1), was identified. Transient expression of hJAM1 conferred susceptibility to Hom-1 infection on nonpermissive Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Virus infection was markedly inhibited when CHO cells stably expressing hJAM were pretreated with anti-hJAM1 monoclonal antibodies. Cell lines of human origin were tested for growth of Hom-1, and efficient replication was observed in HepG2, HuH7, and SK-CO15 cells. The three cell lines (of hepatic or intestinal origin) were confirmed to express hJAM1 on their surface, and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/Cas9-mediated knockout of the hJAM1 gene in each line abolished Hom-1 propagation. Taken together, our data indicate that entry of the Hom-1 vesivirus into these permissive human cell lines is mediated by the plasma membrane protein hJAM1 as a functional receptor. PMID:28196955

  2. Kidney Injury Molecule-1 Protects against Gα12 Activation and Tissue Damage in Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Ola Z.; Zhang, Xizhong; Wei, Junjun; Haig, Aaron; Denker, Bradley M.; Suri, Rita S.; Sener, Alp; Gunaratnam, Lakshman

    2016-01-01

    Ischemic acute kidney injury is a serious untreatable condition. Activation of the G protein α12 (Gα12) subunit by reactive oxygen species is a major cause of tissue damage during renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. Kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is highly up-regulated during acute kidney injury, but the physiologic significance of this up-regulation is unclear. Here, we report for the first time that Kim-1 inhibits Gα12 activation and protects mice against renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. We reveal that Kim-1 physically interacts with and inhibits cellular Gα12 activation after inflammatory stimuli, including reactive oxygen species, by blocking GTP binding to Gα12. Compared with Kim-1+/+ mice, Kim-1−/− mice exhibited greater Gα12 and downstream Src activation both in primary tubular epithelial cells after in vitro stimulation with H2O2 and in whole kidneys after unilateral renal artery clamping. Finally, we show that Kim-1–deficient mice had more severe kidney dysfunction and tissue damage after bilateral renal artery clamping, compared with wild-type mice. Our results suggest that KIM-1 is an endogenous protective mechanism against renal ischemia-reperfusion injury through inhibition of Gα12. PMID:25759266

  3. Folate deficiency and aberrant expression of cell adhesion molecule 1 are potential indicators of prognosis in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hao; Ma, Min; Ma, Rui; Zhang, Chao; Zeng, Wei; Xing, Lu Qi

    2016-01-01

    The etiology of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) has not yet been adequately examined. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the association between serum folate deficiency and abnormal expression of the cell adhesion molecule 1 (CADM1) protein in the progression of LSCC. Samples were collected from 60 patients with LSCC and 30 healthy people. Radioimmunoassays and immunohistochemical staining were performed to measure serum folate levels and CADM1 protein expression, respectively. The results demonstrated that CADM1 expression in LSCC specimens was significantly lower than in adjacent normal tissues (χ2=28.229, P<0.001), which was associated with histological differentiation and clinical stage (P=0.010 and 0.020, respectively). Levels of serum folate in patients with LSCC were significantly lower than those observed in healthy individuals (P=0.002). Furthermore, TSLCl expression and serum folate levels were positively correlated in LSCC (r=0.642, P=0.001). Thus, the present study determined that decreased CADM1 protein expression and low levels of serum folate were correlated with an increased severity of LSCC. PMID:28105160

  4. Association between the levels of urine kidney injury molecule-1 and the progression of acute kidney injury in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chunlin; Che, Xiajing; Shao, Xinghua; Xu, Yao; Ni, Zhaohui; Mou, Shan

    2017-01-01

    Background The factors influencing the prognosis of acute kidney injury (AKI) were analyzed in a group of elderly AKI patients to determine the markers of early prognosis. Methods A total of 258 patients were screened, and 201 patients were enrolled in the study. Eventually, 184 AKI patients were included in the study, including 79 elderly AKI patients (≥60 years old). During one year of follow-up, renal function changes were observed, and the risk factors that influenced the prognosis of AKI were analyzed. Results When AKI occurred, the urine kidney injury molecule-1 (uKIM-1) level was significantly higher in the progressive deterioration of renal function group than in the renal function stable group. The ROC curve analysis revealed that the area under the curve for poor progressive deterioration of renal function as predicted by the uKIM-1 level was 0.681. At a cutoff point of 2.46 ng/mg, the sensitivity was 71.9% and the specificity was 70.0%. In elderly AKI patients, uKIM-1 levels exceeding 2.46 ng/mg were positively associated with poor kidney prognosis. Conclusions Elderly AKI patients are at risk of developing progressive deterioration of renal function. In elderly AKI patients, the high uKIM-1 level may predict the prognosis of kidney function and may be used as an early screening indicator of poor kidney prognosis. PMID:28187124

  5. Circulating thrombomodulin and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and renal vascular lesion in patients with lupus nephritis.

    PubMed

    Yao, G H; Liu, Z H; Zhang, X; Zheng, C X; Chen, H P; Zeng, C H; Li, L S

    2008-08-01

    Currently, the detection of renal vascular lesions (VLS) in lupus nephritis (LN) mainly depends on biopsy examination, and lack surrogate biomarkers for clinical dynamic evaluation. The aim of the present study is to explore the correlation between circulatory endothelial damage biomarkers and VLS. Soluble E-selectin, thrombomodulin (TM) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) were measured by ELISA. TM and VCAM-1 levels both were significantly elevated in LN with VLS than in LN without VLS (P < 0.01). However, the serum E-selectin was not significantly changed in LN patients with and without VLS. A positive correlation was found between TM and serum creatinine (r = 0.617, P < 0.05) in patients with vascular lesions. In order to further analyse the relationship between TM level and severity degree of vascular lesions in LN patients, we subdivided the patients with vascular lesions into two groups: with thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) and without TMA. TM level of the patients with TMA is significantly higher than those without TMA (P < 0.01). In conclusion, combined with renal pathological examination, monitoring the circulatory levels of TM and VCAM-1, can provide circulating biomarkers of VLS in LN patients.

  6. Analytic performance evaluation of a new turbidimetric immunoassay for carbamazepine on the ADVIA 1650 analyzer: effect of carbamazepine 10,11-epoxide.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Amitava; Datta, Pradip

    2005-02-01

    Carbamazepine, an anticonvulsant, requires therapeutic drug monitoring. Recently Bayer HealthCare, Diagnostics Division released a turbidimetric immunoassay of carbamazepine on the ADVIA 1650 analyzer. We evaluated the analytic performance of this assay by comparing values obtained with this new assay in sera of 54 patients receiving carbamazepine with the values obtained by using a widely used fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) and a chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA). The new turbidimetric immunoassay for carbamazepine showed excellent precision. The low control showed a total CV of 4.9% (mean 2.86, SD 0.14 microg/mL), the medium control demonstrated a total CV of 3.5% (mean 7.79, SD 0.27 microg/mL), and the high control showed a total CV of 4.8% (mean 16.15, SD 0.78 microg/mL). The assay was linear up to a carbamazepine concentration of 20 microg/mL. The assay showed excellent dilution recovery and recovery of samples supplemented with carbamazepine (mean recovery 102.2%). We observed an excellent correlation between the values obtained by the FPIA (x-axis) assay and the new turbidimetric (y-axis) assay (y = 0.96 x - 0.46, r = 0.99, n = 54). We also observed excellent correlation between the values obtained by the CLIA (x-axis) and the turbidimetric (y-axis) assay (y = 1.10 x -0.32, r = 0.99, n = 54). However, the slope of 1.10 was higher than the slope of 0.96 observed with the regression equation obtained by using values obtained by the FPIA and the turbidimetric assay. The positive bias obtained with the new turbidimetric assay compared with the CLIA assay resulted from lower cross reactivity of carbamazepine 10,11-epoxide, the active metabolite of carbamazepine, with CLIA. On the other hand, the cross reactivity of the metabolite is similar between the new turbidimetric assay and the FPIA assay. We conclude that the new turbidimetric assay can be used for routine monitoring of carbamazepine in clinical laboratories.

  7. MicroRNA-221 controls expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in epithelial cells in response to Cryptosporidium parvum infection

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Ai-Yu; Hu, Guoku; Zhou, Rui; Liu, Jun; Feng, Yaoyu; Soukup, Garrett A.; Chen, Xian-Ming

    2011-01-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum is a protozoan parasite that infects gastrointestinal epithelial cells and causes diarrheal disease in humans and animals globally. Pathological changes following C. parvum infection include crypt hyperplasia, a modest inflammatory reaction with increased infiltration of lymphocytes into intestinal mucosa. Expression of adhesion molecules such as intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), on infected epithelial cell surfaces may facilitate adhesion and recognition of lymphocytes at infection sites. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNA molecules of 23 nucleotides that negatively regulate protein-coding gene expression via translational suppression or mRNA degradation. We recently reported that microRNA-221 (miR-221) regulates ICAM-1 translation through targeting the ICAM-1 3′-untranslated region (UTR). In this study, we tested the role of miR-221 in regulating ICAM-1 expression in epithelial cells in response to C. parvum infection using an in vitro model of human biliary cryptosporidiosis. Up-regulation of ICAM-1 at both message and protein levels was detected in epithelial cells following C. parvum infection. Inhibition of ICAM-1 transcription with actinomycin D could only partially block C. parvum-induced ICAM-1 expression at the protein level. Cryptosporidium parvum infection decreased miR-221 expression in infected epithelial cells. When cells were transfected with a luciferase reporter construct covering the miR-221 binding site in the ICAM-1 3′-UTR and then exposed to C. parvum, an enhanced luciferase activity was detected. Transfection of miR-221 precursor abolished C. parvum-stimulated ICAM-1 protein expression. In addition, expression of ICAM-1 on infected epithelial cells facilitated epithelial adherence of co-cultured Jurkat cells. These results indicate that miR-221-mediated translational suppression controls ICAM-1 expression in epithelial cells in response to C. parvum infection. PMID:21236259

  8. Prognostic value of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (s-ICAM-1) in HIV-infected children.

    PubMed

    Gaddi, E; Laucella, S; Balbaryski, J; Cantisano, C; Barboni, G; Candi, M; Giraudi, V

    2000-12-01

    Central events in the host defence system and immune-mediated damage are tightly regulated by cell adhesion molecules. Sera from 28 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infected children divided into groups according to disease severity, six seroreverting (SR) children and 25 healthy controls were studied to detect the presence of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (s-ICAM-1). Soluble ICAM-1 levels were found to be significantly increased in HIV-infected children in comparison with SR children or healthy controls. Levels of soluble ICAM-1 were higher in patients with severe forms of HIV-infection than in those with a milder form of the disease. Significant differences in titers of s-ICAM-1 were recorded between SR children and HIV-infected children with mild disease or healthy controls. There was a significant correlation between s-ICAM-1 levels and the concentrations of beta 2 microglobulin (beta 2m) and, to a lesser extend, immunoglobulin A levels (IgA). Soluble ICAM-1 levels didn't change considerably in HIV-infected children in stable clinical conditions, independently of their clinical stage of the disease, during a follow-up period of 9-12 months. Conversely, s-ICAM-1 levels increased simultaneously with the appearance of new well-defined clinical disorders or decreased during the improvement of clinical conditions. A significant negative correlation was recorded between the titers of the s-ICAM-1 and the CD4(+) T-cell levels. These results suggest that the s-ICAM-1 might be another useful tool to evaluate disease progression.

  9. Structural organization and function of mouse photoreceptor ribbon synapses involve the immunoglobulin protein synaptic cell adhesion molecule 1.

    PubMed

    Ribic, Adema; Liu, Xinran; Crair, Michael C; Biederer, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    Adhesive interactions in the retina instruct the developmental specification of inner retinal layers. However, potential roles of adhesion in the development and function of photoreceptor synapses remain incompletely understood. This contrasts with our understanding of synapse development in the CNS, which can be guided by select adhesion molecules such as the Synaptic Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 (SynCAM 1/CADM1/nectin-like 2 protein). This immunoglobulin superfamily protein modulates the development and plasticity of classical excitatory synapses. We show here by immunoelectron microscopy and immunoblotting that SynCAM 1 is expressed on mouse rod photoreceptors and their terminals in the outer nuclear and plexiform layers in a developmentally regulated manner. Expression of SynCAM 1 on rods is low in early postnatal stages (P3-P7) but increases after eye opening (P14). In support of functional roles in the photoreceptors, electroretinogram recordings demonstrate impaired responses to light stimulation in SynCAM 1 knockout (KO) mice. In addition, the structural integrity of synapses in the OPL requires SynCAM 1. Quantitative ultrastructural analysis of SynCAM 1 KO retina measured fewer fully assembled, triadic rod ribbon synapses. Furthermore, rod synapse ribbons are shortened in KO mice, and protein levels of Ribeye, a major structural component of ribbons, are reduced in SynCAM 1 KO retina. Together, our results implicate SynCAM 1 in the synaptic organization of the rod visual pathway and provide evidence for novel roles of synaptic adhesion in the structural and functional integrity of ribbon synapses.

  10. SNPs in the neural cell adhesion molecule 1 gene (NCAM1) may be associated with human neural tube defects

    PubMed Central

    Deak, Kristen L.; Boyles, Abee L.; Etchevers, Heather C.; Melvin, Elizabeth C.; Siegel, Deborah G.; Graham, Felicia L.; Slifer, Susan H.; Enterline, David S.; George, Timothy M.; Vekemans, Michel; McClay, David; Bassuk, Alexander G.; Kessler, John A.; Linney, Elwood; Gilbert, John R.

    2011-01-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are common birth defects, occurring in approximately 1/1,000 births; both genetic and environmental factors are implicated. To date, no major genetic risk factors have been identified. Throughout development, cell adhesion molecules are strongly implicated in cell–cell interactions, and may play a role in the formation and closure of the neural tube. To evaluate the role of neural cell adhesion molecule 1 (NCAM1) in risk of human NTDs, we screened for novel single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the gene. Eleven SNPs across NCAM1 were genotyped using TaqMan. We utilized a family-based approach to evaluate evidence for association and/or linkage disequilibrium. We evaluated American Caucasian simplex lumbosacral myelomeningocele families (n=132 families) using the family based association test (FBAT) and the pedigree disequilibrium test (PDT). Association analysis revealed a significant association between risk for NTDs and intronic SNP rs2298526 using both the FBAT test (P=0.0018) and the PDT (P=0.0025). Using the HBAT version of the FBAT to look for haplotype association, all pairwise comparisons with SNP rs2298526 were also significant. A replication study set, consisting of 72 additional families showed no significant association; however, the overall trend for overtransmission of the less common allele of SNP rs2298526 remained significant in the combined sample set. In addition, we analyzed the expression pattern of the NCAM1 protein in human embryos, and while NCAM1 is not expressed within the neural tube at the time of closure, it is expressed in the surrounding and later in differentiated neurons of the CNS. These results suggest variations in NCAM1 may influence risk for human NTDs. PMID:15883837

  11. Plasma zinc levels inversely correlate with vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 concentration in children with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed Central

    Kuvibidila, Solo R.; Sandoval, Manuel; Lao, Juan; Velez, Maria; Yu, Lolie; Ode, David; Gardner, Renée; Lane, Gerald; Warrier, Raj P.

    2006-01-01

    Zinc deficiency has been implicated in impaired cell-mediated immunity of children with sickle cell disease (SCD). However, its influence on the expression of vascular cell-adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) on endothelial cells, a protein involved in vasoocclusion, has not been previously investigated. We therefore measured (soluble) sVCAM-1 and zinc in 76 SCD children and 96 non-SCD children, mean age 7.73 years and 11.24 years, respectively. Although mean zinc levels of both groups were within the normal range (approximately 14.5 micromol/l), 14.5 % of SCD and 11% of non-SCD children (without inflammation) had levels below normal (10.7 micromol/L). Mean sVCAM-1 concentrations of SCD children (837 microg/l) were significantly higher than those of controls (627 microg/l) (p < 0.001). Differences persisted after taking into account age, hemoglobin phenotype, and inflammation (alpha-l acid glycoprotein >l g/l and C-reactive protein >10 mg/I). sVCAM-1 negatively correlated with serum (r = -0.444) and red blood cells zinc (r = -0.242, p < 0.05) but not with acute-phase proteins. Mean sVCAM-1 tended to be higher in SCD children with than in those without a history of a health problem (infection, pain crisis or were transfused; not significant). Data suggest that zinc may modulate the clinical status of SCD children through VCAM-1 expression, and zinc supplementation may be beneficial in these patients. PMID:16916123

  12. Targeted disruption of carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 promotes diet-induced hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Xu, Elaine; Dubois, Marie-Julie; Leung, Nelly; Charbonneau, Alexandre; Turbide, Claire; Avramoglu, Rita Kohen; DeMarte, Luisa; Elchebly, Mounib; Streichert, Thomas; Lévy, Emile; Beauchemin, Nicole; Marette, André

    2009-08-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CC1) is a cell adhesion molecule within the Ig superfamily. The Tyr-phosphorylated isoform of CC1 (CC1-L) plays an important metabolic role in the regulation of hepatic insulin clearance. In this report, we show that CC1-deficient (Cc1(-/-)) mice are prone to hepatic steatosis, as revealed by significantly elevated hepatic triglyceride and both total and esterified cholesterol levels compared with age-matched wild-type controls. Cc1(-/-) mice were also predisposed to lipid-induced hepatic steatosis and dysfunction as indicated by their greater susceptibility to store lipids and express elevated levels of enzymatic markers of liver damage after chronic feeding of a high-fat diet. Hepatic steatosis in the Cc1(-/-) mice was linked to a significant increase in the expression of key lipogenic (fatty acid synthase, acetyl CoA carboxylase) and cholesterol synthetic (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase) enzymes under the control of sterol regulatory element binding proteins-1c and -2 transcription factors. Cc1(-/-) mice also exhibited impaired insulin clearance, glucose intolerance, liver insulin resistance, and elevated hepatic expression of the key gluconeogenic transcriptional activators peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1 and Forkhead box O1. Lack of CC1 also exacerbated both glucose intolerance and hepatic insulin resistance induced by high-fat feeding, but insulin clearance was not further deteriorated in the high-fat-fed Cc1(-/-) mice. In conclusion, our data indicate that CC1 is a key regulator of hepatic lipogenesis and that Cc1(-/-) mice are predisposed to liver steatosis, leading to hepatic insulin resistance and liver damage, particularly when chronically exposed to dietary fat.

  13. Leptin Resistance Contributes to Obesity in Mice with Null Mutation of Carcinoembryonic Antigen-related Cell Adhesion Molecule 1.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Garrett; Russo, Lucia; Castaneda, Tamara R; Pfeiffer, Verena; Ghadieh, Hilda E; Ghanem, Simona S; Wu, Jieshen; Faulkner, Latrice D; Ergün, Süleyman; McInerney, Marcia F; Hill, Jennifer W; Najjar, Sonia M

    2016-05-20

    Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) promotes hepatic insulin clearance. Consistently, mice with null mutation of Ceacam1 (Cc1(-/-)) exhibit impaired insulin clearance with increased lipid production in liver and redistribution to white adipose tissue, leading to visceral obesity at 2 months of age. When the mutation is propagated on the C57/BL6J genetic background, total fat mass rises significantly with age, and glucose intolerance and systemic insulin resistance develop at 6 months of age. This study was carried out to determine the mechanisms underlying the marked increase in total fat mass in 6-month-old mutants. Indirect calorimetry analysis showed that Cc1(-/-) mice develop hyperphagia and a significant reduction in physical activity, in particular in the early hours of the dark cycle, during which energy expenditure is only slightly lower than in wild-type mice. They also exhibit increased triglyceride accumulation in skeletal muscle, due in part to incomplete fatty acid β-oxidation. Mechanistically, hypothalamic leptin signaling is reduced, as demonstrated by blunted STAT3 phosphorylation in coronal sections in response to an intracerebral ventricular injection of leptin. Hypothalamic fatty-acid synthase activity is also elevated in the mutants. Together, the data show that the increase in total fat mass in Cc1(-/-) mice is mainly attributed to hyperphagia and reduced spontaneous physical activity. Although the contribution of the loss of CEACAM1 from anorexigenic proopiomelanocortin neurons in the arcuate nucleus is unclear, leptin resistance and elevated hypothalamic fatty-acid synthase activity could underlie altered energy balance in these mice.

  14. Benzo[a]pyrene induces intercellular adhesion molecule-1 through a caveolae and aryl hydrocarbon receptor mediated pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Oesterling, Elizabeth; Toborek, Michal; Hennig, Bernhard

    2008-10-15

    Toxicologic and epidemiologic studies have linked benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) exposure with cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. The mechanisms of action leading to these diseases have not been fully understood. One key step in the development of atherosclerosis is vascular endothelial dysfunction, which is characterized by increased adhesiveness. To determine if B[a]P could lead to increased endothelial adhesiveness, the effects of B[a]P on human endothelial cell intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression was investigated. B[a]P was able to increase ICAM-1 protein only after pretreatment with the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonist {beta}-naphthoflavone ({beta}-NF). Knockdown of AhR by siRNA or treatment with AhR antagonist {alpha}-naphthoflavone ({alpha}-NF) eliminated the induction of ICAM-1 from B[a]P, confirming the necessity of AhR in this process. Likewise, B[a]P only increased monocyte adhesion to the vascular endothelium when cells were pretreated with {beta}-NF. Experiments were done to define a signaling mechanism. B[a]P increased phosphorylation of MEK and p38-MAPK, and inhibitors to these proteins blunted the ICAM-1 induction. B[a]P was also able to increase AP-1 DNA binding and phosphorylation of cJun. Phosphorylation of cJun was disrupted by MEK and p38-MAPK inhibitors linking the signaling cascade. Finally, the importance of membrane microdomains, caveolae, was demonstrated by knockdown of the structural protein caveolin-1. Disruption of caveolae eliminated the B[a]P-induced ICAM-1 expression. These data suggest a possible pro-inflammatory mechanism of action of B[a]P involving caveolae, leading to increased vascular endothelial adhesiveness, and this inflammation may be a critical step in the development of B[a]P-induced atherosclerosis.

  15. Inducible expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 by vascular smooth muscle cells in vitro and within rabbit atheroma.

    PubMed Central

    Li, H.; Cybulsky, M. I.; Gimbrone, M. A.; Libby, P.

    1993-01-01

    Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), a mononuclear leukocyte adhesion molecule, is expressed in cultured vascular endothelial cells activated by cytokines and is induced in rabbit aortic endothelium in vivo within 1 week after initiation of an atherogenic diet. We now demonstrate that vascular smooth muscle cells can also express VCAM-1 in rabbit atherosclerotic lesions in vivo and in response to cytokines in vitro. Immunohistochemical staining of aortas from rabbits fed a 0.3% cholesterol-containing diet revealed that a portion of smooth muscle cells within intimal foam cell-rich lesions expressed VCAM-1. The intimal VCAM-1-expressing cells localized predominantly in regions above the internal elastic lamina. These VCAM-1-positive cells had the typical spindle shape of smooth muscle cells but had reduced alpha-actin expression in comparison to normal medial smooth muscle cells, and did not bear markers for endothelium, macrophages, and T cells. In culture, rabbit aortic smooth muscle cells expressed VCAM-1 mRNA and protein in a time- and concentration-dependent fashion when exposed to interferon-gamma or Gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Cultured human vascular smooth muscle cells also expressed VCAM-1 mRNA and protein in response to lipopolysaccharide, interferon-gamma, and interleukin-4. The monokines interleukin-1 alpha and tumor necrosis factor-alpha did not induce VCAM-1 expression in either rabbit or human vascular smooth muscle cells. Inducible VCAM-1 expression by vascular smooth muscle cells in vivo during hypercholesterolemia and in vitro in response to certain cytokines suggests a broader range of VCAM-1 functions in vascular biology than heretofore appreciated. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:7504883

  16. Identification of the binding site in intercellular adhesion molecule 1 for its receptor, leukocyte function-associated antigen 1.

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, K L; Lu, J; Riddle, L; Kim, K J; Presta, L G; Bodary, S C

    1997-01-01

    Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1, CD54) is a member of the Ig superfamily and is a counterreceptor for the beta 2 integrins: lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1, CD11a/CD18), complement receptor 1 (MAC-1, CD11b/CD18), and p150,95 (CD11c/CD18). Binding of ICAM-1 to these receptors mediates leukocyte-adhesive functions in immune and inflammatory responses. In this report, we describe a cell-free assay using purified recombinant extracellular domains of LFA-1 and a dimeric immunoadhesin of ICAM-1. The binding of recombinant secreted LFA-1 to ICAM-1 is divalent cation dependent (Mg2+ and Mn2+ promote binding) and sensitive to inhibition by antibodies that block LFA-1-mediated cell adhesion, indicating that its conformation mimics that of LFA-1 on activated lymphocytes. We describe six novel anti-ICAM-1 monoclonal antibodies, two of which are function blocking. Thirty-five point mutants of the ICAM-1 immunoadhesin were generated and residues important for binding of monoclonal antibodies and purified LFA-1 were identified. Nineteen of these mutants bind recombinant LFA-1 equivalently to wild type. Sixteen mutants show a 66-2500-fold decrease in LFA-1 binding yet, with few exceptions, retain binding to the monoclonal antibodies. These mutants, along with modeling studies, define the LFA-1 binding site on ICAM-1 as residues E34, K39, M64, Y66, N68, and Q73, that are predicted to lie on the CDFG beta-sheet of the Ig fold. The mutant G32A also abrogates binding to LFA-1 while retaining binding to all of the antibodies, possibly indicating a direct interaction of this residue with LFA-1. These data have allowed the generation of a highly refined model of the LFA-1 binding site of ICAM-1. Images PMID:9188101

  17. The Completion Agenda: A Call to Action. Summary Report from the November 10-11, 2010, Meeting of the American Association of Community Colleges Commissions and Board of Directors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPhail, Christine Johnson

    2011-01-01

    At its annual joint board and commission meeting (Washington, DC, November 10-11, 2010), American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) focused attention on college completion by presenting two panel discussions on the completion agenda, followed by breakout sessions in which participants were assigned to focus groups tasked with providing…

  18. Adult and Higher Education in the Contemporary World: Its Role in Cultural Literacy. Conference Proceedings of the Adult Higher Education Alliance Annual Conference (35th, Orlando, Florida, March 10-11, 2015)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elufiede, Oluwakemi, Ed.; Flynn, Bonnie, Ed.

    2015-01-01

    This document is Conference Proceedings Of The Adult Higher Education Alliance, 35th Annual Conference. The theme of the conference was Adult And Higher Education In The Contemporary World: Its Role In Cultural Literacy. Conference was March 10-11, 2015. The event was hosted by and held at the College Of Education And Human Performance, Morgridge…

  19. FMC46, a cell protrusion-associated leukocyte adhesion molecule-1 epitope on human lymphocytes and thymocytes.

    PubMed

    Pilarski, L M; Turley, E A; Shaw, A R; Gallatin, W M; Laderoute, M P; Gillitzer, R; Beckman, I G; Zola, H

    1991-07-01

    In this report, we describe a 76-kDa glycoprotein recognized by mAb FMC46 that, by virtue of its concentration on cell protrusions involved in motility, may be important in lymphoid cell locomotion. FMC46 detects an epitope of the leukocyte adhesion molecule-1 (LAM-1), a member of the selecting family (LAM-1, Endothelial Leukocyte Adhesion Molecular-1 (ELAM-1), and Granule Membrane Protein-140 (GMP-140), that is expressed on LAM-1-transfected cell lines, is a glycosylation epitope based on its loss after culture in tunicamycin, and is closely related to the LAM-1.2 epitope. FMC46 is expressed at high density on the majority of CD45RA+ and CD45RO+ peripheral blood T cells (60 to 70%) and on a subset of thymocytes that includes the multinegative CD3- CD4- CD8- progenitor cells (100% FMC46hi) and the CD45R0- presumptive thymic generative lineage (70% FMC46hi). It appears at reduced density and frequency on CD45RA- thymocytes (50% FMC46lo), comprised mainly of death-committed thymocytes. Among thymic subsets defined by expression of CD4 and/or CD8, FMC46 is expressed at high density predominantly on a subset of single-positive cells and not on double-positive cells. These results suggest a fundamental role for LAM-1 in thymic development, with a high density preferentially expressed on cells involved in thymic generative processes and a low density on cells progressing to intrathymic death. A major subset of peripheral blood B cells and thymic B cells also express FMC46. Immunohistochemistry on frozen sections indicated strong staining in splenic follicles and around blood vessels, staining of the thymic medulla and subcapsular areas, and staining of the mantle zone of germinal centers of the lymph node. FMC46+ lymphocytes accumulated along high endothelial venules in the lymph node. On locomoting multinegative thymocytes, FMC46 is concentrated on the leading tip of extended processes, on pseudopods, and on ruffles, unlike the distribution of either CD44 or TQ1 (LAM 1

  20. Soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1, D-lactate and diamine oxidase in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Song, Wei-Bing; Lv, Yong-Hui; Zhang, Zhen-Shu; Li, Ya-Nan; Xiao, Li-Ping; Yu, Xin-Pei; Wang, Yuan-Yuan; Ji, Hong-Li; Ma, Li

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To study the levels of serum soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), plasma D-lactate and diamine oxidase (DAO) in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and the potential clinical significance. METHODS: Sixty-nine patients with IBD and 30 healthy controls were included in this study. The concentration of sICAM-1 was detected with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, the level of D-lactate and DAO was measured by spectroscopic analysis, and the number of white blood cells (WBC) was determined by routine procedure. RESULTS: The levels of sICAM-l, DAO, and WBC in IBD patients were significantly higher than those in the control group (P < 0.01). sICAM-l in IBD patients was found to be closely related to the levels of DAO and D-lactate (212.94 ± 69.89 vs 6.35 ± 2.35, P = 0.000), DAO 212.94 ± 69.89 vs 8.65 ± 3.54, P = 0.000) and WBC (212.94 ± 69.89 vs 7.40 ± 2.61, P = 0.000), but no significant difference was observed between patients with ulcerative colitis and patients with Crohn’s disease. The post-treatment levels of sICAM-l, D-lactate and WBC were significantly lower than before treatment (sICAM-l 206.57 ± 79.21 vs 146.21 ± 64.43, P = 0.000), (D-lactate 1.46 ± 0.94 vs 0.52 ± 0.32, P = 0.000) and (WBC 7.24 ± 0.2.33 vs 5.21 ± 3.21, P = 0.000). CONCLUSION: sICAM-1, D-lactate and DAO are closely related to the specific conditions of IBD, and thus could be used as a major diagnostic index. PMID:19701972

  1. The relationship between platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 and paraquat-induced lung injury in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jing; Hu, Chun-lin; Gao, Yu-feng; Liao, Xiao-xing; Xu, Hope

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1), also known as CD31, is mainly distributed in vascular endothelial cells. Studies have shown that PECAM-1 is a very significant indicator of angiogenesis, and has been used as an indicator for vascular endothelial cells. The present study aimed to explore the relationship between the expression of PECAM-1 and the degree of acute lung injury (ALI) and fibrosis in paraquat (PQ) induced lung injury in rabbits. METHODS: Thirty-six adult New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into three groups (12 rabbits in each group) according to PQ dosage: 8 mg/kg (group A), 16 mg/kg (group B), and 32 mg/kg (group C). After PQ infusion, the rabbits were monitored for 7 days and then euthanized. The lungs were removed for histological evaluation. Masson staining was used to determine the degree of lung fibrosis (LF), and semi-quantitative immune-histochemistry analysis to determine the expression of PECAM-1. Pearson’s product-moment correlation analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship between the expression of PECAM-1 and the extent of lung injuries expressed by ALI score and degree of LF. RESULTS: Rabbits in the three groups showed apparent poisoning. The rabbits survived longer in group A than in groups B and C (6.47±0.99 days vs. 6.09±1.04 days vs. 4.77±2.04 days) (P<0.05). ALI score was lower in group A than in groups B and C (8.33±1.03 vs. 9.83±1.17 vs. 11.50±1.38) (P<0.05), and there was statistically significant difference between group B and group C (P=0.03). LF was slighter in group A than in groups B and C (31.09%±2.05 % vs. 34.37%±1.62 % vs. 36.54%±0.44%) (P<0.05), and there was statistically significant difference between group B and group C (P=0.026). The PEACAM-1 expression was higher in group A than in groups B and C (20.31%±0.70% vs. 19.34%±0.68% vs. 18.37%±0.46%) (P<0.05), and there was statistically significant difference between group B and group C (P=0.017). Pearson

  2. Laser induced fluorescence studies of iodine oxide chemistry. Part II. The reactions of IO with CH3O2, CF3O2 and O3.

    PubMed

    Dillon, Terry J; Tucceri, María E; Crowley, John N

    2006-11-28

    The technique of pulsed laser photolysis was coupled to laser induced fluorescence detection of iodine oxide (IO) to measure rate coefficients, k for the reactions IO + CH(3)O(2)--> products (R1, 30-318 Torr N(2)), IO + CF(3)O(2)--> products (R2, 70-80 Torr N(2)), and IO + O(3)--> OIO + O(2) (R3a). Values of k(1) = (2 +/- 1) x 10(-12) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), k(2) = (3.6 +/- 0.8) x 10(-11) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), and k(3a) <5 x 10(-16) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) were obtained at T = 298 K. In the course of this work, the product yield of IO from the reaction of CH(3)O(2) with I was determined to be close to zero, whereas CH(3)OOI was formed efficiently at 70 Torr N(2). Similarly, no evidence was found for IO formation in the CF(3)O(2) + I reaction. An estimate of the rate coefficients k(CH(3)O(2) + I) = 2 x 10(-11) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) and k(CH(3)OOI + I) = 1.5 x 10(-10) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) was also obtained. The results on k(1)-k(3) are compared to the limited number of previous investigations and the implications for the chemistry of the marine boundary layer are briefly discussed.

  3. The t(10;11)(p13;q14) in the U937 cell line results in the fusion of the AF10 gene and CALM, encoding a new member of the AP-3 clathrin assembly protein family.

    PubMed Central

    Dreyling, M H; Martinez-Climent, J A; Zheng, M; Mao, J; Rowley, J D; Bohlander, S K

    1996-01-01

    The translocation t(10;11)(p13;q14) is a recurring chromosomal abnormality that has been observed in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia as well as acute myeloid leukemia. We have recently reported that the monocytic cell line U937 has a t(10;11)(p13;q14) translocation. Using a combination of positional cloning and candidate gene approach, we cloned the breakpoint and were able to show that AF10 is fused to a novel gene that we named CALM (Clathrin Assembly Lymphoid Myeloid leukemia gene) located at 11q14. AF10, a putative transcription factor, had recently been cloned as one of the fusion partners of MLL. CALM has a very high homology in its N-terminal third to the murine ap-3 gene which is one of the clathrin assembly proteins. The N-terminal region of ap-3 has been shown to bind to clathrin and to have a high-affinity binding site for phosphoinositols. The identification of the CALM/AF10 fusion gene in the widely used U937 cell line will contribute to our understanding of the malignant phenotype of this line. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 PMID:8643484

  4. Keishibukuryogan (Gui-Zhi-Fu-Ling-Wan), a Kampo Formula, Decreases Disease Activity and Soluble Vascular Adhesion Molecule-1 in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Nozaki, Kazuya; Hikiami, Hiroaki; Goto, Hirozo; Nakagawa, Takako; Shibahara, Naotoshi; Shimada, Yutaka

    2006-01-01

    An increasing death rate due to cardiovascular disease in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has been reported. Keishibukuryogan (KBG) is a traditional Chinese/Japanese (Kampo) formula that has been administered to patients with blood stagnation, e.g. thrombotic disease and atherosclerosis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of KBG on disease activity and endothelial dysfunction in RA patients. Sixteen RA patients were enrolled and administered KBG (12 g per day) for 12 weeks in addition to continuing other drugs. The disease activity of RA was assessed by modified disease activity scores for 28 joints (DAS28). Plasma levels of adhesion molecules, soluble E-selectin (sE-selectin), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) were evaluated. C-reactive protein (CRP), inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α) and lipid peroxide (LPO) were also evaluated. Fourteen patients completed the study. The disease activity of RA, tender joint count, swollen joint count and DAS28 decreased significantly. Among adhesion molecules, only sVCAM-1 decreased significantly. LPO also decreased significantly, whereas CRP and inflammatory cytokines remained unchanged. These results suggest that KBG has insufficient anti-inflammatory or immunomodulating effect but does have a beneficial effect on articular symptoms and a protective effect against endothelial dysfunction in RA patients. PMID:16951720

  5. Kinin B1 receptor regulates interactions between neutrophils and endothelial cells by modulating the levels of Mac-1, LFA-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Carlos D; Matus, Carola E; Pavicic, Francisca; Sarmiento, Jose; Hidalgo, Maria A; Burgos, Rafael A; Gonzalez, Carlos B; Bhoola, Kanti D; Ehrenfeld, Pamela

    2015-04-01

    Kinins are pro-inflammatory peptides that mimic the cardinal features of inflammation. We examined the concept that expression levels of endothelial intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and neutrophil integrins Mac-1 and LFA-1 are modulated by the kinin B1 receptor (B1R) agonist, Lys-des[Arg(9)]bradykinin (LDBK). Stimulation of endothelial cells with LDBK increased the levels of ICAM-1 mRNA transcripts/protein, and also of E-selectin and platelet endothelial adhesion molecule-1. ICAM-1 levels increased in a magnitude comparable with that produced by TNF-α. This stimulatory effect was reduced when endothelial cells, which had been previously transfected with a B1R small interfering RNA, were stimulated with LDBK, under comparable conditions. Similarly, LDBK produced a significant increase in protein levels of LFA-1 and Mac-1 integrins in human neutrophils, an effect that was reversed by pretreatment of cells with 10 µg/ml cycloheximide or a B1R antagonist. Functional experiments performed with post-confluent monolayers of endothelial cells stimulated with LDBK and neutrophils primed with TNF-α, and vice versa, resulted in enhanced adhesiveness between both cells. Neutralizing Abs to ICAM-1 and Mac-1 reduced the adhesion between them. Our results indicate that kinin B1R is a novel modulator that promotes adhesion of leukocytes to endothelial cells, critically enhancing the movement of neutrophils from the circulation to sites of inflammation.

  6. The 18-kDa Translocator Protein Inhibits Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 Expression via Inhibition of Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Hee Kyoung; Lee, Yu Ran; Kang, Gun; Choi, Sunga; Kim, Cuk-Seong; Ryoo, Sungwoo; Park, Jin Bong; Jeon, Byeong Hwa

    2015-01-01

    Translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO) is a mitochondrial outer membrane protein and is abundantly expressed in a variety of organ and tissues. To date, the functional role of TSPO on vascular endothelial cell activation has yet to be fully elucidated. In the present study, the phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA, 250 nM), an activator of protein kinase C (PKC), was used to induce vascular endothelial activation. Adenoviral TSPO overexpression (10–100 MOI) inhibited PMA-induced vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and intracellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression in a dose dependent manner. PMA-induced VCAM-1 expressions were inhibited by Mito-TEMPO (0.1–0.5 μM), a specific mitochondrial antioxidants, and cyclosporin A (1–5 μM), a mitochondrial permeability transition pore inhibitor, implying on an important role of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) on the endothelial activation. Moreover, adenoviral TSPO overexpression inhibited mitochondrial ROS production and manganese superoxide dismutase expression. On contrasts, gene silencing of TSPO with siRNA increased PMA-induced VCAM-1 expression and mitochondrial ROS production. Midazolam (1–50 μM), TSPO ligands, inhibited PMA-induced VCAM-1 and mitochondrial ROS production in endothelial cells. These results suggest that mitochondrial TSPO can inhibit PMA-induced endothelial inflammation via suppression of VCAM-1 and mitochondrial ROS production in endothelial cells. PMID:26608360

  7. Measurements of developing teeth, and carpals and epiphyses of the ulna and radius for assessing new cut-offs at the age thresholds of 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14 years.

    PubMed

    Cameriere, R; De Luca, S; Cingolani, M; Ferrante, L

    2015-08-01

    The minimum age of criminal responsibility is the youngest age at which children may be held liable for infringements of penal laws. New cut-offs at the age thresholds of 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14 years were determined by applying three different methods: measurement of open apices in tooth roots (T); the ratio between the total area of carpal bones and epiphyses of the ulna and radius (HW); and the combined method (THW). The sample consisted of 291 Italian children (152 boys, 139 girls), aged between 5 and 15 years. The sensitivity and specificity were established. As regards THW, specificity reached the maximum of 95% in boys aged 10, and the minimum of 87% in boys aged 11. The best score of the Positive Predictive Value (PPV) was obtained in boys at 10 years with the THW method and the worst in girls of 12 with the HW method.

  8. Efficient Catalyst One-Pot Synthesis of 7-(Aryl)-10,10-dimethyl-10,11-dihydrochromeno[4,3-b]chromene-6,8(7H,9H)-dione Derivatives Complemented by Antibacterial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Al-Majedy, Yasameen K.; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H.; Mohamad, Abu Bakar

    2016-01-01

    The problem of bacteria resistance to many known agents has inspired scientists and researchers to discover novel efficient antibacterial drugs. Three rapid, clean, and highly efficient methods were developed for one-pot synthesis of 7-(aryl)-10,10-dimethyl-10,11-dihydrochromeno[4,3-b]chromene-6,8(7H,9H)-dione derivatives. Three components are condensed in the synthesis, 4-hydroxycoumarin, 5,5-dimethyl-1,3-cyclohexanedione, and aromatic aldehydes, using tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBAB), diammonium hydrogen phosphate (DAHP), or ferric chloride (FeCl3), respectively. Each method has different reaction mechanisms according to the catalyst. The present methods have advantages, including one-pot synthesis, excellent yields, short reaction times, and easy isolation of product. All catalysts utilized in our study could be reused several times without losing their catalytic efficiency. All synthesized compounds were fully characterized and evaluated for their antibacterial activity. PMID:27563671

  9. Amino Acid Sequences Mediating Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 Binding to Integrin Alpha 4: Homologous DSP Sequence Found for JC Polyoma VP1 Coat Protein

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Michael Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The JC polyoma viral coat protein VP1 was analyzed for amino acid sequences homologies to the IDSP sequence which mediates binding of VLA-4 (integrin alpha 4) to vascular cell adhesion molecule 1. Although the full sequence was not found, a DSP sequence was located near the critical arginine residue linked to infectivity of the virus and binding to sialic acid containing molecules such as integrins (3). For the JC polyoma virus, a DSP sequence was found at residues 70, 71 and 72 with homology also noted for the mouse polyoma virus and SV40 virus. Three dimensional modeling of the VP1 molecule suggests that the DSP loop has an accessible site for interaction from the external side of the assembled viral capsid pentamer. PMID:24147211

  10. Platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1/CD31) tyrosine phosphorylation state changes during vasculogenesis in the murine conceptus.

    PubMed Central

    Pinter, E.; Barreuther, M.; Lu, T.; Imhof, B. A.; Madri, J. A.

    1997-01-01

    Vasculogenesis, the differentiation of mesodermal cells to angioblasts and the subsequent formation of blood islands and blood vessels by angioblasts in the conceptus, is a dynamic process modulated, in part, by cell-extracellular matrix and cell-cell interactions in the presence of a variety of growth factors and morphogens. In this report we demonstrate differential tyrosine phosphorylation of platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) during the formation of blood islands and vessels from clusters of extraembryonic and embryonic angioblasts in the murine conceptus. In addition, we identify the phosphorylation of a particular tyrosine residue in the PECAM-1 cytoplasmic domain, Tyr686, which has the potential of mediating binding to Src homology 2 domain-containing proteins, affecting PECAM-1 cellular localization and endothelial cell migration. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9137078

  11. Amino Acid Sequences Mediating Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 Binding to Integrin Alpha 4: Homologous DSP Sequence Found for JC Polyoma VP1 Coat Protein.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Michael Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The JC polyoma viral coat protein VP1 was analyzed for amino acid sequences homologies to the IDSP sequence which mediates binding of VLA-4 (integrin alpha 4) to vascular cell adhesion molecule 1. Although the full sequence was not found, a DSP sequence was located near the critical arginine residue linked to infectivity of the virus and binding to sialic acid containing molecules such as integrins (3). For the JC polyoma virus, a DSP sequence was found at residues 70, 71 and 72 with homology also noted for the mouse polyoma virus and SV40 virus. Three dimensional modeling of the VP1 molecule suggests that the DSP loop has an accessible site for interaction from the external side of the assembled viral capsid pentamer.

  12. Monocyte adhesion to endothelium in simian immunodeficiency virus-induced AIDS encephalitis is mediated by vascular cell adhesion molecule-1/alpha 4 beta 1 integrin interactions.

    PubMed Central

    Sasseville, V. G.; Newman, W.; Brodie, S. J.; Hesterberg, P.; Pauley, D.; Ringler, D. J.

    1994-01-01

    Because the mechanisms associated with recruitment of monocytes to brain in AIDS encephalitis are unknown, we used tissues from rhesus monkeys infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) to examine the relative contributions of various adhesion pathways in mediating monocyte adhesion to endothelium from encephalitic brain. Using a modified Stamper and Woodruff tissue adhesion assay, we found that the human monocytic cell lines, THP-1 and U937, and the B cell line, Ramos, preferentially bound to brain vessels from monkeys with AIDS encephalitis. Using a combined tissue adhesion/immunohistochemistry approach, these cells only bound to vessels expressing vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). Furthermore, pretreatment of tissues with antibodies to VCAM-1 or cell lines with antibodies to VLA-4 (CD49d) inhibited adhesion by more than 70%. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1)/beta 2 integrin interactions were not significant in mediating cell adhesion to the vasculature in encephalitic simian brain using a cell line (JY) capable of binding rhesus monkey ICAM-1. In addition, selectin-mediated interactions did not significantly contribute to cell binding to encephalitic brain as there was no immunohistochemical expression of E-selectin and P-selectin in either normal or encephalitic brain, nor was there a demonstrable adhesive effect from L-selectin using L-selectin-transfected 300.19 cells on simian encephalitic brain. These results demonstrate that using the tissue adhesion assay, THP-1, U937, and Ramos cells bind to vessels in brain from animals with AIDS encephalitis using VCAM-1/alpha 4 beta 1 integrin interactions and suggest that VCAM-1 and VLA-4 may be integral for monocyte recruitment to the central nervous system during the development of AIDS encephalitis. Images Figure 1 PMID:7507300

  13. Micromanipulation of adhesion of phorbol 12-myristate-13-acetate-stimulated T lymphocytes to planar membranes containing intercellular adhesion molecule-1.

    PubMed Central

    Tözeren, A; Mackie, L H; Lawrence, M B; Chan, P Y; Dustin, M L; Springer, T A

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical and experimental methodology to determine the physical strength of cell adhesion to a planar membrane containing one set of adhesion molecules. In particular, the T lymphocyte adhesion due to the interaction of the lymphocyte function associated molecule 1 on the surface of the cell, with its counter-receptor, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), on the planar membrane, was investigated. A micromanipulation method and mathematical analysis of cell deformation were used to determine (a) the area of conjugation between the cell and the substrate and (b) the energy that must be supplied to detach a unit area of the cell membrane from its substrate. T lymphocytes stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) conjugated strongly with the planar membrane containing purified ICAM-1. The T lymphocytes attached to the planar membrane deviated occasionally from their round configuration by extending pseudopods but without changing the size of the contact area. These adherent cells were dramatically deformed and then detached when pulled away from the planar membrane by a micropipette. Detachment occurred by a gradual decrease in the radius of the contact area. The physical strength of adhesion between a PMA-stimulated T lymphocyte and a planar membrane containing 1,000 ICAM-1 molecules/micron 2 was comparable to the strength of adhesion between a cytotoxic T cell and its target cell. The comparison of the adhesive energy density, measured at constant cell shape, with the model predictions suggests that the physical strength of cell adhesion may increase significantly when the adhesion bonds in the contact area are immobilized by the actin cytoskeleton. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 PMID:1358239

  14. Short-term high-fat diet alters postprandial glucose metabolism and circulating vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in healthy males.

    PubMed

    Numao, Shigeharu; Kawano, Hiroshi; Endo, Naoya; Yamada, Yuka; Takahashi, Masaki; Konishi, Masayuki; Sakamoto, Shizuo

    2016-08-01

    Short-term intake of a high-fat diet aggravates postprandial glucose metabolism; however, the dose-response relationship has not been investigated. We hypothesized that short-term intake of a eucaloric low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet (LCHF) would aggravate postprandial glucose metabolism and circulating adhesion molecules in healthy males. Seven healthy young males (mean ± SE; age: 26 ± 1 years) consumed either a eucaloric control diet (C, approximately 25% fats), a eucaloric intermediate-carbohydrate/intermediate-fat diet (ICIF, approximately 50% fats), or an LCHF (approximately 70% fats) for 3 days. An oral meal tolerance test (MTT) was performed after the 3-day dietary intervention. The concentrations of plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) were determined at rest and during MTT. The incremental area under the curve (iAUC) of plasma glucose concentration during MTT was significantly higher in LCHF than in C (P = 0.009). The first-phase insulin secretion indexes were significantly lower in LCHF than in C (P = 0.04). Moreover, the iAUC of GLP-1 and VCAM-1 concentrations was significantly higher in LCHF than in C (P = 0.014 and P = 0.04, respectively). The metabolites from ICIF and C were not significantly different. In conclusion, short-term intake of eucaloric diet containing a high percentage of fats in healthy males excessively increased postprandial glucose and VCAM-1 concentrations and attenuated first-phase insulin release.

  15. Serum activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in patients with gastric cancer: Can they be used as biomarkers?

    PubMed

    Erturk, Kayhan; Tastekin, Didem; Bilgin, Elif; Serilmez, Murat; Bozbey, Hamza Ugur; Sakar, Burak

    2016-02-01

    Cellular adhesion molecules might be used as markers in diagnosis and prognosis in some types of malignant tumors. The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical significance of the serum levels of activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule-1 (ALCAM) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in gastric cancer (GC) patients. Fifty-eight GC patients and 20 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled into this study. Pretreatment serum markers were determined by the solid-phase sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The median age at diagnosis was 59.5 years (range 32-82 years). Tumor localizations of the majority of the patients were antrum (n=42, 72.4%) and tumor histopathologies of the majority of the patients were diffuse (n=43, 74.1%). The majority of the patients had stage IV disease (n=41, 70.7%). Thirty six (62.1%) patients had lymph node involvement. The median follow-up time was 66 months (range 1-97.2 months). At the end of the observation period, 26 patients (44.8%) were dead. The median survival for all patients was 21.4±5 months (%95 CI, 11.5-31.3). The 1-year survival rates were 66.2%. The baseline serum ALCAM levels of the patients were significantly higher than those of the controls (p=0.001). There was no significant difference in the serum levels of ICAM-1 between the patients and controls (p=0.232). No significant correlation was detected between the levels of the serum markers and other clinical parameters (p>0.05). Tumor localization (p=0.03), histopathology (p=0.05), and response to chemotherapy (p=0.003) had prognostic factors on survival. Neither serum ALCAM levels nor serum ICAM-1 levels were identified to have a prognostic role on overall survival (ICAM-1 p=0.6, ALCAM p=0.25). In conclusion, serum levels of ALCAM were found to have diagnostic value in GC patients.

  16. Sesamin attenuates intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression in vitro in TNF-alpha-treated human aortic endothelial cells and in vivo in apolipoprotein-E-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wen-Huey; Wang, Shu-Huei; Kuan, I-I; Kao, Ya-Shi; Wu, Pei-Jhen; Liang, Chan-Jung; Chien, Hsiung-Fei; Kao, Chiu-Hua; Huang, Ching-Jang; Chen, Yuh-Lien

    2010-09-01

    Sesame lignans have antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. We focused on the effects of the lignans sesamin and sesamol on the expression of endothelial-leukocyte adhesion molecules in tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-treated human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs). When HAECs were pretreated with sesamin (10 or 100 microM), the TNF-alpha-induced expression of intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) was significantly reduced (35 or 70% decrease, respectively) by Western blotting. Sesamol was less effective at inhibiting ICAM-1 expression (30% decrease at 100 microM). Sesamin and sesamol reduced the marked TNF-alpha-induced increase in human antigen R (HuR) translocation and the interaction between HuR and the 3'UTR of ICAM-1 mRNA. Both significantly reduced the binding of monocytes to TNF-alpha-stimulated HAECs. Sesamin significantly attenuated TNF-alpha-induced ICAM-1 expression and cell adhesion by downregulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and p38. Furthermore, in vivo, sesamin attenuated intimal thickening and ICAM-1 expression seen in aortas of apolipoprotein-E-deficient mice. Taken together, these data suggest that sesamin inhibits TNF-alpha-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase/p38 phosphorylation, nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB p65, cytoplasmic translocalization of HuR and thereby suppresses ICAM-1 expression, resulting in reduced adhesion of leukocytes. These results also suggest that sesamin may prevent the development of atherosclerosis and inflammatory responses.

  17. Epstein-Barr Virus–induced Molecule 1 Ligand Chemokine Is Expressed by Dendritic Cells in Lymphoid Tissues and Strongly Attracts Naive T Cells and Activated B Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ngo, Vu N.; Lucy Tang, H.; Cyster, Jason G.

    1998-01-01

    Movement of T and B lymphocytes through secondary lymphoid tissues is likely to involve multiple cues that help the cells navigate to appropriate compartments. Epstein-Barr virus– induced molecule 1 (EBI-1) ligand chemokine (ELC/MIP3β) is expressed constitutively within lymphoid tissues and may act as such a guidance cue. Here, we have isolated mouse ELC and characterized its expression pattern and chemotactic properties. ELC is expressed constitutively in dendritic cells within the T cell zone of secondary lymphoid tissues. Recombinant ELC was strongly chemotactic for naive (L-selectinhi) CD4 T cells and for CD8 T cells and weakly attractive for resting B cells and memory (L-selectinlo) CD4 T cells. After activation through the B cell receptor, the chemotactic response of B cells was enhanced. Like its human counterpart, murine ELC stimulated cells transfected with EBI-1/CC chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7). Our findings suggest a central role for ELC in promoting encounters between recirculating T cells and dendritic cells and in the migration of activated B cells into the T zone of secondary lymphoid tissues. PMID:9653094

  18. αdβ2 Integrin Is Expressed on Human Eosinophils and Functions as an Alternative Ligand for Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 (VCAM-1)

    PubMed Central

    Grayson, Mitchell H.; Van der Vieren, Monica; Sterbinsky, Sherry A.; Michael Gallatin, W.; Hoffman, Patricia A.; Staunton, Donald E.; Bochner, Bruce S.

    1998-01-01

    The β2 family of integrins, CD11a, CD11b, CD11c, and αd, are expressed on most leukocytes. We show that the newest member of this family, αd, is expressed on human eosinophils in peripheral blood, and surface expression can be upregulated within minutes by phorbol ester or calcium ionophore A23187. Culture of eosinophils with interleukin 5 (IL-5) leads to a two- to fourfold increase in αd levels by 3–7 d without a change in α4 integrin expression. Eosinophils isolated from late phase bronchoalveolar lavage fluids express αd at levels similar to that seen after 3 d of IL-5 culture. Regarding αdβ2 ligands, in both freshly isolated and IL-5–cultured eosinophils, as well as αdβ2-transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells, αdβ2 can function as a ligand for vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1). This conclusion is based on the ability of monoclonal antibodies to αd, β2, or VCAM-1 to block cell attachment in static adhesion assays. In experiments with eosinophils, the relative contribution of αdβ2 integrin– mediated adhesion is enhanced after IL-5 culture. These experiments demonstrate that αdβ2 is an alternative ligand for VCAM-1, and this integrin may play a role in eosinophil adhesion to VCAM-1 in states of chronic inflammation. PMID:9841932

  19. Magnolol reduced TNF-α-induced vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression in endothelial cells via JNK/p38 and NF-κB signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Liang, Chan-Jung; Lee, Chiang-Wen; Sung, Hsin-Ching; Chen, Yung-Hsiang; Wang, Shu-Huei; Wu, Pei-Jhen; Chiang, Yao-Chang; Tsai, Jaw-Shiun; Wu, Chau-Chung; Li, Chi-Yuan; Chen, Yuh-Lien

    2014-01-01

    Expression of cell adhesion molecules by the endothelium and the attachment of leukocytes to these cells play major roles in inflammation and cardiovascular disorders. Magnolol, a major active component of Magnolia officinalis, has antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. In the present study, the effects of magnolol on the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) and the related mechanisms were investigated. TNF-α induced VCAM-1 protein expression and mRNA stability were significantly decreased in HAECs pre-treated with magnolol. Magnolol significantly reduced the phosphorylation of ERK, JNK, and p38 in TNF-α-treated HAECs. The decrease in VCAM-1 expression in response to TNF-α treatment was affected by JNK and p38 inhibitors, not by an ERK inhibitor. Magnolol also attenuates NF-κB activation and the translocation of HuR (an RNA binding protein) in TNF-α-stimulated HAECs. The VCAM-1 expression was weaker in the aortas of TNF-α-treated apo-E deficient mice with magnolol treatment. These data demonstrate that magnolol inhibits TNF-α-induced JNK/p38 phosphorylation, HuR translocation, NF-κB activation, and thereby suppresses VCAM-1 expression resulting in reduced leukocyte adhesion. Taken together, these results suggest that magnolol has an anti-inflammatory property and may play an important role in the prevention of atherosclerosis and inflammatory responses.

  20. Transfected HEK293 Cells Expressing Functional Recombinant Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 (ICAM-1) – A Receptor Associated with Severe Plasmodium falciparum Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Bengtsson, Anja; Joergensen, Louise; Barbati, Zachary R.; Craig, Alister; Hviid, Lars; Jensen, Anja T. R.

    2013-01-01

    Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) is a membrane-bound glycoprotein expressed on endothelial cells and cells of the immune system. Human ICAM-1 mediates adhesion and migration of leucocytes, and is implicated in inflammatory pathologies, autoimmune diseases and in many cancer processes. Additionally, ICAM-1 acts as receptor for pathogens like human rhinovirus and Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites. A group of related P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) domains, the DBLβ, mediates ICAM-1 binding of P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes. This ICAM‑1-binding phenotype has been suggested to be involved in the development of cerebral malaria. However, more studies identifying cross-reactive antibody and ICAM-1-binding epitopes and the establishment of a clinical link between DBLβ expression and e.g. cerebral malaria are needed before the DBLβ domains can be put forward as vaccine candidates and go into clinical trials. Such studies require availability of functional recombinant ICAM-1 in large quantities. In this study, we compared recombinant ICAM-1 expressed in HEK293 and COS-7 cells with mouse myeloma NS0 ICAM-1 purchased from a commercial vendor in terms of protein purity, yield, fold, ability to bind DBLβ, and relative cost. We present a HEK293 cell-based, high-yield expression and purification scheme for producing inexpensive, functional ICAM‑1. ICAM-1 expressed in HEK293 is applicable to malaria research and can also be useful in other research fields. PMID:23936131

  1. Stromal Interaction Molecule 1 (STIM1) Regulates ATP-sensitive Potassium (KATP) and Store-operated Ca(2+) Channels in MIN6 β-Cells.

    PubMed

    Leech, Colin A; Kopp, Richard F; Nelson, Heather A; Nandi, Jyotirmoy; Roe, Michael W

    2017-02-10

    Stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) regulates store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) and other ion channels either as an endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-sensing protein or when present in the plasma membrane. However, the role of STIM1 in insulin-secreting β-cells is unresolved. We report that lowering expression of STIM1, the gene that encodes STIM1, in insulin-secreting MIN6 β-cells with RNA interference inhibits SOCE and ATP-sensitive K(+) (KATP) channel activation. The effects of STIM1 knockdown were reversed by transduction of MIN6 cells with an adenovirus gene shuttle vector that expressed human STIM1 Immunoprecipitation studies revealed that STIM1 binds to nucleotide binding fold-1 (NBF1) of the sulfonylurea receptor 1 (SUR1) subunit of the KATP channel. Binding of STIM1 to SUR1 was enhanced by poly-lysine. Our data indicate that SOCE and KATP channel activity are regulated by STIM1. This suggests that STIM1 is a multifunctional signaling effector that participates in the control of membrane excitability and Ca(2+) signaling events in β-cells.

  2. Artemether Combined with shRNA Interference of Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 Significantly Inhibited the Malignant Biological Behavior of Human Glioma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ping; Xue, Yi-Xue; Yao, Yi-Long; Yu, Bo; Liu, Yun-Hui

    2013-01-01

    Artemether is the derivative extracted from Chinese traditional herb and originally used for malaria. Artemether also has potential therapeutic effects against tumors. Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) is an important cell surface adhesion molecule associated with malignancy of gliomas. In this work, we investigated the role and mechanism of artemether combined with shRNA interference of VCAM-1 (shRNA-VCAM-1) on the migration, invasion and apoptosis of glioma cells. U87 human glioma cells were treated with artemether at various concentrations and shRNA interfering technology was employed to silence the expression of VCAM-1. Cell viability, migration, invasiveness and apoptosis were assessed with MTT, wound healing, Transwell and Annexin V-FITC/PI staining. The expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt) was checked by Western blot assay. Results showed that artemether and shRNA-VCAM-1 not only significantly inhibited the migration, invasiveness and expression of MMP-2/9 and p-Akt, but also promoted the apoptosis of U87 cells. Combined treatment of both displayed the maximum inhibitory effects on the malignant biological behavior of glioma cells. Our work revealed the potential therapeutic effects of artemether and antiVCAM-1 in the treatments of gliomas. PMID:23593320

  3. Urinary calprotectin, kidney injury molecule-1, and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin for the prediction of adverse outcome in pediatric acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Westhoff, Jens H; Seibert, Felix S; Waldherr, Sina; Bauer, Frederic; Tönshoff, Burkhard; Fichtner, Alexander; Westhoff, Timm H

    2017-04-14

    Early identification of patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) being at high risk for adverse outcome can influence medical treatment. This study compares urinary calprotectin, kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) for their performance in predicting mortality and need for renal replacement therapy (RRT) in pediatric AKI patients. Urinary biomarker concentrations were assessed prospectively in 141 subjects aged 0-18 years including 55 patients with established AKI according to pediatric Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, and End-stage kidney disease (pRIFLE) criteria, 27 patients without AKI, and 59 healthy children. Within the AKI group, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis revealed moderate to poor performance of calprotectin and KIM-1 in the prediction of 30-day mortality (calprotectin area under the curve (AUC) 0.55; KIM-1 AUC 0.55) and 3-month mortality (calprotectin AUC 0.61; KIM-1 AUC 0.60) and fair performance in the prediction of RRT requirement (calprotectin AUC 0.72; KIM-1 AUC 0.71). Urinary NGAL showed good performance in predicting 30-day (AUC 0.79) and 3-month (AUC 0.81) mortality and moderate performance in predicting RRT (AUC 0.61).

  4. Characterization and functional analysis of the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in human papillomavirus-related disease of cervical keratinocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, N.; Greenfield, I. M.; Hare, J.; Kruger-Gray, H.; Chain, B. M.; Stanley, M. A.

    1993-01-01

    We have investigated the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in squamous neoplasia of the cervix and have noted a significant induction of the molecule in high-grade intra-epithelial lesions. Using monolayer and organotypic in vitro tissue culture systems, we have shown that there is no constitutive ICAM-1 expression on cervical keratinocytes immortalized but not transformed by human papillomavirus type 16, whereas two human papillomaviruses type 16 containing and fully transformed cervical keratinocyte lines do constitutively express the molecule. All cell types, including human papillomavirus-negative normal cervical keratinocytes, can be induced to up-regulate their expression of ICAM-1 by pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interferon-gamma. In addition, we have used an in vitro adhesion assay to show that ICAM-1:lymphocyte function antigen-1 interaction is functionally important in lymphocyte binding to cervical keratinocytes, suggesting a role for ICAM-1 in retaining and enabling functional activity of lymphocytes in the cervix in intraepithelial neoplasia. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 5 Figure 9 PMID:8102029

  5. Inside-out Signaling Promotes Dynamic Changes in the Carcinoembryonic Antigen-related Cellular Adhesion Molecule 1 (CEACAM1) Oligomeric State to Control Its Cell Adhesion Properties*

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Prerna C.; Lee, Hannah S. W.; Ming, Aaron Y. K.; Rath, Arianna; Deber, Charles M.; Yip, Christopher M.; Rocheleau, Jonathan V.; Gray-Owen, Scott D.

    2013-01-01

    Cell-cell contacts are fundamental to multicellular organisms and are subject to exquisite levels of control. The carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) can engage in both cis-homophilic (parallel) oligomerization and trans-homophilic (anti-parallel) binding. In this study, we establish that the CEACAM1 transmembrane domain has a propensity to form cis-dimers via the transmembrane-embedded 432GXXXG436 motif and that this basal state is overcome when activated calmodulin binds to the CEACAM1 cytoplasmic domain. Although mutation of the 432GXXXG436 motif reduced CEACAM1 oligomerization, it did not affect surface localization of the receptor or influence CEACAM1-dependent cellular invasion by the pathogenic Neisseria. The mutation did, however, have a striking effect on CEACAM1-dependent cellular aggregation, increasing both the kinetics of cell-cell association and the size of cellular aggregates formed. CEACAM1 association with tyrosine kinase c-Src and tyrosine phosphatases SHP-1 and SHP-2 was not affected by the 432GXXXG436 mutation, consistent with their association with the monomeric form of wild type CEACAM1. Collectively, our results establish that a dynamic oligomer-to-monomer shift in surface-expressed CEACAM1 facilitates trans-homophilic binding and downstream effector signaling. PMID:24005674

  6. Elevation of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 levels, but not angiopoietin 2, in the plasma of human immunodeficiency virus-infected African women with clinical Kaposi sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Graham, Susan M; Rajwans, Nimerta; Richardson, Barbra A; Jaoko, Walter; McClelland, R Scott; Overbaugh, Julie; Liles, W Conrad

    2014-10-01

    Circulating levels of endothelial activation biomarkers are elevated in during infection with human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) and may also be increased in Kaposi sarcoma (KS). We compared 23 HIV-1-seropositive women with clinically diagnosed KS with 46 randomly selected controls matched for visit year, CD4 count, and antiretroviral therapy status. Conditional logistic regression was used to identify differences between cases and controls. The odds of clinical KS increased with increasing plasma viral load and with intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) levels above or equal to the median. There was a borderline association between increasing plasma angiopoietin 2 levels and KS. In multivariable modeling including plasma viral load, angiopoietin 2, and ICAM-1, plasma ICAM-1 levels above or equal to the median remained associated with clinical KS (odds ratio = 14.2, 95% confidence interval = 2.3-87.7). Circulating ICAM-1 levels should be evaluated as a potential biomarker for disease progression and treatment response among HIV-infected KS patients.

  7. Live-cell imaging reveals sequential oligomerization and local plasma membrane targeting of stromal interaction molecule 1 after Ca2+ store depletion

    PubMed Central

    Liou, Jen; Fivaz, Marc; Inoue, Takanari; Meyer, Tobias

    2007-01-01

    Stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) has recently been identified by our group and others as an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+ sensor that responds to ER Ca2+ store depletion and activates Ca2+ channels in the plasma membrane (PM). The molecular mechanism by which STIM1 transduces signals from the ER lumen to the PM is not yet understood. Here we developed a live-cell FRET approach and show that STIM1 forms oligomers within 5 s after Ca2+ store depletion. These oligomers rapidly dissociated when ER Ca2+ stores were refilled. We further show that STIM1 formed oligomers before its translocation within the ER network to ER–PM junctions. A mutant STIM1 lacking the C-terminal polybasic PM-targeting motif oligomerized after Ca2+ store depletion but failed to form puncta at ER–PM junctions. Using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching measurements to monitor STIM1 mobility, we show that STIM1 oligomers translocate on average only 2 μm to reach ER–PM junctions, arguing that STIM1 ER-to-PM signaling is a local process that is suitable for generating cytosolic Ca2+ gradients. Together, our live-cell measurements dissect the STIM1 ER-to-PM signaling relay into four sequential steps: (i) dissociation of Ca2+, (ii) rapid oligomerization, (iii) spatially restricted translocation to nearby ER–PM junctions, and (iv) activation of PM Ca2+ channels. PMID:17517596

  8. Expression, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the CMM2 region of the Arabidopsis thaliana Morpheus' molecule 1 protein.

    PubMed

    Petty, Tom J; Nishimura, Taisuke; Emamzadah, Soheila; Gabus, Caroline; Paszkowski, Jerzy; Halazonetis, Thanos D; Thore, Stéphane

    2010-08-01

    Of the known epigenetic control regulators found in plants, the Morpheus' molecule 1 (MOM1) protein is atypical in that the deletion of MOM1 does not affect the level of epigenetic marks controlling the transcriptional status of the genome. A short 197-amino-acid fragment of the MOM1 protein sequence can complement MOM1 deletion when coupled to a nuclear localization signal, suggesting that this region contains a functional domain that compensates for the loss of the full-length protein. Numerous constructs centred on the highly conserved MOM1 motif 2 (CMM2) present in these 197 residues have been generated and expressed in Escherichia coli. Following purification and crystallization screening, diamond-shaped single crystals were obtained that diffracted to approximately 3.2 A resolution. They belonged to the trigonal space group P3(1)21 (or P3(2)21), with unit-cell parameters a=85.64, c=292.74 A. Structure determination is ongoing.

  9. C-type lectin-like molecule-1 (CLL1)-targeted TRAIL augments the tumoricidal activity of granulocytes and potentiates therapeutic antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Wiersma, Valerie R; de Bruyn, Marco; Shi, Ce; Gooden, Marloes J M; Wouters, Maartje C A; Samplonius, Douwe F; Hendriks, Djoke; Nijman, Hans W; Wei, Yunwei; Zhou, Jin; Helfrich, Wijnand; Bremer, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    The therapeutic effect of anti-cancer monoclonal antibodies stems from their capacity to opsonize targeted cancer cells with subsequent phagocytic removal, induction of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) or induction of complement-mediated cytotoxicity (CDC). The major immune effector cells involved in these processes are natural killer (NK) cells and granulocytes. The latter and most prevalent blood cell population contributes to phagocytosis, but is not effective in inducing ADCC. Here, we report that targeted delivery of the tumoricidal protein tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) to granulocyte marker C-type lectin-like molecule-1 (CLL1), using fusion protein CLL1:TRAIL, equips granulocytes with high levels of TRAIL. Upon CLL1-selective binding of this fusion protein, granulocytes acquire additional TRAIL-mediated cytotoxic activity that, importantly, potentiates antibody-mediated cytotoxicity of clinically used therapeutic antibodies (e.g., rituximab, cetuximab). Thus, CLL1:TRAIL could be used as an adjuvant to optimize the clinical potential of anticancer antibody therapy by augmenting tumoricidal activity of granulocytes.

  10. A bioinformatics approach identifies signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 and checkpoint kinase 1 as upstream regulators of kidney injury molecule-1 after kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Ajay, Amrendra Kumar; Kim, Tae-Min; Ramirez-Gonzalez, Victoria; Park, Peter J; Frank, David A; Vaidya, Vishal S

    2014-01-01

    Kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1)/T cell Ig and mucin domain-containing protein-1 (TIM-1) is upregulated more than other proteins after AKI, and it is highly expressed in renal damage of various etiologies. In this capacity, KIM-1/TIM-1 acts as a phosphatidylserine receptor on the surface of injured proximal tubular epithelial cells, mediating phagocytosis of apoptotic cells, and it may also act as a costimulatory molecule for immune cells. Despite recognition of KIM-1 as an important therapeutic target for kidney disease, the regulators of KIM-1 transcription in the kidney remain unknown. Using a bioinformatics approach, we identified upstream regulators of KIM-1 after AKI. In response to tubular injury in rat and human kidneys or oxidant stress in human proximal tubular epithelial cells (HPTECs), KIM-1 expression increased significantly in a manner that corresponded temporally and regionally with increased phosphorylation of checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) and STAT3. Both ischemic and oxidant stress resulted in a dramatic increase in reactive oxygen species that phosphorylated and activated Chk1, which subsequently bound to STAT3, phosphorylating it at S727. Furthermore, STAT3 bound to the KIM-1 promoter after ischemic and oxidant stress, and pharmacological or genetic induction of STAT3 in HPTECs increased KIM-1 mRNA and protein levels. Conversely, inhibition of STAT3 using siRNAs or dominant negative mutants reduced KIM-1 expression in a kidney cancer cell line (769-P) that expresses high basal levels of KIM-1. These observations highlight Chk1 and STAT3 as critical upstream regulators of KIM-1 expression after AKI and may suggest novel approaches for therapeutic intervention.

  11. Serum Interleukin-18, Fetuin-A, Soluble Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1, and Endothelin-1 in Ankylosing Spondylitis, Psoriatic Arthritis, and SAPHO Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Przepiera-Będzak, Hanna; Fischer, Katarzyna; Brzosko, Marek

    2016-01-01

    To examine serum interleukin 18 (IL-18), fetuin-A, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), and endothelin-1 (ET-1) levels in ankylosing spondylitis (AS), psoriatic arthritis (PsA), and Synovitis Acne Pustulosis Hyperostosis Osteitis syndrome (SAPHO). We studied 81 AS, 76 PsA, and 34 SAPHO patients. We measured serum IL-18, fetuin-A, sICAM-1, ET-1, IL-6, IL-23, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and epidermal growth factor (EGF). IL-18 levels were higher in AS (p = 0.001), PsA (p = 0.0003), and SAPHO (p = 0.01) than in controls, and were positively correlated with CRP (p = 0.03), VEGF (p = 0.03), and total cholesterol (TC, p = 0.006) in AS and with IL-6 (p = 0.03) in PsA. Serum fetuin-A levels were lower in AS (p = 0.001) and PsA (p = 0.001) than in controls, and negatively correlated with C-reactive protein (CRP) in AS (p = 0.04) and SAPHO (p = 0.03). sICAM-1 positively correlated with CRP (p = 0.01), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, p = 0.01), and IL-6 (p = 0.008) in AS, and with IL-6 (p = 0.001) in SAPHO. Serum ET-1 levels were lower in AS (p = 0.0005) than in controls. ET-1 positively correlated with ESR (p = 0.04) and Disease Activity Score 28 (DAS28, p = 0.003) in PsA. In spondyloarthritis, markers of endothelial function correlated with disease activity and TC. PMID:27527149

  12. Serum Interleukin-18, Fetuin-A, Soluble Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1, and Endothelin-1 in Ankylosing Spondylitis, Psoriatic Arthritis, and SAPHO Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Przepiera-Będzak, Hanna; Fischer, Katarzyna; Brzosko, Marek

    2016-08-03

    To examine serum interleukin 18 (IL-18), fetuin-A, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), and endothelin-1 (ET-1) levels in ankylosing spondylitis (AS), psoriatic arthritis (PsA), and Synovitis Acne Pustulosis Hyperostosis Osteitis syndrome (SAPHO). We studied 81 AS, 76 PsA, and 34 SAPHO patients. We measured serum IL-18, fetuin-A, sICAM-1, ET-1, IL-6, IL-23, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and epidermal growth factor (EGF). IL-18 levels were higher in AS (p = 0.001), PsA (p = 0.0003), and SAPHO (p = 0.01) than in controls, and were positively correlated with CRP (p = 0.03), VEGF (p = 0.03), and total cholesterol (TC, p = 0.006) in AS and with IL-6 (p = 0.03) in PsA. Serum fetuin-A levels were lower in AS (p = 0.001) and PsA (p = 0.001) than in controls, and negatively correlated with C-reactive protein (CRP) in AS (p = 0.04) and SAPHO (p = 0.03). sICAM-1 positively correlated with CRP (p = 0.01), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, p = 0.01), and IL-6 (p = 0.008) in AS, and with IL-6 (p = 0.001) in SAPHO. Serum ET-1 levels were lower in AS (p = 0.0005) than in controls. ET-1 positively correlated with ESR (p = 0.04) and Disease Activity Score 28 (DAS28, p = 0.003) in PsA. In spondyloarthritis, markers of endothelial function correlated with disease activity and TC.

  13. Maternal serum uric acid concentration is associated with the expression of tumour necrosis factor-α and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in patients with preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Zhao, J; Zheng, D-Y; Yang, J-M; Wang, M; Zhang, X-T; Sun, L; Yun, X-G

    2016-07-01

    We aimed to investigate whether there is a correlation between elevated serum uric acid (SUA) concentration and endothelial inflammatory response in women with preeclampsia (PE). On the basis of clinical and laboratory findings, patients were assigned to three groups: normal blood pressure (Control (Con)), gestational hypertension (GH) and PE (n=50 in each group). SUA concentration was measured by spectrophotometry, and serum tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Western blotting and immunohistochemical staining were also used to detect the changes in TNF-α and ICAM-1 expression in subcutaneous fat tissue. PE patients showed significantly higher systolic and diastolic blood pressures compared with Con and GH pregnant women (P=0.02 and P=0.02, respectively). The changes of body mass index (ΔBMI) before and after pregnancy and 24-h urine protein were significantly different among the three groups (P<0.001). Maternal SUA, TNF-α and soluble ICAM-1 (sICAM-1) levels were significantly increased in the patients with PE (P<0.05) compared with the other two groups. Scatterplot analysis revealed that elevated SUA concentration positively correlated with TNF-α and sICAM-1 in pregnant women. Moreover, vessels in subcutaneous fat tissues of preeclamptic patients showed intense TNF-α and ICAM-1 staining compared with Con and GH patients. The results support that, to a certain extent, elevated SUA concentration is significantly associated with inflammation of maternal systemic vasculature as indicated by increased TNF-α and ICAM-1 expression in women with PE.

  14. Simple modifications to Methimazole that enhance its inhibitory effect on Tumor Necrosis Factor-α-induced Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 expression by human endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Alapati, Anuja; Deosarkar, Sudhir P.; Lanier, Olivia L.; Qi, Chunyan; Carlson, Grady E.; Burdick, Monica M.; Schwartz, Frank L.; McCall, Kelly D.; Bergmeier, Stephen C.; Goetz, Douglas J.

    2015-01-01

    The expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) on the vascular endothelium can be increased by pro-inflammatory cytokines [e.g. tumor necrosis factor – α (TNF-α)]. VCAM-1 contributes to leukocyte adhesion to, and emigration from, the vasculature which is a key aspect of pathological inflammation. As such, a promising therapeutic approach for pathological inflammation is to inhibit the expression of VCAM-1. Methimazole [3-methyl-1, 3 imidazole-2 thione (MMI)] is routinely used for the treatment of Graves’ disease and patients treated with MMI have decreased levels of circulating VCAM-1. In this study we used cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) to investigate the effect of MMI structural modifications on TNF-α induced VCAM-1 expression. We found that addition of a phenyl ring at the 4-nitrogen of MMI yields a compound that is significantly more potent than MMI at inhibiting 24 h TNF-α-induced VCAM-1 protein expression. Addition of a para methoxy to the appended phenyl group increases the inhibition while substitution of a thiazole ring for an imidazole ring in the phenyl derivatives yields no clear difference in inhibition. Addition of the phenyl ring to MMI appears to increase toxicity as does substitution of a thiazole ring for an imidazole ring in the phenyl MMI derivatives. Each of the compounds reduced TNF-α-induced VCAM-1 mRNA expression and had a functional inhibitory effect, i.e. each inhibited monocytic cell adhesion to 24 h TNF-α-activated HUVEC under fluid flow conditions. Combined, these studies provide important insights into the design of MMI-related anti-inflammatory compounds. PMID:25641748

  15. Kidney injury molecule-1 is up-regulated in renal epithelial cells in response to oxalate in vitro and in renal tissues in response to hyperoxaluria in vivo.

    PubMed

    Khandrika, Lakshmipathi; Koul, Sweaty; Meacham, Randall B; Koul, Hari K

    2012-01-01

    Oxalate is a metabolic end product excreted by the kidney. Mild increases in urinary oxalate are most commonly associated with Nephrolithiasis. Chronically high levels of urinary oxalate, as seen in patients with primary hyperoxaluria, are driving factor for recurrent renal stones, and ultimately lead to renal failure, calcification of soft tissue and premature death. In previous studies others and we have demonstrated that high levels of oxalate promote injury of renal epithelial cells. However, methods to monitor oxalate induced renal injury are limited. In the present study we evaluated changes in expression of Kidney Injury Molecule-1 (KIM-1) in response to oxalate in human renal cells (HK2 cells) in culture and in renal tissue and urine samples in hyperoxaluric animals which mimic in vitro and in vivo models of hyper-oxaluria. Results presented, herein demonstrate that oxalate exposure resulted in increased expression of KIM-1 m RNA as well as protein in HK2 cells. These effects were rapid and concentration dependent. Using in vivo models of hyperoxaluria we observed elevated expression of KIM-1 in renal tissues of hyperoxaluric rats as compared to normal controls. The increase in KIM-1 was both at protein and mRNA level, suggesting transcriptional activation of KIM-1 in response to oxalate exposure. Interestingly, in addition to increased KIM-1 expression, we observed increased levels of the ectodomain of KIM-1 in urine collected from hyperoxaluric rats. To the best of our knowledge our studies are the first direct demonstration of regulation of KIM-1 in response to oxalate exposure in renal epithelial cells in vitro and in vivo. Our results suggest that detection of KIM-1 over-expression and measurement of the ectodomain of KIM-1 in urine may hold promise as a marker to monitor oxalate nephrotoxicity in hyperoxaluria.

  16. Interaction between Endothelial Protein C Receptor and Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 to Mediate Binding of Plasmodium falciparum-Infected Erythrocytes to Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Avril, Marion; Bernabeu, Maria; Benjamin, Maxwell; Brazier, Andrew Jay

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and the endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) are candidate receptors for the deadly complication cerebral malaria. However, it remains unclear if Plasmodium falciparum parasites with dual binding specificity are involved in cytoadhesion or different parasite subpopulations bind in brain microvessels. Here, we investigated this issue by studying different subtypes of ICAM-1-binding parasite lines. We show that two parasite lines expressing domain cassette 13 (DC13) of the P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) family have dual binding specificity for EPCR and ICAM-1 and further mapped ICAM-1 binding to the first DBLβ domain following the PfEMP1 head structure in both proteins. As PfEMP1 head structures have diverged between group A (EPCR binders) and groups B and C (CD36 binders), we also investigated how ICAM-1-binding parasites with different coreceptor binding traits influence P. falciparum-infected erythrocyte binding to endothelial cells. Whereas levels of binding to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)-stimulated endothelial cells from the lung and brain by all ICAM-1-binding parasite lines increased, group A (EPCR and ICAM-1) was less dependent than group B (CD36 and ICAM-1) on ICAM-1 upregulation. Furthermore, both group A DC13 parasite lines had higher binding levels to brain endothelial cells (a microvascular niche with limited CD36 expression). This study shows that ICAM-1 is a coreceptor for a subset of EPCR-binding parasites and provides the first evidence of how EPCR and ICAM-1 interact to mediate parasite binding to both resting and TNF-α-activated primary brain and lung endothelial cells. PMID:27406562

  17. Role of nuclear factor-kappa B in the regulation of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 after infection of human bronchial epithelial cells by Bordetella pertussis.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Yoshio; Nishikawa, Akemi

    2003-10-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that infection of human bronchial epithelial cells by Bordetella pertussis up-regulates intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) gene and protein expression. It has also been shown that interaction of the Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) site of filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) with host cell very late antigen (VLA)-5 (alpha 5 beta 1 integrin) is required for the up-regulation of epithelial ICAM-1 expression, and that pertussis toxin (PT) impairs this response. We therefore examined the molecular mechanisms leading to B. pertussis-induced ICAM-1 up-regulation in BEAS-2B human bronchial epithelial cells. A colorimetric nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B) activation assay demonstrated that NF-kappa B was activated in response to infection of these cells with B. pertussis. This activation occurred in an FHA(RGD)-dependent manner, and was blocked by an antibody against VLA-5, implying that binding of the RGD to VLA-5 integrin is involved in NF-kappa B activation. Western blot analysis revealed that the activation of NF-kappa B by B. pertussis was preceded by degradation of I kappa B alpha, a major cytoplasmic inhibitor of NF-kappa B. Pretreatment of the BEAS-2B cells with the NF-kappa B inhibitors pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), MG-132, and SN50 resulted in a marked decrease in B. pertussis-induced ICAM-1 expression, implying the involvement of NF-kappa B in ICAM-1 expression. Purified PT abrogated both NF-kappa B activation and I kappa B alpha degradation. These results suggest that ligation of VLA-5 integrin by FHA induces RGD-dependent NF-kappa B activation, thus leading to the up-regulation of epithelial ICAM-1 expression, and that a PT-sensitive G protein may be involved in this signaling pathway.

  18. Bordetella pertussis infection of human respiratory epithelial cells up-regulates intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression: role of filamentous hemagglutinin and pertussis toxin.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Yoshio; Nishikawa, Akemi

    2002-09-01

    Adhesion molecules on respiratory epithelial cells play a critical role in inflammatory cell recruitment and accumulation at sites of inflammation. Bordetella pertussis colonizes the human respiratory tract by infecting epithelial cells, leading to an inflammatory response. In this study, the role of bacterial factors in the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) on human respiratory epithelial cells was investigated in response to B. pertussis. Flow cytometry and real time RT-PCR analysis showed that BEAS-2B human bronchial epithelial cells expressed increased levels of ICAM-1 mRNA and surface protein in response to B. pertussis infection. Filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) played a role in this response because of the impaired capability of a FHA-deficient isogenic strain. A mutant strain in which an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) site of FHA had been changed to Arg-Ala-Asp had diminished ability to up-regulate ICAM-1 expression. RGD sequence-associated up-regulation of ICAM-1 expression was also observed in primary normal human bronchial epithelial cells. Pretreatment of cells with integrin antagonists such as RGD-containing peptide and antibody against very late antigen-5 (VLA-5) inhibited the up-regulation of ICAM-1 expression, suggesting the participation of VLA-5 integrin in this response. Pertussis toxin (PT) prevented the up-regulation of ICAM-1 expression because a PT-deficient mutant strain induced higher levels of ICAM-1 mRNA and surface protein than the parental strain. Consistent with this, purified PT suppressed the up-regulation of epithelial ICAM-1 expression. These findings demonstrate that B. pertussis FHA up-regulates ICAM-1 expression on respiratory epithelial cells through interaction of its RGD site with host cell VLA-5 integrin, and that PT impairs this response.

  19. Effect of Hyperketonemia (Acetoacetate) on Nuclear Factor-κB and p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Activation Mediated Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 Upregulation in Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rains, Justin L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Hyperketonemia is a pathological condition observed in patients with type 1 diabetes and ketosis-prone diabetes (KPD), which results in increased blood levels of acetoacetate (AA) and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB). Frequent episodes of hyperketonemia are associated with a higher incidence of vascular disease. We examined the hypothesis that hyperketonemia activates the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways that regulate intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) expression in endothelial cells. Methods: Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured with AA (0–8 mM) or BHB (0–10 mM) for 0–24 hr. Western blotting was used to determine NF-κB activation in whole-cell lysates. ICAM-1 expression was measured using flow cytometry. Results: Results show a 2.4-fold increase in NF-κB activation in cells treated with 8 mM AA compared to the control. BHB had little or no effect on NF-κB activation. Pretreatment with a reactive oxygen species (ROS) inhibitor [N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC)] reduced NF-κB to near-control levels. The expression of AA-induced ICAM-1 was significantly reduced when cells were pretreated with either NAC or p38 MAPK inhibitor. Conclusions: These results suggest that NF-κB and p38 MAPK mediate upregulation of ICAM-1 expression in endothelial cells exposed to elevated levels of AA, which may contribute to the development of vascular disease in diabetes. PMID:25489974

  20. Effects of 17 β-estradiol on lipopolysacharride-induced intracellular adhesion molecule-1 mRNA expression and Ca2+ homeostasis alteration in human endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Thor, Der; Zhang, Rui; Anderson, Leigh; Bose, Diptiman; Dubé, Gregory P.; Rahimian, Roshanak

    2010-01-01

    Recent evidence showed that 17 β-estradiol (E2) decreased cytokine-induced expression of cell adhesion molecules (CAM). Changes in intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) has been shown to be associated with CAM expression in endothelial cells. Here, the effects of E2 (1 μM, 24 h) on the expression of intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and [Ca2+]i were investigated in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (100 ng/mL, 18 h)-stimulated human endothelial cell line, EA.hy926, using real-time PCR and spectrofluorometry, respectively. PCR analysis revealed a significant increase in ICAM-1 expression in calcium ionophore A23187 (1 nM)- or LPS-stimulated cells. Pretreatment of cells with E2 significantly inhibited LPS-induced ICAM-1 mRNA expression. [Ca2+]i was monitored in Fura-2 AM-loaded cells in the presence and absence of extracellular Ca2+ with thapsigargin (TG, 1 μM), a sarco/endoplasmic reticulum ATPase inhibitor or ATP (100 μM). The extent of TG- or ATP-induced [Ca2+]i increase was significantly higher in LPS-stimulated cells than in control cells. Pre-treatment of LPS-stimulated cells with E2 limited the Ca2+ response to the same level as in control cells. Furthermore, ICI 182,780, an estrogen receptor antagonist, attenuated the inhibitory actions of E2 on ICAM-1 mRNA expression and Ca2+ responses, suggesting that estrogen receptors mediate, at least in part, the effects of estrogen. These data suggest a potential underlying mechanism for the protective effect of E2 against atherosclerosis. PMID:20843480

  1. Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 is a sensitive and diagnostically useful immunohistochemical marker of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) and of PTC-like nuclear alterations in Hashimoto's thyroiditis

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, KE; GE, SHU-JIAN; LIN, XIAO-YAN; LV, BEI-BEI; CAO, ZHI-XIN; LI, JIA-MEI; XU, JIA-WEN; WANG, QIANG-XIU

    2016-01-01

    Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) is important in the progression of inflammatory responses. Recently, increased levels of ICAM-1 have been reported in a number of types of malignancy. The present study aimed to investigate ICAM-1 expression in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) and in Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) with PTC-like nuclear alterations, and to assess the predictive value of ICAM-1 in thyroid lesions. ICAM-1 expression was retrospectively investigated in 132 consecutive cases of PTC, 72 cases of HT, 10 of follicular cancer, 15 of follicular adenoma, 16 of nodular goiter and 8 samples of normal thyroid tissue using immunohistochemical analyses, and in 42 PTC patients using western blotting. ICAM-1 expression was not detected in normal follicular cells, follicular lesions (adenoma and cancer) and benign nodular hyperplasia, but was frequently overexpressed in PTC cells. ICAM-1 overexpression was associated with extra-thyroidal invasion and lymph node metastasis; no association was found with age, gender, tumor size, multifocality, pathological stage, recurrence or distant metastasis. ICAM-1 expression in HT patients with PTC-like nuclear alterations was significantly higher than that in HT cases with non-PTC-like features. Compared with antibodies against cytokeratin 19, galectin-3 and Hector Battifora mesothelial-1, ICAM-1 was the most sensitive marker for the detection of PTC-like features in HT. These findings demonstrate that ICAM-1 expression is upregulated in PTC and in HT with PTC-like nuclear alterations. This feature may be an important factor in the progression of cancer of the thyroid gland. PMID:26998068

  2. Cyclic stretching of mesangial cells up-regulates intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and leukocyte adherence: a possible new mechanism for glomerulosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Riser, B L; Varani, J; Cortes, P; Yee, J; Dame, M; Sharba, A K

    2001-01-01

    Intraglomerular hypertension is a primary causal factor in the progressive glomerulosclerosis that characterizes diabetic nephropathy or severe renal ablation. However, inflammation of the glomerular mesangium also participates in at least the early phase of these diseases. In glomerulonephritis, where inflammation is thought to be the predominant causal factor, intraglomerular hypertension is also often present. Mesangial cells (MCs) are critical in orchestrating key functions of the glomerulus including extracellular matrix metabolism, cytokine production, and interaction with leukocytes. Because MCs are subject to increased stretching when intraglomerular hypertension is present, and in glomerulonephritis MC/leukocyte interactions seem to be mediated primarily via the up-regulation of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), we examine the possibility that cyclic stretching is a stimulus for increased MC ICAM-1 activity. We demonstrate that the normal low levels of MC ICAM-1 mRNA and protein are dramatically up-regulated by even short intervals of cyclic stretch. This effect is dose- and time-dependent, and requires little amplitude and a brief period of elongation for significant induction. Stretch-induced MC ICAM-1 also leads to a marked elevation in phagocytic leukocyte adherence. This stimulated adherence is equal or greater than that induced by the inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha, whereas an additive effect occurs when both are applied in combination. Our results indicate that stretch-induced ICAM-1 may provide a direct link between hypertension and inflammation in the progression of injury and glomerulosclerosis in diabetes, renal ablation, and other forms of glomerulonephritis.

  3. Testosterone attenuates expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 by conversion to estradiol by aromatase in endothelial cells: implications in atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Tapan K; Dinh, Hillary; Chaudhuri, Gautam; Nathan, Lauren

    2002-03-19

    We previously reported that testosterone attenuated atherogenesis in LDLR(-/-) male mice, and that this effect of testosterone was most likely caused by its conversion to estradiol. Estradiol inhibits vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expression, and expression of VCAM-1 is one of the early events in atherogenesis. We assessed the cellular mechanism(s) involved by which testosterone attenuates atherogenesis. We evaluated whether testosterone inhibited TNFalpha-induced VCAM-1 expression via its conversion to estradiol by the enzyme aromatase in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Aromatase mRNA was dedected by reverse transcription-PCR in these cells. Testosterone (30 nM-1 microM) attenuated VCAM-1 mRNA expression in a concentration-dependent manner. The non aromatizable androgen, dihydrotestosterone, had no effect on VCAM-1 mRNA expression. Testosterone was less effective in attenuating VCAM-1 expression in the presence of anastrozole, an inhibitor of aromatase, indicating that testosterone inhibited VCAM-1 via conversion to estradiol. Estradiol also attenuated VCAM-1 mRNA expression, but this action was not abolished in the presence of anastrozole, indicating that anastrozole itself did not modulate VCAM-1 mRNA expression. The effect of testosterone on VCAM-1 mRNA expression was inhibited in the presence of the estrogen receptor antagonist, ICI-182780. Testosterone also attenuated TNFalpha-induced VCAM-1 protein expression, and this attenuation was abolished in the presence of anastrozole. In conclusion, testosterone inhibited VCAM-1 mRNA and protein expression in HUVEC by its conversion to estradiol via the enzyme aromatase present in the endothelial cells. Results from our study may help explain the mechanism by which testosterone may have beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system.

  4. Vitamin E supplementation reduces plasma vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and von Willebrand factor levels and increases nitric oxide concentrations in hypercholesterolemic patients.

    PubMed

    Desideri, Giovambattista; Marinucci, Maria Contina; Tomassoni, Gianluca; Masci, Pier Giorgio; Santucci, Anna; Ferri, Claudio

    2002-06-01

    Up-regulation of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and reduced nitric oxide (NO) availability represent early characteristics of atherosclerosis. To evaluate whether the antioxidant vitamin E affected the circulating levels of soluble VCAM-1 (sVCAM-1) and the plasma metabolite of NO (nitrite+nitrate) in hypercholesterolemic patients, either vitamin E (either 400 IU or 800 IU/d for 8 wk) or placebo were randomly, double-blindly given to 36 hypercholesterolemic patients and 22 age- and sex-matched controls. At baseline hypercholesterolemic patients showed higher plasma sVCAM-1 (microg.liter(-1)) (591.2 +/- 132.5 vs. 505.0 +/- 65.6, P < 0.007) and lower NO metabolite (microM) levels (15.9 +/- 3.4 vs. 29.2 +/- 5.1, P < 0.0001) than controls. In hypercholesterolemic patients, 8 wk vitamin E (but not placebo) treatment significantly decreased circulating sVCAM-1 levels (400 IU: -148.9 +/- 84.6, P < 0.009; 800 IU: -204.0 +/- 75.7, P < 0.0001; placebo: -4.7 +/- 22.6, NS), whereas it increased NO metabolite concentrations (400 IU: +4.0 +/- 1.7, P < 0.02; 800 IU: +5.5 +/- 0.8, P < 0.0001; placebo: +0.1 +/- 1.1, NS) without affecting circulating low- density lipoprotein levels. Changes in both plasma sVCAM-1 and NO metabolite levels showed a trend to significantly correlate (r = -0.515, P = 0.010; and r = 0.435, P = 0.034, respectively) with changes in vitamin E concentrations induced by vitamin E supplementation. In conclusion, isolated hypercholesterolemia both increased circulating sVCAM-1 and reduced NO metabolite concentrations. Vitamin E supplementation counteracts these alterations, thus representing a potential tool for endothelial protection in hypercholesterolemic patients.

  5. An anti-platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 antibody inhibits leukocyte extravasation from mesenteric microvessels in vivo by blocking the passage through the basement membrane

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    Platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1, CD31) plays an active role in the process of leukocyte migration through cultured endothelial cells in vitro and anti-PECAM-1 antibodies (Abs) inhibit accumulation of leukocytes into sites of inflammation in vivo. Despite the latter, it is still not clear at which stage of leukocyte emigration in vivo PECAM-1 is involved. To address this point directly, we studied the effect of an anti-PECAM-1 Ab, recognizing rat PECAM-1, on leukocyte responses within rat mesenteric microvessels using intravital microscopy. In mesenteric preparations activated by interleukin (IL)-1 beta, the anti-PECAM-1 Ab had no significant effect on the rolling or adhesion of leukocytes, but inhibited their migration into the surrounding extravascular tissue in a dose-dependent manner. Although in some vessel segments these leukocytes had come to a halt within the vascular lumen, often the leukocytes appeared to be trapped within the vessel wall. Analysis of these sections by electron microscopy revealed that the leukocytes had passed through endothelial cell junctions but not the basement membrane. In contrast to the effect of the Ab in mesenteric preparations treated with IL-1 beta, leukocyte extravasation induced by topical or intraperitoneal administration of the chemotactic peptide formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine was not inhibited by the anti-PECAM-1 Ab. These results directly demonstrate a role for PECAM-1 in leukocyte extravasation in vivo and indicate that this involvement is selective for leukocyte extravasation elicited by certain inflammatory mediators. Further, our findings provide the first in vivo indication that PECAM-1 may have an important role in triggering the passage of leukocytes through the perivascular basement membrane. PMID:8691137

  6. Simple modifications to methimazole that enhance its inhibitory effect on tumor necrosis factor-α-induced vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression by human endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Alapati, Anuja; Deosarkar, Sudhir P; Lanier, Olivia L; Qi, Chunyan; Carlson, Grady E; Burdick, Monica M; Schwartz, Frank L; McCall, Kelly D; Bergmeier, Stephen C; Goetz, Douglas J

    2015-03-15

    The expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) on the vascular endothelium can be increased by pro-inflammatory cytokines [e.g. tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)]. VCAM-1 contributes to leukocyte adhesion to, and emigration from, the vasculature which is a key aspect of pathological inflammation. As such, a promising therapeutic approach for pathological inflammation is to inhibit the expression of VCAM-1. Methimazole [3-methyl-1, 3 imidazole-2 thione (MMI)] is routinely used for the treatment of Graves׳ disease and patients treated with MMI have decreased levels of circulating VCAM-1. In this study we used cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) to investigate the effect of MMI structural modifications on TNF-α induced VCAM-1 expression. We found that addition of a phenyl ring at the 4-nitrogen of MMI yields a compound that is significantly more potent than MMI at inhibiting 24h TNF-α-induced VCAM-1 protein expression. Addition of a para methoxy to the appended phenyl group increases the inhibition while substitution of a thiazole ring for an imidazole ring in the phenyl derivatives yields no clear difference in inhibition. Addition of the phenyl ring to MMI appears to increase toxicity as does substitution of a thiazole ring for an imidazole ring in the phenyl MMI derivatives. Each of the compounds reduced TNF-α-induced VCAM-1 mRNA expression and had a functional inhibitory effect, i.e. each inhibited monocytic cell adhesion to 24h TNF-α-activated HUVEC under fluid flow conditions. Combined, these studies provide important insights into the design of MMI-related anti-inflammatory compounds.

  7. Soluble intracellular adhesion molecule-1 secreted by human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cell reduces amyloid-β plaques.

    PubMed

    Kim, J-Y; Kim, D H; Kim, J H; Lee, D; Jeon, H B; Kwon, S-J; Kim, S M; Yoo, Y J; Lee, E H; Choi, S J; Seo, S W; Lee, J I; Na, D L; Yang, Y S; Oh, W; Chang, J W

    2012-04-01

    Presently, co-culture of human umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) with BV2 microglia under amyloid-β42 (Aβ42) exposure induced a reduction of Aβ42 in the medium as well as an overexpression of the Aβ-degrading enzyme neprilysin (NEP) in microglia. Cytokine array examinations of co-cultured media revealed elevated release of soluble intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) from hUCB-MSCs. Administration of human recombinant ICAM-1 in BV2 cells and wild-type mice brains induced NEP expression in time- and dose-dependent manners. In co-culturing with BV2 cells under Aβ42 exposure, knockdown of ICAM-1 expression on hUCB-MSCs by small interfering RNA (siRNA) abolished the induction of NEP in BV2 cells as well as reduction of added Aβ42 in the co-cultured media. By contrast, siRNA-mediated inhibition of the sICAM-1 receptor, lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1), on BV2 cells reduced NEP expression by ICAM-1 exposure. When hUCB-MSCs were transplanted into the hippocampus of a 10-month-old transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease for 10, 20, or 40 days, NEP expression was increased in the mice brains. Moreover, Aβ42 plaques in the hippocampus and other regions were decreased by active migration of hUCB-MSCs toward Aβ deposits. These data suggest that hUCB-MSC-derived sICAM-1 decreases Aβ plaques by inducing NEP expression in microglia through the sICAM-1/LFA-1 signaling pathway.

  8. Vascular and extravascular immunoreactivity for Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 in the orbitofrontal cortex of subjects with major depression: age-dependent changes

    PubMed Central

    Miguel-Hidalgo, Jose Javier; Overholser, James C.; Jurjus, George J.; Meltzer, Herbert Y.; Dieter, Lesa; Konick, Lisa; Stockmeier, Craig A.; Rajkowska, Grazyna

    2011-01-01

    Background Vascular and immune alterations in the prefrontal cortex may contribute to major depression in elderly subjects. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), major inflammatory mediator in vessels and astrocytes, could be altered in geriatric depression, but little is known about its age-dependent expression in subjects with depression and its relationship to astrocytes identified by the marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), found to be reduced in depression. Methods We measured the percentage of gray matter area fraction covered by ICAM-1 immunoreactivity in blood vessels and in extravascular accumulations of ICAM-1 immunoreactivity in 19 non-psychiatric comparison subjects and 18 subjects with major depression, all characterized by postmortem psychological diagnosis. Association of extravascular ICAM-1 to GFAP-positive astrocytes was investigated by double-labeling immunofluorescence. Results Vascular and extravascular fractions of ICAM-1 immunoreactivity were lower in subjects with MDD than in non-psychiatric comparison subjects. Non-psychiatric comparison subjects older than 60 experienced dramatic increase in extravascular ICAM-1 immunoreactivity, but this increase was attenuated in elderly subjects with MDD, particularly in those dying by suicide. Most extracellular ICAM-1 immunoreactivity was coextensive with GFAP-immunoreactive astrocytes in both groups. Limitations Heterogeneity in type and dosage of antidepressant medication. Difficulty in determining the exact onset of depression in subjects older than 60 at the time of death. Routine cerebrovascular pathological screening may miss subtle subcellular and molecular changes. Conclusions There is significant attenuation of extravascular and vascular ICAM-1 immunoreactivity in elderly subjects with major depression suggesting an astrocyte-associated alteration in immune function in the aging orbitofrontal cortex of subjects with MDD. PMID:21536333

  9. The Serum Changes of Neuron-Specific Enolase and Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 in Patients With Diffuse Axonal Injury Following Progesterone Administration: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Shahrokhi, Nader; Soltani, Zahra; Khaksari, Mohammad; Karamouzian, Saeid; Mofid, Behshad; Asadikaram, Gholamreza

    2016-01-01

    Background Improvement of neurologic outcome in progesterone-administered patients with diffuse axonal injury (DAI) has been found in a recent study. Also, there has been interest in the importance of serum parameters as predictors of outcome in traumatic brain injury. Objectives The aim of this study was to examine the effect of progesterone administration on serum levels of neuron-specific enolase (NSE), and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in clinical DAI. Patients and Methods In this study, the serum levels of ICAM-1 and NSE of 32 male DAI patients (18 - 60 years of age, a Glasgow coma scale of 12 or less, and admitted within 4 hours after injury) who were randomized for a controlled phase II trial of progesterone were analyzed. The analysis was performed between the control and progesterone groups at admission time, and 24 hours and six days after DAI, respectively. Results A reduction in the serum level of ICAM-1 was noticed in the progesterone group 24 hours after the injury (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the serum level of NSE between the study groups during evaluation. At 24 hours after the injury, the level of ICAM-1 in the control group was higher than that at admission time (P < 0.05). The lowest level of NSE in the two groups was seen six days after DAI (P < 0.01). Conclusions In summary, progesterone administration reduced serum ICAM-1, and whereby may attenuate blood brain barrier disruption, the latter needs further investigation for confirmation. PMID:27800469

  10. Urinary kidney injury molecule-1 as an early diagnostic biomarker of obstructive acute kidney injury and development of a rapid detection method

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yingli; Shao, Xiaona; Sun, Bo; Miao, Chunsheng; Li, Zhengqiang; Shi, Yan

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether urinary kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) presents a suitable early diagnostic biomarker of obstructive nephropathy-induced acute kidney injury (AKI), and to develop a rapid detection method for urinary KIM-1. Obstructive AKI was induced in an experimental rat model by a unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) operation. Macro- and micromorphological kidney alterations were determined by visual observation and hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining, respectively. Kidney functions were evaluated by detecting urea nitrogen and creatinine levels in rat urine and blood. Urinary KIM-1 levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the protein expression levels of KIM-1, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and vimentin in kidney tissues were detected using immunohistochemical assays. In order to measure KIM-1 levels, colloidal gold immunochromatographic strips were developed based on the colloidal gold immunochromatographic assay. The results indicated that KIM-1 levels were significantly higher in the UUO group when compared with the Sham group. KIM-1 levels in the urine and kidney tissues exhibited a time-dependent increase, together with increasing obstructive AKI in the UUO group. In addition, KIM-1 levels were demonstrated to be a more sensitive biomarker of early obstructive AKI, when compared with α-SMA and vimentin. A colloidal gold-based immunochromatographic strip was developed, whereby the detection of urinary KIM-1 could be completed within 5–10 min. In conclusion, results of the present study demonstrated that urinary KIM-1 may be a valuable biomarker for the early diagnosis of obstructive AKI, and the use of a colloidal gold immunochromatographic strip may be a promising method for the rapid detection of urinary KIM-1. PMID:28075469

  11. Synthesis and characterization of a cyclobutane duocarmycin derivative incorporating the 1,2,10,11-tetrahydro-9H-cyclobuta[c]benzo[e]indol-4-one (CbBI) alkylation subunit.

    PubMed

    Lajiness, James P; Boger, Dale L

    2010-10-06

    The synthesis of 1,2,10,11-tetrahydro-9H-cyclobuta[c]benzo[e]indol-4-one (17, CbBI), which contains a deep-seated fundamental structural modification in the CC-1065 and duocarmycin alkylation subunit consisting of the incorporation of a ring-expanded fused cyclobutane (vs cyclopropane), its chemical and structural characterization, and its incorporation into a key analogue of the natural products are detailed. The approach to the preparation of CbBI was based on a precedented (Ar-3' and Ar-5') but previously unknown Ar-4' spirocyclization of a phenol onto a tethered alkyl halide to form the desired cyclobutane. The conditions required for the implementation of the Ar-4' spirocyclization indicate that the entropy of activation substantially impacts the rate of reaction relative to that for the much more facile Ar-3' spirocyclization, while the higher enthalpy of activation slows the reaction relative to an Ar-5' spirocyclization. The characterization of the CbBI-based agents revealed their exceptional stability and exquisite reaction regioselectivity, and a single-crystal X-ray structure analysis of N-Boc-CbBI (13) revealed their structural origins. The reaction regioselectivity may be attributed to the stereoelectronic alignment of the two available cyclobutane bonds with the cyclohexadienone π-system, which resides in the bond that extends to the less substituted cyclobutane carbon for 13. The remarkable stability of N-Boc-CbBI (which is stable even at pH 1) relative to N-Boc-CBI containing a cyclopropane (t(1/2) = 133 h at pH 3) may be attributed to a combination of the increased extent of vinylogous amide conjugation, the nonoptimal geometric alignment of the cyclobutane with the activating cyclohexadienone, and the intrinsic but modestly lower strain energy (1.8 kcal/mol) of a cyclobutane versus a cyclopropane.

  12. Liquid chromatographic assay based on microextraction by packed sorbent for therapeutic drug monitoring of carbamazepine, lamotrigine, oxcarbazepine, phenobarbital, phenytoin and the active metabolites carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide and licarbazepine.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Ana; Rodrigues, Márcio; Oliveira, Paula; Francisco, Joana; Fortuna, Ana; Rosado, Luísa; Rosado, Pedro; Falcão, Amílcar; Alves, Gilberto

    2014-11-15

    A new, sensitive and fast high-performance liquid chromatography-diode-array detection assay based on microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS/HPLC-DAD) is herein reported, for the first time, to simultaneously quantify carbamazepine (CBZ), lamotrigine (LTG), oxcarbazepine (OXC), phenobarbital (PB), phenytoin (PHT), and the active metabolites carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide (CBZ-E) and licarbazepine (LIC) in human plasma. Chromatographic separation of analytes and ketoprofen, used as internal standard (IS), was achieved in less than 15min on a C18-column, at 35°C, using acetonitrile (6%) and a mixture (94%) of water-methanol-triethylamine (73.2:26.5:0.3, v/v/v; pH 6.5) pumped at 1mL/min. The analytes and IS were detected at 215, 237 or 280nm. The method showed to be selective, accurate [bias ±14.8% (or ±17.8% in the lower limit of quantification)], precise [coefficient variation ≤9.7% (or ≤17.7% in the lower limit of quantification)] and linear (r(2)≥0.9946) over the concentration ranges of 0.1-15μg/mL for CBZ; 0.1-20μg/mL for LTG; 0.1-5μg/mL for OXC and CBZ-E; 0.2-40μg/mL for PB; 0.3-30μg/mL for PHT; and 0.4-40μg/mL for LIC. The absolute extraction recovery of the analytes ranged from 57.8 to 98.1% and their stability was demonstrated in the studied conditions. This MEPS/HPLC-DAD assay was successfully applied to real plasma samples from patients, revealing to be a cost-effective tool for routine therapeutic drug monitoring of CBZ, LTG, OXC, PB and/or PHT.

  13. 5,7-Dihydroxy-3,4,6-trimethoxyflavone inhibits intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 via the Akt and nuclear factor-κB-dependent pathway, leading to suppression of adhesion of monocytes and eosinophils to bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jireh; Ko, Su H; Yoo, Do Y; Lee, Jin Y; Kim, Yeong-Jeon; Choi, Seul M; Kang, Kyung K; Yoon, Ho J; Kim, Hyeyoung; Youn, Jeehee; Kim, Jung M

    2012-09-01

    5,7-Dihydroxy-3',4',6'-trimethoxyflavone (eupatilin), the active pharmacological ingredient from Artemisia asiatica Nakai (Asteraceae), is reported to have a variety of anti-inflammatory properties in intestinal epithelial cells. However, little information is known about the molecular mechanism of eupatilin-induced attenuation of bronchial epithelial inflammation. This study investigates the role of eupatilin in the adhesion of inflammatory cells such as monocytes and eosinophils to bronchial epithelial cells. Stimulation of a human bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS-2B) with tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) increased the expression of surface adhesion molecules, including intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), in which eupatilin significantly inhibited the expression of those adhesion molecules in a dose-dependent manner. Eupatilin suppressed the TNF-α-induced activation of IκBα and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signals in BEAS-2B cells. The IκB kinase (IKK) activation was also significantly reduced in eupatilin-pre-treated BEAS-2B and primary normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells. However, eupatilin did not influence AP-1 activity in TNF-α-stimulated cells. Suppression of NF-κB signalling induced by eupatilin resulted in the inhibition of the expression of adhesion molecules and the adhesion of monocytes and eosinophils to BEAS-2B cells. Furthermore, eupatilin suppressed the phosphorylation of Akt in TNF-α-stimulated BEAS-2B and NHBE cells, leading to down-regulation of NF-κB activation and adhesion molecule expression and finally to suppression of the inflammatory cell adhesion to epithelial cells. These results suggest that eupatilin can inhibit the adhesion of inflammatory cells to bronchial epithelial cells via a signalling pathway, including activation of Akt and NF-κB, as well as expression of adhesion molecules.

  14. 5,7-Dihydroxy-3,4,6-trimethoxyflavone inhibits intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 via the Akt and nuclear factor-κB-dependent pathway, leading to suppression of adhesion of monocytes and eosinophils to bronchial epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jireh; Ko, Su H; Yoo, Do Y; Lee, Jin Y; Kim, Yeong-Jeon; Choi, Seul M; Kang, Kyung K; Yoon, Ho J; Kim, Hyeyoung; Youn, Jeehee; Kim, Jung M

    2012-01-01

    5,7-Dihydroxy-3′,4′,6′-trimethoxyflavone (eupatilin), the active pharmacological ingredient from Artemisia asiatica Nakai (Asteraceae), is reported to have a variety of anti-inflammatory properties in intestinal epithelial cells. However, little information is known about the molecular mechanism of eupatilin-induced attenuation of bronchial epithelial inflammation. This study investigates the role of eupatilin in the adhesion of inflammatory cells such as monocytes and eosinophils to bronchial epithelial cells. Stimulation of a human bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS-2B) with tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) increased the expression of surface adhesion molecules, including intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), in which eupatilin significantly inhibited the expression of those adhesion molecules in a dose-dependent manner. Eupatilin suppressed the TNF-α-induced activation of IκBα and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signals in BEAS-2B cells. The IκB kinase (IKK) activation was also significantly reduced in eupatilin-pre-treated BEAS-2B and primary normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells. However, eupatilin did not influence AP-1 activity in TNF-α-stimulated cells. Suppression of NF-κB signalling induced by eupatilin resulted in the inhibition of the expression of adhesion molecules and the adhesion of monocytes and eosinophils to BEAS-2B cells. Furthermore, eupatilin suppressed the phosphorylation of Akt in TNF-α-stimulated BEAS-2B and NHBE cells, leading to down-regulation of NF-κB activation and adhesion molecule expression and finally to suppression of the inflammatory cell adhesion to epithelial cells. These results suggest that eupatilin can inhibit the adhesion of inflammatory cells to bronchial epithelial cells via a signalling pathway, including activation of Akt and NF-κB, as well as expression of adhesion molecules. PMID:22862554

  15. Molecule 1,5-C10H6(SO2Cl)2 as prototype of conformational properties of naphthalene sulfonyl derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, Vjacheslav M.; Giricheva, Nina I.; Ivanov, Sergey N.; Petrova, Valentina N.; Girichev, Georgiy V.

    2017-03-01

    Conformational composition of the vapor (T = 413(5) K) and the conformer structures of 1,5-naphthalenedisulfonylchloride (1,5-NaphDSC) have been studied by a combined gas-phase electron diffraction and mass spectrometry (GED/MS) method complemented by quantum chemical calculations. According to quantum chemical calculations at DFT/B3LYP/cc-pVTZ and MP2/cc-pVTZ theory levels, the molecule 1,5-NaphDSC possesses four conformers differing mutual orientation of the two SO2Cl groups. GED data clearly indicate that only two conformers, whose structures are characterized by deviation of two Ssbnd Cl bonds from perpendicular position relative to the plane of the naphthalene skeleton (syn-symmetry C2 and anti-symmetry Ci), are present in vapor at 413 K. The following geometrical parameters of these conformers were obtained from the experiment (Å and degrees; uncertainties are in parentheses): rh1(Csbnd H) = 1.098(9), rh1(Csbnd C) = 1.405(3), rh1(Csbnd S) = 1.781(4), rh1(Ssbnd O) = 1.426(3), rh1(Ssbnd Cl) = 2.056(4), ∠Csbnd CSsbnd C = 122.9(1), ∠CSsbnd Ssbnd Cl = 101.8(6); C9sbnd C1sbnd Ssbnd Cl = 71.2(12), C10sbnd C5sbnd Ssbnd Cl = 71.2(12)-syn conformer; C9sbnd C1sbnd Ssbnd Cl = 71.2(12), C10sbnd C5sbnd Ssbnd Cl = -71.2(12) -anti-conformer. The presence of C9Hn+ ions in the mass spectra of naphthalenesulfonyl chlorides, which are absent in the mass spectrum of naphthalene, may be attributed to the weakening of two Csbnd C bonds adjacent to the substituent of the naphthalene skeleton. This reflects in the geometric parameters of 1,5-NaphDSC. The barriers to internal rotation of sulfonyl chloride groups were calculated. It is shown that the low-energy syn- and anti-conformers are structurally rigid, in contrast to high-energy conformers with one or two Ssbnd Cl bonds, lying in the plane of the naphthalene skeleton. The dependence of C1sbnd C2, Csbnd S, Ssbnd Cl bond lengths from SO2Cl groups orientation relative to naphthalene skeleton is discussed in terms of NBO

  16. Effects of nitrogen dioxide on the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1, neutrophil adhesion, and cytotoxicity: studies in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ayyagari, Vijayalakshmi N; Januszkiewicz, Adolph; Nath, Jayasree

    2007-02-01

    Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) is a product of high-temperature combustion and an environmental oxidant of concern. We have recently reported that early changes in NO2-exposed human bronchial epithelial cells are causally linked to increased generation of proinflammatory mediators, such as nitric oxide/nitrite and cytokines like interleukin (IL)-1beta, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and IL-8. The objective of the present in vitro study was to further delineate the cellular mechanisms of NO2-mediated toxicity, and to define the nature of cell death that ensues upon exposure of normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells to a brief high dose of NO2. Our results demonstrate that the NHBE cells undergo apoptotic cell death during the early post-NO2 period, but this is independent of any significant increase in caspase-3 activity. However, necrotic cell death was more prevalent at later time intervals. Interestingly, an increased expression of HO-1, a redox-sensitive stress protein, was observed in NO2-exposed NHBE cells at 24 h. Since neutrophils (PMNs) play an active role in acute lung inflammation and resultant oxidative injury, we also investigated changes in human PMN-NHBE cell interactions. As compared to normal cells, increased adhesion of PMNs to NO2-exposed cells was observed, which resulted in an increased NHBE cell death. The latter was also increased in the presence of IL-8 and TNF-alpha + interferon (IFN)-gamma, which correlated with upregulation of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Our results confirmed an involvement of nitric oxide (NO) in NO2-induced cytotoxicity. By using NO synthase inhibitors such as L-NAME and 3-aminoguanidine (AG), a significant decrease in cell death, PMN adhesion, and ICAM-1 expression was observed. These findings indicate a role for the L-arginine/NO synthase pathway in the observed NO2-mediated toxicity in NHBE cells. Therapeutic strategies aimed at controlling excess generation of NO and/or inflammatory cytokines may

  17. Exosomes from iPSCs Delivering siRNA Attenuate Intracellular Adhesion Molecule-1 Expression and Neutrophils Adhesion in Pulmonary Microvascular Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Ju, Zhihai; Ma, Jinhui; Wang, Chen; Yu, Jie; Qiao, Yeru; Hei, Feilong

    2017-04-01

    The pro-inflammatory activation of pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells resulting in continuous expression of cellular adhesion molecules, and subsequently recruiting primed neutrophils to form a firm neutrophils-endothelium (PMN-EC) adhesion, has been examined and found to play a vital role in acute lung injury (ALI). RNA interference (RNAi) is a cellular process through harnessing a natural pathway silencing target gene based on recognition and subsequent degradation of specific mRNA sequences. It opens a promising approach for precision medicine. However, this application was hampered by many obstacles, such as immunogenicity, instability, toxicity problems, and difficulty in across the biological membrane. In this study, we reprogrammed urine exfoliated renal epithelial cells into human induced pluripotent stem cells (huiPSCs) and purified the exosomes (Exo) from huiPSCs as RNAi delivery system. Through choosing the episomal system to deliver transcription factors, we obtained a non-integrating huiPSCs. Experiments in both vitro and vivo demonstrated that these huiPSCs possess the pluripotent properties. The exosomes of huiPSCs isolated by differential centrifugation were visualized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showing a typical exosomal appearance with an average diameter of 122 nm. Immunoblotting confirmed the presence of the typical exosomal markers, including CD63, TSG 101, and Alix. Co-cultured PKH26-labeled exosomes with human primary pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HMVECs) confirmed that they could be internalized by recipient cells at a time-dependent manner. Then, electroporation was used to introduce siRNA against intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) into exosomes to form an Exo/siRNA compound. The Exo/siRNA compound efficiently delivered the target siRNA into HMVECs causing selective gene silencing, inhibiting the ICAM-1 protein expression, and PMN-EC adhesion induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). These data suggest

  18. Ultraviolet radiation can either suppress or induce expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) on the surface of cultured human keratinocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, D.A.; Lyons, M.B.; Middleton, M.H.; Yohn, J.J.; Kashihara-Sawami, M. )

    1990-08-01

    Interactions of the ligand/receptor pair LFA-1(CD11a/CD18) and ICAM-1(CD54) initiate and control the cell-cell interactions of leukocytes and interactions of leukocytes with parenchymal cells in all phases of the immune response. Induction of the intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) on the surface of epidermal keratinocytes has been proposed as an important regulator of contact-dependent aspects of cutaneous inflammation. Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) also modifies cutaneous inflammation, producing both up- and down-regulation of contact hypersensitivity. We have found that UVR has a biphasic effect on the induction of keratinocyte CD54. Using immunofluorescence and FACS techniques to quantitate cell-surface CD54 staining, we have shown that UVR significantly (p less than 0.01) inhibits keratinocyte CD54 induction by gamma interferon 24 h after irradiation. However, at 48, 72, and 96 h after UVR, CD54 expression is significantly induced to levels even greater than are induced by gamma interferon (20 U/ml). In addition, at 48, 72, or 96 h following UVR (30-100 mJ/cm2), the gamma-interferon-induced CD54 expression on human keratinocytes is also strongly (p less than 0.05 to p less than 0.001) enhanced. In this cell-culture system, gamma interferon and TNF-alpha are both strong CD54 inducers and are synergistic, but GM-CSF, TFG-beta, and IL-1 have no direct CD54-inducing effects. Thus the effects of UVR on CD54 induction are biphasic, producing inhibition at 24 h and induction at 48, 72, and 96 h. This effect on CD54 may contribute to the biphasic effects of UVR on delayed hypersensitivity in vivo. The early inhibition of ICAM-1 by UVR may also contribute to the therapeutic effects of UVR. We also speculate that the late induction of ICAM-1 by UVR might be an important step in the induction of photosensitive diseases such as lupus erythematosus.

  19. Direct Determination of the Rate Coefficient for the Reaction of OH Radicals with Monoethanol Amine (MEA) from 296 to 510 K.

    PubMed

    Onel, L; Blitz, M A; Seakins, P W

    2012-04-05

    Monoethanol amine (H2NCH2CH2OH, MEA) has been proposed for large-scale use in carbon capture and storage. We present the first absolute, temperature-dependent determination of the rate coefficient for the reaction of OH with MEA using laser flash photolysis for OH generation, monitoring OH removal by laser-induced fluorescence. The room-temperature rate coefficient is determined to be (7.61 ± 0.76) × 10(-11) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), and the rate coefficient decreases by about 40% by 510 K. The temperature dependence of the rate coefficient is given by k1= (7.73 ± 0.24) × 10(-11)(T/295)(-(0.79±0.11)) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1). The high rate coefficient shows that gas-phase processing in the atmosphere will be competitive with uptake onto aerosols.

  20. Kinetic study of IO radical with RO2 (R = CH(3), C2H5, and CF3) using cavity ring-down spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Enami, Shinichi; Yamanaka, Takashi; Hashimoto, Satoshi; Kawasaki, Masahiro; Nakano, Yukio; Ishiwata, Takashi

    2006-08-17

    The reactions of iodine monoxide radical, IO, with alkyl peroxide radicals, RO(2) (R = CH(3), C(2)H(5), and CF(3)), have been studied using cavity ring-down spectroscopy. The rate constant of the reaction of IO with CH(3)O(2) was determined to be (7.0 +/- 3.0) x 10(-11) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) at 298 K and 100 Torr of N(2) diluent. The quoted uncertainty is two standard deviations. No significant pressure dependence of the rate constant was observed at 30-130 Torr total pressure of N(2) diluent. The temperature dependence of the rate constants was also studied at 213-298 K. The upper limit of the branching ratio of OIO radical formation from IO + CH(3)O(2) was estimated to be <0.1. The reaction rate constants of IO + C(2)H(5)O(2) and IO + CF(3)O(2) were determined to be (14 +/- 6) x 10(-11) and (6.3 +/- 2.7) x 10(-11) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) at 298 K, 100 Torr of N(2) diluent, respectively. The upper limit of the reaction rate constant of IO with CH(3)I was <4 x 10(-14) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1).

  1. A kinetic study of the CH2OO Criegee intermediate self-reaction, reaction with SO2 and unimolecular reaction using cavity ring-down spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chhantyal-Pun, Rabi; Davey, Anthony; Shallcross, Dudley E; Percival, Carl J; Orr-Ewing, Andrew J

    2015-02-07

    Criegee intermediates are important species formed during the ozonolysis of alkenes. Reaction of stabilized Criegee intermediates with various species like SO2 and NO2 may contribute significantly to tropospheric chemistry. In the laboratory, self-reaction can be an important loss pathway for Criegee intermediates and thus needs to be characterized to obtain accurate bimolecular reaction rate coefficients. Cavity ring-down spectroscopy was used to perform kinetic measurements for various reactions of CH2OO at 293 K and under low pressure (7 to 30 Torr) conditions. For the reaction CH2OO + CH2OO (8), a rate coefficient k8 = (7.35 ± 0.63) × 10(-11) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) was derived from the measured CH2OO decay rates, using an absorption cross section value reported previously. A rate coefficient of k4 = (3.80 ± 0.04) × 10(-11) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) was obtained for the CH2OO + SO2 (4) reaction. An upper limit for the unimolecular CH2OO loss rate coefficient of 11.6 ± 8.0 s(-1) was deduced from studies of reaction (4). SO2 catalysed CH2OO isomerization or intersystem crossing is proposed to occur with a rate coefficient of (3.53 ± 0.32) × 10(-11) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1).

  2. Update on Program Review Activities. Report 10-11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jessika

    2010-01-01

    Review of new degree and certificate programs proposed by the public higher education systems is a major California Postsecondary Education Commission (CPEC) activity. The Legislature, Administration, and the Legislative Analyst's Office consider program review to be one of CPEC's most important responsibilities. In the past six months, staff have…

  3. European Scientific Notes. Volume 37, Numbers 10/11.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-01

    percent decrease in the intensity of space-geodetic methods for monitoring solar radiation reachipg the earth’s local crustal deformations. surface, the...1983) - and solids. The average power available 35-nm range at the Comitato Nazionale and the predicted high efficiency of Energia Nucleare laboratory in...the David W. Taylor Naval gated for transmittance. These measure- Ship Research and Development Center, ments are important for solar energy Bethesda

  4. Environmental Scanning Workshop (Lansing, Michigan, June 10-11, 1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, James L.

    This publication presents an environmental scanning workshop for administrators in higher education institutions to help them incorporate environmental scanning into their planning and anticipation of future events. In particular, the workshop shows how to establish and sustain a comprehensive environmental scanning system and how to use the…

  5. Circulating Concentrations of Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1, Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1, and Soluble Leukocyte Adhesion Molecule-1 in Overweight/Obese Men and Women Consuming Fructose- or Glucose-Sweetened Beverages for 10 Weeks

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Chad L.; Stanhope, Kimber L.; Schwarz, Jean Marc; Graham, James L.; Hatcher, Bonnie; Griffen, Steven C.; Bremer, Andrew A.; Berglund, Lars; McGahan, John P.; Keim, Nancy L.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Results from animal studies suggest that consumption of large amounts of fructose can promote inflammation and impair fibrinolysis. Data describing the effects of fructose consumption on circulating levels of proinflammatory and prothrombotic markers in humans are unavailable. Objective: Our objective was to determine the effects of 10 wk of dietary fructose or glucose consumption on plasma concentrations of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), E-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, C-reactive protein, and IL-6. Design and Setting: This was a parallel-arm study with two inpatient phases (2 wk baseline, final 2 wk intervention), conducted in a clinical research facility, and an outpatient phase (8 wk) during which subjects resided at home. Participants: Participants were older (40–72 yr), overweight/obese (body mass index = 25–35 kg/m2) men (n = 16) and women (n = 15). Interventions: Participants consumed glucose- or fructose-sweetened beverages providing 25% of energy requirements for 10 wk. Blood samples were collected at baseline and during the 10th week of intervention. Main Outcome Measures: Fasting concentrations of MCP-1 (P = 0.009), PAI-1 (P = 0.002), and E-selectin (P = 0.048) as well as postprandial concentrations of PAI-1 (P < 0.0001) increased in subjects consuming fructose but not in those consuming glucose. Fasting levels of C-reactive protein, IL-6, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 were not changed in either group. Conclusions: Consumption of fructose for 10 wk leads to increases of MCP-1, PAI-1, and E-selectin. These findings suggest the possibility that fructose may contribute to the development of the metabolic syndrome via effects on proinflammatory and prothrombotic mediators. PMID:21956423

  6. Boletin de Informacion Educativa, Ano VI, No. 10/11 (Educational Information Bulletin, Volume VI, No. 10/11).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerio de Educacion y Cultura, Santa Fe (Argentina). Centro de Documentacion e Informacion Educativa de la Provincia de Santa Fe.

    This information bulletin is published by the Documentation and Educational Information Center in the Argentine province of Santa Fe. The bulletin reports on educational developments in the province and abroad, educational problems, statistics, legislation, documentation and information techniques, and information from international organizations.…

  7. Small GTPase Rho signaling is involved in {beta}1 integrin-mediated up-regulation of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and receptor activator of nuclear factor {kappa}B ligand on osteoblasts and osteoclast maturation

    SciTech Connect

    Hirai, Fumihiko; Nakayamada, Shingo; Okada, Yosuke; Saito, Kazuyoshi; Kurose, Hitoshi; Mogami, Akira; Tanaka, Yoshiya . E-mail: tanaka@med.uoeh-u.ac.jp

    2007-04-27

    We assessed the characteristics of human osteoblasts, focusing on small GTPase Rho signaling. {beta}1 Integrin were highly expressed on osteoblasts. Engagement of {beta}1 integrins by type I collagen augmented expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and receptor activator of nuclear factor {kappa}B ligand (RANKL) on osteoblasts. Rho was activated by {beta}1 stimulation in osteoblasts. {beta}1 Integrin-induced up-regulation of ICAM-1 and RANKL was inhibited by transfection with adenoviruses encoding C3 transferase or pretreated with Y-27632, specific Rho and Rho-kinase inhibitors. Engagement of {beta}1 integrin on osteoblasts induced formation of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive multinuclear cells (MNC) in a coculture system of osteoblasts and peripheral monocytes, but this action was completely abrogated by transfection of C3 transferase. Our results indicate the direct involvement of Rho-mediated signaling in {beta}1 integrin-induced up-regulation of ICAM-1 and RANKL and RANKL-dependent osteoclast maturation. Thus, Rho-mediated signaling in osteoblasts seems to introduce major biases to bone resorption.

  8. Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-induced syncytium formation mediated by vascular cell adhesion molecule-1: evidence for involvement of cell adhesion molecules in HTLV-1 biology.

    PubMed Central

    Hildreth, J E; Subramanium, A; Hampton, R A

    1997-01-01

    While studying the potential role of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in infection of endothelial cells by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), we found that VCAM-1 can mediate human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-induced syncytium formation. Both expression-vector-encoded and endogenously expressed VCAM-1 supported fusion of uninfected cells with HTLV-1-infected cells. Fusion was obtained with cell lines carrying the HTLV-1 genome and expressing viral proteins but not with an HTLV-1-transformed cell line that does not express viral proteins. In clones of VCAM-1-transfected cells, the degree of syncytium formation observed directly reflected the level of VCAM-1 expression. Syncytium formation between HTLV-1-expressing cells and VCAM-1+ cells could be blocked with antiserum against HTLV-1 gp46 and with a monoclonal antibody (MAb) against VCAM-1. Fusion was not blocked by antiserum against HIV or a MAb against VLA-4, the physiological counter-receptor for VCAM-1. The results indicate that VCAM-1 can serve as an accessory molecule or potential coreceptor for HTLV-1-induced cell fusion and provide direct evidence of a role for cell adhesion molecules in the biology of HTLV-1. PMID:8995639

  9. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 induces cellular polarization, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 redistribution, and multinucleated giant cell generation in human primary monocytes but not in monocyte-derived macrophages.

    PubMed

    Fais, S; Borghi, P; Gherardi, G; Logozzi, M; Belardelli, F; Gessani, S

    1996-12-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effects of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) on some morphologic and functional changes in cultured human monocytes/macrophages at different stages of differentiation. Freshly isolated monocytes infected with HIV-1 24 hours after seeding exhibited marked morphologic changes such as uropod formation, polarization of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) on the cytoplasmic projection, the redistribution of alpha-actinin on cell-membrane dots, and an increased release of soluble ICAM-1. These changes preceded the increase in monocyte-monocyte fusion and the formation of multinucleated giant cells. In contrast, HIV-1 infection did not affect monocyte-derived macrophages in terms of either cellular polarization or multinucleated giant cell formation. Immunocytochemistry showed that HIV-1 matrix protein was present mostly in bi- and trinucleated cells, which suggests that multinucleated giant cells may represent a long-lived and highly productive cellular source of HIV. The treatment of the HIV-1-infected monocytes with azidodeoxythymidine virtually abolished all viral-induced morphofunctional changes. On the whole, these results indicate that blood monocytes and differentiated macrophages may be affected differently by HIV infection, as monocytes seem to be much more prone to polarize, undergo homotypic fusion, and form multinucleated giant cells. These changes may confer to HIV-infected monocytes an increased ability to transmigrate through endothelia into tissues, whereas differentiated macrophages may have a predominant role as a widespread reservoir of HIV.

  10. A single-arm, open-label, phase 2 clinical trial evaluating disease response following treatment with BI-505, a human anti-intercellular adhesion molecule-1 monoclonal antibody, in patients with smoldering multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Wichert, Stina; Juliusson, Gunnar; Johansson, Åsa; Sonesson, Elisabeth; Teige, Ingrid; Wickenberg, Anna Teige; Frendeus, Björn; Korsgren, Magnus; Hansson, Markus

    2017-01-01

    Background Smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) is an indolent disease stage, considered to represent the transition phase from the premalignant MGUS (Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance) state towards symptomatic multiple myeloma (MM). Even though this diagnosis provides an opportunity for early intervention, few treatment studies have been done and the current standard of care is observation until progression. BI-505, a monoclonal antibody directed against intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) with promising anti-myeloma activity in preclinical trials, is a possible treatment approach for this patient category with potential to eliminate tumor cells with minimal long-term side effects. BI-505 was well tolerated in an earlier phase 1 trial. Methods and findings In this phase 2 trial the effects of BI-505 in patients with SMM were studied. Four patients were enrolled and three of them completed the first cycle of treatment defined as 5 doses of BI-505, a total of 43 mg/kg BW, over a 7-week period. In the three evaluable patients, BI-505 showed a benign safety profile. None of the patients achieved a response as defined per protocol. EudraCT number: 2012-004884-29. Conclusions The study was conducted to assess the efficacy, safety and pharmacodynamics of BI-505 in patients with SMM. BI-505 showed no clinically relevant efficacy on disease activity in these patients with SMM, even if well tolerated. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01838369. PMID:28158311

  11. Fer and Fps/Fes participate in a Lyn-dependent pathway from FcepsilonRI to platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 to limit mast cell activation.

    PubMed

    Udell, Christian M; Samayawardhena, Lionel A; Kawakami, Yuko; Kawakami, Toshiaki; Craig, Andrew W B

    2006-07-28

    Mast cells express the high affinity IgE receptor FcepsilonRI, which upon aggregation by multivalent antigens elicits signals that cause rapid changes within the mast cell and in the surrounding tissue. We previously showed that FcepsilonRI aggregation caused a rapid increase in phosphorylation of both Fer and Fps/Fes kinases in bone marrow-derived mast cells. In this study, we report that FcepsilonRI aggregation leads to increased Fer/Fps kinase activities and that Fer phosphorylation downstream of FcepsilonRI is independent of Syk, Fyn, and Gab2 but requires Lyn. Activated Fer/Fps readily phosphorylate the C terminus of platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 (Pecam-1) on immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs (ITIMs) and a non-ITIM residue (Tyr(700)) in vitro and in transfected cells. Mast cells devoid of Fer/Fps kinase activities display a reduction in FcepsilonRI aggregation-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of Pecam-1, with no defects in recruitment of Shp1/Shp2 phosphatases observed. Lyn-deficient mast cells display a dramatic reduction in Pecam-1 phosphorylation at Tyr(685) and a complete loss of Shp2 recruitment, suggesting a role as an initiator kinase for Pecam-1. Consistent with previous studies of Pecam-1-deficient mast cells, we observe an exaggerated degranulation response in mast cells lacking Fer/Fps kinases at low antigen dosages. Thus, Lyn and Fer/Fps kinases cooperate to phosphorylate Pecam-1 and activate Shp1/Shp2 phosphatases that function in part to limit mast cell activation.

  12. The Effect of Dexmedetomidine on Oxidative Stress Response Following Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion in Rats and the Expression of Intracellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and S100B

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yanwen; Liu, Shikun

    2017-01-01

    Background Ischemia-reperfusion injury of whole brain involves a complicated pathophysiology mechanism. Dexmedetomidine (Dex) has been shown to have neuro protective functions. This study observed the effect of Dex on serum S100B and cerebral intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in a rat model of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion. Material/Methods Healthy Sprague Dawley (SD) rats (males, 7 weeks old) were randomly divided into sham, model, and Dex groups (n=20 each). A cerebral ischemia-reperfusion model was prepared by clipping of the bilateral common carotid artery combined with hypotension. Dex (9 μg/kg) was infused intravenously immediately after reperfusion in the Dex group, while the other two groups received an equal volume of saline. Neural defect score (NDS) was measured at 6 hours, 24 hours, and 72 hours after surgery, with pathological observation of brain tissues. ELISA was then used to test serum S100B protein level. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were assayed by spectrometry. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and ICAM-1 levels were determined by real-time (RT)-PCR. Results Model rats had significant injury in the hippocampal CA1 region as shown by elevated NDS, S100B, and MDA levels, higher NF-κB and ICAM-1 mRNA expression, and lower SOD levels (p<0.05). Dex treatment improved pathological injury, decreased NDS, S100B, and MDA levels, decreased expression of mRNA of NF-κB and ICAM-1, and increased SOD levels. Conclusions Dex alleviated ischemia-reperfusion damage to rat brains, and inhibited NF-κB and ICAM-1 expression in brain tissues, possibly via inhibiting oxidative stress and inflammatory response. PMID:28212354

  13. T-lymphocyte responsiveness in murine schistosomiasis mansoni is dependent upon the adhesion molecules intercellular adhesion molecule-1, lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1, and very late antigen-4.

    PubMed Central

    Langley, J G; Boros, D L

    1995-01-01

    Granuloma formation in murine schistosomiasis is dependent on CD4+ Th lymphocytes and requires recruitment and accumulation of inflammatory cells at the site of egg deposition. The present study examined the role of three adhesion molecules, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1), and very late antigen-4 (VLA-4), that participate in cellular recruitment, interaction, and lymphocyte activation during in vitro activation of acutely and chronically infected spleen and liver granuloma lymphocytes. Blockade of ICAM-1, LFA-1, or VLA-4 by rat monoclonal antibody inhibited spleen and granuloma lymphocyte interleukin-2 (IL-2) and IL-4 production as well as lymphoproliferative responses at similar levels (66 to 87%). The down-modulated cytokine and proliferative responses of chronically infected lymphocytes were inhibited to the same extent as their acutely infected counterparts. Cell sorting analysis demonstrated that acutely and chronically infected splenic and granuloma lymphocytes expressed similar levels of LFA-1, ICAM-1, and VLA-4 and that more ICAM-1 was expressed on infected than on uninfected mouse lymphocytes. By exposure of cells to paired monoclonal antibodies at suboptimal doses, it was determined that whereas all three adhesion molecules may participate, only ICAM-1 and LFA-1 showed synergistic interactions in determining lymphocyte responsiveness. These data suggest that spleen and liver granuloma lymphocytes are equally well armed with functional adhesion receptors. Thus, ICAM-1, LFA-1, and VLA-4 play an important accessory role in inflammatory cytokine production and lymphocyte proliferation, and therefore these adhesion molecules may participate in the initiation and maintenance of the granulomatous inflammation. PMID:7558308

  14. The Effect of Dexmedetomidine on Oxidative Stress Response Following Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion in Rats and the Expression of Intracellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and S100B.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanwen; Liu, Shikun

    2017-02-17

    BACKGROUND Ischemia-reperfusion injury of whole brain involves a complicated pathophysiology mechanism. Dexmedetomidine (Dex) has been shown to have neuro protective functions. This study observed the effect of Dex on serum S100B and cerebral intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in a rat model of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion. MATERIAL AND METHODS Healthy Sprague Dawley (SD) rats (males, 7 weeks old) were randomly divided into sham, model, and Dex groups (n=20 each). A cerebral ischemia-reperfusion model was prepared by clipping of the bilateral common carotid artery combined with hypotension. Dex (9 μg/kg) was infused intravenously immediately after reperfusion in the Dex group, while the other two groups received an equal volume of saline. Neural defect score (NDS) was measured at 6 hours, 24 hours, and 72 hours after surgery, with pathological observation of brain tissues. ELISA was then used to test serum S100B protein level. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were assayed by spectrometry. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB) and ICAM-1 levels were determined by real-time (RT)-PCR. RESULTS Model rats had significant injury in the hippocampal CA1 region as shown by elevated NDS, S100B, and MDA levels, higher NF-κB and ICAM-1 mRNA expression, and lower SOD levels (p<0.05). Dex treatment improved pathological injury, decreased NDS, S100B, and MDA levels, decreased expression of mRNA of NF-κB and ICAM-1, and increased SOD levels. CONCLUSIONS Dex alleviated ischemia-reperfusion damage to rat brains, and inhibited NF-κB and ICAM-1 expression in brain tissues, possibly via inhibiting oxidative stress and inflammatory response.

  15. Mechanistic Control of Carcinoembryonic Antigen-related Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (CEACAM1) Splice Isoforms by the Heterogeneous Nuclear Ribonuclear Proteins hnRNP L, hnRNP A1, and hnRNP M*

    PubMed Central

    Dery, Kenneth J.; Gaur, Shikha; Gencheva, Marieta; Yen, Yun; Shively, John E.; Gaur, Rajesh K.

    2011-01-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule-1 (CEACAM1) is expressed in a variety of cell types and is implicated in carcinogenesis. Alternative splicing of CEACAM1 pre-mRNA generates two cytoplasmic domain splice variants characterized by the inclusion (L-isoform) or exclusion (S-isoform) of exon 7. Here we show that the alternative splicing of CEACAM1 pre-mRNA is regulated by novel cis elements residing in exon 7. We report the presence of three exon regulatory elements that lead to the inclusion or exclusion of exon 7 CEACAM1 mRNA in ZR75 breast cancer cells. Heterologous splicing reporter assays demonstrated that the maintenance of authentic alternative splicing mechanisms were independent of the CEACAM1 intron sequence context. We show that forced expression of these exon regulatory elements could alter CEACAM1 splicing in HEK-293 cells. Using RNA affinity chromatography, three members of the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein family (hnRNP L, hnRNP A1, and hnRNP M) were identified. RNA immunoprecipitation of hnRNP L and hnRNP A1 revealed a binding motif located central and 3′ to exon 7, respectively. Depletion of hnRNP A1 or L by RNAi in HEK-293 cells promoted exon 7 inclusion, whereas overexpression led to exclusion of the variable exon. By contrast, overexpression of hnRNP M showed exon 7 inclusion and production of CEACAM1-L mRNA. Finally, stress-induced cytoplasmic accumulation of hnRNP A1 in MDA-MB-468 cells dynamically alters the CEACAM1-S:CEACAM1:L ratio in favor of the l-isoform. Thus, we have elucidated the molecular factors that control the mechanism of splice-site recognition in the alternative splicing regulation of CEACAM1. PMID:21398516

  16. Human peripheral blood eosinophils express a functional c-kit receptor for stem cell factor that stimulates very late antigen 4 (VLA-4)-mediated cell adhesion to fibronectin and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1).

    PubMed

    Yuan, Q; Austen, K F; Friend, D S; Heidtman, M; Boyce, J A

    1997-07-21

    We evaluated mature peripheral blood eosinophils for their expression of the surface tyrosine kinase, c-kit, the receptor for the stromal cell-derived cytokine, stem cell factor (SCF). Cytofluorographic analysis revealed that c-kit was expressed on the purified peripheral blood eosinophils from 8 of 8 donors (4 nonatopic and 4 atopic) (mean channel fluorescence intensity 2.0- 3. 6-fold, average 2.8 +/- 0.6-fold, greater than the negative control). The uniform and selective expression of c-kit by eosinophils was confirmed by immunohistochemical analysis of peripheral blood buffy coats. The functional integrity of c-kit was demonstrated by the capacity of 100 ng/ml (5 nM) of recombinant human (rh) SCF to increase eosinophil adhesion to 3, 10, and 30 microg/ml of immobilized FN40, a 40-kD chymotryptic fragment of plasma fibronectin, in 15 min by 7.7 +/- 1.4-, 5.3 +/- 3.3-, and 5.4 +/- 0. 2-fold, respectively, and their adhesion to 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 microg/ml vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), by 12.7 +/- 9. 2-, 3.8 +/- 2.5-, and 1.7 +/- 0.6-fold, respectively. The SCF-stimulated adhesion occurred without concomitant changes in surface integrin expression, thereby indicating an avidity-based mechanism. rhSCF (100 ng/ml, 5 nM) was comparable to rh eotaxin (200 ng/ml, 24 nM) in stimulating adhesion. Cell adhesion to FN40 was completely inhibited with antibodies against the alpha4 and beta1 integrin subunits, revealing that the SCF/c-kit adhesion effect was mediated by a single integrin heterodimer, very late antigen 4 (VLA-4). Thus, SCF represents a newly recognized stromal ligand for the activation of eosinophils for VLA-4-mediated adhesion, which could contribute to the exit of these cells from the blood, their tissue localization, and their prominence in inflammatory lesions.

  17. Human Peripheral Blood Eosinophils Express a Functional c-kit Receptor for Stem Cell Factor that Stimulates Very Late Antigen 4 (VLA-4)–mediated Cell Adhesion to Fibronectin and Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 (VCAM-1)

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Qian; Austen, K. Frank; Friend, Daniel S.; Heidtman, Matthew; Boyce, Joshua A.

    1997-01-01

    We evaluated mature peripheral blood eosinophils for their expression of the surface tyrosine kinase, c-kit, the receptor for the stromal cell–derived cytokine, stem cell factor (SCF). Cytofluorographic analysis revealed that c-kit was expressed on the purified peripheral blood eosinophils from 8 of 8 donors (4 nonatopic and 4 atopic) (mean channel fluorescence intensity 2.0– 3.6-fold, average 2.8 ± 0.6-fold, greater than the negative control). The uniform and selective expression of c-kit by eosinophils was confirmed by immunohistochemical analysis of peripheral blood buffy coats. The functional integrity of c-kit was demonstrated by the capacity of 100 ng/ml (5 nM) of recombinant human (rh) SCF to increase eosinophil adhesion to 3, 10, and 30 μg/ml of immobilized FN40, a 40-kD chymotryptic fragment of plasma fibronectin, in 15 min by 7.7 ± 1.4-, 5.3 ± 3.3-, and 5.4 ± 0.2-fold, respectively, and their adhesion to 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 μg/ml vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), by 12.7 ± 9.2-, 3.8 ± 2.5-, and 1.7 ± 0.6-fold, respectively. The SCF-stimulated adhesion occurred without concomitant changes in surface integrin expression, thereby indicating an avidity-based mechanism. rhSCF (100 ng/ml, 5 nM) was comparable to rh eotaxin (200 ng/ml, 24 nM) in stimulating adhesion. Cell adhesion to FN40 was completely inhibited with antibodies against the α4 and β1 integrin subunits, revealing that the SCF/c-kit adhesion effect was mediated by a single integrin heterodimer, very late antigen 4 (VLA-4). Thus, SCF represents a newly recognized stromal ligand for the activation of eosinophils for VLA-4–mediated adhesion, which could contribute to the exit of these cells from the blood, their tissue localization, and their prominence in inflammatory lesions. PMID:9221761

  18. Negative Association of Circulating MicroRNA-126 with High-sensitive C-reactive Protein and Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease Following Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun-Nan; Yan, You-You; Guo, Zi-Yuan; Jiang, Ya-Juan; Liu, Lu-Lu; Liu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) causes endothelial damage, resulting in an inflammatory response with elevation of markers such as high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), which are associated with restenosis after PCI. Evidence suggests that microRNA-126 (miR-126) plays an important role in vascular inflammation, but its correlation with PCI-mediated inflammation has not been investigated. In this study, we investigated the effect of PCI on circulating miR-126 and inflammation markers such as hs-CRP and VCAM-1. Methods: We enrolled 130 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) in the Second Hospital of Jilin University from October 2015 to December 2015. Among them, 82 patients with CAD, defined as at least one major epicardial vessel with >70% stenosis who planned to undergo PCI, were divided into acute coronary syndrome (ACS) group (46 patients) and stable angina (SA) group (36 patients). Forty-eight patients confirmed by coronary angiography without PCI were used as controls. The plasmas of all patients were collected prior to PCI and at 30 min, 24 h, and 72 h after PCI. The plasma VCAM-1 and hs-CRP were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the miR-126 was evaluated by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Results: Plasma concentrations of hs-CRP and VCAM-1 in patients with either ACS (n = 46) or SA (n = 36) were significantly higher than in controls (n = 48) (P < 0.01) prior to PCI, and increased further at 24 h and 72 h after PCI, compared with prior PCI. Moreover, VCAM-1 was positively correlated with balloon time and pressure. In contrast, the plasma concentration of miR-126 was significantly lower in patients with CAD than in controls, and further decreased with time post-PCI. A negative correlation was observed between miR-126 and hs-CRP and VCAM-1 at 72 h after PCI. Conclusion: There was a negative correlation of miR-126 with the PCI

  19. A Kinetic and Product Study of the Cl + HO2 Reaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickson, Kevin M.; Keyser, Leon F.

    2005-01-01

    Absolute rate data and product branching ratios for the reactions Cl + HO2 to HCl + O2 (k1a) and Cl + HO2 to OH + ClO (k1b) have been measured from 226 to 336 K at a total pressure of 1 Torr of helium using the discharge flow resonance fluorescence technique coupled with infrared diode laser spectroscopy. For kinetic measurements, pseudo-first-order conditions were used with both reagents in excess in separate experiments. HO2 was produced by two methods: through the termolecular reaction of H atoms with O2 and also by the reaction of F atoms with H2O2. Cl atoms were produced by a microwave discharge of Cl2 in He. HO2 radicals were converted to OH radicals prior to detection by resonance fluorescence at 308 nm. Cl atoms were detected directly at 138 nm also by resonance fluorescence. Measurement of the consumption of HO2 in excess Cl yielded k1a and measurement of the consumption of Cl in excess HO2 yielded the total rate coefficient, k1. Values of k1a and k1 derived from kinetic experiments expressed in Arrhenius form are (1.6 +/- 0.2) x 10-11 exp[(249 +/- 34)/T] and (2.8 +/- 0.1) x 10-11 exp[(123 +/- 15)/T] cm3 molecule-1 s-1, respectively. As the expression for k1 is only weakly temperature dependent, we report a temperature-independent value of k1 = (4.5 +/- 0.4) x 10-11 cm3 molecule-1 s-1. Additionally, an Arrhenius expression for k1b can also be derived: k1b = (7.7 +/- 0.8) x 10-11 exp[-(708 +/- 29)/T] cm3 molecule-1 s-1. These expressions for k1a and k1b are valid for 226 K T 336 and 256 K T 296 K, respectively. The cited errors are at the level of a single standard deviation. For the product measurements, an excess of Cl was added to known concentrations of HO2 and the reaction was allowed to reach completion. HCl product concentrations were determined by IR absorption yielding the ratio k1a/k1 over the temperature range 236 K T 296 K. OH product concentrations were determined by resonance fluorescence giving rise to the ratio k1b/k1 over the temperature

  20. Influence of temperature in the kinetics of the gas-phase reactions of a series of acetates with Cl atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuevas, Carlos A.; Notario, Alberto; Martínez, Ernesto; Albaladejo, José

    Absolute rate coefficients have been measured for the first time as a function of temperature for the gas phase reactions of chlorine atoms with a series of aliphatic acetates: methyl acetate ( k1), ethyl acetate ( k2), n-propyl acetate ( k3) and n-butyl acetate ( k4). The experiments were carried out using the pulsed laser photolysis-resonance fluorescence technique (PLP-RF), over the temperature range 265-383 K. The obtained kinetic data were used to derive the Arrhenius expressions: k1=(9.31±1.02)×10-12exp[-(359±70)/T]; k2=(4.35±0.65)×10-12exp[(342±92)/T]; k3=(2.22±0.20)×10-11exp[(217±58)/T] and k4=(5.41±1.51)×10-11exp[(245±168)/T] (in units of cm 3 molecule -1 s -1). The rate constants obtained at room temperature were as follows: methyl acetate, 0.279±0.031; ethyl acetate, 1.37±0.20; n-propyl acetate, 4.60±0.41 and n-butyl acetate, 12.3±3.4 (in units 10 -11 cm 3 molecule -1 s -1). The results are discussed in terms of structure-reactivity relationships and the atmospherics implications are also analyzed.

  1. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha enhances neutrophil adhesiveness: induction of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 via activation of Akt and CaM kinase II and modifications of histone acetyltransferase and histone deacetylase 4 in human tracheal smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chiang-Wen; Lin, Chih-Chung; Luo, Shue-Fen; Lee, Hui-Chun; Lee, I-Ta; Aird, William C; Hwang, Tsong-Long; Yang, Chuen-Mao

    2008-05-01

    Up-regulation of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) involves adhesions between both circulating and resident leukocytes and the human tracheal smooth muscle cells (HTSMCs) during airway inflammatory reaction. We have demonstrated previously that tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha-induced VCAM-1 expression is regulated by mitogen-activated protein kinases, nuclear factor-kappaB, and p300 activation in HTSMCs. In addition to this pathway, phosphorylation of Akt and CaM kinase II has been implicated in histone acetyltransferase and histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4) activation. Here, we investigated whether these different mechanisms participated in TNF-alpha-induced VCAM-1 expression and enhanced neutrophil adhesion. TNF-alpha significantly increased HTSMC-neutrophil adhesions, and this effect was associated with increased expression of VCAM-1 on the HTSMCs and was blocked by the selective inhibitors of Src [4-amino-5-(4-methylphenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]-pyrimidine (PP1)], epidermal growth factor receptor [EGFR; 4-(3'-chloroanilino)-6,7-dimethoxy-quinazoline, (AG1478)], phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) [2-(4-morpholinyl)-8-phenyl-1(4H)-benzopyran-4-one hydrochloride(LY294002) and wortmannin],calcium[1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy) ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid-acetoxymethyl ester; BAPTA-AM], phosphatidylinositol-phospholipase C (PLC) [1-[6-[[17beta-methoxyestra-1,3,5(10)-trien-17-yl]amino]hexyl]-1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione (U73122)], protein kinase C (PKC) [12-(2-cyanoethyl)-6,7,12, 13-tetrahydro-13-methyl-5-oxo-5H-indolo(2,3-a)pyrrolo(3,4-c)-carbazole (Gö6976), rottlerin, and 3-1-[3-(amidinothio)propyl-1H-indol-3-yl]-3-(1-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl) maleimide (bisindolylmaleimide IX) (Ro 31-8220)], CaM (calmidazolium chloride), CaM kinase II [(8R(*),9S(*),11S(*))-(-)-9-hydroxy-9-methoxycarbonyl-8-methyl-14-n-propoxy-2,3,9, 10-tetrahydro-8,11-epoxy, 1H,8H, 11H-2,7b,11a-triazadibenzo[a,g]cycloocta[cde]trinden-1-one (KT5926) and 1-[N,O-bis(5-isoquinolinesulfonyl

  2. Heavy water reactions with alkaline-earth metal dications in the gas phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feil, Stefan; Koyanagi, Greg K.; Bohme, Diethard K.

    2009-02-01

    Room temperature rate coefficients and product distributions are reported for the reactions initiated in D2O with dications of the alkaline-earth metals Mg, Ca, Sr and Ba. The measurements were performed with a selected-ion flow tube (SIFT) tandem mass spectrometer and electrospray ionization (ESI). Mg2+ reacts with water by a fast electron transfer leading to charge separation with a rate coefficient of 1.4 × 10-9 cm3 molecule-1 s-1. Ca2+ reacts with D2O in a first step to form the adduct Ca2+(D2O), with an effective bimolecular rate coefficient of 2.3 × 10-11 cm3 molecule-1 s-1, which then undergoes rapid charge separation by deuteron transfer to form CaOD+ and D3O+ in a second step with k = 7.9 × 10-10 cm3 molecule-1 s-1. The CaOD+ ion reacts further by clustering up to five more D2O molecules. Sr2+ clusters up to eight D2O molecules and Ba2+ up to seven D2O molecules, with the first addition of D2O being rate determining in each case and the last addition being distinctly slower, as might be expected from a transition in the occupation of the added water molecules from an inner to an outer hydration shell.

  3. On rates and mechanisms of OH and O3 reactions with isoprene-derived hydroxy nitrates.

    PubMed

    Lee, Lance; Teng, Alex P; Wennberg, Paul O; Crounse, John D; Cohen, Ronald C

    2014-03-06

    Eight distinct hydroxy nitrates are stable products of the first step in the atmospheric oxidation of isoprene by OH. The subsequent chemical fate of these molecules affects global and regional production of ozone and aerosol as well as the location of nitrogen deposition. We synthesized and purified 3 of the 8 isoprene hydroxy nitrate isomers: (E/Z)-2-methyl-4-nitrooxybut-2-ene-1-ol and 3-methyl-2-nitrooxybut-3-ene-1-ol. Oxidation of these molecules by OH and ozone was studied using both chemical ionization mass spectrometry and thermo-dissociation laser induced fluorescence. The OH reaction rate constants at 300 K measured relative to propene at 745 Torr are (1.1 ± 0.2) × 10(-10) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) for both the E and Z isomers and (4.2 ± 0.7) × 10(-11) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) for the third isomer. The ozone reaction rate constants for (E/Z)-2-methyl-4-nitrooxybut-2-ene-1-ol are (2.7 ± 0.5) × 10(-17) and (2.9 ± 0.5) × 10(-17) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), respectively. 3-Methyl-2-nitrooxybut-3-ene-1-ol reacts with ozone very slowly, within the range of (2.5-5) × 10(-19) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1). Reaction pathways, product yields, and implications for atmospheric chemistry are discussed. A condensed mechanism suitable for use in atmospheric chemistry models is presented.

  4. Spin-inversion and spin-selection in the reactions FeO(+) + H2 and Fe(+) + N2O.

    PubMed

    Ard, Shaun G; Johnson, Ryan S; Melko, Joshua J; Martinez, Oscar; Shuman, Nicholas S; Ushakov, Vladimir G; Guo, Hua; Troe, Jürgen; Viggiano, Albert A

    2015-08-14

    The reactions of FeO(+) with H2 and of Fe(+) with N2O were studied with respect to the production and reactivity of electronically excited (4)Fe(+) cations. The reaction of electronic ground state (6)FeO(+) with H2 was found to predominantly produce electronically excited (4)Fe(+) as opposed to electronic ground state (6)Fe(+) corresponding to a spin-allowed reaction. (4)Fe(+) was observed to react with N2O with a rate constant of 2.3 (+0.3/-0.8) × 10(-11) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), smaller than the ground state (6)Fe(+) rate constant of 3.2 (±0.5) × 10(-11) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) (at room temperature). While the overall reaction of (6)FeO(+) with H2 within the Two-State-Reactivity concept is governed by efficient sextet-quartet spin-inversion in the initial reaction complex, the observation of predominant (4)Fe(+) production in the reaction is attributed to a much less efficient quartet-sextet back-inversion in the final reaction complex. Average spin-inversion probabilities are estimated by statistical modeling of spin-inversion processes and related to the properties of spin-orbit coupling along the reaction coordinate. The reaction of FeO(+) with H2 served as a source for (4)Fe(+), subsequently reacting with N2O. The measured rate constant has allowed for a more detailed understanding of the ground state (6)Fe(+) reaction with N2O, leading to a significantly improved statistical modeling of the previously measured temperature dependence of the reaction. In particular, evidence for the participation of electronically excited states of the reaction complex was found. Deexcitation of (4)Fe(+) by He was found to be slow, with a rate constant <3 × 10(-14) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1).

  5. Kinetics and Mechanism of the Gas-Phase Reaction of Selected Carbonyls with Cl Atoms between 250 and 340 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasson, A. S.; Algrim, L.; Abdelhamid, A.; Tyndall, G. S.; Orlando, J. J.

    2013-12-01

    Carbonyls are important products from the gas phase degradation of most volatile organic compounds. Their atmospheric reactions therefore have a significant impact on atmospheric composition, particularly in aged air masses. While the reactions of short-chain linear carbonyls are well understood, the chemistry of larger (> C6) and branched carbonyl is more uncertain. To provide insight into these reactions, the reactions of three carbonyls (methyl isopropyl ketone, MIK; di-isopropyl ketone, DIK; and diethyl ketone, DEK) with chlorine atoms were investigated between 250 and 340 K and 1 atm in the presence and absence of NOx and an HO2 source (methanol). Experiments were performed in a photochemical reactor using a combination of long-path Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy, proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry and gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. The kinetics were studied using the relative rate technique with butanone and isopropanol as the reference compounds. The Arrhenius expression for the three rate coefficients was determined to be k(DEK+Cl) = 3.87 x 10-11e(2 × 7 kJ/mol)/RT cm3 molecules-1 s-1 , k(MIPK+Cl) = 7.20 x 10-11e(0.2× 8 kJ/mol)/RT cm3 molecules-1 s-1 , and k(DIPK+Cl) = 3.33 x 10-10e(-3× 8 kJ/mol)/RT cm3 molecules-1 s-1 . Measured reaction products accounted for 38-72 % of the reacted carbon and were consistent with strong deactivation of the carbon atom adjacent to the carbonyl group with respect to H-atom abstraction by Cl atoms. The product distributions also provide insight into radical recycling from the organic peroxy + HO2 reaction, and the relative rates of isomerization, fragmentation and reaction with O2 for carbonyl-containing alkoxy radicals. Implications of these results will be discussed.

  6. Atmospheric chemistry of propionaldehyde: kinetics and mechanisms of reactions with OH radicals and Cl atoms, UV spectrum, and self-reaction kinetics of CH3CH2C(O)O2 radicals at 298 K.

    PubMed

    Le Crâne, Jean-Paul; Villenave, Eric; Hurley, Michael D; Wallington, Timothy J; Ball, James C

    2005-12-29

    The kinetics and mechanism of the reactions of Cl atoms and OH radicals with CH3CH2CHO were investigated at room temperature using two complementary techniques: flash photolysis/UV absorption and continuous photolysis/FTIR smog chamber. Reaction with Cl atoms proceeds predominantly by abstraction of the aldehydic hydrogen atom to form acyl radicals. FTIR measurements indicated that the acyl forming channel accounts for (88 +/- 5)%, while UV measurements indicated that the acyl forming channel accounts for (88 +/- 3)%. Relative rate methods were used to measure: k(Cl + CH3CH2CHO) = (1.20 +/- 0.23) x 10(-10); k(OH + CH3CH2CHO) = (1.82 +/- 0.23) x 10(-11); and k(Cl + CH3CH2C(O)Cl) = (1.64 +/- 0.22) x 10(-12) cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1). The UV spectrum of CH3CH2C(O)O2, rate constant for self-reaction, and rate constant for cross-reaction with CH3CH2O2 were determined: sigma(207 nm) = (6.71 +/- 0.19) x 10(-18) cm2 molecule(-1), k(CH3CH2C(O)O2 + CH3CH2C(O)O2) = (1.68 +/- 0.08) x 10(-11), and k(CH3CH2C(O)O2 + CH3CH2O2) = (1.20 +/- 0.06) x 10(-11) cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1), where quoted uncertainties only represent 2sigma statistical errors. The infrared spectrum of C2H5C(O)O2NO2 was recorded, and products of the Cl-initiated oxidation of CH3CH2CHO in the presence of O2 with, and without, NO(x) were identified. Results are discussed with respect to the atmospheric chemistry of propionaldehyde.

  7. Direct Determination of the Simplest Criegee Intermediate (CH2OO) Self Reaction Rate.

    PubMed

    Buras, Zachary J; Elsamra, Rehab M I; Green, William H

    2014-07-03

    The rate of self-reaction of the simplest Criegee intermediate, CH2OO, is of importance in many current laboratory experiments where CH2OO concentrations are high, such as flash photolysis and alkene ozonolysis. Using laser flash photolysis while simultaneously probing both CH2OO and I atom by direct absorption, we can accurately determine absolute CH2OO concentrations as well as the UV absorption cross section of CH2OO at our probe wavelength (λ = 375 nm), which is in agreement with a recently published value. Knowing absolute concentrations we can accurately measure kself = 6.0 ± 2.1 × 10(-11)cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) at 297 K. We are also able to put an upper bound on the rate coefficient for CH2OO + I of 1.0 × 10(-11) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1). Both of these rate coefficients are at least a factor of 5 smaller than other recent measurements of the same reactions.

  8. Measuring rate constants for reactions of the simplest Criegee intermediate (CH2OO) by monitoring the OH radical.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yingdi; Bayes, Kyle D; Sander, Stanley P

    2014-01-30

    While generating the CH2OO molecule by reacting CH2I with O2, significant amounts of the OH radical were observed by laser-induced fluorescence. At least two different processes formed OH. A fast process was probably initiated by a reaction of vibrationally hot CH2I radicals. The second process appeared to be associated with the decay of the CH2OO molecule. The addition of molecules known to react with CH2OO increased the observed decay rates of the OH signal. Using the OH signals as a proxy for the CH2OO concentration, the rate constant for the reaction of hexafluoroacetone with CH2OO was determined to be (3.33 ± 0.27) × 10(-11) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), in good agreement with the value measured by Taatjes et al.1 The rate constant for the reaction of SO2 with CH2OO, (3.53 ± 0.29) × 10(-11) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), showed no pressure dependence over the range of 50-200 Torr and was in agreement with the value at 4 Torr reported by Welz et al.

  9. The gas-phase degradation of chlorpyrifos and chlorpyrifos-oxon towards OH radical under atmospheric conditions.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Amalia; Ródenas, Milagros; Borrás, Esther; Vázquez, Mónica; Vera, Teresa

    2014-09-01

    The OH initiated oxidation of chlorpyrifos (a widely used insecticide) and its photooxidation product chlorpyrifos-oxon were investigated at the large outdoor European Photoreactor (EUPHORE). The rate constants for reaction of chlorpyrifos and chlorpyrifos oxon with OH radicals were measured using a conventional relative rate method. The value of the OH reaction rate constants with chlorpyrifos and chlorpyrifos-oxon were determined to be k=(9.1±2.1)×10(-11)cm(3)molecule(-1)s(-1) and (1.7±0.9)×10(-11)cm(3)molecule(-1)s(-1) at 303±5K and atmospheric pressure. They gave an atmospheric lifetime in relation to the reaction with OH of approximately 2h and 11h for chlorpyrifos and chlorpyrifos-oxon, respectively. Photolysis was found to be unimportant relative to reaction with OH. The main products detected in the gas phase from the reaction of OH with chlorpyrifos were SO2, chlorpyrifos-oxon, 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol and diethylphosphate with molar yields of 17±5%, ∼10%, 8±4% and 30±9%, respectively.

  10. Kinetics study of reactions of α-pinene and β-pinene with hydroxyl radical at 1-8 Torr and 240-340 K using the relative rate/discharge flow/mass spectrometry method.

    PubMed

    Montenegro, Anthony; Ishibashi, Jacob S A; Lam, Phuong; Li, Zhuangjie

    2012-12-13

    The kinetics of reactions of α-pinene and β-pinene with hydroxyl radicals (OH) has been investigated at 1-8 Torr and 240-340 K using the relative rate/discharge flow/mass spectrometry (RR/DF/MS) technique. Our kinetic results indicate that at 298 K the rate constant of the reactions of α-pinene and β-pinene with hydroxyl radicals has little pressure dependence over the 1-8 Torr pressure range, suggesting that the high pressure limit of these reactions has been reached at 1 Torr. The rate constant of these reactions was found to negatively depend on the temperature at 240-340 K, which is consistent with previous investigations using different techniques. The Arrhenius equation for α-pinene and β-pinene with hydroxyl radical was determined to be k(α-pinene) = (1.21 ± 0.20) × 10(-11)exp[(441 ± 46)/T] cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) and k(β-pinene) = (1.65 ± 0.10) × 10(-11)exp[(470 ± 17)/T] cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), respectively. Using the rate constant determined at 277 K in this work and the average global hydroxyl radical concentration, the atmospheric lifetime of α-pinene and β-pinene was estimated to be 5.8 and 3.8 h, respectively.

  11. A comparison of the updated very high resolution model RegCM3_10km with the previous version RegCM3_25km over the complex terrain of Greece: present and future projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolika, Konstantia; Anagnostopoulou, Christina; Velikou, Kondylia; Vagenas, Christos

    2016-11-01

    The ability of a fine resolution regional climate model (10 × 10 km) in simulating efficiently the climate characteristics (temperature, precipitation, and wind) over Greece, in comparison to the previous version of the model with a 25 × 25 km resolution, is examined and analyzed in the present study. Overall, the results showed that the finer resolution model presented a better skill in generating low winter temperatures at high altitudinal areas, the temperature difference between the islands and the surrounding sea, high rainfall totals over the mountainous areas, the thermal storms during summer, and the wind maxima over the Aegean Sea. Regarding the future projections, even though the two models agree on the climatic signal, differences are found mainly to the magnitude of change of the selected parameters. Finally, it was found that at higher pressure levels, the present day projections of the two models do not show significant differences since the topography and terrain does not play such an important role as the general atmospheric circulation.

  12. Relative Rate and Product Studies of the Reactions of Atomic Chlorine with Tetrafluoroethylene, 1,2-Dichloro-1,2-difluoroethylene, 1,1-Dichloro-2,2-difluoroethylene, and Hexafluoro-1,3-butadiene in the Presence of Oxygen.

    PubMed

    Herath, Thushani N; Clinch, Eric C; Orozco, Ivan; Raign, Erin L; Marshall, Paul

    2016-09-22

    Rate coefficients k1-k3 have been measured for Cl atom reactions with CF2═CF2, CFCl═CFCl, and CCl2═CF2 relative to k4 for CF2═CF-CF═CF2 at 293 ± 2 K. k4 was remeasured relative to Cl + ethane. Cl was generated by UV photolysis of Cl2, and other species were monitored by FT-IR spectroscopy. The measurements yield k1 = (6.6 ± 1.0) × 10(-11), k2 = (6.5 ± 1.0) × 10(-11), and k3 = (7.1 ± 1.1) × 10(-11) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), respectively, and k4 = (8.0 ± 1.2) × 10(-11) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) is proposed. These results are discussed in the context of atmospheric chemistry. Subsequent chemistry in the presence of oxygen leads to oxygenated products that are identified via their IR spectra, and possible mechanisms are discussed. The yield of CF2O from C2F4 is 93 ± 7%. Dichlorofluoroacetyl fluoride (CCl2FCFO) was observed as a product from CFClCFCl, and chlorodifluoroacetyl chloride (CClF2CClO) was observed from CCl2CF2 oxidation. C4F6 led to 66 ± 5% CF2O and 38 ± 3% OCF2CFC(F)═O. Reaction enthalpies and enthalpy barriers computed via CBS-QB3 theory help rule out some unfavorable mechanistic steps.

  13. Regional Climate System Feedbacks from Land Use Changes in Southeast Asia: A sensitivity study using RegCM3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauffer, H. L.; Sloan, L. C.

    2008-12-01

    Many observational and modeling studies have demonstrated the strong links between changes in land use and climate, and anthropogenic alterations of the land surface are now recognized to have consequences at the local, regional, and global scales. However, the effects of such changes on the local and regional climate system are not well understood, and yet, are critical to understanding future regional climate change. In Southeast Asia, a region which has experienced rapid and dramatic anthropogenic land use change in the 20th Century, shifts in precipitation patterns in response to these changes have been documented from observational data. While most climate modeling studies of the Southeast Asian region have employed low- resolution general circulation models, previous regional modeling studies for Southeast Asia have focused on land use change feedbacks on timescales from days to months and only for portions of the region. This study employs a high-resolution regional climate model centered on the Southeast Asian region, including Indochina, the Malay Peninsula, the Indonesian archipelago, the Philippines, and parts of Papua New Guinea and northern Australia, to conduct two simulations over the 30-year period between 1975 and 2005. Specifically, the simulations are used to compare climates with natural potential vegetation to those with modern land use as land cover, including differences in seasonal and annual temperature and precipitation distributions.

  14. Application of ICTP RegCM3's New Dust Model to Modern N. America: Challenges and Questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, T. A.; Hutchison, K. A.; Sloan, L. C.; Solmon, F.

    2008-12-01

    Comparison of results from the new ICTP Regional Climate Model (RCM) dust module to observational data from the IMPROVE network shows that the RCM correctly predicts emission sources and the spatial distribution of dust, but it overestimates the concentration of dust by a factor of one hundred. We show that this overestimation of dust emission is essentially independent of the soil-moisture-effect scheme, threshold velocity scheme, and model resolution (vertical and horizontal). We find that modification of soil properties in the RCM's saltation/sandblasting parametrization can reduce emissions and put dust concentrations in the right order of magnitude. Lack of size resolved dust data for North America make it difficult to asses whether this modification affects the validity of the model in terms of size distributions and indirectly in terms of dust optical effects.

  15. An investigation into linearity with cumulative emissions of the climate and carbon cycle response in HadCM3LC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liddicoat, S. K.; Booth, B. B. B.; Joshi, M. M.

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the extent to which global mean temperature, precipitation, and the carbon cycle are constrained by cumulative carbon emissions throughout four experiments with a fully coupled climate-carbon cycle model. The paired experiments adopt contrasting, idealised approaches to climate change mitigation at different action points this century, with total emissions rising to more than two trillion tonnes of carbon (TtC). For each pair, the contrasting mitigation approaches—capping emissions early versus reducing them to zero a few decades later—cause their cumulative emissions trajectories to diverge initially, then converge, cross, and diverge again. We find that global mean temperature is linear with cumulative emissions across all experiments, although differences of up to 1.5 K exist regionally when the trajectories of total carbon emitted during the course of the two scenarios coincide, for both pairs of experiments. Interestingly, although the oceanic precipitation response scales with cumulative emissions, the global precipitation response does not, due to a decrease in precipitation over land above emissions of around one TtC. Most carbon fluxes are less well constrained by cumulative emissions as they reach two trillion tonnes. The opposing mitigation approaches have different consequences for the Amazon rainforest, which affects the linearity with which the carbon cycle responds to cumulative emissions. The average Transient Climate Response to cumulative carbon Emissions (TCRE) is 1.95 K TtC-1, at the upper end of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s range of 0.8-2.5 K TtC-1.

  16. Sea surface temperatures of the mid-Piacenzian Warm Period: A comparison of PRISM3 and HadCM3

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dowsett, H.J.; Haywood, A.M.; Valdes, P.J.; Robinson, M.M.; Lunt, D.J.; Hill, D.J.; Stoll, D.K.; Foley, K.M.

    2011-01-01

    It is essential to document how well the current generation of climate models performs in simulating past climates to have confidence in their ability to project future conditions. We present the first global, in-depth comparison of Pliocene sea surface temperature (SST) estimates from a coupled ocean–atmosphere climate model experiment and a SST reconstruction based on proxy data. This enables the identification of areas in which both the climate model and the proxy dataset require improvement.In general, the fit between model-produced SST anomalies and those formed from the available data is very good. We focus our discussion on three regions where the data–model anomaly exceeds 2 °C. 1) In the high latitude North Pacific, a systematic model error may result in anomalies that are too cold. Also, the deeper Pliocene thermocline may cause disagreement along the California margin; either the upwelling in the model is too strong or the modeled thermocline is not deep enough. 2) In the North Atlantic, the model predicts cooling in the center of a data-based warming trend that steadily increases with latitude from + 1.5 °C to >+ 6 °C. The discrepancy may arise because the modeled North Atlantic Current is too zonal compared to reality, which is reinforced by the lowering of the altitude of the Pliocene Western Cordillera Mountains. In addition, the model's use of modern bathymetry in the higher latitudes may have led the model to underestimate the northward penetration of warmer surface water into the Arctic. 3) Finally, though the data and model show good general agreement across most of the Southern Ocean, a few locations show offsets due to the modern land–sea mask used in the model.Additional considerations could account for many of the modest data–model anomalies, such as differences between calibration climatologies, the oversimplification of the seasonal cycle, and differences between SST proxies (i.e. seasonality and water depth). New SST estimates from data-sparse and regionally important areas will greatly enhance our ability to judge model performance.

  17. Atmospheric chemistry of cis-CF3CHdbnd CHCl (HCFO-1233zd(Z)): Kinetics of the gas-phase reactions with Cl atoms, OH radicals, and O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Lene Løffler; Østerstrøm, Freja From; Sulbaek Andersen, Mads P.; Nielsen, Ole John; Wallington, Timothy J.

    2015-10-01

    FTIR smog chamber techniques were used to measure the rate coefficients k(Cl + cis-CF3CHdbnd CHCl) = (6.26 ± 0.84) × 10-11, k(OH + cis-CF3CHdbnd CHCl) = (8.45 ± 1.52) × 10-13, and k(O3 + cis-CF3CHdbnd CHCl) = (1.53 ± 0.12) × 10-21 cm3 molecule-1 s-1. The atmospheric lifetime of cis-CF3CHdbnd CHCl is determined by reaction with OH radicals and is estimated to be 14 days. The infrared spectrum of cis-CF3CHdbnd CHCl was recorded and the integrated absorption over the range 600-2000 cm-1 was measured to be (1.48 ± 0.07) × 10-16 cm molecule-1. Accounting for non-uniform horizontal and vertical mixing leads to a GWP100 value of essentially zero. Correction to account for unwanted Cl atom chemistry in our previous relative rate study of the kinetics of the reaction of OH with trans-CF3CHdbnd CHCl gives k(OH + trans-CF3CHdbnd CHCl) = (3.61 ± 0.37) × 10-13 cm3 molecule-1 s-1.

  18. Angiogenesis in Platelet Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule-1-Null Mice

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Gaoyuan; Fehrenbach, Melane L.; Williams, James T.; Finklestein, Jeffrey M.; Zhu, Jing-Xu; DeLisser, Horace M.

    2009-01-01

    Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM)-1 has been previously implicated in endothelial cell migration; additionally, anti-PECAM-1 antibodies have been shown to inhibit in vivo angiogenesis. Studies were therefore performed with PECAM-1-null mice to further define the involvement of PECAM-1 in blood vessel formation. Vascularization of subcutaneous Matrigel implants as well as tumor angiogenesis were both inhibited in PECAM-1-null mice. Reciprocal bone marrow transplants that involved both wild-type and PECAM-1-deficient mice revealed that the impaired angiogenic response resulted from a loss of endothelial, but not leukocyte, PECAM-1. In vitro wound migration and single-cell motility by PECAM-1-null endothelial cells were also compromised. In addition, filopodia formation, a feature of motile cells, was inhibited in PECAM-1-null endothelial cells as well as in human endothelial cells treated with either anti-PECAM-1 antibody or PECAM-1 siRNA. Furthermore, the expression of PECAM-1 promoted filopodia formation and increased the protein expression levels of Cdc42, a Rho GTPase that is known to promote the formation of filopodia. In the developing retinal vasculature, numerous, long filamentous filopodia, emanating from endothelial cells at the tips of angiogenic sprouts, were observed in wild-type animals, but to a lesser extent in the PECAM-1-null mice. Together, these data further establish the involvement of endothelial PECAM-1 in angiogenesis and suggest that, in vivo, PECAM-1 may stimulate endothelial cell motility by promoting the formation of filopodia. PMID:19574426

  19. Gas-phase kinetics of OH radicals reaction with a series of fluorinated acrylates and methacrylates at atmospheric pressure and 298 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tovar, Carmen M.; Teruel, Mariano A.

    2014-09-01

    Rate coefficients for the gas phase reactions of OH radicals with 2,2,2-trifluoroethylmethacrylate (k1) 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoroisopropylacrylate (k2), 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoroisopropylmethacrylate (k3), and 2,2,2-trifluoroethylacrylate (k4) were determinated to be k1 = (2.54 ± 0.12) × 10-11, k2 = (1.41 ± 0.11) × 10-11, k3 = (1.65 ± 0.14) × 10-11 and k4 = (1.25 ± 0.13) × 10-11 cm3 molecule-1 s-1, respectively. Kinetic experiments were performed at room temperature and atmospheric pressure using the relative-rate technique with GC-FID analysis. This study is the first kinetic for these reactions of OH radicals under atmospheric pressure. Additionally, the rate constants obtained are compared with other halogenated and non halogenated acrylates and methacrylates to develop structure/reactivity relationships in terms of the presence of fluorine and ester groups and the hydrocarbon chain length. The atmospheric implications of the reactions were assessed by the estimation of the tropospheric lifetimes of the title reactions.

  20. Atmospheric chemistry of C4F9OC2H5 (HFE-7200), C4F9OCH3 (HFE-7100), C3F7OCH3 (HFE-7000) and C3F7CH2OH: temperature dependence of the kinetics of their reactions with OH radicals, atmospheric lifetimes and global warming potentials.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Iván; Díaz-de-Mera, Yolanda; Aranda, Alfonso; Smith, Kevin; Shine, Keith P; Marston, George

    2010-05-21

    The atmospheric chemistry of several gases used in industrial applications, C(4)F(9)OC(2)H(5) (HFE-7200), C(4)F(9)OCH(3) (HFE-7100), C(3)F(7)OCH(3) (HFE-7000) and C(3)F(7)CH(2)OH, has been studied. The discharge flow technique coupled with mass-spectrometric detection has been used to study the kinetics of their reactions with OH radicals as a function of temperature. The infrared spectra of the compounds have also been measured. The following Arrhenius expressions for the reactions were determined (in units of cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1)): k(OH + HFE-7200) = (6.9(-1.7)(+2.3)) x 10(-11) exp(-(2030 +/- 190)/T); k(OH + HFE-7100) = (2.8(-1.5)(+3.2)) x 10(-11) exp(-(2200 +/- 490)/T); k(OH + HFE-7000) = (2.0(-0.7)(+1.2)) x 10(-11) exp(-(2130 +/- 290)/T); and k(OH + C(3)F(7)CH(2)OH) = (1.4(-0.2)(+0.3)) x 10(-11) exp(-(1460 +/- 120)/T). From the infrared spectra, radiative forcing efficiencies were determined and compared with earlier estimates in the literature. These were combined with the kinetic data to estimate 100-year time horizon global warming potentials relative to CO(2) of 69, 337, 499 and 36 for HFE-7200, HFE-7100, HFE-7000 and CF(3)CF(2)CF(2)CH(2)OH, respectively.

  1. Kinetic study of the OH-initiated photo-oxidation of four unsaturated (allyl and vinyl) ethers under simulated atmospheric conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peirone, Silvina A.; Aranguren Abrate, Juan P.; Taccone, Raúl A.; Cometto, Pablo M.; Lane, Silvia I.

    2011-09-01

    Using the relative rate technique, rate constants for the gas-phase reactions of hydroxyl radicals with n-propyl vinyl ether ( k1), 2-chloroethyl vinyl ether ( k2), allyl ether ( k3) and allyl ethyl ether ( k4) have been measured. Experiments were carried out at (298 ± 2) K and atmospheric pressure using N 2 and ultra pure air as bath gas. Using isoprene, 1-methyl-1-cyclohexene, 2-methyl-2-butene, 3-buten-1-ol and 2-methyl-2-propen-1-ol as reference compounds, the following rate constants were derived: k1 = (11.0 ± 0.4) × 10 -11, k2 = (9 ± 1) × 10 -11, k3 = (6.8 ± 0.7) × 10 -11 and k4 = (4.2 ± 0.7) × 10 -11, in units of cm 3 molecule -1 s -1. This is the first experimental detcermination of k2- k4. The rate constants obtained are compared with the previous literature data for corresponding alkenes reactions with OH and the observed reactivity trends are discussed. The atmospheric implications of the results are considered.

  2. Rate constants for the reaction of OH radicals with n-propyl, n-butyl, iso-butyl and tert-butyl vinyl ethers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiault, G.; Mellouki, A.

    Rate constants for the reaction of OH radicals with n-propyl vinyl ether (PVE, CH 3CH 2CH 2OCH dbnd CH 2), n-butyl vinyl ether (BVE, CH 3CH 2CH 2CH 2OCH dbnd CH 2), iso-butyl vinyl ether (IBVE, (CH 3) 2CHCH 2OCH dbnd CH 2) and tert-butyl vinyl ether (TBVE, (CH 3) 3COCH dbnd CH 2), have been measured in the temperature and pressure ranges 232-373 K and 30-300 Torr using the pulsed laser photolysis-laser-induced fluorescence method, and at 298 K and 760 Torr using the relative method. The obtained results are k1=(9.3±0.6)×10 -12 exp[(708±20)/ T], k2=(1.5±0.2)×10 -11 exp[(572±42)/ T], k3=(1.6±0.1)×10 -11 exp[(567±20)/ T], k4=(1.7±0.2)×10 -11 exp[(549±25)/ T] cm 3 molecule -1 s -1. The values at 298 K are k1=(1.0±0.1)×10 -10, k2=(1.0±0.1)×10 -10, k3=(1.1±0.1)×10 -10, k4=(1.1±0.1)×10 -10 cm 3 molecule -1 s -1. The deduced tropospheric lifetimes of these ethers for reaction with OH are of the order of 1 h and they are comparable to those for reaction with ozone.

  3. Rate coefficients for the reaction of O(1D) with the atmospherically long-lived greenhouse gases NF3, SF3CF3, CHF3, C2F6, c-C3F8, n-C5F12, and n-C6F14

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baasandorj, M.; Hall, B. D.; Burkholder, J. B.

    2012-09-01

    The contribution of atmospherically persistent (long-lived) greenhouse gases to the radiative forcing of Earth has increased over the past several decades. The impact of highly fluorinated saturated compounds, in particular perfluorinated compounds, on climate change is a concern because of their long atmospheric lifetimes, which are primarily determined by stratospheric loss processes, as well as their strong absorption in the infrared "window" region. A potentially key stratospheric loss process for these compounds is their gas-phase reaction with electronically excited oxygen atoms, O(1D). Therefore, accurate reaction rate coefficient data is desired for input to climate change models. In this work, rate coefficients, k, were measured for the reaction of O(1D) with several key long-lived greenhouse gases, namely NF3, SF5CF3, CHF3 (HFC-23), C2F6, c-C4F8, n-C5F12, and n-C6F14. Room temperature rate coefficients for the total reaction, kTot, corresponding to loss of O(1D), and reactive channel, kR, corresponding to the loss of the reactant compound, were measured for NF3 and SF5CF3 using competitive reaction and relative rate methods, respectively. kR was measured for the CHF3 reaction and improved upper-limits were determined for the perfluorinated compounds included in this study. For NF3, kTot was determined to be (2.55 ± 0.38) × 10-11 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 and kR, which was measured using CF3Cl, N2O, CF2ClCF2Cl (CFC-114), and CF3CFCl2 (CFC-114a) as reference compounds, was determined to be (2.21 ± 0.33) × 10-11 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 corresponding to a reactive branching ratio of 0.87 ± 0.13. For SF5CF3, kTot = (3.24 ± 0.50) × 10-13 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 and kR < 5.8 × 10-14 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 were measured, where kR is a factor of three lower than the current recommendation of kTot for use in atmospheric modeling. For CHF3, kR was determined to be (2.35 ± 0.35) × 10-12 cm3 molecule-1 s-1, which corresponds to a reactive channel yield of 0.26 ± 0.04, and

  4. PROCEEDINGS: 1989 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION - VOLUME 4: SESSIONS 9, 10, 11, AND 12

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proceedings document presentations at the International Conference on Municipal Waste Combustion (MWC), held on April 11-14, 1989, in Hollywood, Florida. The objective of the Conference was to provide an effective international forum for the exchange and transfer of informati...

  5. Newton's Apple Teachers Guides. Seasons 9-10-11-12: A Collection of Lessons and Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twin Cities Public Television, St. Paul, MN.

    Newton's Apple is a PBS family science program that explores basic science through high-energy, hands-on demonstrations. This volume is a collection of the teacher's guides from four seasons of Newton's Apple which were originally broadcast from 1991 through 1994. Each of the four seasons in the volume contains 26 lessons and a combination of…

  6. Strand IV Environmental and Community Health, World Health, Grades 10, 11, and 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    Special attention to the implications of world health problems and the effectiveness of international understanding and cooperation in alleviating harmful health conditions is given in this prototype curriculum for grades 10-12. The importance of student participation and ultimate involvement and commitment to world health problems is reflected.…

  7. Health Education: Cancer Prevention and Control. Curriculum Guides, Grades 10, 11, and 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Curriculum Development Center.

    These curriculum guidelines for tenth-, eleventh-, and twelfth-grade students discuss the prevention, early detection and treatment, and control of cancer. The nature of cancer, the epidemiological factors related to it, the types of treatments available, and rehabilitation of cancer victims are discussed. Finally, the unit discusses personal and…

  8. 15 CFR 10.11 - Revision or amendment of a standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... established public policy; or (3) The standard or any part of it is being used to mislead users or consumers or is determined to be against the interest of users, consumers, or the public in general. (b) A... to the standard with appropriate dissemination and public notice of the addendum; and (iii) If...

  9. A Report on the 1972 Interim Meetings of CCIR Study Groups 10, 11, and CMTT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remley, Frederick M., Jr.

    The activities of the International Radio Consultative Committee (CCIR), the radio-communications arm of the International Telecommunications Union (ITU), serve the goal of standardizing practices and techniques useful in the broad field of telecommunications. In between the plenary meetings held every three years, the work of the committee is…

  10. Theory and modeling in nanoscience: Report of the May 10-11, 2002Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    McCurdy, C. William; Stechel, Ellen; Cummings, Peter; Hendrickson, Bruce; Keyes, David

    2002-06-28

    On May 10 and 11, 2002, a workshop entitled ''Theory and Modeling in Nanoscience'' was held in San Francisco, California, sponsored by the offices of Basic Energy Science and Advanced Scientific Computing Research of the Department of Energy. The Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee and the Advanced Scientific Computing Advisory Committee convened the workshop to identify challenges and opportunities for theory, modeling, and simulation in nanoscience and nanotechnology, and additionally to investigate the growing and promising role of applied mathematics and computer science in meeting those challenges. This report is the result of those contributions and the discussions at the workshop.

  11. CWEX-10/11: Overview of Results From the First Two Crop/Wind-Energy Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takle, E. S.; Rajewski, D. A.; Prueger, J. H.; Oncley, S.; Lundquist, J. K.; Horst, T. W.; Rhodes, M. E.; Pfeiffer, R.; Hatfield, J.; Spoth, K. K.; Doorenbos, R.

    2012-12-01

    We have conducted experiments in a 200-turbine operating wind farm in Iowa to measure aerodynamic and microclimate properties of the environment in and around turbines in an area of intensely managed agricultural crops. Surface measurements at multiple locations were made of temperature, humidity, wind speed, wind direction, turbulence, and fluxes of heat, momentum, moisture and CO2. These together with remotely sensed wind speed, wind direction and turbulence at hub height accumulated over the growing seasons of 2010 and 2011 enable us to begin understanding of how turbines influence microclimate conditions in a wind-farm. SCADA data from 13 turbines enable studies of wakes and their interactions with each other and with the surface. Our studies corroborate published results that report reduction in wind speed, increased night-time temperature and decreased the daytime temperature in regions leeward of leading turbines in a wind farm. Our microclimate measurements enable us to go beyond previous reports to investigate spatial structures of mean wind, turbulence kinetic energy, thermal stability, and fluxes of heat, moisture and CO2 at the surface. Control cases are provided by evaluating surface conditions under a wide variety of wind directions and evaluating surface conditions at times when turbines were turned off or abrupt wind shifts were documented. Careful delineation of wind directions from the SCADA data reveal lateral characteristics of wakes and allow comparisons of power reduction for multiple interacting turbines with comparable results reported for off-shore wind farms. Our studies suggest that near-surface conditions are influenced by the presence of overlying wakes, wakes that impinge on the surface, and an irregular standing wave pressure field created by lines of turbines presenting an obstacle to the flow. Surface stability observed concurrently with wake interactions provides some insights on diurnal variability of wind farm performance.

  12. 10/11/2001, Flood Disaster. Analyse and Solution For Algiers City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iddir, R.; Saoula, S.; Laradi, N.

    In space of 24 hours on November 10, 2001, continuously torrential rainfall reaching 211mm (500.000 m3) on Algiers City made of this last one a dead City. Several dis- tricts of the capital, notably Bab El Oued and the municipality of Oued Koriche as well as the district of the Cool Valley were totally Flooded and plunged into the mud. The damages of this flood are very important. It takes to indicate that the human losses have affected the terrible figure of 750 died, more than 115 missing persons and 4.000 stricken families. Economical damage was estimated at more than 3 Billions Dollars. This study had for objective and direct orientation the analysis of the main causes of this disaster. At the beginning, a coverage of geomorphologic and anthropological Factors that were able to aggravate the situation were analysed with an outline on the domains of the town planning, the architecture, the domain of infrastructures and the behavior aggravating. Finally after a critical study, some propositions of Preventive management of the risk of floods in big Algiers were elaborated, to protect the very rich patrimony in this region, and to foresee economically profitable solutions and protectress.

  13. Spaceborne Ocean Intelligence Network: SOIN - Fiscal Year 10/11 Year-End Summary

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    2010-2011 et du plan de travail pour l’exercice 2011-2012. Résultats: Outre le BT 1 ( gestion de projet, livraison et communication), le RSRO comptait...les procédures d’ordonnancement des données RADARSAT-2 et d’évitement des conflits (avec le Service canadien des glaces [SCG], R & D pour la défense

  14. Shuttle cryogenic supply system optimization study. Volume 3: Technical report, section 10, 11 and 12

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The evaluation of candidate cryogenic fuel systems for space shuttle vehicles is discussed. A set of guidelines was used to establish a matrix of possible combinations for the integration of potential cryogenic systems. The various concepts and combinations which resulted from the integration efforts are described. The parameters which were considered in developing the matrix are: (1) storage of cryogenic materials, (2) fuel lines, (3) tank pressure control, (4) thermal control, (5) fluid control, and (6) fluid conditioning. Block diagrams and drawings of the candidate systems are provided. Performance predictions for the systems are outlined in tables of data.

  15. Widely tunable, narrow linewidth external-cavity gain chip laser for spectroscopy between 10 - 11 µm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Dong K.; Henson, Bryce M.; Khakimov, Roman I.; Ross, Jacob A.; Dedman, Colin J.; Hodgman, Sean S.; Baldwin, Kenneth G. H.; Truscott, Andrew G.

    2016-11-01

    We have developed and characterised a stable, narrow linewidth external-cavity laser (ECL) tunable over 100 nm around 1080 nm, using a single-angled-facet gain chip. We propose the ECL as a low-cost, high-performance alternative to fibre and diode lasers in this wavelength range and demonstrate its capability through the spectroscopy of metastable helium. Within the coarse tuning range, the wavelength can be continuously tuned over 30 pm (7.8 GHz) without mode-hopping and modulated with bandwidths up to 3 kHz (piezo) and 37(3) kHz (current). The spectral linewidth of the free-running ECL was measured to be 22(2) kHz (Gaussian) and 4.2(3) kHz (Lorentzian) over 22.5 ms, while a long-term frequency stability better than 40(20) kHz over 11 hours was observed when locked to an atomic reference.

  16. REPORT OF NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE ON HEALTH OCCUPATIONS EDUCATION (MARCH 10-11, 1966).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    COMMITTEE MEMBERS AND OFFICE OF EDUCATION STAFF MET WITH RESOURCE PERSONS IN HEALTH OCCUPATIONS AREA. HIGHLIGHTS OF THE SPECIALISTS REPORTS ARE--BY 1970, 60 TO 70 THOUSAND MEDICAL TECHNOLOGISTS WILL BE NEEDED. PROGRAMS DEVELOPED IN TECHNICAL AND HIGH SCHOOLS AND COMMUNITY COLLEGES ARE ALL NEEDED TO REACH THIS GOAL. SHORTAGES OF QUALIFIED TEACHERS…

  17. Adaptive optics; Proceedings of the Meeting, Arlington, VA, April 10, 11, 1985

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludman, J. E.

    Papers are presented on the directed energy program for ballistic missile defense, a self-referencing wavefront interferometer for laser sources, the effects of mirror grating distortions on diffraction spots at wavefront sensors, and the optical design of an all-reflecting, high-resolution camera for active-optics on ground-based telescopes. Also considered are transverse coherence length observations, time dependent statistics of upper atmosphere optical turbulence, high altitude acoustic soundings, and the Cramer-Rao lower bound on wavefront sensor error. Other topics include wavefront reconstruction from noisy slope or difference data using the discrete Fourier transform, acoustooptic adaptive signal processing, the recording of phase deformations on a PLZT wafer for holographic and spatial light modulator applications, and an optical phase reconstructor using a multiplier-accumulator approach. Papers are also presented on an integrated optics wavefront measurement sensor, a new optical preprocessor for automatic vision systems, a model for predicting infrared atmospheric emission fluctuations, and optical logic gates and flip-flops based on polarization-bistable semiconductor lasers.

  18. Pioneer 10/11 data analysis of the plasma analyzer experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Intriligator, D. S.

    1982-01-01

    The Pioneer 10 plasma analyzer detected the 10 plasma torus. Evidence was found of corotating ions which appear to be primarily S (++) and O (++) in the Pioneer 10 plasma data as the spacecraft moved inward from 6.9 to 5.4 R sub J. The Pioneer plasma analyzer was effective in obtaining information on the heavy ion populations in the Jovian magnetosphere. Interplanetary solar wind plasma shocks can trap energetic particles (cosmic rays) for weeks and out to distances of 17 AU. Energetic particles (o.5 MeV to 20 MeV) were confined between two plasma shocks from solar flares as the shocks propagated outward in the solar system.

  19. Mobile robots III; Proceedings of the Meeting, Cambridge, MA, Nov. 10, 11, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, W.J.

    1989-01-01

    Topics discussed include path planning, terrain classification, planetary rovers, navigation, architecture and control, three-dimensional sensing, and behavior specification. Particular papers are presented on a minimum path algorithm among three-dimensional polyhedral objects, parallel off-road perception processing on the autonomous land vehicle, hazard avoidance for a Mars rover, color vision for road following, a pipeline architecture for near real-time stereo range detection, a computational structure for enforcing reactive behavior in a mobile robot, and homeostatic control for a mobile robot.

  20. Thermal dissipation force modeling with preliminary results for Pioneer 10/11

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rievers, Benny; Bremer, Stefanie; List, Meike; Lämmerzahl, Claus; Dittus, Hansjörg

    2010-02-01

    The dissipation of thermal energy can produce disturbance forces on spacecraft surfaces if the energy is not dissipated in a symmetric pattern. This force can be computed as the quotient of the radiated power and the speed of light for a plate surface element. Depending on mission and spacecraft design the resulting surface forces have to be included into the disturbance budget. At ZARM (Center of Applied Space Technology and Microgravity) a raytracing algorithm was developed that allows the computation of the resulting force for complex spacecraft geometries. The method is based on the modeling of the spacecraft geometry in finite elements (FEs). Using an FE-solver the surface temperatures of the satellite can be derived with geometry and material parameters using heat sources/sinks as constraints. The outgoing radiation force is computed including reflectivity and absorption between all elements of the model. As an example for the method a test case model of the radio isotope thermal generators (RTGs) of Pioneer 11 is processed with this force computing method. The results show that detailed thermal modeling for the whole craft is necessary as the simplified test case results in a force that is non-negligible with respect to the pioneer anomaly.

  1. Environmental I.D.E.A.S. Clusters 10, 11, 12, Physical Sciences. Preliminary Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helmick, Robert; And Others

    Approximately 30 experiments related to environmental problems comprise this manual. The three conceptual themes under which these lessons are organized deal with: (1) change; (2) the interaction of custom, rule, and law in society; and (3) economy, life style, and individual attitudes. Provided are materials for both students and teachers.…

  2. Conference on Uncertainty in Engineering Design (May 10-11, 1988)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-11

    but rather N a coach who encourages and facilitates the work f his quality teams. N 7 Ishikawa’s Seven Tools At a slightly more sophisticated level the...PROGRAM PROJECT TASK WORK UNIT Office of Naval Research, CODE 1511:P.MD ELEMENT NO. No. NO.NO Arlington, Virginia 22217-5000 Conference on Uncertainty...was greatly enhanced by the work of Shepp and Vardi (1982) on the use of maximu, m likelihood (ML) methods. There are earlier instances of suggestions

  3. Pioneer 10/11 data analysis of the trapped radiation experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fillius, W.

    1982-01-01

    The data handling operations and the database produced by the Trapped Radiation Experiment on the NASA Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft are outlined. In situ measurements of trapped radiation at both Jupiter and Saturn, the extension of cosmic ray observations to the outer heliosphere, the presence of Jovian electrons in interplanetary space, analyses of the interaction between planetary satellites and the trapped radiation that engulfs them, and further investigations of the radiation enviroments of both planets are reported.

  4. Dexa Body Composition Assessment in 10-11 Year Healthy Children

    PubMed Central

    Doodeman, H. J.; Struijf, E.; Houdijk, A. P. J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Obesity is a growing health problem associated with metabolic derangements and cardiovascular disease. Accumulating evidence links the accumulation of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) to these obesity related health risks in adults. Childhood obesity is associated with a lifetime risk of cardiovascular disease and poses a serious challenge to future health care. In children, there is much less data on the prevalence and gender differences of visceral obesity than in adults. This study aims to provide reference values for VAT in children 10–11 years of age. Methods In a cross-sectional study performed in the north western part of theNetherlands, healthy children of 10–11 years of age, were recruited from primary schools. Anthropometric data consisting of height, weight, waist circumference (WC) and BMI were measured. Body composition was measured using DXA, providing measures for bone mineral content, total fat mass (TFM), lean body mass (LBM) and VAT. Results 217 children were eligible for this study. Girls appeared to have a greater TFM (31.4% vs 27.5% of total body weight (TBW); P < .01) but lower VAT (0.3% vs 0.5% of TBW;P < .01) than boys, whereas boys had higher LBM (65.4% vs 69.3% TBW;P < .01). Median VAT area (cm2) was 41.1 for boys and 22.4 for girls (P < .01). Moderate to strong correlations were found for WC and BMI with VAT (boys: r = .664 and r = .630; Girls r = .699 and r = .546 respectively all P < .001). Discussion This study shows gender specific differences in VAT percentiles in healthy non-obese 10–11 year old children as measured by DXA that may serve as reference values in children. Independent of BMI and WC, girls tend to have more TFM but less VAT and LBM than boys. PMID:27788168

  5. Optical space communication II; Proceedings of the Meeting, Munich, Germany, June 10, 11, 1991

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franz, Juergen

    1991-05-01

    The present conference discusses the European SILEX project for optical space communications (OSP), Japanese activities in OSPs, deep-space OSP, a high data-rate interorbit link based on diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser technology, an electrooptic modulator for high-speed Nd:YAG laser communications, an unobscured mirror telescope for telecommunications, and optical carrier modulation by integrated optical devices in lithium niobate. Also discussed are micromachined scanning mirrors for laser-beam deflection, coherent optical fiber communications, a 90-deg optical hybrid for coherent receivers, economic factors relevant to an OSP, the effect of microaccelerations on an OSP terminal, and a novel fiber-optics-based conical scan-tracking device.

  6. Ultraviolet technology III; Proceedings of the Meeting, San Diego, CA, Aug. 10, 11, 1989

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huffman, Robert E.

    1989-12-01

    The present conference discusses topics in atmospheric UV radiance, UV detectors, and UV airborne sensors. Attention is given to a UV limb imaging experiment, UV ionospheric remote sensing with the Polar BEAR satellite, photon counting by means of microchannel plate (MCP) intensified electrographic cameras, the use of electron-bombarded virtual-phase CCDs and UV imaging detectors, results of dynamic range measurements on multianode microchannel-array detectors, and confined quantum state photomultiplier design. Also discussed are linear array-based UV spectrographs, a multianode MCP for plasma diagnostics, neutral-density UV filters obeying Beer's law, calibration and performance of the UV plume instrument, a magnetic-focus MCP image tube's evaluation, large CCD arrays with enhanced UV performance, images from a UV solar-blind photon-counting camera, and the design of high power laser polarizers.

  7. Modeling Nonignorable Missing Data with Item Response Theory (IRT). Research Report. ETS RR-10-11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Norman; von Davier, Matthias; Xu, Xueli

    2010-01-01

    Large-scale educational surveys are low-stakes assessments of educational outcomes conducted using nationally representative samples. In these surveys, students do not receive individual scores, and the outcome of the assessment is inconsequential for respondents. The low-stakes nature of these surveys, as well as variations in average performance…

  8. Proceedings of the 1981 RADC Microwave Magnetics Technology Workshop, June 10-11, 1981,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    Acting Chief Antennas & RF Components Branch Electromagnetic Sciences Division APPROVED: ALLAN C. SCHELL Chief, Electromagnetic Sciences Division FOR...RADC Microwave Magnetics Technology Workshop Program 4 Opening Remarks J.C. Sethares, Workshop Chairman, RADC/EEAC, Hanscom AFB, MA 6 A.C. Schell , Chief...make it so. .-- F4 K b o 7K - .o.._ ALLAN C. SCHELL Chief Electromagnetic Sciences Division, RADC I Our interests and concerns in the area of microwave

  9. Direct measurement of Criegee intermediate (CH2OO) reactions with acetone, acetaldehyde, and hexafluoroacetone.

    PubMed

    Taatjes, Craig A; Welz, Oliver; Eskola, Arkke J; Savee, John D; Osborn, David L; Lee, Edmond P F; Dyke, John M; Mok, Daniel W K; Shallcross, Dudley E; Percival, Carl J

    2012-08-14

    Criegee biradicals, i.e., carbonyl oxides, are critical intermediates in ozonolysis and have been implicated in autoignition chemistry and other hydrocarbon oxidation systems, but until recently the direct measurement of their gas-phase kinetics has not been feasible. Indirect determinations of Criegee intermediate kinetics often rely on the introduction of a scavenger molecule into an ozonolysis system and analysis of the effects of the scavenger on yields of products associated with Criegee intermediate reactions. Carbonyl species, in particular hexafluoroacetone (CF(3)COCF(3)), have often been used as scavengers. In this work, the reactions of the simplest Criegee intermediate, CH(2)OO (formaldehyde oxide), with three carbonyl species have been measured by laser photolysis/tunable synchrotron photoionization mass spectrometry. Diiodomethane photolysis produces CH(2)I radicals, which react with O(2) to yield CH(2)OO + I. The formaldehyde oxide is reacted with a large excess of a carbonyl reactant and both the disappearance of CH(2)OO and the formation of reaction products are monitored. The rate coefficient for CH(2)OO + hexafluoroacetone is k(1) = (3.0 ± 0.3) × 10(-11) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), supporting the use of hexafluoroacetone as a Criegee-intermediate scavenger. The reactions with acetaldehyde, k(2) = (9.5 ± 0.7) × 10(-13) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), and with acetone, k(3) = (2.3 ± 0.3) × 10(-13) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), are substantially slower. Secondary ozonides and products of ozonide isomerization are observed from the reactions of CH(2)OO with acetone and hexafluoroacetone. Their photoionization spectra are interpreted with the aid of quantum-chemical and Franck-Condon-factor calculations. No secondary ozonide was observable in the reaction of CH(2)OO with acetaldehyde, but acetic acid was identified as a product under the conditions used (4 Torr and 293 K).

  10. Atmospheric degradation and global warming potentials of three perfluoroalkenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acerboni, G.; Beukes, J. A.; Jensen, N. R.; Hjorth, J.; Myhre, G.; Nielsen, C. J.; Sundet, J. K.

    The vapour phase reactions of perfluoropropene, CF 3CFCF 2, and perfluorobuta-1,3-diene, CF 2CFCFCF 2, with OH, NO 3 and O 3 were studied at 298±4 K and 740±5 Torr using long-path FT-IR detection. The reactions with ozone are very slow, kCF 3CFCF 2+O 3=(6.2±1.5)×10 -22 and kCF 2CFCFCF 2+O 3=(6.5±0.2)×10 -21 cm 3 molecules -1 s -1, and upper limits of 3×10 -15 cm 3 molecules -1 s -1 are reported for the NO 3 reaction rate coefficients. The OH reaction rate coefficients were determined as kCF 3CFCF 2+OH =(2.6±0.7)×10 -12 and kCF 2CFCFCF 2+OH =(1.1±0.3)×10 -11 cm 3 molecules -1 s -1; perfluoropropene gave a nearly quantitative yield of CF 3CFO and CF 2O as organic products, while perfluorobuta-1,3-diene gave from 130% to 170% of CF 2O. A chemistry transport model was applied to calculate the atmospheric distributions and lifetimes of the perfluoroalkenes; the global and yearly averaged lifetimes were calculated as 1.9 day for C 2F 4 and C 4F 6 and 6 days for C 3F 6. Quantitative infrared cross-sections of perfluoroethene, perfluoropropene, and perfluorobuta-1,3-diene have been obtained at 298 K in the region 100-2600 cm -1. Radiative forcing calculations have been performed for these gases assuming either constant vertical profiles or the distribution derived from the chemistry transport model. The results show that the Global Warming Potentials are totally negligible for these compounds.

  11. Kinetics and mechanism of the tropospheric oxidation of vinyl acetate initiated by OH radical: a theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Debasish; Sahu, Chandan; Bagchi, Sabyasachi; Das, Abhijit K

    2013-05-09

    Vinyl acetate [VA (CH3COOC2H3)] is an important unsaturated and oxygenated volatile organic compound responsible for atmospheric pollution. In this work, possible reaction mechanisms for the degradation of OH-initiated atmospheric oxidation of VA are investigated. The potential energy surfaces (PESs) for the reaction of OH radical with VA in the presence of O2 and NO have been studied using the M06-2X/6-311++G(d,p) method. The initial addition reactions of more and less substituted ethylenic C-atoms of VA are treated separately, followed by a conventional transition state theory (TST) calculation for reaction rates. The direct H-abstraction mechanism and kinetics have also been studied. The initial OH addition occurs through a prereactive complex, and the calculated rate constants in the temperature range 250-350 K for both the addition reactions are found to have negative temperature dependence. The calculation indicates that the reaction proceeds predominantly via the addition of OH radical to the double bond rather than the direct abstraction of H-atoms in VA. IM1 [CH3C(O)O(•)CHCH2OH] and IM2 [CH3C(O)OCH(OH)(•)CH2], the OH adduct complexes formed initially, react with ubiquitous O2 followed by NO before their rearrangement. The formation of the prereactive complex plays an important role in reaction mechanism and kinetics. The calculated rate constant, k298K = 1.61 × 10(-11) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), is well harmonized with the previous experimental data, k298K = (2.48 ± 0.61) × 10(-11) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) (Blanco et al.) and k298K = (2.3 ± 0.3) × 10(-11) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) (Picquet-Varrult et al.). Additionally, consistent and reliable enthalpies of formation at 298.15 K (ΔfH°298.15) have been computed for all the species involved in the title reaction using the composite CBS-QB3 method. The theoretical results confirm that the major products are formic acetic anhydride, acetic acid, and formaldehyde in the OH-initiated oxidation of VA in

  12. Brucella abortus as a potential vaccine candidate: induction of interleukin-12 secretion and enhanced B7.1 and B7.2 and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 surface expression in elutriated human monocytes stimulated by heat-inactivated B. abortus.

    PubMed Central

    Zaitseva, M; Golding, H; Manischewitz, J; Webb, D; Golding, B

    1996-01-01

    Development of a vaccine which is capable of generating a strong cellular immune response associated with gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) production and cytotoxic T-cell development requires that the immunogen be capable of inducing the secretion of interleukin-12 (IL-12), which is a pivotal factor for the differentiation of Th1 or Tc1 cells. We have previously shown that the heat-inactivated gram-negative bacterium Brucella abortus can induce IFN-gamma secretion by T cells. In the present study, we demonstrate that B. abortus and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from B. abortus can induce IL-12 p40 mRNA expression and protein secretion by human elutriated monocytes (99% pure). p40 mRNA was detected within 4 h, and p40 protein could be measured at 24 h. This induction was abrogated by anti-CD14 monoclonal antibody, suggesting that monocytes recognize B. abortus via their receptor for LPS. The biological activity of IL-12 secreted by B. abortus-stimulated monocytes was demonstrated by its ability to upregulate IFN-gamma mRNA expression in T cells separated from monocytes and B. abortus by a transwell membrane. The B. abortus-induced IL-12 also enhanced NK cytolytic activity against K562 target cells. B. abortus was shown to rapidly increase the expression of the costimulatory molecules B7.1 and B7.2 and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 on human monocytes. Together, these data indicate that B. abortus can directly activate human monocytes and provide the cytokine milieu which would direct the immune response towards Th1-Tc1 differentiation. PMID:8757841

  13. Gas-phase reaction between calcium monocation and fluoromethane: Analysis of the potential energy hypersurface and kinetics calculations.

    PubMed

    Varela-Alvarez, Adrián; Rayón, V M; Redondo, P; Barrientos, C; Sordo, José A

    2009-10-14

    The gas-phase reaction between calcium monocation and fluoromethane: Ca(+)+CH(3)F-->CaF(+)+CH(3) was theoretically analyzed. The potential energy hypersurface was explored by using density functional theory methodology with different functionals and Pople's, Dunning's, Ahlrichs', and Stuttgart-Dresden basis sets. Kinetics calculations (energy and total angular momentum resolved microcanonical variational/conventional theory) were accomplished. The theoretically predicted range for the global kinetic rate constant values at 295 K (7.2x10(-11)-5.9x10(-10) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1)) agrees reasonably well with the experimental value at the same temperature [(2.6+/-0.8)x10(-10) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1)]. Explicit consideration of a two transition state model, where the formation of a weakly bounded prereactive complex is preceded by an outer transition state (entrance channel) and followed by an inner transition state connecting with a second intermediate that finally leads to products, is mandatory. Experimental observations on the correlation, or lack of correlation, between reaction rate constants and second ionization energies of the metal might well be rationalized in terms of this two transition state model.

  14. Rate and mechanism of the reactions of OH and Cl with 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferronato, C.; Orlando, J. J.; Tyndall, G. S.

    1998-10-01

    An environmental chamber/Fourier transform infrared system was used to determine the rate coefficient k1 for the gas-phase reaction of OH with 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO, (CH3)2C(OH)CH=CH2), relative to the rate of its reaction with ethylene (k2) and propylene (k3). Experiments performed at 295±1 K, in 700 torr total pressure of air, gave k1 = (6.9±1.0) × 10-11 cm3 molecule-1 s-1. At 295±1 K, the reaction of OH with MBO yielded, on a per mole basis, (52±5)% acetone, (50±5)% glycolaldehyde, and (35±4)% formaldehyde. The production of acetone from the oxidation of MBO may be of significance globally. The kinetics and mechanism of the reaction of chlorine atoms with MBO (k15) have also been studied at 700 torr total pressure of air and 295±1 K. The rate coefficient was determined using a relative rate technique, with ethane (k16), ethylene (k17), and cyclohexane (k18) as reference compounds. The value of k15 was found to be (3.3±0.4) × 10-10 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 at 295 K. The major carbon-containing products obtained in the Cl-atom oxidation of MBO were acetone (47±5)%, chloroacetaldehyde (53±5)%, HCOCl (<11%), and formaldehyde (6 ± 2)%.

  15. Rate coefficients for the OH + pinonaldehyde (C10H16O2) reaction between 297 and 374 K.

    PubMed

    Davis, Maxine E; Talukdar, Ranajit K; Notte, Gregory; Ellison, G Barney; Burkholder, James B

    2007-06-01

    The rate coefficientforthe reaction of OH with pinonaldehyde (C10H16O2, 3-acetyl-2,2-dimethyl-cyclobutyl-ethanal), a product of the atmospheric oxidation of alpha-pinene, was measured under pseudo-first-order conditions in OH at temperatures between 297 and 374 K at 55 and 96 Torr (He). Laser induced fluorescence (LIF) was used to monitor OH in the presence of pinonaldehyde following its production by 248 nm pulsed laser photolysis of H2O2. The reaction exhibits a negative temperature dependence with an Arrhenius expression of k1(T) = (4.5 +/- 1.3) x 10(-12) exp((600 +/- 100)/ 7) cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1); k1(297 K) = (3.46 +/- 0.4) x 10(-11) cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1). There was no observed dependence of the rate coefficient on pressure. Our results are compared with previous relative rate determinations of k1 near 297 K and the discrepancies are discussed. The state of knowledge for the atmospheric processing of pinonaldehyde is reviewed, and its role as a marker for alpha-pinene (monoterpene) chemistry in the atmosphere is discussed.

  16. Rate parameters for the reaction of atomic hydrogen with dimethyl ether and dimethyl sulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. H.; Machen, R. C.; Nava, D. F.; Stief, L. J.

    1981-03-01

    Absolute rate constants for the reaction of atomic hydrogen with dimethyl ether (DME) and dimethyl sulfide (DMS) were obtained using the flash photolysis-resonance fluorescence technique. Under conditions where secondary reactions are avoided, rate constants for the H+DME reaction over the temperature range 273-426 K are well represented by the Arrhenius expression k1=(4.38±0.59)×10-12 exp(-1956±43/T) cm3 molecule-1 s-1. The corresponding Arrhenius expression for the H+DMS reaction over the temperature range 212-500 K is k2=(1.30±0.43)×10-11exp(-1118±81/T) cm3 molecule-1 s-1. The Arrhenius plot for k2 shows signs of curvature, however, and separate Arrhenius expressions are derived for the data above and below room temperature. These results are discussed and comparisons are made with previous determinations which employed flow discharge and product analysis techniques.

  17. Kinetics and products of the reaction of OH radicals with 3-methoxy-3-methyl-1-butanol.

    PubMed

    Aschmann, Sara M; Arey, Janet; Atkinson, Roger

    2011-08-15

    3-Methoxy-3-methyl-1-butanol [CH(3)OC(CH(3))(2)CH(2)CH(2)OH] is used as a solvent for paints, inks, and fragrances and as a raw material for the production of industrial detergents. A rate constant of (1.64 ± 0.18) × 10(-11) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) for the reaction of 3-methoxy-3-methyl-1-butanol with OH radicals has been measured at 296 ± 2 K using a relative rate method, where the indicated error is the estimated overall uncertainty. Acetone, methyl acetate, glycolaldehyde, and 3-methoxy-3-methylbutanal were identified as products of the OH radical-initiated reaction, with molar formation yields of 3 ± 1%, 35 ± 9%, 13 ± 3%, and 33 ± 7%, respectively, at an average NO concentration of 1.3 × 10(14) molecules cm(-3). Using a 12-h average daytime OH radical concentration of 2 × 10(6) molecules cm(-3), the calculated lifetime of 3-methoxy-3-methyl-1-butanol with respect to reaction with OH radicals is 8.5 h. Potential reaction mechanisms are discussed.

  18. Kinetics of the gas phase reactions of chlorine atoms with a series of formates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallington, T. J.; Hurley, M. D.; Haryanto, A.

    2006-12-01

    Relative rate techniques were used to study the reactivity of Cl atoms with a series of formates in 700 Torr of N 2 diluent at 296 K. Rate constants were determined for the following compounds: methyl formate, (1.30 ± 0.13) × 10 -12; ethyl formate, (9.57 ± 1.27) × 10 -12; n-propyl formate, (4.65 ± 0.47) × 10 -11; and n-butyl formate, (1.12 ± 0.14) × 10 -10 cm 3 molecule -1 s -1. These results are consistent with previous relative rate studies but are approximately 20-30% lower than the results from an absolute rate study of the reactivity of chlorine atoms towards esters. Likely explanations for the discrepancy are discussed.

  19. Kinetics of the reactions of chlorine atoms with a series of acetates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Jia-Hua; Takahashi, Kenshi; Hurley, Michael D.; Wallington, Timothy J.

    2009-06-01

    The kinetics of the reactions of Cl atoms with a series of alkyl acetates were investigated using relative and absolute rate methods in 2-700 Torr of N 2 at room temperature. Consistent results were obtained using the two methods. The data from the absolute rate measurements were more precise and were (in units of 10 -11 cm 3 molecule -1 s -1): ethyl acetate, 1.76 ± 0.11; n-propyl acetate, 7.19 ± 0.11; i-propyl acetate, 1.97 ± 0.24; n-butyl acetate, 15.8 ± 0.94; i-butyl acetate, 9.97 ± 0.60; s-butyl acetate, 8.01 ± 0.48; and t-butyl acetate, 1.64 ± 0.10. The reactivity of alkyl acetates is discussed in terms of structure-activity relationship.

  20. Gas phase production and loss of isoprene epoxydiols.

    PubMed

    Bates, Kelvin H; Crounse, John D; St Clair, Jason M; Bennett, Nathan B; Nguyen, Tran B; Seinfeld, John H; Stoltz, Brian M; Wennberg, Paul O

    2014-02-20

    Isoprene epoxydiols (IEPOX) form in high yields from the OH-initiated oxidation of isoprene under low-NO conditions. These compounds contribute significantly to secondary organic aerosol formation. Their gas-phase chemistry has, however, remained largely unexplored. In this study, we characterize the formation of IEPOX isomers from the oxidation of isoprene by OH. We find that cis-β- and trans-β-IEPOX are the dominant isomers produced, and that they are created in an approximate ratio of 1:2 from the low-NO oxidation of isoprene. Three isomers of IEPOX, including cis-β- and trans-β, were synthesized and oxidized by OH in environmental chambers under high- and low-NO conditions. We find that IEPOX reacts with OH at 299 K with rate coefficients of (0.84 ± 0.07) × 10(-11), (1.52 ± 0.07) × 10(-11), and (0.98 ± 0.05) × 10(-11) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) for the δ1, cis-β, and trans-β isomers. Finally, yields of the first-generation products of IEPOX + OH oxidation were measured, and a new mechanism of IEPOX oxidation is proposed here to account for the observed products. The substantial yield of glyoxal and methylglyoxal from IEPOX oxidation may help explain elevated levels of those compounds observed in low-NO environments with high isoprene emissions.

  1. Absolute rate determinations and temperature dependences of the gas-phase reactions of O( 3P) with halogenated propenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cometto, Pablo M.; Teruel, Mariano A.; Taccone, Raúl A.; Lane, Silvia I.

    2006-01-01

    The rate constants for the gas-phase reactions of ground state oxygen atoms with CF 3CH dbnd CH 2 (1), CF 3CF dbnd CF 2 (2) and CF 3CCl dbnd CCl 2 (3) have been measured directly using a discharge flow tube employing the O( 3P) chemiluminescence titration method. The experiments were carried out under pseudo-first-order conditions with [O( 3P)] 0 ≪ [propene] 0. The temperature dependences of the reactions were studied for the first time in the range 298-363 K. The Arrhenius expressions obtained (in units of cm 3 molecule -1 s -1) were: k1 = (0.28 ± 0.09) × 10 -11 exp[-(10.4 ± 0.9) × 10 3/ RT], k2 = (1.57 ± 0.72) × 10 -11 exp[-(15.6 ± 1.3) × 10 3/ RT], k3 = (2.23 ± 1.27) × 10 -11 exp[-(16.0 ± 1.6) × 10 3/ RT]. All the rate coefficients display a positive temperature dependence which points to the importance of the irreversibility of the addition mechanism for these reactions. Halogen substitution in the alkenes is discussed in terms of reactivity with O( 3P) and its relation with the ionization potential.

  2. Direct measurement and theoretical calculation of the rate coefficient for Cl+CH3 in the range from T=202-298 K.

    PubMed

    Parker, James K; Payne, Walter A; Cody, Regina J; Nesbitt, Fred L; Stief, Louis J; Klippenstein, Stephen J; Harding, Lawrence B

    2007-02-15

    The rate coefficient has been measured under pseudo-first-order conditions for the Cl+CH3 association reaction at T=202, 250, and 298 K and P=0.3-2.0 Torr helium using the technique of discharge-flow mass spectrometry with low-energy (12-eV) electron-impact ionization and collision-free sampling. Cl and CH3 were generated rapidly and simultaneously by reaction of F with HCl and CH4, respectively. Fluorine atoms were produced by microwave discharge in an approximately 1% mixture of F2 in He. The decay of CH3 was monitored under pseudo-first-order conditions with the Cl-atom concentration in large excess over the CH3 concentration ([Cl]0/[CH3]0=9-67). Small corrections were made for both axial and radial diffusion and minor secondary chemistry. The rate coefficient was found to be in the falloff regime over the range of pressures studied. For example, at T=202 K, the rate coefficient increases from 8.4x10(-12) at P=0.30 Torr He to 1.8x10(-11) at P=2.00 Torr He, both in units of cm3 molecule-1 s-1. A combination of ab initio quantum chemistry, variational transition-state theory, and master-equation simulations was employed in developing a theoretical model for the temperature and pressure dependence of the rate coefficient. Reasonable empirical representations of energy transfer and of the effect of spin-orbit interactions yield a temperature- and pressure-dependent rate coefficient that is in excellent agreement with the present experimental results. The high-pressure limiting rate coefficient from the RRKM calculations is k2=6.0x10(-11) cm3 molecule-1 s-1, independent of temperature in the range from 200 to 300 K.

  3. FTIR gas-phase kinetic study on the reactions of some acrylate esters with OH radicals and Cl atoms.

    PubMed

    Moreno, A; Gallego-Iniesta, M P; Taccone, R; Martín, M P; Cabañas, B; Salgado, M S

    2014-10-01

    Acrylate esters are α,β-unsaturated esters that contain vinyl groups directly attached to the carbonyl carbon. These compounds are widely used in the production of plastics and resins. Atmospheric degradation processes of these compounds are currently not well understood. The kinetics of the gas phase reactions of OH radicals with methyl 3-methylacrylate and methyl 3,3-dimethylacrylate were determined using the relative rate technique in a 50 L Pyrex photoreactor using in situ FTIR spectroscopy at room temperature (298 ± 2 K) and atmospheric pressure (708 ± 8 Torr) with air as the bath gas. Rate coefficients obtained were (in units cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1)): (3.27 ± 0.33) × 10(-11) and (4.43 ± 0.42) × 10(-11), for CH3CH═CHC(O)OCH3 and (CH3)2CH═CHC(O)OCH3, respectively. The same technique was used to study the gas phase reactions of hexyl acrylate and ethyl hexyl acrylate with OH radicals and Cl atoms. In the experiments with Cl, N2 and air were used as the bath gases. The following rate coefficients were obtained (in cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1)): k3 (CH2═CHC(O)O(CH2)5CH3 + Cl) = (3.31 ± 0.31) × 10(-10), k4(CH2═CHC(O)OCH2CH(CH2CH3)(CH2)3CH3 + Cl) = (3.46 ± 0.31) × 10(-10), k5(CH2═CHC(O)O(CH2)5CH3 + OH) = (2.28 ± 0.23) × 10(-11), and k6(CH2═CHC(O)OCH2CH(CH2CH3)(CH2)3CH3 + OH) = (2.74 ± 0.26) × 10(-11). The reactivity increased with the number of methyl substituents on the double bond and with the chain length of the alkyl group in -C(O)OR. Estimations of the atmospheric lifetimes clearly indicate that the dominant atmospheric loss process for these compounds is their daytime reaction with the hydroxyl radical. In coastal areas and in some polluted environments, Cl atom-initiated degradation of these compounds can be significant, if not dominant. Maximum Incremental Reactivity (MIR) index and global warming potential (GWP) were also calculated, and it was concluded that these compounds have significant MIR values, but they do

  4. Efficiency calibration and coincidence summing correction for a large volume (946cm(3)) LaBr3(Ce) detector: GEANT4 simulations and experimental measurements.

    PubMed

    Dhibar, M; Mankad, D; Mazumdar, I; Kumar, G Anil

    2016-12-01

    The paper describes the studies on efficiency calibration and coincidence summing correction for a 3.5″×6″ cylindrical LaBr3(Ce)detector. GEANT4 simulations were made with point sources, namely, (60)Co, (94)Nb, (24)Na, (46)Sc and (22)Na. The simulated efficiencies, extracted using (60)Co, (94)Nb, (24)Na and (46)Sc that emit coincident gamma rays with same decay intensities, were corrected for coincidence summing by applying the method proposed by Vidmar et al. (2003). The method was applied, for the first time, for correcting the simulated efficiencies extracted using (22)Na that emits coincident gamma rays with different decay intensities. The measured results obtained using (60)Co and (22)Na were found to be in good agreement with simulated results.

  5. FAMOUS, faster: using parallel computing techniques to accelerate the FAMOUS/HadCM3 climate model with a focus on the radiative transfer algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanappe, P.; Beurivé, A.; Laguzet, F.; Steels, L.; Bellouin, N.; Boucher, O.; Yamazaki, Y. H.; Aina, T.; Allen, M.

    2011-06-01

    We have optimised the atmospheric radiation algorithm of the FAMOUS climate model on several hardware platforms. The optimisation involved translating the Fortran code to C and restructuring the algorithm around the computation of a single air column. A task queue and a thread pool are used to distribute the computation to several processors. Finally, four air columns are packed together in a single data structure and computed simultaneously using Single Instruction Multiple Data operations. The modified algorithm runs more than 50 times faster on the CELL's Synergistic Processing Elements than on its main PowerPC processing element. On Intel-compatible processors, the new radiation code runs 4 times faster and on graphics processors, using OpenCL, more than 2.5 times faster, as compared to the original code. Because the radiation code takes more than 60 % of the total CPU time, FAMOUS executes more than twice as fast. Our version of the algorithm returns bit-wise identical results, which demonstrates the robustness of our approach.

  6. FAMOUS, faster: using parallel computing techniques to accelerate the FAMOUS/HadCM3 climate model with a focus on the radiative transfer algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanappe, P.; Beurivé, A.; Laguzet, F.; Steels, L.; Bellouin, N.; Boucher, O.; Yamazaki, Y. H.; Aina, T.; Allen, M.

    2011-09-01

    We have optimised the atmospheric radiation algorithm of the FAMOUS climate model on several hardware platforms. The optimisation involved translating the Fortran code to C and restructuring the algorithm around the computation of a single air column. Instead of the existing MPI-based domain decomposition, we used a task queue and a thread pool to schedule the computation of individual columns on the available processors. Finally, four air columns are packed together in a single data structure and computed simultaneously using Single Instruction Multiple Data operations. The modified algorithm runs more than 50 times faster on the CELL's Synergistic Processing Element than on its main PowerPC processing element. On Intel-compatible processors, the new radiation code runs 4 times faster. On the tested graphics processor, using OpenCL, we find a speed-up of more than 2.5 times as compared to the original code on the main CPU. Because the radiation code takes more than 60 % of the total CPU time, FAMOUS executes more than twice as fast. Our version of the algorithm returns bit-wise identical results, which demonstrates the robustness of our approach. We estimate that this project required around two and a half man-years of work.

  7. A 0.5 cm(3) four-channel 1.1 mW wireless biosignal interface with 20 m range.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Tim; Nagaraju, Manohar; Winslow, Brent; Bernard, Amy; Otis, Brian P

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents a self-contained, single-chip biosignal monitoring system with wireless programmability and telemetry interface suitable for mainstream healthcare applications. The system consists of low-noise front end amplifiers, ADC, MICS/ISM transmitter and infrared programming capability to configure the state of the chip. An on-chip packetizer ensures easy pairing with standard off-the-shelf receivers. The chip is realized in the IBM 130 nm CMOS process with an area of 2×2 mm(2). The entire system consumes 1.07 mW from a 1.2 V supply. It weighs 0.6 g including a zinc-air battery. The system has been extensively tested in in vivo biological experiments and requires minimal human interaction or calibration.

  8. Adsorption isotherms for hydrogen chloride (HCl) on ice surfaces between 190 and 220 K.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, S; Kippenberger, M; Schuster, G; Crowley, J N

    2016-05-18

    The interaction of hydrogen chloride (HCl) with ice surfaces at temperatures between 190 and 220 K was investigated using a coated-wall flow-tube connected to a chemical ionization mass spectrometer. Equilibrium surface coverages of HCl were determined at gas phase concentrations as low as 2 × 10(9) molecules cm(-3) (∼4 × 10(-8) Torr at 200 K) to derive Langmuir adsorption isotherms. The data are described by a temperature independent partition coefficient: KLang = (3.7 ± 0.2) × 10(-11) cm(3) molecule(-1) with a saturation surface coverage Nmax = (2.0 ± 0.2) × 10(14) molecules cm(-2). The lack of a systematic dependence of KLang on temperature contrasts the behaviour of numerous trace gases which adsorb onto ice via hydrogen bonding and is most likely related to the ionization of HCl at the surface. The results are compared to previous laboratory studies, and the equilibrium partitioning of HCl to ice surfaces under conditions relevant to the atmosphere is evaluated.

  9. Middle School Mathematics: 2006-07 to 2008-09. Impact Evaluation. E&R Report No. 10.11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paeplow, Colleen

    2010-01-01

    In 2006-07, seven Wake County Public School System (WCPSS) middle schools piloted Algebraic Thinking as an alternate approach to teaching middle school mathematics. Algebraic Thinking was developed to help students in grade 6 reach higher mathematics courses by combining the regular and advanced middle school mathematics courses into one…

  10. Wake Characteristics of a Single Turbine During the CWEX-10/11 Crop Wind-Energy EXperiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajewski, D. A.; Takle, E. S.; Lundquist, J. K.; Rhodes, M. E.; Prueger, J. H.; Oncley, S. O.; Horst, T. W.; Pfeiffer, R.; Hatfield, J.; Spoth, K. K.; Doorenbos, R. K.

    2013-12-01

    In the summer of 2010 and 2011 for the Crop Wind-energy EXperiment (CWEX), flux stations measured differences in micrometeorology upstream and downstream of a single turbine within a large wind farm in Iowa. Profiling LiDARs were positioned upwind and downwind of a single turbine for two months in 2011 to document the wake profiles of mean wind speed and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE). Nacelle-based measurements of wind speed, wind direction, and power produced verified the likely presence of a wake above the downwind flux station. As described in the CWEX overview paper (Rajewski et al. 2013) the flux stations detected (1) turbine-wake events for wakes overhead but not intersecting the surface, (2) wakes with a direct surface influence, and (3) flow perturbations caused by the static pressure field around a line of turbines. We refine our conceptual model of wind turbine flow by comparing downwind-upwind flux and profile station differences for categories of waked and non-waked flow according to turbine hub-height speed and direction, ambient thermal stratification, and the operating status of the turbines. For nighttime stable conditions (some for which a low level jet is present) we measured both within the rotor depth and at the surface higher turbulence and stronger intermittency of the flow on the wake edges as compared to the wake core. We additionally observe frequent periods with 20-30° of directional shear from the surface to the top of the rotor as evidenced by a downwind flux station in non-waked flow with concurrent LiDAR measurement of a wake in the rotor layer. Momentum power spectra and co-spectra of 20-Hz surface data corroborate with previous wind tunnel and numerical simulations of wake turbulence with higher energy intensity but at reduced scales than for non-waked conditions. The spectra demonstrate a return to ambient flow when the wind farm is brought offline.

  11. Guiding Age 10-11 Students to Notice the Salient Features of Physical Change Models in Chemistry Digital Learning Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafson, Brenda; Mahaffy, Peter; Martin, Brian

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on one Grade 5 class (9 females; 9 males) who worked in student-pairs to view five digital learning object (DLO) lessons created by the authors and meant to introduce students to the nature of models, the particle nature of matter, and physical change. Specifically, the paper focuses on whether DLO design elements could assist…

  12. Strand I - Physical Health; Disease Prevention and Control for Grades 10, 11, and 12. Special Edition for Evaluation and Discussion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    This health curriculum guide, intended for use in grades ten through twelve, addresses itself to disease prevention and control concepts which are particularly relevant to the adolescent's physical health needs. The contents of the guide are presented in outline form and cover source of injection, preventing the spread of communicable diseases,…

  13. Proceedings of the Conference on Nutrition and Mental Retardation (Ann Arbor, Michigan, February 10-11, 1971).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Ninfa Saturnino, Ed.

    The conference, planned primarily for nutritionists and dieticians, dealt with the role of nutrition in the prevention and management of mental retardation. Proceedings include an overview of mental retardation, an examination of nutrition manpower needs in the fields of mental health and mental retardation on both the national and state levels,…

  14. Medical Service Specialist, Blocks III, V, VI, 10-11. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This second course of a two-course, postsecondary-level series for medical service specialist is one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instruction and curriculum development in a civilian setting. The purpose stated for the 89-hour course is to provide training in the basic theory and…

  15. Antifungal drug discovery and development--fourth international summit. 10-11 March 1999, Princeton, New Jersey, USA.

    PubMed

    Ryder, N

    1999-05-01

    Genetic and genomic approaches to discovery, selection and evaluation of antifungal targets were extensively discussed by several speakers at this meeting. Experimental targets with early lead compounds available from screening programs include translation (Ribogene Inc), transcription (SCRIPTGEN Pharmaceuticals Inc), and protein geranylgeranylation (Mitotix Inc). Classes of compounds which are more advanced in preclinical evaluation include the sordarins, inhibitors of fungal elongation factor 2 under development by Glaxo Wellcome plc and Merck and Co Inc, and a series of fungicidal peptides originally derived from a domain of the human neutrophil bactericidal permeability-increasing protein (BPI, Xoma Ltd). Preclinical and early clinical data were presented for two compounds: caspofungin (MK-0991, Merck and Co Inc), an echinocandin with a broad-spectrum of activity for parenteral application, and Sch-56592 (Schering-Plough Corp), an orally active triazole. The oral antimycotic, terbinafine (Novartis AG), primarily used in dermatological infections, shows potent synergy with azoles and has potential applications against several serious and drug-resistant fungal pathogens. Amphotericin B, which has long been the gold standard for therapy of life-threatening infections, is now available in several liposomal formulations, including AmBisome (Fujisawa Pharmaceutical Co Ltd) and Abelcet (The Liposome Company Inc) which show a reduced incidence of adverse events.

  16. Proceedings of the Eastern Region Annual Research Conference in Agricultural Education (Easton, Maryland, May 10-11, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1985

    Twelve major papers delivered during this conference on agricultural education in the Northeastern states are included in this volume: (1) "Status of Pennsylvania Special Needs Students in Vocational Agriculture: Phase IV--Job Performance Follow-Up," by Dennis C. Scanlon and Connie D. Baggett; (2) "Education, Age and Experience:…

  17. Fundamentals of Tribology Workshop Held at the University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida on 10-11 May 2010: Project Summary

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    Emerging characterization tools entailing elements of both microscopy and spectroscopy (nanoIR, X-ray microtomography, MALDI TOF -MS, TOF -SIMS...technologies. • Development of mechanical models of soft materials ( polymers ) will be required to allow their greater incorporation into tribological...systems; viscoelastic models are needed to describe the deformation of polymers from initiation to fracture; • Expansion of mechanical models to

  18. Advanced On-The-Job Training System: User’s Handbook (Sections 10-11). Volume 3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-01

    A LABORATORY AIR FORCE SYSTEMS COMMAND BROOKS AIR FORCE BASE, TEXAS 78235-5601 NOTICE When Government drawings, specifications, or other data are...any obligation whatsoever. The fact that the Government may have formulated or in any way supplied the said drawings, specifications, or other data ...I provides information on the types and the operation of equipment used by the system. Volume II contains information on accessing and reviewing data

  19. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Midwest Philosophy of Education Society (Ann Arbor, Michigan, November 10-11, 1978).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merritt, James, Ed.; And Others

    The Midwest Philosophy of Education Society strives to enhance and deepen the level of conversation about education in the modern world and to evaluate, in moral terms, the relationship of education to the larger society. The following papers were presented at the 1978 annual meeting of the Society: "Educational Evaluation and Emancipation" (Gary…

  20. The Effects of Playground Markings on the Physical Self-Perceptions of 10-11-Year-Old School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crust, Lee; McKenna, Jim; Spence, Jon; Thomas, Catherine; Evans, Donna; Bishop, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Background: Significant proportions of school children in the UK do not meet the minimum recommended daily requirements of 60-min moderate-intensity physical activity. Beyond taught classes, playtimes offer the opportunity for children to play and be physically active. Painted markings are one recent addition to school playgrounds that are…

  1. Interdisciplinary Student/Teacher Materials in Energy, the Environment, and the Economy: Agriculture, Energy, and Society, Grades 10, 11, 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Phyllis; And Others

    This interdisciplinary instructional unit contains eleven lessons for grades 10-12 which focus on the energy component of food production. There are lessons which contrast food production systems in various cultures and also lessons which look at different systems and techniques in use in this country. There are lessons dealing with organic…

  2. Proceedings of the National Seminar for State Directors of Community-Junior Colleges (January 10-11, 1972). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugherty, Ronald, Comp.; And Others

    This 3-day seminar was specifically designed to acquaint state leaders with those trends in occupational education having direct and indirect implications for the post-secondary level and to provide a forum for identification and discussion of problems. Thus, 49 participants met and responded to presentations on the following topics: (1) "Improved…

  3. The Resources and Strategies that 10--11-Year-Old Boys Use to Construct Masculinities in the School Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swain, Jon

    2004-01-01

    The data in this article come from an ethnographic exploration into the construction of masculinities in three junior schools in the UK between 1998 and 1999. The author argues that the construction and performance of masculinity is inextricably linked to the acquisition of status within the school peer group, and he delineates the specific series…

  4. Manpower Planning and Forecasting, Proceedings of the Annual Research Conference (10th, Beverly Hills, California, April 10-11, 1967).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Los Angeles. Inst. of Industrial Relations.

    Five conference papers covering research studies and problems related to effective utilization of manpower in southern California are presented. "The Impact of Technological Change on Employees in the Southern California Aerospace Industry," by Paul Prasow, reports a longitudinal study of social and psychological adjustment factors…

  5. Proceedings on Combating the Unrestricted Warfare Threat: Integrating Strategy, Analysis, and Technology, 10-11 March 2008

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    combined because that is force pro- tection. L.A./Long Beach brings in 43% of all the containers and 50% of all the energy west of the Rocky ... Mountains . If I am an adversary in Southern California, do I go south to San Diego or do I go to L.A.? By hardening the Port of San Diego, we created an...Chapter 3 Roundtable 2 Denying Access to and Use of WMD The dog spots the tiger with the monkey on his back as they emerge from the jungle. He says

  6. A Synopsis of the National Conference on Fitness and Aging (Washington, DC, September 10-11, 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports, Washington, DC.

    This report contains presentations and program descriptions given at a conference on physical fitness and older adults. Included are: (1) Keynote Address (Richard S. Schweiker); (2) "Government's Role in Fitness for the Aging" (Pete V. Domenici and Beverly B. Byron); (3) "What Is Aging?" (James Skinner); (4) Medical Implications of Fitness and…

  7. The Major Project in the Field of Education in the Latin American and Caribbean Region. Bulletin 10-11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Santiago (Chile). Regional Office for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    The Major Project in the Field of Education stresses renewed and intensive efforts by Latin American and Caribbean Island countries to provide the resources and training necessary to meet basic education needs by the year 2000. This document examines project achievements, innovations, and problems through 1986 in the areas of rural education,…

  8. Oregon Statewide Writing Assessment: Results, Analysis, and Sample Student Writings, 1993-1997. Grades 8, 10, 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Bonnie

    Noting that statewide writing assessment shows the achievements of Oregon students over the last decade, this booklet explains the results for the 1993-1997 assessments and provides papers illustrating the work that Oregon students in grades 8, 10, and 11 produce on the state test. The booklet's chapters are: (1) The History of Writing Assessment…

  9. Proceedings of a Conference--"The Future of Grammar in American Schools" (Winchester, VA, August 10-11, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council of Teachers of English, Urbana, IL. Assembly for the Teaching of English Grammar.

    Providing alternatives to the way grammar is taught, this proceedings includes every paper (or summary) except one delivered at a conference on the future of grammar in American schools. Papers in the proceedings are: "Keynote: The Future of Grammar in American Schools" (Martha Kolln); "Approaches to Grammar: Teaching &…

  10. Report of the Yale Conference on the Teaching of English (16th, Yale University, April 10-11, 1970).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yale Univ., New Haven, CT. Graduate School.

    Four speeches illustrating important principles in the teaching of English are collected in this booklet: (1) "The Teaching of Writing as Art" by William E. Coles, Jr., who, in posing ambiguous, provocative questions as writing assignments, compels the student to explore language in its relationship to his experience and his persona; (2)…

  11. Portable TXRF Spectrometer with 10-11g Detection Limit and Portable XRF Spectromicroscope with Sub-mm Spatial Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunimura, Shinsuke; Hatakeyama, So; Sasaki, Nobuharu; Yamamoto, Takashi; Kawai, Jun

    2010-04-01

    A portable total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometer that we have developed is applied to trace elemental analysis of water solutions. Although a 5 W X-ray tube is used in the portable TXRF spectrometer, detection limits of several ppb are achieved for 3d transition metal elements and trace elements in a leaching solution of soils, a leaching solution of solder, and alcoholic beverages are detected. Portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectromicroscopes with a 1 W X-ray tube and an 8 W X-ray tube are also presented. Using the portable XRF spectromicroscope with the 1 W X-ray tube, 93 ppm of Cr is detected with an about 700 μm spatial resolution. Spatially resolved elemental analysis of a mug painted with blue, red, green, and white is performed using the two portable spectromicroscopes, and the difference in elemental composition at each paint is detected.

  12. Seeking Sustainable Public Universities: The Legacy of the Great Recession. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.10.11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyall, Katharine

    2011-01-01

    The business models under which most public universities in the U.S. operate have become unsustainable. They were put in place when state economies were stronger and there were fewer programs making competing claims on state funds. The current Great Recession has made things worse, but the unsustainability of current business models derives from…

  13. The future of aeronautical transportation; Proceedings of the Princeton University Conference, Princeton, N.J., November 10, 11, 1975

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Papers are presented on first and second generation supersonic transports, the Supersonic Cruise Aircraft Research Program, wide-body subsonic transports and vertical and short takeoff and landing transports. Aspects of aircraft design are examined including the airframe, propulsion and electronics. Government regulation, cost/benefit analysis of research and development, airline economics and aircraft financing are also considered. The environmental impact of air transportation is discussed with emphasis on atmospheric emissions (including stratospheric pollution) and noise pollution. Individual items are announced in this issue.

  14. Rates and mechanisms for the reactions of chlorine atoms with iodoethane and 2-iodopropane.

    PubMed

    Orlando, John J; Piety, Charles A; Nicovich, J Michael; McKee, Michael L; Wine, Paul H

    2005-08-04

    The reaction of Cl atoms with iodoethane has been studied via a combination of laser flash photolysis/resonance fluorescence (LFP-RF), environmental chamber/Fourier transform (FT)IR, and quantum chemical techniques. Above 330 K, the flash photolysis data indicate that the reaction proceeds predominantly via hydrogen abstraction. The following Arrhenius expressions (in units of cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1)) apply over the temperature range 334-434 K for reaction of Cl with CH3CH2I (k4(H)) and CD3CD2I (k4(D)): k4(H) = (6.53 +/- 3.40) x 10(-11) exp[-(428 +/- 206)/T] and k4(D) = (2.21 +/- 0.44) x 10(-11) exp[-(317 +/- 76)/T]. At room temperature and below, the reaction proceeds both via hydrogen abstraction and via reversible formation of an iodoethane/Cl adduct. Analysis of the LFP-RF data yields a binding enthalpy (0 K) for CD3CD2I x Cl of 57 +/- 10 kJ mol(-1). Calculations using density functional theory show that the adduct is characterized by a C-I-Cl bond angle of 84.5 degrees; theoretical binding enthalpies of 38.2 kJ/mol, G2'[ECP(S)], and 59.0 kJ mol(-1), B3LYP/ECP, are reasonably consistent with the experimentally derived result. Product studies conducted in the environmental chamber show that hydrogen abstraction from both the -CH2I and -CH3 groups occur to a significant extent and also provide evidence for a reaction of the CH3CH2I x Cl adduct with CH3CH2I, leading to CH3CH2Cl formation. Complementary environmental chamber studies of the reaction of Cl atoms with 2-iodopropane, CH3CHICH3, are also presented. As determined by relative rate methods, the reaction proceeds with an effective rate coefficient, k6, of (5.0 +/- 0.6) x 10(-11) cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1) at 298 K. Product studies indicate that this reaction also occurs via two abstraction channels (from the CH3 groups and from the -CHI- group) and via reversible adduct formation.

  15. Dissociative excitation transfer in the reaction of O2(a1Δg) with OH-(H2O)1,2 clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viggiano, Albert A.; Midey, Anthony; Eyet, Nicole; Bierbaum, Veronica M.; Troe, Jürgen

    2009-09-01

    Rate constants for the dissociation of OH-(H2O) and OH-(H2O)2 by transfer of electronic energy from O2(a1Δg) were measured. Values of 1.8×10-11 and 2.2×10-11 cm3 molecule-1 s-1, respectively, at 300 K were derived and temperature dependences were obtained from 300 to 500 K for OH-(H2O) and from 300 to 400 K for OH-(H2O)2. Dissociative excitation transfer with OH-(H2O) is slightly endothermic and the reaction appears to have a positive temperature dependence, but barely outside the uncertainty range. In contrast, the reaction of OH-(H2O)2 is exothermic and appears to have a negative temperature dependence. The rate constants are analyzed in terms of unimolecular rate theory, which suggests that the dissociation is prompt and is not affected by collisions with the helium buffer gas.

  16. Kinetic of the gas-phase reactions of OH radicals and Cl atoms with diethyl ethylphosphonate and triethyl phosphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laversin, H.; El Masri, A.; Al Rashidi, M.; Roth, E.; Chakir, A.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, the relative-rate technique has been used to obtain rate coefficients for the reaction of two organophosphorus compounds: Triethyl phosphate (TEP) and Diethyl ethylphosphonate (DEEP) with OH radicals and Cl atoms at atmospheric pressure and at different temperatures. The calculated rate constants were fitted to the Arrhenius expression over the temperature range 298-352 K. The following expressions (in cm3 molecule-1 s-1) were obtained for the reactions of OH and CL with DEEP and TEP: kOH+DEEP = (7.84 ± 0.65) × 10-14exp((1866 ± 824)/T), kOH+TEP = (6.54 ± 0.42) × 10-14exp((1897 ± 626)/T), kCl+DEEP = (5.27 ± 0.80) × 10-11exp(765 ± 140/T) and kCl+TEP = (5.23 ± 0.80) × 10-11exp(736 ± 110/T). These results show that the reaction of the studied compounds with Cl atoms proceeds more rapidly than that with OH radicals. The related tropospheric lifetimes suggest that once emitted into the atmosphere, TEP and DEEP can be removed within a few hours in areas close to their emission sources. TEP and DEEP are principally removed by OH radicals. However, in coastal areas where the Cl atoms' concentration is higher, TEP and DEEP removal by reaction with Cl atoms could be a competitive process.

  17. Cl atom initiated oxidation of 1-alkenes under atmospheric conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walavalkar, M.; Sharma, A.; Alwe, H. D.; Pushpa, K. K.; Dhanya, S.; Naik, P. D.; Bajaj, P. N.

    2013-03-01

    In view of the importance of the oxidation pathways of alkenes in the troposphere, and the significance of Cl atom as an oxidant in marine boundary layer (MBL) and polluted industrial atmosphere, the reactions of four 1-alkenes (C6-C9) with Cl atoms are investigated. The rate coefficients at 298 K are measured to be (4.0 ± 0.5), (4.4 ± 0.7), (5.5 ± 0.9) and (5.9 ± 1.7) × 10-10 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 for 1-hexene, 1-heptene, 1-octene and 1-nonene, respectively. The quoted errors include the experimental 2σ, along with the error in the reference rate coefficients. From the systematic increase in the rate coefficients with the number of carbon atoms, an approximate value for the average rate coefficient for hydrogen abstraction per CH2 group in alkenes is estimated to be (4.9 ± 0.3) × 10-11 cm3 molecule-1 s-1. Based on these rate coefficients, the contribution of Cl atom reactions towards the degradation of these molecules is found to be comparable to that of OH radical reactions, under MBL conditions. The products identified in gas phase indicate that Cl atom addition occurs mainly at the terminal carbon, leading to the formation of 1-chloro-2-ketones and 1-chloro-2-ols. The major gas phase products from the alkenyl radicals (formed by H atom abstraction) are different positional isomers of long chain enols and enones. A preference for dissociation leading to an allyl radical, resulting in aldehydes, lower by three carbon atoms, is indicated. The observed relative yields suggest that in general, the increased contribution of the reactions of Cl atoms towards degradation of 1-alkenes in NOx free air does not result in an increase in the generation of small aldehydes (carbon number < 4), including chloroethanal, as compared to that in the reaction of 1-butene.

  18. Kinetics of the Gas-Phase Reaction of OH with Chlorobenzene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryukov, Mikhail G.; Knyazev, Vadim D.; Gehling, William M.; Dellinger, Barry

    2009-09-01

    The kinetics of the reaction of hydroxyl radicals with chlorobenzene was studied experimentally using a pulsed laser photolysis/pulsed laser induced fluorescence technique over a wide range of temperatures, 298-670 K, and at pressures between 13.33 and 39.92 kPa. The bimolecular rate constants demonstrate different behavior at low and high temperatures. At room temperature, T = 298.8 ± 1.5 K, the rate constant is equal to (6.02 ± 0.34) × 10-13 cm3 molecule-1 s-1; at high temperatures (474-670 K), the rate constant values are significantly lower and have a positive temperature dependence that can be described by an Arrhenius expression k1(T) = (1.01 ± 0.35) × 10-11 exp[(-2490 ± 170 K)/T] cm3 molecule-1 s-1. This behavior is consistent with the low-temperature reaction being dominated by reversible addition and the high-temperature reaction representing abstraction and addition-elimination channels. The potential energy surface of the reaction was studied using quantum chemical methods, and a transition state theory model was developed for all reaction channels. The temperature dependences of the high-temperature rate constants obtained in calculations using the method of isodesmic reactions for transition states (IRTS) and the CBS-QB3 method are in very good agreement with experiment, with deviations smaller than the estimated experimental uncertainties. The G3//B3LYP-based calculated rate constants are in disagreement with the experimental values. The IRTS-based model was used to provide modified Arrhenius expressions for the temperature dependences of the rate constant for the abstraction and addition-elimination (Cl replacement) channels of the reaction.

  19. Photochemical degradation of isoprene-derived 4,1-nitrooxy enal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Fulizi; Borca, Carlos H.; Slipchenko, Lyudmila V.; Shepson, Paul B.

    2016-05-01

    In isoprene-impacted environments, carbonyl nitrates are produced from NO3-initiated isoprene oxidation, which constitutes a potentially important NOx reservoir. To better understand the fate of isoprene carbonyl nitrates, we synthesized a model compound, trans-2-methyl-4-nitrooxy-2-buten-1-al (4,1-isoprene carbonyl nitrate, or 4,1-isoprene nitrooxy enal), and investigated its photochemical degradation process. The measured OH and O3 oxidation rate constants (298 K) for this nitrooxy enal are 4.1(±0.7) × 10-11 cm3 molecules-1 s-1 and 4.4(±0.3) × 10-18 cm3 molecules-1 s-1, respectively. Its UV absorption spectrum was determined, and the result is consistent with TDDFT calculations. Based on its UV absorption cross section and photolysis frequency in a reaction chamber, we estimate that the ambient photolysis frequency for this compound is 3.1(±0.8) × 10-4 s-1 for a solar zenith angle of 45°. The fast photolysis rate and high reactivity toward OH lead to a lifetime of less than 1 h for the isoprene nitrooxy enal, with photolysis being a dominant daytime sink. The nitrate products derived from the OH oxidation and the photolysis of the nitrooxy enal were identified with an iodide-based chemical ionization mass spectrometer. For the OH oxidation reaction, we quantified the yields of two nitrate products, methyl vinyl ketone nitrate and ethanal nitrate, which together contributed to 36(±5) % of the first-generation products.

  20. Reaction kinetics of Cl atoms with limonene: An experimental and theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dash, Manas Ranjan; Rajakumar, B.

    2014-12-01

    Rate coefficients for the reaction of Cl atoms with limonene (C10H16) were measured between 278-350 K and 800 Torr of N2, using the relative rate technique, with 1,3-butadiene (C4H6), n-nonane (C9H20), and 1-pentene (C5H10) as reference compounds. Cl atoms were generated by UV photolysis of oxalyl chloride ((COCl)2) at 254 nm. A gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID) was used for quantitative analysis of the organics. The rate coefficient for the reaction of Cl atoms with limonene at 298 K was measured to be (8.65 ± 2.44) × 10-10 cm3 molecule-1 s-1. The rate coefficient is an average value of the measurements, with two standard deviations as the quoted error, including uncertainties in the reference rate coefficients. The kinetic data obtained over the temperature range of 278-350 K were used to derive the following Arrhenius expression: k(T) = (9.75 ± 4.1) × 10-11 exp[(655 ± 133)/T] cm3 molecule-1 s-1. Theoretical kinetic calculations were also performed for the title reaction using conventional transition state theory (CTST) in combination with G3(MP2) theory between 275 and 400 K. The kinetic data obtained over the temperature range of 275-400 K were used to derive an Arrhenius expression: k(T) = (7.92 ± 0.82) × 10-13 exp[(2310 ± 34)/T] cm3 molecule-1 s-1. The addition channels contributes maximum to the total reaction and H-abstraction channels can be neglected in the range of studied pressures. The Atmospheric lifetime (τ) of limonene due to its reaction with Cl atoms was estimated and concluded that the reaction with chlorine atoms can be an effective tropospheric loss pathway in the marine boundary layer and in coastal urban areas.

  1. Tropospheric oxidation of cyclic unsaturated ethers in the day-time: Comparison of the reactions with Cl, OH and O3 based on the determination of their rate coefficients at 298 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alwe, H. D.; Walavalkar, M. P.; Sharma, A.; Dhanya, S.; Naik, P. D.

    2014-01-01

    The rate coefficients of the reactions of three unsaturated cyclic ethers, 2,5-dihydrofuran (2,5-DHF), 2,3-dihydrofuran (2,3-DHF), and 3,4-dihydropyran (3,4-DHP), with the major day-time tropospheric oxidants - OH (kOH) and O3(kO3), and that of 3,4-DHP with Cl atom (kCl) are determined using relative rate method, at 298 K. The values of kOH are (6.45 ± 1.69), (11.95 ± 2.79) and (11.38 ± 2.64) × 10-11 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 for 2,5-DHF, 2,3-DHF and 3,4-DHP, respectively and kO3 are (1.65 ± 0.31), (443.20 ± 79.0) and (31.36 ± 5.80) × 10-17 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 for 2,5-DHF, 2,3-DHF and 3,4-DHP, respectively. The value of kCl for 3,4-DHP is (6.15 ± 0.84) × 10-10 cm3 molecule-1 s-1. The dominant pathway of tropospheric degradation of 2,5-DHF is the reaction with OH, whereas that of 2,3-DHF is the reaction with O3. Reaction with both OH and O3 are equally important in the case of 3,4-DHP. Under the conditions of marine boundary layer, the reaction with Cl atom is important in the tropospheric degradation of 2,5-DHF and 3,4-DHP, but insignificant in the case of 2,3-DHF (only 1.8%). The estimated tropospheric lifetimes in the day-time are 2.0, 0.08 and 0.62 h for 2,5-DHF, 2,3-DHF and 3,4-DHP respectively. The presence of O atom, unsaturation, conjugation etc. influences the rate coefficients in a complex manner. However, there is a good correlation of kOH with HOMO energy, which further improves by treating the molecules separately, either as ethers and hydrocarbons, or as cyclic and acyclic molecules. The values of kO3 of these ethers fit very well with the straight line regression derived for simple alkenes with their HOMO energy, except 2,3-DHF, which has a high strain enthalpy. The values of kCl also show a similar trend of increase with HOMO energy, but the correlation is not as good as that of kOH.

  2. Structural and mechanistic insights into the activation of Stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1).

    PubMed

    Yang, Xue; Jin, Hao; Cai, Xiangyu; Li, Siwei; Shen, Yuequan

    2012-04-10

    Calcium influx through the Ca(2+) release-activated Ca(2+) (CRAC) channel is an essential process in many types of cells. Upon store depletion, the calcium sensor in the endoplasmic reticulum, STIM1, activates Orai1, a CRAC channel in the plasma membrane. We have determined the structures of SOAR from Homo sapiens (hSOAR), which is part of STIM1 and is capable of constitutively activating Orai1, and the entire coiled coil region of STIM1 from Caenorhabditis elegans (ceSTIM1-CCR) in an inactive state. Our studies reveal that the formation of a SOAR dimer is necessary to activate the Orai1 channel. Mutations that disrupt SOAR dimerization or remove the cluster of positive residues abolish STIM1 activation of Orai1. We identified a possible inhibitory helix within the structure of ceSTIM1-CCR that tightly interacts with SOAR. Functional studies suggest that the inhibitory helix may keep the C-terminus of STIM1 in an inactive state. Our data allowed us to propose a model for STIM1 activation.

  3. Hyperhyaluronanemia in alcoholic hepatitis is associated with increased levels of circulating soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1.

    PubMed

    Hill, D B; Deaciuc, I V; McClain, C J

    1998-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of the sinusoidal endothelial cell (SEC) during the clinical course of alcoholic hepatitis. Twenty consenting patients (mean age: 49.4 +/- 11.0 years) with moderate or severe hepatitis were studied. The patients were selected and characterized according to their history of drinking and laboratory profile, including serum aminotransferases, bilirubin, total white blood cell and neutrophil count, and prothrombin times. C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 were also measured as markers of the hepatic acute phase response. A marker of the SEC functional state, the circulating level of hyaluronan, was measured in parallel with the circulating levels of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (sICAM)-1 over a 6-month observation period. All patients were hospitalized for the first month and encouraged to abstain from drinking for the duration of the study. The initial increased levels of both hyaluronan (542 +/- 32 ng x ml(-1) serum) and sICAM-1 (488 +/- 70 ng x ml(-1) serum), gradually fell during the 6-month observation period, eventually reaching values close to those seen in healthy subjects. A positive correlation was obtained between changes in these two markers of SEC function/activation on the one hand, and between these two tests and bilirubin, on the other hand. These data indicate that abnormalities of SEC function/activation, as reflected by serum hyaluronan and siCAM-1, are prominent in alcoholic hepatitis, and these alterations improve within relatively short periods of time after cessation of alcohol consumption.

  4. Nonperturbative quantum and classical calculations of multiphoton vibrational excitation and dissociation of Morse molecules^1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitriou, K. I.; Mercouris, Th.; Constantoudis, V.; Komninos, Y.; Nicolaides, C. A.

    2006-05-01

    The multiphoton vibrational excitation and dissociation of Morse molecules have been computed nonperturbatively using Hamilton's and Schrφdinger's time-dependent equations, for a range of laser pulse parameters. The time-dependent Schrφdinger equation is solved by the state-specific expansion approach [e.g.,1]. For its solution, emphasis has been given on the inclusion of the continuous spectrum, whose contribution to the multiphoton probabilities for resonance excitation to a number of excited discrete states as well as to dissociation has been examined as a function of laser intensity, frequency and pulse duration. An analysis of possible quantal-classical correspondences for this system is being carried out. We note that distinct features exist from previous classical calculations [2]. For example, the dependence on the laser frequency gives rise to an asymmetry around the red-shifted frequency corresponding to the maximum probability. [1] Th. Mercouris, I. D. Petsalakis and C. A. Nicolaides, J. Phys. B 27, L519 (1994). [2] V. Constantoudis and C. A. Nicolaides, Phys. Rev. E 64, 562112 (2001). ^1This work was supported by the program 'Pythagoras' which is co - funded by the European Social Fund (75%) and Natl. Resources (25%). ^2Physics Department, National Technical University, Athens, Greece.^3Theoretical and Physical Chemistry Institute, Hellenic Research Foundation, Athens, Greece.

  5. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) deficiency protects mice against severe forms of experimentally induced colitis

    PubMed Central

    Bendjelloul, F; Malý, P; Mandys, V; Jirkovská, M; Prokešová, L; Tučková, L; Tlaskalová-Hogenová, H

    2000-01-01

    ICAM-1 (CD54), the ligand for LFA-1 and Mac-1, is up-regulated during inflammatory reaction on the activated vascular endothelium. To determine its role in intestinal inflammation, we induced acute experimental colitis in mice with a deleted ICAM-1 gene, by feeding them with 3% dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) in drinking water for 7 days. Chronic colitis was elicited by DSS similarly, followed by 2 weeks with water. In the acute phase of inflammation, ICAM-1-deficient mice exhibited a significantly lower mortality rate (5%) than control C57Bl/6J mice (35%). Control animals, but not the ICAM-1-deficient mice, exhibited diarrhoea and rectal bleeding. Histological examination of large-bowel samples evaluated the intensity of inflammatory changes, and type and extent of mucosal lesions. In the acute phase, 33.3% of samples from ICAM-1-deficient mice exhibited mucosal defects (flat and fissural ulcers), predominantly mild to moderate inflammatory infiltrate within the lamina propria mucosae and lower grades of mucosal lesions. Much stronger inflammatory changes were present in control animals, flat ulcers (sometimes multiple) and fissural ulcers being observed in 62.5% of samples. Mucosal inflammatory infiltrate was moderate to severe, typically with higher grades of mucosal lesions. In chronic colitis, smaller inflammatory changes were found in the large bowel. The two mouse strains differed, the chronic colitis being accompanied by an increased serum level of anti-epithelial IgA autoantibodies in C57Bl/6 control mice but not in ICAM-1-deficient mice. These findings provide direct evidence of the participation of ICAM-1 molecule in the development of experimentally induced intestinal inflammation. PMID:10606964

  6. Functional role of stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) in vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Yoichiro; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Murakami, Manabu; Ono, Kyoichi; Munehisa, Yoshiko; Koyama, Takashi; Nobori, Kiyoshi; Iijima, Toshihiko; Ito, Hiroshi

    2007-10-05

    We investigated the functional role of STIM1, a Ca{sup 2+} sensor in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that regulates store-operated Ca{sup 2+} entry (SOCE), in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). STIM1 was mainly localized at the ER and plasma membrane. The knockdown of STIM1 expression by small interfering (si) RNA drastically decreased SOCE. In contrast, an EF-hand mutant of STIM1, STIM1{sup E87A}, produced a marked increase in SOCE, which was abolished by co-transfection with siRNA to transient receptor potential canonical 1 (TRPC1). In addition, transfection with siRNA against STIM1 suppressed phosphorylation of cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) and cell growth. These results suggest that STIM1 is an essential component of SOCE and that it is involved in VSMC proliferation.

  7. PRIMING EFFECT OF HOMOCYSTEINE ON INDUCIBLE VASCULAR CELL ADHESION MOLECULE-1 EXPRESSION IN ENDOTHELIAL CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Séguin, Chantal; Abid, Md. Ruhul; Spokes, Katherine C.; Schoots, Ivo G; Brkovic, Alexandre; Sirois, Martin G.; Aird, William C.

    2017-01-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis, as well as for arterial and venous thrombosis. However, the mechanisms through which elevated circulating levels of homocysteine cause vascular injury and promote thrombosis remain unclear. Here, we tested the hypothesis that homocysteine (Hcy) sensitizes endothelial cells to the effect of inflammatory mediators. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were incubated with Hcy 1.0 mM for varying time points, and then treated in the absence or presence of 1.5 U/ml thrombin or 10 ng/ml lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Hcy alone had no effect on the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1. However, Hcy enhanced thrombin- and LPS-mediated induction of VCAM-1 mRNA and protein levels. Consistent with these results, pretreatment of HUVEC with Hcy resulted in a two-fold increase in LSP-mediated induction of leukocyte adhesion. The latter effect was significantly inhibited by anti-VCAM-1 antibodies. Together, these findings suggest that Hcy sensitizes HUVEC to the effect of inflammatory mediators thrombin and LPS, at least in part through VCAM-1 expression and function. PMID:18406566

  8. De novo expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1, CD54) in pancreas cancer.

    PubMed

    Schwaeble, W; Kerlin, M; Meyer zum Büschenfelde, K H; Dippold, W

    1993-01-21

    We examined the expression of intercellular--adhesion molecule-I (ICAM-I, CD54) in 6 surgically removed pancreatic tumors and 8 pancreatic tumor cell lines. Immunohistochemistry revealed a varying percentage of ICAM-I-positive pancreas tumor cells, while normal pancreatic tissue (except for slight reactivity of endothelial cells) was not stained. The presence of the ICAM-I molecule on the cell surface and the expression of ICAM-I mRNA were investigated for 8 different pancreatic tumor cell lines. Three of these (Capan-I, Capan-2, QGP-I) expressed ICAM-I constitutively. In 4 of the ICAM-I-negative pancreas cancer cell lines, it was possible to induce a remarkable expression of ICAM-I by incubating the cells in the presence of inflammatory cytokines, whereas one cell line, 818-4, remained ICAM-I-negative. The responsiveness to either IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, or IL-I beta treatment was shown to vary from cell line to cell line, indicating complex mechanisms that regulate the expression of ICAM-I at both, the transcriptional and the post-transcriptional level. Interestingly, ICAM-I is shed by pancreatic tumor cells, since soluble sICAM-I was detected in the cell-culture supernatants. In comparison with normal sera, the mean level of sICAM-I in sera of patients with pancreas carcinoma is elevated 2-fold.

  9. Expression of HLA-ABC, HLA-DR and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in oesophageal carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Rockett, J C; Darnton, S J; Crocker, J; Matthews, H R; Morris, A G

    1995-01-01

    AIM--To examine the expression of HLA-ABC and HLA-DR major histocompatibility (MHC) antigens and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 in normal, inflamed, metaplastic, and neoplastic oesophageal tissue and in freshly disaggregated tumours. METHODS--Sequential sections of frozen tissue and cytospins of freshly disaggregated tumour were stained using the ABC peroxidase system and monoclonal antibodies specific for HLA-ABC, HLA-DR and ICAM-1. RESULTS--Normal oesophageal tissue showed positive staining for HLA-ABC in the basal layers of the oesophageal squamous epithelium and on the epithelial cells of the submucosal oesophageal glands. HLA-DR and ICAM-1 were not detected in either of these cell types. In 20 of 37 (54%) carcinomas HLA-ABC was expressed weakly, with heterogeneous expression in nine (24%). Two tumours showed strong expression of HLA-ABC, but 15 of 37 (41%) were negative. HLA-DR and ICAM-1 were expressed weakly in six of 37 (16%) carcinomas without correlation with each other or with the expression of HLA-ABC. CONCLUSIONS--HLA-ABC is absent from a high proportion of oesophageal carcinomas (41%) and is otherwise variably and weakly expressed with strong expression in only a small fraction (3%). In other carcinomas there is a higher level of HLA-ABC expression. This discrepancy may partly explain the aggressive nature of oesophageal carcinomas. HLA-DR and ICAM-1 are not normally expressed on those cells from which oesophageal carcinomas are thought to arise. The limited expression found here could suggest a partial or inhibited immune response against oesophageal carcinoma. In vivo repressive factors may be involved. Images PMID:7665697

  10. Novel Vein Patterns in Arabidopsis Induced by Small Molecules1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Cutler, Sean

    2016-01-01

    The critical role of veins in transporting water, nutrients, and signals suggests that some key regulators of vein formation may be genetically redundant and, thus, undetectable by forward genetic screens. To identify such regulators, we screened more than 5000 structurally diverse small molecules for compounds that alter Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaf vein patterns. Many compound-induced phenotypes were observed, including vein networks with an open reticulum; decreased or increased vein number and thickness; and misaligned, misshapen, or nonpolar vascular cells. Further characterization of several individual active compounds suggests that their targets include hormone cross talk, hormone-dependent transcription, and PIN-FORMED trafficking. PMID:26574596

  11. An essential approach to the architecture of diatomic molecules: 1. Basic theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarman, T.

    2004-11-01

    We consider the quantum-mechanical description of a diatomic molecule of electronic mass m 0 e , internuclear distance R 0, and total electronic energy E 0 e . We apply to it the Born-Oppenheimer approximation, together with the relation E 0 e m 0 e R {0/2} ˜ h 2 (which we established previously), written for the electronic description (with fixed nuclei). Our approach yields an essential relationship for T 0, the classical vibration period, at the total electronic energy E 0 e ; i.e., T_0 = [4π ^2 /(sqrt {n_1 n_2 } h)]sqrt {gmathcal{M}_0 m_e } R_0^2. Here, ℳ0 is the reduced mass of the nuclei; m e is the mass of the electron; g is a dimensionless and relativistically invariant coefficient, roughly around unity (this quantity is associated with the particular electronic structure under consideration; thus, it remains practically the same for bonds bearing similar electronic configurations); and n 1 and n 2 are the principal quantum numbers of electrons making up the bond(s) of the diatomic molecule in hand; because of quantum defects, they are not integer numbers. The above relationship holds generally, although the quantum numbers n 1 and n 2 need to be refined. This task is undertaken in our next article, yielding a whole new systematization regarding all diatomic molecules.

  12. Experimental Cerebral Malaria Develops Independently of Endothelial Expression of Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (ICAM-1)*

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Theresa N.; Bullard, Daniel C.; Darley, Meghan M.; McDonald, Kristin; Crawford, David F.; Barnum, Scott R.

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral malaria (CM) is a severe clinical complication of Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection and is characterized by a high fatality rate and neurological damage. Sequestration of parasite-infected red blood cells in brain microvasculature utilizes host- and parasite-derived adhesion molecules and is an important factor in the development of CM. ICAM-1, an alternatively spliced adhesion molecule, is believed to be critical on endothelial cells for infected red blood cell sequestration in CM. Using ICAM-1 mutant mice, we found that the full-length ICAM-1 isoform is not required for development of murine experimental CM (ECM) and that ECM phenotype varies with the combination of ICAM-1 isoforms expressed. Furthermore, we observed development of ECM in transgenic mice expressing ICAM-1 only on leukocytes, indicating that endothelial cell expression of this adhesion molecule is not required for disease pathogenesis. We propose that ICAM-1-dependent cellular aggregation, independent of ICAM-1 expression on the cerebral microvasculature, contributes to ECM. PMID:23493396

  13. Experimental cerebral malaria develops independently of endothelial expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (icam-1).

    PubMed

    Ramos, Theresa N; Bullard, Daniel C; Darley, Meghan M; McDonald, Kristin; Crawford, David F; Barnum, Scott R

    2013-04-19

    Cerebral malaria (CM) is a severe clinical complication of Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection and is characterized by a high fatality rate and neurological damage. Sequestration of parasite-infected red blood cells in brain microvasculature utilizes host- and parasite-derived adhesion molecules and is an important factor in the development of CM. ICAM-1, an alternatively spliced adhesion molecule, is believed to be critical on endothelial cells for infected red blood cell sequestration in CM. Using ICAM-1 mutant mice, we found that the full-length ICAM-1 isoform is not required for development of murine experimental CM (ECM) and that ECM phenotype varies with the combination of ICAM-1 isoforms expressed. Furthermore, we observed development of ECM in transgenic mice expressing ICAM-1 only on leukocytes, indicating that endothelial cell expression of this adhesion molecule is not required for disease pathogenesis. We propose that ICAM-1-dependent cellular aggregation, independent of ICAM-1 expression on the cerebral microvasculature, contributes to ECM.

  14. Study of the OH and Cl-initiated oxidation, IR absorption cross-section, radiative forcing, and global warming potential of four C4-hydrofluoroethers.

    PubMed

    Oyaro, Nathan; Sellevåg, Stig R; Nielsen, Claus J

    2004-11-01

    Infrared absorption cross-sections and OH and Cl reaction rate coefficients for four C4-hydrofluoroethers (CF3)2CHOCH3, CF3CH2OCH2CF3, CF3CF2CH2OCH3, and CHF2CF2CH2OCH3 are reported. Relative rate measurements at 298 K and 1013 hPa of OH and Cl reaction rate coefficients give k(OH+(CF3)2CHOCH3) = (1.27+/-0.13) x 10(-13), k(OH+CF3CH2OCH2CF3) = (1.51+/-0.24) x 10(-13), k(OH+CF3CF2CH2OCH3) = (6.42+/-0.33) x 10(-13), k(OH+CHF2CF2CH2OCH3) = (8.7 +/-0.5) x 10(-13), k(Cl+(CF3)2CHOCH3) = (8.4+/-1.3) x 10(-12), k(Cl+CF3CH2OCH2CF3) = (6.5+/-1.7) x 10(-13), k(Cl+CF3CF2CH2OCH3) = (4.0+/-0.8) x 10(-11), and k(Cl+CHF2CF2CH2OCH3) = (2.65+/-0.17) x 10(-11) cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1). The primary products of the OH and Cl reactions with the fluorinated ethers have been identified as esters, and OH and Cl reaction rate coefficients for one of these, CF3CH2OCHO, are reported: k(OH+CF3CH2OCHO) = (7.7+/-0.9) x 10(-14) and kCl+CF3CH2OCHO) = (6.3+/-1.9) x 10(-14) cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1) The rate coefficient for the Cl-atom reaction with CHF2CH2F is derived as k(Cl+CHF2CH2F) = (3.0+/-0.9) x 10(-14) cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1) at 298 K. The error limits include 3sigma from the statistical data analyses as well as the errors in the rate coefficients of the reference compounds employed. The tropospheric lifetimes of the hydrofluoroethers are estimated to be short tauOH((CF3)2CHOCH3) approximately 100 days, tauOH(CF3CH2OCH2CF3) approximately 80 days, tauOH(CF3CF2CH2OCH3) approximately 20 days, and tauOH(CHF2CF2CH2OCH3) approximately 14 days, and their global warming potentials are small compared to CFC-11.

  15. A kinetic study of Mg+ and Mg-containing ions reacting with O3, O2, N2, CO2, N2O and H2O: implications for magnesium ion chemistry in the upper atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Whalley, Charlotte L; Martín, Juan C Gómez; Wright, Timothy G; Plane, John M C

    2011-04-07

    Reactions between Mg(+) and O(3), O(2), N(2), CO(2) and N(2)O were studied using the pulsed laser photo-dissociation at 193 nm of Mg(C(5)H(7)O(2))(2) vapour, followed by time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence of Mg(+) at 279.6 nm (Mg(+)(3(2)P(3/2)-3(2)S(1/2))). The rate coefficient for the reaction Mg(+) + O(3) is at the Langevin capture rate coefficient and independent of temperature, k(190-340 K) = (1.17 ± 0.19) × 10(-9) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) (1σ error). The reaction MgO(+) + O(3) is also fast, k(295 K) = (8.5 ± 1.5) × 10(-10) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), and produces Mg(+) + 2O(2) with a branching ratio of (0.35 ± 0.21), the major channel forming MgO(2)(+) + O(2). Rate data for Mg(+) recombination reactions yielded the following low-pressure limiting rate coefficients: k(Mg(+) + N(2)) = 2.7 × 10(-31) (T/300 K)(-1.88); k(Mg(+) + O(2)) = 4.1 × 10(-31) (T/300 K)(-1.65); k(Mg(+) + CO(2)) = 7.3 × 10(-30) (T/300 K)(-1.59); k(Mg(+) + N(2)O) = 1.9 × 10(-30) (T/300 K)(-2.51) cm(6) molecule(-2) s(-1), with 1σ errors of ±15%. Reactions involving molecular Mg-containing ions were then studied at 295 K by the pulsed laser ablation of a magnesite target in a fast flow tube, with mass spectrometric detection. Rate coefficients for the following ligand-switching reactions were measured: k(Mg(+)·CO(2) + H(2)O → Mg(+)·H(2)O + CO(2)) = (5.1 ± 0.9) × 10(-11); k(MgO(2)(+) + H(2)O → Mg(+)·H(2)O + O(2)) = (1.9 ± 0.6) × 10(-11); k(Mg(+)·N(2) + O(2)→ Mg(+)·O(2) + N(2)) = (3.5 ± 1.5) × 10(-12) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1). Low-pressure limiting rate coefficients were obtained for the following recombination reactions in He: k(MgO(2)(+) + O(2)) = 9.0 × 10(-30) (T/300 K)(-3.80); k(Mg(+)·CO(2) + CO(2)) = 2.3 × 10(-29) (T/300 K)(-5.08); k(Mg(+)·H(2)O + H(2)O) = 3.0 × 10(-28) (T/300 K)(-3.96); k(MgO(2)(+) + N(2)) = 4.7 × 10(-30) (T/300 K)(-3.75); k(MgO(2)(+) + CO(2)) = 6.6 × 10(-29) (T/300 K)(-4.18); k(Mg(+)·H(2)O + O(2)) = 1.2 × 10(-27) (T/300 K)(-4.13) cm

  16. Uptake of formic acid on thin ice films and on ice doped with nitric acid between 195 and 211 K.

    PubMed

    Romanias, Manolis N; Zogka, Antonia G; Stefanopoulos, Vassileios G; Papadimitriou, Vassileios C; Papagiannakopoulos, Panos

    2010-12-17

    The adsorption of formic acid on thin ice films and on ice doped with nitric acid (1.96, 7.69 and 53.8 wt%) is studied as a function of temperature T=195-211 K and gas concentration (0.33-10.6)×10(11) molecule cm(-3). Experiments are performed in a Knudsen flow reactor coupled with a quadrupole mass spectrometer. The initial uptake coefficients γ are strongly and inversely dependent on the ice temperature. Initial uptake is determined at low surface coverages and ranges from (0.65-3.78)×10(-3). The adsorption uptake of formic acid on pure ice films and on ice lightly doped with HNO(3) is a reversible process, and the adsorption isotherms exhibit Langmuir behaviour. N(max)(1) is (2.94±0.67)×10(14) molecule cm(-2), in good agreement with previous measurements. The temperature dependence of K(Lin) is very well represented by the expression: K(Lin)(1)=(1.43±0.32)×10(-8) exp[(4720±520)/T] cm(3) molecule(-1); the quoted uncertainty is at the 95% level of confidence and includes systematic uncertainties. Formic acid uptakes on ice films highly doped with HNO(3) (53.8 wt%) are two orders of magnitude higher than those measured on pure ice films and irreversible, thus indicating the formation of a supercooled liquid layer on the ice films upon which dissolution of formic acid occurs. Finally, the atmospheric lifetime of formic acid due to heterogeneous loss on cirrus cloud ice particles and the removal of formic acid by adsorption are estimated under conditions related to the upper troposphere.

  17. UV spectra and OH-oxidation kinetics of gaseous phase morpholinic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Rashidi, M.; El Masri, A.; Roth, E.; Chakir, A.

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents an experimental study of the UV spectra as well as the kinetics of gaseous phase OH-oxidation of morpholine, N-formylmorpholine (NFM) and N-acetlymorpholine (NAM). The spectra recorded using a UV spectrometer in the spectral range 200-280 nm show that the analytes mainly absorb at wavelengths less than 280 nm. This indicates that their photolysis potential in the troposphere is insignificant. Meanwhile, the OH-reactivity of these analytes was studied using a triple-jacket 2 m long reactor equipped with a multi-reflection system and coupled to an FTIR spectrometer. The experiments were carried out at 295 and 313 K for the amine and amides, respectively. The study was conducted in the relative mode using isoprene and benzaldehyde as reference compounds. The rate constants obtained are 14.0 ± 1.9, 4.0 ± 1.1 and 3.8 ± 1.0 (in units of 10-11 cm3 molecule-1 s-1) for morpholine, NFM and NAM respectively. These results are discussed in terms of reactivity and compared to those obtained for other oxy-nitrogenated species. In addition, the determined rate constants are used to estimate effective atmospheric lifetimes of the investigated morpholinic compounds with respect to reaction with OH radicals.

  18. A Computational Re-examination of the Criegee Intermediate-Sulfur Dioxide Reaction.

    PubMed

    Kuwata, Keith T; Guinn, Emily J; Hermes, Matthew R; Fernandez, Jenna A; Mathison, Jon M; Huang, Ke

    2015-10-15

    The atmospheric oxidation of sulfur dioxide by the parent and dimethyl Criegee intermediates (CIs) may be an important source of sulfuric acid aerosol, which has a large impact on radiative forcing and therefore upon climate. A number of computational studies have considered how the CH2OOS(O)O heteroozonide (HOZ) adduct formed in the CI + SO2 reaction converts SO2 to SO3. In this work we use the CBS-QB3 quantum chemical method along with equation-of-motion spin-flip CCSD(dT) and MCG3 theories to reveal new details regarding the formation and decomposition of the endo and exo conformers of the HOZ. Although ∼75% of the parent CI + SO2 reaction is initiated by formation of the exo HOZ, hyperconjugation preferentially stabilizes many of the endo intermediates and transition structures by 1-5 kcal mol(-1). Our quantum chemical calculations, in conjunction with statistical rate theory models, predict a rate coefficient for the parent CI + SO2 reaction of 3.68 × 10(-11) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), in good agreement with recent experimental measurements. RRKM/master equation simulations based on our quantum chemical data predict a prompt carbonyl + SO3 yield of >95% for the reaction of both the parent and dimethyl CI with SO2. The existence of concerted cycloreversion transition structures 10-15 kcal mol(-1) higher in energy than the HOZ accounts for most of the predicted SO3 formation.

  19. Atmospheric reactivity of vinyl acetate: kinetic and mechanistic study of its gas-phase oxidation by OH, O3, and NO3.

    PubMed

    Picquet-Varrault, B; Scarfogliero, M; Doussin, J-F

    2010-06-15

    Vinyl acetate is widely used in industry. It has been classified as a high-production volume (HPV) chemical in the United States. To evaluate its impact on the environment and air quality, its atmospheric reactivity toward the three main tropospheric oxidants (OH, NO(3), and O(3)) has been investigated. Kinetic and mechanistic experiments have been conducted at room temperature and atmospheric pressure using an indoor Pyrex simulation chamber coupled to Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and UV-visible spectrometers. Rate constants for the reactions of vinyl acetate with OH, NO(3), and O(3) were equal to (2.3 +/- 0.3) x 10(-11), (7.3 +/- 1.8) x 10(-15), and (3.0 +/- 0.4) x 10(-18) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), respectively. From these data, tropospheric lifetimes of vinyl acetate have been estimated as follows: tau(OH) = 6 h, tau(NO(3)) = 6 days, and tau(O(3)) = 5 days. This demonstrates that reaction with OH radicals is the main tropospheric loss process of this compound. From the mechanistic experiments, main oxidation products have been identified and quantified and oxidation schemes have been proposed for each studied reaction.

  20. Pulsed laser photolysis vacuum UV laser-induced fluorescence kinetic study of the reactions of Cl( 2P 3/2) atoms with ethyl formate, n-propyl formate, and n-butyl formate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ide, Tomoyuki; Iwasaki, Erika; Matsumi, Yutaka; Xing, Jia-Hua; Takahashi, Kenshi; Wallington, Timothy J.

    2008-12-01

    Cl( 2P 3/2) atoms were produced by photolysis of Cl 2 at 351 nm in the presence of alkyl formates and monitored by LIF spectroscopy at 134.72 nm. Rate coefficients of k(Cl + C 2H 5OC(O)H) = (9.5 ± 0.3)×10 -12, k(Cl + n-C 3H 7OC(O)H) = (4.5 ± 0.3) × 10 -11 and k(Cl + n-C 4H 9OC(O)H) = (1.2 ± 0.1) × 10 -10 cm 3 molecule -1 s -1 were determined at 295 ± 2 K in 6-7 Torr of Ar diluent. These values are 15-30% lower than reported in a previous pulsed laser photolysis resonance fluorescence study. The discrepancy may reflect complications arising from the fact that the time scales for chlorine atom loss and regeneration were not sufficiently decoupled in the previous study.

  1. Computational study on the mechanisms and rate constants of the OH-initiated oxidation of ethyl vinyl ether in atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Han, Dandan; Cao, Haijie; Li, Jing; Li, Mingyue; He, Maoxia; Hu, Jingtian

    2014-09-01

    The hydroxylation reactions of ethyl vinyl ether (EVE) in the present of O2 and NO are analyzed by using MPWB1K/6-311++G(3df,2p)//MPWB1K/6-31+G(d,p) level of theory. According to the calculated thermodynamic data, the detailed reaction mechanisms of EVE and OH are proposed. All of the ten possible reaction pathways are discussed. The major products of the title reaction are ethyl formate and formaldehyde, which is in accordance with experimental detection. The rate constants of the primary reactions over the temperature of 250-400K and the pressure range of 100-2000Torr are computed by employing MESMER program. At 298K and 760Torr, OH-addition channels are predominate and the total rate constant is ktot=4.53×10(-11)cm(3)molecule(-1)s(-1). The Arrhenius equation is obtained as ktot=6.27×10(-12)exp(611.5/T), according to the rate constants given at different temperatures. Finally, the atmospheric half life of EVE with respect to OH is estimated to be 2.13h.

  2. Kinetic Study of OH Reactions With n-Octane and n-Decane Using Relative Rate Combining with Discharge Fast Flow and Mass Spectrometer Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Zhuangjie

    2004-03-31

    The combination of the relative rate method with the discharge fast flow/mass spectrometer technique (RR/DF/MS) has been developed to measure the rate constants for gas phase reactions involving OH radicals. The RR/DF/MS technique was used to measure the rate constant for reactions of the OH radical with n-octane (k3) and cyclohexane (k5) using 1,4-dioxane as a reference compound and with n-decane (k6) using n-octane and 1,4-dioxane as reference compounds. At 298 K, these rate constants were determined to be k3=(8.88 {+-} 0.31) x 10-12, k5=(6.95 {+-} 0.20) x 10-12 and k6=(1.38 {+-} 0.08) x 10-11 cm3 molecule-1 s-1, respectively, which are in very good agreement with those measured using different techniques. The features of the RR/DF/MS technique are discussed.

  3. Millimeter-wave detection of free radicals using pulsed laser photolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolbe, W. F.; Leskovar, B.

    1985-08-01

    The application of millimeter-wave microwave spectroscopy to the detection of free radicals and other species generated by pulsed excimer laser photolysis is described. To detect the radical species, a newly developed 140-GHz microwave spectrometer employing a high-Q Fabry-Perot cavity was used. The technique is illustrated by the observation of SO and CS radicals produced by photodissociation at 193 nm of SO2 and CS2, respectively. SO absorption signals from the ground vibrational state transition at 138.17 GHz and the first and second excited vibrational state transitions at 137.28 and 136.45 GHz were measured. CS was detected in several excited vibrational states up to ν=4. Finally, as an example of the application of the technique to chemical kinetic studies, the reaction rate of SO with NO2 was determined. The measured rate coefficient at 298 K of (1.46±0.12)×10-11 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 is in excellent agreement with values reported in other studies. Millimeter-wave spectroscopy is shown to be a sensitive and highly specific probe for the detection of short lived species in gas phase chemical kinetic studies.

  4. Reactivity of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol in the atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Gallego-Iniesta García, María Paz; Moreno Sanroma, Alberto; Martín Porrero, María Pilar; Tapia Valle, Araceli; Cabañas Galán, Beatriz; Salgado Muñoz, María Sagrario

    2010-04-07

    Rate coefficients at room temperature for the reaction of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol with OH and NO(3) radicals and with Cl atoms have been determined in a 150 L PTFE chamber using GC-FID/SPME and FTIR as detection systems. The rate coefficients k (in units of cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1)) obtained were: (1.13 +/- 0.31) 10(-11) for the OH reaction, (2.93 +/- 0.92) 10(-15) for the NO(3) reaction and (1.88 +/- 0.25) 10(-10) for the Cl reaction. Despite the high concentrations of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, especially in indoor air, this is the first kinetic study carried out to date for these reactions. The results are consistent with the expected reactivity given the chemical structure of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol. Calculated atmospheric lifetimes reveal that the dominant loss process for 2-ethyl-1-hexanol is clearly the daytime reaction with the hydroxyl radical.

  5. Experimental and Computational Studies of the Kinetics of the Reaction of Atomic Hydrogen with Methanethiol.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Katherine E; Alecu, Ionut M; Thompson, Kristopher M; Gao, Yide; Marshall, Paul

    2015-07-16

    The overall rate constant for H + CH3SH has been studied over 296-1007 K in an Ar bath gas using the laser flash photolysis method at 193 nm. H atoms were generated from CH3SH and in some cases NH3. They were detected via time-resolved resonance fluorescence. The results are summarized as k = (3.45 ± 0.19) × 10(-11) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) exp(-6.92 ± 0.16 kJ mol(-1)/RT) where the errors in the Arrhenius parameters are the statistical uncertainties at the 2σ level. Overall error limits of ±9% for k are proposed. In the overlapping temperature range there is very good agreement with the resonance fluorescence measurements of Wine et al. Ab initio data and transition state theory yield moderate accord with the total rate constant, but not with prior mass spectrometry measurements of the main product channels leading to CH3S + H2 and CH3 + H2S by Amano et al.

  6. Computational study on the mechanisms and rate constants of the Cl-initiated oxidation of methyl vinyl ether in the atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Han, Dandan; Cao, Haijie; Li, Mingyue; Li, Xin; Zhang, Shiqing; He, Maoxia; Hu, Jingtian

    2015-01-29

    The Cl-initiated oxidation reactions of methyl vinyl ether (MVE) are analyzed by using the high-level composite method CBS-QB3. Detailed chemistry for the reactions of MVE with chlorine atoms is proposed according to the calculated thermodynamic data. The primary eight channels, including two Cl-addition reactions and six H-abstraction reactions, are discussed. In accordance with the further investigation of the two dominant additional routes, formyl chloride and formaldehyde are the major products. Over the temperature range of 200-400 K and the pressure range of 100-2000 Torr, the rate constants of primary reactions are calculated by employing the MESMER program. H-abstraction channels are negligible according to the value of rate constants. During the studied temperature range, the Arrhenius equation is obtained as ktot = 5.64 × 10(-11) exp(215.1/T). The total rate coefficient is ktot = 1.25 × 10(-10) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) at 298 K and 760 Torr. Finally, the atmospheric lifetime of MVE with respect to Cl is estimated to be 2.23 h.

  7. Reactivity of CHI3 with OH radicals: X-abstraction reaction pathways (X = H, I), atmospheric chemistry, and nuclear safety.

    PubMed

    Sudolská, Mária; Louis, Florent; Cernušák, Ivan

    2014-10-09

    The X-abstraction (X = H, I) pathways in the reaction of CHI3 with OH radical, a possible iodoform removal process relevant to the Earth's atmosphere and conditions prevailing in the case of a nuclear accident, have been studied applying highly correlated ab initio quantum chemistry methods and canonical transition-state theory to obtain reaction energy profiles and rate constants. Geometry optimizations of reactants, products, molecular complexes, and transition states determined at the MP2/cc-pVTZ level of theory have been followed by DK-CCSD(T)/ANO-RCC single-point energy calculations. Further improvement of electronic energies has been achieved by applying spin-orbit coupling, corrections toward full configuration interaction, vibration contributions, and tunneling corrections. Calculated reaction enthalpies at 0 K are -108.2 and -5.1 kJ mol(-1) for the H- and I-abstraction pathways, respectively; the strongly exothermic H-abstraction pathway is energetically favored over the modestly exothermic I-abstraction one. The overall rate constant at 298 K based on our ab initio calculations is 4.90 × 10(-11) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), with the I-abstraction pathway being the major channel over the temperature range of 250-2000 K. The CHI3 atmospheric lifetime with respect to the removal reaction with OH radical is predicted to be about 6 h, very short compared to that of other halomethanes.

  8. Kinetic study of the gas-phase reactions of chlorine atoms with 2-chlorophenol, 2-nitrophenol, and four methyl-2-nitrophenol isomers.

    PubMed

    Bejan, Iustinian; Duncianu, Marius; Olariu, Romeo; Barnes, Ian; Seakins, Paul W; Wiesen, Peter

    2015-05-21

    Anthropogenic activities are the main source of nitrophenols and chlorophenols in the atmosphere. Nitro and chlorophenols have a high potential to form ozone and secondary organic aerosol, thus investigations on the major photo oxidation pathways of these compounds are important to assess their contribution to urban air pollution and human health. Presented here are rate coefficients determined at atmospheric pressure and (298 ± 2) K using a relative kinetic method for the reactions of chlorine atoms with 2-chlorophenol (2ClP), 2-nitrophenol (2NP) and four methyl-2-nitrophenol (2-nitrocresol, nM2NP (n = 3,4,5,6)) isomers. The following rate coefficients (in units of cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1)) have been obtained: (5.9 ± 1.5) × 10(-12) for 2ClP, (6.8 ± 2.3) × 10(-12) for 2NP, and (14.0 ± 4.9) × 10(-11), (4.3 ± 1.5) × 10(-11), (1.94 ± 0.67) × 10(-11) and (2.68 ± 0.75) × 10(-11) for the four methyl-2-nitrophenol isomers 3M2NP, 4M2NP, 5M2NP, and 6M2NP, respectively. This study represents the first kinetic investigation for the reaction of chlorine atoms with all the nitrophenols. In addition, to assist in the interpretation of the results, rate coefficients for the reactions of Cl atoms with the cresol ortho, meta, and para isomers have been determined for the first time. The rate coefficient for the reaction with 2ClP is in good agreement with previous data and the relative reactivity of 2NP, 4M2NP, 5M2NP, and 6M2NP can be rationalized based on known substituent effects. The rate coefficient for 3M2NP is anomalously large; the observation of significant NO2 production in only this reaction suggests that an ipso substitution mechanism is the cause of the enhanced reactivity.

  9. Gas-phase oxidation of methyl crotonate and ethyl crotonate. kinetic study of their reactions toward OH radicals and Cl atoms.

    PubMed

    Teruel, Mariano A; Benitez-Villalba, Julio; Caballero, Norma; Blanco, María B

    2012-06-21

    Rate coefficients for the reactions of hydroxyl radicals and chlorine atoms with methyl crotonate and ethyl crotonate have been determined at 298 K and atmospheric pressure. The decay of the organics was monitored using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID), and the rate constants were determined using the relative rate method with different reference compounds. Room temperature rate coeficcients were found to be (in cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1)): k(1)(OH + CH(3)CH═CHC(O)OCH(3)) = (4.65 ± 0.65) × 10(-11), k(2)(Cl + CH(3)CH═CHC(O)OCH(3)) = (2.20 ± 0.55) × 10(-10), k(3)(OH + CH(3)CH═CHC(O)OCH(2)CH(3)) = (4.96 ± 0.61) × 10(-11), and k(4)(Cl + CH(3)CH═CHC(O)OCH(2)CH(3)) = (2.52 ± 0.62) × 10(-10) with uncertainties representing ±2σ. This is the first determination of k(1), k(3), and k(4) under atmospheric pressure. The rate coefficients are compared with previous determinations for other unsaturated and oxygenated VOCs and reactivity trends are presented. In addition, a comparison between the experimentally determined k(OH) with k(OH) predicted from k vs E(HOMO) relationships is presented. On the other hand, product identification under atmospheric conditions has been performed for the first time for these unsaturated esters by the GC-MS technique in NO(x)-free conditions. 2-Hydroxypropanal, acetaldehyde, formaldehyde, and formic acid were positively observed as degradation products in agreement with the addition of OH to C2 and C3 of the double bond, followed by decomposition of the 2,3- or 3,2-hydroxyalkoxy radicals formed. Atmospheric lifetimes, based on of the homogeneous sinks of the unsaturated esters studied, are estimated from the kinetic data obtained in the present work.

  10. Minutes of the Explosives Safety Seminar (19th) Held at Los Angeles, California on 9-10-11 September 1980. Volume II

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    using 3M Co. polonium 210 as source of alpha particles. The air ionizers were used for approximately six (6) months. Their use was stopped since the...FRAGMNTS/BO F I ** Figure 15/ Fragment Areal Densities NRHbo - ~ 1-12191 02L3) (OSS4l) I’lU) 700𔄀 / __ 3s21? 210 t (.40) ( .0-0) o𔃻 t 80 IJ1 * f.UM...ABL-917 707 # 210 -9-70 1630 ABL-917 707 #110-13-70 1730 ABL-917 707 #111-5-70 040 ABL-1362 706 #112-23-70 1745 ABL-1362 706 #112-28-70 1655 ABL-1362

  11. IEEE Workshop on Real-Time Operating Systems and Software (7th) Held in Charlottesville, Virginia on May 10-11, 1990. Revision

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-10-01

    LeBlanc and E. P. Markatos, University of Rochester CHAOS arc A Kernelfor Predictable Programs in Dynamic R eal-Tim e System s...11 K. Schwan and A. Gheith Georgia Institute of Technology Implementing a Predictable Real...62 P. Gopinath and R. Gupta, Philips Laboratories Developing Software with Predictable Timing Behavior

  12. Proceedings of the Workshop on Unsteady Separated Flow Held at the United States Air Force Academy on August 10-11, 1983

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-01

    30309 (303) 492-7611 Dr. Mohamed Gad-El-Hak Flow Industries , Inc. 21414 - 68th Avenue South Kenth, WA 93032 (206) 872-8500 Major Eric Jumper Dept...Thru3t dependar.ce of the time advantage in a minimum time maneuver with limited PST capability. Results of trajectory optimisations . Fig. 15...through an analog to digital converter. The probe positioning has been automated in one direction and is driven by the microcomputer. The velocity

  13. Partnering for Vaccine Emerging Markets--Berlin, June 10-11, 2013: balancing vaccine quality, capacity, and cost-of-goods in emerging markets.

    PubMed

    Onraedt, Annelies

    2013-09-01

    Phacilitates 1st Partnering event for Vaccine Emerging Markets brought together approximately 100 attendees from developed and developing world vaccine manufacturers, leading non-profit organizations and industry suppliers. The goal was to discuss the vaccine needs in the developing world and how these needs can be met by leveraging collaboration and partnership models, by improving access to existing, new and next generation vaccines, by using novel technologies to drive competitive advantage and economics of vaccine manufacturing and by investing in localized capacity, including capacity for pandemic vaccines. The present article summarizes insights out of 30 oral contributions on how quality and capacity requirements can be balanced with cost by using novel manufacturing technologies and operating models.

  14. Proceedings of the Symposium on GPS Applications in Space (2nd) Held in Bedford, Massachusetts on 10-11 October 1989. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-13

    Advanced Spacecraft Applications, Triveni N. Upadhyay, George J. Priovolos, Harley Rhodehamel . . . 245 An Experiment In Attitude, Position And Velocity...Priovolos*, Harley Rhodehamel*, A. Wayne Deaton** (*Mayflower Communications, **NASA Marshall SFC): "Autonomous Integrated GPS/INS Navigation Filter for...optical path (for example, due to splices or connectors, nicks in the fiber cladding, impurities in the fiber core, etc.) will cause small-scale (1

  15. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Midwest Philosophy of Education Society (Chicago, Illinois, November 10-11, 1989, and November 9-10, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annis, David B., Ed.; Oliker, Michael A., Ed.

    Proceedings from two conferences of a society of specialists in the philosophy of education comprise this document. Fourteen papers are included from the 1989 conference program. They are: (1) "George S. Counts: Dare Educators Inspire World Vision?" (C. A. Ryan); (2) "Political Activities of George S. Counts and John L. Childs"…

  16. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PRIORITIES IN TECHNICAL EDUCATION, A REPORT OF A NATIONAL RESEARCH PLANNING CONFERENCE IN TECHNICAL EDUCATION (THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY, JANUARY 10-11, 1967).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MILLER, AARON J.

    A SELECT GROUP OF PARTICIPANTS REPRESENTING NATIONAL LEADERSHIP IN BUSINESS, INDUSTRY, RESEARCH, GOVERNMENT, AND EDUCATION MET TO IDENTIFY SOME OF THE MOST OBVIOUS NEW EMERGING TECHNICAL OCCUPATIONS WHICH MIGHT REQUIRE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT EFFORTS AND SOME OF THE MOST PRESSING RESEARCHABLE PROBLEM AREAS IN TECHNICAL EDUCATION. THE NEW OR…

  17. Evaluation of surface energy and carbon fluxes within a large wind farm during the CWEX-10/11 Crop Wind-energy EXperiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajewski, D. A.; Takle, E. S.; Prueger, J. H.; Oncley, S.; Horst, T. W.; Pfeiffer, R.; Hatfield, J.; Spoth, K. K.; Doorenbos, R.

    2012-12-01

    The Crop Wind-energy EXperiment conducted in summer 2010 (very moist conditions) and summer 2011 (abnormally dry) included measurements of wind speed, temperature, relative humidity, turbulence kinetic energy, H2O, and CO2 at stations north and south of a line of turbines at the southwest edge of a large-scale 200-turbine wind farm (prevailing wind from the south). In contrast to previous studies that have reported turbine influences on surface wind speed and temperature, this report focuses on scalar fluxes of heat, H2O, and CO2. From previous measurements in agricultural fields we recognize the importance of non-turbine factors in analysis of the flux differences: variability of soil characteristics, moisture content, crop cultivar, management practices, planting dates, etc., which can create differences in what looks like a uniform field of maize (corn). We conceptualize the influences of turbines at canopy height at a given location in the field to arise from (1) wakes of reduced wind speed and turbulence conditions different from ambient that intersect the surface, (2) wakes that are passing overhead and interrupt the ambient turbulence that scales with height, or (3) changes in static pressure upwind and downwind of lines of turbines that create small-scale pressure gradients, localized flows, and changes to the vertical exchange of scalar variables. The turbine SCADA wind speed and wind direction provided by the wind farm operator facilitated our comparison of surface fluxes upwind and downwind as wakes moved laterally throughout the day and night. We report multiple levels of evidence that wind turbines increase vertical exchange of carbon dioxide and water vapor over the canopy. Latent heat and carbon fluxes are responsive to slight changes in the turbine wake position, and the flux differences are maximized when the periphery of the wake edge is above the station. The flux stations north of the turbine line report a larger net ecosystem exchange accumulation over both the 2010 and 2011 measurement periods than for the reference towers south of the turbine line. Future experiments however, must address if and to what extent this enhanced CO2 flux is assimilated to the crop and whether or not the bio-physiological response to this effect among many other turbine-related factors (e.g. higher nighttime temperature and higher daytime transpiration) modifies overall crop yield.

  18. Military History of the American Revolution. Proceedings of the Military History Symposium (6th) Held at the Air Force Academy, Colo. on 10-11 October 1974,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-01-01

    in 1776 and not maintained subsequently because forces were dispersed ."• Evidence that the timing of the Dcclaratior. wi independence was in part...that it was determined to make them submit by taking or sinking their ships, devastating their ports, destroying their armed forces, and dispersing ...Still, it was confident that such a force of regulars would be able to disperse any number of untrained colonists and that Britain would gain a

  19. Submillimetre galaxies reside in dark matter haloes with masses greater than 3 × 10(11) solar masses.

    PubMed

    Amblard, Alexandre; Cooray, Asantha; Serra, Paolo; Altieri, B; Arumugam, V; Aussel, H; Blain, A; Bock, J; Boselli, A; Buat, V; Castro-Rodríguez, N; Cava, A; Chanial, P; Chapin, E; Clements, D L; Conley, A; Conversi, L; Dowell, C D; Dwek, E; Eales, S; Elbaz, D; Farrah, D; Franceschini, A; Gear, W; Glenn, J; Griffin, M; Halpern, M; Hatziminaoglou, E; Ibar, E; Isaak, K; Ivison, R J; Khostovan, A A; Lagache, G; Levenson, L; Lu, N; Madden, S; Maffei, B; Mainetti, G; Marchetti, L; Marsden, G; Mitchell-Wynne, K; Nguyen, H T; O'Halloran, B; Oliver, S J; Omont, A; Page, M J; Panuzzo, P; Papageorgiou, A; Pearson, C P; Pérez-Fournon, I; Pohlen, M; Rangwala, N; Roseboom, I G; Rowan-Robinson, M; Portal, M Sánchez; Schulz, B; Scott, Douglas; Seymour, N; Shupe, D L; Smith, A J; Stevens, J A; Symeonidis, M; Trichas, M; Tugwell, K; Vaccari, M; Valiante, E; Valtchanov, I; Vieira, J D; Vigroux, L; Wang, L; Ward, R; Wright, G; Xu, C K; Zemcov, M

    2011-02-24

    The extragalactic background light at far-infrared wavelengths comes from optically faint, dusty, star-forming galaxies in the Universe with star formation rates of a few hundred solar masses per year. These faint, submillimetre galaxies are challenging to study individually because of the relatively poor spatial resolution of far-infrared telescopes. Instead, their average properties can be studied using statistics such as the angular power spectrum of the background intensity variations. A previous attempt at measuring this power spectrum resulted in the suggestion that the clustering amplitude is below the level computed with a simple ansatz based on a halo model. Here we report excess clustering over the linear prediction at arcminute angular scales in the power spectrum of brightness fluctuations at 250, 350 and 500 μm. From this excess, we find that submillimetre galaxies are located in dark matter haloes with a minimum mass, M(min), such that log(10)[M(min)/M(⊙)] = 11.5(+0.7)(-0.2) at 350 μm, where M(⊙) is the solar mass. This minimum dark matter halo mass corresponds to the most efficient mass scale for star formation in the Universe, and is lower than that predicted by semi-analytical models for galaxy formation.

  20. IMPERATIVES FOR CHANGE, NEW YORK STATE EDUCATION CONFERENCE ON COLLEGE AND UNIVERSITY PROGRAMS FOR TEACHERS OF THE DISADVANTAGED (YESHIVA UNIVERSITY, APRIL 10-11, 1967).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JABLONSKY, ADELAIDE; AND OTHERS

    THESE PROCEEDINGS REPORT 19 DISCUSSION DEBATES, EACH REPRESENTED BY A NUMBER OF PAPERS IN FOUR MAJOR AREAS--(1) CONCERN FOR ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIOR (ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITMENT, COOPERATIVE COLLEGE-SCHOOL SYSTEM EFFORTS, CULTURE SHOCK, STAFF AND STUDENT ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIOR, AND SENSITIVITY TRAINING), (2) CONCERN FOR PEOPLE (TEACHING ETHNIC GROUPS,…

  1. IMPERATIVES FOR CHANGE, PROCEEDINGS OF THE NEW YORK STATE EDUCATION CONFERENCE ON COLLEGE AND UNIVERSITY PROGRAMS FOR TEACHERS OF THE DISADVANTAGED (YESHIVA UNIVERSITY, APRIL 10-11, 1967).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JABLONSKY, ADELAIDE; AND OTHERS

    THESE PROCEEDINGS REPORT 19 DISCUSSION DEBATES, EACH REPRESENTED BY A NUMBER OF PAPERS IN FOUR MAJOR AREAS--(1) CONCERN FOR ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIOR (ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITMENT, COOPERATIVE COLLEGE-SCHOOL SYSTEM EFFORTS, CULTURE SHOCK, STAFF AND STUDENT ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIOR, AND SENSITIVITY TRAINING), (2) CONCERN FOR PEOPLE (TEACHING ETHNIC GROUPS,…

  2. USGS Workshop on Scientific Aspects of a Long-Term Experimental Plan for Glen Canyon Dam, April 10-11, 2007, Flagstaff, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2008-01-01

    Executive Summary Glen Canyon Dam is located in the lower reaches of Glen Canyon National Recreation Area on the Colorado River, approximately 15 miles upriver from Grand Canyon National Park (fig. 1). In 1992, Congress passed and the President signed into law the Grand Canyon Protection Act (GCPA; title XVIII, sec. 1801?1809, of Public Law 102-575), which seeks ?to protect, mitigate adverse impacts to, and improve the values for which Grand Canyon National Park and Glen Canyon National Recreation Area were established.? The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program (GCDAMP) was implemented as a result of the 1996 Record of Decision on the Operation of Glen Canyon Dam Final Environmental Impact Statement to ensure that the primary mandate of the GCPA is met through advances in information and resources management (U.S. Department of the Interior, 1995). On November 3, 2006, the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) announced it would develop a long-term experimental plan environmental impact statement (LTEP EIS) for operational activities at Glen Canyon Dam and other management actions on the Colorado River. The purpose of the long-term experimental plan is twofold: (1) to increase the scientific understanding of the ecosystem and (2) to improve and protect important downstream resources. The proposed plan would implement a structured, longterm program of experimentation to include dam operations, potential modifications to Glen Canyon Dam intake structures, and other management actions such as removal of nonnative fish species. The development of the long-term experimental plan continues efforts begun by the GCDAMP to protect resources downstream of Glen Canyon Dam, including Grand Canyon, through adaptive management and scientific experimentation. The LTEP EIS will rely on the extensive scientific studies that have been undertaken as part of the adaptive management program by the U.S. Geological Survey?s (USGS) Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center (GCMRC), one of the four research stations within the USGS Southwest Biological Science Center. On April 10 and 11, 2007, at the behest of Reclamation, the GCMRC convened a workshop with scientific experts to identify one or more scientifically credible, long-term experimental options for Reclamation to consider for the LTEP EIS that would be consistent with the purpose and need for the plan. Workshop participants included government, academic, and private scientists with broad experience in the Colorado River in Grand Canyon and regulated rivers around the world. Resource managers and GCDAMP participants were also present on the second day of the workshop. In advance of the workshop, Reclamation and LTEP EIS cooperating agencies identified 14 core scientific questions. Workshop participants were asked to consider how proposed options would address these questions, which fall primarily into four areas: (1) conservation of endangered humpback chub (Gila cypha) and other high-priority biological resources, (2) conservation of sediment resources, (3) enhancement of recreational resources, and (4) preservation of cultural resources. A secondary objective of the workshop was the evaluation of four long-term experimental options developed by the GCDAMP Science Planning Group (SPG) (appendix B). The flow and nonflow treatments called for in the four experimental options were an important starting point for workshop discussions. At the beginning of the workshop, participants were provided with the final LTEP EIS scoping report prepared by Reclamation. Participants were also advised that Reclamation had committed to ?make every effortEto ensure that a new population of humpback chub is established in the mainstem or one or more of the tributaries within Grand Canyon? in the 1995 Operation of Glen Canyon Dam Final Environmental Impact Statement (U.S. Department of the Interior, 1995). This decision was consistent with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service?s 1995 bi

  3. Highlights of the Midwest and Eastern Regional Conferences on Childhood Lead Poisoning; Chicago, Illinois, May 10-11, 1972 and Wilmington, Delaware, June 2-3, 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Edward B., Ed.; Challop, Roger S., Ed.

    Various aspects of lead poisoning and its control are the focus of this document which consists of edited speeches presented at childhood lead poisoning conferences in Wilmington, Delaware and Chicago, Illinois. Among the topics discussed are a) the role of Federal and State governments in lead poison control; b) the local government role,…

  4. Proceedings of the Particle Beam Research Workshop, Held at US Air Force Academy, Colorado, Springs, CO on 10-11 January 1980

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-01

    gas (solid, liquid, gas, vacuum) 2) saturable reactors 3) cross-field 4) ignitrons 5) thyratrons 6) solid state 7) mechanical 8) surface flashover o...phenomena/processes 1) breakdown 18 PULSED POWER 2.5 Switching (Cont.) - gas - vacuum 2) flashover ( surface ) - gas-solid interfaces - vacuum-solid...computer models 8) electrode erosion 9) gas flow dynamics 10) surface physics 11) emission mechanisms 12) e-beam energy recovery/perfeance o low

  5. Comment on "Indication from Pioneer 10/11, Galileo, and Ulysses Data, of an Apparent Anomalous, Weak, Long-Range Acceleration"

    SciTech Connect

    Humphreys, D.R.

    1998-10-27

    In a recent Letter Anderson et al. report some very intriguing radio observations flom various interplanetary spaceprobes over the past 18 years. They interpret this data as an anomalous deceleration of the spaceprobes. Here I offer a different interpretation: that the anomaly is related to the cosmological red shift.

  6. Proceedings of the Meeting of the Coordinating Group on Modern Control Theory (2nd) 10-11 December 1980, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Part 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    ki , k 2 and k3 are optimal gain constants, and K is the positive-definite sol - ution of the algebraic Riccati equation ATK + KA + Q - KBr-lBTK - 0. (9...parameters for these cases are given in Table, 3, ’note that the last three digits only of tho Identifier are used here). SoL - parapmeters are quite...response shown in Figure t0. For this case the same MMAC used in the previous examples was employed, but the vign of the radome boresight error model was

  7. Effects of a 12-Month Complex Proprioceptive-Coordinative Training Program on Soccer Performance in Prepubertal Boys Aged 10-11 Years.

    PubMed

    Boraczyński, Michał; Sozański, Henryk; Boraczyński, Tomasz

    2017-03-31

    The aim was to examine the effects of a series of on-field proprioceptive-coordinative (P-C) exercises on motor performance (MP) in prepubertal soccer players. Fifty-three male soccer players aged 10.1-11.8 years were randomized among two experimental programs receiving P-C training (P-CT; n = 26) or regular training (RT; n = 27). A control group (C; n = 22) consisted of age-matched (10.3-11.9 years) cohorts not involved in any regular physical activity. Both experimental groups completed an identical 12-month comprehensive soccer program except training in P-CT was modified to substitute small-sided conditioning games with 24 multi-mode P-C exercises with modulated exercise intensity (every 8-9 weeks based on predicted HRmax). Pre-, peri-, and post-training measures included anthropometry and five tests assessing soccer-specific MP: movement rhythm (turning the ball backwards - T1), motor adaptation (running with the ball around poles - T2), spatial orientation (running to sequentially numbered balls - T3), balance (single-leg static balance - T4), and kinesthetic differentiation of movement (landing the ball on a 2 × 2 m sector - T5). Repeated measures ANOVA revealed no significant between-group differences for age, anthropometry and BF% at baseline. Significant main effects for group (P-CT vs. RT) were found in all tests (T1-T5) and main effects for time (group P-CT) in T3-T5, while a significant group × time interaction was observed only in T4 (F = 2.98, p = 0.0204). Post-hoc tests indicated that P-CT attained significantly better results than RT at peri-training (by 26.4%; p < 0.01) and post-training (by 31.9%, p < 0.01). Modulated exercise intensity had little effect on soccer performance (T1-T3, T5). Based on the results, it is recommended that the training of young soccer players be supplemented with the bilateral balance exercises and games employed in the study. Furthermore, the suitability of monitoring HR in P-C exercises targeting the analyzed MP skills is questionable.

  8. Minutes of the Explosives Safety Seminar (19th) Held at Los Angeles, California, 9-10-11 September 1980. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    3: 1 u2 cbmk 1.0 1.72 z 10 3 9 Surface 3: Size of rebar 0.04 6.89 z 101 spacing 10 Sumface•4: ••ole penal 253.3 4.98 x 105 11 Surface 4;. /2 panel...Criteria and Design and Construction Details - Design Examples, by T. Takayanagi and A. Derecho , Skokie, Ill., May 1980. 8. University of Illinois, DASA

  9. From Early Child Development to Human Development: Investing in Our Children's Future. Proceedings of a World Bank Conference (Washington, D.C., April 10-11, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Mary Eming, Ed.

    In April 2000, the World Bank hosted a global conference that addressed the benefits and challenges of investing in early child development (ECD). The landmark conference brought together the world's leading experts, academicians, practitioners, and policymakers to focus on various aspects of ECD. This volume contains the proceedings of the…

  10. Educational Strategies for Social Change. Papers and Proceedings of the Annual Convention, Lutheran Educational Conference of North America (56th, Houston, January 10-11, 1970).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holcomb, Howard E., Ed.

    The purpose of the Lutheran Educational Conference of North America is to explore problems in higher education, especially those related to Lutheran higher education. It also seeks to share information, suggest strategies, and assist member institutions in their programs. This volume contains the papers and proceedings of the 56th annual meeting.…

  11. The Development of Extraversion and Ability: Analysis of Data from a Large-Scale Longitudinal Study of Children Tested at 10-11 and 14-15 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthony, W. S.

    1983-01-01

    Results of analysis of correlations collected by Cookson, following Eysenck and Cookson's study of personality and ability in young people, confirm the finding from previous Cattellian test data that the more intelligent children decline in relative extraversion scores and cast doubt on Eysenck's suggestion that introverts gradually show higher…

  12. Behavioral responses of the invasive Halyomorpha halys (Stal) to traps baited with stereoisomeric mixtures of 10,11-Epoxy-1-bisabolen-3-OL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys, is an invasive insect in the United States that is capable of inflicting significant yield losses for fruit, vegetable, and soybean growers. Recently, a male-produced aggregation pheromone of H. halys was identified as a 3.5:1 mixture of (3S,6S,7R,...

  13. SECTAM XII - Proceedings of the Twelfth Southeastern Conference on Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, Pine Mountain, GA, May 10, 11, 1984. Volume 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turbulence-related investigations are discussed, taking into account the formulation of three-dimensional boundary-layer equations for viscid/inviscid interacting flow, a theory for generating turbulent flow, numerical experiments in open-channel turbulence, the application of the K-E turbulence model to a boundary layer solution for flow about a spinning yawed projectile at Mach 3, and the simulation of late transition in plane channel flow. Other topics explored are related to wave propagation, nonlinear structural dynamics, computational methods, geomechanics, continuum mechanics, experimental methods, fluid mechanics, biofluid mechanics, vibrations of plates and shells, composite materials, fracture mechanics, interdisciplinary/applied problems, hydraulics, fluid-structure interaction, solid mechanics, and the theory of shells. Attention is given to an analysis of a superplastically formed and diffusion bonded sandwich panel, the composite repair of a cracked aluminum alloy aircraft structure, and the determination of turbomachinery blade characteristics for vibration analysis.

  14. Selected Works from the Proceedings of the Annual Communications Research Symposium (9th, Knoxville, Tennessee, April 10-11, 1986). Vol. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singletary, Michael W., Ed.

    Featuring 11 articles of original research, this collection presents selected works from the proceedings of the ninth Annual Communications Research Symposium. Following are the titles and authors of the articles included: (1) "Issues in Inferring Media Effects from Surveys" (S. H. Chaffee); (2) "Expectancy Value Theory and…

  15. Reading: A Literary Feast: Proceedings of the Claremont Reading Conference (56th, Claremont, CA, March 10-11, 1989). Fifty-Third Yearbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglass, Malcolm P., Ed.

    Articles in this yearbook address the issue of emphasizing the basics in reading development, and also focus on the literary experience. Articles, listed by their authors, include: (1) "A Second Helping" (Myra Cohn Livingston); (2) "Not Only a New Curriculum but a New Teacher" (Marilyn Hanf Buckley); (3) "Reading--A…

  16. Moving from Reader Response to Critical Reading: Developing 10-11-Year-Olds' Ability as Analytical Readers of Literary Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Lorraine

    2004-01-01

    This article presents aspects of a research study into how a group of ten- and eleven-year-old students (in 5th Grade in Sydney, Australia) were apprenticed to view a literary text from critical reading positions. These ways of reading were an alternative to their more typical reader response interpretations of texts. The article contrasts…

  17. Proceedings of the Annual Midwest Research-to-Practice Conference in Adult and Continuing Education (4th, Ann Arbor, Michigan, October 10-11, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berlin, L. S., Ed.

    This document contains the following papers on practical applications of research on adult and continuing education: "Elderly Criminal Behavior: Linking Research to Practice," by Donald J. Bachand and Carl I. Brahce; "Father? Teacher? Friend? Instructor-Student Relationships in a Refugee Class," by Gary J. Bekker; "The Small Group: Understanding…

  18. The Effect of Vitamin D Administration on Intracellular Adhesion Molecule-1 and Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 Levels in Hemodialysis Patients: A Placebo-controlled, Double-blinded Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Naeini, Afsoon Emami; Moeinzadeh, Firouzeh; Vahdat, Sahar; Ahmadi, Akbar; Hedayati, Zahra Parin; Shahzeidi, Safoora

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Vitamin D deficiency is quite common among end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients, and Vitamin D administration could reduce morbidity and mortality in these patients through different mechanisms. Cardiovascular diseases are the most common cause of mortality in these patients that are caused by vascular injuries. Intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM) and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM) are vascular inflammation indicators. The goal of this study is to find the effect of Vitamin D administration on ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 serum levels in ESRD patients on hemodialysis. Methods: The current study is a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial on 64 patients in two groups of control and treatment. Serum levels of Vitamin D, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1 were measured before and after the study. Treatment group was treated with Vitamin D pearls while control group underwent treatment with placebo pearls. Average serum levels of Vitamin D, ICAM, and VCAM were measured in both groups before and after the study and were analyzed by ANOVA, paired t-test, and Chi-square test using SPSS software. Findings: Sixty-four ESRD patients were recruited for this study consisting of 32 male and 32 female subjects within the ages of 18 and 76 years. The change in serum level of Vitamin D was significant in treatment group (P = 0.001) but not in control group (P > 0.05). Serum levels of ICAM and VCAM also changed significantly in treatment group (P = 0.001) but not in control group (P > 0.05) Conclusion: Based on the findings of this study, it could be said that Vitamin D administration in ESRD patients may increase serum level of Vitamin D up to four times. It also reduces serum levels of ICAM and VCAM which might improve the vascular condition of these patients.

  19. Chip-Scale Atomic Devices. Precision Instruments Based on Lasers, Atoms and MEMS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    and should not be interpreted as representing the official views of DARPA or DoD Sensing and Awareness in Microsystems Approved For Public Release...distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES MTO ( DARPA Microsystems Technology Office) Symposium, 2009, Mar 2-5, San Jose, CA 14. ABSTRACT 15...IV Concept DARPA /NIST Cells NIST Physics Package NIST V ~ 1 cm3 P ~ 30 mW f/f~ 10-11 @ 1 hr V ~ 1 cm3 P ~ 30 m f/f~ 10-11 1 hr Oscillators CU

  20. Determination of the rate coefficients for the reactions IO + NO2 + M (air) --> IONO2 + M and O(3P) + NO2 --> O2 + NO using laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Dillon, Terry J; Blitz, Mark A; Heard, Dwayne E

    2006-06-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy via excitation of the A2pi(3/2) <-- X2pi(3/2) (2,0) band at 445 nm was used to monitor IO in the presence of NO2 following its generation in the reactions O(3P) + CF3I and O(3P) + I2. Both photolysis of O3 (248 nm) and NO2 (351 nm) were used to initiate the production of IO. The rate coefficients for the thermolecular reaction IO + NO2 + M --> IONO2 + M were measured in air, N2, and O2 over the range P = 18-760 Torr, covering typical tropospheric conditions, and were found to be in the falloff region. No dependence of k1 upon bath gas identity was observed, and in general, the results are in good agreement with recent determinations. Using a Troe broadening factor of F(B) = 0.4, the falloff parameters k0(1) = (9.5 +/- 1.6) x 10(-31) cm6 molecule(-2) s(-1) and k(infinity)(1) = (1.7 +/- 0.3) x 10(-11) cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1) were determined at 294 K. The temporal profile of IO at elevated temperatures was used to investigate the thermal stability of the product, IONO2, but no evidence was observed for the regeneration of IO, consistent with recent calculations for the IO-NO2 bond strength being approximately 100 kJ mol(-1). Previous modeling studies of iodine chemistry in the marine boundary layer that utilize values of k1 measured in N2 are hence validated by these results conducted in air. The rate coefficient for the reaction O(3P) + NO2 --> O2 + NO at 294 K and in 100 Torr of air was determined to be k2 = (9.3 +/- 0.9) x 10(-12) cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1), in good agreement with recommended values. All uncertainties are quoted at the 95% confidence limit.

  1. Ab initio studies of ClOx reactions. IV. Kinetics and mechanism for the self-reaction of ClO radicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, R. S.; Lin, M. C.

    2003-03-01

    The self-reaction of ClO radicals has been investigated by ab initio molecular orbital and variational transition state theory calculations. Both singlet and triplet potential energy surfaces were predicted by the modified Gaussian-2 method. The reaction was shown to take place mainly over the singlet surface by forming ClOOCl (k1) and ClOClO (k1'). These association processes were found to be strongly pressure dependent and the predicted total rate constants are in good agreement with the experimental data. The predicted second- and third-order rate constants for formation of ClOOCl and ClOClO can be expressed, respectively, in units of cm3 molecule-1 s-1 and cm6 molecule-2 s-1 by k1∞=1.6×10-9T-0.67 exp(-64/T), k1'∞=6.4×10-9T-0.78 exp(-76/T), and k10=8.31×10-20T-4.96 exp(-336/T), k1'0=1.72×10-14T-6.99 exp(-926/T) in the temperature range 180-500 K for N2 as the third body. The observed T, P-dependent data could be best accounted for with the heat of formation of ClOOCl, ΔfH0o(ClOOCl)=29.4±1 kcal/mol. The formation of Cl2+O2 (2), Cl+ClOO (3), and Cl+OClO (4) products have been confirmed, with the predicted pressure-independent rate constants: k2=1.09×10-13T0.66 exp(-1892/T); k3=1.36×10-13T0.77exp(-2168/T); k4=6.26×10-11T0.005 exp(-2896/T), respectively, in units of cm3 molecule-1 s-1, covering the temperature range 200-1500 K. These results are also in reasonable agreement with existing experimental kinetic data.

  2. Modeling anthropogenically-controled secondary organic aerosols in a megacity: a simplified framework for global and climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodzic, A.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2011-04-01

    A simplified parameterization for secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation in polluted air and biomass burning smoke is tested and optimized in this work, towards the goal of a computationally inexpensive method to calculate pollution and biomass burning SOA in global and climate models. A regional chemistry-transport model is used as the testbed for the parameterization, which is compared against observations from the Mexico City metropolitan area during the MILAGRO 2006 field experiment. The empirical parameterization is based on the observed proportionality of SOA concentrations to excess CO and photochemical age of the airmass. The approach consists in emitting an organic gas as lumped SOA precursor surrogate proportional to anthropogenic or biomass burning CO emissions according to the observed ratio between SOA and CO in aged air, and reacting this surrogate with OH into a single non-volatile species that condenses to form SOA. An emission factor of 0.08 g of the lumped SOA precursor per g of CO and a rate constant with OH of 1.25 × 10-11 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 reproduce the observed average SOA mass within 30% in the urban area and downwind. When a 2.5 times slower rate is used (5 × 10-12 cm3 molecule-1 s-1) the predicted SOA amount and temporal evolution is nearly identical to the results obtained with SOA formation from semi-volatile and intermediate volatility primary organic vapors according to the Robinson et al. (2007) formulation. Our simplified method has the advantage of being much less computationally expensive than Robinson-type methods, and can be used in regions where the emissions of SOA precursors are not yet available. As the aged pollution SOA/ΔCO ratios are rather consistent globally, this parameterization could be reasonably tested in and applied to other regions. The potential enhancement of biogenic SOA by anthropogenic pollution, which has been suggested to play a major role in global SOA formation, is also tested using two simple

  3. Modeling anthropogenically controlled secondary organic aerosols in a megacity: a simplified framework for global and climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodzic, A.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2011-10-01

    A simplified parameterization for secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation in polluted air and biomass burning smoke is tested and optimized in this work, towards the goal of a computationally inexpensive method to calculate pollution and biomass burning SOA mass and hygroscopicity in global and climate models. A regional chemistry-transport model is used as the testbed for the parameterization, which is compared against observations from the Mexico City metropolitan area during the MILAGRO 2006 field experiment. The empirical parameterization is based on the observed proportionality of SOA concentrations to excess CO and photochemical age of the airmass. The approach consists in emitting an organic gas as lumped SOA precursor surrogate proportional to anthropogenic or biomass burning CO emissions according to the observed ratio between SOA and CO in aged air, and reacting this surrogate with OH into a single non-volatile species that condenses to form SOA. An emission factor of 0.08 g of the lumped SOA precursor per g of CO and a rate constant with OH of 1.25 × 10-11 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 reproduce the observed average SOA mass within 30 % in the urban area and downwind. When a 2.5 times slower rate is used (5 × 10-12 cm3 molecule-1 s-1) the predicted SOA amount and temporal evolution is nearly identical to the results obtained with SOA formation from semi-volatile and intermediate volatility primary organic vapors according to the Robinson et al. (2007) formulation. Our simplified method has the advantage of being much less computationally expensive than Robinson-type methods, and can be used in regions where the emissions of SOA precursors are not yet available. As the aged SOA/ΔCO ratios are rather consistent globally for anthropogenic pollution, this parameterization could be reasonably tested in and applied to other regions. The evolution of oxygen-to-carbon ratio was also empirically modeled and the predicted levels were found to be in reasonable agreement

  4. Interleukin-6 and intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression remains elevated in revived live endothelial cells following spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Muid, S; Froemming, G R A; Ali, A M; Nawawi, H

    2013-12-01

    The effects of spaceflight on cardiovascular health are not necessarily seen immediately after astronauts have returned but can be delayed. It is important to investigate the long term effects of spaceflight on protein and gene expression of inflammation and endothelial activation as a predictor for the development of atherosclerosis and potential cardiovascular problems. The objectives of this study were to investigate the (a) protein and gene expression of inflammation and endothelial activation, (b) expression of nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB), signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT-3) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) 3 months post-space flight travel compared to ground controls. HUVEC cultured on microcarriers in fluid processing apparatus were flown to the International Space Station (ISS) by the Soyuz TMA-11 rocket. After landing, the cells were detached from microcarriers and recultured in T-25 cm(2) culture flasks (Revived HUVEC). Soluble protein expression of IL-6, TNF-α, ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and e-selectin were measured by ELISA. Gene expression of these markers and in addition NFκB, STAT-3 and eNOS were measured. Spaceflight induced IL-6 and ICAM-1 remain elevated even after 3 months post spaceflight travel and this is mediated via STAT-3 pathway. The downregulation of eNOS expression in revived HUVEC cells suggests a reduced protection of the cells and the surrounding vessels against future insults that may lead to atherosclerosis. It would be crucial to explore preventive measures, in relation to atherosclerosis and its related complications.

  5. Vibration-translation energy transfer in anharmonic diatomic molecules. 1: A critical evaluation of the semiclassical approximation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckenzie, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    The semiclassical approximation is applied to anharmonic diatomic oscillators in excited initial states. Multistate numerical solutions giving the vibrational transition probabilities for collinear collisions with an inert atom are compared with equivalent, exact quantum-mechanical calculations. Several symmetrization methods are shown to correlate accurately the predictions of both theories for all initial states, transitions, and molecular types tested, but only if coupling of the oscillator motion and the classical trajectory of the incident particle is considered. In anharmonic heteronuclear molecules, the customary semiclassical method of computing the classical trajectory independently leads to transition probabilities with anomalous low-energy resonances. Proper accounting of the effects of oscillator compression and recoil on the incident particle trajectory removes the anomalies and restores the applicability of the semiclassical approximation.

  6. Endothelial cells proactively form microvilli-like membrane projections upon intercellular adhesion molecule 1 engagement of leukocyte LFA-1.

    PubMed

    Carman, Christopher V; Jun, Chang-Duk; Salas, Azucena; Springer, Timothy A

    2003-12-01

    Specific leukocyte/endothelial interactions are critical for immunity and inflammation, yet the molecular details of this interaction interface remain poorly understood. Thus, we investigated, with confocal microscopy, the distribution dynamics of the central adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and LFA-1 in this context. Monolayers of activated HUVECs stained with fluorescent anti-ICAM-1 Fabs or Chinese hamster ovary-K1 cells expressing ICAM-1-green fluorescent protein were allowed to bind LFA-1-bearing monocytes, neutrophils, or K562 LFA-1 transfectants. ICAM-1 was rapidly relocalized to newly formed microvilli-like membrane projections in response to binding LFA-1 on leukocytes. These ICAM-1-enriched projections encircled the leukocytes extending up their sides and clustered LFA-1 underneath into linear tracks. Projections formed independently of VCAM-1/very late Ag 4 interactions, shear, and proactive contributions from the LFA-1-bearing cells. In the ICAM-1-bearing endothelial cells, projections were enriched in actin but not microtubules, required intracellular calcium, and intact microfilament and microtubule cytoskeletons and were independent of Rho/Rho kinase signaling. Disruption of these projections with cytochalasin D, colchicine, or BAPTA-AM had no affect on firm adhesion. These data show that in response to LFA-1 engagement the endothelium proactively forms an ICAM-1-enriched cup-like structure that surrounds adherent leukocytes but is not important for firm adhesion. This finding leaves open a possible role in leukocyte transendothelial migration, which would be consistent with the geometry and kinetics of formation of the cup-like structure.

  7. Soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) as a marker of disease relapse in idiopathic uveoretinitis.

    PubMed Central

    Zaman, A G; Edelsten, C; Stanford, M R; Graham, E M; Ellis, B A; Direskeneli, H; D'Cruz, D P; Hughes, G R; Dumonde, D C; Wallace, G R

    1994-01-01

    This study reports the results of a point prevalence study of markers of endothelial dysfunction in the serum of patients with idiopathic uveoretinitis. sICAM-1, soluble endothelial leucocyte adhesion molecule (sELAM), anti-endothelial cell antibodies (AECA) and von Willebrand factor (vWF) levels were measured in 32 patients with isolated idiopathic uveoretinitis and seven with uveitis in association with systemic disease, using commercial and in-house ELISAs. Raised levels of AECA were found in 31% of patients with isolated uveitis, vWF in 28%, sELAM in 15.6% and sICAM-1 in 31%. Further analysis revealed that raised sICAM-1 levels were closely associated with recent relapse of disease (P = 0.00003). Patients with accompanying systemic disease were found to have a similar prevalence of these serum abnormalities to those with isolated ocular disease. In conclusion, vascular endothelial dysfunction may contribute to pathogenesis in uveoretinitis, and in particular sICAM-1 may prove a marker of disease relapse in this condition. PMID:7507016

  8. Interferon gamma regulates platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 expression and neutrophil infiltration into herpes simplex virus- infected mouse corneas

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    In a mouse model of herpes simplex virus (HSV) 1 corneal infection, tissue destruction results from a CD4+ T cell-mediated chronic inflammation, in which interleukin 2 and interferon (IFN) gamma are requisite inflammatory mediators and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) are the predominant infiltrating cells. In vivo neutralization of IFN- gamma relieved inflammation at least in part through a specific block of PMN extravasation into HSV-1-infected corneas. Intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM) 1 and platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM) 1 were upregulated on the vascular endothelium of inflamed corneas. Reduced PMN extravasation in anti-IFN-gamma-treated mice was associated with a dramatic reduction of PECAM-1 but not ICAM-1 expression on vascular endothelium. PMN accumulated in the lumen of corneal vessels after in vivo IFN-gamma neutralization. PECAM-1 was readily detectable on PMN inside the vessels but was not detectable on PMN that extravasated into the infected cornea. Moreover, flow cytometric analysis revealed reduced PECAM-1 expression but elevated major histocompatibility complex class I expression on PMN that recently extravasated into the peritoneal cavity when compared with PMN in the peripheral blood. We conclude that IFN-gamma contributes to HSV- 1-induced corneal inflammation by facilitating PMN infiltration; this appears to be accomplished through upregulation of PECAM-1 expression on the vascular endothelium; and PMN downregulate PECAM-1 expression during the process of extravasation. PMID:8879215

  9. Suppression of complement regulatory protein C1 inhibitor in vascular endothelial activation by inhibiting vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 action

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Haimou; Qin, Gangjian; Liang, Gang; Li, Jinan; Chiu, Isaac; Barrington, Robert A.; Liu, Dongxu . E-mail: dxliu001@yahoo.com

    2007-07-13

    Increased expression of adhesion molecules by activated endothelium is a critical feature of vascular inflammation associated with the several diseases such as endotoxin shock and sepsis/septic shock. Our data demonstrated complement regulatory protein C1 inhibitor (C1INH) prevents endothelial cell injury. We hypothesized that C1INH has the ability of an anti-endothelial activation associated with suppression of expression of adhesion molecule(s). C1INH blocked leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cell monolayer in both static assay and flow conditions. In inflammatory condition, C1INH reduced vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1) expression associated with its cytoplasmic mRNA destabilization and nuclear transcription level. Studies exploring the underlying mechanism of C1INH-mediated suppression in VCAM-1 expression were related to reduction of NF-{kappa}B activation and nuclear translocation in an I{kappa}B{alpha}-dependent manner. The inhibitory effects were associated with reduction of inhibitor I{kappa}B kinase activity and stabilization of the NF-{kappa}B inhibitor I{kappa}B. These findings indicate a novel role for C1INH in inhibition of vascular endothelial activation. These observations could provide the basis for new therapeutic application of C1INH to target inflammatory processes in different pathologic situations.

  10. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in Graves' disease: contrast between in vivo and in vitro results.

    PubMed Central

    Ciampolillo, A; Napolitano, G; Mirakian, R; Miyasaki, A; Giorgino, R; Bottazzo, G F

    1993-01-01

    We have reassessed the possible role of the adhesion molecule ICAM-1 in the pathogenesis of thyroid autoimmunity. In order to do that, we have investigated its expression in eight Graves' thyroids both in vivo (i.e. on cryostat sections and on cell suspensions), and in vitro (i.e. on cells cultured in monolayers for 3 days), and the results were compared with those obtained with similar preparations from four normal glands. On cryostat sections, the expression of ICAM-1, and for comparison that of HLA Class I and Class II molecules, was studied by immunofluorescence (IFL), but the former were also assessed by a distinct immunohistochemical technique. ICAM-1 was not detected in thyrocytes in vivo of both normal and Graves' glands, but solely in endothelial cells and antigen-presenting cells (APC). This selective reaction was confirmed by a four-layer technique using specific markers which identify endothelial cells and thyrocytes. HLA Class II molecules were confirmed to be inappropriately expressed in thyrocytes of Graves' glands, but there was no co-expression of these products and ICAM-1 in the same cells. In contrast, ICAM-1 appeared de novo in a proportion of Graves' and normal thyrocytes soon after the attachment and spreading of these cells in monolayer cultures (36-48 h). Graves' thyrocytes showed a quantitatively higher degree of expression compared with that detected on normal thyroid cells (40-70% versus 12-20%). Under these experimental conditions, the four-layer staining with thyroid microsomal antibodies confirmed that thyrocytes were indeed the positive cells which expressed ICAM-1. Blocking experiments with cultured thyrocytes from two Graves' glands and MoAbs to tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) did not prevent the occurrence of ICAM-1 expression. As a result of our study, we failed to demonstrate that Graves' thyrocytes express ICAM-1 in vivo. The unexpected case of inducing ICAM-1 on thyroid cells under certain in vitro conditions remains intriguing. The phenomenon could be the simple consequence of a mechanical effect rather than exerted by specific biological processes. Further investigations are, therefore, needed to establish whether ICAM-1 is really involved in the pathogenesis of Graves' disease. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:7902787

  11. Hematopoietic Progenitor Cell Rolling in Bone Marrow Microvessels: Parallel Contributions by Endothelial Selectins and Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule 1

    PubMed Central

    Mazo, Irina B.; Gutierrez-Ramos, Jose-Carlos; Frenette, Paul S.; Hynes, Richard O.; Wagner, Denisa D.; von Andrian, Ulrich H.

    1998-01-01

    We have used intravital microscopy to study physiologically perfused microvessels in murine bone marrow (BM). BM sinusoids and venules, but not adjacent bone vessels, supported rolling interactions of hematopoietic progenitor cells. Rolling did not involve L-selectin, but was partially reduced in wild-type mice treated with antibodies to P- or E-selectin and in mice that were deficient in these two selectins. Selectin-independent rolling was mediated by α4 integrins, which interacted with endothelial vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1. Parallel contribution of the endothelial selectins and VCAM-1 is not known to direct blood cell trafficking to other noninflamed tissues. This combination of constitutively expressed adhesion molecules may thus constitute a BM-specific recruitment pathway for progenitor cells analogous to the vascular addressins that direct selective lymphocyte homing to lymphoid organs. PMID:9687524

  12. Kinetics of elementary steps in the reactions of atomic bromine with isoprene and 1,3-butadiene under atmospheric conditions.

    PubMed

    Laine, Patrick L; Sohn, Yoon S; Nicovich, J Michael; McKee, Michael L; Wine, Paul H

    2012-06-21

    Laser flash photolysis of CF(2)Br(2) has been coupled with time-resolved detection of atomic bromine by resonance fluorescence spectroscopy to investigate the gas-phase kinetics of early elementary steps in the Br-initiated oxidations of isoprene (2-methyl-1,3-butadiene, Iso) and 1,3-butadiene (Bu) under atmospheric conditions. At T ≥ 526 K, measured rate coefficients for Br + isoprene are independent of pressure, suggesting that hydrogen transfer (1a) is the dominant reaction pathway. The following Arrhenius expression adequately describes all kinetic data at 526 K ≤ T ≤ 673 K: k(1a)(T) = (1.22 ± 0.57) × 10(-11) exp[(-2100 ± 280)/T] cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) (uncertainties are 2σ and represent precision of the Arrhenius parameters). At 271 K ≤ T ≤ 357 K, kinetic evidence for the reversible addition reactions Br + Iso ↔ Br-Iso (k(1b), k(-1b)) and Br + Bu ↔ Br-Bu (k(3b), k(-3b)) is observed. Analysis of the approach to equilibrium data allows the temperature- and pressure-dependent rate coefficients k(1b), k(-1b), k(3b), and k(-3b) to be evaluated. At atmospheric pressure, addition of Br to each conjugated diene occurs with a near-gas-kinetic rate coefficient. Equilibrium constants for the addition/dissociation reactions are obtained from k(1b)/k(-1b) and k(3b)/k(-3b), respectively. Combining the experimental equilibrium data with electronic structure calculations allows both second- and third-law analyses of thermochemistry to be carried out. The following thermochemical parameters for the addition reactions 1b and 3b at 0 and 298 K are obtained (units are kJ mol(-1) for Δ(r)H and J mol(-1) K(-1) for Δ(r)S; uncertainties are accuracy estimates at the 95% confidence level): Δ(r)H(0)(1b) = -66.6 ± 7.1, Δ(r)H(298)(1b) = -67.5 ± 6.6, and Δ(r)S(298)(3b) = -93 ± 16; Δ(r)H(0)(3b) = -62.4 ± 9.0, Δ(r)H(298)(3b) = -64.5 ± 8.5, and Δ(r)S(298)(3b) = -94 ± 20. Examination of the effect of added O(2) on Br kinetics under conditions where reversible

  13. Atmospheric reactions of methylcyclohexanes with Cl atoms and OH radicals: determination of rate coefficients and degradation products.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros, Bernabé; Ceacero-Vega, Antonio A; Jiménez, Elena; Albaladejo, José

    2015-04-01

    As the result of biogenic and anthropogenic activities, large quantities of chemical compounds are emitted into the troposphere. Alkanes, in general, and cycloalkanes are an important chemical class of hydrocarbons found in diesel, jet and gasoline, vehicle exhaust emissions, and ambient air in urban areas. In general, the primary atmospheric fate of organic compounds in the gas phase is the reaction with hydroxyl radicals (OH). The oxidation by Cl atoms has gained importance in the study of atmospheric reactions because they may exert some influence in the boundary layer, particularly in marine and coastal environments, and in the Arctic troposphere. The aim of this paper is to study of the atmospheric reactivity of methylcylohexanes with Cl atoms and OH radicals under atmospheric conditions (in air at room temperature and pressure). Relative kinetic techniques have been used to determine the rate coefficients for the reaction of Cl atoms and OH radicals with methylcyclohexane, cis-1,4-dimethylcyclohexane, trans-1,4-dimethylcyclohexane, and 1,3,5-trimethylcyclohexane at 298 ± 2 K and 720 ± 5 Torr of air by Fourier transform infrared) spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in two atmospheric simulation chambers. The products formed in the reaction under atmospheric conditions were investigated using a 200-L Teflon bag and employing the technique of solid-phase microextraction coupled to a GC-MS. The rate coefficients obtained for the reaction of Cl atoms with the studied compounds are the following ones (in units of 10(-10) cm(3molecule(-1) s(-1)): (3.11 ± 0.16), (2.89 ± 0.16), (2.89 ± 0.26), and (2.61 ± 0.42), respectively. For the reactions with OH radicals the determined rate coefficients are (in units of 10(-11cm(3molecule(-1) s(-1)): (1.18 ± 0.12), (1.49 ± 0.16), (1.41 ± 0.15), and (1.77 ± 0.23), respectively. The reported error is twice the standard deviation. A detailed

  14. Detailed mechanism of the CH2I + O2 reaction: Yield and self-reaction of the simplest Criegee intermediate CH2OO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ting, Wei-Lun; Chang, Chun-Hung; Lee, Yu-Fang; Matsui, Hiroyuki; Lee, Yuan-Pern; Lin, Jim-Min, Jr.

    2014-09-01

    The application of a new reaction scheme using CH2I + O2 to generate the simplest Criegee intermediate, CH2OO, has stimulated lively research; the Criegee intermediates are extremely important in atmospheric chemistry. The detailed mechanism of CH2I + O2 is hence important in understanding kinetics involving CH2OO. We employed ultraviolet absorption to probe simultaneously CH2I2, CH2OO, CH2I, and IO in the reaction system of CH2I + O2 upon photolysis at 248 nm of a flowing mixture of CH2I2, O2, and N2 (or SF6) in the pressure range 7.6-779 Torr to investigate the reaction kinetics. With a detailed mechanism to model the observed temporal profiles of CH2I, CH2OO, and IO, we found that various channels of the reaction CH2I + O2 and CH2OO + I play important roles; an additional decomposition channel of CH2I + O2 to form products other than CH2OO or ICH2OO becomes important at pressure less than 60 Torr. The pressure dependence of the derived rate coefficients of various channels of reactions of CH2I + O2 and CH2OO + I has been determined. We derived a rate coefficient also for the self-reaction of CH2OO as k = (8 ± 4) × 10-11 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 at 295 K. The yield of CH2OO from CH2I + O2 was found to have a pressure dependence on N2 and O2 smaller than in previous reports; for air under 1 atm, the yield of ˜30% is about twice of previous estimates.

  15. Detailed mechanism of the CH₂I + O₂ reaction: yield and self-reaction of the simplest Criegee intermediate CH₂OO.

    PubMed

    Ting, Wei-Lun; Chang, Chun-Hung; Lee, Yu-Fang; Matsui, Hiroyuki; Lee, Yuan-Pern; Lin, Jim Jr-Min

    2014-09-14

    The application of a new reaction scheme using CH2I + O2 to generate the simplest Criegee intermediate, CH2OO, has stimulated lively research; the Criegee intermediates are extremely important in atmospheric chemistry. The detailed mechanism of CH2I + O2 is hence important in understanding kinetics involving CH2OO. We employed ultraviolet absorption to probe simultaneously CH2I2, CH2OO, CH2I, and IO in the reaction system of CH2I + O2 upon photolysis at 248 nm of a flowing mixture of CH2I2, O2, and N2 (or SF6) in the pressure range 7.6-779 Torr to investigate the reaction kinetics. With a detailed mechanism to model the observed temporal profiles of CH2I, CH2OO, and IO, we found that various channels of the reaction CH2I + O2 and CH2OO + I play important roles; an additional decomposition channel of CH2I + O2 to form products other than CH2OO or ICH2OO becomes important at pressure less than 60 Torr. The pressure dependence of the derived rate coefficients of various channels of reactions of CH2I + O2 and CH2OO + I has been determined. We derived a rate coefficient also for the self-reaction of CH2OO as k = (8 ± 4) × 10(-11) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) at 295 K. The yield of CH2OO from CH2I + O2 was found to have a pressure dependence on N2 and O2 smaller than in previous reports; for air under 1 atm, the yield of ~30% is about twice of previous estimates.

  16. Atmospheric chemistry of i-butanol.

    PubMed

    Andersen, V F; Wallington, T J; Nielsen, O J

    2010-12-02

    Smog chamber/FTIR techniques were used to determine rate constants of k(Cl + i-butanol) = (2.06 ± 0.40) × 10(-10), k(Cl + i-butyraldehyde) = (1.37 ± 0.08) × 10(-10), and k(OH + i-butanol) = (1.14 ± 0.17) × 10(-11) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) in 700 Torr of N(2)/O(2) diluent at 296 ± 2K. The UV irradiation of i-butanol/Cl(2)/N(2) mixtures gave i-butyraldehyde in a molar yield of 53 ± 3%. The chlorine atom initiated oxidation of i-butanol in the absence of NO gave i-butyraldehyde in a molar yield of 48 ± 3%. The chlorine atom initiated oxidation of i-butanol in the presence of NO gave (molar yields): i-butyraldehyde (46 ± 3%), acetone (35 ± 3%), and formaldehyde (49 ± 3%). The OH radical initiated oxidation of i-butanol in the presence of NO gave acetone in a yield of 61 ± 4%. The reaction of chlorine atoms with i-butanol proceeds 51 ± 5% via attack on the α-position to give an α-hydroxy alkyl radical that reacts with O(2) to give i-butyraldehyde. The atmospheric fate of (CH(3))(2)C(O)CH(2)OH alkoxy radicals is decomposition to acetone and CH(2)OH radicals. The atmospheric fate of OCH(2)(CH(3))CHCH(2)OH alkoxy radicals is decomposition to formaldehyde and CH(3)CHCH(2)OH radicals. The results are consistent with, and serve to validate, the mechanism that has been assumed in the estimation of the photochemical ozone creation potential of i-butanol.

  17. Kinetics and products of the OH radical-initiated reaction of 3-methyl-2-butenal.

    PubMed

    Tuazon, Ernesto C; Aschmann, Sara M; Nishino, Noriko; Arey, Janet; Atkinson, Roger

    2005-06-07

    Kinetics and products of the gas-phase reaction of OH radicals with 3-methyl-2-butenal [(CH3)2C=CHCHO] have been investigated at room temperature and atmospheric pressure of air. Using a relative rate method with methacrolein as the reference compound, a rate constant for the reaction of OH radicals with 3-methyl-2-butenal of (6.21 +/- 0.18) x 10(-11) cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1) at 296 +/- 2 K was measured, where the indicated error does not include the uncertainty in the rate constant for the methacrolein reference compound. Products of this reaction were investigated using in situ Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and solid phase microextraction (SPME) fibers coated with O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine for on-fiber derivatization of carbonyl compounds, with subsequent thermal desorption and analysis by gas chromatography. The products observed and the molar formation yields were: glyoxal, 40 +/- 3%; acetone, 74 +/- 6%; 2-hydroxy-2-methylpropanal, 4.6 +/- 0.7%; CO2, 39% initially, decreasing to 30% at greater extents of reaction; peroxyacyl nitrate(s) [RC(O)OONO2], 5-8%, increasing with the extent of reaction and with the sum of the CO2 and RC(O)OONO2 yields being 38 +/- 6%; and organic nitrates [RONO2], 8.5 +/- 2.3%. The formation of these products is readily explained by a reaction mechanism based on those previously formulated for the corresponding reactions of the alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes acrolein, crotonaldehyde and methacrolein. Based on the mechanism proposed, at room temperature H-atom abstraction from the CHO group accounts for 40 +/- 6% of the overall reaction, and OH radical addition to the carbon atoms of the C=C bond accounts for 53 +/- 4% of the overall reaction. Hence 93 +/- 8% of the reaction products and pathways are accounted for.

  18. Kinetics of the reactions of isoprene-derived hydroxynitrates: gas phase epoxide formation and solution phase hydrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, M. I.; Burke, W. J.; Elrod, M. J.

    2014-09-01

    Isoprene, the most abundant non-methane volatile organic compound (VOC) emitted into the atmosphere, is known to undergo gas phase oxidation to form eight different hydroxynitrate isomers in "high-NOx" environments. These hydroxynitrates are known to affect the global and regional formation of ozone and secondary organic aerosol (SOA), as well as affect the distribution of nitrogen. In the present study, we have synthesized three of the eight possible hydroxynitrates: 4-hydroxy-3-nitroxy isoprene (4,3-HNI) and E / Z-1-hydroxy-4-nitroxy isoprene (1,4-HNI). Oxidation of the 4,3-HNI isomer by the OH radical was monitored using a flow tube chemical ionization mass spectrometer (FT-CIMS), and its OH rate constant was determined to be (3.64 ± 0.41) × 10-11 cm3 molecule-1 s-1. The products of 4,3-HNI oxidation were monitored, and a mechanism to explain the products was developed. An isoprene epoxide (IEPOX) - a species important in SOA chemistry and thought to originate only from "low-NOx" isoprene oxidation - was found as a minor, but significant, product. Additionally, hydrolysis kinetics of the three synthesized isomers were monitored with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The bulk, neutral solution hydrolysis rate constants for 4,3-HNI and the 1,4-HNI isomers were (1.59 ± 0.03) × 10-5 s-1 and (6.76 ± 0.09) × 10-3 s-1, respectively. The hydrolysis reactions of each isomer were found to be general acid-catalyzed. The reaction pathways, product yields and atmospheric implications for both the gas phase and aerosol phase reactions are discussed.

  19. Kinetics of the reactions of isoprene-derived hydroxynitrates: gas phase epoxide formation and solution phase hydrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, M. I.; Burke, W. J.; Elrod, M. J.

    2014-05-01

    Isoprene, the most abundant non-methane volatile organic compound (VOC) emitted into the atmosphere, is known to undergo gas phase oxidation to form eight different hydroxynitrate isomers in "high NOx" environments. These hydroxynitrates are known to affect the global and regional formation of ozone and secondary organic aerosol (SOA), as well as affect the distribution of nitrogen. In the present study, we have synthesized three of the eight possible hydroxynitrates: 4-hydroxy-3-nitroxy isoprene (4,3-HNI) and E/Z-1-hydroxy-4-nitroxy isoprene (1,4-HNI). Oxidation of the 4,3-HNI isomer by the OH radical was monitored using a flow tube chemical ionization mass spectrometer (FT-CIMS), and its OH rate constant was determined to be (3.64 ± 0.41) × 10-11 cm3 molecule-1 s-1. The products of 4,3-HNI oxidation were monitored, and a mechanism to explain the products was developed. An isoprene epoxide (IEPOX) - a species important in SOA chemistry and thought to originate only from "low NOx" isoprene oxidation - was found as a minor, but significant product. Additionally, hydrolysis kinetics of the three synthesized isomers were monitored with NMR. The bulk, neutral solution hydrolysis rate constants for 4,3-HNI and the 1,4-HNI isomers were (1.59±0.03 × 10-5 s-1 and (6.76 ± 0.09) × 10-3 s-1, respectively. The hydrolysis reactions of each isomer were found to be general acid-catalyzed. The reaction pathways, product yields and atmospheric implications for both the gas phase and aerosol-phase reactions are discussed.

  20. Reactivity of E-butenedial with the major atmospheric oxidants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín, Pilar; Cabañas, Beatriz; Colmenar, Inmaculada; Salgado, María Sagrario; Villanueva, Florentina; Tapia, Araceli

    2013-05-01

    The degradation reactions of E-butenedial with OH and NO3 radicals and Cl atoms were investigated using a relative rate method. The experiments were carried out at ˜298 ± 1 K and an atmospheric pressure of N2 or synthetic air as the bath gas. Three different sampling/detection methods have been used for the study with Cl, OH and NO3: (1) Solid-Phase Microextraction and Gas Chromatography with Flame Ionization Detection (SPME/GC-FID), (2) ‘in situ’ with long-path Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), and (3) Tenax solid adsorbent and Gas Chromatography with Mass Spectrometry (Tenax/GC-MS) as the detection system. The measured rate coefficients for E-butenedial (cm3 molecule-1 s-1) are as follows: (1.35 ± 0.29) × 10-10 for the Cl atom, (3.45 ± 0.34) × 10-11 for the OH radical and (1.70 ± 0.83) × 10-15 for the NO3 radical. For the reaction of Cl and NO3 these are the first rate coefficient data to be reported and in the case of OH the literature value is confirmed. This study confirms that the chemical structure of the organic substances does not influence on the reactivity with Cl, has a significant effect for OH reactions and is very important for NO3 reactions. Calculated atmospheric lifetimes are in the order of days for Cl and NO3 reactions and hours for OH. In the case of Cl atoms, a lifetime of 20 h is estimated in the early morning hours in urban coastal air. These shorter lifetimes imply that the degradation reactions of E-butenedial are of great importance because their reaction products are secondary pollutants that are involved in processes such as the formation of photochemical smog or peroxyacyl nitrates (PANs).

  1. Effects of chemical aging on global secondary organic aerosol using the volatility basis set approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, D. S.; Park, R. J.; Kim, M. J.; Spracklen, D. V.

    2013-12-01

    A global 3-D chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) is used with the volatility basis set (VBS) approach to examine the effects of chemical aging on global secondary organic aerosol (SOA) concentrations and budgets. We present full-year simulations and their comparisons with the global aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) dataset, the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) dataset from the United States, the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) dataset from Europe, and water-soluble organic carbon observation data collected over East Asia. Using different chemical aging constants, we find that the model results with 4 × 10-11 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 are in better agreement with all observations relative to the model results with other aging constants, without aging, and with the two-product approach. The model simulations are improved when chemical aging is considered, especially for rural regions. However, the simulations still underestimate observed oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA) in urban areas. Two sensitivity simulations including semi-volatile primary organic aerosol (POA) were conducted. We find that including semi-volatile POA improves the model in terms of the hydrogen-like organic aerosol (HOA) to OOA ratio. However, the total OA concentrations are not improved. The total SOA production is considerably increased by 53%, from 26.0 to 39.9 Tg yr-1, after considering chemical aging, remaining lower than top-down estimates of SOA production. Direct radiative forcing (DRF) increases by -0.07 W m-2 due to the chemical aging of SOA, which is comparable to the mean DRF (-0.13 W m-2) of OA from the AeroCom multi-model study. This result indicates considerable global and, more importantly, regional climate implications. For example, the regional DRF change due to chemical aging of SOA in the eastern US is -0.29 W m-2, which is 4 times greater in magnitude than the global mean value.

  2. Experimental evidence for the importance of convected methylhydroperoxide as a source of hydrogen oxide (HOx) radicals in the tropical upper troposphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravetta, F.; Jacob, D. J.; Brune, W. H.; Heikes, B. G.; Anderson, B. E.; Blake, D. R.; Gregory, G. L.; Sachse, G. W.; Sandholm, S. T.; Shetter, R. E.; Singh, H. B.; Talbot, R. W.

    2001-12-01

    Concurrent measurements of OH, HO2, H2O2, and CH3OOH concentrations were made during an aircraft flight over the tropical South Pacific that followed a back-and-forth pattern at constant 10 km altitude for 4 hours. One end of the pattern sampled an aged convective outflow, while the other end sampled the background atmosphere. Concentrations of HO2 and CH3OOH in the convective outflow were elevated by 50 and 350% relative to background, respectively, while concentrations of OH and H2O2 were not elevated. The high CH3OOH concentrations in the outflow were due to convective pumping from the marine boundary layer. In contrast to CH3OOH, H2O2 was not enhanced in the outflow because its high water solubility allows efficient scavenging in the convective updraft. A photochemical model calculation constrained with the ensemble of aircraft observations reproduces the HO2 enhancement in the convective outflow and attributes it to the enhanced CH3OOH; the calculation also reproduces the lack of OH enhancement in the outflow and attributes it to OH loss from reaction with CH3OOH. Further analysis of model results shows substantial evidence that the rate constant used in standard mechanisms for the CH3O2 + HO2 reaction is about a factor of 3 too low at the low temperatures of the upper troposphere. A sensitivity simulation using a value of 3.4×10-11 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 at 233 K for this rate constant yields better agreement with observed HO2 concentrations and better closure of the chemical budgets for both CH3OOH and H2O2. The CH3O2 + HO2 reaction then becomes the single most important loss pathway for HOx radicals (HOx = OH + peroxy radicals) in the upper troposphere.

  3. Kinetic study of the OH, NO3 radicals and Cl atom initiated atmospheric photo-oxidation of iso-propenyl methyl ether

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taccone, Raúl Alberto; Moreno, Alberto; Colmenar, Inmaculada; Salgado, Sagrario; Martín, María Pilar; Cabañas, Beatriz

    2016-02-01

    Rate coefficients at room temperature and atmospheric pressure for the reaction of isopropenyl methyl ether (i-PME) (CH2dbnd C(CH3)OCH3), with OH and NO3 radicals and with Cl atoms have been determined in a 50 L Pyrex glass reaction chamber in conjunction with Fourier Transform Infrared absorption spectroscopy (FTIR) as a detection technique. The chamber is equipped with a White-type multiple-reflection mirror system with a total optical path length of ≈200 m. Additional experiments were carried out using evacuable Teflon-coated bags (volume 150 L) and a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry-time of flight (GC-TOF MS) detection system. This is the first kinetic study carried out to date for these reactions. The rate coefficients k (in units of cm3 molecule-1 s-1) obtained are: (1.14 ± 0.10) × 10-10 for the OH reaction, (2.41 ± 0.50) × 10-11, for the NO3 reaction and (7.03 ± 0.67) × 10-10 for the Cl reaction. A mechanism is proposed from the observed reaction products. The atmospheric lifetimes of the studied ether is estimated considering the rate coefficients of the reactions with OH and NO3 radicals and Cl atom. Calculated atmospheric lifetimes reveal that the dominant loss process for i-PME is clearly the night-time reaction with the NO3 radical. The radiative efficiency (RE) is obtained from the infrared spectra of the ether and the global warming potential (GWP) is then estimated. Atmospheric implications of the ether emission are discussed.

  4. Temperature Dependent Rate Coefficients for the OH + Pinonaldehyde Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, M. E.; Talukdar, R.; Notte, G.; Ellison, G. B.; Ravishankara, A. R.; Burkholder, J. B.

    2005-12-01

    The biogenic emission of monoterpenes is an important source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to the atmosphere, approximately 10% of the biogenic hydrocarbons emitted yearly. The oxidation of alpha-pinene, the most abundant monoterpene in the atmosphere, by OH leads to the formation of pinonaldehyde (3-acetyl-2,2-dimethyl-cyclobutyl-ethanal) as a major oxidation product formed in yields > 50%. The atmospheric oxidation of pinonaldehyde will impact radical cycling, ozone formation and air quality on a regional scale. Previous laboratory studies of the OH + pinonaldehyde rate coefficient have used relative rate methods and were limited to room temperature. The reported rate coefficients are in poor agreement with values ranging from 4.0 to 9.1 × 10-11 cm#3 molecule-1 s-1. In this study we have measured absolute rate coefficients to resolve these discrepancies and have extended the measurements to include the temperature dependence. The rate coefficient for the gas phase reaction of OH with pinonaldehyde was measured over the temperature range 297 to 374 K and between 55 and 96 Torr under pseudo first order conditions in OH. Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) was used to monitor the OH radical which was produced by pulsed laser photolysis. The pinonaldehyde concentration was determined in situ using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and UV (185 nm) absorption spectroscopy. The rate coefficient for the OH + pinonaldehyde reaction will be presented. Our results will be compared with previous rate coefficient measurements and the discrepancies and the atmospheric implications of these measurements will be discussed.

  5. Kinetic studies of the reactions of O2(b 1sigma(g)+) with several atmospheric molecules.

    PubMed

    Dunlea, Edward J; Talukdar, Ranajit K; Ravishankara, A R

    2005-05-05

    Thermal rate coefficients for the removal (reaction + quenching) of O2(1sigma(g)+) by collision with several atmospheric molecules were determined to be as follows: O3, k3(210-370 K) = (3.63 +/- 0.86) x 10(-11) exp((-115 +/- 66)/T); H2O, k4(250-370 K) = (4.52 +/- 2.14) x 10(-12) exp((89 +/- 210)/T); N2, k5(210-370 K) = (2.03 +/- 0.30) x 10(-15) exp((37 +/- 40)/T); CO2, k6(298 K) = (3.39 +/- 0.36) x 10(-13); CH4, k7(298 K) = (1.08 +/- 0.11) x 10(-13); CO, k8(298 K) = (3.74 +/- 0.87) x 10(-15); all units in cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1). O2(1sigma(g)+) was produced by directly exciting ground-state O2(3sigma(g)-) with a 762 nm pulsed dye laser. The reaction of O2(1sigma(g)+) with O3 was used to produce O(3P), and temporal profiles of O(3P) were measured using VUV atomic resonance fluorescence in the presence of the reactant to determine the rate coefficients for removal of O2(1sigma(g)+). Our results are compared with previous values, where available, and the overall trend in the O2(1sigma(g)+) removal rate coefficients and the atmospheric implications of these rate coefficients are discussed. Additionally, an upper limit for the branching ratio of O2(1sigma(g)+) + CO to give O(3P) + CO2 was determined to be < or = 0.2% and this reaction channel is shown to be of negligible importance in the atmosphere.

  6. Hydrostatic pressure induced localization effects in InSb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadri, A.; Zitouni, K.; Aulombard, R. L.

    1986-05-01

    Magnetoresistance and Hall coefficient measurements were made as a function of free carrier concentration, pressure, temperature and magnetic field in samples of n-InSb with initial n in the range 2.1 × 10 13-1.4 × 10 14 cm -3. The free carrier concentrations could be controlled down to n « 10 11cm-3 both by using the metastable properties of the lattice coupled defects and by keeping the pressure at low temperatures. The results show clear evidence for the interplay between the correlation and the localization effects at the metal-insulator transition.

  7. Expression and polarization of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 on human intestinal epithelia: consequences for CD11b/CD18-mediated interactions with neutrophils.

    PubMed Central

    Parkos, C. A.; Colgan, S. P.; Diamond, M. S.; Nusrat, A.; Liang, T. W.; Springer, T. A.; Madara, J. L.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epithelial dysfunction and patient symptoms in inflammatory intestinal diseases such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease correlate with migration of neutrophils (PMN) across the intestinal epithelium. In vitro modeling of PMN transepithelial migration has revealed distinct differences from transendothelial migration. By using polarized monolayers of human intestinal epithelia (T84), PMN transepithelial migration has been shown to be dependent on the leukocyte integrin CD11b/CD18 (Mac-1), but not on CD11a/CD18 (LFA-1). Since intercellular adhesion molecule-I (ICAM-1) is an important endothelial counterreceptor for these integrins, its expression in intestinal epithelia and role in PMN-intestinal epithelial interactions was investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A panel of antibodies against different domains of ICAM-1, polarized monolayers of human intestinal epithelia (T84), and natural human colonic epithelia were used to examine the polarity of epithelial ICAM-1 surface expression and the functional role of ICAM-1 in neutrophil-intestinal epithelial adhesive interactions. RESULTS: While no surface expression of ICAM-1 was detected on unstimulated T84 cells, interferon-gamma (IFN gamma) elicited a marked expression of ICAM-1 that selectively polarized to the apical epithelial membrane. Similarly, apically restricted surface expression of ICAM-1 was detected in natural human colonic epithelium only in association with active inflammation. With or without IFN gamma pre-exposure, physiologically directed (basolateral-to-apical) transepithelial migration of PMN was unaffected by blocking monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to ICAM-1. In contrast, PMN migration across IFN gamma-stimulated monolayers in the reverse (apical-to-basolateral) direction was inhibited by anti-ICAM-1 antibodies. Adhesion studies revealed that T84 cells adhered selectively to purified CD11b/CD18 and such adherence, with or without IFN gamma pre-exposure, was unaffected by ICAM-1 mAb. Similarly, freshly isolated epithelial cells from inflamed human intestine bound to CD11b/CD18 in an ICAM-1-independent fashion. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that ICAM-1 is strictly polarized in intestinal epithelia and does not represent a counterreceptor for neutrophil CD11b/CD18 during physiologically directed transmigration, but may facilitate apical membrane-PMN interactions after the arrival of PMN in the intestinal lumen. Images FIG. 3 FIG. 4 PMID:8827719

  8. Absence of Platelet Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule 1, PECAM-1/CD31, In Vivo Increases Resistance to Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lovelace, Michael D.; Yap, May Lin; Yip, Jana; Muller, William; Wijburg, Odilia

    2013-01-01

    PECAM-1/CD31 is known to regulate inflammatory responses and exhibit pro- and anti-inflammatory functions. This study was designed to determine the functional role of PECAM-1 in susceptibility to murine primary in vivo infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and in in vitro inflammatory responses of peritoneal macrophages. Lectin profiling showed that cellular PECAM-1 and recombinant human PECAM-1-Ig chimera contain high levels of mannose sugars and N-acetylglucosamine. Consistent with this carbohydrate pattern, both recombinant human and murine PECAM-1-Ig chimeras were shown to bind S. Typhimurium in a dose-dependent manner in vitro. Using oral and fecal-oral transmission models of S. Typhimurium SL1344 infection, PECAM-1−/− mice were found to be more resistant to S. Typhimurium infection than wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 mice. While fecal shedding of S. Typhimurium was comparable in wild-type and PECAM-1−/− mice, the PECAM-1-deficient mice had lower bacterial loads in systemic organs such as liver, spleen, and mesenteric lymph nodes than WT mice, suggesting that extraintestinal dissemination was reduced in the absence of PECAM-1. This reduced bacterial load correlated with reduced tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP) levels in sera of PECAM-1−/− mice. Following in vitro stimulation of macrophages with either whole S. Typhimurium, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (Toll-like receptor 4 [TLR4] ligand), or poly(I·C) (TLR3 ligand), production of TNF and IL-6 by PECAM-1−/− macrophages was reduced. Together, these results suggest that PECAM-1 may have multiple functions in resistance to infection with S. Typhimurium, including binding to host cells, extraintestinal spread to deeper tissues, and regulation of inflammatory cytokine production by infected macrophages. PMID:23509149

  9. Expression of kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1) in relation to necrosis and apoptosis during the early stages of Cd-induced proximal tubule injury

    PubMed Central

    Prozialeck, Walter C.; Edwards, Joshua R.; Lamar, Peter C.; Liu, Jie; Vaidya, Vishal S.; Bonventre, Joseph V.

    2009-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a nephrotoxic industrial and environmental pollutant that causes a generalized dysfunction of the proximal tubule. Kim-1 is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is normally not detectable in non-injured kidney, but is up-regulated and shed into the urine during the early stages of Cd-induced proximal tubule injury. The objective of the present study was to examine the relationship between the Cd-induced increase in Kim-1 expression and the onset of necrotic and apoptotic cell death in the proximal tubule. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with 0.6 mg (5.36 μmoles) Cd/kg, subcutaneously, 5 days per week for up to 12 weeks. Urine samples were analyzed for levels of Kim-1 and the enzymatic markers of cell death, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alpha-glutathione-S-transferase (α-GST). In addition, necrotic cells were specifically labeled by perfusing the kidneys in situ with ethidium homodimer using a procedure that has been recently developed and validated in the Prozialeck laboratory. Cryosections of the kidneys were also processed for the immunofluorescent visualization of Kim-1 and the identification of apoptotic cells by TUNEL labeling. Results showed that significant levels of Kim-1 began to appear in the urine after 6 weeks of Cd treatment, whereas the levels of total protein, α-GST and LDH were not increased until 8–12 weeks. Results of immunofluorescence labeling studies showed that after 6 weeks and 12 weeks, Kim-1 was expressed in the epithelial cells of the proximal tubule, but that there was no increase in the number of necrotic cells, and only a modest increase in the number of apoptotic cells at 12 weeks. These results indicate that the Cd-induced increase in Kim-1 expression occurs before the onset of necrosis and at a point where there is only a modest level of apoptosis in the proximal tubule. PMID:19371613

  10. Combined Treatment with Amlodipine and Atorvastatin Calcium Reduces Circulating Levels of Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α in Hypertensive Patients with Prediabetes

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhouqing; Chen, Chen; Li, Sheng; Kong, Fanqi; Shan, Peiren; Huang, Weijian

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effect of amlodipine and atorvastatin on intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α expression, as endothelial function and inflammation indicators, respectively, in hypertensive patients with and without prediabetes. Methods: Forty-five consecutive patients with hypertension, diagnosed according to JNC7, were divided into two groups based on the presence (HD group, n = 23) or absence (H group, n = 22) of prediabetes, diagnosed according to 2010 ADA criteria, including impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and fasting glucose tests. All patients simultaneously underwent 12-week treatment with daily single-pill amlodipine besylate/atorvastatin calcium combination (5/10 mg; Hisun-Pfizer Pharmaceuticals Co. Ltd). Serum isolated before and after treatment from overnight fasting blood samples was analyzed by ELISA. Results: In the HD and H groups after vs. before 12-week amlodipine/atorvastatin treatment, there were significantly (all P < 0.01) lower levels of ICAM-1 (3.06 ± 0.34 vs. 4.07 ± 0.70 pg/ml; 3.26 ± 0.32 vs. 3.81 ± 0.60 pg/ml, respectively) and TNF-α (78.71 ± 9.19 vs. 110.94 ± 10.71 pg/ml; 80.95 ± 9.33 vs. 101.79 ± 11.72 pg/ml, respectively), with more pronounced reductions in HD vs. H group (ICAM-1Δ: 1.01 ± 0.80 vs. 0.55 ± 0.64 pg/ml, respectively, P = 0.037; TNF-αΔ: 32.23 ± 14.33 vs. 20.84 ± 14.89 pg/ml, respectively, P = 0.011), independent of the blood pressure (BP) and cholesterol level reduction. Conclusions: Amlodipine/atorvastatin improved endothelial function and inflammation, as reflected by lower circulating levels of ICAM-1 and TNF-α, more prominently in hypertensives with than without prediabetes. Starting statin treatment before overt diabetes in hypertensives might thus improve cardiovascular outcomes. PMID:27610083

  11. Triamcinolone acetonide modulates permeability and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression of the ECV304 cell line: implications for macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Penfold, P L; Wen, L; Madigan, M C; Gillies, M C; King, N J; Provis, J M

    2000-09-01

    Whilst animal studies and a pilot clinical trial suggest that intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide (TA) may be useful in the treatment of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), its mode of action remains to be fully elucidated. The present study has investigated the capacity of TA to modulate the expression of adhesion molecules and permeability using a human epithelial cell line (ECV304) as a model of the outer blood-retinal barrier (BRB). The influence of TA on the expression of ICAM-1 and MHC-I was studied on resting and phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)- or interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)- and/or tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-activated cells using flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry. Additionally, ECV304 cells were grown to confluence in uncoated Transwell chambers; transepithelial resistance (TER) across resting and PMA-activated cells was monitored. TA significantly decreased the paracellular permeability of ECV304 cells and down-regulated ICAM-1 expression, consistent with immunocytochemical observations. PMA-induced permeability changes were dose-dependent and TA decreased permeability of both resting and PMA-activated monolayers. MHC-I expression by ECV304 cells however, was not significantly affected by TA treatment. The modulation of TER and ICAM-1 expression in vitro correlate with clinical observations, suggesting re-establishment of the BRB and down-regulation of inflammatory markers are the principal effects of intravitreal TA in vivo. The results further indicate that TA has the potential to influence cellular permeability, including the barrier function of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) in AMD-affected retinae.

  12. Effects of anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha and anti-intercellular adhesion molecule-1 antibodies on ischemia/reperfusion lung injury.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Chi-Huei

    2006-10-31

    Inhibition of neutrophil activation and adherence to endothelium by antibodies to tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and intercellular adhesion molecules (ICAM-1), respectively, might attenuate ischemia-reperfusion injury (I/R). I/R was conducted in an isolated rat lung model. Anti-TNF-alpha antibody and/or anti-ICAM-1 antibody were added before ischemia or after reperfusion. Hemodynamic changes, lung weight gain (LWG), capillary filtration coefficients (Kfc), and pathologic changes were assessed to evaluate the severity of I/R. The LWG, Kfc, pathological changes and lung injury score of treatment groups with anti-TNF-alpha antibody treatment, either pre-ischemia or during reperfusion, were less than those observed in control groups. Similar findings were found in group treated with anti-ICAM-1 antibody or combination therapy during reperfusion. In contrast, pre-I/R treatment with anti-ICAM-1 antibody induced severe lung edema and failure to complete the experimental procedure. No additional therapeutic effect was found in combination therapy. We conclude that TNF-alpha and ICAM-1 play important roles in I/R. Anti-TNF-alpha antibody has therapeutic and preventive effects on I/R. However, combined therapy with anti-TNF-alpha antibody and anti-ICAM-1 antibody may have no additive effect and need further investigation.

  13. Ligand-induced adhesion to activated endothelium and to vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in lymphocytes transfected with the N-formyl peptide receptor.

    PubMed

    Honda, S; Campbell, J J; Andrew, D P; Engelhardt, B; Butcher, B A; Warnock, R A; Ye, R D; Butcher, E C

    1994-04-15

    Binding of FMLP to the neutrophil N-formyl peptide receptor (FPR) transmits signals through pertussis toxin-sensitive G proteins triggering Ca2+ flux, superoxide production, granule exocytosis, and neutrophil aggregation and adhesion involving the beta 2 (CD18) integrins. Expression of the FPR in mouse fibroblasts or human kidney cells has been shown to confer an N-formyl peptide-inducible Ca2+ flux in transfectants. Here we demonstrate that the transfected receptor can also support ligand-induced alterations in cellular adhesion. We established stable transfectants of mouse L1-2 pre-B cells with cDNA for human FPR (L1-2 FPR cells). The transfectants bind N-formyl-Nle-Leu-Phe-Nle-Tyr-Lys-fluorescein with 1.4 x 10(5) sites per cell and a dissociation constant of 3.3 nM. Stimulation with FMLP induces a transient Ca2+ flux. FMLP also triggers adhesion of L1-2 FPR cells to TNF-alpha- or LPS-activated bEnd3 cells (mouse brain-derived endothelial cells) and to purified mouse VCAM-1. Binding is inhibited by Abs to VCAM-1 and to the alpha-chain of its lymphocyte receptor (the alpha 4 beta 1 integrin, VLA-4). Stimulation with FMLP does not induce a change in cell surface expression of alpha 4. Induced adhesion to VCAM-1 is rapid, detectable at the earliest times measurable (30 to 60 s after FMLP addition), and is inhibited by pertussis toxin. We conclude that FPR can mediate integrin activation not only in neutrophils but also in lymphocytes, and can trigger rapid adhesion via lymphocyte alpha 4 beta 1. The adhesion of lymphocytes is critical to their migration and targeting; our results suggest the possibility of manipulating adhesive responses through expression of chemoattractant receptors in lymphoid cells engineered for cellular therapy, allowing targeted adhesion and potentially migration in response to locally administered ligands.

  14. Leu125Val polymorphism of platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 is associated with atherosclerotic cerebral infarction in Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Song, Yanmin; Zhao, Ranran; Long, Lili; Zhang, Ning; Liu, Yunhai

    2014-01-01

    A total of 142 Atherosclerotic cerebral infarction (ACI) patients and 116 controls were enrolled in our study. The Leu125Val polymorphism of PECAM-1 was genotyped using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. The plasma sPECAM-1 level was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. We found a statistically significant difference in Leu125Val genotypic distribution between cases and controls (P < 0.05). The frequencies of the Val allele between ACI group and controls were significantly different (P < 0.05). Logistic regression analysis showed that the genotype Val/Val was associated with increased ACI risk (OR = 2.355, 95% CI = 1.153-4.809, P = 0.019). In both the ACI group and the control group, the plasma PECAM-1 levels of carriers of the Val/Val genotype were higher than those carrying Leu/Leu and Leu/Val genotypes. The plasma sPECAM-1 level is associated with ACI. Our study showed that Leu125Val polymorphism of PECAM-1 may be associated with ACI risk. Carrying the Val/Val genotype showed increased risk for ACI. The Leu125Val polymorphism of PECAM-1 may be associated with the plasma sPECAM-1 level, which is associated with Chinese ACI also. In conclusions, The Leu125Val polymorphism of the PECAM-1 gene is likely to be related to ACI, and the Val/Val genotype may be an independent risk factor for ACI. The plasma sPECAM-1 level may be associated with ACI risk.

  15. Neisserial outer membrane vesicles bind the coinhibitory receptor carcinoembryonic antigen-related cellular adhesion molecule 1 and suppress CD4+ T lymphocyte function.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hannah S W; Boulton, Ian C; Reddin, Karen; Wong, Henry; Halliwell, Denise; Mandelboim, Ofer; Gorringe, Andrew R; Gray-Owen, Scott D

    2007-09-01

    Pathogenic Neisseria bacteria naturally liberate outer membrane "blebs," which are presumed to contribute to pathology, and the detergent-extracted outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) from Neisseria meningitidis are currently employed as meningococcal vaccines in humans. While the composition of these vesicles reflects the bacteria from which they are derived, the functions of many of their constituent proteins remain unexplored. The neisserial colony opacity-associated Opa proteins function as adhesins, the majority of which mediate bacterial attachment to human carcinoembryonic antigen-related cellular adhesion molecules (CEACAMs). Herein, we demonstrate that the Opa proteins within OMV preparations retain the capacity to bind the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif-containing coinhibitory receptor CEACAM1. When CD4(+) T lymphocytes were exposed to OMVs from Opa-expressing bacteria, their activation and proliferation in response to a variety of stimuli were effectively halted. This potent immunosuppressive effect suggests that localized infection will generate a "zone of inhibition" resulting from the diffusion of membrane blebs into the surrounding tissues. Moreover, it demonstrates that OMV-based vaccines must be developed from strains that lack CEACAM1-binding Opa variants.

  16. BLOOD LEUKOCYTE EXPRESSION OF LFA-1 AND INTRACELLULAR ADHESION MOLECULE-1 (ICAM-1) AFTER INHALATION OF ULTRAFINE CARBON PARTICLES. (R827354C003)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  17. Expression of kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1) in relation to necrosis and apoptosis during the early stages of Cd-induced proximal tubule injury

    SciTech Connect

    Prozialeck, Walter C. Edwards, Joshua R.; Lamar, Peter C.; Liu, Jie; Vaidya, Vishal S.; Bonventre, Joseph V.

    2009-08-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a nephrotoxic industrial and environmental pollutant that causes a generalized dysfunction of the proximal tubule. Kim-1 is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is normally not detectable in non-injured kidney, but is up-regulated and shed into the urine during the early stages of Cd-induced proximal tubule injury. The objective of the present study was to examine the relationship between the Cd-induced increase in Kim-1 expression and the onset of necrotic and apoptotic cell death in the proximal tubule. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with 0.6 mg (5.36 {mu}mol) Cd/kg, subcutaneously, 5 days per week for up to 12 weeks. Urine samples were analyzed for levels of Kim-1 and the enzymatic markers of cell death, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alpha-glutathione-S-transferase ({alpha}-GST). In addition, necrotic cells were specifically labeled by perfusing the kidneys in situ with ethidium homodimer using a procedure that has been recently developed and validated in the Prozialeck laboratory. Cryosections of the kidneys were also processed for the immunofluorescent visualization of Kim-1 and the identification of apoptotic cells by TUNEL labeling. Results showed that significant levels of Kim-1 began to appear in the urine after 6 weeks of Cd treatment, whereas the levels of total protein, {alpha}-GST and LDH were not increased until 8-12 weeks. Results of immunofluorescence labeling studies showed that after 6 weeks and 12 weeks, Kim-1 was expressed in the epithelial cells of the proximal tubule, but that there was no increase in the number of necrotic cells, and only a modest increase in the number of apoptotic cells at 12 weeks. These results indicate that the Cd-induced increase in Kim-1 expression occurs before the onset of necrosis and at a point where there is only a modest level of apoptosis in the proximal tubule.

  18. Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate attenuates TNF-α-induced intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression and monocyte adhesion to retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Thichanpiang, Peeradech; Wongprasert, Kanokpan

    2015-01-01

    Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is a major polyphenol component of green tea (Camellia sinensis) and demonstrates anti-oxidant, anticancer and anti-inflammatory properties. EGCG has been shown to protect retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) against oxidative stress-induced cell death. The pathogenesis of diseases in the retina is usually initiated by local inflammation at the RPE cell layer, and inflammation is mostly associated with leukocyte migration and the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Whether EGCG can modulate the cytokine-induced inflammatory response of RPE, particularly leukocyte migration, has not been clearly elucidated, and was therefore the objective of this study. ARPE-19 cells were cultured with different concentrations of TNF-α in the presence or absence of EGCG to different time points. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were determined. Intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and phosphor-NF-κB and IκB expression were determined by Western blot analysis. Phosphor-NF-κB nuclear translocation and monocyte-RPE adhesion were investigated using immunofluorescence confocal laser scanning microscopy. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was carried out to further determine the ultrastructure of monocyte-RPE adhesion. The results demonstrated that TNF-α modulated inflammatory effects in ARPE-19 by induction of ROS and up-regulation of ICAM-1 expression. Moreover, TNF-α-induced phosphor-NF-κB nuclear translocation, increased phosphor-NF-κB expression and IκB degradation, and increased the degree of monocyte-RPE adhesion. Pretreating the cells with EGCG ameliorated the inflammatory effects of TNF-α. The results indicated that EGCG significantly exerts anti-inflammatory effects in ARPE-19 cells, partly as a suppressor of TNF-α signaling and that the inhibition was mediated via the NF-κB pathway.

  19. Association of Polymorphisms in Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 (ICAM-1) Gene with Cancer Susceptibility: A Meta-Analysis of 14 Case-Control Studies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaolong; Huang, Junjie; Bai, Jian; Lu, Wei; Zhang, Meng; Mei, Hongbing

    2016-02-21

    BACKGROUND Many epidemiology studies have indicated that polymorphisms in ICAM-1 are associated with a variety of cancers, but published data are contradictory and inconclusive. Therefore, we conducted the current meta-analysis to elaborate the effects of ICAM-1 polymorphisms (rs5491, rs3093030, rs281432, and rs1799969) on cancer susceptibility. MATERIAL AND METHODS We conducted a comprehensive literature search in PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated to assess the association between ICAM-1 polymorphisms and cancer susceptibility. RESULTS We enrolled 14 published case-control studies including 4608 cancer cases and 4913 controls. We found an increased susceptibility of cancer in polymorphism rs1799969 (C vs. T: OR=1.662, 95%CI=1.288-2.143, p=0141; CT vs. TT: OR=1.860, 95%CI=1.398-2.474, p=0.507; CC+CT vs. TT: OR=1.812, 95%CI=1.373-2.391, p=0.284) of ICAM-1 among the overall population. However, no association between polymorphisms rs5491, rs3093030, or rs281432 of ICAM-1 and cancer susceptibility was identified. In the stratification analysis by ethnicity, we identified an increased susceptibility for Asians in rs3093030 polymorphism (CC vs. TC+TT: OR=1.728, 95% CI=1.234-2.421, p=0.787). CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that the ICAM-1 polymorphism rs1799969 is significantly associated with increased susceptibility to overall cancer. Further studies (preferably prospective) are warranted to validate these relationships.

  20. Education and Science in Africa: Possible Ways of Improvement in the Next Decade. International Commission on Education for the Twenty-First Century, Working Group on Education and Science (Paris, France, January 10-11, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wandiga, Shem O.

    This paper analyzed the evolution of formal education in Africa with emphasis on the weaknesses and strengths of the system identified. Although the roots of modern education can be found in the early institutions of learning and libraries of Alexandria and Timbuktu in Africa, the continent today lags behind in all the fields of formal education.…

  1. Planning and Designing Effective Defence and Related Information Services: Conference Proceedings of the Technical Information Panel Specialists’ Meeting Held in Ankara, Turkey on 10-11 September 1986.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-01

    papers were of interest to the audience. The discussion of Paper 1 highlighted problem areas common to many of the NATO Nations: financing , identifying a...Personnel - (4) Finance . This subdivision can be found in every larger or smaller part of the Ministry of Defence where it defines the user needs of that... financing recurring expenditures for staff, equipment and material. It is presumed a priori that these funds are employed in accordance with the

  2. Defining Competencies for Associate Degree Nursing Education and Practice. Proceedings of the Midwest Regional Conference on "The Associate Degree Nursing--Facilitating Competency Development" Project (Chicago, Illinois, March 10-11, 1983).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minckley, Barbara B., Ed.; Walters, Mary Dale, Ed.

    Focusing on "Associate Degree Nursing--Facilitating Competency Development," a 3-year project sponsored by the Midwest Alliance in Nursing (MAIN) to explore and recommend ways of strengthening Associate Degree Nursing (ADN) education and service, these proceedings contain papers by individuals involved with the development of the project and those…

  3. 2,4-Dialkyl-8,9,10,11-tetrahydrobenzo[g]pyrimido[4,5-c]isoquinoline-1,3,7,12(2H,4H)-tetraones as new leads against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Claes, Pieter; Cappoen, Davie; Uythethofken, Cynthia; Jacobs, Jan; Mertens, Birgit; Mathys, Vanessa; Verschaeve, Luc; Huygen, Kris; De Kimpe, Norbert

    2014-04-22

    Given the re-emergence of tuberculosis in Europe and beyond, the search for novel bio-active compound classes against this disease is of utmost importance. As a result of a high intrinsic tolerance of the etiological agent, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, towards most antibiotics and xenobiotics, the search for such new compounds is far from trivial. Further exacerbated by the rapid generation and spread of drug resistant M. tuberculosis and fuelled by the HIV/AIDS pandemic, halting the tuberculosis epidemic is of paramount importance. As part of our program to design new 2-aza-anthraquinones with anti-mycobacterial activity, various dialkyltetrahydrobenzo[g]pyrimido[4,5-c]isoquinolinetetraones were designed and synthesised. The compounds were submitted to a biological evaluation in which the activity against M.tb H37Rv(lux) was observed, as well as the acute toxicity towards J774 A.1 macrophages. From these results, the selectivity index was calculated. Furthermore, the activity of the most promising compounds was further studied against a multi-drug resistant LAM-1 strain and against intracellular replicating M.tb. The study was further extended with a comet assay and a VITOTOX™ assay to investigate the possibility of observable genotoxic effects caused by these compounds.

  4. 11-(4-Methyl­phen­yl)-8,9-dihydro-7H-benzo[f]cyclo­penta­[b]quinolin-10(11H)-one

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Cao

    2012-01-01

    In the title compound, C23H19NO, the naphthalene ring system and the cyclo­pent-2-enone ring exhibit planar conformations with maximum deviations of 0.034 (1) and 0.02 (1) Å, respectively. The 1,4-dihydro­pyridine ring adopts an envelope conformation with the C atom bearing the p-tolyl ring as the flap atom. Inter­molecular N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds and C—H⋯π inter­actions stabilize the crystal packing. PMID:22969629

  5. Our Town and Country Society Looks at Itself. Proceedings of the Conference of the American Country Life Association, Inc., National 4-H Club Center (41st, Washington, D.C., July 10-11, 1962).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Country Life Association, Sioux Falls, SD.

    The theme for this conference was "Our Town and Country Society Looks at Itself." The following papers were presented at this conference: (1) "The Miracle of Production--Can We Keep It" (Aubrey D. Gates); (2) "Recent U.S. Population Trends and Their Causes" (Calvin L. Beale and Donald J. Bogue); (3) "Commercial…

  6. Proceedings of the Electronic Test Equipment Division’s Annual Program Review of ’Electronic Test Equipment Industry Response to Emerging Defense Requirements’ Held in Arlington, VA on 10-11 May 1984

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    SEND ONLY FAILED ITEMS TO THE REAR ECHELONS FOR REPAIR. TM SURE YOU CAN APPRECIATE WHAT EFFECT THIS HAS ON OUR LOGISTICS PIPELINE . 14 AN EXAMPLE...EVIDENCE OF FAILURE" RETURNS TO THE DEPOT WENT FROM 41 PERCENT TO LESS THAN 10 PERCENT; AND THE COST OF PIPELINE SPARES WAS REDUCED BY $450,000. DUE TO...and management processes, CTE offered NAVAIR some significant advantages. We provided a conceptual description of these processes -- the keystone of

  7. The Life, Influence and the Role of the Chinese in the United States, 1776-1960. Proceedings of the National Conference Held at the University of San Francisco July 10, 11, 12, 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinese Historical Society of America, San Francisco, CA.

    This volume contains the proceedings and the papers of the first national conference on the life, influence, and the role of the Chinese in the U.S. The proceedings include papers, films, slide presentations, and addresses. Among the topics covered by the papers presented are the following: (1) contributions of Chinese art to Fresno culture, (2)…

  8. 2-Hy­droxy-2,3,5,10,11,11a-hexa­hydro-1H-pyrrolo­[2,1-c][1,4]benzodiazepine-5,11-dione

    PubMed Central

    Ourahou, Sarah; Zouihri, Hafid; Massoui, Mohamed; Essassi, El Mokhtar; Ng, Seik Weng

    2011-01-01

    The seven-membered ring of the title compound, C12H12N2O3, which is fused with the phenyl­ene ring, adopts a boat-shaped conformation (with the methine C atom as the prow and the phenyl­ene C atoms as the stern); the H atom on the methine linkage exists in an axial position. The five-membered ring that is fused with the seven-membered ring adopts an envelope conformation (with the C atom bearing the hy­droxy substituent representing the flap) [the deviation from the plane defined by the other four atoms is 0.200 (7) Å in one mol­ecule and 0.627 (5) Å in the other]. The two independent mol­ecules are disposed about a pseudo center of inversion and are connected by a pair of N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds. Adjacent dimers are linked by a pair of O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, generating a chain running along the b axis. PMID:22090956

  9. New Economic Realities: The Role of Women Entrepreneurs. Hearings before the Committee on Small Business. House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, Second Session (April 26-27, May 10, 11, 17, and 19, 1988).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Small Business.

    This document contains transcripts of oral and written testimony given at six days of Congressional hearings on women entrepreneurs, held in April and May 1988. Many of the witnesses were women who run successful companies that they started by themselves, in a variety of fields, from service industries to construction and manufacturing. Other…

  10. Report on Phase 2 Archaeological Testing at 21 AK 11, Big Sandy Lake, Aitkin County, Minnesota (June 10-11 and August 1-5 and 20-21, 1985)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-05

    4.3.1 Area B; a rather narrow ridge which extends east as a peninsula between the south side of Sandy River and the northwestern part of the...excavated around and east of the comfort stations, all along the crest of a narrow peninsula between the south side of Sandy River and the...periodic, natural ground fires (Heinselman 1974) . Logging during the late 19th and early 20th centuries (mostly of the east and south

  11. Occupational Employment Projections for Program Planning Purposes: Issues and Examples. Proceedings of a National Workshop-Conference (TWA Breech Training Academy, Overland Park, Kansas, July 10-11, 1975).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, David W., Ed.

    These conference proceedings (from tape transcription) cover eight major presentations plus roundtable and small-group discussions and workshop sessions and two background papers from a conference attended by producers and consumers of employment projections (Federal, State and local level administrators and technicians). Topics included are…

  12. FDA/NIH/WHO public workshop on immune correlates of protection against influenza A viruses in support of pandemic vaccine development, Bethesda, Maryland, US, December 10-11, 2007.

    PubMed

    Eichelberger, Maryna; Golding, Hana; Hess, Maureen; Weir, Jerry; Subbarao, Kanta; Luke, Catherine J; Friede, Martin; Wood, David

    2008-08-12

    The goals of the workshop were to identify gaps in our knowledge and abilities to address the unique challenges encountered in the development of vaccines intended to protect against pandemic influenza and to facilitate implementation of a global research agenda to improve efficacy assessment of pandemic influenza vaccines. This workshop included discussions on: (i) current knowledge regarding immune correlates of protection against seasonal influenza; (ii) human immune responses to avian influenza infection and vaccines for novel influenza viruses; (iii) limitations of currently available assays to evaluate vaccine immunogenicity; and (iv) potential insights from animal models for correlates of protection against avian influenza.

  13. Lecture Series on Electromagnetic Interference and Electromagnetic Compatibility Presented on 10-11 June 1991 in Kjeller, Norway, 13-14 June 1991 in Konigswinter, Germany and 17-18 June 1991 in Lisbon, Portugal.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-01

    Hqs) Route Tout Vent Dr A.C. Marvin Sainte Foy des Vignes Dept of Electronics 24100 Bergerac University of York France Heslington York YOI 5DD Dr G.H...between sol - 6 REFERENCES utlons. The majorky of the problem can be solved once and stod and further modifications require only a solution for [1] MIL-E

  14. Ramjet and Ramrocket Propulsion Systems for Missiles Held at Monterey, California, London (United Kingdom), and Neubiberg (Germany F. R.) on 5-6; 10-11 and 13-14 September 1984

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-10-01

    Margin of Inlet:, 3et Htrs H 0kkm C, 0.0.5 0.0 10 20 30c. p I -dIv~ 1-13 12 R2T Fig. 16 10 RAMJETS Regions of Application of Ram-Po’R %• RA ROCKE...attack or sideslip) and the rate of heat addition in the combustor. The matching of inlet and thrust nozzle is illustrated by fig. 10 . Some simplifications...1- 0 2 1. 6 8 10 12 14 1 Mo ---- Fig. 3 En’gine Inte~ration and Booster Instalkptlon 2. GEDRATION SOOSTEft SOVAC ?5O K6 U4 Fg42 TALOS GMEF

  15. MATCHE: Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and Homemaking Education. Proceedings: MATCHE I Workshop (San Francisco, California, April 7-8, 1975; Los Angeles, California, April 10-11, 1975).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrows, Ann, Ed.

    Workshop proceedings in San Francisco and Los Angeles concerning the development of the Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and Homemaking Education (MATCHE) are examined in this report. Basic information gleaned from presentations, reports, and transcripts of taped lectures of both workshops are included. Subjects contained in the report are…

  16. Upper Mississippi River Restoration (UMRR) Project Tier 3 Topobathy Data for Mississippi River Navigation Pools 5a, 6, 10, 11, 12, 14, 15-28, 20, 22, and 24

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, Jayme M.; Rogala, James T.; Sattler, Stephanie R.; Hanson, Jenny L.

    2016-01-01

    These data are associated with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers’ Upper Mississippi River Restoration (UMRR) Program project to generate high resolution elevation datasets for the Upper Mississippi River floodplain, between Minneapolis, MN, and Cairo, IL and the Illinois River. The Tier 1 data sets were designed to make the lidar data publicly available as soon as possible. The Tier 2 data have undergone quality assurance testing, water-masking, contour-smoothing, and point-reclassification where necessary, and have been approved for release by the USGS. The Tier 3 data are product of bathymetry merged with terrestrial lidar. UMESC is the lead office for the final processing of these data, which includes additional quality control and serving the data on the UMRR Long Term Resource Monitoring (LTRM) element’s website.

  17. Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka: An Assessment Thirty Years Later. A Series of Lectures and Discussions, Proceedings (Institute, West Virginia, February 10-11 and April 11-13, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West Virginia State Coll., Institute.

    Papers presented at a 1984 lecture series and symposium on the impact of the 1954 Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka Supreme Court decision case are collected in this report. The papers (and their authors) are: (1) "Legal Aspects of the Brown Decision" (Robert L. Carter); (2) "Desegregation/Integration and the Media: Fallout from…

  18. Variability in the high energy gamma ray emission from Cyg X-3 over a two-year period (1983 - 1984) at E 4 x 10(11) eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cawley, M. F.; Fegan, D. J.; Gibbs, K.; Gorham, P. W.; Lamb, R. C.; Liebing, D. F.; Porter, N. A.; Stenger, V. J.; Weekes, T. C.; Williams, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    Cygnus X-3 is observed to emit gamma rays with energies in excess of 4 x 10 to the 11th power eV during two out of 9 observational categories over an 18 month time span. The emissions are observed at the 0.6 phase of the characteristic 4.8 hr light curve for this binary system. We estimate a peak flux at phase 0.6 of 5 x 10 to the minus 10th power photons cm-2s-1 at a software threshold of 8 x 10 to the 11th power eV for Oct/Nov 1983. A flux for the June 84 effect cannot be reliably calculated at present due to lack of Monte Carlo simulations for the energy range and spectral region. For the other 7 observational categories the observations are consistent with zero source emission. The light curve would appear to be variable on a time scale of a couple of weeks at these categories. Selection of compact images in accordance with Monte Carlo simulations combined with empirical optimization techniques have led to an enriched gamma ray light curve for the Oct/Nov 1983 data. Selection on the basis of shower orientation, however, has not led to any notable enhancement of the gamma ray content. Individual Cherenko images can be reliably sorted on an event by event basis into either proton-induced or photon-induced showers.

  19. Teacher Shortage in Science and Mathematics: Myths, Realities, and Research. Proceedings of a Conference Sponsored by the National Institute of Education (Washington, District of Columbia, February 10-11, 1983).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, John L., Ed.

    This conference was designed to identify salient elements of the national science/mathematics teacher shortage, add corollary data to the existing body of knowledge, and to influence and guide future NIE research in the area. The proceedings include: welcoming and keynote addresses by, respectively, Manuel J. Justiz and T. H. Bell; five…

  20. Paris Peace Conference: Writing a Treaty To End World War I. Grade 10/11 Lesson. Schools of California Online Resources for Education (SCORE): Connecting California's Classrooms to the World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niles, Georgette Wilbur

    This problem-based learning unit asks students to assume roles as experts from countries that participated in World War I. These experts will meet both in expert groups and with their respective country representatives to determine what terms, in four specific areas, should be included in the treaty that will formally end the war. Next, they must…