Science.gov

Sample records for 10-11 sv bq-1

  1. 44 CFR 10.11 - Environmental information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Environmental information. 10.11 Section 10.11 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS Agency Implementing Procedures § 10.11 Environmental information. Interested persons...

  2. 44 CFR 10.11 - Environmental information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Environmental information. 10.11 Section 10.11 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS Agency Implementing Procedures §...

  3. 44 CFR 10.11 - Environmental information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Environmental information. 10... OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS Agency Implementing Procedures § 10.11 Environmental information. Interested persons may contact the Environmental Officer or the...

  4. 44 CFR 10.11 - Environmental information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Environmental information. 10... OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS Agency Implementing Procedures § 10.11 Environmental information. Interested persons may contact the Environmental Officer or the...

  5. 44 CFR 10.11 - Environmental information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Environmental information. 10... OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS Agency Implementing Procedures § 10.11 Environmental information. Interested persons may contact the Environmental Officer or the...

  6. 46 CFR 90.10-11 - Coastwise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 90.10-11 Coastwise. Under this designation shall be included all vessels normally navigating the waters of any ocean or the Gulf of Mexico 20 nautical miles...

  7. 46 CFR 90.10-11 - Coastwise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 90.10-11 Coastwise. Under this designation shall be included all vessels normally navigating the waters of any ocean or the Gulf of Mexico 20 nautical miles...

  8. 46 CFR 90.10-11 - Coastwise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 90.10-11 Coastwise. Under this designation shall be included all vessels normally navigating the waters of any ocean or the Gulf of Mexico 20 nautical miles...

  9. 46 CFR 188.10-11 - Chemistry laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Chemistry laboratory. 188.10-11 Section 188.10-11 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-11 Chemistry laboratory. This term...

  10. 46 CFR 188.10-11 - Chemistry laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Chemistry laboratory. 188.10-11 Section 188.10-11 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-11 Chemistry laboratory. This term...

  11. 46 CFR 188.10-11 - Chemistry laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Chemistry laboratory. 188.10-11 Section 188.10-11 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-11 Chemistry laboratory. This term...

  12. 46 CFR 188.10-11 - Chemistry laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Chemistry laboratory. 188.10-11 Section 188.10-11 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-11 Chemistry laboratory. This term...

  13. 46 CFR 188.10-11 - Chemistry laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Chemistry laboratory. 188.10-11 Section 188.10-11 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-11 Chemistry laboratory. This term...

  14. 46 CFR 30.10-11 - Coastwise-TB/C.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Coastwise-TB/C. 30.10-11 Section 30.10-11 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-11 Coastwise—TB/C. Under this designation shall be included all tank vessels normally navigating the waters of...

  15. 1 CFR 10.11 - Scope and sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Scope and sources. 10.11 Section 10.11 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER PRESIDENTIAL PAPERS Annual Publication § 10.11 Scope and sources. The basic text of the Public Papers...

  16. 1 CFR 10.11 - Scope and sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scope and sources. 10.11 Section 10.11 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER PRESIDENTIAL PAPERS Annual Publication § 10.11 Scope and sources. The basic text of the Public Papers...

  17. 1 CFR 10.11 - Scope and sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Scope and sources. 10.11 Section 10.11 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER PRESIDENTIAL PAPERS Annual Publication § 10.11 Scope and sources. The basic text of the Public Papers...

  18. 1 CFR 10.11 - Scope and sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Scope and sources. 10.11 Section 10.11 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER PRESIDENTIAL PAPERS Annual Publication § 10.11 Scope and sources. The basic text of the Public Papers...

  19. 1 CFR 10.11 - Scope and sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Scope and sources. 10.11 Section 10.11 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER PRESIDENTIAL PAPERS Annual Publication § 10.11 Scope and sources. The basic text of the Public Papers...

  20. SV40-Mediated immortalization.

    PubMed

    Jha, K K; Banga, S; Palejwala, V; Ozer, H L

    1998-11-25

    Human diploid cells have a limited life span, ending in replicative senescence, in contrast to cell lines derived from tumors, which show an indefinite life span and are immortal, suggesting that replicative senescence is a tumor suppression mechanism. We have utilized introduction of SV40 sequences to develop matched sets of nonimmortal and immortal cell lines to help dissect the mechanism of immortalization and have found that it has multiple facets, involving both SV40-dependent and -independent aspects. These studies have led to the identification of a novel growth suppressor gene (SEN6) as well as providing a model system for the study of cellular aging, apoptosis, and telomere stabilization among other things. It is anticipated that SV40-transformed cells will continue to provide a very useful experimental system leading to insights into the behavior of cells with altered expression of oncogenes and growth suppressor gene products. PMID:9828095

  1. 47 CFR 10.11 - CMAS implementation timeline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false CMAS implementation timeline. 10.11 Section 10.11 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL MOBILE ALERT SYSTEM General... Federal Alert Aggregator and Alert Gateway makes the Government Interface Design specifications available....

  2. 47 CFR 10.11 - WEA implementation timeline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false WEA implementation timeline. 10.11 Section 10.11 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL WIRELESS EMERGENCY ALERTS General... Alert Aggregator and Alert Gateway makes the Government Interface Design specifications available....

  3. 47 CFR 10.11 - WEA implementation timeline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false WEA implementation timeline. 10.11 Section 10.11 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL WIRELESS EMERGENCY ALERTS General... Alert Aggregator and Alert Gateway makes the Government Interface Design specifications available....

  4. 47 CFR 10.11 - CMAS implementation timeline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false CMAS implementation timeline. 10.11 Section 10.11 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL MOBILE ALERT SYSTEM General... Federal Alert Aggregator and Alert Gateway makes the Government Interface Design specifications available....

  5. 47 CFR 10.11 - CMAS implementation timeline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false CMAS implementation timeline. 10.11 Section 10.11 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL MOBILE ALERT SYSTEM General... Federal Alert Aggregator and Alert Gateway makes the Government Interface Design specifications available....

  6. 27 CFR 10.11 - Meaning of terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Meaning of terms. 10.11... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL COMMERCIAL BRIBERY Definitions § 10.11 Meaning of terms. As used in this part, unless the context otherwise requires, terms have the meanings given in this section. Any other...

  7. 27 CFR 10.11 - Meaning of terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Meaning of terms. 10.11... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS COMMERCIAL BRIBERY Definitions § 10.11 Meaning of terms. As used in this part, unless the context otherwise requires, terms have the meanings given in this section. Any other...

  8. 27 CFR 10.11 - Meaning of terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Meaning of terms. 10.11... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS COMMERCIAL BRIBERY Definitions § 10.11 Meaning of terms. As used in this part, unless the context otherwise requires, terms have the meanings given in this section. Any other...

  9. 27 CFR 10.11 - Meaning of terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Meaning of terms. 10.11... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL COMMERCIAL BRIBERY Definitions § 10.11 Meaning of terms. As used in this part, unless the context otherwise requires, terms have the meanings given in this section. Any other...

  10. 40 CFR 10.11 - Relationship to other agency regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Relationship to other agency regulations. 10.11 Section 10.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL... regulations in this part apply to the consideration by the Environmental Protection Agency of...

  11. 40 CFR 10.11 - Relationship to other agency regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Relationship to other agency regulations. 10.11 Section 10.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL... regulations in this part apply to the consideration by the Environmental Protection Agency of...

  12. 40 CFR 10.11 - Relationship to other agency regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Relationship to other agency regulations. 10.11 Section 10.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL... regulations in this part apply to the consideration by the Environmental Protection Agency of...

  13. 40 CFR 10.11 - Relationship to other agency regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Relationship to other agency regulations. 10.11 Section 10.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL... regulations in this part apply to the consideration by the Environmental Protection Agency of...

  14. 40 CFR 10.11 - Relationship to other agency regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Relationship to other agency regulations. 10.11 Section 10.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL... regulations in this part apply to the consideration by the Environmental Protection Agency of...

  15. 6. Historic view, Pier 9, 10, 11. Aerial Views to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic view, Pier 9, 10, 11. Aerial Views to east, 1943. Photographic copy of photo. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. - Charlestown Navy Yard, Pier 9, Between Piers 8 & 10, along Mystic River on Charlestown Waterfront at eastern edge of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  16. 37 CFR 10.11 - Removing names from the register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Removing names from the..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE REPRESENTATION OF OTHERS BEFORE THE PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE § 10.11 Removing names... desires to remain on the register. The name of any individual failing to reply and give any...

  17. 46 CFR 30.10-11 - Coastwise-TB/C.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-11 Coastwise—TB/C. Under this designation shall be included all tank vessels normally navigating the waters of any ocean or the Gulf of Mexico 20 nautical miles or less offshore....

  18. 46 CFR 30.10-11 - Coastwise-TB/C.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-11 Coastwise—TB/C. Under this designation shall be included all tank vessels normally navigating the waters of any ocean or the Gulf of Mexico 20 nautical miles or less offshore....

  19. An orthorhombic polymorph of 10,11-dihydrocarbamazepine.

    PubMed

    Harrison, William T A; Yathirajan, H S; Anilkumar, H G

    2006-05-01

    The title compound (systematic name: 10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenz[b,f]azepine-5-carboxamide), C15H14N2O, is shown to crystallize as an orthorhombic polymorph to complement the known monoclinic form. The molecular conformations of both forms are very similar, involving a bent conformation for the seven-membered azepine ring and an overall ;butterfly' shape. The molecules assemble into chains by way of N-H...O bonds and N-H...pi interactions in both crystal modifications. The two polymorphs appear to form due to different van der Waals interactions between the layer-like sheets of molecules. PMID:16679591

  20. COSMIC OPTICAL BACKGROUND: THE VIEW FROM PIONEER 10/11

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuoka, Y.; Oyabu, S.; Ienaka, N.; Kawara, K.

    2011-08-01

    We present the new constraints on the cosmic optical background (COB) obtained from an analysis of the Pioneer 10/11 Imaging Photopolarimeter (IPP) data. After careful examination of data quality, the usable measurements free from the zodiacal light are integrated into sky maps at the blue ({approx}0.44 {mu}m) and red ({approx}0.64 {mu}m) band. Accurate starlight subtraction is achieved by referring to all-sky star catalogs and a Galactic stellar population synthesis model down to 32.0 mag. We find that the residual light is separated into two components: one component shows a clear correlation with thermal 100 {mu}m brightness, while another betrays a constant level in the lowest 100 {mu}m brightness region. The presence of the second component is significant after all the uncertainties and possible residual light in the Galaxy are taken into account, and thus it most likely has the extragalactic origin (i.e., the COB). The derived COB brightness is (1.8 {+-} 0.9) x 10{sup -9} and (1.2 {+-} 0.9) x 10{sup -9} erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -2} sr{sup -1} A{sup -1} at the blue and red bands, respectively, or 7.9 {+-} 4.0 and 7.7 {+-} 5.8 nW m{sup -2} sr{sup -1}. From comparison with the integrated brightness of galaxies, we conclude that bulk of the COB is comprised of normal galaxies which have already been resolved in the current deepest observations. There seems to be little room for contributions of other populations including 'first stars' at these wavelengths. On the other hand, the first component of the IPP residual light represents the diffuse Galactic light (DGL)-scattered starlight by the interstellar dust. We derive mean DGL-to-100 {mu}m brightness ratios of 2.1 x 10{sup -3} and 4.6 x 10{sup -3} at the two bands, which are roughly consistent with the previous observations toward the denser dust regions. Extended red emission in the diffuse interstellar medium is also confirmed.

  1. 46 CFR 39.10-11 - Personnel training-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Personnel training-TB/ALL. 39.10-11 Section 39.10-11 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS VAPOR CONTROL SYSTEMS General § 39.10-11 Personnel training—TB/ALL. (a) A person in charge of a transfer operation utilizing a vapor...

  2. 46 CFR 39.10-11 - Personnel training-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Personnel training-TB/ALL. 39.10-11 Section 39.10-11 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS VAPOR CONTROL SYSTEMS General § 39.10-11 Personnel training—TB/ALL. (a) A person in charge of a transfer operation utilizing a vapor collection system must have completed a...

  3. 20 CFR 10.11 - Who maintains custody and control of FECA records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., guidelines and provisions of this part, as well as those contained in 29 CFR parts 70 and 71, and with the... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Who maintains custody and control of FECA records? 10.11 Section 10.11 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT...

  4. 20 CFR 10.11 - Who maintains custody and control of FECA records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., guidelines and provisions of this part, as well as those contained in 29 CFR parts 70 and 71, and with the... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Who maintains custody and control of FECA records? 10.11 Section 10.11 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT...

  5. 43 CFR 10.11 - Disposition of culturally unidentifiable human remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Disposition of culturally unidentifiable human remains. 10.11 Section 10.11 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATIVE AMERICAN GRAVES PROTECTION AND REPATRIATION REGULATIONS Human Remains, Funerary Objects, Sacred Objects, or Objects of Cultural Patrimony...

  6. 43 CFR 10.11 - Disposition of culturally unidentifiable human remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... human remains. 10.11 Section 10.11 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATIVE AMERICAN GRAVES PROTECTION AND REPATRIATION REGULATIONS Human Remains, Funerary Objects, Sacred Objects, or... unidentifiable human remains. (a) General. This section implements section 8(c)(5) of the Act and applies...

  7. 43 CFR 10.11 - Disposition of culturally unidentifiable human remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... prove that it has right of possession, as defined at § 10.10(a)(2), to culturally unidentifiable human... human remains. 10.11 Section 10.11 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATIVE AMERICAN GRAVES PROTECTION AND REPATRIATION REGULATIONS Human Remains, Funerary Objects, Sacred Objects,...

  8. 43 CFR 10.11 - Disposition of culturally unidentifiable human remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposition of culturally unidentifiable human remains. 10.11 Section 10.11 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATIVE AMERICAN GRAVES PROTECTION AND REPATRIATION REGULATIONS Human Remains, Funerary Objects, Sacred Objects, or Objects of Cultural Patrimony...

  9. SV40 lymphomagenesis in Syrian golden hamsters

    PubMed Central

    McNees, Adrienne L.; Vilchez, Regis A.; Heard, Tiffany C.; Sroller, Vojtech; Wong, Connie; Herron, Alan J.; Hamilton, Mary J.; Davis, William C.; Butel, Janet S.

    2013-01-01

    Simian virus 40 (SV40) isolates differ in oncogenic potential in Syrian golden hamsters following intraperitoneal inoculation. Here we describe the effect of intravenous exposure on tumor induction by SV40. Strains SVCPC (simple regulatory region) and VA45-54(2E) (complex regulatory region) were highly oncogenic following intravenous inoculation, producing a spectrum of tumor types. Three lymphoma cell lines were established; all expressed SV40 T-antigen, were immortalized for growth in culture, and were tumorigenic following transplantation in vivo. New monoclonal antibodies directed against hamster lymphocyte surface antigens are described. The cell lines expressed MHC class II and macrophage markers and were highly phagocytic, indicating a histiocytic origin. Many hamsters that remained tumor-free developed SV40 T-antigen antibodies, suggesting that viral replication occurred. This study shows that route of exposure influences the pathogenesis of SV40-mediated carcinogenesis, that SV40 strain VA45-54(2E) is lymphomagenic in hamsters, that hamster lymphoid cells of histiocytic origin can be transformed in vivo and established in culture, and that reagents to hamster leukocyte differentiation molecules are now available. PMID:19038412

  10. SV2A and SV2C are not vesicular Ca2+ transporters but control glucose-evoked granule recruitment.

    PubMed

    Iezzi, Mariella; Theander, Sten; Janz, Roger; Loze, Chantal; Wollheim, Claes B

    2005-12-01

    Synaptic vesicle protein 2 (SV2) is expressed in neuroendocrine cells as three homologous isoforms, SV2A, SV2B and SV2C. Ca2+-dependent function in exocytosis has been attributed to SV2A and SV2B, without elucidation of the mechanism. The role of SV2C has not yet been addressed. Here we characterize the three SV2 isoforms and define their involvement in regulated insulin secretion. SV2A and SV2C are associated with insulin-containing granules and synaptic-like-microvesicles (SLM) in INS-1E insulinoma and primary beta-cells, whereas SV2B is only present on SLM. Neither overexpression nor isoform-specific silencing of SV2A or SV2C by RNA interference modifies depolarization-triggered cytosolic [Ca2+] rises or secretory granule [Ca2+], measured with a VAMP-2 aequorin chimera. This strongly argues against any Ca2+ transport function of SV2. Moreover, up- or downregulation of these isoforms has no influence on K+-induced insulin release suggesting that SV2 does not affect the Ca2+-dependent step(s) of exocytosis. By contrast, glucose-elicited secretion is inhibited during the sustained rather than the early phase, placing the action of SV2 on the recruitment of granules from the reserve pool to the plasma membrane. This conclusion is reinforced by capacitance measurements in glucose-stimulated SV2C-deficient cells. Like capacitance, evoked and basal hormone release are attenuated more by silencing of SV2C compared with SV2A. This indicates only partial redundancy and highlights a key role for SV2C in the secretory process. PMID:16306227

  11. Easy Growth Experiment on Peas Stimulates Interest in Biology for 10-11 Year Old Pupils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwen, Birgitta

    2007-01-01

    How do we support the enthusiasm children show for biology in school? Unfortunately, lack of exciting practical work and boring biology lessons seem to make science less popular. As a senior lecturer in plant physiology at Karlstad University I have simplified experiments intended for students at university and then tested them on 10-11 year old…

  12. Checking the Goldbach conjecture up to 4\\cdot 10^11

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinisalo, Matti K.

    1993-10-01

    One of the most studied problems in additive number theory, Goldbach's conjecture, states that every even integer greater than or equal to 4 can be expressed as a sum of two primes. In this paper checking of this conjecture up to 4 \\cdot {10^{11}} by the IBM 3083 mainframe with vector processor is reported.

  13. 15 CFR 10.11 - Revision or amendment of a standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT OF VOLUNTARY PRODUCT STANDARDS § 10.11 Revision or amendment of a standard. (a) A published... Committee serves in the development of a new standard. The processing of a revision of a standard shall be... or the design characteristics of the product being standardized, or which cannot reasonably...

  14. Markedly Elevated Carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide/Carbamazepine Ratio in a Fatal Carbamazepine Ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Jason L.; Spiller, Henry A.; Baker, Daniel D.

    2015-01-01

    Carbamazepine is a widely used anticonvulsant. Its metabolite, carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide, has been found to display similar anticonvulsant and neurotoxic properties. While the ratio of parent to metabolite concentration varies significantly, at therapeutic doses the epoxide concentration is generally about 20% of the parent. We report a case of fatal carbamazepine overdose in which the epoxide metabolite concentration was found to be 450% higher than the parent compound, suggesting a potential role for metabolite quantification in severe toxicity. PMID:26550016

  15. Brain alpha-dystroglycan displays unique glycoepitopes and preferential binding to laminin-10/11.

    PubMed

    McDearmon, Erin L; Combs, Ariana C; Sekiguchi, Kiyotoshi; Fujiwara, Hironobu; Ervasti, James M

    2006-06-12

    alpha-Dystroglycan was quantitatively enriched from mammalian brain based on its uniform reactivity with Vicia villosa agglutinin and resolved into sub-populations possessing or lacking the sulfated glucuronic acid epitope recognized by monoclonal antibody HNK-1. We generated a new monoclonal antibody specific for a glycoepitope on brain alpha-dystroglycan but absent from alpha-dystroglycan expressed in all other tissues examined. Finally, we found that laminin-10/11 preferentially bound to brain alpha-dystroglycan compared to skeletal muscle alpha-dystroglycan. Our results suggest that tissue-specific glycosylation modifies the laminin binding specificity of alpha-dystroglycan. PMID:16709410

  16. Neutron dosimetry and damage calculation for the JP-10, 11, 13, and 16 experiments in HFIR

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwood, L.R.; Ratner, R.T.

    1996-04-01

    Neutron fluence measurements and radiation damage calculations are reported for the joint U.S./Japanese experiments JP-10, 11, 13, and 16 in the target of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Lab (ORNL). These experiments were irradiated at 85 MW for 238.5 EFPD. The maximum fast neutron fluence >0.1 MeV was about 2.1E + 22 n/cm{sup 2} for all of the experiments resulting in about 17.3 dpa in 316 stainless steel.

  17. Is there a role for SV40 in human cancer?

    PubMed

    Poulin, Danielle L; DeCaprio, James A

    2006-09-10

    The question of whether Simian Virus 40 (SV40) can cause human tumors has been one of the most highly controversial topics in cancer research during the last 50 years. The longstanding debate began with the discovery of SV40 as a contaminant in poliovirus vaccine stocks that were used to inoculate approximately 100 million children and adults in the United States between 1955 and 1963, and countless more throughout the world. Concerns regarding the potential health risk of SV40 exposure were reinforced by studies demonstrating SV40's potential to transform human cells and promote tumor growth in animal models. Many studies have attempted to assess the relationship between the potential exposure of humans to SV40 and cancer incidence. Reports of the detection of SV40 DNA in a variety of cancers have raised serious concerns as to whether the inadvertent inoculation with SV40 has led to the development of cancer in humans. However, inconsistent reports linking SV40 with various tumor types has led to conflicting views regarding the potential of SV40 as a human cancer virus. Several recent studies suggest that older detection methodologies were flawed, and the limitations of these methods could account for most, if not all, of the positive correlations of SV40 in human tumors to date. Although many people may have been exposed to SV40 by polio vaccination, there is inadequate evidence to support widespread SV40 infection in the population, increased tumor incidence in those individuals who received contaminated vaccine, or a direct role for SV40 in human cancer. PMID:16963733

  18. Virtual coupling potential for elastic scattering of 10,11Be on proton and carbon targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapoux, V.; Alamanos, N.; Auger, F.; Blumenfeld, Y.; Casandjian, J.-M.; Chartier, M.; Cortina-Gil, M. D.; Fékou-Youmbi, V.; Gillibert, A.; Cormick, M. Mac; Maréchal, F.; Marie, F.; Mittig, W.; de Oliveira Santos, F.; Orr, N. A.; Ostrowski, A. N.; Ottini-Hustache, S.; Roussel-Chomaz, P.; Scarpaci, J.-A.; Sida, J.-L.; Suomijärvi, T.; Winfield, J. S.

    2008-01-01

    The 10,11Be(p, p) and (12C, 12C) reactions were analyzed to determine the influence of the weak binding energies of exotic nuclei on their interaction potential. The elastic cross sections were measured at GANIL in inverse kinematics using radioactive 10,11Be beams produced at energies of 39.1A and 38.4 A MeV. The elastic proton scattering data were analyzed within the framework of the microscopic Jeukenne-Lejeune-Mahaux (JLM) nucleon-nucleus potential. The angular distributions are found to be best reproduced by reducing the real part of the microscopic optical potential, as a consequence of the coupling to the continuum. These effects modify deeply the elastic potential. Including the Virtual Coupling Potential (VCP), we show the ability of the general optical potentials to reproduce the data for scattering of unstable nuclei, using realistic densities. Finally, the concepts needed to develop a more general and microscopic approach of the VCP are discussed.

  19. Evidence of SV40 infections in hospitalized children

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butel, J. S.; Jafar, S.; Wong, C.; Arrington, A. S.; Opekun, A. R.; Finegold, M. J.; Adam, E.

    1999-01-01

    Simian virus 40 (SV40) is known to have contaminated poliovirus vaccines used between 1955 and 1963. Accumulating reports have described the presence of SV40 DNA in human tumors and normal tissues, although the significance of human infections by SV40 is unknown. We investigated whether unselected hospitalized children had evidence of SV40 infections and whether any clinical correlations were apparent. Serum samples were examined for SV40 neutralizing antibody using a specific plaque reduction test; of 337 samples tested, 20 (5.9%) had antibody to SV40. Seropositivity increased with age and was significantly associated with kidney transplants (6 of 15 [40%] positive, P < .001). Many of the antibody-positive patients had impaired immune systems. Molecular assays (polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequence analysis) on archival tissue specimens confirmed the presence of SV40 DNA in 4 of the antibody-positive patients. This study, using 2 independent assays, shows the presence of SV40 infections in children born after 1980. We conclude that SV40 causes natural infections in humans.

  20. Pioneer 10/11 data analysis of the magnetic field experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, D. E.

    1982-01-01

    Work conducted in support of the Pioneer missions to Jupiter (10,11), and Saturn (11) as well as the reduction, analysis and interpretation of magnetic field data obtained by the vector helium magnetometer on the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft is summarized. Initial efforts concentrated primarily on the interplanetary data, and those aspcts of the data of relevance to obtaining a better understanding of the interaction of the magnetized solar wind with the terrestrial magnetic field. After encounters of Jupiter and Saturn, the emphasis of research was directed primarily to an analysis of the planetary data. In particular, it soon became clear that there was a need for modelling of the various candidate magnetospheric currents suggested by the data. Results not published as yet, are also summarized.

  1. SV2 mediates entry of tetanus neurotoxin into central neurons.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Felix L; Dong, Min; Yao, Jun; Tepp, William H; Lin, Guangyun; Johnson, Eric A; Chapman, Edwin R

    2010-01-01

    Tetanus neurotoxin causes the disease tetanus, which is characterized by rigid paralysis. The toxin acts by inhibiting the release of neurotransmitters from inhibitory neurons in the spinal cord that innervate motor neurons and is unique among the clostridial neurotoxins due to its ability to shuttle from the periphery to the central nervous system. Tetanus neurotoxin is thought to interact with a high affinity receptor complex that is composed of lipid and protein components; however, the identity of the protein receptor remains elusive. In the current study, we demonstrate that toxin binding, to dissociated hippocampal and spinal cord neurons, is greatly enhanced by driving synaptic vesicle exocytosis. Moreover, tetanus neurotoxin entry and subsequent cleavage of synaptobrevin II, the substrate for this toxin, was also dependent on synaptic vesicle recycling. Next, we identified the potential synaptic vesicle binding protein for the toxin and found that it corresponded to SV2; tetanus neurotoxin was unable to cleave synaptobrevin II in SV2 knockout neurons. Toxin entry into knockout neurons was rescued by infecting with viruses that express SV2A or SV2B. Tetanus toxin elicited the hyper excitability in dissociated spinal cord neurons - due to preferential loss of inhibitory transmission - that is characteristic of the disease. Surprisingly, in dissociated cortical cultures, low concentrations of the toxin preferentially acted on excitatory neurons. Further examination of the distribution of SV2A and SV2B in both spinal cord and cortical neurons revealed that SV2B is to a large extent localized to excitatory terminals, while SV2A is localized to inhibitory terminals. Therefore, the distinct effects of tetanus toxin on cortical and spinal cord neurons are not due to differential expression of SV2 isoforms. In summary, the findings reported here indicate that SV2A and SV2B mediate binding and entry of tetanus neurotoxin into central neurons. PMID:21124874

  2. The Starspots Activity of SV Cam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djuravsevic, G.

    The paper is devoted to the problem of the orbital and physical parameters estimation of the active eclipsing binary SV Cam based on the interpretation of photometric observations made by {pa} during the period 1973-1981. The problem is solved in two stages: by obtaining a synthetic light curve in the case when the parameters of the corresponding Roche model {dja} are given a priori (direct problem), and by determining the parameters of the model for which the best fit between the synthetic light curve and the observations is achieved (inverse problem) {djb}. A total of 18 light curves are analysed in the framework of the Roche model, involving one and two spotted regions on the primary component of the system (Sp G3 V), for the temperature contrast between the spotted area and the surrounding photosphere A_s = T_s / T_1 = 0.65. The basic parameters of the system and of the spotted areas are estimated. According to the obtained results the spotted areas are formed at high latitudes and cover a significant part of the stellar surface. No clear cyclicity of the system's activity is noted from the analysed observations. There are some indications that spotted area at high latitudes (above 70circ) correspond to an enhanced activity. Since the system's period is short (P = 0^d.59), the presence of spotted regions at high latitudes can be explained by the dynamo mechanism for rapid rotators {sch}. During the analysed period the spotted areas tend to fall into a specially active longitude sectors, on high latitude, near stellar polar regions. Due to a selection effect it is possible that a more extensive observational material would correct this result to some extent. The light curve analysis allowed an estimation of the system parameters and of the active spotted regions.

  3. Examination of poliovirus vaccine preparations for SV40 sequences.

    PubMed

    Sangar, D; Pipkin, P A; Wood, D J; Minor, P D

    1999-03-01

    Oral poliovaccines derived from the strains developed by Sabin have been the basis of vaccination against poliomyelitis in the U.K. since 1962. Contamination of earlier materials with the monkey virus SV40, particularly inactivated Salk type poliovaccines, is well documented. Precautions have been in place for more than 30 years to prevent SV40 contamination of oral poliovaccines based on screening of donor animals and tests for SV40 infectivity. PCR was applied to examine all archived samples of oral poliovaccines available to us dating from 1966 to the present, including all vaccines used in the U.K. since 1980, for the presence of SV40 sequences. Of 132 materials examined, 118 were negative on initial testing and fourteen gave reactions which on further examination were attributed either to cross contamination during handling in the laboratory at National Institute for Biological Standards and Control (NIBSC) or to non-specific amplification. It was concluded that none of the samples contained SV40 sequences. The materials included 69 separate monovalent bulks of poliovirus type 1, 2 or 3 grown on monkey kidney cells from four different manufacturers and 74 bulks grown on human diploid cells from two manufacturers. One additional seed material from 1962 contained low levels of unique and characteristic SV40 sequences. The seed had been treated by the manufacturer to inactivate DNA viruses and tests by the manufacturer and at NIBSC failed to demonstrate the presence of infectious SV40 virus. Monovalent bulks prepared by the manufacturer from this seed were negative for SV40 sequences by PCR. The PCR studies provide no evidence of contamination of oral poliovaccines used in the UK with infectious SV40 and suggest that the steps taken to ensure the absence of infectious SV40 are satisfactory. PMID:10441397

  4. Geomagnetic activity during 10 - 11 solar cycles that has been observed by old Russian observatories.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seredyn, Tomasz; Wysokinski, Arkadiusz; Kobylinski, Zbigniew; Bialy, Jerzy

    2016-07-01

    A good knowledge of solar-terrestrial relations during past solar activity cycles could give the appropriate tools for a correct space weather forecast. The paper focuses on the analysis of the historical collections of the ground based magnetic observations and their operational indices from the period of two sunspot solar cycles 10 - 11, period 1856 - 1878 (Bartels rotations 324 - 635). We use hourly observations of H and D geomagnetic field components registered at Russian stations: St. Petersburg - Pavlovsk, Barnaul, Ekaterinburg, Nertshinsk, Sitka, and compare them to the data obtained from the Helsinki observatory. We compare directly these records and also calculated from the data of the every above mentioned station IHV indices introduced by Svalgaard (2003), which have been used for further comparisons in epochs of assumed different polarity of the heliospheric magnetic field. We used also local index C9 derived by Zosimovich (1981) from St. Petersburg - Pavlovsk data. Solar activity is represented by sunspot numbers. The correlative and continuous wavelet analyses are applied for estimation of the correctness of records from different magnetic stations. We have specially regard to magnetic storms in the investigated period and the special Carrington event of 1-2 Sep 1859. Generally studied magnetic time series correctly show variability of the geomagnetic activity. Geomagnetic activity presents some delay in relation to solar one as it is seen especially during descending and minimum phase of the even 11-year cycle. This pattern looks similarly in the case of 16 - 17 solar cycles.

  5. Rare Mechanisms of Stopped Pion Absorption by 10,11B Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernyshev, B. A.; Gurov, Yu. B.; Korotkova, L. Yu.; Lapushkin, S. V.; Pritula, R. V.

    2015-06-01

    Correlation measurements of the stopped π--meson absorption reactions 10B(π-, dt)X and 11B(π-, tt)X were carried out at low energy pion channel of LAMPF with the two-arm multilayer semiconductor spectrometer of charged particles. The analysis of twodimensional distributions (Dalitz' diagram) and the momentum distribution of the residual nucleus allowed to identify the process of pion absorption on the intranuclear lithium clusters 5,6Li and to get the evidence on the existence of the configurations 5Li + 5Heg.s and 6Li + 5Heg.s in the boron nuclei 10,11B. The levels of 8Li* isotope with the resonance parameters (Ex, C): (8.7 ± 0.2, 1.9 ± 0.4) MeV and (10.1 ± 0.3, 4.0 ± 1.3) MeV were observed for the first time. These states break up with the triton emission: 8Li* → t + 5He..

  6. Social inequalities and health among children aged 10-11 in The Netherlands: causes and consequences.

    PubMed

    van der Lucht, F; Groothoff, J

    1995-05-01

    Socioeconomic health differences (SEHD) are relatively small in childhood. In adolescence they almost seem to disappear and among young adults they re-emerge. This article deals with mechanisms that contribute to the emergence of health differences by studying a group of 10-11 year old children in The Netherlands (n = 908). The role of determinants of health in the relation between socioeconomic status and health (causation) is studied, as well as the influence of health on school performance (selection). Both causation and selection mechanisms prove to exist. Life style and life circumstances are unequally distributed among the socioeconomic groups and can (partly) explain the relation between socioeconomic status and health. The health of the children is related with school performance, which can be seen as health selection. This relation however was only found in the lowest socioeconomic groups. In the lowest socioeconomic groups less healthy children perform worse at school than healthy children. The unequal distribution of determinants of health and health selection in the educational career among children probably contribute to SEHD in adult life. PMID:7610436

  7. Differential activation of human constitutive androstane receptor and its SV23 and SV24 splice variants by rilpivirine and etravirine

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Devinder; Lau, Aik Jiang; Sherman, Matthew A; Chang, Thomas K H

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Rilpivirine and etravirine are second-generation non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) indicated for the treatment of HIV/AIDS. The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) regulates the expression of genes involved in various biological processes, including the transport and biotransformation of drugs. We investigated the effect of rilpivirine and etravirine on the activity of the wild-type human CAR (hCAR-WT) and its hCAR-SV23 and hCAR-SV24 splice variants, and compared it with first-generation NNRTIs (efavirenz, nevirapine, and delavirdine). Experimental Approach Receptor activation, ligand-binding domain (LBD) transactivation, and co-activator recruitment were investigated in transiently transfected, NNRTI-treated HepG2 cells. Nuclear translocation of green fluorescent protein-tagged hCAR-WT and CYP2B6 gene expression were assessed in NNRTI-treated human hepatocytes. Key Results Rilpivirine and etravirine activated hCAR-WT, but not hCAR-SV23 or hCAR-SV24, and without transactivating the LBD or recruiting steroid receptor coactivators SRC-1, SRC-2, or SRC-3. Among the first-generation NNRTIs investigated, only efavirenz activated hCAR-WT, hCAR-SV23, and hCAR-SV24, but none of them transactivated the LBD of these receptors or substantively recruited SRC-1, SRC-2, or SRC-3. Rilpivirine, etravirine, and efavirenz triggered nuclear translocation of hCAR-WT and increased hCAR target gene (CYP2B6) expression. Conclusion and Implications NNRTIs activate hCAR-WT, hCAR-SV23, and hCAR-SV24 in a drug-specific and isoform-selective manner. The activation occurs by a mechanism that does not appear to involve binding to the LBD or recruitment of SRC-1, SRC-2, or SRC-3. PMID:25363652

  8. Phytoremediation of carbamazepine and its metabolite 10,11-epoxycarbamazepine by C3 and C4 plants.

    PubMed

    Ryšlavá, Helena; Pomeislová, Alice; Pšondrová, Šárka; Hýsková, Veronika; Smrček, Stanislav

    2015-12-01

    The anticonvulsant drug carbamazepine is considered as an indicator of sewage water pollution: however, its uptake by plants and effect on metabolism have not been sufficiently documented, let alone its metabolite (10,11-epoxycarbamazepine). In a model system of sterile, hydroponically cultivated Zea mays (as C4 plant) and Helianthus annuus (as C3 plant), the uptake and effect of carbamazepine and 10,11-epoxycarbamazepine were studied in comparison with those of acetaminophen and ibuprofen. Ibuprofen and acetaminophen were effectively extracted from drug-supplemented media by both plants, while the uptake of more hydrophobic carbamazepine was much lower. On the other hand, the carbamazepine metabolite, 10,11-epoxycarbamazepine, was, unlike sunflower, willingly taken up by maize plants (after 96 h 88 % of the initial concentration) and effectively stored in maize tissues. In addition, the effect of the studied pharmaceuticals on the plant metabolism (enzymes of Hatch-Slack cycle, peroxidases) was followed. The activity of bound peroxidases, which could cause xylem vessel lignification and reduction of xenobiotic uptake, was at the level of control plants in maize leaves contrary to sunflower. Therefore, our results indicate that maize has the potential to remove 10,11-epoxycarbamazepine from contaminated soils. PMID:26310701

  9. Study Of Reaction Mechanisms For {sup 9,10,11}Be+{sup 64}Zn Systems Around The Coulomb Barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Scuderi, V.; Amorini, F.; Fisichella, M.; Lattuada, M.; Rizzo, F.; Torresi, D.; Di Pietro, A.; Figuera, P.; Papa, M.; Pellegriti, M. G.; Santonocito, D.; Scalia, G.; Acosta, L.; Martel, I.; Borge, M. J. G.; Sanchez, E. M. R.; Tengblad, O.; Vidal, A. M.; Fraile, L. M.; Jeppesen, H.

    2010-04-26

    The reactions {sup 9,10,11}Be+{sup 64}Zn have been studied at energies around the Coulomb barrier in order to better understand the role played by the halo features on the reaction dynamics. Preliminary results on such studies will be reported in this paper.

  10. Evidence, from Pioneer 10/11, Galileo, and Ulysses Data, for an Anomalous, Weak, Long-Range Acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. D.; Laing, P. A.; Lau, E. L.; Liu, A. S.; Nieto, M. M.; Turyshev, S. G.

    1998-01-01

    Radio metric data from the Pioneer 10/11, Galileo, and Ulysses Spacecraft indicate an apparent anomalous, constant, acceleration acting on the spacecraft with a magnitude 8.5 x 10(sup -8) cm/s(sup 2), directed towards the Sun.

  11. Evaluation of Low-Cost, Objective Instruments for Assessing Physical Activity in 10-11-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Teresa L.; Brusseau, Timothy; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges; McClain, James J.; Tudor-Locke, Catrine

    2011-01-01

    This study compared step counts detected by four, low-cost, objective, physical-activity-assessment instruments and evaluated their ability to detect moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) compared to the ActiGraph accelerometer (AG). Thirty-six 10-11-year-old children wore the NL-1000, Yamax Digiwalker SW 200, Omron HJ-151, and Walk4Life…

  12. Systematic analysis of above-barrier fusion of {sup 9,10,11}Be+{sup 209}Bi

    SciTech Connect

    Hinde, D. J.; Dasgupta, M.

    2010-06-15

    Measurements of fusion for {sup 9,10,11}Be allow testing of the relative importance to fusion and breakup of the alpha-cluster structure found in all these Be isotopes, compared with the neutron-halo structure only present for {sup 11}Be. However, disagreements exist among different published experimental data sets for the reactions of {sup 9,10,11}Be with {sup 209}Bi. Accurate measurements of above-barrier cross sections for the products of complete fusion (fission and evaporation residues) in the reaction of {sup 9}Be with {sup 209}Bi and {sup 208}Pb provide the basis for a reanalysis of above-barrier fusion for {sup 10,11}Be+{sup 209}Bi. This includes procedures making full use of the higher precision stable beam data and resolves many of the disagreements. The improved self-consistency of the analysis allows investigation of the experimental average fusion barriers. Although showing some scatter, these suggest a higher barrier for the neutron halo nucleus {sup 11}Be. Comparison of published cross sections for fusion associated with capture of all the charge of the projectile suggest that all these Be isotopes show significant suppression of complete fusion, a surprising result given that the alpha-breakup threshold energies are 1.57 MeV for {sup 9}Be but over 7 MeV for {sup 10,11}Be. Further experimental studies to investigate in more detail the division between complete and incomplete fusion for reactions of {sup 10,11}Be are needed.

  13. Cyclic variations of the period and luminosity of SV Camelopardalis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzoori, D.

    2016-07-01

    New standardized V-band light curves (LCs) for the eclipsing binary SV Cam have been modeled using the PHOEBE program (v. 0.31a). Absolute parameters of the stellar components were then determined, enabling them to be positioned on the mass-radius diagram. Analysis of eclipse minima timing data (O-C diagrams) indicated two cyclic periods of 48.0 and 23.3 yr. These cyclic variations of the orbital period are interpreted in terms of motion of a third body around the system and magnetic activity cycle modulating the orbital period of SV Cam via the Applegate (1992) mechanism. The use of the Applegate model for SV Cam has been checked by examining the long term brightness variation and calculating some important parameters of this system. The results of these calculations favor the modulation of the orbital period by the Applegate mechanism.

  14. Evaluation of eye irritation by S-(-)-10,11-dihydroxyfarnesic acid methyl ester secreted by Beauveria bassiana CS1029.

    PubMed

    Son, Hyeong-U; Lee, Sang-Han

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether S-(-)-10,11-dihydroxyfarnesic acid methyl ester produced by cell subtype Beauveria bassiana CS1029 causes acute toxicity when used for cosmetic purposes by performing an eye irritation test. New Zealand white (NZW) rabbits were treated with a 100 mg/dose of S-(-)-10,11-dihydroxyfarnesic acid methyl ester according to standard procedure guidelines. No significant changes in terms of ocular lesions of the cornea, turbidity of the cornea, swelling of the eyelid or ocular discharge were observed in the methyl ester-treated groups, while sodium dioctyl sulfosuccinate, a positive control, caused severe toxicity. The anatomical and pathological observations indicate that the methyl ester produced by Beauveria bassiana CS1029 did not induce eye irritation in the lenses of the rabbits. The data suggest that the methyl ester evaluated in this study has promising potential as a cosmetic ingredient that does not irritate the eye. PMID:24137288

  15. Evaluation of eye irritation by S-(-)-10,11-dihydroxyfarnesic acid methyl ester secreted by Beauveria bassiana CS1029

    PubMed Central

    SON, HYEONG-U; LEE, SANG-HAN

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether S-(-)-10,11-dihydroxyfarnesic acid methyl ester produced by cell subtype Beauveria bassiana CS1029 causes acute toxicity when used for cosmetic purposes by performing an eye irritation test. New Zealand white (NZW) rabbits were treated with a 100 mg/dose of S-(-)-10,11-dihydroxyfarnesic acid methyl ester according to standard procedure guidelines. No significant changes in terms of ocular lesions of the cornea, turbidity of the cornea, swelling of the eyelid or ocular discharge were observed in the methyl ester-treated groups, while sodium dioctyl sulfosuccinate, a positive control, caused severe toxicity. The anatomical and pathological observations indicate that the methyl ester produced by Beauveria bassiana CS1029 did not induce eye irritation in the lenses of the rabbits. The data suggest that the methyl ester evaluated in this study has promising potential as a cosmetic ingredient that does not irritate the eye. PMID:24137288

  16. Suppression of complete fusion due to breakup in the reactions {sup 10,11}B+{sup 209}Bi

    SciTech Connect

    Gasques, L. R.; Hinde, D. J.; Dasgupta, M.; Mukherjee, A.; Thomas, R. G.

    2009-03-15

    Above-barrier cross sections of fission and {alpha}-active heavy reaction products were measured for the reactions of {sup 10,11}B with {sup 209}Bi. Systematic analysis showed that the fission originates almost exclusively from complete fusion (CF). Existing measurements of above-barrier fusion products for the {sup 30}Si+{sup 186}W reaction, assumed to proceed exclusively through CF, were extrapolated to the current systems using statistical model calculations. This extrapolation showed that the heavy reaction products from the {sup 10,11}B+{sup 209}Bi reactions include substantial components from incomplete fusion as well as from CF. Compared with fusion calculations without breakup, the CF cross sections are suppressed by 15% for {sup 10}B and 7% for {sup 11}B. A consistent and systematic variation of the suppression of CF for reactions of the weakly bound nuclei {sup 6,7}Li, {sup 9}Be, and {sup 10,11}B on targets of {sup 208}Pb and {sup 209}Bi is found as a function of the breakup threshold energy.

  17. Preparation and Affinity-Purification of Supervillin Isoform 4 (SV4) Specific Polyclonal Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xueran; Li, Hao; Wang, Hongzhi; Yang, Haoran; Ye, Fang; Liang, Chaozhao; Fang, Zhiyou

    2016-04-01

    Human Supervillin isoform 4 (SV4), a bigger splicing isoform of Supervillin, contains extra coding exons 3, 4 and 5 (E345), compared to Supervillin isoform 1. Although previous studies have shown that SV4 associated with membrane and cytoskeleton, regulated cell migration and cell survival, its functions are still largely unknown. To broaden our understanding, SV4 specific antibody is important for further study in signaling pathway. The His-SV4 (E345) and GST-SV4 (E345) fusion proteins, which contained SV4 specific domain E345, were purified from bacteria. The His-SV4 (E345) proteins were injected in rabbits as immunogen to produce anti-SV4 serum, and SV4 antibodies were purified by GST-SV4 (E345) proteins cross-linked to affinity resins. SV4 antibodies exclusively recognized SV4 protein both in vitro and in vivo through multi-step testing by ELISA, western blot, immunoprecipitation, and immunofluorescence. Taken together, our data demonstrate a novel SV4-specific polyclonal antibody which will provide a useful tool for further characterization of SV4 function. PMID:27015936

  18. Proposed amendments to UN ST/SG/AC.10/11: transport of dangerous goods—lithium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrington, Michael D.

    UN Document ST/SG/AC.10/11 [ST/SG/AC.10/11, The UN recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods, Manual of Tests and Criteria, 2nd revision] outlines a test plan that is fundamental to the classification for transport of lithium batteries with metallic lithium or lithium alloy anodes. Cells and batteries that fall within its scope are considered dangerous goods. The test plan requires amendment to address many shortcomings. Some tests assess risks that do not exist, other risks are not addressed. This paper outlines the issues we have identified with the test plan, the proposed amendments, the rationale behind the proposed amendments, and issues we have not addressed in the current round of amendments. Transport of lithium batteries has an excellent record. Packaging requirements are essential to continued safe transport. Tests that address known risks relevant to conditions normal to transport are discussed. It is for consideration that non-metallic anode systems such as some polymer and lithium-ion systems should be treated as distinctly different technologies with their own set of transportation risks. The use of the marketing term lithium battery when applied to lithium polymer and lithium-ion products has erroneously lead to the suggestion that they be included in the scope of UN Document ST/SG/AC.10/11. A recommendation to classify such systems under a new UN number is presented. It is suggested that UN 3090 or UN 3091 should be reserved for lithium metal or lithium metal alloy products.

  19. Indication, from Pioneer 10/11, Galileo, and Ulysses Data, of an Apparent Anomalous, Weak, Long-Range Acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.D.; Lau, E.L.; Turyshev, S.G.; Laing, P.A.; Liu, A.S.; Nieto, M.M.

    1998-10-01

    Radio metric data from the Pioneer 10/11, Galileo, and Ulysses spacecraft indicate an apparent anomalous, constant, acceleration acting on the spacecraft with a magnitude {approximately}8.5{times}10{sup {minus}8} cm/s{sup 2} , directed towards the Sun. Two independent codes and physical strategies have been used to analyze the data. A number of potential causes have been ruled out. We discuss future kinematic tests and possible origins of the signal. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  20. VERIFICATION SURVEY ACTIVITIES IN FS SURVEY UNITS 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13 & 14 AT THE SEPARATIONS PROCESS RESEARCH UNIT

    SciTech Connect

    M.G. JADICK

    2010-05-26

    FINAL INTERIM REPORT VERIFICATION SURVEY ACTIVITIES IN FINAL STATUS SURVEY UNITS 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13 AND 14 AT THE SEPARATIONS PROCESS RESEARCH UNIT, Niskayuna, New York 0496-SR-03-0. The Separations Process Research Unit (SPRU) facilities were constructed in the late 1940s to research the chemical separation of plutonium and uranium. SPRU operated between February 1950 and October 1953. The research activities ceased following the successful development of the reduction/oxidation and plutonium/uranium extraction processes that were subsequently used by the Hanford and the Savannah River sites.

  1. Genome Sequence of the Arctic Methanotroph Methylobacter tundripaludum SV96

    SciTech Connect

    Svenning, Mette M; Hestnes, Anne Grethe; Wartiainen, Ingvild; Stein, Lisa Y.; Klotz, Martin G; Kalyuzhnaya, Marina G.; Spang, Anja; Bringel, Francoise O.; Vuilleumier, Stephane; Lajus, Aurelie; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Ivanova, N; Han, James; Han, Cliff; Hauser, Loren John; Held, Brittany; Land, Miriam L; Lapidus, Alla L.; Lucas, Susan; Nolan, Matt; Pitluck, Sam; Woyke, Tanja

    2011-01-01

    Methylobacter tundripaludum SV96(T) (ATCC BAA-1195) is a psychrotolerant aerobic methane-oxidizing gammaproteobacterium (Methylococcales, Methylococcaceae) living in High Arctic wetland soil. The strain was isolated from soil harvested in July 1996 close to the settlement Ny-Alesund, Svalbard, Norway (78 degrees 56'N, 11 degrees 53'E), and described as a novel species in 2006. The genome includes pmo and pxm operons encoding copper membrane monooxygenases (Cu-MMOs), genes required for nitrogen fixation, and the nirS gene implicated in dissimilatory nitrite reduction to NO but no identifiable inventory for further processing of nitrogen oxides. These genome data provide the basis to investigate M. tundripaludum SV96, identified as a major player in the biogeochemistry of Arctic environments.

  2. SV40 in vitro packaging: a pseudovirion gene delivery system.

    PubMed

    Kimchi-Sarfaty, Chava; Gottesman, Michael M

    2012-09-01

    Nuclear extracts of Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) insect cells infected with baculoviruses encode the simian virus 40 (SV40) major coat protein (VP1). As described in this protocol, these extracts are able to package supercoiled plasmid DNA or RNA interference (RNAi) sequences in the presence of MgCl(2), CaCl(2), and ATP, thus forming SV40 pseudovirions in vitro. Such packaging has numerous advantages over other viral and nonviral delivery systems. Specifically, it provides a wide host range and high transduction efficiency. The only major disadvantage of this system is low expression per transduced cell observed in vitro, likely a result of DNA trapped in the cytoplasmic compartment of the cell that does not enter the cell nucleus. PMID:22949719

  3. Apollo 10 - 11

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This video gives overviews of the Apollo 10 and Apollo 11 missions to the moon, including footage from the launches and landings of the Command Module Columbia, which is used for both flights. The Apollo 10 crewmembers, Commander Thomas Stafford, Command Module Pilot John Young, and Lunar Module Pilot Eugene Cernan, are seen as they suit-up in preparation for launch and then as they experiment with the microgravity environment on their way to the moon. The moon's surface is seen in detail as the Command Module orbits at an altitude of 69 miles. The Apollo 11 crewmembers, Commander Neil Armstrong, Command Module Pilot Michael Collins, and Lunar Module Pilot Buzz Aldrin, are seen during various training activities, including simulated lunar gravity training, practicing collecting lunar material, and using the moonquake detector. Footage shows the approach and landing of the Lunar Module Eagle on the moon. Armstrong and Aldrin descend to the moon's surface, collect a sample of lunar dust, and erect the American flag. Eagle's liftoff from the moon is seen.

  4. In vivo exposure of marine mussels to carbamazepine and 10-hydroxy-10,11-dihydro-carbamazepine: Bioconcentration and metabolization.

    PubMed

    Boillot, C; Martinez Bueno, M J; Munaron, D; Le Dreau, M; Mathieu, O; David, A; Fenet, H; Casellas, C; Gomez, E

    2015-11-01

    Aquatic organisms are exposed to pharmaceuticals present in natural waters, but few data are available on the accumulation of these substances in such organisms. The present study evaluated the in vivo bioconcentration of two anticonvulsants--carbamazepine (CBZ) and 10-hydroxy-10,11-dihydro-carbamazepine (10 OH)--in marine mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) exposed to nominal 10 μg L(-1) concentrations for one week. The bioconcentration factors (BCFs) were 3.9 and 4.5 L kg(-1) dry weight (dw) for CBZ and 10 OH, respectively. CBZ accumulation reached an average tissue concentration of 29.3 ± 4.8 ng g(-1) dw, and 10 OH accumulated up to 40.9 ± 4.6 ng g(-1) dw in tissues within one week, showing first-order kinetics. BCF obtained with linear QSAR models correctly estimated the CBZ bioconcentration and overestimated the 10 OH bioconcentration to some extent. The detection of two metabolites (carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide and acridine) among the five sought suggested an active metabolism for CBZ. In contrast, none of the 10 OH metabolites were detected in mussels exposed to 10 OH. CBZ showed higher accumulation in the digestive gland, where some relevant metabolites were detected, than in other studied tissues. The implication of those findings on field biomonitoring is discussed. PMID:26102056

  5. Generation of Femtosecond Laser Pulse at 1053 nm with Contrast of 10-11 by Optical-Parametric Amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Zhong-Wei; Wang, Zhao-Hua; Zhang, Wei; Fan, Hai-Tao; Teng, Hao; Wei, Zhi-Yi

    2014-01-01

    A high contrast 1053 nm femtosecond laser pulse with free background is demonstrated based on non-collinear optical-parametric amplification (NOPA). By permuting the signal and idler in two stages of NOPAs, 48.2 fs, 62 μJ laser pulse at 1053 nm with contrast ratio of 2.3 × 10-11 is obtained within the time scale of sub-5 ps. The beam quality factors M2 for tangential and sagittal directions are 1.59 and 1.30, respectively. This work not only proves a feasible way to generate a clean femtosecond laser pulse but can also be employed as an ideal frontend for ultrashort ultrahigh intensity Nd:glass-based laser systems.

  6. New results on the Pioneer Venus Orbiter February 10-11, 1982 events - A solar wind disturbance not a comet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Intriligator, D. S.

    1985-01-01

    The characteristics of a series of disturbances observed on February 10-11, 1982 by the plasma analyzer and the magnetometer on the Pioneer Venus Orbiter, obtained in the solar wind upstream of Venus are studied. It is concluded that the events were associated with the propagation of a solar wind disturbance of coronal origin and not with an encounter with a comet or other local outgassing object (Russel, et al., 1983). The plasma analyzer spectra clearly show the presence of increases in He(2) and they argue strongly against Russell, et al.'s interpretatation. The peak in magnetic field magnitude on February 11 is identified as the magnetic signature of a thin, trailing 'filament' at the end of a series of solar-initiated events. Corresponding increases in He(2) and magnetic field fluctuations were observed near earth by ISEE-3 about a day later, and this strongly supports the concept of a solar origin.

  7. Factors influencing plasma concentrations of carbamazepine and carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide in epileptic children and adults.

    PubMed

    Lanchote, V L; Bonato, P S; Campos, G M; Rodrigues, I

    1995-02-01

    Plasma carbamazepine (CBZ) and carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide (CBZ-E) concentrations were measured in 160 epileptic patients in order to determine the effect of factors such as age, daily dosing schedule, formulation, and combination with other antiepileptic drugs on these concentrations in relation to the daily dose. The results showed that the CBZ plasma level/dose ratio was affected by all factors studied, whereas the CBZ-E plasma level/dose ratio was affected only by formulation and age. The ratio of CBZ-E to CBZ plasma levels (CBZ-E/CBZ) was affected by daily dosing schedule, age, and combination with other antiepileptic drugs. The present study demonstrated that many factors affect plasma CBZ/dose ratios, explaining the discrepancies observed in the literature. PMID:7725376

  8. RAPTR-SV: a hybrid method for the detection of structural variants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Motivation: Identification of Structural Variants (SV) in sequence data results in a large number of false positive calls using existing software, which overburdens subsequent validation. Results: Simulations using RAPTR-SV and another software package that uses a similar algorithm for SV detection...

  9. Enantioselective hydrogenation. IV. Hydrogen isotope exchange in 10,11-dihydrocinchonidine and in quinoline catalyzed by platinum group metals

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, G.; Wells, P.B.

    1994-12-01

    Hydrogen isotope (H/D) exchange in the alkaloid 10,11-dihydrocinchonidine has been studied over 6.4% Pt/silica (EUROPT-1), 5% Ru/alumina, 5% Rh/alumina, and 5% Pd/alumina at 293 K using C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OD and D{sub 2} as solvent and deuterium source. Exchange was accompanied by hydrogenation. Over Pt, fast exchange occurred in the hydroxyl group followed by multiple exchange in which alkaloid molecules containing, 2, 3, 4 and 5 deuterium atoms were formed simultaneously. Mass spectrometry and {sup 1}H NMR showed that this multiple exchange occurred in the quinoline ring system and at C{sub 9}, but not in the quinuclidine ring system. The pattern of exchange in Ru was similar. Over Rh extensive hydrogenolysis of the quinuclidine ring system occurred, and over Pd the quinoline ring system was rapidly hydrogenated. Quinoline exchange and hydrogenation were also studied at 293 K; relatively rapid exchange occurred over Pt, Ru, and Rh, particularly at the 2- and 8-positions, whereas hydrogenation without significant exchange occurred over Pd. 10,11-Dihydrocinchonidine is adsorbed on Pt and Ru via the quinoline ring system and the multiple nature of the exchange indicates that the quinoline moiety is adsorbed approximately parallel to the metal surface by multicenter {pi}-bonding. An additional interaction of the alkaloid molecule with the surface occurs at carbon atom C{sub 9}, which may interpret the slower exchange in the alkaloid by comparison with that in quinoline. This study supports and enhances the model proposed to interpret the origin of enantioselectivity in pyruvate hydrogenation over Pt and Ir modified by cinchona alkaloids. The similarities of exchange over Pt and Ru suggest that enantioselective catalysis should be achievable over Ru. 28 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. A longitudinal study of grapheme-color synesthesia in childhood: 6/7 years to 10/11 years

    PubMed Central

    Simner, Julia; Bain, Angela E.

    2013-01-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia is a condition characterized by enduring and consistent associations between letter/digits and colors. This study is the continuation of longitudinal research begun by Simner et al. (2009) which aimed to explore the development of this condition in real time within a childhood population. In that earlier study we randomly sampled over 600 children and tested them aged 6/7 and 7/8 years. We identified the child synesthetes within that cohort and measured their development over 1 year, in comparison to a group of non-synesthetic children with both average and superior memories. We were able to show the beginnings of a developmental progression in which synesthetic associations (e.g., A = red) mature over time from relatively chaotic pairings into a system of fixed consistent associations. In the current study we return to this same population three years later when participants are now 10/11 years. We used the same paired-association memory task to determine the synesthetic status of our participants and to also establish synesthetes' inventories of grapheme-color associations. We compared their inventories to those from age 6/7 and 7/8 years to examine how synesthesia matures over time. Together with earlier findings, our study shows that grapheme-color synesthesia emerges with a protracted trajectory, with 34% of letters/digits fixed at age 6/7 years, 48% fixed at 7/8 years and 71% fixed at 10/11 years. We also show several cases where synesthesia is not developing in the same time-frame as peers, either because it has died out at an older age, or because it was slower to develop than other cases. Our study paints the first picture of the emergence of synesthesia in real-time over four years within a randomly sampled population of child synesthetes. PMID:24312035

  11. Indirect activation of the SV23 and SV24 splice variants of human constitutive androstane receptor: analysis with 3-hydroxyflavone and its analogues

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Aik Jiang; Chang, Thomas K H

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Naturally occurring splice variants of human CAR (hCAR), including hCAR-SV23 (insertion of amino acids SPTV) and hCAR-SV24 (APYLT), have been shown to be expressed in liver. However, little is known regarding how hCAR-SV23 and hCAR-SV24 are activated. Therefore, we investigated the mode of activation of these hCAR splice variants. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Cell-based reporter gene assays, including ligand-binding domain transactivation assays and coactivator recruitment assays, were conducted on cultured HepG2 cells transfected with various constructs and treated with 3-hydroxyflavone or a hydroxylated (galangin, datiscetin, kaempferol, morin, quercetin or myricetin) or methylated (isorhamnetin, tamarixetin, or syringetin) analogue. KEY RESULTS Among the flavonols investigated, only 3-hydroxyflavone increased hCAR-SV23 and hCAR-SV24 activities. 3-Hydroxyflavone did not transactivate the ligand-binding domain of these isoforms or recruit steroid receptor coactivators (SRC-1, SRC-2, or SRC-3). By comparison, 3-hydroxyflavone, galangin, datiscetin, kaempferol, quercetin, isorhamnetin and tamarixetin activated hCAR-WT, whereas none of the flavonols activated hCAR-SV25 (both SPTV and APYLT insertions). The flavonols 3-Hydroxyflavone, galangin, quercetin and tamarixetin transactivated the ligand-binding domain of hCAR-WT, but only 3-hydroxyflavone recruited SRC-1, SRC-2 and SRC-3 to the receptor. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS hCAR-SV23 and hCAR-SV24 can be activated by a mechanism that does not involve the ligand-binding domain of the receptor or recruitment of SRC-1, SRC-2, or SRC-3. 3-Hydroxyflavone and its structural analogues activated hCAR in an isoform-selective and chemical-specific manner. Overall, our study provides insight into a novel mode of ligand activation of hCAR-SV23 and hCAR-SV24. PMID:23809009

  12. VIRUS-SPECIFIC NUCLEIC ACIDS IN SV40-EXPOSED HAMSTER EMBRYO CELL LINES: CORRELATION WITH S AND T ANTIGENS*

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Myron J.; Oxman, Michael N.; Diamandopoulos, George Th.; Levine, Arthur S.; Henry, Patrick H.; Enders, John F.

    1969-01-01

    A number of homologous SV40-exposed hamster embryonic cell lines were examined for the presence of RNA complementary to SV40 DNA. Only those lines containing the SV40 T antigen were found to have such virus-specific RNA. In lines containing the SV40 S antigen, but not the SV40 T antigen, virus-specific RNA was not detected. These findings suggest that the S antigen is not coded for directly by the SV40 genome. PMID:4307716

  13. Lattice Green functions: the d-dimensional face-centered cubic lattice, d = 8, 9, 10, 11, 12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassani, S.; Koutschan, Ch; Maillard, J.-M.; Zenine, N.

    2016-04-01

    We previously reported on a recursive method to generate the expansion of the lattice Green function (LGF) of the d-dimensional face-centered cubic lattice (fcc). The method was used to generate many coefficients for d=7 and the corresponding linear differential equation has been obtained. In this paper, we show the strength and the limit of the method by producing the series and the corresponding linear differential equations for d=8,9,10,11,12. The differential Galois groups of these linear differential equations are shown to be symplectic for d=8,10,12 and orthogonal for d=9,11. The recursion relation naturally provides a two-dimensional array {t}d(n,j) where only the coefficients {t}d(n,0) correspond to the coefficients of the LGF of the d-dimensional fcc. The coefficients {t}d(n,j) are associated to D-finite bivariate series annihilated by linear partial differential equations that we analyze. Dedicated to Guttmann, for his 70th birthday.

  14. The Konya earthquakes of 10-11 September 2009 and soil conditions in Konya, Central Anatolia, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksoy, R.; Demiröz, A.

    2012-02-01

    Earthquakes registering magnitudes Md = 4.5 and 4.7 struck the city of Konya, Central Anatolia, on 10-11 September 2009, causing very slight damages. The earthquake epicenters were located at the east of Sille District along the Konya Fault Zone, a dip-slip fault. The nature and seismicity of the fault zone indicates that it is capable of producing earthquakes of moderate magnitudes. This paper summarizes the geologic data along the fault zone and documents groundwater conditions and analyzes borehole and geotechnical data of the Konya city. The residential area of the city covers an area of approximately 1150 square kilometers and consists almost entirely of flat land except for a small part of rugged land in the southwestern corner. Groundwater and geotechnical data were collected and analyzed to evaluate the liquefaction potential of deposits under the Konya city. This preliminary investigation indicates that areas for liquefaction are generally limited to the eastern and east central parts of the city.

  15. S-(−)-10,11-Dihydroxyfarnesoic Acid Methyl Ester Inhibits Melanin Synthesis in Murine Melanocyte Cells

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Seung-Hwa; Ahn, Jun-Won; Nam, Sung-Hee; Yoon, Cheol-Sik; Shin, Jae-Cheon; Lee, Sang-Han

    2014-01-01

    The development of antimelanogenic agents is important for the prevention of serious aesthetic problems such as melasmas, freckles, age spots, and chloasmas. In the course of screening for melanin synthesis inhibitors, we found that the culture broth from an insect morphopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana CS1029, exhibits potent antimelanogenic activity. We isolated and purified an active metabolite and identified it as S-(−)-10,11-dihydroxyfarnesoic acid methyl ester (dhFAME), an insect juvenile hormone. To address whether dhFAME inhibits melanin synthesis, we first measured the size of the melanin biosynthesis inhibition zone caused by dhFAME. dhFAME also showed inhibitory activity against mushroom tyrosinase in Melan-a cells. Intracellular, dose-dependent tyrosinase inhibition activity was also confirmed by zymography. In addition, we showed that dhFAME strongly inhibits melanin synthesis in Melan-a cells. Furthermore, we compared levels of TYR, TRP-1, TRP-2, MITF, and MC1R mRNA expression by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and showed that treatment of Melan-a cells with 35 μM dhFAME led to an 11-fold decrease in TYR expression, a 6-fold decrease in TRP-2 expression, and a 5-fold decrease in MITF expression. Together, these results indicate that dhFAME is a potent inhibitor of melanin synthesis that can potentially be used for cosmetic biomaterial(s). PMID:25046747

  16. Structure of low-lying states of {sup 10,11}C from proton elastic and inelastic scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Jouanne, C.; Lapoux, V.; Auger, F.; Alamanos, N.; Drouart, A.; Gillibert, A.; Lobo, G.; Musumarra, A.; Nalpas, L.; Pollacco, E.; Sida, J.-L.; Trotta, M.; Blumenfeld, Y.; Khan, E.; Suomijaervi, T.; Zerguerras, T.; Roussel-Chomaz, P.; Savajols, H.; Lagoyannis, A.; Pakou, A.

    2005-07-01

    To probe the ground state and transition densities, elastic and inelastic scattering on a proton target were measured in inverse kinematics for the unstable {sup 10}C and {sup 11}C nuclei at 45.3 and 40.6 MeV/nucleon, respectively. The detection of the recoil proton was performed by the MUST telescope array, in coincidence with a wall of scintillators for the quasiprojectile. The differential cross sections for elastic and inelastic scattering to the first excited states are compared to the optical model calculations performed within the framework of the microscopic nucleon-nucleus Jeukenne-Lejeune-Mahaux potential. Elastic scattering is sensitive to the matter-root-mean square radius found to be 2.42{+-}0.1 and 2.33{+-}0.1 fm, for {sup 10,11}C, respectively. The transition densities from cluster and mean-field models are tested, and the cluster model predicts the correct order of magnitude of cross sections for the transitions of both isotopes. Using the Bohr-Mottelson prescription, a profile for the {sup 10}C transition density from the 0{sup +} ground to the 2{sub 1}{sup +} state is deduced from the data. The corresponding neutron transition matrix element is extracted: M{sub n}=5.51{+-}1.09 fm{sup 2}.

  17. Synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2A (SV2A) regulates kindling epileptogenesis via GABAergic neurotransmission

    PubMed Central

    Tokudome, Kentaro; Okumura, Takahiro; Shimizu, Saki; Mashimo, Tomoji; Takizawa, Akiko; Serikawa, Tadao; Terada, Ryo; Ishihara, Shizuka; Kunisawa, Naofumi; Sasa, Masashi; Ohno, Yukihiro

    2016-01-01

    Synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2A (SV2A) is a prototype synaptic vesicle protein regulating action potential-dependent neurotransmitters release. SV2A also serves as a specific binding site for certain antiepileptics and is implicated in the treatment of epilepsy. Here, to elucidate the role of SV2A in modulating epileptogenesis, we generated a novel rat model (Sv2aL174Q rat) carrying a Sv2a-targeted missense mutation (L174Q) and analyzed its susceptibilities to kindling development. Although animals homozygous for the Sv2aL174Q mutation exhibited normal appearance and development, they are susceptible to pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) seizures. In addition, development of kindling associated with repeated PTZ treatments or focal stimulation of the amygdala was markedly facilitated by the Sv2aL174Q mutation. Neurochemical studies revealed that the Sv2aL174Q mutation specifically reduced depolarization-induced GABA, but not glutamate, release in the hippocampus without affecting basal release or the SV2A expression level in GABAergic neurons. In addition, the Sv2aL174Q mutation selectively reduced the synaptotagmin1 (Syt1) level among the exocytosis-related proteins examined. The present results demonstrate that dysfunction of SV2A due to the Sv2aL174Q mutation impairs the synaptic GABA release by reducing the Syt1 level and facilitates the kindling development, illustrating the crucial role of SV2A-GABA system in modulating kindling epileptogenesis. PMID:27265781

  18. Absence of SV40 antibodies or DNA fragments in prediagnostic mesothelioma serum samples.

    PubMed

    Kjaerheim, Kristina; Røe, Oluf Dimitri; Waterboer, Tim; Sehr, Peter; Rizk, Raeda; Dai, Hong Yan; Sandeck, Helmut; Larsson, Erik; Andersen, Aage; Boffetta, Paolo; Pawlita, Michael

    2007-06-01

    The rhesus monkey virus Simian Virus 40 (SV40) is a member of the polyomavirus family. It was introduced inadvertently to human populations through contaminated polio vaccine during the years 1956-1963, can induce experimental tumors in animals and transform human cells in culture. SV40 DNA has been identified in mesothelioma and other human tumors in some but not all studies. We tested prediagnostic sera from 49 mesothelioma cases and 147 matched controls for antibodies against the viral capsid protein VP1 and the large T antigen of SV40 and of the closely related human polyomaviruses BK and JC, and for SV40 DNA. Cases and controls were identified among donors to the Janus Serum Bank, which was linked to the Cancer Registry of Norway. Antibodies were analyzed by recently developed multiplex serology based on recombinantly expressed fusions of glutathione-S transferase with viral proteins as antigens combined with fluorescent bead technology. BKV and JCV specific antibodies cross- reactive with SV40 were preabsorbed with the respective VP1 proteins. Sera showing SV40 reactivity after preabsorption with BKV and JCV VP1 were further analyzed in SV40 neutralization assays. SV40 DNA was analyzed by SV40 specific polymerase chain reactions. The odds ratio for being a case when tested positive for SV40 VP1 in the antibody capture assay was 1.5 (95% CI 0.6-3.7) and 2.0 (95% CI 0.6-7.0) when only strongly reactive sera where counted as positive. Although some sera could neutralize SV40, preabsorption with BKV and JCV VP1 showed for all such sera that this neutralizing activity was due to cross-reacting antibodies and did not represent truly SV40-specific antibodies. No viral DNA was found in the sera. No significant association between SV40 antibody response in prediagnostic sera and risk of mesothelioma was seen. PMID:17315193

  19. Sub-milliSievert (sub-mSv) CT Colonography

    PubMed Central

    Lubner, Meghan G.; Pooler, B. Dustin; Kitchin, Douglas R.; Tang, Jie; Li, Ke; Kim, David H.; del Rio, Alejandro Munoz; Chen, Guang-Hong; Pickhardt, Perry J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To prospectively compare reduced-dose (RD) CT colonography (CTC) with standard-dose (SD) imaging using several reconstruction algorithms. Methods Following SD supine CTC, 40 patients (mean age, 57.3 years; 17 M/23 F, mean BMI, 27.2) underwent an additional RD supine examination (targeted dose reduction, 70–90%). DLP, CTDIvol, effective dose, and SSDE were compared. Several reconstruction algorithms were applied to RD series. SD-FBP served as reference standard. Objective image noise, subjective image quality and polyp conspicuity were assessed. Results Mean CTDIvol and effective dose for RD series was 0.89 mGy (median 0.65) and 0.6 mSv (median 0.44), compared with 3.8 mGy (median 3.1) and 2.8 mSv (median 2.3) for SD series, respectively. Mean dose reduction was 78%. Mean image noise was significantly reduced on RD-PICCS (24.3±19HU) and RD-MBIR (19±18HU) compared with RD-FBP (90±33), RD-ASIR (72±27) and SD-FBP (47±14 HU). 2D image quality score was higher with RD-PICCS, RD-MBIR, and SD-FBP (2.7±0.4/2.8±0.4/2.9±0.6) compared with RD-FBP (1.5±0.4) and RD-ASIR (1.8±0.44). A similar trend was seen with 3D image quality scores. Polyp conspicuity scores were similar between SD-FBP/RD-PICCS/RD-MBIR (3.5±0.6/3.2±0.8/3.3±0.6). Conclusion Sub-milliSievert CTC performed with iterative reconstruction techniques demonstrate decreased image quality compared to SD, but improved image quality compared to RD images reconstructed with FBP. PMID:25903700

  20. New powerful thermal modelling for high-precision gravity missions with application to Pioneer 10/11

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rievers, Benny; Lämmerzahl, Claus; List, Meike; Bremer, Stefanie; Dittus, Hansjörg

    2009-11-01

    The evaluation of about 25 years of Doppler data has shown an anomalous constant deceleration of the deep space probes Pioneer 10 and 11. This observation became known as the Pioneer anomaly (PA) and has been confirmed independently by several groups. Many disturbing effects that could cause a constant deceleration of the craft have been excluded as possible source of the PA. However, a potential asymmetric heat dissipation of the spacecraft surface leading to a resulting acceleration still remains to be analysed in detail. We developed a method to calculate this force with very high precision by means of finite element (FE) modelling and ray tracing algorithms. The elaborated method is divided into two separate parts. The first part consists of the modelling of the spacecraft geometry in FE and the generation of a steady state temperature surface map of the craft. In the second part, this thermal map is used to compute the force with a ray-tracing algorithm, which gives the total momentum generated by the radiation emitted from the spacecraft surface. The modelling steps and the force computation are presented for a simplified geometry of the Pioneer 10/11 spacecraft including radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG), equipment/experiment section and the high gain antenna. Analysis results how that the magnitude of the forces to be expected are non-negligible with respect to the PA and that more detailed investigations are necessary. The method worked out here for the first time is not restricted to the modelling of the Pioneer spacecraft but can be used for many future fundamental physics (in particular gravitational physics) and geodesy missions like LISA, LISA Pathfinder or MICROSCOPE for which an exact disturbance modelling is crucial.

  1. Unstable nuclei in coherent dissociation of relativistic nuclei 7,9Be, 10B and 10,11C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artemenkov, D. A.; Bradnova, V.; Firu, E.; Kornegrutsa, N. K.; Haiduc, M.; Mamatkulov, K. Z.; Kattabekov, R. R.; Neagu, A.; Rukoyatkin, P. A.; Rusakova, V. V.; Sarkisyan, V. R.; Stanoeva, R.; Zaitsev, A. A.; Zarubin, P. I.; Zarubina, I. G.

    2016-06-01

    Contribution of the unstable nuclei 7Be, 8Be and ®B into coherent dissociation events (“white” stars) of relativistic nuclei 7,9Be, 10B and 10,11C is under study on the basis of a nuclear track emulsion exposed to beams of the JINR Nuclotron. Distributions over the opening angle of α-pairs indicate to a simultaneous presence of virtual 8Beg.s. and 8Be2+ states in the ground states of the 9Be and 10C nuclei. The core 9B is manifested in the 10C nucleus with a probability of (30 ± 4)%, Selection of the 10C “white” stars accompanied by 8Beg.s. (9B) leads to the appearance in the excitation energy distribution of 2α2p “quartets” of the distinct peak with a maximum at 4.1 ± 0.3 MeV. 8Beg.s. decays are presented in 21% 2He + 2H and 19% in the 3He of the all 11C “white” stars. 9Bg.s. decays are identified in “white” stars 11C → 2He + 2H constituting 14% of the 11C “white” stars. The 9B nucleus. is manifested in the “white” stars 10B → 2He + 2H with a probability of (9 ± 1)%. For the 10B case yield of 8Beg.s. nuclei with the respect to 9B is about a factor of 3 higher than 9B.

  2. Climate Change during Marine Isotope Stages 10 & 11 based on High-Resolution Speleothem Records from Eastern North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckles, J. A.; Gao, Y.; Wang, X.; Rowe, H.; Cheng, H.; Edwards, R. L.

    2014-12-01

    Two speleothems from eastern North America grew throughout Marine Isotope Stages 10 and 11. High-resolution stable isotope δ18O and δ13C, and Sr records are constrained by 16 230Th age dates. MIS 11 (374 - 424 kyr BP) is of particular interest due to the similarity of orbitally-controlled insolation conditions from this time period and the modern. While few high-resolution continental paleoclimate records exist for this time period, marine records reveal that during this prominent interglacial, sea surface temperatures were relatively stable, in contrast to those which occurred during the subsequent glacial period (MIS 10). Speleothems TNBS-8 and TNMOR2-01, from Tennessee's Blue Springs Cave and Morrell Cave, respectively, grew between 338 - 420 kyr BP and overlap for ~50 kyr. Growth rates were generally higher during MIS 11 than 10, with a higher degree of variability. Stable isotope δ18O and δ13C records (TNMOR2-01) show an overall trend towards higher values throughout the MIS 11-10 transition, with well-defined periods of depletion and enrichment. Sr concentration measured through µ-XRF reveals similar behavior as the δ13C record and serves as a proxy for moisture availability. Overlapping Sr results for both speleothems share general trends and reveal distinct intervals of increased precipitation occur throughout the record, with most coinciding with summer insolation maxima. The transitions of MIS 11.2 to 11.1 and MIS 11 to 10 are well-constrained by abrupt increases in δ18O and δ13C values along with Sr concentrations. An examination of continental proxy responses to similar orbital and climatic conditions as the modern allows for not only a greater understanding of how the climate changed during the MIS 10-11, but also allows for the examination of natural climate variability in light of the addition of anthropogenic climate forcing.

  3. The influence of SV40 immortalization of human fibroblasts on p53-dependent radiation responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohli, M.; Jorgensen, T. J.

    1999-01-01

    The simian virus 40 large tumor antigen (SV40 Tag) has been ascribed many functions critical to viral propagation, including binding to the mammalian tumor suppressor p53. Recent studies have demonstrated that SV40-transformed murine cells have functional p53. The status of p53 in SV40-immortalized human cells, however, has not been characterized. We have found that in response to ionizing radiation, p53-dependent p21 transactivation activity is present, albeit reduced, in SV40-immortalized cells and that this activity can be further reduced with either dominant negative p53 expression or higher SV40 Tag expression. Furthermore, overexpression of p53 in SV40-immortalized ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) cells restores p53-dependent p21 induction to typical A-T levels. All SV40-immortalized cell lines exhibited an absence of G1 arrest. Moreover, all SV40-immortalized cell lines exhibited increased apoptosis relative to primary cells in response to ionizing radiation, suggesting that SV40 immortalization results in a unique phenotype with regard to DNA damage responses. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  4. High electrical conductivity in Ni₃(2,3,6,7,10,11-hexaiminotriphenylene)₂, a semiconducting metal-organic graphene analogue.

    PubMed

    Sheberla, Dennis; Sun, Lei; Blood-Forsythe, Martin A; Er, Süleyman; Wade, Casey R; Brozek, Carl K; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán; Dincă, Mircea

    2014-06-25

    Reaction of 2,3,6,7,10,11-hexaaminotriphenylene with Ni(2+) in aqueous NH3 solution under aerobic conditions produces Ni3(HITP)2 (HITP = 2,3,6,7,10,11-hexaiminotriphenylene), a new two-dimensional metal-organic framework (MOF). The new material can be isolated as a highly conductive black powder or dark blue-violet films. Two-probe and van der Pauw electrical measurements reveal bulk (pellet) and surface (film) conductivity values of 2 and 40 S·cm(-1), respectively, both records for MOFs and among the best for any coordination polymer. PMID:24750124

  5. Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph SV/GTO Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebbets, Dennis

    1999-01-01

    Contract number NAS5-30433, known at Ball Aerospace as the GHRS SV/GTO project, supported our participation in the post-launch activities of the Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph aboard the Hubble Space Telescope. The period of performance was December 1988 through December 1998. The contract supported the involvement of Dr Dennis Ebbets in the work of the GHRS Investigation Definition Team, and several of the Ball people in the documentation and publication of results. Three main categories of tasks were covered by this contract; in-orbit calibration of the GHRS, guaranteed time observations, and education and public outreach. The nature and accomplishments of these tasks are described in the report. This summary makes many references to publications in the scientific and technical literature. Appendix A is extracted from a complete bibliography, and lists those papers that are directly related to work performed under this GHRS contract. The tasks related to the in-orbit calibration of the GHRS were by far the largest responsibility during the first six years of the project. During this period Dr. Ebbets was responsible for the definition of calibration requirements, design of experiments, preparation of observing proposals, tracking their implementation and execution, and coordinating the analysis and publication of the results. Prior to the launch of HST in 1990 the observing proposals were developed in cooperation with the scientists on the GHRS DDT, engineers at Ball Aerospace, the operations staff at the STScI, and project coordinators at GSFC.

  6. A Taxometric Analysis of the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL:SV): Further Evidence of Dimensionality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Glenn D.; Gray, Nicola S.; Jackson, Rebecca L.; Sewell, Kenneth W.; Rogers, Richard; Taylor, John; Snowden, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    A taxometric analysis of the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL:SV; S. D. Hart, D. N. Cox, & R. D. Hare, 1995) was performed on a group of 2,250 male and female forensic/psychiatric patients and jail/prison inmates. The 4 PCL:SV facet scores (Interpersonal, Affective, Impulsive Lifestyle, Antisocial Behavior) served as indicators in…

  7. Acousto-ultrasonic input-output characterization of unidirectional fiber composite plate by SV waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liao, Peter; Williams, James H., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    A unidirectional fiberglass epoxy compostie specimen is modelled as a homogeneous transversely isotropic continuum plate medium. Acousto-ultrasonic noncontact input-output characterization is studied theoretically with a transmitting and a receiving transducer located on the same face of the plate. The single reflection problem for an incident SV wave at a plane boundary in transversely isotropic medium is analyzed. An obliquely incident SV wave results in a reflected SV wave and a reflected P wave for an angle of incidence of the incident SV wave less than the critical angle. Otherwise, there exists only an SV wave in the medium as the reflected P wave degenerates into a surface wave travelling parallel to the plane boundary. The amplitude ratio of the reflected SV wave is -1 when the angle of incidence is greater than or = the critical angle. The directional dependence of the phase velocity of the SV wave propagating in the transversely isotropic medium has a significant effect on the delay time, as opposed to the directional independence of the phase velocity of a shear wave propagating in an isotropic medium. The displacements associated with the SV wave in the plate and which may be detected by the noncontact receiving transducer are approximated by an asymptotic solution for an infinite transversely isotropic medium subjected to a harmonic point load.

  8. Symbolic Violence, Locality and Social Class: The Educational and Career Aspirations of 10-11-Year-Old Boys in Belfast

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, Paul; Healy, Julie

    2004-01-01

    This article is based upon a comparative, ethnographic case study of two groups of 10-11-year-old boys--one middle-class, the other working-class--living in Belfast. Drawing upon Bourdieu's related concepts of symbolic violence and habitus, it shows how locality can help to explain the very different educational and career aspirations found…

  9. Nuclear Factor of Activated T-cells (NFAT) plays a role in SV40 infection

    PubMed Central

    Manley, Kate; O’Hara, Bethany A; Atwood, Walter J

    2008-01-01

    Recent evidence highlighted a role for the transcription factor, Nuclear Factor of Activated T-cells (NFAT), in the transcription of the human polyomavirus JCV. Here we show that NFAT is also important in the transcriptional control of the related polyomavirus, Simian Virus 40 (SV40). Inhibition of NFAT activity reduced SV40 infection of Vero, 293A and HeLa cells, and this block occurred at the stage of viral transcription. Both NFAT3 and NFAT4 bound to the SV40 promoter through κB sites located within the 72bp repeated enhancer region. In Vero cells NFAT was involved in late transcription, but in HeLa and 293A cells both early and late viral transcription required NFAT activity. SV40 large T-Ag was found to increase NFAT activity and provided a positive feedback loop to transactivate the SV40 promoter. PMID:18031784

  10. Nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) plays a role in SV40 infection

    SciTech Connect

    Manley, Kate; O'Hara, Bethany A.; Atwood, Walter J.

    2008-03-01

    Recent evidence highlighted a role for the transcription factor, nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT), in the transcription of the human polyomavirus JCV. Here we show that NFAT is also important in the transcriptional control of the related polyomavirus, Simian Virus 40 (SV40). Inhibition of NFAT activity reduced SV40 infection of Vero, 293A, and HeLa cells, and this block occurred at the stage of viral transcription. Both NFAT3 and NFAT4 bound to the SV40 promoter through {kappa}B sites located within the 72 bp repeated enhancer region. In Vero cells, NFAT was involved in late transcription, but in HeLa and 293A cells both early and late viral transcription required NFAT activity. SV40 large T-Ag was found to increase NFAT activity and provided a positive feedback loop to transactivate the SV40 promoter.

  11. Control of Floret Symmetry by RAY3, SvDIV1B, and SvRAD in the Capitulum of Senecio vulgaris1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    All members of Asteraceae, the largest flowering family, have a unique compressed inflorescence known as a capitulum, which resembles a solitary flower. The capitulum often consists of bilateral (zygomorphic) ray florets and radial (actinomorphic) disc florets. In Antirrhinum majus, floral zygomorphy is established by the interplay between dorsal petal identity genes, CYCLOIDEA (CYC) and RADIALIS (RAD), and a ventral gene DIVARICATA (DIV). To investigate the role of CYC, RAD, and DIV in the development of ray and disc florets within a capitulum, we isolated homologs of these genes from an Asteraceae species, Senecio vulgaris (common groundsel). After initial uniform expression of RAY3 (CYC), SvRAD, and SvDIV1B in ray florets only, RAY3 and SvRAD were exclusively expressed in the ventral petals of the ray florets. Our functional analysis further showed that RAY3 promotes and SvDIV1B represses petal growth, confirming their roles in floral zygomorphy. Our results highlight that while floral symmetry genes such as RAY3 and SvDIV1B appear to have a conserved role in petal growth in both Senecio and Antirrhinum, the regulatory relationships and expression domains are divergent, allowing ventral petal elongation in Senecio versus dorsal petal elongation in Antirrhinum. In S. vulgaris, diversification of CYC genes has led to novel interactions; SvDIV1B inhibits RAY3 and SvRAD, and may activate RAY2. This highlights how recruitment of floral symmetry regulators into dynamic networks was crucial for creating a complex and elaborate structure such as the capitulum. PMID:27208229

  12. Expression and immune recognition of SV40 Tag in transgenic mice that develop metastatic osteosarcomas.

    PubMed

    Marton, I; Johnson, S E; Damjanov, I; Currier, K S; Sundberg, J P; Knowles, B B

    2000-04-01

    Mature adult mice of the C57BL/6-TgN(Amy1TAg)501Knw transgenic mouse lineage, 501, containing a liver alpha-amylase promoted-SV40 Tag hybrid gene, routinely develop SV40 Tag-induced metastatic osteosarcomas. This form of alpha-amylase was known to be expressed in the liver, salivary glands, pancreas, and fat. Cells in the normal rib adjacent to the periosteum also express alpha-amylase suggesting that transgene expression is correctly targeted to generate osteosarcomas. 501 mice express SV40 Tag in the salivary glands but do not develop abnormalities in these organs by the time of their death from SV40-induced osteosarcomas. Mice of the C57BL/6 strain make a strong and effective anti-tumor immune response to SV40 Tag immunization. However, immunization of 501 mice with SV40 Tag early in life does not alter or prevent SV40 Tag-induced osteosarcomagenesis. 501 mice mount a significantly less effective cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response following SV40 Tag immunization while 501 osteosarcoma-derived cells are fully susceptible to SV40 Tag-specific T-cell lysis. This suggests that partial tolerance, not loss of antigen presentation by tumor cells, characterizes this mouse model of endogenous bone tumor development. To determine whether the immune recognition of endogenous SV40 Tag could influence tumorigenesis, the metastatic potential and time of death from tumor was investigated in CD4-null mutant 501 mice and beta-2 microglobulin-null mutant 501 mice. The size and number of metastases in these strains and longevity of these strains varied. We suggest that components of both the innate and adaptive immune response control tumor appearance and progression. PMID:10951695

  13. SV40 large T antigen-specific human T cell memory responses.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Sharon; Gibbs, Allen; Butchart, Eric; Mason, Malcolm D; Jasani, Bharat; Tabi, Zsuzsanna

    2008-08-01

    The continued presence of simian virus 40 (SV40), a monkey polyomavirus, in man is confirmed by the regular detection of SV40-specific antibodies in 5-10% of children who are unlikely to have received contaminated polio-vaccines. The aim of our experiments was to find cellular immunological evidence of SV40 infection in humans by testing memory T cell responses to SV40 large T antigen (Tag). As there is some indication that the virus may be present in malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) cells, we analyzed T cell responses in MPM patients and in healthy donors. The frequencies of responding T cells to overlapping Tag peptides were tested by cytokine flow cytometry. CD8+ T cells from 4 of 32 MPM patients responded (above twofold of control) to SV40 Tag peptides, while no positive responses were detected in 12 healthy donors. Within SV40 Tag we identified three 15 amino acid-long immunogenic sequences and one 9 amino acid-long T cell epitope (p138) (138FPSELLSFL146), the latter including a HLA-B7-restriction motif. T cell responses to p138 were SV40-specific as T cells stimulated with p138 did not cross-react with the corresponding sequences of Tag of human polyomaviruses BKV and JCV. Similarly, the relevant BKV and JCV Tag peptides did not generate T cell responses against SV40 TAg p138. Peptide-stimulated T cells also killed SV40 Tag-transfected target cells. This article demonstrates the presence, and provides a detailed analysis, of SV40-specific T cell memory in man. PMID:18551603

  14. Analysis of Synaptotagmin, SV2, and Rab3 Expression in Cortical Glutamatergic and GABAergic Axon Terminals

    PubMed Central

    Bragina, Luca; Fattorini, Giorgia; Giovedí, Silvia; Melone, Marcello; Bosco, Federica; Benfenati, Fabio; Conti, Fiorenzo

    2012-01-01

    We investigated whether cortical glutamatergic and GABAergic release machineries can be differentiated on the basis of the nature and amount of proteins they express, by performing a quantitative analysis of the degree of co-localization of synaptotagmin (SYT) 1 and 2, synaptic vesicle protein 2 (SV2) A and B, and Rab3a and c in VGLUT1+, VGLUT2+, and VGAT+ terminals and synaptic vesicles (SVs) in rat cerebral cortex. Co-localization studies showed that VGLUT1 puncta had high levels of SV2A and B and of Rab3c, intermediate levels of SYT1, and low levels of SYT2 and Rab3c; VGLUT2 puncta exhibited intermediate levels of all presynaptic proteins studied; whereas vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT) puncta had high levels of SV2A and SYT2, intermediate levels of SYT1, Rab3a, and Rab3c, and low levels of SV2B. Since SV2B is reportedly expressed by glutamatergic neurons and we observed SV2B expression in VGAT puncta, we performed electron microscopic studies and found SV2B positive axon terminals forming symmetric synapses. Immunoisolation studies showed that the expression levels of the protein isoforms varied in the three populations of SVs. Expression of SYT1 was highest in VGLUT1–SVs, while SYT2 expression was similar in the three SV groups. Expression of SV2A was similarly high in all three SV populations, except for SV2B levels that were very low in VGAT SVs. Finally, Rab3a levels were similar in the three SV groups, while Rab3c levels were highest in VGLUT1–SVs. These quantitative results extend our previous studies on the differential expression of presynaptic proteins involved in neurotransmitter release in GABAergic and glutamatergic terminals and indicate that heterogeneity of the respective release machineries can be generated by the differential complement of SV proteins involved in distinct stages of the release process. PMID:22275882

  15. Transcription enhancers as major determinants of SV40 polyomavirus growth efficiency and host cell tropism.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Katharina; Keiser, Simon; Günther, Viola; Georgiev, Oleg; Hirsch, Hans H; Schaffner, Walter; Bethge, Tobias

    2016-07-01

    The non-coding control region (NCCR) of polyomaviruses includes the promoters for early and late genes, a transcription enhancer and the origin of DNA replication. Particularly virulent variants of the human pathogens BKPyV and JCPyV, as well as of simian virus 40 (SV40), occur in vitro and in vivo. These strains often harbour rearrangements in their NCCR, typically deletions of some DNA segment(s) and/or duplications of others. Using an SV40-based model system we provide evidence that duplications of enhancer elements, whether from SV40 itself or from the related BKPyV and JCPyV, increase early gene transcription and replicative capacity. SV40 harbouring subsegments of the strong cytomegalovirus (HCMV) enhancer replicated better than the common 'wild-type' SV40 in the human cell lines HEK293 and U2OS. In conclusion, replacing the SV40 enhancer with heterologous enhancers can profoundly influence SV40's infective capacity, underscoring the potential of small DNA viruses to overcome cell type and species barriers. PMID:27100458

  16. KLF6-SV1 overexpression accelerates human and mouse prostate cancer progression and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Narla, Goutham; DiFeo, Analisa; Fernandez, Yolanda; Dhanasekaran, Saravana; Huang, Fei; Sangodkar, Jaya; Hod, Eldad; Leake, Devin; Friedman, Scott L.; Hall, Simon J.; Chinnaiyan, Arul M.; Gerald, William L.; Rubin, Mark A.; Martignetti, John A.

    2008-01-01

    Metastatic prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the leading causes of death from cancer in men. The molecular mechanisms underlying the transition from localized tumor to hormone-refractory metastatic PCa remain largely unknown, and their identification is key for predicting prognosis and targeted therapy. Here we demonstrated that increased expression of a splice variant of the Kruppel-like factor 6 (KLF6) tumor suppressor gene, known as KLF6-SV1, in tumors from men after prostatectomy predicted markedly poorer survival and disease recurrence profiles. Analysis of tumor samples revealed that KLF6-SV1 levels were specifically upregulated in hormone-refractory metastatic PCa. In 2 complementary mouse models of metastatic PCa, KLF6-SV1–overexpressing PCa cells were shown by in vivo and ex vivo bioluminescent imaging to metastasize more rapidly and to disseminate to lymph nodes, bone, and brain more often. Interestingly, while KLF6-SV1 overexpression increased metastasis, it did not affect localized tumor growth. KLF6-SV1 inhibition using RNAi induced spontaneous apoptosis in cultured PCa cell lines and suppressed tumor growth in mice. Together, these findings demonstrate that KLF6-SV1 expression levels in PCa tumors at the time of diagnosis can predict the metastatic behavior of the tumor; thus, KLF-SV1 may represent a novel therapeutic target. PMID:18596922

  17. 129/SvJ mice have mutated CD23 and hyper IgE

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Jill W.; Sturgill, Jamie L.; Conrad, Daniel H.

    2009-01-01

    CD23, the low affinity IgE receptor, is hypothesized to function as a negative regulator of IgE production. Upon discovering reduced CD23 surface levels in 129/SvJ inbred mice, we sought to further investigate 129/SvJ CD23 and to examine its influence on IgE levels. Five amino acid substitutions were found in 129/SvJ CD23. Identical mutations were also observed in CD23 from New Zealand Black and 129P1/ReJ mice. 129/SvJ B cells proliferated more rapidly than those from BALB/c after stimulation with IL-4 and CD40 ligand trimer. However, in vitro IgE levels in supernatants from stimulated 129/SvJ B cells were significantly reduced. Contrary to the in vitro findings, the 129/SvJ CD23 mutations correlated with a hyper IgE phenotype in vivo and 129/SvJ were able to clear Nippostrongylus brasiliensis infection more rapidly than either BALB/c or C57BL/6. Overall, this study further suggests that CD23 is an important regulatory factor for IgE production. PMID:18828998

  18. High Electrical Conductivity in Ni3(2,3,6,7,10,11-hexaiminotriphenylene)2, a Semiconducting Metal-Organic Graphene Analogue

    SciTech Connect

    Sheberla, Dennis; Sun, Lei; Blood-Forsythe, Martin A.; Er, Süleyman; Wade, Casey R.; Brozek, Carl K.; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán; Dinc,; #259; Mircea,

    2014-09-22

    Reaction of 2,3,6,7,10,11-hexaaminotriphenylene with Ni2+ in aqueous NH3 solution under aerobic conditions produces Ni3(HITP)2 (HITP = 2,3,6,7,10,11-hexaiminotriphenylene), a new two-dimensional metal–organic framework (MOF). The new material can be isolated as a highly conductive black powder or dark blue-violet films. Two-probe and van der Pauw electrical measurements reveal bulk (pellet) and surface (film) conductivity values of 2 and 40 S·cm–1, respectively, both records for MOFs and among the best for any coordination polymer.

  19. SV40 DNA replication: From the A gene to a nanomachine

    PubMed Central

    Fanning, Ellen; Zhao, Kun

    2009-01-01

    Duplication of the simian virus 40 (SV40) genome is the best understood eukaryotic DNA replication process to date. Like most prokaryotic genomes, the SV40 genome is a circular duplex DNA organized in a single replicon. This small viral genome, its association with host histones in nucleosomes, and its dependence on the host cell milieu for replication factors and precursors led to its adoption as a simple and powerful model. The steps in replication, the viral initiator, the host proteins, and their mechanisms of action were initially defined using a cell-free SV40 replication reaction. Although our understanding of the vastly more complex host replication fork is advancing, no eukaryotic replisome has yet been reconstituted and the SV40 paradigm remains a point of reference. This article reviews some of the milestones in the development of this paradigm and speculates on its potential utility to address unsolved questions in eukaryotic genome maintenance. PMID:19101707

  20. Alternative splicing of SV40 early pre-mRNA in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    van Santen, V L; Spritz, R A

    1986-01-01

    Simian virus 40 (SV40) early pre-mRNA is spliced using either of two alternative 5' splice sites and a common 3' splice site to produce two mRNAs that encode the T and t antigens. We have studied alternative splicing of SV40 early pre-mRNA in vitro using a HeLa cell nuclear extract. Synthetic SV40 early transcripts are processed to T and t antigen mRNAs in vitro. As in SV40-infected cells in vivo, cleavage at the T antigen 5' splice site is more efficient than cleavage at the t antigen 5' splice site in vitro, although both of these 5' splice sites are utilized relatively inefficiently in vitro. The ratio of cleavage at the T and t antigen 5' splice sites is not changed significantly by a number of alterations in the conditions under which the in vitro splicing reactions are carried out. Images PMID:3027668

  1. Highly accurate P-SV complete synthetic seismograms using modified DSM operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, Nozomu; Geller, Robert J.; Cummins, Phil R.

    In previous papers [Cummins et al., 1994ab] (hereafter referred to as DSMI and DSMII respectively), we presented accurate methods for computing complete synthetic seismograms for SH and P-SV respectively in a spherical earth model. The SH calculations used computationally efficient modified matrix operators, but the P-SV synthetics were computationally intensive. Geller and Takeuchi [1995] (hereafter referred to as GT95) presented a general theory for deriving modified operators and gave the explicit form of the modified operators for the P-SV case in cylindrical or cartesian coordinates. In this paper we extend GT95's results to derive modified operators for the P-SV case in spherical coordinates. The use of the modified operators reduces the CPU time by a factor of about 5 without a loss of accuracy. 10 CPU min on a SPARC-20 workstation with one CPU are required to compute a profile of synthetic seismograms from DC to 20 sec period.

  2. Thyroid epithelial cell transformation by a retroviral vector expressing SV40 large T.

    PubMed Central

    Burns, J. S.; Lemoine, L.; Lemoine, N. R.; Williams, E. D.; Wynford-Thomas, D.

    1989-01-01

    A recombinant murine retroviral vector encoding the SV40 virus large T antigen was used to infect stably an immortal line of differentiated rat thyroid epithelial cells, FRTL-5. Expression of SV40 T transformed these cells to anchorage independence and tumorigenicity but did not alter morphology or abolish tissue-specific functions and growth factor requirements. The resulting phenotype provides a model of well-differentiated human thyroid cancer. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 PMID:2544221

  3. The Influence of SV40 polyA on Gene Expression of Baculovirus Expression Vector Systems

    PubMed Central

    Salem, Tamer Z.; Seaborn, Craig P.; Turney, Colin M.; Xue, Jianli; Shang, Hui; Cheng, Xiao-Wen

    2015-01-01

    The simian virus 40 polyadenylation signal (SV40 polyA) has been routinely inserted downstream of the polyhedrin promoter in many baculovirus expression vector systems (BEVS). In the baculovirus prototype Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV), the polyhedrin promoter (very late promoter) transcribes its gene by a viral RNA polymerase therefore there is no supporting evidence that SV40 polyA is required for the proper gene expression under the polyhedrin promoter. Moreover, the effect of the SV40 polyA sequence on the polyhedrin promoter activity has not been tested either at its natural polyhedrin locus or in other loci in the viral genome. In order to test the significance of adding the SV40 polyA sequence on gene expression, the expression of the enhanced green fluorescent protein (egfp) was evaluated with and without the presence of SV40 polyA under the control of the polyhedrin promoter at different genomic loci (polyherin, ecdysteroid UDP-glucosyltransferase (egt), and gp37). In this study, spectrofluorometry and western blot showed reduction of EGFP protein for all recombinant viruses with SV40 polyA, whereas qPCR showed an increase in the egfp mRNA levels. Therefore, we conclude that SV40 polyA increases mRNA levels but decreases protein production in the BEVS when the polyhedrin promoter is used at different loci. This work suggests that SV40 polyA in BEVSs should be replaced by an AcMNPV late gene polyA for optimal protein production or left untouched for optimal RNA production (RNA interference applications). PMID:26659470

  4. Effects of glass surface area-to-solution volume ratio (S/V) on glass dissolution. Part one: Relationship between S/V and leachate pH

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, X.; Pegg, I.L.

    1992-11-01

    The observed relationship between S/V and leachate pH is discussed in terms of a simple model of the glass dissolution process. Data from leach tests on several nuclear waste glass compositions at different S/V ratios show that the leachate pH increases with time and then stabilizes at a nearly constant value beyond about 28 days. This stabilized pH increases systematically with the S/V ratio of the test. The model developed here reproduces the essential features of the data and suggests that a single parameter describing the intrinsic rate of alkali diffusion and ion exchange from the glass is sufficient to represent the major glass composition dependence. Interestingly, the results are essentially independent of the rate constant for matrix dissolution. This study suggests that the diffusion-ion exchange process is central in determining the solution pH and its dependence on S/V and the glass reaction, at least under static or low-flow-rate test conditions, is driven by alkali release.

  5. Relaxin has anti-apoptotic effects on human trophoblast-derived HTR-8/SV neo cells.

    PubMed

    Lodhi, Romana S Z; Nakabayashi, Koji; Suzuki, Kaho; Yamada, Ai Y; Hazama, Rhoichi; Ebina, Yasuhiko; Yamada, Hideto

    2013-12-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of human relaxin on apoptosis in the human trophoblast derived HTR-8/SV neo cell line, which is a possible model of human extravillous trophoblasts (EVTs). HTR-8/SV neo cells, cultured in phenol red free RPMI1640 medium, were treated with different doses of human recombinant (rH2) relaxin in serum-deprived conditions. RT-PCR was used for evaluating relaxin receptor: RXFP1 and RXFP2 expression in HTR-8/SV neo cells. The cell death was examined by TUNEL assay. Furthermore, we investigated caspase-3, cleaved PARP and Bcl-2 expressions by Western blot analysis to recognize the translational effects of anti-apoptotic and pro-apoptotic proteins. RXFP1 and RXFP2 mRNA expression was observed in HTR-8/SV neo cells. Compared with untreated control cultures, treatment with rH2 relaxin, decreased TUNEL-positive rate in HTR-8/SV neo cells was observed. Western blot analysis revealed that treatment with rH2 relaxin decreased the expression of caspase-3 and cleaved PARP, but in contrast increased Bcl-2 expression in those cells. These results suggest that rH2 relaxin has anti-apoptotic effects on HTR8/SV neo cells by decreasing pro-apoptotic caspase-3 and cleaved PARP expression and up-regulating anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 expression. PMID:24070111

  6. Systemic Absorption of Rifamycin SV MMX Administered as Modified-Release Tablets in Healthy Volunteers▿

    PubMed Central

    Di Stefano, A. F. D.; Rusca, A.; Loprete, L.; Dröge, M. J.; Moro, L.; Assandri, A.

    2011-01-01

    The new oral 200-mg rifamycin SV MMX modified-release tablets, designed to deliver rifamycin SV directly into the colonic lumen, offer considerable advantages over the existing immediate-release antidiarrheic formulations. In two pharmacokinetics studies of healthy volunteers, the absorption, urinary excretion, and fecal elimination of rifamycin SV after single- and multiple-dose regimens of the new formulation were investigated. Concentrations in plasma of >2 ng/ml were infrequently and randomly quantifiable after single and multiple oral doses. The systemic exposure to rifamycin SV after single and multiple oral doses of MMX tablets under fasting and fed conditions or following a four-times-a-day (q.i.d.) or a twice-a-day (b.i.d.) regimen could be considered negligible. With both oral regimens, the drug was confirmed to be very poorly absorbable systemically. The amount of systemically absorbed antibiotic excreted by the renal route is far lower than 0.01% of the administered dose after both the single- and multiple-dose regimens. The absolute bioavailability, calculated as the mean percent ratio between total urinary excretion amounts (ΣXu) after a single intravenous injection and after a single oral dose under fasting conditions, was 0.0410 ± 0.0617. The total elimination of the unchanged rifamycin SV with feces was 87% of the administered oral dose. No significant effect of rifamycin SV on vital signs, electrocardiograms, or laboratory parameters was observed. PMID:21402860

  7. Effect of Protein SV-IV on Experimental Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Infection in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Romano-Carratelli, Caterina; Bentivoglio, Concetta; Nuzzo, Immacolata; Benedetto, Nunzia; Buommino, Elisabetta; Cozzolino, Anna; Cartenì, Maria; Morelli, Francesco; Costanza, Maria Rosaria; Metafora, Biancamaria; Metafora, Vittoria; Metafora, Salvatore

    2002-01-01

    Seminal vesicle protein IV (SV-IV) is a secretory anti-inflammatory, procoagulant, and immunomodulatory protein produced in large amounts by the seminal vesicle epithelium of the rat under the strict transcriptional control of androgen. In particular, this protein was shown to possess the ability to markedly inhibit in vivo the humoral and cell-mediated immune responses of mice to nonbacterial cellular antigens (sheep erythrocytes and spermatozoa). We report data that demonstrate that in mice treated with SV-IV and infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, SV-IV is able to downregulate some important immunological and biochemical parameters that serovar Typhimurium normally upregulates in these animals. This event did not correlate with a lower bacterial burden but was associated with a markedly increased one (300%). Furthermore, the treatment of mice with SV-IV alone also produced a significant increase in the rate of mortality among serovar Typhimurium-infected animals. The mechanism underlying these phenomena was investigated, and the strong immunosuppression produced by SV-IV in serovar Typhimurium-infected mice was suggested to be the basis for the increased rate of mortality. The SV-IV-mediated immunosuppression was characterized by a decrease in the humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, altered lymphocyte-macrophage interaction, downregulation of cytokine and inducible nitric oxide synthase gene expression, inhibition of macrophage phagocytosis and intracellular killing activities, and absence of apoptosis in the splenocyte population of SV-IV- and serovar Typhimurium-treated mice. The immunosuppressive activity of SV-IV was specific and was not due to aspecific cytotoxic effects. SV-IV-specific receptors (Kd = 10−8 M) occurring on the macrophage and lymphocyte plasma membranes may be involved in the molecular mechanism underlying the SV-IV-mediated immunosuppression. Some results obtained by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2

  8. Overlapping functions of stonin 2 and SV2 in sorting of the calcium sensor synaptotagmin 1 to synaptic vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Kaempf, Natalie; Kochlamazashvili, Gaga; Puchkov, Dmytro; Maritzen, Tanja; Bajjalieh, Sandra M.; Kononenko, Natalia L.; Haucke, Volker

    2015-01-01

    Neurotransmission involves the calcium-regulated exocytic fusion of synaptic vesicles (SVs) and the subsequent retrieval of SV membranes followed by reformation of properly sized and shaped SVs. An unresolved question is whether each SV protein is sorted by its own dedicated adaptor or whether sorting is facilitated by association between different SV proteins. We demonstrate that endocytic sorting of the calcium sensor synaptotagmin 1 (Syt1) is mediated by the overlapping activities of the Syt1-associated SV glycoprotein SV2A/B and the endocytic Syt1-adaptor stonin 2 (Stn2). Deletion or knockdown of either SV2A/B or Stn2 results in partial Syt1 loss and missorting of Syt1 to the neuronal surface, whereas deletion of both SV2A/B and Stn2 dramatically exacerbates this phenotype. Selective missorting and degradation of Syt1 in the absence of SV2A/B and Stn2 impairs the efficacy of neurotransmission at hippocampal synapses. These results indicate that endocytic sorting of Syt1 to SVs is mediated by the overlapping activities of SV2A/B and Stn2 and favor a model according to which SV protein sorting is guarded by both cargo-specific mechanisms as well as association between SV proteins. PMID:26015569

  9. De Par en Par, 10 & 11. (Wide Open, 10 & 11.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Par en Par, 1997

    1997-01-01

    These two magazines, written entirely in Spanish, are designed for classroom use in the elementary grades. Number 10, focuses on ecology, discussing such topics as the greenhouse effect, endangered species, protecting the natural environment, tree planting, earthworms, natural waste, books on environmental subjects, saving the earth, and…

  10. Characterization of the Biosynthetic Genes for 10,11-Dehydrocurvularin, a Heat Shock Response-Modulating Anticancer Fungal Polyketide from Aspergillus terreus

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yuquan; Espinosa-Artiles, Patricia; Schubert, Vivien; Xu, Ya-ming; Zhang, Wei; Lin, Min; Gunatilaka, A. A. Leslie; Süssmuth, Roderich

    2013-01-01

    10,11-Dehydrocurvularin is a prevalent fungal phytotoxin with heat shock response and immune-modulatory activities. It features a dihydroxyphenylacetic acid lactone polyketide framework with structural similarities to resorcylic acid lactones like radicicol or zearalenone. A genomic locus was identified from the dehydrocurvularin producer strain Aspergillus terreus AH-02-30-F7 to reveal genes encoding a pair of iterative polyketide synthases (A. terreus CURS1 [AtCURS1] and AtCURS2) that are predicted to collaborate in the biosynthesis of 10,11-dehydrocurvularin. Additional genes in this locus encode putative proteins that may be involved in the export of the compound from the cell and in the transcriptional regulation of the cluster. 10,11-Dehydrocurvularin biosynthesis was reconstituted in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by heterologous expression of the polyketide synthases. Bioinformatic analysis of the highly reducing polyketide synthase AtCURS1 and the nonreducing polyketide synthase AtCURS2 highlights crucial biosynthetic programming differences compared to similar synthases involved in resorcylic acid lactone biosynthesis. These differences lead to the synthesis of a predicted tetraketide starter unit that forms part of the 12-membered lactone ring of dehydrocurvularin, as opposed to the penta- or hexaketide starters in the 14-membered rings of resorcylic acid lactones. Tetraketide N-acetylcysteamine thioester analogues of the starter unit were shown to support the biosynthesis of dehydrocurvularin and its analogues, with yeast expressing AtCURS2 alone. Differential programming of the product template domain of the nonreducing polyketide synthase AtCURS2 results in an aldol condensation with a different regiospecificity than that of resorcylic acid lactones, yielding the dihydroxyphenylacetic acid scaffold characterized by an S-type cyclization pattern atypical for fungal polyketides. PMID:23335766

  11. Study to define low voltage and low temperature operating limits of the Pioneer 10/11 Meteoroid Detection Equipment (MDE) system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, C. D.

    1975-01-01

    The Pioneer 10/11 meteoroid detection equipment (MDE) pressure cells were tested at liquid nitrogen (LN2) and liquid helium (LHe) temperatures with the excitation voltage controlled as a parameter. The cells failed by firing because of pressurizing gas condensation as the temperature was lowered from LN2 to LHe temperature and when raised from LHe temperature. A study was conducted to determine cell pressure as a function of temperature, and cell failure was estimated as a function of temperature and excitation voltage. The electronic system was also studied, and a profile of primary spacecraft voltage (nominally 28 Vdc) and temperature corresponding to electronic system failure was determined experimentally.

  12. Visualization of SV2A conformations in situ by the use of Protein Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, Berkley A.; Matagne, Alain; Braennstroem, Annika; Euler, Anne von; Jansson, Magnus; Hauzenberger, Elenor; Soederhaell, J. Arvid

    2008-10-31

    The synaptic vesicle protein 2A (SV2A), the brain-binding site of the anti-epileptic drug levetiracetam (LEV), has been characterized by Protein Tomography{sup TM}. We identified two major conformations of SV2A in mouse brain tissue: first, a compact, funnel-structure with a pore-like opening towards the cytoplasm; second, a more open, V-shaped structure with a cleft-like opening towards the intravesicular space. The large differences between these conformations suggest a high degree of flexibility and support a valve-like mechanism consistent with the postulated transporter role of SV2A. These two conformations are represented both in samples treated with LEV, and in saline-treated samples, which indicates that LEV binding does not cause a large-scale conformational change of SV2A, or lock a specific conformational state of the protein. This study provides the first direct structural data on SV2A, and supports a transporter function suggested by sequence homology to MFS class of transporter proteins.

  13. The Utility of the YLS/CMI-SV for Assessing Youth Offenders in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hui; Lee, Yirong; Zeng, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    The Youth Level of Service/Case Management Inventory–Screening Version (YLS/CMI-SV) is designed to provide a preliminary estimate of the level of risk for antisocial behaviors as well as an indication of areas for intervention in youth offenders. This study examined the predictive validity of the YLS/CMI-SV for violent, nonviolent, and general recidivism in a sample of 3,264 youth offenders within a Singaporean context (Mfollow-up = 1,764.5 days; SDfollow-up = 521.5). Cox regression and Receiver Operating Characteristic analyses revealed that the YLS/CMI-SV is significantly predictive of general, violent, and nonviolent recidivism for the male youth offenders, but there were mixed results for the female youth offenders. Overall, these results indicated that the YLS/CMI-SV is a useful measure for assessing the levels of risk for male youth offenders, and more investigation is needed to determine the suitability of the YLS/CMI-SV for the female youth offenders. Its implications for clinical practice and policy are discussed. PMID:25983353

  14. DNAaseI-hypersensitive minichromosomes of SV40 possess an elastic torsional strain in DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Luchnik, A N; Bakayev, V V; Yugai, A A; Zbarsky, I B; Georgiev, G P

    1985-01-01

    Previously, we have shown that DNA in a small fraction (2-5%) of SV40 minichromosomes was torsionally strained and could be relaxed by treating minichromosomes with topoisomerase I. This fraction was enriched with endogeneous RNA polymerase II (Luchnik et al., 1982, EMBO J., 1, 1353). Here we show that one and the same fraction of SV40 minichromosomes is hypersensitive to DNAase I and is relaxable by topoisomerase I. Moreover, this fraction completely loses its hypersensitivity to DNAase I upon relaxation. The possibility that this fraction of minichromosomes can be represented by naked DNA is ruled out by the results of studying the kinetics of minichromosome digestion by DNAase I in comparison to digestion of pure SV40 DNA and by measuring the buoyant density of SV40 chromatin in equilibrium CsCl gradient. Our data obtained with SV40 minichromosomes may be relevant to the mechanism responsible for DNAase I hypersensitivity in the loops or domains of cellular chromatin. Images PMID:2987817

  15. Transgenic Mice Harboring SV40 T-Antigen Genes Develop Characteristic Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Brinster, Ralph L.; Chen, Howard Y.; Messing, Albee; van Dyke, Terry; Levine, Arnold J.; Palmiter, Richard D.

    2016-01-01

    Summary A high percentage of transgenic mice developing from eggs microinjected with plasmids containing the SV40 early region genes and a metallothionein fusion gene develop tumors within the choroid plexus. A line of mice has been established in which nearly every affected animal succumbs to this brain tumor. Thymic hypertrophy and kidney pathology are also observed in some mice. SV40 T-antigen mRNA and protein are readily detected in affected tissues; however, SV40 T-antigen gene expression is barely detectable in unaffected tissues or in susceptible tissues prior to overt pathology, suggesting that tumorigenesis depends upon activation of the SV40 genes. Comparison of DNA from tumor tissue (or cell lines derived from tumors) with DNA from unaffected tissues reveals structural rearrangements as well as changes in DNA methylation of the foreign DNA. The SV40 genes are frequently amplified in tumor tissue, which further indicates that their expression is intimately involved in tumorigenesis in transgenic mice. PMID:6327063

  16. GeneSV - an Approach to Help Characterize Possible Variations in Genomic and Protein Sequences.

    PubMed

    Zemla, Adam; Kostova, Tanya; Gorchakov, Rodion; Volkova, Evgeniya; Beasley, David W C; Cardosa, Jane; Weaver, Scott C; Vasilakis, Nikos; Naraghi-Arani, Pejman

    2014-01-01

    A computational approach for identification and assessment of genomic sequence variability (GeneSV) is described. For a given nucleotide sequence, GeneSV collects information about the permissible nucleotide variability (changes that potentially preserve function) observed in corresponding regions in genomic sequences, and combines it with conservation/variability results from protein sequence and structure-based analyses of evaluated protein coding regions. GeneSV was used to predict effects (functional vs. non-functional) of 37 amino acid substitutions on the NS5 polymerase (RdRp) of dengue virus type 2 (DENV-2), 36 of which are not observed in any publicly available DENV-2 sequence. 32 novel mutants with single amino acid substitutions in the RdRp were generated using a DENV-2 reverse genetics system. In 81% (26 of 32) of predictions tested, GeneSV correctly predicted viability of introduced mutations. In 4 of 5 (80%) mutants with double amino acid substitutions proximal in structure to one another GeneSV was also correct in its predictions. Predictive capabilities of the developed system were illustrated on dengue RNA virus, but described in the manuscript a general approach to characterize real or theoretically possible variations in genomic and protein sequences can be applied to any organism. PMID:24453480

  17. GeneSV – an Approach to Help Characterize Possible Variations in Genomic and Protein Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Zemla, Adam; Kostova, Tanya; Gorchakov, Rodion; Volkova, Evgeniya; Beasley, David W. C.; Cardosa, Jane; Weaver, Scott C.; Vasilakis, Nikos; Naraghi-Arani, Pejman

    2014-01-01

    A computational approach for identification and assessment of genomic sequence variability (GeneSV) is described. For a given nucleotide sequence, GeneSV collects information about the permissible nucleotide variability (changes that potentially preserve function) observed in corresponding regions in genomic sequences, and combines it with conservation/variability results from protein sequence and structure-based analyses of evaluated protein coding regions. GeneSV was used to predict effects (functional vs. non-functional) of 37 amino acid substitutions on the NS5 polymerase (RdRp) of dengue virus type 2 (DENV-2), 36 of which are not observed in any publicly available DENV-2 sequence. 32 novel mutants with single amino acid substitutions in the RdRp were generated using a DENV-2 reverse genetics system. In 81% (26 of 32) of predictions tested, GeneSV correctly predicted viability of introduced mutations. In 4 of 5 (80%) mutants with double amino acid substitutions proximal in structure to one another GeneSV was also correct in its predictions. Predictive capabilities of the developed system were illustrated on dengue RNA virus, but described in the manuscript a general approach to characterize real or theoretically possible variations in genomic and protein sequences can be applied to any organism. PMID:24453480

  18. A novel Streptomyces spp. integration vector derived from the S. venezuelae phage, SV1

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Integrating vectors based on the int/attP loci of temperate phages are convenient and used widely, particularly for cloning genes in Streptomyces spp. Results We have constructed and tested a novel integrating vector based on g27, encoding integrase, and attP site from the phage, SV1. This plasmid, pBF3 integrates efficiently in S. coelicolor and S. lividans but surprisingly fails to generate stable integrants in S. venezuelae, the natural host for phage SV1. Conclusion pBF3 promises to be a useful addition to the range of integrating vectors currently available for Streptomyces molecular genetics. PMID:24885867

  19. Overexpression of iASPP-SV in glioma is associated with poor prognosis by promoting cell viability and antagonizing apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiangrong; Kang, Jun; Liu, Fang; Wen, Shaohong; Zeng, Xianwei; Liu, Kuan; Luo, Yumin; Ji, Xunming; Zhao, Shangfeng

    2016-05-01

    Inhibitor of apoptosis-stimulating protein of p53 (iASPP), encoded by PPP1R13L gene, is often overexpressed in human cancers. From the PPP1R13L gene, at least two isoforms, iASPP-L and iASPP-SV, are produced through alternative splicing. However, the role of these isoforms in glioma is still elusive. In this study, we examined the expression of iASPP-SV in astrocytic glioma tissues with different grades and normal human cerebral tissues. The result showed a higher messenger RNA (mRNA) expression level of iASPP-SV in astrocytic glioma patients with World Health Organization (WHO) grade II to IV in comparison to the normal controls. Additionally, mRNA expression level of iASPP-SV was gradually increased with the raise of the grade in glioma. High mRNA expression level of iASPP-SV was significantly associated with malignant WHO grades (P < 0.001). The protein expression level of iASPP-SV was consistent with the mRNA expression level. The Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that high iASPP-SV mRNA expression significantly affected overall survival and progression-free survival (both P < 0.001). Furthermore, multivariate analysis indicated that the mRNA expression of iASPP-SV was an independent prognostic marker in glioma (P < 0.001). To further explore the role of iASPP-SV in glioma, U87 cells were transfected with iASPP-SV by lentivirus and then treated with temozolomide (TMZ). Overexpression of iASPP-SV promoted the cell viability and downregulated the expression of pro-apoptosis genes (Bax, Puma, p21, and Noxa) to inhibit apoptosis induced by TMZ. Our study provides the first evidence that high iASPP-SV expression may be a novel prognostic factor and therapeutic target for glioma. PMID:26628298

  20. Transformation of Hamster Embryo Cells and Tumor Induction in Newborn Hamsters by Simian Adenovirus SV11

    PubMed Central

    Casto, Bruce C.

    1969-01-01

    Simian adenovirus, SV11, readily transformed hamster embryo cell cultures in vitro and produced tumors in vivo when inoculated into newborn hamsters. Foci consisting of small, loosely attached, rounded cells could be seen as early as 7 days postinoculation. Many of these cells contained several nuclei or the nucleus was multilobed. The cells grew without extensive cell to cell contact or formed small chains or clusters when passaged in vitro. This pattern of cell morphology and growth has not been reported with other simian or human adenovirus-transformed cells. Linearity of foci formation with virus dilution was observed when the virus multiplicity was less than 3 plaque-forming units (PFU)/cell. The PFU to focus-forming units ratio for SV11 was found to be 2 × 104 to 4 × 104, which is approximately 5- to 10-fold and 50- to 100-fold lower than those reported for simian adenovirus, SA7, and human adenovirus type 12, respectively. Cells transformed by SV11: (i) produced tumors when inoculated into young hamsters, (ii) contained tumor antigen which reacts with serum obtained from hamsters bearing SV11 passaged tumors, and (iii) could be propagated in vitro through an indefinite number of generations. Images PMID:5786181

  1. An Inmate Classification System Based on PCL: SV Factor Scores in a Sample of Prison Inmates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wogan, Michael; Mackenzie, Marci

    2007-01-01

    Psychopaths represent a significant management challenge in a prison population. A sample of ninety-five male inmates from three medium security prisons was tested using the Hare Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL:SV). Using traditional criteria, 22% of the inmates were classified as psychopaths. Scores on the two factor dimensions of…

  2. Receptor Concentration and Diffusivity Control Multivalent Binding of Sv40 to Membrane Bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Szklarczyk, Oliwia M.; González-Segredo, Nélido; Kukura, Philipp; Oppenheim, Ariella; Choquet, Daniel; Sandoghdar, Vahid; Helenius, Ari; Sbalzarini, Ivo F.; Ewers, Helge

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Incoming Simian Virus 40 particles bind to their cellular receptor, the glycolipid GM1, in the plasma membrane and thereby induce membrane deformation beneath the virion leading to endocytosis and infection. Efficient membrane deformation depends on receptor lipid structure and the organization of binding sites on the internalizing particle. To determine the role of receptor diffusion, concentration and the number of receptors required for stable binding in this interaction, we analyze the binding of SV40 to GM1 in supported membrane bilayers by computational modeling based on experimental data. We measure the diffusion rates of SV40 virions in solution by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and of the receptor in bilayers by single molecule tracking. Quartz-crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) is used to measure binding of SV40 virus-like particles to bilayers containing the viral receptor GM1. We develop a phenomenological stochastic dynamics model calibrated against this data, and use it to investigate the early events of virus attachment to lipid membranes. Our results indicate that SV40 requires at least 4 attached receptors to achieve stable binding. We moreover find that receptor diffusion is essential for the establishment of stable binding over the physiological range of receptor concentrations and that receptor concentration controls the mode of viral motion on the target membrane. Our results provide quantitative insight into the initial events of virus-host interaction at the nanoscopic level. PMID:24244125

  3. Botulinum Neurotoxin Serotype A Recognizes Its Protein Receptor SV2 by a Different Mechanism than Botulinum Neurotoxin B Synaptotagmin.

    PubMed

    Weisemann, Jasmin; Stern, Daniel; Mahrhold, Stefan; Dorner, Brigitte G; Rummel, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) exhibit extraordinary potency due to their exquisite neurospecificity, which is achieved by dual binding to complex polysialo-gangliosides and synaptic vesicle proteins. The luminal domain 4 (LD4) of the three synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2 isoforms, SV2A-C, identified as protein receptors for the most relevant serotype BoNT/A, binds within the 50 kDa cell binding domain HC of BoNT/A. Here, we deciphered the BoNT/A-SV2 interactions in more detail. In pull down assays, the binding of HCA to SV2-LD4 isoforms decreases from SV2C > SV2A > SV2B. A binding constant of 200 nM was determined for BoNT/A to rat SV2C-LD4 in GST pull down assay. A similar binding constant was determined by surface plasmon resonance for HCA to rat SV2C and to human SV2C, the latter being slightly lower due to the substitution L563F in LD4. At pH 5, as measured in acidic synaptic vesicles, the binding constant of HCA to hSV2C is increased more than 10-fold. Circular dichroism spectroscopy reveals that the quadrilateral helix of SV2C-LD4 already exists in solution prior to BoNT/A binding. Hence, the BoNT/A-SV2C interaction is of different nature compared to BoNT/B-Syt-II. In particular, the preexistence of the quadrilateral β-sheet helix of SV2 and its pH-dependent binding to BoNT/A via backbone-backbone interactions constitute major differences. Knowledge of the molecular details of BoNT/A-SV2 interactions drives the development of high affinity peptides to counteract BoNT/A intoxications or to capture functional BoNT/A variants in innovative detection systems for botulism diagnostic. PMID:27196927

  4. Botulinum Neurotoxin Serotype A Recognizes Its Protein Receptor SV2 by a Different Mechanism than Botulinum Neurotoxin B Synaptotagmin

    PubMed Central

    Weisemann, Jasmin; Stern, Daniel; Mahrhold, Stefan; Dorner, Brigitte G.; Rummel, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) exhibit extraordinary potency due to their exquisite neurospecificity, which is achieved by dual binding to complex polysialo-gangliosides and synaptic vesicle proteins. The luminal domain 4 (LD4) of the three synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2 isoforms, SV2A‐C, identified as protein receptors for the most relevant serotype BoNT/A, binds within the 50 kDa cell binding domain HC of BoNT/A. Here, we deciphered the BoNT/A‐SV2 interactions in more detail. In pull down assays, the binding of HCA to SV2-LD4 isoforms decreases from SV2C >> SV2A > SV2B. A binding constant of 200 nM was determined for BoNT/A to rat SV2C-LD4 in GST pull down assay. A similar binding constant was determined by surface plasmon resonance for HCA to rat SV2C and to human SV2C, the latter being slightly lower due to the substitution L563F in LD4. At pH 5, as measured in acidic synaptic vesicles, the binding constant of HCA to hSV2C is increased more than 10-fold. Circular dichroism spectroscopy reveals that the quadrilateral helix of SV2C-LD4 already exists in solution prior to BoNT/A binding. Hence, the BoNT/A‐SV2C interaction is of different nature compared to BoNT/B‐Syt-II. In particular, the preexistence of the quadrilateral β-sheet helix of SV2 and its pH-dependent binding to BoNT/A via backbone–backbone interactions constitute major differences. Knowledge of the molecular details of BoNT/A‐SV2 interactions drives the development of high affinity peptides to counteract BoNT/A intoxications or to capture functional BoNT/A variants in innovative detection systems for botulism diagnostic. PMID:27196927

  5. Microscopic analysis of 10,11Be elastic scattering on protons and 12C and breakup processes of 11Be within the 10Be+n cluster model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spasova, K.; Lukyanov, V. K.; Kadrev, D. N.; Antonov, A. N.; Zemlyanaya, E. V.; Lukyanov, K. V.; Gaidarov, M. K.

    2016-06-01

    The elastic scattering cross-sections of 10,11Be on protons and 12C at energy E < 100 MeV/nucleon using microscopically calculated optical potentials (OP) are presented. The real OP is obtained by a folding procedure with effective NN interactions, while the imaginary OP is estimated within the high energy approximation (HEA). The spin-orbit part of the OP is also included. The characteristics of the breakup processes of 11Be on different nuclear targets are also considered. The cross-sections of diffractive breakup and stripping reactions of 11Be on 9Be, 93Nb, 181Ta and 238U at energy E = 63 MeV/nucleon and the longitudinal momentum distributions of 10Be fragments produced in the breakup of 11Be on these nuclei are presented. The results are in a good agreement with the available experimental data, in particular the obtained widths of about 50 MeV/c are closed to the empirical ones.

  6. Quantification of carbamazepine and its 10,11-epoxide metabolite in rat plasma by UPLC-UV and application to pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Beig, Avital; Dahan, Arik

    2014-07-01

    A rapid, selective and sensitive UPLC-UV method was developed and validated for the quantitative analysis of carbamazepine and its epoxide metabolite in rat plasma. A relatively small volume of plasma sample (200 μL) is required for the described analytical method. The method includes simple protein precipitation, liquid-liquid extraction, evaporation, and reconstitution steps. Samples were separated on a Waters Acquity UPLC BEH C18 column (1.7 µm, 2.1 × 100 mm) with a gradient mobile phase consisted of 60:40 going to 40:60 (v/v) water-acetonitrile at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. The total run time was as low as 6 min, representing a significant improvement in comparison to existing methods. Excellent linearity (r(2)  > 0.999) was achieved over a wide concentration range. Close to complete recovery, short analysis time, high stability, accuracy, precision and reproducibility, and low limit of quantitation were demonstrated. Finally, we successfully applied this analytical method to a pre-clinical oral pharmacokinetic study, revealing the plasma profiles of both carbamazepine and carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide following oral administration of carbamazepine to rats. The advantages demonstrated in this work make this analytical method both time- and cost-efficient approach for drug and metabolite monitoring in the pre-clinical/clinical laboratory. PMID:24327551

  7. A PLS-based extractive spectrophotometric method for simultaneous determination of carbamazepine and carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide in plasma and comparison with HPLC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemmateenejad, Bahram; Rezaei, Zahra; Khabnadideh, Soghra; Saffari, Maryam

    2007-11-01

    Carbamazepine (CBZ) undergoes enzyme biotransformation through epoxidation with the formation of its metabolite, carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide (CBZE). A simple chemometrics-assisted spectrophotometric method has been proposed for simultaneous determination of CBZ and CBZE in plasma. A liquid extraction procedure was operated to separate the analytes from plasma, and the UV absorbance spectra of the resultant solutions were subjected to partial least squares (PLS) regression. The optimum number of PLS latent variables was selected according to the PRESS values of leave-one-out cross-validation. A HPLC method was also employed for comparison. The respective mean recoveries for analysis of CBZ and CBZE in synthetic mixtures were 102.57 (±0.25)% and 103.00 (±0.09)% for PLS and 99.40 (±0.15)% and 102.20 (±0.02)%. The concentrations of CBZ and CBZE were also determined in five patients using the PLS and HPLC methods. The results showed that the data obtained by PLS were comparable with those obtained by HPLC method.

  8. Comorbidity of 9/11-related PTSD and depression in the World Trade Center Health Registry 10-11 years postdisaster.

    PubMed

    Caramanica, Kimberly; Brackbill, Robert M; Liao, Tim; Stellman, Steven D

    2014-12-01

    Many studies report elevated prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression among persons exposed to the September 11, 2001 (9/11) disaster compared to those unexposed; few have evaluated long-term PTSD with comorbid depression. We examined prevalence and risk factors for probable PTSD, probable depression, and both conditions 10-11 years post-9/11 among 29,486 World Trade Center Health Registry enrollees who completed surveys at Wave 1 (2003-2004), Wave 2 (2006-2007), and Wave 3 (2011-2012). Enrollees reporting physician diagnosed pre-9/11 PTSD or depression were excluded. PTSD was defined as scoring ≥ 44 on the PTSD Checklist and depression as scoring ≥ 10 on the 8-item Patient Health Questionnaire. We examined 4 groups: comorbid PTSD and depression, PTSD only, depression only, and neither. Among enrollees, 15.2% reported symptoms indicative of PTSD at Wave 3, 14.9% of depression, and 10.1% of both. Comorbid PTSD and depression was associated with high 9/11 exposures, low social integration, health-related unemployment, and experiencing ≥ 1 traumatic life event post-9/11. Comorbid persons experienced poorer outcomes on all PTSD-related impairment measures, life satisfaction, overall health, and unmet mental health care need compared to those with only a single condition. These findings highlight the importance of ongoing screening and treatment for both conditions, particularly among those at risk for mental health comorbidity. PMID:25470556

  9. Solution structure of the origin DNA-binding domain of SV40 T-antigen.

    PubMed

    Luo, X; Sanford, D G; Bullock, P A; Bachovchin, W W

    1996-12-01

    The structure of the domain from simian virus 40 (SV40) large T-antigen that binds to the SV40 origin of DNA replication (T-ag-OBD131-260) has been determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The overall fold, consisting of a central five-stranded antiparallel beta-sheet flanked by two alpha-helices on one side and one alpha-helix and one 3(10)-helix on the other, is a new one. Previous mutational analyses have identified two elements, termed A (approximately 152-155) and B2 (203-207), as essential for origin-specific recognition. These elements form two closely juxtaposed loops that define a continuous surface on the protein. The addition of a duplex oligonucleotide containing the origin recognition pentanucleotide GAGGC induces chemical shift changes and slows amide proton exchange in resonances from this region, indicating that this surface directly contacts the DNA. PMID:8946857

  10. Interpretation of a carbonate reservoir using P-P and P-SV seismic data

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.L.M.; Stewart, R.R.; Lawton, D.C.; Harrison, M.P.; Szata, K.J.

    1994-12-31

    Two orthogonal three-component seismic lines were acquired by Unocal Canada Ltd., in January, 1987, over the Nisku Lousana Field in central Alberta. The purpose of the survey was to investigate a Late Devonian Nisku patch reef though to be separated from the Nisku shelf to the east by an anhydrite basin. The data are of good quality and major events were correlated between P-P and P-SV sections of both lines using offset synthetic seismograms. Interpretation of P-P and P-SV sections show time interval, V{sub p}/V{sub s}, and amplitude variations in the zone of interest. A change in lithology from anhydrite to dolomite, increased porosity, and small quantities of gas could be contributing to the observed decrease in V{sub p}/V{sub s} in an interval containing the reservoir.

  11. Sequence independent duplex DNA opening reaction catalysed by SV40 large tumor antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Scheffner, M; Wessel, R; Stahl, H

    1989-01-01

    Simian virus 40 (SV40) large tumor antigen (T antigen) is mainly localized in the nucleus where it exhibits two biochemical properties: DNA binding and helicase activity. Both activities are necessary for viral DNA replication and may also enable T antigen to modulate cellular growth. Here we present biochemical and electron microscopic evidence that the helicase activity can start at internal sites of fully double-stranded DNA molecules not containing the SV40 origin or replication. Using T antigen specific monoclonal antibodies, this unwinding reaction can be biochemically divided in an initiation (duplex opening) and a propagation step. The duplex opening reaction (as well as the propagation step) does not depend on a specific DNA sequence or secondary structure. In addition, we have found that T antigen forms an ATP dependent nucleoprotein complex at double-stranded DNA, which may be an essential step for the sequence independent duplex DNA opening reaction. Images PMID:2536153

  12. Identification of FAM111A as an SV40 Host Range Restriction and Adenovirus Helper Factor

    PubMed Central

    Padi, Megha; Korkhin, Anna; James, Robert L.; Adelmant, Guillaume; Yoon, Rosa; Guo, Luxuan; Berrios, Christian; Zhang, Ying; Calderwood, Michael A.; Velmurgan, Soundarapandian; Cheng, Jingwei; Marto, Jarrod A.; Hill, David E.; Cusick, Michael E.; Vidal, Marc; Florens, Laurence; Washburn, Michael P.; Litovchick, Larisa; DeCaprio, James A.

    2012-01-01

    The small genome of polyomaviruses encodes a limited number of proteins that are highly dependent on interactions with host cell proteins for efficient viral replication. The SV40 large T antigen (LT) contains several discrete functional domains including the LXCXE or RB-binding motif, the DNA binding and helicase domains that contribute to the viral life cycle. In addition, the LT C-terminal region contains the host range and adenovirus helper functions required for lytic infection in certain restrictive cell types. To understand how LT affects the host cell to facilitate viral replication, we expressed full-length or functional domains of LT in cells, identified interacting host proteins and carried out expression profiling. LT perturbed the expression of p53 target genes and subsets of cell-cycle dependent genes regulated by the DREAM and the B-Myb-MuvB complexes. Affinity purification of LT followed by mass spectrometry revealed a specific interaction between the LT C-terminal region and FAM111A, a previously uncharacterized protein. Depletion of FAM111A recapitulated the effects of heterologous expression of the LT C-terminal region, including increased viral gene expression and lytic infection of SV40 host range mutants and adenovirus replication in restrictive cells. FAM111A functions as a host range restriction factor that is specifically targeted by SV40 LT. PMID:23093934

  13. A safety-modified SV40 Tag developed for human cancer immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Tseng-Rogenski, Stephanie S; Arredouani, Mohamed S; Escara-Wilke, June F; Neeley, Yilin C; Imperiale, Michael J; Sanda, Martin G

    2008-01-01

    Simian virus 40 (SV40)-like DNA sequences have been found in a variety of human tumors, raising the possibility that strategies targeting SV40 may provide a potential avenue for immunotherapy directed against SV40 large T Antigen (Tag)-expressing tumors. We generated a recombinant vaccinia (vac-mTag) expressing mTag and herein assessed the ability of mTag to transform cells and to interact with anti-oncoproteins, as well as screened for the presence of potential HLA-A2.1-restricted epitopes within mTag. We found that transfection of cells with mTag did not lead to their transformation. Also, we demonstrated that mTag protein is degraded rapidly in cells. In addition, our work revealed that mTag did not physically interact with certain anti-oncoproteins. Finally, two potential HLA-A2.1-restricted functional epitopes within mTag sequence were identified. Our results show that mTag lacks the oncogenecity of full-length Tag and harbors potential HLA-A2.1-restricted immunogenic epitopes, hence suggesting the safety of vac-mTag for use in cancer immunotherapy. PMID:19920890

  14. SV40 Pseudovirion Gene Delivery of a Toxin to Treat Human Adenocarcinomas in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kimchi-Sarfaty, Chava; Vieira, Wilfred D.; Dodds, Danika; Sherman, Andrew; Kreitman, Robert J.; Shinar, Shiri; Gottesman, Michael M.

    2006-01-01

    SV40 vectors packaged in vitro (pseudovirions) are an efficient delivery system for plasmids up to 17.7 kb, with or without SV40 sequences. A truncated Pseudomonas exotoxin gene (PE38) was delivered into various human cells (HeLa, KB-3-1, human lymphoblastoids, and erythroleukemia cells) in vitro using pseudovirions. The number of viable cells was reduced significantly in the PE38-transduced cells. Human KB adenocarcinomas growing in mice were treated with intratumoral injection of PE38 packaged in vitro and tumor size decreased significantly. Intraperitoneal treatments were as effective in reducing tumor size as intratumoral treatments. To check the viability of mock- or PE38-treated mice, every four days they were weighed, their blood was tested, and various tissues were screened for pathology. All parameters showed that the in vitro-packaged vectors, injected into tumors or intraperitoneally, caused no abnormalities in mice. The combined treatment of doxorubicin with in vitro-packaged PE38 reduced tumor size only slightly more than each of the treatments separately. However, the combined treatment did not cause the weight loss seen with doxorubicin alone. These results indicate that SV40 in vitro packaging is an effective system for cancer gene delivery using two different routes of injection and in combination with chemotherapy. PMID:16498428

  15. Identification of FAM111A as an SV40 host range restriction and adenovirus helper factor.

    PubMed

    Fine, Debrah A; Rozenblatt-Rosen, Orit; Padi, Megha; Korkhin, Anna; James, Robert L; Adelmant, Guillaume; Yoon, Rosa; Guo, Luxuan; Berrios, Christian; Zhang, Ying; Calderwood, Michael A; Velmurgan, Soundarapandian; Cheng, Jingwei; Marto, Jarrod A; Hill, David E; Cusick, Michael E; Vidal, Marc; Florens, Laurence; Washburn, Michael P; Litovchick, Larisa; DeCaprio, James A

    2012-01-01

    The small genome of polyomaviruses encodes a limited number of proteins that are highly dependent on interactions with host cell proteins for efficient viral replication. The SV40 large T antigen (LT) contains several discrete functional domains including the LXCXE or RB-binding motif, the DNA binding and helicase domains that contribute to the viral life cycle. In addition, the LT C-terminal region contains the host range and adenovirus helper functions required for lytic infection in certain restrictive cell types. To understand how LT affects the host cell to facilitate viral replication, we expressed full-length or functional domains of LT in cells, identified interacting host proteins and carried out expression profiling. LT perturbed the expression of p53 target genes and subsets of cell-cycle dependent genes regulated by the DREAM and the B-Myb-MuvB complexes. Affinity purification of LT followed by mass spectrometry revealed a specific interaction between the LT C-terminal region and FAM111A, a previously uncharacterized protein. Depletion of FAM111A recapitulated the effects of heterologous expression of the LT C-terminal region, including increased viral gene expression and lytic infection of SV40 host range mutants and adenovirus replication in restrictive cells. FAM111A functions as a host range restriction factor that is specifically targeted by SV40 LT. PMID:23093934

  16. SV40 late protein VP4 forms toroidal pores to disrupt membranes for viral release.

    PubMed

    Raghava, Smita; Giorda, Kristina M; Romano, Fabian B; Heuck, Alejandro P; Hebert, Daniel N

    2013-06-01

    Nonenveloped viruses are generally released from the cell by the timely lysis of host cell membranes. SV40 has been used as a model virus for the study of the lytic nonenveloped virus life cycle. The expression of SV40 VP4 at later times during infection is concomitant with cell lysis. To investigate the role of VP4 in viral release and its mechanism of action, VP4 was expressed and purified from bacteria as a fusion protein for use in membrane disruption assays. Purified VP4 perforated membranes as demonstrated by the release of fluorescent markers encapsulated within large unilamellar vesicles or liposomes. Dynamic light scattering results revealed that VP4 treatment did not cause membrane lysis or change the size of the liposomes. Liposomes encapsulated with 4,4-difluoro-5,7-dimethyl-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-3-indacene-labeled streptavidin were used to show that VP4 formed stable pores in membranes. These VP4 pores had an inner diameter of 1-5 nm. Asymmetrical liposomes containing pyrene-labeled lipids in the outer monolayer were employed to monitor transbilayer lipid diffusion. Consistent with VP4 forming toroidal pore structures in membranes, VP4 induced transbilayer lipid diffusion or lipid flip-flop. Altogether, these studies support a central role for VP4 acting as a viroporin in the disruption of cellular membranes to trigger SV40 viral release by forming toroidal pores that unite the outer and inner leaflets of membrane bilayers. PMID:23651212

  17. Comparison of P-, SV- and SH-wave velocity models below Japan and northeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawakatsu, H.; Schardong, L.; Takeuchi, N.; Tanaka, S.; Obayashi, M.; Chen, Y. J.; Ning, J.; Niu, F.; Grand, S. P.; Ni, J.

    2013-12-01

    The recent deployment of the NECESSArray seismic network in northeast China has allowed new insights on the velocity structure of this formerly poorly resolved area. This experiment has brought new data to debate about the geodynamical context in this region (stagnant slab, origin of intraplate volcanism, etc...). We use an efficient method for the measurement of travel time residuals by cross-correlating observed and synthetic waveforms. Synthetic seismograms are convolved with high-frequency source-time functions inverted along with focal depths, following a simulated annealing approach. Thus, resulting modeled waveforms take more accurately account for the source effects. The method is used to perform measurements on direct P, SV and SH phases extracted from, respectively, vertical, radial and transverse band-pass-filtered records from NECESSArray and F-NET seismological networks. We finally invert the resulting datasets in order to obtain P-, SV- and SH-wave velocity models. To do so, we use a fast and efficient inversion method using ray theory. Observed structures in the three tomographic models show a very good geographical coherency. Nevertheless, some differences are observed below Songliao basin and Changbaishan volcano between P and SV models and SH model. By measuring velocity ratios, we discuss anisotropy and thermal/compositional origin of these velocity anomalies.

  18. Assessment of immunological competence and SV40 specific recall immunity in malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Jasani, Bharat; Coleman, Sharon; Butchart, Eric; Evans, Eve M-L; Adams, Malcolm; Mason, Malcolm; Gibbs, Allen; Tabi, Zsuzsanna

    2005-03-18

    Diffuse malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is the third most common lung malignancy showing rising incidence with 250,000 deaths expected from it in Western Europe over the next 35 year. The tumour is generally resistant to conventional treatment and there is urgent need for novel preventative and therapeutic measures to combat this growing public threat. Finding of SV40 DNA sequences in a high proportion (40-90%) of several series of MPM cases, and suggestion of its potential co-carcinogen role provide a rationale for the development of novel anti-MPM vaccines incorporating SV40 gene sequences or antigenic determinants. As a prelude to adopting this approach, general T cell function was examined in relatively early cases of MPM presenting for biopsy or debulking surgery. CD8+ T cell responses were studied using antigenic epitopes of common viral antigens covering a broad range of haplotypes. 74.1% (20/27) of MPM patients and 80% (8/10) of the control subjects showed T cell responsiveness to the viral peptides mix, whilst a small proportion showed SV40 specific recall immunity. PMID:15755635

  19. Immortalisation of human oesophageal epithelial cells by a recombinant SV40 adenovirus vector.

    PubMed Central

    Inokuchi, S.; Handa, H.; Imai, T.; Makuuchi, H.; Kidokoro, M.; Tohya, H.; Aizawa, S.; Shimamura, K.; Ueyama, Y.; Mitomi, T.

    1995-01-01

    We introduced the origin-defective SV40 early gene into cultured human oesophageal epithelial cells by infection of a recombinant SV40 adenovirus vector. The virus-infected cells formed colonies 3-4 weeks after infection in medium containing fetal calf serum. When the cells derived from 'serum-resistant' colonies were then maintained in the serum-free medium with a low calcium ion concentration, some of them passed the cell crisis and kept growing for over 12 months. These cells, regarded as immortalised cells, resembled the primarily cultured oesophageal epithelial cells in morphology and had some of their original characteristics. Treatment of the cells with a high calcium concentration induced phenotypic changes. These cells still responded to transforming growth factor beta. When the immortalised cells were injected into severe combined immunodeficient mice, they transiently formed epithelial cysts, although the typical differentiation pattern of the oesophageal epithelium was not observed. These cysts regressed within 2 months without development into tumours. The results indicated that human oesophageal epithelial cells were reproducibly immortalised by infection with a recombinant SV40 adenovirus vector at relatively high efficiency. The immortalised cells should be useful in studies on oesophageal carcinogenesis and in assessing the cooperative effects with other oncogene products or carcinogens. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:7536023

  20. Preliminary report on the July 10-11, 2015 eruption at Volcán de Colima: Pyroclastic density currents with exceptional runouts and volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capra, L.; Macías, J. L.; Cortés, A.; Dávila, N.; Saucedo, R.; Osorio-Ocampo, S.; Arce, J. L.; Gavilanes-Ruiz, J. C.; Corona-Chávez, P.; García-Sánchez, L.; Sosa-Ceballos, G.; Vázquez, R.

    2016-01-01

    On July 10-11, 2015 an eruption occurred at Colima volcano produced 10.5 km long pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) along the Montegrande, and 6.5 km long along the San Antonio ravines. The summit dome was destroyed and a new crater excavated and breached to the south. This new breach connects to a narrow channel that descends along Colima's southern flank and was used by a subsequent lava flow. The Montegrande PDCs represent the longest and hottest flow of this type recorded during the past 30 years but are still smaller in comparison to the 15-km long PDCs produced during the 1913 Plinian eruption. Data obtained from field reconnaissance, lahar monitoring stations, and satellite imagery suggest that at least six PDCs occurred. The two largest PDCs (H/L 0.2) were able to surmount topographic barriers or bends. Based on field reconnaissance and digital elevation models extracted from SPOT satellite imageries we estimate a minimum volume for the valley-pond and distal fan deposits of 4.5 × 106 m3. After one week, the deposits were still hot with burning trees on the surface and millimeter-sized holes from which fumes were emanating. The juvenile components of the deposits consist of gray dense blocks and vesicular dark-gray blocks and bombs with bread-crust textures and cooling joints. The mineral association of these rocks consists of plagioclase + clinopyroxene + orthopyroxene + FeTi-oxides ± olivine and resorbed hornblende in a dark glassy matrix that corresponds to an andesitic composition.

  1. SCN1A and SCN1B gene polymorphisms and their association with plasma concentrations of carbamazepine and carbamazepine 10, 11 epoxide in Iranian epileptic patients

    PubMed Central

    Namazi, Soha; Azarpira, Negar; Javidnia, Katayoon; Emami, Mehrdad; Rahjoo, Rahimeh; Berahmand, Razieh; Borhani-Haghighi, Afshin

    2015-01-01

    Objective (s): From a genetic point of view, epilepsy is a polygenic multifactorial syndrome. The SCN1A and B genes belong to a family of genes that provide instructions for making sodium channels. Understanding the relevance of SCN1A and SCN1B gene polymorphisms to plasma concentration of carbamazepine (CBZ) and ’its active metabolite carbamazepine 10, 11 epoxide (CBZE), may shed more light on inter-individual variations in response to CBZ. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, genotype distribution and allele frequency of six non-synonymous exonic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the SCN1A and B genes were selected and determined using PCR-RFLP in 70 epileptic patients treated with CBZ for at least 6 months. The patients had no hepatic or renal diseases and received no medications known to have a major interaction with CBZ. Serum concentrations of CBZ and CBZE were measured using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Results: The AA, AG and GG alleles of SCN1A were found in 23, 37 and 10 patients, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences in the mean (± standard deviation) of plasma concentrations of CBZ (P=0.8) and CBZE (P=0.1) among these 3 groups. Likewise, there was no statistically significant relationship between SCN1A polymorphisms and CBZ concentration/dose ratio (P=0.7). A significant association was found between CBZ plasma level and CBZ concentration/dose with CBZ daily dose. All patients had the same genotype of SCN1B gene(CC). and no statistical analysis was performed. Conclusion: No significant association between SCN1A gene polymorphisms and plasma levels of CBZ and CBZE were found[u1]. PMID:26877851

  2. High incidence of SV40-like sequences detection in tumour and peripheral blood cells of Japanese osteosarcoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, H; Nakayama, T; Murakami, H; Hosaka, T; Nakamata, T; Tsuboyama, T; Oka, M; Nakamura, T; Toguchida, J

    2000-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed the evidence for the significance of SV40 genome in human malignancies. In this paper, the presence of SV40-like sequences was investigated in 54 Japanese osteosarcomas in which mutations of the retinoblastoma (Rb), p53, MDM2, and CDK4 genes had been already analysed. Using polymerase chain reaction and Southern hybridization, SV40-like sequences were detected in 25 cases (46.3%). In most cases, only a part of SV40 genome was detected, and the regulatory region containing enhancer sequences was most frequently found (21/54, 38.9%). There was no apparent relationship between the presence of SV40-like sequences and tumour suppressor genes mutations in each tumour. The SV40-like sequences were also detected in peripheral blood cells of substantial proportion of the patients (43.3%), whereas the incidence was much lower (4.7%) in normal healthy controls. This difference is statistically highly significant (P< 0.0001), suggesting that the presence of SV40-like sequences, even if only a part, may play some roles to predispose individuals to osteosarcoma. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10817503

  3. The monetary value of the man-mSv for Korean NPP radiation workers assessed by the radiation aversion factor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byoung-il; Suh, Dong-hee; Kim, So-i; Jeong, Mi-seon; Lim, Young-khi

    2012-07-01

    The monetary value of the man-mSv for operators of Korean nuclear power plants (NPPs) was calculated using a radiation aversion factor based on a survey of NPP workers. Initially, the life expectancy in the population is 79.4 y, the average age of cancer occurrence is 60 y, the average annual wage for an electric worker is 56 000 $ y(-1) and the nominal risk coefficient induced by radiation is 4.2E(-5) mSv were used to evaluate the basic monetary value (α(base)) resulting in 45.6 $ mSv(-1). To investigate the degree of radiation aversion, the subject of the investigation was selected as the working radiation workers in 10 NPPs in Korea (Kori 1-2, Yeonggwang 1-3, Ulchin 1-3 and Wolseong 1-2). In August 2010, with the cooperation of KHNP and partner companies, a total of 2500 survey questionnaires to 10 NPPs (or 250 surveys to each NPP) were distributed to currently employed radiation workers. From these, 2157 responses were obtained between August and October 2010. The assessed radiation aversion factor and the monetary value of the man-mSv from the calculated radiation aversion factor were 1.26 and ∼50 $ in the 0-1 mSv range, 1.38 and ∼200 $ in the 1-5 mSv range, 1.52 and ∼1000 $ in the 5-10 mSv range, 1.65 and ∼4000 $ in the 10-20 mSv range and 1.74 and ∼8500 $ >20 mSv. PMID:22147927

  4. Water vapour masers in long-period variable stars. I. RX Bootis and SV Pegasi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winnberg, A.; Engels, D.; Brand, J.; Baldacci, L.; Walmsley, C. M.

    2008-05-01

    Context: Water vapour maser emission from late-type stars characterises them as asymptotic-giant-branch stars with oxygen-rich chemistry that are losing mass at a substantial rate. Further conclusions on the properties of the stars, however, are hampered by the strong variability of the emission. Aims: We wish to understand the reasons for the strong variability of H2O masers in circumstellar shells of late-type stars. In this paper we study RX Bootis and SV Pegasi as representatives of semiregular variable stars (SRVs). Methods: We monitored RX Boo and SV Peg in the 22-GHz maser line of water vapour with single-dish telescopes. The monitoring period covered two decades for RX Boo (1987-2007) and 12 years for SV Peg (1990-1995, 2000-2007). In addition, maps were obtained of RX Boo with the Very Large Array over several years. Results: We find that most of the emission in the circumstellar shell of RX Boo is located in an incomplete ring with an inner radius of 91 mas (15 AU). A velocity gradient is found in a NW-SE direction. The maser region can be modelled as a shell with a thickness of 22 AU, which is only partially filled. The gas crossing time is 16.5 years. The ring-like structure and the velocity gradient remained stable for at least 11 years, while the maser line profiles varied strongly. This suggests that the spatial asymmetry is not accidental, so that either the mass loss process or the maser excitation conditions in RX Boo are not spherically symmetric. The strong variability of the maser spectral features is mainly due to incoherent intensity fluctuations of maser emission spots, which have lifetimes of the order of 1 year. We found no correlation between the optical and the maser variability in either star. The variability properties of the SV Peg masers do not differ substantially from those of RX Boo. There were fewer spectral features present, and the range of variations was narrower. The maser was active on the >10-Jy level only 1990-1992 and

  5. "I'm on it 24/7 at the moment": A qualitative examination of multi-screen viewing behaviours among UK 10-11 year olds

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Screen-viewing has been associated with increased body mass, increased risk of metabolic syndrome and lower psychological well-being among children and adolescents. There is a shortage of information about the nature of contemporary screen-viewing amongst children especially given the rapid advances in screen-viewing equipment technology and their widespread availability. Anecdotal evidence suggests that large numbers of children embrace the multi-functionality of current devices to engage in multiple forms of screen-viewing at the same time. In this paper we used qualitative methods to assess the nature and extent of multiple forms of screen-viewing in UK children. Methods Focus groups were conducted with 10-11 year old children (n = 63) who were recruited from five primary schools in Bristol, UK. Topics included the types of screen-viewing in which the participants engaged; whether the participants ever engaged in more than one form of screen-viewing at any time and if so the nature of this multiple viewing; reasons for engaging in multi-screen-viewing; the room within the house where multi-screen-viewing took place and the reasons for selecting that room. All focus groups were transcribed verbatim, anonymised and thematically analysed. Results Multi-screen viewing was a common behaviour. Although multi-screen viewing often involved watching TV, TV viewing was often the background behaviour with attention focussed towards a laptop, handheld device or smart-phone. There were three main reasons for engaging in multi-screen viewing: 1) tempering impatience that was associated with a programme loading; 2) multi-screen facilitated filtering out unwanted content such as advertisements; and 3) multi-screen viewing was perceived to be enjoyable. Multi-screen viewing occurred either in the child's bedroom or in the main living area of the home. There was considerable variability in the level and timing of viewing and this appeared to be a function of whether

  6. Metal-dependent SV40 viruses containing inducible enhancers from the upstream region of metallothionein genes.

    PubMed Central

    Serfling, E; Lübbe, A; Dorsch-Häsler, K; Schaffner, W

    1985-01-01

    We have isolated SV40 recombinant viruses which are dependent on heavy metal ions for efficient propagation. They were obtained after-co-transfection of enhancerless SV40 DNA (the so-called enhancer trap) with sonicated DNA from the mouse metallothionein-I (mMT-I) or human metallothionein-IIA (hMT-IIA) upstream regions. To substitute for the SV40 enhancer, these viruses have incorporated a segment of the immediate upstream region of the metallothionein genes. Two recombinant viruses of the SVMT-I type carry segments of the mMT-I gene from positions -73 to -187 and -39 to -194 inverted with respect to their natural configuration. The overlapping segment contains two of the four metal-responsive elements involved in the induction of the mMT-I gene by heavy metal ions. The SVMT-II recombinant virus contains a segment of the hMT-IIA gene from position -39 to -366 which harbors the metal- and hormone-responsive elements of the hMT-IIA gene. Insertion of the mMT-I segment downstream of a rabbit beta-globin test gene enhances beta-globin transcription upon metal ion stimulation. This shows that the immediate upstream region of the mouse metalliothionein-I gene, when detached from its TATA box, can act as an inducible enhancer. It may be generally true that the enhancer/promoters of inducible genes are composed of several regulatory sequence elements which are interspersed with constitutive elements. The number and spatial arrangement of these elements probably determines the basal versus induced level of expression. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:2419129

  7. A mouse model for chronic lymphocytic leukemia based on expression of the SV40 large T antigen.

    PubMed

    ter Brugge, Petra J; Ta, Van B T; de Bruijn, Marjolein J W; Keijzers, Guido; Maas, Alex; van Gent, Dik C; Hendriks, Rudi W

    2009-07-01

    The simian virus 40 (SV40) T antigen is a potent oncogene able to transform many cell types and has been implicated in leukemia and lymphoma. In this report, we have achieved sporadic SV40 T-antigen expression in mature B cells in mice, by insertion of a SV40 T antigen gene in opposite transcriptional orientation in the immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy (H) chain locus between the D and J(H) segments. SV40 T-antigen expression appeared to result from retention of the targeted germline allele and concomitant antisense transcription of SV40 large T in mature B cells, leading to chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Although B-cell development was unperturbed in young mice, aging mice showed accumulation of a monoclonal B-cell population in which the targeted IgH allele was in germline configuration and the wild-type IgH allele had a productive V(D)J recombination. These leukemic B cells were IgD(low)CD5(+) and manifested nonrandom usage of V, D, and J segments. V(H) regions were either unmutated, with preferential usage of the VH11 family, or manifested extensive somatic hypermutation. Our findings provide an animal model for B-CLL and show that pathways activated by SV40 T antigen play important roles in the pathogenesis of B-CLL. PMID:19332766

  8. Characterization of endocrine cell lines immortalized by a temperature-sensitive mutant SV40.

    PubMed

    Chen, C L; Simmen, R C; Chou, J Y

    1991-01-01

    An ideal in vitro model for the study of endocrine functions would be one in which cells could propagate in culture and express their specialized functions. Most endocrine studies to date have relied on primary cell culture or on the use of tumor cell lines. This report describes the characterization of three endocrine cell lines immortalized by transfecting endocrine cells with a temperature-sensitive mutant SV40 virus. Rabbit endometrium (HRE-H9), human placenta (SPA209-10) and rat pituitary (RP) cells were immortalized by SV40 virus, a temperature-sensitive (ts) mutant in the A gene, which encodes the large tumor antigen that is required for the maintenance of transformation. The transformed phenotype of the SV40 tsA mutant-immortalized cell line can be reversed simply by a shift in temperature. At the permissive temperature (34 degrees C), all three types of cells exhibited a transformed phenotype, which is characterized by high cell density growth and by the overgrowth of nontransformed cell layers. However, at the non-permissive temperature (40 degrees C) these cells reverted to a non-transformed phenotype as demonstrated by a marked decrease in the overgrowth of nontransformed layers and by the expression of differentiated functions. At the non-permissive temperature (40 degrees C), the endometrial cell line was capable of synthesizing beta-endorphin, and it exhibited hormonally regulated expression of the transfected hybrid uteroferrin gene construct. The human placenta cell line was capable of secreting GnRH upon stimulation by cAMP, forskolin, theophyllin, PGE, catecholamine and Ca++ channel stimulators. Moreover, the rat pituitary cell line was capable of synthesizing and secreting growth hormone (GH) which was stimulated by GHRH and cAMP. The advantage of the temperature-sensitive cell lines is that a single cell line is the source of both the normal and transformed states; thus, studies are internally controlled. These results demonstrate that ts

  9. Metallic Bead Detection by Using Eddy-Current Probe with SV-GMR Sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, S.; Chomsuwan, K.; Hagino, T.; Iwahara, M.; Tian, H.

    2005-04-09

    The progress of the ECT probe with micro magnetic sensor becomes possible to apply to various applications. The detection of micro metallic bead used for electric packaging has been reported in this paper. We proposed micro ECT probes with meander coil as exciter and spin-valve giant magneto-resistance (SV-GMR) as receiver. Micro metallic bead(solder ball) with the diameter of 0.25 to 0.76 mm is used as a measuring object. We discuss the detection and alignment of metallic bead by using ECT technique.

  10. Sludge settleability detection using automated SV30 measurement and its application to a field WWTP.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y J; Choi, S J; Bae, H; Kim, C W

    2011-01-01

    The need for automation & measurement technologies to detect the process state has been a driving force in the development of various measurements at wastewater treatment plants. While the number of applications of automation & measurement technologies to the field is increasing, there have only been a few cases where they have been applied to the area of sludge settling. This is because it is not easy to develop an automated operation support system for the detection of sludge settleability due to its site-specific characteristics. To automate the human operator's daily test and diagnosis works on sludge settling, an on-line SV30 measurement was developed and an automated detection algorithm on settleability was developed that imitated heuristics to detect settleability faults. The automated SV30 measurement is based on automatic pumping with a predefined schedule, the image capture of the settling test with a digital camera, and an analysis of the images to detect the settled sludge height. A sludge settleability detection method was developed and its applicability was investigated by field application. PMID:22335120

  11. The Completion Agenda: A Call to Action. Summary Report from the November 10-11, 2010, Meeting of the American Association of Community Colleges Commissions and Board of Directors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPhail, Christine Johnson

    2011-01-01

    At its annual joint board and commission meeting (Washington, DC, November 10-11, 2010), American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) focused attention on college completion by presenting two panel discussions on the completion agenda, followed by breakout sessions in which participants were assigned to focus groups tasked with providing…

  12. Adult and Higher Education in the Contemporary World: Its Role in Cultural Literacy. Conference Proceedings of the Adult Higher Education Alliance Annual Conference (35th, Orlando, Florida, March 10-11, 2015)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elufiede, Oluwakemi, Ed.; Flynn, Bonnie, Ed.

    2015-01-01

    This document is Conference Proceedings Of The Adult Higher Education Alliance, 35th Annual Conference. The theme of the conference was Adult And Higher Education In The Contemporary World: Its Role In Cultural Literacy. Conference was March 10-11, 2015. The event was hosted by and held at the College Of Education And Human Performance, Morgridge…

  13. Epilepsy caused by an abnormal alternative splicing with dosage effect of the SV2A gene in a chicken model.

    PubMed

    Douaud, Marine; Feve, Katia; Pituello, Fabienne; Gourichon, David; Boitard, Simon; Leguern, Eric; Coquerelle, Gérard; Vieaud, Agathe; Batini, Cesira; Naquet, Robert; Vignal, Alain; Tixier-Boichard, Michèle; Pitel, Frédérique

    2011-01-01

    Photosensitive reflex epilepsy is caused by the combination of an individual's enhanced sensitivity with relevant light stimuli, such as stroboscopic lights or video games. This is the most common reflex epilepsy in humans; it is characterized by the photoparoxysmal response, which is an abnormal electroencephalographic reaction, and seizures triggered by intermittent light stimulation. Here, by using genetic mapping, sequencing and functional analyses, we report that a mutation in the acceptor site of the second intron of SV2A (the gene encoding synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2A) is causing photosensitive reflex epilepsy in a unique vertebrate model, the Fepi chicken strain, a spontaneous model where the neurological disorder is inherited as an autosomal recessive mutation. This mutation causes an aberrant splicing event and significantly reduces the level of SV2A mRNA in homozygous carriers. Levetiracetam, a second generation antiepileptic drug, is known to bind SV2A, and SV2A knock-out mice develop seizures soon after birth and usually die within three weeks. The Fepi chicken survives to adulthood and responds to levetiracetam, suggesting that the low-level expression of SV2A in these animals is sufficient to allow survival, but does not protect against seizures. Thus, the Fepi chicken model shows that the role of the SV2A pathway in the brain is conserved between birds and mammals, in spite of a large phylogenetic distance. The Fepi model appears particularly useful for further studies of physiopathology of reflex epilepsy, in comparison with induced models of epilepsy in rodents. Consequently, SV2A is a very attractive candidate gene for analysis in the context of both mono- and polygenic generalized epilepsies in humans. PMID:22046416

  14. Vulnerability to chronic subordination stress-induced depression-like disorders in adult 129SvEv male mice.

    PubMed

    Dadomo, Harold; Sanghez, Valentina; Di Cristo, Luisana; Lori, Andrea; Ceresini, Graziano; Malinge, Isabelle; Parmigiani, Stefano; Palanza, Paola; Sheardown, Malcolm; Bartolomucci, Alessandro

    2011-08-01

    Exposure to stressful life events is intimately linked with vulnerability to neuropsychiatric disorders such as major depression. Pre-clinical animal models offer an effective tool to disentangle the underlying molecular mechanisms. In particular, the 129SvEv strain is often used to develop transgenic mouse models but poorly characterized as far as behavior and neuroendocrine functions are concerned. Here we present a comprehensive characterization of 129SvEv male mice's vulnerability to social stress-induced depression-like disorders and physiological comorbidities. We employed a well characterized mouse model of chronic social stress based on social defeat and subordination. Subordinate 129SvEv mice showed body weight gain, hyperphagia, increased adipose fat pads weight and basal plasma corticosterone. Home cage phenotyping revealed a suppression of spontaneous locomotor activity and transient hyperthermia. Subordinate 129SvEv mice also showed marked fearfulness, anhedonic-like response toward a novel but palatable food, increased anxiety in the elevated plus maze and social avoidance of an unfamiliar male mouse. A direct measured effect of the stressfulness of the living environment, i.e. the amount of daily aggression received, predicted the degree of corticosterone level and locomotor activity but not of the other parameters. This is the first study validating a chronic subordination stress paradigm in 129SvEv male mice. Results demonstrated remarkable stress vulnerability and establish the validity to use this mouse strain as a model for depression-like disorders. PMID:21093519

  15. Age-related changes in the motricity of the inbred mice strains 129/sv and C57BL/6j.

    PubMed

    Serradj, Najet; Jamon, Marc

    2007-02-12

    The development of motor skills was studied at different stages in the life of the mouse, focusing on three key aspects of motor development: early rhythmic motor activities prior to the acquisition of quadruped locomotion, motor skills in young adults, and the effect of aging on motor skills. The age-related development pattern was analysed and compared in two strains of major importance for genomic studies (C57Bl6/j and 129/sv). Early rhythmic air-stepping activities by l-dopa injected mice showed similar overall development in both strains; differences were observed with greater beating frequency and less inter-limb coordination in 129/sv, suggesting that 129/sv had a different maturation process. Performance on the rotarod by young adult C57Bl6/j gradually improved between 1 and 3 months, but then declined with age; performance on the treadmill also declined with an age-related increase in fatigability. Overall performance by 129/sv mice was lower than C57Bl6/j, and the age-related pattern of change was different, with 129/sv having relatively stable performance over time. Inter-strain differences and their possible causes, in particular the role of dopaminergic pathways, are discussed together with repercussions affecting mutant phenotyping procedures. PMID:17126421

  16. Mitochondrial targeting by use of lipid nanocapsules loaded with SV30, an analogue of the small-molecule Bcl-2 inhibitor HA14-1.

    PubMed

    Weyland, M; Manero, F; Paillard, A; Grée, D; Viault, G; Jarnet, D; Menei, P; Juin, P; Chourpa, I; Benoit, J-P; Grée, R; Garcion, E

    2011-04-10

    Taking advantage from the development of SV30, a new analogue of the pro-apoptotic molecule HA14-1, the aim of this study was to functionally evaluate SV30 and to develop safe nanocarriers for its administration. By using an inversion phase process, 57nm organic solvent-free lipid nanocapsules loaded with SV30 (SV30-LNCs) were formulated. Biological performance of SV30 and SV30-LNCs were evaluated on F98 cells that express Bax and Bcl-2, through survival assays, HPLC, flow cytometry, confocal microscopy and spectral imaging. We observed that SV30 alone or in combination with paclitaxel, etoposide or beam radiation could trigger cell death in a similar fashion to HA14-1. Although partially blocked by Z-VAD-fmk, this effect was coincident to caspase-3 activation. Hence, we established that SV30-LNCs improved SV30 biological activity together with a potentiation of the mitochondrial membrane potential decrease. Interestingly, flow cytometry and confocal analysis indicated that SV30 itself conferred to LNCs improved mitochondrial targeting skills that may present a great interest toward the development of mitochondria targeted nanomedicines. PMID:21138749

  17. A Missense Mutation of the Gene Encoding Synaptic Vesicle Glycoprotein 2A (SV2A) Confers Seizure Susceptibility by Disrupting Amygdalar Synaptic GABA Release.

    PubMed

    Tokudome, Kentaro; Okumura, Takahiro; Terada, Ryo; Shimizu, Saki; Kunisawa, Naofumi; Mashimo, Tomoji; Serikawa, Tadao; Sasa, Masashi; Ohno, Yukihiro

    2016-01-01

    Synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2A (SV2A) is specifically expressed in the membranes of synaptic vesicles and modulates action potential-dependent neurotransmitter release. To explore the role of SV2A in the pathogenesis of epileptic disorders, we recently generated a novel rat model (Sv2a(L174Q) rat) carrying a missense mutation of the Sv2a gene and showed that the Sv2a(L174Q) rats were hypersensitive to kindling development (Tokudome et al., 2016). Here, we further conducted behavioral and neurochemical studies to clarify the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the seizure vulnerability in Sv2a(L174Q) rats. Sv2a(L174Q) rats were highly susceptible to pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures, yielding a significantly higher seizure scores and seizure incidence than the control animals. Brain mapping analysis of Fos expression, a biological marker of neural excitation, revealed that the seizure threshold level of PTZ region-specifically elevated Fos expression in the amygdala in Sv2a(L174Q) rats. In vivo microdialysis study showed that the Sv2a(L174Q) mutation preferentially reduced high K(+) (depolarization)-evoked GABA release, but not glutamate release, in the amygdala. In addition, specific control of GABA release by SV2A was supported by its predominant expression in GABAergic neurons, which were co-stained with antibodies against SV2A and glutamate decarboxylase 1. The present results suggest that dysfunction of SV2A by the missense mutation elevates seizure susceptibility in rats by preferentially disrupting synaptic GABA release in the amygdala, illustrating the crucial role of amygdalar SV2A-GABAergic system in epileptogenesis. PMID:27471467

  18. A Missense Mutation of the Gene Encoding Synaptic Vesicle Glycoprotein 2A (SV2A) Confers Seizure Susceptibility by Disrupting Amygdalar Synaptic GABA Release

    PubMed Central

    Tokudome, Kentaro; Okumura, Takahiro; Terada, Ryo; Shimizu, Saki; Kunisawa, Naofumi; Mashimo, Tomoji; Serikawa, Tadao; Sasa, Masashi; Ohno, Yukihiro

    2016-01-01

    Synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2A (SV2A) is specifically expressed in the membranes of synaptic vesicles and modulates action potential-dependent neurotransmitter release. To explore the role of SV2A in the pathogenesis of epileptic disorders, we recently generated a novel rat model (Sv2aL174Q rat) carrying a missense mutation of the Sv2a gene and showed that the Sv2aL174Q rats were hypersensitive to kindling development (Tokudome et al., 2016). Here, we further conducted behavioral and neurochemical studies to clarify the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the seizure vulnerability in Sv2aL174Q rats. Sv2aL174Q rats were highly susceptible to pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures, yielding a significantly higher seizure scores and seizure incidence than the control animals. Brain mapping analysis of Fos expression, a biological marker of neural excitation, revealed that the seizure threshold level of PTZ region-specifically elevated Fos expression in the amygdala in Sv2aL174Q rats. In vivo microdialysis study showed that the Sv2aL174Q mutation preferentially reduced high K+ (depolarization)-evoked GABA release, but not glutamate release, in the amygdala. In addition, specific control of GABA release by SV2A was supported by its predominant expression in GABAergic neurons, which were co-stained with antibodies against SV2A and glutamate decarboxylase 1. The present results suggest that dysfunction of SV2A by the missense mutation elevates seizure susceptibility in rats by preferentially disrupting synaptic GABA release in the amygdala, illustrating the crucial role of amygdalar SV2A-GABAergic system in epileptogenesis. PMID:27471467

  19. [GnRH analogues containing SV-40 virus T-antigen nuclear localization sequence].

    PubMed

    Burov, S V; Iablokova, T V; Dorosh, M Iu; Kriviziuk, E V; Efremov, A M; Orlov, S V

    2010-01-01

    To improve the efficiency of anticancer drugs due to their delivery to intracellular targets a set of GnRH analogues containing nuclear localization signal (NLS) of SV-40 virus large T-antigen have been synthesized. NLS was attached to the parent molecule via ε-amino group of D-Lysine in position 1 or 6 of peptide sequence using orthogonal protection strategy. The biological activity studies revealed that incorporation of NLS moiety significantly increases cytotoxic activity of palmitoyl-containing GnRH analogues in vitro. The influence of tested peptides on tumor cells does not accompanied by the destruction of cell membrane, as confirmed in experiments with normal fibroblasts, used as a control. PMID:21063449

  20. A phase I trial of retroviral BRCA1sv gene therapy in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Tait, D L; Obermiller, P S; Redlin-Frazier, S; Jensen, R A; Welcsh, P; Dann, J; King, M C; Johnson, D H; Holt, J T

    1997-11-01

    Gene transfer of BRCA1sv (a normal splice variant of BRCA1) into ovarian cancer cells produces growth inhibition in vitro and tumor suppression in nude mouse xenografts. As an initial step toward gene replacement therapy for ovarian cancer, we conducted a Phase I trial to assess the pharmacokinetics and toxicity of i.p. BRCA1sv retroviral vector therapy. Following placement of an indwelling Port-a-Cath in patients, a dose escalation study was performed of four daily i.p. infusions spanning doses from 3 to 300 ml (i.e., 10(10) viral particles) at half-log intervals (23 cycles in 12 patients). Gene transfer and expression were documented by PCR, Southern blot, reverse transcription-PCR, and nuclease protection assays. Pharmacokinetics were assessed by PCR and Southern blots detecting vector DNA, and toxicity was evaluated by clinical exam and fluid analysis. Three of 12 patients developed an acute sterile peritonitis, which spontaneously resolved within 48 h. Plasma and peritoneal antibodies to the retroviral envelope protein were detected only in patients treated with the highest dose levels but not in others, despite repeat dosing for an interval of up to 4 months. Eight patients showed stable disease for 4-16 weeks, and three patients showed tumor reduction with diminished miliary tumor implants at reoperation (two patients) and radiographic shrinkage of measurable disease (one patient). The vector-related complication of peritonitis was observed in three patients but resolved quickly as in preclinical mouse studies. Ovarian cancer may provide an important model for retroviral gene therapy studies due to vector stability, minimal antibody response, and access to tumor by i.p. therapy. PMID:9815585

  1. Morphine analgesic tolerance in 129P3/J and 129S6/SvEv mice

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, Camron D.; Roberts, Kristofer W.; Byun, Janet S.; Fanselow, Michael S.; Evans, Christopher J.

    2007-01-01

    Morphine analgesic tolerance is heritable in both humans and rodents, with some individuals and strains exhibiting little and others exhibiting robust tolerance. 129S6/SvEv and 129P3/J mice reportedly do not demonstrate tolerance to morphine analgesia. Using our laboratory's standard morphine tolerance regimen and a between-subjects design, tolerance developed in the hot plate and tail withdrawal assays as indicated by a change in analgesic efficacy following a morphine challenge dose. Furthermore, the non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 (dizocilipine) blocked morphine tolerance in 129S6/SvEv and CD-1 mice in the hot plate assay. As previously reported, when a within-subjects design and cumulative dosing was employed, no tolerance was observed in the 129P3/J strain. However, using the same morphine regimen and a between-subjects design, comparable tolerance developed between 129P3/J and C57BL/6J strains following a single challenge dose of morphine. Spontaneous hyperalgesia was observed in the tail withdrawal assay following chronic morphine in C57BL/6J, but not 129P3/J mice. Additionally, morphine-tolerant C57BL/6J mice, but not 129P3/J mice, exhibited a large increase in the frequency of tail flicks during the first second following the baseline nociceptive response which may facilitate detection of the response during the tolerant state. We conclude that the method of tolerance assessment affects the ability to detect tolerance and thus, may affect the degree and pattern of heritability of this trait and this could have implications for gene mapping studies. PMID:17196637

  2. Dynamic soil-tunnel interaction in layered half-space for incident P- and SV-waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Jia; Liang, Jianwen; Qin, Lin

    2015-09-01

    The dynamic soil-tunnel interaction is studied by the model of a rigid tunnel embedded in layered half-space, which is simplified as a single soil layer on elastic bedrock to the excitation of P- and SV-waves. The indirect boundary element method is used, combined with the Green's function of distributed loads acting on inclined lines. It is shown that the dynamic characteristics of soil-tunnel interaction in layered half-space are different much from that in homogeneous half-space, and that the mechanism of soil-tunnel interaction is also different much from that of soil-foundation-superstructure interaction. For oblique incidence, the tunnel response for in-plane incident SV-waves is completely different from that for incident SH-waves, while the tunnel response for vertically incident SV-wave is very similar to that of vertically incident SH-wave.

  3. Exploring the Interaction of SV2A with Racetams Using Homology Modelling, Molecular Dynamics and Site-Directed Mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joanna; Daniels, Veronique; Sands, Zara A.; Lebon, Florence; Shi, Jiye; Biggin, Philip C.

    2015-01-01

    The putative Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS) transporter, SV2A, is the target for levetiracetam (LEV), which is a successful anti-epileptic drug. Furthermore, SV2A knock out mice display a severe seizure phenotype and die after a few weeks. Despite this, the mode of action of LEV is not known at the molecular level. It would be extremely desirable to understand this more fully in order to aid the design of improved anti-epileptic compounds. Since there is no structure for SV2A, homology modelling can provide insight into the ligand-binding site. However, it is not a trivial process to build such models, since SV2A has low sequence identity to those MFS transporters whose structures are known. A further level of complexity is added by the fact that it is not known which conformational state of the receptor LEV binds to, as multiple conformational states have been inferred by tomography and ligand binding assays or indeed, if binding is exclusive to a single state. Here, we explore models of both the inward and outward facing conformational states of SV2A (according to the alternating access mechanism for MFS transporters). We use a sequence conservation analysis to help guide the homology modelling process and generate the models, which we assess further with Molecular Dynamics (MD). By comparing the MD results in conjunction with docking and simulation of a LEV-analogue used in radioligand binding assays, we were able to suggest further residues that line the binding pocket. These were confirmed experimentally. In particular, mutation of D670 leads to a complete loss of binding. The results shed light on the way LEV analogues may interact with SV2A and may help with the on-going design of improved anti-epileptic compounds. PMID:25692762

  4. Transgene-free human induced pluripotent stem cell line (HS5-SV.hiPS) generated from cesarean scar-derived fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Rungsiwiwut, Ruttachuk; Pavarajarn, Wipawee; Numchaisrika, Pranee; Virutamasen, Pramuan; Pruksananonda, Kamthorn

    2016-01-01

    Transgene-free human HS5-SV.hiPS line was generated from human cesarean scar-derived fibroblasts using temperature-sensitive Sendai virus vectors carrying Oct4, Sox2, cMyc and Klf4 exogenous transcriptional factors. The viral constructs were eliminated from HS5-SV.hiPS line through heat treatment. Transgene-free HS5-SV.hiPS cells expressed pluripotent associated transcription factors Oct4, Nanog, Sox2, Rex1 and surface markers SSEA-4, TRA-1-60 and OCT4. HS5-SV.hiPS cells formed embryoid bodies and differentiated into three embryonic germ layers in vivo. HS5-SV.hiPS cells maintained their normal karyotype (46, XX) after culture for extended period. HS5-SV.hiPS displayed the similar pattern of DNA fingerprinting to the parenteral scar-derived fibroblasts. PMID:27345776

  5. Chimeric SV40 virus-like particles induce specific cytotoxicity and protective immunity against influenza A virus without the need of adjuvants

    SciTech Connect

    Kawano, Masaaki; Morikawa, Katsuma; Suda, Tatsuya; Ohno, Naohito; Matsushita, Sho; Akatsuka, Toshitaka; Handa, Hiroshi; Matsui, Masanori

    2014-01-05

    Virus-like particles (VLPs) are a promising vaccine platform due to the safety and efficiency. However, it is still unclear whether polyomavirus-based VLPs are useful for this purpose. Here, we attempted to evaluate the potential of polyomavirus VLPs for the antiviral vaccine using simian virus 40 (SV40). We constructed chimeric SV40-VLPs carrying an HLA-A{sup ⁎}02:01-restricted, cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitope derived from influenza A virus. HLA-A{sup ⁎}02:01-transgenic mice were then immunized with the chimeric SV40-VLPs. The chimeric SV40-VLPs effectively induced influenza-specific CTLs and heterosubtypic protection against influenza A viruses without the need of adjuvants. Because DNase I treatment of the chimeric SV40-VLPs did not disrupt CTL induction, the intrinsic adjuvant property may not result from DNA contaminants in the VLP preparation. In addition, immunization with the chimeric SV40-VLPs generated long-lasting memory CTLs. We here propose that the chimeric SV40-VLPs harboring an epitope may be a promising CTL-based vaccine platform with self-adjuvant properties. - Highlights: • We constructed chimeric SV40-VLPs carrying an influenza virus-derived CTL epitope. • Chimeric SV40-VLPs induce influenza-specific CTLs in mice without adjuvants. • Chimeric SV40-VLPs induce heterosubtypic protection against influenza A viruses. • Chimeric SV40-VLPs induce long-lasting memory CTLs. • Chimeric SV40-VLPs is a promising vaccine platform with self-adjuvant properties.

  6. Oil Sands Characteristics and Time-Lapse and P-SV Seismic Steam Monitoring, Athabasca, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, A.; Nakayama, T.; Kashihara, K.; Skinner, L.; Kato, A.

    2008-12-01

    -injection. The differences of the seismic responses between the time-lapse seismic volumes can be quantitatively explained by P-wave velocity decrease of the oil sands layers due to steam-injection. In addition, the data suggests that a larger area would be influenced by pressure than temperature. We calculate several seismic attributes such as RMS values of amplitude difference, maximum cross correlations, and interval velocity differences. These attributes are integrated by using self-organization maps (SOM) and K-means methods. By this analysis, we are able to distinguish areas of steam chamber growth from transitional and non-affected areas. In addition, 3D P-SV converted-wave processing and analysis are applied on the second 3D data set (recorded with three-component digital sensor). Low Vp/Vs values in the P-SV volume show areas of steam chamber development, and high Vp/Vs values indicate transitional zones. Our analysis of both time-lapse 3D seismic and 3D P-SV data along with the rock physics model can be used to monitor qualitatively and quantitatively the rock property changes of the inter-well reservoir sands in the field.

  7. SvSXP: a Strongylus vulgaris antigen with potential for prepatent diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Strongyle parasites are ubiquitous in grazing horses. Strongylus vulgaris, the most pathogenic of the large strongyles, is known for its extensive migration in the mesenteric arterial system. The lifecycle of S. vulgaris is characterised by a long prepatent period where the migrating larvae are virtually undetectable as there currently is no test available for diagnosing prepatent S. vulgaris infection. Presence of S. vulgaris larvae in the arterial system causes endarteritis and thrombosis with a risk of non-strangulating intestinal infarctions. Emergence of anthelmintic resistance among cyathostomins has led to recommendations of reduced treatment intensity by targeting horses that exceed a predetermined strongyle faecal egg count threshold. One study suggests an apparent increase in prevalence of S. vulgaris on farms where reduced anthelmintic treatment intensity has been implemented. These issues highlight the need for an accurate and reliable assay for diagnosing prepatent S. vulgaris infection. Methods Immunoscreening of a larval S. vulgaris cDNA library using hyperimmune serum raised against S. vulgaris excretory/secretory antigens was performed to identify potential diagnostic antigens. Immunoreactive clones were sequenced, one potential antigen was characterised, expressed as a recombinant protein, initially evaluated by western blot (WB) analysis, the diagnostic potential of the IgG subclasses was evaluated by ELISA, and the diagnostic accuracy evaluated using serum from 102 horses with known S. vulgaris infection status. Results The clone expressing the potential antigen encoded a S. vulgaris SXP/RAL2 homologue. The recombinant protein, rSvSXP, was shown to be a potential diagnostic antigen by WB analysis, and a target of serum IgGa, IgG(T) and total IgG in naturally infected horses, with IgG(T) antibodies being the most reliable indicator of S. vulgaris infection in horses. Evaluation of diagnostic accuracy of the ELISA resulted in a

  8. Glycosylated SV2 and Gangliosides as Dual Receptors for Botulinum Neurotoxin Serotype F

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Zhuji; Chen, Chen; Barbieri, Joseph T.; Kim, Jung-Ja P.; Baldwin, Michael R.

    2010-02-22

    Botulinum neurotoxin causes rapid flaccid paralysis through the inhibition of acetylcholine release at the neuromuscular junction. The seven BoNT serotypes (A-G) have been proposed to bind motor neurons via ganglioside-protein dual receptors. To date, the structure-function properties of BoNT/F host receptor interactions have not been resolved. Here, we report the crystal structures of the receptor binding domains (HCR) of BoNT/A and BoNT/F and the characterization of the dual receptors for BoNT/F. The overall polypeptide fold of HCR/A is essentially identical to the receptor binding domain of the BoNT/A holotoxin, and the structure of HCR/F is very similar to that of HCR/A, except for two regions implicated in neuronal binding. Solid phase array analysis identified two HCR/F binding glycans: ganglioside GD1a and oligosaccharides containing an N-acetyllactosamine core. Using affinity chromatography, HCR/F bound native synaptic vesicle glycoproteins as part of a protein complex. Deglycosylation of glycoproteins using {alpha}(1-3,4)-fucosidase, endo-{beta}-galactosidase, and PNGase F disrupted the interaction with HCR/F, while the binding of HCR/B to its cognate receptor, synaptotagmin I, was unaffected. These data indicate that the HCR/F binds synaptic vesicle glycoproteins through the keratan sulfate moiety of SV2. The interaction of HCR/F with gangliosides was also investigated. HCR/F bound specifically to gangliosides that contain {alpha}2,3-linked sialic acid on the terminal galactose of a neutral saccharide core (binding order GT1b = GD1a GM3; no binding to GD1b and GM1a). Mutations within the putative ganglioside binding pocket of HCR/F decreased binding to gangliosides, synaptic vesicle protein complexes, and primary rat hippocampal neurons. Thus, BoNT/F neuronal discrimination involves the recognition of ganglioside and protein (glycosylated SV2) carbohydrate moieties, providing a structural basis for the high affinity and specificity of BoNT/F for neurons.

  9. Characterization of human vascular smooth muscle cells transformed by the early genetic region of SV40 virus.

    PubMed Central

    Legrand, A.; Greenspan, P.; Nagpal, M. L.; Nachtigal, S. A.; Nachtigal, M.

    1991-01-01

    Human arterial smooth muscle cells transfected with the plasmid pSV3-neo, which contains the SV40 virus early region and the neor gene, developed colonies of morphologically transformed cells. Five cell strains were initiated from these colonies and could be subcultivated for up to 9 months before entering a stage of crisis that ended their life span. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecules containing viral sequences were found free and integrated in the transformed cells. The intranuclear SV40 large T antigen and the p53 cellular protein were expressed in the transformed cells. Most of the transformed cells were spindle shaped but some were large and multinucleated. The modal chromosome numbers were in the triploid range, and aberrations, particularly dicentrics, were common. The transcripts for smooth muscle actins were significantly reduced and there were less alpha-actin filaments detected by immunofluorescence. Cytochemical staining disclosed a large accumulation of lipid droplets in the transformed cells incubated with rabbit hypercholesterolemic beta-very-low-density lipoprotein. Chemical analysis showed that cholesteryl esters were significantly elevated in these cells. Phenotypic changes induced in human vascular smooth muscle cells by SV40 early genes are similar to those found in smooth muscle cells from atherosclerotic lesions and may indicate common pathogenetic mechanisms. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:1653520

  10. Behaviour and prefrontal protein differences in C57BL/6N and 129 X1/SvJ mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaofan; Li, Qi; Wong, Naikei; Zhang, Min; Wang, Wei; Bu, Bitao; McAlonan, Grainne Mary

    2015-07-01

    Experimental animals provide valuable opportunities to establish aetiological mechanisms and test new treatments for neurodevelopmental psychiatric conditions. However, it is increasingly appreciated that inter-strain differences cannot be neglected in the experimental design. In addition, the importance of including females in preclinical - but also clinical - research is now recognised. Here, we compared behaviour and prefrontal protein differences in male and female C57BL/6N and 129X1/SvJ mice as both are commonly used experimental rodents. Relative to 129X1/SvJ mice, both sexes of C57BL/6N mice had weaker sensorimotor gating, measured in the prepulse inhibition (PPI) of startle paradigm, and were more sensitive to amphetamine challenge in the open field. The pattern of protein expression in the prefrontal cortex of C57BL6N mice was also clearly distinct from 129X1/SvJ mice. Proteins differentially expressed were those associated with oxidative metabolism, receptor protein signalling, cell communication and signal transduction and energy pathways. We suggest that the C57BL/6N mouse may usefully proxy features of the neurodevelopmental disorders and could have application in pre-translational screening of new therapeutic approaches. The 129X1/SvJ strain in contrast, might be better suited to experimental studies of causal risk factors expected to lower PPI and increase amphetamine sensitivity. PMID:26003851

  11. P-SV conversions at a shallow boundary beneath Campi Flegrei caldera (Italy) - evidence for the magma chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrucci, F.; Hirn, A.; De Natale, G.; Virieux, J.; Mirabile, L. Inst. de Physique du Globe, Paris Osservatorio Vesuviano, Naples CNRS, Inst. de Geodynamique, Valbonne Ist. Universitario Navale, Naples )

    1992-10-01

    Seismograms from an active seismic experiment carried out at Campi Flegrei caldera (near Naples, Italy), show a large-amplitude SV-polarized shear wave, following by less than 1.5-s P waves reflected at wide angle from a deep crustal interface. Early arriving SV-polarized waves, with the same delay to direct P waves, are also observed in seismograms from a regional 280 km-deep, magnitude 5.1 earthquake. Such short delays of S to P waves are consistent with a P-SV conversion on transmission occurring at a shallow boundary beneath the receivers. The large amplitude of the converted-SV phase, along with that the P waves are near vertical, requires a boundary separating a very low rigidity layer from the upper caldera fill. The converted phases are interpreted as a seismic marker of a magma chamber. The top of this magma chamber is located slightly deeper than the deepest earthquakes observed during the 1982-1984 unrest of Campi Flegrei. 8 refs.

  12. N-linked glycosylation of SV2 is required for binding and uptake of botulinum neurotoxin A.

    PubMed

    Yao, Guorui; Zhang, Sicai; Mahrhold, Stefan; Lam, Kwok-Ho; Stern, Daniel; Bagramyan, Karine; Perry, Kay; Kalkum, Markus; Rummel, Andreas; Dong, Min; Jin, Rongsheng

    2016-07-01

    Botulinum neurotoxin serotype A1 (BoNT/A1), a licensed drug widely used for medical and cosmetic applications, exerts its action by invading motoneurons. Here we report a 2.0-Å-resolution crystal structure of the BoNT/A1 receptor-binding domain in complex with its neuronal receptor, glycosylated human SV2C. We found that the neuronal tropism of BoNT/A1 requires recognition of both the peptide moiety and an N-linked glycan on SV2. This N-glycan-which is conserved in all SV2 isoforms across vertebrates-is essential for BoNT/A1 binding to neurons and for its potent neurotoxicity. The glycan-binding interface on SV2 is targeted by a human BoNT/A1-neutralizing antibody currently licensed as an antibotulism drug. Our studies reveal a new paradigm of host-pathogen interactions, in which pathogens exploit conserved host post-translational modifications, thereby achieving highly specific receptor binding while also tolerating genetic changes across multiple isoforms of receptors. PMID:27294781

  13. SV40-IMMORTALIZED NON-TUMORIGENIC AND TUMORIGENIC CELL LINES DIFFER IN EXPRESSION OF HALLMARK VIRAL RESPONSE MRNAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    SV40-Immortalized Non-Tumorigenic and Tumorigenic Cell Lines Differ in Expression of Hallmark Viral Response mRNAs.

    Prior to the use of an in vitra/in viva transformation system to examine the tumorigenic activity of environmental contaminants, in vitra gene expression pa...

  14. Gene expression promoted by the SV40 DNA targeting sequence and the hypoxia-responsive element under normoxia and hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Sacramento, C B; Moraes, J Z; Denapolis, P M A; Han, S W

    2010-08-01

    The main objective of the present study was to find suitable DNA-targeting sequences (DTS) for the construction of plasmid vectors to be used to treat ischemic diseases. The well-known Simian virus 40 nuclear DTS (SV40-DTS) and hypoxia-responsive element (HRE) sequences were used to construct plasmid vectors to express the human vascular endothelial growth factor gene (hVEGF). The rate of plasmid nuclear transport and consequent gene expression under normoxia (20% O2) and hypoxia (less than 5% O2) were determined. Plasmids containing the SV40-DTS or HRE sequences were constructed and used to transfect the A293T cell line (a human embryonic kidney cell line) in vitro and mouse skeletal muscle cells in vivo. Plasmid transport to the nucleus was monitored by real-time PCR, and the expression level of the hVEGF gene was measured by ELISA. The in vitro nuclear transport efficiency of the SV40-DTS plasmid was about 50% lower under hypoxia, while the HRE plasmid was about 50% higher under hypoxia. Quantitation of reporter gene expression in vitro and in vivo, under hypoxia and normoxia, confirmed that the SV40-DTS plasmid functioned better under normoxia, while the HRE plasmid was superior under hypoxia. These results indicate that the efficiency of gene expression by plasmids containing DNA binding sequences is affected by the concentration of oxygen in the medium. PMID:20640386

  15. Reliability and Validity Evaluation of the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL:SV) in Swedish Correctional and Forensic Psychiatric Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Kevin S.; Strand, Susanne; Belfrage, Henrik; Fransson, Goran; Levander, Sten

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluated the structural reliability, construct-related validity, and cultural validity generalization of the Hare Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL:SV) in a sample of more than 560 male and female Swedish forensic psychiatric treatment patients, forensic evaluation patients, and criminal offenders. Structural reliability…

  16. Examining the Utility of the PCL:SV as a Screening Measure Using Competing Factor Models of Psychopathy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guy, Laura S.; Douglas, Kevin S.

    2006-01-01

    The correspondence between the Hare Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL:SV; S. D. Hart, D. N. Cox, & R. D. Hare, 1995) and the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; R. D. Hare, 1991, 2003) was examined in forensic (N = 175) and correctional (N = 188) samples. Intermeasure correlations for Total scores (0.95 forensic, 0.94…

  17. Transformation of rabbit vascular smooth muscle cells by transfection with the early region of SV40 DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Nachtigal, M.; Legrand, A.; Nagpal, M. L.; Nachtigal, S. A.; Greenspan, P.

    1990-01-01

    Rabbit aortic smooth muscle cells (SMC) and Rb-1 cells, a continuous line of the same origin, were transformed by transfection with pSV3-neo DNA, a plasmid containing the SV40 early region linked to the neoR resistance gene. Transformed clones were selected in G418-containing medium at a rate of 10(-4) per cell. All transformed clones were immortalized and contained in the early passages two free recombined plasmids derived from pSV3-neo. At advanced passages pSV3-neo sequences were found integrated in the cellular genome. Transformed cells had an altered morphology and growth pattern that differed among clones. Some clones reached high density in low-serum medium. All the clones stained positively for the intranuclear T antigen. Some clones had distinct transcripts for the large T and small t antigens, while in others only larger or truncated transcripts were found. Alpha-actin filaments were visualized by immunofluorescent staining in all the clones, but Northern blot analysis revealed a significant reduction in transcripts for this actin. All the transformed clones accumulated, to a variable extent, cholesteryl esters after incubation with beta very low-density lipoprotein. Six of the eight transformed clones maintained a diploid chromosome number, but there was an increase in structural chromosome aberrations, predominantly dicentrics. Transfection of pSV3-neo into rabbit vascular SMCs is an efficient model for obtaining transformed clonal populations. These clones show some phenotypic changes that may be relevant to the study of atherogenesis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:2154928

  18. Effect of Trimethyltin Chloride on Slow Vacuolar (SV) Channels in Vacuoles from Red Beet (Beta vulgaris L.) Taproots

    PubMed Central

    Trela, Zenon; Burdach, Zbigniew; Siemieniuk, Agnieszka; Przestalski, Stanisław; Karcz, Waldemar

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, patch-clamp techniques have been used to investigate the effect of trimethyltin chloride (Met3SnCl) on the slow vacuolar (SV) channels in vacuoles from red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) taproots. Activity of SV channels has been measured in whole-vacuole and cytosolic side-out patch configurations. It was found that addition of trimethyltin chloride to the bath solution suppressed, in a concentration-dependent manner, SV currents in red beet vacuoles. The time constant, τ, increased significantly in the presence of the organotin. When single channel activity was analyzed, only little channel activity could be recorded at 100 μM Met3SnCl. Trimethyltin chloride added to the bath medium significantly decreased (by ca. threefold at 100 μM Met3SnCl and at 100 mV voltage, as compared to the control medium) the open probability of single channels. Single channel recordings obtained in the presence and absence of trimethyltin chloride showed that the organotin only slightly (by <10%) decreased the unitary conductance of single channels. It was also found that Met3SnCl significantly diminished the number of SV channel openings, whereas it did not change the opening times of the channels. Taking into account the above and the fact that under the here applied experimental conditions (pH = 7.5) Met3SnCl is a non-dissociated (more lipophilic) compound, we suggest that the suppression of SV currents observed in the presence of the organotin results probably from its hydrophobic properties allowing this compound to translocate near the selectivity filter of the channel. PMID:26317868

  19. The adaptation of limb kinematics to increasing walking speeds in freely moving mice 129/Sv and C57BL/6.

    PubMed

    Serradj, Nadjet; Jamon, Marc

    2009-07-19

    The kinematics of locomotion was analyzed in two strains of great importance for the creation of mutated mice (C56BL/6 and 129/Sv). Different behavioral situations were used to trigger sequences of movement covering the whole range of velocities in the mice, and the variations of kinematic parameters were analyzed in relation with velocity. Both stride frequency and stride length contributed to the moving speed, but stride frequency was found to be the main contributor to the speed increase. A trot-gallop transition was detected at speed about 70 cm/s, in relation with a sharp shift in limb coordination. The results of this study were consistent with pieces of information previously published concerning the gait analyses of other strains, and provided an integrative view of the basic motor pattern of mice. On the other hand some qualitative differences were found in the movement characteristics of the two strains. The stride frequency showed a higher contribution to speed in 129/Sv than in C57BL/6. In addition, 129/Sv showed a phase shift in the forelimb and hindlimb, and a different position of the foot during the stance time that revealed a different gait and body position during walking. Overall, 129/Sv moved at a slower speed than C57BL/6 in any behavioral situation. This difference was related to a basal lower level of motor activity. The possibility that an alteration in the dopamine circuit was responsible for the different movement pattern in 129/Sv is discussed. PMID:19428617

  20. Effect of capsid confinement on the chromatin organization of the SV40 minichromosome

    PubMed Central

    Saper, Gadiel; Kler, Stanislav; Asor, Roi; Oppenheim, Ariella; Raviv, Uri; Harries, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Using small-angle X-ray scattering, we determined the three-dimensional packing architecture of the minichromosome confined within the SV40 virus. In solution, the minichromosome, composed of closed circular dsDNA complexed in nucleosomes, was shown to be structurally similar to cellular chromatin. In contrast, we find a unique organization of the nanometrically encapsidated chromatin, whereby minichromosomal density is somewhat higher at the center of the capsid and decreases towards the walls. This organization is in excellent agreement with a coarse-grained computer model, accounting for tethered nucleosomal interactions under viral capsid confinement. With analogy to confined liquid crystals, but contrary to the solenoid structure of cellular chromatin, our simulations indicate that the nucleosomes within the capsid lack orientational order. Nucleosomes in the layer adjacent to the capsid wall, however, align with the boundary, thereby inducing a ‘molten droplet’ state of the chromatin. These findings indicate that nucleosomal interactions suffice to predict the genome organization in polyomavirus capsids and underscore the adaptable nature of the eukaryotic chromatin architecture to nanoscale confinement. PMID:23258701

  1. Identification of potential drug targets in Salmonella enterica sv. Typhimurium using metabolic modelling and experimental validation.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Hassan B; Fell, David A; Rossell, Sergio; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal; Woodward, Martin J; Thorndahl, Lotte; Jelsbak, Lotte; Olsen, John Elmerdahl; Raghunathan, Anu; Daefler, Simon; Poolman, Mark G

    2014-06-01

    Salmonella enterica sv. Typhimurium is an established model organism for Gram-negative, intracellular pathogens. Owing to the rapid spread of resistance to antibiotics among this group of pathogens, new approaches to identify suitable target proteins are required. Based on the genome sequence of S. Typhimurium and associated databases, a genome-scale metabolic model was constructed. Output was based on an experimental determination of the biomass of Salmonella when growing in glucose minimal medium. Linear programming was used to simulate variations in the energy demand while growing in glucose minimal medium. By grouping reactions with similar flux responses, a subnetwork of 34 reactions responding to this variation was identified (the catabolic core). This network was used to identify sets of one and two reactions that when removed from the genome-scale model interfered with energy and biomass generation. Eleven such sets were found to be essential for the production of biomass precursors. Experimental investigation of seven of these showed that knockouts of the associated genes resulted in attenuated growth for four pairs of reactions, whilst three single reactions were shown to be essential for growth. PMID:24777662

  2. RNA encapsidation by SV40-derived nanoparticles follows a rapid two-state mechanism.

    PubMed

    Kler, Stanislav; Asor, Roi; Li, Chenglei; Ginsburg, Avi; Harries, Daniel; Oppenheim, Ariella; Zlotnick, Adam; Raviv, Uri

    2012-05-30

    Remarkably, uniform virus-like particles self-assemble in a process that appears to follow a rapid kinetic mechanism. The mechanisms by which spherical viruses assemble from hundreds of capsid proteins around nucleic acid, however, are yet unresolved. Using time-resolved small-angle X-ray scattering (TR-SAXS), we have been able to directly visualize SV40 VP1 pentamers encapsidating short RNA molecules (500mers). This assembly process yields T = 1 icosahedral particles comprised of 12 pentamers and one RNA molecule. The reaction is nearly one-third complete within 35 ms, following a two-state kinetic process with no detectable intermediates. Theoretical analysis of kinetics, using a master equation, shows that the assembly process nucleates at the RNA and continues by a cascade of elongation reactions in which one VP1 pentamer is added at a time, with a rate of approximately 10(9) M(-1) s(-1). The reaction is highly robust and faster than the predicted diffusion limit. The emerging molecular mechanism, which appears to be general to viruses that assemble around nucleic acids, implicates long-ranged electrostatic interactions. The model proposes that the growing nucleo-protein complex acts as an electrostatic antenna that attracts other capsid subunits for the encapsidation process. PMID:22329660

  3. Effects of poloxamer 407-induced hyperlipidemia on the pharmacokinetics of carbamazepine and its 10,11-epoxide metabolite in rats: Impact of decreased expression of both CYP3A1/2 and microsomal epoxide hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Sun; Kim, Young Woo; Kim, Sang Geon; Lee, Inchul; Lee, Myung Gull; Kang, Hee Eun

    2012-06-01

    The pharmacokinetics of carbamazepine (CBZ) and its active 10,11-epoxide metabolite (CBZ-E) were evaluated after intravenous and oral administration of 5 mg/kg CBZ to rats with hyperlipidemia induced by poloxamer 407 (HL rats) and controls. The total area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) of CBZ in HL rats after intravenous administration was significantly greater than that in controls due to their slower non-renal clearance (CL(NR)). This was due to slower hepatic CL(int) for metabolism of CBZ to CBZ-E in HL rats via CYP3A1/2. This result was consistent with a previous study indicating reduced hepatic CYP3A1/2 expression in HL rats. Interestingly, the AUC of CBZ-E was also increased in HL rats, while AUC(CBZ-E)/AUC(CBZ) ratios remained unchanged. These results suggested that further metabolism of CBZ-E to the inactive metabolite trans-10,11-dihydoxyl-10,11-dihydro-CBZ (CBZ-D) via microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH) was also slowed in HL rats. The significantly reduced hepatic mRNA level and expression of mEH protein in HL rats compared to controls confirmed the above hypothesis. Similar pharmacokinetic changes were observed in HL rats after oral administration of CBZ. These findings have potential therapeutic implications assuming that the HL rat model qualitatively reflects similar changes in patients with hyperlipidemia. Caution is required regarding pharmacotherapy in the hyperlipidemic state in cases where drugs that are metabolized principally by CYP3A1/2 or mEH and have a narrow therapeutic range are in use. PMID:22137858

  4. Osmotically inducible uptake of betaine via amino acid transport system A in SV-3T3 cells.

    PubMed

    Petronini, P G; De Angelis, E; Borghetti, A F; Wheeler, K P

    1994-05-15

    The osmotically inducible uptake of betaine (NNN-trimethylglycine) by SV-3T3 cells has been studied and compared with the similar process in MDCK cells. Betaine uptake by SV-3T3 cells could be described in terms of a saturable, Na(+)-dependent, component plus a small non-saturable, Na(+)-independent, component. Transport was active, producing considerable accumulation of betaine in the cells. After exposure of the cells to hypertonic conditions for 6 h, there was a marked increase in betaine uptake. Kinetic analysis indicated that this increase resulted from an increase in the Vmax. value of the saturable component, from about 88 to 185 nmol of betaine/5 min per mg of protein, the corresponding Km values of about 15 and 10 mM not being significantly different. This induction of transport activity was detectable only after about 2 h exposure of the cells to hypertonic medium, closely paralleling an induction of influx of N-methylaminoisobutyric acid, and was prevented by the presence of cycloheximide. Betaine influx was markedly inhibited by several neutral amino acids, particularly those transported by system A, such as N-methylaminoisobutyric acid and the imino acid proline. A high concentration (25 mM) of betaine also significantly inhibited the uptake of proline by SV-3T3 cells. Although very similar results were obtained with MDCK cells, prolonged exposure of cells to hypertonic conditions revealed distinct differences. When the hypertonic incubation was extended from 6 h to 24 h, betaine transport in SV-3T3 cells either remained the same or decreased, whereas it showed a further marked increase in MDCK cells, and also became sensitive to inhibition by gamma-aminobutyric acid. mRNA for the betaine transporter BGT-1 [Yamauchi, Uchida, Kwon, Preston, Brooks Robey, Garcia-Perez, Burg and Handler (1992) J. Biol. Chem. 267, 649-652] was detectable in MDCK cells exposed to hypertonic medium for 24 h, but not in SV-3T3 cells under any conditions. It is concluded that

  5. 10 CFR 10.11 - Criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... terrorism. (2) Publicly or privately advocated actions that may be inimical to the interest of the United States, or publicly or privately advocated the use of force or violence to overthrow the Government of... any person who advocates the use of force or violence to overthrow the Government of the United...

  6. 10 CFR 10.11 - Criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... terrorism. (2) Publicly or privately advocated actions that may be inimical to the interest of the United States, or publicly or privately advocated the use of force or violence to overthrow the Government of... any person who advocates the use of force or violence to overthrow the Government of the United...

  7. 10 CFR 10.11 - Criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... abetted another who committed or attempted to commit any act of sabotage, espionage, treason, sedition, or..., seditionist, anarchist, terrorist, or revolutionist, or with an espionage agent or other secret agent...

  8. 10 CFR 10.11 - Criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... abetted another who committed or attempted to commit any act of sabotage, espionage, treason, sedition, or..., seditionist, anarchist, terrorist, or revolutionist, or with an espionage agent or other secret agent...

  9. 10 CFR 10.11 - Criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... relations.) (5) Deliberately misrepresented, falsified or omitted relevant and material facts from or in a... or administered by a physician licensed to dispense drugs in the practice of medicine,...

  10. The t(10;11)(p13;q14) in the U937 cell line results in the fusion of the AF10 gene and CALM, encoding a new member of the AP-3 clathrin assembly protein family.

    PubMed Central

    Dreyling, M H; Martinez-Climent, J A; Zheng, M; Mao, J; Rowley, J D; Bohlander, S K

    1996-01-01

    The translocation t(10;11)(p13;q14) is a recurring chromosomal abnormality that has been observed in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia as well as acute myeloid leukemia. We have recently reported that the monocytic cell line U937 has a t(10;11)(p13;q14) translocation. Using a combination of positional cloning and candidate gene approach, we cloned the breakpoint and were able to show that AF10 is fused to a novel gene that we named CALM (Clathrin Assembly Lymphoid Myeloid leukemia gene) located at 11q14. AF10, a putative transcription factor, had recently been cloned as one of the fusion partners of MLL. CALM has a very high homology in its N-terminal third to the murine ap-3 gene which is one of the clathrin assembly proteins. The N-terminal region of ap-3 has been shown to bind to clathrin and to have a high-affinity binding site for phosphoinositols. The identification of the CALM/AF10 fusion gene in the widely used U937 cell line will contribute to our understanding of the malignant phenotype of this line. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 PMID:8643484

  11. Structural Variation (SV) Markers in the Basidiomycete Volvariella volvacea and Their Application in the Construction of a Genetic Map.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Chen, Bingzhi; Zhang, Lei; Yan, Junjie; Lu, Yuanping; Zhang, Xiaoyin; Jiang, Yuji; Wu, Taju; van Peer, Arend Frans; Li, Shaojie; Xie, Baogui

    2015-01-01

    Molecular markers and genetic maps are useful tools in genetic studies. Novel molecular markers and their applications have been developed in recent years. With the recent advancements in sequencing technology, the genomic sequences of an increasingly great number of fungi have become available. A novel type of molecular marker was developed to construct the first reported linkage map of the edible and economically important basidiomycete Volvariella volvacea by using 104 structural variation (SV) markers that are based on the genomic sequences. Because of the special and simple life cycle in basidiomycete, SV markers can be effectively developed by genomic comparison and tested in single spore isolates (SSIs). This stable, convenient and rapidly developed marker may assist in the construction of genetic maps and facilitate genomic research for other species of fungi. PMID:26204838

  12. The carboxyl-terminal domain of large T antigen rescues SV40 host range activity in trans independent of acetylation.

    PubMed

    Poulin, Danielle L; DeCaprio, James A

    2006-05-25

    The host range activity of SV40 has been described as the inability of mutant viruses with deletions in the C terminal region of large T Ag to replicate in certain types of African green monkey kidney cells. We constructed new mutant viruses expressing truncated T Ag proteins and found that these mutant viruses exhibited the host range phenotype. The host range phenotype was independent of acetylation of T Ag at lysine 697. Co-expression of the C terminal domain of T Ag (aa 627-708) in trans increased both T Ag and VP1 mRNA as well as protein levels for host range mutant viruses in the restrictive cell type. In addition, the T Ag 627-708 fragment promoted the productive lytic infection of host range mutant viruses in the nonpermissive cell type. The carboxyl-terminal region of T Ag contains a biological function essential for the SV40 viral life cycle. PMID:16510165

  13. Reflection of P-Wave and Sv-Wave in a Generalized Two Temperature Thermoelastic Half-Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santra, S.; Lahiri, A.; Das, N. C.

    2014-11-01

    In this work the theory of two temperature generalized thermoelasticity has been used to investigate the problem of reflection of P-wave and SV-wave in a half space when the surface is i) thermally insulated or ii) isothermal. The ratios of the reflection coefficient to that of the incident coefficient for different cases are obtained for P-wave and SV-waves. The results for various cases for the conductive and dynamical temperature have been compared. The results arrived at in the absence of the thermal field (elastic case) have also been compared with those in the existing literature. Finally, the results for various cases have been analyzed and depicted in graphs.

  14. Structural Variation (SV) Markers in the Basidiomycete Volvariella volvacea and Their Application in the Construction of a Genetic Map

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Chen, Bingzhi; Zhang, Lei; Yan, Junjie; Lu, Yuanping; Zhang, Xiaoyin; Jiang, Yuji; Wu, Taju; van Peer, Arend Frans; Li, Shaojie; Xie, Baogui

    2015-01-01

    Molecular markers and genetic maps are useful tools in genetic studies. Novel molecular markers and their applications have been developed in recent years. With the recent advancements in sequencing technology, the genomic sequences of an increasingly great number of fungi have become available. A novel type of molecular marker was developed to construct the first reported linkage map of the edible and economically important basidiomycete Volvariella volvacea by using 104 structural variation (SV) markers that are based on the genomic sequences. Because of the special and simple life cycle in basidiomycete, SV markers can be effectively developed by genomic comparison and tested in single spore isolates (SSIs). This stable, convenient and rapidly developed marker may assist in the construction of genetic maps and facilitate genomic research for other species of fungi. PMID:26204838

  15. Brivaracetam: Rationale for discovery and preclinical profile of a selective SV2A ligand for epilepsy treatment.

    PubMed

    Klitgaard, Henrik; Matagne, Alain; Nicolas, Jean-Marie; Gillard, Michel; Lamberty, Yves; De Ryck, Marc; Kaminski, Rafal M; Leclercq, Karine; Niespodziany, Isabelle; Wolff, Christian; Wood, Martyn; Hannestad, Jonas; Kervyn, Sophie; Kenda, Benoit

    2016-04-01

    Despite availability of effective antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), many patients with epilepsy continue to experience refractory seizures and adverse events. Achievement of better seizure control and fewer side effects is key to improving quality of life. This review describes the rationale for the discovery and preclinical profile of brivaracetam (BRV), currently under regulatory review as adjunctive therapy for adults with partial-onset seizures. The discovery of BRV was triggered by the novel mechanism of action and atypical properties of levetiracetam (LEV) in preclinical seizure and epilepsy models. LEV is associated with several mechanisms that may contribute to its antiepileptic properties and adverse effect profile. Early findings observed a moderate affinity for a unique brain-specific LEV binding site (LBS) that correlated with anticonvulsant effects in animal models of epilepsy. This provided a promising molecular target and rationale for identifying selective, high-affinity ligands for LBS with potential for improved antiepileptic properties. The later discovery that synaptic vesicle protein 2A (SV2A) was the molecular correlate of LBS confirmed the novelty of the target. A drug discovery program resulted in the identification of anticonvulsants, comprising two distinct families of high-affinity SV2A ligands possessing different pharmacologic properties. Among these, BRV differed significantly from LEV by its selective, high affinity and differential interaction with SV2A as well as a higher lipophilicity, correlating with more potent and complete seizure suppression, as well as a more rapid brain penetration in preclinical models. Initial studies in animal models also revealed BRV had a greater antiepileptogenic potential than LEV. These properties of BRV highlight its promising potential as an AED that might provide broad-spectrum efficacy, associated with a promising tolerability profile and a fast onset of action. BRV represents the first selective SV2A

  16. The piggyBac Transposon-Mediated Expression of SV40 T Antigen Efficiently Immortalizes Mouse Embryonic Fibroblasts (MEFs)

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Jing; Zhang, Hongmei; Chen, Xiang; Li, Ruidong; Wu, Ningning; Chen, Xian; Wen, Sheng; Zhang, Junhui; Yin, Liangjun; Deng, Fang; Liao, Zhan; Zhang, Zhonglin; Zhang, Qian; Yan, Zhengjian; Liu, Wei; Ye, Jixing; Deng, Youlin; Wang, Zhongliang; Qiao, Min; Luu, Hue H.; Haydon, Rex C.; Shi, Lewis L.; Liang, Houjie; He, Tong-Chuan

    2014-01-01

    Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) are mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-like multipotent progenitor cells and can undergo self-renewal and differentiate into to multiple lineages, including bone, cartilage and adipose. Primary MEFs have limited life span in culture, which thus hampers MEFs’ basic research and translational applications. To overcome this challenge, we investigate if piggyBac transposon-mediated expression of SV40 T antigen can effectively immortalize mouse MEFs and that the immortalized MEFs can maintain long-term cell proliferation without compromising their multipotency. Using the piggyBac vector MPH86 which expresses SV40 T antigen flanked with flippase (FLP) recognition target (FRT) sites, we demonstrate that mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) can be efficiently immortalized. The immortalized MEFs (piMEFs) exhibit an enhanced proliferative activity and maintain long-term cell proliferation, which can be reversed by FLP recombinase. The piMEFs express most MEF markers and retain multipotency as they can differentiate into osteogenic, chondrogenic and adipogenic lineages upon BMP9 stimulation in vitro. Stem cell implantation studies indicate that piMEFs can form bone, cartilage and adipose tissues upon BMP9 stimulation, whereas FLP-mediated removal of SV40 T antigen diminishes the ability of piMEFs to differentiate into these lineages, possibly due to the reduced expansion of progenitor populations. Our results demonstrate that piggyBac transposon-mediated expression of SV40 T can effectively immortalize MEFs and that the reversibly immortalized piMEFs not only maintain long-term cell proliferation but also retain their multipotency. Thus, the high transposition efficiency and the potential footprint-free natures may render piggyBac transposition an effective and safe strategy to immortalize progenitor cells isolated from limited tissue supplies, which is essential for basic and translational studies. PMID:24845466

  17. Stable microsatellite length but frequent allele loss in SV40-immortalized Werner syndrome and control cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Brokks-Wilson, A.R.; Monnat, R.J. Jr.

    1994-09-01

    We have determined the mitotic stability of microsatellite alleles and allele lengths in SV40-immortalized Werner syndrome (WS) and control cell lines. The impetus for this work was presence of a mutator phenotype in WS cells and cell lines and the association between a DNA mismatch repair deficit and microsatellite length instability in a heritable human tumor syndrome. Thus the identification of microsatellite length instability in WS cells might provide a clue to the primary biochemical defect in WS and a partial explanation for the mutator phenotype and the elevated cancer risk of WS patients. Five microsatellite loci (D2S123, D10S197, D10S141, D8S255, and D8S87) were PCR genotyped in 88 independent clones derived from four SV40-immortalized fibroblast cell lines (two WS lines: WV1 and PSV811; and two control lines: GM637 and GM639). Stable allele lengths were transmitted from cell line to clones in every case. WS cell line WV1 contained a preexisting faint third D2S123 allele which was transmitted with the other two D2S123 alleles to a majority of WV1 clones. In contrast, microsatellite allele loss was common: complete absence of one of two alleles was seen in 30% of control and in 3% of WS clones. Complete allele loss likely results from a clonal population being derived from a cell lacking a microsatellite allele. Altered relative band intensities in clones compared to parental lines were very common in both WS and control backgrounds (40% of all clones). This suggests that allele loss is common and continues upon post-cloning cell culture. These allele losses are likely to be a consequence of the genetic instability that accompanies SV40 immortalization. These results indicate that SV40-immortalized cell lines are genetically heterogeneous, and that the genotypes of individual clones may incompletely represent the genomes of the primary cells from which they were derived.

  18. Evaluating Gaia performances on eclipsing binaries. IV. Orbits and stellar parameters for SV Cam, BS Dra and HP Dra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milone, E. F.; Munari, U.; Marrese, P. M.; Williams, M. D.; Zwitter, T.; Kallrath, J.; Tomov, T.

    2005-10-01

    This is the fourth in a series of papers that aim both to provide reasonable orbits for a number of eclipsing binaries and to evaluate the expected performance of Gaia of these objects and the accuracy that is achievable in the determination of such fundamental stellar parameters as mass and radius. In this paper, we attempt to derive the orbits and physical parameters for three eclipsing binaries in the mid-F to mid-G spectral range. As for previous papers, only the H_P, V_T, BT photometry from the Hipparcos/Tycho mission and ground-based radial velocities from spectroscopy in the region 8480-8740 Å are used in the analyses. These data sets simulate the photometric and spectroscopic data that are expected to be obtained by Gaia, the approved ESA Cornerstone mission to be launched in 2011. The systems targeted in this paper are SV Cam, BS Dra and HP Dra. SV Cam and BS Dra have been studied previously, allowing comparisons of the derived parameters with those from full scale and devoted ground-based investigations. HP Dra has no published orbital solution. SV Cam has a β Lyrae type light curve and the others have Algol-like light curves. SV Cam has the complication of light curve anomalies, usually attributed to spots; BS Dra has non-solar metallicity, and HP Dra appears to have a small eccentricity and a sizeable time derivative in the argument of the periastron. Thus all three provide interesting and different test cases.

  19. Interacting supernovae and supernova impostors. SN 2007sv: the major eruption of a massive star in UGC 5979

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tartaglia, L.; Pastorello, A.; Taubenberger, S.; Cappellaro, E.; Maund, J. R.; Benetti, S.; Boles, T.; Bufano, F.; Duszanowicz, G.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Harutyunyan, A.; Hermansson, L.; Höflich, P.; Maguire, K.; Navasardyan, H.; Smartt, S. J.; Taddia, F.; Turatto, M.

    2015-02-01

    We report the results of the photometric and spectroscopic monitoring campaign of the transient SN 2007sv. The observables are similar to those of Type IIn supernovae, a well-known class of objects whose ejecta interact with pre-existing circumstellar material (CSM). The spectra show a blue continuum at early phases and prominent Balmer lines in emission; however, the absolute magnitude at the discovery of SN 2007sv (MR = -14.25 ± 0.38) indicate it to be most likely a supernova impostor. This classification is also supported by the lack of evidence in the spectra of very high velocity material as expected in supernova ejecta. In addition, we find no unequivocal evidence of broad lines of α- and/or Fe-peak elements. The comparison with the absolute light curves of other interacting objects (including Type IIn supernovae) highlights the overall similarity with the prototypical impostor SN 1997bs. This supports our claim that SN 2007sv was not a genuine supernova, and was instead a supernova impostor, most likely similar to the major eruption of a luminous blue variable.

  20. Defective interleukin six expression and responsiveness in human mammary cells transformed by an adeno 5/SV40 hybrid virus.

    PubMed Central

    Basolo, F.; Fiore, L.; Calvo, S.; Falcone, V.; Conaldi, P. G.; Fontanini, G.; Caligo, A. M.; Merlo, G.; Gluzman, Y.; Toniolo, A.

    1996-01-01

    Mammary epithelial cells (MECs) were isolated and cultured from mammary glands of healthy women undergoing reduction mammoplasty. Normal MECs were infected with the transforming hybrid virus adeno-5/SV40. Two transformed epithelial cell lines, M1 and M2, were obtained, characterised phenotypically and studied for the production of and the response to cytokines and growth regulators. In both cell lines, expression of the SV40 large T antigen was associated with loss of interleukin 6 (IL-6) production and responsiveness as well as with down-regulation of IL-8 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-alpha production. Both M1 and M2 cell lines were capable of forming colonies in semisolid media, but upon injection into severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice only M2 cells were tumorigenic. DNA synthesis in M1 cells was partially inhibited by serum or TNF-alpha and weakly stimulated by hydrocortisone (HC) and IL-8. In contrast, M2 cells were totally unresponsive to a variety of growth regulators. Both lines overexpressed the p53 protein at levels about 20-fold higher than those observed in primary MEC cultures, but no mutations of the p53 gene could be detected. The date confirm the view that the expression in human mammary cells of different oncogenes - including the SV40 T antigen - is frequently associated with alterations of cytokine production and responsiveness. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8645579

  1. Targeted expression of SV40 T antigen in the hair follicle of transgenic mice produces an aberrant hair phenotype.

    PubMed

    Keough, R; Powell, B; Rogers, G

    1995-03-01

    Directed expression of SV40 large T antigen (TAg) in transgenic mice can induce tissue-specific tumorigenesis and useful cell lines exhibiting differentiated characteristics can be established from resultant tumor cells. In an attempt to produce an immortalised mouse hair follicle cortical cell line for the study of hair keratin gene control, SV40 TAg expression was targeted to the hair follicles of transgenic mice using a sheep hair gene promoter. Expression of SV40 TAg in the follicle cortex disrupted normal fiber ultrastructure, producing a marked phenotypic effect. Affected hairs were wavy or severely kinked (depending on the severity of the phenotype) producing an appearance ranging from a ruffled coat to a stubble covering the back of the mouse. The transgenic hairs appeared to be weakened at the base of the fibers, leading to premature hair-loss and a thinner pelage, or regions of temporary nudity. No follicle tumors or neoplasia were apparent and immortalisation of cortical cells could not be established in culture. In situ hybridisation studies in the hair follicle using histone H3 as a cell proliferation marker suggested that cell proliferation had ceased prior to commencement of K2.10-TAg expression and was not re-established in the differentiating cortical cells. Hence, TAg was unable to induce cell immortalisation at that stage of cortical cell differentiation. However, transgenic mice developed various other abnormalities including vertebral abnormalities and bladder, liver and intestinal tumors, which resulted in reduced life expectancy. PMID:7542671

  2. Kinetic limitations in measuring stabilities of metal complexes by competitive ligand exchange-adsorptive stripping voltammetry (CLE-AdSV).

    PubMed

    Van Leeuwen, Herman P; Town, Raewyn M

    2005-09-15

    The kinetic limitations of Competitive Ligand Exchange-Adsorptive Stripping Voltammetry, CLE-AdSV, for the determination of very stable metal complexes are explained in detail. For a given type of metal, from a certain lower limit of the complex stability constant, K, the usual simple equilibrium interpretation of CLE-AdSV measurements is not generally valid. By critical assessment of data for natural waters we show that in many cases the reported stability constants appearto derive from nonequilibrium conditions in the bulk sample and hence overestimate the real values. Fe(II) is a special case due to the particular kinetic features of hydroxide as a ligand. Our results call for validation of such data by analysis on the basis of the kinetics involved and/or by independent kinetic-free experimental approaches. Earlier speculations from CLE-AdSV results on very strong ligands and derived features such as the potential bioavailability of trace metals in natural waters require reconsideration. PMID:16201651

  3. Efficient Catalyst One-Pot Synthesis of 7-(Aryl)-10,10-dimethyl-10,11-dihydrochromeno[4,3-b]chromene-6,8(7H,9H)-dione Derivatives Complemented by Antibacterial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Al-Majedy, Yasameen K.; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H.; Mohamad, Abu Bakar

    2016-01-01

    The problem of bacteria resistance to many known agents has inspired scientists and researchers to discover novel efficient antibacterial drugs. Three rapid, clean, and highly efficient methods were developed for one-pot synthesis of 7-(aryl)-10,10-dimethyl-10,11-dihydrochromeno[4,3-b]chromene-6,8(7H,9H)-dione derivatives. Three components are condensed in the synthesis, 4-hydroxycoumarin, 5,5-dimethyl-1,3-cyclohexanedione, and aromatic aldehydes, using tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBAB), diammonium hydrogen phosphate (DAHP), or ferric chloride (FeCl3), respectively. Each method has different reaction mechanisms according to the catalyst. The present methods have advantages, including one-pot synthesis, excellent yields, short reaction times, and easy isolation of product. All catalysts utilized in our study could be reused several times without losing their catalytic efficiency. All synthesized compounds were fully characterized and evaluated for their antibacterial activity. PMID:27563671

  4. Measurements of developing teeth, and carpals and epiphyses of the ulna and radius for assessing new cut-offs at the age thresholds of 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14 years.

    PubMed

    Cameriere, R; De Luca, S; Cingolani, M; Ferrante, L

    2015-08-01

    The minimum age of criminal responsibility is the youngest age at which children may be held liable for infringements of penal laws. New cut-offs at the age thresholds of 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14 years were determined by applying three different methods: measurement of open apices in tooth roots (T); the ratio between the total area of carpal bones and epiphyses of the ulna and radius (HW); and the combined method (THW). The sample consisted of 291 Italian children (152 boys, 139 girls), aged between 5 and 15 years. The sensitivity and specificity were established. As regards THW, specificity reached the maximum of 95% in boys aged 10, and the minimum of 87% in boys aged 11. The best score of the Positive Predictive Value (PPV) was obtained in boys at 10 years with the THW method and the worst in girls of 12 with the HW method. PMID:26165659

  5. Efficient Catalyst One-Pot Synthesis of 7-(Aryl)-10,10-dimethyl-10,11-dihydrochromeno[4,3-b]chromene-6,8(7H,9H)-dione Derivatives Complemented by Antibacterial Activity.

    PubMed

    Al-Majedy, Yasameen K; Al-Amiery, Ahmed A; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H; Mohamad, Abu Bakar

    2016-01-01

    The problem of bacteria resistance to many known agents has inspired scientists and researchers to discover novel efficient antibacterial drugs. Three rapid, clean, and highly efficient methods were developed for one-pot synthesis of 7-(aryl)-10,10-dimethyl-10,11-dihydrochromeno[4,3-b]chromene-6,8(7H,9H)-dione derivatives. Three components are condensed in the synthesis, 4-hydroxycoumarin, 5,5-dimethyl-1,3-cyclohexanedione, and aromatic aldehydes, using tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBAB), diammonium hydrogen phosphate (DAHP), or ferric chloride (FeCl3), respectively. Each method has different reaction mechanisms according to the catalyst. The present methods have advantages, including one-pot synthesis, excellent yields, short reaction times, and easy isolation of product. All catalysts utilized in our study could be reused several times without losing their catalytic efficiency. All synthesized compounds were fully characterized and evaluated for their antibacterial activity. PMID:27563671

  6. Driven by the same Ig enhancer and SV40 T promoter ras induced lung adenomatous tumors, myc induced pre-B cell lymphomas and SV40 large T gene a variety of tumors in transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Suda, Y; Aizawa, S; Hirai, S; Inoue, T; Furuta, Y; Suzuki, M; Hirohashi, S; Ikawa, Y

    1987-01-01

    Different types of tumors developed in transgenic mice following the introduction of the entire coding region of ras, myc or SV40 large T gene (T) linked to the same regulatory unit, consisting of a human immunoglobulin gene enhancer (Ig) and SV40 early gene promoter (Tp) with a 21-bp repeat. All the 12 transgenic mice harboring the intact T gene developed a variety of tumors including choroid plexus tumor, B cell lymphoma, histiocytic lymphoma, thymoma and others. This suggests that the Ig/Tp regulatory unit has transcriptional activity in these heterologous tissues. With this regulatory unit, myc gene induced solely pre-B cell lymphomas (five out of nine mice). Contrary to our expectation, however, the mutated ras gene induced lung adenomatous tumors in six out of eight transgenic mice over the 10-month observation period; the tumors are histologically comparable to adenocarcinomas in man. The tumors developed as early as 4 weeks after birth and the introduced ras gene was as efficiently expressed in both normal and neoplastic bronchioloalveolar epithelial cells as in normal lymphoid cells. An unidentified secondary event thus appears to be necessary for these ras-expressing cells to become neoplastic, as observed for myc (Leder et al., 1986). In a variety of tumors induced by Ig/Tp-T, on the other hand, T gene was expressed only in the tumor cells, but not in normal cells. Thus, derepression of T gene in normal cells appears to be closely related to their malignant change as observed in development of pancreatic acinar cell tumors by the T gene (Ornitz et al., 1985). These results suggest that ras and myc oncogenes penetrate differentially specific types of cells, while the SV40 T gene is tumorigenic in a variety of cell types. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:2832150

  7. Simian virus 40 (SV40) large T antigen-dependent amplification of an Epstein-Barr virus-SV40 hybrid shuttle vector integrated into the human HeLa cell genome.

    PubMed

    Stary, A; Sarasin, A

    1992-07-01

    We analysed the DNA rearrangements that occurred during the integration and amplification of an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-simian virus 40 (SV40) hybrid shuttle vector in human cells. The human HeLa cell line was episomally transformed with the EBV-SV40 p205-GTI plasmid. After a 2 month culture in a selective medium, a HeLa cell-derived population (H-G1 cells) was obtained in which the p205-GTI vector was integrated as a single intact copy deleted in the EBV latent origin of replication (OriP). Sequencing data showed that the endpoints of the plasmid sequences, at the plasmid-cell DNA junctions, are located within the two essential elements of EBV OriP, which may form several secondary structures. This result suggests that a specific DNA sequence (OriP) or palindromic structures could play a role in this integration process. This represents the first fully characterized site of integration of an EBV vector in human cells. The transient expression of the SV40 large T antigen in H-G1 cells leads to the appearance of episomal molecules with an extremely heterogeneous size pattern. Individual analysis of these episomes after rescue in bacteria indicated that they retained sequences of both the p205-GTI plasmid and cellular DNA. Comparison of the structure of these circular DNAs with those of the integrated p205-GTI copy indicated that large T antigen expression in human cells leads to the amplification of the integrated shuttle vector according to the 'onion skin' model developed for transformed rodent cells. Indeed, amplified sequences were colinear with the integrated p205-GTI copy and its surrounding cellular sequences, distributed almost equally around the SV40 replication origin, and circularized by illegitimate recombination which did not involve specific nucleotide sequences. This system is of interest in that it enables easy recovery of individual recombined molecules in host bacteria. Each isolated clone contains a unique recombination junction which is easily

  8. Robust and exact structural variation detection with paired-end and soft-clipped alignments: SoftSV compared with eight algorithms.

    PubMed

    Bartenhagen, Christoph; Dugas, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Structural variation (SV) plays an important role in genetic diversity among the population in general and specifically in diseases such as cancer. Modern next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies provide paired-end sequencing data at high depth with increasing read lengths. This development enabled the analysis of split-reads to detect SV breakpoints with single-nucleotide resolution. But ambiguous mappings and breakpoint sequences with further co-occurring mutations hamper split-read alignments against a reference sequence. The trade-off between high sensitivity and low false-positive rate is problematic and often requires a lot of fine-tuning of the analysis method based on knowledge about its algorithm and the characteristics of the data set. We present SoftSV, a method for exact breakpoint detection for small and large deletions, inversions, tandem duplications and inter-chromosomal translocations, which relies solely on the mutual alignment of soft-clipped reads within the neighborhood of discordantly mapped paired-end reads. Unlike other SV detection algorithms, our approach does not require thresholds regarding sequencing coverage or mapping quality. We evaluate SoftSV together with eight approaches (Breakdancer, Clever, CREST, Delly, GASVPro, Pindel, Socrates and SoftSearch) on simulated and real data sets. Our results show that sensitive and reliable SV detection is subject to many different factors like read length, sequence coverage and SV type. While most programs have their individual drawbacks, our greedy approach turns out to be the most robust and sensitive on many experimental setups. Sensitivities above 85% and positive predictive values between 80 and 100% could be achieved consistently for all SV types on simulated data sets starting at relatively short 75 bp reads and low 10-15× sequence coverage. PMID:25998133

  9. Observational Constraints on Terpene Oxidation with and without Anthropogenic Influence in the Amazon using Speciated Measurements from SV-TAG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yee, L.; Isaacman, G. A.; Kreisberg, N. M.; Liu, Y.; McKinney, K. A.; de Sá, S. S.; Martin, S. T.; Alexander, M. L.; Palm, B. B.; Hu, W.; Campuzano Jost, P.; Day, D. A.; Jimenez, J. L.; Viegas, J.; Springston, S. R.; Wurm, F.; Ferreira De Brito, J.; Artaxo, P.; Manzi, A. O.; Machado, L.; Longo, K.; Oliveira, M. B.; Souza, R. A. F. D.; Hering, S. V.; Goldstein, A. H.

    2014-12-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) from the Amazon forest represent the largest regional source of organic carbon emissions to the atmosphere. These BVOC emissions dominantly consist of volatile and semi-volatile terpenoid compounds that undergo chemical transformations in the atmosphere to form oxygenated condensable gases and secondary organic aerosol (SOA). However, the oxidation pathways of these compounds are still not well understood, and are expected to differ significantly between "pristine" conditions, as is common in Amazonia, and polluted conditions caused by emissions from growing cities. Our focus is to elucidate how anthropogenic emissions influence BVOC chemistry and BSOA formation through speciated measurements of their oxidation products. We have deployed the Semi-Volatile Thermal desorption Aerosol Gas Chromatograph (SV-TAG) at the rural T3 site located west of the urban center of Manaus, Brazil as part of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon) 2014 field campaign to measure hourly concentrations of semi-volatile BVOCs and their oxidation products during the wet and dry seasons. Primary BVOC concentrations measured by the SV-TAG include sesquiterpenes and diterpenes, which have rarely been speciated with high time-resolution. We observe sesquiterpenes to be anti-correlated with ozone, indicative of sesquiterpene oxidation playing a major role in the regional oxidant budget. The role of sesquiterpenes in atmospheric SOA formation are of interest due to their high aerosol yields and high reactivity with ozone, relative to more commonly measured BVOCs (e.g. monoterpenes). We explore relative concentrations of sesquiterpenes and monoterpenes and their roles as precursors to SOA formation by combining SV-TAG measurements with those from an additional suite of VOC and particle measurements deployed in the Amazon. We also report the first ever hourly observations of the gas-particle partitioning of speciated terpene oxidation products in the Amazon

  10. Effects of Enrichment and Litter Parity on Reproductive Performance and Behavior in BALB/c and 129/Sv Mice.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Julia W; Moy, Sheryl S; Pritchett-Corning, Kathleen R; Fletcher, Craig A

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effect of adding species-appropriate environmental enrichment items to breeding cages of BALB/cAnNCrl and 129S2/SvPasCrl mice. The 3 enrichment conditions were: 1) cotton nesting material; 2) nesting material plus a paper shelter and rolled paper bedding; and 3) an igloo dome with an exercise wheel in addition to the shelter-group enrichments. We measured litter size, litter survival to weaning age, average pup weight at 21 d, and the interlitter interval to evaluate reproductive performance. A random subset of the first- or second-litter offspring from each enrichment condition and strain was assessed in multiple behavioral tests. Enrichment significantly affected anxiety-like behavior and sociability, with the direction of change dependent on strain and sex. Litter parity had greater effects on some reproductive parameters than did the enrichment condition, and this effect was not solely due to a difference between the first compared with subsequent litters. The significant effects of litter parity on the number of pups born and weaned, female pup weight, and interlitter interval were dependent on the enrichment condition in BALB/c but not 129/Sv mice. Offspring from the first or second litter were included in a generational component to investigate whether enrichment effects on reproduction persist in adult offspring after transfer to a different facility for breeding. Natal cage enrichment had no effect on any reproductive parameter in the transferred mice. Overall, additional enrichment beyond nesting material had a beneficial effect on the interlitter interval in BALB/c mice and on the number of pups weaned in 129/Sv mice. PMID:27423144

  11. Total Synthesis and Biological Studies of TMC-205 and Analogues as Anticancer Agents and Activators of SV40 Promoter

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    TMC-205 is a natural fungal metabolite with antiproliferative activity against cancer cell lines. The light- and air-sensitivity prevented in-depth exploitation of this novel indole derivative. Herein, we report the first synthesis of TMC-205. On the basis of its reactivity with reactive oxygen species, we developed air-stable analogues of TMC-205. These analogues are 2–8-fold more cytotoxic than TMC-205 against HCT-116 colon cancer cell line. Importantly, at noncytotoxic dose levels, these analogues activated the transcription of luciferase reporter gene driven by simian virus 40 promoter (SV40). Further, these small molecules also inhibit firefly luciferase, presumably by direct interaction. PMID:25147604

  12. How the Rb tumor suppressor structure and function was revealed by the study of Adenovirus and SV40.

    PubMed

    DeCaprio, James A

    2009-02-20

    The review recounts the history of how the study of the DNA tumor viruses including polyoma, SV40 and Adenovirus brought key insights into the structure and function of the Retinoblastoma protein (Rb). Knudsen's model of the two-hit hypothesis to explain patterns of hereditary and sporadic retinoblastoma provided the foundation for the tumor suppressor hypothesis that ultimately led to the cloning of the Rb gene. The discovery that SV40 and Adenovirus could cause tumors when inoculated into animals was startling not only because SV40 had contaminated the poliovirus vaccine and Adenovirus was a common cause of viral induced pneumonia but also because they provided an opportunity to study the genetics and biochemistry of cancer. Studies of mutant forms of these viruses led to the identification of the E1A and Large T antigen (LT) oncogenes and their small transforming elements including the Adenovirus Conserved Regions (CR), the SV40 J domain and the LxCxE motif. The immunoprecipitation studies that initially revealed the size and ultimately the identity of cellular proteins that could bind to these transforming elements were enabled by the widespread development of highly specific monoclonal antibodies against E1A and LT. The identification of Rb as an E1A and LT interacting protein quickly led to the cloning of p107, p130, p300, CBP, p400 and TRRAP and the concept that viral transformation was due, at least in part, to the perturbation of the function of normal cellular proteins. In addition, studies on the ability of E1A to transactivate the Adenovirus E2 promoter led to the cloning of the heterodimeric E2F and DP transcription factor and recognition that Rb repressed transcription of cellular genes required for cell cycle entry and progression. More recent studies have revealed how E1A and LT combine the activity of Rb and the other cellular associated proteins to perturb expression of many genes during viral infection and tumor formation. PMID:19150725

  13. Effect of Loss of Thymidine Kinase Activity on the Tumorigenicity of Clones of SV40-Transformed Hamster Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Rothschild, Henry; Black, Paul H.

    1970-01-01

    Cells deficient in the enzyme thymidine kinase were derived from transplantable SV40-transformed hamster cells. The resultant cell lines were less transplantable when inoculated into hamsters. Tumors which did arise from such cells had prolonged latent periods and were found to contain a mixture of enzyme-containing and enzyme-deficient cells. Revertant cell lines obtained either spontaneously or after mutagenesis in vitro contained intermediate levels of thymidine kinase activity and displayed an oncogenic potential which was intermediate between the wild type and enzyme-deficient cells. It is postulated that salvage pathway enzymes may play a rate-limiting role in tumorigenesis. PMID:4331716

  14. Structural and Biochemical Insights into the Regulation of Protein Phosphatase 2A by Small t Antigen of SV40

    SciTech Connect

    Chen,Y.; Xu, Y.; Bao, Q.; Xing, Y.; Li, Z.; Lin, Z.; Stock, J.; Jeffrey, P.; Shi, Y.

    2007-01-01

    The small t antigen (ST) of DNA tumor virus SV40 facilitates cellular transformation by disrupting the functions of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) through a poorly defined mechanism. The crystal structure of the core domain of SV40 ST bound to the scaffolding subunit of human PP2A reveals that the ST core domain has a novel zinc-binding fold and interacts with the conserved ridge of HEAT repeats 3-6, which overlaps with the binding site for the B' (also called PR61 or B56) regulatory subunit. ST has a lower binding affinity than B' for the PP2A core enzyme. Consequently, ST does not efficiently displace B' from PP2A holoenzymes in vitro. Notably, ST inhibits PP2A phosphatase activity through its N-terminal J domain. These findings suggest that ST may function mainly by inhibiting the phosphatase activity of the PP2A core enzyme, and to a lesser extent by modulating assembly of the PP2A holoenzymes.

  15. Lack of significant modifying effect of arctiin on prostate carcinogenesis in probasin/SV40 T antigen transgenic rats.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yu; Yokohira, Masanao; Takeuchi, Hijiri; Saoo, Kousuke; Yamakawa, Keiko; Matsuda, Yoko; Hosokawa, Kyoko; Li, Jia-Qing; Ikeda, Mico; Imaida, Katsumi

    2005-05-26

    Arctiin, a plant lignan that can be extracted from the Arctium lappa (burdock) seeds, is a possible environmental endocrine disruptor compounds and have been shown to influence sex hormone metabolism as well as protein synthesis, steroid biosynthesis. Modifying effects of arctiin on prostate carcinogenesis in probasin/SV 40 T antigen (Tag) transgenic (TG) rats were examined. A total of 64 male TG rats, 6 weeks old, were randomly divided to three experimental groups (soybean free Oriental MF diet with 0.1, 0.02, or 0.004% arctiin) and a control group (soybean free Oriental MF diet). Animals were killed at the end of week 18. Histopathological evaluation of prostate revealed that all the rats in any group developed adenocarcinoma in dorsolateral lobe of prostate, except two rats in 0.1% arctiin treated and one rat in 0.002% arctiin treated groups without prostate adenocarcinoma development. However, there were no definite treatment-related changes with statistical significance in all parameters for prostate carcinomas measured in this experiment. These results indicated that arctiin might not exert significant modifying effect on prostate carcinogenesis in SV 40 Tag TG rats at least under the present experiment. PMID:15863263

  16. The Crystal Structure of the SV40 T-Antigen Origin Binding Domain in Complex with DNA

    PubMed Central

    Meinke, Gretchen; Phelan, Paul; Moine, Stephanie; Bochkareva, Elena; Bochkarev, Alexey; Bullock, Peter A; Bohm, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    DNA replication is initiated upon binding of “initiators” to origins of replication. In simian virus 40 (SV40), the core origin contains four pentanucleotide binding sites organized as pairs of inverted repeats. Here we describe the crystal structures of the origin binding domain (obd) of the SV40 large T-antigen (T-ag) both with and without a subfragment of origin-containing DNA. In the co-structure, two T-ag obds are oriented in a head-to-head fashion on the same face of the DNA, and each T-ag obd engages the major groove. Although the obds are very close to each other when bound to this DNA target, they do not contact one another. These data provide a high-resolution structural model that explains site-specific binding to the origin and suggests how these interactions help direct the oligomerization events that culminate in assembly of the helicase-active dodecameric complex of T-ag. PMID:17253903

  17. Simulations of P-SV wave scattering due to cracks by the 2-D finite difference method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Yuji; Shiina, Takahiro; Kawahara, Jun; Okamoto, Taro; Miyashita, Kaoru

    2013-12-01

    We simulate P-SV wave scattering by 2-D parallel cracks using the finite difference method (FDM). Here, special emphasis is put on simplicity; we apply a standard FDM (second-order velocity-stress scheme with a staggered grid) to media including traction-free, infinitesimally thin cracks, which are expressed in a simple manner. As an accuracy test of the present method, we calculate the displacement discontinuity along an isolated crack caused by harmonic waves using the method, which is compared with the corresponding results based on a reliable boundary integral equation method. The test resultantly indicates that the present method yields sufficient accuracy. As an application of this method, we also simulate wave propagation in media with randomly distributed cracks. We experimentally determine the attenuation and velocity dispersion induced by scattering from the synthetic seismograms, using a waveform averaging technique. It is shown that the results are well explained by a theory based on the Foldy approximation, if the crack density is sufficiently low. The theory appears valid with a crack density up to at least 0.1 for SV wave incidence, whereas the validity limit appears lower for P wave incidence.

  18. SV-Bay: structural variant detection in cancer genomes using a Bayesian approach with correction for GC-content and read mappability

    PubMed Central

    Iakovishina, Daria; Janoueix-Lerosey, Isabelle; Barillot, Emmanuel; Regnier, Mireille; Boeva, Valentina

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: Whole genome sequencing of paired-end reads can be applied to characterize the landscape of large somatic rearrangements of cancer genomes. Several methods for detecting structural variants with whole genome sequencing data have been developed. So far, none of these methods has combined information about abnormally mapped read pairs connecting rearranged regions and associated global copy number changes automatically inferred from the same sequencing data file. Our aim was to create a computational method that could use both types of information, i.e. normal and abnormal reads, and demonstrate that by doing so we can highly improve both sensitivity and specificity rates of structural variant prediction. Results: We developed a computational method, SV-Bay, to detect structural variants from whole genome sequencing mate-pair or paired-end data using a probabilistic Bayesian approach. This approach takes into account depth of coverage by normal reads and abnormalities in read pair mappings. To estimate the model likelihood, SV-Bay considers GC-content and read mappability of the genome, thus making important corrections to the expected read count. For the detection of somatic variants, SV-Bay makes use of a matched normal sample when it is available. We validated SV-Bay on simulated datasets and an experimental mate-pair dataset for the CLB-GA neuroblastoma cell line. The comparison of SV-Bay with several other methods for structural variant detection demonstrated that SV-Bay has better prediction accuracy both in terms of sensitivity and false-positive detection rate. Availability and implementation: https://github.com/InstitutCurie/SV-Bay Contact: valentina.boeva@inserm.fr Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:26740523

  19. A physical model study of the travel times and conversion point locations of P-SV converted waves in vertical transversely isotropic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, C.

    2013-12-01

    In exploration seismology, subsurface medium commonly exhibits anisotropy, characterized by a vertical transversely isotropic (VTI) model. Due to the need of exploring small reservoirs in complex structures, the seismic exploration is extended to deal with anisotropic media. The P-S converted wave seismic exploration is a relatively inexpensive, broadly applicable, and effective way to obtain the S-wave information of the medium. In anisotropic traveltime analysis, the moveout curve of horizontal P-SV event can help to determine the ratio of the P- and SV-wave vertical velocities, the normal moveout (NMO) velocity of SV-waves, and the anisotropy parameters. The P-SV conversion point (CP) location is of great importance to P-SV data binning, NMO corrections and common conversion point (CCP) stacking, and the anisotropy has a more significant effect on the conversion point location than on the moveout. In this study, we attempt to inspect the theoretical non-hyperbolic moveout and CP equations for the P-SV waves reflected from a VTI layer by numerical calculations and physical modeling. We are also interested in visualizing the variations of the conversion point locations from a designed VTI medium. In traveltime analysis, the theoretical moveout curve is accurate up to offsets about one and a half times the reflector depth (x/z=1.5). However, the moveout curve computed by Fermat's principle fits well to the physical data. The CP locations of P-SV waves are similar to those calculated by Fermat's principle and theoretical CP equation, which are verified by the physical modeling.

  20. Hydrogeology and water quality of significant sand and gravel aquifers in parts of Androscoggin, Cumberland, Franklin, Kennebec, Lincoln, Oxford, Sagadahoc, and Somerset Counties, Maine: Sand and gravel aquifer maps 10, 11, 16, 17 and 32

    SciTech Connect

    Tepper, D.H.; Williams, J.S.; Tolman, A.L.; Prescott, G.C.

    1985-01-01

    A reconnaissance level geohydrologic study was made of 2,408 sq mi in Androscoggin, Cumberland, Franklin, Kennebec, Lincoln, Oxford, Sagadahoc and Somerset Counties in Maine. This area is included in Maps 10, 11, 16, 17, and 32 of the Sand and Gravel Aquifer Map Series published by the Maine Geological Survey. The significant sand and gravel aquifers, consist of glacial ice-contact and outwash deposits which occur primarily in the valleys of the major rivers and along their tributaries. Significant aquifers comprise almost 109 sq mi, but yields that exceed 50 gal/min are estimated to be available within only 21% of this area. Typically, the water table is within 20 ft of the land surface. Based on seismic data, the great known depth to bedrock is 340 ft. The regional groundwater quality has the following characteristics: It is slightly acidic to slightly basic; calcium and sodium are the most abundant cations; bicarbonate is the most abundant anion; and the water is soft. In some localities concentrations of iron and manganese are high enough to limit use of the water without treatment. Sixty-six sites, including 32 solid waste facilities and 18 salt-storage lots were identified as potential sources of groundwater contamination to the sand and gravel aquifers in the study area. 79 refs., 11 figs., 9 tabs.

  1. Removal of a small C-terminal region of JCV and SV40 large T antigens has differential effects on transformation

    PubMed Central

    Seneca, Nicole TM; Robles, Maria Teresa Sáenz; Pipas, James M

    2014-01-01

    The large T antigen (LT) protein of JCV and SV40 polyomaviruses is required to induce tumors in rodents and transform cells in culture. When both LTs are compared side-by-side in cell culture assays, SV40 shows a more robust transformation phenotype even though the LT sequences are highly conserved. A complete understanding of SV40’s enhanced transforming capabilities relative to JCV is lacking. When the least conserved region of the LT proteins, the variable linker and host range region (VHR), was removed, changes in T antigen expression and cellular p53 post-translational modifications occurred, but interaction with the pRB pathway was unaffected. Transformation assessed by growth in low serum was reduced after VHR truncation of the SV40, but not the JCV, T antigen. Conversely, anchorage independent transformation was enhanced only by truncation of the JCV VHR. This is the first report to link the SV40 or JCV VHR region to transformation potential. PMID:25129438

  2. 2.5D scattering of incident plane SV waves by a canyon in layered half-space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhenning, Ba; Jianwen, Liang

    2010-12-01

    This paper presents a 2.5D scattering of incident plane SV waves by a canyon in a layered half-space by using the indirect boundary element method (IBEM). A free field response analysis is performed to provide the displacements and stresses on the boundary of the canyon where fictitious uniform moving loads are applied to calculate the Green's functions for the displacements and stresses. The amplitudes of the loads are determined by the boundary conditions. The free field displacements are added to the fictitious uniform moving loads induced displacements and the total response is obtained. Numerical calculations are performed for a canyon with homogenous and in one layer over bedrock. The effects of the thickness and stiffness of the layer on the amplification are studied and discussed.

  3. Mode-Converted (P-SV) Waves for Imaging Thin Intercalated Basaltic Layers and Their Possible Geologic Implications

    SciTech Connect

    Pandey, D. K.; Pandey, A.; Rajan, S.

    2010-06-15

    The subsurface imaging using conventional seismic reflection technique is challenging in areas where high velocity rocks such as basalts are underlain by low velocity rocks. The seismic image quality worsens in the presence of intercalated sediments within the basaltic layers. In the recent years, the multicomponent seismic exploration technique has drawn great attention because it reduces the ambiguity in seismic imaging, enlarges the S-wave information, and improves the prediction and identification of reservoir fluids. Improvements in sub-basalt imaging techniques could hold highly significant geologic implications such as resource exploration and identifying permanent geochemical trapping potential (such as for carbon sequestration studies). In this article, we examine the possibility of utilizing mode-converted (P-SV) waves for sub-basalt imaging as well as likely complicacies one may expect in such processes.

  4. Rapid targeting of plasmid DNA to zebrafish embryo nuclei by the nuclear localization signal of SV40 T antigen.

    PubMed

    Collas, P; Aleström, P

    1997-03-01

    Binding SV40 T antigen nuclear localization signals (NLSs) to plasmid DNA promotes transgene expression following injection of DNA-NLS complexes into the cytoplasm of zebrafish eggs. We now demonstrate that NLS peptides mediate import of DNA from the cytoplasm into embryo nuclei, under conditions in which naked DNA is not imported. Plasmid DNA was localized by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in isolated nuclei, and relative amounts were quantified by densitometry. Binding DNA to NLSs, but not to nuclear-import-deficient peptides, promoted rapid targeting of DNA-NLS complexes to nuclei, and transport across the nuclear envelope. Import of DNA-NLS complexes was competed by co-injected albumin-NLS conjugates. NLS, but not reverse NLS, was detected on blots of nuclei probed with 32P-labeled DNA. The results suggest that NLS-mediated DNA transfer into nuclei may constitute a valuable tool for several gene transfer applications. PMID:9116870

  5. Downregulation of the stress-induced ligand ULBP1 following SV40 infection confers viral evasion from NK cell cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Bauman, Yoav; Drayman, Nir; Ben-Nun-Shaul, Orly; Vitenstein, Alon; Yamin, Rachel; Ophir, Yael

    2016-01-01

    Polyomaviruses are a diverse family of viruses which are prevalent in the human population. However, the interactions of these viruses with the immune system are not well characterized. We have previously shown that two human polyomaviruses, JC and BK, use an identical microRNA to evade immune attack by Natural Killer (NK) cells. We showed that this viral microRNA suppresses ULBP3 expression, a stress induced ligand for the killer receptor NKG2D. Here we show that Simian Virus 40 (SV40) also evades NK cell attack through the down regulation of another stress-induced ligand of NKG2D, ULBP1. These findings indicate that NK cells play an essential role in fighting polyomavirus infections and further emphasize the importance of various members of the ULBP family in controlling polyomavirus infection. PMID:26992229

  6. Timed interactions between viral and cellular replication factors during the initiation of SV40 in vitro DNA replication

    PubMed Central

    Taneja, Poonam; Nasheuer, Heinz-Peter; Hartmann, Hella; Grosse, Frank; Fanning, Ellen; Weisshart, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    The initiation of SV40 (simian virus 40) DNA replication requires the co-operative interactions between the viral Tag (large T-antigen), RPA (replication protein A) and Pol (DNA polymerase α-primase) on the template DNA. Binding interfaces mapped on these enzymes and expressed as peptides competed with the mutual interactions of the native proteins. Prevention of the genuine interactions was accomplished only prior to the primer synthesis step and blocked the assembly of a productive initiation complex. Once the complex was engaged in the synthesis of an RNA primer and its extension, the interfering effects of the peptides ceased, suggesting a stable association of the replication factors during the initiation phase. Specific antibodies were still able to disrupt preformed interactions and inhibited primer synthesis and extension activities, underlining the crucial role of specific protein–protein contacts during the entire initiation process. PMID:17666013

  7. Experiences in the Performance Analysis and Optimization of a Deterministic Radiation Transport Code on the Cray SV1

    SciTech Connect

    Peter Cebull

    2004-05-01

    The Attila radiation transport code, which solves the Boltzmann neutron transport equation on three-dimensional unstructured tetrahedral meshes, was ported to a Cray SV1. Cray's performance analysis tools pointed to two subroutines that together accounted for 80%-90% of the total CPU time. Source code modifications were performed to enable vectorization of the most significant loops, to correct unfavorable strides through memory, and to replace a conjugate gradient solver subroutine with a call to the Cray Scientific Library. These optimizations resulted in a speedup of 7.79 for the INEEL's largest ATR model. Parallel scalability of the OpenMP version of the code is also discussed, and timing results are given for other non-vector platforms.

  8. Synthesis and Characterization of a Cyclobutane Duocarmycin Derivative Incorporating the CbBI (1,2,10,11-tetrahydro-9H-cyclobuta[c]benzo[e]indol-4-one) Alkylation Subunit

    PubMed Central

    Lajiness, James P.; Boger, Dale L.

    2010-01-01

    The synthesis of 1,2,10,11-tetrahydro-9H-cyclobuta[c]benzo[e]indol-4- one (17, CbBI), containing a deep-seated fundamental structural modification in the CC-1065 and duocarmycin alkylation subunit with the incorporation of a ring expanded fused cyclobutane (vs cyclopropane), its chemical and structural characterization, and its incorporation into a key analogue of the natural products are detailed. The approach to the preparation of CbBI was based on a precedented (Ar-3′ and Ar-5′), but previously unknown Ar-4′ spirocyclization of a phenol onto a tethered alkyl halide to form the desired cyclobutane. The conditions required for the implementation of the Ar-4′ spirocyclization indicate that the entropy of activation substantially impacts the rate of reaction relative to the much more facile Ar-3′ spirocyclization, while the higher enthalpy of activation slows the reaction relative to an Ar-5′ spirocyclization. The characterization of the CbBI-based agents revealed their exceptional stability and exquisite reaction regioselectivity, and a single crystal X-ray structure analysis of N-Boc-CbBI (13) revealed their structural origins. The reaction regioselectivity may be attributed to the stereoelectronic alignment of the two available cyclobutane bonds with the cyclohexadienone π-system, which resides in the bond that extends to the less substituted cyclobutane carbon for 13. The remarkable stability of N-Boc-CbBI (stable even at pH 1) relative to N-Boc-CBI (t1/2 = 133 h at pH 3) containing a cyclopropane may be attributed to a combination of the increased extent of vinylogous amide conjugation, the non-optimal geometric alignment of the cyclobutane with the activating cyclohexadienone, and the intrinsic but modestly lower strain energy (1.8 kcal/mol) of a cyclobutane versus cyclopropane. PMID:20839806

  9. Development, validation and clinical application of an online-SPE-LC-HRMS/MS for simultaneous quantification of phenobarbital, phenytoin, carbamazepine, and its active metabolite carbamazepine 10,11-epoxide.

    PubMed

    Qu, Lihua; Fan, Yuanjie; Wang, Wenjun; Ma, Kai; Yin, Zheng

    2016-09-01

    A simple and efficient bioanalytical method for simultaneous determination of phenobarbital (PB), phenytoin (PHT), carbamazepine (CBZ), and its active metabolite carbamazepine 10,11-epoxide (CBZE) in human plasma using online solid phase extraction (SPE)-liquid chromatography (LC) coupled with high resolution mass spectrum (HRMS) under targeted MS/MS (t-MS(2)) analysis mode has been developed. The procedure integrated an automated sample clean-up of human plasma by Oasis®HLB SPE cartridge, a separation by ZORBAX SB-C18 analysis column, and a quantification by Q-Exactive Hybrid Quadrupole-Orbitrap. The total running time was 13min. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of PB, PHT, CBZ, and CBZE were 0.008, 0.008, 0.0016 and 0.0016μgmL(-1) respectively and the linearities were in the range of 0.008-2.500, 0.008-2.500, 0.0016-0.500 and 0.0016-0.500μgmL(-1) respectively. The mean recovery was between 91.82% and 108.27% and the matrix effect was between 93.29% and 102.09%. The relative standard deviations of interday and intraday were less than 6.41%. The method has been successfully applied in therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of four Chinese epilepsy patients. This fully automated, simple, sensitive and reliable online-SPE-LC-HRMS/MS method serves well for TDM of PB, PHT, CBZ and CBZE at clinics for either single or combination treatment. PMID:27343581

  10. Study of the neutron and proton capture reactions 10,11B(n, γ), 11B(p, γ), 14C(p, γ), and 15N(p, γ) at thermal and astrophysical energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubovichenko, Sergey; Dzhazairov-Kakhramanov, Albert

    2014-07-01

    We have studied the neutron-capture reactions 10,11B(n, γ) and the role of the 11B(n, γ) reaction in seeding r-process nucleosynthesis. The possibility of the description of the available experimental data for cross-sections of the neutron capture reaction on 10B at thermal and astrophysical energies, taking into account the resonance at 475 keV, was considered within the framework of the modified potential cluster model (MPCM) with forbidden states (FS) and accounting for the resonance behavior of the scattering phase shifts. In the framework of the same model, the possibility of describing the available experimental data for the total cross-sections of the neutron radiative capture on 11B at thermal and astrophysical energies were considered with taking into account the 21 and 430 keV resonances. Description of the available experimental data on the total cross-sections and astrophysical S-factor of the radiative proton capture on 11B to the GS of 12C was treated at astrophysical energies. The possibility of description of the experimental data for the astrophysical S-factor of the radiative proton capture on 14C to the GS of 15N at astrophysical energies, and the radiative proton capture on 15N at the energies from 50 to 1500 keV was considered in the framework of the MPCM with the classification of the orbital states according to Young tableaux. It was shown that, on the basis of the M1 and the E1 transitions from different states of the p15N scattering to the GS of 16O in the p15N channel, it is quite succeed to explain general behavior of the S-factor in the considered energy range in the presence of two resonances.

  11. Functional insertion of the SV40 large T oncogene in cystic fibrosis intestinal epithelium. Characterization of CFI-3 cells.

    PubMed

    Chastre, E; Di Gioia, Y; Barbry, P; Simon-Bouy, B; Mornet, E; Fanen, P; Champigny, G; Emami, S; Gespach, C

    1991-11-01

    Intestinal epithelial cells were isolated from a fetus with cystic fibrosis (CF) and transfected with a plasmid vector recombined with the ori- mutant of SV40. A population of proliferative cells was then subcloned and designated as CFI-3. These cells had a doubling time of 24 h and were maintained in culture for up to 25 passages. At passage 8, CFI-3 cells did not produce any tumors in nude mice. Northern blot and immunofluorescence studies indicated that the extended lifespan of CFI-3 cells results in genomic insertion of SV40 LT. Intestinal CFI-3 cells are epithelial, according to the expression of the human cytokeratin 18 gene and poorly differentiated by phase-contrast and electron microscopy. Functional membrane receptors activated by vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), its natural analogue pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP-38), and isoproterenol were observed in CFI-3 cells. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the PstI KM19 site revealed that the cftr locus was identical in the chorionic villi and in CFI-3 cells. The manifestation of CF in this family was not related to the common mutation delta F508, since this fetus was heterozygous for the substitutions S549N and N1303K. Chloride transport, assessed by the 125I efflux, was induced in CFI-3 cells by the calcium inophore ionomycin, but not by the adenylate cyclase activator forskolin, and was inhibited by the chloride channel blocker 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)benzoic acid. These results were confirmed in patch clamp studies in which the cpt cAMP analogue failed to stimulate membrane currents, while the calcium ionophore ionomycin stimulated inward currents. We conclude that intestinal CFI-3 cells retain the CF phenotype relating to defective regulation of Cl- channels, and therefore constitute a suitable model, 1) for elucidating the function of CFTR protein, 2) developing new therapeutic agents, and 3) correcting the CF defect by gene replacement therapy in vitro

  12. Truncated N-terminal mutants of SV40 large T antigen as minimal immortalizing agents for CNS cells

    PubMed Central

    Freed, William J.; Zhang, Peisu; Sanchez, Joseph F.; Dillon-Carter, Ora; Coggiano, Mark; Errico, Stacie L.; Lewis, Brian D.; Truckenmiller, Mary Ellen

    2007-01-01

    Immortalized central nervous system (CNS) cell lines are useful as in vitro models for innumerable purposes such as elucidating biochemical pathways, studies of effects of drugs, and ultimately, such cells may also be useful for neural transplantation. The SV40 large T (LT) oncoprotein, commonly used for immortalization, interacts with several cell cycle regulatory factors, including binding and inactivating p53 and retinoblastoma family cell-cycle regulators. In an attempt to define the minimal requirements of SV40 T antigen for immortalizing cells of CNS origin, we constructed T155c, encoding the N-terminal 155 amino acids of LT. The p53 binding region is known to reside in the C-terminal region of LT. An additional series of mutants was produced to further narrow the molecular targets for immortalization, and plasmid vectors were constructed for each. In a p53 temperature sensitive cell line model, T64-7B, expression of T155c and all constructs having mutations outside of the first 82 amino acids were capable of overriding cell-cycle block at the non-permissive growth temperature. Several cell lines were produced from fetal rat mesencephalic and cerebral cortical cultures using the T155c construct. The E107K construct contained a mutation in the Rb binding region, but was nonetheless capable of overcoming cell cycle block in T64-7B cell and immortalizing primary cultured cells. Cells immortalized with T155c were often highly dependent on the presence of bFGF for growth. Telomerase activity, telomere length, growth rates, and integrity of the p53 gene in cells immortalized with T155c did not change over 100 population doublings in culture, indicating that cells immortalized with T155c were generally stable during long periods of continuous culture. PMID:15629761

  13. Comparative proteomic data of M13SV1 human breast epithelial cells and their tumorigenic variants under treatment with estrogenic compounds.

    PubMed

    Braeuning, Albert; Schmidt, Claudia; Oberemm, Axel; Lampen, Alfonso

    2016-09-01

    Data from a comparative proteomic analysis of three human breast epithelial cell lines are presented. M13SV1 cells and their tumorigenic derivatives M13SV1-R2-2 and M13SV1-R2-N1 were used. Proteomic data were obtained using 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis and subsequent identification of proteins by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. In a second experiment, the three cell lines were treated with different concentrations of the estrogenic compounds β-estradiol or genistein and alterations in protein expression were monitored by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Presented data provide a comprehensive overview of proteomic differences between the three cell lines and their response to estrogenic stimulation. PMID:27331110

  14. Fetal bovine serum and human constitutive androstane receptor: Evidence for activation of the SV23 splice variant by artemisinin, artemether, and arteether in a serum-free cell culture system

    SciTech Connect

    Lau, Aik Jiang; Chang, Thomas K.H.

    2014-06-01

    The naturally occurring SV23 splice variant of human constitutive androstane receptor (hCAR-SV23) is activated by di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), which is detected as a contaminant in fetal bovine serum (FBS). In our initial experiment, we compared the effect of dialyzed FBS, charcoal-stripped, dextran-treated FBS (CS-FBS), and regular FBS on the basal activity and ligand-activation of hCAR-SV23 in a cell-based reporter gene assay. In transfected HepG2 cells cultured in medium supplemented with 10% FBS, basal hCAR-SV23 activity varied with the type of FBS (regular > dialyzed > CS). DEHP increased hCAR-SV23 activity when 10% CS-FBS, but not regular FBS or dialyzed FBS, was used. With increasing concentrations (1–10%) of regular FBS or CS-FBS, hCAR-SV23 basal activity increased, whereas in DEHP-treated cells, hCAR-SV23 activity remained similar (regular FBS) or slightly increased (CS-FBS). Subsequent experiments identified a serum-free culture condition to detect DEHP activation of hCAR-SV23. Under this condition, artemisinin, artemether, and arteether increased hCAR-SV23 activity, whereas they decreased it in cells cultured in medium supplemented with 10% regular FBS. By comparison, FBS increased the basal activity of the wild-type isoform of hCAR (hCAR-WT), whereas it did not affect the basal activity of the SV24 splice variant (hCAR-SV24) or ligand activation of hCAR-SV24 and hCAR-WT by 6-(4-chlorophenyl)imidazo[2,1-b][1,3]thiazole-5-carbaldehyde O-(3,4-dichlorobenzyl)oxime (CITCO). The use of serum-free culture condition was suitable for detecting CITCO activation of hCAR-WT and hCAR-SV24. In conclusion, FBS leads to erroneous classification of pharmacological ligands of hCAR-SV23 in cell-based assays, but investigations on functional ligands of hCAR isoforms can be conducted in serum-free culture condition. - Highlights: • FBS leads to erroneous pharmacological classification of hCAR-SV23 ligands. • Artemisinin, artemether, and arteether activate hCAR-SV

  15. Pressure (Pp), overburden (Sv), and minimum horizontal stress (SHMIN) in Eugene Island Block 330, offshore Gulf of Mexico. Topical report, April 1-July 1, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Finkbeiner, T.; Stump, B.B.; Zoback, M.D.; Flemings, P.B.

    1996-10-01

    The objectives of this study were: (1) characterize minimum principal stress (Shmin), pore pressure (Pp), and overburden (Sv); and (2) characterize the interrelationships between these 3 variables based on available leak-off test (LOT) and fracture completion data within the RI-330 field.

  16. An Investigation of the Validity and Reliability of the Adapted Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale-Short Version (MARS-SV) among Turkish Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baloglu, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    This study adapted the Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale-Short Version (MARS-SV) into Turkish and investigated the validity and reliability of the adapted instrument. Twenty-five bilingual experts agreed on the language validity, and 49 Turkish language experts agreed on the conformity and understandability of the scale's items. Thirty-two subject…

  17. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the osteoporosis assessment questionnaire short version (OPAQ-SV) for Chinese osteoporotic fracture females.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yin-Ping; Wei, Huan-Huan; Wang, Wen; Xia, Ru-Yi; Zhou, Xiao-Ling; Porr, Caroline; Lammi, Mikko

    2016-04-01

    The Osteoporosis Assessment Questionnaire Short Version (OPAQ-SV) was cross-culturally adapted to measure health-related quality of life in Chinese osteoporotic fracture females and then validated in China for its psychometric properties. Cross-cultural adaptation, including translation of the original OPAQ-SV into Mandarin Chinese language, was performed according to published guidelines. Validation of the newly cross-culturally adapted OPAQ-SV was conducted by sampling 234 Chinese osteoporotic fracture females and also a control group of 235 Chinese osteoporotic females without fractures, producing robust content, construct, and discriminant validation results. Major categories of reliability were also met: the Cronbach alpha coefficient was 0.975, indicating good internal consistency; the test-retest reliability was 0.80; and principal component analysis resulted in a 6-factor structure explaining 75.847 % of the total variance. Further, the Comparative Fit Index result was 0.922 following the modified model confirmatory factor analysis, and the chi-squared test was 1.98. The root mean squared error of approximation was 0.078. Moreover, significant differences were revealed between females with fractures and those without fractures across all domains (p < 0.001). Overall, the newly cross-culturally adapted OPAQ-SV appears to possess adequate validity and reliability and may be utilized in clinical trials to assess the health-related quality of life in Chinese osteoporotic fracture females. PMID:26175100

  18. Differences in Memory Development among C57BL/6NCrl, 129S2/SvPasCrl, and FVB/NCrl Mice after Delay and Trace Fear Conditioning

    PubMed Central

    March, Amelia; Borchelt, David; Golde, Todd; Janus, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Fear-conditioning testing paradigms have been used to study differences in memory formation between inbred mouse strains, including numerous mouse models of human diseases. In this study, we characterized the conditioned fear memory of 3 inbred strains: C57BL/6NCrl, 129S2/SvPasCrl, and FVB/NCrl, obtained from Charles River Laboratories. We used 2 training paradigms: delay conditioning, in which an unconditional stimulus coterminates with the presentation of a conditional stimulus, and trace conditioning, in which the conditional and unconditional stimuli are separated by a trace interval. In each paradigm, we evaluated the recent (3 d) and remote (25 d) memory of the mice by using a longitudinal design. Our results showed that both C57BL/6NCrl and 129S2/SvPasCrl mice developed strong and long-lasting context and tone memories in both paradigms, but FVB/NCrl mice showed a weaker but nevertheless consistent tone memory after delay training. Tone memory in the FVB strain was stronger in male than female mice. The remote tone memory of 129S2/SvPasCrl mice diminished after delay training but was stable and stronger than that of C57BL/6NCrl mice after trace training. In conclusion, both C57BL/6NCrl and 129S2/SvPasCrl mice showed reliable and long-lasting fear memory after delay or trace training, with 129 mice showing particularly strong tone memory after trace conditioning. The FVB/NCrl strain, especially male mice, showed reliable tone fear memory after delay training. Our findings confirm that both C57BL/6NCrl and 129S2/SvPasCrl mice develop strong context and tone memory in delay and trace fear-conditioning paradigms. PMID:24672832

  19. Differences in memory development among C57BL/6NCrl, 129S2/SvPasCrl, and FVB/NCrl mice after delay and trace fear conditioning.

    PubMed

    March, Amelia; Borchelt, David; Golde, Todd; Janus, Christopher

    2014-02-01

    Fear-conditioning testing paradigms have been used to study differences in memory formation between inbred mouse strains, including numerous mouse models of human diseases. In this study, we characterized the conditioned fear memory of 3 inbred strains: C57BL/6NCrl, 129S2/SvPasCrl, and FVB/NCrl, obtained from Charles River Laboratories. We used 2 training paradigms: delay conditioning, in which an unconditional stimulus coterminates with the presentation of a conditional stimulus, and trace conditioning, in which the conditional and unconditional stimuli are separated by a trace interval. In each paradigm, we evaluated the recent (3 d) and remote (25 d) memory of the mice by using a longitudinal design. Our results showed that both C57BL/6NCrl and 129S2/SvPasCrl mice developed strong and long-lasting context and tone memories in both paradigms, but FVB/NCrl mice showed a weaker but nevertheless consistent tone memory after delay training. Tone memory in the FVB strain was stronger in male than female mice. The remote tone memory of 129S2/SvPasCrl mice diminished after delay training but was stable and stronger than that of C57BL/6NCrl mice after trace training. In conclusion, both C57BL/6NCrl and 129S2/SvPasCrl mice showed reliable and long-lasting fear memory after delay or trace training, with 129 mice showing particularly strong tone memory after trace conditioning. The FVB/NCrl strain, especially male mice, showed reliable tone fear memory after delay training. Our findings confirm that both C57BL/6NCrl and 129S2/SvPasCrl mice develop strong context and tone memory in delay and trace fear-conditioning paradigms. PMID:24672832

  20. The Prognostic Role and Relationship between E2F1 and SV40 in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma of Egyptian Patients

    PubMed Central

    Samaka, Rehab M.; Aiad, Hayam A.; Kandil, Mona A.; Asaad, Nancy Y.; Holah, Nanes S.

    2015-01-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common type of lymphomas worldwide. The pathogenesis of lymphomas is not yet well understood. SV40 induces malignant transformation by the large T-antigen (L-TAG) and promotes transformation by binding and inactivating p53 and pRb. L-TAG can bind pRb promoting the activation of the E2F1 transcription factor, thus inducing the expression of genes required for the entry to the S phase and leading to cell transformation. This immunohistochemical study was conducted to assess the prognostic role and relationship of SV40 L-TAG and E2F1 in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) of Egyptian patients. This retrospective study was conducted on 105 tissue specimens including 20 follicular hyperplasia and 85 DLBCL cases. SV40 L-TAG was identified in 3/85 (4%) of DLBCL. High Ki-67 labeling index (Ki-67 LI) and apoptotic count were associated with high E2F1 expression (p<0.001 for all). No significant association was reached between E2F1 and SV40. E2F1 expression proved to be the most and first independent prognostic factor on overall survival of DLBCL patients (HR = 5.79, 95% CI = 2.3–14.6, and p<0.001). Upregulation of E2F1 has been implicated in oncogenesis, prognosis, and prediction of therapeutic response but is not seemingly to have a relationship with the accused SV40. PMID:26601052

  1. StralSV: assessment of sequence variability within similar 3D structures and application to polio RNA-dependent RNA polymerase

    SciTech Connect

    Zemla, A; Lang, D; Kostova, T; Andino, R; Zhou, C

    2010-11-29

    Most of the currently used methods for protein function prediction rely on sequence-based comparisons between a query protein and those for which a functional annotation is provided. A serious limitation of sequence similarity-based approaches for identifying residue conservation among proteins is the low confidence in assigning residue-residue correspondences among proteins when the level of sequence identity between the compared proteins is poor. Multiple sequence alignment methods are more satisfactory - still, they cannot provide reliable results at low levels of sequence identity. Our goal in the current work was to develop an algorithm that could overcome these difficulties and facilitate the identification of structurally (and possibly functionally) relevant residue-residue correspondences between compared protein structures. Here we present StralSV, a new algorithm for detecting closely related structure fragments and quantifying residue frequency from tight local structure alignments. We apply StralSV in a study of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of poliovirus and demonstrate that the algorithm can be used to determine regions of the protein that are relatively unique or that shared structural similarity with structures that are distantly related. By quantifying residue frequencies among many residue-residue pairs extracted from local alignments, one can infer potential structural or functional importance of specific residues that are determined to be highly conserved or that deviate from a consensus. We further demonstrate that considerable detailed structural and phylogenetic information can be derived from StralSV analyses. StralSV is a new structure-based algorithm for identifying and aligning structure fragments that have similarity to a reference protein. StralSV analysis can be used to quantify residue-residue correspondences and identify residues that may be of particular structural or functional importance, as well as unusual or unexpected

  2. Formation of DNA triple helices inhibits DNA unwinding by the SV40 large T-antigen helicase.

    PubMed Central

    Peleg, M; Kopel, V; Borowiec, J A; Manor, H

    1995-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that d(TC)n.d(GA)n microsatellites may serve as arrest signals for mammalian DNA replication through the ability of such sequences to form DNA triple helices and thereby inhibit replication enzymes. To further test this hypothesis, we examined the ability of d(TC)i.d(GA)i.d(TC)i triplexes to inhibit DNA unwinding in vitro by a model eukaryotic DNA helicase, the SV40 large T-antigen. DNA substrates that were able to form triplexes, and non-triplex-forming control substrates, were tested. We found that the presence of DNA triplexes, as assayed by endonuclease S1 and osmium tetroxide footprinting, significantly inhibited DNA unwinding by T-antigen. Strong inhibition was observed not only at acidic pH values, in which the triplexes were most stable, but also at physiological pH values in the range 6.9-7.2. Little or no inhibition was detected at pH 8.7. Based on these results, and on previous studies of DNA polymerases, we suggest that DNA triplexes may form in vivo and cause replication arrest through a dual inhibition of duplex unwinding by DNA helicases and of nascent strand synthesis by DNA polymerases. DNA triplexes also have the potential to inhibit recombination and repair processes in which helicases and polymerases are involved. Images PMID:7753619

  3. [Effects of histone deacetylase inhibitor sodium valproate on the physical and behavioral development of 129SV mice].

    PubMed

    Burenkova, O V; Aleksandrova, E A; Zarayskaya, I Yu

    2015-01-01

    Sodium valproate is a widely used antiepileptic drug at high dosage levels, but it has been shown to produce a variety of toxic side-effects when used during perinatal period. These effects include increased risk of congenital anomalies and autism. For this reason, valproate is commonly employed in animal model of autism. Sodium valproate has multiple molecular targets including histone deacetylases. Therefore valproate can be utilized as a tool for the modulation of epigenetic modifications of the genome via inhibition of histone deacetylases. It is known that administration of sodium valproate at a dose of 50 mg/kg during early postnatal period leads to increase of the histone H3 acetylation level in the brain. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of multiple valproate injections from 3rd to 6th postnatal day (50 mg/kg s.c.) on physical and sensorimotor development of 129Sv mice. The standard battery of tests was used. Our results show that valproate have no negative effect on physical development, sensorimotor function, and social behavior. The obtained results support the applicability of sodium valproate in our dosing schedule for further experimental modulation of histone acetulation level in the developing brain. PMID:26571806

  4. Characterization of flood and precipitation events in Southwestern Germany and stochastic simulation of extreme precipitation (Project FLORIS-SV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florian, Ehmele; Michael, Kunz

    2016-04-01

    Several major flood events occurred in Germany in the past 15-20 years especially in the eastern parts along the rivers Elbe and Danube. Examples include the major floods of 2002 and 2013 with an estimated loss of about 2 billion Euros each. The last major flood events in the State of Baden-Württemberg in southwest Germany occurred in the years 1978 and 1993/1994 along the rivers Rhine and Neckar with an estimated total loss of about 150 million Euros (converted) each. Flood hazard originates from a combination of different meteorological, hydrological and hydraulic processes. Currently there is no defined methodology available for evaluating and quantifying the flood hazard and related risk for larger areas or whole river catchments instead of single gauges. In order to estimate the probable maximum loss for higher return periods (e.g. 200 years, PML200), a stochastic model approach is designed since observational data are limited in time and space. In our approach, precipitation is linearly composed of three elements: background precipitation, orographically-induces precipitation, and a convectively-driven part. We use linear theory of orographic precipitation formation for the stochastic precipitation model (SPM), which is based on fundamental statistics of relevant atmospheric variables. For an adequate number of historic flood events, the corresponding atmospheric conditions and parameters are determined in order to calculate a probability density function (pdf) for each variable. This method involves all theoretically possible scenarios which may not have happened, yet. This work is part of the FLORIS-SV (FLOod RISk Sparkassen Versicherung) project and establishes the first step of a complete modelling chain of the flood risk. On the basis of the generated stochastic precipitation event set, hydrological and hydraulic simulations will be performed to estimate discharge and water level. The resulting stochastic flood event set will be used to quantify the

  5. Sex differences in aging, life span and spontaneous tumorigenesis in 129/Sv mice neonatally exposed to metformin.

    PubMed

    Anisimov, Vladimir N; Popovich, Irina G; Zabezhinski, Mark A; Egormin, Peter A; Yurova, Maria N; Semenchenko, Anna V; Tyndyk, Margarita L; Panchenko, Andrey V; Trashkov, Alexandr P; Vasiliev, Andrey G; Khaitsev, Nikolai V

    2015-01-01

    The perinatal (prenatal and early neonatal) period is a critical stage for hypothalamic programming of sexual differentiation as well as for the development of energy and metabolic homeostasis. We hypothesized that neonatal treatment with antidiabetic drug biguanide metformin would positively modify regulation of growth hormone--IGF-1--insulin signaling pathway slowing down aging and improving cancer preventive patterns in rodents. To test this hypothesis male and female 129/Sv mice were s.c. injected with metformin (100 mg/kg) at the 3rd, 5th and 7th days after birth. Metformin-treated males consumed less food and water and their body weight was decreased as compared with control mice practically over their entire lifespan. There were no significant differences in age-related dynamics of food and water consumption in females and they were heavier than controls. The fraction of mice with regular estrous cycles decreased with age and demonstrated a tendency to decrease in the females neonatally treated with metformin. Neonatal exposure to metformin practically failed to change the extent of hormonal and metabolic parameters in blood serum of male and female mice. In males, neonatal metformin treatment significantly increased the mean life span (+20%, P < 0.05) and slightly increased the maximum life span (+3.5%). In females, the mean life span and median in metformin-treated groups were slightly decreased (-9.1% and -13.8% respectively, P > 0.05) in comparison to controls, whereas mean life span of last 10% survivors and maximum life span were the same as in controls. Almost half (45%) of control male mice and 71.8% male mice neonatally exposed to metformin survived up to 800 d of age, the same age was achieved by 54.3% of mice in control female group and 30% of metformin-treated females (P < 0.03). Thus, neonatal metformin exposure slows down aging and prolongs lifespan in male but not in female mice. PMID:25483062

  6. Studies on the phosphorylation of the oncogene product p53 and the large tumor antigen of SV40

    SciTech Connect

    Samad, A.H.

    1987-01-01

    Since the role of phosphorylation in modulation of oncogene function is largely unknown, an attempt was made to precisely map and chemically characterize the phosphates on p53. Starting with p53 prepared by immunoprecipitation and SDS-PAGE from /sup 32/P-labeled SV40-transformed 3T3 cells, we have found: (a) a minimum of 4 phosphorylation sites. Separation of tryptic phosphopeptides by HPLC has allowed sequence identification of 2 sites as Serine-312 and Serine-389. One additional threonine and one serine site reside in the first 100 amino-terminal residues; (b) the chemical reactivity of p53 supports the presence of phosphomonoesters, but not phosphoamides or acylphosphates; (c) phosphate on Ser-389 is largely resistant to both alkaline phosphatase (AP) and alkali hydrolyses, and liberates four ribonucleoside monophosphates upon alkali or RNase hydrolysis; (d) in further support of covalent linkage to RNA, variation in proteolytic digestion of the Ser-389 peptide alters both the elution from HPLC, and the electrophoretic migration, of the bound RNA, and conversely, RNase hydrolysis of the RNA alters the elution from HPLC, and the electrophoretic migration, of the bound peptide. Also, digestion with AP renders the SER-389 peptide retained on a boronate HPLC column possessing an affinity for cis-diols, while the undigested peptide is unretained; (e) Ser-312 exists as 3 charged forms; (f) one of the aminoterminal phosphates is metabolically labile, with a half-life of less than 3 hours, contrasted with a protein half-life of nearly 24 hours.

  7. Measurement of vibrational energy transfer of OH (A2S+,v'=1?0) in low-pressure flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartlieb, A. T.; Markus, D.; Kreutner, W.; Kohse-Höinghaus, K.

    1997-07-01

    Vibrational energy transfer (VET) and electronic quenching of OH (A2D+) was measured in a low-pressure H2/O2 flame for three rotational levels of OH (v'=1). Rate coefficients for collisions with H2O and N2 were determined. At 1600 K, kVET (N2) is (in 10-11 cm3s-1) 10.1DŽ, 6.1ǃ.8, and 3.8ǃ.3 for N'=0, 5, and 13, respectively. The kVET (H2O) is <1.1ǃ.8. The kQ (N2) is <2.4NJ for both vibrational levels. The kQ (H2O) in v'=1 is 59.1Lj.5, 54.7Lj.4, and 54.9Lj.6 for N'=0, 5, and 13, respectively, and, determined indirectly, 74.6ᆞ.4, 70.6ᆞ.3, and 63.4lj.3 for N'=0, 5, and 13 in v'=0. A multi-level model of OH population dynamics, which is being developed for the quantitative simulation of experimental LIF spectra, was extended to include VET. It was attempted to simulate state-to-state-specific VET coefficients for N2 collisions. From these simulations it appears that angular momentum conservation does not determine the N dependence of the vibrational relaxation step.

  8. Seasonal radon measurements in Darbandikhan Lake water resources at Kurdistan region-northeastern of Iraq

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafir, Adeeb Omer; Ahmad, Ali Hassan; Saridan, Wan Muhamad

    2016-03-01

    A total of 164 water samples were collected from Darbandikhan Lake with their different resources (spring, stream, and lake) during the four seasons, and the measurements were carried out using the electronic RAD 7 detector. For spring water the average radon concentration for spring, summer, autumn and summer were found to be 8.21 Bq/1, 8.94 Bq/1, 7.422 Bq/1, and 8.06 Bq/1, respectively, while for lake and streams the average values were found to be 0.43 Bq/1, 0.877 Bq/1, 0.727 Bq/1, 0.575 Bq/1 respectively. The radon concentration level was higher in summer and lower in spring, and only two samples from spring water have radon concentrations more than 11.1 Bq/1 recommended by the EPA. Total annual effective dose due to ingestion and inhalation has been estimated, the mean annual effective dose during the whole year for spring water was 0.022 mSv/y while for lake with streams was 0.00157 mSv/y. The determined mean annual effective dose in water was lower than the 0.1 mSv/y recommended by WHO. Some physicochemical parameters were measured and no correlation was found between them and radon concentration except for the conductivity of the spring drinking water which reveals a strong correlation for the four seasons.

  9. Deoxyribonuclease II as a probe to sequence-specific chromatin organization: preferential cleavage in the 72 bp modulator sequence of SV40 minichromosome.

    PubMed Central

    Shakhov, A N; Nedospasov, S A; Georgiev, G P

    1982-01-01

    T prove sequence-specific chromatin structure of SV40 minichromosome, we further modified previously described hybridization mapping. Actually (i) the digestion patterns by two nucleases (micrococcal and DNAase II) were compared and (ii) the kinetics of nuclease digestion was analyzed from early time points when only a fraction of minichromosomes was cleaved once to longer digestions when oligo- and mononucleosomal bands appeared. DNAase II is shown to possess certain sequence specificity different from that of micrococcal nuclease. The major finding is that DNAase II preferentially cleaves the SV40 minichromosome at a distinct region of the genome known as 72 bp modulator element. Other hypersensitive sites are located near the replication origin and T-ag binding site II and also near BamHI site where termination of replication and "late" transcription occurs. Micrococcal nuclease splits the BglI-Hpaii region in a different manner. Images PMID:6287427

  10. Isolation and expression analysis of peanut chlorotic streak caulimovirus (PClSV) full-length transcript (FLt) promoter in transgenic plants.

    PubMed

    Maiti, I B; Shepherd, R J

    1998-03-17

    A promoter fragment from peanut chlorotic streak caulimovirus (PClSV) full-length transcript (FLt) was identified and later modified to have duplicated enhancer domain. The FLt promoter with its single or double enhancer domains, fused with the GUS reporter gene to form chimeric gene constructs, showed a high level of expression of these genes in cells and transgenic plants. The FLt promoter with its double enhancer domain gives an average threefold greater expression of genes compared to the FLt promoter with its single enhancer domain in transgenic plants. In young seedlings the expression was in the order root > leaf > stem. The histochemical GUS assay in young seedlings showed more activity in root tips and leaf midribs, veins, and other vascular tissues. The expression from the PClSV FLt promoter was compared with that from the figwort mosaic virus promoter in transgenic plants. These constitutive promoters were comparable in respect to GUS expression level. PMID:9514942

  11. Stimulation of in vitro transcription from the SV40 early promoter by the enhancer involves a specific trans-acting factor.

    PubMed Central

    Wildeman, A G; Sassone-Corsi, P; Grundström, T; Zenke, M; Chambon, P

    1984-01-01

    A nuclear extract prepared from HeLa cells has been used to study in vitro the transcription of the SV40 early promoter. The deletion of the enhancer results in a strong decrease of transcription, with spermidine and MgCl2 being critical variables in the transcription reactions. Furthermore a competition assay indicates that the stimulation by the enhancer is due to a specific trans-acting factor(s) which acts on it. This factor appears not to interact with SV40 or adenovirus-2 major late upstream (distal) promoter sequences, and its ability to bind to the enhancer is diminished by mutations known to decrease enhancer function in vivo and in vitro. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:6098465

  12. The SV40 large T antigen and adenovirus E1a oncoproteins interact with distinct isoforms of the transcriptional co-activator, p300.

    PubMed Central

    Avantaggiati, M L; Carbone, M; Graessmann, A; Nakatani, Y; Howard, B; Levine, A S

    1996-01-01

    p300 is a nuclear phosphoprotein likely to be involved in the control of cell growth. Here we show that SV40 large T antigen (Tag) forms a specific complex with p300. In various Tag-expressing cell lines, the affinity of Tag for p300 was restricted to a newly identified unphosphorylated but ubiquitinated form of the protein. Further, Tag did not associate with p300 in an SV40 Tag-producing cell line (REV2) in which the original transformed phenotype (SV52) is reverted. Biochemical studies demonstrate that both the phosphorylation and the ubiquitination profile of p300 are altered in REV2 with respect to the wild-type fully transformed SV52 parental cells, wherein Tag-p300 complexes are readily detected. In contrast to Tag, the adenovirus early expression product E1a interacts with both phosphorylated and unphosphorylated forms of p300. In addition, when REV2 cells were infected with adenovirus, E1a-p300 complexes were detected, suggesting that the p300 expressed in REV2 has lost the affinity for Tag, but not for E1a. We then compared the ability of Tag and E1a to affect the transcription levels of the cAMP-responsive promoter (CRE), which is modulated in vivo by p300, in REV2 cells. We found that Tag repressed the CRE promoter in all of the cell lines in which Tag-p300 complexes were detected, but not in REV2 cells. In contrast, E1a efficiently inhibited CRE-directed transcription in this cell line. The data thus indicate that the different specificities exhibited by Tag and E1a towards the various forms of p300 are reflected in vivo as a difference in the ability of these viral oncoproteins to modulate the expression of CRE-containing genes. Images PMID:8641289

  13. A direct analysis of transcribed minichromosomes: all transcribed SV40 minichromosomes have a nuclease-hypersensitive region within a nucleosome-free domain.

    PubMed Central

    Choder, M; Bratosin, S; Aloni, Y

    1984-01-01

    A direct quantitative method was developed for detecting a small fraction of minichromosomes active in transcription and for analyzing their chromatin structure. For this, SV40 minichromosomes were incubated in vitro in the presence of [alpha-32P]UTP to allow elongation of the in vivo pre-initiated nascent RNA and thus labeling of the in vivo transcriptionally active molecules. Subsequently the minichromosomes were treated with Sarkosyl to remove most of the proteins bound to the viral DNA while leaving the 32P-labeled RNA-DNA-polymerase ternary complexes intact. Following agarose gel electrophoresis, the bulk SV40 DNA was identified by staining with ethidium bromide and the labeled ternary complexes by autoradiography, although they are not well separated in the gel. When the viral minichromosomes were cleaved with certain restriction enzymes or mildly with DNase I prior to the in vitro labeling and Sarkosyl treatment, analysis by gel electrophoresis showed that all transcriptionally active minichromosomes were cleaved, whereas a large fraction of the bulk minichromosomes was resistant to cleavage. In all molecules the cleavage occurred within the transcriptional regulatory region. In addition, analysis by electron microscopy revealed that SV40 minichromosomes having a nucleosome-free region (gap) are also more sensitive to the initial cleavage by both DNase I and Bg/I restriction enzyme than non-gapped molecules and that the initial DNase I cleavage occurs within the gap. Thus, at least in SV40, the nuclease-hypersensitive region is positively correlated with the existence of a gap. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:6098456

  14. B-DNA to Z-DNA structural transitions in the SV40 enhancer: stabilization of Z-DNA in negatively supercoiled DNA minicircles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruskin, E. A.; Rich, A.

    1993-01-01

    During replication and transcription, the SV40 control region is subjected to significant levels of DNA unwinding. There are three, alternating purine-pyrimidine tracts within this region that can adopt the Z-DNA conformation in response to negative superhelix density: a single copy of ACACACAT and two copies of ATGCATGC. Since the control region is essential for both efficient transcription and replication, B-DNA to Z-DNA transitions in these vital sequence tracts may have significant biological consequences. We have synthesized DNA minicircles to detect B-DNA to Z-DNA transitions in the SV40 enhancer, and to determine the negative superhelix density required to stabilize the Z-DNA. A variety of DNA sequences, including the entire SV40 enhancer and the two segments of the enhancer with alternating purine-pyrimidine tracts, were incorporated into topologically relaxed minicircles. Negative supercoils were generated, and the resulting topoisomers were resolved by electrophoresis. Using an anti-Z-DNA Fab and an electrophoretic mobility shift assay, Z-DNA was detected in the enhancer-containing minicircles at a superhelix density of -0.05. Fab saturation binding experiments demonstrated that three, independent Z-DNA tracts were stabilized in the supercoiled minicircles. Two other minicircles, each with one of the two alternating purine-pyrimidine tracts, also contained single Z-DNA sites. These results confirm the identities of the Z-DNA-forming sequences within the control region. Moreover, the B-DNA to Z-DNA transitions were detected at superhelix densities observed during normal replication and transcription processes in the SV40 life cycle.

  15. Protein encoded by HSV-1 stimulation-related gene 1 (HSRG1) interacts with and inhibits SV40 large T antigen.

    PubMed

    Guo, H X; Cun, W; Liu, L D; Dong, S Z; Wang, L C; Dong, C H; Li, Q H

    2006-12-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 stimulation-related gene 1 (HSRG1) protein expression is induced in HSV-1 infected cells. We found that HSRG1 interacts with SV40 large T antigen (LT) in yeast two-hybrid assay and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assay. This interaction alters LT's regulation of the SV40 promoter and its ability to influence the cell cycle. Choramphenicol acetyl-transferase (CAT) assays revealed that initiation of gene transcription by LT is changed by HSRG1 expression. HSRG1 inhibits the ability of LT to activate SV40 late gene transcription. Further data indicate that the ability of LT protein to stimulate S-phase entry is also inhibited by the expression of HSRG1. The results of a colony-forming assay suggested that expression of HSRG1 in cells transfected by LT gene decreased the rate of colony formation. Yeast two-hybrid beta-galactosidase assay revealed that amino acid residues 132-450 in LT bind HSRG1. PMID:17109635

  16. 250 mSv: temporary increase in the emergency exposure dose limit in response to the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident and its decision making process.

    PubMed

    Yasui, Shojiro

    2015-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, led to an accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant of the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO). In response to this accident, on March 14, 2011, the Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare (MHLW) of Japan enforced an ordinance that temporarily increased the radiation exposure dose limit allowed to 250 mSv during the emergency. This article explains the processes of a) temporarily increasing emergency dose limits, b) controlling for the combined emergency and normal exposure doses, and c) reducing the limit back to 100 mSv. Major issues addressed when deliberating the reduction of the emergency limits includes the following: a) political initiative, b) a phased reduction of dose limits, and c) transitional measures for workers who were exposed to more than 100 mSv. This article also identifies key challenges that need further deliberation to be resolved. These include: a) establishing a pre-defined protocol for applying pre-accident emergency dose limits and/or amending post-accident limits; b) designating the conditions in which to apply or amend emergency dose limits; c) selecting methods of radiation control for individuals who are exposed to more than the normal exposure dose limit during emergency work; and d) designating the conditions under which to terminate or reduce emergency dose limits after the accident. PMID:25436995

  17. Behavioral responses of 129/Sv, C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice to a non-predator aversive olfactory stimulus.

    PubMed

    Capone, Francesca; Venerosi, Aldina; Puopolo, Maria; Alleva, Enrico; Cirulli, Francesca

    2005-01-01

    We examined the behavior of three inbred mouse strains (129/SvPasIco, C57BL/6J, and DBA/2J) exposed to an object soaked with the chemical component of the aversive scent (toluquinone odor) emitted by a myriapod species (Ommatoiulus sabulosus) in the presence of a predator. Subjects were exposed to the odor for three consecutive days. Behavioral responses to the toluquinone odor were characterized both by an approach phase of risk assessment and by a repeated series of approach-avoid episodes. Results indicate that toluquinone exposure reduced completely, and in a strain independent fashion, selected behaviors such as crouching, catching and eating object. Other responses were strain-dependent: the DBA (DBA/2J) strain displayed defensive burying at high levels, C57 (C57BL/6J) mice performed high levels of withdrawal while the 129/Sv (129/SvPasIco) strain showed also high levels of stretch attend posture. Compared to other tasks, this test is ethological, simple, cheap and is not affected by strain differences in appetitive-sensory responses, as shown by some strain-independent responses. These features make this task as a good complement to any exploration-anxiety test battery. PMID:15794029

  18. Sex differences in aging, life span and spontaneous tumorigenesis in 129/Sv mice neonatally exposed to metformin

    PubMed Central

    Anisimov, Vladimir N; Popovich, Irina G; Zabezhinski, Mark A; Egormin, Peter A; Yurova, Maria N; Semenchenko, Anna V; Tyndyk, Margarita L; Panchenko, Andrey V; Trashkov, Alexandr P; Vasiliev, Andrey G; Khaitsev, Nikolai V

    2015-01-01

    The perinatal (prenatal and early neonatal) period is a critical stage for hypothalamic programming of sexual differentiation as well as for the development of energy and metabolic homeostasis. We hypothesized that neonatal treatment with antidiabetic drug biguanide metformin would positively modify regulation of growth hormone – IGF-1 – insulin signaling pathway slowing down aging and improving cancer preventive patterns in rodents. To test this hypothesis male and female 129/Sv mice were s.c. injected with metformin (100 mg/kg) at the 3rd, 5th and 7th days after birth. Metformin-treated males consumed less food and water and their body weight was decreased as compared with control mice practically over their entire lifespan. There were no significant differences in age-related dynamics of food and water consumption in females and they were heavier than controls. The fraction of mice with regular estrous cycles decreased with age and demonstrated a tendency to decrease in the females neonatally treated with metformin. Neonatal exposure to metformin practically failed to change the extent of hormonal and metabolic parameters in blood serum of male and female mice. In males, neonatal metformin treatment significantly increased the mean life span (+20%, P < 0.05) and slightly increased the maximum life span (+3.5%). In females, the mean life span and median in metformin-treated groups were slightly decreased (−9.1% and −13.8% respectively, P > 0.05) in comparison to controls, whereas mean life span of last 10% survivors and maximum life span were the same as in controls. Almost half (45%) of control male mice and 71.8% male mice neonatally exposed to metformin survived up to 800 d of age, the same age was achieved by 54.3% of mice in control female group and 30% of metformin-treated females (P < 0.03). Thus, neonatal metformin exposure slows down aging and prolongs lifespan in male but not in female mice. PMID:25483062

  19. Sex differences in aging, life span and spontaneous tumorigenesis in 129/Sv mice neonatally exposed to metformin

    PubMed Central

    Anisimov, Vladimir N; Popovich, Irina G; Zabezhinski, Mark A; Egormin, Peter A; Yurova, Maria N; Semenchenko, Anna V; Tyndyk, Margarita L; Panchenko, Andrey V; Trashkov, Alexandr P; Vasiliev, Andrey G; Khaitsev, Nikolai V

    2015-01-01

    The perinatal (prenatal and early neonatal) period is a critical stage for hypothalamic programming of sexual differentiation as well as for the development of energy and metabolic homeostasis. We hypothesized that neonatal treatment with antidiabetic drug biguanide metformin would positively modify regulation of growth hormone – IGF-1 – insulin signaling pathway slowing down aging and improving cancer preventive patterns in rodents. To test this hypothesis male and female 129/Sv mice were s.c. injected with metformin (100 mg/kg) at the 3rd, 5th and 7th days after birth. Metformin-treated males consumed less food and water and their body weight was decreased as compared with control mice practically over their entire lifespan. There were no significant differences in age-related dynamics of food and water consumption in females and they were heavier than controls. The fraction of mice with regular estrous cycles decreased with age and demonstrated a tendency to decrease in the females neonatally treated with metformin. Neonatal exposure to metformin practically failed to change the extent of hormonal and metabolic parameters in blood serum of male and female mice. In males, neonatal metformin treatment significantly increased the mean life span (+20%, P < 0.05) and slightly increased the maximum life span (+3.5%). In females, the mean life span and median in metformin-treated groups were slightly decreased (−9.1% and −13.8% respectively, P > 0.05) in comparison to controls, whereas mean life span of last 10% survivors and maximum life span were the same as in controls. Almost half (45%) of control male mice and 71.8% male mice neonatally exposed to metformin survived up to 800 d of age, the same age was achieved by 54.3% of mice in control female group and 30% of metformin-treated females (P < 0.03). Thus, neonatal metformin exposure slows down aging and prolongs lifespan in male but not in female mice.

  20. Benzoic Acid Catalyzed Annulations of α-Amino Acids and Aromatic Aldehydes Containing an ortho-Michael Acceptor: Access to 2,5-Dihydro-1H-benzo[c]azepines and 10,11-Dihydro-5H-benzo[e]pyrrolo[1,2-a]azepines.

    PubMed

    Tang, Mi; Tong, Lingfeng; Ju, Lei; Zhai, Wanwan; Hu, Yang; Yu, Xinhong

    2015-11-01

    A novel one-pot efficient synthesis of 2,5-dihydro-1H-benzo[c]azepines and 10,11-dihydro-5H-benzo[e]pyrrolo[1,2-a]azepines from α-amino acids and aromatic aldehydes containing an ortho-Michael acceptor is reported via decarboxylative annulations without metal catalysts in yields of 52-91%. Under microwave irradiation, this protocol provides rapid access to polycyclic ring systems (only 5 min in most cases). PMID:26488671

  1. Source locations of teleseismic P, SV, and SH waves observed in microseisms recorded by a large aperture seismic array in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qiaoxia; Koper, Keith D.; Burlacu, Relu; Ni, Sidao; Wang, Fuyun; Zou, Changqiao; Wei, Yunhao; Gal, Martin; Reading, Anya M.

    2016-09-01

    Transversely polarized seismic waves are routinely observed in ambient seismic energy across a wide range of periods, however their origin is poorly understood because the corresponding source regions are either undefined or weakly constrained, and nearly all models of microseism generation incorporate a vertically oriented single force as the excitation mechanism. To better understand the origin of transversely polarized energy in the ambient seismic wavefield we make the first systematic attempt to locate the source regions of teleseismic SH waves observed in microseismic (2.5-20 s) noise. We focus on body waves instead of surface waves because the source regions can be constrained in both azimuth and distance using conventional array techniques. To locate microseismic sources of SH waves (as well as SV and P waves) we continuously backproject the vertical, radial, and transverse components of the ambient seismic wavefield recorded by a large-aperture array deployed in China during 2013-2014. As expected, persistent P wave sources are observed in the North Atlantic, North Pacific, and Indian Oceans, mainly at periods of 2.5-10 s, in regions with the strong ocean wave interactions needed to produce secondary microseisms. SV waves are commonly observed to originate from locations indistinguishable from the P wave sources, but with smaller signal-to-noise ratios. We also observe SH waves with about half or less the signal-to-noise ratio of SV waves. SH source regions are definitively located in deep water portions of the Pacific, away from the sloping continental shelves that are thought to be important for the generation of microseismic Love waves, but nearby regions that routinely generate teleseismic P waves. The excitation mechanism for the observed SH waves may therefore be related to the interaction of P waves with small-wavelength bathymetric features, such as seamounts and basins, through some sort of scattering process.

  2. Upregulation of miR-27a contributes to the malignant transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells induced by SV40 small T antigen.

    PubMed

    Wang, Q; Li, D-C; Li, Z-F; Liu, C-X; Xiao, Y-M; Zhang, B; Li, X-D; Zhao, J; Chen, L-P; Xing, X-M; Tang, S-F; Lin, Y-C; Lai, Y-D; Yang, P; Zeng, J-L; Xiao, Q; Zeng, X-W; Lin, Z-N; Zhuang, Z-X; Zhuang, S-M; Chen, W

    2011-09-01

    The introduction of the Simian virus 40 (SV40) early region, the telomerase catalytic subunit (hTERT) and an oncogenic allele of H-Ras directly transforms primary human cells. SV40 small T antigen (ST), which forms a complex with protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) and inhibits PP2A activity, is believed to have a critical role in the malignant transformation of human cells. Recent evidence has shown that aberrant microRNA (miRNA) expression patterns are correlated with cancer development. Here, we identified miR-27a as a differentially expressed miRNA in SV40 ST-expressing cells. miR-27a is upregulated in SV40 ST-transformed human bronchial epithelial cells (HBERST). Suppression of miR-27a expression in HBERST cells or lung cancer cell lines (NCI-H226 and SK-MES-1) that exhibited high levels of miR-27a expression lead to cell growth arrested in the G(0)-G(1) phase. In addition, suppression of miR-27a in HBERST cells attenuated the capacity of such cells to grow in an anchorage-independent manner. We also found that suppression of the PP2A B56γ expression resulted in upregulation of miR-27a similar to that achieved by the introduction of ST, indicating that dysregulation of miR-27a expression in ST-expressing cells was mediated by the ST-PP2A interaction. Moreover, we discovered that Fbxw7 gene encoding F-box/WD repeat-containing protein 7 was a potential miR-27a target validated by dual-luciferase reporter system analysis. The inverse correlation between miR-27a expression levels and Fbxw7 protein expression was further confirmed in both cell models and human tumor samples. Fbxw7 regulates cell-cycle progression through the ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis of a set of substrates, including c-Myc, c-Jun, cyclin E1 and Notch 1. Thus, promotion of cell growth arising from the suppression of Fbxw7 by miR-27a overexpression might be responsible for the viral oncoprotein ST-induced malignant transformation. These observations demonstrate that miR-27a functions as an oncogene

  3. Postnatal training of 129/Sv mice confirms the long-term influence of early exercising on the motor properties of mice.

    PubMed

    Serradj, Najet; Jamon, Marc

    2016-09-01

    A previous study showed that motor experiences during critical periods of development durably affect the motor properties of adult C57BL/6J mice. However, dependence on early environmental features may vary with the genetic profile. To evaluate the contribution of the genetic background on external influences to motricity, we performed the same experiment in a 129/Sv mouse strain that show a strongly different motor profile. Mice were subjected to endurance training (enriched environment or forced treadmill), hypergravity (chronic centrifugation), or simulated microgravity (hindlimb unloading) between postnatal days 10 and 30. They were then returned to standard housing until testing at the age of nine months. The endurance-trained mice showed a fast-slow shift in the deep zone of the tibialis. In addition, mice reared in the enriched environment showed a modified gait and body posture, and improved performance on the rotarod, whereas forced treadmill training did not affect motor output. Hypergravity induced a fast-slow shift in the superficial zone of the tibialis, with no consequence on motor output. Hindlimb unloading provoked an increased percentage of immature hybrid fibres in the tibialis and a shift in the soleus muscle. When compared with similarly reared C57BL/6J mice, 129/Sv mice showed qualitative differences attributable to the lower efficiency of early training due to their lower basal motor activity level. Nevertheless, the results are essentially consistent in both strains, and support the hypothesis that early motor experience influences the muscle phenotype and motor output. PMID:27130139

  4. An ATF/CREB binding motif is required for aberrant constitutive expression of the MHC class II DR alpha promoter and activation by SV40 T-antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Cox, P M; Goding, C R

    1992-01-01

    Constitutive expression of major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) antigens normally occurs in B-lymphocytes and antigen presenting cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. However, many malignant tumours and transformed cells express these proteins aberrantly. We demonstrate here that the MHC II DR alpha promoter is constitutively active both in the SV40 large T antigen transformed cell line, COS, and in CV1 cells from which they are derived. As an approach to understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying aberrant DR alpha expression we have examined the cis- and trans-acting requirements for DR alpha transcription in these cell types. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that the region immediately 3' to the X-box was bound by a member of the ATF/CREB family of transcription factors. Using deletions and point mutations in the DR alpha promoter we demonstrate that, in contrast to B-cells, the octamer motif and conserved X- and Y-boxes make only a minor contribution to promoter function while single point mutations in the ATF/CREB motif reduced transcription up to 20-fold. In addition, we show that the DR alpha promoter is activated by SV40 large T-antigen and that activation requires an intact ATF/CREB motif. Similar data were obtained using B16 melanoma cells. These results suggest that the ATF/CREB motif may be a target for transcription deregulation in several transformed cell types. Images PMID:1329030

  5. Deletions in the SV40 late polyadenylation region downstream of the AATAAA mediate similar effects on expression in various mammalian cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Gimmi, E R; Soprano, K J; Rosenberg, M; Reff, M E

    1988-01-01

    A series of deletions in the SV40 late polyadenylation region was assayed by transient expression in a hamster fibroblast cell line. Because of differences in expression data between our results and the published results of another laboratory using a similar set of deletions introduced into a monkey kidney cell line, we studied our deletions in cells of different tissue-types and species (1). Deletion of the SV40 late polyadenylation region to 49 nucleotides downstream of the hexanucleotide AATAAA showed a small effect on gene expression, while further truncation of the region to 6 nucleotides downstream of the AATAAA showed an 85% drop in marker enzyme activity, protein levels and steady-state message levels. Another deletion in the same region, from base pair 10 to 15 past the AATAAA, which removes the wild-type site of RNA cleavage, showed a 50% drop in marker gene expression. The effects of these mutants on gene expression were similar in all of the cell lines tested and agree with other studies that DNA downstream of the AATAAA plays a role in efficient gene expression. Images PMID:2845363

  6. 27 CFR 10.11 - Meaning of terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., Delegation of the Administrator's Authorities in 27 CFR Part 10, Commercial Bribery. Industry member. Any person engaged in business as a distiller, brewer, recitifier, blender, or other producer, or as...

  7. Environmental Scanning Workshop (Lansing, Michigan, June 10-11, 1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, James L.

    This publication presents an environmental scanning workshop for administrators in higher education institutions to help them incorporate environmental scanning into their planning and anticipation of future events. In particular, the workshop shows how to establish and sustain a comprehensive environmental scanning system and how to use the…

  8. Photometric activity of UX Ori stars and related objects in the near infrared and visual. BF Ori, CQ Tau, WW Vul, and SV Cep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shenavrin, V. I.; Grinin, V. P.; Rostopchina-Shakhovskaja, A. N.; Demidova, T. V.; Shakhovskoi, D. N.

    2012-05-01

    We have analyzed the activity of four UX Ori stars in the near-IR ( JHKL) and visual ( V) using the results of long-term photometric observations. For comparison, we also obtained IR ( JHKLM) photometric observations of two visually quiet young stars of close spectral types (AB Aur and HD 190073). For the photometrically most active UX Ori stars BF Ori, CQ Tau, and WW Vul, the Algol-like declines of brightness in the visual, which are due to sporadic enhancements of the circumstellar extinction, are also observed (with decreasing amplitude) in the IR bands. A strict correlation between the V and J brightness variations is observed for all the stars except for SV Cep. For some of the UX Ori stars, a strong correlation between the visual and IR activity is observed up to L, where the main contribution to the emission is made by circumstellar dust. In the case of SV Cep, the visual variability is not correlated with the variability of the IR fluxes. On one occasion, a clear anti-correlation was even observed: a shallow, but prolonged decrease of the visual brightness was accompanied by an increase in the IR fluxes. This indicates that circumstellar clouds themselves can become powerful sources of IR emission. Our results provide evidence that the photometric activity of UX Ori stars is a consequence of instability of the deepest layers of their gas-dust accretion disks. In some cases (SV Cep), fluctuations of the density in this region are global, in the sense that they occur along a significant part of the circle marking the inner boundary of the dust disk. It is interesting that AB Aur, which is the quietest in the visual, appeared to be the most active in the IR. In contrast to UX Ori stars, the amplitude of its brightness variations increases from the J to the M band. It follows from analysis of the IR colors of this star that their variability cannot be described by models in which the variable IR emission has a temperature close to the sublimation temperature of

  9. The JC and BK human polyoma viruses appear to be recent introductions to some South American Indian tribes: There is no serological evidence of cross-reactivity with the simian polyoma virus SV40

    PubMed Central

    Major, Eugene O.; Neel, James V.

    1998-01-01

    In an effort to understand the unusual cytogenetic damage earlier encountered in the Yanomama Indians, plasma samples from 425 Amerindians representing 14 tribes have been tested for hemagglutination inhibition antibodies to the human JC polyoma virus and from 369 Amerinds from 13 tribes for hemagglutination inhibition antibodies to the human BK polyoma virus. There is for both viruses highly significant heterogeneity between tribes for the prevalence of serum antibody titers ≥1/40, the pattern of infection suggesting that these two viruses only relatively recently have been introduced into some of these tribes. Some of these samples, from populations with no known exposure to the simian polyoma virus SV40, also were tested for antibodies to this virus by using an immunospot assay. In contrast to the findings of Brown et al. (Brown, P., Tsai, T. & Gajdusek, D. C. (1975) Am. J. Epidemiol. 102, 331–340), none of the samples was found to possess antibodies to SV40. In addition, no significant titers to SV40 were found in a sample of 97 Japanese adults, many of whom had been found to exhibit elevated titers to the JC and BK viruses. This study thus suggests that these human sera contain significant antibody titers to the human polyoma viruses JC and BK but do not appear to contain either cross-reactive antibodies to SV40 or primary antibodies resulting from SV40 infection. PMID:9861002

  10. Boletin de Informacion Educativa, Ano VI, No. 10/11 (Educational Information Bulletin, Volume VI, No. 10/11).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerio de Educacion y Cultura, Santa Fe (Argentina). Centro de Documentacion e Informacion Educativa de la Provincia de Santa Fe.

    This information bulletin is published by the Documentation and Educational Information Center in the Argentine province of Santa Fe. The bulletin reports on educational developments in the province and abroad, educational problems, statistics, legislation, documentation and information techniques, and information from international organizations.…

  11. Progressive paralysis associated with diffuse astrocyte anaplasia in delta 202 mice homozygous for a transgene encoding the SV40 T antigen.

    PubMed

    López-Revilla, Rubén; Soto-Zárate, Carlos; Ridaura, Cecilia; Chávez-Dueñas, Lucía; Paul, Dieter

    2004-03-01

    A convenient transgenic astrocytoma model in delta202 mice, homozygous for a construct encoding the early region of the SV40 virus genome, is described. In the offspring of crosses between delta202 mice heterozygous for the transgene nearly 60% were transgenic; one third of these developed progressive paralysis starting in the hindlimbs at approximately 35 days of age and died at 90 +/- 30 days of age. In affected mice proliferating-non-neuronal cells immunostained with antibodies to the GFAP, an astrocyte marker, whose number increased with age were found in the white matter of the brain, cerebellum and spinal cord, and progressive degeneration and necrosis of spinal motoneurons was observed that-may explain the paralysis. The early onset and reproducible time course of the neurological disease suggest that homozygous delta202 mice, whose proliferating astrocytes appear to damage spinal motoneurons, are a useful model to study astrocyte differentiation, function and tumorigenesis. PMID:15068170

  12. The propagation of in-plane P-SV waves in a layered elastic plate with periodic interface cracks: exact versus spring boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvasha, Oleg V.; Boström, Anders; Glushkova, Natalia V.; Glushkov, Evgeny V.

    2011-08-01

    The propagation of in-plane (P-SV) waves in a symmetrically three-layered thick plate with a periodic array of interface cracks is investigated. The exact dispersion relation is derived based on an integral equation approach and Floquet's theorem. The interface cracks can be a model for interface damage, but a much simpler model is a recently developed spring boundary condition. This boundary condition is used for the thick plate and also in the derivation of plate equations with the help of power series expansions in the thickness coordinate. For low frequencies (cracks small compared to the wavelength) the three approaches give more or less coinciding dispersion curves, and this is a confirmation that the spring boundary condition is a reasonable approximation at low frequencies.

  13. Diagnostic accuracy of sub-mSv prospective ECG-triggering cardiac CT in young infant with complex congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Gao, Wei; Zhong, Yu Min; Sun, Ai Min; Wang, Qian; Ouyang, Rong Zhen; Hu, Li Wei; Qiu, Han Sheng; Wang, Shi Yu; Li, Jian Ying

    2016-06-01

    To explore the clinical value and evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of sub-mSv low-dose prospective ECG-triggering cardiac CT (CCT) in young infants with complex congenital heart disease (CHD). A total of 102 consecutive infant patients (53 boys and 49 girls with mean age of 2.9 ± 2.4 m and weight less than 5 kg) with complex CHD were prospectively enrolled. Scans were performed on a 64-slice high definition CT scanner with low dose prospective ECG-triggering mode and reconstructed with 80 % adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction algorithm. All studies were performed during free breathing with sedation. The subjective image quality was evaluated by 5-point grading scale and interobserver variability was calculated. The objective image noise (standard deviation, SD) and contrast to noise ratio (CNR) was calculated. The effective radiation dose from the prospective ECG-triggering mode was recorded and compared with the virtual conventional retrospective ECG-gating mode. The detection rate for the origin of coronary artery was calculated. All patients also underwent echocardiography before CCT examination. 81 patients had surgery and their preoperative CCT and echocardiography findings were compared with the surgical results and sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and accuracy were calculated for separate cardiovascular anomalies. Heart rates were 70-161 beats per minute (bpm) with mean value of 129.19 ± 14.52 bpm. The effective dose of 0.53 ± 0.15 mSv in the prospective ECG-triggering cardiac CT was lower than the calculated value in a conventional retrospective ECG-gating mode (2.00 ± 0.35 mSv) (p < 0.001). The mean CNR and SD were 28.19 ± 13.00 and 15.75 ± 3.61HU, respectively. The image quality scores were 4.31 ± 0.36 and 4.29 ± 0.41 from reviewer 1 and 2 respectively with an excellent agreement between them (Kappa = 0.85). The detection rate for the origins of the left and right coronary

  14. Biological insights into the expression of translation initiation factors from recombinant CHOK1SV cell lines and their relationship to enhanced productivity.

    PubMed

    Mead, Emma J; Masterton, Rosalyn J; Feary, Marc; Obrezanova, Olga; Zhang, Lin; Young, Robert; Smales, C Mark

    2015-12-15

    Translation initiation is on the critical pathway for the production of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) by mammalian cells. Formation of a closed loop structure comprised of mRNA, a number of eukaryotic initiation factors (eIFs) and ribosomal proteins has been proposed to aid re-initiation of translation and therefore increase global translational efficiency. We have determined mRNA and protein levels of the key components of the closed loop, eIFs (eIF3a, eIF3b, eIF3c, eIF3h, eIF3i and eIF4G1), poly(A)-binding protein (PABP) 1 and PABP-interacting protein 1 (PAIP1), across a panel of 30 recombinant mAb-producing GS-CHOK1SV cell lines with a broad range of growth characteristics and production levels of a model recombinant mAb. We have used a multi-level statistical approach to investigate the relationship between key performance indicators (cell growth and recombinant antibody productivity) and the intracellular amounts of target translation initiation factor proteins and the mRNAs encoding them. We show that high-producing cell lines maintain amounts of the translation initiation factors involved in the formation of the closed loop mRNA, maintaining these proteins at appropriate levels to deliver enhanced recombinant protein production. We then utilize knowledge of the amounts of these factors to build predictive models for and use cluster analysis to identify, high-producing cell lines. The present study therefore defines the translation initiation factor amounts that are associated with highly productive recombinant GS-CHOK1SV cell lines that may be targets for screening highly productive cell lines or to engineer new host cell lines with the potential for enhanced recombinant antibody productivity. PMID:26420881

  15. Identification and characterization of two critical sequences in SV40PolyA that activate the green fluorescent protein reporter gene.

    PubMed

    Wang, Honggang; Sun, Wuzhuang; Li, Zhu; Wang, Xiufang; Lv, Zhanjun

    2011-07-01

    Alu repeats or Line-1-ORF2 (ORF2) inhibit expression of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene when inserted downstream of this gene in the vector pEGFP-C1. In this work, we studied cis-acting elements that eliminated the repression of GFP gene expression induced by Alu and ORF2 and sequence characteristics of these elements. We found that sense and antisense PolyA of simian virus 40 (SV40PolyA, 240 bp) eliminated the repression of GFP gene expression when inserted between the GFP gene and the Alu (283 bp) repeats or ORF2 (3825 bp) in pAlu14 (14 tandem Alu repeats were inserted downstream of the GFP gene in the vector pEGFP-C1) or pORF2. Antisense SV40PolyA (PolyAas) induced stronger gene expression than its sense orientation (PolyA). Of four 60-bp segments of PolyAas (1F1R, 2F2R, 3F3R and 4F4R) inserted independently into pAlu14, only two (2F2R and 3F3R) eliminated the inhibition of GFP gene expression induced by Alu repeats. Deletion analysis revealed that a 17 nucleotide AT repeat (17ntAT; 5'-AAAAAAATGCTTTATTT-3') in 2F2R and the fragment 3F38d9 (5'-ATAAACAAGTTAACAACA ACAATTGCATT-3') in 3F3R were critical sequences for activating the GFP gene. Sequence and structural analyses showed that 17ntAT and 3F38d9 included imperfect palindromes and may form a variety of unstable stem-loops. We suggest that the presence of imperfect palindromes and unstable stem-loops in DNA enhancer elements plays an important role in GFP gene activation. PMID:21931509

  16. Biochemical method for inserting new genetic information into DNA of Simian Virus 40: circular SV40 DNA molecules containing lambda phage genes and the galactose operon of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Jackson, D A; Symons, R H; Berg, P

    1972-10-01

    We have developed methods for covalently joining duplex DNA molecules to one another and have used these techniques to construct circular dimers of SV40 DNA and to insert a DNA segment containing lambda phage genes and the galactose operon of E. coli into SV40 DNA. The method involves: (a) converting circular SV40 DNA to a linear form, (b) adding single-stranded homodeoxypolymeric extensions of defined composition and length to the 3' ends of one of the DNA strands with the enzyme terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (c) adding complementary homodeoxypolymeric extensions to the other DNA strand, (d) annealing the two DNA molecules to form a circular duplex structure, and (e) filling the gaps and sealing nicks in this structure with E. coli DNA polymerase and DNA ligase to form a covalently closed-circular DNA molecule. PMID:4342968

  17. Biochemical Method for Inserting New Genetic Information into DNA of Simian Virus 40: Circular SV40 DNA Molecules Containing Lambda Phage Genes and the Galactose Operon of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, David A.; Symons, Robert H.; Berg, Paul

    1972-01-01

    We have developed methods for covalently joining duplex DNA molecules to one another and have used these techniques to construct circular dimers of SV40 DNA and to insert a DNA segment containing lambda phage genes and the galactose operon of E. coli into SV40 DNA. The method involves: (a) converting circular SV40 DNA to a linear form, (b) adding single-stranded homodeoxypolymeric extensions of defined composition and length to the 3′ ends of one of the DNA strands with the enzyme terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (c) adding complementary homodeoxypolymeric extensions to the other DNA strand, (d) annealing the two DNA molecules to form a circular duplex structure, and (e) filling the gaps and sealing nicks in this structure with E. coli DNA polymerase and DNA ligase to form a covalently closed-circular DNA molecule. PMID:4342968

  18. Metabolomic analysis of normal (C57BL/6J, 129S1/SvImJ) mice by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry: detection of strain and gender differences.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Qian; Li, Tonghua; Sun, Jiangming; Liu, Xiaoyan; Ren, Jianke; Fei, Jian

    2011-07-15

    Previous studies have shown that the C57 and 129 strains of mice display marked differences in behavioural performance, neuroanatomy, neurochemistry and synaptic plasticity. However, few metabolomic studies of their biofluids have been performed. As part of a series of metabolic phenotyping, the effects of gender and strain upon serum metabolite composition and variation are examined in this study using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in normal C57BL/6J and 129S1/SvImJ strains of mice. The 129S1/SvImJ strain is phenotypically distinct from the C57BL/6J strain and characteristic metabotypes are produced for both male and female mice of each strain. These data demonstrate that the C57BL/6J and 129S1/SvImJ strains of mice show a wide range of metabolic differences across glycine, serine and threonine metabolism; valine, leucine and isoleucine biosynthesis; and tricarboxylic acid cycle pathways. Remarkably, the concentration of glyceric acid in the 129S1/SvImJ strain is significantly increased compared to the C57BL/6J mouse strain, reflecting important considerations for studies that use the 129S1/SvImJ mouse as the human d-glycericaciduria model. We infer that a deficiency of d-glycerate kinase would explain such a glyceric acid accumulation in the 129S1/SvImJ strain. More importantly, this differential metabolite level data provide insight into specific metabolic pathways and lay the groundwork for integrated studies of the mouse models. PMID:21645764

  19. SV40 Tag transformation of the normal invasive trophoblast results in a premalignant phenotype. I. Mechanisms responsible for hyperinvasiveness and resistance to anti-invasive action of TGFbeta.

    PubMed

    Khoo, N K; Bechberger, J F; Shepherd, T; Bond, S L; McCrae, K R; Hamilton, G S; Lala, P K

    1998-07-29

    Invasion of the uterus by first trimester human placental extravillous trophoblast (EVT) cells depends on mechanisms shared by malignant cells. However, unlike tumor invasion, trophoblast invasion of the uterus is stringently controlled in situ by local molecules such as transforming growth factor (TGF)beta. Since EVT cells possess active invasion-associated genes but are nontumorigenic, our objective was to induce premalignant and then malignant phenotype into a normal EVT cell line in order to identify the molecular basis of tumor progression. Simian virus 40 large T antigen (SV40 Tag) was introduced into a normal human first trimester invasive EVT cell line, HTR8, established in our laboratory. Since the HTR8 line has a limited in vitro lifespan of 12-15 passages, SV40 Tag-transformed cells were selected on the basis of extended lifespan. A long-lived line, RSVT-2, was produced and an immortalized subclone, RSVT2/C, was further derived under a forced crisis regimen. We examined transformation-induced alterations in proliferative and invasive abilities, responses to the invasion and proliferation-regulating growth factor TGFbeta and changes in gene expression for invasion-associated enzymes or enzyme inhibitors. RSVT-2 and RSVT2/C cell lines were hyperproliferative and hyperinvasive when compared with the parental HTR8 cell line. They were also variably resistant to the anti-proliferative and anti-invasive signals from TGFbeta. Since both cell lines remained non-tumorigenic in nude mice, these properties indicate that they attained a premalignant phenotype. Both cell lines showed reduced expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteases (TIMP)-1, while TIMP-2 and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-I expression was was also reduced in RSVT2/C cells, thus contributing to their hyperinvasiveness. Their resistance to the anti-invasive action of TGFbeta was explained by the failure of TGFbeta to upregulate TIMPs and PAI-I, in contrast to the TGFbeta

  20. SHEAR WAVE SEISMIC STUDY COMPARING 9C3D SV AND SH IMAGES WITH 3C3D C-WAVE IMAGES

    SciTech Connect

    John Beecherl; Bob A. Hardage

    2004-07-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the relative merits of shear-wave (S-wave) seismic data acquired with nine-component (9-C) technology and with three-component (3-C) technology. The original proposal was written as if the investigation would be restricted to a single 9-C seismic survey in southwest Kansas (the Ashland survey), on the basis of the assumption that both 9-C and 3-C S-wave images could be created from that one data set. The Ashland survey was designed as a 9-C seismic program. We found that although the acquisition geometry was adequate for 9-C data analysis, the source-receiver geometry did not allow 3-C data to be extracted on an equitable and competitive basis with 9-C data. To do a fair assessment of the relative value of 9-C and 3-C seismic S-wave data, we expanded the study beyond the Ashland survey and included multicomponent seismic data from surveys done in a variety of basins. These additional data were made available through the Bureau of Economic Geology, our research subcontractor. Bureau scientists have added theoretical analyses to this report that provide valuable insights into several key distinctions between 9-C and 3-C seismic data. These theoretical considerations about distinctions between 3-C and 9-C S-wave data are presented first, followed by a discussion of differences between processing 9-C common-midpoint data and 3-C common-conversion-point data. Examples of 9-C and 3-C data are illustrated and discussed in the last part of the report. The key findings of this study are that each S-wave mode (SH-SH, SV-SV, or PSV) involves a different subsurface illumination pattern and a different reflectivity behavior and that each mode senses a different Earth fabric along its propagation path because of the unique orientation of its particle-displacement vector. As a result of the distinct orientation of each mode's particle-displacement vector, one mode may react to a critical geologic condition in a more optimal way than do

  1. P- and SV-velocity structure of the South Portuguese Zone fold-and-thrust belt, SW Iberia, from traveltime tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmelzbach, C.; Zelt, C. A.; Juhlin, C.; Carbonell, R.

    2008-11-01

    Imaging the architecture of the shallow crust of the South Portuguese Zone fold-and-thrust belt is essential to extend surface mapped geological information to depth and to help in developing models of the ore-bearing Iberian Pyrite Belt part of the Variscan orogeny. The recently acquired IBERSEIS seismic-reflection data set provides, for the first time, detailed images of the entire crust, but source-generated noise masks the earliest reflections and limits the shallowest observed signals to depths >500m. We inverted P- and SV first-arrival traveltimes for the smoothest minimum-structure velocity models, imaging the shallowest few hundreds of metres along four in total ~60-km-long profiles. A comparison of a 2-D and 2.5-D (3-D forward and 2-D inverse problem) crooked-line inversion scheme revealed that the crooked-line geometry has a negligible effect on the final images. Resolution of the final preferred models was assessed on the basis of an extensive series of checkerboard tests, showing a slightly lower resolution capability of the SV-data due to greater data uncertainty, fewer number of picks and more limited source-receiver offsets compared with the P-data. The preferred final models compare favourably with the mapped surface geology, showing relatively high and uniform velocities (>5.25kms-1) for the flysch group in the southern part of the investigation area. Low velocities (~4.5kms-1) are found for the `La Puebla de Guzman antiform' in the centre of the investigation area, where the phyllite-quartzite group is exposed. Velocities fluctuate the most along the northernmost ~20km. Velocity variations reflect more the state of tectonic deformation than being directly correlated with the mapped lithologies. Based on a comparison with coincident seismic-reflection data along the southern half of the area, we suggest that two areas of low to intermediate ratios (~1.85-1.9) correspond to occurrences of thick and less deformed flysch-group units, whereas high

  2. The uteroglobin promoter targets expression of the SV40 T antigen to a variety of secretory epithelial cells in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Sandmöller, A; Halter, R; Gómez-La-Hoz, E; Gröne, H J; Suske, G; Paul, D; Beato, M

    1994-10-01

    Adenocarcinomas derived from the lining epithelia of various organs are the most common malignant tumors in human pathology and about 50% are hormone dependent. The tissue-specific and hormally regulated expression of the rabbit uteroglobin gene is secretory epithelial cells could provide a means of establishing in vivo models for a variety of human tumors originating from such tissues. We have generated trangenic mice inheriting a hybrid gene containing 4.7 kb of the rabbit uteroglobin 5'-flanking sequences fused to the SV40 T antigen encoding region. All transgenic founders examined exhibited bronchio-alveolar adenocarcinomas, probably due to expression of the transgene in Clara cells. Most founders also developed tumors of the submandibular salivary gland, and adenocarcinomas of the stomach. Adenocarcinomas and dysplasias in epithelial cells of the male and female genital tract were found in single founders. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that T antigen expression interfered with stable maintenance of the differentiated phenotype as documented by expression of the endogenous uteroglobin gene. One founder gave rise to a mouse line, UT7.1. Transgenic descendants of UT7.1 developed lung adenocarcinomas and, depending on the genetic background, exhibited tumors of the stomach, the salivary gland and the pancreas. Sporadically male descendants developed prostatic adenocarcinoma whereas females developed dysplasias and adenocarcinomas of the uterus and the oviduct. Thus, the UT7.1 mouse line could be a useful model for several epithelial neoplasias. PMID:8084586

  3. First Molecular Data and the Phylogenetic Position of the Millipede-Like Centipede Edentistoma octosulcatum Tömösváry, 1882 (Chilopoda: Scolopendromorpha: Scolopendridae)

    PubMed Central

    Vahtera, Varpu; Edgecombe, Gregory D.

    2014-01-01

    Edentistoma octosulcatum Tömösváry, 1882, is a rare, superficially millipede-like centipede known only from Borneo and the Philippines. It is unique within the order Scolopendromorpha for its slow gait, robust tergites, and highly modified gizzard and mandible morphology. Not much is known about the biology of the species but it has been speculated to be arboreal with a possibly vegetarian diet. Until now its phylogenetic position within the subfamily Otostigminae has been based only on morphological characters, being variably ranked as a monotypic tribe (Arrhabdotini) or classified with the Southeast Asian genus Sterropristes Attems, 1934. The first molecular data for E. octosulcatum sourced from a newly collected specimen from Sarawak were analysed with and without morphology. Parsimony analysis of 122 morphological characters together with two nuclear and two mitochondrial loci resolves Edentistoma as sister group to three Indo-Australian species of Rhysida, this clade in turn grouping with Ethmostigmus, whereas maximum likelihood and parsimony analyses of the molecular data on their own ally Edentistoma with species of Otostigmus. A position of Edentistoma within Otostigmini (rather than being its sister group as predicted by the Arrhabdotini hypothesis) is consistently retrieved under different analytical conditions, but support values within the subfamily remain low for most nodes. The species exhibits strong pushing behaviour, suggestive of burrowing habits. Evidence against a suggested vegetarian diet is provided by observation of E. octosulcatum feeding on millipedes in the genus Trachelomegalus. PMID:25389773

  4. Low level of trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid decreases adiposity and increases browning independent of inflammatory signaling in overweight Sv129 mice

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Wan; Baldwin, Jessie; Collins, Brian; Hixson, Lindsay; Lee, Kuan-Ting; Herberg, Timothy; Starnes, Joseph; Cooney, Paula; Chuang, Chia-Chi; Hopkins, Robin; Reid, Tanya; Gupta, Sat; McIntosh, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the extent to which a low level of trans-10, cis-12 (10,12) conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) decreases adiposity and increases browning in overweight mice, its dependence on inflammatory signaling, and potential synergistic effects of daily exercise. Young, Sv129 male mice were fed a high fat diet for 5 wk to make them fat and glucose intolerant, and then switch them to a low fat diet with or without 0.1% 10,12 CLA, sodium salicylate, or exercise for another 7 wk. 10,12 CLA decreased white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue mass, and increased the mRNA and protein levels, and activities of enzymes associated with thermogenesis or fatty acid oxidation in WAT. Mice fed 10,12 CLA had lower body temperatures compared to controls during cold exposure, which coincided with decreased adiposity. Although sodium salicylate decreased 10,12 CLA-mediated increases in markers of inflammation in WAT, it did not affect other outcomes. Exercise had no further effect on the outcomes measured. Collectively, these data indicate that 10,12 CLA-mediated reduction of adiposity is independent of inflammatory signaling, and possibly due to up-regulation of fatty acid oxidation and heat production in order to regulate body temperature. Although this low level of 10,12 CLA reduced adiposity in overweight mice, hepatomegaly and inflammation are major health concerns. PMID:25801353

  5. HAdV-2-suppressed growth of SV40 T antigen-transformed mouse mammary epithelial cell-induced tumours in SCID mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chengjun; Cao, Xiaofang; Yu, Di; Huijbers, Elisabeth J M; Essand, Magnus; Akusjärvi, Göran; Johansson, Staffan; Svensson, Catharina

    2016-02-01

    Human adenovirus (HAdV) vectors are promising tools for cancer therapy, but the shortage of efficient animal models for productive HAdV infections has restricted the evaluation of systemic effects to mainly immunodeficient mice. Previously, we reported a highly efficient replication of HAdV-2 in a non-tumorigenic mouse mammary epithelial cell line, NMuMG. Here we show that HAdV-2 gene expression and progeny formation in NMuMG cells transformed with the SV40 T antigen (NMuMG-T cells) were as efficient as in the parental NMuMG cells. Injection of HAdV-2 into tumours established by NMuMG-T in SCID mice caused reduced tumour growth and signs of intratumoural lesions. HAdV-2 replicated within the NMuMG-T-established tumours, but not in interspersed host-derived tissues within the tumours. The specific infection of NMuMG-T-derived tumours was verified by the lack of viral DNA in kidney, lung or spleen although low levels of viral DNA was occasionally found in liver. PMID:26707269

  6. First molecular data and the phylogenetic position of the millipede-like centipede Edentistoma octosulcatum Tömösváry, 1882 (Chilopoda: Scolopendromorpha: Scolopendridae).

    PubMed

    Vahtera, Varpu; Edgecombe, Gregory D

    2014-01-01

    Edentistoma octosulcatum Tömösváry, 1882, is a rare, superficially millipede-like centipede known only from Borneo and the Philippines. It is unique within the order Scolopendromorpha for its slow gait, robust tergites, and highly modified gizzard and mandible morphology. Not much is known about the biology of the species but it has been speculated to be arboreal with a possibly vegetarian diet. Until now its phylogenetic position within the subfamily Otostigminae has been based only on morphological characters, being variably ranked as a monotypic tribe (Arrhabdotini) or classified with the Southeast Asian genus Sterropristes Attems, 1934. The first molecular data for E. octosulcatum sourced from a newly collected specimen from Sarawak were analysed with and without morphology. Parsimony analysis of 122 morphological characters together with two nuclear and two mitochondrial loci resolves Edentistoma as sister group to three Indo-Australian species of Rhysida, this clade in turn grouping with Ethmostigmus, whereas maximum likelihood and parsimony analyses of the molecular data on their own ally Edentistoma with species of Otostigmus. A position of Edentistoma within Otostigmini (rather than being its sister group as predicted by the Arrhabdotini hypothesis) is consistently retrieved under different analytical conditions, but support values within the subfamily remain low for most nodes. The species exhibits strong pushing behaviour, suggestive of burrowing habits. Evidence against a suggested vegetarian diet is provided by observation of E. octosulcatum feeding on millipedes in the genus Trachelomegalus. PMID:25389773

  7. Leptonic widths of heavy quarkonia: S-wave QCD/NRQCD matching coefficients for the electromagnetic vector annihilation current at O(αsv2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, A.; von Hippel, G. M.; Horgan, R. R.

    2007-01-01

    We construct the S-wave part of the electromagnetic vector annihilation current to O(αsv2) on the lattice for heavy quarks whose dynamics are described by the NRQCD action, and v is the nonrelativistic quark velocity inside the meson. The lattice vector current for QQ¯ annihilation is expressed as a linear combination of lattice operators with quantum numbers L=0, JP=1-, and the coefficients are determined by matching this lattice current to the corresponding continuum current in QCD to O(v2) at one-loop. The annihilation channel gives a complex amplitude and a proper choice for the contours of integration is needed; a simple Wick rotation is not possible. In this way, and with a careful choice of subtraction functions in the numerical integration, the Coulomb-exchange and infrared singularities appearing in the amplitudes are successfully treated. The matching coefficients are given as a function of the heavy quark mass Ma in lattice units. An automated vertex generation program written in Python is employed, allowing us to use a realistic NRQCD action and an improved gluon lattice action. A change in the definition of either action is easily accommodated in this procedure. The final result, when combined with lattice simulation results, describes the electromagnetic decays of heavy quarkonia, notably the Υ meson.

  8. Uncatalyzed assembly of spherical particles from SV40 VP1 pentamers and linear dsDNA incorporates both low and high cooperativity elements

    SciTech Connect

    Mukherjee, Santanu; Kler, Stanislav; Oppenheim, Ariella; Zlotnick, Adam

    2010-02-05

    The capsid of SV40 virion is comprised of 72 pentamers of the major capsid protein, VP1. We examined the synergism between pentamer-pentamer interaction and pentamer-DNA interaction using a minimal system of purified VP1 and a linear dsDNA 600-mer, comparing electrophoresis with electron microscopy and size exclusion chromatography. At low VP1/DNA ratios, large tubes were observed that apparently did not survive native agarose gel electrophoresis. As the VP1 concentration increased, electrophoretic migration was slower and tubes were replaced by 200 A diameter particles and excess free pentamer. At high VP1/DNA ratios, a progressively larger fraction of particles was similar to 450 A diameter virions. VP1 association with DNA is very strong compared to the concentrations in these experiments yet, paradoxically, stable complexes appear only at high ratios of VP1 to DNA. These data suggest a DNA saturation-dependent nucleation event based on non-specific pentamer-DNA interaction that controls assembly and the ultimate capsid geometry.

  9. Carbon nanotube IR detectors (SV)

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, F. L.

    2012-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) and Lockheed Martin Corporation (LMC) collaborated to (1) evaluate the potential of carbon nanotubes as channels in infrared (IR) photodetectors; (2) assemble and characterize carbon nanotube electronic devices and measure the photocurrent generated when exposed to infrared light;(3) compare the performance of the carbon nanotube devices with that of traditional devices; and (4) develop and numerically implement models of electronic transport and opto-electronic behavior of carbon nanotube infrared detectors. This work established a new paradigm for photodetectors.

  10. Sensitivity of clear-sky direct radiative effect of the aerosol to micro-physical properties by using 6SV radiative transfer model: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassani, Cristiana; Tirelli, Cecilia; Manzo, Ciro; Pietrodangelo, Adriana; Curci, Gabriele

    2015-04-01

    The aerosol micro-physical properties are crucial to analyze their radiative impact on the Earth's radiation budget [IPCC, 2007]. The 6SV model, last generation of the Second Simulation of a Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum (6S) radiative transfer code [Kotchenova et al., 2007; Vermote et al., 1997] has been used to perform physically-based atmospheric correction of hyperspectral airborne and aircraft remote sensing data [Vermote et al., 2009; Bassani et al. 2010; Tirelli et al., 2014]. The atmospheric correction of hyperspectral data has been shown to be sensitive to the aerosol micro-physical properties, as reported in Bassani et al., 2012. The role of the aerosol micro-physical properties on the accuracy of the atmospheric correction of hyperspectral data acquired over water and land targets is investigated within the framework of CLAM-PHYM (Coasts and Lake Assessment and Monitoring by PRISMA HYperspectral Mission) and PRIMES (Synergistic use of PRISMA products with high resolution meteo-chemical simulations and their validation on ground and from satellite) projects, both funded by Italian Space Agency (ASI). In this work, the results of the radiative field of the Earth/Atmosphere coupled system simulated by using 6SV during the atmospheric correction of hyperspectral data are presented. The analysis of the clear-sky direct radiative effect is performed considering the aerosol micro-physical properties used to define the aerosol model during the atmospheric correction process. In particular, the AERONET [Holben et al., 1998] and FLEXAOD [Curci et al., 2014] micro-physical properties are used for each image to evaluate the contribution of the size distribution and refractive index of the aerosol type on the surface reflectance and on the direct radiative forcing. The results highlight the potential of the hyperspectral remote sensing data for atmospheric studies as well as for environmental studies. Currently, the future hyperspectral missions, such as the

  11. Structure-based design of a disulfide-linked oligomeric form of the simian virus 40 (SV40) large T antigen DNA-binding domain

    SciTech Connect

    Meinke, Gretchen; Phelan, Paul; Fradet-Turcotte, Amélie; Archambault, Jacques; Bullock, Peter A.

    2011-06-01

    With the aim of forming the ‘lock-washer’ conformation of the origin-binding domain of SV40 large T antigen in solution, using structure-based analysis an intermolecular disulfide bridge was engineered into the origin-binding domain to generate higher order oligomers in solution. The 1.7 Å resolution structure shows that the mutant forms a spiral in the crystal and has the de novo disulfide bond at the protein interface, although structural rearrangements at the interface are observed relative to the wild type. The modular multifunctional protein large T antigen (T-ag) from simian virus 40 orchestrates many of the events needed for replication of the viral double-stranded DNA genome. This protein assembles into single and double hexamers on specific DNA sequences located at the origin of replication. This complicated process begins when the origin-binding domain of large T antigen (T-ag ODB) binds the GAGGC sequences in the central region (site II) of the viral origin of replication. While many of the functions of purified T-ag OBD can be studied in isolation, it is primarily monomeric in solution and cannot assemble into hexamers. To overcome this limitation, the possibility of engineering intermolecular disulfide bonds in the origin-binding domain which could oligomerize in solution was investigated. A recent crystal structure of the wild-type T-ag OBD showed that this domain forms a left-handed spiral in the crystal with six subunits per turn. Therefore, we analyzed the protein interface of this structure and identified two residues that could potentially support an intermolecular disulfide bond if changed to cysteines. SDS–PAGE analysis established that the mutant T-ag OBD formed higher oligomeric products in a redox-dependent manner. In addition, the 1.7 Å resolution crystal structure of the engineered disulfide-linked T-ag OBD is reported, which establishes that oligomerization took place in the expected manner.

  12. Response to ethanol induced ataxia between C57BL/6J and 129X1/SvJ mouse strains using a treadmill based assay

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Stephen T.; Pulst, Stefan M.

    2016-01-01

    More sensitive assays of mouse motor ataxia may provide a better understanding of the pathological profile. Treadmill gait analysis using ventral imaging allows for unhindered access to the ambulating mouse. In contrast to genetic mutations or exogenous brain injury, ethanol (EtOH) allows for the detection of dose dependent changes in motor behavior, which can be used to assess an assay’s detection sensitivity. EtOH induced ataxia was assessed in C57BL/6J (B6) and 129X1/SvJ (129) mice using the DigiGait imaging system. Gait was analyzed across EtOH dosage (1.75, 2.25 and 2.75 g/kg) in each strain using a linear mixed effects model. Overall, 129 mice displayed greater susceptibility to EtOH ataxia than their B6 counterparts. In both strains, hind paws exhibited greater sensitivity to EtOH dosage than fore paws. Across most variables analyzed, only a modest EtOH-induced change in motor behavior was observed in each strain with the 1.75g/kg EtOH doses failing to elicit significant change. These data indicate the ability to detect motor differences between strains, yet only moderate ability to detect change across EtOH dosage using the automated treadmill. Rotarod assays, however, were able to detect motor impairment at lower doses of EtOH. The significant, but opposite changes in paw placement with increasing EtOH doses highlight strain-specific differences in biophysical adaptations in response to acute EtOH intoxication. PMID:23103202

  13. Retting and degumming of natural fibers by pectinolytic enzymes produced from Bacillus tequilensis SV11-UV37 using solid state fermentation.

    PubMed

    Chiliveri, Swarupa Rani; Koti, Sravanthi; Linga, Venkateswar Rao

    2016-01-01

    The present study demonstrated the simultaneous production and optimization of pectinolytic enzymes (pectate lyase and polygalacturonase) under SSF from Bacillus tequilensis SV11-UV37 using wheat bran as a substrate, which is commercially viable and cost-effective. Optimization by one variable-at-a-time-approach showed a maximum yield of pectate lyase (1371.25 U/gds) and polygalacturonase (85.45 U/gds) with wheat bran using 80 % (v/w) moisture, 0.7 mm particle size, 20 % (v/w) inoculum, 1 % (w/w) pectin at 37 °C, pH 6 and 72 h of incubation. In addition, optimization using central composite design achieved 1.6-fold improvement in both pectate lyase (1828.13 U/gds) and polygalacturonase (105.55 U/gds) yield at optimum levels of pectin (3 %, w/w), inoculum size (20 %, v/w) and moisture level (80 %, v/w). Further, Retting studies concluded that the enzyme mixture was efficient in separating the whole fiber from kenaf and part (>75 %) from sunn hemp. In degumming of sunn hemp fibers, amount of galacturonic acid released and percentage weight loss was higher in successive alkali and enzymatic treatment than their independent treatments. The scanning electron microscopic analysis also confirmed that alkali followed by enzymatic treatment effectively removed non-cellulosic gummy material from the fiber; hence, this enzyme mixture may find feasible applications in the fiber and textile industry. PMID:27218009

  14. The SV40 T antigen nuclear localization sequence enhances nuclear import of vector DNA in embryos of a crustacean (Litopenaeus schmitti).

    PubMed

    Arenal, Amilcar; Pimentel, Rafael; García, Carmen; Pimentel, Eulogio; Aleström, Peter

    2004-08-01

    A genetic transformation system for penaeid shrimp could provide a powerful technique for the improvement of different production traits of importance for a sustainable aquaculture. The development of a successful transformation system depends on the ability to efficiently introduce exogenous DNA into the target species. The ability of the nuclear localization signal (NLS) peptide of the SV40 T antigen to facilitate nuclear import and transient gene expression is known from vertebrate systems and for the first time, is shown here to be efficient in a crustacean species, i.e. the shrimp Litopenaeus schmitti. Electroporation was used to introduce the pCMV-lacZ plasmid that contains the human cytomegalovirus promoter/enhancer (CMV) fused to the beta-galactosidase (lacZ) coding region, into L. schmitti zygotes. Supercoiled DNA was used at 50 or 500 ng/microl naked or bound to NLS peptide. The hatching rate of electroporated zygotes was around 60% for all groups, except from the pCMV-lacZ:NLS group at 500 ng/microl (43%). Based on Southern blot analyses of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products the gene transfer frequency was 2-fold higher using DNA:NLS complexes than with naked DNA (23.8% vs. 11.5%, with 50 ng/microl of plasmid DNA, 44.3% vs. 28.8% with 500 ng/microl). The beta-galactosidase activity assay indicated that nuclear uptake is faster for the DNA:NLS complexes than for naked DNA. The beta-galactosidase activity was always higher in the DNA:NLS groups than in the naked DNA groups. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the use of an NLS peptide to improve gene transfer and nuclear uptake in crustaceans. PMID:15276203

  15. Application of SV40 T-transformed human corneal epithelial cells to evaluate potential irritant chemicals for in vitro alternative eye toxicity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Cho-Won; Park, Geon-Tae; Bae, Ok-Nam; Noh, Minsoo; Choi, Kyung-Chul

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of eye irritation potential is important to human safety, and it is necessary for various cosmetics and chemicals that may contact the human eye. Until recently, the Draize test was considered the standard method for estimating eye irritation, despite its disadvantages such as the need to sacrifice many rabbits for subjective scoring. Thus, we investigated the cytotoxicity and inflammatory response to standard eye irritants using SV40 T-transformed human corneal epithelial (SHCE) cells as a step toward development of an animal-free alternative eye irritation test. MTT and NRU assays of cell viability were performed to investigate the optimal experimental conditions for SHCE cell viability when cells were exposed to sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as a standard eye irritant at 6.25×10(-3) to 1×10(-1)%. Additionally, cell viability of SHCE cells was examined in response to six potential eye irritants, benzalkonium chloride, dimethyl sulfoxide, isopropanol, SDS, Triton X-100 and Tween 20 at 5×10(-3) to 1×10(-1)%. Finally, we estimated the secretion level of cytokines in response to stimulation by eye irritants in SHCE cells. SHCE cells showed a good response to potential eye irritants when the cells were exposed to potential irritants for 10min at room temperature (RT), and cytokine production increased in a concentration-dependent manner, indicating that cytotoxicity and cytokine secretion from SHCE cells may be well correlated with the concentrations of irritants. Taken together, these results suggest that SHCE cells could be an excellent alternative in vitro model to replace in vivo animal models for eye irritation tests. PMID:27233534

  16. The mdx Mutation in the 129/Sv Background Results in a Milder Phenotype: Transcriptome Comparative Analysis Searching for the Protective Factors

    PubMed Central

    Calyjur, Priscila Clara; Almeida, Camila de Freitas; Ayub-Guerrieri, Danielle; Ribeiro, Antonio Fernando; Fernandes, Stephanie de Alcântara; Ishiba, Renata; dos Santos, Andre Luis Fernandes; Onofre-Oliveira, Paula; Vainzof, Mariz

    2016-01-01

    The mdx mouse is a good genetic and molecular murine model for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD), a progressive and devastating muscle disease. However, this model is inappropriate for testing new therapies due to its mild phenotype. Here, we transferred the mdx mutation to the 129/Sv strain with the aim to create a more severe model for DMD. Unexpectedly, functional analysis of the first three generations of mdx129 showed a progressive amelioration of the phenotype, associated to less connective tissue replacement, and more regeneration than the original mdxC57BL. Transcriptome comparative analysis was performed to identify what is protecting this new model from the dystrophic characteristics. The mdxC57BL presents three times more differentially expressed genes (DEGs) than the mdx129 (371 and 137 DEGs respectively). However, both models present more overexpressed genes than underexpressed, indicating that the dystrophic and regenerative alterations are associated with the activation rather than repression of genes. As to functional categories, the DEGs of both mdx models showed a predominance of immune system genes. Excluding this category, the mdx129 model showed a decreased participation of the endo/exocytic pathway and homeostasis categories, and an increased participation of the extracellular matrix and enzymatic activity categories. Spp1 gene overexpression was the most significant DEG exclusively expressed in the mdx129 strain. This was confirmed through relative mRNA analysis and osteopontin protein quantification. The amount of the 66 kDa band of the protein, representing the post-translational product of the gene, was about 4,8 times higher on western blotting. Spp1 is a known DMD prognostic biomarker, and our data indicate that its upregulation can benefit phenotype. Modeling the expression of the DEGs involved in the mdx mutation with a benign course should be tested as a possible therapeutic target for the dystrophic process. PMID:26954670

  17. On-line derivatization for hourly measurements of gas- and particle-phase Semi-Volatile oxygenated organic compounds by Thermal desorption Aerosol Gas chromatography (SV-TAG)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaacman, G.; Kreisberg, N. M.; Yee, L. D.; Worton, D. R.; Chan, A. W. H.; Moss, J. A.; Hering, S. V.; Goldstein, A. H.

    2014-07-01

    Laboratory oxidation studies have identified a large number of oxygenated organic compounds that can be used as tracers to understand sources and oxidation chemistry of atmospheric particulate matter. Quantification of these compounds in ambient environments has traditionally relied on low time-resolution collection of filter samples followed by offline sample treatment with a derivatizing agent to allow analysis by gas chromatography of otherwise non-elutable organic chemicals with hydroxyl groups. We present here an automated in situ instrument for the measurement of highly polar organic semi-volatile and low-volatility compounds in both the gas- and particle-phase with hourly time-resolution. The dual-cell Semi-Volatile Thermal desorption Aerosol Gas chromatograph (SV-TAG) with derivatization collects particle-only and combined particle-plus-vapor samples on two parallel sampling cells that are analyzed in series by thermal desorption into helium saturated with derivatizing agent. Introduction of MSTFA, a silylating agent, yields complete derivatization of all tested compounds, including alkanoic acids, polyols, diacids, sugars, and multifunctional compounds. In laboratory tests, derivatization is found to be highly reproducible (< 3% variability). During field deployment, a regularly injected internal standard is used to correct for variability in detector response, derivatization efficiency, desorption efficiency, and transfer efficiency. Error in quantification from instrument fluctuations is found to be less than 10% for hydrocarbons and less than 15% for all oxygenates for which a functionally similar internal standard is available. After internal standard corrections, calibration curves are found to be linear for all compounds over the span of one month with comparable response on both of the parallel sampling cells.

  18. Online derivatization for hourly measurements of gas- and particle-phase semi-volatile oxygenated organic compounds by thermal desorption aerosol gas chromatography (SV-TAG)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaacman, G.; Kreisberg, N. M.; Yee, L. D.; Worton, D. R.; Chan, A. W. H.; Moss, J. A.; Hering, S. V.; Goldstein, A. H.

    2014-12-01

    Laboratory oxidation studies have identified a large number of oxygenated organic compounds that can be used as tracers to understand sources and oxidation chemistry of atmospheric particulate matter. Quantification of these compounds in ambient environments has traditionally relied on low-time-resolution collection of filter samples followed by offline sample treatment with a derivatizing agent to allow analysis by gas chromatography of otherwise non-elutable organic chemicals with hydroxyl groups. We present here an automated in situ instrument for the measurement of highly polar organic semi-volatile and low-volatility compounds in both the gas- and particle-phase with hourly quantification of mass concentrations and gas-particle partitioning. The dual-cell semi-volatile thermal desorption aerosol gas chromatograph (SV-TAG) with derivatization collects particle-only and combined particle-plus-vapor samples on two parallel sampling cells that are analyzed in series by thermal desorption into helium saturated with derivatizing agent. Introduction of MSTFA (N-methyl-N-(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide), a silylating agent, yields complete derivatization of all tested compounds, including alkanoic acids, polyols, diacids, sugars, and multifunctional compounds. In laboratory tests, derivatization is found to be highly reproducible (< 3% variability). During field deployment, a regularly injected internal standard is used to correct for variability in detector response, consumption of the derivatization agent, desorption efficiency, and transfer losses. Error in quantification from instrument fluctuations is found to be less than 10% for hydrocarbons and less than 15% for all oxygenates for which a functionally similar internal standard is available, with an uncertainty of 20-25% in measurements of particle fraction. After internal standard corrections, calibration curves are found to be linear for all compounds over the span of 1 month, with comparable response on

  19. T antigen expression and tumorigenesis in transgenic mice containing a mouse major urinary protein/SV40 T antigen hybrid gene.

    PubMed Central

    Held, W A; Mullins, J J; Kuhn, N J; Gallagher, J F; Gu, G D; Gross, K W

    1989-01-01

    A hybrid mouse major urinary protein (MUP)/SV40 T antigen gene was microinjected into fertilized mouse embryos and the resulting transgenic mice analyzed for the regulated expression of the transgene. Available evidence indicates that the MUP gene used for the hybrid gene construct is expressed in both male and female liver and possibly mammary gland. Three different transgenic lines exhibited a consistent pattern of tissue specific expression of the transgene. As a consequence of transgene expression and T antigen synthesis in the liver, both male and female transgenic animals developed liver hyperplasia and tumors. Transgene expression and liver hyperplasia commenced at approximately 2-4 weeks of age, the same time that MUP gene expression is first detected in the liver. The expression of the transgene resulted in an immediate strong suppression of liver MUP mRNA levels but had relatively little effect on other liver specific mRNAs. From 4 to 8 weeks, the liver increased several fold in size, relative to non-transgenic littermates. Definitive tumor nodules were not apparent until 8-10 weeks. The transgene was also consistently found to be expressed in the skin sebaceous glands and the preputial gland, a modified sebaceous gland. The expression of the transgene in the skin sebaceous glands is consistent with the presence of MUP mRNA in the skin and a putative role for MUPs in the transport and excretion of small molecules. Occasional expression of the transgene in other tissues (kidney and mammary connective tissues) was also noted.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images PMID:2714250

  20. Activation of histamine H4 receptor inhibits TNFα/IMD-0354-induced apoptosis in human salivary NS-SV-AC cells.

    PubMed

    Stegajev, Vasili; Kouri, Vesa-Petteri; Salem, Abdelhakim; Rozov, Stanislav; Stark, Holger; Nordström, Dan C E; Konttinen, Yrjö T

    2014-12-01

    Apoptosis is involved in the pathogenesis of Sjögren's syndrome (SS), an autoimmune disease affecting exocrine glands. Our recent studies revealed diminished histamine H4 receptor (H₄R) expression and impaired histamine transport in the salivary gland epithelial cells in SS. The aim was now to test if nanomolar histamine and high-affinity H₄R signaling affect apoptosis of human salivary gland epithelial cell. Simian virus 40-immortalized acinar NS-SV-AC cells were cultured in serum-free keratinocyte medium ± histamine H₄R agonist HST-10. Expression and internalization of H₄R were studied by immunofluorescence staining ± clathrin inhibitor methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD). Apoptosis induced using tumor necrosis factor-α with nuclear factor-κB inhibitor IMD-0354 was studied using phase contrast microscopy, Western blot, flow cytometry and polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). HST-10-stimulated H₄R internalization was inhibited by MβCD. Western blotting revealed diminished phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase JNK, but unchanged levels of phosphorylated extracellular signal regulated kinase pERK1/2 in H₄R-stimulated samples compared to controls. qRT-PCR showed up-regulated expression of anti-apoptotic B cell lymphoma-extra large/Bcl-xL mRNAs and proteins, whereas pro-apoptotic Bcl-2-associated X protein/BAX remained unchanged in H4R-stimulated samples. H₄R stimulation diminished cleavage of PARP and flow cytometry showed significant dose-dependent inhibitory effect of H₄R stimulation on apoptosis. As far as we know this is the first study showing inhibitory effect of H₄R activation on apoptosis of human salivary gland cells. Diminished H₄R-mediated activation may contribute to loss of immune tolerance in autoimmune diseases and in SS in particular. PMID:25239604

  1. Geophysical fingerprints of shallow cultural structures from microgravity and GPR measurements in the Church of St. George, Svätý Jur, Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panisova, Jaroslava; Murín, Igor; Pašteka, Roman; Haličková, Jana; Brunčák, Peter; Pohánka, Vladimír; Papčo, Juraj; Milo, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Recording of the historic edifice using the state-of-the-art geodetic and geophysical techniques brings easier visualisation in form of a three-dimensional (3D) model, thus allowing better understanding of its historical construction by the public and non-experts. We have applied this approach at the Church of St. George, one of the most significant religious buildings in south-western Slovakia, which dominates a silhouette of the town Svätý Jur. The geodetic survey allowed to record the actual state of the church. The church exterior was surveyed using a total station. Due to the intricate shape of the interior components of the church, it was decided to use a terrestrial laser scanner to generate the point cloud data, which were processed into floor plan, elevations, sectional 2D drawings and 3D model. The geophysical survey was carried out in the interior of the church in order to identify potential subsurface anthropogenic structures. Microgravity and ground penetrating radar (GPR) methods were selected as the most effective geophysical tools for such task. In microgravity data processing we focused on the calculation and removal of the gravitational effects of the building masses. The main negative gravity anomalies of interest in the nave, which also have been confirmed by GPR measurements, are interpreted as medieval crypts. Another very important outcome of the geophysical survey is the discovery of the west wall foundations of the oldest Romanesque construction. From each geophysical data acquired we derived 3D polygonal models, which are compared to achieve more realistic picture of the subsurface structures. Verification of these structures by means of archaeological excavation has not been carried out yet.

  2. Computerized segmentation algorithm with personalized atlases of murine MRIs in a SV40 large T-antigen mouse mammary cancer model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibley, Adam R.; Markiewicz, Erica; Mustafi, Devkumar; Fan, Xiaobing; Conzen, Suzanne; Karczmar, Greg; Giger, Maryellen L.

    2016-03-01

    Quantities of MRI data, much larger than can be objectively and efficiently analyzed manually, are routinely generated in preclinical research. We aim to develop an automated image segmentation and registration pipeline to aid in analysis of image data from our high-throughput 9.4 Tesla small animal MRI imaging center. T2-weighted, fat-suppressed MRIs were acquired over 4 life-cycle time-points [up to 12 to 18 weeks] of twelve C3(1) SV40 Large T-antigen mice for a total of 46 T2-weighted MRI volumes; each with a matrix size of 192 x 256, 62 slices, in plane resolution 0.1 mm, and slice thickness 0.5 mm. These image sets were acquired with the goal of tracking and quantifying progression of mammary intraepithelial neoplasia (MIN) to invasive cancer in mice, believed to be similar to ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) in humans. Our segmentation algorithm takes 2D seed-points drawn by the user at the center of the 4 co-registered volumes associated with each mouse. The level set then evolves in 3D from these 2D seeds. The contour evolution incorporates texture information, edge information, and a statistical shape model in a two-step process. Volumetric DICE coefficients comparing the automatic with manual segmentations were computed and ranged between 0.75 and 0.58 for averages over the 4 life-cycle time points of the mice. Incorporation of these personalized atlases with intra and inter mouse registration is expected to enable locally and globally tracking of the morphological and textural changes in the mammary tissue and associated lesions of these mice.

  3. DNA ligase III is the major high molecular weight DNA joining activity in SV40-transformed human fibroblasts: normal levels of DNA ligase III activity in Bloom syndrome cells.

    PubMed Central

    Tomkinson, A E; Starr, R; Schultz, R A

    1993-01-01

    The phenotypes of cultured cell lines established from individuals with Bloom syndrome (BLM), including an elevated spontaneous frequency of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs), are consistent with a defect in DNA joining. We have investigated the levels of DNA ligase I and DNA ligase III in an SV40-transformed control and BLM fibroblast cell line, as well as clonal derivatives of the BLM cell line complemented or not for the elevated SCE phenotype. No differences in either DNA ligase I or DNA ligase III were detected in extracts from these cell lines. Furthermore, the data indicate that in dividing cultures of SV40-transformed fibroblasts, DNA ligase III contributes > 85% of high molecular weight DNA joining activity. This observation contrasts with previous studies in which DNA ligase I was reported to be the major DNA joining activity in extracts from proliferating mammalian cells. Images PMID:8265359

  4. Purification and characterization of two high molecular mass snake venom metalloproteinases (P-III SVMPs), named SV-PAD-2 and HR-Ele-1, from the venom of Protobothrops elegans (Sakishima-habu).

    PubMed

    Oyama, Etsuko; Takahashi, Hidenobu

    2015-09-01

    We herein identified two high molecular mass metalloproteinases, named SV-PAD-2 and HR-Ele-1, in the venom of Protobothrops elegans. HR-Ele-1 appeared as a single band on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) regard under reducing and non-reducing conditions, and the molecular mass of this protease was approximately 60 kDa under reducing conditions. On the other hand, the molecular masses of SV-PAD-2 on SDS-PAGE were 110 kDa under the non-reducing condition and 52 kDa under the reducing condition. These SVMPs exhibited fibrinogenolytic and enzymatic activities against synthetic substrates for matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and the insulin B-chain, and were both inhibited by EDTA. SV-PAD-2 inhibited ADP- and collagen-induced platelet aggregation, with IC50 values of 240 nM and 185 nM, respectively. HR-Ele-1 exhibited hemorrhagic activity, and its minimum hemorrhagic dose (MHD) was 0.05 μg in the guinea pig. PMID:26100665

  5. Modification of radiation-induced strand breaks by glutathione: Comparison of single- and double-strand breaks in SV40 DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Ayene, I.S.; Koch, C.J.; Krisch, R.E.

    1995-10-01

    A number of investigations have suggested that the widely observed oxygen enhancement of radiation-induced cell killing or intracellular DNA damage requires the presence of glutathione (GSH) or other thiols. We have adapted an in vitro model system to investigate the effects of GSH on radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), lesions felt to be critical to cell death. Superhelical SV40 DNA, 25 {mu}g/ml, was irradiated in air or nitrogen in the presence of 0-20 mM GSH and single-strand breaks (SSBs) and DSBs were measured using neutral gel electrophoresis/ethidium bromide fluorescence. Control experiments demonstrated that a substantial concentration of free SH was still present after irradiation. Dose-response curves for SSBs and DSBs in air or nitrogen were predominantly linear at all GSH concentrations tested from 0-20 mM, except for 20 mM GSH in nitrogen, indicating that both SSBs and DSBs in nitrogen at 20 mM GSH, suggesting additional damage, rather than the expected additional protection. The possible mechanism for a damaging effect from GSH is discussed. Oxygen enhancement ratios (OERs) were calculated from the slopes of dose-response curves. The OERs for SSBs did not differ substantially from those for DSBs at the same [GSH], contrary to the observations of Prise. The OERs for SSBs and DSBs peaked at 6.5 and 8, respectively, at 5 mM GSH. These similarities suggest that the much lower OERs (2.5-3.0) generally reported for radiation killing of cells, which also typically contain about 5 mM GSH, cannot be accounted for by differences in OER between lethal lesions, represented by DSBs, and nonlethal lesions, represented by SSBs. In view of the present results, another possible explanation, that intracellular compounds other than reduced thiols are important in the chemical modification of the response of DNA to radiation, seems to be much more likely. 41 refs., 5 figs.

  6. Cellular regulation of poly ADP-ribosylation of proteins: II. Augmentation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase in SV40 3T3 cells following methotrexate-induced G1/S inhibition of cell cycle progression

    SciTech Connect

    Sooki-Toth, A.; Asghari, F.; Kirsten, E.; Kun, E. )

    1987-05-01

    SV40-3T3 cells were exposed in monolayer cultures to 5{times}10{sup {minus}7} M methotrexate (MTX), that inhibited thymidylate synthetase, arrested cell growth without cell killing in 24 h and did not induce single- (ss) or double-strand (ds) breaks in DNA. Following 24, up to 72 h, the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase content of attached cells was induced by 5{times}10{sup {minus}7} MTX and the augmentation of the enzyme increased with the time of exposure to the drug. Inhibition of protein or RNA synthesis abolished augmentation of enzymatic activity; so too did the initiation of maximal cell growth by thymidine + hypoxanthine, by-passing the inhibitory site of MTX. Isolation of the ADP-ribosylated enzyme protein by gel electrophoresis identified poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase protein as the molecule that was induced by 5{times}10{sup {minus}7} M MTX. Under identical conditions, the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase induction in 3T3 cells could not be demonstrated. A possible cell-cycle dependent biosynthesis of the enzyme protein is proposed in SV40 3T3 cells.

  7. Consumption of silibinin, a flavonolignan from milk thistle, and mammary cancer development in the C3(1) SV40 T,t antigen transgenic multiple mammary adenocarcinoma (TAg) mouse.

    PubMed

    Verschoyle, Richard D; Brown, Karen; Steward, William P; Gescher, Andreas J

    2008-07-01

    Silibinin is a flavonolignan extracted from milk thistle with cancer chemopreventive activity in preclinical models of prostate and colorectal cancer. A milk thistle extract, of which silibin is a major component, has recently been shown to exacerbate mammary carcinogenesis in two rodent models. We tested the hypothesis that consumption of silibinin or silipide, a silibinin formulation with pharmaceutical properties superior to the unformulated agent, affect breast cancer development in the C3(1) SV40 T,t antigen transgenic multiple mammary adenocarcinoma mouse model. Mice received silibinin or silipide (0.2% silibinin equivalents) with their diet from weaning, and tumour development was monitored by weekly palpation and the number and weight of neoplasms at the end of the experiment. Intervention neither promoted, nor interfered with, tumour development. The result suggests that promotion of carcinogenesis is not a feature of silibinin consistent across rodent models of mammary carcinogenesis. PMID:17909802

  8. Guidance on the Use of Hand-Held Survey Meters for Radiological Triage: Time-Dependent Detector Count Rates Corresponding to 50, 250, and 500 mSv Effective Dose for Adult Males and Adult Females

    PubMed Central

    Bolch, Wesley E.; Hurtado, Jorge L.; Lee, Choonsik; Manger, Ryan; Hertel, Nolan; Dickerson, William

    2013-01-01

    In June of 2006, the Radiation Studies Branch of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention held a workshop to explore rapid methods of facilitating radiological triage of large numbers of potentially contaminated individuals following detonation of a radiological dispersal device. Two options were discussed. The first was the use of traditional gamma-cameras in nuclear medicine departments operated as make-shift whole-body counters. Guidance on this approach is currently available from the CDC. This approach is feasible if a manageable number of individuals were involved, transportation to the relevant hospitals was quickly provided, and the medical staff at each facility had been previously trained in this non-traditional use of their radiopharmaceutical imaging devices. If, however, substantially large numbers of individuals (100s to 1000s) needed radiological screening, other options must be given to first responders, first receivers, and health physicists providing medical management. In this study, the second option of the workshop was investigated – the use of commercially available portable survey meters (either NaI or GM based) for assessing potential ranges of effective dose (<50, 50–250, 250–500, and >500 mSv). Two hybrid computational phantoms were used to model an adult male and an adult female subject internally contaminated with either 241Am, 60Cs, 137Cs, 131I, and 192Ir following an acute inhalation or ingestion intake. As a function of time following the exposure, the net count rates corresponding to committed effective doses of 50, 250, and 500 mSv were estimated via Monte Carlo radiation transport simulation for each of four different detectors types, positions, and screening distances. Measured count rates can be compared to these values and an assignment of one of four possible effective dose ranges could be made. The method implicitly assumes that all external contamination has been removed prior to screening, and that the

  9. Guidance on the Use of Hand-Held Survey Meters for radiological Triage: Time-Dependent Detector Count Rates Corresponding to 50, 250, and 500 mSv Effective Dose for Adult Males and Adult Females

    SciTech Connect

    Bolch, W.E.; Hurtado, J.L.; Lee, C.; Manger, Ryan P; Hertel, Nolan; Burgett, E.; Dickerson, W.

    2012-01-01

    In June 2006, the Radiation Studies Branch of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention held a workshop to explore rapid methods of facilitating radiological triage of large numbers of potentially contaminated individuals following detonation of a radiological dispersal device. Two options were discussed. The first was the use of traditional gamma cameras in nuclear medicine departments operated as makeshift wholebody counters. Guidance on this approach is currently available from the CDC. This approach would be feasible if a manageable number of individuals were involved, transportation to the relevant hospitals was quickly provided, and the medical staff at each facility had been previously trained in this non-traditional use of their radiopharmaceutical imaging devices. If, however, substantially larger numbers of individuals (100 s to 1,000 s) needed radiological screening, other options must be given to first responders, first receivers, and health physicists providing medical management. In this study, the second option of the workshop was investigated by the use of commercially available portable survey meters (either NaI or GM based) for assessing potential ranges of effective dose (G50, 50Y250, 250Y500, and 9500 mSv). Two hybrid computational phantoms were used to model an adult male and an adult female subject internally contaminated with 241Am, 60Cs, 137Cs, 131I, or 192Ir following an acute inhalation or ingestion intake. As a function of time following the exposure, the net count rates corresponding to committed effective doses of 50, 250, and 500 mSv were estimated via Monte Carlo radiation transport simulation for each of four different detector types, positions, and screening distances. Measured net count rates can be compared to these values, and an assignment of one of four possible effective dose ranges could be made. The method implicitly assumes that all external contamination has been removed prior to screening and that the measurements be

  10. Comparative analysis of SV40 17kT and LT function in vivo demonstrates that LT's C-terminus re-programs hepatic gene expression and is necessary for tumorigenesis in the liver

    PubMed Central

    Comerford, S A; Schultz, N; Hinnant, E A; Klapproth, S; Hammer, R E

    2012-01-01

    Transformation by Simian Virus 40 (SV40) large T antigen (LT) is mediated in large part by its interaction with a variety of cellular proteins at distinct binding domains within LT. While the interaction of LT's N-terminus with the tumor suppressor Rb is absolutely required for LT-dependent transformation, the requirement for the interaction of LT's C-terminus with p53 is less clear and cell- and context-dependent. Here, we report a line of transgenic mice expressing a doxycycline-inducible liver-specific viral transcript that produces abundant 17kT, a naturally occurring SV40 early product that is co-linear with LT for the first 131 amino acids and that binds to Rb, but not p53. Comparative analysis of livers of transgenic mice expressing either 17kT or full length LT demonstrates that 17kT stimulates cell proliferation and induces hepatic hyperplasia but is incapable of inducing hepatic dysplasia or promoting hepatocarcinogenesis. Gene expression profiling demonstrates that 17kT and LT invoke a set of shared molecular signatures consistent with the action of LT's N-terminus on Rb-E2F-mediated control of hepatocyte transcription. However, 17kT also induces a unique set of genes, many of which are known transcriptional targets of p53, while LT actively suppresses them. LT also uniquely deregulates the expression of a subset of genes within the imprinted network and rapidly re-programs hepatocyte gene expression to a more fetal-like state. Finally, we provide evidence that the LT/p53 complex provides a gain-of-function for LT-dependent transformation in the liver, and confirm the absolute requirement for LT's C-terminus for liver tumor development by demonstrating that phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN)-deficiency readily cooperates with LT, but not 17kT, for tumorigenesis. These results confirm independent and inter-dependent functions for LT's N- and C-terminus and emphasize differences in the requirements for LT's C-terminus in cell-type dependent

  11. Haploid loss of bax leads to accelerated mammary tumor development in C3(1)/SV40-TAg transgenic mice: reduction in protective apoptotic response at the preneoplastic stage.

    PubMed Central

    Shibata, M A; Liu, M L; Knudson, M C; Shibata, E; Yoshidome, K; Bandey, T; Korsmeyer, S J; Green, J E

    1999-01-01

    The dramatic increase in apoptosis observed during the development of preneoplastic mammary lesions is associated with a significant elevation in Bax expression in C3(1)/SV40 large T antigen (TAg) transgenic mice. The significance of Bax expression during tumor progression in vivo was studied by generating double-transgenic mice carrying the C3(1)/TAg transgene and mutant alleles for bax. C3(1)/TAg transgenic mice carrying mutant bax alleles exhibited accelerated rates of tumor growth, increased tumor numbers, larger tumor mass and decreased survival rates compared with mice carrying wild-type bax. Accelerated tumorigenesis associated with the bax+/- genotype did not require the loss of function of the second bax allele. Thus, haploid insufficiency of bax is enough to accelerate tumor progression, suggesting that the protective effect of Bax is dose-dependent. While levels of apoptosis in the preneoplastic lesions, but not carcinomas, were reduced in bax+/- or bax-/- mice compared with bax+/+ mice, rates of cellular proliferation in mammary lesions were similar among all bax genotypes. These data demonstrate that bax is a critical suppressor of mammary tumor progression at the stage of preneoplastic mammary lesion development through the upregulation of apoptosis, but that this protective effect is lost during the transition from preneoplasia to invasive carcinoma. PMID:10329616

  12. FOC SV support and science data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blades, J. Chris

    1994-01-01

    The main activity of NASA grant NAG5-1733 has been the study of Planetary Nebulae in the Magellanic Clouds through observations using the ESA Faint Object Camera conducted during Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Observing Cycles 1 and 2 in the pre-Costar era and in Cycle 4 with Costar and the FOC. A table of the observations obtained during these observing periods is attached along with figures showing the final images. Both the table and the figures are intended for publication later this year in the Astrophysical journal. Work that had been carried out under this grant included: astrometric measurement of ground-based images and preparation of detailed observing proposals; re-calibration of FOC images; deconvolution; and data analysis and measurement. The work has resulted in two papers, the first already published and the second in preparation by Blades, Osmer and Barlow. A reprint of the first paper is attached. The second paper will enlarge upon the results described in the first paper, bearing in mind the much larger sample of objects. Finally, the recently acquired images in Cycle 4 with the corrected optics will allow us to make direct and quantitative comparison between the pre- and post-correction for FOC. This work will be carried out under a separate grant. All the observations concerning Planetary Nebulae as described in an earlier status report have been collected and measured. In addition, a preliminary study of the photometric response of the FOC was begun under this grant but not completed because the analysis of the Cycle 2 Planetary Nebulae took much longer and was much more difficult than originally envisaged (due to the spherical aberration problem). However, because our data covers a long time period, we shall be able to deduce the photometric properties now using the actual PN themselves. This work will be carried out under a separate grant.

  13. Self-assembled nanolaminate coatings (SV)

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, H.

    2012-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) and Lockheed Martin Aeronautics (LM Aero) are collaborating to develop affordable, self-assembled, nanocomposite coatings and associated fabrication processes that will be tailored to Lockheed Martin product requirements. The purpose of this project is to develop a family of self-assembled coatings with properties tailored to specific performance requirements, such as antireflective (AR) optics, using Sandia-developed self-assembled techniques. The project met its objectives by development of a simple and economic self-assembly processes to fabricate multifunctional coatings. Specifically, materials, functionalization methods, and associated coating processes for single layer and multiple layers coatings have been developed to accomplish high reflective coatings, hydrophobic coatings, and anti-reflective coatings. Associated modeling and simulations have been developed to guide the coating designs for optimum optical performance. The accomplishments result in significant advantages of reduced costs, increased manufacturing freedom/producibility, improved logistics, and the incorporation of new technology solutions not possible with conventional technologies. These self-assembled coatings with tailored properties will significantly address LMC's needs and give LMC a significant competitive lead in new engineered materials. This work complements SNL's LDRD and BES programs aimed at developing multifunctional nanomaterials for microelectronics and optics as well as structure/property investigations of self-assembled nanomaterials. In addition, this project will provide SNL with new opportunities to develop and apply self-assembled nanocomposite optical coatings for use in the wavelength ranges of 3-5 and 8-12 micrometers, ranges of vital importance to military-based sensors and weapons. The SANC technologies will be applied to multiple programs within the LM Company including the F-35, F-22, ADP (Future Strike Bomber, UAV, UCAV, etc.). The SANC technologies will establish LMA and related US manufacturing capability for commercial and military applications therefore reducing reliance on off-shore development and production of related critical technologies. If these technologies are successfully licensed, production of these coatings in manufactory will create significant technical employment opportunities.

  14. Theory and modeling in nanoscience: Report of the May 10-11, 2002Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    McCurdy, C. William; Stechel, Ellen; Cummings, Peter; Hendrickson, Bruce; Keyes, David

    2002-06-28

    On May 10 and 11, 2002, a workshop entitled ''Theory and Modeling in Nanoscience'' was held in San Francisco, California, sponsored by the offices of Basic Energy Science and Advanced Scientific Computing Research of the Department of Energy. The Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee and the Advanced Scientific Computing Advisory Committee convened the workshop to identify challenges and opportunities for theory, modeling, and simulation in nanoscience and nanotechnology, and additionally to investigate the growing and promising role of applied mathematics and computer science in meeting those challenges. This report is the result of those contributions and the discussions at the workshop.

  15. Thermal dissipation force modeling with preliminary results for Pioneer 10/11

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rievers, Benny; Bremer, Stefanie; List, Meike; Lämmerzahl, Claus; Dittus, Hansjörg

    2010-02-01

    The dissipation of thermal energy can produce disturbance forces on spacecraft surfaces if the energy is not dissipated in a symmetric pattern. This force can be computed as the quotient of the radiated power and the speed of light for a plate surface element. Depending on mission and spacecraft design the resulting surface forces have to be included into the disturbance budget. At ZARM (Center of Applied Space Technology and Microgravity) a raytracing algorithm was developed that allows the computation of the resulting force for complex spacecraft geometries. The method is based on the modeling of the spacecraft geometry in finite elements (FEs). Using an FE-solver the surface temperatures of the satellite can be derived with geometry and material parameters using heat sources/sinks as constraints. The outgoing radiation force is computed including reflectivity and absorption between all elements of the model. As an example for the method a test case model of the radio isotope thermal generators (RTGs) of Pioneer 11 is processed with this force computing method. The results show that detailed thermal modeling for the whole craft is necessary as the simplified test case results in a force that is non-negligible with respect to the pioneer anomaly.

  16. Health Education: Cancer Prevention and Control. Curriculum Guides, Grades 10, 11, and 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Curriculum Development Center.

    These curriculum guidelines for tenth-, eleventh-, and twelfth-grade students discuss the prevention, early detection and treatment, and control of cancer. The nature of cancer, the epidemiological factors related to it, the types of treatments available, and rehabilitation of cancer victims are discussed. Finally, the unit discusses personal and…

  17. First large volume characterization of the QIE10/11 custom front-end integrated circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hare, D.; Baumbaugh, A.; Dal Monte, L.; Freeman, J.; Hirschauer, J.; Hughes, E.; Roy, T.; Whitbeck, A.; Yumiceva, F.; Zimmerman, T.

    2016-02-01

    The CMS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will upgrade the photon detection and readout systems of its barrel and endcap hadron calorimeters (HCAL) through the second long shutdown of the LHC in 2018. A central feature of this upgrade is the development of two new versions of the QIE (Charge Integrator and Encoder), a Fermilab-designed custom ASIC for measurement of charge from detectors in high-rate environments. These most recent additions to the QIE family feature 17-bits of dynamic range with 1% digitization precision for high charge and a time-to-digital converter (TDC) with half nanosecond resolution all with 16 bits of readout per bunch crossing. For the first time, the CMS experiment has produced and characterized in great detail a large volume of chips. The characteristics and performance of the new QIE and their related chip-to-chip variations as measured in a sample of 10,000 chips is described.

  18. Pioneer 10/11 data analysis of the trapped radiation experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fillius, W.

    1982-01-01

    The data handling operations and the database produced by the Trapped Radiation Experiment on the NASA Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft are outlined. In situ measurements of trapped radiation at both Jupiter and Saturn, the extension of cosmic ray observations to the outer heliosphere, the presence of Jovian electrons in interplanetary space, analyses of the interaction between planetary satellites and the trapped radiation that engulfs them, and further investigations of the radiation enviroments of both planets are reported.

  19. PROCEEDINGS: 1989 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION - VOLUME 4: SESSIONS 9, 10, 11, AND 12

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proceedings document presentations at the International Conference on Municipal Waste Combustion (MWC), held on April 11-14, 1989, in Hollywood, Florida. The objective of the Conference was to provide an effective international forum for the exchange and transfer of informati...

  20. CWEX-10/11: Overview of Results From the First Two Crop/Wind-Energy Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takle, E. S.; Rajewski, D. A.; Prueger, J. H.; Oncley, S.; Lundquist, J. K.; Horst, T. W.; Rhodes, M. E.; Pfeiffer, R.; Hatfield, J.; Spoth, K. K.; Doorenbos, R.

    2012-12-01

    We have conducted experiments in a 200-turbine operating wind farm in Iowa to measure aerodynamic and microclimate properties of the environment in and around turbines in an area of intensely managed agricultural crops. Surface measurements at multiple locations were made of temperature, humidity, wind speed, wind direction, turbulence, and fluxes of heat, momentum, moisture and CO2. These together with remotely sensed wind speed, wind direction and turbulence at hub height accumulated over the growing seasons of 2010 and 2011 enable us to begin understanding of how turbines influence microclimate conditions in a wind-farm. SCADA data from 13 turbines enable studies of wakes and their interactions with each other and with the surface. Our studies corroborate published results that report reduction in wind speed, increased night-time temperature and decreased the daytime temperature in regions leeward of leading turbines in a wind farm. Our microclimate measurements enable us to go beyond previous reports to investigate spatial structures of mean wind, turbulence kinetic energy, thermal stability, and fluxes of heat, moisture and CO2 at the surface. Control cases are provided by evaluating surface conditions under a wide variety of wind directions and evaluating surface conditions at times when turbines were turned off or abrupt wind shifts were documented. Careful delineation of wind directions from the SCADA data reveal lateral characteristics of wakes and allow comparisons of power reduction for multiple interacting turbines with comparable results reported for off-shore wind farms. Our studies suggest that near-surface conditions are influenced by the presence of overlying wakes, wakes that impinge on the surface, and an irregular standing wave pressure field created by lines of turbines presenting an obstacle to the flow. Surface stability observed concurrently with wake interactions provides some insights on diurnal variability of wind farm performance.

  1. Newton's Apple Teachers Guides. Seasons 9-10-11-12: A Collection of Lessons and Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twin Cities Public Television, St. Paul, MN.

    Newton's Apple is a PBS family science program that explores basic science through high-energy, hands-on demonstrations. This volume is a collection of the teacher's guides from four seasons of Newton's Apple which were originally broadcast from 1991 through 1994. Each of the four seasons in the volume contains 26 lessons and a combination of…

  2. Strand IV Environmental and Community Health, Ecology and Epidemiology of Health, Grades 10, 11, and 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    A frame of reference concerning health implications, based on the interaction of numerous factors in the physical, social, and biological environments, is provided in this prototype curriculum for grades 10-12. Development of sound techniques in problem solving is encouraged, resulting from the need to understand the nature and complexities of…

  3. Strand IV Environmental and Community Health, World Health, Grades 10, 11, and 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    Special attention to the implications of world health problems and the effectiveness of international understanding and cooperation in alleviating harmful health conditions is given in this prototype curriculum for grades 10-12. The importance of student participation and ultimate involvement and commitment to world health problems is reflected.…

  4. Pioneer 10/11 data analysis of the plasma analyzer experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Intriligator, D. S.

    1982-01-01

    The Pioneer 10 plasma analyzer detected the 10 plasma torus. Evidence was found of corotating ions which appear to be primarily S (++) and O (++) in the Pioneer 10 plasma data as the spacecraft moved inward from 6.9 to 5.4 R sub J. The Pioneer plasma analyzer was effective in obtaining information on the heavy ion populations in the Jovian magnetosphere. Interplanetary solar wind plasma shocks can trap energetic particles (cosmic rays) for weeks and out to distances of 17 AU. Energetic particles (o.5 MeV to 20 MeV) were confined between two plasma shocks from solar flares as the shocks propagated outward in the solar system.

  5. Ultraviolet technology III; Proceedings of the Meeting, San Diego, CA, Aug. 10, 11, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Huffman, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    The present conference discusses topics in atmospheric UV radiance, UV detectors, and UV airborne sensors. Attention is given to a UV limb imaging experiment, UV ionospheric remote sensing with the Polar BEAR satellite, photon counting by means of microchannel plate (MCP) intensified electrographic cameras, the use of electron-bombarded virtual-phase CCDs and UV imaging detectors, results of dynamic range measurements on multianode microchannel-array detectors, and confined quantum state photomultiplier design. Also discussed are linear array-based UV spectrographs, a multianode MCP for plasma diagnostics, neutral-density UV filters obeying Beer's law, calibration and performance of the UV plume instrument, a magnetic-focus MCP image tube's evaluation, large CCD arrays with enhanced UV performance, images from a UV solar-blind photon-counting camera, and the design of high power laser polarizers.

  6. Ultraviolet technology III; Proceedings of the Meeting, San Diego, CA, Aug. 10, 11, 1989

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huffman, Robert E.

    1989-12-01

    The present conference discusses topics in atmospheric UV radiance, UV detectors, and UV airborne sensors. Attention is given to a UV limb imaging experiment, UV ionospheric remote sensing with the Polar BEAR satellite, photon counting by means of microchannel plate (MCP) intensified electrographic cameras, the use of electron-bombarded virtual-phase CCDs and UV imaging detectors, results of dynamic range measurements on multianode microchannel-array detectors, and confined quantum state photomultiplier design. Also discussed are linear array-based UV spectrographs, a multianode MCP for plasma diagnostics, neutral-density UV filters obeying Beer's law, calibration and performance of the UV plume instrument, a magnetic-focus MCP image tube's evaluation, large CCD arrays with enhanced UV performance, images from a UV solar-blind photon-counting camera, and the design of high power laser polarizers.

  7. Advanced Simulation and Computing FY10-11 Implementation Plan Volume 2, Rev. 0

    SciTech Connect

    Carnes, B

    2009-06-08

    The Stockpile Stewardship Program (SSP) is a single, highly integrated technical program for maintaining the surety and reliability of the U.S. nuclear stockpile. The SSP uses past nuclear test data along with current and future non-nuclear test data, computational modeling and simulation, and experimental facilities to advance understanding of nuclear weapons. It includes stockpile surveillance, experimental research, development and engineering programs, and an appropriately scaled production capability to support stockpile requirements. This integrated national program requires the continued use of current facilities and programs along with new experimental facilities and computational enhancements to support these programs. The Advanced Simulation and Computing Program (ASC) is a cornerstone of the SSP, providing simulation capabilities and computational resources to support the annual stockpile assessment and certification, to study advanced nuclear weapons design and manufacturing processes, to analyze accident scenarios and weapons aging, and to provide the tools to enable stockpile Life Extension Programs (LEPs) and the resolution of Significant Finding Investigations (SFIs). This requires a balanced resource, including technical staff, hardware, simulation software, and computer science solutions. In its first decade, the ASC strategy focused on demonstrating simulation capabilities of unprecedented scale in three spatial dimensions. In its second decade, ASC is focused on increasing its predictive capabilities in a three-dimensional simulation environment while maintaining support to the SSP. The program continues to improve its unique tools for solving progressively more difficult stockpile problems (focused on sufficient resolution, dimensionality and scientific details); to quantify critical margins and uncertainties (QMU); and to resolve increasingly difficult analyses needed for the SSP. Moreover, ASC has restructured its business model from one that was very successful in delivering an initial capability to one that is integrated and focused on requirements-driven products that address long-standing technical questions related to enhanced predictive capability in the simulation tools. ASC must continue to meet three objectives: Objective 1 Robust Tools--Develop robust models, codes, and computational techniques to support stockpile needs such as refurbishments, SFIs, LEPs, annual assessments, and evolving future requirements. Objective 2 Prediction through Simulation--Deliver validated physics and engineering tools to enable simulations of nuclear weapons performance in a variety of operational environments and physical regimes and to enable risk-informed decisions about the performance, safety, and reliability of the stockpile. Objective 3 Balanced Operational Infrastructure--Implement a balanced computing platform acquisition strategy and operational infrastructure to meet Directed Stockpile Work (DSW) and SSP needs for capacity and high-end simulation capabilities.

  8. 43 CFR 10.11 - Disposition of culturally unidentifiable human remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... human remains previously determined to be Native American under § 10.9, but for which no lineal... AMERICAN GRAVES PROTECTION AND REPATRIATION REGULATIONS Human Remains, Funerary Objects, Sacred Objects, or... federally-recognized and are known to have a relationship of shared group identity with the particular...

  9. Royal Society, Discussion on Prospects for Industrial Electrochemistry, London, England, December 10, 11, 1980

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-09-01

    Among the topics dicussed are electrode kinetics, organic reactions via electrochemically generated intermediaries, speculations on industrial electrochemistry, classically modified electrodes for electrocatalysis, and bioelectrocatalysis. Also covered are industrially useful electrochemical cell designs and meaningful optimization procedures, the industrialization of electrochemical reations, electrochemistry in the service of engineering, pulse voltametric methods of analysis, and on-line sensors in industrial water analysis. Attention is in addition given to sodium-sulphur batteries, the nickel-zinc battery for electric vehicles, and novel materials for advanced batteries.

  10. National Workshop on "45-15" (South Burlington, Vermont, August 10-11, 1972).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forty-five Fifteen Associates, Inc., Hinesburg, VT.

    This document explores the various aspects of the 45-15 plan of school operation, whereby four groups of students are in school 45 days and then off 15 days on a rotating schedule throughout the year. The publication overviews the general aspects of 45-15, considering the basic concept and its origin, general implementation, how the plan compares…

  11. A Report on the 1972 Interim Meetings of CCIR Study Groups 10, 11, and CMTT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remley, Frederick M., Jr.

    The activities of the International Radio Consultative Committee (CCIR), the radio-communications arm of the International Telecommunications Union (ITU), serve the goal of standardizing practices and techniques useful in the broad field of telecommunications. In between the plenary meetings held every three years, the work of the committee is…

  12. Imaging spectroscopy; Proceedings of the Seminar, Los Angeles, CA, February 10, 11, 1981

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norris, D. D.

    1981-01-01

    The seminar concentrated on the science applications of spectral imaging, multispectral imaging sensors, and spectral filtering. Papers are presented on spectroscopic remote sensing for geological applications, spectral mapping of Jupiter, system design of an interferometer imaging sounder and a common module imaging spectral radiometer. Other topics discussed include the performance and application of an intensified linear self-scanned array instrument, tunable optical filtering using an interferometer for selective modulation, design studies for a spectrally agile staring sensor system, and acousto-optic tunable filters for high-resolution spectral analysis.

  13. Optical space communication II; Proceedings of the Meeting, Munich, Germany, June 10, 11, 1991

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franz, Juergen

    1991-05-01

    The present conference discusses the European SILEX project for optical space communications (OSP), Japanese activities in OSPs, deep-space OSP, a high data-rate interorbit link based on diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser technology, an electrooptic modulator for high-speed Nd:YAG laser communications, an unobscured mirror telescope for telecommunications, and optical carrier modulation by integrated optical devices in lithium niobate. Also discussed are micromachined scanning mirrors for laser-beam deflection, coherent optical fiber communications, a 90-deg optical hybrid for coherent receivers, economic factors relevant to an OSP, the effect of microaccelerations on an OSP terminal, and a novel fiber-optics-based conical scan-tracking device.

  14. PROCEEDINGS: 1989 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION - VOLUME 4: SESSIONS 9, 10, 11, AND 12

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proceedings document presentations at the International Conference on Municipal Waste Combustion (MWC), held on April 11-l4, 1989, in Hollywood, Florida. The objective of the Conference was to provide an effective international forum for tile exchange and transfer of informat...

  15. Surface characterization and testing II; Proceedings of the Meeting, San Diego, CA, Aug. 10, 11, 1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greivenkamp, John E. (Editor); Young, Matt (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    Various papers on surface characterization and testing are presented. Individual topics addressed include: simple Hartmann test data interpretation, optimum configuration of the Offner null corrector, system for phase-shifting interferometry in the presence of vibration, fringe variation and visibility in speckle-shearing interferometry, functional integral representation of rough surfaces, calibration of surface heights in an interferometric optical profiler, image formation in common path differential profilometers, SEM of optical surfaces, measuring surface profiles with scanning tunneling microscopes, surface profile measurements of curved parts, high-resolution optical profiler, scanning heterodyne interferometer with immunity from microphonics, real-time crystal axis measurements of semiconductor materials, radial metrology with a panoramic annular lens, surface analysis for the characterization of defects in thin-film processes, Spacelab Optical Viewport glass assembly optical test program for the Starlab mission, scanning differential intensity and phase system for optical metrology.

  16. Modeling Nonignorable Missing Data with Item Response Theory (IRT). Research Report. ETS RR-10-11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Norman; von Davier, Matthias; Xu, Xueli

    2010-01-01

    Large-scale educational surveys are low-stakes assessments of educational outcomes conducted using nationally representative samples. In these surveys, students do not receive individual scores, and the outcome of the assessment is inconsequential for respondents. The low-stakes nature of these surveys, as well as variations in average performance…

  17. Shuttle cryogenic supply system optimization study. Volume 3: Technical report, section 10, 11 and 12

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The evaluation of candidate cryogenic fuel systems for space shuttle vehicles is discussed. A set of guidelines was used to establish a matrix of possible combinations for the integration of potential cryogenic systems. The various concepts and combinations which resulted from the integration efforts are described. The parameters which were considered in developing the matrix are: (1) storage of cryogenic materials, (2) fuel lines, (3) tank pressure control, (4) thermal control, (5) fluid control, and (6) fluid conditioning. Block diagrams and drawings of the candidate systems are provided. Performance predictions for the systems are outlined in tables of data.

  18. Mobile robots III; Proceedings of the Meeting, Cambridge, MA, Nov. 10, 11, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, W.J.

    1989-01-01

    Topics discussed include path planning, terrain classification, planetary rovers, navigation, architecture and control, three-dimensional sensing, and behavior specification. Particular papers are presented on a minimum path algorithm among three-dimensional polyhedral objects, parallel off-road perception processing on the autonomous land vehicle, hazard avoidance for a Mars rover, color vision for road following, a pipeline architecture for near real-time stereo range detection, a computational structure for enforcing reactive behavior in a mobile robot, and homeostatic control for a mobile robot.

  19. Structure of 10,11Li and the reaction 11Li (p , d)10Li

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortune, H. T.

    2016-09-01

    I examine the properties of 11Li and the low-lying resonances in 10Li, as they relate to neutron removal from 11Li. Comparison with results from a recent 11Li (p , d) reaction strongly suggests that that experiment observed only the 2+ resonance, and not the 1+.

  20. Electron tubes and image intensifiers; Proceedings of the Meeting, San Jose, CA, Feb. 10, 11, 1992

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, C. B.; Laprade, Bruce N.

    Various papers on electron tubes and image intensifiers are presented. Individual topics addressed include: high-performance LLTV CCD camera for nighttime pilotage, characterization and modelling of microchannel-plate intensified-CCD SNR variations with image size, high-resolution vidicon-based readout system for photon-counting streak camera applications, advancement in microchannel-plate technology, and fractal multifiber microchannel plates.

  1. REPORT OF NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE ON HEALTH OCCUPATIONS EDUCATION (MARCH 10-11, 1966).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    COMMITTEE MEMBERS AND OFFICE OF EDUCATION STAFF MET WITH RESOURCE PERSONS IN HEALTH OCCUPATIONS AREA. HIGHLIGHTS OF THE SPECIALISTS REPORTS ARE--BY 1970, 60 TO 70 THOUSAND MEDICAL TECHNOLOGISTS WILL BE NEEDED. PROGRAMS DEVELOPED IN TECHNICAL AND HIGH SCHOOLS AND COMMUNITY COLLEGES ARE ALL NEEDED TO REACH THIS GOAL. SHORTAGES OF QUALIFIED TEACHERS…

  2. Career Education: Some Essential Learner Outcomes. Senior High Grades 10, 11, 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennyson, W. Wesley; And Others

    This guide, one of a series for various grade levels, contains Some Essential Learner Ouctomes (SELOs) for career education in high schools in Minnesota. (The SELOs are selected samples of knowledge statements considered as essential learning outcomes for students in each of the subject areas taught in schools.) These SELOs for the senior high…

  3. Proceedings of the Patterns Seminar (Rochester Institute of Technology, April 10-11, 1975).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooten, David E., Ed.

    1975-01-01

    This document contains the proceedings of a seminar concerned with the systematic development of the concept of life-long learning. The three most critical issues were identified as the adult learner, organization, and finance. Five major addresses and the reports of the workshops on the three issues are presented. Keynote speaker E. E. Dubois…

  4. Immortalization of Human Fetal Hepatocyte by Ectopic Expression of Human Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase, Human Papilloma Virus (E7) and Simian Virus 40 Large T (SV40 T) Antigen Towards Bioartificial Liver Support

    PubMed Central

    Giri, Shibashish; Bader, Augustinus

    2014-01-01

    Background Generation of genetically stable and non-tumoric immortalization cell line from primary cells would be enormously useful for research and therapeutic purposes, but progress towards this goal has so far been limited. It is now universal acceptance that immortalization of human fetal hepatocytes based on recent advances of telomerase biology and oncogene, lead to unlimited population doubling could be the possible source for bioartificial liver device. Methods Immortalization of human fetal hepatocytes cell line by ectopic expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), human papilloma virus gene (E7) and simian virus 40 large T (SV40 T) antigens is main goal of present study. We used an inducible system containing human telomerase and E7, both of which are cloned into responder constructs controlled by doxycycline transactivator. We characterized the immortalized human fetal hepatocyte cells by analysis of green fluorescent cells (GFP) positive cells using flow cytometry (FACs) cell sorting and morphology, proliferative rate and antigen expression by immunohistochemical analysis. In addition to we analysized lactate formation, glucose consumption, albumin secretion and urea production of immortalized human fetal hepatocyte cells. Results After 25 attempts for transfection of adult primary hepatocytes by human telomerase and E7 to immortalize them, none of the transfection systems resulted in the production of a stable, proliferating cell line. Although the transfection efficiency was more than 70% on the first day, the vast majority of the transfected hepatocytes lost their signal within the first 5–7 days. The remaining transfected hepatocytes persisted for 2–4 weeks and divided one or two times without forming a clone. After 10 attempts of transfection human fetal hepatocytes using the same transfection system, we obtained one stable human fetal hepatocytes cell line which was able albumin secretion urea production and glucose

  5. Amyloid Beta A4 Precursor Protein-binding Family B Member 1 (FE65) Interactomics Revealed Synaptic Vesicle Glycoprotein 2A (SV2A) and Sarcoplasmic/Endoplasmic Reticulum Calcium ATPase 2 (SERCA2) as New Binding Proteins in the Human Brain*

    PubMed Central

    Nensa, Fabian M.; Neumann, Martin H. D.; Schrötter, Andreas; Przyborski, Andre; Mastalski, Thomas; Susdalzew, Sergej; Looβe, Christina; Helling, Stefan; El Magraoui, Fouzi; Erdmann, Ralf; Meyer, Helmut E.; Uszkoreit, Julian; Eisenacher, Martin; Suh, Jaehong; Guénette, Suzanne Y.; Röhner, Nelli; Kögel, Donat; Theiss, Carsten; Marcus, Katrin; Müller, Thorsten

    2014-01-01

    FE65 is a cytosolic adapter protein and an important binding partner of amyloid precursor protein. Dependent on Thr668 phosphorylation in amyloid precursor protein, which influences amyloidogenic amyloid precursor protein processing, FE65 undergoes nuclear translocation, thereby transmitting a signal from the cell membrane to the nucleus. As this translocation may be relevant in Alzheimer disease, and as FE65 consists of three protein–protein interaction domains able to bind and affect a variety of other proteins and downstream signaling pathways, the identification of the FE65 interactome is of central interest in Alzheimer disease research. In this study, we identified 121 proteins as new potential FE65 interacting proteins in a pulldown/mass spectrometry approach using human post-mortem brain samples as protein pools for recombinantly expressed FE65. Co-immunoprecipitation assays further validated the interaction of FE65 with the candidates SV2A and SERCA2. In parallel, we investigated the whole cell proteome of primary hippocampal neurons from FE65/FE65L1 double knockout mice. Notably, the validated FE65 binding proteins were also found to be differentially abundant in neurons derived from the FE65 knockout mice relative to wild-type control neurons. SERCA2 is an important player in cellular calcium homeostasis, which was found to be up-regulated in double knockout neurons. Indeed, knock-down of FE65 in HEK293T cells also evoked an elevated sensitivity to thapsigargin, a stressor specifically targeting the activity of SERCA2. Thus, our results suggest that FE65 is involved in the regulation of intracellular calcium homeostasis. Whereas transfection of FE65 alone caused a typical dot-like phenotype in the nucleus, co-transfection of SV2A significantly reduced the percentage of FE65 dot-positive cells, pointing to a possible role for SV2A in the modulation of FE65 intracellular targeting. Given that SV2A has a signaling function at the presynapse, its effect on

  6. Amyloid beta a4 precursor protein-binding family B member 1 (FE65) interactomics revealed synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2A (SV2A) and sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase 2 (SERCA2) as new binding proteins in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Nensa, Fabian M; Neumann, Martin H D; Schrötter, Andreas; Przyborski, Andre; Mastalski, Thomas; Susdalzew, Sergej; Looβe, Christina; Helling, Stefan; El Magraoui, Fouzi; Erdmann, Ralf; Meyer, Helmut E; Uszkoreit, Julian; Eisenacher, Martin; Suh, Jaehong; Guénette, Suzanne Y; Röhner, Nelli; Kögel, Donat; Theiss, Carsten; Marcus, Katrin; Müller, Thorsten

    2014-02-01

    FE65 is a cytosolic adapter protein and an important binding partner of amyloid precursor protein. Dependent on Thr668 phosphorylation in amyloid precursor protein, which influences amyloidogenic amyloid precursor protein processing, FE65 undergoes nuclear translocation, thereby transmitting a signal from the cell membrane to the nucleus. As this translocation may be relevant in Alzheimer disease, and as FE65 consists of three protein-protein interaction domains able to bind and affect a variety of other proteins and downstream signaling pathways, the identification of the FE65 interactome is of central interest in Alzheimer disease research. In this study, we identified 121 proteins as new potential FE65 interacting proteins in a pulldown/mass spectrometry approach using human post-mortem brain samples as protein pools for recombinantly expressed FE65. Co-immunoprecipitation assays further validated the interaction of FE65 with the candidates SV2A and SERCA2. In parallel, we investigated the whole cell proteome of primary hippocampal neurons from FE65/FE65L1 double knockout mice. Notably, the validated FE65 binding proteins were also found to be differentially abundant in neurons derived from the FE65 knockout mice relative to wild-type control neurons. SERCA2 is an important player in cellular calcium homeostasis, which was found to be up-regulated in double knockout neurons. Indeed, knock-down of FE65 in HEK293T cells also evoked an elevated sensitivity to thapsigargin, a stressor specifically targeting the activity of SERCA2. Thus, our results suggest that FE65 is involved in the regulation of intracellular calcium homeostasis. Whereas transfection of FE65 alone caused a typical dot-like phenotype in the nucleus, co-transfection of SV2A significantly reduced the percentage of FE65 dot-positive cells, pointing to a possible role for SV2A in the modulation of FE65 intracellular targeting. Given that SV2A has a signaling function at the presynapse, its effect on

  7. Evaluation of total effective dose due to certain environmentally placed naturally occurring radioactive materials using a procedural adaptation of RESRAD code.

    PubMed

    Beauvais, Z S; Thompson, K H; Kearfott, K J

    2009-07-01

    Due to a recent upward trend in the price of uranium and subsequent increased interest in uranium mining, accurate modeling of baseline dose from environmental sources of radioactivity is of increasing interest. Residual radioactivity model and code (RESRAD) is a program used to model environmental movement and calculate the dose due to the inhalation, ingestion, and exposure to radioactive materials following a placement. This paper presents a novel use of RESRAD for the calculation of dose from non-enhanced, or ancient, naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). In order to use RESRAD to calculate the total effective dose (TED) due to ancient NORM, a procedural adaptation was developed to negate the effects of time progressive distribution of radioactive materials. A dose due to United States' average concentrations of uranium, actinium, and thorium series radionuclides was then calculated. For adults exposed in a residential setting and assumed to eat significant amounts of food grown in NORM concentrated areas, the annual dose due to national average NORM concentrations was 0.935 mSv y(-1). A set of environmental dose factors were calculated for simple estimation of dose from uranium, thorium, and actinium series radionuclides for various age groups and exposure scenarios as a function of elemental uranium and thorium activity concentrations in groundwater and soil. The values of these factors for uranium were lowest for an adult exposed in an industrial setting: 0.00476 microSv kg Bq(-1) y(-1) for soil and 0.00596 microSv m(3) Bq(-1) y(-1) for water (assuming a 1:1 234U:238U activity ratio in water). The uranium factors were highest for infants exposed in a residential setting and assumed to ingest food grown onsite: 34.8 microSv kg Bq(-1) y(-1) in soil and 13.0 microSv m(3) Bq(-1) y(-1) in water. PMID:19509509

  8. Dosimetry of metal tritide particles as evaluated by the ICRP 66 model and a biokinetic model from laboratory rats.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Y; Cheng, Y S

    2004-02-01

    Internal radiation from inhalation of metal tritide aerosols may present a significant radiation protection problem for nuclear facility workers. Dose was evaluated for three metal tritides: hafnium, titanium, and zirconium. The study included in vitro and in vivo exposures. The inhalation doses for the three materials were calculated by using the ICRP 66 lung model. The doses also were evaluated by a biokinetic model, which was developed according to the results of animal studies. Results showed that the hafnium tritide particles were the most dense but they had a lower dissolution rate and a higher retention rate. Among these three tritides, hafnium was classified as a Type S material according to the ICRP 66 publication, whereas titanium and zirconium ranked between Type M and F materials. The dissolution rate of hafnium tritide appeared to agree well with the in vitro and in vivo studies. The dissolution rates of the other two materials in the in vitro studies were a little higher than those of the in vivo studies. The doses calculated by the ICRP 66 model for all materials were approximately two orders smaller than the doses obtained by the animal studies. This bias was caused by the different intake methods of the ICRP 66 model (inhalation) and in the animal study (instillation). The doses were on the same order while correcting for deposition fractions. The effective doses for hafnium, titanium, and zirconium tritides were 5.43 x 10(-10), 9.05 x 10(-11), and 6.5 x 10(-10) Sv Bq(-1), respectively, according to the animal studies. PMID:14744049

  9. Proceedings of the Eastern Region Annual Research Conference in Agricultural Education (Easton, Maryland, May 10-11, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1985

    Twelve major papers delivered during this conference on agricultural education in the Northeastern states are included in this volume: (1) "Status of Pennsylvania Special Needs Students in Vocational Agriculture: Phase IV--Job Performance Follow-Up," by Dennis C. Scanlon and Connie D. Baggett; (2) "Education, Age and Experience: Their Correlation…

  10. Portable TXRF Spectrometer with 10-11g Detection Limit and Portable XRF Spectromicroscope with Sub-mm Spatial Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunimura, Shinsuke; Hatakeyama, So; Sasaki, Nobuharu; Yamamoto, Takashi; Kawai, Jun

    2010-04-01

    A portable total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometer that we have developed is applied to trace elemental analysis of water solutions. Although a 5 W X-ray tube is used in the portable TXRF spectrometer, detection limits of several ppb are achieved for 3d transition metal elements and trace elements in a leaching solution of soils, a leaching solution of solder, and alcoholic beverages are detected. Portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectromicroscopes with a 1 W X-ray tube and an 8 W X-ray tube are also presented. Using the portable XRF spectromicroscope with the 1 W X-ray tube, 93 ppm of Cr is detected with an about 700 μm spatial resolution. Spatially resolved elemental analysis of a mug painted with blue, red, green, and white is performed using the two portable spectromicroscopes, and the difference in elemental composition at each paint is detected.

  11. The Resources and Strategies that 10--11-Year-Old Boys Use to Construct Masculinities in the School Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swain, Jon

    2004-01-01

    The data in this article come from an ethnographic exploration into the construction of masculinities in three junior schools in the UK between 1998 and 1999. The author argues that the construction and performance of masculinity is inextricably linked to the acquisition of status within the school peer group, and he delineates the specific series…

  12. New results on the Trojan Horse Method applied to the {sup 10,11}B+p reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Spitaleri, C.; Romano, S.; Lamia, L.; Puglia, S. M. R.; Cherubini, S.; Crucilla, V.; Gulino, M.; La Cognata, M.; Pizzone, R. G.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Sergi, M. L.; Tudisco, S.; Tumino, A.; Del Szanto, M. G.; Carlin, N.; Munhoz, M. G.; Szanto de Toledo, A.; Neto, R. Liguori; De Moura, M. M.; Souza, F. A.

    2009-05-04

    Light elements lithium, beryllium and boron (LiBeB) were used in the last years as 'possible probes' for stellar structure. They are mainly destroyed by (p,{alpha}) reactions and cross section measurements for such channels are then needed. In this work a resume of the recent results, obtained via Trojan Horse Method, about the {sup 11}B(p,{alpha}{sub 0}){sup 8}Be and {sup 10}B(p,{alpha}){sup 7}Be reactions are shown.

  13. Seeking Sustainable Public Universities: The Legacy of the Great Recession. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.10.11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyall, Katharine

    2011-01-01

    The business models under which most public universities in the U.S. operate have become unsustainable. They were put in place when state economies were stronger and there were fewer programs making competing claims on state funds. The current Great Recession has made things worse, but the unsustainability of current business models derives from…

  14. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Midwest Philosophy of Education Society (Ann Arbor, Michigan, November 10-11, 1978).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merritt, James, Ed.; And Others

    The Midwest Philosophy of Education Society strives to enhance and deepen the level of conversation about education in the modern world and to evaluate, in moral terms, the relationship of education to the larger society. The following papers were presented at the 1978 annual meeting of the Society: "Educational Evaluation and Emancipation" (Gary…

  15. {sup 10-11}Li and {sup 13-14}Be Studied by Projectile Fragmentation and pp-RPA

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchon, G.; Bonaccorso, A.; Brink, D. M.; Mau, N. Vinh

    2009-05-04

    The level ordering in the unbound nuclei {sup 10}Li and {sup 13}Be is established on firm basis using a time dependent projectile fragmentation model, comparing to experimental data and using structure inputs obtained from a semi-phenomenological core-vibration coupling model of two-neutron halo nuclei. As a consistency test we show that the energy spectra of some Beryllium isotopes obtained by using pp-RPA predict the same shell ordering as extracted from the reaction model vs. data analysis and that the well known structure of {sup 11}Li is reproduced.

  16. Proceedings of the National Seminar for State Directors of Community-Junior Colleges (January 10-11, 1972). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugherty, Ronald, Comp.; And Others

    This 3-day seminar was specifically designed to acquaint state leaders with those trends in occupational education having direct and indirect implications for the post-secondary level and to provide a forum for identification and discussion of problems. Thus, 49 participants met and responded to presentations on the following topics: (1) "Improved…

  17. The future of aeronautical transportation; Proceedings of the Princeton University Conference, Princeton, N.J., November 10, 11, 1975

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Papers are presented on first and second generation supersonic transports, the Supersonic Cruise Aircraft Research Program, wide-body subsonic transports and vertical and short takeoff and landing transports. Aspects of aircraft design are examined including the airframe, propulsion and electronics. Government regulation, cost/benefit analysis of research and development, airline economics and aircraft financing are also considered. The environmental impact of air transportation is discussed with emphasis on atmospheric emissions (including stratospheric pollution) and noise pollution. Individual items are announced in this issue.

  18. Manpower Planning and Forecasting, Proceedings of the Annual Research Conference (10th, Beverly Hills, California, April 10-11, 1967).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Los Angeles. Inst. of Industrial Relations.

    Five conference papers covering research studies and problems related to effective utilization of manpower in southern California are presented. "The Impact of Technological Change on Employees in the Southern California Aerospace Industry," by Paul Prasow, reports a longitudinal study of social and psychological adjustment factors related to…

  19. Proceedings of a Conference--"The Future of Grammar in American Schools" (Winchester, VA, August 10-11, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council of Teachers of English, Urbana, IL. Assembly for the Teaching of English Grammar.

    Providing alternatives to the way grammar is taught, this proceedings includes every paper (or summary) except one delivered at a conference on the future of grammar in American schools. Papers in the proceedings are: "Keynote: The Future of Grammar in American Schools" (Martha Kolln); "Approaches to Grammar: Teaching & Otherwise" (Kathy…

  20. Guiding Age 10-11 Students to Notice the Salient Features of Physical Change Models in Chemistry Digital Learning Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafson, Brenda; Mahaffy, Peter; Martin, Brian

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on one Grade 5 class (9 females; 9 males) who worked in student-pairs to view five digital learning object (DLO) lessons created by the authors and meant to introduce students to the nature of models, the particle nature of matter, and physical change. Specifically, the paper focuses on whether DLO design elements could assist…

  1. Proceedings of the Conference on Nutrition and Mental Retardation (Ann Arbor, Michigan, February 10-11, 1971).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Ninfa Saturnino, Ed.

    The conference, planned primarily for nutritionists and dieticians, dealt with the role of nutrition in the prevention and management of mental retardation. Proceedings include an overview of mental retardation, an examination of nutrition manpower needs in the fields of mental health and mental retardation on both the national and state levels,…

  2. Medical Service Specialist, Blocks III, V, VI, 10-11. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This second course of a two-course, postsecondary-level series for medical service specialist is one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instruction and curriculum development in a civilian setting. The purpose stated for the 89-hour course is to provide training in the basic theory and…

  3. E-cigarette use and intentions to smoke among 10-11-year-old never-smokers in Wales

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Graham F; Littlecott, Hannah J; Moore, Laurence; Ahmed, Nilufar; Holliday, Jo

    2016-01-01

    Background E-cigarettes are seen by some as offering harm reduction potential, where used effectively as smoking cessation devices. However, there is emerging international evidence of growing use among young people, amid concerns that this may increase tobacco uptake. Few UK studies examine the prevalence of e-cigarette use in non-smoking children or associations with intentions to smoke. Methods A cross-sectional survey of year 6 (10–11-year-old) children in Wales. Approximately 1500 children completed questions on e-cigarette use, parental and peer smoking, and intentions to smoke. Logistic regression analyses among never smoking children, adjusted for school-level clustering, examined associations of smoking norms with e-cigarette use, and of e-cigarette use with intentions to smoke tobacco within the next 2 years. Results Approximately 6% of year 6 children, including 5% of never smokers, reported having used an e-cigarette. By comparison to children whose parents neither smoked nor used e-cigarettes, children were most likely to have used an e-cigarette if parents used both tobacco and e-cigarettes (OR=3.40; 95% CI 1.73 to 6.69). Having used an e-cigarette was associated with intentions to smoke (OR=3.21; 95% CI 1.66 to 6.23). While few children reported that they would smoke in 2 years’ time, children who had used an e-cigarette were less likely to report that they definitely would not smoke tobacco in 2 years’ time and were more likely to say that they might. Conclusions E-cigarettes represent a new form of childhood experimentation with nicotine. Findings are consistent with a hypothesis that children use e-cigarettes to imitate parental and peer smoking behaviours, and that e-cigarette use is associated with weaker antismoking intentions. PMID:25535293

  4. Strand I - Physical Health; Disease Prevention and Control for Grades 10, 11, and 12. Special Edition for Evaluation and Discussion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    This health curriculum guide, intended for use in grades ten through twelve, addresses itself to disease prevention and control concepts which are particularly relevant to the adolescent's physical health needs. The contents of the guide are presented in outline form and cover source of injection, preventing the spread of communicable diseases,…

  5. The Effects of Playground Markings on the Physical Self-Perceptions of 10-11-Year-Old School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crust, Lee; McKenna, Jim; Spence, Jon; Thomas, Catherine; Evans, Donna; Bishop, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Background: Significant proportions of school children in the UK do not meet the minimum recommended daily requirements of 60-min moderate-intensity physical activity. Beyond taught classes, playtimes offer the opportunity for children to play and be physically active. Painted markings are one recent addition to school playgrounds that are…

  6. The Major Project in the Field of Education in the Latin American and Caribbean Region. Bulletin 10-11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Santiago (Chile). Regional Office for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    The Major Project in the Field of Education stresses renewed and intensive efforts by Latin American and Caribbean Island countries to provide the resources and training necessary to meet basic education needs by the year 2000. This document examines project achievements, innovations, and problems through 1986 in the areas of rural education,…

  7. A Synopsis of the National Conference on Fitness and Aging (Washington, DC, September 10-11, 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports, Washington, DC.

    This report contains presentations and program descriptions given at a conference on physical fitness and older adults. Included are: (1) Keynote Address (Richard S. Schweiker); (2) "Government's Role in Fitness for the Aging" (Pete V. Domenici and Beverly B. Byron); (3) "What Is Aging?" (James Skinner); (4) Medical Implications of Fitness and…

  8. Interdisciplinary Student/Teacher Materials in Energy, the Environment, and the Economy: Agriculture, Energy, and Society, Grades 10, 11, 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Phyllis; And Others

    This interdisciplinary instructional unit contains eleven lessons for grades 10-12 which focus on the energy component of food production. There are lessons which contrast food production systems in various cultures and also lessons which look at different systems and techniques in use in this country. There are lessons dealing with organic…

  9. Reflections on the First International iPED Conference, Coventry TechnoCentre, UK, 10-11 September 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Virginia; Clouder, Lynn; Deane, Mary; Deepwell, Frances; Ganobcsik-Williams, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    Through reflection on the First International iPED Conference 2006, and its overarching theme of "Pedagogical Research and Academic Identities", this paper considers the achievement of the wider aims of the conference, which were to facilitate dialogue between researchers in order to explore the conference themes collaboratively, and to provide…

  10. Developments at the SLOWRI facility at RIKEN: precision optical spectroscopy of 7,9,10,11Be+ ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, M.; Takamine, A.; Sonoda, T.; Okada, K.; Schury, P.

    2011-07-01

    Precision optical spectroscopy of radioactive Be isotopes produced in projectile fragmentation has been performed for the first time at the prototype SLOWRI facility of RIKEN RI-Beam Factory. The ground state hyperfine constants of 7Be+ and 11Be+ were determined with relative accuracies of 6 × 10-7 and 3 × 10-8, respectively, by laser-microwave double resonance spectroscopy of laser-cooled ions in a trap. The optical transition energies from the ground S-state to the excited P-state of Be isotope ions were also measured to determine the nuclear charge radii from the isotope shifts. Development of the universal slow RI-beam facility—SLOWRI—based on the rf-carpet ion guide technique is progressing at RIKEN RI-beam factory. An additional capability of providing parasitic slow RI-beams from the projectile fragment separator BigRIPS is also discussed.

  11. Sub-mSV breast XACT scanner: concept and design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Shanshan; Ren, Liqiang; Samant, Pratik; Chen, Jian; Liu, Hong; Xiang, Liangzhong

    2016-04-01

    Excessive exposure to radiation increases the risk of cancer. We present the concept and design of a new imaging paradigm, X-ray induced acoustic computed tomography (XACT). Applying this innovative technology to breast imaging, one single X-ray exposure can generate a 3D acoustic image, which dramatically reduces the radiation dose to patients when compared to beast CT. A theoretical model is developed to analyze the sensitivity of XACT. A noise equivalent pressure model is used for calculating the minimal radiation dose in XACT imaging. Furthermore, K-Wave simulation is employed to study the acoustic wave propagation in breast tissue. Theoretical analysis shows that the X-ray induced acoustic signal has a 100% relative sensitivity to the X-ray absorption (given that the percentage change in the X-ray absorption coefficient yields the same percentage change in the acoustic signal amplitude), but not to X-ray scattering. The final detection sensitivity is primarily limited by the thermal noise. The radiation dose can be reduced by a factor of 100 compared with the newly FDA approved breast CT. Reconstruction result shows that breast calcification with diameter of 80 μm can be observed in XACT image by using ultrasound transducers with 5.5 MHz center frequency. Therefore, with the proposed innovative technology, one can potentially reduce radiation dose to patient in breast imaging as compared with current x-ray modalities.

  12. Materials for defense/aerospace applications (NON-SV)

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, A. R.

    2012-03-01

    Through this effort, Sandia and Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company (LM Aero) sought to assess the feasibility of (1) applying special materials to a defense application; (2) developing a piezoelectric-based micro thermophotovoltaic (TPV) cell; and (3) building and delivering a prototype laboratory emission measurement system. This project supported the Stockpile Research & Development Program by contributing to the development of radio frequency (RF) MEMS- and optical MEMS-based components - such as switches, phase shifters, oscillators, and filters - with improved performance and reduced weight and size. Investigation of failure mechanisms and solutions helped to ensure that MEMS-based technology will meet performance requirements and long term reliability goals in the specified environments dictated by Lockheed Martin's commercial and defense applications. The objectives of this project were to (1) fabricate and test materials for military applications; (2) perform a feasibility study of a piezoelectric-based micro TPV cell; and (3) build and deliver a prototype laboratory emission measurement system. Sandia fabricated and tested properties of materials, studied options for manufacturing scale-up, and delivered a prototype IR Emissometer. LM Aero provided material requirements and designs. Both participated in the investigation of attachment methods and environmental effects on material performance, a feasibility study of piezoelectric TPV cells, an investigation and development of new approaches to implement the required material functionality, and analysis and validation of material performance physics, numerical models, and experimental metrology.

  13. Extracting and Applying SV-SV Shear Modes from Vertical Vibrator Data Across Geothermal Prospects Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hardage, Bob

    2013-07-01

    This 3-year project was terminated at the end of Year 1 because the DOE Geothermal project-evaluation committee decided one Milestone was not met and also concluded that our technology would not be successful. The Review Panel recommended a ?no-go? decision be implemented by DOE. The Principal Investigator and his research team disagreed with the conclusions reached by the DOE evaluation committee and wrote a scientifically based rebuttal to the erroneous claims made by the evaluators. We were not told if our arguments were presented to the people who evaluated our work and made the ?no-go? decision. Whatever the case regarding the information we supplied in rebuttal, we received an official letter from Laura Merrick, Contracting Officer at the Golden Field Office, dated June 11, 2013 in which we were informed that project funding would cease and instructed us to prepare a final report before September 5, 2013. In spite of the rebuttal arguments we presented to DOE, this official letter repeated the conclusions of the Review Panel that we had already proven to be incorrect. This is the final report that we are expected to deliver. The theme of this report will be another rebuttal of the technical deficiencies claimed by the DOE Geothermal Review Panel about the value and accomplishments of the work we did in Phase 1 of the project. The material in this report will present images made from direct-S modes produced by vertical-force sources using the software and research findings we developed in Phase 1 that the DOE Review Panel said would not be successful. We made these images in great haste when we were informed that DOE Geothermal rejected our rebuttal arguments and still regarded our technical work to be substandard. We thought it was more important to respond quickly rather than to take additional time to create better quality images than what we present in this Final Report.

  14. 210Po and 210Pb inhalation by cigarette smoking in Italy.

    PubMed

    Desideri, Donatella; Meli, Maria Assunta; Feduzi, Laura; Roselli, Carla

    2007-01-01

    210Po and its precursor 210Pb in cigarette smoke contribute a significant radiation dose to the lungs of smokers. In this work, the concentration of 210Po was determined in 17 of the most frequently smoked cigarette brands in Italy. Samples of tobacco, fresh filters, ash, and post-smoking filters were analyzed; 210Po was determined by alpha spectrometry after its spontaneous deposition on a silver disk. To verify the radioactive equilibrium between 210Po and 210Pb, lead was determined in one tobacco sample by counting the beta activity of its decay product 210Bi with a gas flow proportional detector after separation. The results of the present study show 210Po concentrations ranged from 6.84 to 17.49 mBq per cigarette. Based on these results, smokers who smoke 20 cigarettes per day inhale, on average, 79.53 +/- 28.65 mBq d(-1) of 210Po and 210Pb each. The mean value of the annual committed effective dose for Italian smokers, calculated by applying the dose conversion factor for adults of 4.3 microSv Bq(-1) for 210Po and 5.6 microSv Bq(-1) for 210Pb, was estimated to be 124.8 and 162.6 microSv y(-1) for 210Po and 210Pb, respectively. The lung dose from inhalation of cigarette smoke is much higher than the lung dose from inhalation of atmospheric 210Po and 210Pb. PMID:17164600

  15. Behavioral responses of the invasive Halyomorpha halys (Stal) to traps baited with stereoisomeric mixtures of 10,11-Epoxy-1-bisabolen-3-OL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys, is an invasive insect in the United States that is capable of inflicting significant yield losses for fruit, vegetable, and soybean growers. Recently, a male-produced aggregation pheromone of H. halys was identified as a 3.5:1 mixture of (3S,6S,7R,...

  16. The Development of Extraversion and Ability: Analysis of Data from a Large-Scale Longitudinal Study of Children Tested at 10-11 and 14-15 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthony, W. S.

    1983-01-01

    Results of analysis of correlations collected by Cookson, following Eysenck and Cookson's study of personality and ability in young people, confirm the finding from previous Cattellian test data that the more intelligent children decline in relative extraversion scores and cast doubt on Eysenck's suggestion that introverts gradually show higher…

  17. Comment on "Indication from Pioneer 10/11, Galileo, and Ulysses Data, of an Apparent Anomalous, Weak, Long-Range Acceleration"

    SciTech Connect

    Humphreys, D.R.

    1998-10-27

    In a recent Letter Anderson et al. report some very intriguing radio observations flom various interplanetary spaceprobes over the past 18 years. They interpret this data as an anomalous deceleration of the spaceprobes. Here I offer a different interpretation: that the anomaly is related to the cosmological red shift.

  18. USGS Workshop on Scientific Aspects of a Long-Term Experimental Plan for Glen Canyon Dam, April 10-11, 2007, Flagstaff, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    USGS Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center

    2008-01-01

    Executive Summary Glen Canyon Dam is located in the lower reaches of Glen Canyon National Recreation Area on the Colorado River, approximately 15 miles upriver from Grand Canyon National Park (fig. 1). In 1992, Congress passed and the President signed into law the Grand Canyon Protection Act (GCPA; title XVIII, sec. 1801?1809, of Public Law 102-575), which seeks ?to protect, mitigate adverse impacts to, and improve the values for which Grand Canyon National Park and Glen Canyon National Recreation Area were established.? The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program (GCDAMP) was implemented as a result of the 1996 Record of Decision on the Operation of Glen Canyon Dam Final Environmental Impact Statement to ensure that the primary mandate of the GCPA is met through advances in information and resources management (U.S. Department of the Interior, 1995). On November 3, 2006, the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) announced it would develop a long-term experimental plan environmental impact statement (LTEP EIS) for operational activities at Glen Canyon Dam and other management actions on the Colorado River. The purpose of the long-term experimental plan is twofold: (1) to increase the scientific understanding of the ecosystem and (2) to improve and protect important downstream resources. The proposed plan would implement a structured, longterm program of experimentation to include dam operations, potential modifications to Glen Canyon Dam intake structures, and other management actions such as removal of nonnative fish species. The development of the long-term experimental plan continues efforts begun by the GCDAMP to protect resources downstream of Glen Canyon Dam, including Grand Canyon, through adaptive management and scientific experimentation. The LTEP EIS will rely on the extensive scientific studies that have been undertaken as part of the adaptive management program by the U.S. Geological Survey?s (USGS) Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center (GCMRC), one of the four research stations within the USGS Southwest Biological Science Center. On April 10 and 11, 2007, at the behest of Reclamation, the GCMRC convened a workshop with scientific experts to identify one or more scientifically credible, long-term experimental options for Reclamation to consider for the LTEP EIS that would be consistent with the purpose and need for the plan. Workshop participants included government, academic, and private scientists with broad experience in the Colorado River in Grand Canyon and regulated rivers around the world. Resource managers and GCDAMP participants were also present on the second day of the workshop. In advance of the workshop, Reclamation and LTEP EIS cooperating agencies identified 14 core scientific questions. Workshop participants were asked to consider how proposed options would address these questions, which fall primarily into four areas: (1) conservation of endangered humpback chub (Gila cypha) and other high-priority biological resources, (2) conservation of sediment resources, (3) enhancement of recreational resources, and (4) preservation of cultural resources. A secondary objective of the workshop was the evaluation of four long-term experimental options developed by the GCDAMP Science Planning Group (SPG) (appendix B). The flow and nonflow treatments called for in the four experimental options were an important starting point for workshop discussions. At the beginning of the workshop, participants were provided with the final LTEP EIS scoping report prepared by Reclamation. Participants were also advised that Reclamation had committed to ?make every effortEto ensure that a new population of humpback chub is established in the mainstem or one or more of the tributaries within Grand Canyon? in the 1995 Operation of Glen Canyon Dam Final Environmental Impact Statement (U.S. Department of the Interior, 1995). This decision was consistent with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service?s 1995 bi

  19. Evaluation of surface energy and carbon fluxes within a large wind farm during the CWEX-10/11 Crop Wind-energy EXperiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajewski, D. A.; Takle, E. S.; Prueger, J. H.; Oncley, S.; Horst, T. W.; Pfeiffer, R.; Hatfield, J.; Spoth, K. K.; Doorenbos, R.

    2012-12-01

    The Crop Wind-energy EXperiment conducted in summer 2010 (very moist conditions) and summer 2011 (abnormally dry) included measurements of wind speed, temperature, relative humidity, turbulence kinetic energy, H2O, and CO2 at stations north and south of a line of turbines at the southwest edge of a large-scale 200-turbine wind farm (prevailing wind from the south). In contrast to previous studies that have reported turbine influences on surface wind speed and temperature, this report focuses on scalar fluxes of heat, H2O, and CO2. From previous measurements in agricultural fields we recognize the importance of non-turbine factors in analysis of the flux differences: variability of soil characteristics, moisture content, crop cultivar, management practices, planting dates, etc., which can create differences in what looks like a uniform field of maize (corn). We conceptualize the influences of turbines at canopy height at a given location in the field to arise from (1) wakes of reduced wind speed and turbulence conditions different from ambient that intersect the surface, (2) wakes that are passing overhead and interrupt the ambient turbulence that scales with height, or (3) changes in static pressure upwind and downwind of lines of turbines that create small-scale pressure gradients, localized flows, and changes to the vertical exchange of scalar variables. The turbine SCADA wind speed and wind direction provided by the wind farm operator facilitated our comparison of surface fluxes upwind and downwind as wakes moved laterally throughout the day and night. We report multiple levels of evidence that wind turbines increase vertical exchange of carbon dioxide and water vapor over the canopy. Latent heat and carbon fluxes are responsive to slight changes in the turbine wake position, and the flux differences are maximized when the periphery of the wake edge is above the station. The flux stations north of the turbine line report a larger net ecosystem exchange accumulation over both the 2010 and 2011 measurement periods than for the reference towers south of the turbine line. Future experiments however, must address if and to what extent this enhanced CO2 flux is assimilated to the crop and whether or not the bio-physiological response to this effect among many other turbine-related factors (e.g. higher nighttime temperature and higher daytime transpiration) modifies overall crop yield.

  20. Selected Works from the Proceedings of the Annual Communications Research Symposium (9th, Knoxville, Tennessee, April 10-11, 1986). Vol. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singletary, Michael W., Ed.

    Featuring 11 articles of original research, this collection presents selected works from the proceedings of the ninth Annual Communications Research Symposium. Following are the titles and authors of the articles included: (1) "Issues in Inferring Media Effects from Surveys" (S. H. Chaffee); (2) "Expectancy Value Theory and Multidimensional…

  1. Proceedings of Workshop on Priority Great Lakes Environmental Research Initiatives (Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, Michigan, October 10-11, 1974).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinsak, Arthur P., Ed.

    This publication contains the proceedings of a workshop held in Ann Arbor, Michigan to identify the priority Great Lakes environmental research initiatives. The five major objectives of the workshop include the determination of research initiatives, opportunities for university research communities to discuss and recommend future research…

  2. Portuguese Students' Understanding at Ages 10-11 and 14-15 of the Origin and Nature of the Earth and the Development of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marques, Luis; Thompson, David

    1997-01-01

    Uses interviews and a written questionnaire to probe students' ideas on the origin of earth and life on earth. A significant number of commonly held misconceptions were prevalent in the sample (N=493). Provides guidelines to assist learners in challenging existing views. Contains 64 references. (DDR)

  3. Reading: A Literary Feast: Proceedings of the Claremont Reading Conference (56th, Claremont, CA, March 10-11, 1989). Fifty-Third Yearbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglass, Malcolm P., Ed.

    Articles in this yearbook address the issue of emphasizing the basics in reading development, and also focus on the literary experience. Articles, listed by their authors, include: (1) "A Second Helping" (Myra Cohn Livingston); (2) "Not Only a New Curriculum but a New Teacher" (Marilyn Hanf Buckley); (3) "Reading--A Literary Feast" (Lil Thompson);…

  4. Highlights of the Midwest and Eastern Regional Conferences on Childhood Lead Poisoning; Chicago, Illinois, May 10-11, 1972 and Wilmington, Delaware, June 2-3, 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Edward B., Ed.; Challop, Roger S., Ed.

    Various aspects of lead poisoning and its control are the focus of this document which consists of edited speeches presented at childhood lead poisoning conferences in Wilmington, Delaware and Chicago, Illinois. Among the topics discussed are a) the role of Federal and State governments in lead poison control; b) the local government role,…

  5. Proceedings of the Annual Midwest Research-to-Practice Conference in Adult and Continuing Education (4th, Ann Arbor, Michigan, October 10-11, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berlin, L. S., Ed.

    This document contains the following papers on practical applications of research on adult and continuing education: "Elderly Criminal Behavior: Linking Research to Practice," by Donald J. Bachand and Carl I. Brahce; "Father? Teacher? Friend? Instructor-Student Relationships in a Refugee Class," by Gary J. Bekker; "The Small Group: Understanding…

  6. Submillimetre galaxies reside in dark matter haloes with masses greater than 3 × 10(11) solar masses.

    PubMed

    Amblard, Alexandre; Cooray, Asantha; Serra, Paolo; Altieri, B; Arumugam, V; Aussel, H; Blain, A; Bock, J; Boselli, A; Buat, V; Castro-Rodríguez, N; Cava, A; Chanial, P; Chapin, E; Clements, D L; Conley, A; Conversi, L; Dowell, C D; Dwek, E; Eales, S; Elbaz, D; Farrah, D; Franceschini, A; Gear, W; Glenn, J; Griffin, M; Halpern, M; Hatziminaoglou, E; Ibar, E; Isaak, K; Ivison, R J; Khostovan, A A; Lagache, G; Levenson, L; Lu, N; Madden, S; Maffei, B; Mainetti, G; Marchetti, L; Marsden, G; Mitchell-Wynne, K; Nguyen, H T; O'Halloran, B; Oliver, S J; Omont, A; Page, M J; Panuzzo, P; Papageorgiou, A; Pearson, C P; Pérez-Fournon, I; Pohlen, M; Rangwala, N; Roseboom, I G; Rowan-Robinson, M; Portal, M Sánchez; Schulz, B; Scott, Douglas; Seymour, N; Shupe, D L; Smith, A J; Stevens, J A; Symeonidis, M; Trichas, M; Tugwell, K; Vaccari, M; Valiante, E; Valtchanov, I; Vieira, J D; Vigroux, L; Wang, L; Ward, R; Wright, G; Xu, C K; Zemcov, M

    2011-02-24

    The extragalactic background light at far-infrared wavelengths comes from optically faint, dusty, star-forming galaxies in the Universe with star formation rates of a few hundred solar masses per year. These faint, submillimetre galaxies are challenging to study individually because of the relatively poor spatial resolution of far-infrared telescopes. Instead, their average properties can be studied using statistics such as the angular power spectrum of the background intensity variations. A previous attempt at measuring this power spectrum resulted in the suggestion that the clustering amplitude is below the level computed with a simple ansatz based on a halo model. Here we report excess clustering over the linear prediction at arcminute angular scales in the power spectrum of brightness fluctuations at 250, 350 and 500 μm. From this excess, we find that submillimetre galaxies are located in dark matter haloes with a minimum mass, M(min), such that log(10)[M(min)/M(⊙)] = 11.5(+0.7)(-0.2) at 350 μm, where M(⊙) is the solar mass. This minimum dark matter halo mass corresponds to the most efficient mass scale for star formation in the Universe, and is lower than that predicted by semi-analytical models for galaxy formation. PMID:21326201

  7. From Early Child Development to Human Development: Investing in Our Children's Future. Proceedings of a World Bank Conference (Washington, D.C., April 10-11, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Mary Eming, Ed.

    In April 2000, the World Bank hosted a global conference that addressed the benefits and challenges of investing in early child development (ECD). The landmark conference brought together the world's leading experts, academicians, practitioners, and policymakers to focus on various aspects of ECD. This volume contains the proceedings of the…

  8. Partnering for Vaccine Emerging Markets--Berlin, June 10-11, 2013: balancing vaccine quality, capacity, and cost-of-goods in emerging markets.

    PubMed

    Onraedt, Annelies

    2013-09-01

    Phacilitates 1st Partnering event for Vaccine Emerging Markets brought together approximately 100 attendees from developed and developing world vaccine manufacturers, leading non-profit organizations and industry suppliers. The goal was to discuss the vaccine needs in the developing world and how these needs can be met by leveraging collaboration and partnership models, by improving access to existing, new and next generation vaccines, by using novel technologies to drive competitive advantage and economics of vaccine manufacturing and by investing in localized capacity, including capacity for pandemic vaccines. The present article summarizes insights out of 30 oral contributions on how quality and capacity requirements can be balanced with cost by using novel manufacturing technologies and operating models. PMID:23966097

  9. Effects of winter stocker growth rate and finishing system on: II. 9-10-11th rib composition, muscle color, and palatability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Angus-cross steers (n = 198) were used in a three-year study to assess the effects of winter stocker growth rate and finishing system on rib composition, color and palatability. During the winter months, steers were randomly allotted to three stocker growth rates: low (0.23 kg/d; LOW), medium (0.45...

  10. SECTAM XII - Proceedings of the Twelfth Southeastern Conference on Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, Pine Mountain, GA, May 10, 11, 1984. Volume 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subjects in the area of fluid mechanics are discussed, taking into account heat-up flows of a contained fluid, an analytical solution for natural convection in a vertical oriented porous annulus, the Weissenberg effect generated by a torsionally oscillating rod in a layered medium, a system analysis for a model of bluff body base flow, steady solutions of the shallow water equations, and the subsonic near-wake of an axisymmetric body with a slanted base. Computational methods are considered along with structural vibrations, structural stability, experimental methods, coastal hydrodynamics, dynamical systems, large space structural systems, the hydraulics of sediment transport, localization of deformation, wave propagation, vibrations of plates and shells, composite materials, and design studies. Attention is given to damage tolerance studies in operational aircraft, design verification testing of advanced prototype structures, continuous filament wound grid stiffened composite structures for aircraft fuselages, and Navier-Stokes solutions for two-dimensional subsonic base flow.

  11. ASBESTOS-CONTAINING MATERIALS IN SCHOOL BUILDINGS: BULK SAMPLE ANALYSIS QUALITY ASSURANCE PROGRAM-BULK SAMPLE ROUNDS 9, 10, 11 AND BLIND ROUND 2

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report presents the results of laboratories participating in the nineth, tenth, eleventh and second blind round(s) of the bulk sample analysis quality assurance program sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Two hundred fifty-four, 320, 318, and 50 laboratorie...

  12. Feedstock characteristics and preparation for peat gasification. Volume I: tasks 8, 10, 11, and 12. Final report Jul 80-Jul 81

    SciTech Connect

    Punwani, D.V.; Aspinall, F.; Lofton, S.M.

    1982-07-01

    This report describes the work conducted by the Institute of Gas Technology, Dravo Corporation, and Williams Brothers Engineering Company during Phase II of the two-phase program. The objective of Phase I was to review the literature and identify needs in the areas of resources, harvesting, dewatering, beneficiation, gasification, and environmental studies. The results of Phase I have been previously reported (PB81-222275). The objectives of Phase II are to prepare updated peat resource maps and to conduct quantitative economic and environmental assessments of a few selected peat harvesting, dewatering, and beneficiation alternatives. In the task on peat resources, maps of fourteen states have been completed. A number of peat harvesting system designs have been ranked according to their technical merits and a preliminary economic assessment has been made of a wet harvesting method. A preliminary economic comparison of four peat dewatering systems has been made. A description of a beneficiation (wet-carbonization) process and a preliminary economic estimate for producing beneficiated peat is presented. Recent developments in both thermal and biological conversion of peat to SNG are described. The major air and water pollution emission rates from a peat gasification plant producing 250 billion Btu/day of SNG have been estimated. Detailed environmental scenarios have been prepared for three peat bogs typical of those in the Upper Midwest, Northeast, and Southeast United States. Preliminary cost estimates for harvested peatland reclamation options have been made.

  13. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Midwest Philosophy of Education Society (Chicago, Illinois, November 10-11, 1989, and November 9-10, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annis, David B., Ed.; Oliker, Michael A., Ed.

    Proceedings from two conferences of a society of specialists in the philosophy of education comprise this document. Fourteen papers are included from the 1989 conference program. They are: (1) "George S. Counts: Dare Educators Inspire World Vision?" (C. A. Ryan); (2) "Political Activities of George S. Counts and John L. Childs" (L. J. Dennis); (3)…

  14. Optical materials technology for energy efficiency and solar energy conversion VIII; Proceedings of the Meeting, San Diego, CA, Aug. 10, 11, 1989

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granqvist, Claes G.; Lampert, Carl M.

    1989-12-01

    The preparation, properties, and applications of advanced optical materials are discussed in reviews and reports. Sections are devoted to optical switching materials, wavelength-selective surfaces, photovoltaic technology, and solar optical materials. Particular attention is given to the IR properties of electrochromic (EC) materials, the anomalous EC behavior of Ag-WO3 and Au-WO3 cermets, EC WO3 films prepared at room temperature by chemical deposition, the multilayered structure of silicon oxynitrides and oxides for radiative cooling, and light trapping in solar cells and the determination of the absorbed energy by calorimetry. Also considered are hydrogenated a-Si/Ge films prepared by reactive sputtering, electrodeposition of CdTe thin films, a PC-based test system for on-line characterization of solar cells and modules, chromatic-dispersion compensation in a Fresnel lens using a diffraction grating, stretched-membrane heliostats for solar central-receiver power plants, and angular-selective window coatings.

  15. Crystal structure of 1,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13-undeca-hydro-cyclo-dodeca[c]pyrazol-3-ol.

    PubMed

    Raymond, Casey C; Knopp, Michael A

    2015-10-01

    The title compound, C13H22N2O, crystallized as a pyrazolol tautomer. The 12-membered macrocycle has a distorted chair conformation. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked via pairs of O-H⋯N hydrogen bonds, forming inversion dimers. The dimers are linked via N-H⋯π and C-H⋯π inter-actions, forming slabs parallel to the bc plane. PMID:26594458

  16. Crystal structure of 1,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13-undeca­hydro­cyclo­dodeca[c]pyrazol-3-ol

    PubMed Central

    Raymond, Casey C.; Knopp, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    The title compound, C13H22N2O, crystallized as a pyrazolol tautomer. The 12-membered macrocycle has a distorted chair conformation. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked via pairs of O—H⋯N hydrogen bonds, forming inversion dimers. The dimers are linked via N—H⋯π and C—H⋯π inter­actions, forming slabs parallel to the bc plane. PMID:26594458

  17. Thinking about Thinking. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the South Atlantic Philosophy of Education Society (31st, Baltimore, Maryland, October 10-11, 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craver, Samuel M., Ed.

    The following papers (with authors and respondents) were presented at the annual conference of the South Atlantic Philosophy of Education Society: (1) "Teaching Critical Thinking through the Disciplines: Content Versus Process" (John E. McPeck) Respondent--Kingsley Price; (2) "Philosophy for Children and the Critical Thinking Movement" (Robert J.…

  18. Assisting the Homeless: State and Local Responses in an Era of Limited Resources. Papers from a Policy Conference (Washington, D.C., March 10-11, 1988).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDowell, Bruce D., Ed.; Casey, Joan, Ed.

    This document comprises a collection of conference papers that provide a broad understanding of the problem of homelessness, highlight innovative local and state responses, and uncover key intergovernmental issues that must be addressed in order to improve public and private action. The conference was attended by more than 100 federal, state, and…

  19. Cross-Country Evidence on Teacher Performance Pay. Program on Education Policy and Governance Working Papers Series. PEPG 10-11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woessmann, Ludger

    2010-01-01

    The general-equilibrium effects of performance-related teacher pay include long-term incentive and teacher-sorting mechanisms that usually elude experimental studies but are captured in cross-country comparisons. Combining country-level performance-pay measures with rich PISA-2003 international achievement microdata, this paper estimates…

  20. A PHANTOM FOR DETERMINATION OF CALIBRATION COEFFICIENTS AND MINIMUM DETECTABLE ACTIVITIES USING A DUAL-HEAD GAMMA CAMERA FOR INTERNAL CONTAMINATION MONITORING FOLLOWING RADIATION EMERGENCY SITUATIONS.

    PubMed

    Ören, Ünal; Andersson, Martin; Rääf, Christopher L; Mattsson, Sören

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to derive calibration coefficients (in terms of cps kBq(-1)) and minimum detectable activities, MDA, (in terms of kBq and corresponding dose rate) for the dual head gamma camera part of an SPECT/CT-instrument when used for in vivo internal contamination measurements in radiation emergency situations. A cylindrical-conical PMMA phantom with diameters in the range of 7-30 cm was developed in order to simulate different body parts and individuals of different sizes. A series of planar gamma camera investigations were conducted using an SPECT/CT modality with the collimators removed for (131)I and (137)Cs, radionuclides potentially associated with radiation emergencies. Energy windows of 337-391 and 490-690 keV were selected for (131)I and (137)Cs, respectively. The measurements show that the calibration coefficients for (137)Cs range from 10 to 19 cps kBq(-1) with MDA values in the range of 0.29-0.55 kBq for phantom diameters of 10-30 cm. The corresponding values for (131)I are 12-37 cps kBq(-1) with MDA values of 0.08-0.26 kBq. An internal dosimetry computer program was used for the estimation of minimum detectable dose rates. A thyroid uptake of 0.1 kBq (131)I (representing MDA) corresponds to an effective dose rate of 0.6 µSv d(-1) A (137)Cs source position representing the colon with an MDA of 0.55 kBq corresponds to an effective dose rate was 1 µSv y(-1) This method using a simple phantom for the determination of calibration coefficients, and MDA levels can be implemented within the emergency preparedness plans in hospitals with nuclear medicine departments. The derived data will help to quickly estimate the internal contamination of humans following radiation emergencies. PMID:26769903

  1. Modeling and Simulation of DSP Controlled SV PWM Three Phase VSI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saadoun, A.; Yousfi, A.; Amirat, Y.

    The present research is concerned with the development of two space vector pulse width modulated VSI models using the software package Matlab. The theoretical principles underlying the space vector modulation technique are presented but have been limited to the few relations needed for the model implementation. The first model, the formulation of which is based on the concept of switching function associated with the semiconductor power switches, is a switched mode inverter while the second model, the sine mode inverter, is formulated in terms of the duty times cycles of the pole switches is a nearly perfect sine wave space vector controlled generator. By comparison to the switched mode inverter, the sine mode inverter exhibits a larger bandwidth to frequency demand. The reliability of the sine mode model has been checked against the experimental results available in the literature provided by Analog Device Corporation.

  2. Cyber Security Indications and Warning System (SV): CRADA 1573.94 Project Accomplishments Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Tan Chang; Robinson, David G.

    2011-09-08

    As the national focus on cyber security increases, there is an evolving need for a capability to provide for high-speed sensing of events, correlation of events, and decision-making based on the adverse events seen across multiple independent large-scale network environments. The purpose of this Shared Vision project, Cyber Security Indications and Warning System, was to combine both Sandia's and LMC's expertise to discover new solutions to the challenge of protecting our nation's infrastructure assets. The objectives and scope of the proposal was limited to algorithm and High Performance Computing (HPC) model assessment in the unclassified environment within funding and schedule constraints. The interest is the identification, scalability assessment, and applicability of current utilized cyber security algorithms as applied in an HPC environment.

  3. SH-SV Polarization Anisotropy:Interpretation of Experimentally Measured Love and Rayleigh Wave Phase Velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurung, G.; Schwab, F. A.; Jo, B. G.; Lee, W. D.; Oh, C. W. W.

    2015-12-01

    It is sometimes not possible to find a single isotropic structure whose computed phase velocities fit both the experimental, fundamental-mode Love and Rayleigh wave data, for earth models that are perfectly elastic and are composed of thick, low contrast layers. Usually, velocity anisotropy of the body waves is applied to the earth models to fit the data. A few early studies used thin, high contrast layers in perfectly-elastic isotropic models to obtain approximate fit to the experimental data; here, we improve and expand this successful isotropic modelling by generalizing to realistic, anelastic layers, and by also requiring a fit to the fundamental-mode Love and Rayleigh wave amplitude-attenuation data. We treat the Love and Rayleigh wave data from the central United States, where this Love-Rayleigh "discrepancy" was discovered by McEvilly. Using only the experimental phase-velocity data, with the insertion of a thin, high contrast LVZ in each of the granitic, basaltic-grabbroic, and olivine regions, we find a continuum of isotropic models that give successful fits to the experimental data. Then by adding experimental amplitude-attenuation to the data, we attempt to reduce this huge volume of isotropic solutions: with the three thin LVZs, we successfully restricted the solutions by simultaneously fitting the experimental data for both Love and Rayleigh wave, phase-velocity and amplitude-attenuation dispersions. However, in the solution the body-wave velocities and Q values of these thin layers are improbably low, and these single-layer LVZs can only be considered effective representations; the true, physical situation requires the replacement of any one of these single-layer LVZs by a vertical distribution of N layers, each having the same thickness as the original thin layer. A simple scaling of the single-layer, seismic velocities and Qs then provides completely reasonable values for these parameters in the N-layer representation (which yields the same successful fit to the experimental data).

  4. Joint measurement of lensing-galaxy correlations using SPT and DES SV data

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Baxter, E. J.

    2016-07-04

    We measure the correlation of galaxy lensing and cosmic microwave background lensing with a set of galaxies expected to trace the matter density field. The measurements are performed using pre-survey Dark Energy Survey (DES) Science Verification optical imaging data and millimeter-wave data from the 2500 square degree South Pole Telescope Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SPT-SZ) survey. The two lensing-galaxy correlations are jointly fit to extract constraints on cosmological parameters, constraints on the redshift distribution of the lens galaxies, and constraints on the absolute shear calibration of DES galaxy lensing measurements. We show that an attractive feature of these fits is that they are fairly insensitive to the clustering bias of the galaxies used as matter tracers. The measurement presented in this work confirms that DES and SPT data are consistent with each other and with the currently favoredmore » $$\\Lambda$$CDM cosmological model. In conclusion, it also demonstrates that joint lensing-galaxy correlation measurement considered here contains a wealth of information that can be extracted using current and future surveys.« less

  5. The Acquisition of SV Order in Unaccusatives: Manipulating the Definiteness of the NP Argument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vernice, Mirta; Guasti, Maria Teresa

    2015-01-01

    In two sentence repetition experiments, we investigated whether four- and five-year-olds master distinct representations for intransitive verb classes by testing two syntactic analyses of unaccusatives (Burzio, 1986; Belletti, 1988). Under the assumption that, with unaccusatives, the partitive case of the postverbal argument is realized only on…

  6. Role of the SV40 enhancer in the early to late shift in viral transcription.

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, J J; Wildeman, A G

    1991-01-01

    Simian virus 40 large tumor antigen is a multifunctional protein, with two of its roles being the promotion of viral DNA replication and replication-independent activation of viral transcription. Replication leads to a shift in transcription from the early-early to the late and late-early cap sites, through mechanisms poorly understood. The viral transcription enhancer contains sequences important for both early and late transcription, and we therefore have carried out experiments to evaluate its role in these events. We find that the ability of replication to lead to a shift diminishes when early-early transcription is made increasingly stronger by multimerizing the enhancer, and suggest that replication might lead to the shift by interfering with the ability of the enhancer to direct initiation to those sites. The natural situation in the virus of having two copies of this element might represent a compromise between maximizing both T antigen expression early in infection and late gene expression after replication begins. We also show that replication-independent transcription activation by T antigen is bidirectional and involves at least in part elements to which the factor TEF-1 binds. Images PMID:1662364

  7. Specific Antibodies Reacting with SV40 Large T Antigen Mimotopes in Serum Samples of Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Tognon, Mauro; Corallini, Alfredo; Manfrini, Marco; Taronna, Angelo; Butel, Janet S.; Pietrobon, Silvia; Trevisiol, Lorenzo; Bononi, Ilaria; Vaccher, Emanuela; Barbanti-Brodano, Giuseppe; Martini, Fernanda; Mazzoni, Elisa

    2016-01-01

    Simian Virus 40, experimentally assayed in vitro in different animal and human cells and in vivo in rodents, was classified as a small DNA tumor virus. In previous studies, many groups identified Simian Virus 40 sequences in healthy individuals and cancer patients using PCR techniques, whereas others failed to detect the viral sequences in human specimens. These conflicting results prompted us to develop a novel indirect ELISA with synthetic peptides, mimicking Simian Virus 40 capsid viral protein antigens, named mimotopes. This immunologic assay allowed us to investigate the presence of serum antibodies against Simian Virus 40 and to verify whether Simian Virus 40 is circulating in humans. In this investigation two mimotopes from Simian Virus 40 large T antigen, the viral replication protein and oncoprotein, were employed to analyze for specific reactions to human sera antibodies. This indirect ELISA with synthetic peptides from Simian Virus 40 large T antigen was used to assay a new collection of serum samples from healthy subjects. This novel assay revealed that serum antibodies against Simian Virus 40 large T antigen mimotopes are detectable, at low titer, in healthy subjects aged from 18–65 years old. The overall prevalence of reactivity with the two Simian Virus 40 large T antigen peptides was 20%. This new ELISA with two mimotopes of the early viral regions is able to detect in a specific manner Simian Virus 40 large T antigen-antibody responses. PMID:26731525

  8. Specific Antibodies Reacting with SV40 Large T Antigen Mimotopes in Serum Samples of Healthy Subjects.

    PubMed

    Tognon, Mauro; Corallini, Alfredo; Manfrini, Marco; Taronna, Angelo; Butel, Janet S; Pietrobon, Silvia; Trevisiol, Lorenzo; Bononi, Ilaria; Vaccher, Emanuela; Barbanti-Brodano, Giuseppe; Martini, Fernanda; Mazzoni, Elisa

    2016-01-01

    Simian Virus 40, experimentally assayed in vitro in different animal and human cells and in vivo in rodents, was classified as a small DNA tumor virus. In previous studies, many groups identified Simian Virus 40 sequences in healthy individuals and cancer patients using PCR techniques, whereas others failed to detect the viral sequences in human specimens. These conflicting results prompted us to develop a novel indirect ELISA with synthetic peptides, mimicking Simian Virus 40 capsid viral protein antigens, named mimotopes. This immunologic assay allowed us to investigate the presence of serum antibodies against Simian Virus 40 and to verify whether Simian Virus 40 is circulating in humans. In this investigation two mimotopes from Simian Virus 40 large T antigen, the viral replication protein and oncoprotein, were employed to analyze for specific reactions to human sera antibodies. This indirect ELISA with synthetic peptides from Simian Virus 40 large T antigen was used to assay a new collection of serum samples from healthy subjects. This novel assay revealed that serum antibodies against Simian Virus 40 large T antigen mimotopes are detectable, at low titer, in healthy subjects aged from 18-65 years old. The overall prevalence of reactivity with the two Simian Virus 40 large T antigen peptides was 20%. This new ELISA with two mimotopes of the early viral regions is able to detect in a specific manner Simian Virus 40 large T antigen-antibody responses. PMID:26731525

  9. Investigation Spectral Image the Upper Atmosphere over Regions with Thunderstorm Using Data from the Sv

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grichshenko, Valentina

    2016-07-01

    The results of the two-level experiment, including registration of the electric field in the surface layer during thunderstorm on TSCRS (Almaty) and synchronous image the top of the cloud cover over the test range from satellite "Terra / MODIS" are presented. Spectral image of the upper atmosphere over of the thunderstorm related to lighting discharge has been created. As a result of the processing of satellite images Terra / MODIS created a new index of "lightning discharge," which will be used to search for and investigation of optical phenomena (such as Sprites, Elves, Blue Jet) over the regions with thunderstorm activity. The developed technique of space picture processing will be used for studying optical phenomena above other regions too.

  10. SvO2 Trigger in Transfusion Strategy After Cardiac Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-18

    Undergoing Nonemergent Cardiac Surgery; Central Venous Catheter on the Superior Vena Cava (to Perform ScVO2 Measure); Anemia (<9g/dL) Requiring Blood Transfusion; Hemodynamic and Respiratory Stability; Bleeding Graded as Insignificant, Mild, Moderate of Universal Definition of Perioperative Bleeding

  11. Analysis of the ArcA regulon in anaerobically grown Salmonella enterica sv. Typhimurium

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is a Gram-negative pathogen that must successfully adapt to the broad fluctuations in the concentration of dissolved dioxygen encountered in the host. In Escherichia coli, ArcA (Aerobic Respiratory Control) helps the cells to sense and respond to the presence of dioxygen. The global role of ArcA in E. coli is well characterized; however, little is known about its role in anaerobically grown S. Typhimurium. Results We compared the transcriptional profiles of the virulent wild-type (WT) strain (ATCC 14028s) and its isogenic arcA mutant grown under anaerobic conditions. We found that ArcA directly or indirectly regulates 392 genes (8.5% of the genome); of these, 138 genes are poorly characterized. Regulation by ArcA in S. Typhimurium is similar, but distinct from that in E. coli. Thus, genes/operons involved in core metabolic pathways (e.g., succinyl-CoA, fatty acid degradation, cytochrome oxidase complexes, flagellar biosynthesis, motility, and chemotaxis) were regulated similarly in the two organisms. However, genes/operons present in both organisms, but regulated differently by ArcA in S. Typhimurium included those coding for ethanolamine utilization, lactate transport and metabolism, and succinate dehydrogenases. Salmonella-specific genes/operons regulated by ArcA included those required for propanediol utilization, flagellar genes (mcpAC, cheV), Gifsy-1 prophage genes, and three SPI-3 genes (mgtBC, slsA, STM3784). In agreement with our microarray data, the arcA mutant was non-motile, lacked flagella, and was as virulent in mice as the WT. Additionally, we identified a set of 120 genes whose regulation was shared with the anaerobic redox regulator, Fnr. Conclusion(s) We have identified the ArcA regulon in anaerobically grown S. Typhimurium. Our results demonstrated that in S. Typhimurium, ArcA serves as a transcriptional regulator coordinating cellular metabolism, flagella biosynthesis, and motility. Furthermore, ArcA and Fnr share in the regulation of 120 S. Typhimurium genes. PMID:21418628

  12. Monte Carlo-based dose calculation for 32P patch source for superficial brachytherapy applications

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Sridhar; Palani, Selvam T.; Saxena, S. K.; Babu, D. A. R.; Dash, A.

    2015-01-01

    Skin cancer treatment involving 32P source is an easy, less expensive method of treatment limited to small and superficial lesions of approximately 1 mm deep. Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) has indigenously developed 32P nafion-based patch source (1 cm × 1 cm) for treating skin cancer. For this source, the values of dose per unit activity at different depths including dose profiles in water are calculated using the EGSnrc-based Monte Carlo code system. For an initial activity of 1 Bq distributed in 1 cm2 surface area of the source, the calculated central axis depth dose values are 3.62 × 10-10 GyBq-1 and 8.41 × 10-11 GyBq-1at 0.0125 and 1 mm depths in water, respectively. Hence, the treatment time calculated for delivering therapeutic dose of 30 Gy at 1 mm depth along the central axis of the source involving 37 MBq activity is about 2.7 hrs. PMID:26150682

  13. A compartmental model of uranium in human hair for protracted ingestion of natural uranium in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Li, W B; Karpas, Z; Salonen, L; Kurttio, P; Muikku, M; Wahl, W; Höllriegl, V; Hoeschen, C; Oeh, U

    2009-06-01

    To predict uranium in human hair due to chronic exposure through drinking water, a compartment representing human hair was added into the uranium biokinetic model developed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The hair compartmental model was used to predict uranium excretion in human hair as a bioassay indicator due to elevated uranium intakes. Two excretion pathways, one starting from the compartment of plasma and the other from the compartment of intermediate turnover soft tissue, are assumed to transfer uranium to the compartment of hair. The transfer rate was determined from reported uranium contents in urine and in hair, taking into account the hair growth rate of 0.1 g d(-1). The fractional absorption in the gastrointestinal tract of 0.6% was found to fit best to describe the measured uranium levels among the users of drilled wells in Finland. The ingestion dose coefficient for (238)U, which includes its progeny of (234)Th, (234m)Pa, and (234)Pa, was calculated equal to 1.3 x 10(-8) Sv Bq(-1) according to the hair compartmental model. This estimate is smaller than the value of 4.5 x 10(-8) Sv Bq(-1) published by ICRP for the members of the public. In this new model, excretion of uranium through urine is better represented when excretion to the hair compartment is accounted for and hair analysis can provide a means for assessing the internal body burden of uranium. The model is applicable for chronic exposure as well as for an acute exposure incident. In the latter case, the hair sample can be collected and analyzed even several days after the incident, whereas urinalysis requires sample collection shortly after the exposure. The model developed in this study applies to ingestion intakes of uranium. PMID:19430216

  14. Defining Competencies for Associate Degree Nursing Education and Practice. Proceedings of the Midwest Regional Conference on "The Associate Degree Nursing--Facilitating Competency Development" Project (Chicago, Illinois, March 10-11, 1983).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minckley, Barbara B., Ed.; Walters, Mary Dale, Ed.

    Focusing on "Associate Degree Nursing--Facilitating Competency Development," a 3-year project sponsored by the Midwest Alliance in Nursing (MAIN) to explore and recommend ways of strengthening Associate Degree Nursing (ADN) education and service, these proceedings contain papers by individuals involved with the development of the project and those…

  15. Identification of Job Coach Competencies, Staff Roles and Agency Administrative Patterns. Summary Report from the Community-Based Supported Employment Symposium (St. Cloud, Minnesota, June 10-11, 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Association for Rehabilitation, Education, and Training.

    A symposium on community-based supported employment for developmentally disabled adults in Minnesota was attended by agency direct service staff who provide job training, executive directors and administrators of agencies, and personnel who refer clients to agencies providing supported work and other types of community-based training and…

  16. 9,9-Dimethyl-12-(3-nitro­phen­yl)-7,8,9,10,11,12-hexa­hydro­benz[a]acridin-11-one

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Runhong; Peng, Juhua; Tu, Shujiang

    2009-01-01

    The title compound, C25H22N2O3, was synthesized by the reaction of 3-nitro­benzaldehyde, dimedone and 2-naphthyl­amine in ethanol. In the mol­ecular structure, the cyclo­hexenone ring adopts an envelope conformation, whereas the piperidine ring has a boat conformation. The crystal packing is stabilized by inter­molecular N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds. PMID:21577677

  17. 7-Chloro-11a-phenyl-2,3,5,10,11,11a-hexa­hydro-1H-pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]benzodiazepine-5,11-dione

    PubMed Central

    Tamazyan, Rafael; Ayvazyan, Armen; Martirosyan, Ashot; Harutyunyan, Gohar; Martirosyan, Vahan

    2008-01-01

    The title compound, C18H15ClN2O2, is a potential human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor. The pyrrolidine ring adopts an envelope and the diazepine ring a boat conformation. In the crystal structure, two isomers (R and S) form centrosymmetric dimers via N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds. PMID:21201925

  18. Learning Disabilities and Spanish-Speaking Adult Populations: The Beginning of a Process. Report on the State Directors of Adult Education Conference (San Antonio, Texas, April 10-11, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Vocational and Adult Education (ED), Washington, DC.

    This report is designed for use by policymakers and practitioners involved in issues of adult education, welfare reform, and employment training programs. The driving concerns of this report are issues associated with Spanish-speaking adults who are at risk for having learning disabilities. The focus on adults is critical, because such issues as…

  19. 6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13-Octa­hydro-5H-1,3-dithiole[4,5-b][1,4]dithia­cyclo­tridecine-2-thione

    PubMed Central

    Heshmatpour, Felora; Darviche, Fatemeh; Emdadi, Zeynab; Neumueller, Bernhard

    2008-01-01

    In the crystal structure of the title compound, C12H18S5, no significant inter­molecular π–π inter­actions are found. Weak inter­molecular C—S⋯π [S⋯centroid = 3.787 (1) Å] inter­actions and van der Waals forces may be effective in the stabilization of the structure. PMID:21201430

  20. Our Town and Country Society Looks at Itself. Proceedings of the Conference of the American Country Life Association, Inc., National 4-H Club Center (41st, Washington, D.C., July 10-11, 1962).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Country Life Association, Sioux Falls, SD.

    The theme for this conference was "Our Town and Country Society Looks at Itself." The following papers were presented at this conference: (1) "The Miracle of Production--Can We Keep It" (Aubrey D. Gates); (2) "Recent U.S. Population Trends and Their Causes" (Calvin L. Beale and Donald J. Bogue); (3) "Commercial Farming and Related Institutions"…

  1. Methyl 9-p-tolyl-8a,9,9a,10,11,12,13,14a-octa­hydro-8H-benzo[f]chromeno[3,4-b]indolizine-8a-carboxyl­ate

    PubMed Central

    Gunasekaran, B.; Kathiravan, S.; Raghunathan, R.; Manivannan, V.

    2009-01-01

    In the title compound, C28H29NO3, the fused pyrrolidine and piperidine rings of the octa­hydro­indolizine unit exhibit envelope and chair conformations, respectively. The dihedral angle between the naphthalene ring system and the benzene ring is 40.37 (5)°. The crystal packing is stabilized by weak inter­molecular C—H⋯O inter­actions. PMID:21578900

  2. Teacher Shortage in Science and Mathematics: Myths, Realities, and Research. Proceedings of a Conference Sponsored by the National Institute of Education (Washington, District of Columbia, February 10-11, 1983).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, John L., Ed.

    This conference was designed to identify salient elements of the national science/mathematics teacher shortage, add corollary data to the existing body of knowledge, and to influence and guide future NIE research in the area. The proceedings include: welcoming and keynote addresses by, respectively, Manuel J. Justiz and T. H. Bell; five…

  3. Selected Proceedings from the Annual Conferences of the Pennsylvania Association of Developmental Educators (PADE) (16th and 17th, Hidden Valley and Hershey, Pennsylvania, April 10-11, 1997, and March 26-27, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipsky, Sally, Ed.

    This document presents 13 keynote addresses and major papers presented at the 1997 and 1998 conferences of the Pennsylvania Association of Developmental Educators. The papers are: (1) "Developmental Education: History of Implications" (Hunter Boylan, 1997 keynote speaker); (2) "Learning and Teaching in the 21st Century: Seven Habits of Highly…

  4. Variability in the high energy gamma ray emission from Cyg X-3 over a two-year period (1983 - 1984) at E 4 x 10(11) eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cawley, M. F.; Fegan, D. J.; Gibbs, K.; Gorham, P. W.; Lamb, R. C.; Liebing, D. F.; Porter, N. A.; Stenger, V. J.; Weekes, T. C.; Williams, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    Cygnus X-3 is observed to emit gamma rays with energies in excess of 4 x 10 to the 11th power eV during two out of 9 observational categories over an 18 month time span. The emissions are observed at the 0.6 phase of the characteristic 4.8 hr light curve for this binary system. We estimate a peak flux at phase 0.6 of 5 x 10 to the minus 10th power photons cm-2s-1 at a software threshold of 8 x 10 to the 11th power eV for Oct/Nov 1983. A flux for the June 84 effect cannot be reliably calculated at present due to lack of Monte Carlo simulations for the energy range and spectral region. For the other 7 observational categories the observations are consistent with zero source emission. The light curve would appear to be variable on a time scale of a couple of weeks at these categories. Selection of compact images in accordance with Monte Carlo simulations combined with empirical optimization techniques have led to an enriched gamma ray light curve for the Oct/Nov 1983 data. Selection on the basis of shower orientation, however, has not led to any notable enhancement of the gamma ray content. Individual Cherenko images can be reliably sorted on an event by event basis into either proton-induced or photon-induced showers.

  5. Welfare Reform. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Public Assistance and Unemployment Compensation of the Committee on Ways and Means. House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, First Session (January 28, February 19, March 4, 6, 10, 11, and 13, 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Ways and Means.

    The hearings reported in this document focused on the need to reform the welfare system and the effects those reforms could have on welfare recipients. Issues addressed by the subcommittee members and the witnesses were the following: (1) why do one-fifth of the nation's children live in poverty in spite of welfare programs; (2) can the…

  6. Mass Digitization: Implications for Information Policy: Report from "Scholarship and Libraries in Transition: A Dialogue about the Impacts of Mass Digitization Projects" Symposium (Ann Arbor, Michigan, March 10-11, 2006)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US National Commission on Libraries and Information Science, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. National Commission on Libraries and Information Science (NCLIS) sponsored the symposium "Scholarship and Libraries in Transition: A Dialogue about the Impacts of Mass Digitization Projects" in March 2006 at the University of Michigan-Ann Arbor. The symposium was organized with a keynote and several other individual presentations, as well…

  7. Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka: An Assessment Thirty Years Later. A Series of Lectures and Discussions, Proceedings (Institute, West Virginia, February 10-11 and April 11-13, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West Virginia State Coll., Institute.

    Papers presented at a 1984 lecture series and symposium on the impact of the 1954 Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka Supreme Court decision case are collected in this report. The papers (and their authors) are: (1) "Legal Aspects of the Brown Decision" (Robert L. Carter); (2) "Desegregation/Integration and the Media: Fallout from the Brown…

  8. Galbahe C1 y C2 Tests de Lengua (Castellano. Escalas 1 y 2). Medida del nivel de Castellano para ninos de 7-8 y 10-11 anos. Manual de Aplicacion. Glotodidaktika-Lanak 27. (Galbahe Language Tests C1 and C2--Spanish, Scales 1 and 2. Measure of Level of Spanish for Children 7-8 and 10-11 years. Test administration Manual. Glotodidaktika-Lanak Series Number 27).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sierra, Josu; Olaziregi, Ibon

    The Galbahe Language Tests C1 and C2 measure the Spanish language proficiency of children aged 7 to 8 years (C1) and those aged 10 to 11 years (C2). Equivalent tests E1 and E2 measure the Basque language achievement of the same age groups, respectively. Both tests were designed as part of a study of teaching of the Basque language in parts of…

  9. Is it safe to work with iodine-131 if you are pregnant? A risk assessment for nuclear medicine staff involved with cleaning and decontamination.

    PubMed

    Barber, R W; Parkin, A; Goldstone, K E

    2003-05-01

    In the UK, Regulation 8(5) of the Ionising Radiation Regulations 1999 (In: Work with ionising radiation. London: HSE Books, 2000) requires employers to ensure that the dose to the foetus of a pregnant worker is unlikely to exceed 1 mSv. Risk assessments are required which are capable of predicting the total foetal dose. Work involving 131I is a particular problem. Foetal dose coefficients from the maternal intake of 131I for all stages of pregnancy have been published (Phipps AW, Smith TJ, Fell TP, Harrison JD. Doses to the embryo/fetus and neonate from intake of radionuclides by the mother. NRPB contract research report 397/2001. Didcot, Oxon.: National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB), 2001. Available on website www.hse.gov.uk/research/crr_pdf/2001/crr01397.pdf), and range from 0.08 microSv x kBq(-1) at conception to 55 microSv x kBq(-1) at week 35. This paper examines one aspect of work in a nuclear medicine department in which the source of 131I is uncontrolled to determine whether the risk assessment indicates that restrictions should apply to a pregnant member of staff. Following in-patient treatment with 131I, rooms are checked and decontaminated before being decontrolled. Cleaning staff were monitored immediately after the cleaning process with hand-held detectors and by whole-body monitoring. Total body contamination ranged up to 3.2 kBq; after a change of clothing, the maximum remaining activity was 0.68 kBq. Acquired contamination correlated with the total activity administered to the patient. Hand-held monitoring rarely detected contamination. Whole-body monitoring indicated that the levels of contamination encountered could lead to a dose limit for the foetus being exceeded. These levels are very difficult to detect with hand-held monitoring. The conclusion to be drawn is that pregnant staff should be excluded from situations in which accidents could arise, or where the source of 131I is uncontrolled or unpredictable. PMID:12717076

  10. Elevated variant density around SV breakpoints in germline lineage lends support to error-prone replication hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Dhokarh, Dhananjay; Abyzov, Alexej

    2016-07-01

    Copy number variants (CNVs) are a class of structural variants that may involve complex genomic rearrangements (CGRs) and are hypothesized to have additional mutations around their breakpoints. Understanding the mechanisms underlying CNV formation is fundamental for understanding the repair and mutation mechanisms in cells, thereby shedding light on evolution, genomic disorders, cancer, and complex human traits. In this study, we used data from the 1000 Genomes Project to analyze hundreds of loci harboring heterozygous germline deletions in the subjects NA12878 and NA19240. By utilizing synthetic long-read data (longer than 2 kbp) in combination with high coverage short-read data and, in parallel, by comparing with parental genomes, we interrogated the phasing of these deletions with the flanking tens of thousands of heterozygous SNPs and indels. We found that the density of SNPs/indels flanking the breakpoints of deletions (in-phase variants) is approximately twice as high as the corresponding density for the variants on the haplotype without deletion (out-of-phase variants). This fold change was even larger for the subset of deletions with signatures of replication-based mechanism of formation. The allele frequency (AF) spectrum for deletions is enriched for rare events; and the AF spectrum for in-phase SNPs is shifted toward this deletion spectrum, thus offering evidence consistent with the concomitance of the in-phase SNPs/indels with the deletion events. These findings therefore lend support to the hypothesis that the mutational mechanisms underlying CNV formation are error prone. Our results could also be relevant for resolving mutation-rate discrepancies in human and to explain kataegis. PMID:27216746

  11. 77 FR 10739 - SV Hydro, LLC, Coffeeville, LLC, FFP Project 99, LLC; Notice Announcing Preliminary Permit Drawing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ... Preliminary Permit Drawing . The Commission has received three preliminary permit applications deemed filed on..., will conduct a random drawing to determine the filing priority of the applicants identified in this... regulations.\\3\\ The priority established by this drawing will be used to determine which applicant,...

  12. 76 FR 74779 - SV Hydro LLC; Coffeeville LLC; FFP Project 99 LLC; Lock Hydro Friends Fund XIV; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-01

    ... annual generation of 78.0 GWh, and operate run-of-river utilizing surplus water from the Coffeeville Lock....0 GWh, and operate run-of-river utilizing surplus water from the Coffeeville Lock & Dam, as directed... would have an average annual generation of 153.738 GWh, and operate run-of-river utilizing surplus...

  13. Site-Specific Modeling of SH and P- SV Waves for Microzonation Study of Kolkata Metropolitan City, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaccari, Franco; Walling, M. Yanger; Mohanty, William K.; Nath, Sankar K.; Verma, Akhilesh K.; Sengupta, A.; Panza, Giuliano F.

    2011-03-01

    Kolkata, one of the oldest cities of India, is situated over the thick alluvium of the Bengal Basin, where it lies at the boundary of the zone III and zone IV of the seismic zonation map of India. An example of the study of site effects of the metropolitan Kolkata is presented based on theoretical modeling. Full synthetic strong motion waveforms have been computed using a hybrid method that combines the modal summation and finite difference techniques. The 1964 Calcutta earthquake, which was located at the southern part of Kolkata, is taken as the source region, with the focal mechanism parameters of dip = 32°, strike = 232° and rake = 56°. Four profiles are considered for the computation of the synthetic seismograms from which the maximum ground acceleration ( A MAX) is obtained. Response spectra ratios (RSR) are then computed using a bedrock reference model to estimate local amplifications effects. The A MAX varies from 0.05 to 0.17 g and the comparison of the A MAX with the different intensity scales (MM, MSK, RF and MCS) shows that the expected intensity is in the range from VII to X (MCS) for an earthquake of magnitude 6.5 at an epicentral distance of about 100 km. This theoretical result matches with the empirical (historical and recent) intensity observations in Kolkata. The RSR, as a function of frequency, reaches the largest values (largest amplification) in the frequency range from 1.0 to 2.0 Hz. The largest site amplification is observed at the top of loose soil.

  14. Genome-Wide Detection of SNP and SV Variations to Reveal Early Ripening-Related Genes in Grape

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Jianmin; Jiang, Weihua; Zhang, Shijie; Wang, Qiunan; Qu, Shenchun

    2016-01-01

    Early ripening in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) is a crucial agronomic trait. The fruits of the grape line ‘Summer Black’ (SBBM), which contains a bud mutation, can be harvested approximately one week earlier than the ‘Summer Black’ (SBC)control. To investigate the molecular mechanism of the bud mutation related to early ripening, we detected genome-wide genetic variations based on re-sequencing. In total, 3,692,777 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 81,223 structure variations (SVs) in the SBC genome and 3,823,464 SNPs and 85,801 SVs in the SBBM genome were detected compared with the reference grape sequence. Of these, 635 SBC-specific genes and 665 SBBM-specific genes were screened. Ripening and colour-associated unigenes with non-synonymous mutations (NS), SVs or frame-shift mutations (F) were analysed. The results showed that 90 unigenes in SBC, 76 unigenes in SBBM and 13 genes that mapped to large fragment indels were filtered. The expression patterns of eight genes were confirmed using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR).The re-sequencing data showed that 635 SBC-specific genes and 665 SBBM-specific genes associated with early ripening were screened. Among these, NCED6 expression appears to be related to NCED1 and is involved in ABA biosynthesis in grape, which might play a role in the onset of anthocyanin accumulation. The SEP and ERF genes probably play roles in ethylene response. PMID:26840449

  15. Predicting Future Reconviction in Offenders with Intellectual Disabilities: The Predictive Efficacy of VRAG, PCL-SV, and the HCR-20

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Nicola S.; Fitzgerald, Suzanne; Taylor, John; MacCulloch, Malcolm J.; Snowden, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    Accurate predictions of future reconviction, including those for violent crimes, have been shown to be greatly aided by the use of formal risk assessment instruments. However, it is unclear as to whether these instruments would also be predictive in a sample of offenders with intellectual disabilities. In this study, the authors have shown that…

  16. Quantitative and molecular analyses of mutation in a pSV2gpt transformed CHO cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Stankowski, L.F. Jr.; Tindall, K.R.; Hsie, A.W.

    1983-01-01

    Following NDA-mediated gene transfer we have isolated a cell line useful for studying gene mutation at the molecular level. This line, AS52, derived from a hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT) deficient Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line, carries a single copy of the E. coli xanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (XGPRT) gene (gpt) and exhibits a spontaneous mutant frequency of 20 TG/sup r/ mutants/10/sup 6/ clonable cells. As with HGPRT/sup -/ mutants, XGPRT/sup -/ mutants can be selected in 6-thioguanine. AS52 (XGPRT/sup +/) and wild type CHO (HGPRT/sup +/) cell exhibit almost identical cytotoxic responses to various agents. We observed significant differences in mutation induction by UV light and ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS). Ratios of XGPRT/sup -/ to HGPRT/sup -/ mutants induced per unit dose (J/m/sup 2/ for UV light and ..mu..g/ml for EMS) are 1.4 and 0.70, respectively. Preliminary Southern blot hybridization analyses has been performed on 30 XGPRT/sup -/ AS52 mutants. A majority of spontaneous mutants have deletions ranging in size from 1 to 4 kilobases (9/19) to complete loss of gpt sequences (4/19); the remainder have no detectable (5/19) or only minor (1/19) alterations. 5/5 UV-induced and 5/6 EMS-induced mutants do not show a detectable change. Similar analyses are underway for mutations induced by x-irradiation and ICR 191 treatment.

  17. The absorbed dose to blood from blood-borne activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hänscheid, H.; Fernández, M.; Lassmann, M.

    2015-01-01

    The radiation absorbed dose to blood and organs from activity in the blood is relevant for nuclear medicine dosimetry and for research in biodosimetry. The present study provides coefficients for the average absorbed dose rates to the blood from blood-borne activity for radionuclides frequently used in targeted radiotherapy and in PET diagnostics. The results were deduced from published data for vessel radius-dependent dose rate coefficients and reasonable assumptions on the blood-volume distribution as a function of the vessel radius. Different parts of the circulatory system were analyzed separately. Vessel size information for heart chambers, aorta, vena cava, pulmonary artery, and capillaries was taken from published results of morphometric measurements. The remaining blood not contained in the mentioned vessels was assumed to reside in fractal-like vascular trees, the smallest branches of which are the arterioles or venules. The applied vessel size distribution is consistent with recommendations of the ICRP on the blood-volume distribution in the human. The resulting average absorbed dose rates to the blood per nuclear disintegration per milliliter (ml) of blood are (in 10-11 Gy·s-1·Bq-1·ml) Y-90: 5.58, I-131: 2.49, Lu-177: 1.72, Sm-153: 2.97, Tc-99m: 0.366, C-11: 4.56, F-18: 3.61, Ga-68: 5.94, I-124: 2.55. Photon radiation contributes 1.1-1.2·10-11 Gy·s-1·Bq-1·ml to the total dose rate for positron emitters but significantly less for the other nuclides. Blood self-absorption of the energy emitted by ß-particles in the whole blood ranges from 37% for Y-90 to 80% for Tc-99m. The correspondent values in vascular trees, which are important for the absorbed dose to organs, range from 30% for Y-90 to 82% for Tc-99m.

  18. Development of derived investigation levels for use in internal dosimetry at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, P.

    1991-12-31

    The objective was to determine if the routine intemal dosimetry program at the West Valley Demonstration Project is capable of meeting the performance objective of 1 mSv annual effective dose equivalent due to internal contamination. With the use of the computer code REMedy the annual effective dose equivalent is calculated. Some of the radionuclides of concern result in an annual effective dose equivalent that exceeds the performance objective. Although the results exceed the performance objective, in all but two cases they do not exceed the US DOE regulatory limits. In these instances the Th-232 and Am-241 were determined to exceed the committed dose equivalent limit to their limiting tissue. In order to document the potential missed dose for regulatory compliance, Sr-90 is used as an indicator for Th-232. For Am-241 an investigation as to whether or not the minimum detectable amount can be lowered is performed. The derived investigation levels as a result of this project are 4.9E3 Bq/lung count for Co-60, 2.2E4 Bq/lung count for Cs-137, 1.9 Bq/1 for Sr-90 and for radionuclides other than Sr-90 any value greater than or equal to three standard deviations above their net count is considered to require further investigation.

  19. Estimation of internal radiation dose to the adult Asian population from the dietary intakes of two long-lived radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Iyengar, G V; Kawamura, H; Dang, H S; Parr, R M; Wang, J W; Akhter, Perveen; Cho, S Y; Natera, E; Miah, F K; Nguyen, M S

    2004-01-01

    Daily dietary intakes of two naturally occurring long-lived radionuclides, 232Th and 238U, were estimated for the adult population living in a number of Asian countries, using highly sensitive analytical methods such as instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation analysis (INAA and RNAA), and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The Asian countries that participated in the study were Bangladesh (BGD), China (CPR), India (IND), Japan (JPN), Pakistan (PAK), Philippines (PHI), Republic of Korea (ROK) and Vietnam (VIE). Altogether, these countries represent more than 50% of the world population. The median daily intakes of 232Th ranged between 0.6 and 14.4 mBq, the lowest being for Philippines and the highest for Bangladesh, and daily intakes of 238U ranged between 6.7 and 62.5 mBq, lowest and the highest being for India and China, respectively. The Asian median intakes were obtained as 4.2 mBq for 232Th and 12.7 mBq for 238U. Although the Asian intakes were lower than intakes of 12.3 mBq (3.0 ug) 232Th and 23.6 mBq (1.9 ug) 238U proposed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for the ICRP Reference Man, they were comparable to the global intake values of 4.6 mBq 232Th and 15.6 mBq 238U proposed by the United Nation Scientific Commission on Effects of Radiation (UNSCEAR). The annual committed effective doses to Asian population from the dietary intake of 232Th and 238U were calculated to be 0.34 and 0.20 microSv, respectively, which are three orders of magnitude lower than the global average annual radiation dose of 2400 microSv to man from the natural radiation sources as proposed by UNSCEAR. PMID:15381318

  20. A HUMAN BRONCHIAL EPITHELIAL CELL STRAIN WITH UNUSUAL IN VITRO GROWTH POTENTIAL WHICH UNDERGOES NEOPLASTIC TRANSFORMATION AFTER SV40 T ANTIGEN GENE TRANSFECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bronchial epithelial cells were cultured from an individual with no evidence of malignant disease. hese cells, designated HB56B, had greatly extended in vitro life-span, being able to undergo 50 passages and 200 population doubling in contrast to the usual 3 to 4 passages and 20 ...

  1. Slc11a1 limits intracellular growth of Salmonella enterica sv. Typhimurium by promoting macrophage immune effector functions and impairing bacterial iron acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Nairz, Manfred; Fritsche, Gernot; Crouch, Marie-Laure V.; Barton, Howard C.; Fang, Ferric C.; Weiss, Günter

    2009-01-01

    The natural-resistance associated macrophage protein 1, Slc11a1, is a phagolysosomal transporter for protons and divalent ions including iron, that confers host protection against diverse intracellular pathogens including Salmonella. We investigated and compared the regulation of iron homeostasis and immune function in RAW264.7 murine phagocytes stably transfected with non-functional Slc11a1 and functional Slc11a1 controls in response to an infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium). We report that macrophages lacking functional Slc11a1 displayed an increased expression of transferrin receptor 1, resulting in enhanced acquisition of transferrin-bound iron. In contrast, cellular iron release mediated via ferroportin 1 was significantly lower in Salmonella-infected Slc11a1-negative macrophages in comparison to phagocytes bearing Slc11a1. Lack of Slc11a1 led to intracellular persistence of S. Typhimurium within macrophages which was paralleled by a reduced formation of nitric oxide, tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 in Slc11a1-negative macrophages following Salmonella infection, whereas interleukin-10 production was increased. Moreover, Slc11a1-negative phagocytes exhibited higher cellular iron content, resulting in increased iron acquisition by intracellular Salmonella. Our observations indicate a bifunctional role for Slc11a1 within phagocytes. Slc11a restricts iron availability, which firstly augments pro-inflammatory macrophage effector functions and secondly concomitantly limits microbial iron access. PMID:19500110

  2. Measured versus Modeled Partitioning of Several Hundred Semi-Volatile Organic Compounds Using SV-TAG with in-situ Derivatization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moss, J.; Isaacman, G. A.; Kreisberg, N. M.; Hu, W.; Campuzano Jost, P.; Day, D. A.; Jimenez, J. L.; Edgerton, E. S.; Baumann, K.; Hering, S. V.; Goldstein, A. H.

    2014-12-01

    Most organic aerosol is secondary, formed by oxidation of primary gas-phase chemicals whose products condense into particles. While gas-particle partitioning is known to depend in part on the volatility of a compound, the process is poorly understood and largely unconstrained by compound-specific measurements. We directly measured gas-to-particle partitioning of over 250 semi-volatile organic compounds during the SOAS campaign in rural Alabama in the summer of 2013, and compare to a partitioning model based on their calculated vapor pressures and chemical properties. All data were collected using an SVTAG (Semi-Volatile Thermal desorption Aerosol Gas chromatograph) which uses two parallel cells to collect gas- and particle-phase organic compounds with volatilities lower than tridecane. By using an activated carbon denuder to remove all gas-phase compounds from one channel, gas-particle partitioning is directly measured on an hourly timescale. Derivatization with MSTFA, a silylating agent, allows analysis of highly oxygenated compounds that have not previously been analyzed by in-situ GC methods. Internal standards are used to correct all compounds for instrument variability in order to remove instrument biases between sampling channels, and compounds lacking temporal variability are not reported so as to exclude any internal contaminant compounds. Chemical characteristics of each compound (i.e. number of derivatized hydroxyl groups) were inferred from their mass spectra using a model we built from data in an available NIST mass spectral database. Based on chromatographic retention time and chemical characteristics we model the vapor pressures of measured compounds to within the error of current structure-activity models (i.e. SIMPOL). Measured partitioning for all observed compounds is compared to partitioning predicted from their estimated vapor pressures. While current models adequately describe the partitioning of some compounds, a large fraction of observed species are found to deviate from expectation based on environmental factors and chemical characteristics. Chemical dependence is expected in part due to the possible formation of low-volatility particle phase oligomers and organosulfates, which may decompose into smaller, more volatile fragments in the desorption process.

  3. Binding to retinoblastoma pocket domain does not alter the inter-domain flexibility of the J domain of SV40 large T antigen.

    PubMed

    Williams, Christina K; Vaithiyalingam, Sivaraja; Hammel, Michal; Pipas, James; Chazin, Walter J

    2012-02-15

    Simian Virus 40 uses the large T antigen (Tag) to bind and inactivate retinoblastoma tumor suppressor proteins (Rb), which can result in cellular transformation. Tag is a modular protein with four domains connected by flexible linkers. The N-terminal J domain of Tag is necessary for Rb inactivation. Binding of Rb is mediated by an LXCXE consensus motif immediately C-terminal to the J domain. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) were used to study the structural dynamics and interaction of Rb with the LXCXE motif, the J domain and a construct (N(260)) extending from the J domain through the origin binding domain (OBD). NMR and SAXS data revealed substantial flexibility between the domains in N(260). Binding of pRb to a construct containing the LXCXE motif and the J domain revealed weak interactions between pRb and the J domain. Analysis of the complex of pRb and N(260) indicated that the OBD is not involved and retains its dynamic independence from the remainder of Tag. These results support a 'chaperone' model in which the J domain of Tag changes its orientation as it acts upon different protein complexes. PMID:22227098

  4. Bacterial 16S diversity of basal ice, sediment, and the forefront of Svínafellsjökull glacier via isolation chips and classical culturing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toubes-Rodrigo, Mario; Cook, Simon; Elliott, David; Sen, Robin

    2016-04-01

    Sub-glacial microbes are receiving increased attention due to their central roles in storage and release of greenhouse gases, such as methane and CO2. Climate change driven warming and resulting glacier retreat exposes bedrock that can contribute to soil formation in which subglacial-released microorganisms may play a crucial role. Basal ice, which forms in the lowermost part of glaciers in the absence of light is characterised by a high debris concentration that can be regarded as a glacier niche that must be sustained by the utilisation of overridden organic matter or primary production based on chemolithotrophic metabolism. Compared to other glacial ecosystems, subglacial microbial ecology remains poorly understood, due to limited accessibility and difficulties associated with low microbial occupancy. In this study, different defined types of basal ice (cryofacies) were targeted, namely stratified cryofacies (highest sediment content, fine-grained), debris bands (intermediate debris content, coarse-grained) and dispersed cryofacies (low sediment content, polymodal). Debris bands have been suggested to form by the entrainment of sediment due to shearing forces near the bedrock. Internal glacial processes proceed to modify debris bands leading to the formation of dispersed cryofacies. Stratified cryofacies, result from a range of processes that confers high debris content with a characteristically layered appearance. Basal ice is involved in the creation of subglacial tills and therefore in moraine formation. Elemental analysis, using a portable X-ray fluorescence portable analyser (Olympus Delta), confirmed that debris bands and dispersed cryofacies were highly similar, and distinct from stratified cryofacies, which support the dispersed cryofacies formation hypothesis. Bacteria from basal ice, sediment and forefront soil were cultured via inserted isolation chips (ichips) and traditional extraction/dilution plating. Isolated bacteria were subsequently identified following 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetics. Basal ice communities comprised a mix of soil and glacial bacteria, with higher proportion of ice-related bacteria in dispersed cryofacies (Polaromonas sp, Flavobacterium xinjiangense) and a water (Arthrobacter agilis) and soil-related microorganisms (Pseudomonas sp) in the debris bands, similar to sub-glacial sediment. During debris band formation, microorganisms from bedrock and overridden soils can be entrained into the ice matrix and those which have adapted to icy conditions can proliferate, explaining the higher viable bacterial counts on dispersed ice as well as higher proportions of glacial isolated-related microorganisms. Once the subglacial sediment and basal ice are released from the glacier and as soil age increases, increased representation of soil-related microbiota (Arthrobacter alpinus, Stenotrophomonas rhizophila) were identified. The results in this study suggest cultivable communities shift in two directions: firstly, within the basal ice layer from subglacial sediment, dominated by soil and water communities towards dispersed ice with a high proportion of glacial communities. The other shift occurs when subglacial sediment is released into the forefront, where the composition changes towards a soil-like microbiota with increase in soil age.

  5. Relative Efficacy of Criminological, Clinical, and Personality Measures of Future Risk of Offending in Mentally Disordered Offenders: A Comparative Study of HCR-20, PCL:SV, and OGRS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Nicola S.; Snowden, Robert J.; MacCulloch, Sophie; Phillips, Helen; Taylor, John; MacCulloch, Malcolm J.

    2004-01-01

    The authors compared the ability of 3 commonly used measures of risk of future offending in a sample of 315 mentally disordered offenders discharged from a medium-secure unit in the United Kingdom. The authors explored whether the same criminogenic factors that predict recidivism in the general population also predict recidivism in mentally…

  6. Structure-based Design of a Disulfide-lined Oligomeric Form of the Simian Virus 40 (SV40) Large T Antigen DNA-Binding Domain

    SciTech Connect

    G Meinke; P Phelan; A Fradet-Turcotte; J Archambault; P Bullock

    2011-12-31

    The modular multifunctional protein large T antigen (T-ag) from simian virus 40 orchestrates many of the events needed for replication of the viral double-stranded DNA genome. This protein assembles into single and double hexamers on specific DNA sequences located at the origin of replication. This complicated process begins when the origin-binding domain of large T antigen (T-ag ODB) binds the GAGGC sequences in the central region (site II) of the viral origin of replication. While many of the functions of purified T-ag OBD can be studied in isolation, it is primarily monomeric in solution and cannot assemble into hexamers. To overcome this limitation, the possibility of engineering intermolecular disulfide bonds in the origin-binding domain which could oligomerize in solution was investigated. A recent crystal structure of the wild-type T-ag OBD showed that this domain forms a left-handed spiral in the crystal with six subunits per turn. Therefore, we analyzed the protein interface of this structure and identified two residues that could potentially support an intermolecular disulfide bond if changed to cysteines. SDS-PAGE analysis established that the mutant T-ag OBD formed higher oligomeric products in a redox-dependent manner. In addition, the 1.7 {angstrom} resolution crystal structure of the engineered disulfide-linked T-ag OBD is reported, which establishes that oligomerization took place in the expected manner.

  7. p-Phenylenediamine induced DNA damage in SV-40 immortalized human uroepithelial cells and expression of mutant p53 and COX-2 proteins.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ya-Chun; Hung, Wen-Chun; Kang, Wan-Yi; Chen, Wan-Tzu; Chai, Chee-Yin

    2007-04-25

    p-Phenylenediamine (p-PD) is the main aromatic amine used in the formulation of hair dyes. Some epidemiologic studies have suggested that the use of p-PD-based hair dyes might be related to increased risk of human malignant tumors including bladder cancer and hematopoietic cancers. However, the toxicity and genotoxicity of p-PD on urothelial cells has not been reported yet. Therefore, we investigated the genotoxicity of p-PD on human urothelial cells and study its association with the expression of oncoproteins p53 and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Our results revealed that p-PD was able to induce DNA damage determined by Comet assay. In addition, our immunocytochemical and Western blotting results showed that p-PD induced overexpression of mutant p53 and COX-2 in a dose-dependent manner. The relationship between mutant p53 and COX-2 expression shows strong correlation. Furthermore, the accumulation of mutant p53 was linearly correlated with Comet scores. These results suggest that p-PD can induce DNA damage and accumulation of mutant p53 and COX-2 proteins; this may be one of the possible mechanisms that cause genotoxic carcinogenesis in the urothelial cells. PMID:17403587

  8. Biofilms promote survival and virulence of Salmonella enterica sv. Tennessee during prolonged dry storage and after passage through an in vitro digestion system.

    PubMed

    Aviles, Bryan; Klotz, Courtney; Eifert, Joseph; Williams, Robert; Ponder, Monica

    2013-04-01

    Salmonella enterica serotypes have been linked to outbreaks associated with low water activity foods. While the biofilm-forming abilities of Salmonella improve its survival during thermal processing and sanitation it is unclear whether biofilms enhance survival to desiccation and gastric stresses. The purpose of this study was to quantify the effect of physiological state (planktonic versus biofilm) and prior exposure to desiccation and storage in dry milk powder on Salmonella survival and gene expression after passage through an in vitro digestion model. Planktonic cells of Salmonella enterica serotype Tennessee were deposited onto membranes while biofilms were formed on glass beads. The cells were subsequently dried at room temperature and stored in dried milk powder (a(w)=0.3) for up to 30 days. Salmonella survival was quantified by serial dilution onto Brilliant Green Agar before desiccation, after desiccation, after 1-day storage and after 30-day storage. At each sampling period both physiological states were tested for survival through a simulated gastrointestinal system. RNA was extracted at the identical time points and Quantitative Real-Time PCR was used to determine relative expression for genes associated with stress response (rpoS, otsB), virulence (hilA, invA, sipC) and a housekeeping gene 16S rRNA. The physiological state and length of storage affected the survival and gene expression of Salmonella within the desiccated milk powder environment and after passage through an in vitro digestion system (p<0.05). Larger numbers of S. Tennessee were recovered by plate counts for biofilms compared to planktonic, however, the numbers of Salmonella genomes detected by qPCR were not significantly different suggesting entry of the planktonic cells of S. Tennessee into a viable but non-culturable state. The increased expression of stress response genes rpoS and otsB correlated with survival, indicating cross-protection to low water activity and acid stress. Increased expression of virulence-associated genes was seen in cells exposed to dry storage for short periods, however the largest amount of expression occurred in biofilm cells stored for 30 days at aw 0.3, suggesting increased virulence potential. PMID:23454816

  9. Ce que mon enfant apprend a l'ecole. Manuel a l'intention des parents, 2003-2004: 10e, 11e, and 12e annees (What My Child Learns in School. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2003-2004: Grades 10, 11, and 12).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this French-language handbook provides parents with information about the senior high school (grades 10-12) curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Programs of Study: Senior High School," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in…

  10. IR: A Look towards the 1980's and Institutional Research and Student Aid. Proceedings, Sixth Annual Meeting of the North Carolina Association for Institutional Research and the Drive-In Conference, Charlotte, November 1-2, 1978, and Southern Pines, August 10-11, 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Charles I., Ed.; Sanford, Timothy R., Ed.

    Highlights of the Sixth Annual Meeting of the North Carolina Association for Institutional Research (NCAIR) and of the Drive-In Conference held prior to the annual meeting are presented. The major emphasis of the annual meeting was to look toward the 1980's and project the role that institutional research might play in higher education. The…

  11. Crystal structure of 16-hy­droxy-4,4,10,13,14-penta­methyl-17-(6-methyl­hept-5-en-2-yl)-4,5,6,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17-dodeca­hydro-1H-cyclo­penta­[a]phenanthren-3(2H)-one

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Jun-Jun; Chen, Pian; Ye, Xiao-Xia

    2015-01-01

    The title compound, C30H48O2, contains a fused four-ring triterpenoid system. In the mol­ecule, the two cyclo­hexane rings adopt a chair conformation and a twist boat conformation, respectively, the central cyclo­hexene ring adopts a half-chair conformation whereas the five membered ring adopts an envelope conformation. In the crystal, O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds between the hy­droxy and carbonyl groups of adjacent mol­ecules link the mol­ecules into supra­molecular chains propagating along the b-axis direction. PMID:26279910

  12. Crystal structure of methyl (3RS,4SR,4aRS,11aRS,11bSR)-5-oxo-3,4,4a,5,7,8,9,10,11,11a-deca­hydro-3,11b-ep­oxy­azepino[2,1-a]iso­indole-4-carboxyl­ate

    PubMed Central

    Toze, Flavien A. A.; Poplevin, Dmitry S.; Zubkov, Fedor I.; Nikitina, Eugeniya V.; Porras, Ciara; Khrustalev, Victor N.

    2015-01-01

    The title compound, C15H19NO4, is the a product of the esterification of the corresponding carbonic acid with methanol. The mol­ecule comprises a fused tetra­cyclic system containing three five-membered rings (2-pyrrolidinone, tetra­hydro­furan and di­hydro­furan) and one seven-membered ring (azepane). The five-membered rings have the usual envelope conformations, with the quaternary C atom being the flap atom for the 2-pyrrolidinone ring, and the ether O atom being the common flap atom for the remaining rings. The seven-membered azepane ring adopts a chair conformation with the methine and middle methyl­ene C atoms lying above and below the mean plane defined by the remaining five atoms. The carboxyl­ate substituent is rotated by 77.56 (5)° with respect to the base plane of the tetra­hydro­furan ring. In the crystal, the mol­ecules are bound by weak C—H⋯O hydrogen-bonding inter­actions into puckered layers parallel to (001). PMID:26594446

  13. 2-Methyl-6-(4,4,10,13,14-penta­methyl-3-oxo-2,3,4,5,6,7,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17-tetra­deca­hydro-1H-cyclo­penta­[a]phenanthren-17-yl)hept-2-enoic acid

    PubMed Central

    Arfan, Mohammad; Rauf, Abdur; Tahir, M. Nawaz; Ali, Mumtaz; Uddin, Ghias

    2011-01-01

    In the title compound, C30H46O3, an isolation product of Pistacia integerima Stewart, the five-membered ring is nearly in the envelope form. A 6-carb­oxy­hept-5-en-2-yl group is attached to the five-membered ring. An S(6) ring motif is formed due to intra­molecular C—H⋯O hydrogen bonding. In the crystal, inter­molecular O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds form carboxyl­ate dimers with R 2 2(8) ring motifs. PMID:21522454

  14. Integrating Research on Faculty: Seeking New Ways to Communicate about the Academic Life of Faculty. Results from the Forum Sponsored by the National Center for Education Statistics, the Association for Institutional Research, and the American Association of State Colleges and Universities. Conference Report (Washington, D.C., January 10-11, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Statistics (ED), Washington, DC.

    This publication reports on a 1994 forum on integrating research on college and university faculty and presents the commissioned papers and findings of the forum along with references to relevant research on faculty. A description of the forum notes that it addressed the lack of integration in current policy discussions about college and…

  15. Education and Training for American Competitiveness. Hearings before the Committee on Education and Labor, House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, First Session on H.R. 5, School Improvement Act of 1987; and H.R. 90 Education and Training for American Competitiveness Act of 1987 (February 10, 11, 18, 25; March 4, 11, and 12, 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.

    This congressional report contains testimony pertinent to the passage of the School Improvement Act of 1987 and the Education and Training for American Competitiveness Act of 1987. Testimony by representatives of the following agencies and organizations is included in the report: New York University; the United Steelworkers of America; the…

  16. Crystal structure of methyl (3RS,4SR,4aRS,11aRS,11bSR)-5-oxo-3,4,4a,5,7,8,9,10,11,11a-deca-hydro-3,11b-ep-oxy-azepino[2,1-a]iso-indole-4-carboxyl-ate.

    PubMed

    Toze, Flavien A A; Poplevin, Dmitry S; Zubkov, Fedor I; Nikitina, Eugeniya V; Porras, Ciara; Khrustalev, Victor N

    2015-10-01

    The title compound, C15H19NO4, is the a product of the esterification of the corresponding carbonic acid with methanol. The mol-ecule comprises a fused tetra-cyclic system containing three five-membered rings (2-pyrrolidinone, tetra-hydro-furan and di-hydro-furan) and one seven-membered ring (azepane). The five-membered rings have the usual envelope conformations, with the quaternary C atom being the flap atom for the 2-pyrrolidinone ring, and the ether O atom being the common flap atom for the remaining rings. The seven-membered azepane ring adopts a chair conformation with the methine and middle methyl-ene C atoms lying above and below the mean plane defined by the remaining five atoms. The carboxyl-ate substituent is rotated by 77.56 (5)° with respect to the base plane of the tetra-hydro-furan ring. In the crystal, the mol-ecules are bound by weak C-H⋯O hydrogen-bonding inter-actions into puckered layers parallel to (001). PMID:26594446

  17. The ICRP protection quantities, equivalent and effective dose: their basis and application.

    PubMed

    Harrison, J D; Streffer, C

    2007-01-01

    Equivalent and effective dose are protection quantities defined by the The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). They are frequently referred to simply as dose and may be misused. They provide a method for the summation of doses received from external sources and from intakes of radionuclides for comparison with dose limits and constraints, set to limit the risk of cancer and hereditary effects. For the assessment of internal doses, ICRP provides dose coefficients (Sv Bq(-1)) for the ingestion or inhalation of radionuclides by workers and members of the public, including children. Dose coefficients have also been calculated for in utero exposures following maternal intakes and for the transfer of radionuclides in breast milk. In each case, values are given of committed equivalent doses to organs and tissues and committed effective dose. Their calculation involves the use of defined biokinetic and dosimetric models, including the use of reference phantoms representing the human body. Radiation weighting factors are used as a simple representation of the different effectiveness of different radiations in causing stochastic effects at low doses. A single set of tissue weighting factors is used to take account of the contribution of individual organs and tissues to overall detriment from cancer and hereditary effects, despite age- and gender-related differences in estimates of risk and contributions to risk. The results are quantities that are not individual specific but are reference values for protection purposes, relating to doses to phantoms. The ICRP protection quantities are not intended for detailed assessments of dose and risk to individuals. They should not be used in epidemiological analyses or the assessment of the possibility of occurrence and severity of tissue reactions (deterministic effects) at higher doses. Dose coefficients are published as reference values and as such have no associated uncertainty. Assessments of uncertainties

  18. Crystal structure of (S)-2-[(3S,8S,9S,10R,13S,14S,17R)-3-hy­droxy-10,13-dimethyl-2,3,4,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17-tetra­deca­hydro-1H-cyclo­penta[a]phenanthren-17-yl]-N-meth­oxy-N-methyl­pro­pan­amide (Fernholz Weinreb amide)

    PubMed Central

    Viktorsson, Elvar Ørn; Åstrand, Ove Alexander Høgmoen; Haseeb, Rasha Sabah; Görbitz, Carl Henrik; Rongved, Pål

    2015-01-01

    The literature compound 3β-hy­droxy-bis­nor-5-cholenic aldehyde is an important inter­mediate for the synthesis of new modulators of the nuclear oxysterol receptor Liver X. As part of our ongoing search for new LXR antagonists, the title compound, C24H39NO3, has proven to be an important inter­mediate in our new synthetic pathway, giving the corresponding aldehyde in high yield and in only three steps from the commercially available 3β-hy­droxy-bis­nor-5-cholenic acid. The title amide crystallized with two mol­ecules in the asymmetric unit, linked into helices by O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds involving the hy­droxy and carbonyl groups. PMID:25844186

  19. Truth in Testing Act of 1979; The Education Testing Act of 1979. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Elementary, Secondary and Vocational Education of the Committee on Education and Labor, House of Representatives, Ninety-Sixth Congress, First Session on H.R. 3564 and H.R. 4949 (Washington, D.C., July 31, August 1, September 10, September 24, and October 10-11, 1979).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.

    Testimony and exhibits presented at subcommittee hearings held in Washington, D.C., from July 31, 1979 through October 11, 1979, are compiled with reference to two proposed bills concerned with standardized admissions tests. The first, the Truth in Testing Act of 1979, H.R. 3564, requires all educational admissions testing conducted through…

  20. 75 FR 33506 - Safety and Security Zones; Tall Ships Challenge 2010, Great Lakes, Cleveland, OH, Bay City, MI...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-14

    ... Register (75 FR 18451). The Coast Guard received 0 public submissions commenting on the proposed rule. No... WILL, S/V INLAND SEAS, S/V LAREVENANTE, S/V LYNX, S/V MADELINE, S/V FLAGSHIP NIAGARA, S/V PATHFINDER,...

  1. Implementation of iodine biokinetic model for interpreting I-131 contamination in breast milk after the Fukushima nuclear disaster.

    PubMed

    Tani, Kotaro; Kurihara, Osamu; Kim, Eunjoo; Yoshida, Satoshi; Sakai, Kazuo; Akashi, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    After the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant run by Tokyo Electric Power Company in 2011, breast milk samples obtained from volunteers living in Fukushima and neighboring prefectures were examined and small amounts of I-131 (2.2-36.3 Bq/kg) were detected in some samples. In this work, the I-131 concentrations in breast milk from nursing mothers in Ibaraki prefecture were calculated based on the iodine biokinetic model during lactation together with time-variable intake scenarios by inhalation of ambient air and ingestion of tap water, using the authors' code. The calculated I-131 concentrations in breast milk generally agreed with those measured for the volunteers. Based on the results, thyroid equivalent doses to breast-fed infants were estimated for each place of residence of the volunteers on the assumption that these infants consumed 800 ml of breast milk every day, resulting in 10-11 mSv for Mito and Kasama cities and 1.1-1.8 mSv for Tsukuba and Moriya cities. It was suggested that breast milk consumption could be a major contributor to internal dose of breast-fed infants in areas with mild I-131 pollution; however, further studies considering personal behavior surveys would be necessary to estimate individual doses. PMID:26198990

  2. Implementation of iodine biokinetic model for interpreting I-131 contamination in breast milk after the Fukushima nuclear disaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tani, Kotaro; Kurihara, Osamu; Kim, Eunjoo; Yoshida, Satoshi; Sakai, Kazuo; Akashi, Makoto

    2015-07-01

    After the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant run by Tokyo Electric Power Company in 2011, breast milk samples obtained from volunteers living in Fukushima and neighboring prefectures were examined and small amounts of I-131 (2.2-36.3 Bq/kg) were detected in some samples. In this work, the I-131 concentrations in breast milk from nursing mothers in Ibaraki prefecture were calculated based on the iodine biokinetic model during lactation together with time-variable intake scenarios by inhalation of ambient air and ingestion of tap water, using the authors’ code. The calculated I-131 concentrations in breast milk generally agreed with those measured for the volunteers. Based on the results, thyroid equivalent doses to breast-fed infants were estimated for each place of residence of the volunteers on the assumption that these infants consumed 800 ml of breast milk every day, resulting in 10-11 mSv for Mito and Kasama cities and 1.1-1.8 mSv for Tsukuba and Moriya cities. It was suggested that breast milk consumption could be a major contributor to internal dose of breast-fed infants in areas with mild I-131 pollution; however, further studies considering personal behavior surveys would be necessary to estimate individual doses.

  3. Transcriptional and Post-Transcriptional Modulation of SPI1 and SPI2 Expression by ppGpp, RpoS and DksA in Salmonella enterica sv Typhimurium

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Christopher J.; Ramachandran, Vinoy K.; Shearer, Neil; Thompson, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    The expression of genes within Salmonella Pathogenicity Islands 1 and 2 (SPI1, SPI2) is required to facilitate invasion and intracellular replication respectively of S. Typhimurium in host cell lines. Control of their expression is complex and occurs via a variety of factors operating at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels in response to the environmental stimuli found within the host. Several of the factors that modulate SPI1 and SPI2 expression are involved in the redistribution or modification of RNA polymerase (RNAP) specificity. These factors include the bacterial alarmone, ppGpp, the alternative sigma factor, RpoS, and the RNAP accessory protein, DksA. In this report we show not only how these three factors modulate SPI1 and SPI2 expression but also how they contribute to the ‘phased’ expression of SPI1 and SPI2 during progress through late-log and stationary phase in aerobic rich broth culture conditions. In addition, we demonstrate that the expression of at least one SPI1-encoded protein, SipC is subject to DksA-dependent post-transcriptional control. PMID:26039089

  4. 75 FR 18451 - Safety and Security Zones; Tall Ships Challenge 2010, Great Lakes; Cleveland, OH; Bay City, MI...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-12

    ..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public... EUROPA, S/V FAZISI, S/ V FRIENDS OF GOOD WILL, S/V INLAND SEAS, S/V LAREVENANTE, S/V LYNX, S/V...

  5. Feasibility of using 236U to reconstruct close-in fallout deposition from the Hiroshima atomic bomb.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, A; Kawai, K; Steier, P; Imanaka, T; Hoshi, M; Endo, S; Zhumadilov, K; Yamamoto, M

    2010-10-15

    The first results on the feasibility of using (236)U to reconstruct the level and spatial distribution of close-in fallout deposition from the Hiroshima A-bomb are reported, coupled with the use of global fallout (137)Cs and (239+240)Pu. The results for global fallout (236)U in soil samples (0-30cm) from Ishikawa prefecture showed that the deposition density of (236)U from the global fallout can be accurately evaluated using AMS. All deposited (236)U, (137)Cs and (239+240)Pu appeared to have been recovered using 30-cm cores. It was also noted from the depth profiles for (236)U/(239+240)Pu and (236)U/(137)Cs ratios that the downward behavior of (236)U in the soil was apparently similar to that of (239+240)Pu, while the (137)Cs was liable to be retained in upper layers compared with (236)U and (239+240)Pu. The accumulated levels were 1.78×10(13)atomsm(-2) for (236)U, 4340Bqm(-2) for (137)Cs and 141Bqm(-2) for (239+240)Pu. The ratios of (236)U/(137)Cs and (236)U/(239+240)Pu were (4.10±0.12)×10(9) and (1.26±0.04)×10(11)atomsBq(-1), respectively. Results of (236)U, (137)Cs and (239+240)Pu measurements for the seven soil cores (0-30cm) from Hiroshima were discussed on the basis of ratios of (236)U/(137)Cs and (236)U/(239+240)Pu by comparing with those from the background area in Ishikawa, indicating that the global fallout dominates the current level of (236)U accumulation in soil in the Black-rain area around Hiroshima after the Hiroshima bomb, and the contribution of the close-in fallout (236)U produced by the Hiroshima A-bomb seems difficult to observe. PMID:20797770

  6. What Parents Should Know about Medical Radiation Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... type of study can be misleading and comparing estimated doses for different exams is confusing. One way ... from different sources using millisievert units (mSv). Source Estimated effective dose (mSv) Natural background radiation.............................................. 3 mSv/ ...

  7. (αR,4R,4aR,6aS,7R,8S,10R,11S)-Methyl α-acet-oxy-4-(3-furan-yl)-10-hy-droxy-4a,7,9,9-tetra-methyl-2,13-dioxo-1,4,4a,5,6,6a,7,8,9,10,11,12-dodeca-hydro-7,11-methano-2H-cyclo-octa-[f][2]benzopyran-8-acetate (6-O-acetyl-swietenolide) from the seeds of Swietenia macrophylla.

    PubMed

    Goh, Bey Hing; Abdul Kadir, Habsah; Abdul Malek, Sri Nurestri; Ng, Seik Weng

    2010-01-01

    The mol-ecule of O-acetyl-swietenolide, C(29)H(36)O(9), isolated from the seeds of Swietenia macrophylla, features four six-membered rings connected together in the shape of a bowl; one of the inner rings adopts a twisted chair conformation owing to the C=C double bond. The furyl substitutent is connected to an outer ring, and it points away from the bowl cavity. The hy-droxy group is connected to a carbonyl O atom of an adjacent mol-ecule by an O-H⋯O hydrogen bond, generating a chain running along the b axis. PMID:21588997

  8. Estimation of Radiation Doses in the Marshall Islands Based on Whole Body Counting of Cesium-137 (137Cs) and Plutonium Urinalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, J; Hickman, D; Kehl, S; Hamilton, T

    2007-06-11

    measurement. The amount of {sup 137}Cs detected is often reported in activity units of kilo-Becquerel (kBq), where 1 kBq equals 1000 Bq and 1 Bq = 1 nuclear transformation per second (t s{sup -1}). [However, in the United States the Curie (Ci) continues to be used as the unit of radioactivity; where 1 Ci = 3.7 x 10{sup 10} Bq.] The detection of {sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu in bioassay (urine) samples indicates the presence of internally deposited (systemic) plutonium in the body. Urine samples that are collected in the Marshall Islands from volunteers participating in the RSMP are transported to LLNL, where measurements for {sup 239+240}Pu are performed using a state-of-the-art technology based on Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) (Hamilton et al., 2004, 2007; Brown et al., 2004). The urinary excretion of plutonium by RSMP volunteers is usually described in activity units, expressed as micro-Becquerel ({micro}Bq) of {sup 239+240}Pu (i.e., representing the sum of the {sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu activity) excreted (lost) per day (d{sup -1}), where 1 {micro}Bq d{sup -1} = 10{sup -6} Bq d{sup -1} and 1 Bq = 1 t s{sup -1}. The systemic burden of plutonium is then estimated from biokinetic relationships as described by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (e.g., see ICRP, 1990). In general, nuclear transformations are accompanied by the emission of energy and/or particles in the form of gamma rays ({gamma}), beta particles ({beta}), and/or alpha particles ({alpha}). Tissues in the human body may adsorb these emissions, where there is a potential for any deposited energy to cause biological damage. The general term used to quantify the extent of any radiation exposure is referred to as the dose. The equivalent dose is defined by the average absorbed dose in an organ or tissue weighted by the average quality factor for the type and energy of the emission causing the dose. The effective dose equivalent (EDE; as applied to the whole body), is the sum of the average

  9. Assessment of occupational and patient dose from diagnostic and therapeutic radiation exposure using thermoluminescent dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Banu, H; Alam, M N; Chowdhury, M I; Kamal, M; Bardhan, D K; Chakraborty, D

    1998-04-01

    Radiation doses of occupational personnel exposed from diagnostic x rays, therapeutic installations, and patients were measured using thermoluminescent dosimeters. The monthly occupational doses from diagnostic x ray ranged from 0.1076 mSv to 0.5774 mSv, and those from therapeutic treatment ranged from 0.365 mSv to 0.657 mSv, which is within the dose limit recommended by ICRP 60. The patient organ doses were evaluated and found to range from 0.0615 mSv s(-1) to 2.8823 mSv s(-1) for gonad, 0.3676 mSv s(-1) to 2.1088 mSv s(-1) for thyroid, and 0.00972 mSv s(-1) to 4.01 mSv s(-1) for eyes. PMID:9525423

  10. Whole-body counter surveys of over 2700 babies and small children in and around Fukushima Prefecture 33 to 49 months after the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident.

    PubMed

    Hayano, Ryugo S; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Miyazaki, Makoto; Ozaki, Akihiko; Shimada, Yuki; Kambe, Toshiyuki; Nemoto, Tsuyoshi; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi; Kanazawa, Yukio; Nihei, Masahiko; Sakuma, Yu; Shimmura, Hiroaki; Akiyama, Junichi; Tokiwa, Michio

    2015-01-01

    BABYSCAN, a whole-body counter (WBC) for small children was developed in 2013, and units have been installed at three hospitals in Fukushima Prefecture. Between December, 2013 and March, 2015, 2707 children between the ages of 0 and 11 have been scanned, and none had detectable levels of radioactive cesium. The minimum detectable activities (MDAs) for (137)Cs were ≤ 3.5 Bq kg(-1) for ages 0-1, decreasing to ≤ 2 Bq kg(-1) for ages 10-11. Including the (134)Cs contribution, these translate to a maximum committed effective dose of ∼ 16 µSv y(-1) even for newborn babies, and therefore the internal exposure risks can be considered negligibly small.Analysis of the questionnaire filled out by the parents of the scanned children regarding their families' food and water consumption revealed that the majority of children residing in the town of Miharu regularly consume local or home-grown rice and vegetables, while in Minamisoma, a majority avoid tap water and produce from Fukushima. The data show, however, no correlation between consumption of locally produced food and water and the children's body burdens. PMID:26460321

  11. Evidence for a solar cause of the Pleistocene mass extinction.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laviolette, Paul A.

    2011-06-01

    The hypothesis is presented that an abrupt rise in atmospheric radiocarbon concentration evident in the Cariaco Basin varve record at 12,837±10 cal yrs BP contemporaneous with the Rancholabrean termination, may have been produced by a super-sized solar proton event (SPE) having a fluence of ~1.3 X 10^11 protons/cm^2. A SPE of this magnitude would have been large enough to deliver a lethal radiation dose of at least 3 - 6 Sv to the Earth's surface, and hence could have been a principal cause of the final termination of the Pleistocene megafauna and several genera of smaller mammals and birds. The event time-correlates with a large magnitude acidity spike found at 1708.65 m in the GISP2 Greenland ice record, which is associated with high NO-3 ion concentrations and a rapid rise in 10^Be deposition rate, all of which are indicators of a sudden cosmic ray influx. The depletion of nitrate ion within this acidic ice layer suggests that the snowpack surface at that time was exposed to intense UV for a prolonged period which is consistent with a temporary destruction of the polar ozone layer by solar cosmic rays. The acidity event also coincides with a large magnitude, abrupt climatic excursion and is associated with elevated ammonium ion concentrations, an indicator of global fires.

  12. Whole-body counter surveys of over 2700 babies and small children in and around Fukushima Prefecture 33 to 49 months after the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayano, R. S.; Tsubokura, M.; Miyazaki, M.; Ozaki, A.; Shimada, Y.; Kambe, T.; Nemoto, T.; Oikawa, T.; Kanazawa, Y.; Nihei, M.; Sakuma, Y.; Shimmura, H.; Akiyama, J.; Tokiwa, M.

    2015-10-01

    BABYSCAN, a whole-body counter (WBC) for small children was developed in 2013, and units have been installed at three hospitals in Fukushima Prefecture. Between December, 2013 and March, 2015, 2707 children between the ages of 0 and 11 have been scanned, and none had detectable levels of radioactive cesium. The minimum detectable activities (MDAs) for 137Cs were ≤3.5 Bq kg-1 for ages 0-1, decreasing to ≤2 Bq kg-1 for ages 10-11. Including the 134Cs contribution, these translate to a maximum committed effective dose of ∼16 μSv y-1 even for newborn babies, and therefore the internal exposure risks can be considered negligibly small. Analysis of the questionnaire filled out by the parents of the scanned children regarding their families' food and water consumption revealed that the majority of children residing in the town of Miharu regularly consume local or home-grown rice and vegetables, while in Minamisoma, a majority avoid tap water and produce from Fukushima. The data show, however, no correlation between consumption of locally produced food and water and the children's body burdens.

  13. The mechanism study in the interactions of sorghum procyanidins trimer with porcine pancreatic α-amylase.

    PubMed

    Cai, Xin; Yu, Jianan; Xu, Liman; Liu, Rui; Yang, Jun

    2015-05-01

    To examine the mechanisms in the interaction of sorghum procyanidins trimer (SPT) with porcine pancreatic α-amylase (PPA), fluorescence quenching, circular dichroism, and UV spectra methods were adopted. The procyanidins binding mode, binding constant and effect of procyanidins on protein stability and conformation were determined. The fluorescence spectroscopy results showed that the Stern-Volmer quenching constant K(SV) of SPT on PPA, bimolecular quenching constant k(q), and apparent static quenching constant K were 2639.5 M(-1), 2.6395 × 10(11) M(-1) s(-1), and 495.19 M(-1), respectively. In addition, binding constant KA and number of binding sites were 872.971 M(-1) and 1, respectively. Circular dichroism study revealed that PPA conformation was altered by SPT with a major reduction of β-sheet, increase of β-turn, minor change of random coil. UV spectra indicated that SPT influenced the micro-environment of aromatic amino acid residues in PPA. These findings directly elucidate the mechanisms of high molecular weight SPT in interaction with PPA. PMID:25529683

  14. 76 FR 58087 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-19

    ... are available on the Treasury's TIC Forms Web page, http://www.treasury.gov/resource-center/data-chart-center/tic/Pages/forms.aspx . Requests for additional information should be directed to Mr. Wolkow.... Abstract: Form BQ-1 is part of the Treasury International Capital (TIC) reporting system, which is...

  15. Response to "Comment on "Conformational analysis of small organic molecules using NOE and RDC data: A discussion of strychnine and α-methylene-γ-butyrolactone" by I.A. Khodov, M.G. Kiselev, V.V. Klochkov, S.V. Efimov [http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmr.2016.02.009]" - Or Life is about compromises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiele, Christina M.; Kolmer, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    Since the very early days of the Nuclear Overhauser Effect (NOE) researchers try to obtain distance information from the NOE and correlate it with structure. It is quite accepted by now that NOE intensities and cross relaxation rates can be measured quantitatively. In terms of deducing structures from NOEs, however, structural models and approximations have to be used, especially if conformational flexibility is present. For a recent review article, see [1].

  16. Spatially variant morphological restoration and skeleton representation.

    PubMed

    Bouaynaya, Nidhal; Charif-Chefchaouni, Mohammed; Schonfeld, Dan

    2006-11-01

    The theory of spatially variant (SV) mathematical morphology is used to extend and analyze two important image processing applications: morphological image restoration and skeleton representation of binary images. For morphological image restoration, we propose the SV alternating sequential filters and SV median filters. We establish the relation of SV median filters to the basic SV morphological operators (i.e., SV erosions and SV dilations). For skeleton representation, we present a general framework for the SV morphological skeleton representation of binary images. We study the properties of the SV morphological skeleton representation and derive conditions for its invertibility. We also develop an algorithm for the implementation of the SV morphological skeleton representation of binary images. The latter algorithm is based on the optimal construction of the SV structuring element mapping designed to minimize the cardinality of the SV morphological skeleton representation. Experimental results show the dramatic improvement in the performance of the SV morphological restoration and SV morphological skeleton representation algorithms in comparison to their translation-invariant counterparts. PMID:17076415

  17. Sociodemographic, home environment and parental influences on total and device-specific screen viewing in children aged 2 years and below: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Si Ning; Teh, Long Hua; Tay, Wei Rong; Anantharaman, Saradha; van Dam, Rob M; Tan, Chuen Seng; Chua, Hwee Ling; Wong, Pey Gein; Müller-Riemenschneider, Falk

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to investigate total and device-specific screen viewing (SV) and its determinants in children aged 2 years and below. Design Cross-sectional study conducted in February 2014. Setting Well-child clinics in Singapore national polyclinics. Participants Parents of children (Singapore citizens or permanent residents) aged 2 years and below were enrolled during routine clinic visits. Out of 794 eligible parent–child dyads, 725 (91.3%) provided informed consent and were included in the analysis. Main outcome measures Device-specific information on SV and determinants was ascertained using interviewer-administered survey questionnaires. The prevalence and duration of aggregate and device-specific SV were reported. Associations with potential determinants were investigated using multiple logistic regression analysis. A p value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results The prevalence of daily SV and SV ≥2 h/day constituted 53.5% and 16.3%, respectively. The majority of children aged 18–24 months (88.2%) engaged in daily SV. TVs and mobile devices were the most commonly used screen devices, followed by computers and video consoles. In multivariable analysis, younger child age, Chinese ethnicity and setting rules on time of SV were strongly and consistently associated with lower levels of any SV and SV ≥2 h/day. Parental knowledge of SV recommendations and less parental SV were additionally associated with lower levels of SV ≥2 h/day. The number of screen devices was not associated with children's SV. Conclusions In contrast to recommendations, SV prevalence in children aged less than 2 years is high and appears to increase steadily across age groups. TVs and mobile devices are most frequently used. Improving parental knowledge of SV recommendations, reducing parental SV and especially the implementation of strict rules on SV time could be successful strategies to reduce SV in young children. PMID

  18. Residual Seminal Vesicle Displacement in Marker-Based Image-Guided Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer and the Impact on Margin Design

    SciTech Connect

    Smitsmans, Monique H.P.; Bois, Josien de; Sonke, Jan-Jakob; Catton, Charles N.; Jaffray, David A.; Lebesque, Joos V.; Herk, Marcel van

    2011-06-01

    Purpose: The objectives of this study were to quantify residual interfraction displacement of seminal vesicles (SV) and investigate the efficacy of rotation correction on SV displacement in marker-based prostate image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT). We also determined the effect of marker registration on the measured SV displacement and its impact on margin design. Methods and Materials: SV displacement was determined relative to marker registration by using 296 cone beam computed tomography scans of 13 prostate cancer patients with implanted markers. SV were individually registered in the transverse plane, based on gray-value information. The target registration error (TRE) for the SV due to marker registration inaccuracies was estimated. Correlations between prostate gland rotations and SV displacement and between individual SV displacements were determined. Results: The SV registration success rate was 99%. Displacement amounts of both SVs were comparable. Systematic and random residual SV displacements were 1.6 mm and 2.0 mm in the left-right direction, respectively, and 2.8 mm and 3.1 mm in the anteroposterior (AP) direction, respectively. Rotation correction did not reduce residual SV displacement. Prostate gland rotation around the left-right axis correlated with SV AP displacement (R{sup 2} = 42%); a correlation existed between both SVs for AP displacement (R{sup 2} = 62%); considerable correlation existed between random errors of SV displacement and TRE (R{sup 2} = 34%). Conclusions: Considerable residual SV displacement exists in marker-based IGRT. Rotation correction barely reduced SV displacement, rather, a larger SV displacement was shown relative to the prostate gland that was not captured by the marker position. Marker registration error partly explains SV displacement when correcting for rotations. Correcting for rotations, therefore, is not advisable when SV are part of the target volume. Margin design for SVs should take these uncertainties into

  19. Young Children and A-Chains: The Acquisition of Hebrew Unaccusatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedmann, Na'ama

    2007-01-01

    SV sentences with unaccusative verbs like "The leaf fell" involve movement from object to subject position. This line of studies tested whether young children can produce this movement and whether they represent SV sentences with unaccusatives as derived by movement. In Hebrew, unaccusatives appear in both SV and VS orders. This optionality allows…

  20. Characteristics of a thyroid hormone responsive reporter gene transduced into a Xenopus laevis cell line using lentivirus vector.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Shin-Ichiro; Miyoshi, Hiroyuki; Yamauchi, Kiyoshi

    2005-12-01

    We introduced a self-inactivation (SIN) lentivirus vector (LV) into Xenopus laevis cell lines and established a permanent cell line expressing a reporter gene in a 3,5,3'-l-triiodothyronine (T(3)) dependent manner. The SIN LV contained the luciferase gene downstream from the X. laevis T(3)-response elements (TREs) and the SV40 promoter, and the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene downstream from the cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter. It was integrated into the genome of X. laevis XL58, XTC2, and KR cells. The SIN LV transduced the X. laevis cells as efficiently as mammalian cells; however, the expression of EGFP in the transgene decreased with increasing culture time. A cell clone exhibiting the highest TH-dependent luciferase gene expression (XL58-TRE-Luc clone) was isolated from the EGFP-positive XL58 cell pool and characterized. The minimum effective concentration of T(3) that significantly induced the luciferase gene expression was 10(-11)M in the XL58-TRE-Luc clone. The application of the luciferase gene assay using the permanent XL58-TRE-Luc clone for the screening of thyroid-disrupting chemicals revealed that tetrachlorobisphenol A, at 10(-6)M, had a weak T(3)-agonist activity, whereas trichlorobisphenol A, at 10(-8) - 10(-6)M had a weak T(3)-antagonist activity. Our results indicated that the permanent X. laevis cell line containing a T(3)-response transgene could be used as a bioassay, with small intra-assay variation, for the rapid screening, identification, and characterization of the thyroid-disrupting chemicals. PMID:16102758